WorldWideScience

Sample records for ride comfort analysis

  1. Analysis of impact of suspension rubber mounts on ride comfort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bao; Chen, Zheming; Lei, Gang

    2017-01-01

    Two multi-body car models with rubber mounts and without rubber mounts have been built up to research how the suspension rubber mounts impact ride comfort. The comfort mount was used to simulate the impact process. Two scenarios have been set up, and time integrations have been performed to get the acceleration-time histories of seat surface in the x-, y-, and z-direction. A MATLAB program was compiled to calculate the weighted RMS acceleration. For the first scenario, the relative difference of weighted RMS acceleration between the car models with rubber mounts and without rubber mounts gradually decreases as the road roughness increases. For the second scenario, the relative difference increases as the driving speed increases. The conclusion shows that the change of driving speed or road roughness impacts ride comfort. Especially for high driving speed this impact is quite obvious.

  2. Ride comfort analysis with physiological parameters for an e-health train.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Youngbum; Shin, Kwangsoo; Lee, Sangjoon; Song, Yongsoo; Han, Sungho; Lee, Myoungho

    2009-12-01

    Transportation by train has numerous advantages over road transportation, especially with regard to energy efficiency, ecological features, safety, and punctuality. However, the contrast in ride comfort between standard road transportation and train travel has become a competitive issue. The ride comfort enhancement technology of tilting trains (TTX) is a particularly important issue in the development of the Korean high-speed railroad business. Ride comfort is now defined in international standards such as UIC13 and ISO2631. The Korean standards such as KSR9216 mainly address physical parameters such as vibration and noise. In the area of ride comfort, living quality parameter techniques have recently been considered in Korea, Japan, and Europe. This study introduces biological parameters, particularly variations in heart rate, as a more direct measure of comfort. Biological parameters are based on physiological responses rather than on purely external mechanical parameters. Variability of heart rate and other physiological parameters of passengers are measured in a simulation involving changes in the tilting angle of the TTX. This research is a preliminary study for the implementation of an e-health train, which would provide passengers with optimized ride comfort. The e-health train would also provide feedback on altered ride comfort situations that can improve a passenger's experience and provide a healthcare service on the train. The aim of this research was to develop a ride comfort evaluation system for the railway industry, the automobile industry, and the air industry. The degree of tilt correlated with heart rate, fatigue, and unrelieved alertness.

  3. Vehicle Ride Comfort Optimization Based on Interval Analysis%基于区间分析的汽车平顺性优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢慧超; 姜潮; 张智罡; 于盛

    2014-01-01

    An uncertainty optimization model for the ride comfort of vehicle suspension is built based on in-terval analysis technique. With suspension spring stiffness and shock absorber damping as design variables, minimi-zing the root mean square of car body acceleration as objective, and the stiffness and natural frequency of suspension as constraints, and by means of tolerance indicator and possibility degree of interval, the uncertainty optimization model is transformed into a certainty one, which is then solved with SQP and NSGA-II. On the premise of assuring the objective of ride comfort, the symmetric tolerance of design variables is maximized with manufacturing cost re-duced. Finally the scheme proposed is applied to the ride comfort optimization of suspension vibration system with both 2 DOF quarter car body model and 7 DOF whole car body model.%基于区间分析方法,建立了一种汽车悬架平顺性的不确定性优化模型。以悬架弹簧刚度和减振器阻尼为设计参数,车身加速度均方根值最小化为目标,悬架刚度和固有频率等为约束,并使用区间描述设计变量的制造和测量误差。利用公差指标和区间可能度,将该不确定性优化模型转化为确定性优化问题,并利用序列二次规划法和非支配排序遗传算法进行求解;在保证平顺性目标的前提下,使设计变量的对称公差最大化,以降低制造成本。最后,该方法被应用于两自由度1/4车身和7自由度整车车身悬架振动系统的平顺性优化。

  4. Ride quality criteria and the design process. [standards for ride comfort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravera, R. J.

    1975-01-01

    Conceptual designs for advanced ground transportation systems often hinge on obtaining acceptable vehicle ride quality while attempting to keep the total guideway cost (initial and subsequent maintenance) as low as possible. Two ride quality standards used extensively in work sponsored by the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) are the DOT-Urban Tracked Air Cushion Vehicle (UTACV) standard and the International Standards Organization (ISO) reduced ride comfort criteria. These standards are reviewed and some of the deficiencies, which become apparent when trying to apply them in practice, are noted. Through the use of a digital simulation, the impact of each of these standards on an example design process is examined. It is shown that meeting the ISO specification for the particular vehicle/guideway case investigated is easier than meeting the UTACV standard.

  5. Annoyance rate evaluation method on ride comfort of vehicle suspension system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Chuanyin; Zhang, Yimin; Zhao, Guangyao; Ma, Yan

    2014-03-01

    The existing researches of the evaluation method of ride comfort of vehicle mainly focus on the level of human feelings to vibration. The level of human feelings to vibration is influenced by many factors, however, the ride comfort according to the common principle of probability and statistics and simple binary logic is unable to reflect these uncertainties. The random fuzzy evaluation model from people subjective response to vibration is adopted in the paper, these uncertainties are analyzed from the angle of psychological physics. Discussing the traditional evaluation of ride comfort during vehicle vibration, a fuzzily random evaluation model on the basis of annoyance rate is proposed for the human body's subjective response to vibration, with relevant fuzzy membership function and probability distribution given. A half-car four degrees of freedom suspension vibration model is described, subject to irregular excitations from the road surface, with the aid of software Matlab/Simulink. A new kind of evaluation method for ride comfort of vehicles is proposed in the paper, i.e., the annoyance rate evaluation method. The genetic algorithm and neural network control theory are used to control the system. Simulation results are obtained, such as the comparison of comfort reaction to vibration environments between before and after control, relationship of annoyance rate to vibration frequency and weighted acceleration, based on ISO 2631/1(1982), ISO 2631-1(1997) and annoyance rate evaluation method, respectively. Simulated assessment results indicate that the proposed active suspension systems prove to be effective in the vibration isolation of the suspension system, and the subjective response of human being can be promoted from very uncomfortable to a little uncomfortable. Furthermore, the novel evaluation method based on annoyance rate can further estimate quantitatively the number of passengers who feel discomfort due to vibration. A new analysis method of vehicle

  6. Comparison Between Time and Frequency Domain Method in Vehicle Ride Comfort Analysis%汽车平顺性分析中时域法和频域法的对比

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐中明; 周小林; 余烽; 张芳; 谭建林

    2012-01-01

    Based on international standard ISO2631 and national standard GB/T4970 Method of random input running test-Automotive ride comfort, the ride comfort tests are conducted on a bus with a study focused on the applicability discrepancy between different algorithms in ride comfort analysis. By applying Parseval theorem, both time and frequency domain algorithms are implemented with FAMOS and VC&MATLAB software development platforms. The results show that the outcomes of calculation with different algorithms don't have significant differences, but each algorithm has its own distinguishing feature. The time domain algorithm is more sensitive to peak factor and can be used to evaluate the ride comfort of vehicle from the perspective of human body comfort, while the frequency domain algorithm is suitable for analyzing the influence of each frequency of one-third octave band on human body vibration and providing bases for ride comfort improvement, but with die defects in lower accuracy and processing efficiency. And in frequency domain, the results of comparison between two spectrum estimation schemes indicate that the Welch classic spectrum estimation technique has poor consistency while the Yule-Walker method using AR model has relatively stable performance.%依据国际标准ISO2631和国标GB/T4970《汽车平顺性随机输入行驶试验方法》,对某客车进行了行驶平顺性试验,重点研究了不同算法在平顺性分析中的差别.以FAMOS、VC&MATLAB为软件开发平台,在Parse-val定理基础上实现了时、频域两种算法.结果表明,各种算法计算结果差别不大但各有特点,时域法对峰值系数更加敏感,可用于从人体舒适性角度评价平顺性;频域法则适用于分析1/3倍频程各频带对人体振动的影响并为改善汽车平顺性提供依据,但存在精度较低、处理效率不高等问题.而频率法中两种谱估计法的对比结果表明,Welch经典谱估计法的一致

  7. Study on the ride comfort of vehicles driven by in-wheel motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqiang Jin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Vehicles driven by in-wheel motors have received more and more attention. However, due to the introduction of in-wheel motors, the ratio between unsprung and sprung mass is increased. In this article, to study the influence of this change on ride comfort of vehicles driven by in-wheel motors, an 11 degrees of freedom of vehicle ride comfort model will be presented and studied with MATLAB/Simulink. Then, road tests will be conducted to corroborate the simulation results. It can be obtained that the vehicle ride comfort becomes poor with the increasing unsprung mass. Finally, semi-active air-suspension proportional–integral–derivative control system will be proposed to improve the vehicle ride comfort. Through the simulation results, one can come to a conclusion that the proportional–integral–derivative control system for air suspension is feasible and effective to improve the ride comfort of the vehicles driven by in-wheel motors.

  8. Frequency Weighting Filter Design for Automotive Ride Comfort Evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Feng

    2016-01-01

    Few study gives guidance to design weighting filters according to the frequency weighting factors, and the additional evaluation method of automotive ride comfort is not made good use of in some countries. Based on the regularities of the weighting factors, a method is proposed and the vertical and horizontal weighting filters are developed. The whole frequency range is divided several times into two parts with respective regularity. For each division, a parallel filter constituted by a low-and a high-pass filter with the same cutoff frequency and the quality factor is utilized to achieve section factors. The cascading of these parallel filters obtains entire factors. These filters own a high order. But, low order filters are preferred in some applications. The bilinear transformation method and the least P-norm optimal infinite impulse response(IIR) filter design method are employed to develop low order filters to approximate the weightings in the standard. In addition, with the window method, the linear phase finite impulse response(FIR) filter is designed to keep the signal from distorting and to obtain the staircase weighting. For the same case, the traditional method produces 0.330 7 m•s–2 weighted root mean square(r.m.s.) acceleration and the filtering method gives 0.311 9 m•s–2 r.m.s. The fourth order filter for approximation of vertical weighting obtains 0.313 9 m•s–2 r.m.s. Crest factors of the acceleration signal weighted by the weighting filter and the fourth order filter are 3.002 7 and 3.011 1, respectively. This paper proposes several methods to design frequency weighting filters for automotive ride comfort evaluation, and these developed weighting filters are effective.

  9. Frequency weighting filter design for automotive ride comfort evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Feng

    2016-07-01

    Few study gives guidance to design weighting filters according to the frequency weighting factors, and the additional evaluation method of automotive ride comfort is not made good use of in some countries. Based on the regularities of the weighting factors, a method is proposed and the vertical and horizontal weighting filters are developed. The whole frequency range is divided several times into two parts with respective regularity. For each division, a parallel filter constituted by a low- and a high-pass filter with the same cutoff frequency and the quality factor is utilized to achieve section factors. The cascading of these parallel filters obtains entire factors. These filters own a high order. But, low order filters are preferred in some applications. The bilinear transformation method and the least P-norm optimal infinite impulse response(IIR) filter design method are employed to develop low order filters to approximate the weightings in the standard. In addition, with the window method, the linear phase finite impulse response(FIR) filter is designed to keep the signal from distorting and to obtain the staircase weighting. For the same case, the traditional method produces 0.330 7 m • s-2 weighted root mean square(r.m.s.) acceleration and the filtering method gives 0.311 9 m • s-2 r.m.s. The fourth order filter for approximation of vertical weighting obtains 0.313 9 m • s-2 r.m.s. Crest factors of the acceleration signal weighted by the weighting filter and the fourth order filter are 3.002 7 and 3.011 1, respectively. This paper proposes several methods to design frequency weighting filters for automotive ride comfort evaluation, and these developed weighting filters are effective.

  10. Analysis of Passenger Ride Comfort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yagiz N.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effect of vehicle vibrations on human beings is investigated. The computations were made with the help of a simulation program using a full vehicle model with driver and the results were evaluated using international ISO 2631 standard. The physical model of the investigated system is formed by a full-vehicle model and a driver. The road roughness is used as an input to the system and the responses are compared with the related standard. Finally, the results are discussed.

  11. H∞控制主动悬架平顺性仿真分析%Ride Comfort Simulation Analysis of Active Vehicle Suspension with H∞ Controller

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋刚; 许长城

    2012-01-01

    Based on the linear matrix inequality method, an Ha output feedback controller was designed for a quarter car model to improve its ride comfort. As it is impossible to measure all state variables for vehicle suspension control problems, only the suspension travels and the vertical accelerations of vehicle body were assumed to be measured. Measurement noises were also considered. The control outputs were selected to keep the maximum acceleration of the vehicle body low whereas to avoid excessive suspension travel and dynamic tyre deflection. By introducing the pseudo excitations, a highly efficient simulation method was adopted for the active vehicle suspension systems. For the new simulation method, the power spectral density functions of vehicle responses can be obtained precisely, and only the road surface elevation power spectral density is needed. Numerical results show that the H00 output feedback controller can improve the ride comfort better.%关于改善车辆的行驶平顺性问题,由于行驶路面激励,存在不稳定因素,应调节悬架系统的刚度和阻尼,改善行驶的平顺性.为解决上述问题,提出采用主动悬架H∞输出反馈控制策略.根据线性矩阵不等式方法,在控制器设计中,假定悬架动行程及车身竖向加速度可以量测,同时考虑量测噪声;在控制输出向量选取上,以降低车身竖向加速度响应为目标,同时兼顾悬架最大动行程及轮胎动挠度.对于控制系统的数值仿真,通过引入虚拟激励,直接由道路谱得到车辆响应的精确功率谱密度.数值仿真结果表明,具有H∞输出反馈控制器的主动悬架对车辆行驶平顺性的改善有良好的效果.

  12. Optimization of Damper Top Mount Characteristics to Improve Vehicle Ride Comfort and Harshness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina M. S. Kaldas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel optimization technique for optimizing the damper top mount characteristics to improve vehicle ride comfort and harshness is developed. The proposed optimization technique employs a new combined objective function based on ride comfort, harshness, and impact harshness evaluation. A detailed and accurate damper top mount mathematical model is implemented inside a validated quarter vehicle model to provide a realistic simulation environment for the optimization study. The ride comfort and harshness of the quarter vehicle are evaluated by analyzing the body acceleration in different frequency ranges. In addition, the top mount deformation is considered as a penalty factor for the system performance. The influence of the ride comfort and harshness weighting parameters of the proposed objective function on the optimal damper top mount characteristics is studied. The dynamic stiffness of the damper top mount is used to describe the optimum damper top mount characteristics for different optimization case studies. The proposed optimization routine is able to find the optimum characteristics of the damper top mount which improve the ride comfort and the harshness performances together.

  13. Sensitivity Analysis of Ride Comfort to the Main Parameters of the Occupant-Seat System of a Vehicle%车辆人椅系统主要参数对舒适度敏感性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李睿; 郭立新

    2015-01-01

    [ Abstract] A two-dimensional dynamics model for occupant-seat system is built for analyzing the effects of its main parameters on ride comfort with a corresponding non-linear simulation model also established by Matlab SimMechanics. The pavement excitation data obtained by experiment are input into non-linear simulation model and linear dynamic model respectively to compare their output in terms of acceleration power spectrum density for verif-ying the validity of linear model. On this basis, a sensitivity analysis is carried out. The results show that in addi-tion to the stiffness and damping of seat, the height, mass and sitting posture of human body also have an important influence on ride comfort.%建立了一个二维人椅系统动力学模型,以研究其主要参数对乘坐舒适性的影响。利用软件Matlab SimMechanics建立了相应的非线性仿真模型,将实验测定的路面激励数据分别输入非线性仿真模型和线性模型,比较输出的加速度功率谱密度以验证线性模型的有效性,在此基础上进行敏感性分析。结果表明,除了座椅的刚度和阻尼以外,人体身高、体质量和乘坐姿态也对舒适性有重要影响。

  14. 电动汽车车身平顺性及车轮接地性分析与优化%Analysis and Optimization of Ride Comfort and Wheel Ground Adhesion of Electric Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张擎宇; 陈辛波

    2014-01-01

    以某分布式四轮驱动电动汽车为研究对象,在Adams/car中建立了整车模型,通过对前、后悬架参数进行灵敏度分析,探讨其对车身平顺性与车轮接地性的影响。基于α法建立评价车身平顺性与车轮接地性指标的多目标函数,对灵敏度较高的悬架参数进行优化设计。结果表明,优化后前、后悬架的刚度减小,前悬架的阻尼增大。与优化前相比,车身垂向加速度均方根值减小16%,左、右前轮动载荷的均方根值均减小11%。%With a distributed 4WD electric vehicle as research object, a vehicle model is constructed in Adams/car environment. Sensitivity analysis is made to the front and rear suspension parameters, its effect on ride comfort and wheel ground adhesion is investigated. Multi-objective function to evaluate body ride comfort and wheel ground adhesion is established based on α method and suspension parameters with high sensitivity are optimized. The results indicate that stiffness of the optimized front and rear suspension descends, whereas damping of the front suspension ascends. Compared with the suspension before optimization, the root-mean-square value of body vertical acceleration is reduced by 16%, and that of the front wheels on both sides is reduced by 11%.

  15. A Comparison Study on the Assessment of Ride Comfort for LRT Passengers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tengku Munawir, Tengku Imran; Abqari Abu Samah, Ahmad; Afiq Akmal Rosle, Muhammad; Azlis-Sani, Jalil; Hasnan, Khalid; Sabri, S. M.; Ismail, S. M.; Yunos, Muhammad Nur Annuar Mohd; Yen Bin, Teo

    2017-08-01

    Ride comfort in railway transportation is very mind boggling and it relies on different dynamic performance criteria as well as subjective observation from the train passengers. Vibration discomfort from different elements such as vehicle condition, track area condition and working condition can prompt poor ride comfort. However, there are no universal applicable standards to analyse the ride comfort. There are several factors including local condition, vehicle condition and the track condition. In this current work, level of ride comfort by previous Adtranz-Walker light rapid transit (LRT) passengers at Ampang line were analysed. A comparison was done via two possible methods which are BS EN 12299 (2009) and Sperling’s Ride Index equation. BS EN 12299 standard is used to measure and evaluate the ride comfort of seating (Nvd) and standing (Nva) of train passenger in three different routes. Next, Sperling’s ride comfort equation is used to conduct validation and comparison between the obtained data. The result indicates a higher extent of vibration in the vertical axis which impacts the overall result. The standing position demonstrates a higher exposure of vibration in all the three tested routes. Comparison of the ride comfort assessment of passenger in sitting and standing position for both methods indicates that all the track sections exceeds “pronounced but not unpleasant (medium)” limit range. Nevertheless, the seating position at track section AU did not exceed the limit and stayed at the comfortable zone. The highest discomfort level achieved for both methods for seating position are 3.34 m/s2 for Nva and 2.63 m/s2 respectively, which is at route C uptrack that is from Chan Sow Lin station to Sri Petaling station. Meanwhile, the highest discomfort level achieved for both methods for standing are 3.80 m/s2 for Nvd and 2.88 m/s2 for Wz respectively, at uptrack section which is from Sri Petaling station to Chan Sow Lin station. Thus, the highest

  16. Development of an experimental methodology to evaluate the influence of a bamboo frame on the bicycle ride comfort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thite, A. N.; Gerguri, S.; Coleman, F.; Doody, M.; Fisher, N.

    2013-09-01

    In the current environment of increased emphasis on sustainable transport, there is manifold increase in the use of bicycles for urban transport. One concern which might restrict the use is the ride comfort and fatigue. There has been limited research in addressing the difficulty in bicycle ride comfort quantification. The current study aims to develop a methodology to quantify bicycle discomfort so that performance of bicycles constructed from bamboo and aluminium alloy can be compared. Experimentally obtained frequency response functions are used to establish a relation between the road input and the seat and rider response. A bicycle track input profile based on standard road profiles is created so as to estimate the acceleration responses. The whole-body-vibration frequency weighting is applied to quantify the perception of vibration intensity so that eventual discomfort ranking can be obtained. The measured frequency response functions provide an insight into the effect of frame dynamics on the overall resonant behaviour of the bicycles. The beneficial effect of frame compliance and damping on lower modes of vibration is very clear in the case of bamboo frame, in turn affecting seat and rider response. In the bamboo frame, because of multiple resonances, the frequency response of the handlebar is smaller at higher frequencies suggesting effective isolation. Further improvements may have come from the joints made from natural composites. Overall, based on the comparative analysis and the methodology developed, bamboo frame shows significant improvement in ride comfort performance compared with the aluminium frame.

  17. Simulation Analysis and Test Research on Motorcycle Riding Comfort%摩托车行驶平顺性的仿真分析与试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄超群; 来飞

    2012-01-01

    The dynamic model of motorcycle for riding analysis on uneven road was built up,with the spring model of the vertical stiffness to replace the tire model,so as to simplify the modeling process,and the four degrees of freeform of multi-body dynamics model was established, including the bounce and pitch of the body and the bounce affront and rear wheel. Harmonic superposition method was used to establish the C grade road model,and it was later applied to multi-body dynamics model analysis and also to the road simulation test.In the road simulation test,with two channel tire coupling road simulation test machine for motorcycle system vibration,transforming the C grade road model into the drive signal of the vibrator,the vertical acceleration of the saddle and pedal position were measured-Compared with the test results,the multi-body dynamics simulation model was proved to be correct.%对含路面不平激励作用下的摩托车进行了行驶平顺性的动力学建模,用垂向刚度的弹簧模型代替轮胎模型,从而对建模过程进行简化,建立了车身垂向、俯仰及前后轮弹跳共四个自由度的多体动力学模型.运用谐波叠加法建立了C级路面模型,并将其同时应用到多体动力学模型仿真分析以及基于道路模拟的摩托车平顺性的试验测试中.在道路模拟的试验中,采用两通道轮胎耦合道路模拟试验机对摩托车系统进行激振,将C级路面模型转化为激振器的驱动信号,并对驾驶员坐垫和脚踏位置的振动加速度进行了测试,同时与仿真分析结果进行对比,验证了仿真模型的正确性.

  18. A review on the major sources of the interior sound vibration and riding comfort in vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlDhahebi, Adel Mohammed; Junoh, Ahmad Kadri; Ahmed, Amran

    2016-10-01

    Vehicle interior comfort is a crucial criteria that is considered by the perspective customer when purchasing a new vehicle. Meanwhile, automotive industries face the challenges for producing vehicles with better design criteria that meet the expectations of customers and eventually promote higher competitive advantages in areas of acoustic performance, cost effectiveness, product weight, and global competitive market. This review presents the major sources that influence the generation of noise and vibration in the interior part of the vehicles. It also demonstrates the relative methods that are used to assess the interior acoustics and vibration and further improve the riding comfort. This study is of a particular importance for acoustical researchers and automobile engineers, where it brings about suggestions and fundamentals that can contribute to acoustical comfort in vehicles.

  19. Experimental Study on the Ride Comfort of a Crawler Power Chassis Scale Model Based on the Similitude Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Jianzhu; WANG Fengchen; YU Bin; TONG Pengcheng; CHEN Kuifu

    2015-01-01

    The ride comfort experimental assessment of crawler off-road vehicle is relatively overlooked, and is expensive and difficult to execute with higher and higher ride comfort performance requirements. To trade off between precise and cost, an experimental method based on the similitude theory is proposed. Under the guidance of the similitude theory, a 1:5 crawler power chassis scale model equipped with a kind of variable stiffness suspension system is used. The power spectrum density(PSD), the root mean square(RMS) of weighed acceleration, peak factor, average absorbed power(AAP) and vibration dose value(VDV) are selected as ride comfort evaluation indexes, and tests results are transformed via similarity indexes to predict the performance of full-scale power chassis. PSD shows that the low-order natural frequency of the vertical natural frequency(z axis) is 1.1 Hz, and the RMS, AAP and VDV values indicate the ride comfort performance of this kind of power chassis is between the“A little uncomfortable”and“Rather uncomfortable”. From the results, low-order vertical natural frequency, obtalned by PSD, validates that the similarity relationship between two models is satisfied, and 1:5 scale model used in experiment meets the similarity relationship with the full-scale model; consequently, the ride comfort prophase evaluation with the 1:5 scale model is feasible. The attempt of applying the similitude theory to crawler vehicle ride comfort test study decreases the cost and improves the test feasibility with sufficient test precise.

  20. 汽车平顺性评价方法综述%Review for the Current Evaluation Methods of Vehicle Ride Comfort

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏均忠; 马宗坡; 方中雁; 白云川

    2012-01-01

    In view of the controversy of ride comfort evaluation methods of domestic and international, the characteristics, differences and scope for each evaluation methods were analyzed. The integration of level of analysis and fuzzy is the typical subjective evaluation method. Then four object methods were described which were absorbed power method, the overall ride value method, VDI2057 (2002) and ISO2631 (1997). Finally several new subjective and objective comprehensive evaluation methods, including automotive integrated vibration comfort, fuzzy evaluation method and irritability rate analysis were introduced. The study found that every method is work, but the standard varies. The comprehensive evaluation methods can be better integrated to achieve the vehicle ride comfort evaluation, which may be the focus of future research directions.%针对国内外汽车平顺性评价方法存在较大争议的现状,系统分析各类评价方法的特点、差异和适用范围.首先介绍主观评价方法,其中比较典型的是模糊层次分析法;然后分别介绍吸收功率法、总体乘坐值法、VDI 2057(2002)和ISO 2631(1997)四种客观评价方法;最后引入新近提出的几种主、客观综合评价法,包括汽车综合振动舒适度Cgv法、模糊评价法和烦躁率分析法.各类方法都能对汽车平顺性作出评价,但标准各有差异.研究发现,多学科交叉的主、客观综合评价法能较好的实现汽车平顺性评价,是今后研究的重点方向.

  1. 基于刚柔耦合模型的电动轮自卸车平顺性分析与优化%Analysis and Optimization of Ride Comfort of Electric Wheel Dump Truck Based on a Rigid-flexible Coupling Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍文广; 谷正气; 米承继

    2014-01-01

    In order to evaluate and optimize the ride comfort of the dump truck ,this paper presen-ted a domestic large-scale electric wheel dump truck ride comfort test ,in an open pit mine ,and the vi-bration acceleration of the position such as the deck and the chair etc .were obtained .The results show that the ride is poorer ,and should be optimized .In order to improve the model’s accuracy ,a coupled multi-body dynamics model of this truck was built ,containing flexible main-frame ,and model were verified by the test data .The results show that the precision is increased by 11.5% than that from pure rigid body dynamics model .According to the characteristics of the nonlinear hydro-pneumatic suspension ,using the hydro-pneumatic suspension parameters as the design variables ,and using the ride comfort evaluation value as objective function ,an approximate surrogate model of ride comfort was built ,the Pointer algorithm was adopted to ride comfort optimization ,the results show that the ride comfort of the truck improves by 27% after optimization .%为了分析和优化自卸车的平顺性,在国内某矿山上对某国产大型电动轮自卸车进行了平顺性试验,得到了其甲板、座椅等位置的振动加速度并进行了分析,结果表明,其行驶平顺性较差,应当对其进行优化。为了提高平顺性分析动力学模型的精确性,建立了包含柔性化车架的整车刚柔耦合多体动力学模型,并通过试验数据对模型进行了验证,结果表明,所建立的模型精度比纯刚体动力学模型提高了11.5%。针对非线性油气悬架的特点,以油气悬架结构参数为设计变量,以平顺性综合评价值为目标函数,建立了平顺性优化近似模型,采用Pointer算法对其平顺性进行了优化,结果表明,优化后自卸车的平顺性提高了27%。

  2. Research on Vibration Characteristics Between Human Body and Seat, Steering Wheel, and Pedals (effects of Seat Position on Ride Comfort)

    Science.gov (United States)

    NISHIYAMA, S.; UESUGI, N.; TAKESHIMA, T.; KANO, Y.; TOGII, H.

    2000-09-01

    Experimental results are presented of the vibrational characteristics of the automotive subsystem comprising the human body, seat, steering wheel and pedals. The magnitude of the vibrations transferred to a driver from the seat, steering wheel and pedals have been measured with both sinusoidal and random excitations in the vertical direction at frequencies up to 20 Hz. Measurement points were located on the surface of the head, chest, hip, thigh, shin, upper arm and lower arm. Eleven subjects were used to investigate the effect of some variable factors, such as arm angle, that may affect human dynamic behavior. It was found that arm angle in driving posture has a substantial influence on the dynamic behavior of the human body while driving. Some results are presented in the form of parametric graphs and tables. The results are useful for improving ride comfort, maneuverability and safety.

  3. Analysis of the Travel Intent for Park and Ride Based on Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huanmei Qin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available As a multimodal travel behavior, park and ride includes several trip modes such as car, walking, bus, or railway. And people’s choice of park and ride is influenced by many factors. This paper, based on the park and ride behavior survey in Beijing, will analyze the relationship between the perception of the influencing factors and the behavior intent for park and ride by using structural equation modeling. The conclusions suggest that the park and ride choice for travelers is a passive behavior which means giving up driving the car is mainly caused by the serious traffic congestion. Furthermore, improving the service level of the park and ride facilities and the comfort for riding bus or railway will increase the utilization of park and ride facilities. The perceptions of the influencing factors have both direct and indirect effects on the travel intent for park and ride by the interaction among the influencing factors.

  4. Analysis of Motorcyclist Riding Behaviour on Speed Table

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choon Wah Yuen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the study of the change of various types of riding behaviour, such as speed, brake force, and throttle force applied, when they ride across the speed table. An instrumented motorcycle equipped with various types of sensor, on-board camera, and data logger was used in acquiring the traffic data in the research. Riders were instructed to ride across two speed tables and the riding data were then analyzed to study the behaviour change from different riders. The results from statistical analysis showed that the riding characteristics such as speed, brake force, and throttle force applied are influenced by distance from hump, riding experience, and travel mileage of riders. Riders tend to apply higher brake intensity at distance point 50 m before the speed table and release the braking at point −10 m after the hump. In short, speed table has different rates of influence towards riding behaviour on different factors, such as distance from hump and different riders’ attributes.

  5. 汽车悬架刚度对平顺性的影响分析%Influence of Suspension Stiffness on Automobile Ride Comfort

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纪伟; 于文华

    2015-01-01

    By using multi-body dynamics software ADAMS/Car module ,the model of a vehicle system including the front and rear suspension system ,tire system ,steering system was set up ,the virtual simulation test rig for random road input test was designed . Using the test rig ,the ride comfort of the established vehicle model was analyzed ,to get the corresponding simulation data .Keeping the pavement ,tire motivation ,vehicle load ,suspension damping constant ,only changing the suspension stiffness ,the simulation of vehicle ride comfort under different suspension stiffness was carried ,so as to achieve the influence of suspension stiffness on the ve-hicle ride comfort .The conclusion is that we should choose suitable suspension stiffness for a particular vehicle to guarantee the vehi-cle ride comfort .%运用多体动力学软件ADAMS/Car模块建立了包括前后悬架系统、轮胎系统、转向系统的整车模型 ,设计了虚拟仿真试验台用于随机路面的输入测试.运用该试验台对所建立的整车模型进行平顺性仿真 ,得到相应数据之后 ,保持路面情况、轮胎激励、车辆载重、悬架阻尼不变 ,只改变悬架刚度 ,仿真车辆在不同悬架刚度下的平顺性 ,得到悬架刚度对平顺性的影响.仿真结果表明 ,对于特定车辆要选用合适的悬架刚度才能给车辆平顺性提供保障.

  6. The Simulation of Micro Tourism Electric Vehicle Typical Road Ride Comfort Based on ADAMS/Car%基于 ADAMS/Car 微型观光电动汽车典型路面平顺性仿真

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔长胜; 李耀刚; 琚立颖; 冯泽; 张文明

    2014-01-01

    Based on the situation that the micro tourism electric vehicles which are made in domestic have bad ride comfort,based on the micro tourism electric vehicle of Tangshan electric vehicle key laboratory ,build a full vehicle ADAMS/Car virtual prototype model .Make this micro tourism electric vehicle at a certain speed pass long slope form convex block of the road and triangle convex block of the road for ride comfort simulation analysis of typical road surface .Draw cars center of mass vertical acceleration curve in the postprocessor module ,and then evaluate the ride comfort of the car .For the future to improve the electric car performance to provide certain theoretical basis da-ta in all respects .%基于国内以传统汽车底盘为基础进行改装设计所研制的电动汽车出现平顺性差等缺点,以唐山市电动汽车重点实验室前期研制的微型观光旅游电动汽车为基础,建立整车AD-AMS/Car虚拟样机模型。使此微型电动汽车以一定车速驶过长坡形凸块路面和三角形凸块路面进行典型路面的平顺性仿真分析。在后处理模块中绘制汽车质心垂向加速度特性曲线,进而评价此车平顺性能。为今后改善电动汽车各方面性能提供一定的理论数据基础。

  7. 农用三轮摩托车平顺性仿真及优化设计研究%Study on ride comfort simulation and Its optimization design of agricultural tricycle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩翔

    2012-01-01

    利用Adams/View建立三轮车的多刚体动力学模型,并在其中添加驾驶员模型,通过驾驶员控制方向把的转角对跑偏现象进行实时的反馈和调节,从而精确模拟实际车辆在道路上的行驶情况.然后对车辆的平顺性能进行仿真分析,得其振动的加速度,参考汽车的平顺性评价指标,对其平顺性进行评价.在此基础上,以驾驶员座椅垂向加速度均方根值作为目标函数,对三轮车的行驶平顺性进行优化设计,得到前后减振器的刚度、阻尼的最优值,使其乘坐舒适性得到大幅度提高.%A multi-rigid-body dynamics model of agricultural tricycle is established by means of the Adams/View, where in the driver model is added.The driver controls angular of the steering handle to feedback and adjust deviation in real time,lhus the actual vehicle running is accurately simulatedThen the simulating analysis for ride comfort of the tricycle is carried out to obtain the accelerated speed in vibration and evaluate the ride comfort referencing to the evaluating index for vehicles.Based on the assessing system of vehicle ride performance, the root mean square value of acceleration of z-axis of the driver's seat is selected as the optimization target junction to optimize the design of driving comfort of the tricycleA nd the optimal value for stiffness and damper of the front and rear suspension are gainedThere fore the ride comfort is improved drastically.

  8. ERGONOMIC ANALYSIS OF A HORSE-DRAWN CARRIAGE USED FOR A JOY RIDE IN INDIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Prabir; Vinzuda, Vipul; Naik, Suhas; Karthikeyan, Vignesh; Kumar, Pawan

    2014-06-01

    Horse-drawn carriages popularly known as Tanga in India provide a popularjoy ride. Such vehicles were selected from two cites in Central India and the other from a city in Western India, based on complaints from the users that these vehicles were not comfortable to ride. Twelve male and twelve female participants were selected for the user study. Two of the members of the research team travelled on the vehicle on twelve trips over a 7 kilometer stretch (considered to be the maximum stretch for a Tanga ride). The study comprised three phases; direct observation and activity analysis, a questionnaire study and another questionnaire study of body part discomfort, with the aim to get an insight into the ergonomic design issues of the vehicle. There were gross mismatches in the design and human anthropometric dimensions together with other issues like safety and reliability involved. Based on the initial observations, four concept prototypes were developed which were later handed to the respective authorities for further implementation.

  9. A New Method for Ride Quality Analysis of Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Jian-hui; ZHANG Jie; GAO Yan; LI Tian-rui

    2006-01-01

    Current spectral analysis for evaluating the rail ride quality effectively is based on the sampling data at a uniform time interval, but the train is of fluctuation velocity in motion,which results in a non-uniform interval between consecutive sampling data. Therefore the accuracy of routine spectral analysis is in doubt when applying it in evaluating the rail ride quality. This paper presents a new way, namely, resampling with variable frequency to eliminate the influence of the train's uneven velocity. Its feature is that there is no need for precision measurement of the train's moving speed.Experiment results from the test-bed of rolling stock vibration show that it is valid.

  10. 基于遗传算法的汽车平顺性和操纵稳定性优化%Optimization Study on the Vehicle Handling Stability and Ride Comfort Using Genetic Algorithm Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘筱; 陈潇凯; 林逸; 王冬成

    2012-01-01

    In order to improve the automobile ride comfort and handling stability, a nonlinear threefreedom handling stability model was established and the influence of the load transfer and the tire nonlinear stiffness characteristic on the automobile stability was researched during the high speed lane- change condition. An optimization of the suspension parameters based on genetic algorithm was proposed. The vehicle body roll angle was selected for minimum optimization objectives , the suspension frequency and the vehicle understeer performance was selected for constraint condition, and the suspension stiffness parameters were taken as the the design variables. The computation results show that the suspension design scheme through optimization has apparant effects on improving ride comfort and handling stability. Finally, the result of analysis indicates that the ride comfort and handling stability during high speed can be improved effectively through this matching method.%为改善汽车行驶的平顺性和操纵稳定性,建立了某SUV非线性三自由度操纵稳定性模型,研究了高速转弯工况侧倾载荷转移及轮胎的非线性特性对整车操纵稳定性的影响.提出了基于遗传算法的悬架刚度参数的优化匹配方法.以车身侧倾最小为优化目标,以弹簧刚度对悬架偏频及不足转向度影响为约束,以前、后悬架弹簧刚度及前、后稳定杆刚度为设计自变量.计算结果及实车对比表明:优化后的方案比原方案在平顺性和操纵稳定性方面有了较大的改善;采用该匹配方法,可以有效提高车辆的平顺性和高速车辆操纵稳定性.

  11. Comfort Evaluation of Riding Vibration for Large-span Cable-stayed Bridge%大型桥梁行车振动舒适性的烦恼率模型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李雪红; 周叶波; 徐秀丽; 刘伟庆; 李枝军

    2011-01-01

    针对目前国内外对行车振动舒适性的度量及具体判定上还有一定的模糊性,迫切需要定量化的评价方法.本文结合振动舒适度标准和国际上公认的振动舒适度实验,分析了概念隶属度值和相应的振动加速度对数值之间的关系,给出了烦恼率计算公式,提出了烦恼率的近似拟合曲线,并把烦恼率作为行车振动舒适性的量化指标,提出评价行车振动舒适性较精确的量化方法;并将其用于实际运营的大跨桥梁的行车振动舒适性评价.%According to disadvantage of fuzziness for judgment of riding comfort of the bridge, quantitative evaluation method is needed. Combining riding comfort standard and internationally accepted riding comfort experiment, definition of membership and relationship between corresponding vibration acceleration and value are analyzed; annoyance rate calculation formula is researched; approximate fitting curve of annoyance rate is put forward. A more accurate quantitative method to evaluate riding comfort is proposed, with annoyance rate as quantitative index of riding comfort.

  12. Virtual simulation technology for displaying vehicle ride comfort%展示车辆平顺性的虚拟仿真技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李红波; 薛亮; 吴渝; 张寅奇

    2012-01-01

    虚拟现实技术是车辆平顺性仿真展示的主要方法之一.为了能更直观地展示车辆平顺性,参考了1/2七自由度车辆模型,在分析三维模型车辆振动组戍结构后构建了1/2二自由度车辆模型,并导出车辆垂向受力方程,实现了对车辆平顺性的模拟.为观测车辆平顺性仿真过程,提出“固定跟车”观测算法,通过平移和旋转变换,让摄像机视角与车辆位置相对固定并随车一起运动.实验表明,在车轮受到外力激励的情况下可以较真实地模拟模型车辆的振动状态,摄像机随车定点观测也更好地展现了仿真过程.%Virtual reality technology is one of the main methods for vehicle ride simulation. In order to show vehicle ride more directly, a vehicle model of 1/2 7 degrees is established. By analyzing vibration composition of three-dimensional vehicle model, a vehicle model of 1/2 two degrees is built. Then vehicle vertical force equation is educed, and the vehicle ride simulation is a-chieved. To observe simulation process of the vehicle ride comfort, an observation algorithm named " fixed with the car" is proposed. By translation and rotation, the camera angle and position of the vehicle are relatively fixed and it moves with the vehicle. Experimental results show that when wheels of the model vehicle are motivated by external force, the vehicle vibration state can be simulated truthfully, and the camera's fixed-point observation with the vehicle can also show the simulation better.

  13. Hydraulically interconnected vehicle suspension: theoretical and experimental ride analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Wade A.; Zhang, Nong; Jeyakumaran, Jeku

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a previously derived model for the frequency-domain analysis of vehicles with hydraulically interconnected suspension (HIS) systems is applied to the ride analysis of a four-degrees of freedom roll-plane, half-car under a rough road input. The entire road surface is assumed to be a realisation of a two-dimensional Gaussian homogenous and isotropic random process. The frequency responses of the half-car, in terms of bounce and roll acceleration, suspension deflection and dynamic tyre forces, are obtained under the road input of a single profile represented by its power spectral density function. Simulation results obtained for the roll-plane half-car fitted with an HIS and those with conventional suspensions are compared in detail. In addition, sensitivity analysis of key parameters of the HIS to the ride performance is carried out through simulations. The paper also presents the experimental validation of the analytical results of the free and forced vibrations of the roll-plane half-car. The hydraulic and mechanical system layouts, data acquisition system and the external force actuation mechanism of the test set-up are described in detail. The methodology for free and forced vibration tests and the application of mathematical models to account for the effective damper valve pressure loss are explained. Results are provided for the free and forced vibration testing of the half-car with different mean operating pressures. Comparisons are also given between the test results and those obtained from the system model with estimated damper valve loss coefficients. Furthermore, discussions on the deficiencies and practical implications of the proposed model and suggestions for future investigation are provided. Finally, the key findings of the investigation on the ride performance of the roll-plane half-car are summarised.

