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Sample records for ridge building trades

  1. Maths for the building trades

    CERN Document Server

    Kidd, Jim

    2014-01-01

    Maths for the Building Trades provides students of all ages with an easy-to-understand guide to the fundamental mathematics that is required in their area of study and beyond. It can be used as a learning programme on its own or in conjunction with the textbooks associated with their chosen trade. The book assumes only a minimum level of mathematical knowledge and thoroughly covers the basic rules. It then goes on to fully explain some of the more complex areas in which the student will be required to demonstrate competence.

  2. Level 3 Baseline Risk Assessment for Building 3515 at Oak Ridge National Lab., Oak Ridge, TN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wollert, D.A.; Cretella, F.M.; Golden, K.M. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)] [and others

    1995-08-01

    The baseline risk assessment for the Fission Product Pilot Plant (Building 3515) at the Oak Ridge National laboratory (ORNL) provides the Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) Program at ORNL and Building 3515 project managers with information concerning the results of the Level 3 baseline risk assessment performed for this building. The document was prepared under Work Breakdown Structure 1.4.12.6.2.01 (Activity Data Sheet 3701, Facilities D&D) and includes information on the potential long-term impacts to human health and the environment if no action is taken to remediate Building 3515. Information provided in this document forms the basis for the development of remedial alternatives and the no-action risk portion of the Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis report.

  3. Level 3 Baseline Risk Assessment for Building 3515 at Oak Ridge National Lab., Oak Ridge, TN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wollert, D.A.; Cretella, F.M.; Golden, K.M.

    1995-08-01

    The baseline risk assessment for the Fission Product Pilot Plant (Building 3515) at the Oak Ridge National laboratory (ORNL) provides the Decontamination and Decommissioning (D ampersand D) Program at ORNL and Building 3515 project managers with information concerning the results of the Level 3 baseline risk assessment performed for this building. The document was prepared under Work Breakdown Structure 1.4.12.6.2.01 (Activity Data Sheet 3701, Facilities D ampersand D) and includes information on the potential long-term impacts to human health and the environment if no action is taken to remediate Building 3515. Information provided in this document forms the basis for the development of remedial alternatives and the no-action risk portion of the Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis report

  4. Canister storage building trade study. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swenson, C.E. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-05-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the impact of several technical issues related to the usage of the Canister Storage Building (CSB) to safely stage and store N-Reactor spent fuel currently located at K-Basin 100KW and 100KE. Each technical issue formed the basis for an individual trade study used to develop the ROM cost and schedule estimates. The study used concept 2D from the Fluor prepared ``Staging and Storage Facility (SSF) Feasibility Report`` as the basis for development of the individual trade studies.

  5. Canister storage building trade study. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swenson, C.E.

    1995-05-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the impact of several technical issues related to the usage of the Canister Storage Building (CSB) to safely stage and store N-Reactor spent fuel currently located at K-Basin 100KW and 100KE. Each technical issue formed the basis for an individual trade study used to develop the ROM cost and schedule estimates. The study used concept 2D from the Fluor prepared ''Staging and Storage Facility (SSF) Feasibility Report'' as the basis for development of the individual trade studies

  6. Removal site evaluation report on Building 7602 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-09-01

    This removal site evaluation report for Building 7602 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory was prepared to provide the Environmental Restoration Program with information necessary to evaluate whether hazardous and/or radiological contaminants in and around the facility pose a substantial risk to human health or the environment (i.e., a high probability of adverse effects) and whether remedial site evaluations or removal actions are, therefore, required. The scope of the project included (1) a search for, and review of, readily available historical records regarding operations and use of the facility (including hazardous substance usage and existing contamination); (2) interviews with facility personnel concerning current and past practices; and (3) a brief walk-through to visually inspect the facility and identify existing hazard areas requiring maintenance actions, removal actions, or remedial evaluation. The results of the removal site evaluation indicate that areas associated with Building 7602 pose no imminent hazards requiring maintenance actions. Adequate engineering and administrative controls are in place and enforced within the facility to ensure worker and environmental protection. Current actions that are being taken to prevent further release of contamination and ensure worker safety within Building 7602 are considered adequate until decontamination and decommissioning activities begin. Given the current status and condition of Building 7602, this removal site evaluation is considered complete and terminated

  7. Removal site evaluation report on Building 3019B at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-09-01

    This removal site evaluation report on Building 3019B at Oak Ridge National Laboratory was prepared to provide the environmental Restoration Program with information necessary to evaluate whether hazardous and/or radiological contaminants in and around the facility pose a substantial risk to human health or the environment and whether remedial site evaluations or removal actions are, therefore, required. The scope of the project included (1) a search for, and review of, readily available historical records regarding operations and use of the facility (including hazardous substance usage and existing contamination); (2) interviews with facility personnel concerning current and past practices; and (3) a brief walk-through to visually inspect the facility nd identify existing hazard areas requiring maintenance actions or remedial evaluation. The results of the removal site evaluation indicate that areas inside Building 3019B pose no imminent hazard because adequate engineering and administrative controls are in place and enforced within the facility to ensure worker and environmental protection. A maintenance action, however, is being undertaken or proposed. Deteriorated and peeling exterior paint in areas on the west and south walls on the exterior of the building has an uninhibited pathway to the storm water drainage system and can potentially impact the local surface water during periods of storm water runoff. The paint is assumed to be lead based, thus posing a potential problem. In addition, the subsurface of all of the exterior walls may be radiologically contaminated. A maintenance action will be necessary to prevent further deterioration and dislodging of the paint

  8. Level 3 baseline risk evaluation for Building 3506 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golden, K.M.; Robers, S.K.; Cretella, F.M.

    1994-12-01

    This report presents the results of the Level 3 Baseline Risk Evaluation (BRE) performed on Building 3506 located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This BRE is intended to provide an analysis of the potential for adverse health effects (current or future) posed by contaminants at the facility. The decision was made to conduct a Level 3 (least rigorous) BRE because only residual contamination exists in the building. Future plans for the facility (demolition) also preclude a rigorous analysis. Site characterization activities for Building 3506 were conducted in fall of 1993. Concrete core samples were taken from the floors and walls of both the cell and the east gallery. These cores were analyzed for radionuclides and organic and inorganic chemicals. Smear samples and direct radiation measurements were also collected. Sediment exists on the floor of the cell and was also analyzed. To adequately characterize the risks posed by the facility, receptors for both current and potential future land uses were evaluated. For the current land use conditions, two receptors were evaluated. The first receptor is a hypothetical maintenance worker who spends 250 days (8 hours/day) for 25 years working in the facility. The remaining receptor evaluated is a hypothetical S and M worker who spends 2 days (8 hours/day) per year for 25 years working within the facility. This particular receptor best exemplifies the current worker scenario for the facility. The two current exposure scenarios and parameters of exposure (e.g., inhalation and ingestion rates) have been developed to provide a conservative (i.e. health protective) estimate of potential exposure.

  9. Level 3 baseline risk evaluation for Building 3506 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golden, K.M.; Robers, S.K.; Cretella, F.M.

    1994-12-01

    This report presents the results of the Level 3 Baseline Risk Evaluation (BRE) performed on Building 3506 located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This BRE is intended to provide an analysis of the potential for adverse health effects (current or future) posed by contaminants at the facility. The decision was made to conduct a Level 3 (least rigorous) BRE because only residual contamination exists in the building. Future plans for the facility (demolition) also preclude a rigorous analysis. Site characterization activities for Building 3506 were conducted in fall of 1993. Concrete core samples were taken from the floors and walls of both the cell and the east gallery. These cores were analyzed for radionuclides and organic and inorganic chemicals. Smear samples and direct radiation measurements were also collected. Sediment exists on the floor of the cell and was also analyzed. To adequately characterize the risks posed by the facility, receptors for both current and potential future land uses were evaluated. For the current land use conditions, two receptors were evaluated. The first receptor is a hypothetical maintenance worker who spends 250 days (8 hours/day) for 25 years working in the facility. The remaining receptor evaluated is a hypothetical S and M worker who spends 2 days (8 hours/day) per year for 25 years working within the facility. This particular receptor best exemplifies the current worker scenario for the facility. The two current exposure scenarios and parameters of exposure (e.g., inhalation and ingestion rates) have been developed to provide a conservative (i.e. health protective) estimate of potential exposure

  10. Natural phenomena evaluation of the Department of Energy-field office Oak Ridge office buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rucker, R.W.; Fricke, K.E.; Hunt, R.J.

    1991-01-01

    The Department of Energy - Field Office Oak Ridge (DOE-OR) is performing natural phenomena evaluations of existing office buildings located in the city of Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The natural phenomena considered are earthquake, wind, and flood. The evaluations are being performed to determine if the facilities are in compliance with DOE General Design Criteria 6430.IA. This paper presents results of the evaluations for three of the office buildings

  11. Removal action report on the Building 3001 canal at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-05-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is a federal facility managed by Lockheed Martin C, Energy Research, Inc., for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). ORNL on the Oak Ridge Reservation in East Tennessee at the Anderson and Roane County lines, approximately 38 km (24 miles) west of Knoxville, Tennessee, and 18 km (11 miles) southwest of downtown Oak Ridge. The Oak Ridge Graphite Reactor and its storage and transfer canal are located in Bldg. 3001 in the approximate center of Waste Area Grouping I in the ORNL main complex. 4:1 The Bldg. 3001 Storage Canal is an L-shaped, underground, reinforced-concrete structure running from the back and below the Graphite Reactor in Bldg. 3001 to a location beneath a hot cell in the adjacent Bldg. 3019. The Graphite Reactor was built in 1943 to produce small quantities of plutonium and was subsequently used to produce other isotopes for medical research before it was finally shut down in 1963. The associated canal was used to transport, under water, spent fuel slugs and other isotopes from the back of the reactor to the adjacent Bldg. 31319 hot cell for further processing. During its operation and years subsequent to operation, the canal's concrete walls and floor became contaminated with radioisotopes from the water.This report documents the activities involved with replacing the canal water with a solid, controlled, low-strength material (CLSM) in response to a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act non-time-critical removal action

  12. Trade Capacity Building Database Data Set

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — Since 2001, the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) has conducted an annual survey on behalf of the Office of the U.S. Trade Representative (USTR) to...

  13. Trade Unionism, Collective Bargaining and Nation Building

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Ike

    This paper tends to examine the impact of trade unionism .... NLC waxed very strong despite the incessant harassments, detention and intimidation on the ..... effect the decisions of such agreements in a negative way as could be seen in many ...

  14. Site characterization report for Building 3515 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    Building 3515 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), also known as the Fission Product Pilot Plant, is a surplus facility in the main plant area to the east of the South Tank Farm slated for decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D). The building consists of two concrete cells (north and south) on a concrete pad and was used to extract radioisotopes of ruthenium, strontium, cesium, cerium, rhenium and other elements from aqueous fission product waste. Site characterization activities of the building were initiated. The objective of the site characterization was to provide information necessary for engineering evaluation and planning of D ampersand D approaches, planning for personal protection of D ampersand D workers, and estimating waste volumes from D ampersand D activities. This site characterization report documents the investigation with a site description, a summary of characterization methods, chemical and radiological sample analysis results, field measurement results, and waste volume estimates

  15. Site Characterization Plan for decontamination and decommissioning of Buildings 3506 and 3515 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    Buildings 3506, the Waste Evaporator Facility, and 3515, the Fission Product Pilot Plant, at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), are scheduled for decontamination and decommissioning (D and D). This Site Characterization Plan (SCP) presents the strategy and techniques to be used to characterize Buildings 3506/3515 for the purpose of planning D and D activities. The elements of the site characterization for Buildings 3506/3515 are planning and preparation, field investigation, and characterization reporting. Other level of effort activities will include management and oversight, project controls, meetings, and progress reporting. The objective of the site characterization is to determine the nature and extent of radioactive and hazardous materials and other industrial hazards in and around the buildings. This information will be used in subsequent planning to develop a detailed approach for final decommissioning of the facilities: (1) to evaluate decommissioning alternatives and design the most cost-effective D and D approach; (2) to determine the level and type of protection necessary for D and D workers; and (3) to estimate the types and volumes of wastes generated during D and D activities. The current D and D characterization scope includes the entire building, including the foundation and equipment or materials within the building. To estimate potential worker exposure from the soil during D and D, some subfoundation soil sample collection is planned. Buildings 3506/3515 are located in the ORNL main plant area, to the west and east, respectively, of the South Tank Farm. Building 3506 was built in 1949 to house a liquid waste evaporator and was subsequently used for an incinerator experiment. Partial D and D was done prior to abandonment, and most equipment has been removed. Building 3515 was built in 1948 to house fission product separation equipment. In about 1960, all entrances were sealed with concrete block and mortar. Building 3515 is expected to be

  16. Alternatives evaluation for the decontamination and decommissioning of buildings 3506 and 3515 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This is an alternative evaluation document that records the evaluation process and justification for choosing the alternative recommended for the decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D) of the 3506 and 3515 buildings at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The alternatives for the D ampersand D of the two buildings were: (1) no action (continued surveillance and maintenance), (2) decontamination for free release, (3) entombment in place, (4) partial dismantlement, and (5) complete dismantlement. Soil remediation is not included in any of the alternatives. The recommended alternative for the D ampersand D of Building 3506 is partial dismantlement at an estimated cost of $936, 000 in escalated dollars. The cost estimate for complete dismantlement is $1,384,000. The recommended alternative for the D ampersand D of Building 3515 is complete dismantlement at an estimated cost of $3,733,000 in escalated dollars. This alternative is recommended, because the soils below the foundation of the 3515 building are highly contaminated, and removing the foundation in the D ampersand D project results in lower overall worker risk, costs, and improved post-D ampersand D site conditions. A further recommendation is to revise these cost estimates after the conclusion of the ongoing characterization study. The results of the characterization of the two buildings is expected to change some of the assumptions and resolve some of the uncertainties in the development of these estimates

  17. Final deactivation project report on the Integrated Process Demonstration Facility, Building 7602 Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the condition of the Integrated Process Demonstration Facility (Building 7602) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) after completion of deactivation activities by the High Ranking Facilities Deactivation Project (HRFDP). This report identifies the activities conducted to place the facility in a safe and environmentally sound condition prior to transfer to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Restoration EM-40 Program. This report provides a history and description of the facility prior to commencing deactivation activities and documents the condition of the building after completion of all deactivation activities. Turnover items, such as the Post-Deactivation Surveillance and Maintenance (S ampersand M) Plan, remaining hazardous and radioactive materials inventory, radiological controls, Safeguards and Security, and supporting documentation provided in the Office of Nuclear Material and Facility Stabilization Program (EM-60) Turnover package are discussed

  18. Level III baseline risk evaluation for Building 3505 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mostella, W.B. Jr.

    1994-12-01

    The Level III Baseline Risk Evaluation (BRE) for Building 3505, the ORNL Metal Recovery Facility, provides an analysis of the potential for adverse health effects, current or future, associated with the presence of hazardous substances in the building. The Metal Recovery Facility was used from 1952 through 1960 to process large quantities of radioactive material using the PUREX process for the recovery of uranium-238, plutonium-239, neptunium-237, and americium-241. The facility consists of seven process cells (A through G), a canal, a dissolver room, a dissolver pit, an office, locker room, storage area, control room, electrical gallery, shop, and makeup area. The cells were used to house the nuclear fuel reprocessing equipment, and the canal was constructed to be used as a water-shielded transfer canal. Currently, there are no known releases of radioactive contaminants from Building 3505. To perform the BRE, historical radiological survey data were used to estimate the concentration of alpha- and beta/gamma emitting radionuclides in the various cells, rooms, and other areas in Building 3505. Data from smear surveys were used to estimate the amount of transferable contamination (to which receptors can be exposed via inhalation and ingestion), and data from probe surveys were used to estimate the amount of both fixed and transferable contamination (from which receptors can receive external exposure). Two land use scenarios, current and future, and their subsequent exposure scenarios were explored in the BRE. Under the current land use scenario, two exposure scenarios were evaluated. The first was a worst-case industrial exposure scenario in which the receptor is a maintenance worker who works 8 hours/day, 350 days/year in the building for 25 years. In the second, more realistic exposure scenario, the receptor is a surveillance and maintenance (S ampersand M) worker who spends two 8-hour days/year in the building for 25 years

  19. Solar Water Heater Systems for Building Trades Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Milton; And Others

    This teaching unit serves as a guide for the installation of active solar water heating systems. It contains a project designed for use with secondary level students of a building trades class. Students typically would meet 2 to 3 hours per day and would be able to complete the activity within a 1-week time period. Objectives of this unit include:…

  20. D and D alternatives risk assessment for Building 3515 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robers, S.K.; Golden, K.M.

    1995-09-01

    This report presents the results of the Level 3 Decontamination and Decommissioning (D and D) Alternatives Risk Assessment (DARA) performed on Building 3515 located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The goal of the risk evaluation process is to provide risk information necessary to assist decision making for Environmental Restoration (ER) Program D and D facilities. This risk information is developed in the baseline risk assessment (BRA) and in the DARA. The BRA provides risk information necessary for determining whether or not a facility represents an unacceptable risk and requires remediation. In addition, the BRA also provides an estimation of the risks associated with the no-action alternative for use in the DARA. The objective of this Level 3 DARA is to evaluate and document the potential risks to human health, human safety, and the environment associated with the proposed remedial action at Building 3515. A Level 3 assessment is the least rigorous type of DARA. The decision to conduct a Level 3 DARA was based on the fact that characterization data from the facility are limited, and currently only one remedial alternative (complete dismantlement) is being evaluated in addition to the no-action alternative. The results of the DARA along with cost and engineering information may be used by project managers in making decisions regarding the final disposition of Building 3515. This Level 3 assessment meets the requirements of the streamlined risk assessment necessary for an Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis (EE/CA)

  1. Site characterization report for Building 3506 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    Building 3506, also known as the Waste Evaporator Facility, is a surplus facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) slated for decontamination and decommissioning (D&D). The building is located in the ORNL main plant area, to the west of the South Tank Farm and near the intersection of Central Avenue and Third Street. Characterization tasks consisted of three main activities: inspections, radiological measurements, and radiological and chemical sampling and analysis. Inspection reports document general facility conditions, as-built information, and specialized information such as structural evaluations. Radiological measurements define the quantity and distribution of radioactive contaminants; this information is used to calibrate a dose model of the facility and estimate the total activity, in curies, of each major radioactive isotope. The radiological information from sample analyses is used to refine the radiological model of the facility, and the radionuclide and hazardous chemical analyses are used for waste management planning. This report presents data from the field investigation and laboratory analyses in the form of a site description, as-built drawings, summary tables of radiological and chemical contaminant concentrations, and a waste volume estimate.

  2. Site characterization report for Building 3506 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-07-01

    Building 3506, also known as the Waste Evaporator Facility, is a surplus facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) slated for decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D). The building is located in the ORNL main plant area, to the west of the South Tank Farm and near the intersection of Central Avenue and Third Street. Characterization tasks consisted of three main activities: inspections, radiological measurements, and radiological and chemical sampling and analysis. Inspection reports document general facility conditions, as-built information, and specialized information such as structural evaluations. Radiological measurements define the quantity and distribution of radioactive contaminants; this information is used to calibrate a dose model of the facility and estimate the total activity, in curies, of each major radioactive isotope. The radiological information from sample analyses is used to refine the radiological model of the facility, and the radionuclide and hazardous chemical analyses are used for waste management planning. This report presents data from the field investigation and laboratory analyses in the form of a site description, as-built drawings, summary tables of radiological and chemical contaminant concentrations, and a waste volume estimate

  3. Comprehensive work plan for Building 3001 storage canal at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This Comprehensive Work Plan describes the method of accomplishment to replace the shielding protection of the water in the canal with a controlled low strength material (CLSM) 4. The canal was used during the operation of the Oak Ridge Graphite Reactor in the 1940s and 1950s to transport spent fuel slugs and irradiated test materials from the reactor, under water to the hot cell in Building 3019 for further processing, packaging, and handling. After the reactor was shut down, the canal was used until 1990 to store some irradiated materials until they could be transferred to a Solid Waste Storage Area. This task has the following objectives and components: (1) minimize potential future risk to human health and the environment; (2) reduce surveillance and maintenance cost of the canal; (3) perform site preparation activities; (4) replace the water in the canal with a solid CLSM; (5) pump the water to the Process Waste Treatment System (PWTS) for further processing at the same rate that the CLSM is pumped under the water; (6) remove the water using a process that will protect the workers and the public in the visitors area from contamination while the CLSM is being pumped underneath the water; (7) painting a protective coating material over the CLSM after the CLSM has cured

  4. Development of a building sump database for the Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sepanski, R.J.; Field, S.M.

    1997-07-01

    Operations at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant have resulted in contamination of Upper East Fork Poplar Creek (UEFPC) and shallow groundwater through soil erosion, infiltration, and outfall discharges. The contamination of groundwater has been documented for nearly two decades, largely through well monitoring efforts. This study represents the first effort to formally identify and compile location data on sumps at the Y-12 Plant, several of which are known or are suspected to pump groundwater. Operation of several of these sumps have been documented to affect groundwater hydraulics and contaminant pathways. This report presents preliminary results of an investigation attempting to identify sources of data on building sumps that have not previously been incorporated into existing Y-12 Plant groundwater databases. This investigation involved acquiring information on building sumps, such as location, building number, water source, discharge location, and availability of analytical data. This information was used to construct an ARC/INFO database capable of simultaneously storing spatial data on sump locations and attribute information concerning the operation of individual building sumps. This database will be referred to hereafter as the Y-12 Plant Building Sump Database

  5. The subsurface hydrology around Building 9201-2: Results of the July 1994 water level recovery test, Oak Ridge Y-12 plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-06-01

    A water level recovery test was conducted at Building 9201-2 at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, from 12:45 p.m. on July 29 until 8:22 a.m. on July 31, 1994. The purpose of the test was to improve the general understanding of the subsurface hydrology around the building. The information is needed to determine the minimum pumping capacity necessary to maintain safe water levels in the basement of the building and to assist in designing systems for treating mercury-bearing waters in the basement. The test was initiated by shutting off the three main sump pumps in Building 9201-2 (i.e., O-12, E-13, and E-22) for 43.5 hr and allowing the water in the basement to approach a static level. The pumps in sumps F-3 and P-6 were also not operating during the test. During the test, water levels were monitored in 5 sumps (P-6, O-12, F-3, E-13, and E-22); a pit near sump K-22; 4 monitoring wells or piezometers in the basement near the O-12 sump, and 16 wells outside of the building. Sump K-22 was dry during the entire test

  6. Auditable safety analysis: High Radiation Level Chemical Development Facility (Buildings 4507 and 4556), Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Platfoot, J.H.

    1998-07-01

    The High-Radiation-Level Chemical Development Facility includes Buildings 4507 and 4556. Building 4507, located immediately to the west of Building 4500N and to the south of Building 4505, is a doubly contained three-level structure constructed in 1957. The most recent use of the facility was for recovery of multi-gram quantities of 244 Cm during the early 1970s and for Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) fuel studies in the late 1970s. It has remained in safe standby since 1980. Building 4556 is a below-grade filter pit located to the southwest of Building 4507 and was constructed in 1972. Ventilation from the cells in Building 4507 is passed through high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtration in this building prior to being exhausted to the Building 3039 stack system. This building remains in operation to support ventilation requirements for Building 4507. This Auditable Safety Analysis (ASA) was developed in accordance with the requirements in Energy Systems Program Description FS-103PD, Safety Documentation, Revision 1. This ASA identifies and screens all hazards associated with Buildings 4507 and 4556. The only hazard not screened out and requiring further analysis following the initial screening process is radioactive material in the form of surface contamination. The results of this ASA indicate that the hazards associated with Buildings 4507 and 4556 do not pose a significant threat to workers, the public, or the environment

  7. Final deactivation project report on the High Radiation Level Analytical Facility, Building 3019B at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the condition of the High Radiation Level Analytical Facility (Building 3019B) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) after completion of deactivation activities. This report identifies the activities conducted to place the facility in a safe and environmentally sound condition prior to transfer to the Environmental Restoration EM-40 Program. This document provides a history and description of the facility prior to the commencement of deactivation activities and documents the condition of the building after completion of all deactivation activities. Turnover items, such as the Post-Deactivation Surveillance and Maintenance (S&M) Plan, remaining hazardous materials inventory, radiological controls, safeguards and security, quality assurance, facility operations, and supporting documentation provided in the Nuclear Material and Facility Stabilization (EM-60) Turnover package are discussed. Building 3019B will require access to perform required S&M activities to maintain the building safety envelope. Building 3019B was stabilized during deactivation so that when transferred to the EM-40 Program, only a minimal S&M effort would be required to maintain the building safety envelope. Other than the minimal S&M activities the building will be unoccupied and the exterior doors locked to prevent unauthorized access. The building will be entered only to perform the required S&M until decommissioning activities begin.

  8. Final deactivation project report on the High Radiation Level Analytical Facility, Building 3019B at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the condition of the High Radiation Level Analytical Facility (Building 3019B) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) after completion of deactivation activities. This report identifies the activities conducted to place the facility in a safe and environmentally sound condition prior to transfer to the Environmental Restoration EM-40 Program. This document provides a history and description of the facility prior to the commencement of deactivation activities and documents the condition of the building after completion of all deactivation activities. Turnover items, such as the Post-Deactivation Surveillance and Maintenance (S ampersand M) Plan, remaining hazardous materials inventory, radiological controls, safeguards and security, quality assurance, facility operations, and supporting documentation provided in the Nuclear Material and Facility Stabilization (EM-60) Turnover package are discussed. Building 3019B will require access to perform required S ampersand M activities to maintain the building safety envelope. Building 3019B was stabilized during deactivation so that when transferred to the EM-40 Program, only a minimal S ampersand M effort would be required to maintain the building safety envelope. Other than the minimal S ampersand M activities the building will be unoccupied and the exterior doors locked to prevent unauthorized access. The building will be entered only to perform the required S ampersand M until decommissioning activities begin

  9. Final deactivation project report on the Source Development Laboratory, building 3029, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-05-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the condition of Building 3029 after completion of deactivation activities as outlined by the DOE Nuclear Materials and Facility Stabilization Program (EM-60) guidance documentation. This report outlines the activities conducted to place the facility in a safe and environmentally sound condition for transfer to the DOE Office of Environmental Restoration (EM-40). This report provides a history and profile of the facility prior to commencing deactivation activities and a profile of the building after completion of deactivation activities. Turnover items, such as the post-deactivation surveillance and maintenance (S ampersand M) plan, remaining hazardous materials, radiological controls, safeguards and security, quality assurance, facility operations, and supporting documentation provided in the EM-60 turnover package are discussed. Building 3029 will require access to facilitate required S ampersand M activities to maintain the building safety envelope. building 3029 was stabilized during deactivation so that when transferred to the EM-40 program, only a minimal S ampersand M effort would be required to maintain the building safety envelope. Other than the minimal S ampersand M activities, the building will be unoccupied and the exterior doors locked to prevent unauthorized access. The building will be entered only to perform the required S ampersand M. 5 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs

  10. Uranium deposit removal from the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant K-25 Building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ladd, L.D.; Stinnett, E.C. Jr.; Hale, J.R.; Haire, M.J.

    1993-01-01

    The Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant went into operation as the first plant to separate uranium by the gaseous diffusion process. It was built during World War II as part of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers' Manhattan Project. Its war-time code name was K-25, which was also the name of the first uranium separation building constructed at the installation. The K-25 building was considered an engineering miracle at the time of its construction. Built in a U shape ∼1 mile long and 400 ft wide, it housed complex and unique separation equipment. Despite its size and complexity, it was made fully operational within <2 yr after construction began. The facility operated successfully for more than 20 yr until it was placed in a standby mode in 1964. It is now clear the K-25 gaseous diffusion plant will never again be used to enrich uranium. The U.S. Department of Energy, therefore, has initiated a decontamination and decommission program. This paper discusses various procedures and techniques for addressing critical mass, uranium deposits, and safeguards issues

  11. Final deactivation report on the radioisotope production Lab-C, Building 3030, at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-08-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the condition of Bldg. 3030 completion of deactivation activities as outlined by the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Materials and Facility Stabilization Program (EM-60) guidance documentation. This report outlines the activities conducted to place the facility in a safe and environmentally sound condition for transfer to DOE's Office of Environmental Restoration Program (EM-40). This report provides profile of Bldg. 3030 before and after deactivation activities. Turnover items, such as the Postdeactivation Surveillance ampersand Maintenance Plan, remaining hazardous materials, radiological controls, Safeguards and Security, QA, facility operations, and supporting documentation provided in the Office of Nuclear Materials and Facility Stabilization Program (EM-60) Turnover package are discussed. Building 3030 will require access to facilitate required S ampersand M activities to maintain the building safety envelope. Building 3030 was stabilized during deactivation so that when transferred to the EM-40 program, only a minimal S ampersand M effort would be required to maintain the building's safety envelope. Other than the minimal S ampersand M activities, the building will be unoccupied and the exterior doors locked to prevent unauthorized access. The building will be entered only for required S ampersand M. All materials have been removed from the building and the hot cell, and all utility systems, piping, and alarms have been deactivated

  12. Final deactivation report on the radioisotope production Lab-D, Building 3031, at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-08-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the condition of Bldg. 3031 after completion of deactivation activities as outlined by the Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Materials and Facility Stabilization Program (EM-60) guidance documentation. This report outlines the activities conducted to place the facility in a safe and environmentally sound condition for transfer to the Department of Energy Office of Environmental Restoration (EM-40) Program. This report provides a profile of Bldg. 3031 before and after deactivation activities. Turnover items, such as the Postdeactivation Surveillance ampersand Maintenance Plan, remaining hazardous materials, radiological controls, Safeguards and Security, quality assurance, facility operations, and supporting documentation provided in the Office of Nuclear Materials and Facility Stabilization Program (EM-60) Turnover package, are discussed. Building 3031 will require access to facilitate required surveillance and maintenance activities to maintain the building safety envelope. Building 3031 was stabilized during deactivation so that when transferred to the EM-40 program, only a minimal surveillance and maintenance effort would be required to maintain the building safety envelope. Other than the minimal surveillance and maintenance activities, the building will be unoccupied and the exterior doors locked to prevent unauthorized access. The building will be entered only to perform the required surveillance and maintenance. All materials have been removed from the building and the hot cell, and all utility systems, piping, and alarms have been deactivated

  13. Building America Case Study: Trade-Friendly Retrofit Insulated Panels for Existing Buildings, Albany, New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-03-01

    This project evaluated the effectiveness and affordability of integrating retrofit insulated panels into a re-siding project. The Partnership for Home Innovation (PHI) teamed with New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA), the Albany Housing Authority (AHA), and the New York State Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP) administered by Albany Community Action Partnership to demonstrate an energy retrofit and siding upgrade on a two-story, seven unit, multifamily building in Albany New York (CZ 5). The project focused on accomplishing three goals - doubling the existing wall thermal resistance (from approximately R-13 to a weighted average of R-27), reduction of building air leakage, and completion of the retrofit within a budget where the additional cost for upgrading wall's thermal resistance is equal to the cost of the standard re-siding effort (i.e., the total cost of the energy efficient re-siding scope of work is not more than double the cost of the standard re-siding effort). Lessons learned from the project strongly indicate that the retrofit panel technology can be installed using common installation practices and with minimal training. Other lessons learned include limitation on the use of standard air sealing materials during cold weather installations and the need to develop better installation guidance for trades working with the level of tolerances that may be present in the existing structure. This technology demonstration showed that exterior retrofit panels provide a viable and reasonable option for the siding trades to increase market opportunities and achieve synergistic benefits for aesthetic upgrades to a building's exterior.

  14. Who is Going to Build the Wall? A Building Trades Crisis in the U.S.A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Toppin

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The context of this study was to examine factors contributing to significant workforce shortages in building trades in the United States. As it is, recruitment of qualified skilled trades workers is becoming increasingly difficult due to lack of a pipeline of prospective workers, and training programs. The study assumed a theoretical inquiry approach in order to address the following three main questions: 1 What is the scope of the workforce shortage in skilled and building trades in the US? 2 What factors are recognized as contributors to the building trades workforce shortage in the US? And, 3 What strategies can be implemented to reverse building trades workforce shortages in the US? Findings affirmed that the scope of workforce shortages in skilled and building (con- struction trades in the US is very broad and the impact is rather deep. Factors con- tributing to the shortage include: declines in high school technical education programs, which have been replaced by career academies; misconception that higher education al- ways equal higher income, but the untold story is higher debt associated with pursuing higher education; and stricter immigration laws, which are forcing potential workers out of the US. The study concluded that in order to reverse currently declining workforce trends the following six strategies should be implemented: 1 Make it a national priority, thereby appropriating adequate resources to the effort. 2 Increase the number or women and African Americans in building trades. 3 Expand apprenticeship programs. An expan- sion of both government and corporate incentives are needed to stimulate an increase in apprenticeships. 4 Reintroduce building and skilled trades programs in secondary and postsecondary schools. Growth in the number of Career Academies, and participation in them has been encouraging, yet there are not enough of them to meet the need. 5 Re-examine guest-worker programs, which are currently cumbersome for

  15. Final deactivation report on the Radioisotope Production Lab-E, Building 3032, at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the condition of Bldg. 3032, after completion of deactivation activities as outlined by the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Materials and Facility Stabilization Program (EM-60) guidance documentation. This report outlines the activities conducted to place the facility in a safe and environmentally sound condition for transfer to the DOE Office of Environmental Restoration Program (EM-40). This report provides a history and profile of Bldg. 3032 prior to commencing deactivation activities and a profile of the building after completion of deactivation activities. Turnover items, such as the Postdeactivation Surveillance ampersand Maintenance Plan, remaining hazardous materials, radiological controls, Safeguards and Security, quality assurance, facility operations, and supporting documentation provided in the EM-60 turnover package are discussed. Building 3032 will be used as the Health Physics Office for the Isotopes Facilities Deactivation Program area and will require access for these offices and to facilitate required surveillance and maintenance (S ampersand M) activities to maintain the building safety envelope. Bldg. 3032 was stabilized during deactivation so that when transferred to the EM-40 program, only a minimal S ampersand M effort would be required to maintain the building safety envelope. All materials have been removed from the building, and all utility systems, piping, and alarms have been deactivated except electricity and steam needed for the office areas

  16. Final deactivation report on the radioisotope production Lab-H, Building 3118, at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-08-01

    This report outlines the activities conducted to place the facility in a safe and environmentally sound condition for transfer to the DOE Office of Environmental Restoration Program (EM-40). This report provides a history and profile of Bldg. 3118 prior to and after deactivation. Turnover items (e.g. Surveillance ampersand Maintenance Plant, remaining materials, etc.) are discussed. Building 3118 was stabilized during deactivation so that when transferred to the EM-40 program, only minimal S ampersand M is required (other than that, the building will be unoccupied and the exterior doors locked)

  17. Final Deactivation Project report on the Alpha Powder Facility, Building 3028, at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    This report documents the condition of the Alpha Powder Facility (APF), Building 3028, after completion of deactivation activities. Activities conducted to place the facility in a safe and environmentally sound condition for transfer to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Restoration (EM-40) program are outlined. A history and profile of the facility prior to commencing deactivation activities and a profile of the building after completion of deactivation activities are provided. Turnover items, such as the post-deactivation surveillance and maintenance (S&M) plan, remaining hazardous materials, radiological controls, safeguards and security, quality assurance, facility operations, and supporting documentation provided for in the DOE Nuclear Materials and Facility Stabilization Program (EM-60) turnover package are discussed.

  18. Final Deactivation Project report on the Alpha Powder Facility, Building 3028, at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-04-01

    This report documents the condition of the Alpha Powder Facility (APF), Building 3028, after completion of deactivation activities. Activities conducted to place the facility in a safe and environmentally sound condition for transfer to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Restoration (EM-40) program are outlined. A history and profile of the facility prior to commencing deactivation activities and a profile of the building after completion of deactivation activities are provided. Turnover items, such as the post-deactivation surveillance and maintenance (S ampersand M) plan, remaining hazardous materials, radiological controls, safeguards and security, quality assurance, facility operations, and supporting documentation provided for in the DOE Nuclear Materials and Facility Stabilization Program (EM-60) turnover package are discussed

  19. Final deactivation report on the tritium target facility, Building 7025, at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-08-01

    This report includes a history and profile of Bldg. 7025 before and after completion of deactivation. It also discusses turnover items, such as the Postdeactivation Surveillance ampersand Maintenance Plan, remaining hazardous materials, radiological controls, Safeguards and Security, quality assurance, facility operations, and supporting documentation in the EM-60 Turnover package. Other than minimal S ampersand M activities, the building will be unoccupied and the exterior doors locked (access only for the required S ampersand M)

  20. A cut above: building the market for fair trade timber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacQueen, Duncan

    2008-02-15

    Unlike coffee and cotton, timber has yet to become a fair trade commodity. But now its time has come. Rights over forest resources are increasingly ceded to small-scale community forest enterprises (CFEs), as large-scale industrial logging is now largely discredited in the sustainable development context. The fair trade emphasis on just pricing for poorer producers is exactly what CFEs need as incentive to invest in sustainable forest management — and secure environmental and poverty reduction benefits at one stroke. With fair trade timber, CFEs could boost their entrepreneurial capacity using democratic business models with in-built social and environmental responsibility. The Fair Trade Labelling Organizations International and Forest Stewardship Council are exploring the ways and means through a new partnership, but more is needed. Consumers must be made aware of why paying higher prices is key to creating CFE incentives for sustainable forest management and poverty reduction. Time and money are needed for consumer education and installing fair trade timber in producer country forest policies, market segregation and procurement policies at all levels.

  1. HAZWOPER project documents for demolition of the Waste Evaporator Facility, Building 3506, at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    This document, in support of the Waste Evaporator Facility (WEF) demolition project and contains the Project Work Plan and the Project Health and Safety Plan for demolition and partial remediation actions by ATG at the Waste Evaporator Facility, Building 3506. Various activities will be conducted during the course of demolition, and this plan provides details on the work steps involved, the identification of hazards, and the health and safety practices necessary to mitigate these hazards. The objective of this document is to develop an approach for implementing demolition activities at the WEF. This approach is based on prior site characterization information and takes into account all of the known hazards at this facility. The Project Work Plan provides instructions and requirements for identified work steps that will be utilized during the performance of demolition, while the Health and Safety Plan addresses the radiological, hazardous material exposure, and industrial safety concerns that will be encountered.

  2. HAZWOPER project documents for demolition of the Waste Evaporator Facility, Building 3506, at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-03-01

    This document, in support of the Waste Evaporator Facility (WEF) demolition project and contains the Project Work Plan and the Project Health and Safety Plan for demolition and partial remediation actions by ATG at the Waste Evaporator Facility, Building 3506. Various activities will be conducted during the course of demolition, and this plan provides details on the work steps involved, the identification of hazards, and the health and safety practices necessary to mitigate these hazards. The objective of this document is to develop an approach for implementing demolition activities at the WEF. This approach is based on prior site characterization information and takes into account all of the known hazards at this facility. The Project Work Plan provides instructions and requirements for identified work steps that will be utilized during the performance of demolition, while the Health and Safety Plan addresses the radiological, hazardous material exposure, and industrial safety concerns that will be encountered

  3. Trade Union Organisers in Trade Union Organising Strategies: building workplace unionism or reinforcing bureaucracy

    OpenAIRE

    Looker, Gerard

    2015-01-01

    This thesis considers the role of union full time officers in union organising strategies. Two decades of promoting union organising influenced by models developed by the AFL-CIO, has failed to arrest the decline of UK trade unions let alone produce evidence of renewal. Focusing mainly on one region in the UKs largest public sector trade union, Unison, the research provides for a detailed account of how organising strategies affect union work, presenting thick and deep data from full time off...

  4. The key numbers of the building trade in 1994. Data and references

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This report studies the energy accounting in the building trade, in France, for the year 1994. The energy consumption, in residential and tertiary sectors are given. The evolution of different polluting emissions in building industry are given. The different equipments to control energy consumption are detailed. (N.C.)

  5. Independent criticality safety evaluation of deposits in cooler equipment in Building K-31 at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-10-01

    This report provides an independent assessment of nuclear criticality issues associated with uranium deposits in the West and East Coolers for the 6A Booster Station in Building K-31 at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site. This assessment investigates the applicability of the initial assumptions used by Lockheed Martin Energy Systems (Energy Systems) and evaluates criticality calculations previously completed by Energy Systems. The calculations were independently verified. Each component was evaluated for its ability to satisfy requirements for subcriticality and meet the double contingency principle. Facility walk downs, detailed neutronics analysis, and fault tree analysis (FTA) were performed. The facility walk downs provided a better understanding of the building condition and status, equipment configuration, and uranium deposit locations. The detailed neutronics analysis focused on system geometry and moderation levels applicable to the individual components. The FTA considered the annual rate of occurrence for the events identified as potential causes of criticality issues. This report also examines the advantages of using this type of evaluation to assess the removal process for additional components and equipment

  6. Capacity building for global health diplomacy: Thailand’s experience of trade and health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaiprayoon, Suriwan; Smith, Richard

    2015-01-01

    A rapid expansion of trade liberalization in Thailand during the 1990s raised a critical question for policy transparency from various stakeholders. Particular attention was paid to a bilateral trade negotiation between Thailand and USA concerned with the impact of the ‘Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Rights (TRIPS) plus’ provisions on access to medicines. Other trade liberalization effects on health were also concerning health actors. In response, a number of interagency committees were established to engage with trade negotiations. In this respect, Thailand is often cited as a positive example of a country that has proactively sought, and achieved, trade and health policy coherence. This article investigates this relationship in more depth and suggests lessons for wider study and application of global health diplomacy (GHD). This study involved semi-structured interviews with 20 people involved in trade-related health negotiations, together with observation of 9 meetings concerning trade-related health issues. Capacity to engage with trade negotiations appears to have been developed by health actors through several stages; starting from the Individual (I) understanding of trade effects on health, through Nodes (N) that establish the mechanisms to enhance health interests, Networks (N) to advocate for health within these negotiations, and an Enabling environment (E) to retain health officials and further strengthen their capacities to deal with trade-related health issues. This INNE model seems to have worked well in Thailand. However, other contextual factors are also significant. This article suggests that, in building capacity in GHD, it is essential to educate both health and non-health actors on global health issues and to use a combination of formal and informal mechanisms to participate in GHD. And in developing sustainable capacity in GHD, it requires long term commitment and strong leadership from both health and non-health sectors. PMID

  7. Capacity building for global health diplomacy: Thailand's experience of trade and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaiprayoon, Suriwan; Smith, Richard

    2015-11-01

    A rapid expansion of trade liberalization in Thailand during the 1990s raised a critical question for policy transparency from various stakeholders. Particular attention was paid to a bilateral trade negotiation between Thailand and USA concerned with the impact of the 'Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Rights (TRIPS) plus' provisions on access to medicines. Other trade liberalization effects on health were also concerning health actors. In response, a number of interagency committees were established to engage with trade negotiations. In this respect, Thailand is often cited as a positive example of a country that has proactively sought, and achieved, trade and health policy coherence. This article investigates this relationship in more depth and suggests lessons for wider study and application of global health diplomacy (GHD). This study involved semi-structured interviews with 20 people involved in trade-related health negotiations, together with observation of 9 meetings concerning trade-related health issues. Capacity to engage with trade negotiations appears to have been developed by health actors through several stages; starting from the Individual (I) understanding of trade effects on health, through Nodes (N) that establish the mechanisms to enhance health interests, Networks (N) to advocate for health within these negotiations, and an Enabling environment (E) to retain health officials and further strengthen their capacities to deal with trade-related health issues. This INNE model seems to have worked well in Thailand. However, other contextual factors are also significant. This article suggests that, in building capacity in GHD, it is essential to educate both health and non-health actors on global health issues and to use a combination of formal and informal mechanisms to participate in GHD. And in developing sustainable capacity in GHD, it requires long term commitment and strong leadership from both health and non-health sectors. Published by

  8. Teachers' and Students' Perception of Instructional Supervision on Capacity Building in Electrical Installation Trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eze, Ogwa Christopher

    2015-01-01

    This research was conducted to ascertain teachers' and students perception of instructional supervision in relation to capacity building in electrical installation trade in technical colleges. Three research questions and a null hypothesis were employed to guide the study. Descriptive survey was adopted. A 23-item questionnaire was used to elicit…

  9. B-WEST Regional Workforce Training Center. Building Workers Entering Skilled Trades. Employer Training Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portland Community Coll., OR.

    This guide, which was developed during the B-WEST (Building Workers Entering Skilled Trades) project, includes materials for use in training and providing on-site consultations to contractors, managers, supervisors, office/technical staff, and others in two areas: diversity in the workplace and sexual harassment in the workplace. Part 1, which…

  10. Capacity building program: Framework of Standards to secure and facilitate Global Trade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koech, H K [Program Manager CBP/DHS Office Number 363-6109 Cell Number 0722-774-912, Office Location: Ground Floor U.S. Embassy Nairobi (Kenya)

    2010-07-01

    Effective implementation of capacity building program in Kenya will result in maximum protection against terrorist activity/counter terrorism worldwide due to countries meeting the requirements of the program via safety and security measures at land borders, seaports, and airports. It will also result in enforcement of illegal trade pertaining to terrorist financing, money laundering, trade fraud, strategic cases including weapons of mass destruction, child pornography, intellectual property rights, document fraud, alien smuggling, drug smuggling, and general smuggling. It will also facilitate legitimate commerce.

  11. Capacity building program: Framework of Standards to secure and facilitate Global Trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koech, H.K.

    2010-01-01

    Effective implementation of capacity building program in Kenya will result in maximum protection against terrorist activity/counter terrorism worldwide due to countries meeting the requirements of the program via safety and security measures at land borders, seaports, and airports. It will also result in enforcement of illegal trade pertaining to terrorist financing, money laundering, trade fraud, strategic cases including weapons of mass destruction, child pornography, intellectual property rights, document fraud, alien smuggling, drug smuggling, and general smuggling. It will also facilitate legitimate commerce.

  12. Decontamination of concrete surfaces in Building 3019, Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parrott, J.R. Sr.

    1980-01-01

    This building was built in 1943 to serve as a pilot plant for separating isotopes from irradiated fuels. A chemical explosion leading to widespread Pu contamination occurred on Nov. 20, 1959, and the steps taken to treat the building afterwards are discussed, in particular the floor and the cells. The experience shows how hard it is to decontaminate concrete; smooth coatings should be utilized

  13. Building 9201-4 at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Site annual surveillance and maintenance report 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sollenberger, M.L.; Sparkman, D.E.; Reynolds, R.M.

    1995-01-01

    The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant Decontamination and Decommissioning (D ampersand D) Program is part of the Waste Management/D ampersand D Organization and is funded by the Office of Environmental Restoration (EM-40). Strategic goals are to protect human health and environment and to reduce the number of hazardous material-contaminated facilities by properly managing and dispositioning facilities when they are no longer required to fulfill a site mission. The D ampersand D Program objectives include (1) providing surveillance and maintenance (S ampersand M) activities in support of facilities in standby and awaiting D ampersand D; (2) developing specific methods, schedules, and funding plans for the D ampersand D of shutdown facilities; and (3) implementing plans to provide for facility disposition in a safe, compliant, and cost effective manner. Presently Building 9201-4 (Alpha-4) is the only facility at the complex that is in the Y-12 D ampersand D Program. This report provides a status of the program plans and specific S ampersand M requirements for Building 9201-4 as part of the Y-12 D ampersand D Program

  14. Surveillance and maintenance report on the Alpha-4 Building at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant for fiscal year 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sollenberger, M.L.; Sparkman, D.E.; Reynolds, R.M.

    1995-12-01

    Part of the Environmental Restoration Division and funded by the Office of Environmental Management (EM-40) Program, the Oak Ridge Y-l2 Plant Decontamination and Decommissioning Program strives to protect human health and the environment and reduce the number of hazardous-material-contaminated facilities by properly managing and dispositioning facilities when they are no longer required to fulfill a site mission. Building 9201-4, known as Alpha-4, is the only facility at the Y-12 Plant under the D and D Program, and it is the D and D Program that provides surveillance and maintenance (S and M) of the facility. Alpha-4 housed uranium enrichment operations from 1945--47. In 1955 a process known as Colex, for column exchange, that involved electrochemical and solvent extraction processes began. These processes required substantial quantities of mercury as a solvent to separate lithium-6 from lithium-7 (in the form of lithium hydroxide). The Colex process was discontinued in 1962, leaving a legacy of process equipment and lines contaminated with mercury and lithium hydroxide. Now in the inactive-shutdown phase, Alpha-4 requires an S and M program that provides for risk mitigation, hazard abatement, and site preparation for subsequent D and D and/or long-term maintenance of the shutdown status of the building. Daily surveillance activities emphasizes structural integrity, leak detection, safeguards, health of personnel, environmental issues, safety conditions, equipment, hazardous materials, mercury monitoring, and cleanup. This report communicates the status of the program plans and specific surveillance and maintenance requirements for Alpha-4

  15. Radionuclide characterization of subsurface soil on the site of building 3505 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, W.A.; Oakes, T.W.; Eldridge, J.S.; Huang, S.; Hubbard, H.M.

    1982-12-01

    Ninety-two samples at varying depths were collected from 25 cores. Sample tubes were driven into the ground and segments of soil cores were retrieved at depths from the ground surface to subsurface consolidated material. forty samples of the 92 collected had detectable gamma activities [i.e., > 2 x 10 - 2 Bq/g (0.5 pCi/g)] of 137 Cs. However, only four samples, all from the same borehole, were found to have significant amounts of 137 Cs with a maximum of 1.7 x 10 3 Bq/g (4.6 x 10 4 pCi/g). These four samples also contained the highest activities of other radionuclides ( 60 Co, 90 Sr, 235 U, 238 U, 239 Pu, and 241 Am). These subsamples came from core number 4DD, which was the deepest core collected. Core 4DD was taken at the southwest corner of the site, which is at the lower elevation of the site. Since most of the activity in this core was found below the bedrock (or shale) in the groundwater region, the contamination is probably not from Building 3505. Additional investigation in the area around core location 4DD will be required to determine the extent of contamination

  16. The distribution of the electric energy consumed in the World Trade Center building; La distribucion de la energia electrica consumida en el edificio World Trade Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaona de la Fuente, Alvaro; Carrillo Borja, Angel [Luz y Fuerza del Centro, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    This document describes the distribution of the electric energy in the World Trade Center building. Also called the Business International Capital, it is a modern international concept that integrates under the same roof services and supports required by the foreign commerce, with a great 50 stories high building, information network, a business center, a commercial center, an international center for exhibits and conventions and a luxury hotel. It is a modern building equipped with a numberless technological advancements an a total installed electrical load of 35000 kVA. The distribution structures utilized for high buildings are described, the structure that was decided to adopt in the World Trade Center, the requirement for the execution of the distribution electric work, the Luz y Fuerza installations in the buildings conglomerate, the operation and maintenance of the distribution network of this building and the basic needs for new installations of this type of buildings [Espanol] En el presente documento se describe la distribucion de la energia electrica del edificio World Trade Center de la ciudad de Mexico. Llamado tambien la capital internacional de los negocios es un moderno concepto internacional que integra bajo un mismo techo servicios y apoyos que se requieren para el comercio exterior contando con una gran torre de 50 pisos, red de informacion, un centro de negocios, un centro comercial, un centro internacional de exposiciones y convenciones y un hotel de lujo. Es un edificio moderno equipado con un sinnumero de adelantos tecnologicos y con una carga total instalada de 35000 kVA. Se describen las estructuras de distribucion utilizadas en edificios altos, la estructura que se decidio implantar en el World Trade Center, los requerimientos para la ejecucion de la obra electrica de distribucion, las instalaciones de Luz y Fuerza en el conjunto de dicho edificio, la operacion y mantenimiento de la red de distribucion de este edificio, y las necesidades

  17. The trade experiment: Shielding calculations for the building hosting the subcritical system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burn, K. W.; Carta, M.; Casalini, L.; Kadi, Y.; Monti, S.; Nava, E.; Palomba, M.; Petrovich, C.; Picardi, L.; Rubbia, C.; Troiani, F.

    2005-01-01

    The TRADE project (TRIGA Accelerator Driven Experiment), to be performed at the existing TRIGA reactor at ENEA Casaccia, has been proposed as a validation of the accelerator-driven system (ADS) concept. TRADE will be the first experiment in which the three main components of an ADS-the accelerator, spallation target and sub-critical blanket-are coupled at a power level sufficient to encounter reactivity feedback effects. As such, TRADE represents the necessary intermediate step in the development of hybrid transmutation systems, its expected outcomes being considered crucial-in terms of proof of stability of operation, dynamic behaviour and licensing issues-for the subsequent realisation of an ADS Transmutation Demonstrator. An essential role in the feasibility study of the experiment is played by radioprotection calculations. Such a system exhibits new characteristics with respect to a traditional reactor, owing to the presence of the proton accelerator. As beam losses always occur under normal operating conditions of an accelerator, shielding studies need to be performed not only around the reactor but also along the beam line from the accelerator to the spallation target. This paper illustrates a preliminary evaluation, using Monte Carlo methods, of the additional shielding to be located around the reactor structures, the beam transport line and the existing reactor building to allow access into the reactor hall and to restrict the doses outside to their legal limits. (authors)

  18. Design/Installation and Structural Integrity Assessment of the Bethel Valley Low-Level Waste Collection and Transfer System Upgrade for Building 3544 (Process Waste Treatment Plant) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-12-01

    This document describes and assesses planned modifications to be made to the Building 3544 Process Waste Treatment Plant of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The modifications are made in response to the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) relating to environmental protection requirements for tank systems. The modifications include the provision of a new double contained LLW line replacing an existing buried line that does not provide double containment. This new above ground, double contained pipeline is provided to permit discharge of treated process waste fluid to an outside truck loading station. The new double contained discharge line is provided with leak detection and provisions to remove accumulated liquid. An existing LLW transfer pump, concentrated waste tank, piping and accessories are being utilized, with the addition of a secondary containment system comprised of a dike, a chemically resistant internal coating on the diked area surfaces and operator surveillance on a daily basis for the diked area leak detection. This assessment concludes that the planned modifications comply with applicable requirements of Federal Facility Agreement, Docket No. 89-04-FF, covering the Oak Ridge Reservation

  19. Evaluating the Life Cycle Environmental Benefits and Trade-Offs of Water Reuse Systems for Net-Zero Buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasik, Vaclav; Anderson, Naomi E; Collinge, William O; Thiel, Cassandra L; Khanna, Vikas; Wirick, Jason; Piacentini, Richard; Landis, Amy E; Bilec, Melissa M

    2017-02-07

    Aging water infrastructure and increased water scarcity have resulted in higher interest in water reuse and decentralization. Rating systems for high-performance buildings implicitly promote the use of building-scale, decentralized water supply and treatment technologies. It is important to recognize the potential benefits and trade-offs of decentralized and centralized water systems in the context of high-performance buildings. For this reason and to fill a gap in the current literature, we completed a life cycle assessment (LCA) of the decentralized water system of a high-performance, net-zero energy, net-zero water building (NZB) that received multiple green building certifications and compared the results with two modeled buildings (conventional and water efficient) using centralized water systems. We investigated the NZB's impacts over varying lifetimes, conducted a break-even analysis, and included Monte Carlo uncertainty analysis. The results show that, although the NZB performs better in most categories than the conventional building, the water efficient building generally outperforms the NZB. The lifetime of the NZB, septic tank aeration, and use of solar energy have been found to be important factors in the NZB's impacts. While these findings are specific to the case study building, location, and treatment technologies, the framework for comparison of water and wastewater impacts of various buildings can be applied during building design to aid decision making. As we design and operate high-performance buildings, the potential trade-offs of advanced decentralized water treatment systems should be considered.

  20. Final report for the Central Mercury Treatment System in Building 9623 at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-02-01

    This document discusses the construction of the Central Mercury Treatment System (CMTS) in Building 9623 at the Y-12 Plant, the remediation activities involved, waste generated from the project, and the monitoring schedule of the CMTS. As part of the Reduction of Mercury in Plant Effluent Program, the project treats groundwater contaminated with mercury from Buildings 9201-4, 9201-5, and 9204-4 at the Y-12 Plant to meet National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Permit limits for discharge to East Fork Poplar Creek. The CMTS, located in Building 9623, will treat water from the sumps of buildings in which mercury was used in operations and which have been shown to be significant contributors to the overall levels of mercury in plant effluents. This project was anticipated when the NPDES Permit was issued, and the contamination limits and frequency of monitoring for the system discharge are detailed in the permit as Outfall 551. This project was performed as an Incentive Task Order and included the advance procurement of the carbon columns, removal of existing equipment in Building 9623, and system installation and checkout. Construction activities for installing the system started in January 1996 after the area in Building 9623 had been cleared of existing, obsolete equipment. The CMTS became operational on November 26, 1996, well ahead of the permit start date of January 1, 1998. The early completion date allows Hg concentrations in EFPC to be evaluated to determine whether further actions are required to meet NPDES permit limits for reduced Hg loading to the creek

  1. Radiological Assessment Survey of the Vance road Facility Source Vault Building Materials, Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morton, J. R.

    2000-01-01

    From the 1950s, the Vance Road laboratory was the site of extensive nuclear medical research and involved the used of numerous radionuclides. These nuclides were stored in a source vault stored on the first floor of the facility. Nuclear medical research is no longer conducted in this facility, and the source vault was remediated in preparation for converting the area to office space and general use. The Environmental Survey and Site Assessment Program (ESSAP) of ORISE performed a radiological assessment survey of the source vault and its associated miscellaneous building materials and laboratory equipment in preparation for the conversion to general use space

  2. Molten Salt Reactor Experiment Facility (Building 7503) standards/requirements identification document adherence assessment plan at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-02-01

    This is the Phase 2 (adherence) assessment plan for the Building 7503 Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) Facility standards/requirements identification document (S/RID). This document outlines the activities to be conducted from FY 1996 through FY 1998 to ensure that the standards and requirements identified in the MSRE S/RID are being implemented properly. This plan is required in accordance with the Department of Energy Implementation Plan for Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board Recommendation 90-2, November 9, 1994, Attachment 1A. This plan addresses the major aspects of the adherence assessment and will be consistent with Energy Systems procedure QA-2. 7 ''Surveillances.''

  3. The FTAA and hemispheric integration: building a triple-win strategy for trade and sustainability in the hemisphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-04-01

    The concept of a trade and sustainability agenda for the Americas is explained and a historical account of the process of making this concept a reality is discussed in a background paper for the Hemispheric Trade and Sustainability Symposium held on April 18, 2001 in Quebec City. The Symposium was held in conjunction with the Third Summit of the Americas, where heads of 34 American nations discussed ways and means to encourage hemispheric cooperation. The object of the Symposium was to provide a constructive, policy-oriented, and knowledge-based open forum for dialogue on trade and sustainability issues; to identify policy options that can be mutually beneficial to trade, environment and development, and to increase public support for trade liberalisation in the Americas. The strategy aims to build a sustainable FTAA through the identification of a series of environmental provisions to be incorporated in the Agreement; strengthen environmental cooperation in the Americas, especially in trade-sensitive, or trade-related sectors, and create a high level hemispheric expert group on trade and sustainability for continuous and constructive dialogue with civil society and industry on these issues. The backgrounder provides a precis of the fundamental aspect of building a sustainable FTAA, explains the origin of the prevailing fear of unilateral environment-related trade sanctions by the United States, the fear of protectionist measures by Canada and the United States based on environmental provisions in the FTAA, and the fear that higher environmental standards and regulations would undermine the competitiveness of Latin American and Caribbean businesses. The paper attempts to dispel these fears by explaining the mechanism envisaged to be predominant in creating the triple-win strategy, namely impact assessment, transparency, participation and dispute resolution processes. The eventual agreement should also mention sustainable development as an overarching objective of

  4. Proposed replacement and operation of the anhydrous hydrogen fluoride supply and fluidized-bed chemical processing systems at Building 9212, Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to replace the existing anhydrous hydrogen fluoride (AHF) supply and fluidized-bed reactor systems for the Weapons Grade Highly Enriched Uranium Chemical Recovery and Recycle Facility, Building 9212, which is located within the Y-12 Plant on DOE's Oak Ridge Reservation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The proposed replacement system would be based upon modern design criteria and safety analyses. The replacement AHF supply and distribution system equipment would be located on the existing Dock 8/8A at Building 9212. Utilities would be extended to the dock to service the process equipment. The following process equipment modules would be prefabricated for installation at the modified dock: an AHF cylinder enclosure, an AHF supply manifold and vaporizer module, an AHF sump tank and transfer skid, and an AHF supply off-gas scrubber assembly module. The fluidized-bed reactor system would be constructed in an area adjacent to the existing system in Building 9212. The replacement equipment would consist of a new reduction fluidized-bed reactor, a hydrofluorination fluidized-bed reactor, and associated air emission control equipment. The no-action alternative, which is the continued operation of the existing AHF supply and fluidized-bed reactor systems, was also evaluated

  5. Specific application for Oak Ridge National Laboratory dismantlement of Building 3004. Appendix A - Quality assurance plan; Appendix B - Records management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-03-01

    This quality assurance (QA) plan defines the QA requirements for the dismantlement and removal of Building 3004 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The building is a four-story wooden trained structure with wooden siding, which resides approximately 150 ft west of the Bulk Shielding Reactor, and only several feet away from the visitors entrance to the Graphite Reactor museum. Complete descriptions and sketches are in the Performance Specification document for this project. This project is being conducted as a non-CERCLA maintenance action. This plan is an appendix to the QA plan for the ORNL Environmental Restoration (ER) Program. ORNL/ER-225, which is the source of the project QA requirements, tailors those QA requirements to the specific needs of this project as defined in ORNL/ER-225. Project-specific description and organization are also provided in this plan. Appendix B, Records Management Plan, is included

  6. Environmental Management Waste Management Facility Proxy Waste Lot Profile 6.999 for Building K-25 West Wing, East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rigsby V.P.

    2009-02-12

    In 1989, the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), which includes the East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP), was placed on the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) National Priorities List. The Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) (DOE 1992), effective January 1, 1992, now governs environmental restoration activities conducted under CERCLA at the ORR. Following signing of the FFA, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the state of Tennessee signed the Oak Ridge Accelerated Cleanup Plan Agreement on June 18, 2002. The purpose of this agreement is to define a streamlined decision-making process to facilitate the accelerated implementation of cleanup, resolve ORR milestone issues, and establish future actions necessary to complete the accelerated cleanup plan by the end of fiscal year 2008. While the FFA continues to serve as the overall regulatory framework for remediation, the Accelerated Cleanup Plan Agreement supplements existing requirements to streamline the decision-making process. Decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) activities of Bldg. K-25, the original gaseous diffusion facility, is being conducted by Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC (BJC) on behalf of the DOE. The planned CERCLA action covering disposal of building structure and remaining components from the K-25 building is scheduled as a non-time-critical CERCLA action as part of DOE's continuous risk reduction strategy for ETTP. The K-25 building is proposed for D&D because of its poor physical condition and the expense of surveillance and maintenance activities. The K-25/K-27 D&D Project proposes to dispose of the commingled waste listed below from the K-25 west side building structure and remaining components and process gas equipment and piping at the Environmental Management Waste Management Facility (EMWMF) under waste disposal proxy lot (WPXL) 6.999: (1) Building structure (e.g. concrete floors [excluding basement

  7. The Leading Economic Sectors Building Comparative and Competitive Advantages in Romania's Foreign Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Giurgiu

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available For now on, as a member state of the EU, Romania and the Romanian commercial operators should maximize the foreign trade’s opportunities given by the rich portfolio of free trade agreements of the European Union and try to reorient our exports towards countries where the products of which the structure of our Romanian exports is consisted of hold a comparative and competitive advantage, in order to reduce the Romanian long-term trade balance deficit. Therefore, this paper focuses on finding out the leading sectors with high potential to maintain and consolidate the comparative and competitive advantages of the Romania’s foreign trade.

  8. Building a Collaborative Network for Education and Training in International Trade Facilitation Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clendenin, John A.; Petrova, Nadya N.; Gill, Joshua K.

    The authors present the benefits of collaboration rather than competition in developing educational and training resources for international trade within a geographic region and explore the challenges for business partners, governments and educational institutions. The paper indicates that flexibility in the 21st Century is critical, particularly when striving for virtual implementations of the solution services. It is essential, say the authors, for educators, governments and business executives to focus on performance and the careful orchestration and integration of business, policy and information technology for “Networking” that successfully stimulates inter-governmental cooperation and innovative policies that foster Regional trade facilitation. An innovative way to enhance 21st Century Trade Facilitation is offered with Supply Chain Centers of Regional Excellence (SCcORE).

  9. Federal and state regulatory requirements for the D ampersand D of the Alpha-4 Building, Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etnier, E.L.; Houlberg, L.M.; Bock, R.E.

    1994-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has begun the decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D) of Building 9201-4 (Alpha-4) at the Oak Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, The Alpha-4 Building was used from 1953--1962 to house a column exchange (Colex) process for lithium isotope separation. This process involved electrochemical and solvent extraction processes that required substantial quantities of mercury. Presently there is no law or regulation mandating decommissioning at DOE facilites or setting de minimis or ''below regulatory concern'' (BRC) radioactivity levels to guide decommissioning activities at DOE facilities. However, DOE Order 5820.2A, Chap. V (Decommissioning of Radioactively Contaminated Facilities), requires that the regulatory status of each project be identified and that technical engineering planning must assure D ampersand D compliance with all environmental regulations during cleanup activities. To assist in the performance of this requirement, this paper gives a brief overview of potential federal and state regulatory requirements related to D ampersand D activities at Alpha-4. Compliance with other federal, state, and local regulations not addressed here may be required, depending on site characterization, actual D ampersand D activities, and wastes generated

  10. The key numbers of the building trade in 1994. Data and references; Les chiffres cles du batiment 1994. Donnees et references

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    This report studies the energy accounting in the building trade, in France, for the year 1994. The energy consumption, in residential and tertiary sectors are given. The evolution of different polluting emissions in building industry are given. The different equipments to control energy consumption are detailed. (N.C.).

  11. Building Trust in Emissions Reporting. Global Trends in Emissions Trading Schemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruijd, J.; Walrecht, A.; Laseur, J.; Schoolderman, H.; Gledhill, R.

    2007-02-15

    This report highlights the key characteristics of the world's main emission trading schemes, presents a new vision for compliance in emissions trading and calls for global action to develop this. Climate change is now at the top of the political and business agenda. Al Gore's 'An Inconvenient Truth', the Stern Review and the now almost daily press coverage of climate change science and impacts have engaged many of the global leaders in government and in business. Emissions trading is increasingly seen as a central plank in the response to climate change. But market mechanisms like this depend on trust and confidence. Any widespread or systemic failure, as a result of deficient monitoring and reporting, flawed compliance processes or fraud, could undermine confidence in markets and regulation and jeopardise the crucial policy goals that they are designed to address. Key to this trust are the three central criteria of transparency, accountability and integrity. The PricewaterhouseCoopers report looks at how the patchwork of trading schemes that are emerging around the globe stacks up against these criteria. Despite good intentions across the board, the general picture is one of new and immature markets, inconsistent and complex compliance frameworks and risk. PricewaterhouseCoopers make the case for urgent and coordinated action to develop a framework of generally accepted principles and practice that will underpin trust and efficiency in these new markets - in effect, a new Global Emissions Compliance Language.

  12. Building Trust in Emissions Reporting. Global Trends in Emissions Trading Schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruijd, J.; Walrecht, A.; Laseur, J.; Schoolderman, H.; Gledhill, R.

    2007-02-01

    This report highlights the key characteristics of the world's main emission trading schemes, presents a new vision for compliance in emissions trading and calls for global action to develop this. Climate change is now at the top of the political and business agenda. Al Gore's 'An Inconvenient Truth', the Stern Review and the now almost daily press coverage of climate change science and impacts have engaged many of the global leaders in government and in business. Emissions trading is increasingly seen as a central plank in the response to climate change. But market mechanisms like this depend on trust and confidence. Any widespread or systemic failure, as a result of deficient monitoring and reporting, flawed compliance processes or fraud, could undermine confidence in markets and regulation and jeopardise the crucial policy goals that they are designed to address. Key to this trust are the three central criteria of transparency, accountability and integrity. The PricewaterhouseCoopers report looks at how the patchwork of trading schemes that are emerging around the globe stacks up against these criteria. Despite good intentions across the board, the general picture is one of new and immature markets, inconsistent and complex compliance frameworks and risk. PricewaterhouseCoopers make the case for urgent and coordinated action to develop a framework of generally accepted principles and practice that will underpin trust and efficiency in these new markets - in effect, a new Global Emissions Compliance Language

  13. International Children's Trade Books: Building Blocks for Character Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Terrell A.; Hadaway, Nancy L.; Ward, Barbara A.

    2013-01-01

    The importance of character education has been emphasized since ancient times across cultures and religions as a way to develop morals and values of the younger generations. In this article, the authors highlight several award-winning international children's trade books that reflect the core values recurring in literature and scriptures…

  14. Exchange traded funds (etf): evaluation and portfolio building from etf’s

    OpenAIRE

    Valukonis, Mantas

    2010-01-01

    As the global financial crisis is started, investors are trying to look for new investment methods. During the meltdown of most shares, share investments are becoming unattractive, it decreases the liquidity of the exchange itself. As bears are dominating in share markets, more and more investors choose various alternatives of investments. One of them is Exchange Traded Funds, therefore a closer acquaintance with the management, features and advantages of these funds is needed. In order to ch...

  15. EXPORT ACTIVITY OF MASHINE-BUILDING ENTERPRISES WITHIN TRANSFORMATION OF UKRAINIAN FOREIGN TRADE

    OpenAIRE

    Yarosh-Dmytrenko, Liudmila Oleksiivna

    2017-01-01

    Urgency of the research. Transformational processes in Ukrainian economy and its integration to European and world economic areas set new challenges to domestic machine building. Target setting. In modern conditions, national machine building suffers from huge economic crisis and loses its competitive fight in domestic and, what is sufficiently important for the economy of Ukraine, in foreign markets. Actual scientific researches and issues analysis. The operation of Ukrainian machine buildin...

  16. Risk-based investment trade-off related to building facility management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taillandier, F. [Departement TIDS, Centre Scientifique et Technique du Batiment, 06904 Sophia Antipolis (France); Laboratoire Optimisation de la conception et Ingenierie de l' environnement, Polytech' Savoie, Universite de Savoie, 73376 Le Bourget du lac (France)], E-mail: franck.taillandier@univ-savoie.fr; Sauce, G. [Laboratoire Optimisation de la conception et Ingenierie de l' environnement, Polytech' Savoie, Universite de Savoie, 73376 Le Bourget du lac (France); Bonetto, R. [Departement TIDS, Centre Scientifique et Technique du Batiment, 06904 Sophia Antipolis (France)

    2009-04-15

    Due to his or her profession, any building facility manager has to face many decision-making situations. One of the most important to be mentioned is the arbitration of a multi-year maintenance plan for buildings. Deciding between proposed maintenance actions, according to several constraints, so as to aim at satisfying corporate strategy is a complex choice. Risk approaches can be particularly effective because of their ability to handle complexity and uncertainties. The problem is then to be able to propose a method considering risks, adapted to the specific context of building facility management. Our method, regarded as a traditional approach, includes needed resources (i.e. costs) according to constraints (i.e. budget), but it also considers several risk domains (safety, technical preservation, client satisfaction, etc.), through the consequences (gain and loss). It proposes an ergonomic arbitration system based on filters following two complementary approaches: a selection of the fundamental actions and then an optimization of the plan (in a global view). The aim, for decision-makers, is to build their own solution by testing multiple angles of vision in simulation logic. This article presents the principles of the method, illustrated by an example of a real case conducted for a leading French company.

  17. Risk-based investment trade-off related to building facility management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taillandier, F.; Sauce, G.; Bonetto, R.

    2009-01-01

    Due to his or her profession, any building facility manager has to face many decision-making situations. One of the most important to be mentioned is the arbitration of a multi-year maintenance plan for buildings. Deciding between proposed maintenance actions, according to several constraints, so as to aim at satisfying corporate strategy is a complex choice. Risk approaches can be particularly effective because of their ability to handle complexity and uncertainties. The problem is then to be able to propose a method considering risks, adapted to the specific context of building facility management. Our method, regarded as a traditional approach, includes needed resources (i.e. costs) according to constraints (i.e. budget), but it also considers several risk domains (safety, technical preservation, client satisfaction, etc.), through the consequences (gain and loss). It proposes an ergonomic arbitration system based on filters following two complementary approaches: a selection of the fundamental actions and then an optimization of the plan (in a global view). The aim, for decision-makers, is to build their own solution by testing multiple angles of vision in simulation logic. This article presents the principles of the method, illustrated by an example of a real case conducted for a leading French company

  18. Trading Zones: Building Connections to Past Research in the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Bruce

    2008-01-01

    Faculty face significant challenges when moving into scholarship of teaching and learning (SoTL) for the first time. Perhaps the greatest of these challenges is the act of building connections to past research, both within the individual scholar's field, and more broadly across the disciplines. This article examines the nature of this challenge,…

  19. Technology Solutions for Existing Homes Case Study: Trade-Friendly Retrofit Insulated Panels for Existing Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-03-01

    For this project with the U.S. Department of Energy Building America team Home Innovation Research Labs, the retrofit insulated panels relied on an enhanced expanded polystyrene (EPS) for thermal resistance of R-4.5/inch, which is an improvement of 10% over conventional (white-colored) EPS. EPS, measured by its life cycle, is an alternative to commonly used extruded polystyrene and spray polyurethane foam. It is a closed-cell product made up of 90% air, and it requires about 85% fewer petroleum products for processing than other rigid foams.

  20. Expanding Options. A Model to Attract Secondary Students into Nontraditional Vocational Programs. For Emphasis in: Building Trades, Electronics, Health Services, Machine Shop, Welding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, James D.; DeVore, Mary Ann

    This model has been designed for use by Missouri secondary schools in attracting females and males into nontraditional occupational programs. The research-based strategies are intended for implementation in the following areas: attracting females into building trades, electronics, machine shop, and welding; and males into secondary health…

  1. Inorganic chemical composition and chemical reactivity of settled dust generated by the World Trade Center building collapse: Chapter 12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Hageman, Philip L.; Lamothe, Paul J.; Ziegler, Thomas L.; Meeker, Gregory P.; Theodorakos, Peter M.; Brownfield, Isabelle; Adams, Monique G.; Swayze, Gregg A.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Taggart, Joseph E.; Clark, Roger N.; Wilson, S.; Sutley, Stephen J.

    2009-01-01

    Samples of dust deposited around lower Manhattan by the September 11, 2001, World Trade Center (WTC) collapse have inorganic chemical compositions that result in part from the variable chemical contributions of concrete, gypsum wallboard, glass fibers, window glass, and other materials contained in the buildings. The dust deposits were also modified chemically by variable interactions with rain water or water used in street washing and fire fighting. Chemical leach tests using deionized water as the extraction fluid show the dust samples can be quite alkaline, due primarily to reactions with calcium hydroxide in concrete particles. Calcium and sulfate are the most soluble components in the dust, but many other elements are also readily leached, including metals such as Al, Sb, Mo Cr, Cu, and Zn. Indoor dust samples produce leachates with higher pH, alkalinity, and dissolved solids than outdoor dust samples, suggesting most outdoor dust had reacted with water and atmospheric carbon dioxide prior to sample collection. Leach tests using simulated lung fluids as the extracting fluid suggest that the dust might also be quite reactive in fluids lining the respiratory tract, resulting in dissolution of some particles and possible precipitation of new phases such as phosphates, carbonates, and silicates. Results of these chemical characterization studies can be used by health scientists as they continue to track and interpret health effects resulting from the short-term exposure to the initial dust cloud and the longer-term exposure to dusts resuspended during cleanup.

  2. Site-specific standard request for underground storage tanks 1219-U, 1222-U, 2082-U, and 2068-U at the rust garage facility buildings 9754-1 and 9720-15: Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, Facility ID No. 0-010117

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-12-01

    This document represents a Site-specific Standard Request for underground storage tanks (USTs) 1219-U,1222-U and 2082-U previously located at former Building 9754-1, and tank 2086-U previously located at Building 9720-15, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The tanks previously contained petroleum products. For the purposes of this report, the two building sites will be regarded as a single UST site and will be referred to as the Rust Garage Facility. The current land use associated with the Y-12 Plant is light industrial and the operational period of the plant is projected to be at least 30 years. Thus, potential future residential exposures are not expected to occur for at least 30 years. Based on the degradation coefficient for benzene (the only carcinogenic petroleum constituent detected in soils or groundwater at the Rust Garage Facility), it is expected that the benzene and other contaminants at the site will likely be reduced prior to expiration of the 30-year plant operational period. As the original sources of petroleum contamination have been removed, and the area of petroleum contamination is limited, a site-specific standard is therefore being requested for the Rust Garage Facility

  3. Design/installation and structural integrity assessment of Bethel Valley low-level waste collection and transfer system upgrade for Building 3092 (Central Off-Gas Scrubber Facility) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This document describes and assesses planned modifications to be made to the Building 3092 Central Off-Gas Scrubber Facility of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The modifications are made in responsible to the requirements of 40CFR264 Subpart J, relating to environmental protection requirements for buried tank systems. The modifications include the provision of a new scrubber recirculation tank in a new, below ground, lines concrete vault, replacing and existing recirculation sump that does not provide double containment. A new buried, double contained pipeline is provided to permit discharge of spent scrubber recirculation fluid to the Central Waste Collection Header. The new vault, tank, and discharge line are provided with leak detection and provisions to remove accumulated liquid. New scrubber recirculation pumps, piping, and accessories are also provided. This assessment concludes that the planned modifications comply with applicable requirements of 40CFR264 Subpart J, as set forth in Appendix F to the Federal Facility Agreement, Docket No. 89-04-FF, covering the Oak Ridge Reservation

  4. Design/Installation and Structural Integrity Assessment of Bethel Valley Low-Level Waste collection and transfer system upgrade for Building 3092 (central off-gas scrubber facility) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    This document describes and assesses planned modifications to be made to the Building 3092 Central Off-Gas Scrubber Facility of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The modifications are made in response to the requirements of 40CFR264 Subpart J, relating to environmental protection requirements for buried tank systems. The modifications include the provision of a new scrubber recirculation tank in a new, below ground, lined concrete vault, replacing an existing recirculation sump that does not provide double containment. A new buried, double contained pipeline is provided to permit discharge of spent scrubber recirculation fluid to the Central Waste Collection Header. The new vault, tank, and discharge line are provided with leak detection and provisions to remove accumulated liquid. Ne scrubber recirculation pumps, piping, and accessories are also provided. This assessment concludes that the planned modifications comply with applicable requirements of 40CFR264 Subpart J, as set forth in Appendix F to the Federal Facility Agreement, Docket No. 89-04-FF, covering the Oak Ridge Reservation. A formal design certification statement is included herein on Page 53, a certification covering the installation shall be executed prior to placing the modified facility into service

  5. Building

    OpenAIRE

    Seavy, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    Building for concrete is temporary. The building of wood and steel stands against the concrete to give form and then gives way, leaving a trace of its existence behind. Concrete is not a building material. One does not build with concrete. One builds for concrete. MARCH

  6. Design assessment for the Bethel Valley FFA Upgrades at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    This report describes the proposed upgrades to Building 3025 and the Evaporator Area at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Design assessments, specifications and drawings are provided. Building 3025 is a general purpose research facility utilized by the Materials and Ceramics Division to conduct research on irradiated materials. The Evaporator Area, building 2531, serves as the collection point for all low-level liquid wastes generated at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

  7. Capacity-Building Programs Under the Dominican Republic-Central America-United States Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA-DR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The United States signed the Dominican Republic-Central America-United States Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA-DR) in August 2004 with five Central American countries (Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua) and the Dominican Republic.

  8. Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP: The Devil in Disguise or a Golden Opportunity to Build a Transatlantic Marketplace?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pitschas Christian

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The European Union (EU and the United States are currently negotiating a free-trade agreement, the so-called Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP. These negotiations have to be seen in perspective, since a number of other - bilateral and plurilateral - trade deals are being pursued at the same time. All these negotiations point to a worrisome aspect: the World Trade Organisation’s failure to come to a meaningful agreement in the Doha-round negotiations, in terms of market access, new rules and development. Like the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP, TTIP would stand out among the crowd of trade agreements because of the sheer volume of trade and investment flows across the Atlantic and the declared intention to boost regulatory cooperation and compatibility which is expected to bring the bulk of TTIP’s economic benefits. However, the prospect of concluding such a transatlantic agreement raises many concerns; the public in the European Union and the United States fears that TTIP could undermine existing levels of protection in areas such as health and the environment and impinge on either side’s “right to regulate”. Moreover, questions are being posed as to what TTIP would mean for the multilateral trading system and how it would affect third countries, especially developing countries. Against this backdrop, this article addresses the following issues in relation to TTIP: the vision underlying the negotiations; the European Commission’s negotiating mandate; the structure of the negotiations and their state of play; the Union’s competence for concluding TTIP and whether it is shared with EU Member States; and finally TTIP’s impact on the multilateral trading system and developing countries.

  9. Addendum to the corrective action plan for Underground Storage Tanks 1219-U, 1222-U, 2082-U, 2068-U at the Rust Garage Facility, Buildings 9720-15 and 9754-1: Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, Facility ID number-sign 0-010117

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This document represents an addendum to the Corrective Action Plan (CAP) for underground storage tanks 1219-U, 2082-U, and 2068-U located at Buildings 9720-15 and 9754-1, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, TN. The site of the four underground storage tanks is commonly referred to as the Rust Garage Facility. The original CAP was submitted to the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) for review in May 1992. During the time period after submission of the original CAP for the Rust Garage Facility, Y-12 Plant Underground Storage Tank (UST) Program personnel continued to evaluate improvements that would optimize resources and expedite the activities schedule presented in the original CAP. Based on these determinations, several revisions to the original corrective action process options for remediation of contaminated soils are proposed. The revised approach will involve excavation of the soils from the impacted areas, on-site thermal desorption of soil contaminants, and final disposition of the treated soils by backfilling into the subject site excavations. Based on evaluation of the corrective actions with regard to groundwater, remediation of groundwater under the Y-12 Plant CERCLA Program is proposed for the facility

  10. Design/installation and structural integrity assessment under the Federal Facility Agreement for Bethel Valley Low-Level Waste Collection and Transfer System upgrade for Building 2026 (High Radiation Level Analytical Laboratory) and Building 2099 (Monitoring and Control Station) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    This document presents a Design/Installation and Structural Integrity Assessment for a replacement tank system for portions of the Bethel Valley Low Level Waste (LLW) System, located at the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. This issue of the assessment covers the design aspects of the replacement tank system, and certifies that the design has sufficient structural integrity and is acceptable for the storing or treating of hazardous and/or radioactive substances. The present issue identifies specific activities that must be completed during the fabrication, installation, and testing of the replacement tank system in order to provide assurance that the final installation complies with governing requirements. Portions of the LLW system are several decades old, or older, and do not comply with current environmental protection regulations. Several subsystems of the LLW system have been designated to receive a state-of-the-art replacement and refurbishment. One such subsystem serves Building 2026, the High Radiation Level Analytical Laboratory. This assessment focuses on the scope of work for the Building 2026 replacement LLW Collection and Transfer System, including the provision of a new Monitoring and Control Station (Building 2099) to receive, store, and treat (adjust pH) low level radioactive waste

  11. Review of the Department of Trade and Industry passive solar programme. Pt. 2: non-domestic buildings. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-06-01

    The aim of the Passive Solar Programme (PSP) was to quantify the nature, size and timing of passive solar contribution to the UK building stock and the energy savings; to determine the best and most cost effective methods of achieving savings; to explore and develop better techniques; and to transfer the information to the appropriate people. There are over 1.25 million non-domestic buildings in the UK. It has been calculated that it is technically and economically possible to use passive solar design along with improved efficiency measures to reduce energy consumption in the UK by 25% in most existing non-domestic buildings and over 50% in new buildings. From the UK Government's point of view the savings are potentially very significant, and initiatives are aimed at bringing passive solar design into wide use at the earliest possible date. The PSP was intended to encourage the use of passive solar design and displace other forms of energy consumption. The earlier passive solar programme was focused on the domestic sector, where the primary concern was to reduce energy consumed in space heating. Its extension to non-domestic buildings demanded a broader definition of the potential benefits. (author)

  12. Corrective action baseline report for underground storage tanks 0439-U, 0440-U, 2073-U, 2074-U, and 2075-U at the East End Fuel Station, Buildings 9754 and 9754-2, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, Facility ID No. 0-010117

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide baseline geochemical and hydrogeologic data relative to corrective action for underground storage tanks (USTs) 0439-U, 0440-U, 2073-U, 2074-U, and 2075-U at the East End Fuel Station, Buildings 9754 and 9754-2 at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. Progress in support of corrective action at the East End Fuel Station has included monitoring well installation, tank removal, and baseline groundwater sampling and analysis. This document represents the baseline report for corrective action at the East End Fuel Station and is organized into three sections. Section 1 presents introductory information relative to the site, including the regulatory initiative, site description, and progress to date. Section 2 includes a summary of additional monitoring well installation activities, the results of baseline groundwater sampling, a summary of tank removal activities, and the results of confirmatory soil sampling performed during tank removal. Section 3 presents the baseline hydrogeology and planned zone of influence for groundwater remediation

  13. Trade Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Murray Gibbs

    2007-01-01

    In an otherwise insightful and thoughtful article, Sebastian Pfotenhauer (Trade Policy Is Science Policy,” Issues, Fall 2013) might better have entitled his contribution “Trade Policy Needs to Be Reconciled with Science Policy.” The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and the agreements administered by the World Trade Organization, particularly the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), were adopted to promote international trade and i...

  14. Ridge Regression Signal Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhl, Mark R.

    1990-01-01

    The introduction of the Global Positioning System (GPS) into the National Airspace System (NAS) necessitates the development of Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring (RAIM) techniques. In order to guarantee a certain level of integrity, a thorough understanding of modern estimation techniques applied to navigational problems is required. The extended Kalman filter (EKF) is derived and analyzed under poor geometry conditions. It was found that the performance of the EKF is difficult to predict, since the EKF is designed for a Gaussian environment. A novel approach is implemented which incorporates ridge regression to explain the behavior of an EKF in the presence of dynamics under poor geometry conditions. The basic principles of ridge regression theory are presented, followed by the derivation of a linearized recursive ridge estimator. Computer simulations are performed to confirm the underlying theory and to provide a comparative analysis of the EKF and the recursive ridge estimator.

  15. Permit trading and credit trading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boom, Jan-Tjeerd; R. Dijstra, Bouwe

    This paper compares emissions trading based on a cap on total emissions (permit trading) and on relative standards per unit of output (credit trading). Two types of market structure are considered: perfect competition and Cournot oligopoly. We find that output, abatement costs and the number...... of firms are higher under credit trading. Allowing trade between permit-trading and credit-trading sectors may increase in welfare. With perfect competition, permit trading always leads to higher welfare than credit trading. With imperfect competition, credit trading may outperform permit trading....... Environmental policy can lead to exit, but also to entry of firms. Entry and exit have a profound impact on the performance of the schemes, especially under imperfect competition. We find that it may be impossible to implement certain levels of total industry emissions. Under credit trading several levels...

  16. Optical dating of dune ridges on Rømø

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Anni Tindahl; Murray, A. S.; Andersen, Thorbjørn Joest

    2007-01-01

    The application of optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) to the dating of recent aeolian sand ridges on Rømø, an island off the southwest coast of Denmark, is tested. These sand ridges began to form approximately 300 years ago, and estimates of the ages are available from historical records....... Samples for OSL dating were taken ~0.5 m below the crests of four different dune ridges; at least five samples were recovered from each ridge to test the internal consistency of the ages. Additional samples were recovered from the low lying areas in the swales and from the scattered dune formations......-defined building phases separated by inactive periods and the first major ridge formed ~235 years ago. This study demonstrates that optical dating can be successfully applied to these young aeolian sand deposits, and we conclude that OSL dating is a powerful chronological tool in studies of coastal change....

  17. Ridge and Furrow Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Per Grau

    2016-01-01

    Ridge and furrow is a specific way of ploughing which makes fields of systematic ridges and furrows like a rubbing washboard. They are part of an overall openfield system, but the focus in this paper is on the functionality of the fields. There are many indications that agro-technological reasons...... systems and the establishment of basic structures like villages (with churches) and townships and states (in northern Europe). The fields can be considered as a resilient structure lasting for 800 years, along with the same basic physical structures in society....

  18. Building Technologies Research and Integration Center (BTRIC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Building Technologies Research and Integration Center (BTRIC), in the Energy and Transportation Science Division (ETSD) of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL),...

  19. Textile materials trading center formally launched online

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Textile materials trading center was formally launched online in Wuxi City,Jiangsu Province. This is the first third-party electronic trading platform for spot trading in China textile materials professional market. The project will strive to build the most influential textile materials trading center of East China,the whole country and even the whole world China textile materials trading center will be

  20. Asia-Pacific Research and Training Network on Trade (ARTNET ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    During Phase II, ARTNET will continue its training and capacity building efforts, focusing on trade facilitation, preferential trade agreements (PTAs) and other trade agreements. Given the complexity of the trade and investment environment in the region, ARTNET will explore the interaction between trade, investment, ...

  1. Insider trading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maslechko, W.S.

    1998-01-01

    The policy arguments for and against prohibiting insider trading within the petroleum industry are discussed. Legal definitions of all relevant terms (e.g. 'special relationship' 'tippees', 'material facts', material changes' 'generally disclosed' information', 'necessary course of business') are provided. Enforcement of insider trading/tipping prohibitions are also defined. The recommended practice is: do not trade; do not tell or advise; encourage timely disclosure; do not speculate; implement a corporate disclosure and trading policy

  2. Energy trading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glachant, J.M.; Kimman, R.; Schweickardt, H.E.

    2001-05-01

    This document brings together 18 testimonies of experts about energy trading: 1 - the energy trading experience on European deregulated markets: structure of deregulated energy markets in Europe, case study: a two years experience of a power exchange in western Europe, case study: European energy exchanges (experience of spot and future trading), case study: risk management on energy deregulated markets; 2 - the trading activity environment and realities in France: the French electrical law and the purchase for resale, experience feedback: status after 3 months of trading in France (the first experience of a French producer), the access to the power transportation network, which legal constraints for trading in France, the access of eligible clients to the French power market, conditions of implementation of a power exchange market in France, which real trading possibilities in France for producers and self-producers in the legal frame, case study: the role of trading in the company (main part or link to process), convergence of gas and electricity markets, gas-electricity trading: which pricing models; 3 - risk management and use of new technologies potentiality, the results outside the French borders: case study: what differences between the European and US markets, prices volatility and commodity risk management: towards the on-line trading, role and developments of E-business in energy trading, how to simplify trade in a liberalized market. (J.S.)

  3. Maintenance Trades Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidner, Theodore J.

    2008-01-01

    In 2002, APPA published "Maintenance Staffing Guidelines for Educational Facilities," the first building maintenance trades staffing guideline designed to assist educational facilities professionals with their staffing needs. addresses how facilities professionals can determine the appropriate size and mix of their organization. Contents…

  4. Design/Installation and Structural Integrity Assessment of Bethel Valley Low-Level Waste Collection and transfer system upgrade for Building 2649 (Transported Waste Receiving Facility) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This document covers the design aspects of the new tank system and certifies that the design has sufficient structural integrity and is acceptable for storing or treating hazardous and/or radioactive substances. This issue identifies specific activities that must be completed during fabrication, installation, and testing of the new tank system in order to prove compliance of the final installation with governing requirements. The assessment is responsive to the Environmental Restoration Agreement for the Oak Ridge Reservation

  5. Measuring performance at trade shows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kåre

    2004-01-01

    Trade shows is an increasingly important marketing activity to many companies, but current measures of trade show performance do not adequately capture dimensions important to exhibitors. Based on the marketing literature's outcome and behavior-based control system taxonomy, a model is built...... that captures a outcome-based sales dimension and four behavior-based dimensions (i.e. information-gathering, relationship building, image building, and motivation activities). A 16-item instrument is developed for assessing exhibitors perceptions of their trade show performance. The paper presents evidence...

  6. Energy trading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckmann, K.; Schroeter, S.

    2009-01-01

    Two brief articles and two interviews deal with the subject of energy trading. Power and gas exchanges in Europe multiply, but, experts say, we are nowhere near a mature, integrated European energy market as yet. Trading regulations need to be improved and harmonised and interconnections expanded. European Energy Review assesses the state of energy trading in Europe and interviews the ceo's of NordPool (the Nordic power exchange) and APX (Amsterdam Power Exchange)

  7. Trading Agents

    CERN Document Server

    Wellman, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Automated trading in electronic markets is one of the most common and consequential applications of autonomous software agents. Design of effective trading strategies requires thorough understanding of how market mechanisms operate, and appreciation of strategic issues that commonly manifest in trading scenarios. Drawing on research in auction theory and artificial intelligence, this book presents core principles of strategic reasoning that apply to market situations. The author illustrates trading strategy choices through examples of concrete market environments, such as eBay, as well as abst

  8. The Anatomy of Digital Trade Infrastructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rukanova, Boriana; Zinner Henriksen, Helle; Henningsson, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    In global supply chains information about transactions resides in fragmented pockets within business and government systems. The introduction of digital trade infrastructures (DTI) that transcend organizational and systems domains is driven by the prospect of reducing this information fragmentation......, thereby enabling improved security and efficiency in trade process. To understand the problem at hand and build cumulative knowledge about its resolution a way to conceptualize the different digital trade infrastructure initiatives is needed. This paper develops the Digital Trade Infrastructure Framework...

  9. Emissions Trading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woerdman, Edwin; Backhaus, Juergen

    2014-01-01

    Emissions trading is a market-based instrument to achieve environmental targets in a cost-effective way by allowing legal entities to buy and sell emission rights. The current international dissemination and intended linking of emissions trading schemes underlines the growing relevance of this

  10. Organ Trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A.E. Ambagtsheer (Frederike)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractOrgan trade constitutes the sale and purchase of organs for financial or material gain. Although prohibited since the 1980s, an increasing number of reports indicate its proliferation across the globe. Yet, many knowledge gaps exist on organ trade, in particular on the demand -and

  11. Measuring mandibular ridge reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steen, W.H.A.

    1984-01-01

    This thesis investigates the mandibular reduction in height of complete denture wearers and overdenture wearers. To follow this reduction in the anterior region as well as in the lateral sections of the mandible, an accurate and reproducible measuring method is a prerequisite. A radiologic technique offers the best chance. A survey is given of the literature concerning the resorption process after the extraction of teeth. An oblique cephalometric radiographic technique is introduced as a promising method to measure mandibular ridge reduction. The reproducibility and the accuracy of the technique are determined. The reproducibility in the positioning of the mandible is improved by the introduction of a mandibular support which permits a precise repositioning of the edentulous jaw, even after long periods of investigation. (Auth.)