  14. Children's and Adults' Comfort Experience of Extra Seat Belts When Riding in the Rear Seat of a Passenger Car.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osvalder, Anna-Lisa; Hansson, Ida; Bohman, Katarina

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore passengers' comfort experience of extra seat belts during on-road driving in the rear seat of a passenger car and to investigate how the use of extra belts affects children's and adults' attitudes to the product. Two different seat belt systems were tested, criss-cross (CC) and backpack (BP), consisting of the standard 3-point belt together with an additional 2-point belt. In total, 32 participants (15 children aged 6-10, 6 youths aged 11-15, and 11 adults aged 20-79, who differed considerably in size, shape, and proportions) traveled for one hour with each system, including city traffic and highway driving. Four video cameras monitored the test subject during the drive. Subjective data regarding emotions and perceived discomfort were collected in questionnaires every 20 min. A semistructured interview was held afterwards. All participant groups accepted the new products and especially the increased feeling of safety (P belts in their family car. CC was appreciated for its symmetry, comfort, and the perceived feeling of safety. Some participants found CC unpleasant because the belts tended to slip close to the neck, described as a strangling feeling. BP was simpler to use and did not cause annoyance to the neck in the way CC did. Instead, it felt asymmetric and to some extent less safe than CC. Body size and shape affected seat belt fit to a great extent, which in turn affected the experience of comfort, both initially and over time. Perceived safety benefit and experienced comfort were the most determinant factors for the attitude toward the extra seat belts. The extra seat belts were perceived as being better than the participants had expected before the test, and they became more used to them over time. This exploratory study provided valuable knowledge from a user perspective for further development of new seat belt systems in cars. In addition to an increased feeling of safety, seat belt fit and comfort are

  15. Passivhaus: indoor comfort and energy dynamic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guida, Antonella; Pagliuca, Antonello; Cardinale, Nicola; Rospi, Gianluca

    2013-04-01

    The research aims to verify the energy performance as well as the indoor comfort of an energy class A+ building, built so that the sum of the heat passive contributions of solar radiation, transmitted through the windows, and the heat generated inside the building, are adeguate to compensate for the envelope loss during the cold season. The building, located in Emilia Romagna (Italy), was built using a wooden structure, an envelope realized using a pinewood sandwich panels (transmittance U = 0.250 W/m2K) and, inside, a wool flax insulation layer and thermal window frame with low-emissivity glass (U = 0524 W/m2K). The building design and construction process has followed the guidelines set by "CasaClima". The building has been modeled in the code of dynamic calculation "Energy Plus" by the Design Builder application and divided it into homogenous thermal zones, characterized by winter indoor temperature set at 20 ° (+ / - 1 °) and summer indoor temperature set at 26 ° (+ / - 1 °). It has modeled: the envelope, as described above, the "free" heat contributions, the air conditioning system, the Mechanical Ventilation system as well as home automation solutions. The air conditioning system is an heat pump, able to guarantee an optimization of energy consumption (in fact, it uses the "free" heat offered by the external environment for conditioning indoor environment). As regards the air recirculation system, it has been used a mechanical ventilation system with internal heat cross-flow exchanger, with an efficiency equal to 50%. The domotic solutions, instead, regard a system for the control of windows external screening using reeds, adjustable as a function of incident solar radiation and a lighting management system adjusted automatically using a dimmer. A so realized building meets the requirement imposed from Italian standard UNI/TS 11300 1, UNI/TS 11300 2 and UNI/TS 11300 3. The analysis was performed according to two different configurations: in "spontaneous

  16. A Study on the Cooperative Optimization of Vehicle Controllability/Stability and Ride Comfort%车辆操纵稳定性及平顺性的协同优化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨荣山; 袁仲荣; 黄向东; 赵克刚

    2009-01-01

    利用车辆多体动力学模型与多目标优化工具,对悬架弹簧、减振器及横向稳定杆特性进行操纵稳定性与行驶平顺性的协同优化仿真.结果表明汽车的操稳性和行驶平顺性的各项性能指标均得到了改善.%By using multi-body dynamics model and multi-objective optimization tools, a cooperative opti-mization simulation for controllability/stability and ride comfort is conducted on suspension spring, shock absorber and anti-roll bar of a car. The results show that all performance indicators in controllability/stability and ride comfort of the car are concurrently improved.

  17. Uncertainty Analysis of Thermal Comfort Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, A. Silva; Alves e Sousa, J.; Cox, Maurice G.; Forbes, Alistair B.; Matias, L. Cordeiro; Martins, L. Lages

    2015-08-01

    International Standard ISO 7730:2005 defines thermal comfort as that condition of mind that expresses the degree of satisfaction with the thermal environment. Although this definition is inevitably subjective, the Standard gives formulae for two thermal comfort indices, predicted mean vote ( PMV) and predicted percentage dissatisfied ( PPD). The PMV formula is based on principles of heat balance and experimental data collected in a controlled climate chamber under steady-state conditions. The PPD formula depends only on PMV. Although these formulae are widely recognized and adopted, little has been done to establish measurement uncertainties associated with their use, bearing in mind that the formulae depend on measured values and tabulated values given to limited numerical accuracy. Knowledge of these uncertainties are invaluable when values provided by the formulae are used in making decisions in various health and civil engineering situations. This paper examines these formulae, giving a general mechanism for evaluating the uncertainties associated with values of the quantities on which the formulae depend. Further, consideration is given to the propagation of these uncertainties through the formulae to provide uncertainties associated with the values obtained for the indices. Current international guidance on uncertainty evaluation is utilized.

  18. 装有平衡悬架半挂汽车列车的平顺性建模与仿真分析%Modeling and Simulation of Ride Comfort of Tractor Semi-trailer with Balanced Suspension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李相彬; 赵又群

    2011-01-01

    以装有平衡悬架并采用全浮式驾驶室的半挂汽车列车为研究对象,建立汽车的多自由度振动系统模型。利用随机响应计算方法中频域法的频率响应函数,以路面不平度功率谱密度构造路面输入的功率谱矩阵,对汽车进行随机振动分析,采用Matlab编制了半挂汽车列车平顺性的仿真程序。对汽车在不同等级路面和不同车速下进行了平顺性仿真,对驾驶室质心位置垂直方向的加速度功率谱密度进行了分析,并计算了不同行驶条件下此位置的加权加速度均方根值,为车辆平顺性的设计和改进提供参考。%This paper established a multi-degree vibration system model for a tractor semi-trailer equipped with the balanced suspension and the fully suspended cab.The response power spectral density matrix of the system was derived by frequency-domain method of random response calculation,and the power spectral density function for describing the road surface irregularity was used to constitute the displacement input power spectral density matrix at wheels,which was used for the random vibration analysis.The simulation and calculation program of tractor semi-trailer for ride comfort was worked out by adopting Matlab language.Ride comfort of the car was simulated under series vehicle speed and different qualification of road surface according to the mode established.Position of the center of mass of cab vertical acceleration power spectral density were analyzed,and RMS acceleration in the location mentioned above was calculated under different driving conditions.The results can be use to design and improvement of these kinds of tractor semi-trailer for reference.

  19. Ride comfort optimization of a multi-axle heavy motorized wheel dump truck based on virtual and real prototype experiment integrated Kriging model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bian Gong

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The optimization of hydro-pneumatic suspension parameters of a multi-axle heavy motorized wheel dump truck is carried out based on virtual and real prototype experiment integrated Kriging model in this article. The root mean square of vertical vibration acceleration, in the center of sprung mass, is assigned as the optimization objective. The constraints are the natural frequency, the working stroke, and the dynamic load of wheels. The suspension structure for the truck is the adjustable hydro-pneumatic suspension with ideal vehicle nonlinear characteristics, integrated with elastic and damping elements. Also, the hydraulic systems of two adjacent hydro-pneumatic suspension are interconnected. Considering the high complexity of the engineering model, a novel kind of meta-model called virtual and real prototype experiment integrated Kriging is proposed in this article. The interpolation principle and the construction of virtual and real prototype experiment integrated Kriging model were elucidated. Being different from traditional Kriging, virtual and real prototype experiment integrated Kriging combines the respective advantages of actual test and Computer Aided Engineering simulation. Based on the virtual and real prototype experiment integrated Kriging model, the optimization results, obtained by experimental verification, showed significant improvement in the ride comfort by 12.48% for front suspension and 11.79% for rear suspension. Compared with traditional Kriging, the optimization effect was improved by 3.05% and 3.38% respectively. Virtual and real prototype experiment integrated Kriging provides an effective way to approach the optimal solution for the optimization of high-complexity engineering problems.

  20. Analysis of Thermal Comfort in an Intelligent Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majewski, Grzegorz; Telejko, Marek; Orman, Łukasz J.

    2017-06-01

    Analysis of thermal comfort in the ENERGIS Building, an intelligent building in the campus of the Kielce University of Technology, Poland is the focus of this paper. For this purpose, air temperature, air relative humidity, air flow rate and carbon dioxide concentration were measured and the mean radiant temperature was determined. Thermal sensations of the students occupying the rooms of the building were evaluated with the use of a questionnaire. The students used a seven-point scale of thermal comfort. The microclimate measurement results were used to determine the Predicted Mean Vote and the Predicted Percentage Dissatisfied indices.

  1. Ride-Quality Meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leatherwood, J. D.; Dempsey, T. K.; Clevenson, S. A.; Stephens, D. G.

    1983-01-01

    Single- and combined-Axis discomfort are corrected by effects of noise and vibration to yield measure of total discomfort experienced by rider. Three modules transform mathematically-weighted rms accelerations, which represent physical vibration characteristics, into subjective discomfort units. Portable "ride-quality" meter measures passenger discomfort and acceptability of vehicle interior noise and vibration. Meter especially suited for determining vehicle comfort and design tradeoffs and for comparing ride quality of vehicles.

  2. Optimization and Research on Vehicle's Handling Stability and Ride Comfort Based on Approximate Model%基于近似模型的车辆操纵稳定性及平顺性的优化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨荣山; 袁仲荣; 黄向东; 赵克刚; 陈金华

    2009-01-01

    The optimized design method of vehicle's handling stability and ride comfort was introduced based on approximate model in this paper.A car multi-body dynamics model was established by using software ADAMS/Car,the evaluating objects of vehicle's handling stability and ride comfort were also determined.The suspension spring rigidity,shock absorbers damping characteristic and anti-roll stabilizer rigidity were used as design variable,and based on the approximate optimized mathematic model,the multi-object optimization calculation of handling stability and ride comfort were carried out.h was indicated that the approximate model technology was an effective method for optimizing vehicle's performance.%简述了基于近似模型的车辆操纵稳定性及平顺性的优化设计方法.利用多体动力学软件ADAMS/Car建立了某轿车整车多体动力学模型,并确定了车辆操纵稳定性及平顺性的评价目标.以悬架弹簧刚度、减振器阻尼特性和横向稳定杆刚度为设计变量,利用近似优化数学模型对该轿车进行了操纵稳定性和行驶平顺性的多目标优化计算.结果表明,近似模型技术对于汽车性能的平衡优化是一种十分有效的方法.

  3. Research on Improvement of Vibration Control and Ride Comfort of A Heavy Truck%某载货汽车振动控制与平顺性提升方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓聚才; 冯哲; 刘夫云

    2014-01-01

    To address the problem that a type of heavy truck falls out of limit in the ride comfort, the main factors which influence the ride comfort are analyzed. It is found that the vibration transmissibility of front shock absorber is larger than normal value and not stable and the vibration transmissibility of cab seat is also larger than normal value. Based on simulation results, measures such as to improve the damping corresponding to the relatively low velocity of front axle suspension, to stagger the natural frequency of cab seat and the suspension frequency, and to set a reasonable damping value to cab seat, are taken. The ride comfort of the type heavy truck is effectively improved.%针对某型号载货汽车存在平顺性超标问题,对各个环节的振动传递率及其稳定性进行分析发现,该车型前桥悬架的振动传递率偏大且不稳定,驾驶室座椅的振动传递率明显偏大。通过仿真分析,提出提高前桥悬架低相对运动速度段阻尼、使驾驶室座椅固有频率偏离前桥悬架偏频并合理设置座椅阻尼等平顺性提升措施,有效改善了该车型的平顺性。

  4. 水罐消防车操纵稳定性与平顺性的仿真优化%Simulation Optimization on the Handling Stability and Ride Comfort of Fire-extinguishing Water Tanker

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王铁; 高昱; 申晋宪

    2012-01-01

    A dynamic model for a fire-extinguishing water tanker is built with software MSC Adams/Car, based on which simulation tests are conducted on its handling stability and ride comfort performances. An optimization is then performed on the stiffness and damping of front and rear suspensions on the base of simulation data. Finally by trading off the results of optimization, the optimum combination of suspension parameters, which can improve both handling stability and ride comfort, is selected and validated by simulation test again.%使用MSC Adams/Car软件建立了某水罐消防车的动力学模型,基于此模型对整车操纵稳定性与平顺性进行仿真试验.结合仿真数据对前后悬架的刚度和阻尼进行正交设计优化,最后根据对优化结果的权衡分析,选定能同时提高操纵稳定性与平顺性的最优悬架参数组合,并通过仿真试验进行验证.

  5. Whom are We Comforting? An Analysis of Comfort Medications Delivered to Dying Neonates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janvier, Annie; Meadow, William; Leuthner, Steven R.; Andrews, Bree; Lagatta, Joanne; Bos, Arend; Lane, Laura; Verhagen, A. A. Eduard

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To clarify the use of end-of-life comfort medications or neuromuscular blockers (NMBs) in culturally different neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). Study design Review of medical files of newborns > 22 weeks gestation who died in the delivery room or the NICU during 12 months in four NI

  6. Influence of Friction Hysteresis of Leaf Springs on Ride Comfort%钢板弹簧摩擦迟滞特性对汽车平顺性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张立军

    2016-01-01

    In order to analyze the influence of leaf spring friction hysteresis on automotive ride comfort, an improved Bouc-Wen model is introduced to depict the friction hysteresis performance of the leaf spring. The iterative least square method is employed to identify the parameters of the model. Combining the hysteresis model of the leaf spring with the vibration model of the overall vehicle, the influence of the friction hysteresis of the spring on the ride comfort of the vehicle is analyzed. The results show that the friction hysteresis of the leaf spring increases body’s acceleration, suspension’s dynamic deflection and the natural frequencies of tire’s dynamic loading by approximately 12 %, and increases the PSD amplitude value of the body’s acceleration by 15.2%. Thus, the ride comfort of the vehicle is reduced. However, the PSD amplitude value of suspension dynamic deflection is decreased by 11.6%. The friction hysteresis of the leaf spring has little influence on axle’s acceleration and tire’s dynamic load.%为分析钢板弹簧摩擦迟滞对汽车平顺性的影响,首先应用改进的Bouc-Wen模型描述钢板弹簧摩擦迟滞特性,应用递归最小二乘法对模型参数进行识别。将板簧的迟滞模型与整车振动模型结合,分析板簧迟滞摩擦对汽车行驶平顺性的影响。研究表明:板簧的迟滞摩擦使后悬架上方车身加速度、悬架动挠度和车轮动载荷的固有频率增加约12%,使车身加速度功率谱幅值提高15.2%,因而降低汽车的平顺性,但使悬架动挠度功率谱幅值减少11.6%;板簧的迟滞摩擦对车桥加速度和车轮动载荷幅值影响不大。

  7. 基于平顺性与操纵稳定性的悬架系统多目标优化%Multi-objective optimization of suspension system based on vehicle ride comfort and handling stability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘伟; 史文库; 桂龙明; 方德广; 郭福祥

    2011-01-01

    针对汽车悬架系统开发设计中行驶平顺性和操纵稳定性两个目标相互矛盾的问题,以某轻型乘用客车后悬架系统为研究对象,建立了汽车悬架系统多目标优化模型。以汽车行驶平顺性、操纵稳定性为优化目标,选择后悬架弹簧刚度、减振器阻尼系数及稳定杆扭转刚度为优化参数,设计了一种基于改进遗传算法NSGA-Ⅱ的悬架系统多目标优化策略。悬架优化前后试验结果表明,本文提出的多目标优化策略在改善汽车行驶平顺性的同时,兼顾了操纵稳定性,具有较好的优化效果。%In view of the trade-off between the handling stability and the ride comfort in the design of the suspension system,taking the rear suspension system of alight passenger bus as a research object,a multi-objective optimization model of the suspension system parameters was established.Taking the handling stability and the ride comfort as the optimization objectives,selecting the suspension spring stiffness,the shock Absorber damping factor and the stabilizer bar torsional stiffness as the optimization variables,a multi-objective optimization strategy based on the improved genetic algorithm NSGA-Ⅱ was designed for the suspension system.The test results show that the proposed optimization approach demonstrated good results in improvement of the vehicle ride comfort without penalty on the handling stability.

  8. 考虑俯仰振动的摩托车平顺性多目标优化%Multi-objective Optimization for Motorcycle Ride Comfort with Consideration of Pitching Vibration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐中明; 杨建国; 张志飞; 李仕生

    2012-01-01

    采用摩托车动力学专用软件BikeSim建立了摩托车整车模型,先在B级路面和路面脉冲输入两种工况下分别对整车平顺性进行了仿真;后又以俯仰和垂向振动加速度均方根值最小化为目标,以悬架特性参数为设计变量,采用iSIGHT为优化平台,集成BikeSim和MATLAB进行了多目标优化,得到了Pareto前沿.优化后的俯仰与垂向振动的曲线与数据和优化前仿真结果的对比表明,摩托车平顺性得到了改善.%A Model for motorcycle is established with the motorcycle dynamics software BikeSim, and the simulations on motorcycle ride comfort are conducted under two conditions of B-grade road stochastic and pulse excitations. Then with minimizing the acceleration root-mean-square values of both pitching and vertical vibrations as objectives, the characteristic parameters of suspension as design variables, and iSIGHT as platform integrating BikeSim and MATLAB, a multi-objective optimization is performed with Pareto frontier obtained. The results of comparison between the curves and data of pitching and vertical vibrations before optimization and related simulation results before optimization indicate that the ride comfort of motorcycle is improved.

  9. Effects of vehicle-ride exposure on cervical pathology: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollock, Roger; Games, Kenneth; Wilson, Alan E; Sefton, JoEllen M

    2015-01-01

    Research to date on the effect vehicle-ride exposure has on the development of cervical pathologies in mounted Warfighters is conflicting. The purpose of this study was to determine if the literature suggests a definite effect of vehicle-ride exposure on cervical pathology. Databases were searched using multiple combinations of select terms. Twelve studies meeting the inclusion criteria were included in the meta-analysis. The results of the meta-analysis revealed that overall vehicle-ride exposure was likely to increase cervical pathology (p=0.01, odds ratio=1.59, 95% CI=1.16-2.17). Using vehicle type as a moderator it was found that vehicle-ride exposure in ground-based vehicles (p=0.01, odds ratio=2.33, 95% CI=1.41-3.85) and fixed-wing aircraft (p=0.01, odds ratio =1.59, 95% CI=1.13-2.23) were likely to increase cervical pathology. Using operator/other personnel moderator it was found that in the populations tested, fighter pilots or fighter jet weapons systems operators were more likely to develop a cervical pathology (p<0.001, odds ratio=1.78, 95% CI=1.26-2.50). The available studies indicate an increase in cervical pathology for personnel exposed to ground-based vehicles and fixed-wing aircraft.

  10. Simulation and analysis of a Truck Model's ride comfort based on fuzzy adaptive control theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Li-biao; WANG Deng-feng; NI Qiang; TAN Wei-ming

    2007-01-01

    This paper tried to analyse and verify the fuzzy adaptive control strategy of electronic control air suspension system for heavy truck. Created the seven-freedoms vehicle suspension model, and the road input model; with Matlab/Simulink toolboxes and modules, built dynamical system simulation model for heavy truck with air suspension, fuzzy adaptive control model, height control model for air spring, and intelligent control and analyse on root mean square value of acceleration of gravity center of the vehicle under excitation of road. Results show that the fuzzy control had less help to the body vibration on the better pavement, but had the better benefit on the bad road, and the vehicle's root mean square value of acceleration of gravity center is less than passive suspension's obviously.

  11. A Study on the Ride Comfort of Vehicle Seats Based on Body Pressure Distribution%基于体压分布的汽车座椅舒适性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志飞; 袁琼; 徐中明; 黄深荣; 贺岩松

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, both body pressure distribution measurement and vibration comfort test are con-ducted to study the ride comfort of vehicle seat. Through body pressure distribution measurement, the quantitative indicators, including average pressure, total resultant force and contact area are obtained and the characteristics of static body pressure distribution and the variation law of dynamic body pressure distribution are analyzed, showing that all dynamic body pressure indicators except maximum pressure are larger than static ones and increase with the rise in vehicle speed. By vibration comfort test the correlation between dynamic body distribution and vibration is analyzed with a result indicating that there is a strong correlation between mean pressure and weighted vibration ac-celeration.%本文中通过体压分布测试和振动舒适性试验研究汽车座椅舒适性。通过体压分布测试,获得平均压强、总压力和接触面积等体压分布量化指标,并分析静态体压分布的特征和动态体压分布的变化规律,结果表明动态工况下除最大压强以外的其它体压指标均大于静态工况,且随车速增加而增加。而通过振动舒适性试验,分析动态体压分布与振动的相关性,结果表明平均压强与振动加权加速度有很强的相关性。

  12. Evaluation of Asphalt Concrete Pavement Based on Passenger Ride Comfort Level%基于驾乘舒适性的沥青混凝土路面评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王锋; 张金喜

    2014-01-01

    In order to provide a theoretical basis for the ride comfort level evaluation, daily management,and maintenance of asphalt concrete pavement,the performance parameters and three-directional acceleration data of highway pavements were measured indoors and outdoors. Using these data,the relationship between the mean square of weighted acceleration and the pavement performance was studied. A linear regression equation that reflects the relationship between the root mean square of weighed acceleration,speed,and roughness was obtained by fitting 214 groups of experimental data. In addition,the outdoor experimental results were verified using a driving simulator. The results show that the root mean square of weighed acceleration is strongly correlated with roughness,moderately correlated with the speed,and weakly correlated with the dynamic friction coefficient. Given a certain dynamic friction coefficient,the ride comfort level of an asphalt concrete pavement reduces with its roughness and driving speed increasing. When the roughness is 1. 35 and 3. 05 mm/m,the maximum speed with an appropriate ride comfort level is 124. 1 and 88. 7 km/h,respectively.%为给沥青混凝土路面舒适性评价及日常管理养护提供理论依据,在测得室内外大量道路路面性能参数及三向加速度数据的基础上,研究了加权加速度均方根值与道路路面性能参数之间的关系.运用214组有效室外实验数据,拟合了加权加速度均方根、行驶速度与平整度关系的线性回归方程,并用驾驶模拟舱对室外实验结论进行了验证.结果表明:加权加速度均方根与平整度强相关,与速度中等程度相关,与动态摩擦系数弱相关,在动态摩擦系数一定的条件下,驾乘舒适性随平整度及行驶速度的增加而降低;当平整度为1.35和3.05 mm/m时,满足驾乘舒适性的最大速度分别为124.1和88.7 km/h.

  13. Optimization on Suspension Parameters for the Ride Comfort and Road Friendliness of Commercial Vehicle%面向平顺性与道路友好性的商用车悬架参数优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志飞; 刘建利; 徐中明; 杨建国

    2014-01-01

    为改善某商用车的平顺性和道路友好性,在Matlab/Simulink环境中建立了包含驾驶员、驾驶室、发动机和承载车架在内的9自由度半车动力学模型。以驾驶员和车架的垂向加速度以及95百分位四次幂和力为性能优化指标,并采用层次分析法将各指标加权归一化为单目标函数,然后基于iSIGHT优化平台使用遗传算法对悬架刚度和阻尼进行了优化。结果表明:优化后悬架性能明显提高,驾驶员垂向加速度降低了18.15%,车架垂向加速度降低了6.03%,95百分位四次幂和力指标降低了6.70%,车辆的平顺性和道路友好性均得到有效改善。%In order to improve the ride comfort and road-friendliness of a commercial vehicle, a 9-DOF half vehicle dynamics model including driver, cab, engine and load-carrying frame is established with Matlab/Simulink. With the vertical accelerations of driver and frame and the 95 percentile fourth power aggregate force as performance optimization indicators, they are weighted, normalized and transformed into a single objective function by using ana-lytic hierarchy process. Then an optimization on the stiffness and damping of suspension is conducted with genetic algorithm based on iSIGHT platform. The results show that the performance of suspension is much better after opti-mization with the vertical vibration of driver and frame reduced by 18. 15% and 6. 03% respectively and the 95 per-centile fourth power aggregate force decreased by 6. 70%, indicating the effective improvements in the ride comfort and road-friendliness of the vehicle.

  14. Investigation and analysis of human body thermal comfort in classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Xue

    2017-05-01

    In this survey, we selected the 11th building of North China Electric Power University as the research object. Data were measured and distributed on each floor. We record the temperature of the classroom, humidity, wind speed, average radiation temperature and other environmental parameters. And we used spare time to create a questionnaire survey of the subjective feeling of the survey, to get everyone in the classroom TSV (hot feeling vote value) and TCV (thermal comfort vote). We analyzed the test data and survey data. What's more we discuss and reflect on the thermal comfort of the human body in different indoor temperature atmospheres.

  15. Effects of Train Formation on Maglev Guideway on Bridge and Ride Comfort%列车编组对高速磁浮桥上轨道梁振动特性和乘坐舒适性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏庆朝; 邓亚士; 倪永军

    2008-01-01

    首先基于TR磁浮车辆,轨道梁及桥梁等建模方法建立起高速磁浮车辆-轨道梁-桥梁统一模型,在此基础之上编写计算机仿真程序,最后进行仿真计算和分析.对不同列车编组作用下桥上轨道梁的竖向振动和车体加速度进行了研究,结果发现列车编组对桥梁的振动和乘坐舒适性产生了一定的影响.通过改善列车编组的方法可以提高车桥耦合振动中车辆的动态性能.%An integrated dynamic model of maglev vehicle-guideway-bridge coupling system was established based on TR maglev vehicle, the guideway and bridge technology firstly. Then, a special simulation program was developed. Finally, the vertical vibration of the guideway on bridge and the car body was studied under different train formations. The results show that the train formation has effect on guideway vibration and ride comfort to some degree. The dynamic performance of the train can be improved by reforming the train formation.

  16. Aspects of seat modelling for seating comfort analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verver, M.M.; Lange, R. de; Hoof, J.F.A.M. van; Wismans, J.S.H.M.

    2005-01-01

    The development of more comfortable seats is an important issue in the automotive industry. However, the development of new car seats is very time consuming and costly since it is typically based on experimental evaluation using prototypes. Computer models of the human-seat interaction could

  17. Multicriteria analysis of health, comfort and energy efficiency in buildings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roulet, C.A.; Flourentzou, F.; Foradini, F.; Bluyssen, P.; Cox, C.; Aizlewood, C.

    2006-01-01

    In order to comply with sustainable development policy, the minimum that buildings should achieve are a healthy, comfortable and energy-efficient environment. Criteria for individually assessing each of the many criteria are known: the occupant's perceived health; the provided thermal, visual and ac

  18. Aspects of seat modelling for seating comfort analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verver, M.M.; Lange, R. de; Hoof, J.F.A.M. van; Wismans, J.S.H.M.

    2005-01-01

    The development of more comfortable seats is an important issue in the automotive industry. However, the development of new car seats is very time consuming and costly since it is typically based on experimental evaluation using prototypes. Computer models of the human-seat interaction could acceler

  19. Multicriteria analysis of health, comfort and energy efficiency in buildings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roulet, C.A.; Flourentzou, F.; Foradini, F.; Bluyssen, P.; Cox, C.; Aizlewood, C.

    2006-01-01

    In order to comply with sustainable development policy, the minimum that buildings should achieve are a healthy, comfortable and energy-efficient environment. Criteria for individually assessing each of the many criteria are known: the occupant's perceived health; the provided thermal, visual and ac

  20. Multicriteria analysis of health, comfort and energy efficiency in buildings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roulet, C.A.; Flourentzou, F.; Foradini, F.; Bluyssen, P.; Cox, C.; Aizlewood, C.

    2006-01-01

    In order to comply with sustainable development policy, the minimum that buildings should achieve are a healthy, comfortable and energy-efficient environment. Criteria for individually assessing each of the many criteria are known: the occupant's perceived health; the provided thermal, visual and

  1. Building Comfort Analysis Using BLAST: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-01

    Models were recently incorporated into the BLAST program. These are the Pierce, KSU, and Fanger models. All three are well recognized models in ASHRAE...program were developed. The new report is invoked by specifying the name of the comfort model desired (i.e., Pierce, Fanger , or KSU), and by adding the...number 123 to the reports statement in the input deck. For example, the following statement would generate reports using the Fanger and Pierce models

  2. An analysis of influential factors on outdoor thermal comfort in summer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, JiFu; Zheng, YouFei; Wu, RongJun; Tan, JianGuo; Ye, DianXiu; Wang, Wei

    2012-09-01

    A variety of research has linked high temperature to outdoor thermal comfort in summer, but it remains unclear how outdoor meteorological environments influence people's thermal sensation in subtropical monsoon climate areas, especially in China. In order to explain the process, and to better understand the related influential factors, we conducted an extensive survey of thermally comfortable conditions in open outdoor spaces. The goal of this study was to gain an insight into the subjects' perspectives on weather variables and comfort levels, and determine the factors responsible for the varying human thermal comfort response in summer. These perceptions were then compared to actual ambient conditions. The database consists of surveys rated by 205 students trained from 6:00 am to 8:00 pm outdoors from 21 to 25 August 2009, at Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology (NUIST), Nanjing, China. The multiple regression approach and simple factor analysis of variance were used to investigate the relationships between thermal comfort and meteorological environment, taking into consideration individual mood, gender, level of regular exercise, and previous environmental experiences. It was found that males and females have similar perceptions of maximum temperature; in the most comfortable environment, mood appears to have a significant influence on thermal comfort, but the influence of mood diminishes as the meteorological environment becomes increasingly uncomfortable. In addition, the study confirms the strong relationship between thermal comfort and microclimatic conditions, including solar radiation, atmospheric pressure, maximum temperature, wind speed and relative humidity, ranked by importance. There are also strong effects of illness, clothing and exercise, all of which influence thermal comfort. We also find that their former place of residence influences people's thermal comfort substantially by setting expectations. Finally, some relationships

  3. Hydro-pneumatic suspension parameters dynamical optimization design based on ride comfort%基于平顺性的油气悬架参数动态分析与优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡祥文; 谷正气; 李伟平; 梁小波; 彭国谱

    2011-01-01

    以提高汽车行驶平顺性为目的,对油气悬架系统参数进行优化.建立油气悬架系统的二自由度1/4车辆数学模型.基于数学模型,在Matlab/Simulink软件中利用模块组合的方法建立仿真模型,并构建以车身垂直方向的加权加速度均方根值为目标函数的优化模型.优化算法采用遗传算法,通过编程将仿真模型、优化模型结合起来,实现Simulink、遗传算法对油气悬架系统参数的动态联合优化设计.利用该方法对某矿用自卸车前油气悬架设计阶段的结构参数进行优化,仿真结果表明:由该方法确定的油气悬架结构参数使车身垂直方向的加权加速度均方根值下降29.35%,加速度功率谱密度共振峰值降低23.6%,从而明显改善了汽车的行驶平顺性,同时也为其他类型的非线性悬架系统的动态优化设计提供了借鉴.%To improve vehicle ride comfort, hydro-pneumatic suspension system parameters were optimized.Mathematic model of a 2-DOF quarter-car model with hydro-pneumatic suspension system was established and then,the simulation model was developed by means of combination modules of Simulink, and optimal design model uses the root mean square value of body vertical acceleration as the objective function.Optimization using genetic algorithms, by programming the simulation model combined optimization model,and the optimal hydro-pneumatic suspension parameters were obtained after the combined optimization design between Simulink and Genetic Algorithm (GA).The structural parameters of front hydro-pneumatic of a mining dump truck were optimized during design stage using this method, the simulation results show that:the root mean square value of body vertical acceleration was brought down by 29.35% ,power spectral density of body vertical acceleration was decreased by 23.6% ,so the vehicle ride comfort can be significantly improved, which also provided references for the dynamic optimization design of

  4. Usefulness of the comfort theory in the clinical nursing care of new mothers: critical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Juliana Vieira Figueiredo; Guedes, Maria Vilani Cavalcante; Silva, Lúcia de Fátima da; Freitas, Maria Célia de; Fialho, Ana Virgínia de Melo

    2017-02-23

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of the comfort theory for the clinical nursing care of new mothers. This is a reflexive-theoretical study conducted in November and December 2014, based on the usefulness criterion proposed in the critical analysis of the Barnum nursing theory. The comfort theory in nursing care for new mothers applied to study analysis revealed that this theory meets the criteria of usefulness because it provides applicable concepts that facilitated the clinical nursing care of women in the postpartum period and helped increase their comfort level. The verification of these concepts showed that the theory can be applied in different settings of clinical care for new mothers. The theory can be used to support and improve clinical nursing care for postpartum women, and help improve puerperal comfort.

  5. 悬架橡胶件对汽车平顺性影响的仿真与实验研究%Simulation and Experimental Study on the Effects of Rubber Parts on Vehicle Ride Comfort

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张立军; 陈双; 李刚

    2013-01-01

    By combining the Kelvin-Voigt model for rubber parts and vehicle model and adopting virtual coordinates , a 8 DOFs vehicle vibration model is established to analyze the effects of the stiffness and damping of rubber parts on the vibration responses, including the vertical accelerations of seats and vehicle body, the dynamic deflection of suspension and the dynamic load of tires in both time and frequency domains. The results show that when the elasticity of rubber parts is considered, i. e. the proper stiffness of rubber parts is selected, the simulation results are closer to test data with the vertical accelerations of seats and vehicle body, the body angular acceleration in pitching and the dynamic load of tires reducing by 15% to 40% compared with that when the effects of rubber parts are neglected. Comparatively the effects of rubber damping on ride comfort are relatively trivial.%将橡胶件的Kelvin-Voigt模型与整车模型相结合,应用虚拟坐标法建立了整车8自由度振动模型,从频域和时域分析了橡胶连接件的刚度和阻尼对座椅与车身振动加速度、悬架动挠度和轮胎动载荷的影响.结果表明:与未考虑橡胶件的影响相比,计及橡胶件的弹性,即适当选择橡胶连接件刚度时,仿真结果更接近试验实测数据,可使座椅与车身的垂向加速度、车身俯仰角加速度和轮胎动载荷减少15% ~40%;橡胶件的阻尼对平顺性影响较小.

  6. Aspects of seat modelling for seating comfort analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verver, M M; de Lange, R; van Hoof, J; Wismans, J S H M

    2005-01-01

    The development of more comfortable seats is an important issue in the automotive industry. However, the development of new car seats is very time consuming and costly since it is typically based on experimental evaluation using prototypes. Computer models of the human-seat interaction could accelerate this process. The objective of this paper is to establish a protocol for the development of seat models using numerically efficient simulation techniques. The methodology is based on multi-body techniques: arbitrary surfaces, providing an accurate surface description, are attached to rigid bodies. The bodies are connected by kinematic joints, representing the seat back recliner and head restraint joint. Properties of the seat foam and frame have been lumped together. Further, experiments have been defined to characterise the mechanical properties required for the seat model for comfort applications. The protocol has been exemplified using a standard car seat. The seat model has been validated based on experiments with rigid loading devices with human-like shapes in terms of force-deflection characteristics. The response of the seat model agrees well with the experimental results. Therefore the presented method can be a useful tool in the seat development process, especially in early stages of the design process.

  7. Using Failure Mode and Effects Analysis to design a comfortable automotive driver seat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolich, Mike

    2014-07-01

    Given enough time and use, all designs will fail. There are no fail-free designs. This is especially true when it comes to automotive seating comfort where the characteristics and preferences of individual customers are many and varied. To address this problem, individuals charged with automotive seating comfort development have, traditionally, relied on iterative and, as a result, expensive build-test cycles. Cost pressures being placed on today's vehicle manufacturers have necessitated the search for more efficient alternatives. This contribution aims to fill this need by proposing the application of an analytical technique common to engineering circles (but new to seating comfort development), namely Design Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (DFMEA). An example is offered to describe how development teams can use this systematic and disciplined approach to highlight potential seating comfort failure modes, reduce their risk, and bring capable designs to life.

  8. Quantitative Analysis of the Outdoor Thermal Comfort in the Hot and Humid Summertime of Shenzhen, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Liu; Yaoyu Lin; Dan Wang; Jing Liu

    2017-01-01

    Outdoor thermal comfort has always been a major issue due to its irreplaceable role in maintaining good health and energy use. Thus, quantitative analysis of outdoor thermal comfort and discussions on influential factors seem very necessary to achieve the climate-conscious urban design. Therefore, an outdoor thermal comfort questionnaire survey and the simultaneous field measurement were conducted in six different places during the hot and humid summertime in Shenzhen. The results show that the overall weather conditions during the investigation can be expressed with high temperature and high humidity with strong solar radiation. The micro-meteorological parameters of six test sites vary greatly due to their different regional spatial layouts. Moderate range of air temperature ( Ta ) is between 28 to 30 ℃ while that of relative humidity ( RH ) mainly concentrates in 60%-70% with the thermal sensation votes. The main influential factors impacting outdoor thermal comfort are obtained and Ta has the greatest effect. The overall thermal comfortable ranges in Shenzhen are expressed by the range of 28. 14-32. 83 ℃ of PET and 24. 74-30. 45 ℃ of SET?. With the correlation analysis between the characteristic parameters of regional spatial layout and thermal climate and thermal comfort, it reveals that increasing the coverage ratio of water and green space ( S) helps lower Ta and increase RH . The global solar radiation ( G) has a significant negative correlation with the height of buildings ( H) and a positive correlation with sky view factor ( SVF ) . Overall, reasonable configuration of the regional spatial layout contributes to providing a thermal comfortable environment.

  9. Numerical Analysis on Color Preference and Visual Comfort from Eye Tracking Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Chung Ho

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Color preferences in engineering are very important, and there exists relationship between color preference and visual comfort. In this study, there are thirty university students who participated in the experiment, supplemented by pre- and posttest questionnaires, which lasted about an hour. The main purpose of this study is to explore the visual effects of different color assignment with subjective color preferences via eye tracking technology. Eye-movement data through a nonlinear analysis detect slight differences in color preferences and visual comfort, suggesting effective physiological indicators as extensive future research discussed. Results found that the average pupil size of eye-movement indicators can effectively reflect the differences of color preferences and visual comfort. This study more confirmed that the subjective feeling will make people have misjudgment.

  10. Riding and handling qualities of light aircraft: A review and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetana, F. O.; Summery, D. C.; Johnson, W. D.

    1972-01-01

    Design procedures and supporting data necessary for configuring light aircraft to obtain desired responses to pilot commands and gusts are presented. The procedures employ specializations of modern military and jet transport practice where these provide an improvement over earlier practice. General criteria for riding and handling qualities are discussed in terms of the airframe dynamics. Methods available in the literature for calculating the coefficients required for a linearized analysis of the airframe dynamics are reviewed in detail. The review also treats the relation of spin and stall to airframe geometry. Root locus analysis is used to indicate the sensitivity of airframe dynamics to variations in individual stability derivatives and to variations in geometric parameters. Computer programs are given for finding the frequencies, damping ratios, and time constants of all rigid body modes and for generating time histories of aircraft motions in response to control inputs. Appendices are included presenting the derivation of the linearized equations of motion; the stability derivatives; the transfer functions; approximate solutions for the frequency, damping ratio, and time constants; an indication of methods to be used when linear analysis is inadequate; sample calculations; and an explanation of the use of root locus diagrams and Bode plots.

  11. Use of anthropometric dummies of mathematical models in the safety and comfortableness analysis of a passenger rolling stock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobishchanov, V.; Antipin, D.; Shorokhov, S.; Mitrakov, A.

    2016-04-01

    Approaches to the safety and comfortableness analysis of a railway passenger rolling stock with anthropometrical dummies of mathematical models usage are offered. There are recommendations about a rolling stock design, based on the analysis of traumatism of passengers and members of train crews, and also based on comfort parameters at various modes of train movement.

  12. On the wave induced responses for a high-speed hydrofoil catamaran. Part 1. Cabin connected to hull by spring and its riding comfort in waves; Suichuyokutsuki kosoku sodotei no harochu oto ni tsuite. 1. Dokuritsu kozogata cabin to harochu norigokochi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, K.; Nobukawa, H.; Honda, Y. [Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan)

    1996-04-10

    Riding comfort in a cabin of a high-speed hydrofoil catamaran was evaluated by comparing with that in ordinary boats as to acceleration in the vertical direction as one of the responses of the catamaran in waves. First, an equation of motion in waves was introduced, and considerations were given while comparing the result of calculations in regular waves with that of model experiments. Comparison and verification were also performed on response characteristics in irregular waves. A new-type boat, whose cabin is supported with four springs, and provided with hydrofoils in front and rear thereof, was verified to have much less motions of the catamaran bodies and the cabin than in the ordinary boats both in regular and irregular waves. This result was proven by numerical calculations and model experiments. Hydrofoils affect largely the reduction in motions. The correlational data between the results of calculations and experiments are considered sufficient to provide design data, although there are still some points to be improved. These results revealed that the riding comfort of the new-type boat has been improved over that in the ordinary boats. 6 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Thermal comfort

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Osburn, L

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal comfort is influenced by environmental parameters as well as other influences including asymmetric heating and cooling conditions. Additionally, some aspects of thermal comfort may be exploited so as to enable a building to operate within a...

  14. Economic analysis of the organisation of a riding centre; application of the linear programming approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaka ŽGAJNAR

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this contribution, the economics of an equestrian centre, which in addition to a variety of riding school activities also includes breeding and livery, are analysed. We consider the conditions for a hypothetical holding operating in central Slovenia. Methods of mathematical programming are applied in order to attempt to optimise the holding’s activities. Their use may in the given situation facilitate the evaluation of development prospects from different perspectives and indicate the opportunities of increasing value-added. On the basis of maximizing the gross margin, we try to address the various questions and challenges that arise in managing and planning for such an equestrian centre. The obtained results indicate that breeding is unfavourable in the given price-cost ratio, both for the renewal of the working horses herd and for sale. This reflects the current adverse situation in the field of horse breeding. Livery is an important activity on such holdings and through opportunity perspective provides an optimal set of activities. Activities of the riding school for children are interesting in terms of income diversification, as well as an additional source of revenue. A riding school with one riding instructor and an indoor arena needs 4.6 horses in order to cover the costs of full-time employment.

  15. Sensitivity analysis for daily building operation from the energy and thermal comfort standpoint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignjatović Marko G.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Improving energy performance of buildings is one of the most important tasks for reaching sustainability. Assessing building energy consumption is performed more often with specialized simulation tools. Sensitivity analysis proved to be a valuable tool for creating more reliable and realistic building energy models and better buildings. This paper briefly describes the methodology for running global sensitivity analysis and tools that can be used, and presents the results of such an analysis conducted for winter period, daily, on input variables covering a real building's operation, control and occupant related parameters that affect both thermal comfort and heating energy consumption. Two sets of inputs were created. The only difference between these sets is an addition of clothing insulation and occupant heat gain as input variables. The reference building was simulated for three distinctive winter weeks. Two additional input variables have an effect especially on thermal comfort, but they do not disturb the relative order of other influential input variables. The common influential variables for both energy consumption and thermal comfort were identified and are: air handling unit sup-ply temperature and airflow rate and control system related parameters. This can help in future research into implementing the simulation-assisted optimized operation in real buildings. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-33051: The concept of sustainable energy supply of settlements with energy efficient buildings

  16. Evaluation of ride quality prediction methods for operational military helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leatherwood, J. D.; Clevenson, S. A.; Hollenbaugh, D. D.

    1984-01-01

    The results of a simulator study conducted to compare and validate various ride quality prediction methods for use in assessing passenger/crew ride comfort within helicopters are presented. Included are results quantifying 35 helicopter pilots' discomfort responses to helicopter interior noise and vibration typical of routine flights, assessment of various ride quality metrics including the NASA ride comfort model, and examination of possible criteria approaches. Results of the study indicated that crew discomfort results from a complex interaction between vibration and interior noise. Overall measures such as weighted or unweighted root-mean-square acceleration level and A-weighted noise level were not good predictors of discomfort. Accurate prediction required a metric incorporating the interactive effects of both noise and vibration. The best metric for predicting crew comfort to the combined noise and vibration environment was the NASA discomfort index.

  17. Computational Fluid Dynamic Analysis of Enhancing Passenger Cabin Comfort Using PCM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purusothaman, M.; Valarmathi, T. N.; Dada Mohammad, S. K.

    2016-09-01

    The main purpose of this study is to determine a cost effective way to enhance passenger cabin comfort by analyzing the effect of solar radiation of a open parked vehicle, which is exposed to constant solar radiation on a hot and sunny day. Maximum heat accumulation occurs in the car cabin due to the solar radiation. By means of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis, a simulation process is conducted for the thermal regulation of the passenger cabin using a layer of phase change material (PCM) on the roof structure of a stationary car when exposed to ambient temperature on a hot sunny day. The heat energy accumulated in the passenger cabin is absorbed by a layer of PCM for phase change process. The installation of a ventilation system which uses an exhaust fan to create a natural convection scenario in the cabin is also considered to enhance passenger comfort along with PCM.

  18. 主动悬架车辆平顺性和操纵稳定性协调控制的联合仿真%Co-simulation on the Coordinated Control of Ride Comfort and Handling Stability of Vehicles with Active Suspension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈双; 宗长富; 刘立国

    2012-01-01

    建立主动悬架系统的整车模型,采用LQG控制算法,以路面不平度和车身侧倾力矩同时作为车辆系统干扰信号,计算出汽车转向操作下的主动悬架最优控制力.在A级和C级路面上分别对转向盘单周正弦输入和阶跃输入工况进行平顺性和操纵稳定性协调控制的联合仿真.结果表明,与被动悬架相比,所提出的主动悬架协调控制策略能在提高车辆操纵稳定性的同时,不影响平顺性的改善.%A vehicle model with active suspension system is built, and the LQG control algorithm is adopted with both road roughness and the roll moment of car body as disturbance signals of vehicle system, the optimal control force for vehicle steering operation is calculated. Then a co-simulation on the coordinated control of the ride comfort and handling stability of vehicle running on A-class road and C-class road is conducted with step and single-cycle sine wave inputs of steering wheel respectively. The results show that compared with passive suspension, the coordinated control strategy proposed for active suspension can enhance the handling stability of vehicle without impeding the improvement of ride comfort.

  19. Essays on framing, free riding, and punishment

    OpenAIRE

    Drouvelis, Michail

    2009-01-01

    This thesis presents an experimental investigation of free riding behaviour and, more particularly, individual responses to it using, as a workhorse, the so called public goods game. This game starkly isolates the conflict between private and collective interest, providing us with a simple measure of the extent of free riding behaviour. The unifying theme of the thesis is elicitation and analysis of different indicators for how subjects perceive free riding under a number of treatment manipul...

  20. Using Hand Grip Force as a Correlate of Longitudinal Acceleration Comfort for Rapid Transit Trains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Beiyuan; Gan, Weide; Fang, Weining

    2015-07-02

    Longitudinal acceleration comfort is one of the essential metrics used to evaluate the ride comfort of train. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of using hand grip force as a correlate of longitudinal acceleration comfort of rapid transit trains. In the paper, a motion simulation system was set up and a two-stage experiment was designed to investigate the role of the grip force on the longitudinal comfort of rapid transit trains. The results of the experiment show that the incremental grip force was linearly correlated with the longitudinal acceleration value, while the incremental grip force had no correlation with the direction of the longitudinal acceleration vector. The results also show that the effects of incremental grip force and acceleration duration on the longitudinal comfort of rapid transit trains were significant. Based on multiple regression analysis, a step function model was established to predict the longitudinal comfort of rapid transit trains using the incremental grip force and the acceleration duration. The feasibility and practicably of the model was verified by a field test. Furthermore, a comparative analysis shows that the motion simulation system and the grip force based model were valid to support the laboratory studies on the longitudinal comfort of rapid transit trains.

  1. Thermal comfort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    d’Ambrosio Alfano, Francesca Romana; Olesen, Bjarne W.; Palella, Boris Igor;

    2014-01-01

    Thermal comfort is one of the most important aspects of the indoor environmental quality due to its effects on well-being, people's performance and building energy requirements. Its attainment is not an easy task requiring advanced design and operation of building and HVAC systems, taking...... into account all parameters involved. Even though thermal comfort fundamentals are consolidated topics for more than forty years, often designers seem to ignore or apply them in a wrong way. Design input values from standards are often considered as universal values rather than recommended values to be used...... under specific conditions. At operation level, only few variables are taken into account with unpredictable effects on the assessment of comfort indices. In this paper, the main criteria for the design and assessment of thermal comfort are discussed in order to help building and HVAC systems designers...

  2. Diagnostic methods applied to analysis of an outbreak of equine influenza in a riding school in which vaccine failure occurred

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maanen, van C.; Essen, van G.J.; Minke, J.; Daly, J.M.; Yates, P.J.

    2003-01-01

    An outbreak of equine influenza H3N8 in a riding school is described retrospectively with emphasis on diagnosis and putative vaccine failure. In March 1995 an outbreak of equine influenza occurred among 11 horses in a riding school, where most horses had received basic primary immunizations and seve

  3. 基于虚拟样机航空食品车行驶稳定性分析%Analysis on riding stability of catering truck based on virtual prototype

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭学磊; 刘斌; 田晋跃

    2011-01-01

    汽车平顺性是汽车NVH性能的评价指标之一,人们对汽车平顺性的研究越来越重视,通过调整汽车悬架能够改善汽车平顺性.以多体系统动力学理论为基础,应用机械系统动力学软件ADAMS/Car,建立了航空食品车整车的多刚体动力学模型.根据GB/F4970-1996的要求,通过调用ride四柱试验台,对整车的随机输入平顺性进行仿真分析,并将油气悬架车辆和传统被动悬架车辆的仿真数据对比.仿真结果表明:采用油气悬架的车辆较传统被动悬架车辆具有更好的行驶平顺性.%Vehile ride comfort is one of the evaluation indexes of vehicle NVH performance,which is paid more attention by peopel and can be improced through the adjustment of vehicle suspension.A multirigid-body dynamics model for full truck is built with the help of Mechanical System Simulation software of ADAMS/CAR,based on the theory of Multi-Body System Dynamics.According to GB4970-1996(method of random input running test-automotive ride comfort),the specific simulation is analyzed on the ride comfort by random inputting by applying four-post testbed and comparation of simulated data between vehicle with HPS and traditional vehicle with leaf spring suspension is made,which results show that the HPS vehicle has better ride comfort than the conventional leaf spring suspension vehicle.

  4. Thermal comfort in Quebec City, Canada: sensitivity analysis of the UTCI and other popular thermal comfort indices in a mid-latitude continental city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provençal, Simon; Bergeron, Onil; Leduc, Richard; Barrette, Nathalie

    2016-04-01

    The newly developed Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI), along with the physiological equivalent temperature (PET), the humidex (HX) and the wind chill index (WC), was calculated in Quebec City, Canada, a city with a strong seasonal climatic variability, over a 1-year period. The objective of this study is twofold: evaluate the operational benefits of implementing the UTCI for a climate monitoring program of public comfort and health awareness as opposed to relying on traditional and simple indices, and determine whether thermal comfort monitoring specific to dense urban neighborhoods is necessary to adequately fulfill the goals of the program. In order to do so, an analysis is performed to evaluate each of these indices' sensitivity to the meteorological variables that regulate them in different environments. Overall, the UTCI was found to be slightly more sensitive to mean radiant temperature, moderately more sensitive to humidity and much more sensitive to wind speed than the PET. This dynamic changed slightly depending on the environment and the season. In hot weather, the PET was found to be more sensitive to mean radiant temperature and therefore reached high values that could potentially be hazardous more frequently than the UTCI and the HX. In turn, the UTCI's stronger sensitivity to wind speed makes it a superior index to identify potentially hazardous weather in winter compared to the PET and the WC. Adopting the UTCI broadly would be an improvement over the traditionally popular HX and WC indices. The urban environment produced favorable conditions to sustain heat stress conditions, where the indices reached high values more frequently there than in suburban locations, which advocates for weather monitoring specific to denser urban areas.

  5. Thermal comfort in Quebec City, Canada: sensitivity analysis of the UTCI and other popular thermal comfort indices in a mid-latitude continental city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provençal, Simon; Bergeron, Onil; Leduc, Richard; Barrette, Nathalie

    2016-04-01

    The newly developed Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI), along with the physiological equivalent temperature (PET), the humidex (HX) and the wind chill index (WC), was calculated in Quebec City, Canada, a city with a strong seasonal climatic variability, over a 1-year period. The objective of this study is twofold: evaluate the operational benefits of implementing the UTCI for a climate monitoring program of public comfort and health awareness as opposed to relying on traditional and simple indices, and determine whether thermal comfort monitoring specific to dense urban neighborhoods is necessary to adequately fulfill the goals of the program. In order to do so, an analysis is performed to evaluate each of these indices' sensitivity to the meteorological variables that regulate them in different environments. Overall, the UTCI was found to be slightly more sensitive to mean radiant temperature, moderately more sensitive to humidity and much more sensitive to wind speed than the PET. This dynamic changed slightly depending on the environment and the season. In hot weather, the PET was found to be more sensitive to mean radiant temperature and therefore reached high values that could potentially be hazardous more frequently than the UTCI and the HX. In turn, the UTCI's stronger sensitivity to wind speed makes it a superior index to identify potentially hazardous weather in winter compared to the PET and the WC. Adopting the UTCI broadly would be an improvement over the traditionally popular HX and WC indices. The urban environment produced favorable conditions to sustain heat stress conditions, where the indices reached high values more frequently there than in suburban locations, which advocates for weather monitoring specific to denser urban areas.

  6. Tools to Assess Pain or Lack of Comfort in Dementia: A Content Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steen, J.T. van der; Sampson, E.L.; Block, L. Van den; Lord, K.; Vankova, H.; Pautex, S.; Vandervoort, A.; Radbruch, L.; Shvartzman, P.; Sacchi, V.; Vet, H.C. de; Noortgate, N.J. Van Den

    2015-01-01

    CONTEXT: There is need for tools to help detect pain or lack of comfort in persons unable to communicate. However, pain and (dis)comfort tools have not been compared, and it is unclear to what extent they discriminate between pain and other possible sources of discomfort, or even if items differ. OB

  7. Robust Semi-Active Ride Control Under Stochastic Excitation (Briefing Charts)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-04

    ROBUST SEMI-ACTIVE RIDE CONTROL UNDER STOCHASTIC EXCITATION Jeremy Kolansky- Virginia Tech Amandeep Singh, Jill Goryca- US Army TARDEC...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE ROBUST SEMI-ACTIVE RIDE CONTROL UNDER STOCHASTIC EXCITATION 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W56hzv-04-2-0001 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...range • Robust for unknown input • Comparison • Conclusions Outline 3 2014-01-0145 UNCLASSIFIED SAE INTERNATIONAL Ride comfort for

  8. Enjoying the Ride!

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinley, Michelle L.

    2011-01-01

    One of the author's favorite things to do is ride her bike. She finds bike riding to be a therapeutic outdoor adventure. In this article, the author describes how her students made their self-portrait bicycle collages. (Contains 2 online resources.)

  9. A comparative analysis of urban and rural residential thermal comfort under natural ventilation environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Jie; Yang, Wei; Zhou, Jin; Zhang, Guoqiang; Zhang, Quan [Key Lab of Building Safety and Energy Efficiency, Ministry of Education, China, College of Civil Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Moschandreas, Demetrios J. [Department of Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2009-02-15

    The paper presents a field study of occupants' thermal comfort and residential thermal environment conducted in an urban and a rural area in Hunan province, which is located in central southern China. The study was performed during the cold winter 2006. Twenty-eight naturally ventilated urban residences and 30 also naturally ventilated rural residences were investigated. A comparative analysis was performed on results from urban and rural residences. The mean thermal sensation vote of rural residences is approximately 0.4 higher than that of urban residences at the same operative temperature. Thermal sensation votes calculated by Fanger's PMV model did not agree with these obtained directly from the questionnaire data. The neutral operative temperature of urban and rural residences is 14.0 and 11.5 C, respectively. Percentage of acceptable votes of rural occupants is higher than that of urban occupants at the same operative temperature. It suggests that rural occupants may have higher cold tolerance than urban occupants for their physiological acclimatization, or have relative lower thermal expectation than urban occupants because of few air-conditioners used in the rural area. The research will be instrumental to researchers to formulate thermal standards for naturally ventilated buildings in rural areas. (author)

  10. Evaluation of thermal comfort in university classrooms through objective approach and subjective preference analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nico, Maria Anna; Liuzzi, Stefania; Stefanizzi, Pietro

    2015-05-01

    Assessing thermal comfort becomes more relevant when the aim is to maximise learning and productivity performances, as typically occurs in offices and schools. However, if, in the offices, the Fanger model well represents the thermal occupant response, then on the contrary, in schools, adaptive mechanisms significantly influence the occupants' thermal preference. In this study, an experimental approach was performed in the Polytechnic University of Bari, during the first days of March, in free running conditions. First, the results of questionnaires were compared according to the application of the Fanger model and the adaptive model; second, using a subjective scale, a complete analysis was performed on thermal preference in terms of acceptability, neutrality and preference, with particular focus on the influence of gender. The user possibility to control the indoor plant system produced a significant impact on the thermal sensation and the acceptability of the thermal environment. Gender was also demonstrated to greatly influence the thermal judgement of the thermal environment when an outdoor cold climate occurs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  11. PrivateRide: A Privacy-Enhanced Ride-Hailing Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pham Anh

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In the past few years, we have witnessed a rise in the popularity of ride-hailing services (RHSs, an online marketplace that enables accredited drivers to use their own cars to drive ride-hailing users. Unlike other transportation services, RHSs raise significant privacy concerns, as providers are able to track the precise mobility patterns of millions of riders worldwide. We present the first survey and analysis of the privacy threats in RHSs. Our analysis exposes high-risk privacy threats that do not occur in conventional taxi services. Therefore, we propose PrivateRide, a privacy-enhancing and practical solution that offers anonymity and location privacy for riders, and protects drivers’ information from harvesting attacks. PrivateRide lowers the high-risk privacy threats in RHSs to a level that is at least as low as that of many taxi services. Using real data-sets from Uber and taxi rides, we show that PrivateRide significantly enhances riders’ privacy, while preserving tangible accuracy in ride matching and fare calculation, with only negligible effects on convenience. Moreover, by using our Android implementation for experimental evaluations, we show that PrivateRide’s overhead during ride setup is negligible. In short, we enable privacy-conscious riders to achieve levels of privacy that are not possible in current RHSs and even in some conventional taxi services, thereby offering a potential business differentiator.

  12. Evaluation of ride quality prediction methods for helicopter interior noise and vibration environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leatherwood, J. D.; Clevenson, S. A.; Hollenbaugh, D. D.

    1984-01-01

    The results of a simulator study conducted to compare and validate various ride quality prediction methods for use in assessing passenger/crew ride comfort within helicopters are presented. Included are results quantifying 35 helicopter pilots discomfort responses to helicopter interior noise and vibration typical of routine flights, assessment of various ride quality metrics including the NASA ride comfort model, and examination of possible criteria approaches. Results of the study indicated that crew discomfort results from a complex interaction between vibration and interior noise. Overall measures such as weighted or unweighted root-mean-square acceleration level and A-weighted noise level were not good predictors of discomfort. Accurate prediction required a metric incorporating the interactive effects of both noise and vibration. The best metric for predicting crew comfort to the combined noise and vibration environment was the NASA discomfort index.

  13. Dial-a-Ride

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    The Dial-a-Ride problem is a Vehicle Routing problem in its most general form. The problem was formulated in the beginning of the 1970's and since then a large number of researchers have worked on developing efficient algorithms for use in automated planning of Dial-a-Ride transportation systems. In a Dial-a-Ride transportation system, passengers request a trip between two stops with either a desired time of departure from the pickup stop or a desired time of arrival at the destination. The t...

  14. Thermal Analysis--Human Comfort--Indoor Environments. NBS Special Publication 491.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangum, Billy W., Ed.; Hill, James E., Ed.

    Included in these proceedings are 11 formal papers presented by leading researchers in the field of thermal comfort and heat stress at a symposium held for the purpose of exploring new aspects of indoor thermal environments, caused primarily by the impact of energy conservation in new and existing buildings. The contributed papers were from…

  15. Everyday Comfort Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaffari, Svenja

    according to international building codes and standards, which are being based on engineering scientists' controlled experiments, classfiication and analysis. Since the last two decades, scholars from a diverse range of disciplines, such as sociology, anthropology, philosophy, adaptive engineering......, engineering scientists and practitioners still seem to struggle with the kinds of alternative processes and products that are needed to achieve sustainable comfort. This dissertation applies everyday practice-oriented design ethnography to a field that has traditionally been investigated by scientific...... as professional practice') in order to find design directions for scenarios for innovative, sustainable products that are based on people's everyday lives and interlinking 'comfort practices'....

  16. Healthy Ride Trip Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — A dataset that shows trips taken using the Healthy Ride system by quarter. The dataset includes bike number, membership type, trip start and end timestamp, and...

  17. Wear/comfort Pareto optimisation of bogie suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milad Mousavi Bideleh, Seyed; Berbyuk, Viktor; Persson, Rickard

    2016-08-01

    Pareto optimisation of bogie suspension components is considered for a 50 degrees of freedom railway vehicle model to reduce wheel/rail contact wear and improve passenger ride comfort. Several operational scenarios including tracks with different curve radii ranging from very small radii up to straight tracks are considered for the analysis. In each case, the maximum admissible speed is applied to the vehicle. Design parameters are categorised into two levels and the wear/comfort Pareto optimisation is accordingly accomplished in a multistep manner to improve the computational efficiency. The genetic algorithm (GA) is employed to perform the multi-objective optimisation. Two suspension system configurations are considered, a symmetric and an asymmetric in which the primary or secondary suspension elements on the right- and left-hand sides of the vehicle are not the same. It is shown that the vehicle performance on curves can be significantly improved using the asymmetric suspension configuration. The Pareto-optimised values of the design parameters achieved here guarantee wear reduction and comfort improvement for railway vehicles and can also be utilised in developing the reference vehicle models for design of bogie active suspension systems.

  18. Thermal Analysis of Multilevel Grid-side Converters for 10-MW Wind turbines under Low-Voltage Ride Through

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Ke; Blaabjerg, Frede; Liserre, Marco

    2013-01-01

    designed as case study. The operation status, as well as the reliability-related performances, is investigated aimed at various low-voltage ride through (LVRT) conditions. It is found that all of the proposed converter topologies will suffer from higher junction temperature in some heavily loaded power...

  19. Designing a ticket to ride with the Cognitive Work Analysis Design Toolkit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Gemma J M; Salmon, Paul M; Lenné, Michael G; Jenkins, Daniel P

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive work analysis has been applied in the design of numerous sociotechnical systems. The process used to translate analysis outputs into design concepts, however, is not always clear. Moreover, structured processes for translating the outputs of ergonomics methods into concrete designs are lacking. This paper introduces the Cognitive Work Analysis Design Toolkit (CWA-DT), a design approach which has been developed specifically to provide a structured means of incorporating cognitive work analysis outputs in design using design principles and values derived from sociotechnical systems theory. This paper outlines the CWA-DT and describes its application in a public transport ticketing design case study. Qualitative and quantitative evaluations of the process provide promising early evidence that the toolkit fulfils the evaluation criteria identified for its success, with opportunities for improvement also highlighted. The Cognitive Work Analysis Design Toolkit has been developed to provide ergonomics practitioners with a structured approach for translating the outputs of cognitive work analysis into design solutions. This paper demonstrates an application of the toolkit and provides evaluation findings.

  20. Thermal comfort analysis of a low temperature waste energy recovery system. SIECHP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrero Martin, R. [Departamento de Ingenieria Termica y de Fluidos, Universidad Politecnica de Cartagena, C/Dr. Fleming, s/n (Campus Muralla), 30202 Cartagena, Murcia (Spain); Rey Martinez, F.J.; Velasco Gomez, E. [Departamento de Ingenieria Energetica y Fluidomecanica, ETSII, Universidad de Valladolid, Paseo del Cauce s/n, 47011 Valladolid (Spain)

    2008-07-01

    The use of a recovery device is justified in terms of energy savings and environmental concerns. But it is clear that the use of a recovery system also has to lead to controlling indoor environmental quality, nowadays a priority concern. In this article, experimental research has been carried out whose aim is to study the thermal comfort provided by a combined recovery equipment (SIECHP), consisting of a ceramic semi-indirect evaporative cooler (SIEC) and a heat pipe device (HP) to recover energy at low temperature in air-conditioning systems. To characterize this device empirically in terms of thermal comfort (TC), Fanger's predicted mean vote (PMV), draught rate, and vertical air temperature difference were used in this study as the TC criteria. (author)

  1. The analysis of thermal comfort requirements through the simulation of an occupied building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thellier, F; Cordier, A; Monchoux, F

    1994-05-01

    Building simulation usually focuses on the study of physical indoor parameters, but we must not forget the main aim of a house: to provide comfort to the occupants. This study was undertaken in order to build a complete tool to model thermal behaviour that will enable the prediction of thermal sensations of humans in a real environment. A human thermoregulation model was added to TRNSYS, a building simulation program. For our purposes, improvements had to be made to the original physiological model, by refining the calculation of all heat exchanges with the environment and adding a representation of clothes. This paper briefly describes the program, its modifications, and compares its results with experimental ones. An example of potential use is given, which points out the usefulness of such models in seeking the best solutions to reach optimal environmental conditions for global, and specially local comfort, of building occupants.

  2. An analysis on spatial variation of urban human thermal comfort in Hangzhou,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wei-wu; ZHU Li-zhong; WANG Ren-chao

    2004-01-01

    Urban human thermal comfort (UHTC) is affected for interacting of weather condition and underlyingsurface framework of urban area. Urban underlying surface temperature value and Normalized Difference VegetationIndex(NDVI) were calculated using image interpreting and supervised classification technique by ERDAS IMAGEsoftware using 1991 and 1999 Landsat TM images data. Reference to the relational standard of assessing humanthermal comfort and other meteorology data of Hangzhou City in summer, air temperature and relative humidityvariation of different land types of underlying surface were inversed. By choosing discomfort index as an indictor, thespatial distribution characteristic and the spatial variation degree of UHTC were estimated and mapped on a middlescale, that is, in six districts of Hangzhou. The main characteristics of UHTC spatial variation from 1991 to 1999 wererevealed using a GIS-based calculation model. The variation mechanism were analyzed and discussed from theviewpoint of city planning, construction and environmental protection.

  3. Analysis of thermal comfort and indoor air quality in a mechanically ventilated theatre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kavgic, M.; Mumovic, D.; Young, A. [The Bartlett School of Graduate Studies, University College London, Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BT, England (United Kingdom); Stevanovic, Z. [Institute of Nuclear Sciences - Vinca, P.O. Box 522, 11001 Belgrade (RS)

    2008-07-01

    Theatres are the most complex of all auditorium structures environmentally. They usually have high heat loads, which are of a transient nature as audiences come and go, and from lighting which changes from scene to scene, and they generally have full or nearly full occupancy. Theatres also need to perform well acoustically, both for the spoken word and for music, and as sound amplification is less used than in other auditoria, background noise control is critically important. All these factors place constraints on the ventilation design, and if this is poor, it can lead to the deterioration of indoor air quality and thermal comfort. To analyse the level of indoor air quality and thermal comfort in a typical medium-sized mechanically ventilated theatre, and to identify where improvements could typically be made, a comprehensive post-occupancy evaluation study was carried out on a theatre in Belgrade. The evaluation, based on the results of monitoring (temperature, relative humidity, CO{sub 2}, air speed and heat flux) and modelling (CFD), as well as the assessment of comfort and health as perceived by occupants, has shown that for most of the monitored period the environmental parameters were within the standard limits of thermal comfort and IAQ. However, two important issues were identified, which should be borne in mind by theatre designers in the future. First, the calculated ventilation rates showed that the theatre was over-ventilated, which will have serious consequences for its energy consumption, and secondly, the displacement ventilation arrangement employed led to higher than expected complaints of cold discomfort, probably due to cold draughts around the occupants' feet. (author)

  4. Thermal comfort analysis of hostels in National Institute of Technology Calicut, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G K KUMAR LACHIREDDI; P MUTHUKUMAR; SUDHAKAR SUBUDHI

    2017-01-01

    Thermal comfort study was carried out in the hostels of National Institute of Technology Calicut,Kerala, which is located in a warm humid climatic zone of India. Measurements of ambient temperature, globe temperature, relative humidity, air velocity and illuminance were carried out in eight hostels, and in parallel a paper-based survey was conducted among students to know about their Thermal Preference Vote (TPV) and Thermal Sensation Vote (TSV) based on an ASHRAE seven-point scale. Predicted Mean Vote (PMV) and Predicted Percentage Dissatisfied (PPD) have been evaluated based on Fanger’s theory of thermal comfort by utilizing the field measurements. Preferred operative temperature and neutral effective temperature were obtained based on the Predicted Mean Vote (PMV). Similarly the preferred operative temperature and neutraleffective temperature were identified, for both Thermal Sensation Vote (TSV) and Thermal Preference Vote (TPV). Thermal comfort conditions for 80% satisfaction were also determined in each case. Correlations between the Predicted Mean Vote (PMV) and the Thermal Sensation Vote (TSV) as well as between the Predicted Mean Vote (PMV) and the Thermal Preference Vote (TPV) were obtained.

  5. Generic Advertising, Brand Advertising and Price Competition: An Analysis of Free-Riding Effects and Coordination Mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Paolo Roma; Giovanni Perrone

    2010-01-01

    The main purpose of generic advertising is to enlarge the total market demand rather than capturing further slices from competitors. Several studies point out emergence of free-riding behavior under independent contribution and suggest use of coordination mechanism. However, existing literature does not shed light on the conditions under which generic advertising can be detrimental (beneficial) to stronger firms weakening (strengthening) their competitive advantage. Also, under a setting incl...

  6. Thermal Band Analysis of Agricultural Land Use and its Effects on Bioclimatic Comfort: The Case of Pasinler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avdan, Uǧur; Demircioglu Yildiz, Nalan; Dagliyar, Ayse; Yigit Avdan, Zehra; Yilmaz, Sevgi

    2014-05-01

    Resolving the problems that arise due to the land use are not suitable for the purpose in the rural and urban areas most suitable for land use of parameters to be determined. Unintended and unplanned developments in the use of agricultural land in our country caused increases the losses by soil erosion. In this study, Thermal Band analysis is made in Pasinler city center with the aim of identifying bioclimatic comfort values of the different agricultural area. Satellite images can be applied for assessing the thermal urban environment as well as for defining heat islands in agricultural areas. In this context, temperature map is tried to be produced with land surface temperature (LST) analysis made on Landsat TM5 satellite image. The Landsat 5 images was obtained from USGS for the study area. Using Landsat bands of the study area was mapped by supervised classification with the maximum likelihood classification algorithm of ERDAS imagine 2011 software. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) image was produced by using Landsat images. The digital number of the Landsat thermal infrared band (10.40 - 12.50 µm) is converted to the spectral radiance. The surface emissivity was calculated by using NDVI. The spatial pattern of land surface temperature in the study area is taken to characterize their local effects on agricultural land. Areas having bioclimatic comfort and ecologically urbanized, are interpreted with different graphical presentation technics. The obtained results are important because they create data bases for sustainable urban planning and provide a direction for planners and governors. As a result of rapid changes in land use, rural ecosystems and quality of life are deteriorated and decreased. In the presence of increased building density, for the comfortable living of people natural and cultural resources should be analyzed in detail. For that reason, optimal land use planning should be made in rural area.

  7. Thermal-comfort analysis and simulation for various low-energy cooling-technologies applied to an office building in a subtropical climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chowdhury, Ashfaque Ahmed; Rasul, M.G.; Khan, M.M.K. [College of Engineering and the Built Environment, Faculty of Sciences, Engineering and Health, Central Queensland University, Rockhampton, Qld 4702 (Australia)

    2008-06-15

    Simulation of buildings' thermal-performances is necessary to predict comfort of the occupants in buildings and to identify alternate cooling control-systems for achieving better indoor thermal environments. An analysis and prediction of thermal-comfort using DesignBuilder, based on the state-of-the-art building performance simulation software EnergyPlus, is carried out in an air-conditioned multi-storeyed building in the city of Rockhampton in Central Queensland, Australia. Rockhampton is located in a hot humid-region; therefore, indoor thermal-comfort is strongly affected by the outdoor climate. This study evaluates the actual thermal conditions of the Information Technology Division (ITD) building at Central Queensland University during winter and summer seasons and identifies the thermal comfort level of the occupants using low-energy cooling technologies namely, chilled ceiling (CC), economiser usages and pre-cooling. The Fanger comfort-model, Pierce two-node model and KSU two-node model were used to predict thermal performance of the building. A sophisticated building-analysis tool was integrated with the thermal comfort models for determining appropriate cooling-technologies for the occupants to be thermally comfortable while achieving sufficient energy savings. This study compares the predicted mean-vote (PMV) index on a seven-point thermal-sensation scale, calculated using the effective temperature and relative humidity for those cooling techniques. Simulated results show that systems using a chilled ceiling offer the best thermal comfort for the occupants during summer and winter in subtropical climates. The validity of the simulation results was checked with measured values of temperature and humidity for typical days in both summer and winter. The predicted results show a reasonable agreement with the measured data. (author)

  8. Ride electric bycycles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    正Last week, our school had a discussion about whether junior students could ride electric bycycles to go to school. 25 students of our class agreed with it, because they say it was convenient for them and it could take less time to go to school. But the other 35 students didn't agree with them.

  9. 三轴拖车平顺性仿真分析%Simulation and Analysis on the Ride Comfort of a Three-axle Tractor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨勇; 任卫群; 陈立平

    2007-01-01

    以某三轴拖车为动力学模型,在ADAMS软件的基础上进行二次开发,得到参数化的建模分析软件.建模中考虑钢板弹簧、减振器和橡胶衬套的非线性特性,并以不同的路面输入条件为激励,通过仿真可以得到整车模型上任意位置的动力学参数的分析结果.通过与该车的试验报告比较,验证了该平顺性分析方法的有效性和高效性.

  10. Application of active control technology to aircraft ride smoothing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, I. D.; Lapins, M.

    1975-01-01

    Prototype Ride Smoothing System (RSSs) were synthesized for flight testing aboard the National Aeronautics and Space Administration General Purpose Airborne Simulator (GPAS). The systems were designed to meet comprehensive criteria including passenger comfort and aircraft handling qualities considerations. System performance estimates based on analytic expressions were compared to estimates derived from digital calculations. The effect of RSSs on pilot workload during ILS approach in turbulence was examined in a fixed-base simulator. A limited number of flights were conducted to verify predicted RSS performance. Results of these experiments indicate that RSSs reduce pilot workload and increase passenger comfort while maintaining handling qualities.

  11. Cardiopulmonary loading in motocross riding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konttinen, Tomi; Häkkinen, Keijo; Kyröläinen, Heikki

    2007-07-01

    The present study was designed to examine physiological responses during motocross riding. Nine Finnish A-level motocross riders performed a 15-min ride at a motocross track and a test of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) in the laboratory. Cardiopulmonary strain was measured continuously during the ride as well as in the VO2max test. During the ride, mean VO2 was 32 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1) (s = 4), which was 71% (s = 12) of maximum, while ventilation (V(E)) was 73% (s = 15) of its maximum. The relative VO2 and V(E) values during the riding correlated with successful riding performance (r = 0.80, P motocross causes riders great physical stress. Both aerobic and anaerobic metabolism is required for the isometric and dynamic muscle actions experienced during a ride.

  12. Hybrid search and the dial-a-ride problem with transfer scheduling constraints

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    In a conventional dial-a-ride-system passengers are moved with the same vehicle between their pickup and their drop-off location. In a dial-a-ride-system with transfer, it is possible (or even standard) that passengers change the vehicle once or several times. Transfer Scheduling Constraints (TSC) are imposed in order to ensure that the comfort of the transfer remains on an acceptable level by avoiding too short or too long transfer times but also for limiting the total riding time between th...

  13. RIDING IN STYLE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Beijing is upgrading its bus fleet to make commuting more comfortable and environmentally friendly As part of the Beijing Municipal Government's efforts to promote public transportation, the city is upgrading its fleet of buses to provide the latest in comfort and to meet more stringent pollution emission standards. People may remember a line from the American sitcom Friends describing Beijing buses in 1996 as "easily 200 years old...200 at least." If the cast of the television show paid a visit to China...

  14. Analysis of operational comfort in manual tasks using human force manipulability measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yoshiyuki; Nishikawa, Kazuo; Yamada, Naoki; Tsuji, Toshio

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a scheme for human force manipulability (HFM) based on the use of isometric joint torque properties to simulate the spatial characteristics of human operation forces at an end-point of a limb with feasible magnitudes for a specified limb posture. This is also applied to the evaluation/prediction of operational comfort (OC) when manually operating a human-machine interface. The effectiveness of HFM is investigated through two experiments and computer simulations of humans generating forces by using their upper extremities. Operation force generation with maximum isometric effort can be roughly estimated with an HFM measure computed from information on the arm posture during a maintained posture. The layout of a human-machine interface is then discussed based on the results of operational experiments using an electric gear-shifting system originally developed for robotic devices. The results indicate a strong relationship between the spatial characteristics of the HFM and OC levels when shifting, and the OC is predicted by using a multiple regression model with HFM measures.

  15. Little Red Riding Hood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡蓉

    2011-01-01

    你一定看过并知道小红帽(Little Red Riding Hood)的故事吧!下面是英语版的小红帽,你看过吗? Once upon a time,people liked a little girl very much.Her red hood(头巾 ) fit her, so people called her Little Red Riding Hood. One day,her mother said, "Take a piece of cake and a bottle ofwine to your grandmother.She is ill and weak.These will do her good.Donot run off the road,or you may fall and break the bottle,and then yourgrandmother will get nothing.OK! Go at once."

  16. I ride a bike

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹玲

    2005-01-01

    <正>教学内容《I ride a bike》的核心教学内容是让学生谈论周末生活这样一个话题,其中包括8个词汇教学,以及询问其他人的周末活动所涉及的主要交际用语:

  17. 187 RIDE OR DIE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    《187 Ride or Die》是Ubisoft开发的一款对应PS2与XBOX的游戏。游戏玩法相当自由,赛车部分紧张刺激,不过可能是受到了“《横行霸道》系列”的影响,因此该游戏的暴力程度相当高。

  18. Ride quality meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leatherwood, J. D.; Dempsey, T. K.; Clevenson, S. A.; Stephens, D. G. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A ride quality meter is disclosed that automatically transforms vibration and noise measurements into a single number index of passenger discomfort. The noise measurements are converted into a noise discomfort value. The vibrations are converted into single axis discomfort values which are then converted into a combined axis discomfort value. The combined axis discomfort value is corrected for time duration and then summed with the noise discomfort value to obtain a total discomfort value.

  19. Thermal analysis of multilevel grid side converters for 10 MW wind turbines under Low Voltage Ride Through

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Ke; Blaabjerg, Frede; Liserre, Marco

    2011-01-01

    As the power level of a single wind turbine is continuously pushed up even to 7 MW, the wind power generation system are required to be more reliable, and able to withstand extreme grid disturbances. Moreover, it is becoming a need that the wind power generation system should be more active......-scale power converters, especially during grid faults may compromise the reliability performance and further increase the cost of the system. In this paper, three promising grid side multilevel converter topologies for the next generation 10 MW wind turbines are proposed and basically designed as case study....... The operation status, as well as loss and thermal distributions of power devices are investigated, simulated and compared aimed at various Low Voltage Ride Through (LVRT) conditions. It is found that the all of the proposed converter topologies will suffer from higher junction temperature in some heavy loaded...

  20. Northern comfort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makkonen, Teemu

    2015-01-01

    There is a limited geographical literature on the evolution of networks in distinct music genres. This gap is addressed here via an analysis of empirical evidence on the Finnish metal music genre, specifically utilising a questionnaire survey of Finnish metal music bands. The results show that......-local networks are at least as important as local ones for this music genre to thrive in a particular location. In addition, record deals are more important than geographical scales in explaining variances in networking within the genre. Thus, contrary to the recent literature underlining the role...... of geographical proximity in the creative industries, locality and geographical scale do not play such a significant role in the evolution of networks in the Finnish metal music genre....

  1. Physiological demands of off-road vehicle riding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burr, Jamie F; Jamnik, Veronica K; Shaw, Jim A; Gledhill, Norman

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the physiological demands of recreational off-road vehicle riding under typical riding conditions using habitual recreational off-road vehicle riders (n = 128). Comparisons of the physical demands of off-road vehicle riding were made between vehicle types (all-terrain vehicle (ATV) and off-road motorcycle (ORM)) to the demands of common recreational activities. Habitual riders (ATV = 56, ORM = 72) performed strength assessments before and after a representative trail ride (48 +/- 24.2 min), and ambulatory oxygen consumption was measured during one lap (24.2 +/- 11.8 min) of the ride. The mean VO2 requirement (mL x kg(-1) x min(-1)) while riding an off-road vehicle was 12.1 +/- 4.9 for ATV and 21.3 +/- 7.1 for ORM (P = 0.002), which is comparable to the VO2 required of many common recreational activities. Temporal analysis of activity intensity revealed approximately 14% of an ATV ride and 38% of an ORM ride are within the intensity range (940% VO2 reserve) required to achieve changes in aerobic fitness. Riding on a representative course also led to muscular fatigue, particularly in the upper body. On the basis of the measured metabolic demands, evidence of muscular strength requirements, and the associated caloric expenditures with off-road vehicle riding, this alternative form of activity conforms to the recommended physical activity guidelines and can be effective for achieving beneficial changes in health and fitness.

  2. Horse-rider interaction in dressage riding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münz, Andreas; Eckardt, Falko; Witte, Kerstin

    2014-02-01

    In dressage riding the pelvis of the rider interacts with the horse physically. However, there is little information about the influence of riding skill on the interaction of the human pelvis with the horse. Therefore this paper aims to study the interaction between horse and rider in professional riders (PRO) and beginners (BEG). Twenty riders rode in walk, trot, and canter in an indoor riding hall with inertial sensors attached to their pelvis and to the horses' trunk. Statistical analysis of waveform parameters, qualitative interpretation of angle-angle plots, and cross-correlation of horse and rider were applied to the data. Significant differences between PRO and BEG could be found for specific waveform parameters. Over all gaits PRO kept their pelvis closer to the mid-position and further forward whereas BEG tilted their pelvis further to the right and more backwards. The coupling intensity of horse and rider revealed differences between the gaits. Furthermore phase shifts were found between PRO and BEG. This paper describes a sensor-based approach for the investigation of interactions of the human pelvis with the trunk of a horse under in-field conditions. First the results show that the riding level influences the posture of a rider and secondly that differences can be detected with contemporary available sensor technology and methods.

  3. Riding the Rails

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BRANDON TAYLOR

    2010-01-01

    My seat was in the full, upright position as one of the atten-dants came by. I showed her my ticket, to which she smiled and said, "Enjoy your trip." The seat was spacious and comfortable. I'd paid extra for business class. And I had a window seat.

  4. Contributions from the activity analysis to the products development project: case study based on a project of innovation and comfort in aircraft's cabins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greghi, F M; Rossi, N T; Souza, G B J; Menegon, L N

    2012-01-01

    Comfort is an issue that has gained relevance within the aeronautical industry due to the necessity of manufacturers and airline companies of differentiating themselves in a market that has become more and more competitive each day. This study's aim is to analyze the comfort/discomfort of passengers, based on the analysis of the activities performed in the aircrafts' cabin during real flights, in order to create ergonomics requirements and a methodology of comfort analysis. The study has been performed during domestic commercial flights, and the adopted data collection techniques have been: the application of 219 questionnaires to passengers, 44 registrations of postures and actions through filmings and 12 semistructured interviews. The method has made possible the reconstruction of the user's action course in performing activities in real flight situations, and the calculation of the area occupied by the passenger during his or her actions. The integrated analysis of the results corroborates data from previous studies in which both the space made available to each passenger and the activity performed interfere in their perception of comfort. From this study it has been concluded that the method constitutes itself as an innovative tool within the process of aircrafts' cabins project enabling the calculation of the action space based on the reconstructed course.

  5. Transient analysis and improvement of indoor thermal comfort for an air-conditioned room with thermal insulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Prakash

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Thermal insulations over the building envelop reduce the heat gain due to solar radiation and may enhance good and uniform indoor thermal comfort for the occupants. In this paper, the insulation layer-wood wool is laid over the roof and exposed wall of an air-conditioned room and its performance on indoor thermal comfort is studied by computational fluid dynamics (CFD technique. From this study, 3% of indoor thermal comfort index-predicted mean vote (PMV is improved by providing wood wool layer. In addition, the optimum supply air temperature of air-conditioning unit for good thermal comfort is predicted as in the range of 299–300 K (26–27 °C.

  6. Effects of horseback riding exercise on the relative alpha power spectrum in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sung-Hyoun

    The present study aimed to identify the effects of horseback riding and mechanical horseback riding exercise on the relative α-power spectrum in the elderly. A total of 31 healthy elderly were randomly divided into horseback riding (n=15) and mechanical horseback riding exercise groups (n=16). The horseback riding exercise program was conducted for 25min twice a week for 12 weeks. Two-way repeated analysis of variance was used to identify the changes in measured variables before the exercise program, and after 6 and 12 weeks of the program. The horseback riding exercise group showed an increase in relative fast alpha power in the background electroencephalogram, and the mechanical horseback riding exercise group showed an increase in relative slow alpha power. Both horseback riding and mechanical horseback riding exercises activated the EEG in all domains, thus increasing concentration and restfulness. The results suggested that horseback riding and mechanical horseback riding exercise may have a positive effect on psychological stability in the elderly. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Robotic comfort zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Likhachev, Maxim; Arkin, Ronald C.

    2000-10-01

    The paper investigates how the psychological notion of comfort can be useful in the design of robotic systems. A review of the existing study of human comfort, especially regarding its presence in infants, is conducted with the goal being to determine the relevant characteristics for mapping it onto the robotics domain. Focus is place on the identification of the salient features in the environment that affect the comfort level. Factors involved include current state familiarity, working conditions, the amount and location of available resources, etc. As part of our newly developed comfort function theory, the notion of an object as a psychological attachment for a robot is also introduced, as espoused in Bowlby's theory of attachment. The output space of the comfort function and its dependency on the comfort level are analyzed. The results of the derivation of this comfort function are then presented in terms of the impact they have on robotic behavior. Justification for the use of the comfort function are then presented in terms of the impact they have on robotic behavior. Justification for the use of the comfort function in the domain of robotics is presented with relevance for real-world operations. Also, a transformation of the theoretical discussion into a mathematical framework suitable for implementation within a behavior-based control system is presented. The paper concludes with results of simulation studies and real robot experiments using the derived comfort function.