  12. Lessons-Learned from D and D Activities at the Five Gaseous Diffusion Buildings (K-25, K- 27, K-29, K-31 and K-33) East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, TN - 13574

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopotic, James D.; Ferri, Mark S.; Buttram, Claude

    2013-01-01

    The East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP) is the site of five former gaseous diffusion plant (GDP) process buildings that were used to enrich uranium from 1945 to 1985. The process equipment in the original two buildings (K-25 and K-27) was used for the production of highly enriched uranium (HEU), while that in the three later buildings (K-29, K-31 and K-33) produced low enriched uranium (LEU). Equipment was contaminated primarily with uranium and to a lesser extent technetium (Tc). Decommissioning of the GDP process buildings has presented several unique challenges and produced many lessons-learned. Among these is the importance of good, up-front characterization in developing the best demolition approach. Also, chemical cleaning of process gas equipment and piping (PGE) prior to shutdown should be considered to minimize the amount of hold-up material that must be removed by demolition crews. Another lesson learned is to maintain shutdown buildings in a dry state to minimize structural degradation which can significantly complicate characterization, deactivation and demolition efforts. Perhaps the most important lesson learned is that decommissioning GDP process buildings is first and foremost a waste logistics challenge. Innovative solutions are required to effectively manage the sheer volume of waste generated from decontamination and demolition (D and D) of these enormous facilities. Finally, close coordination with Security is mandatory to effectively manage Special Nuclear Material (SNM) and classified equipment issues. (authors)

  13. Lessons-Learned from D and D Activities at the Five Gaseous Diffusion Buildings (K-25, K- 27, K-29, K-31 and K-33) East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, TN - 13574

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopotic, James D. [United States Department of Energy, Oak Ridge Office, P.O. Box 2001, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Ferri, Mark S.; Buttram, Claude [URS - CH2M Oak Ridge LLC, East Tennessee Technology Park, P. O. Box 4699, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP) is the site of five former gaseous diffusion plant (GDP) process buildings that were used to enrich uranium from 1945 to 1985. The process equipment in the original two buildings (K-25 and K-27) was used for the production of highly enriched uranium (HEU), while that in the three later buildings (K-29, K-31 and K-33) produced low enriched uranium (LEU). Equipment was contaminated primarily with uranium and to a lesser extent technetium (Tc). Decommissioning of the GDP process buildings has presented several unique challenges and produced many lessons-learned. Among these is the importance of good, up-front characterization in developing the best demolition approach. Also, chemical cleaning of process gas equipment and piping (PGE) prior to shutdown should be considered to minimize the amount of hold-up material that must be removed by demolition crews. Another lesson learned is to maintain shutdown buildings in a dry state to minimize structural degradation which can significantly complicate characterization, deactivation and demolition efforts. Perhaps the most important lesson learned is that decommissioning GDP process buildings is first and foremost a waste logistics challenge. Innovative solutions are required to effectively manage the sheer volume of waste generated from decontamination and demolition (D and D) of these enormous facilities. Finally, close coordination with Security is mandatory to effectively manage Special Nuclear Material (SNM) and classified equipment issues. (authors)

  14. Foreign Trade

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Foreign Trade database has monthly volume and value information for US imports, exports, and re-exports of fishery or fishery derived products. Data is...

  15. Ocean Ridges and Oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langmuir, C. H.

    2014-12-01

    The history of oxygen and the fluxes and feedbacks that lead to its evolution through time remain poorly constrained. It is not clear whether oxygen has had discrete steady state levels at different times in Earth's history, or whether oxygen evolution is more progressive, with trigger points that lead to discrete changes in markers such as mass independent sulfur isotopes. Whatever this history may have been, ocean ridges play an important and poorly recognized part in the overall mass balance of oxidants and reductants that contribute to electron mass balance and the oxygen budget. One example is the current steady state O2 in the atmosphere. The carbon isotope data suggest that the fraction of carbon has increased in the Phanerozoic, and CO2 outgassing followed by organic matter burial should continually supply more O2 to the surface reservoirs. Why is O2 not then increasing? A traditional answer to this question would relate to variations in the fraction of burial of organic matter, but this fraction appears to have been relatively high throughout the Phanerozoic. Furthermore, subduction of carbon in the 1/5 organic/carbonate proportions would contribute further to an increasingly oxidized surface. What is needed is a flux of oxidized material out of the system. One solution would be a modern oxidized flux to the mantle. The current outgassing flux of CO2 is ~3.4*1012 moles per year. If 20% of that becomes stored organic carbon, that is a flux of .68*1012 moles per year of reduced carbon. The current flux of oxidized iron in subducting ocean crust is ~2*1012 moles per year of O2 equivalents, based on the Fe3+/Fe2+ ratios in old ocean crust compared to fresh basalts at the ridge axis. This flux more than accounts for the incremental oxidizing power produced by modern life. It also suggests a possible feedback through oxygenation of the ocean. A reduced deep ocean would inhibit oxidation of ocean crust, in which case there would be no subduction flux of oxidized

  16. Geology along the Blue Ridge Parkway in Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Mark W.; Southworth, C. Scott; Tollo, Richard P.; Merschat, Arthur J.; Wagner, Sara; Lazor, Ava; Aleinikoff, John N.

    2017-01-01

    Back Formations. These rocks are bound by numerous faults, including the Rock Castle Creek fault that separates Ashe Formation rocks from Alligator Back Formation rocks in the core of the Ararat River synclinorium. The lack of unequivocal paleontologic or geochronologic ages for any of these rock sequences, combined with fundamental and conflicting differences in tectonogenetic models, compound the problem of regional correlation with Blue Ridge cover rocks to the north.The geologic transition from the central to southern Appalachians is also marked by a profound change in landscape and surficial deposits. In central Virginia, the Blue Ridge consists of narrow ridges that are held up by resistant but contrasting basement and cover lithologies. These ridges have shed eroded material from their crests to the base of the mountain fronts in the form of talus slopes, debris flows, and alluvial-colluvial fans for perhaps 10 m.y. South of Roanoke, however, ridges transition into a broad hilly plateau, flanked on the east by the Blue Ridge escarpment and the eastern Continental Divide. Here, deposits of rounded pebbles, cobbles, and boulders preserve remnants of ancestral west-flowing drainage systems.Both bedrock and surficial geologic processes provide an array of economic deposits along the length of the Blue Ridge Parkway corridor in Virginia, including base and precious metals and industrial minerals. However, common stone was the most important commodity for creating the Blue Ridge Parkway, which yielded building stone for overlooks and tunnels, or crushed stone for road base and pavement.

  17. Using exterior building surface films to assess human exposure and health risks from PCDD/Fs in New York City, USA, after the World Trade Center attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayne, Sierra

    2005-12-09

    Concentrations of tetra- through octa-chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) were determined in exterior window films from Manhattan and Brooklyn in New York City (NYC), USA, 6 weeks after the World Trade Center (WTC) attacks of 11 September 2001. High concentrations of the 2,3,7,8-substituted congeners (P(2378)CDD/Fs) were observed, at levels up to 6600 pg-TEQ g(-1) nearest the WTC site. An equilibrium partitioning model was developed to reconstruct total gas + particle-phase atmospheric concentrations of P(2378)CDD/Fs at each site. The reconstructed atmospheric and window film concentrations were subsequently used in a preliminary human health risk assessment to estimate the potential cancer and non-cancer risks posed to residents of lower Manhattan from these contaminants over the 6 week exposure period between the WTC attacks and sampling dates. Residents of lower Manhattan appear to have a slightly elevated cancer risk (up to 1.6% increase over background) and increased P(2378)CDD/F body burden (up to 8.0% increase over background) because of above-background exposure to high concentrations of P(2378)CDD/Fs produced from the WTC attacks during the short period between 11 September 2001, and window film sampling 6 weeks later.

  18. Design/installation and structural integrity assessment under the Federal Facility Agreement for Bethel Valley low-level waste collection and transfer system upgrade for Building 2026 (High Radiation Level Analytical Laboratory) and Building 2099 (Monitoring and Control Station) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-11-01

    This document presents a Design/Installation and Structural Integrity Assessment for a replacement tank system for portions of the Bethel Valley Low-Level Waste (LLW) System, located at the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. This issue of the assessment covers the design aspects of the replacement tank system, and certifies that the design has sufficient structural integrity and is acceptable for the storing or treating of hazardous and/or radioactive substances. This document will be reissued at a future date and will then include the assessment of the installation of the replacement tank system. The present issue identifies specific activities that must be completed during the fabrication, installation, and testing of the replacement tank system in order to provide assurance that the final installation complies with governing requirements

  19. The political economy of services trade agreements

    OpenAIRE

    FIORINI, Matteo; LEBRAND, Mathilde

    2016-01-01

    Why do governments sign services trade agreements? This paper focuses on the role of international agreements in the context of trade in services when services are used as intermediate inputs in downstream industries. Compared to goods, services inputs are mostly non-tradable and complementary to other factors of production. We build a theoretical trade policy framework in which firms use foreign investment to contest foreign markets in services sectors and governments can restrict the entry ...

  20. Data Sharing Report Characterization of Isotope Row Facilities Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge TN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, Phyllis C. [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education (ORISE), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2013-12-12

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Office of Environmental Management (EM-OR) requested that Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU), working under the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) contract, provide technical and independent waste management planning support using funds provided by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA). Specifically, DOE EM-OR requested ORAU to plan and implement a survey approach, focused on characterizing the Isotope Row Facilities located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for future determination of an appropriate disposition pathway for building debris and systems, should the buildings be demolished. The characterization effort was designed to identify and quantify radiological and chemical contamination associated with building structures and process systems. The Isotope Row Facilities discussed in this report include Bldgs. 3030, 3031, 3032, 3033, 3033A, 3034, 3036, 3093, and 3118, and are located in the northeast quadrant of the main ORNL campus area, between Hillside and Central Avenues. Construction of the isotope production facilities was initiated in the late 1940s, with the exception of Bldgs. 3033A and 3118, which were enclosed in the early 1960s. The Isotope Row facilities were intended for the purpose of light industrial use for the processing, assemblage, and storage of radionuclides used for a variety of applications (ORNL 1952 and ORAU 2013). The Isotope Row Facilities provided laboratory and support services as part of the Isotopes Production and Distribution Program until 1989 when DOE mandated their shutdown (ORNL 1990). These facilities performed diverse research and developmental experiments in support of isotopes production. As a result of the many years of operations, various projects, and final cessation of operations, production was followed by inclusion into the surveillance and maintenance (S&M) project for eventual decontamination and decommissioning (D&D). The

  1. Trade Related Reading Packets for Disabled Readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Beverly; Woodruff, Nancy S.

    Six trade-related reading packets for disabled readers are provided for these trades: assemblers, baking, building maintenance, data entry, interior landscaping, and warehousing. Each packet stresses from 9 to 14 skills. Those skills common to most packets include context clues, fact or opinion, details, following directions, main idea,…

  2. Raising the Bar with Trades Staffing Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidner, Theodore J.

    2000-01-01

    Examines the APPA's Trades Staffing Guidelines Task Force for college campus building maintenance and presents descriptions of the proposed guideline levels and a matrix of indicators for the Trades Staffing Guidelines. The levels and matrix are intended to mimic features of the custodial staffing guidelines. (GR)

  3. Trade Liberalisation and Vertical Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Peter Arendorf; Laugesen, Anders Rosenstand

    We build a three-country model of international trade in final goods and intermediate inputs and study the relation between four different types of trade liberalisation and vertical integration. Firms are heterogeneous with respect to both productivity and factor (headquarter) intensity. Final......-good producers face decisions on exporting, vertical integration of intermediate-input production, and whether the intermediate-input production should be offshored to a low-wage country. We find that the fractions of final-good producers that pursue either vertical integration, offshoring, or exporting are all...... increasing when intermediate-input trade or final-goods trade is liberalised. Finally, we provide guidance for testing the open-economy property rights theory of the firm using firm-level data and surprisingly show that the relationship between factor (headquarter) intensity and the likelihood of vertical...

  4. 3001 canal radiological characterization and waste removal report, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritchie, M.G.

    1996-12-01

    An underground steel reinforced concrete transfer and storage canal was built in 1943 and operated as an integral part of the Oak Ridge Graphite Reactor Building (3001) until 1963 when the reactor was shutdown. During operation, the canal was used for under water transfer of irradiated materials and other metals from the reactor in Building 3001 to the Building 3019 hot cell for further processing. After shutdown of the reactor, the canal was used for storage of irradiated materials and fission products until 1990 when the larger materials were removed and stored in the Department of Energy (DOE) approved solid waste management storage facilities. At that time it was discovered that a considerable amount of sludge had accumulated over the intervening years and subsequent analysis showed that the sludge contained Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) materials that violated quantities allowed by the RCRA regulations. It was also recognized in 1990 that the canal was losing water to evaporation and the ground at the rate of approximately 400 gallons per day. To maintain water quality; i.e., radionuclide content at or near DOE derived concentration guidelines (DCG), the water in the canal is constantly demineralized using a demineralizer in the Building 3001 and demineralized make up water is supplied from the Building 3004 demineralizer. This report summarizes the 301 Canal Cleanup Task and the solid waste removed from the 3001 Canal in 1996

  5. Building Maintenance Syllabus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Joseph; Messier, Joseph

    Building maintenance is a basic two-year trade education course requiring 2 1/2 hours of study on each of 160 teaching days per year. Student abilities should range from those capable of the simplest custodial work to those who may eventually be superintendents of building complexes. The syllabus is organized in sections by traditional skills…

  6. Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF) was established at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in 2004 with the mission of standing up a supercomputer 100 times...

  7. Oak Ridge Geochemical Reconnaissance Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arendt, J.W.

    1977-03-01

    The Oak Ridge reconnaissance program is responsible for the geochemical survey in a 12-state area covering Texas, Oklahoma, Kansas, Nebraska, South Dakota, North Dakota, Minnesota, Wisconsin, Michigan, Iowa, Indiana, and Illinois as part of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program. The program concept is outlined and the planning and organization of the program is discussed

  8. InRidge program: Preliminary results from the first cruise

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mukhopadhyay, R.; Murthy, K.S.R.; Iyer, S.D.; Rao, M.M.M.; Banerjee, R.; Subrahmanyam, A.S.; Shirodkar, P.V.; Ghose, I.

    The first cruise under India's own Ridge research initiative, InRidge collected new data on bathymetry, free-air gravity and magnetic anomalies across the ridge axis between the Vema and Zhivago transform faults in the Central Indian Ridge...

  9. International trade and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Posada, Luis Guillermo

    1998-01-01

    The international trade conventional theory not only continues being supported upon the classic principle of comparative advantage, but also, in response to the rationality inherent to the traditional economic system, al so neglects considering the biophysical conditions under which transable goods are produced. The linkage of environment to trade is a recent concern, and it is explained on the basis that the first one has become a barrier for the second one. The environmental cause defenders, so as the free market advocates, are exposing their arguments in a context in which not necessarily to build viable solutions to the conflict is possible. The world economy behavior and tendencies do not offer the conditions needed so as that the official thesis in which the GATT - Rio - WTO thought can be summarized and the positive linkage towards the environmental quality, explicitly claimed by that thesis, becomes reality. Form these considerations, it is argument in this article in the direction of establishing a new international trade pattern and also some ideas are presented as to its characterization ecological economic view

  10. The beach ridges of India: A review

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kunte, P.D.; Wagle, B.G.

    , and is presented in a consolidated form. Beach ridges of the east and west coast of India are grouped in thirteen-beach ridge complexes based on their association. Review indicates that the beach ridges of India are not older than the Holocene age...

  11. Trading stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steiner, Uli; Tuljapurkar, Shripad; Coulson, Tim

    2012-01-01

    Interest in stage-and age structured models has recently increased because they can describe quantitative traits such as size that are left out of age-only demography. Available methods for the analysis of effects of vital rates on lifespan in stage-structured models have not been widely applied ...... examples. Much of our approach relies on trading of time and mortality risk in one stage for time and risk in others. Our approach contributes to the new framework of the study of age- and stage-structured biodemography....

  12. Anonymous electronic trading versus floor trading

    OpenAIRE

    Franke, Günter; Hess, Dieter

    1995-01-01

    This paper compares the attractiveness of floor trading and anonymous electronic trading systems. It is argued that in times of low information intensity the insight into the order book of the electronic trading system provides more valuable information than floor trading, but in times of high information intensity the reverse is true. Thus, the electronic system's market share in trading activity should decline in times of high information intensity. This hypothesis is tested by data on BUND...

  13. Trading volume and the number of trades

    OpenAIRE

    Marwan Izzeldin

    2007-01-01

    Trading volume and the number of trades are both used as proxies for market activity, with disagreement as to which is the better proxy for market activity. This paper investigates this issue using high frequency data for Cisco and Intel in 1997. A number of econometric methods are used, including GARCH augmented with lagged trading volume and number of trades, tests based on moment restrictions, regression analysis of volatility on volume and trades, normality of returns when standardized by...

  14. Remedial Investigation Report on Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 2 (Filled Coal Ash Pond/Upper McCoy Branch) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 1. Main Text

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    This document is a report on the remedial investigation (RI) of Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit (OU) 2 at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. Chestnut Ridge OU 2 consists of Upper McCoy Branch (UMB), the Filled Coal Ash Pond (FCAP), and the area surrounding the Sluice Channel formerly associated with coal ash disposal in the FCAP. Chestnut Ridge OU 2 is located within the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Oak Ridge Reservation in Anderson County, Tennessee, approximately 24 miles west of Knoxville. The pond is an 8.5-acre area on the southern slope of Chestnut Ridge, 0.5 mile south of the main Y-12 Plant and geographically separated from the Y-12 Plant by Chestnut Ridge. The elevation of the FCAP is ∼ 950 ft above mean sea level (msl), and it is relatively flat and largely vegetated. Two small ponds are usually present at the northeast and northwest comers of the FCAP. The Sluice Channel Area extends ∼1000 ft from the northern margin of the FCAP to the crest of Chestnut Ridge, which has an elevation of ∼1100 ft above msl. The Sluice Channel Area is largely vegetated also. McCoy Branch runs from the top of Chestnut Ridge across the FCAP into Rogers Quarry and out of the quarry where it runs a short distance into Milton Hill Lake at McCoy Embayment, termed UMB. The portion south of Rogers Quarry, within Chestnut Ridge OU 4, is termed Lower McCoy Branch. The DOE Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant disposed of coal ash from its steam plant operations as a slurry that was discharged into an ash retention impoundment; this impoundment is the FCAP. The FCAP was built in 1955 to serve as a settling basin after coal ash slurried over Chestnut Ridge from the Y-12 Plant. The FCAP was constructed by building an earthen dam across the northern tributary of McCoy Branch. The dam was designed to hold 20 years of Y-12 steam plant ash. By July 1967, ash had filled up the impoundment storage behind the dam to within 4 ft of the top

  15. Remedial Investigation Report on Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 2 (Filled Coal Ash Pond/Upper McCoy Branch) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 1. Main Text

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    This document is a report on the remedial investigation (RI) of Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit (OU) 2 at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. Chestnut Ridge OU 2 consists of Upper McCoy Branch (UMB), the Filled Coal Ash Pond (FCAP), and the area surrounding the Sluice Channel formerly associated with coal ash disposal in the FCAP. Chestnut Ridge OU 2 is located within the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Oak Ridge Reservation in Anderson County, Tennessee, approximately 24 miles west of Knoxville. The pond is an 8.5-acre area on the southern slope of Chestnut Ridge, 0.5 mile south of the main Y-12 Plant and geographically separated from the Y-12 Plant by Chestnut Ridge. The elevation of the FCAP is {approximately} 950 ft above mean sea level (msl), and it is relatively flat and largely vegetated. Two small ponds are usually present at the northeast and northwest comers of the FCAP. The Sluice Channel Area extends {approximately}1000 ft from the northern margin of the FCAP to the crest of Chestnut Ridge, which has an elevation of {approximately}1100 ft above msl. The Sluice Channel Area is largely vegetated also. McCoy Branch runs from the top of Chestnut Ridge across the FCAP into Rogers Quarry and out of the quarry where it runs a short distance into Milton Hill Lake at McCoy Embayment, termed UMB. The portion south of Rogers Quarry, within Chestnut Ridge OU 4, is termed Lower McCoy Branch. The DOE Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant disposed of coal ash from its steam plant operations as a slurry that was discharged into an ash retention impoundment; this impoundment is the FCAP. The FCAP was built in 1955 to serve as a settling basin after coal ash slurried over Chestnut Ridge from the Y-12 Plant. The FCAP was constructed by building an earthen dam across the northern tributary of McCoy Branch. The dam was designed to hold 20 years of Y-12 steam plant ash. By July 1967, ash had filled up the impoundment storage behind the dam to within 4 ft of the top.

  16. Trading Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cort, Cliff

    2006-01-01

    Education administrators face the dual dilemma of crowded, aging facilities and tightening capital budgets. The challenge is to build the necessary classroom, laboratory and activity space while minimizing the length and expense of the construction process. One solution that offers an affordable alternative is modular construction, a method that…

  17. Bose enhancement and the ridge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altinoluk, Tolga [Departamento de Física de Partículas and IGFAE, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, 15706 Santiago de Compostela, Galicia (Spain); Armesto, Néstor, E-mail: nestor.armesto@usc.es [Departamento de Física de Partículas and IGFAE, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, 15706 Santiago de Compostela, Galicia (Spain); Beuf, Guillaume [Department of Physics, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva 84105 (Israel); Kovner, Alex [Physics Department, University of Connecticut, 2152 Hillside Road, Storrs, CT 06269-3046 (United States); Lublinsky, Michael [Department of Physics, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva 84105 (Israel)

    2015-12-17

    We point out that Bose enhancement in a hadronic wave function generically leads to correlations between produced particles. We show explicitly, by calculating the projectile density matrix in the Color Glass Condensate approach to high-energy hadronic collisions, that the Bose enhancement of gluons in the projectile leads to azimuthal collimation of long range rapidity correlations of the produced particles, the so-called ridge correlations.

  18. Bose enhancement and the ridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tolga Altinoluk

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We point out that Bose enhancement in a hadronic wave function generically leads to correlations between produced particles. We show explicitly, by calculating the projectile density matrix in the Color Glass Condensate approach to high-energy hadronic collisions, that the Bose enhancement of gluons in the projectile leads to azimuthal collimation of long range rapidity correlations of the produced particles, the so-called ridge correlations.

  19. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, C.; Pearce, J.; Zucker, A. (eds.)

    1992-01-01

    This report presents brief descriptions of the following programs at Oak Ridge National Laboratory: The effects of pollution and climate change on forests; automation to improve the safety and efficiency of rearming battle tanks; new technologies for DNA sequencing; ORNL probes the human genome; ORNL as a supercomputer research center; paving the way to superconcrete made with polystyrene; a new look at supercritical water used in waste treatment; and small mammals as environmental monitors.

  20. Observation of pressure ridges in SAR images of sea ice: Scattering theory and comparison with observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesecky, J. F.; Daida, J. M.; Shuchman, R. A.; Onstott, R. H.; Camiso, J. C.

    1993-01-01

    Ridges and keels (hummocks and bummocks) in sea ice flows are important in sea ice research for both scientific and practical reasons. Sea ice movement and deformation is driven by internal and external stresses on the ice. Ridges and keels play important roles in both cases because they determine the external wind and current stresses via drag coefficients. For example, the drag coefficient over sea ice can vary by a factor of several depending on the fluid mechanical roughness length of the surface. This roughness length is thought to be strongly dependent on the ridge structures present. Thus, variations in ridge and keel structure can cause gradients in external stresses which must be balanced by internal stresses and possibly fracture of the ice. Ridging in sea ice is also a sign of fracture. In a practical sense, large ridges form the biggest impediment to surface travel over the ice or penetration through sea ice by ice-strengthened ships. Ridges also play an important role in the damage caused by sea ice to off-shore structures. Hence, observation and measurement of sea ice ridges is an important component of sea ice remote sensing. The research reported here builds on previous work, estimating the characteristics of ridges and leads in sea ice from SAR images. Our objective is to develop methods for quantitative measurement of sea ice ridges from SAR images. To make further progress, in particular, to estimate ridge height, a scattering model for ridges is needed. Our research approach for a ridge scattering model begins with a survey of the geometrical properties of ridges and a comparison with the characteristics of the surrounding ice. For this purpose we have used airborne optical laser (AOL) data collected during the 1987 Greenland Sea Experiment. These data were used to generate a spatial wavenumber spectrum for height variance for a typical ridge - the typical ridge is the average over 10 large ridges. Our first-order model radar scattering includes

  1. Fuel trading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    A first part of this report proposes an overview of trends and predictions. After a synthesis on the sector changes and trends, it indicates and comments the most recent predictions for the consumption of refined oil products and for the turnover of the fuel wholesale market, reports the main highlights concerning the sector's life, and gives a dashboard of the sector activity. The second part proposes the annual report on trends and competition. It presents the main operator profiles and fuel categories, the main determining factors of the activity, the evolution of the sector context between 2005 and 2015 (consumptions, prices, temperature evolution). It analyses the evolution of the sector activity and indicators (sales, turnovers, prices, imports). Financial performances of enterprises are presented. The economic structure of the sector is described (evolution of the economic fabric, structural characteristics, French foreign trade). Actors are then presented and ranked in terms of turnover, of added value, and of result

  2. Intraday Trading of Wind Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skajaa, Anders; Edlund, Kristian; Morales González, Juan Miguel

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we tackle the problem of a wind power producer participating in a short-term electricity market that allows for the continuous, but potentially illiquid, intraday trading of energy. Considering the realistic case of a wind farm operating in the western Danish price area of Nord Pool......, we build a simple but effective algorithm for the wind power producer to fully benefit from the Elbas intraday market. We then investigate the sensitivity of the obtained benefits to the maximum volume of energy the wind power producer is willing to trade in the intraday market, the ultimate aim...... of the trade (either to decrease energy imbalances or to increase profits) and to the installed capacity of the wind farm. Our numerical results reveal that the wind power producer can substantially increase his revenues by partaking in the intraday market but with diminishing returns to scale—a result that we...

  3. Trade Liberalisation and Vertical Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Peter Arendorf; Laugesen, Anders

    We build a three-country model of international trade in final goods and intermediate inputs and study the relation between different types of trade liberalisation and vertical integration. Firms are heterogeneous with respect to both productivity and factor intensity as observed in data. Final......-good producers face decisions on exporting, vertical integration of intermediate-input production, and whether the intermediate-input production should be offshored to a low-wage country. We find that the fractions of final-good producers that pursue either vertical integration, offshoring, or exporting are all...... increasing when intermediate-input or final-goods trade is liberalised and when the fixed cost of vertical integration is reduced. At the same time, one observes firms that shift away from either vertical integration, offshoring, or exporting. Further, we provide guidance for testing the open...

  4. Variational Ridging in Sea Ice Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, A.; Hunke, E. C.; Lipscomb, W. H.; Maslowski, W.; Kamal, S.

    2017-12-01

    This work presents the results of a new development to make basin-scale sea ice models aware of the shape, porosity and extent of individual ridges within the pack. We have derived an analytic solution for the Euler-Lagrange equation of individual ridges that accounts for non-conservative forces, and therefore the compressive strength of individual ridges. Because a region of the pack is simply a collection of paths of individual ridges, we are able to solve the Euler-Lagrange equation for a large-scale sea ice field also, and therefore the compressive strength of a region of the pack that explicitly accounts for the macro-porosity of ridged debris. We make a number of assumptions that have simplified the problem, such as treating sea ice as a granular material in ridges, and assuming that bending moments associated with ridging are perturbations around an isostatic state. Regardless of these simplifications, the ridge model is remarkably predictive of macro-porosity and ridge shape, and, because our equations are analytic, they do not require costly computations to solve the Euler-Lagrange equation of ridges on the large scale. The new ridge model is therefore applicable to large-scale sea ice models. We present results from this theoretical development, as well as plans to apply it to the Regional Arctic System Model and a community sea ice code. Most importantly, the new ridging model is particularly useful for pinpointing gaps in our observational record of sea ice ridges, and points to the need for improved measurements of the evolution of porosity of deformed ice in the Arctic and Antarctic. Such knowledge is not only useful for improving models, but also for improving estimates of sea ice volume derived from altimetric measurements of sea ice freeboard.

  5. Lifecycle baseline summary for ADS 6504IS isotopes facilities Deactivation Project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-08-01

    The scope of this Activity Data Sheet (ADS) is to provide a detailed plan for the Isotopes Facilities Deactivation Project (IFDP) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This project places the former isotopes production facilities in a safe, stable, and environmentally sound condition suitable for an extended period of minimum surveillance and maintenance (S ampersand M) until the facilities are included in the Decontamination and Decommissioning (D ampersand D) Program. The facilities included within this deactivation project are Buildings 3026-C, 3026-D, 3028, 3029, 3038-AHF, 3038-E, 3038-M, 3047, 3517, 7025, and the Center Circle Facilities (Buildings 3030, 3031, 3032, 3033, 3033-A, 3034, and 3118). The scope of deactivation identified in this Baseline Report include surveillance and maintenance activities for each facility, engineering, contamination control and structural stabilization of each facility, radioluminescent (RL) light removal in Building 3026, re-roofing Buildings 3030, 3118, and 3031, Hot Cells Cleanup in Buildings 3047 and 3517, Yttrium (Y) Cell and Barricades Cleanup in Building 3038, Glove Boxes ampersand Hoods Removal in Buildings 3038 and 3047, and Inventory Transfer in Building 3517. For a detailed description of activities within this Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) element, see the Level 6 and Level 7 Element Definitions in Section 3.2 of this report

  6. New Partnerships--New Interests: An Ethnographic Investigation Some of the Effects of Employer Involvement in Trade Union Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, Dennis; Carlen, Margata

    2009-01-01

    The head gangman in the Swedish building trade is a worker elected organiser in a gang comprising between about 4 and 16 workers and an "on-site" and trained representative of the trades union. In 2002 the employer association for the building industry in Sweden (BI) and the Swedish Building and Allied Trades Union (SBATU) signed a joint…

  7. On financial markets trading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matassini, Lorenzo; Franci, Fabio

    2001-01-01

    Starting from the observation of the real trading activity, we propose a model of a stockmarket simulating all the typical phases taking place in a stock exchange. We show that there is no need of several classes of agents once one has introduced realistic constraints in order to confine money, time, gain and loss within an appropriate range. The main ingredients are local and global coupling, randomness, Zipf distribution of resources and price formation when inserting an order. The simulation starts with the initial public offer and comprises the broadcasting of news/advertisements and the building of the book, where all the selling and buying orders are stored. The model is able to reproduce fat tails and clustered volatility, the two most significant characteristics of a real stockmarket, being driven by very intuitive parameters.

  8. Entropy of international trades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Chang-Young; Lee, D.-S.

    2017-05-01

    The organization of international trades is highly complex under the collective efforts towards economic profits of participating countries given inhomogeneous resources for production. Considering the trade flux as the probability of exporting a product from a country to another, we evaluate the entropy of the world trades in the period 1950-2000. The trade entropy has increased with time, and we show that it is mainly due to the extension of trade partnership. For a given number of trade partners, the mean trade entropy is about 60% of the maximum possible entropy, independent of time, which can be regarded as a characteristic of the trade fluxes' heterogeneity and is shown to be derived from the scaling and functional behaviors of the universal trade-flux distribution. The correlation and time evolution of the individual countries' gross-domestic products and the number of trade partners show that most countries achieved their economic growth partly by extending their trade relationship.

  9. Improving the Business Trade Licensing Reform Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Gamser, Matthew

    2003-01-01

    This case study of Kenyan business trade licensing shows that red-tape costs can be cut if reform is championed strongly and there is a strong case in terms of costs and benefits. The reform of business registration, trade licensing and other business entry procedures is a cost effective and progressive way to promote indigenous private sector development. But, reform needs more than good cost-benefit analysis and legal drafting; it also requires building constituencies and continuous advocacy.

  10. A FRAMEWORK FOR TRANSPARENCY IN INTERNATIONAL TRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernal Turnes, Paloma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to cover the gap in literature about transparency in the context of international trade facilitation. It focuses on the importance of transparency in achieving growth in international trade and the differences between non-transparent practices and corruption in global trade. Managing the disclosure of information about rules, regulations and laws is not the only trade policy instrument where transparency becomes important. To build a framework on levels of transparency we developed a matrix classifying the transparency of each country based on ease of doing business and levels of bribery. Four different strategies are explained based on the different scenarios of transparency in international trade. The main conclusions reflect that disclosure of information is not enough to guarantee transparency and monitoring of transparency must be improved.

  11. Emergency preparedness at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skipper, M.N.

    1990-03-01

    Emergency preparedness for industry was commonly believed to be an essential responsibility on the part of management. Therefore, this study was conducted to research and accumulate information and data on emergency preparedness at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The objective of this study was to conduct a thorough evaluation of emergency preparedness knowledge among employees to determine if they were properly informed or if they needed more training. Also, this study was conducted to provide insight to management as to what their responsibility was concerning this training. To assess employee emergency preparedness knowledge, a questionnaire was developed and administered to 100 employees at ORNL. The data was analyzed using frequencies and percentages of response and was displayed through the use of graphs within the report. 22 refs., 22 figs

  12. Emergency preparedness at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skipper, M.N.

    1990-03-01

    Emergency preparedness for industry was commonly believed to be an essential responsibility on the part of management. Therefore, this study was conducted to research and accumulate information and data on emergency preparedness at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The objective of this study was to conduct a thorough evaluation of emergency preparedness knowledge among employees to determine if they were properly informed or if they needed more training. Also, this study was conducted to provide insight to management as to what their responsibility was concerning this training. To assess employee emergency preparedness knowledge, a questionnaire was developed and administered to 100 employees at ORNL. The data was analyzed using frequencies and percentages of response and was displayed through the use of graphs within the report. 22 refs., 22 figs.

  13. International Trade and Protectionism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford Univ., CA. Stanford Program on International and Cross Cultural Education.

    This unit is designed to investigate the reasons for international trade and the issue of trade protectionism by focusing on the case study of the U.S. trade relationship with Taiwan. The unit begins with a simulation that highlights the concepts of global interdependence, the need for international trade, and the distribution of the world's…

  14. Oak Ridge Reservation Physical Characteristics and Natural Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parr, P.D.; Hughes, J.F.

    2006-09-19

    The topography, geology, hydrology, vegetation, and wildlife of the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) provide a complex and intricate array of resources that directly impact land stewardship and use decisions (Fig. 1). The purpose of this document is to consolidate general information regarding the natural resources and physical characteristics of the ORR. The ORR, encompassing 33,114 acres (13,401 ha) of federally owned land and three Department of Energy (DOE) installations, is located in Roane and Anderson Counties in east Tennessee, mostly within the corporate limits of the city of Oak Ridge and southwest of the population center of Oak Ridge. The ORR is bordered on the north and east by the population center of the city of Oak Ridge and on the south and west by the Clinch River/Melton Hill Lake impoundment. All areas of the ORR are relatively pristine when compared with the surrounding region, especially in the Valley and Ridge Physiographic Province (Fig. 2). From the air, the ORR is clearly a large and nearly continuous island of forest within a landscape that is fragmented by urban development and agriculture. Satellite imagery from 2006 was used to develop a land-use/land-cover cover map of the ORR and surrounding lands (Fig. 3). Following the acquisition of the land comprising the ORR in the early 1940s, much of the Reservation served as a buffer for the three primary facilities: the X-10 nuclear research facility (now known as the Oak Ridge National Laboratory [ORNL]), the first uranium enrichment facility or Y-12 (now known as the Y-12 National Security Complex [Y-12 Complex]), and a gaseous diffusion enrichment facility (now known as the East Tennessee Technology Park [ETTP]). Over the past 60 years, this relatively undisturbed area has evolved into a rich and diverse eastern deciduous forest ecosystem of streams and reservoirs, hardwood forests, and extensive upland mixed forests. The combination of a large land area with complex physical characteristics

  15. Metallogenesis along the Indian Ocean Ridge System

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Banerjee, R.; Ray, Dwijesh

    including India. Among these studies majority were concentrated around the Central Indian Ridge and the Southwest Indian Ridge areas, while a few observations were made around the rest of the areas in the IORS. The findings of these studies are discussed...

  16. Sex Determination from Fingerprint Ridge Density | Gungadin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted with an aim to establish a relationship between sex and fingerprint ridge density. The fingerprints were taken from 500 subjects (250 males and 250 females) in the age group of 18-60 years. After taking fingerprints, the ridges were counted in the upper portion of the radial border of each print for all ...

  17. Science and technology for a sustainable energy future: Accomplishments of the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, M.A.; Vaughan, K.H.

    1995-03-01

    Accomplishments of the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory are presented. Included are activities performed in the utilities, transportation, industrial, and buildings technology areas.

  18. Ridge interaction features of the Line Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konter, J. G.; Koppers, A. A. P.; Storm, L. P.

    2016-12-01

    The sections of Pacific absolute plate motion history that precede the Hawaii-Emperor and Louisville chains are based on three chains: the Line Islands-Mid-Pacific Mountains, the Hess Rise-Shatsky Rise, and the Marshall Islands-Wake Islands (Rurutu hotspot). Although it has been clear that the Line Islands do not define a simple age progression (e.g. Schlanger et al., 1984), the apparent similarity to the Emperor Seamount geographic trend has been used to extend the overall Hawaii-Emperor track further into the past. However, we show here that plate tectonic reconstructions suggest that the Mid-Pacific Mountains (MPMs) and Line Islands (LIs) were erupted near a mid-ocean ridge, and thus these structures do not reflect absolute plate motion. Moverover, the morphology and geochemistry of the volcanoes show similarities with Pukapuka Ridge (e.g. Davis et al., 2002) and the Rano Rahi seamounts, presumed to have a shallow origin. Modern 40Ar/39Ar ages show that the LIs erupted at various times along the entire volcanic chain. The oldest structures formed within 10 Ma of plate formation. Given the short distance to the ridge system, large aseismic volcanic ridges, such as Necker Ridge and Horizon Guyot may simply reflect a connection between MPMs and the ridge, similar to the Pukapuka Ridge. The Line Islands to the south (including Karin Ridge) define short subchains of elongated seamounts that are widespread, resembling the Rano Rahi seamount field. During this time, the plate moved nearly parallel to the ridge system. The change from few large ridges to many subchains may reflect a change in absolute plate motion, similar to the Rano Rahi field. Here, significant MPMs volcanism is no longer connected to the ridge along plate motion. Similar to Pukapuka vs. Rano Rahi, the difference in direction between plate motion and the closest ridge determines whether larger ridges or smaller seamount subchains are formed. The difference between the largest structures (MPMs and LIs

  19. Oak Ridge Reservation environmental report for 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mucke, P.C.

    1992-10-01

    The Oak Ridge Reservation Environmental Report for 1991 is the 21st in a series that began in 1971. The report documents the annual results of a comprehensive program to estimate the impact of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge operations upon human health and the environment. The report is organized into ten sections that address various aspects of effluent monitoring, environmental surveillance, dose assessment, waste management, and quality assurance. A compliance summary gives a synopsis of the status of each facility relative to applicable state and federal regulations. Data are included for the following: Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant; Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); and Oak Ridge K-25 Site. Effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance programs are intended to serve as effective indicators of contaminant releases and ambient contaminant concentrations that have the potential to result in adverse impacts to human health and the environment

  20. Building Homes, Building Careers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Meredith

    1987-01-01

    The Construction Trades Foundation, a nonprofit corporation of business, industry, and school leaders, provides high school students in Montgomery County, Maryland, with unique hands-on experiences in construction, home design, marketing, public relations, and other fields. (SK)

  1. Regional Trade Agreement and Agricultural Trade in East African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intra-EAC trade is very low, that is, at 9 per cent of the total regional trade, but it is on upward trend. Agricultural trade accounts for over 40 per cent of the intra-EAC trade. This study investigated the effect of EAC regional trade agreement on the regions agricultural trade by analyzing the degree of trade creation and ...

  2. Trade, development and sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge

    1994-01-01

    Mainstream economic theory argues that trade, and especially free trade, is beneficial to everyone involved. This fundamental idea ? which has the character of a dogma ? still plays an important role in international discussions on trade issues, notably in relation to development and environment...... be defended in all cases. Especially, the developing countries' benefits from trade have been very dubious. Furthermore, the trading system has contributed to environmental problems in several ways, e.g. generating undervaluation of natural resources, stimulating economic growth with environmental....... The purpose of this article is to critically assess the "free trade dogma" and to investigate the validity of widely used arguments concerning the relations between trade and development and between trade and environment. It is argued that the trading system is not something inherently good, which should...

  3. Reconfiguring trade mark law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsmore, Matthew James

    2013-01-01

    -border setting, with a particular focus on small business and consumers. The article's overall message is to call for a rethink of received wisdom suggesting that trade marks are effective trade-enabling devices. The case is made for reassessing how we think about European trade mark law.......First, this article argues that trade mark law should be approached in a supplementary way, called reconfiguration. Second, the article investigates such a reconfiguration of trade mark law by exploring the interplay of trade marks and service transactions in the Single Market, in the cross...

  4. Redirecting International Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokko, Ari; Söderlund, Bengt; Tingvall, Patrik Gustavsson

    2014-01-01

    The global financial crisis has contributed to the redirection of trade towards new markets outside the OECD area, where both demand patterns and the institutional environment differ from those in the OECD. This study provides an empirical examination of the consequences of this shift, based......-specific investments are particularly difficult to redirect towards markets with weak institutions....... on Swedish firm-level trade data. Results suggest that weak institutions hamper trade and reduce the length of trade relations, especially for small firms. Trade in industries that are characterized by a high frequency of trade conflicts and where transactions require extensive relationship...

  5. Redirecting International Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokko, Ari; Söderlund, Bengt; Tingvall, Patrik Gustavsson

    The global financial crisis has accelerated the redirection of trade towards new markets, outside the OECD area, where both demand patterns and the institutional environment differ from those in the OECD. This study provides an empirical examination of the consequences of this shift. Results...... difficult to redirect towards markets with weak institutions....... suggest that weak institutions hamper trade and reduces the length of trade relations, especially for small firms. Furthermore, trade in industries that are characterized by a high degree of trade conflicts and that requires extensive relationship specific investments for trade to occur are comparatively...

  6. The Rise of Middle Kingdoms: Emerging Economies in Global Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Gordon H. Hanson

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, I examine changes in international trade associated with the integration of low- and middle-income countries into the global economy. Led by China and India, the share of developing economies in global exports more than doubled between 1994 and 2008. One feature of new trade patterns is greater South-South trade. China and India have booming demand for imported raw materials, which they use to build cities and factories. Industrialization throughout the South has deepened globa...

  7. Trade in goods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Karsten Engsig

    2006-01-01

    An analysis of the rules governing trade in goods under the GATT agreement and the Agreement on Safeguards......An analysis of the rules governing trade in goods under the GATT agreement and the Agreement on Safeguards...

  8. Emissions Trading Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about emissions trading programs, also known as cap and trade programs, which are market-based policy tools for protecting human health and the environment by controlling emissions from a group of sources.

  9. Trade Agreements PTI

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The objective of the Trade Agreements PTI is to advance CBP’s mission by working with internal and external stakeholders to facilitate legitimate trade and address...

  10. Trade, Labor, Legitimacy

    OpenAIRE

    Guzman, Andrew

    2003-01-01

    The relationship between international trade and labor standards is one of several controversial issues facing the WTO. Proponents of a trade-labor link argue that labor is a human rights issue and that trade sanctions represent a critical tool in the effort to improve international working conditions. Opponents argue that a link between trade and labor would open the door to protectionist measures that would target low wage countries and harm the very workers the policy is intended to help. ...

  11. Oak Ridge rf Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, W.L.; Hoffman, D.J.; McCurdy, H.C.; McManamy, T.J.; Moeller, J.A.; Ryan, P.M.

    1985-01-01

    The rf Test Facility (RFTF) of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) provides a national facility for the testing and evaluation of steady-state, high-power (approx.1.0-MW) ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) systems and components. The facility consists of a vacuum vessel and two fully tested superconducting development magnets from the ELMO Bumpy Torus Proof-of-Principle (EBT-P) program. These are arranged as a simple mirror with a mirror ratio of 4.8. The axial centerline distance between magnet throat centers is 112 cm. The vacuum vessel cavity has a large port (74 by 163 cm) and a test volume adequate for testing prototypic launchers for Doublet III-D (DIII-D), Tore Supra, and the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). Attached to the internal vessel walls are water-cooled panels for removing the injected rf power. The magnets are capable of generating a steady-state field of approx.3 T on axis in the magnet throats. Steady-state plasmas are generated in the facility by cyclotron resonance breakdown using a dedicated 200-kW, 28-GHz gyrotron. Available rf sources cover a frequency range of 2 to 200 MHz at 1.5 kW and 3 to 18 MHz at 200 kW, with several sources at intermediate parameters. Available in July 1986 will be a >1.0-MW, cw source spanning 40 to 80 MHz. 5 figs

  12. Individual Attitudes Towards Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jäkel, Ina Charlotte; Smolka, Marcel

    2013-01-01

    Using the 2007 wave of the Pew Global Attitudes Project, this paper finds statistically significant and economically large Stolper-Samuelson effects in individuals’ preference formation towards trade policy. High-skilled individuals are substantially more pro-trade than low-skilled individuals......-Ohlin model in shaping free trade attitudes, relative to existing literature....

  13. Trade Remedies: A Primer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jones, Vivian C

    2006-01-01

    The United States and many of its trading partners use laws known as trade remedies to mitigate the adverse impact of various trade practices on domestic industries and workers. U.S. antidumping laws (19 U.S.C. 1673 et seq...

  14. Trade Remedies: A Primer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jones, Vivian C

    2007-01-01

    The United States and many of its trading partners use laws known as trade remedies to mitigate the adverse impact of various trade practices on domestic industries and workers. U.S. antidumping (AD) laws (19 U.S.C. 1673 et seq...

  15. Trade Remedies: A Primer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jones, Vivian C

    2008-01-01

    The United States and many of its trading partners use laws known as trade remedies to mitigate the adverse impact of various trade practices on domestic industries and workers. U.S. antidumping (AD) laws (19 U.S.C. 1673 et seq...

  16. Banking and Trading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, A.W.A.; Ratnovski, L.

    2016-01-01

    We study the interaction between relationship banking and short-term arm’s length activities of banks, called trading. We show that a bank can use the franchise value of its relationships to expand the scale of trading, but may allocate too much capital to trading ex post , compromising its ability

  17. Magdalena Ridge Observatory Interferometer: Status Update

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Creech-Eakman, M. J; Bakker, E. J; Buscher, D. F; Coleman, T. A; Haniff, C. A; Jurgenson, C. A; Klinglesmith, III, D. A; Parameswariah, C. B; Romero, V. D; Shtromberg, A. V; Young, J. S

    2006-01-01

    The Magdalena Ridge Observatory Interferometer (MROI) is a ten element optical and near-infrared imaging interferometer being built in the Magdalena mountains west of Socorro, NM at an altitude of 3230 m...

  18. A deep structural ridge beneath central India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, P. K.; Thakur, N. K.; Negi, J. G.

    A joint-inversion of magnetic satellite (MAGSAT) and free air gravity data has been conducted to quantitatively investigate the cause for Bouguer gravity anomaly over Central Indian plateaus and possible fold consequences beside Himalayan zone in the Indian sub-continent due to collision between Indian and Eurasian plates. The appropriate inversion with 40 km crustal depth model has delineated after discriminating high density and magnetisation models, for the first time, about 1500 km long hidden ridge structure trending NW-SE. The structure is parallel to Himalayan fold axis and the Indian Ocean ridge in the Arabian Sea. A quantitative relief model across a representative anomaly profile confirms the ridge structure with its highest point nearly 6 km higher than the surrounding crustal level in peninsular India. The ridge structure finds visible support from the astro-geoidal contours.

  19. Independent review of Oak Ridge HCTW test program and development of seismic evaluation criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-05-01

    Many of the existing buildings at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant are steel frame construction with unreinforced hollow clay tile infill walls (HCTW). The HCTW infill provides some lateral seismic resistance to the design/evaluation basis earthquake; however acceptance criteria for this construction must be developed. The basis for the development of seismic criteria is the Oak Ridge HCTW testing and analysis program and the target performance goals of DOE 5480.28 and DOE-STD-1020-94. This report documents and independent review of the testing and analysis program and development of recommended acceptance criteria for Oak Ridge HCTW construction. The HCTW test program included ''macro'' wall in-plane and out-of-plane tests, full-scale wall in-plane and out-of-plane tests, in-situ out-of-plane test, shake table tests, and masonry component tests

  20. Systems for carbon trading. An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasselknippe, Henrik

    2003-12-01

    This paper focuses on the increasing number of regional, national and international systems for trading and transfer of greenhouse gas emission allowances and emission reduction credits. The paper will serve as a platform for further discussions on the development of the international carbon trading market. The analysis builds on the International Emissions Trading Association (IETA) Trading Schemes Database, which has been developed by Point Carbon, covering all known trading schemes and programs. A full overview of all existing trading schemes and proposals is presented, showing inter alia the outreach and judicial nature of the systems, the range and nature of emission reduction or credit purchase targets, allocation methods used, links to external systems, and possibilities for the use of project-based credits. A comparative assessment is performed on a number of design criteria, allowing for conclusions to be drawn on the level of harmonisation of these systems, and the identification of convergence or divergence of important operational features. The systems covered in the analysis display considerable variation when it comes to key design criteria and functionality. A rapid integration of many of the planned and active systems seems likely following the agreement on the EU emissions trading scheme, and will be further accelerated if the Kyoto Protocol is ratified

  1. Oak Ridge Reservation environmental report for 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, V.A.; Wilson, A.R.

    1990-10-01

    This two-volume report, the Oak Ridge Reservation Environmental Report for 1989, is the nineteenth in an annual series that began in 1971. It reports the results of a comprehensive, year-round program to monitor the impact of operations at the three major US Department of Energy (DOE) production and research installations in Oak Ridge on the immediate areas' and surrounding region's groundwater and surface waters, soil, air quality, vegetation and wildlife, and through these multiple and varied pathways, the resident human population. Information is presented for the environmental monitoring Quality Assurance (QA) Program, audits and reviews, waste management activities, land special environmental studies. Data are included for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP). Volume 1 presents narratives, summaries, and conclusions based on environmental monitoring at the three DOE installations and in the surrounding environs during calendar year (CY) 1989. Volume 1 is intended to be a ''stand-alone'' report about the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) for the reader who does not want an in-depth review of 1989 data. Volume 2 presents the detailed data from which these conclusions have been drawn and should be used in conjunction with Volume 1

  2. Oak Ridge Reservation environmental report for 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, V.A.; Wilson, A.R. (eds.)

    1990-10-01

    This two-volume report, the Oak Ridge Reservation Environmental Report for 1989, is the nineteenth in an annual series that began in 1971. It reports the results of a comprehensive, year-round program to monitor the impact of operations at the three major US Department of Energy (DOE) production and research installations in Oak Ridge on the immediate areas' and surrounding region's groundwater and surface waters, soil, air quality, vegetation and wildlife, and through these multiple and varied pathways, the resident human population. Information is presented for the environmental monitoring Quality Assurance (QA) Program, audits and reviews, waste management activities, land special environmental studies. Data are included for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP). Volume 1 presents narratives, summaries, and conclusions based on environmental monitoring at the three DOE installations and in the surrounding environs during calendar year (CY) 1989. Volume 1 is intended to be a stand-alone'' report about the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) for the reader who does not want an in-depth review of 1989 data. Volume 2 presents the detailed data from which these conclusions have been drawn and should be used in conjunction with Volume 1.

  3. The business and technical case for Continuous Commissioning(reg Trade Mark) for enhanced building operations. A case study: Alamo Community College District San Antonio, Texas, U.S.A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verdict, Malcolm; Wei, Guanghua [Texas A and M Univ. System, College Station, TX (United States). Energy Systems Laboratory

    2005-07-01

    This paper provides both the business and technical cases for the 'Continuous Commissioning' of large [>25,000 square feet], buildings through a whole building diagnostic and HVAC optimization approach known as 'Continuous Commissioning'. 'Continuous Commissioning' is defined as the ongoing engineering process to resolve operating problems, improve comfort, optimize energy use and identify retrofits in existing buildings and central plant facilities. It is also known as 'building retro-commissioning' or 'building tune-up'. It involves a rigorous, whole-building, engineering evaluation of the heating and cooling systems to identify mechanical problems, inadequate or ineffective control strategies. Some of the most common problems are: 1) Improper calibration of sensors and metering, 2) inadequate control strategies for optimum operation and comfort, 3) incorrect scheduling of heating and cooling equipment, 4) lack of air and water-side economizer equipment, 5) inadequate building automation systems, and 6) inadequate operations and maintenance. The CC process, described in this paper, was successfully applied at Alamo Community College District (ACCD) in San Antonio, Texas, USA by the Energy Systems Laboratory (ESL), a part of the Texas A and M Univ. System. ACCD has multiple buildings on 4 campuses with total conditioned area of 2.35 Million square feet. ACCD's business approach was unique because the cost of conducting the CC process was financed as an Energy Cost Reduction Measure (ECRM) along with several energy efficiency retrofits.

  4. Site characterization report for the Old Hydrofracture Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    Several Old Hydrofracture Facility (OHF) structures (i.e., Building 7852, the bulk storage bins, the pump house, water tank T-5, and pump P-3) are surplus facilities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) slated for decontamination and decommissioning (D and D). OHF was constructed in 1963 to allow experimentation and operations with an integrated solids storage, handling, mixing, and grout injection facility. It was shut down in 1980 and transferred to ORNL's Surveillance and Maintenance Program. The hydrofracture process was a unique disposal method that involved injecting waste materials mixed with grout and additives under pumping pressures of 2,000 psi or greater into a deep, low-permeability shale formation. The injected slurry spread along fractures and bedding planes for hundreds of feet from the injection points, forming thin grout sheets (often less than 1/8 in. thick). The grout ostensibly immobilized and solidified the liquid wastes. Site characterization activities were conducted in the winter and spring of 1994 to collect information necessary to plan the D and D of OHF structures. This site characterization report documents the results of the investigation of OHF D and D structures, presenting data from the field investigation and laboratory analyses in the form of a site description, as-built drawings, summary tables of radiological and chemical contaminant concentrations, and a waste volume estimate. 25 refs., 54 figs., 17 tabs

  5. Radiological assessment of residences in the Oak Ridge area. Volume 1. Background information for ORNL environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsakeres, F.S.; Shank, K.E.; Chaudhry, M.Y.; Ahmad, S.; DiZillo-Benoit, P.M.; Oakes, T.W.

    1980-10-01

    Measurements of exposure rates using thermoluminescent dosimeters placed within residences in the Oak Ridge/Knoxville area are presented. The objective of this investigation was to determine the radiation component acquired by Oak Ridge National Laboratory employee personnel dosimeter-security badges during residential badge storage and to develop a model to predict the radiation exposure rate in Oak Ridge/Knoxville-area homes. The exposure rates varied according to building material used and geographic location. Exposure rates were higher in the fall and lower in the spring; stone residences had a higher average dose equivalent rate than residences made of wood. An average yearly exposure rate was determined to be 78 millirems per year for the Oak Ridge-area homes. This value can be compared to the natural background radiation dose equivalent rate in the United States of 80 to 200 millirems per year

  6. Soil Management Plan for the Oak Ridge Y-12 National Security Complex Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2005-03-02

    This Soil Management Plan applies to all activities conducted under the auspices of the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Oak Ridge Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) that involve soil disturbance and potential management of waste soil. The plan was prepared under the direction of the Y-12 Environmental Compliance Department of the Environment, Safety, and Health Division. Soil disturbances related to maintenance activities, utility and building construction projects, or demolition projects fall within the purview of the plan. This Soil Management Plan represents an integrated, visually oriented, planning and information resource tool for decision making involving excavation or disturbance of soil at Y-12. This Soil Management Plan addresses three primary elements. (1) Regulatory and programmatic requirements for management of soil based on the location of a soil disturbance project and/or the regulatory classification of any contaminants that may be present (Chap. 2). Five general regulatory or programmatic classifications of soil are recognized to be potentially present at Y-12; soil may fall under one or more these classifications: (a) Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) pursuant to the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) Federal Facilities Agreement; (b) Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA); (c) RCRA 3004(u) solid waste managements units pursuant to the RCRA Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments Act of 1984 permit for the ORR; (d) Toxic Substances and Control Act-regulated soil containing polychlorinated biphenyls; and (e) Radiologically contaminated soil regulated under the Atomic Energy Act review process. (2) Information for project planners on current and future planned remedial actions (RAs), as prescribed by CERCLA decision documents (including the scope of the actions and remedial goals), land use controls implemented to support or maintain RAs, RCRA post-closure regulatory requirements for

  7. Preliminary results from the first InRidge cruise to the central Indian Ridge

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mukhopadhyay, R.; Murthy, K.S.R.; Iyer, S.D.; Rao, M.M.M.; Banerjee, R.; Subrahmanyam, A.S.; Shirodkar, P.V.; Ghose, I.; Ganesan, P.; Rao, A.K.; Suribabu, A.; Ganesh, C.; Naik, G.P.

    stream_size 1 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Inter_Ridge_News_7_40.pdf.txt stream_source_info Inter_Ridge_News_7_40.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  8. An aerial radiological survey of the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maurer, R.J.

    1993-04-01

    An aerial radiological survey of the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) and surrounding area in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, was conducted during the period March 30 to April 14,1992. The purpose of the survey was to measure and document the terrestrial radiological environment of the Oak Ridge Reservation for use in environmental management programs and emergency response planning. The aerial survey was flown at an altitude of 150 feet (46 meters) along a series of parallel lines 250 feet (76 meters) apart and included X-10 (Oak Ridge National Laboratory), K-25 (former Gaseous Diffusion Plant), Y-12 (Weapons Production Plant), the Freels Bend Area and Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, the East Fork Poplar Creek (100-year floodplain extending from K-25 to Y-12), Elza Gate (former uranium ore storage site located in the city of Oak Ridge), Parcel A, the Clinch River (river banks extending from Melton Hill Dam to the city of Kingston), and the CSX Railroad Tracks (extending from Y-12 to the city of Oak Ridge). The survey encompassed approximately 55 square miles (1 41 square kilometers) of the Oak Ridge Reservation and surrounding area

  9. Remedial Investigation Work Plan for Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 1 (Chestnut Ridge Security Pits) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-03-01

    This document outlines the activities necessary to conduct a Remedial Investigation (RI) of the Chestnut Ridge Security Pits (CRSP) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The CRSP, also designated Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit (OU) 1, is one of four OUs along Chestnut Ridge on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). The purpose of the RI is to collect data to (1) evaluate the nature and extent of known and suspected contaminants, (2) support an Ecological Risk Assessment (ERA) and a Human Health Risk Assessment (HHRA), (3) support the feasibility study in the development and analysis of remedial alternatives, and (4) ultimately, develop a Record of Decision (ROD) for the site. This chapter summarizes the regulatory background of environmental investigation on the ORR and the approach currently being followed and provides an overview of the RI to be conducted at the CRSP. Subsequent chapters provide details on site history, sampling activities, procedures and methods, quality assurance (QA), health and safety, and waste management related to the RI

  10. Remedial Investigation Work Plan for Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 1 (Chestnut Ridge Security Pits) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-01

    This document outlines the activities necessary to conduct a Remedial Investigation (RI) of the Chestnut Ridge Security Pits (CRSP) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The CRSP, also designated Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit (OU) 1, is one of four OUs along Chestnut Ridge on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). The purpose of the RI is to collect data to (1) evaluate the nature and extent of known and suspected contaminants, (2) support an Ecological Risk Assessment (ERA) and a Human Health Risk Assessment (HHRA), (3) support the feasibility study in the development and analysis of remedial alternatives, and (4) ultimately, develop a Record of Decision (ROD) for the site. This chapter summarizes the regulatory background of environmental investigation on the ORR and the approach currently being followed and provides an overview of the RI to be conducted at the CRSP. Subsequent chapters provide details on site history, sampling activities, procedures and methods, quality assurance (QA), health and safety, and waste management related to the RI.

  11. BP's emissions trading system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Victor, David G.; House, Joshua C.

    2006-01-01

    Between 1998 and 2001, BP reduced its emissions of greenhouse gases by more than 10%. BP's success in cutting emissions is often equated with its use of an apparently market-based emissions trading program. However no independent study has ever examined the rules and operation of BP's system and the incentives acting on managers to reduce emissions. We use interviews with key managers and with traders in several critical business units to explore the bound of BP's success with emissions trading. No money actually changed hands when permits were traded, and the main effect of the program was to create awareness of money-saving emission controls rather than strong price incentives. We show that the trading system did not operate like a 'textbook' cap and trade scheme. Rather, the BP system operated much like a 'safety valve' trading system, where managers let the market function until the cost of doing so surpassed what the company was willing to tolerate

  12. Greenhouse gas trading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drazilov, P. [Natsource-Tullett Emissions Brokerage, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    Natsource-Tullett Emissions Brokerage is a market leader in natural gas, electricity, coal, and weather, emissions with a total of more than $2 billion by volume in emissions transactions in the United States, Canada, Australia, Japan, and Europe. This power point presentation addressed issues dealing with global warming, the Kyoto Protocol, and explained where we are in terms of reaching commitments for the first compliance period between 2008-2012. The paper focused on international emissions trading (IET), joint implementation (JI) and the clean development mechanism (CDM) and explained how greenhouse gases are traded. Emissions trading refers to the trade of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxides, perfluoro-carbons, hydrofluorocarbons, and sulphur hexafluorides. The motivational drivers for trading were outlined in terms of liability for buyers and assets for sellers. To date, trading activity is nearly 120 transactions with nearly 70 million tons of carbon dioxide equivalent. tabs., figs.

  13. Bitcoin trading system

    OpenAIRE

    Turšič, Samo

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis an information solution was developed that enables the implementation of different trading strategies and backtesting over cryptocurrency Bitcoin trading data. Supported exchanges are Bitstamp, BTC-e and MtGox. In the field of technical analysis there already exist various solutions for Bitcoin that help traders to trade and advise them on basis of technical indicators and patterns. However, each has its own drawbacks, which we are aiming to fix. A web application was developed...

  14. Bitcoin trading system

    OpenAIRE

    Turšič, Samo

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis an information solution was developed that enables the implementation of different trading strategies and backtesting over cryptocurrency Bitcoin trading data. Supported exchanges are Bitstamp, BTC-e and MtGox. In the field of technical analysis there already exist various solutions for Bitcoin that help traders to trade and advise them on basis of technical indicators and patterns. However, each has its own drawbacks, which we are aiming to fix. A web application was developed...

  15. International trade and inequality

    OpenAIRE

    Urata, Sh¯ujir¯o; Narjoko, Dionisius A.

    2017-01-01

    The impact of globalization on equality has become a serious concern for many countries. More evidence that challenges the theoretical prediction of positive impact of international trade on income distribution has increasingly become available recently. This paper addresses this subject, surveying the empirical findings on the impact of international trade on inequalities from various perspectives. The survey reveals that an increase in trade openness by developing countries appears to have ...

  16. International Organizations and Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Antras, Pol

    2010-01-01

    The three central primitives of international trade theory are consumer preferences, factor endowments, and the production technologies that allow firms to transform factors of production into consumer goods. A limitation of traditional trade theory, however, is that the specification of technology treats the mapping between factors of production and final goods as a black box. In practice, the decisions of agents in organizations determine this mapping. Recently, international trade economis...

  17. Feasibility study for the United Nuclear Corporation Disposal Site at the Oak Ridge Y-12 plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-02-01

    In July 1990, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) directed the Department of Energy Oak Ridge Operations to comply with Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) requirements for the remediation of the United Nuclear Corporation (UNC) Disposal Site located at the Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. EPA, Waste Management Branch, had approved a closure plan in December 1989 for the UNC Disposal Site. This feasibility study (FS) is a fully satisfy the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Contingency Plan (NCP) requirements for support of the selection of a remedial response for closure of the UNC Disposal Site. For two years the UNC Disposal Site accepted and disposed of waste from the decommissioning of a UNC uranium recovery facility in Wood River Junction, Rhode Island. Between June 1982 and November 1984, the UNC Disposal Site received 11,000 55-gal drums of sludge fixed in cement, 18,000 drums of contaminated soil, and 288 wooden boxes of contaminated building and process demolition materials. The FS assembles a wide range of remedial technologies so the most appropriate actions could be selected to remediate potential contamination to below MCLs and/or to below the maximum level of acceptable risk. Technologies were evaluated based on technical effectiveness, ease of implementation, and costs. Applicable technologies were then selected for alternative development. 33 refs., 9 figs., 27 tabs

  18. Postconstruction report for the mercury tanks interim action at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voskuil, T.L.

    1993-09-01

    Three underground concrete settling tanks (tanks 2101-U, 2104-U, and 2100-U) at the Y-12 Plant on the Oak Ridge Reservation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, contained contaminated sludges contributing mercury to the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek (UEFPC). These tanks were cleaned out as an interim action under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act as part of the Reduction of Mercury in Plant Effluent subproject. Cleaning out these tanks prevented the sludge that had settled in the bottom from resuspending and carrying mercury into UEFPC. Tanks 2104-U and 2100-U were returned to service and will continue to receive effluent from buildings 9201-4 and 9201-5. Tank 2101-U had been abandoned and its effluent redirected to Tank 2100-U during previous activities. This interim action permanently sealed Tank 2101-U from the storm sewer system. Upon removal of materials and completion of cleanup, inspections determined that the project's cleanup criteria had been met. The structural integrity of the tanks was also inspected, and minor cracks identified in tanks 2101-U and 2104-U were repaired. This project is considered to have been completed successfully because it met its performance objectives as addressed in the Interim Record of Decision and the work plan: to remove the waste from the three storage tanks; to ensure that the tanks were cleaned to the levels specified; to return tanks 2100-U and 2104-U to service; to isolate Tank 2101-U permanently; and to manage the wastes in an appropriate fashion

  19. Racial Trade Barriers?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Jacob Halvas

    . This paper analyzes the racial policies pursued in the foreign trade and argues that we need to recognize Aryanization as a world-wide policy in order to fully understand its character and possible consequences. I focus on the pre-war period and analyze the case of Denmark from three different perspectives......: perpetrators, victims and bystanders. The analysis will show that race, economy and foreign trade were combined in an attempt to raise racial trade barriers. This forced the question of German racial policies on the Danish government, Danish-Jewish businesses, and German companies involved in foreign trade...

  20. International emissions trading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boom, Jan Tjeerd

    This thesis discusses the design and political acceptability of international emissions trading. It is shown that there are several designs options for emissions trading at the national level that have a different impact on output and thereby related factors such as employment and consumer prices....... The differences in impact of the design make that governments may prefer different designs of emissions trading in different situations. The thesis furthermore establishes that international emissions trading may lead to higher overall emissions, which may make it a less attractive instrument....

  1. Trade Analysis and Safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatelus, R.; Schot, P.M.

    2010-01-01

    In order to verify compliance with safeguards and draw conclusions on the absence of undeclared nuclear material and activities, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) collects and analyses trade information that it receives from open sources as well as from Member States. Although the IAEA does not intervene in national export controls, it has to monitor the trade of dual use items. Trade analysis helps the IAEA to evaluate global proliferation threats, to understand States' ability to report exports according to additional protocols but also to compare against State declarations. Consequently, the IAEA has explored sources of trade-related information and has developed analysis methodologies beyond its traditional safeguards approaches. (author)

  2. Trade in health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanda, Rupa

    2002-01-01

    In light of the increasing globalization of the health sector, this article examines ways in which health services can be traded, using the mode-wise characterization of trade defined in the General Agreement on Trade in Services. The trade modes include cross- border delivery of health services via physical and electronic means, and cross-border movement of consumers, professionals, and capital. An examination of the positive and negative implications of trade in health services for equity, efficiency, quality, and access to health care indicates that health services trade has brought mixed benefits and that there is a clear role for policy measures to mitigate the adverse consequences and facilitate the gains. Some policy measures and priority areas for action are outlined, including steps to address the "brain drain"; increasing investment in the health sector and prioritizing this investment better; and promoting linkages between private and public health care services to ensure equity. Data collection, measures, and studies on health services trade all need to be improved, to assess better the magnitude and potential implications of this trade. In this context, the potential costs and benefits of trade in health services are shaped by the underlying structural conditions and existing regulatory, policy, and infrastructure in the health sector. Thus, appropriate policies and safeguard measures are required to take advantage of globalization in health services. PMID:11953795

  3. Off-site contamination at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Setaro, J.A.

    1993-01-01

    An upgrade of the radioactive liquid waste system at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) had been under way for the past several years. One of the upgrades involves the construction of a Monitoring and Control Station (MCS) which will receive waste from an analytical chemistry building prior to the waste being discharged to the main waste processing area. The MCS was located in a radiologically clean area adjacent to the analytical chemistry facility and no monitoring of personnel was necessary. On December 29, 1992, workers became contaminated and left the site prior to the discovery of the contamination. The construction workers were not employees of the Facility Management Contractor, Martin Marietta Energy Systems, but were subcontractor employees answering to the Construction Manager, a different prime contractor

  4. International provision of trade services, trade, and fragmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Deardorff, Alan V.

    2001-01-01

    The author examines the special role that trade liberalization in services industries can play in stimulating trade in both services, and goods. International trade in goods requires inputs from such trade services as transportation, insurance, and finance, for example. Restrictions on services across borders, and within foreign countries add costs, and barriers to international trade. Lib...

  5. INDONESIAN TRADE UNDER CHINA FREE TRADE AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tavi Supriana

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the implementation of CAFTA (China-Asean Free Trade Area on the international trade flows across Indonesia, China and the rest of ASEAN using a gravitation model. It finds the evidence that the influence of diversion and creation effects on China are significant, while the influence of both effects on Indonesia are not significant. It also finds that the diversion effect, which leads to a decrease in society’s wealth, is greater than that of the creation effect. As a consequence, the gap across countries involved in the trade agreement is wider. Keywords: CAFTA, gravitation model, diversion effect, creation effectJEL classification numbers: F13, F14, F15

  6. Alveolar Ridge Carcinoma. Two Cases Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pupo Triguero, Raul J; Vivar Bauza, Miriam; Alvarez Infante, Elisa

    2008-01-01

    Two cases with alveolar ridge carcinoma due to prosthetist traumatism are discussed in this paper, after 9 and 10 years of using dental prosthesis. Both patients began with disturbance in the alveolar ridge. The clinical examination and biopsy showed a well differenced carcinoma. The treatment was radical surgery and radiotherapy in the first patient, and conservative surgery with radiotherapy in the second case .The patients had xerostomia after radiotherapy and the woman had difficulties with mastication. The advantages and disadvantages of the treatment were discussed, focused on the prevention and treatment for oral

  7. ORLANDO - Oak Ridge Large Neutrino Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bugg, W.; Cohn, H.; Efremenko, Yu.; Fazely, A.; Gabriel, T.; Kamyshkov, Yu.; Plasil, F.; Svoboda, R.

    1999-01-01

    We discuss a proposal for construction of an Oak Ridge LArge Neutrino DetectOr (ORLANDO) to search for neutrino oscillations at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS). A 4 MW SNS is proposed to be built at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory with the first stage to be operative around 2006. It will have two target stations, which makes it possible with a single detector to perform a neutrino oscillation search at two different distances. Initial plans for the placement of the detector and the discovery potential of such a detector are discussed

  8. Biological trade and markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerstein, Peter; Noë, Ronald

    2016-02-05

    Cooperation between organisms can often be understood, like trade between merchants, as a mutually beneficial exchange of services, resources or other 'commodities'. Mutual benefits alone, however, are not sufficient to explain the evolution of trade-based cooperation. First, organisms may reject a particular trade if another partner offers a better deal. Second, while human trade often entails binding contracts, non-human trade requires unwritten 'terms of contract' that 'self-stabilize' trade and prevent cheating even if all traders strive to maximize fitness. Whenever trading partners can be chosen, market-like situations arise in nature that biologists studying cooperation need to account for. The mere possibility of exerting partner choice stabilizes many forms of otherwise cheatable trade, induces competition, facilitates the evolution of specialization and often leads to intricate forms of cooperation. We discuss selected examples to illustrate these general points and review basic conceptual approaches that are important in the theory of biological trade and markets. Comparing these approaches with theory in economics, it turns out that conventional models-often called 'Walrasian' markets-are of limited relevance to biology. In contrast, early approaches to trade and markets, as found in the works of Ricardo and Cournot, contain elements of thought that have inspired useful models in biology. For example, the concept of comparative advantage has biological applications in trade, signalling and ecological competition. We also see convergence between post-Walrasian economics and biological markets. For example, both economists and biologists are studying 'principal-agent' problems with principals offering jobs to agents without being sure that the agents will do a proper job. Finally, we show that mating markets have many peculiarities not shared with conventional economic markets. Ideas from economics are useful for biologists studying cooperation but need

  9. Normalization Ridge Regression in Practice I: Comparisons Between Ordinary Least Squares, Ridge Regression and Normalization Ridge Regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulcock, J. W.

    The problem of model estimation when the data are collinear was examined. Though the ridge regression (RR) outperforms ordinary least squares (OLS) regression in the presence of acute multicollinearity, it is not a problem free technique for reducing the variance of the estimates. It is a stochastic procedure when it should be nonstochastic and it…

  10. Decontamination Project for Cell G of the Metal Recovery Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandry, G.J.; Grisham, R.W.

    1994-02-01

    The goal of the decontamination effort in Cell G at the Metal Recovery Facility, Building 3505, located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, was two-fold: to determine the effectiveness of the dry decontamination technique employed and to provide data required to assess whether additional decontamination using this method would be beneficial in the eventual decommissioning of the facility. Allied Technology Group (ATG) was contracted to remove a portion of the concrete surface in Cell G by a technique known as scabbling. Some metallic cell components were also scabbled to remove paint and other surface debris. Generally, the scabbling operation was a success. Levels of contamination were greatly reduced. The depth of contaminant penetration into the concrete surfaces of certain areas was much greater than had been anticipated, necessitating the removal of additional concrete and extending ATG's period of performance. Scabbling and other related techniques will be extremely useful in the decontamination and decommissioning of other nuclear facilities with similar radiological profiles

  11. Perspective of Chinese Forest Carbon Absorption Trade Based on Low-Carbon Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Ming-gang

    2011-01-01

    The paper analyzes the basis of forest carbon trade including me feasibility of carbon absorption trade, main body, platform and standard. The purposes of capital of carbon absorption trade is introduced. Caron absorption trade capital can be used to resettle ecological migrants, absorb employment, build forest and increase fund, increase local income, enhance forest science and technology development and launch environmental proportion. The perspective of developing forest carbon absorption ...

  12. Wrinkle Ridges and Young Fresh Crater

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 10 May 2002) The Science Wrinkle ridges are a very common landform on Mars, Mercury, Venus, and the Moon. These ridges are linear to arcuate asymmetric topographic highs commonly found on smooth plains. The origin of wrinkle ridges is not certain and two leading hypotheses have been put forth by scientists over the past 40 years. The volcanic model calls for the extrusion of high viscosity lavas along linear conduits. This thick lava accumulated over these conduits and formed the ridges. The other model is tectonic and advocates that the ridges are formed by compressional faulting and folding. Today's THEMIS image is of the ridged plains of Lunae Planum located between Kasei Valles and Valles Marineris in the northern hemisphere of the planet. Wrinkle ridges are found mostly along the eastern side of the image. The broadest wrinkle ridges in this image are up to 2 km wide. A 3 km diameter young fresh crater is located near the bottom of the image. The crater's ejecta blanket is also clearly seen surrounding the sharp well-defined crater rim. These features are indicative of a very young crater that has not been subjected to erosional processes. The Story The great thing about the solar system is that planets are both alike and different. They're all foreign enough to be mysterious and intriguing, and yet familiar enough to be seen as planetary 'cousins.' By comparing them, we can learn a lot about how planets form and then evolve geologically over time. Crinkled over smooth plains, the long, wavy raised landforms seen here are called 'wrinkle ridges,' and they've been found on Mars, Mercury, Venus, and the Moon - that is, on rocky bodies that are a part of our inner solar system. We know from this observation that planets (and large-enough moons) follow similar processes. What we don't know for sure is HOW these processes work. Scientists have been trying to understand how wrinkle ridges form for 40 years, and they still haven't reached a conclusion. That

  13. Ridge regression estimator: combining unbiased and ordinary ridge regression methods of estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharad Damodar Gore

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Statistical literature has several methods for coping with multicollinearity. This paper introduces a new shrinkage estimator, called modified unbiased ridge (MUR. This estimator is obtained from unbiased ridge regression (URR in the same way that ordinary ridge regression (ORR is obtained from ordinary least squares (OLS. Properties of MUR are derived. Results on its matrix mean squared error (MMSE are obtained. MUR is compared with ORR and URR in terms of MMSE. These results are illustrated with an example based on data generated by Hoerl and Kennard (1975.

  14. Large fault fabric of the Ninetyeast Ridge implies near-spreading ridge formation

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sager, W.W.; Paul, C.F.; Krishna, K.S.; Pringle, M.S.; Eisin, A.E.; Frey, F.A.; Rao, D.G.; Levchenko, O.V.

    of the high ridge. At 26°S, prominent NE-SW 97 oriented lineations extend southwest from the ridge. Some appear to connect with N-S fracture 98 zone troughs east of NER, implying that the NE-SW features are fracture zone scars formed after 99 the change... to the 105 ridge (Fig. 3). This is especially true for NER south of ~4°S. Where KNOX06RR crossed a 106 gravity lineation, negative gradient features correspond to troughs whereas positive gradient 107 features result from igneous basement highs (Fig. 3...

  15. How fair is fair trade?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maseland, Robbert; Vaal, Albert de

    2001-01-01

    This paper investigates to what extent fair trade programmes, are indeed ‘fair’. This is accomplished by comparing fair trade with free trade and protectionist trade regimes on their compliance of the criteria set by the fair trade movement itself. This comparison is made using comparative cost

  16. Introduction to International Trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intercom, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Focusing mainly on United States-Japan relations, this issue provides 11 lesson plans and student handouts dealing with international trade topics such as protective tariffs, currency exchange rates, unofficial trade barriers, causes of unemployment, the balance of payments and the internationalization of the automobile industry. (JDH)

  17. Trade and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbott, Philip; Bentzen, Jeanet; Tarp, Finn

    2009-01-01

    History, not predictions of CGE models or cross-country growth studies, shows a strong relationship between trade and development. Vietnam's experience with bilateral trade agreements, comparing actual outcomes with predictions from existing models, demonstrates this and the limitations of research...

  18. Expatriates and trade

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Konečný, Tomáš

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 1 (2012), s. 83-98 ISSN 1488-3473 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : migration * trade * informal trade barriers Subject RIV: AH - Economics

  19. Expatriates and trade

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Konečný, Tomáš

    -, č. 387 (2009), s. 1-29 ISSN 1211-3298 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Grant - others:GA UK(CZ) 118909 Institutional research plan: CEZ:MSM0021620846 Keywords : international trade * migration * informal trade barriers Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp387.pdf

  20. Banking and trading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, A.W.A.; Ratnovski, L.

    2013-01-01

    We study the interaction between relationship banking and short-term, scalable arm’s length finance which we call trading. Relationship banking is not scalable, has high franchise value, is long-term oriented and low risk. Trading is transaction-based: scalable, with lower margins (capital

  1. A trade balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugbjerg, Carsten; Kay, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    The establishment of the World Trade Organization (WTO) has been widely accepted as representing the legalisation of world trading rules. However, it is important to reflect on the limits of this legalisation thesis in terms of the interface between international and domestic policy processes. By...

  2. International trade. Multinational aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Y

    2000-01-01

    Of numerous regional economic agreements, the European Union (EU), the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), South American Common Market (MERCOSUR), the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) and the Australia-New Zealand Closer Economic Relations Agreement are examples that are actively pursuing regional integration for freer trade of animals and animal products. The World Trade Organization (WTO) believes that regional and multinational integration initiatives are complements rather than alternatives in the pursuit of more open trade. In the efforts to harmonize SPS standards among multilateral trading nations, it is recommended that national requirements meet the standards developed by the OIE and the FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius Commission as the minimum requirements rather than adopting the standards of the lowest common denominator. Regional grouping may hinder multilateral or bilateral trade between the countries of a group and those of the other groups. How to eliminate such non-tariff barriers as traditional trade custom remains to be examined. Ongoing activities of VICH (Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Veterinary Medical Products) may pave the way for more open trade in pharmaceutical products between multilateral regional groups.

  3. Comparative study on current trading system and online trading: the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative study on current trading system and online trading: the case of ... of online trading and factors affecting its feasibility of implementation in ECX. ... The study found that there is significant capacity problem with major skills gap with ...

  4. Environmentally damaging electricity trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billette de Villemeur, Etienne; Pineau, Pierre-Olivier

    2010-01-01

    Electricity trade across regions is often considered welfare enhancing. We show in this paper that this should be reconsidered if environmental externalities are taken into account. We consider two cases where trade is beneficial, before accounting for environmental damages: first, when two regions with the same technology display some demand heterogeneity; second when one region endowed with hydropower arbitrages with its 'thermal' neighbor. Our results show that under reasonable demand and supply elasticities, trade comes with an additional environmental cost. This calls for integrating environmental externalities into market reforms when redesigning the electricity sector. Two North American applications illustrate our results: trade between Pennsylvania and New York, and trade between hydro-rich Quebec and New York.

  5. Online stock trading platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion LUNGU

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The Internet is the perfect tool that can assure the market’s transparency for any user who wants to trade on the stock market. The investor can have access to the market news, financial calendar or the press releases of the issuers. A good online trading platform also provides real-time intraday quotes, trading history and technical analysis giving the investor a clearer view of the supply and demand in the market. All this information provides the investor a good image of the market and encourages him to trade. This paper wishes to draft the pieces of an online trading platform and to analyze the impact of developing and implementing one in a brokerage firm.

  6. Environmentally damaging electricity trade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billette de Villemeur, Etienne [Toulouse School of Economics (IDEI and GREMAQ) (France); Pineau, Pierre-Olivier [HEC Montreal (Canada)

    2010-03-15

    Electricity trade across regions is often considered welfare enhancing. We show in this paper that this should be reconsidered if environmental externalities are taken into account. We consider two cases where trade is beneficial, before accounting for environmental damages: first, when two regions with the same technology display some demand heterogeneity; second when one region endowed with hydropower arbitrages with its ''thermal'' neighbor. Our results show that under reasonable demand and supply elasticities, trade comes with an additional environmental cost. This calls for integrating environmental externalities into market reforms when redesigning the electricity sector. Two North American applications illustrate our results: trade between Pennsylvania and New York, and trade between hydro-rich Quebec and New York. (author)

  7. Internal doses in Oak Ridge. The Internet beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passchier, W.F.

    1997-01-01

    A brief overview is given of the information, presented by the Radiation Internal Dose Information Center (RIDIC) of the Oak Ridge Associated Universities in Oak Ridge, TN, USA, via Internet (www.orau.gov/ehsd/ridic.htm)

  8. Efficiency of local surface plasmon polariton excitation on ridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radko, Ilya; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.; Boltasseva, Alexandra

    2008-01-01

    We investigate experimentally and numerically the efficiency of surface plasmon polariton excitation by a focused laser beam using gold ridges. The dependence of the efficiency on geometrical parameters of ridges and wavelength dependence are examined. The experimental measurements accomplished...

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF A RIDGE PROFILE WEEDER

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ES Obe

    1980-03-01

    driven rotating horizontal short shaft which is connected by universal joints to two gangs of rotary hoe weeders. With the short shaft nearly at the bottom of a furrow between two ridges, the gangs of weeders lie on the sides of ...

  10. Oak Ridge Reservation Waste Management Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, J.W.

    1995-02-01

    This report presents the waste management plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation facilities. The primary purpose is to convey what facilities are being used to manage wastes, what forces are acting to change current waste management systems, and what plans are in store for the coming fiscal year

  11. Remedial Investigation Work Plan for Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 1 (Chestnut Ridge Security Pits) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    This Remedial Investigation (RI) Work Plan specifically addresses Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 1, (OU1) which consists of the Chestnut Ridge Security Pits (CRSP). The CRSP are located {approximately}800 ft southeast of the central portion of the Y-12 Plant atop Chestnut Ridge, which is bounded to the northwest by Bear Creek Valley and to the southeast by Bethel Valley. Operated from 1973 to 1988, the CRSP consisted of a series of trenches used for the disposal of classified hazardous and nonhazardous waste materials. Disposal of hazardous waste materials was discontinued in December 1984, while nonhazardous waste disposal ended on November 8, 1988. An RI is being conducted at this site in response to CERCLA regulations. The overall objectives of the RI are to collect data necessary to evaluate the nature and extent of contaminants of concern (COC), support an ecological risk assessment (ERA) and a human health risk assessment (HHRA), support the evaluation of remedial alternatives, and ultimately develop a Record of Decision for the site. The purpose of this Work Plan is to outline RI activities necessary to define the nature and extent of suspected contaminants at Chestnut Ridge OU1. Potential migration pathways also will be investigated. Data collected during the RI will be used to evaluate the overall risk posed to human health and the environment by OU1.

  12. Alveolar ridge augmentation by osteoinduction in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinholt, E M; Bang, G; Haanaes, H R

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate bone substitutes for alveolar ridge augmentation by osteoinduction. Allogenic, demineralized, and lyophilized dentin and bone was tested for osteoinductive properties in order to establish an experimental model for further studies. Implantations were perf...

  13. Oak Ridge Reservation Waste Management Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, J.W. [ed.

    1995-02-01

    This report presents the waste management plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation facilities. The primary purpose is to convey what facilities are being used to manage wastes, what forces are acting to change current waste management systems, and what plans are in store for the coming fiscal year.

  14. 25 MV tandem accelerator at Oak Ridge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, C.M.

    1980-01-01

    A new heavy-ion accelerator facility is under construction at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. A brief description of the scope and status of this project is presented with emphasis on the first operational experience with the 25 MV tandem accelerator

  15. Oak Ridge reservation land-use plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bibb, W. R.; Hardin, T. H.; Hawkins, C. C.; Johnson, W. A.; Peitzsch, F. C.; Scott, T. H.; Theisen, M. R.; Tuck, S. C.

    1980-03-01

    This study establishes a basis for long-range land-use planning to accommodate both present and projected DOE program requirements in Oak Ridge. In addition to technological requirements, this land-use plan incorporates in-depth ecological concepts that recognize multiple uses of land as a viable option. Neither environmental research nor technological operations need to be mutually exclusive in all instances. Unique biological areas, as well as rare and endangered species, need to be protected, and human and environmental health and safety must be maintained. The plan is based on the concept that the primary use of DOE land resources must be to implement the overall DOE mission in Oak Ridge. This document, along with the base map and overlay maps, provides a reasonably detailed description of the DOE Oak Ridge land resources and of the current and potential uses of the land. A description of the land characteristics, including geomorphology, agricultural productivity and soils, water courses, vegetation, and terrestrial and aquatic animal habitats, is presented to serve as a resource document. Essentially all DOE land in the Oak Ridge area is being fully used for ongoing DOE programs or has been set aside as protected areas.

  16. Remedial Investigation Work Plan for Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 1 (Chestnut Ridge Security Pits) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    This Remedial Investigation (RI) Work Plan specifically addresses Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 1, (OU1) which consists of the Chestnut Ridge Security Pits (CRSP). The CRSP are located ∼800 ft southeast of the central portion of the Y-12 Plant atop Chestnut Ridge, which is bounded to the northwest by Bear Creek Valley and to the southeast by Bethel Valley. Operated from 1973 to 1988, the CRSP consisted of a series of trenches used for the disposal of classified hazardous and nonhazardous waste materials. Disposal of hazardous waste materials was discontinued in December 1984, while nonhazardous waste disposal ended on November 8, 1988. An RI is being conducted at this site in response to CERCLA regulations. The overall objectives of the RI are to collect data necessary to evaluate the nature and extent of contaminants of concern (COC), support an ecological risk assessment (ERA) and a human health risk assessment (HHRA), support the evaluation of remedial alternatives, and ultimately develop a Record of Decision for the site. The purpose of this Work Plan is to outline RI activities necessary to define the nature and extent of suspected contaminants at Chestnut Ridge OU1. Potential migration pathways also will be investigated. Data collected during the RI will be used to evaluate the overall risk posed to human health and the environment by OU1

  17. Petrography of basalts from the Carlsberg ridge

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Banerjee, R.; Iyer, S.D.

    Petrographic characteristics of basalts collected from a segment of the Carlsberg Ridge (lat. 3 degrees 35'N to 3 degrees 41'N; long. 64 degrees 05'E to 64 degrees 09'E) show typical pillow lava zonations with variable concentrations of plagioclase...

  18. The Northern Central Indian Ridge: Geology and tectonics of fracture zones-dominated spreading ridge segments

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Drolia, R.K.; Iyer, S.D.; Chakraborty, B.; Kodagali, V.N.; Ray, Dwijesh; Misra, S.; Andrade, R.; Sarma, K.V.L.N.S.; Rajasekhar, R.P.; Mukhopadhyay, R.

    Multi-beam and single-beam bathymetric, gravity and magnetic data, across seven ridge segments (length varying between 37 and 84 km), offset by six transform discontinuities (ranging in dislocation length between 48 and 344 km) of the Northern...

  19. Some improved classification-based ridge parameter of Hoerl and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some improved classification-based ridge parameter of Hoerl and Kennard estimation techniques. ... This assumption is often violated and Ridge Regression estimator introduced by [2]has been identified to be more efficient than ordinary least square (OLS) in handling it. However, it requires a ridge parameter, K, of which ...

  20. Does the lateral intercondylar ridge disappear in ACL deficient patients?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eck, C.F.; Martins, C.A.Q.; Vyas, S.M.; Celentano, U.; van Dijk, C.N.; Fu, F.H.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether there is a difference in the presence of the lateral intercondylar ridge and the lateral bifurcate ridge between patients with sub-acute and chronic ACL injuries. We hypothesized that the ridges would be present less often with chronic ACL deficiency.

  1. Thickness of Knox Group overburden on Central Chestnut Ridge, Oak Ridge Reservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staub, W.P.; Hopkins, R.A.

    1984-05-01

    The thickness of residual soil overlying the Knox Group along Central Chestnut Ridge was estimated by a conventional seismic refraction survey. The purpose of this survey was to identify sites on the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation where ample overburden exists above the water table for the shallow land burial of low-level radioactive waste. The results of the survey suggest that the upper slopes of the higher ridges in the area have a minimum of 16 to 26 m (52 to 85 ft) of overburden and that the crests of these ridges may have more than 30 m (100 ft). Therefore, it is unlikely that sound bedrock would be encountered during trench excavation [maximum of 10 m (32 ft)] along Central Chestnut Ridge. Also, the relatively low seismic wave velocities measured in the overburden suggest that the water table is generally deep. On the basis of these preliminary results, Central Chestnut Ridge appears to be suitable for further site characterization for the shallow land burial of low-level radioactive waste. 3 references, 5 figures, 1 table

  2. Radiogenic isotopes in enriched mid-ocean ridge basalts from Explorer Ridge, northeast Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousens, Brian; Weis, Dominique; Constantin, Marc; Scott, Steve

    2017-09-01

    Extreme gradients in topography related to variations in magma supply are observed on the Southern Explorer Ridge (SER), part of the northern Juan de Fuca ridge system. We report radiogenic isotope (Pb, Sr, Nd, Hf) and geochemical data for twenty-four basalt whole-rock and glass samples collected from the length of the SER and from Explorer Deep, a rift to the north of the SER. Lavas from the SER form a north-south geochemical gradient, dominated by E-MORB at the northern axial high, and range from T-MORB to N-MORB towards the southern deepest part of the ridge. Linear relationships between incompatible element ratios and isotopic ratios in MORB along the ridge are consistent with mixing of magmas beneath the ridge to generate the geographic gradient from E- to N-MORB. The E-MORB have high Sr and Pb, and low Nd and Hf isotopic ratios, typical of enriched mantle that includes a FOZO or HIMU isotopic component. The West Valley and Endeavour segments of the northern Juan de Fuca ridge also include this isotopic component, but the proportion of the FOZO or HIMU component is more extreme in the SER basalts. The FOZO or HIMU component may be garnet-bearing peridotite, or a garnet pyroxenite embedded in peridotite. Recycled garnet pyroxenite better explains the very shallow SER axial high, high Nb/La and La/Sm, and the ;enriched; isotopic compositions.

  3. Trading of shares in the Societates Publicanorum?

    OpenAIRE

    Poitras, Geoffrey; Geranio, Manuela

    2016-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the often repeated modern claim of significant trading in ‘shares of the societates publicanorum’ (partes) during the late Roman Republic cannot be supported using the available ‘primary sources’. Building on recent contributions detailing the economy of the late Republic, in general, and the tax farming activities of the publicani, in particular, an alternative more plausible legal and commercial explanation of the ‘primary sources’ – especially In Vatinium [12.29] an...

  4. Building Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Glossary Contact Information Information For… Media Policy Makers Building Languages Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Communicating ... any speech and only very loud sounds. Close × “Building Blocks” “Building Blocks” refers to the different skills ...

  5. Trade and Sectoral Productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Fadinger, Harald; Fleiss, Pablo

    2008-01-01

    Even though differences in sectoral total factor productivity are at the heart of Ricardian trade theory and many models of growth and development, very little is known about their size and their form. In this paper we try to fill this gap by using a Hybrid-Ricardo-Heckscher-Ohlin trade model and bilateral sectoral trade data to overcome the data problem that has limited previous studies, which have used input and output data to back out productivities, to a small number of OECD economies. We...

  6. Carbon Trading. Literature Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerste, M.; Weda, J.; Rosenboom, N.

    2010-12-01

    From Pigou and Coase to the Kyoto Protocol, carbon trading has resulted in pricing of the negative externalities emanating from pollution. This report highlights leading literature and empirical findings on carbon trading, amongst others addressing the relevant carbon and related markets, the (lack of) success of carbon trading so far and room for improvement as well as its impact on investments in emission reduction. This report is part of a set of SEO-reports on finance and sustainability. The other reports deal with: Financing the Transition to Sustainable Energy; Innovations in financing environmental and social sustainability; and Sustainable investment.

  7. Integration, Trade Policy and European Footwear Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Winters, L. Alan

    1992-01-01

    This paper constructs a simulation model of the EC footwear market with which to consider the effects of EC trade policies. It examines the Southern enlargement of the EC, the quotas imposed on Korean and Taiwanese sales - initially in France and Italy and subsequently, in line with the `1992' programme, EC-wide - and the liberalization of imports from Eastern Europe. Import restrictions are shown to be costly - especially those against Eastern Europe.