  8. Dial-a-Ride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Rene Munk

    2003-01-01

    excess ride time and allowed deviation from desired service time. All vehicles start and end at a depot, which can be different for each vehicle. The fleet of vehicles is heterogeneous meaning the vehicles can have a different capacity of passenger seats, wheelchairs and beds. The problem...... is then an extension of the Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Windows (CVRPTW) with the additional constraints that a pickup stop must precede a delivery stop for a passenger, and that both a pickup stop and a delivery stop related to the same passenger must be assigned to the same vehicle. The objective...... methods described in the litterature are based on various insertion techniques often coupled with some sort of clustering of stops, but since 1980 some experiments have been performed with dynamic programming, column generation and set partitioning. In recent years meta heuristics have also been applied...

  9. Compensation neurosis rides again.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, A

    1992-01-01

    Compensation neurosis (CN), also known as accident neurosis, has generally not been considered to be a 'real' disorder. In 1961 it was seemingly laid to rest by Henry Miller, a distinguished neurologist, in a sharp article which appeared in the British Medical Journal. Miller's view of patients who presented psychological symptoms following accidents or traumas was suspicious. Compensated or not, his view seemed to be that they should have their legal process finished as quickly as possible and then they will miraculously convalescence. Miller's work, it appeared, was the coup de grâce for this ill-defined diagnosis. Today, however, compensation neurosis seems to ride again. After a prolonged silence in the psychiatric literature, new papers are emerging, strongly suggesting that this vanishing diagnosis be reconsidered. This new trend will be presented.

  10. Ride control of surface effect ships using distributed control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asgeir J. Sørensen

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available A ride control system for active damping of heave and pitch accelerations of Surface Effect Ships (SES is presented. It is demonstrated that distributed effects that are due to a spatially varying pressure in the air cushion result in significant vertical vibrations in low and moderate sea states. In order to achieve a high quality human comfort and crew workability it is necessary to reduce these vibrations using a control system which accounts for distributed effects due to spatial pressure variations in the air cushion. A mathematical model of the process is presented, and collocated sensor and actuator pairs are used. The process stability is ensured using a controller with appropriate passivity properties. Sensor and actuator location is also discussed. The performance of the ride control system is shown by power spectra of the vertical accelerations obtained from full scale experiments with a 35 m SES.

  11. Visual Comfort Analysis of Innovative Interior and Exterior Shading Systems for Commercial Buildings using High Resolution Luminance Images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konis, Kyle; Lee, Eleanor; Clear, Robert

    2011-01-11

    The objective of this study was to explore how calibrated high dynamic range (HDR) images (luminance maps) acquired in real world daylit environments can be used to characterize, evaluate, and compare visual comfort conditions of innovative facade shading and light-redirecting systems. Detailed (1536 x 1536 pixel) luminance maps were time-lapse acquired from two view positions in an unoccupied full scale testbed facility. These maps were analyzed using existing visual comfort metrics to quantify how innovative interior and exterior shading systems compare to conventional systems under real sun and sky conditions over a solstice-to-solstice test interval. The results provide a case study in the challenges and potential of methods of visualizing, evaluating and summarizing daily and seasonal variation of visual comfort conditions computed from large sets of image data.

  12. Learning in Comfort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Mike

    2012-01-01

    Students spend hours a day in classrooms, so it is critical to their learning to have places to sit that are healthful and comfortable. Schools and universities should outfit their classrooms and other learning spaces with furniture that enables students to carry out their school work comfortably and does not detract from their ability to focus…

  13. Ride performance of a high speed rail vehicle using controlled semi active suspension system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sunil Kumar; Kumar, Anil

    2017-05-01

    The rail-wheel interaction in a rail vehicle running at high speed results in large amplitude vibration of carbody that deteriorates the ride comfort of travellers. The role of suspension system is crucial to provide an acceptable level of ride performance. In this context, an existing rail vehicle is modelled in vertical, pitch and roll motions of carbody and bogies. Additionally, nonlinear stiffness and damping parameters of passive suspension system are defined based on experimental data. In the secondary vertical suspension system, a magneto-rheological (MR) damper is included to improve the ride quality and comfort. The parameters of MR damper depend on the current, amplitude and frequency of excitations. At different running speeds, three semi-active suspension strategies with MR damper are analysed for periodic track irregularity and the resulting performance indices are juxtaposed with the nonlinear passive suspension system. The disturbance rejection and force tracking damper controller algorithms are applied to control the desired force of MR damper. This study reveals that the vertical vibrations of a vehicle can be reduced significantly by using the proposed semi-active suspension strategies. Moreover, it naturally results in improved ride quality and passenger’s comfort in comparison to the existing passive system.

  14. Fancy a ride?

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2014-01-01

    This Sunday 7 September, don’t miss your chance to climb into a supercar, one of those exceptional machines that tear up the tracks and that you sometimes hear revving their engines on the motorway. The 2014 supercar experience day, organised by members of CERN, will allow car lovers to go for a ride in style and all for a good cause!   Supercars at the 2013 experience day. Photo: Kevin Mazzilli. If you have always dreamt of sitting in a Ferrari, feeling the vibrations of a Lamborghini, or losing yourself in the hushed calm of a classic car, don’t miss the supercar experience day taking place on Sunday, 7 September! This event has been organised by CERN’s own car enthusiasts, in collaboration with the charity Kumansansa – Children of Zambia, founded by two CERN members. It will take place for the third consecutive year in the car park of the Macumba leisure centre in Saint-Julien-en-Genevois (France). From 9.30 a.m. to 6 p.m., visitors old and young (c...

  15. Analysis of the PMV thermal comfort model and its index%关于 PMV 热舒适模型及指标的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李伊洁; 刘何清; 高黎颖; 刘天宇

    2016-01-01

    PMV 热舒适模型是目前应用最为广泛的室内热舒适评价模型,但其适用范围及“负荷偏离值”的确定观点不一;Fanger 热舒适方程是 PMV 热舒适模型的基础,但其适用条件及“热中性”平衡存在异议。作者通过对现有文献的分析,提出了对 PMV 热舒适模型“负荷偏离值”计算的见解及适用范围;通过分析 Fanger 等学者自“人体热平衡方程”到“Fanger热舒适方程”的演化与简化过程,提出了对 Fanger“热中性”状态的新认识;并分析了可能引起 PMV 指标误差的因素。%The PMV thermal comfort model is the most widely used indoor thermal comfort evaluation model.However,reading its scope of application and the determination of load deviation value,people have different views.Fanger thermal comfort equation is the basis of the PMV thermal comfort model,but there are different voices about its applicable condition and thermal neutral equilibrium situation.Through the analysis of other scholars’literature understanding,this paper puts forward the load deviation value calculation of the PMV thermal comfort model insights and applicable scope;by analyzing the evolution process,that is from the human body heat balance equation to Fanger thermal comfort equation,and the simplification process put forward by such scholars as Fanger,the paper puts forward the new understanding of Fanger thermal neutral state,and analyzes the possible causes of the error of the PMV index.

  16. Investigation on Motorcyclist Riding Behaviour at Curve Entry Using Instrumented Motorcycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choon Wah Yuen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper details the study on the changes in riding behaviour, such as changes in speed as well as the brake force and throttle force applied, when motorcyclists ride over a curve section road using an instrumented motorcycle. In this study, an instrumented motorcycle equipped with various types of sensors, on-board cameras, and data loggers, was developed in order to collect the riding data on the study site. Results from the statistical analysis showed that riding characteristics, such as changes in speed, brake force, and throttle force applied, are influenced by the distance from the curve entry, riding experience, and travel mileage of the riders. A structural equation modeling was used to study the impact of these variables on the change of riding behaviour in curve entry section. Four regression equations are formed to study the relationship between four dependent variables, which are speed, throttle force, front brake force, and rear brake force applied with the independent variables.

  17. Investigation on Motorcyclist Riding Behaviour at Curve Entry Using Instrumented Motorcycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, Choon Wah; Karim, Mohamed Rehan; Saifizul, Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    This paper details the study on the changes in riding behaviour, such as changes in speed as well as the brake force and throttle force applied, when motorcyclists ride over a curve section road using an instrumented motorcycle. In this study, an instrumented motorcycle equipped with various types of sensors, on-board cameras, and data loggers, was developed in order to collect the riding data on the study site. Results from the statistical analysis showed that riding characteristics, such as changes in speed, brake force, and throttle force applied, are influenced by the distance from the curve entry, riding experience, and travel mileage of the riders. A structural equation modeling was used to study the impact of these variables on the change of riding behaviour in curve entry section. Four regression equations are formed to study the relationship between four dependent variables, which are speed, throttle force, front brake force, and rear brake force applied with the independent variables. PMID:24523660

  18. Analysis of the indices of thermal comfort for the conditions of the Mexican Republic; Analisis de los indices de confort termico para las condiciones de la republica mexicana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuentes Freixanet, Victor; Rodriguez Viqueira, Manuel [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana - Unidad Azcapotzalco (Mexico)

    2009-07-15

    The objective of this article is to analyze different indices of thermal comfort for the Mexican Republic. Among them the Fanger (PMV and PPD) physiological methods of comfort and the new effective temperature index are included. The standard effective temperature (SET), as well as the adaptive methods of Humphreys and Nicol, Auliciems, De Dear and Brager. A comparative analysis is done of the different indices through thematic maps determined by interpolation, using a climatic data base of 700 cities obtained from the observatories and stations of the National Meteorological Service. This article pretends to establish general criteria of the thermal comfort to later define design strategies for each one of the climatic regions of the Mexican Republic. [Spanish] El objetivo de este articulo es analizar distintos indices de confort termico para la Republica Mexicana. Entre ellos se incluyen los metodos fisiologicos de confort de Fanger (PMV y PPD), el indice de nueva temperatura efectiva. La temperatura efectiva estandar (SET), asi como los metodos adaptativos de Humphreys y Nicol, Auliciems, De Dear y Brager. Se hace un analisis comparativo de los distintos indices a traves de mapas tematicos determinados por interpolacion, usando una base de datos climaticos de 700 ciudades obtenidos de los observatorios y estaciones del Servicio Meteorologico Nacional. Este articulo presenta establecer criterios generales del confort termico para posteriormente definir estrategias de diseno para cada una de las regiones climaticas de la Republica Mexicana.

  19. Analysis of the thermal comfort and impact properties of the neoprene-spacer fabric structure for preventing the joint damages

    OpenAIRE

    Ehsan Ghorbani; Hossein Hasani; Homa Rafeian; Batool Hashemibeni

    2013-01-01

    Background: Frequent moves at the joint, plus external factors such as trauma, aging, and etc., are all reasons for joint damages. In order to protect and care of joints, the orthopedic textiles are used. To protect the joints, these textiles keep muscles warm to prevent shock. To produce orthopedic textiles, Neoprene foams have been traditionally used. These foams are flexible and resist impact, but are not comfortable enough and might cause problems for the consumer. This study introduces a...

  20. Comfort control in buildings

    CERN Document Server

    Castilla, Maria del Mar; Rodriguez, Francisco de Asis

    2014-01-01

    This book describes both concepts and development of advanced comfort control systems in buildings, with significant energy saving, and attention to thermal, visual and indoor air quality. The concepts are proven through real tests in a bioclimatic building.

  1. Thermal analysis of a naturally ventilated building an adaptive comfort algorithm : a case study of Miele corporate headquarters, Johannesburg, Gauteng

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joubert, C.G. [Tshwane Univ. of Technology, Pretoria (South Africa)

    2009-07-01

    The corporate headquarters of the Miele Kitchen appliance group in Johannesburg, South Africa is a naturally ventilated building. The building consists of 3 distinct zones, including the administration offices, a showroom, and workshop and stores. After completion in 2004, staff complained that the building was too hot in summer and too cold in winter. Long term monitoring of the passively cooled and ventilated building was then initiated in order to evaluate, identify and quantify perceived shortcomings. This paper discussed the rationale behind the monitoring program and described some of the problems encountered. The monitoring has been completed and the data analyzed. The actual performance of the building was compared to the comfort standard generated by the ASHRAE RP 884 adaptive comfort algorithm. It was concluded that various strategies can be used to obtain a satisfactory thermal response for a naturally ventilated building in this particular climatic zone. The building envelope is fundamental in obtaining satisfactory thermal performance. The product of envelope resistance and thermal capacity should be high. The Miele building reacts rapidly to changes in the external environment, indicating a lack of thermal mass and a lack of control over air coming into the building and exfiltration. The adaptive comfort algorithm indicated that the degree of overcooling is most pronounced in the stores and workshop area. The internal diurnal range in temperature is greater than a reasonable range of 5 K for most months of the year and would contribute to the feelings of thermal discomfort. 5 refs., 6 tabs., 4 figs.

  2. The Comfort Houses : measurements and analysis of the indoor environment and energy consumption in 8 passive houses 2008-2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steen Larsen, T.; Lund Jensen, R.; Daniels, O.

    2012-01-15

    The report is prepared in relation to the project ''demonstration of energy consumption and indoor climate in 10 Danish passive houses'' which was carried out from 2008 to 2012 in the Comfort Houses. The report presents the achieved results based on measurements of indoor climate and energy consumption, and it also suggests viable solutions for the future low-energy buildings. The Comfort House project was started in 2007 as a development project at the company Saint Gobain Isover A/S, who wanted to disseminate knowledge about low-energy buildings and the principles behind them. The present report mainly focuses on the results from the Comfort Houses, but it also includes references to other Danish experimental buildings and development projects. Furthermore, the analyses are supplemented with experiences from Swedish low-energy buildings found through literature reviews. The indoor climate analyses deal with the different physical parameters that impact the residents. The evaluation includes both thermal, atmospheric, daylight and acoustic climate. The energy consumption is evaluated together with some of the key parameters from the houses that are related to the energy consumption. Finally, the residents' behaviour impacting both energy consumption and indoor climate are analysed. (LN)

  3. Digital evaluation of sitting posture comfort in human-vehicle system under Industry 4.0 framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Qing; Kang, Jinsheng; Sun, Wenlei; Li, Zhaobo; Huo, Xiao

    2016-09-01

    Most of the previous studies on the vibration ride comfort of the human-vehicle system were focused only on one or two aspects of the investigation. A hybrid approach which integrates all kinds of investigation methods in real environment and virtual environment is described. The real experimental environment includes the WBV(whole body vibration) test, questionnaires for human subjective sensation and motion capture. The virtual experimental environment includes the theoretical calculation on simplified 5-DOF human body vibration model, the vibration simulation and analysis within ADAMS/VibrationTM module, and the digital human biomechanics and occupational health analysis in Jack software. While the real experimental environment provides realistic and accurate test results, it also serves as core and validation for the virtual experimental environment. The virtual experimental environment takes full advantages of current available vibration simulation and digital human modelling software, and makes it possible to evaluate the sitting posture comfort in a human-vehicle system with various human anthropometric parameters. How this digital evaluation system for car seat comfort design is fitted in the Industry 4.0 framework is also proposed.

  4. People and Horses: The Risks of Riding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBenedette, Valerie

    1989-01-01

    The article looks at risks and benefits of horseback riding. Several risks can be minimized if riders take lessons, check riding equipment before each ride, wear proper headgear and footgear, and respect the horse's size and will. Medical guidelines for equestrian sports could help reduce injuries. (SM)

  5. 14 CFR 25.1399 - Riding light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Riding light. 25.1399 Section 25.1399... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 25.1399 Riding light. (a) Each riding (anchor) light required for a seaplane or amphibian must be installed so that it can— (1) Show a white light for...

  6. 14 CFR 23.1399 - Riding light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Riding light. 23.1399 Section 23.1399... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 23.1399 Riding light. (a) Each riding (anchor) light required for a seaplane or amphibian, must be installed so that it...

  7. 14 CFR 27.1399 - Riding light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Riding light. 27.1399 Section 27.1399... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Lights § 27.1399 Riding light. (a) Each riding light required for water operation must be installed so that it can— (1) Show a white light for at least two...

  8. 14 CFR 29.1399 - Riding light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Riding light. 29.1399 Section 29.1399... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Lights § 29.1399 Riding light. (a) Each riding light required for water operation must be installed so that it can— (1) Show a white light for at least two...

  9. Analysis of the thermal comfort and impact properties of the neoprene-spacer fabric structure for preventing the joint damages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Ghorbani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Frequent moves at the joint, plus external factors such as trauma, aging, and etc., are all reasons for joint damages. In order to protect and care of joints, the orthopedic textiles are used. To protect the joints, these textiles keep muscles warm to prevent shock. To produce orthopedic textiles, Neoprene foams have been traditionally used. These foams are flexible and resist impact, but are not comfortable enough and might cause problems for the consumer. This study introduces a new structure consisting of perforated Neoprene foam attached to the spacer fabric and also compares the properties of thermal and moisture comfort and impact properties of this structure in comparison with Neoprene foam. Methods: In order to measure the factors related to the samples lateral pressure behavior, a tensile tester was used. A uniform pressure is applied to the samples and a force - displacement curve is obtained. The test continues until the maximum compression force is reached to 50 N. The area under the curve is much greater; more energy is absorbed during the impact. In order to investigate the dynamic heat and moisture transfer of fabrics, an experimental apparatus was developed. This device made the simulation of sweating of human body possible and consisted of a controlled environmental chamber, sweating guarded hot plate, and data acquisition system. Results: The findings show that the Neoprene-spacer fabric structure represents higher toughness values compared to other samples (P ≤ 0.001. Neoprene-spacer fabric structure (A3 has higher rate of moisture transport than conventional Neoprene foam; because of undesirable comfort characteristics in Neoprene. Conclusions: Results of the tests indicate full advantage of the new structure compared with the Neoprene foam for use in orthopedic textiles (P ≤ 0.001.

  10. Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Air Flow, Heat Transfer and Thermal Comfort in Buildings with Different Heating Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabanskis, A.; Virbulis, J.

    2016-04-01

    Monitoring of temperature, humidity and air flow velocity is performed in 5 experimental buildings with the inner size of 3×3×3 m3 located in Riga, Latvia. The buildings are equipped with different heating systems, such as an air-air heat pump, air-water heat pump, capillary heating mat on the ceiling and electric heater. Numerical simulation of air flow and heat transfer by convection, conduction and radiation is carried out using OpenFOAM software and compared with experimental data. Results are analysed regarding the temperature and air flow distribution as well as thermal comfort.

  11. Noise levels of amusement ride operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbertson, Lynn R; Thies, Liza E; Vosburgh, Donna J H

    2017-04-01

    One of the leading causes of noise-induced hearing loss is occupational noise exposure; however, little attention has been given to the exposure among amusement ride operators. According to the International Association of Amusement Parks and Attractions, 600,000 ride operators are employed in the U.S. The first objective of this descriptive study was to evaluate if ride operators were exposed to noise levels over 85 dB. The second objective was to classify the ride features that led to the highest noise levels. 136 rides were measured at 17 total amusement parks, county fairs, and festivals in southern Wisconsin and northern Illinois during summer 2015. A sound level meter recorded noise measurements as close in proximity to the ride operator as possible. Each ride was measured for two or three complete ride cycles, which included loading and operating the ride. The sound level meter was programmed to measure noise as recommended by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists and with no threshold. 18% of rides measured had projected noise levels greater than American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists recommendation of 85 dB. A repeated measures model was used to analyze the complete ride cycle decibel levels. The model found that traveling carnival rides had significantly higher levels compared to the stationary amusement park rides (p levels than those without midway music (p amusement ride operators would be at risk for noise induced hearing loss and would require a hearing conservation program if the 8-hr time weighted averages were to follow the same trends as the complete ride cycle levels.

  12. California Amusement Rides and Liability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Adam

    2005-01-01

    Twenty-three-year-old Cristina Moreno traveled from Spain to California for her honeymoon in 2000. As part of her visit, she rode the Indiana Jones amusement ride at Disneyland with her new husband. On June 25, 2000, she suffered a brain injury, and she eventually died on September 1, 2000, as a result of injuries allegedly sustained while riding…

  13. Visual Disability and Horse Riding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brickell, Diana

    2005-01-01

    It is now commonplace for horse riding to be included in the extra-curricular activities of students with physical disabilities. In this article an account is given of how visually impaired people can derive physical, mental, and emotional benefits from this supervised activity. It is argued that the rider, in learning to exercise self-control and…

  14. Hippotherapy and Therapeutic Riding Highlight!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apel, Laura, Comp.

    2007-01-01

    Horses have always been appreciated by humans for their strength, beauty, and gentle demeanor. Children, especially, have gravitated toward them and many experience their first horseback riding lesson at a young age. However, horses can play a very different role in the lives of children and adults with disabilities. Hippotherapy is physical,…

  15. Designing an Amusement Park Ride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurz, Terri L.; Robles, Rolando

    2016-01-01

    To improve access to STEM curriculum, an activity was planned that presents the opportunity to design and build using gears and other tools. In this challenge, preservice elementary school teachers were asked to mathematically analyze gears and create an amusement park ride that uses gears to spin. Although this lesson was implemented with…

  16. "Paul Revere's Ride": Awakening Abolitionists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepore, Jill

    2011-01-01

    Henry Wadsworth Longfellow used to be both the best-known poet in the English-speaking world and the most beloved, adored by the learned and the lowly alike, read by everyone from Nathaniel Hawthorne and Abraham Lincoln to John Ruskin and Queen Victoria--and, just as avidly, by the queen's servants. "Paul Revere's Ride" is Longfellow's best-known…

  17. Ride Performance Analysis of Half-Car Model for Semi-Active System Using RMS as Performance Criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.I. Ihsan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The work aims to study the root mean square (RMS responses to acceleration input for four state variables: the ms vertical acceleration, the ms pitch angular acceleration and the front and rear deflections of the suspensions. A half-car two degree-of-freedom model of semi-active control scheme is analyzed and compared with the conventional passive suspension system. Frequency response of the transfer function for the heave, pitch of the sprung mass and suspension deflections are initially compared and then mean square analysis is utilized to see the effect of semi-active scheme. Results indicate that significant improvements were achieved in the sprung mass heave and pitch responses using semi-active control scheme. However results for the rear and front suspension deflection show that there are limiting values of damping coefficient beyond which, the semi-active scheme becomes disadvantageous than the passive system.

  18. Evaluation of Bus Vibration Comfort Based on Passenger Crowdsourcing Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Vibration comfort is an important factor affecting the quality of service (QoS of bus. In order to make people involved in supervising bus’s vibration comfort and improve passengers’ riding experience, a novel mode of passenger crowdsourcing is introduced. In this paper, comfort degree of bus vibration is calculated from bus’s vibration signals collected by passengers’ smartphones and sent through WiFi to the Boa web server which shows the vibration comfort on the LCD deployed in bus and maybe trigger alarm lamp when the vibration is beyond the threshold. Three challenges here have been overcome: firstly, space coordinate transformation algorithm is used to solve the constant drift of signals collected; secondly, a low-pass filter is designed to isolate gravity from signals real-timely via limited computing resources; thirdly, an embedded evaluation system is developed according to the calculation procedure specified by criterion ISO 2631-1997. Meanwhile, the model proposed is tested in a practical running environment, the vibration data in whole travel are recorded and analyzed offline. The results show that comfort degree of vibration obtained from the experimental system is identical with the truth, and this mode is proved to be effective.

  19. Thermal comfort in residential buildings: Comfort values and scales for building energy simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peeters, Leen; D' haeseleer, William [Division of Applied Mechanics and Energy Conversion, University of Leuven (K.U.Leuven), Celestijnenlaan 300 A, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Dear, Richard de [Division of Environmental and Life Sciences, Macquarie University, Sydney (Australia); Hensen, Jan [Faculty of Architecture, Building and Planning, Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, Vertigo 6.18, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2009-05-15

    Building Energy Simulation (BES) programmes often use conventional thermal comfort theories to make decisions, whilst recent research in the field of thermal comfort clearly shows that important effects are not incorporated. The conventional theories of thermal comfort were set up based on steady state laboratory experiments. This, however, is not representing the real situation in buildings, especially not when focusing on residential buildings. Therefore, in present analysis, recent reviews and adaptations are considered to extract acceptable temperature ranges and comfort scales. They will be defined in an algorithm, easily implementable in any BES code. The focus is on comfortable temperature levels in the room, more than on the detailed temperature distribution within that room. (author)

  20. Demographic and psychological variables affecting test subject evaluations of ride quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, N. C.; Conley, H. W.

    1975-01-01

    Ride-quality experiments similar in objectives, design, and procedure were conducted, one using the U.S. Air Force Total In-Flight Simulator and the other using the Langley Passenger Ride Quality Apparatus to provide the motion environments. Large samples (80 or more per experiment) of test subjects were recruited from the Tidewater Virginia area and asked to rate the comfort (on a 7-point scale) of random aircraft motion typical of that encountered during STOL flights. Test subject characteristics of age, sex, and previous flying history (number of previous airplane flights) were studied in a two by three by three factorial design. Correlations were computed between one dependent measure, the subject's mean comfort rating, and various demographic characteristics, attitudinal variables, and the scores on Spielberger's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. An effect of sex was found in one of the studies. Males made higher (more uncomfortable) ratings of the ride than females. Age and number of previous flights were not significantly related to comfort ratings. No significant interactions between the variables of age, sex, or previous number of flights were observed.

  1. Neurologic complication after a roller coaster ride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sa Leitao, Davi; Mendonca, Dercio; Iyer, Harish; Kao, Cheng-Kai

    2012-01-01

    Neurologic complications after roller coaster rides are uncommon but potentially catastrophic. Physicians should have a high index of suspicion and prompt appropriate investigation. A 22-year-old healthy African American man presented with a 2-day history of constant occipital headache associated with vertigo, nausea, vomiting, and ambulatory dysfunction. Physical examination showed gait ataxia, slight dysmetria, and vertical nystagmus. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain showed early subacute ischemic infarct in the right cerebellum in the distribution of the right posterior inferior cerebellar artery. Magnetic resonance angiography of the neck showed focal dissection of the right vertebral artery at C1 through C2 level. On subsequent questioning, the patient recollected riding a roller coaster 2 weeks before the onset of symptoms. Anticoagulation with heparin was started, and the patient was bridged to oral warfarin. After a 5-day uneventful hospital course, symptoms improved and patient was discharged on oral anticoagulation. Cervicocephalic arterial dissections after roller coaster rides are rarely described in literature. The acceleration and abrupt changes of direction might lead to indirect trauma that is applied to mobile portions of the cervicocephalic arteries leading to intimal tears. Magnetic resonance angiography combined with axial T1-weighted cervical MRI is preferred because it is a high-sensitive, noninvasive test. The rationale for the use of anticoagulants or antiplatelets in patients with cervicocephalic arterial dissection is to prevent early recurrence and infarction. However, a meta-analysis failed to show significant difference in the rates of disability or death between both groups. Therefore, the decision for medical treatment should be made in a case-by-case basis.

  2. Guide to Setting Thermal Comfort Criteria and Minimizing Energy Use in Delivering Thermal Comfort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regnier, Cindy

    2012-08-31

    Historically thermal comfort in buildings has been controlled by simple dry bulb temperature settings. As we move into more sophisticated low energy building systems that make use of alternate systems such as natural ventilation, mixed mode system and radiant thermal conditioning strategies, a more complete understanding of human comfort is needed for both design and control. This guide will support building designers, owners, operators and other stakeholders in defining quantifiable thermal comfort parameters?these can be used to support design, energy analysis and the evaluation of the thermal comfort benefits of design strategies. This guide also contains information that building owners and operators will find helpful for understanding the core concepts of thermal comfort. Whether for one building, or for a portfolio of buildings, this guide will also assist owners and designers in how to identify the mechanisms of thermal comfort and space conditioning strategies most important for their building and climate, and provide guidance towards low energy design options and operations that can successfully address thermal comfort. An example of low energy design options for thermal comfort is presented in some detail for cooling, while the fundamentals to follow a similar approach for heating are presented.

  3. Guide to Setting Thermal Comfort Criteria and Minimizing Energy Use in Delivering Thermal Comfort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regnier, Cindy [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Historically thermal comfort in buildings has been controlled by simple dry bulb temperature settings. As we move into more sophisticated low energy building systems that make use of alternate systems such as natural ventilation, mixed mode system and radiant thermal conditioning strategies, a more complete understanding of human comfort is needed for both design and control. This guide will support building designers, owners, operators and other stakeholders in defining quantifiable thermal comfort parameters?these can be used to support design, energy analysis and the evaluation of the thermal comfort benefits of design strategies. This guide also contains information that building owners and operators will find helpful for understanding the core concepts of thermal comfort. Whether for one building, or for a portfolio of buildings, this guide will also assist owners and designers in how to identify the mechanisms of thermal comfort and space conditioning strategies most important for their building and climate, and provide guidance towards low energy design options and operations that can successfully address thermal comfort. An example of low energy design options for thermal comfort is presented in some detail for cooling, while the fundamentals to follow a similar approach for heating are presented.

  4. The Comfort Houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Tine Steen; Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Daniels, Ole

    This report describes the results of the Comfort Houses measuring programme conducted by Aalborg University in the period 2008 to 2011. The results from the houses included in the project are examined in detail in 8 house-specific reports. All house-specific reports referred to in this report can...

  5. The Medical Staff Ride: an education tool for military medical leadership development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bricknell, Martin C M

    2016-08-01

    This paper provides a description of the Medical Staff Ride as an educational tool for military medical leadership. It is based upon two Medical Staff Rides covering the Somme Campaign 1916 and the Normandy Campaign 1944. It describes the key educational activity 'The Stand' at which history and current issues are brought together through study of a particular location on the historical battlefield. The Medical Staff Ride can be divided into six distinct phases, each of which have common question sets for analysis by attendees. The Medical Staff Ride can be shown to have valuable educational outcomes that are efficient in time and cost, and effective in achieving personal learning. The supporting Readers for the two Medical Staff Rides covered by this paper are available as electronic supplement to this edition of the journal.

  6. Improving the comfort of garments

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hunter, L

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Comfort is a highly subjective phenomenon, with no unanimously agreed quantitative definition. In the Oxford English Dictionary and Webster’s Third New International Dictionary, comfort is defined as ‘freedom from pain, trouble and anxiety...

  7. Driving self-regulation and ride service utilization in a multicommunity, multistate sample of U.S. older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Donna C; Freund, Katherine; Fortinsky, Richard H; Staplin, Loren; West, Bethany A; Bergen, Gwen; Downs, Jonathan

    2017-04-03

    This study examined a multicommunity alternative transportation program available 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, for any purpose, offering door-through-door service in private automobiles to members who either do not drive or are transitioning away from driving. Specific aims were to describe the characteristics of members by driving status and ride service usage of these members. Data came from administrative records maintained by a nonprofit ride service program and include 2,661 individuals aged 65+ residing in 14 states who joined the program between April 1, 2010, and November 8, 2013. Latent class analysis was used to group current drivers into 3 classes of driving status of low, medium, and high self-regulation, based on their self-reported avoidance of certain driving situations and weekly driving frequency. Demographics and ride service use rate for rides taken through March 31, 2014, by type of ride (e.g., medical, social, etc.) were calculated for nondrivers and drivers in each driving status class. The majority of ride service users were female (77%) and aged 65-74 years (82%). The primary method of getting around when enrolling for the transportation service was by riding with a friend or family member (60%). Among the 67,883 rides given, nondrivers took the majority (69%) of rides. Medical rides were the most common, accounting for 40% of all rides. Reported ride usage suggests that older adults are willing to use such ride services for a variety of trips when these services are not limited to specific types (e.g., medical). Further research can help tailor strategies to encourage both nondrivers and drivers to make better use of alternative transportation that meets the special needs of older people.

  8. Comfort can Boost Productivity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Applying ergonomic principles in the workplace doesn't call for NASA scientists or a big budget. From setting the right temperature in the office to providing chairs with back support and lights that minimize eyestrain, CPA firms that attend to staff comfort and health are rewarded with greater productivity and job loyalty. There are basic principles to follow in setting up a work environment correctly.

  9. Disability, Riding, and Identity: A Qualitative Study on the Influence of Riding on the Identity Construction of People with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundquist Wanneberg, Pia

    2014-01-01

    Semi-structured face-to-face interviews were used to examine the influence of riding on the identity construction of people with disabilities. The 15 participants, three men and 12 women, were between 15 and 65 years old and have various physical disabilities. The data analysis derives from identity theory, a social-psychological theory that…

  10. The uncomfortable comfort zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Renato Zacharias

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Whenever we achieve the satisfaction of our expectations and anxiety dissolves, we feel as if we were in a comfort zone – safe, complete, free from risks and in peace with ourselves. We might even have a little taste of heaven when we feel that we have fulfilled our duty. And as a fact, scientists are entitled to this kind of reward… but not for too long! In science, to enter a comfort zone can be as pleasant as dangerous. On one hand we may have a safe ground available to develop new modes of reasoning, protocols and theories. And on the other, we may stay stuck in a conventional but fragile ground, missing opportunities to reveal novel secrets or to address edge issues. ... The community of HD researchers seems to have entered a new comfort zone when nanostructures were found in HD. Nanostructures have been raised to the level of ultimate evidence doing away with Avogadro’s limit and leading homeopathy and HD research into mainstream science. We really should enjoy this moment and collect more information about the HD phenomenon. However, we must be wary to not fall into a trap.

  11. Inclination to speeding and its correlates among two-wheeler riding Indian youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev J Michael

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Concerns about road safety have been increasingly associated with two-wheeler riding and especially with young commuters in India. Aims: The study was designed to explore inclination to speeding and to profile the driving behaviors in two-wheeler riding young men and women who reported a tendency to ride faster than their peers. Design: A cross-sectional survey design was used. Materials and Methods: On the basis of three focus group discussions and review of literature, a survey was prepared to tap domains such as affect states associated with riding/speeding, factors contributing to speeding, inclination for competing, perceived speed and safety, etc. The study sample comprised of 961 two-wheeler riding college-going young men and women in Bangalore. Statistical Analysis: Descriptive and inferential statistical procedures were used including Chi-square, Spearman′s rank correlation, and independent sample t-test. Results: The sample was divided into two subgroups on the basis of self-report of greater speeding than one′s peers. A subgroup of 349 participants endorsed the item regarding inclination to ride faster than one′s peers, whereas, the remaining 612 participants did not endorse it. The profiles of these two subgroups were obtained in terms of sociodemographic variables, riding behaviors, and associated domains. Significant differences between the subgroups emerged on domains such as motives for riding fast, tendency for competing, perceived safety and frequency of minor accidents while riding. Conclusions: Several correlates of the tendency to speeding among young two-wheeler riders emerged that have implications for enhancing safe riding.

  12. Acoustic comfort in eating establishments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, David; Jeong, Cheol-Ho; Brunskog, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    The subjective concept of acoustic comfort in eating establishments has been investigated in this study. The goal was to develop a predictive model for the acoustic comfort, by means of simple objective parameters, while also examining which other subjective acoustic parameters could help explain...... the feeling of acoustic comfort. Through several layers of anal ysis, acoustic comfort was found to be rather complex, and could not be explained entirely by common subjective parameters such as annoyance, intelligibility or privacy. A predictive model for the mean acoustic comfort for an eating establishment...

  13. Optimisation of active suspension control inputs for improved vehicle ride performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čorić, Mirko; Deur, Joško; Xu, Li; Tseng, H. Eric; Hrovat, Davor

    2016-07-01

    A collocation-type control variable optimisation method is used in the paper to analyse to which extent the fully active suspension (FAS) can improve the vehicle ride comfort while preserving the wheel holding ability. The method is first applied for a cosine-shaped bump road disturbance of different heights, and for both quarter-car and full 10 degree-of-freedom vehicle models. A nonlinear anti-wheel hop constraint is considered, and the influence of bump preview time period is analysed. The analysis is then extended to the case of square- or cosine-shaped pothole with different lengths, and the quarter-car model. In this case, the cost function is extended with FAS energy consumption and wheel damage resilience costs. The FAS action is found to be such to provide a wheel hop over the pothole, in order to avoid or minimise the damage at the pothole trailing edge. In the case of long pothole, when the FAS cannot provide the wheel hop, the wheel is travelling over the pothole bottom and then hops over the pothole trailing edge. The numerical optimisation results are accompanied by a simplified algebraic analysis.

  14. A parametric investigation of ride quality rating scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, T. K.; Coates, G. D.; Leatherwood, J. D.

    1976-01-01

    The relative merits of various category scales for the prediction of human discomfort response to vibration and the mathematical relationships that allow for transformations of subjective data from one scale to another scale were determined. A total of 16 category scales were studied and these represented various parametric combinations of polarity, scale type, and number of scalar points. Sixteen subject groups were used and each subject group evaluated its comfort/discomfort to vertical sinusoidal vibration using one of the rating scales. The passenger ride quality apparatus which can expose six subjects simultaneously to predetermined vibrations was utilized. The vibration stimuli were composed of repeats of selected sinusoidal frequencies applied at each of nine peak floor acceleration levels. A higher degree of reliability and discriminability was generally obtained from unipolar continuous type scales containing either seven or nine scalar points as opposed to the other scales investigated.

  15. Polynomial-time Approximation Algorithm for finding Highly Comfortable Team in any given Social Network

    OpenAIRE

    S, Lakshmi Prabha; Janakiraman, T. N.

    2014-01-01

    There are many indexes (measures or metrics) in Social Network Analysis (SNA), like density, cohesion, etc. In this paper, we define a new SNA index called "comfortability". One among the lack of many factors, which affect the effectiveness of a group, is "comfortability". So, comfortability is one of the important attributes (characteristics) for a successful team work. It is important to find a comfortable and successful team in any given social network. In this paper, comfortable team, bet...

  16. Analysis and Research on Comfort of Rehabilitation Robot Flexible Joints%康复机器人柔性关节舒适性分析与研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘莹; 张小栋

    2015-01-01

    The comfort of the rehabilitation robot flexible joints is essential to ensure the safe and stable operation of human-machine interaction, in this paper, analysis and research on the comfort design for rehabilitation robot flexible joint has carried out. The design principles of mechanical structure and requirements of the flexible joint are analyzed, and the man-machine contact pressure points are chosen from the perspective of physiology, and from the point of bionics to establish the exoskele-tons of flexible joint activities, at the same time comparative analysis is mainly focused on the exoskeleton of flexible joints drive systems, thus to form a set of perfect bionic design principle of flexible joint, and to lay a foundation for designing the flexible joints that are lightly and ingeniously structured, easy to wear, and smooth operated.%康复机器人柔性关节的舒适性对保障人机接触的安全稳定运行至关重要,针对康复机器人柔性关节舒适性设计进行了分析与研究。从拟人化的角度分析了柔性关节的机械结构设计原理与要求,从生理学角度选择人机压力接触承受点,从仿生学角度建立了外骨骼柔性关节活动范围,同时重点对比分析了外骨骼柔性关节驱动系统,形成了一套完善的柔性关节仿生设计原则,为设计结构轻巧、穿戴方便、操作柔顺的柔性关节奠定了基础。

  17. Activities, postures and comfort perception of train passengers as input for train seat design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groenesteijn, Liesbeth; Hiemstra-van Mastrigt, Suzanne; Gallais, Cedric; Blok, Merle; Kuijt-Evers, Lottie; Vink, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Working in the train is a part of new ways of working. However, the ideal working position is unknown. Moreover, the ideal position for leisure and relaxing is also unknown. This article defines what activities train passengers mainly perform and which corresponding postures are seen. Based on the observations on actual train rides, four main activities could be identified: Reading, Staring/sleeping, Talking and Working on laptop. Working on laptop was the activity with the longest duration and talking had the shortest duration. Associated with these four activities, a top eight of different postures were observed. Except for headrest comfort, comfort scores were not significantly different between activities. The top eight corresponding postures combined with comfort scores showed that per activity different postures were observed and the comfort scores varied in relation to the combination of posture and activity. Nearly for all activities, the majority of passengers preferred adjustability options to fit the seat to the performed activity.

  18. Riding the Metalloproteinase Roller Coaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Gillian

    2017-03-15

    To many of us in the field, working on Matrix Metalloproteinases (MMPs) has felt like riding a roller coaster, traveling through times of both excitement and despair. I was fortunate to join the ride when it was a mere carousel of three activities thought to target the proteins that comprise the extracellular matrix (ECM). New technologies brought the thrills of discovery, as we uncovered specific proteinase genes and defined specialised activities in different cellular processes. The MMPs and the sister families of 'A Disintegrin And Metalloproteinase' (ADAMs), ADAMs with ThromboSpondin domains (ADAM-TS) and Astacins are now recognised as key signalling 'scissors' that drive rapid changes in a plethora of cellular pathways. My many excellent colleagues and collaborators and I were enthused to contribute to the early development of the field and continue to be amazed at its growth and sophistication. In contrast, the hype and failure of early inhibitor discovery have dogged our standing with the pharmaceutical industry and grant giving bodies. However, the true believers have kept going, and knowledge of particular functions of MMPs and their contributions to disease progression has progressed. Recognition of the strategic importance of proteinase function should inspire more work harnessing new technologies such as imaging, proteomics and gene editing to generate a more precise understanding of individual situations. New approaches to inhibitor design and assessment are possible and the consequent ability to precisely abrogate specific MMP activity could contribute to the fight against a number of pathologies with unmet needs. What a ride it could be!

  19. An Analysis of Training Effects on School Personnel's Knowledge, Attitudes, Comfort, and Confidence Levels toward Educating Students about HIV/AIDS in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutschlander, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the training effects on school personnel's knowledge, attitudes, comfort, and confidence levels toward educating students about HIV/AIDS in Pennsylvania. The following four research questions were explored: (a) What is the knowledge, attitudes, confidence, and comfort levels of school personnel regarding…

  20. An Analysis of Training Effects on School Personnel's Knowledge, Attitudes, Comfort, and Confidence Levels toward Educating Students about HIV/AIDS in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutschlander, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the training effects on school personnel's knowledge, attitudes, comfort, and confidence levels toward educating students about HIV/AIDS in Pennsylvania. The following four research questions were explored: (a) What is the knowledge, attitudes, confidence, and comfort levels of school personnel regarding…

  1. Riding Gravity Away from Doomsday

    CERN Document Server

    Sen, Ashoke

    2015-01-01

    The discovery that most of the energy density in the universe is stored in the form of dark energy has profound consequences for our future. In particular our current limited understanding of quantum theory of gravity indicates that some time in the future our universe will undergo a phase transition that will destroy us and everything else around us instantaneously. However the laws of gravity also suggest a way out -- some of our descendants could survive this catastrophe by riding gravity away from the danger. In this essay I describe the tale of this escape from doomsday.

  2. Effect of chassis frame compliance on heavy truck ride quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ledesma, R.H. [Meritor Automotive, Inc., Troy, MI (United States)

    1998-12-31

    This paper presents the prediction of ride quality for a heavy truck through the use of time-domain (transient and steady-state) analysis within a multibody dynamics formulation. Two models of the heavy truck are developed. In the first model, the chassis is assumed to be infinitely rigid so that the multibody system consists only of rigid bodies that are interconnected through mechanical constraints or user-defined force elements. In the second model, the compliance of the chassis frame is considered in the formulation. This is done through the assumed modes method wherein the selected modes of chassis frame deformation are coupled with the nonlinear equations of motion associated with the large rigid body displacements of the spring and unsprung masses. The two vehicle models are validated by simulating a heavy truck traveling along a highway with vertical force inputs. Ride quality is then quantified through the root mean square (RMS) vertical acceleration of a specified critical location in the heavy truck. Comparison of the simulation results with test results indicate that chassis frame compliance plays an important role in predicting ride quality, especially when the natural frequency of the chassis frame is within the frequency range of the suspension modes. Design sensitivity studies are then conducted in order to determine which suspension design parameter has the most significant effect on the ride quality of the subject vehicle.

  3. 大跨径人行桥人致振动舒适度分析%Analysis for Comfort of Pedestrian-induced Vibration on Large-span Pedestrian Bridges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅科奇; 胡佐平; 王成树

    2015-01-01

    人行桥的主要荷载源于行人和非机动车,对于大跨径轻柔桥梁结构,在行人激励之下更容易发生大幅振动,引起舒适度问题。依托国内某大跨径人行提篮拱桥,参考国外人行桥设计指南,通过有限元时程分析方法,计算获得不同荷载激励下结构最大加速度响应时程曲线,进行行人振动舒适度评价。另外,针对不同模态设计相应的TMD减振系统,并进行减振效果分析。%Main loads of pedestrian bridges come from pedestrians and non-motor vehicles,and large-span soft bridge structures under motivation of pedestrians are more vulnerable to large vibration to cause comfort problem.Dependent on a domestic large-span pedestrian X-style arch bridge and by reference to foreign guide for design of pedestrian bridges, this paper calculates and obtains the maximum. acceleration response time-history curve of structures under motivation of different loads by means of finite element time -history analysis method to evaluate comfort under pedestrian vibration.in addition,the paper designs corresponding TMD vibration damping systems against different modes and analyzes damping effect.

  4. Thermal comfort assessment of buildings

    CERN Document Server

    Carlucci, Salvatore

    2013-01-01

    A number of metrics for assessing human thermal response to climatic conditions have been proposed in scientific literature over the last decades. They aim at describing human thermal perception of the thermal environment to which an individual or a group of people is exposed. More recently, a new type of “discomfort index” has been proposed for describing, in a synthetic way, long-term phenomena. Starting from a systematic review of a number of long-term global discomfort indices, they are then contrasted and compared on a reference case study in order to identify their similarities and differences and strengths and weaknesses. Based on this analysis, a new short-term local discomfort index is proposed for the American Adaptive comfort model. Finally, a new and reliable long-term general discomfort index is presented. It is delivered in three versions and each of them is suitable to be respectively coupled with the Fanger, the European Adaptive and the American Adaptive comfort models.

  5. Physiological comfort of biofunctional textiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Volkmar T

    2006-01-01

    Statistics show that the wear comfort is the most important property of clothing demanded by users and consumers. Hence, biofunctional textiles only have a high market potential, if they are comfortable. In this work it is shown how the thermophysiological and skin sensorial wear comfort of biofunctional textiles can be measured effectively by means of the Skin Model and skin sensorial test apparatus. From these measurements, wear comfort votes can be predicted, assessing a textile's wear comfort in practice. These wear comfort votes match exactly the subjective perceptions of test persons. As a result validated by wearer trials with human test subjects, biofunctional textiles can offer the same good wear comfort as classical, non-biofunctional materials. On the other hand, some of the biofunctional treatments lead to a perceivably poorer wear comfort. In particular, the skin sensorial comfort is negatively affected by hydrophobic, smooth (flat) surfaces that easily cling to sweat-wetted skin, or which tend to make textiles stiffer. As guidelines for the improvement of the thermophysiological or skin sensorial wear comfort, it is recommended to use hydrophilic treatments in a suitable concentration and spun yarns instead of filaments.

  6. Cardiorespiratory and neuromuscular responses to motocross riding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konttinen, Tomi; Kyröläinen, Heikki; Häkkinen, Keijo

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine physiological and neuromuscular responses during motocross riding at individual maximal speed together with the riding-induced changes in maximal isometric force production. Seven A-level (group A) and 5 hobby-class (group H) motocross-riders performed a 30-minute riding test on a motocross track and maximal muscle strength and oxygen uptake (VO2max) tests in a laboratory. During the riding the mean (+/-SD) VO2 reduced in group A from 86 +/- 10% to 69 +/- 6% of the maximum (P correlated with riding speed (r = 0.70, P sport that causes great physical stress and demands on both skill and physical capacity of the rider. Physical stress occurs as the result of handling of the bike when receiving continuous impacts in the situation requiring both aerobic and anaerobic metabolism. Our data suggest that both maximal capacity and strain during the ride should be measured to analyze the true physiological and neuromuscular demands of motocross ride. For the practice, this study strongly suggests to train not only aerobic and anaerobic capacity but also to use strength and power training for successful motocross riding.

  7. Geology Highlights for Ride the Rockies 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slate, Janet

    2009-01-01

    The author provides a brief description of the geology along the route for each day of the ride, from June 14 through June 19, 2009. Ride the Rockies begins and ends in Glenwood Springs, with stops in Hotchkiss, Gunnison, Salida, Leadville, Aspen, and back to Glenwood Springs, Colorado. A small, generalized geologic map also is shown.

  8. Geology highlights, Ride the Rockies 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slate, Janet L.

    2011-01-01

    The author provides a brief description of the geology along the route for each day of the ride, from June 12 through June 17, 2011. Ride the Rockies begins in Crested Butte, Colorado, with stops in Buena Vista, Edwards, Steamboat Springs, Granby, and Georgetown. A small, generalized geologic map also is shown.

  9. Geology highlights for Ride the Rockies 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slate, J.L.; Hess, Amber; Van Sistine, D.R.

    2010-01-01

    The author provides a brief description of the geology along the route for each day of the ride, from June 13 through June 19, 2010. Ride the Rockies begins in Grand Junction, with stops in Delta, Ouray, Durango, Pagosa Springs, Alamosa, and ends in Salida, Colorado. A small, generalized geologic map also is shown.

  10. Occupant thermal comfort evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiardi, Gena L.

    1999-03-01

    Throughout the automotive industry there has been an increasing concern and focus on the thermal comfort of occupants. Manufacturers are continuously striving to improve heating and air conditioning performance to comply with expanding customer needs. To optimize these systems, the technology to acquire data must also be enhanced. In this evaluation, the standard use of isolated thermocouple location technology is compared to utilizing infrared thermal vision in an air conditioning performance assessment. Infrared data on an actual occupant is correlated to breath and air conditioning output temperatures measured by positioned thermocouples. The use of infrared thermal vision highlights various areas of comfort and discomfort experienced by the occupant. The evaluation involves utilizing an infrared thermal vision camera to film an occupant in the vehicle as the following test procedure is run. The vehicle is soaked in full sun load until the interior temperature reaches a minimum of 150 degrees F (65.6 degrees Celsius). The occupant enters the vehicle and takes an initial temperature reading. The air conditioning is turned on to full cold, full fan speed, and recirculation mode. While being filmed, the driver drives for sixty minutes at 30 miles per hour (48.3 kph). The thermocouples acquire data in one minute intervals while the infrared camera films the cooling process of the occupant.

  11. The Theory of Dynamic Public Transit Priority with Dynamic Stochastic Park and Ride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengming Zhu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Public transit priority is very important for relieving traffic congestion. The connotation of dynamic public transit priority and dynamic stochastic park and ride is presented. Based on the point that the travel cost of public transit is not higher than the travel cost of car, how to determine the level of dynamic public transit priority is discussed. The traffic organization method of dynamic public transit priority is introduced. For dynamic stochastic park and ride, layout principle, scale, and charging standard are discussed. Traveler acceptability is high through the analysis of questionnaire survey. Dynamic public transit priority with dynamic stochastic park and ride has application feasibility.

  12. Capability of DFIG WTS to ride through recurring asymmetrical grid faults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Wenjie; Blaabjerg, Frede; Chen, Min;

    2014-01-01

    The Wind Turbine Systems (WTS) are required to ride through recurring grid faults in some countries. In this paper, the capability of Doubly Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) WTS to ride through recurring asymmetrical grid faults is evaluated and compared with the ride through capability under single...... asymmetrical grid fault. A mathematical model of the DFIG under recurring asymmetrical grid faults is represented. The analysis are verified by simulations on a 1.5MW DFIG model and by experiments on a reduced-scale DFIG test system....

  13. Comfort model for automobile seat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Lizandra da; Bortolotti, Silvana Ligia Vincenzi; Campos, Izabel Carolina Martins; Merino, Eugenio Andrés Díaz

    2012-01-01

    Comfort on automobile seats is lived daily by thousands of drivers. Epistemologically, comfort can be understood under the theory of complexity, since it emerges from a chain of interrelationships between man and several elements of the system. This interaction process can engender extreme comfort associated to the feeling of pleasure and wellbeing or, on the other hand, lead to discomfort, normally followed by pain. This article has for purpose the development of a theoretical model that favours the comfort feature on automobile seats through the identification of its facets and indicators. For such, a theoretical study is resorted to, allowing the mapping of elements that constitute the model. The results present a comfort model on automobile seats that contemplates the (physical, psychological, object, context and environment) facets. This model is expected to contribute with the automobile industry for the development of improvements of the ergonomic project of seats to increase the comfort noticed by the users.

  14. Energy saving or comfort?; Energieeinsparung contra Behaglichkeit?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erlewein, C. (comp.)

    2007-07-01

    Energy saving versus summer thermal comfort? - A series of German verdicts concerning inadequate summer thermal comfort in commercial buildings has raised serious questions concerning the existing national building code's, claim to thermal comfort and sustainable building design. In this context the German Federal Office of Building and Regional Planning placed a contract to a working group of the University of Wuppertal and the Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems to investigate the framework, the legal situation, the physical possibilities and economic aspects. The study undertaken is based on (a) detailed analysis of the operative temperatures, mainly measured in a number of new, energy efficient office buildings applying various measures of passive cooling and (b) dynamic building simulations. To express the comfort expectations a set of national, European and international comfort standards were applied to the measured data and simulation results. This includes the new approaches with the definition of comfort classes as included in the draft prEN15251, the Dutch ISSO-74 and the ASHRAE-55. Both, the measured data and simulations results underline, that the application of passive cooling measures such as efficient solar shading devices, solar control glass, activated thermal mass, night ventilation, earth-to-air heat exchanger, etc. result in suitable operative temperatures under a normal German summer climate. Taking the extreme summer conditions of 2003 as characteristic for a global warming scenario, comparable comfort can not be ensured: Rising ambient temperatures decrease the cooling potential of night ventilation, longer hot periods exceed the building's thermal storage capacity. Based on simulations it was found, that the demands set by the current German building code DIN 4108-2 do not ensure thermal comfort in free running indoor environments as generally expected by tenants, even in normal summers. Therefore modifications are

  15. Laser beam riding guided system principle and design research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Zhou; Jin, Yi; Xu, Zhou; Xing, Hao

    2016-01-01

    With the development of science and technology, precision-strike weapons has been considered to be important for winning victory in military field. Laser guidance is a major method to execute precision-strike in modern warfare. At present, the problems of primary stage of Laser guidance has been solved with endeavors of countries. Several technical aspects of laser-beam riding guided system have been mature, such as atmosphere penetration of laser beam, clutter inhibition on ground, laser irradiator, encoding and decoding of laser beam. Further, laser beam quality, equal output power and atmospheric transmission properties are qualified for warfare situation. Riding guidance instrument is a crucial element of Laser-beam riding guided system, and is also a vital element of airborne, vehicle-mounted and individual weapon. The optical system mainly consist of sighting module and laser-beam guided module. Photoelectric detector is the most important sensing device of seeker, and also the key to acquire the coordinate information of target space. Currently, in consideration of the 1.06 u m of wavelength applied in all the semi-active laser guided weapons systems, lithium drifting silicon photodiode which is sensitive to 1.06 u m of wavelength is used in photoelectric detector. Compared to Solid and gas laser, diode laser has many merits such as small volume, simple construction, light weight, long life, low lost and easy modulation. This article introduced the composition and operating principle of Laser-beam riding guided system based on 980 nm diode laser, and made a analysis of key technology; for instance, laser irradiator, modulating disk of component, laser zooming system. Through the use of laser diode, Laser-beam riding guided system is likely to have smaller shape and very light.

  16. Aircraft passenger comfort experience: underlying factors and differentiation from discomfort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadpour, Naseem; Robert, Jean-Marc; Lindgaard, Gitte

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies defined passengers' comfort based on their concerns during the flight and a set of eight experiential factors such as 'peace of mind', 'physical wellbeing', 'pleasure', etc. One Objective of this paper was to determine whether the factors underlying the passengers' experience of comfort differ from those of discomfort. Another objective was to cross-validate those factors. In the first study, respondents provided written reports of flight comfort and discomfort experiences separately and gave ratings on the impact of the eight factors on each experience. Follow up interviews were also conducted. Significant difference was found between comfort and discomfort ratings for two factors of 'pleasure', denoted by one's concern for stimulation, ambience and exceeded expectations, and 'physical wellbeing' characterized in terms of bodily support and energy. However, there were no significant differences between the comfort and discomfort ratings on the other six factors. The evidence does not support the proposition that passenger comfort and discomfort are underline by different sets of factors. It is therefore suggested that the evaluation of overall passenger comfort experience, as a whole, employ one spectrum ranging from extreme comfort to discomfort. In study two, a pool of comfort descriptors was collected. Those that were less relevant to passenger comfort were eliminated in a number of steps. Factor analysis was used to classify the remaining descriptors, using respondents' ratings on their potential impact on passenger comfort. Seven factors corresponded to the pre-determined passenger comfort factors from previous research, validating those with an exception of 'proxemics' (concerning one's privacy and control over their situation) but it was argued that this is due to the nature of the factor itself, which is context dependent and generally perceived unconsciously.

  17. Hoof Comfort for Horses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Aquila Equine Enhancement Products, Inc., of Woburn, Massachusetts, developed magnetic hoof protector pads, called "Power Pads," which support and cushion the impact on a horse's hooves and legs to provide comfort and protection against injuries. The pads were tested by Marshall Space Flight Center's Materials and Processing Laboratory for strength and durability. Putting the pads on a horse does not interfere with its natural movement or flexibility and can be compared to a person changing into athletic shoes for a sporting event. The pads are cut to the appropriate size, and then mounted onto a horse's hooves using conventional shoeing methods. Once attached, the pads protect the hard and soft parts of the hoof by cushioning blows against the hard ground. The design also protects the vulnerable "heel" of the hoof. They are a cost-effective way to protect a horse's hooves since they can be reused.

  18. Honeywell: Comfort and economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukaszewski, J.

    1995-12-31

    The presentation of the Company starts with having it ranked among the ones operating on the customers` market or those acting on the professional market. But it is not so. Honeywell is beyond such simple criteria. We are a company supplying products, systems and services related with generally conceived automatic control engineering, yet the operational range does comprise so many apparently diversified fields, for instance automatic control in aeronautics, heavy power engineering, building of apartment buildings, detached houses, heat engineering and some others. Nevertheless, our targets are always the same: maximum increase in efficiency and reliability of the process lines controlled by our systems as well as securing the best comfort of work and rest for people who stay in the buildings controlled by our devices. Simultaneously, the utilization of energy sources and the natural environment resources must be as sensible as possible.

  19. Cyclist's nodule: no smooth ride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoneham, Adam; Thway, Khin; Messiou, Christina; Smith, Myles

    2016-03-10

    A fit and active amateur cyclist was referred by his general practitioner to a surgical oncology outpatient clinic with a slowly-growing perineal mass. Following clinical examination, the patient underwent imaging and biopsy at a tertiary soft tissue tumour centre, which diagnosed perineal nodular induration: a rare, benign tumour caused by repetitive trauma associated with 'saddle sports' such as cycling or horse riding. It is important to consider soft tissue tumours in patients who present with 'lumps and bumps'; they can occur anywhere in the body including the groin or perineum, where it is sometimes referred to as a 'third' or 'accessory' testicle in men. Although unusual, the case emphasises the importance of rapid specialist referral from primary care, and consideration of a patient's occupation and hobbies when formulating diagnoses.

  20. Simulation and Experimental Study on Vehicle Ride Comfort Based on Topological Structure Analysis%基于拓扑结构分析的整车平顺性仿真及试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    楼少敏; 许沧粟

    2007-01-01

    利用拓扑理论,对某国产轿车的整车拓扑结构进行分析,系统分析前后悬架子系统拓扑结构、转向子系统拓扑结构和动力总成拓扑结构并建立相应模型,结合Fiala轮胎模型和人椅系统模型,在ADAMS环境下建立了整车的虚拟样机,并编制随机的B级路面模型,研究在路面随机输入条件下该车的行驶平顺性.最后将该车道路试验结果与仿真结果进行对比,结果显示驾驶员座椅处垂向加速度功率谱的峰值所对应的频率一致,峰值大小略有差别,而垂向加速度功率谱变化趋势相同.

  1. A Study on the Analysis Method of the Off-road Ride Comfort of High Mobility Vehicle%高机动性车辆越野平顺性分析方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈欣; 祁涛; 李栓成; 蒋美华; 李华

    2008-01-01

    针对具有独立悬架的8×8重型车辆,建立了多轴车辆的平顺性模型,提出了车辆通过随机路面和半圆障碍时动力学响应的分析和评价方法.探讨了越野平顺性与机动性的关系,并结合某具体车型研究了车辆结构参数对整车越野平顺性及机动性的影响.

  2. Analysis of Train Suspension System Using MR dampers

    Science.gov (United States)

    RamaSastry, DVA; Ramana, K. V.; Mohan Rao, N.; Siva Kumar, SVR; Priyanka, T. G. L.

    2016-09-01

    This paper deals with introducing MR dampers to the Train Suspension System for improving the ride comfort of the passengers. This type of suspension system comes under Semi-active suspension system which utilizes the properties of MR fluid to damp the vibrations. In case of high speed trains, the coach body is subjected to vibrations due to vertical displacement, yaw and pitch movements. When the body receives these disturbances from the ground,the transmission of vibrations to the passenger increases which affect the ride comfort. In this work, the equations of motion of suspension system are developed for both conventional passive system and semi-active system and are modelled in Matlab/Simulink and analysis has been carried out. The passive suspension system analysis shows that it is taking more time to damp the vibrations and at the same time the transmissibility of vibrations is more.Introducing MR dampers,vertical and angular displacements of the body are computed and compared. The results show that the introduction of MR dampers into the train suspension system improves ride comfort.

  3. Moral judgments in social dilemmas: How bad is free riding?

    OpenAIRE

    Robin P. Cubitt; Drouvelis, Michalis; Gaechter, Simon; Kabalin, Ruslan

    2010-01-01

    In the last thirty years, economists and other social scientists have investigated people’s normative views on distributive justice. Here we study people’s normative views in social dilemmas, which underlie many situations of economic and social significance. Using insights from moral philosophy and psychology we provide an analysis of the morality of free riding. We use experimental survey methods to investigate people’s moral judgments empirically. We vary others’ contributions, the framing...

  4. ReRide: Performing Lower Back Rehabilitation While Riding Your Motorbike in Traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagalkot, Naveen; Sokoler, Tomas; Baadkar, Suraj

    2016-01-01

    What if a person with lower back problem could perform prescribed exercises while riding a motorbike in city traffic? In this paper we present our ReRide design experiment. The ReRide interactive sketch uses a belt with embedded flex sensor to obtain back posture data, and a microprocessor...... controlled mechanically moving display mounted on top of the bike's speedometer that alters the visibility of the speedometer to the rider indicating the correctness of back posture. Informed by embodied perception, the ReRide design emphasizes a rapid coupling between adjusting your back posture...

  5. Regional Park-n-Ride Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Southwestern Pennsylvania Commission maintains an inventory of the region’s park-n-ride facilities that contains detailed information for each of the more than...

  6. 深圳北站东西广场联系人行天桥舒适度分析%Vibration Comfort Analysis on the Pedestrian Bridge between East Plaza and West Plaza of Shenzhen North Railway Station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴兵; 傅学怡; 曲家新

    2012-01-01

    该广场联系人行天桥位于深圳火车北站站房北侧,联系北站东、西广场.本文针对联系人行天桥大跨度桥面的振动舒适度问题,建立天桥的整体有限元模型,以IABSE建议的单人步行激励为基础,人行步频1.6Hz~ 2.4Hz之间,考虑行人起步相位随机分布,通过多点输入时程分析方法求得结构的加速度响应.据此,对该天桥进行了人行走舒适度分析,并参考ATC给出了天桥的人行舒适度性能水准.分析研究表明,该天桥具有适宜的人行舒适度,结构设计对结构响应较大处进行了针对性的加强,可更有效地提高舒适度.所采用的计算分析方法及天桥人行舒适度性能水准对同类型大跨天桥结构设计具有一定的参考价值.%The pedestrian bridge between east plaza and west plaza lies in the north of Shenzhen North Railway Station. A finite element model of a large-span bridge is established to study the problem about vibration comfort of large-span bridge. Based on the single walking force of IABSE (International Association of Bridge and Structural Engineer) and the walking frequency of 1.6Hz ~ 2.4Hz, a method is proposed to get the acceleration response of structure considering the random distribution of crowd initial phase angle. Then the vibration comfort of the bridge is analyzed by a multi-support excitation and time history analysis method. The comfort performance level is given according to ATC ( Applied Technology Council). The results show that the bridge has right comfort. Some structural position of maximum response under the crowd-induced loads are strengthened to increase the comfort. The calculating method and comfort performance level could be referred by the vibration comfort analysis of the same kind of large-span bridge structure design.

  7. Ride quality systems for commuter aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downing, D. R.; Hammond, T. A.; Amin, S. P.

    1983-01-01

    The state-of-the-art in Active Ride Augmentation, specifically in terms of its feasibility for commuter aircraft applications. A literature survey was done, and the principal results are presented here through discussion of different Ride Quality Augmentation System (RQAS) designs and advances in related technologies. Recommended follow-on research areas are discussed, and a preliminary RQAS configuration for detailed design and development is proposed.

  8. Radiative inflation and dark energy RIDEs again after BICEP2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bari, Pasquale Di; King, Stephen F.; Merle, Alexander [Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Highfield Campus, Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Luhn, Christoph [Theoretische Physik 1, Naturwissenschaftlich-Technische Fakultät, Universität Siegen, Walter-Flex-Straße 3, Siegen, D-57068 (Germany); Schmidt-May, Angnis, E-mail: P.Di-Bari@soton.ac.uk, E-mail: S.F.King@soton.ac.uk, E-mail: Christoph.Luhn@uni-siegen.de, E-mail: A.Merle@soton.ac.uk, E-mail: Angnis.Schmidt-May@fysik.su.se [Department of Physics and The Oskar Klein Centre, Stockholm University, AlbaNova University Centre, Stockholm, SE-106 91 (Sweden)

    2014-08-01

    Following the ground-breaking measurement of the tensor-to-scalar ratio r=0.20{sup +0.07}{sub -0.05} by the BICEP2 collaboration, we perform a statistical analysis of a model that combines Radiative Inflation with Dark Energy (RIDE) based on the M{sup 2}|Φ|{sup 2}ln(|Φ|{sup 2}/Λ{sup 2}) potential and compare its predictions to those based on the traditional chaotic inflation M{sup 2}|Φ|{sup 2} potential. We find a best-fit value in the RIDE model of r=0.18 as compared to r=0.17 in the chaotic model, with the spectral index being n{sub S}=0.96 in both models.

  9. Automobile ride quality experiments correlated to iso-weighted criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, A. J.; Young, R. K.; Smith, C. C.

    1975-01-01

    As part of an overall study to evaluate the usefulness of ride quality criteria for the design of improved ground transportation systems an experiment was conducted involving subjective and objective measurement of ride vibrations found in an automobile riding over roadways of various roughness. Correlation of the results led to some very significant relationships between passenger rating and ride accelerations. The latter were collapsed using a frequency-weighted root mean square measure of the random vibration. The results suggest the form of a design criterion giving the relationship between ride vibration and acceptable automobile ride quality. Further the ride criterion is expressed in terms that relate to rides with which most people are familiar. The design of the experiment, the ride vibration data acquisition, the concept of frequency weighting and the correlations found between subjective and objective measurements are presented.

  10. Riding Standards. The Policies and Operating Procedures of the National Riding Committee 1973-74.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Paul D., Ed.

    This booklet details the policies and rating procedures of the National Riding Committee. Chapters are devoted to the rating of riders with oral and written tests, the appointment of judges, types of certificates issued, rated rider examination requirements (forward riding section and western section), job placement, and advertising policy and…

  11. Roadway deformation during riding mining in soft rock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Guozhen; Ma Zhanguo; Zhu Qinghua; Mao Xianbiao; Feng Meimei

    2012-01-01

    "Riding mining" is a form of mining where the working face is located above the roadway and advances parallel to it.Riding mining in deep soft rock creates a particular set of problems in the roadway that include high stresses,large deformations,and support difficulties.Herein we describe a study of the rock deformation mechanism of a roadway as observed during riding mining in deep soft rock.Theoretical analysis,numerical simulations,and on site monitoring were used to examine this problem.The stress in the rock and the visco-elastic behavior of the rock are considered.Real time data,recorded over a period of 240 days,were taken from a 750 transportation roadway.Stress distributions in the rock surrounding the roadway were studied by comparing simulations to observations from the mine.The rock stress shows dynamic behavior as the working face advances.The pressure increases and then drops after peaking as the face advances.Both elastic and plastic deformation of the surrounding rock occurs.Plastic deformation provides a mechanism by which stress in the rock relaxes due to material flow.A way to rehabilitate the roadway is suggested that will help ensure mine safety.

  12. Harvesting energy from the counterbalancing (weaving) movement in bicycle riding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yoonseok; Yeo, Jeongjin; Priya, Shashank

    2012-01-01

    Bicycles are known to be rich source of kinetic energy, some of which is available for harvesting during speedy and balanced maneuvers by the user. A conventional dynamo attached to the rim can generate a large amount of output power at an expense of extra energy input from the user. However, when applying energy conversion technology to human powered equipments, it is important to minimize the increase in extra muscular activity and to maximize the efficiency of human movements. This study proposes a novel energy harvesting methodology that utilizes lateral oscillation of bicycle frame (weaving) caused by user weight shifting movements in order to increase the pedaling force in uphill riding or during quick speed-up. Based on the 3D motion analysis, we designed and implemented the prototype of an electro-dynamic energy harvester that can be mounted on the bicycle's handlebar to collect energy from the side-to-side movement. The harvester was found to generate substantial electric output power of 6.6 mW from normal road riding. It was able to generate power even during uphill riding which has never been shown with other approaches. Moreover, harvesting of energy from weaving motion seems to increase the economy of cycling by helping efficient usage of human power.

  13. Harvesting Energy from the Counterbalancing (Weaving Movement in Bicycle Riding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashank Priya

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Bicycles are known to be rich source of kinetic energy, some of which is available for harvesting during speedy and balanced maneuvers by the user. A conventional dynamo attached to the rim can generate a large amount of output power at an expense of extra energy input from the user. However, when applying energy conversion technology to human powered equipments, it is important to minimize the increase in extra muscular activity and to maximize the efficiency of human movements. This study proposes a novel energy harvesting methodology that utilizes lateral oscillation of bicycle frame (weaving caused by user weight shifting movements in order to increase the pedaling force in uphill riding or during quick speed-up. Based on the 3D motion analysis, we designed and implemented the prototype of an electro-dynamic energy harvester that can be mounted on the bicycle’s handlebar to collect energy from the side-to-side movement. The harvester was found to generate substantial electric output power of 6.6 mW from normal road riding. It was able to generate power even during uphill riding which has never been shown with other approaches. Moreover, harvesting of energy from weaving motion seems to increase the economy of cycling by helping efficient usage of human power.

  14. Averting comfortable lifestyle crises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilton, Rod

    2013-01-01

    : alternative non-sugar sweeteners; toxic side-effects of aspartame. Stevia and xylitol as healthy sugar replacements; the role of food processing in dietary health; and beneficial effects of resistant starch in natural and processed foods. The rise of maize and soya-based vegetable oils have led to omega-6 fat overload and imbalance in the dietary ratio of omega-3 to omega-6 fats. This has led to toxicity studies with industrial trans fats; investigations on health risks associated with stress and comfort eating; and abdominal obesity. Other factors to consider are: diet, cholesterol and oxidative stress, as well as the new approaches to the chronology of eating and the health benefits of intermittent fasting.

  15. Religiosity as a source of comfort and struggle in members of religious movements: a comparative analysis of the Neocatechumenal Way and the Catholic Charismatic Renewal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarzycka Beata

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to examine various aspects of religiosity in members of the Neocatechumenal Way and the Catholic Charismatic Renewal. First, we assigned intergroup differences in Emotions toward God, Religious Comfort and Strain and Religious Attributions. Next, we estimated the net effects of Emotions toward God, Religious Comfort and Strain and Religious Attributions on religiosity. One hundred fifty–five people participated in the research, 81 members of the Catholic Charismatic Renewal and 74 members of the Neocatechumenal Way. We applied the Religious Comfort and Strain Scale by Yali, Exline, Wood, and Worthington, the Emotions toward God Scale by Huber and the Religious Attributions Scale by Exline, Park, Smyth and Carey. The results suggest that members of the Neocatechumenal Way do not differ from the Catholic Charismatic Renewal’s members in Religious Comfort and Positive Emotions toward God. However, the members of the Neocatechumenal Way scored higher in Religious Strain. A moderating effect of the religious movement on the relation between Fear of God and religiosity was observed.

  16. 军队疗养院实施舒适护理的 SWOT 分析%SWOT Analysis of Carrying out Comfortable Nursing in Military Convalescent Hospitals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李鹭; 谭春红; 李丽; 王俊

    2016-01-01

    运用 SWOT 分析法,对军队疗养院实施舒适护理的内部环境、外部条件进行系统的分析。内部环境的优势是符合自身的发展规律,有领导的高度重视、完备的制度规范、优秀的护士长队伍,劣势是软硬件环境的制约、年轻护士的不稳定性、新学科新业务的不适应;外部条件的机遇是顺应军队改革发展的方向、满足养生保健的社会需求、有成功的经验可借鉴,威胁是疗养员期望值不断提高、社会人才的趋利性流动、缺乏客观量化的评判标准。阐述必须通过定指南抓落实,充分顺应时代需求而发展;搭平台聚人心,积极营造干事创业的环境;改理念求创新,持续提升疗养护理的品质;重人文做精细,不断满足疗养保障的需求等措施;促进舒适护理在军队疗养院的落实,进而提升疗养护理的品质。%This paper, through SWOT analytic method, makes a systematic analysis of the internal and ex -ternal conditions in carrying out comfortable nursing in military convalescent hospitals .The advantages in the inter-nal environment include consistency with regular law of self -development of convalescent hospitals , leaders’suffi-cient attention, complete rules and regulations and a team of outstanding nurses , while the disadvantages are re -stricted software and hardware, instability of young nurses, inadaptability to new science and profession .As for the external conditions, there are favorable opportunities, including consistency with the trend of the military reform and development, meeting the social demand for healthcare , and successful experiences for reference , while the unfavorable conditions are increasingly high expectations from the recuperating personnel , tendency flow of social talents, and lack of quantized objective judging criteria .This paper also suggests that comfortable nursing work be put into effect and the quality of nursing work be

  17. Fault Ride Though Control of Photovoltaic Grid-connected Inverter with Current-limited Capability under Offshore Unbalanced Voltage Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Wenzhao; Guo, Xiaoqiang; Savaghebi, Mehdi;

    2016-01-01

    of the excessive current phenomenon with the conventional fault ride through control is discussed. The quantitative analysis of the current peak value is conducted and a new current-limiting control strategy is proposed to achieve the flexible power control and successful fault ride through in a safe current......The photovoltaic (PV) inverter installed on board experiences the excessive current stress in case of the offshore unbalanced voltage fault ride through (FRT), which significantly affects the operation reliability of the power supply system. In order to solve the problem, the inherent mechanism...

  18. Stable Matching for Dynamic Ride-sharing Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    X. Wang (Xing); N.A.H. Agatz (Niels); A. Erera (Alan)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractDynamic ride-sharing systems enable people to share rides and increase the efficiency of urban transportation by connecting riders and drivers on short notice. Automated systems that establish ride-share matches with minimal input from participants provide the most convenience and the mo

  19. 77 FR 39208 - Information Collection: Ride-Along Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-02

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Information Collection: Ride-Along Program AGENCY: Forest Service... information collection associated with the Ride- Along Program application, a program which allows any private citizen to apply to ride along with Forest Service law enforcement officers. DATES: Comments must...

  20. Using Video Feedback to Improve Horseback-Riding Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Heather; Miltenberger, Raymond G.

    2016-01-01

    This study used video feedback to improve the horseback-riding skills of advanced beginning riders. We focused on 3 skill sets: those used in jumping over obstacles, dressage riding on the flat, and jumping position riding on the flat. Baseline consisted of standard lesson procedures. Intervention consisted of video feedback in which a recorded…

  1. SEMI-ACTIVE SUSPENSION SYSTEM DESIGN FOR QUARTER CAR MODEL AND ITS ANALYSIS WITH PASSIVE SUSPENSION MODEL

    OpenAIRE

    Vinayak S. Dixit*, Sachin C. Borse

    2017-01-01

    The three main objectives that a suspension system of an automobile must satisfy are ride comfort, vehicle handling and suspension working space. Ride comfort is directly related to the vehicle acceleration experienced by the driver and the passengers. Lesser vertical acceleration, higher is the level of comfort. The aim of the Project was to design and analyze the semi active suspension system models using skyhook, ground hook and hybrid control for quarter car. The project work includes mod...

  2. Static and Dynamic Sensory Comfort of Knit Underwear

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Xiang-ling; FANG Fang; ZHANG Wei-yuan

    2006-01-01

    In this paper relationships have been investigated between overall comfort estimate and five main factors on nine knit underwear at (29±2)℃ and relative humidity, (85±2)% .The values of thermal and moisture comfort rise obviously,yet the values of roughness, softness and tightness are near the static values after finishing movement. The analysis shows that the overall estimation has the negative correlation with the thermal and moisture comfort and the positive correlation with the roughness and softness under static state. After movement the effects on overall estimate of thermal and moisture increase. Oppositely, the effects of roughness and softness decrease. Overall estimation has positive correlation with tightness at static. But it has no evident effect on overall comfort after movement and 5-minute-rest according to this experiment. The relationships between tightness and thermal, moisture, roughness,softness were also discussed in this paper.

  3. Importance of thermal comfort for library building in Kuching, Sarawak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.H. Ibrahim, A. Baharun, M.D. Abdul Mannan, D.A. Abang Adenan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaysian Government takes an initiative to provide library in housing areas to improve the quality of human capital. However, the government has to evaluate every aspect of their provision to ensure the services provided meet the demands of the users, including the aspect of thermal comfort in the building. For this study, a library constructed using Industrialised Building System (IBS are selected for thermal comfort evaluation. The data were analyzed using Corrected Effective Temperature (CET index. From the data analysis, it shows that thermal comfort in the library could not be achieved most of the time unless when the mechanical cooling is used. A series of technical design improvements are then recommended to improve the thermal comfort inside the library by incorporating construction details without increasing the cost.

  4. Importance of thermal comfort for library building in Kuching, Sarawak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibrahim, S.H.; Baharun, A.; Abdul Mannan, M.D.; Abang Adenan, D.A. [Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University Malaysia Sarawak (UNIMAS), 94300 Kota Samarahan, Sarawak (Malaysia)

    2013-07-01

    Malaysian Government takes an initiative to provide library in housing areas to improve the quality of human capital. However, the government has to evaluate every aspect of their provision to ensure the services provided meet the demands of the users, including the aspect of thermal comfort in the building. For this study, a library constructed using Industrialised Building System (IBS) are selected for thermal comfort evaluation. The data were analyzed using Corrected Effective Temperature (CET) index. From the data analysis, it shows that thermal comfort in the library could not be achieved most of the time unless when the mechanical cooling is used. A series of technical design improvements are then recommended to improve the thermal comfort inside the library by incorporating construction details without increasing the cost.

  5. Riding Third: Social Work in Ambulance Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Hilary; Rasmussen, Brian

    2012-01-01

    This research explored the possible role of social work alongside emergency ambulance services. An ethnographic study included semistructured interviews and direct observations collected over 300 hours while riding in ambulances in an urban setting. The data suggest that social work could play a role by providing needed psychosocial care during…

  6. Sustainable Passenger Transportation: Dynamic Ride-Sharing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.A.H. Agatz (Niels); A. Erera (Alan); M.W.P. Savelsbergh (Martin); X. Wang (Xing)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractRide-share systems, which aim to bring together travelers with similar itineraries and time schedules, may provide significant societal and environmental benefits by reducing the number of cars used for personal travel and improving the utilization of available seat capacity. Effective a

  7. Stay Safe Riding Bikes or Skating Outside

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-02-02

    In this podcast for kids, the Kidtastics talk about safety when outside, riding bikes or skating.  Created: 2/2/2011 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 2/2/2011.

  8. Riding Third: Social Work in Ambulance Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Hilary; Rasmussen, Brian

    2012-01-01

    This research explored the possible role of social work alongside emergency ambulance services. An ethnographic study included semistructured interviews and direct observations collected over 300 hours while riding in ambulances in an urban setting. The data suggest that social work could play a role by providing needed psychosocial care during…

  9. Floor heating maximizes residents` comfort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tirkkanen, P.; Wikstroem, T.

    1996-11-01

    Storing heat in floors by using economical night-time electricity does not increase the specific consumption of heating. According to studies done by IVO, the optimum housing comfort is achieved if the room is heated mainly by means of floor heating that is evened out by window or ceiling heating, or by a combination of all three forms of heating. (orig.)

  10. Beyond Comfort in Built Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bazley, C.M.

    2015-01-01

    Every person on the planet lives a significant portion of his or her life in a built indoor environment. Ideally, the built environment serves as protection from the extremes of the outdoor environment and is preferably comfortable. The first ‘built environment’ was a painted cave. The cave served a

  11. Beyond Comfort in Built Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bazley, C.M.

    2015-01-01

    Every person on the planet lives a significant portion of his or her life in a built indoor environment. Ideally, the built environment serves as protection from the extremes of the outdoor environment and is preferably comfortable. The first ‘built environment’ was a painted cave. The cave served a

  12. Floor heating maximizes residents` comfort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tirkkanen, P.; Wikstroem, T.

    1996-11-01

    Storing heat in floors by using economical night-time electricity does not increase the specific consumption of heating. According to studies done by IVO, the optimum housing comfort is achieved if the room is heated mainly by means of floor heating that is evened out by window or ceiling heating, or by a combination of all three forms of heating. (orig.)

  13. The effects of aircraft design on STOL ride quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C. R.; Jacobson, I. D.

    1975-01-01

    Effects of aircraft dynamic characteristics on passenger ride quality are investigated to determine ride-quality isocontours similar to aircraft handling-qualities contours. Measurements are made on a moving-base simulator while varying the aircraft short-period and Dutch Roll frequencies and dampings. Both pilot ratings and subjective ride-quality ratings are obtained during flight. Ride and handling qualities were found to be complementary for the Dutch Roll mode, but not for the short-period mode. Regions of optimal ride and handling qualities are defined for the short-period mode, and the effects of turbulence levels studied.

  14. [Riding therapy in the rehabilitation of mobility-impaired children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäenpää, Helena; Kela, Katri; Sätilä, Heli

    2016-01-01

    Riding therapy is a comprehensive and functional form of rehabilitation, in which the rehabilitee, the horse and the riding therapist collaborate in order to achieve individually assigned goals that support rehabilitation. In Finland, riding therapy is therapeutic rehabilitation carried out by riding therapists who have undergone approved training. The therapy is mainly implemented in an individual form, but small group working is also applied, e.g. in the form of pair therapy and therapeutic vaulting. In Europe, this form of rehabilitation has been divided into hippotherapy supporting motor functions and heilpedagogical riding therapy functioning in support of upbringing.

  15. The Comfortable Home and Energy Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Line Valdorff

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates relations between notions of comfort and notions of home, aiming at a better understanding of residential comfort and the related energy consumption. Residential comfort is examined through a practice-theoretical lens and as something that appears in between the social...... concludes that the notion of home is central in understanding comfort and energy consumption in dwellings, as conceptions of comfort and home are intertwined but also carry different meanings. The different rooms of a house relate differently to the notions of home and comfort, which has implications...... for how energy is consumed within the home....

  16. The directors’ roles in containing the Robben Island Diversity Experience (RIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frans Cilliers

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Robben Island represents past denigration and present day liberation. The researchers report on their experiences of containing the learning, consciously and unconsciously, in the Robben Island Diversity Experience.Research purpose: The purpose of the research was to describe the experiences of the directors of RIDE in the last 10 years.Motivation for the study: Of the many and different diversity events that South African organisations present, RIDE is the only systems psycho-dynamically designed and presented event. This research was an effort to explore the nature of the directors’ roles in working with unconscious diversity dynamics in such a provocative venue.Research design, approach and method: The researchers conducted qualitative, descriptive and double hermeneutic research. The various RIDE events served as case studies. The data consisted of researcher field notes collected during the 10 years. Thematic analysis resulted in four themes, for which the researchers formulated working hypotheses. They integrated them into the research hypothesis.Main findings: Four themes emerged. They were the diversity characteristics of the directors as containers, working on the boundary between RIDE and the macro role players, attacks on the programme as container and challenges from participants.Practical/managerial implications: The research highlighted the important roles of directors’ authorisation as a resilience factor in containing RIDE.Contribution/value-add: The research contributed towards the awareness of intergroup relations between role players during diversity dynamic events and of how authorisation cements relationships.

  17. Vibration Comfort Analysis on the Pedestrian Bridge Between East Plaza and West Plaza of Shenzhen North Railroad Station%深圳北站东西广场人行天桥舒适度分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟美莉; 吴兵; 傅学怡

    2012-01-01

    深圳北站东西广场人行天桥位于深圳火车北站站房北侧.针对人行天桥大跨度桥面的振动舒适度问题,建立天桥的整体有限元模型,以IABSE建议的单人步行激励为基础,人行步频1.6~2.4Hz,考虑行人起步相位随机分布,通过多点输入时程分析方法求得结构的加速度响应,并参考ATC给出天桥的人行舒适度性能水准对该天桥进行人行走舒适度分析.分析研究表明该天桥具有适宜的人行舒适度,计算分析找到结构响应较大处,结构设计据此进行了针对性的加强,可更有效地提高其舒适度.%The pedestrian bridge between east plaza and west plaza lies in the north of Shenzhen North Railroad Station. The vibration comfort of large-span bridge is studied. A finite element model of a large-span bridge is established. Based on the single walking force of IABSE (International Association of Bridge and Structural Engineer), with the walking frequency 1.6 ~ 2.4 Hz, a method is proposed considering the random distribution of persona' s initial phase angle. Then the vibration comfort of the bridge is analyzed by a multi-support excitation and time history analysis method. The comfort performance level is given according to ATC (Applied Technology Council). The results show that the bridge has right comfort. The structures which have the maximum response under the crowd-induced loads are strengthened to increase the comfort.