  8. Bay Ridge Gardens - Mixed-Humid Affordable Multifamily Housing Deep Energy Retrofit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyons, J.; Moore, M.; Thompson, M.

    2013-08-01

    Under this project, Newport Partners (as part of the BA-PIRC research team) evaluated the installation, measured performance, and cost-effectiveness of efficiency upgrade measures for a tenant-in-place DER at the Bay Ridge multifamily (MF) development in Annapolis, Maryland. The design and construction phase of the Bay Ridge project was completed in August 2012. This report summarizes system commissioning, short-term test results, utility bill data analysis, and analysis of real-time data collected over a one-year period after the retrofit was complete. The Bay Ridge project is comprised of a 'base scope' retrofit which was estimated to achieve a 30%+ savings (relative to pre-retrofit) on 186 apartments, and a 'DER scope' which was estimated to achieve 50% savings (relative to pre-retrofit) on a 12-unit building. The base scope was applied to the entire apartment complex, except for one 12-unit building which underwent the DER scope. A wide range of efficiency measures was applied to pursue this savings target for the DER building, including improvements/replacements of mechanical equipment and distribution systems, appliances, lighting and lighting controls, the building envelope, hot water conservation measures, and resident education. The results of this research build upon the current body of knowledge of multifamily retrofits. Towards this end, the research team has collected and generated data on the selection of measures, their estimated performance, their measured performance, and risk factors and their impact on potential measures.

  9. Plasma separation process: Magnet move to Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-07-01

    This is the final report on the series of operations which culminated with the delivery of the Plasma Separation Process prototype magnet system (PMS) to Building K1432 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This procedure included real time monitoring of the cold mass support strut strain gauges and an in-cab rider to monitor the instrumentation and direct the driver. The primary technical consideration for these precautions was the possibility of low frequency resonant vibration of the cold mass when excited by symmetrical rough road conditions at specific speeds causing excess stress levels in the support struts and consequent strut failure. A secondary consideration was the possibility of high acceleration loads due to sudden stops, severe road conditions, of impacts. The procedure for moving and transportation to ORNL included requirements for real time continuous monitoring of the eight strut stain gauges and three external accelerometers. Because the strain gauges had not been used since the original magnet cooldown, it was planned to verify their integrity during magnet warmup. The measurements made from the strut strain gauges resulted in stress values that were physically impossible. It was concluded that further evaluation was necessary to verify the usefulness of these gauges and whether they might be faulty. This was accomplished during the removal of the magnet from the building. 6 figs., 1 tab

  10. Environment, Trade, and Investment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environment, trade, and investment are fundamentally linked as the environment provides many basic inputs of economic activity – forests, fisheries, metals, minerals – as well as the energy used to process those materials.

  11. International trade and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Posada L, Luis Guillermo

    2000-01-01

    Topics are presented as economic theory and theory of the international trade, international dimension of the environmental problems, economic prosperity, environmental quality and lineament are given for an alternative, among others

  12. World Trade Center

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Esilinastus katastroofifilm "World Trade Center" : stsenarist Andrea Berloff : režissöör Oliver Stone : kunstnik Jan Roelfs : osades Nicholas Cage, Michael Pena, Stephen Dorff jpt : Ameerika Ühendriigid 2006. Ka filmi prototüüpidest

  13. What Is Emissions Trading?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn the basics about how emissions trading uses a market-based policy tool used to control large amounts of pollution emissions from a group of sources in order to protect human health and the environment.

  14. Trading forest carbon - OSU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issues associate with trading carbon sequestered in forests are discussed. Scientific uncertainties associated with carbon measurement are discussed with respect to proposed accounting procedures. Major issues include: (1) Establishing baselines. (2) Determining additivity from f...

  15. International Trade. International Business

    OpenAIRE

    Мохнюк, А. М.; Mokhniuk, A. M.

    2015-01-01

    Work programme of the study course “International Trade. International Business” was prepared in accordance with educational and vocational training program for bachelors of training direction 6.030601 “Management”.

  16. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Part B Permit Application for Production Associated Units at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    This is the RCRA required permit application for Radioactive and Hazardous Waste Management at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant for the following units: Building 9206 Container Storage Unit; Building 9212 Container Storage Unit; Building 9720-12 Container Storage Unit; Cyanide Treatment Unit. All four of these units are associated with the recovery of enriched uranium and other metals from wastes generated during the processing of nuclear materials.

  17. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Part B Permit Application for Production Associated Units at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    This is the RCRA required permit application for Radioactive and Hazardous Waste Management at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant for the following units: Building 9206 Container Storage Unit; Building 9212 Container Storage Unit; Building 9720-12 Container Storage Unit; Cyanide Treatment Unit. All four of these units are associated with the recovery of enriched uranium and other metals from wastes generated during the processing of nuclear materials

  18. Oil trading manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, D.

    1995-01-01

    This manual provides basic information on all aspects of oil trading. Topics reviewed in Part 1 include physical characteristics and refining and oil pricing arrangements. Part 2 on instruments and markets contains chapters on crude oil markets, product markets, forward and futures contracts, forward paper markets, oil future exchanges, options, swaps and long term oil markets. Part 3 deals with administration and has chapters on operations and logistics, credit control, accounting, taxation of oil trading, contracts and legal and regulatory issues. (UK)

  19. International Trade Students’ Stereotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Kamila Matysová

    2017-01-01

    The goal of the present paper is to detect stereotypes of students studying International Trade at the University of Economics Prague and, if need be, propose didactic measures for intercultural education at the university. In our study, 293 International Trade students described six ethnic and national groups (Roma, Ukrainians, Vietnamese, Russians, Germans and Czechs) in terms of explicit stereotypes. The following hypothesis was formulated in the study: On the one hand, stereotypes of the ...

  20. Trade and climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamiotti, L.; Teh, R.; Kulacoglu, V. (World Trade Organization (WTO), Geneva (Switzerland)); Olhoff, A.; Simmons, B.; Abaza, H. (United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) (Denmark))

    2009-06-15

    The Report aims to improve understanding about the linkages between trade and climate change. It shows that trade intersects with climate change in a multitude of ways. For example, governments may introduce a variety of policies, such as regulatory measures and economic incentives, to address climate change. This complex web of measures may have an impact on international trade and the multilateral trading system. The Report begins with a summary of the current state of scientific knowledge on climate change and on the options available for responding to the challenge of climate change. The scientific review is followed by a part on the economic aspects of the link between trade and climate change, and these two parts set the context for the subsequent parts of the Report, which looks at the policies introduced at both the international and national level to address climate change. The part on international policy responses to climate change describes multilateral efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to adapt to the effects of climate change, and also discusses the role of the current trade and environment negotiations in promoting trade in technologies that aim to mitigate climate change. The final part of the Report gives an overview of a range of national policies and measures that have been used in a number of countries to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to increase energy efficiency. It presents key features in the design and implementation of these policies, in order to draw a clearer picture of their overall effect and potential impact on environmental protection, sustainable development and trade. It also gives, where appropriate, an overview of the WTO rules that may be relevant to such measures. (author)

  1. Additive versus multiplicative trade costs and the gains from trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Allan

    This paper addresses welfare effects from trade liberalization in a heterogeneous-fi…rms trade model including the empirically important per-unit (i.e. additive) trade costs in addition to the conventional iceberg (i.e. multiplicative) and fi…xed trade costs. The novel contribution of the paper...... is the result that the welfare gain for a given increase in trade openness is higher for reductions in per-unit (additive) trade costs than for reductions in iceberg (multiplicative) trade costs. The ranking derives from differences in intra-industry reallocations and in particular from dissimilar impacts...

  2. Physicians and Insider Trading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesselheim, Aaron S; Sinha, Michael S; Joffe, Steven

    2015-12-01

    Although insider trading is illegal, recent high-profile cases have involved physicians and scientists who are part of corporate governance or who have access to information about clinical trials of investigational products. Insider trading occurs when a person in possession of information that might affect the share price of a company's stock uses that information to buy or sell securities--or supplies that information to others who buy or sell--when the person is expected to keep such information confidential. The input that physicians and scientists provide to business leaders can serve legitimate social functions, but insider trading threatens to undermine any positive outcomes of these relationships. We review insider-trading rules and consider approaches to securities fraud in the health care field. Given the magnitude of the potential financial rewards, the ease of concealing illegal conduct, and the absence of identifiable victims, the temptation for physicians and scientists to engage in insider trading will always be present. Minimizing the occurrence of insider trading will require robust education, strictly enforced contractual provisions, and selective prohibitions against high-risk conduct, such as participation in expert consulting networks and online physician forums, by those individuals with access to valuable inside information.

  3. Unfaulting the Sardarapat Ridge, Southwest Armenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetmore, P.; Connor, C.; Connor, L. J.; Savov, I. P.; Karakhanyan, A.

    2012-12-01

    Armenia is located near the core of contractional deformation associated with the collision between the Arabian and Eurasian tectonic plates. Several studies of this region, including portions of adjacent Georgia, Iran, and Turkey, have indicated that 1-2 mm/yr of intra-plate, north-south shortening is primarily accommodated by a network of E-W trending thrust faults, and NW-trending (dextral) and NE-trending (sinistral) strike-slip faults. One proposed fault in this network, the Sardarapat Fault (SF), was investigated as part of a regional seismic hazard assessment ahead of the installation of a replacement reactor at the Armenian Nuclear Power Plant (ANPP). The SF is primarily defined by the Sardarapat Ridge (SR), which is a WNW-trending, 40-70 m high topographic feature located just north of the Arax River and the Turkey-Armenia border. The stratigraphy comprising this ridge includes alluvium overlying several meters of lacustrine deposits above a crystal-rich basaltic lava flow that yields an Ar-Ar age of 0.9 +/- 0.02 Ma. The alluvial sediments on the ridge contain early Bronze age (3832-3470 BP) artifacts at an elevation 25 m above those of the surrounding alluvial plane. This has lead to the suggestion that the SR is bound to the south (the steepest side) by the SF, which is uplifting the ridge at a rate of 0.7 mm/yr. However, despite the prominence and trend of the ridge there are no unequivocal observations, such as scarps or exposures of fault rocks, to support the existence of the SF. The goal of the investigation of the SR area was to test various models for the formation of the ridge including faulting and combined volcanic and erosional processes. We therefore collected gravimetric, magnetic, magneto-tellurics (MT), and transient electromagnetic (TEM) data across an area of ~400 km2, and used correlations of stratigraphic data from coreholes drilled proximal to the study area to define the geometry of the contact between the basement and basin fill to

  4. Model selection in kernel ridge regression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Exterkate, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Kernel ridge regression is a technique to perform ridge regression with a potentially infinite number of nonlinear transformations of the independent variables as regressors. This method is gaining popularity as a data-rich nonlinear forecasting tool, which is applicable in many different contexts....... The influence of the choice of kernel and the setting of tuning parameters on forecast accuracy is investigated. Several popular kernels are reviewed, including polynomial kernels, the Gaussian kernel, and the Sinc kernel. The latter two kernels are interpreted in terms of their smoothing properties......, and the tuning parameters associated to all these kernels are related to smoothness measures of the prediction function and to the signal-to-noise ratio. Based on these interpretations, guidelines are provided for selecting the tuning parameters from small grids using cross-validation. A Monte Carlo study...

  5. Trade and the Development of the Pacific Alliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Armando Hernández Bernal

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Pacific Alliance is a process of deep integration among Colombia, Chile, Peru and Mexico, which aims to build a free trade area and to project into the Asia-Pacific region, in order to enhance existing trade agreements among the members. There is no deep trade relationships among these four countries, despite having regional agreements since the 1990s, as demonstrated by the low volume of reciprocal exports and imports, in addition to the low indicator of intra-industrial trade. In this paper, intra-regional trade index is calculated among the countries of the Pacific Alliance, evidencing low indicators, but with a growth, encouraged by reciprocal or unilateral policies of commercial opening, and by an environment favoring economic growth throughout the region.

  6. Estimating the elasticity of trade: the trade share approach

    OpenAIRE

    Mauro Lanati

    2013-01-01

    Recent theoretical work on international trade emphasizes the importance of trade elasticity as the fundamental statistic needed to conduct welfare analysis. Eaton and Kortum (2002) proposed a two-step method to estimate this parameter, where exporter fixed effects are regressed on proxies for technology and wages. Within the same Ricardian model of trade, the trade share provides an alternative source of identication for the elasticity of trade. Following Santos Silva and Tenreyro (2006) bot...

  7. Life cycle baseline summary for ADS 6504IS Isotopes Facilities Deactivation Project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    The purpose of the Isotopes Facility Deactivation Project (IFDP) is to place former isotopes production facilities at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in a safe, stable, and environmentally sound condition; suitable for an extended period of minimum surveillance and maintenance (S ampersand M) and as quickly and economically as possible. This baseline plan establishes the official target schedule for completing the deactivation work and the associated budget required for deactivation and the necessary S ampersand M. Deactivation of the facilities 3026C, 3026D, 3028, 3029, 3038E, 3038M, and 3038AHF, the Center Circle buildings 3047, 3517, and 7025 will continue though Fiscal Year (FY) 1999. The focus of the project in the early years will be on the smaller buildings that require less deactivation and can bring an early return in reducing S ampersand M costs. This baseline plan covers the period from FY1995 throughout FY2000. Deactivation will continue in various facilities through FY1999. A final year of S ampersand M will conclude the project in FY2000. The estimated total cost of the project during this period is $51M

  8. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Waste Management Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-12-01

    The objective of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Waste Management Plan is to compile and to consolidate information annually on how the ORNL Waste Management Program is conducted, which waste management facilities are being used to manage wastes, what forces are acting to change current waste management systems, what activities are planned for the forthcoming fiscal year (FY), and how all of the activities are documented

  9. ORNL (Oak Ridge National Laboratory) 89

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, T.D.; Appleton, B.R.; Jefferson, J.W.; Merriman, J.R.; Mynatt, F.R.; Richmond, C.R.; Rosenthal, M.W.

    1989-01-01

    This is the inaugural issues of an annual publication about the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Here you will find a brief overview of ORNL, a sampling of our recent research achievements, and a glimpse of the directions we want to take over the next 15 years. A major purpose of ornl 89 is to provide the staff with a sketch of the character and dynamics of the Laboratory.

  10. ORNL [Oak Ridge National Laboratory] 89

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, T.D.; Appleton, B.R.; Jefferson, J.W.; Merriman, J.R.; Mynatt, F.R.; Richmond, C.R.; Rosenthal, M.W.

    1989-01-01

    This is the inaugural issues of an annual publication about the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Here you will find a brief overview of ORNL, a sampling of our recent research achievements, and a glimpse of the directions we want to take over the next 15 years. A major purpose of ornl 89 is to provide the staff with a sketch of the character and dynamics of the Laboratory

  11. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Waste Management Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-01

    The objective of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Waste Management Plan is to compile and to consolidate information annually on how the ORNL Waste Management Program is conducted, which waste management facilities are being used to manage wastes, what forces are acting to change current waste management systems, what activities are planned for the forthcoming fiscal year (FY), and how all of the activities are documented.

  12. Global survey of lunar wrinkle ridge formation times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Z.; Michael, G. G.; Di, K.; Liu, J.

    2017-11-01

    Wrinkle ridges are a common feature of the lunar maria and record subsequent contraction of mare infill. Constraining the timing of wrinkle ridge formation from crater counts is challenging because they have limited areal extent and it is difficult to determine whether superposed craters post-date ridge formation or have alternatively been uplifted by the deformation. Some wrinkle ridges do allow determination to be made. This is possible where a ridge shows a sufficiently steep boundary or scarp that can be identified as deforming an intersecting crater or the crater obliterates the relief of the ridge. Such boundaries constitute only a small fraction of lunar wrinkle ridge structures yet they are sufficiently numerous to enable us to obtain statistically significant crater counts over systems of structurally related wrinkle ridges. We carried out a global mapping of mare wrinkle ridges, identifying appropriate boundaries for crater identification, and mapping superposed craters. Selected groups of ridges were analyzed using the buffered crater counting method. We found that, except for the ridges in mare Tranquilitatis, the ridge groups formed with average ages between 3.5 and 3.1 Ga ago, or 100-650 Ma after the oldest observable erupted basalts where they are located. We interpret these results to suggest that local stresses from loading by basalt fill are the principal agent responsible for the formation of lunar wrinkle ridges, as others have proposed. We find a markedly longer interval before wrinkle ridge formation in Tranquilitatis which likely indicates a different mechanism of stress accumulation at this site.

  13. Alveolar ridge keratosis - a retrospective clinicopathological study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Alveolar ridge keratosis (ARK) is a distinct, benign clinicopathological entity, characterized by a hyperkeratotic plaque or patch that occurs on the alveolar edentulous ridge or on the retromolar trigone, considered to be caused by chronic frictional trauma. The aim of this retrospective study is to present the clinicopathological features of 23 consecutive cases of ARK. Material and methods The 23 biopsy samples of ARK were selected and pathological features were revised (keratosis, acanthosis, surface architecture, and inflammation). Factors such as the patient’s gender, age, anatomical location, tobacco and alcohol use were analyzed. Results Sixteen out of the 23 cases studied were men and 7 women with a mean age of 55.05 (age ranged from 17 to 88 years). Thirteen cases had a history of tobacco habit, amongst whom, 4 also presented alcohol consumption. All the cases presented only unilateral lesions. Nineteen cases involved the retromolar trigone while 4 cases involved edentulous alveolar ridges. When observed microscopically, the lesions were mainly characterized by moderate to important hyperorthokeratosis. Inflammation was scanty or absent. In four of the cases, the presence of melanin pigment in the superficial corium or in the cytoplasm of macrophages was detected. None of the cases showed any features of dysplasia. Conclusion Our results reveal that ARK is a benign lesion. However, the high prevalence of smokers amongst the patients might suggest that some potentially malignant disorders such as tobacco associated leukoplakia may clinically mimic ARK. PMID:23587097

  14. Postconstruction report for the mercury tanks interim action at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voskuil, T.L.

    1993-09-01

    Three underground concrete settling tanks (tanks 2101-U, 2104-U, and 2100-U) at the Y-12 Plant on the Oak Ridge Reservation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, contained contaminated sludges contributing mercury to the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek (UEFPC). These tanks were cleaned out as an interim action under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act as part of the Reduction of Mercury in Plant Effluent subproject. Cleaning out these tanks prevented the sludge that had settled in the bottom from resuspending and carrying mercury into UEFPC. Tanks 2104-U and 2100-U were returned to service and will continue to receive effluent from buildings 9201-4 and 9201-5. Tank 2101-U had been abandoned and its effluent redirected to Tank 2100-U during previous activities. This interim action permanently sealed Tank 2101-U from the storm sewer system. Upon removal of materials and completion of cleanup, inspections determined that the project`s cleanup criteria had been met. The structural integrity of the tanks was also inspected, and minor cracks identified in tanks 2101-U and 2104-U were repaired. This project is considered to have been completed successfully because it met its performance objectives as addressed in the Interim Record of Decision and the work plan: to remove the waste from the three storage tanks; to ensure that the tanks were cleaned to the levels specified; to return tanks 2100-U and 2104-U to service; to isolate Tank 2101-U permanently; and to manage the wastes in an appropriate fashion.

  15. Bay Ridge Gardens - Mixed Humid Affordable Multifamily Housing Deep Energy Retrofit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyons, James [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Cocoa, FL (United States); Moore, Mike [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Cocoa, FL (United States); Thompson, Margo [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Cocoa, FL (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Under this project, Newport Partners (as part of the BA-PIRC research team) evaluated the installation, measured performance, and cost effectiveness of efficiency upgrade measures for a tenant-in-place deep energy retrofit (DER) at the Bay Ridge multifamily development in Annapolis, Maryland. This report summarizes system commissioning, short-term test results, utility bill data analysis, and analysis of real-time data collected over a one-year period after the retrofit was complete. The Bay Ridge project is comprised of a "base scope" retrofit which was estimated to achieve a 30%+ savings (relative to pre-retrofit) on 186 apartments, and a "DER scope" which was estimated to achieve 50% savings (relative to pre-retrofit) on a 12-unit building. A wide range of efficiency measures was applied to pursue this savings target for the DER building, including improvements/replacements of mechanical equipment and distribution systems, appliances, lighting and lighting controls, the building envelope, hot water conservation measures, and resident education. The results of this research build upon the current body of knowledge of multifamily retrofits. Towards this end, the research team has collected and generated data on the selection of measures, their estimated performance, their measured performance, and risk factors and their impact on potential measures.

  16. Why are Trade Agreements Regional?

    OpenAIRE

    Zissimos, Ben

    2007-01-01

    This paper shows how distance may be used to coordinate on a unique equilibrium in which trade agreements are regional. Trade agreement formation is modeled as coalition formation. In a standard trade model with no distance between countries, a familiar problem of coordination failure arises giving rise to multiple equilibria; any one of many possible trade agreements can form. With distance between countries, and through strategic interaction in tariff setting, regional trade agreements gene...

  17. Alveolar ridge rehabilitation to increase full denture retention and stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mefina Kuntjoro

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Atrophic mandibular alveolar ridge generally complicates prostetic restoration expecially full denture. Low residual alveolar ridge and basal seat can cause unstable denture, permanent ulcer, pain, neuralgia, and mastication difficulty. Pre-proshetic surgery is needed to improve denture retention and stability. Augmentation is a major surgery to increase vertical height of the atrophic mandible while vestibuloplasty is aimed to increase the denture bearing area. Purpose: The augmentation and vestibuloplasty was aimed to provide stability and retentive denture atrophic mandibular alveolar ridge. Case: A 65 years old woman patient complained about uncomfortable denture. Clinical evaluate showed flat ridge in the anterior mandible, flabby tissue and candidiasis, while residual ridge height was classified into class IV. Case management: Augmentation using autograph was conducted as the mandible vertical height is less than 15 mm. Autograph was used to achieve better bone quantity and quality. Separated alveolar ridge was conducted from left to right canine region and was elevated 0.5 mm from the previous position to get new ridge in the anterior region. The separated alveolar ridge was fixated by using T-plate and ligature wire. Three months after augmentation fixation appliances was removed vestibuloplasty was performed to increase denture bearing area that can make a stable and retentive denture. Conclusion: Augmentation and vestibuloplasty can improve flat ridge to become prominent.Latar belakang: Ridge mandibula yang atrofi pada umumnya mempersulit pembuatan restorasi prostetik terutama gigi tiruan lengkap (GTL. Residual alveolar ridge dan basal seat yang rendah menyebabkan gigi tiruan menjadi tidak stabil, menimbulkan ulser permanen, nyeri, neuralgia, dan kesulitan mengunyah. Tujuan: Augmentasi dan vestibuloplasti pada ridge mandibula yang atrofi dilakukan untuk menciptakan gigi tiruan yang stabil dan retentive. Kasus: Pasien wanita

  18. Deactivation of Building 7602

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yook, H.R.; Barnett, J.R.; Collins, T.L.

    1995-10-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has sponsored research and development programs in Building 7602 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) since 1984. This work focused on development of advanced technology for processing nuclear fuels. Building 7602 was used for engineering-scale tests using depleted and natural uranium to simulate the nuclear fuel. In April 1994 the DOE Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) sent supplemental FY 1994 guidance to ORNL stating that in FY 1995 and beyond, Building 7602 is considered surplus to NE programs and missions and shall be shut down (deactivated) and maintained in a radiologically and industrially safe condition with minimal surveillance and maintenance (S ampersand M). DOE-NE subsequently provided FY 1995 funding to support the deactivation activities. Deactivation of Building 7602 was initiated on October 1, 1994. The principal activity during the first quarter of FY 1995 was removal of process materials (chemicals and uranium) from the systems. The process systems were operated to achieve chemical solution concentrations needed for reuse or disposal of the solutions prior to removal of the materials from the systems. During this phase of deactivation the process materials processed and removed were: (1) Uranyl nitrate solution 30,178 L containing 4490 kg of uranium; (2) Nitric acid (neutralized) 9850 L containing less than 0.013 kg of uranium; (3) Organic solution 3346 L containing 265 kg of uranium; (4) Uranium oxide powder 95 kg; and (5) Miscellaneous chemicals. At the end of December 1994, the process systems and control systems were shut down and deactivated. Disposition of the process materials removed from the process systems in Building 7602 proved to be the most difficult part of the deactivation. An operational stand down and funding reductions at Y-12 prevented planned conversion of the uranyl nitrate solution to depleted uranium oxide powder. This led to disposal of the uranyl nitrate solution as waste

  19. An aerial radiological survey of the Oak Ridge Reservation and surrounding area, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maurer, R.J.

    1989-09-01

    An aerial radiological survey of the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) and surrounding area in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, was conducted from September 12--29, 1989. The purpose of the survey was to measure and document the site's terrestrial radiological environment for use in effective environmental management and emergency response planning. The aerial survey was flown at an altitude of 91 meters (300 feet) along a series of parallel lines 152 meters (500 feet) apart. The survey encompassed an area of 440 square kilometers (170 square miles) as defined by the Tennessee Valley Authority Map S-16A of the entire Oak Ridge Reservation and adjacent area. The results of the aerial survey are reported as inferred exposure rates at 1 meter above ground level (AGL) in the form of a radiation contour map. Typical background exposure rates were found to vary from 5 to 14 microroentgens per hour (μR/h). The man-made radionuclides, cobalt-60, cesium-137, and protactinium-234m (a radioisotope indicative of depleted uranium), were detected at several facilities on the site. In support of the aerial survey, ground-based exposure rate and soil sample measurements were obtained at several locations within the survey boundary. In addition to the large scale aerial survey, two special flyovers were requested by the Department of Energy. The first request was to conduct a survey of a 1-mile x 2-mile area in south Knoxville, Tennessee. The area had been used previously to store contaminated scrap metals from operations at the Oak Ridge site. The second request was to fly several passes over a 5-mile length of railroad tracks leading from the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, north through the city of Oak Ridge. The railroad tracks had been previously used in the transport of cesium-137

  20. Removal site evaluation report on the bulk shielding facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-09-01

    This removal site evaluation report on the Bulk Shielding Facility (BSF) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory was prepared to provide the Environmental Restoration Program with information necessary to evaluate whether hazardous and/or radiological contaminants in and around BSF buildings pose a substantial risk to human health or the environment (i.e., a high probability of adverse effects) and whether remedial site evaluations or removal actions are, therefore, required. A removal site evaluation was conducted at nine areas associated with the BSF. The scope of each evaluation included (1) a search for, and review of, readily available historical records regarding operations and use of the facility (including hazardous substance usage and existing contamination); (2) interviews with facility personnel concerning current and past practices; and (3) a brief walk-through to visually inspect the facility and identify existing hazard areas requiring maintenance actions or remedial evaluation. The results of the removal site evaluation indicate that no substantial risks exist from contaminants present because adequate efforts are being made to contain and control existing contamination and hazardous substances and to protect human health and the environment. At Building 3004, deteriorated and peeling exterior paint has a direct pathway to the storm water drainage system and can potentially impact local surface water during periods of storm water runoff. The paint is assumed to be lead based, thus posing a potential problem. The paint should be sampled and analyzed to determine its lead content and to assess whether a hazard exists. If so, a maintenance action will be necessary to prevent further deterioration and dislodging of the paint. In addition, if the paint contains lead, then a remedial site evaluation should be conducted to determine whether lead from fallen chips has impacted soils in the immediate area of the building

  1. Volcanism and hydrothermalism on a hotspot-influenced ridge: Comparing Reykjanes Peninsula and Reykjanes Ridge, Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pałgan, Dominik; Devey, Colin W.; Yeo, Isobel A.

    2017-12-01

    Current estimates indicate that the number of high-temperature vents (one of the primary pathways for the heat extraction from the Earth's mantle) - at least 1 per 100 km of axial length - scales with spreading rate and should scale with crustal thickness. But up to present, shallow ridge axes underlain by thick crust show anomalously low incidences of high-temperature activity. Here we compare the Reykjanes Ridge, an abnormally shallow ridge with thick crust and only one high-temperature vent known over 900 km axial length, to the adjacent subaerial Reykjanes Peninsula (RP), which is characterized by high-temperature geothermal sites confined to four volcanic systems transected by fissure swarms with young (Holocene) volcanic activity, multiple faults, cracks and fissures, and continuous seismic activity. New high-resolution bathymetry (gridded at 60 m) of the Reykjanes Ridge between 62°30‧N and 63°30‧N shows seven Axial Volcanic Ridges (AVR) that, based on their morphology, geometry and tectonic regime, are analogues for the volcanic systems and fissure swarms on land. We investigate in detail the volcano-tectonic features of all mapped AVRs and show that they do not fit with the previously suggested 4-stage evolution model for AVR construction. Instead, we suggest that AVR morphology reflects the robust or weak melt supply to the system and two (or more) eruption mechanisms may co-exist on one AVR (in contrast to 4-stage evolution model). Our interpretations indicate that, unlike on the Reykjanes Peninsula, faults on and around AVRs do not cluster in orientation domains but all are subparallel to the overall strike of AVRs (orthogonal to spreading direction). High abundance of seamounts shows that the region centered at 62°47‧N and 25°04‧W (between AVR-5 and -6) is volcanically robust while the highest fault density implies that AVR-1 and southern part of AVR-6 rather undergo period of melt starvation. Based on our observations and interpretations we

  2. Trade creation and trade diversion in the Canada - United States Free Trade Agreement

    OpenAIRE

    Kimberly A. Clausing

    2001-01-01

    In this paper the changes in trade patterns introduced by the Canada-United States Free Trade Agreement are examined. Variation in the extent of tariff liberalization under the agreement is used to identify the impact of tariff liberalization on the growth of trade both with member countries and non-member countries. Data at the commodity level are used, and the results indicate that the Canada-United States Free Trade Agreement had substantial trade creation effects, with little evidence of ...

  3. Trading green electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, M.

    1997-01-01

    A study has been carried out into the feasibility of developing an electricity trading mechanism which would allow consumers to purchase electricity which has been derived from renewable energy resources. This study was part funded by the European Commission (ALTENER), the Department of Trade and Industry and a number of private sector companies. The trading mechanism is known as the Green Pool. As a result of the findings of this study discussions are being held with potential generators and suppliers to establish a Green Pool plc. The aim is to encourage the development of new renewable energy projects outside the NFFO and SRO schemes. The Green Pool plc will be owned by the generators and its main objective will be to market the electricity produced by its members. (Author)

  4. African agricultural trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Sandrey, Ron

    2015-01-01

    This article starts with a profile of African agricultural trade. Using the pre-release version 9.2 of the GTAP database, we then show that the results for tariff elimination on intra-African trade are promising, but these tariff barriers are not as significant as the various trade-related barriers...... outside of tariffs. Impressive results were forecast by simulating both a 50% reduction in what can be considered traditional non-tariff barriers and a modest 20% reduction in the costs associated with transit time delays at customs, terminals and internal land transportation. Gains from tariff...... elimination, non-tariff barrier reductions and time in transit cost reductions are likely to be cumulative and would generate very large gains to Africa. The policy implications are clear: while cooperation will enhance the gains, much of the benefits will result from unilateral actions and regional...

  5. NOx trade. Case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jantzen, J.

    2002-01-01

    Some of the questions with respect to the trade of nitrogen oxides that businesses in the Netherlands have to deal with are dealt with: should a business buy or sell rights for NOx emission; which measures must be taken to reduce NOx emission; how much must be invested; and how to deal with uncertainties with regard to prices. Simulations were carried out with the MOSES model to find the answers to those questions. Results of some case studies are presented, focusing on the chemical sector in the Netherlands. Finally, the financial (dis)advantages of NOx trade and the related uncertainties for a single enterprise are discussed [nl

  6. Evaluation of closure alternatives for the Building 3001 Storage Canal at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-02-01

    The Bldg. 3001 Storage Canal at ORNL is leaking approximately 400 gal of water per day. This report presents the Bechtel National Inc. (BNI) Team's evaluation of plans and presents recommendations for interim closure alternatives to stop the release of radionuclides and potential release of heavy metals into the environment. This is a conceptual evaluation and does not include detailed engineering of physical mitigation methods. The alternatives address only interim closure measures and not final decommissioning of the canal

  7. Dynamical instability produces transform faults at mid-ocean ridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerya, Taras

    2010-08-27

    Transform faults at mid-ocean ridges--one of the most striking, yet enigmatic features of terrestrial plate tectonics--are considered to be the inherited product of preexisting fault structures. Ridge offsets along these faults therefore should remain constant with time. Here, numerical models suggest that transform faults are actively developing and result from dynamical instability of constructive plate boundaries, irrespective of previous structure. Boundary instability from asymmetric plate growth can spontaneously start in alternate directions along successive ridge sections; the resultant curved ridges become transform faults within a few million years. Fracture-related rheological weakening stabilizes ridge-parallel detachment faults. Offsets along the transform faults change continuously with time by asymmetric plate growth and discontinuously by ridge jumps.

  8. Building America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brad Oberg

    2010-12-31

    IBACOS researched the constructability and viability issues of using high performance windows as one component of a larger approach to building houses that achieve the Building America 70% energy savings target.

  9. Building calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bjarne Christian; Hansen, Svend Ole

    Textbook on design of large panel building including rules on robustness and a method for producing the Statical documentattion......Textbook on design of large panel building including rules on robustness and a method for producing the Statical documentattion...

  10. Solar building

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Luxin

    2014-01-01

    In my thesis I describe the utilization of solar energy and solar energy with building integration. In introduction it is also mentioned how the solar building works, trying to make more people understand and accept the solar building. The thesis introduces different types of solar heat collectors. I compared the difference two operation modes of solar water heating system and created examples of solar water system selection. I also introduced other solar building applications. It is conv...

  11. Building envelope

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gibberd, Jeremy T

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available for use in the building. This is done through photovoltaic and solar water heating panels and wind turbines. Ideally these are integrated in the design of the building envelope to improve the aesthetic quality of the building and minimise material... are naturally ventilated. Renewable energy The building envelope includes renewable energy generation such as photovoltaics, wind turbines and solar water heaters and 10% of the building’s energy requirements are generated from these sources. Views All...

  12. Pre prosthetic reconstruction of alveolar ridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhuji Munivenkatappa Lakshmaiahenkatesh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dento-alveolar bony defects are common and occur due to a variety of causes, such as, pulpal pathology, traumatic tooth extraction, advanced periodontal disease, implant failure, tumor or congenital anomalies. These defects often cause a significant problem in dental treatment and rehabilitation. Many techniques exist for effective soft and hard tissue augmentation. The approach is largely based on the extent of the defect and specific procedures to be performed for the implant or prosthetic rehabilitation. This article presents case reports of soft and hard tissue ridge augmentation.

  13. Oak Ridge Reservation environmental report for 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mucke, P.C.

    1992-10-01

    The first two volumes of this report present data and supporting narratives regarding the impact of the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) on its surrounding environs and the public during 1991. Volume 1 includes all narrative descriptions, summaries, and conclusions and is intended to be a ''stand-alone'' report for the reader who does not want to review in detail all of the 1991 data for the ORR. This volume, Volume 2, includes the detailed data formats that ensure all the environmental data are represented. Narratives are not included. The information in Vol. 2 is addressed and analyzed in Vol. 1

  14. Oak Ridge Reservation environmental report for 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koncinski, W.S.

    1993-09-01

    The two volumes of this report present data and supporting narratives regarding the impact of the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) on its environs and the public during 1992. Volume 1 includes all narrative descriptions, summaries, and conclusions and is intended to be a ''stand-alone'' report for the reader who does not want to review in detail all of the 1992 data for the ORR. This volume (volume 2) includes the detailed data in formats that ensure all the environmental data are presented. Narratives are not included in Vol. 2

  15. The rise and fall of the ridge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorensen, Paul [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)

    2011-04-01

    Recent data from heavy ion collisions at RHIC show unexpectedly large near-angle correlations that broaden longitudinally with centrality. The amplitude of this ridge-like correlation rises rapidly with centrality, reaches a maximum, and then falls in the most central collisions. In this talk we explain how this behavior can be easily understood in a picture where final momentum-space correlations are driven by initial coordinate space density fluctuations. We propose {nu}{sub n}{sup 2}/{epsilon}{sub n,part}{sup 2} as a useful way to study these effects and explain what it tells us about the collision dynamics.

  16. Oak Ridge TNS Program: a status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, M.

    1978-01-01

    The Oak Ridge TNS activities have been directed at characterizing the design space between TFTR and EPR with a fundamental emphasis on higher beta plasma systems than previously projected, i.e., anti β approximately 5 to 10% as compared to 1 to 3%. Based on the results of the FY 1977 System Studies, our activities this year are directed toward preconceptual design with particular emphasis placed on reducing the technological requirements through innovations in plasma engineering. Examples of the new innovations include microwave assisted start up to reduce power requirements and a reduced TF ripple constraint by more refined ripple loss calculations, to increase engineering feasibility through simpler, more maintainable designs

  17. Gakkel Ridge: A window to ancient asthenosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, J.; Hellebrand, E.; Dick, H.; Liu, C.; Stracke, A.

    2008-12-01

    We are accustomed to thinking of the ambient mantle as being a well-stirred reservoir, which contains at most regions of stored subducted slabs and "plums" containing lithophile trace element enrichments. What is forgotten in all of this is that the main process of formation of heterogeneities is a negative one - generating 10x more depleted mantle at any given moment than it does oceanic crust. Because the volume of lithosphere subducted over Earth history is so large, it has always been assumed that the process of subduction and convective mixing re-homogenizes the depleted and enriched reservoirs about as fast as it produces them. What if it doesn't? Our primary means of studying mantle heterogeneity however is basalts. Direct study of the mantle entails observations on xenoliths, ophiolites and orogenic lherzolites, and abyssal peridotites. The latter have the inherent problems of being melting residues, associated with fracture zones, are highly serpentinized and rare. The arctic ridge system gives us a unique perspective on the mantle, and samples we have recovered there are relatively free from these problems. Due to the slow spreading rate, which apparently severely limits the melt productivity, the thickest crust in the Arctic ridge system is approximately "normal". The most common crust is about half thickness and there are large expanses with no crust at all, in the sense of Hess, 1962, exposing mantle peridotite in the floor of extensive rift zones. We have shown Os isotopic evidence for the survival of ancient depletion signatures in Gakkel abyssal peridotites that apparently were not destroyed by subduction, convective stirring or resetting during magma genesis (Liu, et al., 2008). Additionally, preliminary Nd isotopic evidence suggests at least a 400Ma intact prehistory for these samples. Apparently, the low melt productivity on Gakkel Ridge has allowed the Gakkel mantle rocks to escape significant resetting due to melt interaction. This implies a

  18. Oak Ridge Reservation environmental report for 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koncinski, W.S.

    1993-09-01

    The two volumes of this report present data and supporting narratives regarding the impact of the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) on its environs and the public during 1992. This Volume (Volume 1) includes all narrative descriptions, summaries, and conclusions and is intended to be a ''stand-alone'' report for the reader who does not want to review in detail all of the 1992 data for the ORR. Volume 2 includes the detailed data in formats that ensure all the environmental data are represented. Narratives are not included in Vol. 2

  19. Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility Position Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oral, H Sarp [ORNL; Hill, Jason J [ORNL; Thach, Kevin G [ORNL; Podhorszki, Norbert [ORNL; Klasky, Scott A [ORNL; Rogers, James H [ORNL; Shipman, Galen M [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the business, administration, reliability, and usability aspects of storage systems at the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF). The OLCF has developed key competencies in architecting and administration of large-scale Lustre deployments as well as HPSS archival systems. Additionally as these systems are architected, deployed, and expanded over time reliability and availability factors are a primary driver. This paper focuses on the implementation of the Spider parallel Lustre file system as well as the implementation of the HPSS archive at the OLCF.

  20. Multimode Interference: Identifying Channels and Ridges in Quantum Probability Distributions

    OpenAIRE

    O'Connell, Ross C.; Loinaz, Will

    2004-01-01

    The multimode interference technique is a simple way to study the interference patterns found in many quantum probability distributions. We demonstrate that this analysis not only explains the existence of so-called "quantum carpets," but can explain the spatial distribution of channels and ridges in the carpets. With an understanding of the factors that govern these channels and ridges we have a limited ability to produce a particular pattern of channels and ridges by carefully choosing the ...

  1. Environmental baseline survey report for West Black Oak Ridge, East Black Oak Ridge, McKinney Ridge, West Pine Ridge and parcel 21D in the vicinity of the East Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, David A. [Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Independent Environmental Assessment and Verification Program

    2012-11-29

    This environmental baseline survey (EBS) report documents the baseline environmental conditions of five land parcels located near the U.S. Department of Energy?s (DOE?s) East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP), including West Black Oak Ridge, East Black Oak Ridge, McKinney Ridge, West Pine Ridge, and Parcel 21d. Preparation of this report included the detailed search of federal government records, title documents, aerial photos that may reflect prior uses, and visual inspections of the property and adjacent properties. Interviews with current employees involved in, or familiar with, operations on the real property were also conducted to identify any areas on the property where hazardous substances and petroleum products, or their derivatives, and acutely hazardous wastes may have been released or disposed. In addition, a search was made of reasonably obtainable federal, state, and local government records of each adjacent facility where there has been a release of any hazardous substance or any petroleum product or their derivatives, including aviation fuel and motor oil, and which is likely to cause or contribute to a release of any hazardous substance or any petroleum product or its derivatives, including aviation fuel or motor oil, on the real property. A radiological survey and soil/sediment sampling was conducted to assess baseline conditions of Parcel 21d that were not addressed by the soils-only no-further-investigation (NFI) reports. Groundwater sampling was also conducted to support a Parcel 21d decision. Based on available data West Black Oak Ridge, East Black Oak Ridge, McKinney Ridge, and West Pine Ridge are not impacted by site operations and are not subject to actions per the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA). This determination is supported by visual inspections, records searches and interviews, groundwater conceptual modeling, approved NFI reports, analytical data, and risk analysis results. Parcel 21d data, however, demonstrate impacts from site

  2. Environmental baseline survey report for West Black Oak Ridge, East Black Oak Ridge, McKinney Ridge, West Pine Ridge and parcel 21D in the vicinity of the East Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, David A.

    2012-01-01

    This environmental baseline survey (EBS) report documents the baseline environmental conditions of five land parcels located near the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP), including West Black Oak Ridge, East Black Oak Ridge, McKinney Ridge, West Pine Ridge, and Parcel 21d. Preparation of this report included the detailed search of federal government records, title documents, aerial photos that may reflect prior uses, and visual inspections of the property and adjacent properties. Interviews with current employees involved in, or familiar with, operations on the real property were also conducted to identify any areas on the property where hazardous substances and petroleum products, or their derivatives, and acutely hazardous wastes may have been released or disposed. In addition, a search was made of reasonably obtainable federal, state, and local government records of each adjacent facility where there has been a release of any hazardous substance or any petroleum product or their derivatives, including aviation fuel and motor oil, and which is likely to cause or contribute to a release of any hazardous substance or any petroleum product or its derivatives, including aviation fuel or motor oil, on the real property. A radiological survey and soil/sediment sampling was conducted to assess baseline conditions of Parcel 21d that were not addressed by the soils-only no-further-investigation (NFI) reports. Groundwater sampling was also conducted to support a Parcel 21d decision. Based on available data West Black Oak Ridge, East Black Oak Ridge, McKinney Ridge, and West Pine Ridge are not impacted by site operations and are not subject to actions per the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA). This determination is supported by visual inspections, records searches and interviews, groundwater conceptual modeling, approved NFI reports, analytical data, and risk analysis results. Parcel 21d data, however, demonstrate impacts from site

  3. The Supply of Trade Credit by Brazilian Publicly Traded Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Felipe Schiozer

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the determinants of trade credit supply by Brazilian publicly traded companies between the years of 2005 and 2008. International literature (both theoretical and empirical documents that the main determinants of trade credit supply are the size of the firm and the size of its debt. Both indicate that the availability of resources to the firm is an important factor for the supply of trade credit. In addition, the literature confirms strategic uses of trade credit such as those for price discrimination purposes. The results obtained using a sample of 157 Brazilian companies do not support that size and indebtedness are relevant determinants for trade credit supply, but they confirm the supply of trade credit as a strategic tool for the firms. Additionally we observed a significant decrease in trade credit supply in 2008, the year in which a severe international financial crisis took place.

  4. 27 CFR 19.271 - Construction of buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Construction of buildings 19.271 Section 19.271 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Construction of buildings Buildings in which spirits, denatured spirits, articles, or wines are produced...

  5. 19 CFR 147.13 - Transfer to fair building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transfer to fair building. 147.13 Section 147.13... TREASURY (CONTINUED) TRADE FAIRS Procedure for Importation § 147.13 Transfer to fair building. (a... port director for the transfer of the articles covered thereby to the buildings in which they are to be...

  6. Auxiliary buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakner, I.; Lestyan, E.

    1979-01-01

    The nuclear power station represents a complicated and a particular industrial project. Consequently, the design of the auxiliary buildings serving the power station (offices, kitchen, refreshment room, workshops, depots, water treatment plant building, boiler houses, etc.) requires more attention than usual. This chapter gives a short survey of the auxiliary buildings already completed and discusses the problems of their design, location and structure. (author)

  7. Building 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Den Ouden, C.; Steemers, T.C.

    1992-01-01

    This is the first volume of Building 2000, a pilot project of the Commission's R and D-programme 'Solar Energy Applications to Buildings' with the purpose of encouraging the adoption of solar architecture in large buildings. In this first rich illustrated volume the results of the design studies illustrating passive solar architecture in buildings in the European Community are presented in particular for the building categories as mentioned in the subtitle. In a second volume, a similar series of studies is presented for the building categories: office buildings, public buildings and hotels and holiday complexes. Several Design Support Workshops were organized during the Building 2000 programme during which Building 2000 design teams could directly exchange ideas with the various design advice experts represented at these workshops. In the second part of the Building 2000 final report a summary of a selection of many reports is presented (15 papers), as produced by Design Support experts. Most of the design support activities resulted in changes of the various designs, as have been reported by the design teams in the brochures presented in the first part of this book. It is to be expected that design aids and simulation tools for passive solar options, daylighting concepts, comfort criteria etc., will be utilized more frequently in the future. This will result in a better exchange of information between the actual design practitioners and the European R and D community. This technology transfer will result in buildings with a higher quality with respect to energy and environmental issues

  8. Building 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Den Ouden, C [EGM Engineering BV, Dordrecht (Netherlands); Steemers, T C [Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium)

    1992-01-01

    This is the first volume of Building 2000, a pilot project of the Commission's R and D-programme 'Solar Energy Applications to Buildings' with the purpose of encouraging the adoption of solar architecture in large buildings. In this first rich illustrated volume the results of the design studies illustrating passive solar architecture in buildings in the European Community are presented in particular for the building categories as mentioned in the subtitle. In a second volume, a similar series of studies is presented for the building categories: office buildings, public buildings and hotels and holiday complexes. Several Design Support Workshops were organized during the Building 2000 programme during which Building 2000 design teams could directly exchange ideas with the various design advice experts represented at these workshops. In the second part of the Building 2000 final report a summary of a selection of many reports is presented (15 papers), as produced by Design Support experts. Most of the design support activities resulted in changes of the various designs, as have been reported by the design teams in the brochures presented in the first part of this book. It is to be expected that design aids and simulation tools for passive solar options, daylighting concepts, comfort criteria etc., will be utilized more frequently in the future. This will result in a better exchange of information between the actual design practitioners and the European R and D community. This technology transfer will result in buildings with a higher quality with respect to energy and environmental issues.

  9. Virtual water trade: an assessment of water use efficiency in the international food trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Yang

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Amid an increasing water scarcity in many parts of the world, virtual water trade as both a policy instrument and practical means to balance the local, national and global water budget has received much attention in recent years. Building upon the knowledge of virtual water accounting in the literature, this study assesses the efficiency of water use embodied in the international food trade from the perspectives of exporting and importing countries and at the global and country levels. The investigation reveals that the virtual water flows primarily from countries of high crop water productivity to countries of low crop water productivity, generating a global saving in water use. Meanwhile, the total virtual water trade is dominated by green virtual water, which constitutes a low opportunity cost of water use as opposed to blue virtual water. A sensitivity analysis, however, suggests high uncertainties in the virtual water accounting and the estimation of the scale of water saving. The study also raises awareness of the limited effect of water scarcity on the global virtual water trade and the negative implications of the global water saving for the water use efficiency and food security in importing countries and the environment in exporting countries. The analysis shows the complexity in evaluating the efficiency gains in the international virtual water trade. The findings of the study, nevertheless, call for a greater emphasis on rainfed agriculture to improve the global food security and environmental sustainability.

  10. Comprehensive integrated planning: A process for the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-05-01

    The Oak Ridge Comprehensive Integrated Plan is intended to assist the US Department of Energy (DOE) and contractor personnel in implementing a comprehensive integrated planning process consistent with DOE Order 430.1, Life Cycle Asset Management and Oak Ridge Operations Order 430. DOE contractors are charged with developing and producing the Comprehensive Integrated Plan, which serves as a summary document, providing information from other planning efforts regarding vision statements, missions, contextual conditions, resources and facilities, decision processes, and stakeholder involvement. The Comprehensive Integrated Plan is a planning reference that identifies primary issues regarding major changes in land and facility use and serves all programs and functions on-site as well as the Oak Ridge Operations Office and DOE Headquarters. The Oak Ridge Reservation is a valuable national resource and is managed on the basis of the principles of ecosystem management and sustainable development and how mission, economic, ecological, social, and cultural factors are used to guide land- and facility-use decisions. The long-term goals of the comprehensive integrated planning process, in priority order, are to support DOE critical missions and to stimulate the economy while maintaining a quality environment

  11. Comprehensive integrated planning: A process for the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    The Oak Ridge Comprehensive Integrated Plan is intended to assist the US Department of Energy (DOE) and contractor personnel in implementing a comprehensive integrated planning process consistent with DOE Order 430.1, Life Cycle Asset Management and Oak Ridge Operations Order 430. DOE contractors are charged with developing and producing the Comprehensive Integrated Plan, which serves as a summary document, providing information from other planning efforts regarding vision statements, missions, contextual conditions, resources and facilities, decision processes, and stakeholder involvement. The Comprehensive Integrated Plan is a planning reference that identifies primary issues regarding major changes in land and facility use and serves all programs and functions on-site as well as the Oak Ridge Operations Office and DOE Headquarters. The Oak Ridge Reservation is a valuable national resource and is managed on the basis of the principles of ecosystem management and sustainable development and how mission, economic, ecological, social, and cultural factors are used to guide land- and facility-use decisions. The long-term goals of the comprehensive integrated planning process, in priority order, are to support DOE critical missions and to stimulate the economy while maintaining a quality environment.

  12. Syllabus in Trade Welding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Secondary Curriculum Development.

    The syllabus outlines material for a course two academic years in length (minimum two and one-half hours daily experience) leading to entry-level occupational ability in several welding trade areas. Fourteen units covering are welding, gas welding, oxyacetylene welding, cutting, nonfusion processes, inert gas shielded-arc welding, welding cast…

  13. Scoin Trading (Pty)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2 Scoin Trading (Pty) Ltd v Bernstein 2011 2 SA 118 (SCA). ... Literature on the law of contract in South Africa have over the years tended to hold that fault ..... who was suddenly compelled to be absent on public business was not held to be in.

  14. Trade Remedies: A Primer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jones, Vivian C

    2008-01-01

    ....) authorize the imposition of duties if (1) the International Trade Administration (ITA) of the Department of Commerce determines that foreign merchandise is being, or likely to be sold in the United States at less than fair value, and (2) the U.S...

  15. Trade Remedies: A Primer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jones, Vivian C

    2007-01-01

    ....) authorize the imposition of duties if (1) the International Trade Administration (ITA) of the Department of Commerce determines that foreign merchandise is being, or likely to be sold in the United States at less than fair value, and (2) the U.S...

  16. Trading fund opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    The paper concerns the operation of the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) as a trading fund. The changes and anticipated effects of this role are discussed, including the financial arrangements, UKAEA skills, customers, Department of Energy sponsorship and new business opportunities. (U.K.)

  17. Trading forest carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    The nature of carbon in forests is discussed from the perspective of carbon trading. Carbon inventories, specifically in the area of land use and forestry are reviewed for the Pacific Northwest. Carbon turnover in forests is discussed as it relates to carbon sequestration. Scient...

  18. Carbon trading: Literature overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerste, M.; Weda, J.; Rosenboom, N.

    2010-01-01

    From Pigou and Coase to the Kyoto Protocol, carbon trading has resulted in pricing of the negative externalities emanating from pollution. At the request of Duisenberg school of finance, this report highlights leading literature and empirical findings on ‘carbon trading’, amongst others addressing

  19. Introduction to International Trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crummett, Dan M.; Crummett, Jerrie

    This set of student and teacher guides is intended for use in a course to prepare students for entry-level employment in such occupational areas in international trade as business/finance, communications, logistics, and marketing. The following topics are covered in the course's five instructional units: introduction to careers in international…

  20. Transparency for international trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    K. R. Lakin; G. A. Fowler; W. D. Bailey; J. Cavey; P. Lehtonen

    2003-01-01

    U.S. Department of Agriculture - Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service - Plant Protection and Quarantine (USDA-APHIS-PPQ) has developed a Regulated Plant Pest List (RPPL). This provides trading partners with an official list of plant pests of concern to the U.S., along with providing greater transparency of Agency actions.

  1. Globalization and world trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter J. Ince; Joseph Buongiorno

    2007-01-01

    This chapter discusses economic globalization and world trade in relation to forest sector modeling for the US/North American region. It discusses drivers of economic globalization and related structural changes in US forest product markets, including currency exchange rates and differences in manufacturing costs that have contributed to the displacement of global...

  2. Trade Facilitation in Ethiopia:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tilahun_EK

    so doing, it attempts to examine how Ethiopia's WTO Accession and trade facilitation ... the more expensive imports, exports and production becomes rendering. Ethiopian ..... can reserve the right to refuse requests of importers for the fifth valuation method to ..... units may find it easier to deal with post clearance audit. In the ...

  3. Traits traded off

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rueffler, Claus

    2006-01-01

    The course of evolution is restricted by constraints. A special type of constraint is a trade-off where different traits are negatively correlated. In this situation a mutant type that shows an improvement in one trait suffers from a decreased performance through another trait. In a fixed fitness

  4. Solar Heating/Cooling of Buildings: Current Building Community Projects. An Interim Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Building Research Advisory Board.

    Projects being carried out by the private sector involving the use of solar energy for heating and cooling buildings are profiled in this report. A substantial portion of the data were collected from a broad cross-section of the building community. Data collection efforts also involved the canvassing of the nearly 200 trade and professional…

  5. Greenland Fracture Zone-East Greenland Ridge(s) revisited: Indications of a C22-change in plate motion?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Døssing, Arne; Funck, T.

    2012-01-01

    a reinterpretation of the Greenland Fracture Zone -East Greenland Ridge based on new and existing geophysical data. Evidence is shown for two overstepping ridge segments (Segments A and B) of which Segment A corresponds to the already known East Greenland Ridge while Segment B was not detected previously......Changes in the lithospheric stress field, causing axial rift migration and reorientation of the transform, are generally proposed as an explanation for anomalously old crust and/or major aseismic valleys in oceanic ridge-transform-ridge settings. Similarly, transform migration of the Greenland...... Fracture Zone and separation of the 200-km-long, fracture-zone-parallel continental East Greenland Ridge from the Eurasia plate is thought to be related to a major change in relative plate motions between Greenland and Eurasia during the earliest Oligocene (Chron 13 time). This study presents...

  6. Time-Space Trade-Offs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagter, Jakob Illeborg

    . The area of time-space trade-offs deals with both upper and lower bounds and both are interesting, theoretically as well as practically. The viewpoint of this dissertation is theoretical, but we believe that some of our results can find applications in practice as well. The last four years has witnessed...... perspective hierarchical memory layout models are the most interesting. Such models are called external memory models, in contrast to the internal memory models discussed above. Despite the fact that space might be of great relevance when solving practical problems on real computers, no theoretical model...... capturing space (and time simultaneously) has been defined. We introduce such a model and use it to prove so-called IOspace trade-offs for Sorting. Building on the abovementioned techniques for time-space efficient internal memory Sorting, we develop the first IO-space efficient external memory Sorting...

  7. Ridge Orientations of the Ridge-Forming Unit, Sinus Meridiani, Mars-A Fluvial Explanation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, M. Justin; Herridge, A.

    2013-01-01

    Imagery and MOLA data were used in an analysis of the ridge-forming rock unit (RFU) exposed in Sinus Meridiani (SM). This unit shows parallels at different scales with fluvial sedimentary bodies. We propose the terrestrial megafan as the prime analog for the RFU, and likely for other members of the layered units. Megafans are partial cones of fluvial sediment, with radii up to hundreds of km. Although recent reviews of hypotheses for the RFU units exclude fluvial hypotheses [1], inverted ridges in the deserts of Oman have been suggested as putative analogs for some ridges [2], apparently without appreciating The wider context in which these ridges have formed is a series of megafans [3], a relatively unappreciated geomorphic feature. It has been argued that these units conform to the megafan model at the regional, subregional and local scales [4]. At the regional scale suites of terrestrial megafans are known to cover large areas at the foot of uplands on all continents - a close parallel with the setting of the Meridiani sediments at the foot of the southern uplands of Mars, with its incised fluvial systems leading down the regional NW slope [2, 3] towards the sedimentary units. At the subregional scale the layering and internal discontinuities of the Meridiani rocks are consistent, inter alia, with stacked fluvial units [4]. Although poorly recognized as such, the prime geomorphic environment in which stream channel networks cover large areas, without intervening hillslopes, is the megafan [see e.g. 4]. Single megafans can reach 200,000 km2 [5]. Megafans thus supply an analog for areas where channel-like ridges (as a palimpsest of a prior landscape) cover the intercrater plains of Meridiani [6]. At the local, or river-reach scale, the numerous sinuous features of the RFU are suggestive of fluvial channels. Cross-cutting relationships, a common feature of channels on terrestrial megafans, are ubiquitous. Desert megafans show cemented paleo-channels as inverted

  8. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Institutional Plan, FY 1991--FY 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-02-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory -- one of DOE's major multiprogram laboratories -- focuses its resources on energy research and development (R D). To be able to meet these R D challenges, the Laboratory must achieve excellence in its operations relative to environmental, safety, and health (ES H) protection and to restore its aging facility infrastructure. ORNL's missions are carried out in compliance with all applicable ES H regulations. The Laboratory conducts applied R D in energy technologies -- in conservation; fission; magnetic fusion; health and environmental protection; waste management; renewable resources; and fossil energy. Experimental and theoretical research is undertaken to investigate fundamental problems in physical, chemical, materials, computational, biomedical, earth, and environmental sciences; to advance scientific knowledge; and to support energy technology R D. ORNL designs, builds, and operates unique research facilities for the benefit of university, industrial, and national laboratory researchers. The Laboratory serves as a catalyst in bringing national and international research elements together for important scientific and technical collaborations. ORNL helps to prepare the scientific and technical work force of the future by offering innovative and varied learning and R D experiences at the Laboratory for students and faculty from preschool level through postdoctoral candidates. The transfer of science and technology to US industries and universities is an integral component of ORNL's R D missions. ORNL also undertakes research and development for non-DOE sponsors when such work is synergistic with DOE mission. 66 figs., 55 tabs.

  9. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Institutional Plan, FY 1991--FY 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-02-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory -- one of DOE's major multiprogram laboratories -- focuses its resources on energy research and development (R ampersand D). To be able to meet these R ampersand D challenges, the Laboratory must achieve excellence in its operations relative to environmental, safety, and health (ES ampersand H) protection and to restore its aging facility infrastructure. ORNL's missions are carried out in compliance with all applicable ES ampersand H regulations. The Laboratory conducts applied R ampersand D in energy technologies -- in conservation; fission; magnetic fusion; health and environmental protection; waste management; renewable resources; and fossil energy. Experimental and theoretical research is undertaken to investigate fundamental problems in physical, chemical, materials, computational, biomedical, earth, and environmental sciences; to advance scientific knowledge; and to support energy technology R ampersand D. ORNL designs, builds, and operates unique research facilities for the benefit of university, industrial, and national laboratory researchers. The Laboratory serves as a catalyst in bringing national and international research elements together for important scientific and technical collaborations. ORNL helps to prepare the scientific and technical work force of the future by offering innovative and varied learning and R ampersand D experiences at the Laboratory for students and faculty from preschool level through postdoctoral candidates. The transfer of science and technology to US industries and universities is an integral component of ORNL's R ampersand D missions. ORNL also undertakes research and development for non-DOE sponsors when such work is synergistic with DOE mission. 66 figs., 55 tabs

  10. Oak Ridge National Laboratory institutional plan, FY 1990--FY 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-11-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory is one of DOE's major multiprogram energy laboratories. ORNL's program missions are (1) to conduct applied research and engineering development in support of DOE's programs in fusion, fission, fossil, renewables (biomass), and other energy technologies, and in the more efficient conversion and use of energy (conservation) and (2) to perform basic scientific research in selected areas of the physical and life sciences. These missions are to be carried out in compliance with environmental, safety, and health regulations. Transfer of science and technology is an integral component of our missions. A complementary mission is to apply the Laboratory's resources to other nationally important tasks when such work is synergistic with the program missions. Some of the issues addressed include education, international competitiveness, hazardous waste research and development, and selected defense technologies. In addition to the R D missions, ORNL performs important service roles for DOE; these roles include designing, building, and operating user facilities for the benefit of university and industrial researchers and supplying radioactive and stable isotopes that are not available from private industry. Scientific and technical efforts in support of the Laboratory's missions cover a spectrum of activities. In fusion, the emphasis is on advanced studies of toroidal confinement, plasma heating, fueling systems, superconducting magnets, first-wall and blanket materials, and applied plasma physics. 69 figs., 49 tabs.

  11. US Department of Energy Oak Ridge Operations Environmental Management Public Involvement Plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-03-01

    This document was prepared in accordance with CERCLA requirements for writing community relations plans. It includes information on how the DOE Oak Ridge Operations Office prepares and executes Environmental Management Community relations activities. It is divided into three sections: the public involvement plan, public involvement in Oak Ridge, and public involvement in 1995. Four appendices are also included: environmental management in Oak Ridge; community and regional overview; key laws, agreements, and policy; and principal contacts

  12. Analytical study of doubly excited ridge states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, H.Y.

    1988-01-01

    Two different non-separable problems are explored and analyzed. Non-perturbative methods need to be used to handle them, as the competing forces involved in these problems are equally strong and do not yield to a perturbative analysis. The first one is the study of doubly excited ridge states of atoms, in which two electrons are comparably excited. An analytical wavefunction for such states is introduced and is used to solve the two-electron Hamiltonian in the pair coordinates called hyperspherical coordinates variationally. The correlation between the electrons is built in analytically into the structure of the wavefunction. Sequences of ridge states out to very high excitation are computed and are organized as Rydberg series converging to the double ionization limit. Numerical results of such states in He and H - are compared with other theoretical calculations where available. The second problem is the analysis of the photodetachment of negative ions in an electric field via the frame transformation theory. The presence of the electron field requires a transformation from spherical to cylindrical symmetry for the outgoing photoelectron. This gives an oscillatory modulating factor as the effect of the electric field on cross-sections. All of this work is derived analytically in a general form applicable to the photodetachment of any negative ion. The expressions are applied to H - and S - for illustration

  13. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Waste Management Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-12-01

    The goal of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Waste Management Program is the protection of workers, the public, and the environment. A vital aspect of this goal is to comply with all applicable state, federal, and DOE requirements. Waste management requirements for DOE radioactive wastes are detailed in DOE Order 5820.2A, and the ORNL Waste Management Program encompasses all elements of this order. The requirements of this DOE order and other appropriate DOE orders, along with applicable Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) and US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) rules and regulations, provide the principal source of regulatory guidance for waste management operations at ORNL. The objective of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Waste Management Plan is to compile and to consolidate information annually on how the ORNL Waste Management is to compile and to consolidate information annually on how the ORNL Waste Management Program is conducted, which waste management facilities are being used to manage wastes, what forces are acting to change current waste management systems, what activities are planned for the forthcoming fiscal year (FY), and how all of the activities are documented

  14. Tubular Initial Conditions and Ridge Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Borysova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The 2D azimuth and rapidity structure of the two-particle correlations in relativistic A+A collisions is altered significantly by the presence of sharp inhomogeneities in superdense matter formed in such processes. The causality constraints enforce one to associate the long-range longitudinal correlations observed in a narrow angular interval, the so-called (soft ridge, with peculiarities of the initial conditions of collision process. This study's objective is to analyze whether multiform initial tubular structures, undergoing the subsequent hydrodynamic evolution and gradual decoupling, can form the soft ridges. Motivated by the flux-tube scenarios, the initial energy density distribution contains the different numbers of high density tube-like boost-invariant inclusions that form a bumpy structure in the transverse plane. The influence of various structures of such initial conditions in the most central A+A events on the collective evolution of matter, resulting spectra, angular particle correlations and vn-coefficients is studied in the framework of the hydrokinetic model (HKM.

  15. Behavior of Cell on Vibrating Micro Ridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haruka Hino

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of micro ridges on cells cultured at a vibrating scaffold has been studied in vitro. Several parallel lines of micro ridges have been made on a disk of transparent polydimethylsiloxane for a scaffold. To apply the vibration on the cultured cells, a piezoelectric element was attached on the outside surface of the bottom of the scaffold. The piezoelectric element was vibrated by the sinusoidal alternating voltage (Vp-p < 16 V at 1.0 MHz generated by a function generator. Four kinds of cells were used in the test: L929 (fibroblast connective tissue of C3H mouse, Hepa1-6 (mouse hepatoma, C2C12 (mouse myoblast, 3T3-L1 (mouse fat precursor cells. The cells were seeded on the micro pattern at the density of 2000 cells/cm2 in the medium containing 10% FBS (fetal bovine serum and 1% penicillin/ streptomycin. After the adhesion of cells in several hours, the cells are exposed to the ultrasonic vibration for several hours. The cells were observed with a phase contrast microscope. The experimental results show that the cells adhere, deform and migrate on the scaffold with micro patterns regardless of the ultrasonic vibration. The effects of the vibration and the micro pattern depend on the kind of cells.

  16. Trading network predicts stock price.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiao-Qian; Shen, Hua-Wei; Cheng, Xue-Qi

    2014-01-16

    Stock price prediction is an important and challenging problem for studying financial markets. Existing studies are mainly based on the time series of stock price or the operation performance of listed company. In this paper, we propose to predict stock price based on investors' trading behavior. For each stock, we characterize the daily trading relationship among its investors using a trading network. We then classify the nodes of trading network into three roles according to their connectivity pattern. Strong Granger causality is found between stock price and trading relationship indices, i.e., the fraction of trading relationship among nodes with different roles. We further predict stock price by incorporating these trading relationship indices into a neural network based on time series of stock price. Experimental results on 51 stocks in two Chinese Stock Exchanges demonstrate the accuracy of stock price prediction is significantly improved by the inclusion of trading relationship indices.

  17. Global Trade Alert (GTA) - Phase II: Year 2 - Monitoring and Analysis ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Trade data provided by the major international institutions such as the United Nations (UN) ... are not only ponderous and slow to appear, but also focus on traditional border tax ... Building on inputs supplied by regional institutional partners and ... High-level Dialogue on Trade Agreements, Competition and Development.

  18. International biodiesel markets. Developments in production and trade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamers, P. [Ecofys Germany, Berlin (Germany)

    2012-01-15

    The global biodiesel market has shown an exponential growth in production and trade across the past decade. Nowadays, more biodiesel than ever before is sourced from abroad and procurement areas - especially of large scale producers and traders - span the globe. While this trend is bound to continue, markets and trade developments are still strongly linked to support and trade policies. Furthermore, the biodiesel industry is strongly linked to other sectors (agriculture and mineral oil industry in particular) and faces significant market disturbances some of which have led to various inefficiencies in the past. Due to the pace of this market development, a methodological assessment and understanding of the numerous influencing factors was needed to reduce uncertainties and risks for those involved. A recently published analysis by Ecofys and the Copernicus Institute, Utrecht University, provided such an analysis. It evaluates how the interaction of domestic policies steered global trade streams towards different markets, in particular in connection to underlying trade policies and additional market forces, over the past decade. It provides robust data on international production and trade volumes which have already served as input to the recently published Special Report on Renewable Energy (SRREN) by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). This market brochure was commissioned by UFOP to build upon the methodologies and findings of Lamers et al. and to provide a picture of the global biodiesel market in 2010/2011. It is structured in six sections: an overview of global production volumes (Section 2); developments of EU (Section 3) and other world (Section 4) markets and (trade) policies; global net trade volumes (Section 5); vegetable oil trade patterns and their link to biodiesel trade (Section 6); Conclusions and Outlook (Section 7)

  19. International Trade In Forest Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey P. Prestemon; Joseph Buongiomo; David N. Wear; Jacek P. Siry

    2003-01-01

    The 21st century continues a trend of rapid growth in both international trade of forest products and a concern for forests. These two trends are connected. Forces causing trade growth are linked to the loss of native forest resources in some countries and the accumulation of nonnative forest resources in other countries. Factors increasing trade...

  20. Life History Trade-offs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smallegange, I.M.; Kliman, R.M.

    2016-01-01

    Trade-offs play a central role in life history theory. This article explains why they exist, how they arise, how they can be measured, and briefly discusses their evolution. Three important trade-offs are discussed in detail: the trade-off between current reproduction and survival, between current

  1. Removal site evaluation report on the Tower Shielding Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-09-01

    This removal site evaluation report for the Tower Shielding Facility (TSF) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory was prepared to provide the Environmental Restoration Program with information necessary to evaluate whether hazardous and/or radiological contaminants in and around the Tower Shielding Facility pose a substantial risk to human health or the environment (i.e., a high probability of adverse effects) and if remedial site evaluations or removal actions are, therefore, required. The scope of the project included a review of historical evidence regarding operations and use of the facility; interviews with facility personnel concerning current and past operating practices; a site inspection; and identification of hazard areas requiring maintenance, removal, or remedial actions. Based an the findings of this removal site evaluation, adequate efforts are currently being made at the TSF to contain and control existing contamination and hazardous substances on site in order to protect human health and the environment No conditions requiring maintenance or removal actions to mitigate imminent or potential threats to human health and the environment were identified during this evaluation. Given the current conditions and status of the buildings associated with the TSF, this removal site evaluation is considered complete and terminated according to the requirements for removal site evaluation termination

  2. Trends in International Security and Trade (Trade Experts’ Roundtable, 2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elinor Sloan

    2017-08-01

    watchfulness. For example, having modernized its navy, China is flexing its military muscles in the South China Sea, building artificial islands there and bullying the Philippines and Vietnam over their competing claims in the region. If the United States were drawn into a larger conflict there, Canadian business interests would be severely compromised. The perennial tensions between the two nuclear powers Pakistan and India pose a threat to commercial activities in that part of the globe, along with terrorist activity within Pakistan and neighbouring Afghanistan. The terrorism risk is also high domestically in the Philippines, while Canada’s NAFTA partner, Mexico, can be a dangerous place to do business, due to organized crime. And while sub-Saharan Africa would appear to offer great potential for trade, those opportunities must be weighed against the spread of Islamic State supporters, other terrorists and corrupt regimes throughout that continent. Canada cannot even count on stability among its traditional trading partners, with Eastern Europe keeping a wary eye on Russia’s moves and Japan under threat from missiles launched by the volatile North Korean regime. What all this means is that the Canadian organizations doing business assessments must expand their scope. So far, they have limited themselves to looking at individual states and providing information about what is going on inside those states’ borders. However, countries do not exist in bubbles. Canadian entrepreneurs need the bigger picture of risk assessment as seen through a broader international lens. When they understand fully the security dimensions of global commerce, they will be in a much better position to make the right decisions about their business ventures.

  3. Careers in the Renewable Energy and Conservation Professions and Trades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC.

    Many kinds of jobs can be found in the renewable energy and energy conservation industries. This pamphlet indicates that a large career potential exists within the solar and conservation professions and trades. These careers consist of individuals who design, build, or install solar heating or hot water systems, who implement energy conservation…

  4. Union members at the polls in diverse trade union landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Christoph; Rennwald, Line

    2016-01-01

    still enjoy important support from trade union members, but at the same time are under fierce competition from bourgeois and green parties among members of white-collar confederations. This reinforces the challenges for social democracy to build new voters’ coalitions in post-industrial societies....

  5. Emission trading scheme: market analysis and forecasting scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clo, Stefano

    2006-01-01

    This article offers an economic analysis of the Emission Trading Scheme (ETS) and its institutional framework; we introduce an economic model able to simulate some possible market price's scenarios. The aim of this article is to offer a better market fundamentals' comprehension and to help economic agents building their expectations about market's development [it

  6. Building 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Den Ouden, C.; Steemers, T.C.

    1992-01-01

    This is the second volume of Building 2000, a pilot project of the Commission's R and D-programme 'Solar Energy Applications to Buildings' with the purpose of encouraging the adoption of solar architecture in large buildings. In this second rich illustrated volume the results of the design studies illustrating passive solar architecture in buildings in the European Community are presented in particular for the building categories as mentioned in the subtitle. In the first volume, a similar series of studies is presented for the building categories: schools, laboratories and universities, and sports and educational centres. Several Design Support Workshops were organized during the Building 2000 programme during which Building 2000 design teams could directly exchange ideas with the various design advice experts represented at these workshops. In the second part of the Building 2000 final report a summary of a selection of many reports is presented (11 papers), as produced by Design Support experts. Most of the design support activities resulted in changes of the various designs, as have been reported by the design teams in the brochures presented in the first part of this book. It is to be expected that design aids and simulation tools for passive solar options, daylighting concepts, comfort criteria etc., will be utilized more frequently in the future. This will result in a better exchange of information between the actual design practitioners and the European R and D community. This technology transfer will result in buildings with a higher quality with respect to energy and environmental issues

  7. Building 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Den Ouden, C [EGM Engineering BV, Dordrecht (Netherlands); Steemers, T C [Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium)

    1992-01-01

    This is the second volume of Building 2000, a pilot project of the Commission's R and D-programme 'Solar Energy Applications to Buildings' with the purpose of encouraging the adoption of solar architecture in large buildings. In this second rich illustrated volume the results of the design studies illustrating passive solar architecture in buildings in the European Community are presented in particular for the building categories as mentioned in the subtitle. In the first volume, a similar series of studies is presented for the building categories: schools, laboratories and universities, and sports and educational centres. Several Design Support Workshops were organized during the Building 2000 programme during which Building 2000 design teams could directly exchange ideas with the various design advice experts represented at these workshops. In the second part of the Building 2000 final report a summary of a selection of many reports is presented (11 papers), as produced by Design Support experts. Most of the design support activities resulted in changes of the various designs, as have been reported by the design teams in the brochures presented in the first part of this book. It is to be expected that design aids and simulation tools for passive solar options, daylighting concepts, comfort criteria etc., will be utilized more frequently in the future. This will result in a better exchange of information between the actual design practitioners and the European R and D community. This technology transfer will result in buildings with a higher quality with respect to energy and environmental issues.

  8. Plurilateral Trade Deals: An Alternative for Multilateral Trade Agreements?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Ghibuțiu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available While multilateral trade negotiations under the World Trade Organization (WTO continue to be in impasse, plurilateral trade negotiations – i.e. among a group of WTO members – have intensified in recent years, and also recorded a series of concrete results in liberalizing specific sectors of international trade. Hence, there is a widely shared view that plurilateral trade negotiations could be an alternative for the multilateral ones. This paper aims to answer the following questions: What are plurilateral trade agreements? Which are the reasons behind the surge in plurilateral negotiations in recent years? What are the main achievements in liberalizing trade at the plurilateral level? What are the advantages of plurilateral negotiations relative to multilateral ones, and why are they considered an attractive alternative for negotiations at the multilateral level?

  9. How Did Trade Norms Evolve in Scandinavia?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2016-01-01

    As the saying goes, “it takes years to build up trust and only seconds to destroy it.” In this paper, we argue that this is indeed the case when explaining trust formation in Scandinavia. Hence, in an attempt to explain why the Scandinavian welfare states hold the highest social trust scores in t...... trust accumulation. This result points to the importance of free trade today, especially in poor countries with low levels of economic development and high rates of non-literacy....

  10. Open Day at the World Trade Organization

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    On Sunday 6 September, the World Trade Organization will open its doors to the public. Throughout the day there will be guided tours of the building, which will reveal the many works of art donated by countries over the years; on the main terrace, food stands will give visitors a flavour of the worldwide membership of the WTO and provide the opportunity to sample regional specialities; and children can have fun with face painting, a bouncy castle and a drawing contest on the theme "Draw me globalization" and/or "Draw me the WTO". The full programme of activities

  11. Vulnerability to shocks in the global seafood trade network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gephart, Jessica A.; Rovenskaya, Elena; Dieckmann, Ulf; Pace, Michael L.; Brännström, Åke

    2016-03-01

    Trade can allow countries to overcome local or regional losses (shocks) to their food supply, but reliance on international food trade also exposes countries to risks from external perturbations. Countries that are nutritionally or economically dependent on international trade of a commodity may be adversely affected by such shocks. While exposure to shocks has been studied in financial markets, communication networks, and some infrastructure systems, it has received less attention in food-trade networks. Here, we develop a forward shock-propagation model to quantify how trade flows are redistributed under a range of shock scenarios and assess the food-security outcomes by comparing changes in national fish supplies to indices of each country’s nutritional fish dependency. Shock propagation and distribution among regions are modeled on a network of historical bilateral seafood trade data from UN Comtrade using 205 reporting territories grouped into 18 regions. In our model exposure to shocks increases with total imports and the number of import partners. We find that Central and West Africa are the most vulnerable to shocks, with their vulnerability increasing when a willingness-to-pay proxy is included. These findings suggest that countries can reduce their overall vulnerability to shocks by reducing reliance on imports and diversifying food sources. As international seafood trade grows, identifying these types of potential risks and vulnerabilities is important to build a more resilient food system.

  12. Trade in tourism services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Camilla; Zhang, Jie

    2013-01-01

    The article addresses two questions related with tourism as a service trade. Can tourism be explained as other export activities? Does service liberalisation have a positive or negative impact on tourism receipts in destination countries? Previous research has either focused on the demand side...... factors (i.e. factors of demand in the origin countries) or on tourism as a long-run factor of economic growth. The research shows that a complementary perspective such as that offered by trade in a supply side perspective can render additional insights towards understanding tourism. This approach can...... explain why countries have absolute and comparative advantage. Another finding is that tourism as an export can be explained by some of the same destination factors that explain other service exports. Using different panel estimators the importance of supply side factors that are to some extent exclusive...

  13. Tariffs on power trading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van de Water, C.J.

    1995-01-01

    For optimal use of power systems, transmission services must be independent from production. Moreover the costs of electrical energy transmission should be well known and be paid according to a tariff system approximating to the real network costs. These two conditions for power trading will lead to an optimal power system. In a competitive power production market, the transmission and distribution companies will remain monopolistic because they are the only facilitators of power trading. The pricing signals of the transmission and distribution costs determine the playing field for the competitors. These are production offers and bidders. The transmission pricing must for that reason be simple, correct and based on marginal costs to make optimal use of the system

  14. Worlds Apart Trading Together

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evers, Kasper Grønlund

    This study sets out to replace the out-dated notion of ‘Indo-Roman trade’ with a more informed perspective integrating the new findings of the last 30 years.In order to accomplish this, a perspective focusing on concrete demand from the ground up is adopted, also shedding light on the role...... of the market in long-distance exchange. Accordingly, the analysis conducted demonstrates that an economically highly substantial trade took place between the Mediterranean and the Indian Ocean in the 1st–6th century CE, altering patterns of consumption and modes of production in India andSouth Arabia as well...... as the Roman Empire.Significantly, it can be documented that this trade was organised at the centres of demand and supply, in Rome and India, respectively, by comparable urban associations, the transport in-between being handled by equally well-organised groups of seagoing merchants.Consequently, this study...

  15. Trade union revitalisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Christian Lyhne; Tapia, Maite

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we review and assess research on the role of trade unions in labour markets and society, the current decline of unions and union revitalisation. The review shows three main trends. First, trade unions are converging into similar strategies of revitalisation. The ‘organising model...... their traditional strongholds of collective bargaining and corporatist policy-making. Second, research has shown that used strategies are not a panacea for success for unions in countries that pearheaded revitalisation. This finding points to the importance of supportive institutional frameworks if unions...... in adverse institutional contexts, can be effective when they reinvent their repertoires of contention, through political action or campaigning along global value chains....

  16. The Carbon Trading Game

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fouquet, Roger

    2003-12-01

    In response to the Kyoto Protocol, an international market for carbon dioxide tradable permits is likely to be created. Two of the key issues involved are explaining the concepts of tradable permits to industrialists, policy-makers and the man on the street, and anticipating how the market will evolve. A simple game of the market for carbon dioxide tradable permits has been developed and used that can help deal with both issues. As a pedagogical tool, this game benefits from simplicity (just a few pieces of paper are needed) and enables students to grasp the concepts and remember them through the intensity and fun of a trading 'pit'. The experiences also provide substantial insights into the evolution of the carbon dioxide permit market, particularly related to the evolution of trade volume, permit prices and country strategies

  17. a comparative study of some robust ridge and liu estimators

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr A.B.Ahmed

    estimation techniques such as Ridge and Liu Estimators are preferable to Ordinary Least Square. On the other hand, when outliers exist in the data, robust estimators like M, MM, LTS and S. Estimators, are preferred. To handle these two problems jointly, the study combines the Ridge and Liu Estimators with Robust.

  18. Some Improved Classification-Based Ridge Parameter Of Hoerl And ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Of Hoerl And Kennard Estimation Techniques. 1Adewale F. Lukmanand 1Kayode Ayinde. 1 Department of Statistics, ... ordinary least square (OLS) in handling it. However, it requires a ridge parameter, K, of which many have ... handle the problem of multicollinearity. They suggested the addition of ridge parameter K to the ...

  19. Effects of ridge and furrow rainfall harvesting system on Elymus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ARL

    2012-05-10

    May 10, 2012 ... A ridge-furrow rainfall harvesting system (RFRHS) was designed to increase the available soil water for .... The solar energy passed through the plastic-film and heated up the air and the surface soil of ridge and then the heat was trapped by the greenhouse effect (Zhou et al., 2009). Meanwhile, the.

  20. Nonlinear Forecasting With Many Predictors Using Kernel Ridge Regression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Exterkate, Peter; Groenen, Patrick J.F.; Heij, Christiaan

    This paper puts forward kernel ridge regression as an approach for forecasting with many predictors that are related nonlinearly to the target variable. In kernel ridge regression, the observed predictor variables are mapped nonlinearly into a high-dimensional space, where estimation of the predi...

  1. Site characterization of the West Chestnut Ridge site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketelle, R.H.; Huff, D.D.

    1984-09-01

    This report summarizes the results of investigations performed to date on the West Chestnut Ridge Site, on the Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation. The investigations performed include geomorphic observations, areal geologic mapping, surficial soil mapping, subsurface investigations, soil geochemical and mineralogical analyses, geohydrologic testing, groundwater fluctuation monitoring, and surface water discharge and precipitation monitoring. 33 references, 32 figures, 24 tables

  2. Oak Ridge Reservation Annual Site environmental report summary for 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    This document presents a summary of the information collected for the Oak Ridge Reservation 1994 site environmental report. Topics discussed include: Oak Ridge Reservation mission; ecology; environmental laws; community participation; environmental restoration; waste management; radiation effects; chemical effects; risk to public; environmental monitoring; and radionuclide migration

  3. Clinical management of highly resorbed mandibular ridge without fibrous tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veeramalai N Devaki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Alveolar ridge atrophy poses a clinical challenge toward the fabrication of successful prosthesis. Resorption of mandibular denture bearing areas results in unstable non-retentive dentures associated with pain and discomfort. This article describes rehabilitation procedure of a patient with resorbed ridge with maximal areas of coverage to improve support and neutral zone arrangement of teeth to improve stability of denture.

  4. Gender Inequality and Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Busse, Matthias; Spielmann, Christian

    2004-01-01

    The paper empirically explores the international linkages between gender inequality and trade flows of a sample of 92 developed and developing countries. The focus is on comparative advantage in labour-intensive manufactured goods. The results indicate that gender wage inequality is positively associated with comparative advantage in labour-intensive goods, that is, countries with a larger gender wage gap have higher exports of these goods. Also, gender inequality in labour force activity rat...

  5. International Trade Crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Popa Diana

    2011-01-01

    This article captures a brief history of the negotiations of the Doha Development Agenda (DDA), analyzes its deadlock and offers some suggestions for a successful Doha deal. First, this study shows that the nearly decade-long negotiation stalemate is caused by the opposite perceptions between industrialized countries and developing ones on agriculture, as well as by the influences of economic crisis on the world trade. Subsequently, some proposals are presented to solve the current crisis fro...

  6. Trading sulfur dioxide allowances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldburg, C.B.; Lave, L.B.

    1992-01-01

    The 1990 Clean Air Act is aimed at generators larger than 25 MW, as these are the largest polluters. Market incentives give each source an emissions allocation but also flexibility. If a plant has lower emissions than the target, it can sell the 'surplus' emissions as allowances to plants that fail to meet the target. Only a few trades have occurred to date. Market-based incentives should lower the costs of improving environmental quality significantly. However, currently institutional dificulties hamper implementation

  7. Trading as Entertainment?

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Dorn; Paul Sengmueller

    2009-01-01

    Among 1,000 German brokerage clients for whom both survey responses and actual trading records are available, investors who report enjoying investing or gambling turn over their portfolio at twice the rate of their peers. Including entertainment attributes as additional explanatory variables in cross-sectional regressions of portfolio turnover on objective investor attributes more than doubles the fraction of the total variation of portfolio turnover that can be explained. The results are rob...

  8. Firms, Technology and Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Caldera Sanchez, Aida

    2010-01-01

    This doctoral dissertation studies the effect of economic integration on the performance of firms. The ongoing process of global economic integration has been characterized by dismantling of trade barriers and openness to foreign direct investments (FDI). These changes have not only brought opportunities to firms in terms of market access and the possibility to learn about foreign technologies brought in by foreign counterparts. The new economic environment has also posed new challenges throu...

  9. Petrological systematics of mid-ocean ridge basalts: Constraints on melt generation beneath ocean ridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langmuir, Charles H.; Klein, Emily M.; Plank, Terry

    Mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB) are a consequence of pressure-release melting beneath ocean ridges, and contain much information concerning melt formation, melt migration and heterogeneity within the upper mantle. MORB major element chemical systematics can be divided into global and local aspects, once they have been corrected for low pressure fractionation and interlaboratory biases. Regional average compositions for ridges unaffected by hot spots ("normal" ridges) can be used to define the global correlations among normalized Na2O, FeO, TiO2 and SiO2 contents, CaO/Al2O3 ratios, axial depth and crustal thickness. Back-arc basins show similar correlations, but are offset to lower FeO and TiO2 contents. Some hot spots, such as the Azores and Galapagos, disrupt the systematics of nearby ridges and have the opposite relationships between FeO, Na2O and depth over distances of 1000 km. Local variations in basalt chemistry from slow- and fast-spreading ridges are distinct from one another. On slow-spreading ridges, correlations among the elements cross the global vector of variability at a high angle. On the fast-spreading East Pacific Rise (EPR), correlations among the elements are distinct from both global and slow-spreading compositional vectors, and involve two components of variation. Spreading rate does not control the global correlations, but influences the standard deviations of axial depth, crustal thickness, and MgO contents of basalts. Global correlations are not found in very incompatible trace elements, even for samples far from hot spots. Moderately compatible trace elements for normal ridges, however, correlate with the major elements. Trace element systematics are significantly different for the EPR and the mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR). Normal portions of the MAR are very depleted in REE, with little variability; hot spots cause large long wavelength variations in REE abundances. Normal EPR basalts are significantly more enriched than MAR basalts from normal

  10. A proxy late Holocene climatic record deduced from northwest Alaskan beach ridges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, O.K.; Jordan, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    A climatically-sensitive, oscillatory pattern of progradation and erosion is revealed in late Holocene accretionary sand ridge and barrier island complexes of Seward Peninsula, northwest Alaska. Archaeological and geological radiocarbon dates constrain the authors chronology for the Cape Espenberg beach ridge plain and the Shishmaref barrier islands, 50 km to the southwest. Cape Espenberg, acts as the depositional sink for the northeastward longshore transport system and contains the oldest sedimentary deposits: based on 3700±90 B.P. (β-23170) old grass from a paleosol capping a low dune facies. The oldest date on the Shishmaref barrier islands is 1550±70 B.P. (β-23183) and implies that the modem barrier is a comparatively recent phenomenon. Late Holocene sedimentation varies between intervals of erosion and rapid progradation. During erosional periods higher dunes are built atop beach ridges: as between 3000-2000 yrs. BP and intermittently from 1000 BP to the present. At other times, rapid progradation predominated, generating wide swales and low beach ridges without dunes. Tentatively, dune formation is correlative with the Neo-glacial and Little Ice Age glacial advances and increased alluviation in north Alaska. Rapid progradation is contemporaneous with warmer intervals of soil and peat formation atop alluvial terraces, dated to ca. 4000-3500 and 2000-1000 yrs. B.P. In the record of the last 1000 years, dune building is correlative with heightened storminess, as reflected in northwest Alaska tree-ring chronologies and weather anomalies such as spring dust storms and winter thunderstorms in East Asian locations

  11. INTERNATIONAL TRADE WHITH RAPESEED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Lucian PÂNZARU

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The study takes into consideration the international trade situation of rapeseed worldwide. To highlight the situation are analyzed sequentially imports and exports in five units continents: Africa, America, Asia, Europe and Oceania. Applicability and interest increased for trade with this product is emphasized by references from Romania. The study takes into consideration 2008-2010. In terms of world imports and their structure is noted preponderance Europe and Asia in the quantities imported - 87.38% (both, the weights low enough for Oceania and Africa - 0.04 together. If we analyze the situation of exports is apparent fact that Europe remains, as in the case of imports, the main player on the market (48.11%, but not followed by Asia, but of America with a very close relative weight (44 , 45%. Oceania owns more than 5% of world quantitatively of exports, while Asia and Africa have shares almost insignificant - 0.36 and 0.05% respectively. Regarding the situation of global trade balance exchanges for rapeseed can be seen a globally deficient character.

  12. INTERNATIONAL TRADE WITH ONIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Lucian PÂNZARU

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper refers to the global trade situation with onion, 2008-2010. Besides presenting the existing situation of the five units continents (Africa, America, Asia, Europe and Oceania study shows worldwide level of imports and exports, as well as its contribution to the performing acts of international exchange. Quantitative aspects of trade are filled with values data, that allowed the preparation of trade exchanges for this product. The main importer (in quantitative terms is represented by Asia, followed by Europe and at greater distance by the America, while the value of imports was dominated by operations performed in Europe, Asia and America - weights of 39.7 , 38.1 and 18.6% respective (of the world total. Concerning the quantity, the major players on the market exports are represented by Asia and Europe. They have dominated the world market, achieving 45.6 and respective 30.8% of world exports. America ranks third with a share of 17.4%. In terms of value, world exports were dominated by Asia, Europe and America (33.5, 32.7 and respective 26.7%, with a downward trend in the share of Asia and increasing European weights and American (compared to the specific situation of the quantities exported

  13. Laboratory Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrera, Joshua M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This report is an analysis of the means of egress and life safety requirements for the laboratory building. The building is located at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in Albuquerque, NM. The report includes a prescriptive-based analysis as well as a performance-based analysis. Following the analysis are appendices which contain maps of the laboratory building used throughout the analysis. The top of all the maps is assumed to be north.

  14. Trade networks in West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    To date, most of the literature on trade networks in West Africa has considered networks in a metaphorical way. The aim of this paper is to go one step further by showing how social network analysis may be applied to the study of regional trade in West Africa. After a brief review of the literature......, this exploratory paper investigates two main issues related to regional trade. We start by discussing how recent developments in regional trade in West Africa have contributed to challenging the social structure of traders. We then discuss the changes that have affected the spatiality of regional trade by looking...

  15. THE LEGAL CAPACITY TO TRADE

    OpenAIRE

    ADELIN UNGUREANU

    2014-01-01

    Trading is a part of our society. The man has been trading from ancient times so the amount of trades and transactions around the world is huge. In order for us to initiate, organize and deploy such trades we have to have certain rules which can help regulate the social and professional or legal aspect of trades. Therefore the sole trader capacity must be obtained and used in order for the contracts to be valid. The right and obligations that come with this capacity constitute activities t...

  16. International Trade of Biofuels (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-05-01

    In recent years, the production and trade of biofuels has increased to meet global demand for renewable fuels. Ethanol and biodiesel contribute much of this trade because they are the most established biofuels. Their growth has been aided through a variety of policies, especially in the European Union, Brazil, and the United States, but ethanol trade and production have faced more targeted policies and tariffs than biodiesel. This fact sheet contains a summary of the trade of biofuels among nations, including historical data on production, consumption, and trade.

  17. THE LEGAL CAPACITY TO TRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADELIN UNGUREANU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Trading is a part of our society. The man has been trading from ancient times so the amount of trades and transactions around the world is huge. In order for us to initiate, organize and deploy such trades we have to have certain rules which can help regulate the social and professional or legal aspect of trades. Therefore the sole trader capacity must be obtained and used in order for the contracts to be valid. The right and obligations that come with this capacity constitute activities that can be reflected and analysed by obtaining and maintain the sole trader status.

  18. The ASEAN Free Trade Agreement: impact on trade flows and external trade barriers

    OpenAIRE

    Hector Calvo-Pardo; Caroline Freund; Emanuel Ornelas

    2009-01-01

    Using detailed data on trade and tariffs from 1992-2007, the authors examine how the ASEAN Free Trade Agreement has affected trade with nonmembers and external tariffs facing nonmembers. First, the paper examines the effect of preferential and external tariff reduction on import growth from ASEAN insiders and outsiders across HS 6-digit industries. The analysis finds no evidence that prefe...

  19. On the mean squared error of the ridge estimator of the covariance and precision matrix

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wieringen, Wessel N.

    2017-01-01

    For a suitably chosen ridge penalty parameter, the ridge regression estimator uniformly dominates the maximum likelihood regression estimator in terms of the mean squared error. Analogous results for the ridge maximum likelihood estimators of covariance and precision matrix are presented.

  20. Crustal structure and tectonics of the Ninetyeast Ridge from seismic and gravity studies

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Krishna, K.S.; Neprochnov, Y.P.; Rao, D.G.; Grinko, B.N.

    Seismic reflection and refraction, gravity, and bathymetric data across and along the central part of the Ninetyeast Ridge were analyzed to determine the crustal structure of the ridge and to understand its tectonics. The ridge in the study area...