  18. A Tire Model for Off-Highway Vehicle Simulation and Comfort Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langer, Thomas Heegaard; Mouritsen, Ole Ø.; Ebbesen, Morten Kjeld

    2009-01-01

    Manufacturers of construction machinery are challenged to accommodate legal requirements on the vibration exposure associated with their products. Hence, the ability to evaluate ride comfort by virtual prototyping is needed. One of the derived necessities is a modeling approach that can handle big...... off-road tires on irregular terrain and even the passing of sharp corner obstacles. In this paper a simple tire model combining the well known slip theory and a displaced volume approach is presented. A non-gradient optimization routine is applied for parameter identification by minimizing...

  19. The Analysis of Floor System Human Comfort in Pingan Finance Center%平安金融中心楼盖舒适度分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭肇才; 黄用军

    2011-01-01

    The standard floor of Pingan Financial Center with 118 layers is analysed using finite clement software ETABS. The results showes that the integral vibration and local vibration of floor system are controlled within the range of human comfort.%采用有限元软件ETABS对118层的超高层办公大楼平安金融中心标准楼层进行了计算分析,结果表明楼盖的整体振动和局部振动均满足结构舒适度要求。

  20. P2P网络中搭便车行为分析与抑制机制建模%Analysis of Free-riding Behaviors and Modeling Restrain Mechanisms for Peer-to-Peer Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乐光学; 李仁发; 陈志; 周旭

    2011-01-01

    In a real peer-to-peer (P2P) network, large amounts of network measurement results show that free riding is prevalent in almost all P2P reliable streaming media networks, which reduces the robustness, availability, service response speed, and lifetime of P2P reliable streaming media networks. Research of the reasonable and effective mechanisms to prohibit free-riders and incite selfish nodes to contribute more to the system has become an important direction for application research of P2P reliable streaming media network. Analysis by the intrinsic characteristics of freeriding and the related impacts on system performance, the behaviors of P2P reliable streaming media nodes are modeled and an idea with the goal of keeping moderate safety by allowing some errors but no crimes is introduced without sacrificing overall performance. Furthermore, the game theory is used to restrain free-riders and encourage them to be more altruistic. Reputation, contribution, and revenue of each node are adopted as metrics to assess the model. And the existence of Nash equilibrium for the model is proved; the rules, constraints, and a detailed analysis of it are given as well. Simulations show that the proposed model is effective in countering free-riding behavior, improving the performance and quality of service (QoS) of the P2P reliable streaming media network. It is able to keep relative balance.%在现实网络中,节点日益严重的搭便车行为对P2P可信流媒体网络的健壮性、可用性、服务响应速度和生命周期等产生了重要的影响.设计合理且有效的搭便车行为抑制和鼓励自私节点为系统作贡献的策略已成为P2P可信流媒体系统应用研究的一个重要方向.在全面分析节点的搭便车行为机理和搭便车行为对网络性能影响的基础上,对节点在P2P可信流媒体网络中的行为建模,在保证网络性能的前提下引入"适度安全、容错不容罪"的思想以保持网络系

  1. Pricing Decision under Dual-Channel Structure considering Fairness and Free-Riding Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongmei Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Under dual-channel structure, the free-riding behavior based on different service levels between online channel and offline channel cannot be avoided, which would lead to channel unfairness. This study implies that the dual-channel supply chain is built up by online channel controlled by manufacturer and traditional channel controlled by retailer, respectively. Under this channel structure, we rebuild the linear demand function considering free-riding behavior and modify the pricing model based on channel fairness. Then the influences of fair factor and free-riding behavior on manufacturer and retailer pricing and performance are discussed. Finally, we propose some numerical analysis to provide some valuable recommendations for manufacturer and retailer improving channel management performance.

  2. From occupying to inhabiting - a change in conceptualising comfort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffari, Svenja D.; Matthews, Ben

    2009-11-01

    The concept of 'comfort' has been influential in shaping aspects of our built environment. For the construction industry, comfort is predominantly understood in terms of the balance between an ideal human physiological state and a finite number of measurable environmental parameters that can be controlled (temperature, humidity, air quality, daylighting, noise). It is such a notion of comfort that has informed the establishment of universally applied comfort standards and guidelines for the built environment. When buildings rigidly conform to these standards, they consume vast quantities of energy and are responsible for higher levels of GHG emissions. Recent researchers have challenged such instrumental definitions of comfort on moral and environmental grounds. In this paper, we address this issue from two different standpoints: one empirical, one related to the design of technology. Empirically, we present an analysis of ethnographic field material that has examined how, in what circumstances, and at what times ordinary users employ energy-intensive indoor climate technologies in their daily lives. We argue that when comfort is viewed as an achievement, rather than as a reified and static ideal homeostasis between humans and their environmental conditions, it becomes easier to appreciate the extent to which comfort is, for ordinary people, personally idiosyncratic, culturally relative, socially influenced and highly dependent on temporality, sequence and activity. With respect to design, we introduce a set of provocative designed prototypes that embody alternative conceptions of 'comfort' than those to which the building industry typically subscribes. Our discussion has critical implications for the types of technologies that result from a 'comfort standards' conception. Firstly, we show that comfort is not simply a homeostatic equilibrium-such a view is overly narrow, inflexible and ultimately an inaccurate conception of what comfort is for ordinary people

  3. Air riding seal for a turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, Jacob A; Brown, Wesley D; Sexton, Thomas D; Jones, Russell B

    2016-07-19

    An air riding seal between a rotor and a stator in a turbine of a gas turbine engine, where an annular piston is movable in an axial direction within a housing that extends from the stator, and a bellows is secured to the annular piston to form a flexible air passageway from a compressed air inlet through the annular piston and into a cushion cavity that forms an air riding seal between the annular piston and the rotor sealing surface. In another embodiment, a flexible seal secured to and extending from the annular piston forms a sealing surface between the annular piston chamber and the annular piston to provide a seal and allow for axial movement.

  4. Scaling Law of Urban Ride Sharing

    CERN Document Server

    Tachet, Remi; Santi, Paolo; Resta, Giovanni; Szell, Michael; Strogatz, Steven; Ratti, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    Sharing rides could drastically improve the efficiency of car and taxi transportation. Unleashing such potential, however, requires understanding how urban parameters affect the fraction of individual trips that can be shared, a quantity that we call shareability. Using data on millions of taxi trips in New York City, San Francisco, Singapore, and Vienna, we compute the shareability curves for each city, and find that a natural rescaling collapses them onto a single, universal curve. We explain this scaling law theoretically with a simple model that predicts the potential for ride sharing in any city, using a few basic urban quantities and no adjustable parameters. Accurate extrapolations of this type will help planners, transportation companies, and society at large to shape a sustainable path for urban growth.

  5. Scaling Law of Urban Ride Sharing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachet, R.; Sagarra, O.; Santi, P.; Resta, G.; Szell, M.; Strogatz, S. H.; Ratti, C.

    2017-03-01

    Sharing rides could drastically improve the efficiency of car and taxi transportation. Unleashing such potential, however, requires understanding how urban parameters affect the fraction of individual trips that can be shared, a quantity that we call shareability. Using data on millions of taxi trips in New York City, San Francisco, Singapore, and Vienna, we compute the shareability curves for each city, and find that a natural rescaling collapses them onto a single, universal curve. We explain this scaling law theoretically with a simple model that predicts the potential for ride sharing in any city, using a few basic urban quantities and no adjustable parameters. Accurate extrapolations of this type will help planners, transportation companies, and society at large to shape a sustainable path for urban growth.

  6. Air riding seal with purge cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sexton, Thomas D; Mills, Jacob A

    2017-08-15

    An air riding seal for a turbine in a gas turbine engine, where an annular piston is axial moveable within an annular piston chamber formed in a stator of the turbine and forms a seal with a surface on the rotor using pressurized air that forms a cushion in a pocket of the annular piston. A purge cavity is formed on the annular piston and is connected to a purge hole that extends through the annular piston to a lower pressure region around the annular piston or through the rotor to an opposite side. The annular piston is sealed also with inner and outer seals that can be a labyrinth seal to form an additional seal than the cushion of air in the pocket to prevent the face of the air riding seal from overheating.

  7. Analysis of Comfort Nursing on Patients With Femoral Neck Fracture%舒适护理对股骨颈骨折患者的影响分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尚美佳

    2016-01-01

    ObjectiveComfort nursing methods and its effect on patients with femoral neck fracture are to be studied.MethodsChose 78 patients with femoral neck fracture who were treated in hospital from September 2014 to November 2015 and separated them into two groups randomly,44 patients in study group were given comfort nursing,while another 34 patients in control group were given conventional nursingand then compared nursing effects and patients’ recovery conditions between two groups.ResultsPatients’ nursing efficacy in study group was 95.45%,which was much higher than 82.35% in control group. There was a differential between two groups and such a differential had statistic value(P<0.05).Conclusion Comfort nursing is quite effective on patients with femoral neck fracture; it is conducive to increasing patients’satisfaction,reducing physical uncomfortable feeling and keeping them in good mood.%目的:探究股骨颈骨折患者采取舒适护理的措施和效果。方法选取我院在2014年9月~2015年11月收治的78例股骨颈骨折患者,随机分组,实验组44例患者采取舒适护理,对照组34例患者选择常规护理,比较两组患者的护理效果和身体恢复情况。结果实验组患者护理有效率为95.45%,对照组患者护理有效率为82.35%,实验组患者的护理效果更优,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论股骨颈骨折患者采取舒适护理可促使治疗效果以及护理满意度提高,效果好,减轻身体不适,保持良好的心理状态。

  8. Riding to School in a Wheelchair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buning, Mary Ellen; Shutrump, Sue; Manary, Miriam A.

    2007-01-01

    Riding on a school bus is one of the safest forms of transportation in the U.S. Every year 450,000 public school buses travel more than 4.3 billion miles to transport 23.5 million children to and from school and school related activities. Students are reportedly eight times safer on the school bus than they are in cars. However, the percentage of…

  9. Bull Riding Injuries In Central Queensland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan James Livingston

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Bull riding is an increasingly popular and growing professional sport in Australia. This is the first national study that investigates bull riding-related injuries. Method A six-year retrospective study of patients admitted to Rockhampton Base Hospital with acute injuries sustained whilst bull riding. Patients were identified from the Rockhampton Hospital international coding system and surgical audit excel databases. Supporting information was found from patient chart review. Results Thirty-eight patients were admitted during the study. Injuries increased from 2008. The most common injuries were to limbs (52%, chest (15% and brain (10%. Life-threatening injuries were all caused by a direct kick or trampling by the bull; 5% of patients needed air transfer to Brisbane, and 10% to Rockhampton for their acute care. The only complication was infection of open wounds. The average hospital stay was 2.2 (range= 1-5, SD= 1.1 days and 64% of patients required operative intervention. Conclusion Patients that had been kicked or trampled should be identified as having potentially life-threatening injuries, and transferred for review at an appropriate facility. Due to the high risk of infection all contaminated wounds should be washed out formally and receive antibiotics. Protective equipment should be encouraged among riders.

  10. 基于人体热调节模型的民机座舱热舒适性分析%Aircraft cabin comfort analysis with human thermoregulation model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞丽萍; 巩萌萌; 王浚; 崔焱

    2012-01-01

    The studies about cabin thermal comfort are of great significance in the large aircraft market competition. A reasonable human thermal model is the key to analyze and evaluate the thermal comfort. Based on thermal characteristics experiment of human in the limited space, a human thermal model with the behavior of thermal regulation was established. The complex heat transfer was simplified into the heat transfer among three areas of high temperature core, blood perfusion and the equivalent organization. This model will not only overcome the limitation of the constant wall temperature or constant heat flux density, but in good agreement with the experimental results. Combined with a predicted mean vote (PMV) thermal comfort evaluation method without iterative equation proposed, the comfort in crowded space can be analyzed under the premise of ensu- ring the calculation speed. Simulation results show that the method can meet the speed requirement when the simulation is for a complex space environment, but also more accurately reflects the human physiological ther- mal regulation process.%民机座舱热舒适性研究对我国研制的大型飞机市场竞争力具有重要意义,在舒适性研究中人体热模型的合理性是影响舒适性分析与评价的关键,在开展的有限空间人员热特性实验测试基础上,建立了一种具有热调节行为的人体热模型,将人体复杂传热过程抽象为高温核心区、血液灌注区和等效组织区三者间热传递,很好地克服了常规定壁温或定热流密度人体模型的局限性,计算结果与实验结果吻合较好,将该模型结合文中提出的无迭代PMV(Predicted Mean Vote)热舒适性方程,在保证计算速度的前提下,可实现高人员密度的民机座舱舒适性分析,仿真结果表明:该方法既能够满足复杂空间的计算速度要求,又能较准确地体现人体生理热调节过程,仿真结果可靠性高。

  11. 急诊洗胃中舒适护理的效果分析%Analysis on the effect of comfortable nursing in the emergency gastric lavage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈莉

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical effect of gastric lavage in poisoning patients with comfortable nursing in the emergency department. Methods 122 cases of patients with oral poisoning were selected from May 2010 to June 2012 in our hospital emergency department,they were divided into observation group and control group according to different nursing methods,there were 61 cases in each group, two groups of patients were given routine nursing care, routine care and comfort care. Satisfaction rate, degree of comfort and fit, pain. Of two groups were compared. Results Satisfaction rate and the cooperation degree of observation group were significantly higher than control group, the incidence of nausea and vomiting, restlessness were lower, there were significant differences between two groups(P < 0.05). The proportion of Mild pain patients in the observation group were significantly higher than control group , there were significant differences between two groups(P<0.05). Conclusion Patients with poisoning implement comfortable nursing to the psychological and physiological state in good emergency gastric lavage, to eliminate the fear of patients, reduce the discomfort and adverse reaction occurs has important clinical significance to reduce the rate of side effect.%目的探讨对急诊科中毒洗胃患者实施舒适护理后的临床效果。方法收集2010年5月~2012年6月来我院急诊科就诊的口服中毒患者122例,根据不同的护理方法分为观察组及对照组,每组各有61例,两组患者分别实施常规护理、常规护理及舒适护理。比较两组患者的满意率、舒适度及配合度、疼痛情况。结果观察组患者与对照组比较,满意率及配合度明显较高,恶心呕吐、烦躁不安的发生率明显较低,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。观察组中轻度疼痛患者所占的比例与对照组比较明显较高,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论中毒患者在

  12. Analysis of the dynamic response in the railway vehicles to the track vertical irregularities. Part II: The numerical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dumitriu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the dynamic response of a two-bogie vehicle to the symmetrical and antisymmetrical excitations, due to bounce and pitch of the axles’ planes, derived from the track vertical irregularities. Part I introduced the theoretical model and the response functions of the vehicle, as well as the theoretical elements required for the analysis of the dynamic response of the vehicle to the track stochastic irregularities. Part II comprises the results of the numerical analysis of the vehicle dynamic response in three reference points of the carbody, based on which a series of properties of the vertical vibrations behaviour of the railway vehicle is pointed out at. The excitation modes that trigger the carbody response in its reference points are identified. Hence, the influence of the geometrical filtering effect of the excitation modes upon the ride quality and ride comfort is established.

  13. Comfort-oriented Optimization of Suspension System and Vibration Analysis%面向舒适性的悬架参数优化及振动分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺东宇; 陈长征

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, in order to obtain optimal design parameters for maximum comfort level for a driver and passengers, an improved suspension system with the incorporated inerter device of the quarter-car model was analyzed. That is achieved by finding the analytical solution for the system of ordinary differential equations, which enable us to generate an optimization problem and its objective function is based on the international standards of admissible acceleration levels (ISO 2631-1, Mechanical Vibration and Shock-Evaluation of Human Exposure to Whole-Body Vibration-Part1,1997). The considered approach ensures the highest level of comfort for the driver and passengers due to a favorable reduction in body vibrations. Numerical examples that presented at the end of the paper show the validity of the proposed approach and its suitability for the problem at hand.%为了使司机及乘客获得最大的舒适性,以四分之一车辆模型为研究对象,通过增加内部结构来改善悬架特性。以国际加速度评价等级标准(ISO 2631-1)作为目标函数,通过寻找系统常微分方程的解析解来解决该优化问题。该方法可以使车身加速度最大化衰减以获得较高的乘坐舒适性。通过仿真表明,该方法不仅解决舒适性问题的有效性,也凸显了该方法对问题解决的灵敏性。

  14. Operating Comfort Prediction Model of Human-Machine Interface Layout for Cabin Based on GEP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Li; Wang, Guohua; Chen, Bo

    2015-01-01

    In view of the evaluation and decision-making problem of human-machine interface layout design for cabin, the operating comfort prediction model is proposed based on GEP (Gene Expression Programming), using operating comfort to evaluate layout scheme. Through joint angles to describe operating posture of upper limb, the joint angles are taken as independent variables to establish the comfort model of operating posture. Factor analysis is adopted to decrease the variable dimension; the model's input variables are reduced from 16 joint angles to 4 comfort impact factors, and the output variable is operating comfort score. The Chinese virtual human body model is built by CATIA software, which will be used to simulate and evaluate the operators' operating comfort. With 22 groups of evaluation data as training sample and validation sample, GEP algorithm is used to obtain the best fitting function between the joint angles and the operating comfort; then, operating comfort can be predicted quantitatively. The operating comfort prediction result of human-machine interface layout of driller control room shows that operating comfort prediction model based on GEP is fast and efficient, it has good prediction effect, and it can improve the design efficiency.

  15. Self-balancing air riding seal for a turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, Jacob A.

    2017-08-15

    A turbine of a gas turbine engine has an air riding seal that forms a seal between a rotor and a stator of the turbine, the air riding seal including an annular piston movable in an axial direction under the influence of a pressure on one side with a pressure acting on an opposite side that self-balances the air riding seal during the steady state condition of the engine and lifts off the seal during engine transients.

  16. Analysis of Control Policies and Dynamic Response of a Q-Car 2-DOF Semi Active System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.I. Ihsan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Several control policies of Q-car 2-DOF semiactive system, namely skyhook, groundhook and hybrid controls are presented. Their ride comfort, suspension displacement and road-holding performances are analyzed and compared with passive system. The analysis covers both transient and steady state responses in time domain and transmissibility response in frequency domain. The results show that the hybrid control policy yields better comfort than a passive suspension, without reducing the road-holding quality or increasing the suspension displacement for typical passenger cars. The hybrid control policy is also shown to be a better compromise between comfort, road-holding and suspension displacement than the skyhook and groundhook control policies.

  17. Chronic subdural haematoma after riding a roller coaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamakami, Iwao; Mine, Seiichiro; Yamaura, Akira; Fukutake, Toshio

    2005-01-01

    We report a 20-year-old man who developed a chronic subdural haematoma (CSDH) after riding a "giant" roller coaster. The patient had a past history of a subdural hygroma, diagnosed six weeks after a motorcycle accident. Three months after this accident, he rode on a roller coaster, but suffered no direct head trauma during the ride. Three weeks later, he developed a CSDH requiring surgical evacuation. Roller coaster riding, associated with high velocities and extreme acceleration/deceleration forces is a modern cause of CSDH in the young, which may be increasing due to ever-faster rides.

  18. Clinical Analysis on Application of Comfortable Nursing Care in Operating Room%舒适护理于手术室护理中的运用分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闵静

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To explore the therapeutic effect of comfortable nursing care in operating room. Method:Totally 416 inpatients scheduled for surgery from 2010 to 2012 were randomly divided into observation group and control group,each of 208 cases.The patients in control group received routine nursing care only.While the patients in observation group received confortable nursing care based on the routine nursing.Result:The patients’satisfaction of observation group and control group were 98.56%,94.71%,respectively(P<0.05),the rate of complications were 3.85%,8.65%(P<0.05).The difference of the rate of anxiety,fear,and pessimism was statistically significant between the control group and the observation group(P<0.05),and the difference postoperative comfortable rate in observation group was statistically significant between the two groups(P<0.05).Conclusion:It is fully embodied the people-oriented nursing concept that applying the comfortable nursing mode during the operation,which can significantly improve the quality of nursing and promote the patients’recovery.%目的:探讨舒适护理在手术室护理工作中的应用效果。方法:选择本院2010-2012年进行手术治疗的患者416例,随机分为观察组和对照组各208例,对照组患者给予手术室常规护理,观察组患者给予舒适护理。结果:观察组、对照组对护理工作满意率分别为98.56%、94.71%,观察组高于对照组(P<0.05);两组并发症的发生率分别为3.85%、8.65%,观察组低于对照组(P<0.05)。观察组术中处于焦虑、恐惧、悲观状态的比例明显低于对照组(P<0.05);观察组患者术中、术后感觉舒适的比例明显高于对照组(P<0.05)。结论:手术室护理工作中应用舒适护理模式,能够提高护理质量,促进患者早日康复。

  19. Determining the bioclimatic comfort in Kastamonu City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, Mehmet

    2015-10-01

    Bioclimatic comfort defines the optimal climatic conditions in which people feel healthy and dynamic. Bioclimatic comfort mapping methods are useful to urban managers and planners. For the purposes of planning, climatic conditions, as determined by bioclimatic comfort assessments, are important. Bioclimatic components such as temperature, relative humidity, and wind speeds are important in evaluating bioclimatic comfort. In this study of the climate of Kastamonu province, the most suitable areas in terms of bioclimatic comfort have been identified. In this context, climate values belonging to the province of Kastamonu are taken from a total of nine meteorological stations. Altitude (36-1050 m) between stations is noted for revealing climatic changes. The data collected from these stations, including average temperature, relative humidity, and wind speed values are transferred to geographical information system (GIS) using ArcMap 10.2.2 software. GIS maps created from the imported data has designated the most suitable comfort areas in and around the city of Kastamonu. As a result, the study shows that Kastamonu has suitable ranges for bioclimatic comfort zone. The range of bioclimatic comfort value for Kastamonu is 17.6 °C. It is between a comfort ranges which is 15-20 °C. Kastamonu City has suitable area for bioclimatic comfort.

  20. Controlling automobile thermal comfort using optimized fuzzy controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farzaneh, Yadollah; Tootoonchi, Ali A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad (Iran)

    2008-10-15

    Providing thermal comfort and saving energy are two main goals of heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. A controller with temperature feedback cannot best achieve the thermal comfort. This is because thermal comfort is influenced by many variables such as, temperature, relative humidity, air velocity, environment radiation, activity level and cloths insulation. In this study Fanger's predicted mean value (PMV) index is used as controller feedback. It is simplified without introducing significant error. Thermal models of the cabin and HVAC system are developed. Evaporator cooling capacity is selected as a criterion for energy consumption. Two fuzzy controllers one with temperature as its feedback and the other PMV index as its feedback are designed. Results show that the PMV feedback controller better controls the thermal comfort and energy consumption than the system with temperature feedback. Next, the parameters of the fuzzy controller are optimized by genetic algorithm. Results indicate that thermal comfort level is further increased while energy consumption is decreased. Finally, robustness analysis is performed which shows the robustness of optimized controller to variables variations. (author)

  1. Floating air riding seal for a turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebert, Todd A

    2016-08-16

    A floating air riding seal for a gas turbine engine with a rotor and a stator, an annular piston chamber with an axial moveable annular piston assembly within the annular piston chamber formed in the stator, an annular cavity formed on the annular piston assembly that faces a seal surface on the rotor, where the axial moveable annular piston includes an inlet scoop on a side opposite to the annular cavity that scoops up the swirling cooling air and directs the cooling air to the annular cavity to form an air cushion with the seal surface of the rotor.

  2. Calming the Waters or Riding the Waves?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rydén, Pernille; Kottika, Efthymia; Hossain, Muhammad Ismail;

    Traditional consumer anger management tends to be compromising rather than empowering the brand. This paper conceptualizes and provides a case example on how consumer empowerment and negative emotions can in fact create opportunities for companies to ride the waves of consumer anger in a way...... that strengthens their brand. The consumers are empowered by ‘letting this anger out’, from which firms can gain huge attention. Companies can utilize such situations to inform people on their brands’ core values, and initiate discussions of larger societal relevance, which improves the brand awareness and value...

  3. Acoustic comfort in large dining spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, X.; Kang, J

    2017-01-01

    © 2016 Elsevier Ltd This study carried out a questionnaire field investigation in two typical large dining spaces. The results suggest that the acoustic comfort of diners has an influence on the comfort evaluation of the overall dining environment, and background noise is an important factor affecting the acoustic comfort evaluation of diners. The role of various individual sound sources in background noise has been investigated, considering general background music, speech sound, activity so...

  4. Experiential reflective learning and comfort zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Nehyba

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the issue of experiential reflective learning. Firstlyit aims to discuss the concept of comfort zone in this area. It goes beyond the usualdefinition of the domestic comfort zone and it reflects in terms of experiential reflectivelearning in the world. The conclusions point to possible parallels with the concept ofcomfort zones and K. Lewin theory. Overall, the article focuses on topics that help toexpand the view on the issue of comfort zone.

  5. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis responses of horses to therapeutic riding program: effects of different riders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazio, Esterina; Medica, Pietro; Cravana, Cristina; Ferlazzo, Adriana

    2013-06-13

    In order to determine whether therapeutic riding could result in higher levels of stress than recreational riding, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis response was evaluated in six horses by monitoring circulating β-endorphin, ACTH and cortisol concentrations. Horses were already accustomed to be trained both for therapy and riding school activity since 2004. Intervention consisted of 60-minute therapeutic sessions, two times per week for 6weeks with different riders: disabled and recreational riders (session A and B respectively). The therapeutic riders' group (A) consisted of six children with psychomotor disabilities; the recreational riders' group (B) consisted of six healthy children without any previous horse riding experience. Horses were asked to perform the same gaits and exercises at all sessions, both with disabled and healthy users. The statistical analysis showed that during both sessions the mean basal β-endorphin and ACTH levels of horses did not show any significant changes, while the one way RM-ANOVA showed significant effects of sessions A on the cortisol (F=11.50; PHorses submitted to sessions A showed lower cortisol levels both at 5min (Phorses and for the variables settled, HPA axis was less responsive to disabled than healthy, recreational riders. Among the endocrine responses, cortisol was one of the indicators of HPA axis stress response.

  6. Use of salivary cortisol to evaluate the influence of rides in dromedary camels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majchrzak, Yasmine N; Mastromonaco, Gabriela F; Korver, Wendy; Burness, Gary

    2015-01-15

    Animals in captivity and in the wild face numerous challenges, including the risk of enduring acute or chronic stress. In captivity, facilities attempt to alleviate the risk of chronic stress by providing environmental enrichment, shown to minimize behavioral disorders and stress in several species. One potential form of enrichment in zoos is training animals to provide rides for guests, however, the effect of this activity on the welfare of individual animals has never been examined. We validated the use of saliva for assessing stress in dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius), an animal commonly used for rides. We then measured variation in salivary cortisol in four male camels while providing rides of differing frequency for guests at the Toronto Zoo. The camels were sampled during the ride season (June to September) using four treatments: (1) in their pasture, (2) at the ride area when not performing rides, (3) while providing a low number of rides (n=50/day) and (4) while providing a high number of rides (n=150/day). Furthermore, samples were taken before and after the ride season for comparison. There was a significant difference between the post-ride season treatment and the three treatments involving guest presence during the ride season (ride area, low rides, high rides). In general, cortisol concentrations were lower during the ride season and higher during the non-ride season. Based on the metrics we used, performing rides is not a stressful experience for these dromedary camels and suggests that rides may be a form of enrichment.

  7. Feasibility Checking for Dial-a-Ride Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugland, Dag; Ho, Sin C.

    Hunsaker and Savelsbergh have proposed an algorithm for testing feasibility of a route in the solution to the dial-a-ride problem. The constraints that are checked are load capacity constraints, time windows, ride time bounds and wait time bounds. The algorithm has linear running time. By virtue...

  8. Feasibility testing for dial-a-ride problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugland, Dag; Ho, Sin C.

    Hunsaker and Savelsbergh have proposed an algorithm for testing feasibility of a route in the solution to the dial-a-ride problem. The constraints that are checked are load capacity constraints, time windows, ride time bounds and wait time bounds. The algorithm has linear running time. By virtue...

  9. Feasibility Testing for Dial-a-Ride Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugland, Dag; Ho, Sin C.

    2010-01-01

    Hunsaker and Savelsbergh have proposed an algorithm for testing feasibility of a route in the solution to the dial-a-ride problem. The constraints that are checked are load capacity constraints, time windows, ride time bounds and wait time bounds. The algorithm has linear running time. By virtue...

  10. Examination of a University-Affiliated Safe Ride Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gieck, D. Joseph; Slagle, David M.

    2010-01-01

    A university-affiliated safe ride program was evaluated to determine whether these programs can reduce drunk-driving related costs. Data was collected from 187 safe ride passengers during three nights of operation. Among the passengers, 93% were enrolled at a local University, 31% were younger than 21, and 40% reported a prior alcohol-related…

  11. Enhancing Urban Mobility: Integrating Ride-sharing and Public Transit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Stiglic (Mitja); N.A.H. Agatz (Niels); M.W.P. Savelsbergh (Martin); M. Gradisar (Mirko)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractSeamless integration of ride-sharing and public transit may offer fast, reliable, and affordable transfer to and from transit stations in suburban areas thereby enhancing mobility of residents. We investigate the potential benefits of such a system, as well as the ride-matching technolog

  12. Analyzing Forces on Amusement Park Rides with Mobile Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieyra, Rebecca E.; Vieyra, Chrystian

    2014-01-01

    Mobile device accelerometers are a simple and easy way for students to collect accurate and detailed data on an amusement park ride. The resulting data can be graphed to assist in the creation of force diagrams to help students explain their physical sensations while on the ride. This type of activity can help students overcome some of the…

  13. Coordination of Advertising Free Riding in Hybrid Channel Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Sha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Advertising is a crucial tool for demand creation and market expansion; enterprises in supply chain use it widely to increase sales and improve profits. But the homogeneity of products sold in hybrid channel supply chain magnifies the positive externalities of advertising and leads to serious free-riding problem. To coordinate the supply chain effectively, firstly, this paper classifies hybrid channel supply chain based on the relationship between members and selects horizontally integrated, vertically integrated, and decentralized hybrid channel supply chains as research objects. Then, a demand function considering the common effect of price and advertising is proposed and coordination schemes for different types of supply chains are designed. Finally, a sensitivity analysis is performed to assess the impact of parameters on coordination using orthogonal experiment.

  14. Comfort predictors for different kinds of hand tools: Differences and similarities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijt-Evers, L.F.M.; Vink, P.; Looze, M.P.de

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates whether the same factors underlie comfort in using different kinds of hand tools (screwdrivers, paintbrushes and handsaws). The underlying factors of the hand tools are identified using principal components analysis. The relationships between comfort descriptors (i.e. stateme

  15. Motor ability of forelimb both on- and off-riding during walk and trot cadence of horse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Seung-Hyun; Ryew, Che-Cheong

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the motor ability of forelimb according to on- or off-riding during cadences (walk and trot) of horse. Horses and rider selected as subject consisted of total 37 heads of Jeju native horse and 1 female rider. The variables analyzed composed of 1 stride length, 1 step length, elapsed time of stance, elapsed time of swing, elapsed time of 1 step, and forward velocity (x-axis). Two-way analysis of variance of variables was employed for the statistical analysis with the level of significance set at 5% (Phorse’s analysis meant that there was very close relation among variables of rider’s weight-velocity-stride length-stride elapsed time. Next study will be necessary to analyze cadence variables added both stride length and rider’s weight for riding activity and rehabilitation during horse riding using Jeju native horse. PMID:26933662

  16. RIDE: the Research Infrastructure Database for EPOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailo, Daniele; Bartoloni, Alessandro; Jeffery, Keith G.; Clemenceau, Alice; Hoffmann, Thomas L.

    2013-04-01

    The European Plate Observing System (EPOS) is a European initiative which aims to promote and make possible innovative approaches for a better understanding of the physical processes laying behind natural events and geo-science phenomena (earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, unrest episodes and tsunamis etc.) by integrating existing national and trans-national Research Infrastructures (RIs). Such integration will increase access and use of the multidisciplinary data recorded by solid Earth monitoring networks, acquired in laboratory experiments and/or produced by computational simulations. Here we present the Research Infrastructures Database for EPOS (RIDE), a database containing technical information about the different RIs declared by EPOS partners and EPOS associate partners, which will eventually compose the EPOS distributed Research Infrastructure. The main goals of RIDE are (i) to allow the EPOS RI to be organized, with interactive access and information mining available to a broad community of users and stakeholders, (ii) to have a first set of information to be stored in the EPOS catalogue, which will be used as a basis for the development of EPOS Core Services, (iii) to enable EPOS partners to revise and update the current RI information, (iv) to show the contents of the EPOS integration plan to all stakeholders, (v) to facilitate the dissemination of existing data infrastructures to different communities and to promote a discussion within the community to implement the present data infrastructures. RIDE - whose driving technology is Apache CouchDB - contains at the current status detailed information on more than 200 Research Infrastructures. It enables any user to visualize RIs and sensors on a map, to carry out statistics on the stored data and to browse through the details of any RI. Based on the content of RIDE it is now possible to estimate the potential size of the new EPOS distributed RI: EPOS is going to integrate more than 7000 sensors (seismic

  17. Off-road vehicle dynamics analysis, modelling and optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Taghavifar, Hamid

    2017-01-01

    This book deals with the analysis of off-road vehicle dynamics from kinetics and kinematics perspectives and the performance of vehicle traversing over rough and irregular terrain. The authors consider the wheel performance, soil-tire interactions and their interface, tractive performance of the vehicle, ride comfort, stability over maneuvering, transient and steady state conditions of the vehicle traversing, modeling the aforementioned aspects and optimization from energetic and vehicle mobility perspectives. This book brings novel figures for the transient dynamics and original wheel terrain dynamics at on-the-go condition.

  18. The study of laser beam riding guided system based on 980nm diode laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Zhou; Xu, Haifeng; Sui, Xin; Yang, Kun

    2015-10-01

    With the development of science and technology, precision-strike weapons has been considered to be important for winning victory in military field. Laser guidance is a major method to execute precision-strike in modern warfare. At present, the problems of primary stage of Laser guidance has been solved with endeavors of countries. Several technical aspects of laser-beam riding guided system have been mature, such as atmosphere penetration of laser beam, clutter inhibition on ground, laser irradiator, encoding and decoding of laser beam. Further, laser beam quality, equal output power and atmospheric transmission properties are qualified for warfare situation. Riding guidance instrument is a crucial element of Laser-beam riding guided system, and is also a vital element of airborne, vehicle-mounted and individual weapon. The optical system mainly consist of sighting module and laser-beam guided module. Photoelectric detector is the most important sensing device of seeker, and also the key to acquire the coordinate information of target space. Currently, in consideration of the 1.06 u m of wavelength applied in all the semi-active laser guided weapons systems, lithium drifting silicon photodiode which is sensitive to 1.06 u m of wavelength is used in photoelectric detector. Compared to Solid and gas laser, diode laser has many merits such as small volume, simple construction, light weight, long life, low lost and easy modulation. This article introduced the composition and operating principle of Laser-beam riding guided system based on 980 nm diode laser, and made a analysis of key technology; for instance, laser irradiator, modulating disk of component, laser zooming system. Through the use of laser diode, Laser-beam riding guided system is likely to have smaller shape and very light.

  19. Air humidity requirements for human comfort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftum, Jørn; Fanger, Povl Ole

    1999-01-01

    level near 100% rh. For respiratory comfort are the requirements much more stringent and results in lower permissible indoor air humidities. Compared with the upper humidity limit specified in existing thermal comfort standards, e.g. ASHRAE Addendum 55a, the humidity limit based on skin humidity...

  20. Selected Sports Bras: Overall Comfort and Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, LaJean; Lorentzen, Deana

    This study evaluated currently marketed sports bras on subjective measures of comfort and support both within an entire group of women and within cup sizes, correlated the subjective measures of comfort and support with previously reported biomechanical findings of support on the same bras, and further developed empirically based guidelines for…

  1. Descriptive epidemiology and risk factors for eliminations from Fédération Equestre Internationale endurance rides due to lameness and metabolic reasons (2008-2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, A; Murray, J K; Dyson, S J

    2014-01-01

    There is limited information on international endurance rides and on risk factors for eliminations. To describe and compare the frequency of occurrence of elimination due to lameness and metabolic reasons from Fédération Equestre Internationale (FEI) endurance rides (≥100 km) during 2008-2011 in all countries and to assess risk factors for elimination due to lameness and metabolic reasons. Retrospective unmatched case-control study. Data collected from the FEI website included the following: the country where the ride was held; the year; the result for each horse-rider combination; the number of entries in each class; whether the class was restricted to young riders; and the winning speed. Descriptive data were summarised, and univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to assess risk factors for eliminations due to lameness and metabolic reasons. Between 2008 and 2011, there were 30,741 horse starts at FEI endurance rides of 100-160 km distance in 47 countries. Of all started horses, 30% were eliminated for lameness. Eliminations for metabolic reasons were recorded for 8.7% of all started horses. There was a large range of winning speeds amongst countries (10.2-29.5 km/h). Multivariable analysis revealed that the risk of elimination due to lameness was significantly associated with the country where the ride was held, the year, the distance of the ride and the number of entries. Elimination for metabolic reasons was significantly associated with the country where the ride was held, the year and the number of entries. Differences existed among elimination rates at FEI endurance rides in different countries (2008-2011). Lameness was the most common reason for elimination globally. These results provide objective global data on endurance riding that can replace anecdotal information, which has been the base of opinions, decisions and regulations. The Summary is available in Chinese - see Supporting information. © 2013 EVJ Ltd.

  2. Analysis of the thermal performance and comfort conditions produced by five different passive solar heating strategies in the United States midwest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-Gonzalez, Alfredo [Natural Energies Advanced Technologies Laboratory, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV 89154-4018 (United States)

    2007-05-15

    This paper presents a summary of the thermal performance of five different passive solar test-cells (Direct Gain, Trombe-wall, Water-wall, Sunspace, and Roofpond) and a control test-cell during the 2002-2003 heating season in Muncie, Indiana. The results discussed in this article correspond to the initial phase of a longer study (data were collected from December of 2002 until August of 2004). The project's original intent was to identify any barriers to achieving thermal comfort within a space when passive solar heating systems are employed in severe winter climates with predominant overcast sky conditions. Because of the original intent of this project, the test-cells were arranged with their smaller facades oriented to the north and south and the longer facades facing east and west. This arrangement permitted to study temperature differences throughout the day (diurnal operative temperature swings) and also simultaneous temperature differences throughout the space (a simultaneous comparison of four points instrumented within each cell to detect variations between the south side and the north side of the test-cells). The results of this phase of the study show that the Direct Gain strategy had the largest diurnal variations of temperature with an average operative temperature swing of 7.8 C and a maximum variation during the reported period of 10.3 C. By contrast, the Roofpond strategy had the smallest diurnal variations of temperature with an average operative temperature swing of 1.2 C and a maximum variation during the reported period of 1.4 C. In terms of the simultaneous variations in the operative temperature between the south side and the north side of the test-cells, the Direct Gain strategy showed again the highest variations with an average simultaneous operative temperature difference between the south and north sides of the test-cell of 2.9 C and a maximum variation during the reported period of 3.7 C. The Roofpond strategy, on the other hand

  3. Head motions while riding roller coasters: implications for brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfister, Bryan J; Chickola, Larry; Smith, Douglas H

    2009-12-01

    The risk of traumatic brain injury (TBI) while riding roller coasters has received substantial attention. Case reports of TBI around the time of riding roller coasters have led many medical professionals to assert that the high gravitational forces (G-forces) induced by roller coasters pose a significant TBI risk. Head injury research, however, has shown that G-forces alone cannot predict TBI. Established head injury criterions and procedures were employed to compare the potential of TBI between daily activities and roller coaster riding. Three-dimensional head motions were measured during 3 different roller coaster rides, a pillow fight, and car crash simulations. Data was analyzed and compared with published data, using similar analyses of head motions. An 8.05 m/s car crash lead to the largest head injury criterion measure of 28.1 and head impact power of 3.41, over 6 times larger than the roller coaster rides of 4.1 and 0.36. Notably, the linear and rotational components of head acceleration during roller coaster rides were milder than those induced by many common activities. As such, there appears to be an extremely low risk of TBI due to the head motions induced by roller coaster rides.

  4. Fever: suppress or let it ride?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Juliet J; Schulman, Carl I

    2015-12-01

    While our ability to detect and manage fever has evolved since its conceptualization in the 5(th) century BC, controversy remains over the best evidence-based practices regarding if and when to treat this physiologic derangement in the critically ill. There are two basic fields of thought: (I) fever should be suppressed because its metabolic costs outweigh its potential physiologic benefit in an already stressed host; vs. (II) fever is a protective adaptive response that should be allowed to run its course under most circumstances. The latter approach, sometime referred to as the "let it ride" philosophy, has been supported by several recent randomized controlled trials like that of Young et al. [2015], which are challenging earlier observational studies and may be pushing the pendulum away from the Pavlovian treatment response.

  5. Analysis of the bioclimatical comfortable conditions of Artvin province and its importance in tourismArtvin ilinin biyoklimatik konfor şartlarının analizi ve turizm bakımından önemi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre Özşahin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Tourism climatology is a popular field of study that deals with the relationship between tourism and climate through approaches such as applied climatology and human biometeorology. One of the subjects studied most in this field is the evaluation of bioclimatic comfort conditions. In recent years, inferences of this sort have been able to be made easily by use of certain indices. This study aims at evaluating and analyzing the bioclimatic comfort conditions of Artvin province by use of GIS. Within the scope of the research aim, monthly values belonging to SET*, PET, PMV, TCI, THI and SSI indices were calculated by use of meteorological data. SET*, PET, and PMV indices were determined via RayMan 1.2 while TCI, THI, and SSI indices were ascertained through Microsoft Excel 2013 supported analyses of various formulas. The obtained values were analyzed through GIS techniques. Also, statistical methods were utilized to make the research findings more meaningful. All in all, the province was seen to have comfortable conditions. This is because; the comfortable (1 class (68.9% covers a wider area than uncomfortable (0 class (31.1% in the province. Bioclimatic comfort classes are shaped by geographical position, elevation, and topography in Artvin province. Valleys with an elevation of less than 2000 m and coastal area are comfortable while mountainous areas (Rize, Kaçkar, Karçal, and Yalnızçam mounts with a higher elevation are uncomfortable. The results of one-way analysis of variance (one-sample t-test show that bioclimatic conditions have not been taken into consideration much during the planning of tourism accommodation facilities set up in Artvin province. This study evidences that GIS techniques are efficient in research on tourism climatology or bioclimatology and thus they may be used widely.   Özet Turizm klimatolojisi, uygulamalı klimatoloji ile insan biyometeorolojisi gibi yaklaşımlarla turizm ve iklim arasındaki ilişkiyi inceleyen

  6. Analyzing Forces on Amusement Park Rides with Mobile Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieyra, Rebecca E.; Vieyra, Chrystian

    2014-03-01

    Mobile device accelerometers are a simple and easy way for students to collect accurate and detailed data on an amusement park ride. The resulting data can be graphed to assist in the creation of force diagrams to help students explain their physical sensations while on the ride. This type of activity can help students overcome some of the conceptual difficulties often associated with understanding centripetal force and typical "elevator-type problems" that are inherent in so many amusement park rides that move, lift, and drop riders. This article provides some sample data and examples from a visit to Six Flags Great America.