  1. Papillary fibroelastoma arising from the coumadin ridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahim Malik

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac papillary fibroelastomas (CPF are rare cardiac tumors, mostly found on the valvular surfaces in the heart. These tumors are frond like in nature and are benign, intracardiac masses, rarely causing any hemodynamic disturbances. However, excision of these masses is indicated due to their propensity to embolize. We present a case report of the tumor found on the coumadin ridge, causing transient ischemic attacks in a patient. We performed complete excision of the tumor via median sternotomy on cardiopulmonary bypass support with cardiac arrest. The diagnosis was confirmed by histological examination. The patient had an uneventful postoperative course and was discharghed on postoperative day 4. She has had complete resolution of her symptoms post excision. The diagnosis of the mass was confirmed on histological examination.

  2. Oak Ridge Reservation environmental report for 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prince, N.L.

    1989-05-01

    The first two volumes of this report are devoted to a presentation of environmental data and supporting narratives for the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) and surrounding environs during 1988. Volume 1 includes all narrative descriptions, summaries, and conclusions and is intended to be a ''stand-alone'' report for the ORR for the reader who does not want to review in detail all of the 1988 data. Volume 2 includes the detailed data summarized in a format to ensure that all environmental data are represented in the tables. Narratives are not included in Volume 2. The tables in Volume 2 are addressed in Volume 1. For this reason, Vol. 2 cannot be considered a stand-alone report but is intended to be used in conjunction with Volume 1

  3. Model Selection in Kernel Ridge Regression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Exterkate, Peter

    Kernel ridge regression is gaining popularity as a data-rich nonlinear forecasting tool, which is applicable in many different contexts. This paper investigates the influence of the choice of kernel and the setting of tuning parameters on forecast accuracy. We review several popular kernels......, including polynomial kernels, the Gaussian kernel, and the Sinc kernel. We interpret the latter two kernels in terms of their smoothing properties, and we relate the tuning parameters associated to all these kernels to smoothness measures of the prediction function and to the signal-to-noise ratio. Based...... on these interpretations, we provide guidelines for selecting the tuning parameters from small grids using cross-validation. A Monte Carlo study confirms the practical usefulness of these rules of thumb. Finally, the flexible and smooth functional forms provided by the Gaussian and Sinc kernels makes them widely...

  4. Melton Valley Storage Tanks Capacity Increase Project, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to construct and maintain additional storage capacity at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, Tennessee, for liquid low-level radioactive waste (LLLW). New capacity would be provided by a facility partitioned into six individual tank vaults containing one 100,000 gallon LLLW storage tank each. The storage tanks would be located within the existing Melton Valley Storage Tank (MVST) facility. This action would require the extension of a potable water line approximately one mile from the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) area to the proposed site to provide the necessary potable water for the facility including fire protection. Alternatives considered include no-action, cease generation, storage at other ORR storage facilities, source treatment, pretreatment, and storage at other DOE facilities

  5. Source document for waste area groupings at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osborne, P.L.; Kuhaida, A.J., Jr.

    1996-09-01

    This document serves as a source document for Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and other types of documents developed for and pertaining to Environmental Restoration (ER) Program activities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). It contains descriptions of the (1) regulatory requirements for the ORR ER Program, (2) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) ER Program, (3) ORNL site history and characterization, and (4) history and characterization of Waste Area Groupings (WAGS) 1-20. This document was created to save time, effort, and money for persons and organizations drafting documents for the ER Program and to improve consistency in the documents prepared for the program. By eliminating the repetitious use of selected information about the program, this document will help reduce the time and costs associated with producing program documents. By serving as a benchmark for selected information about the ER Program, this reference will help ensure that information presented in future documents is accurate and complete

  6. Oak Ridge Health Studies phase 1 report, Volume 1: Oak Ridge Phase 1 overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yarbrough, M.I.; Van Cleave, M.L.; Turri, P.; Daniel, J.

    1993-09-01

    In July 1991, the State of Tennessee initiated the Health Studies Agreement with the United States Department of Energy to carry out independent studies of possible adverse health effects in people living in the vicinity of the Oak Ridge Reservation. The health studies focus on those effects that could have resulted or could result from exposures to chemicals and radioactivity released at the Reservation since 1942. The major focus of the first phase was to complete a Dose Reconstruction Feasibility Study. This study was designed to find out if enough data exist about chemical and radionuclide releases from the Oak Ridge Reservation to conduct a second phase. The second phase will lead to estimates of the actual amounts or the ``doses`` of various contaminants received by people as a result of off-site releases. Once the doses of various contaminants have been estimated, scientists and physicians will be better able to evaluate whether adverse health effects could have resulted from the releases.

  7. Oak Ridge Health Studies phase 1 report, Volume 1: Oak Ridge Phase 1 overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yarbrough, M.I.; Van Cleave, M.L.; Turri, P.; Daniel, J.

    1993-09-01

    In July 1991, the State of Tennessee initiated the Health Studies Agreement with the United States Department of Energy to carry out independent studies of possible adverse health effects in people living in the vicinity of the Oak Ridge Reservation. The health studies focus on those effects that could have resulted or could result from exposures to chemicals and radioactivity released at the Reservation since 1942. The major focus of the first phase was to complete a Dose Reconstruction Feasibility Study. This study was designed to find out if enough data exist about chemical and radionuclide releases from the Oak Ridge Reservation to conduct a second phase. The second phase will lead to estimates of the actual amounts or the ''doses'' of various contaminants received by people as a result of off-site releases. Once the doses of various contaminants have been estimated, scientists and physicians will be better able to evaluate whether adverse health effects could have resulted from the releases

  8. Gravity with Intermediate Goods Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujin Jang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper derives the gravity equation with intermediate goods trade. We extend a standard monopolistic competition model to incorporate intermediate goods trade, and show that the gravity equation with intermediates trade is identical to the one without it except in that gross output should be used as the output measure instead of value added. We also show that the output elasticity of trade is significantly underestimated when value added is used as the output measure. This implies that with the conventional gravity equation, the contribution of output growth can be substantially underestimated and the role of trade costs reduction can be exaggerated in explaining trade expansion, as we demonstrate for the case of Korea's trade growth between 1995 and 2007.

  9. International red meat trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brester, Gary W; Marsh, John M; Plain, Ronald L

    2003-07-01

    The maturation of the US beef and pork markets and increasing consumer demands for convenience, safety, and nutrition suggests that the beef and pork industries must focus on product development and promotion. New marketing arrangements are developing that help coordinate production with consumer demands. The relative high levels of incomes in the United States are likely to increase the demands for branded products rather than increase total per capita consumption. Foreign markets represent the greatest opportunity for increased demand for commodity beef and pork products. Increasing incomes in developing countries will likely allow consumers to increase consumption of animal-source proteins. Real prices of beef and pork have declined substantially because of sagging domestic demand and increasing farm-level production technologies. Increasing US beef and pork exports have obviated some of the price declines. Pork attained a net export position from a quantity perspective in 1995. The United States continues to be a net importer of beef on a quantity basis but is close to becoming a net exporter in terms of value. By-products continue to play a critical role in determining the red meat trade balance and producer prices. The United States, however, must continue to become cost, price, and quality competitive with other suppliers and must secure additional market access if it is to sustain recent trade trends. Several trade tensions remain in the red meat industry. For example, mandated COOL will undoubtedly have domestic and international effects on the beef and pork sectors. Domestically, uncertainty regarding consumer demand responses or quality perceptions regarding product origin, as well as added processor-retailer costs will be nontrivial. How these factors balance out in terms of benefits versus costs to the industry is uncertain. From an international perspective, some beef and pork export suppliers to the United States could view required labeling as a

  10. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Technology Logic Diagram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory Technology Logic Diagram (TLD) was developed to provide a decision support tool that relates environmental restoration (ER) and waste management (WM) problems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to potential technologies that can remediate these problems. The TLD identifies the research, development, demonstration testing, and evaluation needed to develop these technologies to a state that allows technology transfer and application to decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D), remedial action (RA), and WM activities. The TLD consists of three fundamentally separate volumes: Vol. 1, Technology Evaluation; Vol. 2, Technology Logic Diagram and Vol. 3, Technology EvaLuation Data Sheets. Part A of Vols. 1 and 2 focuses on RA. Part B of Vols. 1 and 2 focuses on the D ampersand D of contaminated facilities. Part C of Vols. 1 and 2 focuses on WM. Each part of Vol. 1 contains an overview of the TM, an explanation of the problems facing the volume-specific program, a review of identified technologies, and rankings of technologies applicable to the site. Volume 2 (Pts. A. B. and C) contains the logic linkages among EM goals, environmental problems, and the various technologies that have the potential to solve these problems. Volume 3 (Pts. A. B, and C) contains the TLD data sheets. This volume provides the technology evaluation data sheets (TEDS) for ER/WM activities (D ampersand D, RA and WM) that are referenced by a TEDS code number in Vol. 2 of the TLD. Each of these sheets represents a single logic trace across the TLD. These sheets contain more detail than is given for the technologies in Vol. 2

  11. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Technology Logic Diagram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory Technology Logic Diagram (TLD) was developed to provide a decision-support tool that relates environmental restoration (ER) and waste management (WM) problems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to potential technologies that can remediate these problems. The TLD identifies the research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation needed to develop these technologies to a state that allows technology transfer and application to decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D), remedial action (RA), and WM activities. The TLD consists of three fundamentally separate volumes: Vol. 1 (Technology Evaluation), Vol. 2 (Technology Logic Diagram), and Vol. 3 (Technology Evaluation Data Sheets). Part A of Vols. 1 and 2 focuses on D ampersand D. Part B of Vols. 1 and 2 focuses on RA of contaminated facilities. Part C of Vols. 1 and 2 focuses on WM. Each part of Vol. 1 contains an overview of the TLD, an explanation of the program-specific responsibilities, a review of identified technologies, and the ranking os remedial technologies. Volume 2 (Pts. A, B, and C) contains the logic linkages among EM goals, environmental problems, and the various technologies that have the potential to solve these problems. Volume 3 (Pts. A, B, and C) contains the TLD data sheets. The focus of Vol. 1, Pt. B, is RA, and it has been divided into six chapters. The first chapter is an introduction, which defines problems specific to the ER Program for ORNL. Chapter 2 provides a general overview of the TLD. Chapters 3 through 5 are organized into necessary subelement categories: RA, characterization, and robotics and automation. The final chapter contains regulatory compliance information concerning RA

  12. Tiger team assessment of the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1990-02-01

    This document contains findings identified during the Tiger Team Compliance Assessment of the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Y-12 Plant in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The Y-12 Plant Tiger Team Compliance Assessment is comprehensive in scope. It covers the Environmental, Safety, and Health (including Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) compliance), and Management areas and determines the plant's compliance with applicable federal (including DOE), state, and local regulations and requirements. 4 figs., 12 tabs.

  13. Site descriptions of environmental restoration units at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhaida, A.J. Jr.; Parker, A.F.

    1997-02-01

    This report provides summary information on Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Environmental Restoration (ER) sites as listed in the Oak Ridge Reservation Federal Facility Agreement (FFA), dated January 1, 1992, Appendix C. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory was built in 1943 as part of the World War II Manhattan Project. The original mission of ORNL was to produce and chemically separate the first gram-quantities of plutonium as part of the national effort to produce the atomic bomb. The current mission of ORNL is to provide applied research and development in support of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) programs in nuclear fusion and fission, energy conservation, fossil fuels, and other energy technologies and to perform basic scientific research in selected areas of the physical, life, and environmental sciences. ER is also tasked with clean up or mitigation of environmental impacts resulting from past waste management practices on portions of the approximately 37,000 acres within the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). Other installations located within the ORR are the Gaseous Diffusion Plant (K-25) and the Y-12 plant. The remedial action strategy currently integrates state and federal regulations for efficient compliance and approaches for both investigations and remediation efforts on a Waste Area Grouping (WAG) basis. As defined in the ORR FFA Quarterly Report July - September 1995, a WAG is a grouping of potentially contaminated sites based on drainage area and similar waste characteristics. These contaminated sites are further divided into four categories based on existing information concerning whether the data are generated for scoping or remedial investigation (RI) purposes. These areas are as follows: (1) Operable Units (OU); (2) Characterization Areas (CA); (3) Remedial Site Evaluation (RSE) Areas; and (4) Removal Site Evaluation (RmSE) Areas.

  14. 15 CFR 400.45 - Retail trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Retail trade. 400.45 Section 400.45 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) FOREIGN-TRADE ZONES BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE REGULATIONS OF THE FOREIGN-TRADE ZONES BOARD Zone Operations and...

  15. Site descriptions of environmental restoration units at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goddard, P.L.; Legeay, A.J.; Pesce, D.S.; Stanley, A.M.

    1995-11-01

    This report, Site Descriptions of Environmental Restoration Units at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, is being prepared to assimilate information on sites included in the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program of the K-25 Site, one of three major installations on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) built during World War III as part of the Manhattan Project. The information included in this report will be used to establish program priorities so that resources allotted to the K-25 ER Program can be best used to decrease any risk to humans or the environment, and to determine the sequence in which any remedial activities should be conducted. This document will be updated periodically in both paper and Internet versions. Units within this report are described in individual data sheets arranged alphanumerically. Each data sheet includes entries on project status, unit location, dimensions and capacity, dates operated, present function, lifecycle operation, waste characteristics, site status, media of concern, comments, and references. Each data sheet is accompanied by a photograph of the unit, and each unit is located on one of 13 area maps. These areas, along with the sub-area, unit, and sub-unit breakdowns within them, are outlined in Appendix A. Appendix B is a summary of information on remote aerial sensing and its applicability to the ER program

  16. Microgravity survey of the Oak Ridge K-25 Site, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufmann, R.D.

    1996-05-01

    Karst features are known to exist within the carbonate bedrock of the Oak Ridge K-25 Site and may play an important role in groundwater flow and contaminant migration. This report discusses the results of a microgravity survey of the Oak Ridge K-25 Site. The main objective of the survey is to identify areas containing bedrock cavities. Secondary objectives included correlating the observed gravity to the geology and to variations in overburden thickness. The analysis includes 11 profile lines that are oriented perpendicular to the geologic strike and major structures throughout the K-25 Site. The profile lines are modeled in an effort to relate gravity anomalies to karst features such as concentrations of mud-filled cavities. Regolith thickness and density data provided by boreholes constrain the models. Areally distributed points are added to the profile lines to produce a gravity contour map of the site. In addition, data from the K-901 area are combined with data from previous surveys to produce a high resolution map of that site. The K-25 Site is located in an area of folded and faulted sedimentary rocks within the Appalachian Valley and Ridge physiographic province. Paleozoic age rocks of the Rome Formation, Knox Group, and Chickamauga Supergroup underlie the K-25 Site and contain structures that include the Whiteoak Mountain Fault, the K-25 Fault, a syncline, and an anticline. The mapped locations of the rock units and complex structures are currently derived from outcrop and well log analysis

  17. Site descriptions of environmental restoration units at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goddard, P.L.; Legeay, A.J.; Pesce, D.S.; Stanley, A.M.

    1995-11-01

    This report, Site Descriptions of Environmental Restoration Units at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, is being prepared to assimilate information on sites included in the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program of the K-25 Site, one of three major installations on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) built during World War III as part of the Manhattan Project. The information included in this report will be used to establish program priorities so that resources allotted to the K-25 ER Program can be best used to decrease any risk to humans or the environment, and to determine the sequence in which any remedial activities should be conducted. This document will be updated periodically in both paper and Internet versions. Units within this report are described in individual data sheets arranged alphanumerically. Each data sheet includes entries on project status, unit location, dimensions and capacity, dates operated, present function, lifecycle operation, waste characteristics, site status, media of concern, comments, and references. Each data sheet is accompanied by a photograph of the unit, and each unit is located on one of 13 area maps. These areas, along with the sub-area, unit, and sub-unit breakdowns within them, are outlined in Appendix A. Appendix B is a summary of information on remote aerial sensing and its applicability to the ER program.

  18. Building a capacity building manual

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Clinton, DD

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Organizations 2010 Building a capacity building manual Daniel D. Clinton, Jr., P.E., F.NSPE Chair, WFEO Capacity Building Committee Dr Andrew Cleland, FIPENZ, Chief Executive, IPENZ, NZ Eng David Botha, FSAICE, Executive Director, SAICE, SA Dawit... 2010 Tertiary level University curricula Coaches and mentors Facilities EXCeeD Remuneration of Academics Experiential training Outreach to Students Students chapters Young members forum World Federation of Engineering Organizations 2010 Post...

  19. Geomorphological investigation of multiphase glacitectonic composite ridge systems in Svalbard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, Harold; Benn, Douglas I.; Lukas, Sven; Spagnolo, Matteo; Cook, Simon J.; Swift, Darrel A.; Clark, Chris D.; Yde, Jacob C.; Watts, Tom

    2018-01-01

    Some surge-type glaciers on the High-Arctic archipelago of Svalbard have large glacitectonic composite ridge systems at their terrestrial margins. These have formed by rapid glacier advance into proglacial sediments during the active surge phase, creating multicrested moraine complexes. Such complexes can be formed during single surge advances or multiple surges to successively less-extensive positions. The few existing studies of composite ridge systems have largely relied on detailed information on internal structure and sedimentology to reconstruct their formation and links to surge processes. However, natural exposures of internal structure are commonly unavailable, and the creation of artificial exposures is often problematic in fragile Arctic environments. To compensate for these issues, we investigate the potential for reconstructing composite ridge system formation based on geomorphological evidence alone, focusing on clear morphostratigraphic relationships between ridges within the moraine complex and relict meltwater channels/outwash fans. Based on mapping at the margins of Finsterwalderbreen (in Van Keulenfjorden) and Grønfjordbreen (in Grønfjorden), we show that relict meltwater channels that breach outer parts of the composite ridge systems are in most cases truncated upstream within the ridge complex by an inner pushed ridge or ridges at their ice-proximal extents. Our interpretation of this relationship is that the entire composite ridge system is unlikely to have formed during the same glacier advance but is instead the product of multiple advances to successively less-extensive positions, whereby younger ridges are emplaced on the ice-proximal side of older ridges. This indicates that the Finsterwalderbreen composite ridge system has been formed by multiple separate advances, consistent with the cyclicity of surges. Being able to identify the frequency and magnitude of former surges is important as it provides insight into the past behaviour of

  20. Foreign trade legislation, war weapons control legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hucko, E.M.

    1993-01-01

    The volume contains, in addition to an introduction into the matter, the texts of the Foreign Trade Act (FTA), the War Weapons Control Act and all relevant ordinances. Foreign trade transactions of the Federal Republic of Germany are essentially, but not exclusively, governed by the FTA. They are strongly influenced by the legislation of the European Communities which in the form of directives are immediately effective here, and in the form of guidelines oblige the German lawgiver or ordinance giver to translate them into practice, mostly by appropriate modifications of the foreign trade ordinance, the import and export lists. It is not the war weapons which are the problem, but the so-called dual-use goods, namely articles, technologies and knowledge which, as a rule, serve civil purposes, which, however, may be used also to produce weapons, in particular ABC weapons or rockets. Nowadays we are concerned about several third-world states which are obsessed by the wish to build their own atomic bomb. (orig./HSCH) [de

  1. Japan's big trading companies find themselves underemployed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coeyman, M.

    1992-01-01

    Japan's sogoshosha - its large trading companies - are fighting their way through an identity crisis. Originally established to help connect Japanese products and companies with offshore customers and a global market, the sogoshosha suddenly find that they are no longer in demand. The trading companies were originally intermediaries, says Yasunori Masuda, v.p. of Mitsui's chemical dividion (New York). But now we are less intermediaries and more organizers of joint ventures. Mitsubishi has a position in Saudi Arabia in methanol, ethylene glycol, and polyethylene (PE), currently being expanded. More recently the company teamed up with Pequiven, Venezuela's state-owned petrochemicals firm, on a 2,000-m.t./day methanol plant to be completed by the end of 1993 at Jose. Sone says Mitsubishi plans to market the methanol in the US Mitsubishi is also working on a feasibility study for a chlor-alkali/ethylene dichloride venture with Pequiven. Mitsubishi has jointed with five Japanese trading companies - Itochu, Marubeni, Mitsui, Sumitomo, and Nissho Iwai - to build a 450,000-m.t./year ethylene plant in China

  2. Learning to trade via direct reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, J; Saffell, M

    2001-01-01

    We present methods for optimizing portfolios, asset allocations, and trading systems based on direct reinforcement (DR). In this approach, investment decision-making is viewed as a stochastic control problem, and strategies are discovered directly. We present an adaptive algorithm called recurrent reinforcement learning (RRL) for discovering investment policies. The need to build forecasting models is eliminated, and better trading performance is obtained. The direct reinforcement approach differs from dynamic programming and reinforcement algorithms such as TD-learning and Q-learning, which attempt to estimate a value function for the control problem. We find that the RRL direct reinforcement framework enables a simpler problem representation, avoids Bellman's curse of dimensionality and offers compelling advantages in efficiency. We demonstrate how direct reinforcement can be used to optimize risk-adjusted investment returns (including the differential Sharpe ratio), while accounting for the effects of transaction costs. In extensive simulation work using real financial data, we find that our approach based on RRL produces better trading strategies than systems utilizing Q-learning (a value function method). Real-world applications include an intra-daily currency trader and a monthly asset allocation system for the S&P 500 Stock Index and T-Bills.

  3. Preliminary Analysis of the Knipovich Ridge Segmentation - Influence of Focused Magmatism and Ridge Obliquity on an Ultraslow Spreading System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okino, K.; Curewitz, D.; Asada, M.; Tamaki, K.

    2002-12-01

    Bathymetry, gravity and deep-tow sonar image data are used to define the segmentation of a 400 km long portion of the ultraslow-spreading Knipovich Ridge in the Norwegian-Greenland Sea, Northeast Atlantic Ocean. Discrete volcanic centers marked by large volcanic constructions and accompanying short wavelength mantle Bouguer anomaly (MBA) lows generally resemble those of the Gakkel Ridge and the easternmost Southwest Indian Ridge (SWIR). These magmatically robust segment centers are regularly spaced about 85-100 km apart along the ridge, and are characterized by accumulated hummocky terrain, high relief, off-axis seamount chains and significant MBA lows. We suggest that these eruptive centers correspond to areas of enhanced magma flux, and that their spacing reflects the geometry of underlying mantle upwelling cells. The large-scale thermal structure of the mantle primarily controls discrete and focused magmatism, and the relatively wide spacing of these segments may reflect cool mantle beneath the ridge. Segment centers along the southern Knipovich Ridge are characterized by lower relief and smaller MBA anomalies than along the northern section of the ridge. This suggests that ridge obliquity is a secondary control on ridge construction on the Knipovich Ridge, as the obliquity changes from 35° to 49° from north to south, respectively, while spreading rate and axial depth remain approximately constant. The increased obliquity may contribute to decreased effective spreading rates, lower upwelling magma velocity and melt formation, and limited horizontal dike propagation near the surface. We also identify small, magmatically weaker segments with low relief, little or no MBA anomaly, and no off axis expression. We suggest that these segments are either fed by lateral melt migration from adjacent magmatically stronger segments or represent smaller, discrete mantle upwelling centers with short-lived melt supply.

  4. Preliminary analysis of the Knipovich Ridge segmentation: influence of focused magmatism and ridge obliquity on an ultraslow spreading system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okino, Kyoko; Curewitz, Daniel; Asada, Miho; Tamaki, Kensaku; Vogt, Peter; Crane, Kathleen

    2002-09-01

    Bathymetry, gravity and deep-tow sonar image data are used to define the segmentation of a 400 km long portion of the ultraslow-spreading Knipovich Ridge in the Norwegian-Greenland Sea, Northeast Atlantic Ocean. Discrete volcanic centers marked by large volcanic constructions and accompanying short wavelength mantle Bouguer anomaly (MBA) lows generally resemble those of the Gakkel Ridge and the easternmost Southwest Indian Ridge. These magmatically robust segment centers are regularly spaced about 85-100 km apart along the ridge, and are characterized by accumulated hummocky terrain, high relief, off-axis seamount chains and significant MBA lows. We suggest that these eruptive centers correspond to areas of enhanced magma flux, and that their spacing reflects the geometry of underlying mantle upwelling cells. The large-scale thermal structure of the mantle primarily controls discrete and focused magmatism, and the relatively wide spacing of these segments may reflect cool mantle beneath the ridge. Segment centers along the southern Knipovich Ridge are characterized by lower relief and smaller MBA anomalies than along the northern section of the ridge. This suggests that ridge obliquity is a secondary control on ridge construction on the Knipovich Ridge, as the obliquity changes from 35° to 49° from north to south, respectively, while spreading rate and axial depth remain approximately constant. The increased obliquity may contribute to decreased effective spreading rates, lower upwelling magma velocity and melt formation, and limited horizontal dike propagation near the surface. We also identify small, magmatically weaker segments with low relief, little or no MBA anomaly, and no off-axis expression. We suggest that these segments are either fed by lateral melt migration from adjacent magmatically stronger segments or represent smaller, discrete mantle upwelling centers with short-lived melt supply.

  5. Trade Policy Preferences and the Factor Content of Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jäkel, Ina Charlotte; Smolka, Marcel

    demonstrate that the factor price changes induced by trade policy are negatively correlated with the factor content of free trade (and therefore factor abundance). Using large-scale international survey data, we test whether these predicted distributional effects are reflected in the trade policy preferences...... of workers with different labor market skills. In order to isolate the effects of factor abundance from other skill-related confounding factors, we employ a within-skill-group estimator that exploits the cross-country variation in the factor content of free trade. In line with theory, the data show......This paper provides a theoretical and empirical analysis of public opinion towards free trade, investigating cleavages both between and within countries. We study the distributional effects of trade policy in a neoclassical economy with not just two, but many input factors in production. We...

  6. The Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership - A View from America's Trenches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bledowski Krzysztof

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Expectations run high about the cornucopia of riches which are supposed to fow from the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP. TTIP is a proposed free trade agreement between the United States and the European Union. It aims to build upon the already sweeping scope of the North American Free Trade Agreement concluded two decades earlier and the 2013 Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement (CETA, which removes 99 % of tariffs between the EU and Canada.1 Te TTIP negotiations were launched in July 2013 with an initial time frame of completion within two years.

  7. Derivation of Building Energy Use Intensity Targets for ASHRAE Standard 100

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharp, Terry R [ORNL

    2014-06-01

    The steps to develop the building energy use intensity targets for American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Standard 100, Energy Efficiency in Existing Buildings are outlined in this report. The analyses were conducted by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in collaboration with the ASHRAE Standard 100 committee and Dr. Alexander Zhivov, the subcommittee chair responsible for targets development.

  8. ENVIRONMENTAL BASELINE SURVEY REPORT FOR WEST BLACK OAK RIDGE, EAST BLACK OAK RIDGE, MCKINNEY RIDGE, WEST PINE RIDGE, AND PARCEL 21D IN THE VICINITY OF THE EAST TENNESSEE TECHNOLOGY PARK, OAK RIDGE, TENNESSEE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David A. King

    2012-11-29

    This environmental baseline survey (EBS) report documents the baseline environmental conditions of five land parcels located near the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP), including West Black Oak Ridge, East Black Oak Ridge, McKinney Ridge, West Pine Ridge, and Parcel 21d. The goal is to obtain all media no-further-investigation (NFI) determinations for the subject parcels considering existing soils. To augment the existing soils-only NFI determinations, samples of groundwater, surface water, soil, and sediment were collected to support all media NFI decisions. The only updates presented here are those that were made after the original issuance of the NFI documents. In the subject parcel where the soils NFI determination was not completed for approval (Parcel 21d), the full process has been performed to address the soils as well. Preparation of this report included the detailed search of federal government records, title documents, aerial photos that may reflect prior uses, and visual inspections of the property and adjacent properties. Interviews with current employees involved in, or familiar with, operations on the real property were also conducted to identify any areas on the property where hazardous substances and petroleum products, or their derivatives, and acutely hazardous wastes may have been released or disposed. In addition, a search was made of reasonably obtainable federal, state, and local government records of each adjacent facility where there has been a release of any hazardous substance or any petroleum product or their derivatives, including aviation fuel and motor oil, and which is likely to cause or contribute to a release of any hazardous substance or any petroleum product or its derivatives, including aviation fuel or motor oil, on the real property. A radiological survey and soil/sediment sampling was conducted to assess baseline conditions of Parcel 21d that were not addressed by the soils-only NFI

  9. Aerodynamic roughness length related to non-aggregated tillage ridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kardous

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Wind erosion in agricultural soils is dependent, in part, on the aerodynamic roughness length (z0 produced by tillage ridges. Although previous studies have related z0 to ridge characteristics (ridge height (RH and spacing (RS, these relationships have not been tested for tillage ridges observed in the North African agricultural fields. In these regions, due to climate and soil conditions, small plowing tools are largely used. Most of these tools produce non-aggregated and closely-spaced small ridges. Thus, experiments were conducted in a 7-m long wind tunnel to measure z0 for 11 ridge types covering the range of geometric characteristics frequently observed in south Tunisia. Experimental results suggest that RH2/RS is the first order parameter controlling z0. A strong relationship between z0 and RH2/RS is proposed for a wide range of ridge characteristics.

  10. Hydrodynamic role of longitudinal ridges in a leatherback turtle swimming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Kyeongtae; Kim, Jooha; Lee, Sang-Im; Choi, Haecheon

    2015-11-01

    The leatherback sea turtle (Dermochelys coriacea), the fastest swimmer and the deepest diver among marine turtles, has five longitudinal ridges on its carapace. These ridges are the most remarkable morphological features distinguished from other marine turtles. To investigate the hydrodynamic role of these ridges in the leatherback turtle swimming, we model a carapace with and without ridges by using three dimensional surface data of a stuffed leatherback turtle in the National Science Museum, Korea. The experiment is conducted in a wind tunnel in the ranges of the real leatherback turtle's Reynolds number (Re) and angle of attack (α). The longitudinal ridges function differently according to the flow condition (i.e. Re and α). At low Re and negative α that represent the swimming condition of hatchlings and juveniles, the ridges significantly decrease the drag by generating streamwise vortices and delaying the main separation. On the other hand, at high Re and positive α that represent the swimming condition of adults, the ridges suppress the laminar separation bubble near the front part by generating streamwise vortices and enhance the lift and lift-to-drag ratio. Supported by the NRF program (2011-0028032).

  11. Application Actuation Trade Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    32 RCA PRICE-L Podel Calculated 0 & S Values 138 33 RCA PRICE LCC Summery - Typical LRU 139 34 Airplane Actuation Trade Study LCC Summary 140 35...results achieved can be duplicated by a user. The RCA PRICE Podel calculates the RDTSE. Production cost, and creates the YiDF file for use in the PCA...PR ICE L). Some of the basic program ground rules for this study were as follows: RCA - PRICE Cost Podel RCA - PRICE L Model Prototype Hardware 10

  12. Trading health for money

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ajslev, Jeppe Zielinski Nguyen; Møller, Jeppe Lykke; Persson, Roger

    2017-01-01

    Construction work is physically demanding and often associated with bodily pain. This article presents a study of construction workers’ practices of using and relating to their bodies at work through an agential realist framework for analysing the (re)configuration of the workers’ embodied...... subjectivity. The analysis draws on interviews with 32 Danish construction workers as well as brief observations. The article shows how ‘trading health for money’ becomes a mode for maintaining positive social, occupational and masculine identity among construction workers. Furthermore, it shows how the agency...

  13. International trade in uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two reports are presented; one has been prepared by the Uranium Institute and is submitted by the United Kingdom delegation, the other by the United States delegation. The report of the Uranium Institute deals with the influence of the government on international trade in uranium. This influence becomes apparent predominantly by export and import restrictions, as well as by price controls. The contribution submitted by the United States is a uranium market trend analysis, with pricing methods and contracting modes as well as the effect of government policies being investigated in the light of recent developments

  14. International nuclear trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biad, A.; Cormis, F. de; Kerever, A.

    1998-01-01

    This third part is relative to the international nuclear trade it includes: the 1996 EURATOM/Usa Agreement on the peaceful Uses of nuclear energy: EURATOM Strengthened, a case study on IVO Power engineering Oy as a supplier to Russia, lessons learned from the Us/EURATOM Agreement for Cooperation, negotiating the parameters of nuclear regulation: lessons from South Africa, Good and new business in Brazil's nuclear energy field, cooperation between Russia and european union in the nuclear field: the legal basis, present status and future prospects, the industrial implications of the non proliferation policy. (N.C.)

  15. Passive-Aggressive Trading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Susan E. K.; Keim, Donald B.; Musto, David K.

    Fund managers can demand liquidity for their trading ideas or provide liquidity for others’ ideas. We identify the roles of these motives using a database of the individual transactions by Canadian equity funds. Both the cost and subsequent performance of their buys decline after strong inflows......, indicating the depletion of ideas and substitution into liquidity provision as funds put new money to work. Sales show little of this substitution, consistent with funds’ narrower latitude to provide liquidity to buyers. In general, the option to provide liquidity makes fund returns positive...

  16. Act locally, trade globally. Emissions trading for climate policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none

    2005-07-01

    Climate policy raises a number of challenges for the energy sector, the most significant being the transition from a high to a low-CO2 energy path in a few decades. Emissions trading has become the instrument of choice to help manage the cost of this transition, whether used at international or at domestic level. Act Locally, Trade Globally, offers an overview of existing trading systems, their mechanisms, and looks into the future of the instrument for limiting greenhouse gas emissions. Are current markets likely to be as efficient as the theory predicts? What is, if any, the role of governments in these markets? Can domestic emissions trading systems be broadened to activities other than large stationary energy uses? Can international emissions trading accommodate potentially diverse types of emissions targets and widely different energy realities across countries? Are there hurdles to linking emissions trading systems based on various design features? Can emissions trading carry the entire burden of climate policy, or will other policy instruments remain necessary? In answering these questions, Act Locally, Trade Globally seeks to provide a complete picture of the future role of emissions trading in climate policy and the energy sector.

  17. The QAP weighted network analysis method and its application in international services trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Helian; Cheng, Long

    2016-04-01

    Based on QAP (Quadratic Assignment Procedure) correlation and complex network theory, this paper puts forward a new method named QAP Weighted Network Analysis Method. The core idea of the method is to analyze influences among relations in a social or economic group by building a QAP weighted network of networks of relations. In the QAP weighted network, a node depicts a relation and an undirect edge exists between any pair of nodes if there is significant correlation between relations. As an application of the QAP weighted network, we study international services trade by using the QAP weighted network, in which nodes depict 10 kinds of services trade relations. After the analysis of international services trade by QAP weighted network, and by using distance indicators, hierarchy tree and minimum spanning tree, the conclusion shows that: Firstly, significant correlation exists in all services trade, and the development of any one service trade will stimulate the other nine. Secondly, as the economic globalization goes deeper, correlations in all services trade have been strengthened continually, and clustering effects exist in those services trade. Thirdly, transportation services trade, computer and information services trade and communication services trade have the most influence and are at the core in all services trade.

  18. Reactor building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebata, Sakae.

    1990-01-01

    At least one valve rack is disposed in a reactor building, on which pipeways to a main closure valve, valves and bypasses of turbines are placed and contained. The valve rack is fixed to the main body of the building or to a base mat. Since the reactor building is designed as class A earthquake-proofness and for maintaining the S 1 function, the valve rack can be fixed to the building main body or to the base mat. With such a constitution, the portions for maintaining the S 1 function are concentrated to the reactor building. As a result, the dispersion of structures of earthquake-proof portion corresponding to the reference earthquake vibration S 1 can be prevented. Accordingly, the conditions for the earthquake-proof design of the turbine building and the turbine/electric generator supporting rack are defined as only the class B earthquake-proof design conditions. In view of the above, the amount of building materials can be saved and the time for construction can be shortened. (I.S.)

  19. Hydrothermal activity at slow-spreading ridges: variability and importance of magmatic controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escartin, Javier

    2016-04-01

    Hydrothermal activity along mid-ocean ridge axes is ubiquitous, associated with mass, chemical, and heat exchanges between the deep lithosphere and the overlying envelopes, and sustaining chemiosynthetic ecosystems at the seafloor. Compared with hydrothermal fields at fast-spreading ridges, those at slow spreading ones show a large variability as their location and nature is controlled or influenced by several parameters that are inter-related: a) tectonic setting, ranging from 'volcanic systems' (along the rift valley floor, volcanic ridges, seamounts), to 'tectonic' ones (rift-bounding faults, oceanic detachment faults); b) the nature of the host rock, owing to compositional heterogeneity of slow-spreading lithosphere (basalt, gabbro, peridotite); c) the type of heat source (magmatic bodies at depth, hot lithosphere, serpentinization reactions); d) and the associated temperature of outflow fluids (high- vs.- low temperature venting and their relative proportion). A systematic review of the distribution and characteristics of hydrothermal fields along the slow-spreading Mid-Atlantic Ridge suggests that long-lived hydrothermal activity is concentrated either at oceanic detachment faults, or along volcanic segments with evidence of robust magma supply to the axis. A detailed study of the magmatically robust Lucky Strike segment suggests that all present and past hydrothermal activity is found at the center of the segment. The association of these fields to central volcanos, and the absence of indicators of hydrothermal activity along the remaining of the ridge segment, suggests that long-lived hydrothermal activity in these volcanic systems is maintained by the enhanced melt supply and the associated magma chamber(s) required to build these volcanic edifices. In this setting, hydrothermal outflow zones at the seafloor are systematically controlled by faults, indicating that hydrothermal fluids in the shallow crust exploit permeable fault zones to circulate. While

  20. Building sustainability

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mass Media

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available particu- lar social environment also being awarded. If a building can be used by the community after hours, it should be awarded extra points.” School sports facilities or meeting halls in corporate buildings, are some example. Multi-purpose use..., architect and senior researcher for the CSIR’s Built Environment Unit, the integra- tion of sustainability in building design cannot begin soon enough before it is too late. He says: “Unfortunately nothing is in place in South Africa. For a start...

  1. Building Acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, James

    This chapter summarizes and explains key concepts of building acoustics. These issues include the behavior of sound waves in rooms, the most commonly used rating systems for sound and sound control in buildings, the most common noise sources found in buildings, practical noise control methods for these sources, and the specific topic of office acoustics. Common noise issues for multi-dwelling units can be derived from most of the sections of this chapter. Books can be and have been written on each of these topics, so the purpose of this chapter is to summarize this information and provide appropriate resources for further exploration of each topic.

  2. Trade policy and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friel, Sharon; Hattersley, Libby; Townsend, Ruth

    2015-03-18

    Twenty-first-century trade policy is complex and affects society and population health in direct and indirect ways. Without doubt, trade policy influences the distribution of power, money, and resources between and within countries, which in turn affects the natural environment; people's daily living conditions; and the local availability, quality, affordability, and desirability of products (e.g., food, tobacco, alcohol, and health care); it also affects individuals' enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health. In this article, we provide an overview of the modern global trade environment, illustrate the pathways between trade and health, and explore the emerging twenty-first-century trade policy landscape and its implications for health and health equity. We conclude with a call for more interdisciplinary research that embraces complexity theory and systems science as well as the political economy of health and that includes monitoring and evaluation of the impact of trade agreements on health.

  3. The continental free trade area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandrey, Ron; Jensen, Hans Grinsted

    The Trade Law Centre (tralac) has recently capitalised upon the prerelease Version 9.2 of the Global Trade Analysis Project (GTAP) database and the recent excellent data sets from the World Bank and other publishing quality data on trade barriers across the African continent. It undertook a series...... of simulations examining regional integration and intra-African trade barrier reductions. The results for tariff elimination on intra-African trade are promising. But the real news is in confirming that these barriers are not as significant as the various trade-related barriers except for tariffs. Especially...... impressive results were forecast by simulating a modest 20% reduction in the costs associated with the particular African problem of transit time delays at customs, terminals and internal land transportation. These gains are significantly above both just intraAfrican tariff elimination and what may...

  4. Trade, investment and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, H.; Brack, D.

    2000-01-01

    As liberalisation of global trade and investment accelerates, what happens to the environment? As the world heads for confrontation in Seattle, the questions intensify. Does foreign direct investment mean forsaking environmental protection? Or do multinational corporations export higher standards when they invest abroad? Can a powerful trading nation ban imports of tropical timber produced unsustainably? Should the World Trade Organisation take the views of industry or environmental groups into account when deciding? Must world trade rules be changed to accommodate environmental concerns? This book analyzes key issues in this increasingly controversial arena and includes contributions from Renato Ruggiero, former Director General of the World Trade Organization; The Rt Hon Brian Wilson MP, former UK Minister of Trade; Dr Magda Shahin, Deputy Assistant Minister of Foreign Affairs at the Egyptian Ministry of Foreign Affairs; Pradeep Mehta, Secretary General, Consumer Unity and Trust Society, India; and Dr Michel Potier, Head of the Economics Division at the OECD's Environment Directorate. (Author)

  5. Morphotectonic and petrological variations along the southern Central Indian Ridge

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mukhopadhyay, R.; Iyer, S.D.; Ray, Dwijesh; Karisiddaiah, S.M.; Drolia, R.K.

    above the DM and Enriched Mantle (EM2) end member and resemble a linear mixing with Indian Ocean pelagic sediments (Fig. 4a, b). By contrast, the isotope data of IOTJ-MORB occupy a distinct field in the radiogenic Pb-Pb and Sr-Pb binary plots... EM, Karsten JL, 1995 Ocean-ridge basalts with convergent-margin geochemical affinities from the Chile Ridge. Nature 374:52-57 Klein EM, Langmuir CH, 1987 Global correlations of ocean ridge basalt chemistry with axial depth and crustal chemistry...

  6. Sulfide geochronlogy along the Southwest Indian Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, W.; Tao, C.; Li, H.; Liang, J.; Liao, S.

    2017-12-01

    Dragon Flag and Duanqiao hydrothermal field is located between the Indomed and Gallieni fracture zones in the ultraslow-spreading Southwest Indian Ridge (SWIR). Ten subsamples from active and inactive vents of Dragon Flag hydrothermal field and twenty-eight subsamples from Duanqiao hydrothermal field were dated using the 230Th/238U method. Four main episodes of hydrothermal activity of Duanqiao were determined according to the restricted results: 68.9-84.3, 43.9-48.4, 25.3-34.8, and 0.7-17.3 kyrs. Hydrothermal activity of Duanqiao probably started about 84.3 (±0.5) kyrs ago and ceased about 0.737 (±0.023) kyrs ago. And sulfide samples from the nearby Dragon Flag filed at the same time and the results show that the ages of most sulfides from Dragon Flag field range from 1.496(±0.176) to 5.416 (±0.116) kyrs with the oldest age estimated at 15.997 (±0.155) kyrs Münch et al. (2001) reconstructed the evolution history of Mt. Jourdanne hydrothermal field. The age dating results indicate activity in two episodes, at 70-40 and 27-13 kyrs. The hydrothermal activity in Dragon Flag field is much more recent than that of Duanqiao or Mt. Jourdanne fields. The massive sulfides are younger than the sulfides from other hydrothermal fields such as Rainbow, Sonne and Ashadze-2. All these results suggest that hydrothermal activity of Dragon Flag field is much more recent than that of Duanqiao or Mt. Jourdanne fields. Mt. Jourdanne is situated on an axial volcanic ridge which has both volcanic and tectonic activity. This is necessary to develop the heat source and pathways for the fluid convection, which enables the hydrothermal circulation. Hydrothermal activity in Dragon Flag Field is located next to the detachment fault termination. The detachment fault system provides a pathway for hydrothermal convection. Such style of heat source can contribute to continuous hydrothermal activity for over 1000 years. Duanqiao field is located near the central volcano and there is a hot

  7. Waste oil management at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oakes, T.W.; Bird, J.C.; Shank, K.E.; Kelley, B.A.; Harrison, L.L.; Clark, B.R.; Rogers, W.F.

    1980-01-01

    It is the policy of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to require that oily substances be handled and disposed of in a manner that protects the environment and personnel from harm. Federal regulations prohibit the discharge of oil into navigable waters, with stiff penalties possible to violators. A strict waste oil management program has been developed and implemented because of the potential for oil problems resulting from the large and varied uses of oil at the Laboratory. Also, past records of improper discharges of oil have mandated immediate corrective actions. In order to resolve the problems of waste oil at the Laboratory, the ORNL Waste Oil Investigation Committee was formed on March 14, 1979. The work of the committee included a survey of every building and area of the Laboratory to locate the presence of oil and the pathways of oil discharges to the environment. The committee also provided a basis for the development of oil spill procedures and waste oil disposal. The Department of Environmental Management (DEM) of the Industrial Safety and Applied Health Physics Division at ORNL has the responsibility of developing environmental protection procedures for the handling and disposal of oil. It approves storage and collection facilities, disposal methods, and disposal sites for oil-containing wastes. The DEM has developed and implemented an ORNL Environmental Protection Procedure for oils and an oil spill prevention and countermeasure plan. In order to familiarize ORNL personnel with the problems and procedures of waste oil, the DEM has held seminars on the subject. This report reviews the findings of the Waste Oil Investigation Committee and the actions of the laboratory management and the DEM in dealing with the waste oil problem at ORNL

  8. Melting ice, growing trade?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami Bensassi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Large reductions in Arctic sea ice, most notably in summer, coupled with growing interest in Arctic shipping and resource exploitation have renewed interest in the economic potential of the Northern Sea Route (NSR. Two key constraints on the future viability of the NSR pertain to bathymetry and the future evolution of the sea ice cover. Climate model projections of future sea ice conditions throughout the rest of the century suggest that even under the most “aggressive” emission scenario, increases in international trade between Europe and Asia will be very low. The large inter-annual variability of weather and sea ice conditions in the route, the Russian toll imposed for transiting the NSR, together with high insurance costs and scarce loading/unloading opportunities, limit the use of the NSR. We show that even if these obstacles are removed, the duration of the opening of the NSR over the course of the century is not long enough to offer a consequent boost to international trade at the macroeconomic level.

  9. Emissions trading stalls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milne, R.

    1998-01-01

    A brief article examines prospects for emission trading of greenhouse gas emissions in the UK. Topics covered include a checklist of principles for any trading system, plans for oil companies to do it internally, the possibility for carbon sinks as well as emissions and developments around the world. (UK) alt. Directly northward of the Sigsbee Escarpment, there is a relatively thin, low-velocity zone known as a ''gumbo zone''. Here two other pressure compartments are proposed. The origin of them is two-fold. First, initial sedimentation consists of pelagic clay draped over oceanic and transitional crust. Later, as the continental margin progrades nearer sedimentation becomes hemipelagic and coarser as gravity-driven sediments predominate. Secondly, as the salt wedge overrides a given spot of the basement, it is possible to develop a shear couple between the migrating salt and the stationary basement. The resultant shear (the site of the next strike-slip fault) may change pressures beneath the salt such that the shear may create two pressure compartments. The differences between the two compartments may be accentuated by lithologic changes caused by depositional mechanisms. (author)

  10. Fair trade international surrogacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humbyrd, Casey

    2009-12-01

    Since the development of assisted reproductive technologies, infertile individuals have crossed borders to obtain treatments unavailable or unaffordable in their own country. Recent media coverage has focused on the outsourcing of surrogacy to developing countries, where the cost for surrogacy is significantly less than the equivalent cost in a more developed country. This paper discusses the ethical arguments against international surrogacy. The major opposition viewpoints can be broadly divided into arguments about welfare, commodification and exploitation. It is argued that the only valid objection to international surrogacy is that surrogate mothers may be exploited by being given too little compensation. However, the possibility of exploitation is a weak argument for prohibition, as employment alternatives for potential surrogate mothers may be more exploitative or more harmful than surrogacy. It is concluded that international surrogacy must be regulated, and the proposed regulatory mechanism is termed Fair Trade Surrogacy. The guidelines of Fair Trade Surrogacy focus on minimizing potential harms to all parties and ensuring fair compensation for surrogate mothers.

  11. Currency union entries and trade

    OpenAIRE

    Nitsch, Volker

    2005-01-01

    Recent research suggests that adopting a common currency increases bilateral trade. In this paper, I explore experiences of currency union entry in the post-war period and find no effect on trade. Previous results derived from a large panel data set (covering more than 200 countries from 1948 through 1997) appear to depend crucially on the assumption of symmetry between currency union exits and entries: While countries leaving a currency union experience significant declines in trade, currenc...

  12. Trade Liberalization and Pollution Havens

    OpenAIRE

    Josh Ederington; Arik Levinson; Jenny Minier

    2004-01-01

    U.S. Presidential Executive Order 13141 commits the United States to a careful assessment and consideration of the environmental impacts of trade agreements.' The most direct mechanism through which trade liberalization would affect environmental quality in the U.S. is through changes in the composition of industries. Freer trade means greater specialization, increasing the concentration of polluting industries in some countries and decreasing it in others. Indeed, in this paper we predict a ...

  13. Trade Liberalization and Pollution Havens

    OpenAIRE

    Josh Ederington, Arik Levinson, and Jenny Minier

    2004-01-01

    U.S. Presidential Executive Order 13141 commits the United States to a "careful assessment and consideration of the environmental impacts of trade agreements." The most direct mechanism through which trade liberalization would affect environmental quality in the U.S. is through changes in the composition of industries. Freer trade means greater specialization, increasing the concentration of polluting industries in some countries and decreasing it in others. Indeed, in this paper we predict a...

  14. International climate policy and trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuik, O.

    2000-01-01

    If a country takes steps to counter the greenhouse effect, it could influence the country's foreign trade. If a large group of countries consider such measures, e.g. the signatories to the Kyoto Protocol, that could possibly have major consequences for global trading patterns. How will the measures work out for countries, industries, and climate policy itself? Can countries mitigate any negative consequences for their trade balance? The results of a study to answer those questions are discussed

  15. Understanding the conventional arms trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohl, Rachel

    2017-11-01

    The global conventional arms trade is worth tens of billions of dollars every year and is engaged in by every country in the world. Yet, it is often difficult to control the legal trade in conventional arms and there is a thriving illicit market, willing to arm unscrupulous regimes and nefarious non-state actors. This chapter examines the international conventional arms trade, the range of tools that have been used to control it, and challenges to these international regimes.

  16. Fraud risks in emissions trading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-09-01

    The system of emission trading is a complex composed entity with on the one hand a strong environmental component and on the other hand a financial world that hooked on this instrument. In chapter 2 an introduction is provided to the emission trading system. The subsequent chapters elaborate Types of Fraud (Chapter 3), Powers (Chapter 4), and Instruments (Chapter 5). The report shows that various forms of fraud are occurring in emission trading, such as VAT fraud and identity theft. [nl

  17. Harmonic Patterns in Forex Trading

    OpenAIRE

    Nemček, Sebastian

    2013-01-01

    This diploma thesis is committed to examination of validity of Harmonic Patterns in Forex trading. Scott Carney described existing and introduced new Harmonic Patterns in 1999 in his book Harmonic Trader. These patterns use the Fibonacci principle to analyze price action and to provide both bullish and bearish trading signals. The goal of this thesis is to find out whether harmonic trading strategy on selected pairs is profitable in FX market, which patterns are the most profitable and what i...

  18. Measuring the Information Content of Stock Trades.

    OpenAIRE

    Hasbrouck, Joel

    1991-01-01

    This paper suggests that the interactions of security trades and quote revisions be modeled as a vector autoregressive system. Within this framework, a trade's information effect may be meaningfully measured as the ultimate price impact of the trade innovation. Estimates for a sample of NYSE issues suggest a trade's full price impact arrives only with a protracted lag; the impact is a positive and concave function of the trade size; large trades cause the spread to widen; trades occurring in ...

  19. Alternative trading systems in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Mosionek-Schweda

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The first Polish alternative trading system – called NewConnect – was opened on 30 August 2007. It has the status of an organized market, but it is operated by the Warsaw Stock Exchange outside the regulated market. Two years later, on 30 September 2009, the WSE launched another market – Catalyst – which consists of four segments including: two regular markets and two alternative trading platforms. The present paper aims to describe fundamental rules of the Polish alternative trading platforms as well as to depict a short overview of their trading indicators and basic statistics.

  20. Biclustering Learning of Trading Rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qinghua; Wang, Ting; Tao, Dacheng; Li, Xuelong

    2015-10-01

    Technical analysis with numerous indicators and patterns has been regarded as important evidence for making trading decisions in financial markets. However, it is extremely difficult for investors to find useful trading rules based on numerous technical indicators. This paper innovatively proposes the use of biclustering mining to discover effective technical trading patterns that contain a combination of indicators from historical financial data series. This is the first attempt to use biclustering algorithm on trading data. The mined patterns are regarded as trading rules and can be classified as three trading actions (i.e., the buy, the sell, and no-action signals) with respect to the maximum support. A modified K nearest neighborhood ( K -NN) method is applied to classification of trading days in the testing period. The proposed method [called biclustering algorithm and the K nearest neighbor (BIC- K -NN)] was implemented on four historical datasets and the average performance was compared with the conventional buy-and-hold strategy and three previously reported intelligent trading systems. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed trading system outperforms its counterparts and will be useful for investment in various financial markets.

  1. Canadian municipal carbon trading primer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seskus, A.

    2002-01-01

    The trading of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is being suggested as an effective economic way to meet Canada's Kyoto target. Emissions trading is a market-based instrument that can help achieve environmental improvements while using the market to absorb the economical and effective measures to achieve emissions reductions. Placing a value on emissions means that in order to minimize costs, companies will be motivated to apply the lowest-cost emission reductions possible for regulatory approval. The two main types of emissions trading that exist in Canada are the trading of emissions that lead to the formation of smog or acid rain, and the trading of greenhouse gas emissions that lead to climate change. Since carbon dioxide is the most prevalent GHG, making up approximately 75 per cent of Canadian GHG emissions, the trading of units of GHGs is often referred to as carbon trading. The impact that emissions trading will have on municipal operations was the focus of this primer. The trading of GHG involves buying and selling of allowances of GHGs between contracting parties, usually between one party that is short of GHG credits and another that has excess credits. The 3 common approaches to emissions trading include allowance trading (cap and trade), credit trading (baseline and credit), and a hybrid system which combines both credit and allowance trading systems. The issues that impact municipalities include the debate regarding who owns the credits from landfills, particularly if power is generated using landfill gas and the power is sold as green power. Other viable questions were also addressed, including who can claim emission reduction credits if a city implements energy efficiency projects, or fuel substitution programs. Also, will municipalities be allowed to trade internationally, for example, with municipalities in the United States, and how should they spend their money earned from selling credits. This report also presents highlights from 3 emissions

  2. Greenhouse gas trading starts up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    While nations decide on whether to sign on to the Kyoto Protocol on climate change, some countries and private companies are moving forward with greenhouse gas emissions trading.A 19 March report, "The Emerging International Greenhouse Gas Market," by the Pew Center on Global Climate Change, reports that about 65 greenhouse gas emissions trades for quantities above 1,000 metric tons of carbon dioxideequivalent already have occurred worldwide since 1996. Many of these trades have taken place under a voluntary, ad hoc framework, though the United Kingdom and Denmark have established their own domestic emissions trading programs.

  3. Emission trading: A discussion paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    Emission trading is a market-based incentive program designed to control air emissions in which a cap is placed on the total quantity of pollutants allowed to be emitted in an airshed. Appropriate shares of this amount are allocated among participating emission sources, and participants can buy or sell their shares. Advantages of emission trading include its potential to achieve air emission targets at a lower cost than the traditional command and control approach, and its ability to accommodate economic growth without compromising environmental quality. A study was conducted to evaluate the potential use of emission trading programs to achieve emission reduction goals set for nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds (VOC), and sulfur oxides. Emission trading programs in the USA are reviewed and a set of factors important for the success of emission trading are identified. Key policy and design issues related to an emission trading program are identified, explained, and discussed. Administrative issues are then analyzed, such as legislative authority, monitoring and enforcement requirements, and trading between jurisdictions. A preliminary assessment of emission trading for control of NOx and VOC in the Lower Fraser Valley indicates that emission trading would be feasible, but legislative authority to implement such a program would have to be introduced

  4. Building Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Cary, North Carolina — Explore real estate information about buildings in the Town of Cary.This file is created by the Town of Cary GIS Group. It contains data from both the Wake, Chatham...

  5. The Politics of Trade

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Chapter Four The Case of Argentine Research in Building Regional Integration .... Each of the case studies in this book looks at the various contextual factors that play a ..... Economic and political networking allows them to control the channels by ...... Cities such as Toronto, for example, have a comparative advantage in the ...

  6. Oak Ridge 24URC tandem accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meigs, M.J.; Haynes, D.L.; Juras, R.C.

    1997-01-01

    This report discusses the operation of the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) which was dedicated on December 12, 1996, with a formal ceremony followed by a reception and tour. This dedication marked the culmination of the reconfiguration, started in the middle of 1992, and the beginning of full-time operation as an international user facility. Although construction and commissioning are finished, development continues on ion sources and better methods to produce new and more intense radioactive ion beams (RIBs). The first RIB experiment, Coulomb excitation of 69 As, was completed on June 6, 1997. During the time period from June 1-6, 69 As and 67 Ga were provided for seventy-six hours with a maximum of 1.5 x 10 6 particles/sec at the experimental station. Four μA of primary beam, 42 MeV protons from the Oak Ridge Isochronous Cyclotron (ORIC), was on the 70 Ge target to produce this maximum beam. The experimenter was not set up to use this much beam, so most of the run was done at reduced levels. A second RIB experiment, again using 69 As beam, was attempted on 9/9/97. Although a beam of about 10 5 particles/second was successfully tuned to the Recoil Mass Spectrometer, the intensity produced by the RIB injector source was inadequate to complete the experiment

  7. Crush Testing at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, Matthew R.

    2011-01-01

    The dynamic crush test is required in the certification testing of some small Type B transportation packages. International Atomic Energy Agency regulations state that the test article must be 'subjected to a dynamic crush test by positioning the specimen on the target so as to suffer maximum damage.' Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Transportation Technologies Group performs testing of Type B transportation packages, including the crush test, at the National Transportation Research Center in Knoxville, Tennessee (United States). This paper documents ORNL's experiences performing crush tests on several different Type B packages. ORNL has crush tested five different drum-type package designs, continuing its 60 year history of RAM package testing. A total of 26 crush tests have been performed in a wide variety of package orientations and crush plate CG alignments. In all cases, the deformation of the outer drum created by the crush test was significantly greater than the deformation damage caused by the 9 m drop test. The crush test is a highly effective means for testing structural soundness of smaller nondense Type B shipping package designs. Further regulatory guidance could alleviate the need to perform the crush test in a wide range of orientations and crush plate CG alignments.

  8. Oak Ridge National Laboratory's isotope enrichment program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tracy, J.G.; Aaron, W.C.

    1997-01-01

    The Isotope Enrichment Program (IEP) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is responsible for the production and distribution of ∼225 enriched stable isotopes from 50 multi-isotopic elements. In addition, ORNL distributes enriched actinide isotopes and provides extensive physical- and chemical-form processing of enriched isotopes to meet customer requirements. For more than 50 yr, ORNL has been a major provider of enriched isotopes and isotope-related services to research, medical, and industrial institutions throughout the world. Consolidation of the Isotope Distribution Office (IDO), the Isotope Research Materials Laboratory (IRML), and the stable isotope inventories in the Isotope Enrichment Facility (IEF) have improved operational efficiencies and customer services. Recent changes in the IEP have included adopting policies for long-term contracts, which offer program stability and pricing advantages for the customer, and prorated service charges, which greatly improve pricing to the small research users. The former U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Loan Program has been converted to a lease program, which makes large-quantity or very expensive isotopes available for nondestructive research at a nominal cost. Current efforts are being pursued to improve and expand the isotope separation capabilities as well as the extensive chemical- and physical-form processing that now exists. The IEF's quality management system is ISO 9002 registered and accredited in the United States, Canada, and Europe

  9. World Trade Organisation (WTO): Trade rules/agreements and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The GATT (General Agreement on Trade and Tariffs) rules of 1947 were seen as prejudicial to the economic and development concerns of developing countries. With the coming into effect of World Trade Organization (WTO), it was expected that some of the concerns of the developing countries will be addressed.

  10. Dismantlement and removal of Old Hydrofracture Facility bulk storage bins and water tank, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-03-01

    The Old Hydrofracture Facility (OHF), located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), was constructed in 1963 to allow experimentation and operations with an integrated solid storage, mixing, and grout injection facility. During its operation, OHF blended liquid low-level waste with grout and used a hydrofracture process to pump the waste into a deep low-permeable shale formation. Since the OHF Facility was taken out of service in 1980, the four bulk storage bins located adjacent to Building 7852 had deteriorated to the point that they were a serious safety hazard. The ORNL Surveillance and Maintenance Program requested and received permission from the US Department of Energy to dismantle the bins as a maintenance action and send the free-released metal to an approved scrap metal vendor. A 25,000-gal stainless steel water tank located at the OHF site was included in the scope. A fixed-price subcontract was signed with Allied Technology Group, Inc., to remove the four bulk storage bins and water tank to a staging area where certified Health Physics personnel could survey, segregate, package, and send the radiologically clean scrap metal to an approved scrap metal vendor. All radiologically contaminated metal and metal that could not be surveyed was packaged and staged for later disposal. Permissible personnel exposure limits were not exceeded, no injuries were incurred, and no health and safety violations occurred throughout the duration of the project. Upon completion of the dismantlement, the project had generated 53,660 lb of clean scrap metal (see Appendix D). This resulted in $3,410 of revenue generated and a cost avoidance of an estimated $100,000 in waste disposal fees

  11. Oak Ridge Dose Reconstruction Project Summary Report; Reports of the Oak Ridge Dose Reconstruction, Vol. 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas E. Widner; et. al.

    1999-07-01

    In the early 1990s, concern about the Oak Ridge Reservation's past releases of contaminants to the environment prompted Tennessee's public health officials to pursue an in-depth study of potential off-site health effects at Oak Ridge. This study, the Oak Ridge dose reconstruction, was supported by an agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the State of Tennessee, and was overseen by a 12-member panel of individuals appointed by Tennessee's Commissioner of Health. The panel requested that the principal investigator for the project prepare the following report, ''Oak Ridge Dose Reconstruction Project Summary Report,'' to serve the following purposes: (1) summarize in a single, less technical report, the methods and results of the various investigations that comprised the Phase II of the dose reconstruction; (2) describe the systematic searching of classified and unclassified historical records that was a vital component of the project; and (3) summarize the less detailed, screening-level assessments that were performed to evaluate the potential health significance of a number of materials, such a uranium, whose priority did not require a complete dose reconstruction effort. This report describes each major step of the dose reconstruction study: (1) the review of thousands of historical records to obtain information relating to past operations at each facility; (2) estimation of the quantity and timing of releases of radioiodines from X-10, of mercury from Y-12, of PCB's from all facilities, and of cesium-137 and other radionuclides from White Oak Creek; (3) evaluation of the routes taken by these contaminants through the environment to nearby populations; and (4) estimation of doses and health risks to exposed groups. Calculations found the highest excess cancer risks for a female born in 1952 who drank goat milk; the highest non-cancer health risk was for children in a farm family exposed to PCBs in and near

  12. Geophysical Surveys of a Known Karst Feature, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doll, W.E.; Nyquist, J.E.; Carpenter, P.J.; Kaufmann, R.D.; Carr, B.J.

    1998-01-01

    Geophysical data were acquired at a site on the Oak Ridge Reservation, Tennessee to determine the characteristics of a mud-filled void and to evaluate the effectiveness of a suite of geophysical methods at the site. Methods that were used included microgravity, electrical resistivity, and seismic refraction. Both microgravity and resistivity were able to detect the void as well as overlying structural features. The seismic data provide bedrock depth control for the other two methods, and show other effects that are caused by the void

  13. The Effects of Ridge Axis Width on Mantle Melting at Mid-Ocean Ridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montesi, L.; Magni, V.; Gaina, C.

    2017-12-01

    Mantle upwelling in response to plate divergence produces melt at mid-ocean ridges. Melt starts when the solidus is crossed and stops when conductive cooling overcomes heat advection associated with the upwelling. Most mid-ocean ridge models assume that divergence takes place only in a narrow zone that defines the ridge axis, resulting in a single upwelling. However, more complex patterns of divergence are occasionally observed. The rift axis can be 20 km wide at ultraslow spreading center. Overlapping spreading center contain two parallel axes. Rifting in backarc basins is sometimes organized as a series of parallel spreading centers. Distributing plate divergence over several rifts reduces the intensity of upwelling and limits melting. Can this have a significant effect on the expected crustal thickness and on the mode of melt delivery at the seafloor? We address this question by modeling mantle flow and melting underneath two spreading centers separated by a rigid block. We adopt a non-linear rheology that includes dislocation creep, diffusion creep and yielding and include hydrothermal cooling by enhancing thermal conductivity where yielding takes place. The crustal thickness decreases if the rifts are separated by 30 km or more but only if the half spreading rate is between 1 and 2 cm/yr. At melting depth, a single upwelling remains the norm until the separation of the rifts exceeds a critical value ranging from 15 km in the fastest ridges to more than 50 km at ultraslow spreading centers. The stability of the central upwelling is due to hydrothermal cooling, which prevents hot mantle from reaching the surface at each spreading center. When hydrothermal cooling is suppressed, or the spreading centers are sufficiently separated, the rigid block becomes extremely cold and separates two distinct, highly asymmetric upwellings that may focus melt beyond the spreading center. In that case, melt delivery might drive further and further the divergence centers, whereas

  14. Project plan for the Background Soil Characterization Project on the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-08-01

    The Background Soil characterization Project (BSCP) will provide background concentration levels of selected metals, organic compounds, and radionuclides in soils from uncontaminated on-site areas at the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), and off-site in the western part of Roane County and the eastern part of Anderson County. The BSCP will establish a database, recommend how to use the data for contaminated site assessment, and provide estimates of the potential human health and environmental risks associated with the background level concentrations of potentially hazardous constituents

  15. Project plan for the Background Soil Characterization Project on the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-08-01

    The Background Soil characterization Project (BSCP) will provide background concentration levels of selected metals, organic compounds, and radionuclides in soils from uncontaminated on-site areas at the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), and off-site in the western part of Roane County and the eastern part of Anderson County. The BSCP will establish a database, recommend how to use the data for contaminated site assessment, and provide estimates of the potential human health and environmental risks associated with the background level concentrations of potentially hazardous constituents.

  16. Oak Ridge Dose Reconstruction Project Summary Report; Reports of the Oak Ridge Dose Reconstruction, Vol. 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widner, Thomas E.; email = twidner@jajoneses.com

    1999-01-01

    In the early 1990s, concern about the Oak Ridge Reservation's past releases of contaminants to the environment prompted Tennessee's public health officials to pursue an in-depth study of potential off-site health effects at Oak Ridge. This study, the Oak Ridge dose reconstruction, was supported by an agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the State of Tennessee, and was overseen by a 12-member panel of individuals appointed by Tennessee's Commissioner of Health. The panel requested that the principal investigator for the project prepare the following report, ''Oak Ridge Dose Reconstruction Project Summary Report,'' to serve the following purposes: (1) summarize in a single, less technical report, the methods and results of the various investigations that comprised the Phase II of the dose reconstruction; (2) describe the systematic searching of classified and unclassified historical records that was a vital component of the project; and (3) summarize the less detailed, screening-level assessments that were performed to evaluate the potential health significance of a number of materials, such a uranium, whose priority did not require a complete dose reconstruction effort. This report describes each major step of the dose reconstruction study: (1) the review of thousands of historical records to obtain information relating to past operations at each facility; (2) estimation of the quantity and timing of releases of radioiodines from X-10, of mercury from Y-12, of PCB's from all facilities, and of cesium-137 and other radionuclides from White Oak Creek; (3) evaluation of the routes taken by these contaminants through the environment to nearby populations; and (4) estimation of doses and health risks to exposed groups. Calculations found the highest excess cancer risks for a female born in 1952 who drank goat milk; the highest non-cancer health risk was for children in a farm family exposed to PCBs in and near East Fork Poplar Creek. More detailed

  17. Surveillance and maintenance report on decontamination and decommissioning and remedial action activities at the Oak Ridge Y-12 plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Fiscal year 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, H.L.; Sollenberger, M.L.; Sparkman, D.E.; Reynolds, R.M.; Wayland, G.S.

    1996-12-01

    The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant Decontamination and Decommissioning (D ampersand D) and Remedial Action (RA) programs are part of the Environmental Restoration (ER) Division and are funded by the Office of Environmental Management (EM-40). Building 9201-4 (known as Alpha-4), three sites located within Building 9201-3 (the Oil Storage Tank, the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment Fuel Handling Facility, and the Coolant Salt Technology Facility), and Building 9419-1 (the Decontamination Facility) are currently the facilities at the Y-12 Plant included in the D ampersand D program. The RA program provides surveillance and maintenance (S ampersand M) and program management of ER sites at the Y-12 Plant, including selected sites listed in Appendix C of the Federal Facilities Agreement (FFA), sites listed in the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendment (HSWA) permit Solid Waste Management Unit (SWM-U) list, and sites currently closed or undergoing post-closure activities under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) or the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). This report communicates the status of the program plans and specific S ampersand M activities for the D ampersand D and RA programs

  18. 60 years of great science [Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2003-01-01

    This issue highlights Oak Ridge National Laboratory's contributions in more than 30 areas of research and related activities during the past 60 years and provides glimpses of current activities that are carrying on this heritage.

  19. Technical Evaluation of Oak Ridge Filter Test Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Kriskovich, J R

    2002-01-01

    Two evaluations of the Oak Ridge Department of Energy (DOE) Filter Test Facility (FTF) were performed on December 11 and 12, 2001, and consisted of a quality assurance and a technical evaluation. This report documents results of the technical evaluation.

  20. Manganese oxidation by bacterial isolates from the Indian Ridge System

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Fernandes, S.O.; Krishnan, K.P.; Khedekar, V.D.; LokaBharathi, P.A.

    The abundance and activity of culturable manganese-oxidizing bacteria were assessed from near-bottom water samples of the tectonically active Carlsberg Ridge. Retrievable counts as colony forming units (CFU) on dilute nutrient agar medium (dilNA = 2...

  1. February 2007 Multibeam Mapping of Pulley Ridge, southwest Florida

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This disk or set of disks contain high-resolution multibeam and backscatter maps of the Pulley Ridge Area, near the Tortugas, in the Gulf of Mexico. It includes the...

  2. Oak Ridge low-level waste disposal facility designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Hoesen, S.D.; Jones, L.S.

    1991-01-01

    The strategic planning process that culuminates in the identification, selection, construction, and ultimate operation of treatment, storage, and disposal facilities for all types of low-level waste (LLW) generated on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) was conducted under the Low-Level Waste Disposal Development and Demonstration (LLWDDD) Program. This program considered management of various concentrations of short half-life radionuclides generated principally at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and long half-life radionuclides (principally uranium) generated at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant and the Oak Ridge K-25 Plant. The LLWDDD Program is still ongoing and involves four phases: (1) alternative identification and evaluation, (2) technology demonstration, (3) limited operational implementation, and (4) full operational implementation. This document provides a discussion of these phases

  3. Research at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Postma, H.

    1980-01-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory is a large (5300 people), US-government-funded laboratory, which performs research in many disciplines and in many technological areas. Programs and organization of ORNL are described for the People's Republic of China

  4. Technical specifications for the Oak Ridge Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-05-01

    Information is presented concerning the Oak Ridge Research Reactor in the areas of: safety limits and limiting safety system settings; limiting conditions for operation; surveillance requirements; design features; administrative controls; and monitoring of effluents

  5. International trade law perspectives on paperless trade and inclusive digital trade

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Andrew D.; Mishra, Neha

    2017-01-01

    Cross-border paperless trade is increasingly important to generate economic gains in a digitalised economy. Several developing and least developed countries will need to modernise their domestic laws and regulations to facilitate cross-border electronic transmissions, particularly to promote cloud computing and electronic payments. In recent trade agreements, trading partners have committed to deeper and more comprehensive provisions on electronic commerce, including adopting domestic laws on...

  6. Europan double ridge morphometry as a test of formation models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dameron, Ashley C.; Burr, Devon M.

    2018-05-01

    Double ridges on the Jovian satellite Europa consist of two parallel ridges with a central trough. Although these features are nearly ubiquitous on Europa, their formation mechanism(s) is (are) not yet well-understood. Previous hypotheses for their formation can be divided into two groups based on 1) the expected interior slope angles and 2) the magnitude of interior/exterior slope symmetry. The published hypotheses in the first ("fracture") group entail brittle deformation of the crust, either by diapirism, shear heating, or buckling due to compression. Because these mechanisms imply uplift of near-vertical fractures, their predicted interior slopes are steeper than the angle of repose (AOR) with shallower exterior slopes. The second ("flow") group includes cryosedimentary and cryovolcanic processes - explosive or effusive cryovolcanism and tidal squeezing -, which are predicted to form ridge slopes at or below the AOR. Explosive cryovolcanism would form self-symmetric ridges, whereas effusive cryolavas and cryo-sediments deposited during tidal squeezing would likely not exhibit slope symmetry. To distinguish between these two groups of hypothesized formation mechanisms, we derived measurements of interior slope angle and interior/exterior slope symmetry at multiple locations on Europa through analysis of data from the Galileo Solid State Imaging (SSI) camera. Two types of data were used: i) elevation data from five stereo-pair digital elevation models (DEMs) covering four ridges (580 individual measurements), and ii) ridge shadow length measurements taken on individual images over 40 ridges (200 individual measurements). Our results shows that slopes measured on our DEMs, located in the Cilix and Banded Plains regions, typically fall below the AOR, and slope symmetry is dominant. Two different shadow measurement techniques implemented to calculate interior slopes yielded slope angles that also fall below the AOR. The shallow interior slopes derived from both

  7. Holifield Heavy-Ion Research Facility at Oak Ridge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, C.M.

    1977-01-01

    A new heavy-ion accelerator facility is now under construction at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. A brief description of the scope and schedule of this project is given, and the new large tandem accelerator, which will be a major element of the facility is discussed in some detail. Several studies which have been made or are in progress in Oak Ridge in preparation for operation of the tandem accelerator are briefly described

  8. The Oak Ridge Reservation Annual Site Environmental Report Summary, 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2009-02-28

    The Oak Ridge Reservation Annual Site Environmental Report is prepared and published each year to inform the public of the environmental activities that take place on the reservation and in the surrounding areas. It is written to comply with DOE Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting. This document has been prepared to present the highlights of the Oak Ridge Reservation Annual Site Environmental Report 2007 in an easy-to-read, summary format.

  9. Ridge Waveguide Structures in Magnesium-Doped Lithium Niobate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himmer, Phillip; Battle, Philip; Suckow, William; Switzer, Greg

    2011-01-01

    This work proposes to establish the feasibility of fabricating isolated ridge waveguides in 5% MgO:LN. Ridge waveguides in MgO:LN will significantly improve power handling and conversion efficiency, increase photonic component integration, and be well suited to spacebased applications. The key innovation in this effort is to combine recently available large, high-photorefractive-damage-threshold, z-cut 5% MgO:LN with novel ridge fabrication techniques to achieve high-optical power, low-cost, high-volume manufacturing of frequency conversion structures. The proposed ridge waveguide structure should maintain the characteristics of the periodically poled bulk substrate, allowing for the efficient frequency conversion typical of waveguides and the high optical damage threshold and long lifetimes typical of the 5% doped bulk substrate. The low cost and large area of 5% MgO:LN wafers, and the improved performance of the proposed ridge waveguide structure, will enhance existing measurement capabilities as well as reduce the resources required to achieve high-performance specifications. The purpose of the ridge waveguides in MgO:LN is to provide platform technology that will improve optical power handling and conversion efficiency compared to existing waveguide technology. The proposed ridge waveguide is produced using standard microfabrication techniques. The approach is enabled by recent advances in inductively coupled plasma etchers and chemical mechanical planarization techniques. In conjunction with wafer bonding, this fabrication methodology can be used to create arbitrarily shaped waveguides allowing complex optical circuits to be engineered in nonlinear optical materials such as magnesium doped lithium niobate. Researchers here have identified NLO (nonlinear optical) ridge waveguide structures as having suitable value to be the leading frequency conversion structures. Its value is based on having the low-cost fabrication necessary to satisfy the challenging pricing

  10. Alveolar ridge rehabilitation to increase full denture retention and stability

    OpenAIRE

    Mefina Kuntjoro; Rostiny Rostiny; Wahjuni Widajati

    2010-01-01

    Background: Atrophic mandibular alveolar ridge generally complicates prostetic restoration expecially full denture. Low residual alveolar ridge and basal seat can cause unstable denture, permanent ulcer, pain, neuralgia, and mastication difficulty. Pre-proshetic surgery is needed to improve denture retention and stability. Augmentation is a major surgery to increase vertical height of the atrophic mandible while vestibuloplasty is aimed to increase the denture bearing area. Purpose: The augme...

  11. e-Trading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    PetroCosm is a B2B online exchange for the oil and gas industry. It links buyers and sellers to service providers in real-time product and service trading across the supply chain. It can facilitate the transfer of equipment and services for oil and gas companies around the world. This paper referred to the value-creation opportunities associated with electronically transforming oil and gas companies. Traditional businesses that use Internet technology extensively can shift their strategic perspective to an e-business perspective where the need for capital is minimized and more focus can be placed on productivity, creating a more efficient and dynamic company with potential for long-term competitive advantages. Many oil companies have moved forward with implementing the needed technology and management infrastructure for e-business. 10 figs.

  12. Trade in industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-01-01

    In this report the Government has provided information on recent trends in Australia's energy trade and examined the implications of recent changes in those trends for the remainder of the 1980's. The opportunities for Australia as an energy exporter in the years ahead have been identified, along with related policy issues. The Committee has concluded that energy export projections made as recently as two years ago which foreshadowed massive increases in exports of coal, gas and uranium from Australia over the next couple of decades must now be considered excessively optimistic, given slack world economic conditions and the softer trend in world oil prices. The Committee has, however, cautioned against becoming too gloomy and of taking the immediate past period as a basis for projecting the longer term.

  13. e-Trading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    PetroCosm is a B2B online exchange for the oil and gas industry. It links buyers and sellers to service providers in real-time product and service trading across the supply chain. It can facilitate the transfer of equipment and services for oil and gas companies around the world. This paper referred to the value-creation opportunities associated with electronically transforming oil and gas companies. Traditional businesses that use Internet technology extensively can shift their strategic perspective to an e-business perspective where the need for capital is minimized and more focus can be placed on productivity, creating a more efficient and dynamic company with potential for long-term competitive advantages. Many oil companies have moved forward with implementing the needed technology and management infrastructure for e-business. 10 figs

  14. The uranium International trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez U, L.A.

    1993-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is the understanding of how the present dynamic of uranium International trade is developed, the variables which fall into, the factors that are affecting and conditioning it, in order to clarify which are going to be the outlook in the future of this important resource in front of the present ecological situation and the energetic panorama of XXI Century. For this purpose, as starting point, the uranium is considered as a strategic material which importance take root in its energetic potential as alternate energy source, and for this reason in Chapter I, the general problem of raw materials, its classification and present situation in the global market is presented. In Chapter II, by means of a historical review, is explain what uranium is, how it was discovered, and how since the end of the past Century and during the last three decades of present, uranium pass of practically unknown element, to the position of a strategic raw material, which by degrees, generate an International market, owing to its utilization as a basic resource in the generation of energy. Chapter III, introduce us in the roll played by uranium, since its warlike applications until its utilization in nuclear reactors for the generation of electricity. Also is explain the reason for this change in the perception at global level. Finally, in Chapter IV we enter upon specifically in the present conditions of the International market of this mineral throughout the trends of supply and demand, the main producers, users, price dynamics, and the correlation among these economical variables and other factors of political, social and ecological nature. All of these with the purpose to found out, if there exist, a meaning of the puzzle that seems to be the uranium International trade

  15. Accretion mode of oceanic ridges governed by axial mechanical strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibrant, A. L. R.; Mittelstaedt, E.; Davaille, A.; Pauchard, L.; Aubertin, A.; Auffray, L.; Pidoux, R.

    2018-04-01

    Oceanic spreading ridges exhibit structural changes as a function of spreading rate, mantle temperature and the balance of tectonic and magmatic accretion. The role that these or other processes have in governing the overall shape of oceanic ridges is unclear. Here, we use laboratory experiments to simulate ridge spreading in colloidal aqueous dispersions whose rheology evolves from purely viscous to elastic and brittle when placed in contact with a saline water solution. We find that ridge shape becomes increasingly linear with spreading rate until reaching a minimum tortuosity. This behaviour is predicted by the axial failure parameter ΠF, a dimensionless number describing the balance of brittle and plastic failure of axial lithosphere. Slow-spreading, fault-dominated and fast-spreading, fluid intrusion-dominated ridges on Earth and in the laboratory are separated by the same critical ΠF value, suggesting that the axial failure mode governs ridge geometry. Values of ΠF can also be calculated for different mantle temperatures and applied to other planets or the early Earth. For higher mantle temperatures during the Archaean, our results preclude the predicted formation of large tectonic plates at high spreading velocity.

  16. Alveolar Ridge Split Technique Using Piezosurgery with Specially Designed Tips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Moro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of patients with atrophic ridge who need prosthetic rehabilitation is a common problem in oral and maxillofacial surgery. Among the various techniques introduced for the expansion of alveolar ridges with a horizontal bone deficit is the alveolar ridge split technique. The aim of this article is to give a description of some new tips that have been specifically designed for the treatment of atrophic ridges with transversal bone deficit. A two-step piezosurgical split technique is also described, based on specific osteotomies of the vestibular cortex and the use of a mandibular ramus graft as interpositional graft. A total of 15 patients were treated with the proposed new tips by our department. All the expanded areas were successful in providing an adequate width and height to insert implants according to the prosthetic plan and the proposed tips allowed obtaining the most from the alveolar ridge split technique and piezosurgery. These tips have made alveolar ridge split technique simple, safe, and effective for the treatment of horizontal and vertical bone defects. Furthermore the proposed piezosurgical split technique allows obtaining horizontal and vertical bone augmentation.

  17. Alveolar Ridge Split Technique Using Piezosurgery with Specially Designed Tips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moro, Alessandro; Gasparini, Giulio; Foresta, Enrico; Saponaro, Gianmarco; Falchi, Marco; Cardarelli, Lorenzo; De Angelis, Paolo; Forcione, Mario; Garagiola, Umberto; D'Amato, Giuseppe; Pelo, Sandro

    2017-01-01

    The treatment of patients with atrophic ridge who need prosthetic rehabilitation is a common problem in oral and maxillofacial surgery. Among the various techniques introduced for the expansion of alveolar ridges with a horizontal bone deficit is the alveolar ridge split technique. The aim of this article is to give a description of some new tips that have been specifically designed for the treatment of atrophic ridges with transversal bone deficit. A two-step piezosurgical split technique is also described, based on specific osteotomies of the vestibular cortex and the use of a mandibular ramus graft as interpositional graft. A total of 15 patients were treated with the proposed new tips by our department. All the expanded areas were successful in providing an adequate width and height to insert implants according to the prosthetic plan and the proposed tips allowed obtaining the most from the alveolar ridge split technique and piezosurgery. These tips have made alveolar ridge split technique simple, safe, and effective for the treatment of horizontal and vertical bone defects. Furthermore the proposed piezosurgical split technique allows obtaining horizontal and vertical bone augmentation.

  18. The thermal structure of a wind-driven Reynolds ridge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phongikaroon, Supathorn; Peter Judd, K.; Smith, Geoffrey B.; Handler, Robert A. [Remote Sensing Division, Naval Research Laboratory, 20375, Washington, DC (United States)

    2004-08-01

    In this study, we investigate the nature of a Reynolds ridge formed by wind shear. We have simultaneously imaged the water surface, with a deposit of a monolayer of the surfactant, oleyl alcohol, subject to different wind shears, by using a high-resolution infrared (IR) detector and a high-speed (HS) digital camera. The results reveal that the regions around the wind-driven Reynolds ridge, which have subtle manifestations in visual imagery, possess surprisingly complex hydrodynamical and thermal structures when observed in the infrared. The IR measurements reveal a warm, clean region upstream of the ridge, which is composed of the so called fishscale structures observed in earlier investigations. The region downstream of the ridge is composed of colder fluid which forms two counter-rotating cells. A region of intermediate temperature, which we call the mixing (wake) region, forms immediately downstream of the ridge near the channel centerline. By measuring the velocity of the advected fishscales, we have determined a surface drift speed of about 2% of the wind speed. The spanwise length-scale of the structures has also been used to estimate the wind shear. In addition, a comparison of IR and visual imagery shows that the thermal field is a very sensitive indicator of the exact position of the ridge itself. (orig.)

  19. Trade costs in empirical New Economic Geography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosker, E.M.; Garretsen, J.H.

    Trade costs are a crucial element of New Economic Geography (NEG) models. Without trade costs there is no role for geography. In empirical NEG studies the unavailability of direct trade cost data calls for the need to approximate these trade costs by introducing a trade cost function. In doing so,

  20. 40 CFR 90.206 - Trading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trading. 90.206 Section 90.206... Trading Provisions § 90.206 Trading. (a) An engine manufacturer may exchange emission credits with other engine manufacturers in trading, subject to the trading restriction specified in § 90.207(c)(2). (b...

  1. Development in Children's Thinking about International Trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schug, Mark C.; Lephardt, Noreen

    1992-01-01

    Presents study results of how children reason about international trade. Explains that open ended questions were posed to students in grades 1-11 asking why nations trade, the benefits of trade, and their understanding of barriers to trade. Concludes that teaching fundamentals of international trade can be introduced as early as grade six. (DK)

  2. Factors of trade in Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hanousek, Jan; Kočenda, Evžen

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 38, č. 4 (2014), s. 518-535 ISSN 0939-3625 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP403/12/0080 Grant - others:UK(CZ) UNCE 204005/2012 Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : bilateral trade * factors of trade * panel data Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.649, year: 2014

  3. How insiders traded before rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braggion, F.; Moore, L.

    2013-01-01

    UK company insiders, such as directors, were legally allowed to trade in the shares of their own companies up until the Companies Act of 1980. This article investigates the trading behaviour of directors over the period 1890 to 1909 in the UK. It finds relatively few instances of directors who

  4. The Characteristics of Informed Trading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aslan, Hadiye; Easley, David; Hvidkjær, Søren

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the linkage of microstructure, accounting, and asset pricing. We determine the relationship between firm characteristics as captured by accounting and market data and a firm's probability of private information-based trade (PIN) as estimated from trade data. This allows us...

  5. Improving U.S. Trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentsen, Lloyd

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the need to formulate a coherent trade policy in response to international economic realities. The author argues against a return to trade protectionism and supports efforts to establish workable reciprocity agreements. Increasing import tariffs on high technology products would control access to American markets. (AM)

  6. Trading strategies of corporate insiders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein, O.; Maug, E.; Schneider, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    We test two complementary theories of optimal trading strategies by analyzing the transaction patterns of corporate insiders. According to information-based theories, investors trade faster if they compete with others for exploiting the same information, while liquidity-based theories predict the

  7. Human Factors in Financial Trading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaver, Meghan; Reader, Tom W.

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study tests the reliability of a system (FINANS) to collect and analyze incident reports in the financial trading domain and is guided by a human factors taxonomy used to describe error in the trading domain. Background Research indicates the utility of applying human factors theory to understand error in finance, yet empirical research is lacking. We report on the development of the first system for capturing and analyzing human factors–related issues in operational trading incidents. Method In the first study, 20 incidents are analyzed by an expert user group against a referent standard to establish the reliability of FINANS. In the second study, 750 incidents are analyzed using distribution, mean, pathway, and associative analysis to describe the data. Results Kappa scores indicate that categories within FINANS can be reliably used to identify and extract data on human factors–related problems underlying trading incidents. Approximately 1% of trades (n = 750) lead to an incident. Slip/lapse (61%), situation awareness (51%), and teamwork (40%) were found to be the most common problems underlying incidents. For the most serious incidents, problems in situation awareness and teamwork were most common. Conclusion We show that (a) experts in the trading domain can reliably and accurately code human factors in incidents, (b) 1% of trades incur error, and (c) poor teamwork skills and situation awareness underpin the most critical incidents. Application This research provides data crucial for ameliorating risk within financial trading organizations, with implications for regulation and policy. PMID:27142394

  8. Extension Resources for International Trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seal, Susan D.

    2016-01-01

    With the opening of additional trade partnerships, the reduction of global transportation and communication costs, and the increase in demand for U.S. agricultural products and services, international trade is an area of great importance to more and more Extension clients and stakeholders. This article provides information about the primary…

  9. Takeover bids and insider trading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nelemans, Matthijs; Bainbridge, Stephen M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyses the law and economics of insider trading in the context of takeover bids, focusing on the European regulatory framework. We distinguish between trading by the bidder, by the target and by classical insiders and first address the issue of precisely when information about potential

  10. Creative Trade for Human Development

    OpenAIRE

    Kabanda, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, international trade in creative goods and services has been expanding. But this upward march is not lifting all boats. Although many developing countries are endowed with vast cultural wealth, they still lag behind. In addition, women are not faring well. Much needs to be done to expand creative trade for human development. Suggestions here include implementing a Women Art...

  11. Illegal trade in Barbary macaques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Uhm, Daan|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/380477025

    2014-01-01

    While Morocco is well known as the main port between Africa and the EU for the illegal drugs trade and migration, the illegal trade in wildlife is flourishing as well. Next to the illegal large-scale trafficking of tortoises and birds, it is estimated that as few as 5,000 Barbary macaques remain in

  12. Evaluating of foreign trade security

    OpenAIRE

    Vasyliev Andriy

    2015-01-01

    A method of evaluating foreign trade security is considered based on horizontally integrated approach to research security issues, taking into account the conditions of management, factors, components and levels of external security. The work was based theories of security, economics, management theory, practice of state regulation of foreign trade.

  13. Is Corruption Detrimental to Trade?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, E. de; Udo, E.

    2005-01-01

    Many regard corruption to be detrimental to international trade. Some, however, think that corruption greases commerce in case of low-quality institutions. Others argue that arbitrary corruption is more damaging to trade than predictable corruption. This is the first paper to test these hypotheses

  14. Does corruption discourage international trade?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, E. de; Bogmans, C.W.J.

    2011-01-01

    We use measures of trade-related corruption to investigate the effects of corruption on international trade and compare the results with those of corruption in general. We distinguish corruption in an exporting economy from that in an importing economy. Both distinctions appear to be important.

  15. RCRA Facility Investigation report for Waste Area Grouping 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-09-01

    This report presents data and information related to remedial investigation studies for Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Information is included on a soil gas survey, surface radiological investigations of waste areas, and well installation for ground water monitoring

  16. A Case Report of Ridge Augmentation using Onlay Interpositional Graft: An Approach to Improve Prosthetic Prognosis of a Deficit Ridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devanand Shetty

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Periodontal therapy has developed beyond the scope of the treatment of periodontal pathoses. Periodontal plastic surgery consists of the reconstructive procedures designed to enhance the both function and esthetics. Deficient ridges pose a severe problem to the restorative dentist in restoring the natural form, function and esthetics of the prosthesis replacing the natural dentition. Depending upon the severity, location of these defects and the prosthetic option chosen, hard and soft tissue ridge augmentation or non-surgical approach or a combination may help to address them. The present clinical report describes a soft tissue ridge augmentation of a localized ridge defect in maxillary aesthetic region using onlay interpositional graft followed by fixed partial denture.

  17. Characterization plan for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Area-Wide Groundwater Program, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    This characterization plan has been developed as part of the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) investigation of the Groundwater Operable Unit (GWOU) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) located near Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The first iteration of the characterization plan is intended to serve as a strategy document to guide subsequent GWOU remedial investigations. The plan provides a rationale and organization for groundwater data acquisition, monitoring, and remedial actions to be performed during implementation of environmental restoration activities associated with the ORNL GWOU. It is important to note that the characterization plan for the ORNL GWOU is not a prototypical work plan. As such, remedial investigations will be conducted using annual work plans to manage the work activities, and task reports will be used to document the results of the investigations. Sampling and analysis results will be compiled and reported annually with a review of data relative to risk (screening level risk assessment review) for groundwater. This characterization plan outlines the overall strategy for the remedial investigations and defines tasks that are to be conducted during the initial phase of investigation. This plan is presented with the understanding that more specific addenda to the plan will follow.

  18. Characterization plan for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Area-Wide Groundwater Program, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    This characterization plan has been developed as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) investigation of the Groundwater Operable Unit (GWOU) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) located near Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The first iteration of the characterization plan is intended to serve as a strategy document to guide subsequent GWOU remedial investigations. The plan provides a rationale and organization for groundwater data acquisition, monitoring, and remedial actions to be performed during implementation of environmental restoration activities associated with the ORNL GWOU. It is important to note that the characterization plan for the ORNL GWOU is not a prototypical work plan. As such, remedial investigations will be conducted using annual work plans to manage the work activities, and task reports will be used to document the results of the investigations. Sampling and analysis results will be compiled and reported annually with a review of data relative to risk (screening level risk assessment review) for groundwater. This characterization plan outlines the overall strategy for the remedial investigations and defines tasks that are to be conducted during the initial phase of investigation. This plan is presented with the understanding that more specific addenda to the plan will follow

  19. Inactive tanks remediation program strategy and plans for Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-03-01

    This report presents plans and strategies for remediation of the liquid low-level waste (LLLW) tanks that have been removed from service (also known as inactive tanks) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. These plans and strategies will be carried out by the Environmental Restoration Program's Inactive LLLW Tank Program at ORNL. These tanks are defined as Category D tanks because they are existing tank systems without secondary containment that are removed from service. The approach to remediation of each tank or tank farm must be adapted in response to the specific circumstances of individual tank sites. The approach will be tailored to accommodate feedback on lessons learned from previous tank remediation activities and will not be a rigid step-by-step approach that must be conducted identically for every tank system. However, the approach will follow a multistep decision process. The overall objective of the Inactive Tank Program is to remediate all LLLW tanks that have been removed from service to the extent practicable in accordance with the FFA requirements. The Inactive Tank Program will focus on the remediation of the tank residues (i.e., contents after tank has been emptied) and tank shell. This strategy is discussed in detail in this report

  20. Inactive tanks remediation program strategy and plans for Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-11-01

    This report presents plans and strategies for remediation of the liquid low-level waste (LLLW) tanks that have been removed from service (also known as inactive tanks) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. These plans and strategies will be carried out by the Environmental Restoration Program's Inactive LLLW Tank Program at ORNL. The approach to remediation of each tank or tank farm must be adapted in response to the specific circumstances of individual tank sites. The approach will be tailored to accommodate feedback on lessons learned from previous tank remediation activities and will not be a rigid step-by-step approach that must be conducted identically for every tank system. However, the approach will follow a multistep decision process. The overall objective of the Inactive Tank Program is to remediate all LLLW tanks that have been removed from service to the extent practicable in accordance with the FFA requirements. The Inactive Tank Program will focus on the remediation of the tank residues and tank shell. This strategy is discussed in detail in this report