  7. Determination of bioclimatic comfort in Sirjan desert

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayebeh Mahmoodi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Climate plays an important role in assessment of quality of outdoor built environments and bioclimatic comfort physiologically influences on human body's characteristics. In this paper, we present an empirical study on bioclimatic comfort in Sirjan desert located in the province of Kerman, Iran. The results of our study shows that velocity of air can reach one meter per second during the daily hours only during the month of September, which causes comfort on people's body. However, even this velocity cannot cause comfort during the night. During the months of March, April and October, whether maintains a velocity of 0.1 meter/second, which brings comfort and it is possible to live with simple dress. During the months of May, June and July it is possible to reach comfort with simple cover during the night. It is possible to reach the same condition with thicker coverage in nightly hours during the months of May and September. However, it is not possible to reach comfort with thick dress any nightly hours of year.

  8. Portable+: A Ubiquitous And Smart Way Towards Comfortable Energy Savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Milan [IIIT-Delhi; Singh, Amarjeet [IIIT-Delhi; Chandan, Vikas [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    2017-06-30

    An air conditioner (AC) consumes a significant proportion of the total household power consumption. Primarily used in developing countries, decentralised AC has an inbuilt thermostat to cool the room to a temperature, manually set by the users. However, residents are incapable of specifying their goal through these thermostats - maximise their comfort or save AC energy. State-of-the-art portable thermostats emulate AC remotes and assist occupants in remotely changing the thermostat temperature, through their smartphones. We propose extending such thermostats to portable+ by adding a Comfort-Energy Trade-off (CET) knob, realised through an optimisation framework to allow users to balance their comfort and the savings without worrying about the right set temperature. Analysis based on real data, collected from a controlled experiment (across two rooms for two weeks) and an in-situ deployment (across five rooms for three months), indicates that portable+ thermostats can reduce residents’ discomfort by 23% (CET selection for maximal comfort) and save 26% energy when CET is set for maximising savings.

  9. Human comfort and self-estimated performance in relation to indoor environmental parameters and building features

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frontczak, Monika Joanna

    for overall comfort than acoustic and visual comfort and satisfaction with air quality. The data from the Danish residential buildings showed actually slightly different results, indicating that when the acceptability of thermal, acoustic, visual conditions and air quality are of a similar magnitude......, influence the perception of comfort. To meet the objective, the following actions were taken: (1) a literature survey exploring which indoor environmental parameters (thermal, acoustic, visual environment and air quality) predominantly determine overall comfort and whether other factors unrelated...... to the indoor environment influence the perception of comfort; the literature survey summarized 42 peer-reviewed and conference articles and 1 book covering the period from 1970 to 2009; (2) preparation, distribution and analysis of a questionnaire survey sent to 2499 addresses representing the most common...

  10. Investigation of Comfort Temperature and Occupant Behavior in Japanese Houses during the Hot and Humid Season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hom B. Rijal

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to clarify the comfort temperature and to investigate the behavioral adaptation in Japanese houses, we have conducted a thermal comfort survey and occupant behavior survey in 30 living rooms during the hot and humid season in the Kanto region of Japan. We collected 3991 votes from 52 subjects. The comfort temperature was predicted by Griffiths’ method. They are analyzed according to humidity levels and compared with the adaptive model. The logistic regression analysis was conducted in order to understand occupant behavior. The mean comfort temperature in naturally ventilated mode is 27.6 °C which is within the acceptable zone of the adaptive model. The comfort temperature is related with skin moisture sensation. The results showed that the residents adapt to the hot and humid environments by increasing the air movement using behavioral adaptation such as window opening and fan use.

  11. Dynamic Analysis and Optimization of a Solar Car Using FE Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang Xinhua; Zhu Ping; Lin Zhongqin; Zhang Yan

    2004-01-01

    As we all know, the design of solar car focuses on lightweight in order to reduce the energy expenditure. However, the lightweight can induce large vibration, particularly in lower frequencies. The vibration not only influences the riding comfort but also cause the fatigue breakage. So the dynamic performance of the solar car must also be taken into account. In this paper, the finite element model of a solar car frame is built, and the modal analysis is also performed. Afterwards,the frequency responses of the frame are analyzed under harmonic load. Finally, some modification is performed on this frame by structure optimization procedure.

  12. Analysis of the methods for the achievement of comfort conditions of humidity and temperature in energetically efficient designs; Analisis de los mtodos para lograr condiciones de confort higrotermico en disenos energeticamente eficientes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mesa A., N. A.; Morillon G., D. [Division de Estudios de Posgrado de la Facultad de Arquitectura, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    This paper presents the analysis of the tools commonly utilized in Bioclimatic Design, for the achievement of humidity an temperature comfort conditions in architectonic spaces. The analysis was performed by means of field studies and experimentally for different sport activities, carried out in spaces designed for each purpose. In the experimental part, inside ambient temperature and relative humidity were measured in the different spaces where sport activities were conducted, such as calisthenics, dance, judo, wrestling, weight lifting, boxing, basket-ball, volley-ball, gymnastics and fencing. At the same time an inquiry was conducted among their occupants in respect to the thermal sensation they experimented while conducting such activities. The results obtained in the inquiry were compared with the results reported by other researchers, by means of tables and psychometric diagrams as optimum values for temperature comfort. As a conclusion it was decided that the graphic and mathematical methods analyzed, are based on a sedentary activity, therefore in using them for the design of spaces for different activities uncomfortable conditions are experimented with the consequential necessity of air conditioning, which implies energy consumption and the corresponding expenditure, lastly it is necessary to adapt these tools, that is, consider the activity that is going to be performed in the buildings. [Espanol] En este documento se presenta el analisis de las herramientas, comunmente utilizadas en Diseo Bioclimatico, para lograr el confort higrotermico de espacios arquitectonicos, el analisis se realizo mediante estudios de campo y experimental, para diversas actividades deportivas, llevadas a cabo en espacios disenados para ello. En la parte experimental, se tomaron mediciones de temperatura y humedad relativa internas, de los distintos espacios en los cuales se desarrollaban las actividades deportivas, tales como calistenia, danza, judo, lucha, trabajo con pesas

  13. Port Authority of Allegheny County Park and Rides

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset includes the GIS shapefile for Port Authority of Allegheny County's Park and Ride facilities. This layer is updated annually or on an as-needed basis...

  14. Head motions while riding roller coasters: Implications for brain injury

    OpenAIRE

    Pfister, Bryan J.; Chickola, Larry; Smith, Douglas H.

    2009-01-01

    The risk of traumatic brain injury (TBI) while riding roller coasters has received substantial attention. Case reports of TBI around the time of riding roller coasters have led many medical professionals to assert that the high gravitational forces (G-forces) induced by roller coasters pose a significant TBI risk. Head injury research, however, has shown that G-forces alone cannot predict TBI. Established head injury criterions and procedures were employed to compare the potential of TBI betw...

  15. Stability of a Light Sail Riding on a Laser Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Manchester, Zachary

    2016-01-01

    The stability of a light sail riding on a laser beam is analyzed both analytically and numerically. Conical sails on Gaussian beams, which have been studied in the past, are shown to be unstable in general. A new architecture for a passively stable sail and beam configuration is proposed. The novel spherical shell sail design is capable of "beam riding" without the need for active feedback control. Full three-dimensional ray-tracing simulations are performed to verify our analytical results.

  16. Fast Coordinated Control of DFIG Wind Turbine Generators for Low and High Voltage Ride-Through

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Wang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a fast coordinated control scheme of the rotor side converter (RSC, the Direct Current (DC chopper and the grid side converter (GSC of doubly fed induction generator (DFIG wind turbine generators (WTGs to improve the low voltage ride through (LVRT and high voltage ride through (HVRT capability of the DFIG WTGs. The characteristics of DFIG WTGs under voltage sags and swells were studied focusing on the DFIG WTG stator flux and rotor voltages during the transient periods of grid voltage changes. The protection schemes of the rotor crowbar circuit and the DC chopper circuit were proposed considering the characteristics of the DFIG WTGs during voltage changes. The fast coordinated control of RSC and GSC were developed based on the characteristic analysis in order to realize efficient LVRT and HVRT of the DFIG WTGs. The proposed fast coordinated control schemes were verified by time domain simulations using Matlab-Simulink.

  17. Human comfort in relation to sinusoidal vibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, B.; Rao, B. K. N.

    1975-01-01

    An investigation was made to assess the overall subjective comfort levels to sinusoidal excitations over the range 1 to 19 Hz using a two axis electrohydraulic vibration simulator. Exposure durations of 16 minutes, 25 minutes, 1 hour, and 2.5 hours have been considered. Subjects were not exposed over such durations, but were instructed to estimate the overall comfort levels preferred had they been constantly subjected to vibration over such durations.

  18. Potential energy savings and thermal comfort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Ingerslev; Rudbeck, Claus Christian; Schultz, Jørgen Munthe

    1996-01-01

    The simulation results on the energy saving potential and influence on indoor thermal comfort by replacement of common windows with aerogel windows as well as commercial low-energy windows are described and analysed.......The simulation results on the energy saving potential and influence on indoor thermal comfort by replacement of common windows with aerogel windows as well as commercial low-energy windows are described and analysed....

  19. Vehicle Ride Height Change Due To Radial Expansion Of Tires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čavoj Ondřej

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In general, tire deformations caused by wheel rotation are not taken into account when developing vehicle aerodynamics. On the road the tires radially expand as speed increases, which affects the actual ride height of a vehicle. In turn this often increases the real aerodynamic drag compared to values obtained using CFD or a wind tunnel as the mass flow across the relatively rough underbody increases with ground clearance. In this study, on-road ride heights were measured while running a vehicle in a straight line with fixed velocity whilst the aerodynamic lift of the vehicle was determined in a wind tunnel. Subsequently, the relationships between ride height and axle load were obtained by loading the vehicle at standstill with ballast. By comparing the ride heights at high and very low velocities with expected vertical displacement caused purely by aerodynamic lift force as computed according to the ride height - axle load equations, the ride height change due to tire radial expansion was determined.

  20. INDOOR ENVIRONMENTAL COMFORT IN MALAYSIAN URBAN HOUSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaik-Wah Lim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In Malaysia, terraced houses have been rapidly constructed since 50 years ago and account for 44% of the existing urban housings. However, these houses have very limited use of natural ventilation and daylighting due to openings with small window-to-floor ratio. The deep plan design causes gloomy indoor spaces, low air change rate and poor indoor air quality. Studies showed that indoor environments have major impact on occupants’ well-being. Thereby this study evaluates the effects of indoor comforts on occupants’ perceived health in Malaysian typical terraced houses. Survey of terraced houses in Johor Bahru, Malaysia was conducted using questionnaire. Various terraced houses were studied to identify the critical comfort and health issues in terraced housing. The relationships among occupants’ perceived comforts, health and behavior were studied. The variance of types of terraced house was also analyzed. The findings demonstrated significant linear relationships between indoor comfort and health. However, occupants’ behavior did not give significant impact on thermal comfort. This study concludes that it is very essential to improve indoor comfort in Malaysian typical terraced houses through tropical design strategies to enhance occupants’ well-being.

  1. Dynamic thermal environment and thermal comfort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Y; Ouyang, Q; Cao, B; Zhou, X; Yu, J

    2016-02-01

    Research has shown that a stable thermal environment with tight temperature control cannot bring occupants more thermal comfort. Instead, such an environment will incur higher energy costs and produce greater CO2 emissions. Furthermore, this may lead to the degeneration of occupants' inherent ability to combat thermal stress, thereby weakening thermal adaptability. Measured data from many field investigations have shown that the human body has a higher acceptance to the thermal environment in free-running buildings than to that in air-conditioned buildings with similar average parameters. In naturally ventilated environments, occupants have reported superior thermal comfort votes and much greater thermal comfort temperature ranges compared to air-conditioned environments. This phenomenon is an integral part of the adaptive thermal comfort model. In addition, climate chamber experiments have proven that people prefer natural wind to mechanical wind in warm conditions; in other words, dynamic airflow can provide a superior cooling effect. However, these findings also indicate that significant questions related to thermal comfort remain unanswered. For example, what is the cause of these phenomena? How we can build a comfortable and healthy indoor environment for human beings? This article summarizes a series of research achievements in recent decades, tries to address some of these unanswered questions, and attempts to summarize certain problems for future research.

  2. Improved Generalized Force Model considering the Comfortable Driving Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De-Jie Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an improved generalized force model (IGFM that considers the driver’s comfortable driving behavior. Through theoretical analysis, we propose the calculation methods of comfortable driving distance and velocity. Then the stability condition of the model is obtained by the linear stability analysis. The problems of the unrealistic acceleration of the leading car existing in the previous models were solved. Furthermore, the simulation results show that IGFM can predict correct delay time of car motion and kinematic wave speed at jam density, and it can exactly describe the driver’s behavior under an urgent case, where no collision occurs. The dynamic properties of IGFM also indicate that stability has improved compared to the generalized force model.

  3. Epidemiological pattern of motorcycle injuries with focus on riding purpose: Experience from a middle-income country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    leili Abedi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Road traffic injuries are the eighth leading cause of death worldwide which usually occurs among people aged between15-29 years. In most LAMICs, half of fatal road traffic injuries occur among motorcyclists, which little is known about purpose of riding among motorcycle riders. Objectives: To map out epidemiological aspects of motorcycle traffic injuries with a focus on purpose of riding among victims admitted to referral centers, Tabriz, Iran. Materials/Patients and Methods: A descriptive study was carried out on 200 motorcycle traumatic patients admitted to Shohada and Imam Reza trauma centers in Tabriz((because these two hospitals are referral for trauma in East Azarbyjan Province, Iran from April till November 2013. A questionnaire was filled out through face to face interview for all subjects. Statistical analysis was done using Stata version 11. Results: All subjects were male with mean age of 29 years old. Among injured riders, 70% and 22% of them used helmet and had a riding license, respectively. About 23% of motorcycle riders stated that their main purpose of motorcycle riding was only for fun. Among motorcycle riders who used the motorcycle for fun purposes, the rate of helmet wearing was 43.5% versus 78% among those riding for other purposes (P 0.05; Odd ratio=1. 56, 95% CI: 0. 67-3.4. Crashes have happened more in the summer and during the afternoon times. Conclusion: Motorcyclists who rode motorcycles for fun and amusement, not having rider licenses and helmets wearing were less than other motorcycle riders. Since motorcyclists are mainly young, the rate of risky behavior in this group is higher. Therefore, it is suggested that young motorcycle riders who ride for fun, needs the priority for safety promotion intervention.

  4. Effects of therapeutic horse riding on gait cycle parameters and some aspects of behavior of children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, H; Kertesz, Zs

    2015-09-01

    We studied effects of therapeutic riding on the development of children with autism. Experiments in walking is appropriate for assessing the coordination of movement and for following the changes. We found that therapeutic riding should be considered as a new form of rehabilitation. Twenty-six pupils (12 boys and 14 girls) of a special needs school participated in therapeutic riding. We analyzed walking twice during a school-term: full body analyses each time before and after one-month therapy. The research included a non-riding control group. All together 104 analyses were performed. We measured mental skills using Pedagogical Analysis and Curriculum (PAC) test consisting of four parts being communication, self care, motor skills and socialization. The Gait Cycle Analysis consists of the time-series analysis, the analysis of part of the gait cycle and the measurement of joint angles in each plane. We found significant differences between before and after the therapy in the length of the gait cycle that became more stable in the sagital plane and concluded that our results proved that horse therapy may be successfully used as an additional therapy for children with autism, and it may be a form of rehabilitation in cases when other therapies are not successful.

  5. Simulations of Carnival Rides and Rube Goldberg Machines for the Visualization of Concepts of Statics and Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, William; Williams, Richard; Yao, Jason

    2010-01-01

    Solid modeling is widely used as a teaching tool in summer activities with high school students. The addition of motion analysis allows concepts from statics and dynamics to be introduced to students in both qualitative and quantitative ways. Two sets of solid modeling projects--carnival rides and Rube Goldberg machines--are shown to allow the…

  6. Simulations of Carnival Rides and Rube Goldberg Machines for the Visualization of Concepts of Statics and Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, William; Williams, Richard; Yao, Jason

    2010-01-01

    Solid modeling is widely used as a teaching tool in summer activities with high school students. The addition of motion analysis allows concepts from statics and dynamics to be introduced to students in both qualitative and quantitative ways. Two sets of solid modeling projects--carnival rides and Rube Goldberg machines--are shown to allow the…

  7. Effects of Drains on Pain, Comfort and Anxiety in Patients Undergone Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ummu Yildiz Findik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Backround: Surgical drains negatively affect patients’ comfort, cause anxiety along with pain, as they are used to promote healing after surgery.Purpose: This study aimed to determine pain, comfort and anxiety levels of patients with drains postoperatively.Methodology: Research was performed with 192 patients undergone abdominal, neck, breast and open heart surgery and had surgical and underwater chest drains at the postoperative period. Patient Information Form, Numerical Pain Scale, General Comfort Questionnaire and Trait Anxiety Scale was used for collection of data. In evaluating the data, we used the t-test, variance and correlation analysis, mean, percentage and frequency.Results: The patients’ mean score of pain was 4.67±2.93, comfort was 2.75±0.29 and anxiety was 39.31±9.21. It was found statistically significant that the comfort level decreases as the pain level increases and that the patients undergone open heart surgery and with underwater chest drains have higher pain levels. It was found statistically significant that, comfort level in patients undergone abdominal or cardiac surgery is lower than patients undergone breast or neck surgery, and that the comfort level decreases as the duration of drains increases. The increasing state anxiety while pain increases and comfort decreases was found statistically significant.Conclusions: Surgeries and drains applied after these procedures decrease the comfort level of the patients as increases the pain level. Also, pain and discomfort increase the patients’ anxiety. Nurses who providing care to these patients are suggested to improve measures about pain and anxiety reduction for maintaining of comfort.

  8. Sexuality education: attitudes, knowledge, comfort and willingness of portuguese teachers

    OpenAIRE

    ALVAREZ, M.-J.; PINTO, A. Marques

    2014-01-01

    In the context of the widespread implementation of sexuality education (SE) in Portuguese schools, after becoming mandatory in 2009, we aim to understand Portuguese teachers' perspective on SE (N = 307). Through an on-line questionnaire, analysed by descriptive statistics and factorial and inferential analysis, we measured general attitudes on SE, knowledge, comfort and willingness to teach it, the importance assigned to several topics of SE and the grade level at which they should be int...

  9. Steel Vierendeel Sandwich Plate Floor Structure Comfort Dynamic Time History Analysis%钢空腹夹层板楼盖结构舒适度动力时程分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金爱兰

    2014-01-01

    For-large-span-floor-structure,-floor-comfort-is-an-important-criteria.-When-can-not-meet-the-requirements-will-seriously-affect-the-normal-use-of-floor.-In-this-paper,-using-a-large-finite-element-software-SAP2000,-choose-walking-routes-single---point-excitation-method-for-steel-vierendeel-sandwich-plate-floor-structure-of-natural-frequencies-and-the-analysis-of-ver-tical-vibration-acceleration-peak-value,-in-the-practical-engineer-ing-of-the-new-floor-structure-to-provide-design-basis.%对于大跨度楼盖结构,楼盖舒适度是一项重要评判标准。当不能满足要求时还会严重影响楼盖的正常使用。本文使用大型有限元软件SAP2000,选取行走路线单点激励法对钢空腹夹层板楼盖结构进行自振频率和竖向振动加速度峰值分析,以对该种新型楼盖结构的实际工程提供设计依据。

  10. Adaptive thermal comfort opportunities for dwellings: Providing thermal comfort only when and where needed in dwellings in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noortje Alders

    2016-08-01

    .A different approach to the comfort boundaries used in modern standards was introduced, creating insight in the spread in activity patterns and the comfort demand in the context of individual preferences and vulnerabilities. Information of sociology and thermal comfort studies were brought together creating occupancy and thermal comfort profiles for the Dutch situation. By recognizing the differences in occupancy patterns it becomes possible to design adaptive systems to be able to deliver the comfort demanded only when and where necessary in different occupancy scenarios. This is an opportunity to achieve a significantly better energy performance.Furthermore, a method for dynamic analysis of weather conditions related to the thermal comfort was proposed in order to map the opportunities and threats of weather change. This makes the system able to seize upon every reasonably to be expected situation to create an optimal dynamic filter for the outdoor to indoor thermal environment at any time and place. This preliminary study was performed by presuming a simple shelter that can create shielding from wind and solar radiation without any form of thermal storage or insulation.In this study it is emphasised that there is no need for active cooling in the residential sector of the Netherlands if the dwelling is well designed; blocking solar radiation when needed and to allow built up excess heat to be discarded.An inventory is provided of the possibilities for adaptivity for a thermal comfort system which are used in common practice and which improvements and new techniques can be implemented to increase these possibilities for adaptivity of the Adaptive Thermal Comfort System. 2. The effect of applying the detailed information and adaptive opportunities framed in step 1 on the energy saving and comfort delivery of the Thermal Comfort Systems was researched.Firstly, the most appropriate calculation methods for the research were determined comparing various levels of detail and

  11. Adaptive thermal comfort opportunities for dwellings: Providing thermal comfort only when and where needed in dwellings in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noortje Alders

    2016-08-01

    .A different approach to the comfort boundaries used in modern standards was introduced, creating insight in the spread in activity patterns and the comfort demand in the context of individual preferences and vulnerabilities. Information of sociology and thermal comfort studies were brought together creating occupancy and thermal comfort profiles for the Dutch situation. By recognizing the differences in occupancy patterns it becomes possible to design adaptive systems to be able to deliver the comfort demanded only when and where necessary in different occupancy scenarios. This is an opportunity to achieve a significantly better energy performance.Furthermore, a method for dynamic analysis of weather conditions related to the thermal comfort was proposed in order to map the opportunities and threats of weather change. This makes the system able to seize upon every reasonably to be expected situation to create an optimal dynamic filter for the outdoor to indoor thermal environment at any time and place. This preliminary study was performed by presuming a simple shelter that can create shielding from wind and solar radiation without any form of thermal storage or insulation.In this study it is emphasised that there is no need for active cooling in the residential sector of the Netherlands if the dwelling is well designed; blocking solar radiation when needed and to allow built up excess heat to be discarded.An inventory is provided of the possibilities for adaptivity for a thermal comfort system which are used in common practice and which improvements and new techniques can be implemented to increase these possibilities for adaptivity of the Adaptive Thermal Comfort System. 2. The effect of applying the detailed information and adaptive opportunities framed in step 1 on the energy saving and comfort delivery of the Thermal Comfort Systems was researched.Firstly, the most appropriate calculation methods for the research were determined comparing various levels of detail and

  12. Hygrothermal response of a dwelling house. Thermal comfort criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian IACOB

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of local natural materials in order to reduce the environmental negative impact of buildings has become common practice in recent years; such buildings are to be found in all regions of the planet. The high level of thermal protection provided by the envelope elements made from natural materials such as straw bale insulation, hemp insulation or sheep wool, and their lack of thermal massiveness require a more complex analysis on their ability to keep interior comfort without accentuated variations. This paper proposes a comparative analysis between different solutions for a residential building located near a Romanian city, Cluj-Napoca. The elements of the building envelope are designed in three alternative solutions, using as substitute to classical solutions (concrete and polystyrene, masonry and polystyrene, straw bales and rammed earth for enclosing elements. For this purpose there are conducted numerical simulations of heat and mass transfer, using a mathematical model that allows the analysis of indoor comfort, by comparing both objective factors (air temperature, operative temperature and relative humidity and subjective factors, which are needed to define interior thermal comfort indices PPD and PMV. Finally, a set of conclusions are presented and future research directions are drawn.

  13. Factors that affecting mothers’ postnatal comfort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gül Pınar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The comfort is defined as; “an expected result of a complex conformation of providing peace and help about individual’s needs in a physical, psycho-spiritual, social and environmental entity to overcome the problems”. The aim of this study was to determine the mother’s postnatal comfort and the affecting factors of it.Materials and Methods: This is a sectional and descriptive study. The study was performed on the mothers (n=150 who applied to the delivery service of the Başkent University Ankara Hospital between the date of 30.07.2008 to 31.12.2008. A questionnaire was developed by the investigators to collect data and determine patients’ postnatal comfort scores. Results: The mean age of women was 26.4±3.5 years, the majority of patients had an educational level of high school (68.7% and were multipara (66.0%. It was determined that the mothers had problems and needed help with the fatigue, pain, in standing up, the adverse effect of anesthesia, personal and perineal hygiene that affect their postnatal comfort. The comfort score of the mothers who had spontaneous vaginal birth was higher than those of underwent cesarean delivery (p<0.05.Conclusion: The mothers’ needs and expectations about themselves and their babies were generally supplied by midwifes and the nurses in the postnatal period. Opinion of the mothers about their comfort were influenced to a positive view and the comfort scores increased while the mothers’ satisfaction were augmented (p<0.05.

  14. Influence of Horse and Rider on Stress during Horse-riding Lesson Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Ok-Deuk; Yun, Young-Min

    2016-06-01

    The present study aims to confirm the influence of a horse-riding lesson program (HRLP) on the stress level of horses and riders by respectively analyzing their salivary cortisol concentration. Twenty-four healthy horses and 23 riders participated in this study. The horses were randomly classified into two groups for the horse riding lesson program: Class 1 (for the beginner lesson) and Class 2 (for the intermediate lesson). The Class 1 group consisted of 12 horses and 12 riders, while the Class 2 group consisted of 12 horses and 11 riders. Salivettes cotton wool swabs were used for saliva collection and the saliva analyses were conducted using a two-way analysis of variance for repeated measures with SAS version 8. As for the results, the average salivary cortisol concentration of all horses before HRLP significantly increased compared to the baseline (priders were similar to the horses' results. However, there was no difference during the HRLP between Class 1 and Class 2 in the horse or rider groups. The results suggest that the HRLP did not influence the stress level of the horses or riders. Thus, this study provides the necessary information and guidelines for future studies on stress in horses during riding and gives insight into better horse welfare and management options.

  15. Interracial Social Comfort and Its Relationship to Adjustment to College

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Scott D.; Vrana, Scott R.

    2007-01-01

    The present study examined the effects of interracial social comfort on college adjustment for 45 Black and 82 White students at a predominantly-White university. Black students reporting more comfort with Whites, regardless of level of comfort with Blacks, experienced better college adjustment. Furthermore, more social comfort with Blacks…

  16. 摩托车平顺性评价研究%A Research on Evaluation on Ride Comfort of Motorcycles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐中明; 张志飞; 黄泽好; 肖建伯; 周坤

    2007-01-01

    对几款具有代表性的摩托车进行了平顺性道路试验,研究分析了摩托车平顺性的实际特点,依据国际标准ISO2631、ISO5349,提出了摩托车平顺性客观和主观评价方法.通过主观调查和客观评价,探讨了手把处、座位处的客观评价指标和主观感觉之间的联系,座位处分析结果与ISO2631相吻合,说明该评价方法能较好地反映振动对人体的影响.

  17. A control performance analysis for MacPherson active suspension system under bounce sine sweep road profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, M. Fahezal; Sam, Yahaya Md.; Sudin, Shahdan; Aripin, M. Khairi

    2016-10-01

    This paper studies a control performance analysis for MacPherson active suspension system. The ride comfort quality is a very important specification for modern automotive suspension system. The Proportional Integral Sliding Mode Control-Evolutionary Strategy-Composite Nonlinear Feedback (PISMC-ES-CNF) controller is designed to solve the transient problem occurred in vertical acceleration of sprung mass. The control performance is tested by using PISMC-ES-CNF and compared with Sliding Mode Controller (SMC) and Composite Nonlinear Feedback (CNF) under Bounce Sine Sweep road profile. The ISO 2631-1, 1997 is a standard for vertical acceleration of sprung mass level and degree of comfort. The one way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and standard deviation have showed that the PISMC- ES-CNF controller compared with others controllers achieved the best control performance.

  18. A new tool for prediction and analysis of thermal comfort in steady and transient states; Un nouvel outil pour la prediction et l'analyse du confort thermique en regime permanent et variable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Megri, A.Ch. [Illinois Institute of Technology, Civil and Architectural Engineering Dept., Chicago, Illinois (United States); Megri, A.F. [Centre Universitaire de Tebessa, Dept. d' Electronique (Algeria); El Naqa, I. [Washington Univ., School of Medicine, Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Saint Louis, Missouri (United States); Achard, G. [Universite de Savoie, Lab. Optimisation de la Conception et Ingenierie de L' Environnement (LOCIE) - ESIGEC, 73 - Le Bourget du Lac (France)

    2006-02-15

    Thermal comfort is influenced by psychological as well as physiological factors. This paper proposes the use of support vector machine (SVM) learning for automated prediction of human thermal comfort in steady and transient states. The SVM is an artificial intelligent approach that could capture the input/output mapping from the given data. Support vector machines were developed based on the Structural Risk Minimization principle. Different sets of representative experimental environmental factors that affect a homogenous person's thermal balance were used for training the SVM machine. The SVM is a very efficient, fast, and accurate technique to identify thermal comfort. This technique permits the determination of thermal comfort indices for different sub-categories of people; sick and elderly, in extreme climatic conditions, when the experimental data for such sub-category are available. The experimental data has been used for the learning and testing processes. The results show a good correlation between SVM predicted values and those obtained from conventional thermal comfort, such as Fanger and Gagge models. The 'trained machine' with representative data could be used easily and effectively in comparison with other conventional estimation methods of different indices. (author)

  19. Vibration Analysis and Human Comfort Evaluation of Steel-Concrete Composite Footbridges Based on the Modelling of the PedestrianStructure Dynamic Interaction Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.G. Santos da Silva

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This work aims the development of an analysis methodology to investigate the dynamic behaviour of steelconcrete composite footbridges. The composite footbridge dynamic response is analysed based on two different strategies. Firstly, the traditional simulation of human walking, without consideration of the pedestrianfootbridge dynamic interaction effect is considered. On the other hand, the effect of the dynamics of the pedestrians while crossing footbridges in crowd situations is analysed and the pedestrian-footbridge dynamic interaction, based on the use of biodynamic models is investigated using a second strategy. The investigated structural system corresponds to an existing pedestrian footbridge built on Ayrton Senna Av. in the city of Rio de Janeiro/RJ, Brazil, with a central span of 68.6m. The footbridge dynamic response was obtained and compared to the limiting values proposed by several authors and design standards. The results indicate that the biodynamic loading models lead to peak accelerations values lower than those produced by the traditional methods. These results provided evidence that the pedestrian-structure dynamic interaction effect should be considered when composite footbridges are subjected to flow of pedestrians.

  20. Balancing Machine Work, Comfort Work, and Sentimental Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Maria Ie; Hansen, Magnus; Hertzum, Morten

    2011-01-01

    and attention. We investigate ambulance care in three of Denmark’s five healthcare regions, which staff ambulances with emergency medical technicians, paramedics, and physicians. Using the concept of illness trajectory we analyse how the ambulance crews balance machine work, which involves continuously...... work, but also that this has negative consequences. Equipment for use in ambulances should aim at supporting the ambulance crews in competently and dynamically balancing the different types of work and should, consequently, avoid binding the crew’s attention for unbroken periods of time....... monitoring the equipment, comfort work, which is actions taken to relieve the pain or discomfort of the patient, and sentimental work, which is care for the patient’s physical and mental well-being, often verbal in nature. The analysis shows that comfort and sentimental work often takes priority over machine...

  1. Research on linguistic concept creation method applied to environmental comfort sensors in health smart home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Li; Wenxue, Hong; Jialin, Song; Jiannan, Kang

    2005-01-01

    We endeavor to provide a novel tool to evaluate environmental comfort level in Health Smart Home (HSH). HSH is regarded a good alternative for the independent life of elders and people with disability. Numerous intelligent devices, installed within a home environment, can provide the resident with continuous monitoring and comfortable environment. In this paper, a novel method of evaluating environmental comfort level is provided. An intelligent sensor is a fuzzy comfort sensor that can measure and fusion the environmental parameters. Based upon the results, it will further give a linguistic description about the environmental comfort level, in the manner of an expert system. The core of the sensor is multi-parameter information fusion. Similar to human behavior, the sensor makes all the evaluation about the surrounding environment's comfort level based on the symbolic measurement theory. We applied chart representation theory in multivariate analysis in the biomedical engineering field to complete the human comfortable sensor's linguistic concept creation. We achieved better performance when using this method to complete multi-parameter fusion and fuzziness. It is our belief that this method can be used in both biology intelligent sensing and many other areas, where the quantitative and qualitative information transform is needed.

  2. Adaptive use of natural ventilation for thermal comfort in Indian apartments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Indraganti, Madhavi [Architecture Department, Jawaharlal Nehru Architecture and Fine Arts University, Hyderabad (India)

    2010-06-15

    Thermal comfort research in India is in its nascent stage. Indian codes specify uniform comfort temperatures between 23 and 26 C for all types of buildings. About 73% of energy in Indian residences is consumed for ventilation and lighting controls. Therefore, a thermal comfort field survey was conducted in apartment buildings in Hyderabad, which included information on the use of building controls. The present analysis is based on this database. Due to the poor availability of adaptive opportunities, 60% of the occupants were uncomfortable in summer. The comfort range obtained (26.0-32.5 C) was way above the standard. The occupants adapted through clothing, metabolism and the use of various controls like windows, balcony and external doors and curtains. The subjects operated the controls, as the indoor temperature moved away from the comfort band. At comfort temperature, maximum use of openings was found, which correlated robustly with indoor/outdoor temperature and thermal sensation. Use of controls was critically impeded by lack of privacy and safety and non-availability of controls. Several design and non-thermal factors, such as operation and maintenance of controls, mosquitoes, noise, and occupant's attitude, age and tenure impacted the occupant's adaptive behaviour and thermal comfort significantly. The building's 'restrained adaptive opportunity' seriously hampered the occupant's thermal satisfaction and adversely affected the sensation vote. (author)

  3. Energy flow and thermal comfort in buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Dreau, Jerome

    the terminal towards the space and on the parameters influencing the effectiveness of terminals. Therefore the comfort conditions and energy consumption of four types of terminals (active chilled beam, radiant floor, wall and ceiling) have been compared for a typical office room, both numerically...... beam. The higher the air change rate and the warmer the outdoor air, the larger the savings achieved with a radiant cooling terminals. Therefore radiant terminals have a large potential of energy savings for buildings with high ventilation rates (e.g. shop, train station, industrial storage). Among...... comfort, a similar global level has been observed for the radiant and air-based terminals in both numerical and experimental investigations. But the different terminals did not achieve the same uniformity in space. The active chilled beam theoretically achieves the most uniform comfort conditions (when...

  4. Perceived Indoor Environment and Occupants’ Comfort in European “Modern” Office Buildings: The OFFICAIR Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakellaris, Ioannis A.; Saraga, Dikaia E.; Mandin, Corinne; Roda, Célina; Fossati, Serena; de Kluizenaar, Yvonne; Carrer, Paolo; Dimitroulopoulou, Sani; Mihucz, Victor G.; Szigeti, Tamás; Hänninen, Otto; de Oliveira Fernandes, Eduardo; Bartzis, John G.; Bluyssen, Philomena M.

    2016-01-01

    Indoor environmental conditions (thermal, noise, light, and indoor air quality) may affect workers’ comfort, and consequently their health and well-being, as well as their productivity. This study aimed to assess the relations between perceived indoor environment and occupants’ comfort, and to examine the modifying effects of both personal and building characteristics. Within the framework of the European project OFFICAIR, a questionnaire survey was administered to 7441 workers in 167 “modern” office buildings in eight European countries (Finland, France, Greece, Hungary, Italy, The Netherlands, Portugal, and Spain). Occupants assessed indoor environmental quality (IEQ) using both crude IEQ items (satisfaction with thermal comfort, noise, light, and indoor air quality), and detailed items related to indoor environmental parameters (e.g., too hot/cold temperature, humid/dry air, noise inside/outside, natural/artificial light, odor) of their office environment. Ordinal logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the relations between perceived IEQ and occupants’ comfort. The highest association with occupants’ overall comfort was found for “noise”, followed by “air quality”, “light” and “thermal” satisfaction. Analysis of detailed parameters revealed that “noise inside the buildings” was highly associated with occupants’ overall comfort. “Layout of the offices” was the next parameter highly associated with overall comfort. The relations between IEQ and comfort differed by personal characteristics (gender, age, and the Effort Reward Imbalance index), and building characteristics (office type and building’s location). Workplace design should take into account both occupant and the building characteristics in order to provide healthier and more comfortable conditions to their occupants. PMID:27120608

  5. Perceived Indoor Environment and Occupants’ Comfort in European “Modern” Office Buildings: The OFFICAIR Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis A. Sakellaris

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Indoor environmental conditions (thermal, noise, light, and indoor air quality may affect workers’ comfort, and consequently their health and well-being, as well as their productivity. This study aimed to assess the relations between perceived indoor environment and occupants’ comfort, and to examine the modifying effects of both personal and building characteristics. Within the framework of the European project OFFICAIR, a questionnaire survey was administered to 7441 workers in 167 “modern” office buildings in eight European countries (Finland, France, Greece, Hungary, Italy, The Netherlands, Portugal, and Spain. Occupants assessed indoor environmental quality (IEQ using both crude IEQ items (satisfaction with thermal comfort, noise, light, and indoor air quality, and detailed items related to indoor environmental parameters (e.g., too hot/cold temperature, humid/dry air, noise inside/outside, natural/artificial light, odor of their office environment. Ordinal logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the relations between perceived IEQ and occupants’ comfort. The highest association with occupants’ overall comfort was found for “noise”, followed by “air quality”, “light” and “thermal” satisfaction. Analysis of detailed parameters revealed that “noise inside the buildings” was highly associated with occupants’ overall comfort. “Layout of the offices” was the next parameter highly associated with overall comfort. The relations between IEQ and comfort differed by personal characteristics (gender, age, and the Effort Reward Imbalance index, and building characteristics (office type and building’s location. Workplace design should take into account both occupant and the building characteristics in order to provide healthier and more comfortable conditions to their occupants.

  6. A comparative study of visual and thermal comfort in prefabricated and classically built kindergarten

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis a comparative study of visual and thermal comfort in prefabricated and classically built kindergarten in Grosuplje are presented. Visual and thermal comfort in the selected room of classically and prefabricated built kindergarten was estimated by site measuring, calculations and questionnaires. The thesis includes review of legislation in this field, review of existing studies, the methodology and the results of a comparative analysis. Furthermore, proposals for improvements in...

  7. Improving Vehicle Ride and Handling Using LQG CNF Fusion Control Strategy for an Active Antiroll Bar System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Zulkarnain

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses a comparison of performance for an active antiroll bar (ARB system using two types of control strategy. First of all, the LQG control strategy is investigated and then a novel LQG CNF fusion control method is developed to improve the performances on vehicle ride and handling for an active antiroll bar system. However, the ARB system has to balance the trade-off between ride and handling performance, where the CNF consists of a linear feedback law and a nonlinear feedback law. Typically, the linear feedback is designed to yield a quick response at the initial stage, while the nonlinear feedback law is used to smooth out overshoots in the system output when it approaches the target reference. The half car model is combined with a linear single track model with roll dynamics which are used for the analysis and simulation of ride and handling. The performances of the control strategies are compared and the simulation results show the LQG CNF fusion improves the performances in vehicle ride and handling.

  8. Evaluation of Park and Ride Scenarios for Eskisehir with AHP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaliniz, Polat; Ustun, Ozden; Bilgiç, Safak; Vitosoglu, Yasar

    2016-10-01

    Nowadays, limiting individual transportation and increasing share of mass transit represent an important place in planning a sustainable urban transportation system. In order to attract private automobile users into public transportation, a number of applications can be employed. Among these applications, “park and ride” system comes in first. Therefore, in this study, park and ride system as well as the other applicable scenarios have been evaluated with Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) method. The alternatives evaluated include the Protection of the Current Situation, the Introduction of Only Restrictive Factors and the Park and Ride Implementation. Consequently, the overall relative priority values of alternatives were calculated and found to be the highest in the case of Park and Ride Implementation. Hence, it was determined that the “park and ride” application provided a clear superiority compared to other alternatives.

  9. Technical and Programmatic Challenges for Dedicated Ride Share Missions

    OpenAIRE

    Kehrl, Gregory; Steele, Matt

    2012-01-01

    The Athena RideShare™ launch service, announced by Lockheed Martin and ATK in 2011, is a game-changing approach that lowers launch costs and provides scheduled access to space for small satellites and cubesats. The Athena RideShare launch service is an extension of a familiar concept, the Post Office’s Priority Mail Flat Rate Boxes. If payload fits into the designated volume envelope and mass limit, the customer pays one low flat rate to get to space. Despite the simplicity of the model, ther...

  10. Improving comfort and health with personalized ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2004-01-01

    existing knowledge on performance of personalized ventilation (PV) and on human response to it. The airflow interaction in the vicinity of the human body is analysed and its impact on thermal comfort and inhaled air quality is discussed together with control strategies and the application of PV in practice...

  11. Comfort Indicators for the Assessment of Indoor Environmental Building Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brohus, Henrik; Bendtsen, A.; Sørensen, M.

    2006-01-01

    Indoor environmental building performance assessment requires efficient indicators of the indoor comfort. In order to be effective and useful the comfort indicators must be able to include the temporal variation of indoor comfort as well as the degree of discomfort perceived by the occupants....... This paper discusses and presents a number of comfort indicators that includes both the temporal variation and the degree of discomfort in the calculations. A test case comprising a ventilated office building is used to show the application of the various comfort indices. It is found that the new comfort...... indices provide substantially new information and constitute much better decision tools....

  12. 75 FR 65437 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Defense Cargo Riding Gang Members (DFARS Case...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-25

    ... Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Defense Cargo Riding Gang Members (DFARS Case 2007-D002) AGENCY: Defense... 3504 addresses requirements that apply to riding gang members and DoD- exempted individuals who perform.... 109-364). Section 3504 addresses requirements that apply to riding gang members and...

  13. 考虑低电压穿越影响的双馈感应发电机谐波电流特性%Analysis on Harmonic Current of Double Fed Induction Generator Considering Low Voltage Ride Through

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡君慧; 齐晓光

    2015-01-01

    Double fed induction generator (DFIG) is the most widely used wind generator. Because of its special struc-tural design the operating characteristic of DFIG becomes much complicated during fault,especially under the low voltage ride through,and the output of DFIG has caused a series of effects on the safe operation of power grid and relay protection. At present a lot of research has focused on the short-current characteristic of DFIG,but the study of the harmonic current is rarely reported. This paper studies on the stator harmonic current and rotor harmonic current of DFIG during asymmetric fault with consideration of the effect of LVRT. From the perspective of electromagnetic transients,the analytic expressions of the DFIG stator harmonic current are derived in detail under the condition of Crowbar action. The generation mechanism of the harmonic current on the stator and rotor of DFIG caused by the converter control is researched under the condition of the crow-bar inaction. The conclusion made is verified by simulation.%双馈感应发电机(DFIG)作为当前应用最广泛的风力发电机,其特殊的结构使其故障运行特性十分复杂,尤其在低电压穿越(LVRT)运行状态下,已对电网安全运行和保护控制的顺利实施造成一系列影响。目前对DFIG的短路电流特性已有大量研究,但是针对定转子电流谐波特性的研究还鲜有报道。考虑LVRT的影响,对电网不对称故障情况下DFIG定、转子谐波电流的特性进行研究。从电磁暂态过程的角度详细推导了Crowbar动作后的DFIG定子谐波电流的解析表达式;在Crowbar未动作时,从转子侧变流器影响机理出发,研究了由变流器控制引起的定、转子谐波电流的产生机理。所得结论通过仿真进行了验证。

  14. Riding the Wave: A Self-Portrait Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skophammer, Karen

    2009-01-01

    Creating a self-portrait of having fun "riding a wave" is a very enlightening and engaging experience for students of all ages, but the author's second-graders had an especially wonderful time with this art experience. To begin the unit of study, the author and her students looked at self-portraits created by Vincent van Gogh, Rembrandt,…

  15. Undoing Quantitative Easing: Janet Yellen's Tiger Ride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederjohn, M. Scott; Schug, Mark C.; Wood, William C.

    2014-01-01

    "One who rides a tiger is afraid to dismount," says a colorful proverb from an earlier time. This may be an apt saying for the situation facing the new head of the Federal Reserve, Janet L. Yellen, who takes over at a time when successive rounds of Fed policy have taken the central bank into uncharted territory. By historical standards,…

  16. Promoting bike-and-ride : the Dutch experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martens, C.J.C.M.

    2007-01-01

    The number of policy initiatives to promote the use of bike-and-ride, or the combined use of bicycle and public trans-port for one trip, has grown considerably over the past decade as part of the search for more sustainable transport solu-tions. This paper discusses the experiences with, and impacts

  17. The Benefits of Meeting Points in Ride-sharing Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Stiglic (Mitja); N.A.H. Agatz (Niels); M.W.P. Savelsbergh (Martin); M. Gradisar (Mirko)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractWe investigate the potential benefits of introducing meeting points in a ride-sharing system. With meeting points, riders can be picked up and dropped off either at their origin and destination or at a meeting point that is within a certain distance from their origin or destination. The

  18. Using forecast information for storm ride-through control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barahona Garzón, Braulio; Trombe, Pierre-Julien; Vincent, Claire Louise;

    2013-01-01

    Using probabilistic forecast information in control algorithms can improve the performance of wind farms during periods of extreme winds. This work presents a wind farm supervisor control concept that uses probabilistic forecast information to ride-through a storm with softer ramps of power. Wind...

  19. Pensionäride suurkogu tuleb kokku / Heimar Lenk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lenk, Heimar, 1946-

    2005-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Videvik 22. september lk. 1. 30. september koguneb pensionäride esinduskogu Tallinnas, andmaks märku eakate aktiivsest eluhoiakust ja soovist riigi arengule kaasa rääkida. Vt. samal teemal ka Heimar Lenk. Valga pensionäri Tallinna suurkogule! 29. sept. Valgamaalane lk. 2

  20. Science 101: How Do People Design Safe Amusement Park Rides?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Bill

    2015-01-01

    To address the question of how people design safe amusement park rides, Bill Robertson focuses on the factors designers must consider so that human bodies don't experience too large an acceleration (any change in speed and/or direction) or "g-force" (the acceleration an object undergoes while freely falling, with no air resistance, under…

  1. Undoing Quantitative Easing: Janet Yellen's Tiger Ride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederjohn, M. Scott; Schug, Mark C.; Wood, William C.

    2014-01-01

    "One who rides a tiger is afraid to dismount," says a colorful proverb from an earlier time. This may be an apt saying for the situation facing the new head of the Federal Reserve, Janet L. Yellen, who takes over at a time when successive rounds of Fed policy have taken the central bank into uncharted territory. By historical standards,…

  2. Riding the Bus: Symbol and Vehicle for Boundary Spanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    In this reflective essay I examine the activity of a bus tour, organized as the result of an ongoing university and city partnership. I illustrate how riding the bus is not only symbolic for positionality in our society, but also how it can be a viable mechanism for initiating boundary spanning and promoting opportunities for place-based learning…

  3. Passenger ride quality within a noise and vibration environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, T. K.; Leatherwood, J. D.; Drezek, A. B.

    1976-01-01

    The subjective response to noise and vibration stimuli was studied in a ride quality simulator to determine their importance in the prediction of passenger ride quality. Subjects used category scales to rate noise discomfort, vibration discomfort, both noise and vibration discomfort, and overall discomfort in an effort to evaluate parametric arrangements of noise and vibration. The noise stimuli were composed of octave frequency bands centered at 125, 250, 2,000 and 4,000 Hz, each presented at 70, 75, 80, and 85 dB(A). The vertical vibration stimuli were 5 Hz bandwidth random vibrations centered at 3, 5, 7, and 9 Hz, each presented at 0.03, 0.06, 0.09, and 0.12 grms. Analyses were directed at (1) a determination of the subject's ability to separate noise and vibration as contributors to discomfort, (2) an assessment of the physical characteristics of noise and vibration that are needed for prediction of ride quality in this type of multifactor environment, and (3) an evaluation of the relative contribution of noise and vibration to passenger ride quality.

  4. A participatory sensing approach to characterize ride quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridgelall, Raj

    2014-03-01

    Rough roads increase vehicle operation and road maintenance costs. Consequently, transportation agencies spend a significant portion of their budgets on ride-quality characterization to forecast maintenance needs. The ubiquity of smartphones and social media, and the emergence of a connected vehicle environment present lucrative opportunities for cost-reduction and continuous, network-wide, ride-quality characterization. However, there is a lack of models to transform inertial and position information from voluminous data flows into indices that transportation agencies currently use. This work expands on theories of the Road Impact Factor introduced in previous research. The index characterizes road roughness by aggregating connected vehicle data and reporting roughness in direct proportion to the International Roughness Index. Their theoretical relationships are developed, and a case study is presented to compare the relative data quality from an inertial profiler and a regular passenger vehicle. Results demonstrate that the approach is a viable alternative to existing models that require substantially more resources and provide less network coverage. One significant benefit of the participatory sensing approach is that transportation agencies can monitor all network facilities continuously to locate distress symptoms, such as frost heaves, that appear and disappear between ride assessment cycles. Another benefit of the approach is continuous monitoring of all high-risk intersections such as rail grade crossings to better understand the relationship between ride-quality and traffic safety.

  5. Solving the Dial-a-Ride Problem using Genetic Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Rene Munk; Larsen, Jesper; Bergvinsdottir, Kristin Berg

    2007-01-01

    In the Dial-a-Ride problem (DARP), customers request transportation from an operator. A request consists of a specified pickup location and destination location along with a desired departure or arrival time and capacity demand. The aim of DARP is to minimize transportation cost while satisfying...

  6. EXAMINING COMFORT PROPERTIES OF LEATHER and ARTIFICIAL LEATHER COVER MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ÇETİN Münire Sibel

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The analysis and regulation of workplace, working instruments, the comfort of office chair, business environment (sound, lighting, climate, vibration, temperature, and humidity, work and break times, analysis and editing of the organization, are some of the topics of interest of ergonomics. Environmental impact and conditions have important role on the employee’s working comfortably and efficiently. Therefore these conditions need to be aligned to the human body nature. Unsuitable working conditions (noise, etc. cause additional load, which the human body endures, and this additional load reveals the signs of tiredness in the body. Even an office environment, unsuitable physical environment impairs health of workers and reduces the performance. Therefore, office climate, environmental factors such as lighting and noise must be harmonized with the employee’s body nature in all working environments. Seating comfort is one of the important factors affecting the performance of employees in the office environment. There are so many studies about chair dimensions and the disorders on human body which were caused by the inappropriate chair dimensions and sitting positions. However, there are a spot of studies about the surface of the chair and the discomfort caused by the chair cover and its negative performance effects. In this study, some results of seat cover analysis for the design of an ergonomic chair. Recently, ease of cleaning, low cost advantages caused the increasing of the use of artificial leather especially on the surface of the seat used in offices. The physical properties of natural leather and artificial leather were compared as the candidate covers to be used on the design of an ergonomic office chair.

  7. Design of a digital ride quality augmentation system for a commuter aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, T. A.; Downing, D. R.; Amin, S. P.; Paduano, J.

    1984-01-01

    Commuter aircraft with low wing loading that operate at low altitudes are particularly susceptible to unwanted accelerations caused by atmospheric gusts. This paper describes the design and analysis of a longitudinal digital Ride Quality Augmentation System (RQAS). The RQAS designs were conducted for a Cessna 402B aircraft using the flaps and the elevator as the control surfaces. The designs are generated using linear quadratic Gaussian theory and analyzed in both the time and frequency domains. Nominal designs are presented at five flight conditions that cover a total mission. Trade-off studies are conducted to investigate the effect of sample time, computational delay time, servo bandwidth and control power.

  8. Internal balance during low-voltage-ride-through of the modular multilevel converter statcom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsolaridis, Georgios; Kontos, Epameinondas; Chaudhary, Sanjay K.

    2017-01-01

    on the challenging internal control of the converter to allow the independent control of the energy levels of each arm, with the goal to maintain internal balancing of the MMC during contingencies. Extensive experimental results highlight the need for a sophisticated internal control. Moreover, the experimental...... analysis verifies that, by using the proposed control structure, the MMC can effectively ride through a fault on the AC side without tripping, while injecting the necessary positive and negative sequence reactive current levels according to the most recent grid codes....

  9. New Equation for Estimating Outdoor Thermal Comfort in Humid-Tropical Environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Sangkertadi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of research focusing on thermal comfort at outdoor spaces in humid tropical climate. The study was conducted in the city of Manado, Indonesia inthe years 2011 and 2012, by way of field-experimentation and measurements of microclimate.From the results of measurements and questionnaires, it was carried out development of regression equations. Through statistical analysis it has been generated three thermal comfort equations for outdoor, which each for normal walking, briskwalking, and sitting with doing a moderate activity. Equations are functions of Ta(air temperature, Tg(globe temperature, v(wind velocity, RH(Relative humidity and Adu(body surface area. The output of the equations is scale of thermal comfort level referring to PMV (Predicted Mean Vote, where 0 is comfortable or neutral, +3 is very hot, -2 is cold, .etc. The equations are uniquely for the people wearing tropical clothing type (about 0.5 to 0.7 clo. The validation of the equations was done through comparison with other equations that originated from the studies of non-tropical humid climates. Simulations using the equations were also be done in order to know effect of micro climate on outdoor thermal comfort.Keywords: thermal comfort, tropical-humid, micro-climate, Manado

  10. The comfort triangles: a new tool for bioclimatic design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evans, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    This thesis presents a new graphic tool to identify and select bioclimatic strategies according to climate conditions and comfort requirements. The Comfort Triangle relates outdoor daily temperature variations with the modification of thermal performance achieved indoors, using two key variables,

  11. Indoor Thermal Comfort Analysis of Centralized Control Room in Thermal Power Plant%火力发电厂集中控制室室内热舒适性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪明龙; 张英俊; 刘明涛; 盛帮明; 黄艺

    2014-01-01

    There are some deficiencies about staff comfort on air conditioning design of the centralized control room in China thermal power plants .Combined thermal comfort with the actual situation in power plant ,the influence of indoor temperature ,in-door humidity and wind speed of working area on the thermal comfort of centralized control room has been studied by the PMV -PPD evaluation indicators .Found that the electric power industry standard DL/T 5035-2004 provisions on the centralized control room indoor winter and summer air conditioning system design parameters failed to fully consider the indoor thermal comfort .Rea-sonable suggestions were given and provided the reference for the design personnel .%目前我国火力发电厂集中控制室空调设计在人员舒适性方面考虑不足。从热舒适角度出发,结合电厂实际情况,采用PMV-PPD评价指标探讨温度、湿度及工作区风速3个因素对集控室内热舒适性的影响。发现现行电力行业标准DL/T 5035-2004中关于集控室室内冬、夏季空调系统设计参数的规定未能充分考虑室内人员的热舒适性,并给出合理建议,为设计人员提供参考。

  12. Comfort Agent: FACT. From technology to value

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeiler, W. [Univ. of Technology Eindhoven, Faculty of Architecture, Building and Planning (Netherlands)]|[Kropman Building Services Contracting (Netherlands); Wortel, W. [Kropman Building Services Contracting (Netherlands); Hommelberg, M. [Univ. of Technology Eindhoven, Faculty of Architecture, Building and Planning (Netherlands)]|[Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands (Netherlands); Kamphuis, R. [Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands (Netherlands); Bakker, L. [TNO Building and Infrastructure (Netherlands)

    2006-07-01

    Global warming, which is mainly caused by energy consumption, is becoming a major problem. In order to reduce energy consumption of office buildings even further, new control technology is needed. A very exciting development occurs in the field of control strategy, which integrates the end-user behaviour. In the frame of the SMART (Smart Multi Agent internet Technology) and IIGO (Intelligent Internet mediated control in the built environment) project, an external real time information system was integrated into a Building Management System in order to improve energy and comfort control. In the EBOB, Energy Efficient Behaviour of Office Buildings, a European EU-FP5 program project a different type of technology, Forgiving Technology, was developed. This paper presents insights into SMART, IIGO and EBOB and the resulting combined technology; FACT, Forgiving Agent Comfort Technology. The TU/e developed this FACT technology into a concept for Careful Buildings. (orig.)

  13. Heartwarming memories: Nostalgia maintains physiological comfort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xinyue; Wildschut, Tim; Sedikides, Constantine; Chen, Xiaoxi; Vingerhoets, Ad J J M

    2012-08-01

    Nostalgia, a sentimental longing or wistful affection for the past, is a predominantly positive and social emotion. Recent evidence suggests that nostalgia maintains psychological comfort. Here, we propose, and document in five methodologically diverse studies, a broader homeostatic function for nostalgia that also encompasses the maintenance of physiological comfort. We show that nostalgia--an emotion with a strong connotation of warmth--is triggered by coldness. Participants reported stronger nostalgia on colder (vs. warmer) days and in a cold (vs. neutral or warm) room. Nostalgia, in turn, modulates the interoceptive feeling of temperature. Higher levels of music-evoked nostalgia predicted increased physical warmth, and participants who recalled a nostalgic (vs. ordinary autobiographical) event perceived ambient temperature as higher. Finally, and consistent with the close central nervous system integration of temperature and pain sensations, participants who recalled a nostalgic (vs. ordinary autobiographical) event evinced greater tolerance to noxious cold.

  14. Thermal comfort in commercial kitchens (RP-1469)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simone, Angela; Olesen, Bjarne W.; Stoops, John L.

    2013-01-01

    The indoor climate in commercial kitchens is often unsatisfactory, and working conditions can have a significant effect on employees’ comfort and productivity. The type of establishment (fast food, casual, etc.) and climatic zone can influence thermal conditions in the kitchens. Moreover, the size...... and arrangement of the kitchen zones, appliances, etc., further complicate an evaluation of the indoor thermal environment in commercial kitchens. In general, comfort criteria are stipulated in international standards (e.g., ASHRAE 55 or ISO EN 7730), but are these standardized methods applicable...... to such environments as commercial kitchens? This article describes a data collection protocol based on measurements of physical and subjective parameters. The procedure was used to investigate more than 100 commercial kitchens in the United States in both summer and winter. The physical measurements revealed...

  15. MONITORING OF LOWER LIMB COMFORT AND INJURY IN ELITE FOOTBALL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Kinchington

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to examine the relation between lower limb comfort scores and injury and to measure the responsiveness of a lower limb comfort index (LLCI to changes over time, in a cohort of professional footballers. Lower limb comfort was recorded for each individual using a comfort index which assessed the comfort status of five anatomical segments and footwear. Specifically we tested the extent to which comfort zones as measured by the LLCI were related to injury measured as time loss events. The hypothesis for the study was that poor lower limb comfort is related to time loss events (training or match day. A total of 3524 player weeks of data was collected from 182 professional athletes encompassing three codes of football (Australian Rules, Rugby league, Rugby Union. The study was conducted during football competition periods for the respective football leagues and included a period of pre- season training. The results of regression indicated that poor lower limb comfort was highly correlated to injury (R2 =0.77 and accounted for 43.5 time loss events/ 1000hrs football exposure. While poor comfort was predictive of injury 47% of all time loss events it was not statistically relevant (R2 =0.18. The results indicate lower limb comfort can be used to assess the well-being of the lower limb; poor comfort is associated with injury, and the LLCI has good face validity and high criterion-related validity for the relationship between comfort and injury

  16. The Role of Interpersonal Comfort in Mentoring Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Tammy D.; Day, Rachel; Lentz, Elizabeth

    2005-01-01

    This research examined interpersonal comfort as a potential mediating mechanism in mentoring relationships. Results indicated that interpersonal comfort mediated the relationship between gender similarity and protege reports of career and psychosocial mentoring. Contrary to prediction, interpersonal comfort did not mediate relationships involving…

  17. Domotics. Comfortable and energy efficient?; Domotica. Comfortabel en energiezuinig?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Wolferen, H.; Hendriksen, L.; Traversari, R. [TNO Milieu, Energie en Procesinnovatie TNO-MEP, Apeldoorn (Netherlands)

    2003-02-01

    Insight is given into the added value of domotics (home automation) in the handling and control of comfort installations, focusing on comfort and energy consumption. Costs are indicated. [Dutch] Een overzicht wordt gegeven van de toegevoegde waarde van domotica bij de bediening en regeling van comfortinstallaties. Hierbij wordt de meeste aandacht gegeven aan comfort en energiegebruik. De kosten worden alleen indicatief besproken.

  18. Olfactory comfort awareness (OCA). A new unit?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kempski, D. von [DVK air vitalizing system, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    It is generally known that the perceived air quality has a great impact on the well-being of room occupants. Engineers tend to rely completely on measuring the absence of pollutants aiming for objectively clean air, but neglect the subjective awareness of room occupants or how they perceive indoor air quality. Neurophysiological and psychological research has shown that the hedonic value often plays the key role in determining that perception. It has to be understood that not only thermal conditions but also the sense of olfaction play major roles. This lack of awareness of the interactions between thermal and olfactory conditions frequently accounts for the dissatisfaction rate. This paper will concentrate on demonstrating the influence of the hedonic value on room occupants and on how to achieve air that from an olfactory perspective is perceived to be natural. This is different from the commonly known, perceived ''artificial'' air. Furthermore, it will show how important it is to evaluate healthy buildings not only for the absence of negative odors as expressed by the olf and decipol units. Olfactory comfort goes far beyond this scale and, therefore, it is necessary to introduce a new unit called olfactory comfort awareness OCA. OCA is a score between -10 and 10 that expresses the grade of olfactory comfort the room occupants perceive. This measure does not replace the well-accepted decipol unit but complements it, emphasising the importance not only of the absence of negative influencing odorants, but also the importance of olfactory comfort as measurement by the new unit. (Orig.)

  19. Markets - domestic comfort; Marches - Confort domestique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2005-03-01

    Established in 'Charente' and employing 150 workers, the firm 'Cheminees de Chazelles' is one of the first French firms of design/manufacturing and distribution of chimneys and closed fires, particularly at gas (propane or natural gas). The gas fire brings to the consumer the aesthetics, the safety and the comfort without the disadvantages of the wood fire. (O.M.)

  20. Factors Associated with Comfort Level of School-Based Occupational Therapists in Providing Low-Vision Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workman, Melissa; Vogtle, Laura K; Yuen, Hon K

    2016-01-01

    This study identified factors associated with the comfort level of school-based occupational therapists in providing services to children with visual impairments. Sixty-one school-based occupational therapists completed an on-line survey. Fifty-four percent of respondents were comfortable or somewhat comfortable when choosing assessments and 84% were comfortable or somewhat comfortable in providing occupational therapy services for children with visual impairments. Multivariable linear regression analyses indicated years of professional experience, history of a caseload of children with visual impairments, and training received in treating children with visual impairments from continuing education were uniquely and significantly associated with the respondents' comfort level. Though not included in the final model, collaboration with other low vision service providers (e.g., teachers, optometrists, ophthalmologists, and orientation/mobility specialists) was also significantly associated with respondents' comfort level in the univariate analysis. Findings provide an initial direction and strategies to improve occupational therapists' comfort level in providing services to children with visual impairments in school settings.

  1. Viewing Race in the Comfort Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda L. Hughes

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Carter suggests the concept of a “comfort zone” to explain the inability of dramatic African American programs to be successful on television. He argues that a workable formula has been developed for successful African American series, “portray black people in a way that would be acceptable to the millions of potential purchasers (whites of advertised products. That is, non-threatening and willing to ‘stay in their place.’”. Using a data set constructed from television ratings and shares, this study examines “black-centeredness” within the context of program success and failure. The comfort zone concept argues Black-centered television series are only successful in a comedic genre because White audiences, who have the majority of the ratings power, will only watch Black-centered series with which they are comfortable. The findings suggest that, in general, race, that is Black-centeredness, did not negatively influence program ratings or shares.

  2. Relationship of light quantity and anthocyanin production in Pennisetum setaceum Cvs. rubrum and red riding hood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckwith, Andrea G; Zhang, Yanjun; Seeram, Navindra P; Cameron, Arthur C; Nair, Muraleedharan G

    2004-02-11

    Pennisetum setaceum cvs. Rubrum and Red Riding Hood are purple-pigmented ornamental grasses when grown in high-light environments. In low-light environments, foliage appears light purple or green, and as a result, aesthetic appeal is reduced. The impact of light on anthocyanin pigmentation was compared for P. setaceum Rubrum foliage and flowers and Red Riding Hood foliage grown under different light intensities and light sources. Light environments included UV supplemental light in the greenhouse, high-pressure sodium supplemental light in the greenhouse, cool-white fluorescent light in a growth chamber, and full sun outside. Anthocyanins in two cultivars of P. setaceum were analyzed by HPLC and characterized by (1)H and (13)C NMR spectral experiments. Two anthocyanins, cyanidin 3-glucoside and cyanidin 3-rutinoside, were identified in the leaves and flowers of both cultivars and quantified by HPLC analysis. The major anthocyanin in both cultivars was cyanidin 3-glucoside and had highest concentration (0.199% fresh weight) in Rubrum leaves grown under fluorescent lights in the growth chamber with a photoperiod of 24 h and a daily light integral (DLI) of 13.3 mol m(-)(2) day(-)(1) and in Rubrum and Red Riding Hood leaves and flowers (0.097 and 0.12% fresh weight) from plants grown outside in full sun with a photoperiod ranging from 15 to 13.5 h and DLI of 42 mol m(-)(2) day(-)(1). The minor anthocyanin, cyanidin 3-rutinoside, had the highest quantity in plants grown in low-light-intensity greenhouse environments with a photoperiod ranging from 15 to 13.5 h and DLI of 2.3-7.0 mol m(-)(2) day(-)(1). The functional significance of anthocyanins in P. setaceum Rubrum is discussed.

  3. Comfort-box controls individual level of comfort. Domotica home network for indoor climate management; Comfort-box regelt individueel comfort-niveau. Domotica-huisnetwerk voor beheer binnenklimaat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamphuis, I.G; Warmer, C.J.; Bakker, E.J. [ECN Duurzame Energie in de Gebouwde Omgeving DEGO, Petten (Netherlands)

    2005-03-01

    The Comfort-Box (or C-Box) project is an automatic and continuous control system for energy efficient and cost-effective thermal comfort in houses. In this article detailed information is given of the design and performance of the C-Box. [Dutch] De huidige regelsystemen voor het binnenklimaat in woningen zijn voor verbetering vatbaar. Met het Comfort-boxconcept is een regeling ontwikkeld die automatisch en continu het individuele comfortniveau regelt in woningen, waarbij afwegingen worden gemaakt tussen kosten en comfort. De Comfort-box blijkt in staat te zijn het binnencomfort op energie- en kostenefficiente wijze te beheren.

  4. 大跨度及长悬挑楼层钢结构运动场人员舒适度分析研究%Study on comfort analysis of sport field structure with large-span and cantilevered steel floor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马伯涛; 杨国莉; 庞玉涛; 张晓娟; 葛家琪; 张曼生; 王树

    2012-01-01

    Based on the floor structure of the National Fitness Center in Ejin Horo Banner,Inner Mongolia,the vibration simulation and comfort level of large-span and cantilevered steel floor used as sport field were studied.First,harmonic superposition method based on the measured spectrum was used to simulate human movement loads and the stochastic vibration method was used to simulate the fluctuating wind load on the cantilevered structure.And then,the key parameters about structural comfort of the large-span floor were analyzed.Next,all possible load cases were considered and the comfort level of the athletes and spectators were analyzed.The result shows: changing the floor prestressing cannot improve the large-span structure comfort level effectively;the vertical acceleration and natural frequency decrease approximately in proportion with the increase of the floor thickness.According to the method of this paper,different comfort control indices should be adopted for sports field and spectators stand,respectively.Design references of load simulation,comfort performance index and control standards are provided in this paper for large-span prestressed and cantilevered steel floor structure project that used for stadium.%以内蒙古伊旗全民健身体育中心工程为背景,对楼层设置运动场的大跨度及长悬挑钢结构振动模拟及结构的人员舒适度问题进行研究。采用基于实测谱的谐波叠加法模拟人员运动荷载和随机振动法模拟悬挑结构脉动风荷载。对大跨度楼层人员舒适度的荷载激励频率、张弦梁拉索预应力度和楼板厚度等影响参数进行分析,考虑可能出现的各种荷载工况,分析运动员及看台观众的舒适度。分析表明:改变楼层预应力不能有效改善大跨度结构使用舒适度;随着楼层板厚增加,结构竖向加速度和自振频率均近似线性降低;运动场内和观众看台宜采用不同的舒适度控制指标。研究结果可为楼层

  5. The Comfort app prototype: introducing a web-based application for monitoring comfort in palliative care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Sara; Almeida, Filipe; Caldeira, Sílvia; Martins, José Carlos

    2017-09-02

    To introduce a web-based application for monitoring comfort in patients receiving palliative care. Multi-phase electronic application development process that concluded with a pilot design to assess the feasibility and acceptability of the developed app (n=7 patients). The app is compatible with Android, iOS and Windows. The results from phases I and II provided the knowledge about monitoring comfort. In phase III, five experts analysed the content of the app. The assessment of comfort comprises 11 self-reported items (pain, tiredness, drowsiness, nausea, lack of appetite, shortness of breath, depression, anxiety, fear of the future, peace and the will to live). In phase IV, a total of 117 messages were retrieved. Participants considered the app simple, easy to use and useful. This prototype is feasible and user-friendly. Further research is needed to continue the app development, particularly in terms of data protection.

  6. The analysis of psychological characteristic of older hemodialysis patients and comfortable nursing%老年血液透析患者心理特点与舒适护理措施分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨开秀

    2012-01-01

      目的研究分析老年血液透析患者的心理特点和舒适护理的方法.方法将138例维持性血液透析老年患者分为观察组和对照组两组,对照组患者采用常规护理的方式进行护理,观察组采用舒适护理的方法进行护理,并且采用SF-36表评价老年患者的健康指数和生活质量.结果观察组的老年患者在出院时的健康指数和生活质量明显优于对照组,具有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论熟悉老年患者的心理特点,并对之采用全面的护理措施,有利于老年患者端正治疗态度,减少负面情绪,提高治疗后的生活质量.%  Objective: To analyze the characteristic of older hemodialysis patients and comfortable nursing. Method: Choosed 138 older hemodialysis patients to divide into study group and controled group. The controled group were treated with common nursing and study group were treated with comfortable nursing. And used SF-36 table to assess the older patients' health index and life quality. Results: The health index and life quality in study group was higher than controled group (P﹤0.05). Conclusion: We should know the psychological characteristic of older hemodialysis patients and use comprehensive comfortable nursing to decrease the negative mood in patients.

  7. Análise do conforto térmico em galpões avícolas com diferentes sistemas de acondicionamento Thermal comfort analysis in poultry houses with different acclimatization systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dermeval A. Furtado

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available A base deste trabalho foi a análise da influência da tipologia e das condições de conforto térmico ambiental em sete sistemas de acondicionamento de aviários de frangos de corte, localizados na mesorregião do Agreste paraibano. Os sistemas foram os seguintes: telha de amianto sem ventilação artificial; telha de barro sem ventilação artificial; telha de amianto com ventilação artificial; telha de barro com ventilação artificial; telha de amianto com ventilação artificial e nebulização; telha de barro com ventilação artificial e nebulização e telha de amianto com ventilação artificial e aspersão sobre a cobertura. A avaliação foi feita com base na temperatura do ar (TA, na umidade relativa (UR, no índice de temperatura de globo negro e umidade (ITGU e na carga térmica de radiação (CTR em diferentes horários, durante o período de verão. Constatou-se influência da tipologia nas condições de conforto térmico e que em todos os sistemas os índices de conforto variaram ao longo do dia, sendo que a TA, o ITGU e a CTR, apresentaram valores considerados acima do ideal, enquanto a UR ficou dentro da zona de conforto térmico.The study had the objective of analyzing the influence of seven types of roofs on thermal comfort in poultry-house, in the region of "Paraíba Agreste’. The systems were: asbestos tiles and clay tiles without forced ventilation, asbestos tiles and clay tiles with forced ventilation, asbestos tiles and clay tiles with artificial ventilation and fogging and asbestos tiles with forced ventilation, fogging and sprinkling on the roof. The evaluation was based on the results of air temperature (AT, relative humidity (RH, black globe temperature (BGT and the radiation thermal charge (RTC, measured at different diurnal times during the summer. Influence of the roof types on the thermal comfort was observed. In all systems the comfort index evaluated varied during the day and that AT, BGT and RTC showed

  8. 人工流产术中疼痛舒适护理120例实践与分析%80 Cases Abortion Intraoperative Pain Comfortable Nursing Practice and Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄旭

    2013-01-01

    Objective: to study the abortion before and after surgery with the method of comfortable nursing to al eviate the pain of the impact and ef ects. Methods: 120 patients as objects, according to patients, randomly divided into two groups, 60 cases in each group, a group as the control group, the conventional nursing way, another group as experimental group, on the basis of conventional nursing with comfortable nursing, observe two groups of the degree of pain and ease pain ef ect. Results: after using comfortable nursing, at level 0, in patients with grade I of pain was significantly higher than that of control group, and the control group patients with class II, III, pain level is significantly higher than the ratio of the experimental group. Conclusion: after induced abortion operation using comfortable nursing can ef ectively relieve the pain degree of patients, with a strong promotional value in the clinical care.%目的探讨人工流产手术前后采用舒适护理的方式对减轻疼痛的影响和效果。方法以120例患者为对象,根据患者意愿,随机分为两组,每组60例,一组为对照组,采用常规护理方式,另一组为实验组,在常规护理的基础上配以舒适护理,观察两组疼痛的程度和减轻疼痛的效果。结果采用舒适护理后,患者在0级,I级疼痛的比率明显高于对照组,,而对照组患者II 级,III 级疼痛的比率明显高于实验组。结论人工流产手术后采用舒适护理的能够切实地减轻患者的疼痛程度,在临床护理中具有极强的推广价值。

  9. Curative effect analysis of comfort nursing in the process of puerpera childbirth%舒适护理在产妇分娩过程中的疗效分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高绍荣

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To explore the curative effect of comfort nursing in the process of puerpera childbirth.Methods:100 puerpera with vaginal delivery were selected.They were randomly divided into the study group and the control group with 50 cases in each.The control group were given common nursing.The study group were given comfort nursing intervention.The first stage labour,the second stage labour time,nursing satisfaction and Pittsburgh sleep quality index before and after nursing of patients were compared between two groups.Results:There were statistically significant differences between the two groups in the first stage labour,the second stage labour time and the nursing satisfaction(P<0.05).There was statistically significant difference in the Pittsburgh sleep quality index between two groups after treatment(P<0.05).Conclusion:The comfort nursing pattern in the puerpera childbirth has significant effect.It can shorten the first stage labour,the second stage labour time of puerpera,improve the nursing satisfaction of puerpera,and improve the comfort degree of patients during hospitalization.%目的:探讨舒适护理在产妇分娩过程中的疗效。方法:收集阴道分娩产妇100例,随机分为研究组和对照组各50例,对照组给予常规护理,研究组给予舒适护理干预。比较两组患者第一产程、第二产程时间、护理满意度及护理前后的匹兹堡睡眠质量指数。结果:两组患者第一产程、第二产程时间及护理满意度差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。两组治疗后匹兹堡睡眠质量指数差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:舒适护理模式在产妇分娩中的效果显著,可以缩短产妇第一产程、第二产程时间,提高产妇的护理满意度,改善患者住院期间舒适度。

  10. Inclination to speeding and its correlates among two-wheeler riding Indian youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Rajeev J; Sharma, Manoj K; Mehrotra, Seema; Banu, Humera; Kumar, Rajesh; Sudhir, Paulomi M; Chakrabarthy, Neelima

    2014-01-01

    Concerns about road safety have been increasingly associated with two-wheeler riding and especially with young commuters in India. The study was designed to explore inclination to speeding and to profile the driving behaviors in two-wheeler riding young men and women who reported a tendency to ride faster than their peers. A cross-sectional survey design was used. On the basis of three focus group discussions and review of literature, a survey was prepared to tap domains such as affect states associated with riding/speeding, factors contributing to speeding, inclination for competing, perceived speed and safety, etc. The study sample comprised of 961 two-wheeler riding college-going young men and women in Bangalore. Descriptive and inferential statistical procedures were used including Chi-square, Spearman's rank correlation, and independent sample t-test. The sample was divided into two subgroups on the basis of self-report of greater speeding than one's peers. A subgroup of 349 participants endorsed the item regarding inclination to ride faster than one's peers, whereas, the remaining 612 participants did not endorse it. The profiles of these two subgroups were obtained in terms of sociodemographic variables, riding behaviors, and associated domains. Significant differences between the subgroups emerged on domains such as motives for riding fast, tendency for competing, perceived safety and frequency of minor accidents while riding. Several correlates of the tendency to speeding among young two-wheeler riders emerged that have implications for enhancing safe riding.

  11. Minimum Makespan Multi-vehicle Dial-a-Ride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gørtz, Inge Li; Nagarajan, Viswanath; Ravi, R.

    2009-01-01

    -a-Ride problem, there are q vehicles each having capacity k and where each vehicle j ∈ [q] has its own depot-vertex rj ∈ V. A feasible schedule consists of a capacitated route for each vehicle (where vehicle j originates and ends at its depot rj) that together move all objects from their sources to destinations....... The objective is to find a feasible schedule that minimizes the maximum completion time (i.e. makespan) of vehicles, where the completion time of vehicle j is the time when it returns to its depot rj at the end of its route. We consider the preemptive version of multi-vehicle Dial-a-Ride, where an object may...

  12. Riding pontic: a tool to keep patients smiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Narendra Shriram

    2013-05-01

    All patients expect a beautiful smile at the completion of orthodontic treatment, but some patients show concern regarding their appearance while undergoing treatment. The appearance of a gap from a missing tooth can be a concern, especially if it is in the display zone of a patient's smile. If the treatment plan includes prosthetic replacement of the missing tooth rather then space closure, then space maintenance is also an issue. In an appearance conscious patient use of riding pontic as space maintainers is a good option during treatment. How to cite this article: Sharma NS. Riding Pontic: A Tool to Keep Patients Smiling. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2013;6(2): 127-131.

  13. Riding Pontic: A Tool to Keep Patients Smiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Narendra Shriram

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT All patients expect a beautiful smile at the completion of orthodontic treatment, but some patients show concern regarding their appearance while undergoing treatment. The appearance of a gap from a missing tooth can be a concern, especially if it is in the display zone of a patient's smile. If the treatment plan includes prosthetic replacement of the missing tooth rather then space closure, then space maintenance is also an issue. In an appearance conscious patient use of riding pontic as space maintainers is a good option during treatment. How to cite this article: Sharma NS. Riding Pontic: A Tool to Keep Patients Smiling. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2013;6(2): 127-131. PMID:25206207

  14. Thermal comfort in urban green spaces: a survey on a Dutch university campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yafei; de Groot, Rudolf; Bakker, Frank; Wörtche, Heinrich; Leemans, Rik

    2017-01-01

    To better understand the influence of urban green infrastructure (UGI) on outdoor human thermal comfort, a survey and physical measurements were performed at the campus of the University of Groningen, The Netherlands, in spring and summer 2015. Three hundred eighty-nine respondents were interviewed in five different green spaces. We aimed to analyze people's thermal comfort perception and preference in outdoor urban green spaces, and to specify the combined effects between the thermal environmental and personal factors. The results imply that non-physical environmental and subjective factors (e.g., natural view, quiet environment, and emotional background) were more important in perceiving comfort than the actual thermal conditions. By applying a linear regression and probit analysis, the comfort temperature was found to be 22.2 °C and the preferred temperature was at a surprisingly high 35.7 °C. This can be explained by the observation that most respondents, who live in temperate regions, have a natural tendency to describe their preferred state as "warmer" even when feeling "warm" already. Using the Kruskal-Wallis H test, the four significant factors influencing thermal comfort were people's exposure time in green spaces, previous thermal environment and activity, and their thermal history. However, the effect of thermal history needs further investigation due to the unequal sample sizes of respondents from different climate regions. By providing evidence for the role of the objective and subjective factors on human thermal comfort, the relationship between UGI, microclimate, and thermal comfort can assist urban planning to make better use of green spaces for microclimate regulation.

  15. Horizontal Cooperation in Dial-a-Ride Services

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    A dial-a-ride system is an application of demand-dependent, collective people transportation. Each user requests a trip between an origin and a destination of choice, to which a number of service level requirements are linked. The service provider attempts to develop efficient vehicle routes and time schedules, respecting these requirements and the technical constraints of a pickup and delivery problem. A frequent objective is to minimize operational costs subject to full demand satisfaction ...

  16. Long-Lasting Virtual Motorcycle-Riding Trainer Effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulio eVidotto

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to test the long-lasting effects of learning acquired with a virtual motorcycle-riding trainer as a tool to improve hazard perception. During the simulation, the rider can interact with other road actors and experience the most common potential accident situations in order to learn to modify his or her behavior to anticipate hazards and avoid crashes. We compared performance to the riding simulator of the two groups of participants: the experimental group, which was trained with the same simulator one year prior, and the control group that had not received any type of training with a riding or driving simulator. All of the participants had ridden a moped in the previous 12 months. The experimental group showed greater abilities to avoid accidents and recognize hazards in comparison to their performance observed a year before, whereas the performance of the control group was similar to that of the experimental group one year before in the first two sessions, and even better in the third. We interpreted this latter result as a consequence of their prior on-road experience. Also, the fact that the performance of the experimental group at the beginning of the follow-up is better than that recorded at the end of the training—one year before—is in line with the idea of a transfer from the on-road experience to the simulator. The present data confirm our main expectation that the effectiveness of the riding training simulator on the ability to cope with potentially dangerous situations persists over time and provides additional evidence in favor of the idea that simulators may be considered useful tools for training the ability to detect and react to hazards, leading to an improvement of this higher-order cognitive skill that persists over time. Implications for the reciprocal influence of the training with the simulator and the on-the road experience are discussed as well.

  17. Long-lasting virtual motorcycle-riding trainer effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidotto, Giulio; Tagliabue, Mariaelena; Tira, Michael D

    2015-01-01

    This work aimed to test the long-lasting effects of learning acquired with a virtual motorcycle-riding trainer as a tool to improve hazard perception. During the simulation, the rider can interact with other road actors and experience the most common potential accident situations in order to learn to modify his or her behavior to anticipate hazards and avoid crashes. We compared performance to the riding simulator of the two groups of participants: the experimental group, which was trained with the same simulator one year prior, and the control group that had not received any type of training with a riding or driving simulator. All of the participants had ridden a moped in the previous 12 months. The experimental group showed greater abilities to avoid accidents and recognize hazards in comparison to their performance observed a year before, whereas the performance of the control group was similar to that of the experimental group 1 year before in the first two sessions, and even better in the third. We interpreted this latter result as a consequence of their prior on-road experience. Also, the fact that the performance of the experimental group at the beginning of the follow-up is better than that recorded at the end of the training-1 year before-is in line with the idea of a transfer from the on-road experience to the simulator. The present data confirm our main expectation that the effectiveness of the riding training simulator on the ability to cope with potentially dangerous situations persists over time and provides additional evidence in favor of the idea that simulators may be considered useful tools for training the ability to detect and react to hazards, leading to an improvement of this higher-order cognitive skill that persists over time. Implications for the reciprocal influence of the training with the simulator and the on-the road experience are discussed as well.

  18. Effects of assisted aquatic movement and horseback riding therapies on emotion and brain activation in patients with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Kwangmin; Ali, Asif; Kwon, Minji; Lee, Changyoung; Kim, Yujin; Lee, Gyusung; Kim, Jingu

    2016-12-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of assisted aquatic movement and horseback riding therapies on emotion and brain activation in patients with cerebral palsy. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty-two right-handed patients with cerebral palsy (18 male, 14 female) whose ages ranged from 8 to 48 years participated in this experiment. Their cerebral palsy levels ranged from 1 to 3. The participants were assigned to one of three groups according to the experimental conditions: an assisted aquatic movement therapy group, a horseback riding therapy group, or a control group. Electroencephalograms, the Feeling Scale and the Felt Arousal Scale were examined as dependent variables. [Results] Analysis of self-reported data demonstrated a significant positive improvement in the emotions of participants in the assisted aquatic movement therapy group in comparison with the control group. With regard to the electroencephalogram analysis, the results of this study showed increased alpha power in the assisted aquatic movement therapy group compared with the horseback riding and control groups. [Conclusion] The results of this study suggest that professionals can consider assisted aquatic movement therapy as an effective therapeutic intervention for the improvement of mental health and brain activation.

  19. The First "Comfort Houses" in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunsgaard, Camilla; Knudstrup, Mary-Ann; Heiselberg, Per

    2009-01-01

    The "Comfort Houses" is the most ambitious building project in passive houses in Denmark until today. Eight single family houses are built and designed by seven different consortiums. Besides fulfilling the German passive house standard the goal was to build the houses according to Danish traditi...... qualities some of them are often cut back in the process primarily because of cost savings....... of architecture and construction. The objective of this research was to clarify the different design processes according to method, tool and teamwork. The processes are evaluated according to the "Integrated Design Process" and the "Traditional Design Process" and show very different take-offs. Analyzing the data...

  20. Improving comfort and health with personalized ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2004-01-01

    The thermal environment and air quality in buildings affects occupants¿ health, comfort and performance. The heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) of buildings today is designed to provide a uniform room environment. However, large individual differences exist between occupants in regard...... microenvironment. Furthermore, HVAC systems should be designed to protect occupants from airborne transmission of infectious agents that may be present in exhaled air. Personalized ventilation is a new development in the field of HVAC and has the potential to fulfil the above requirements. This paper reviews...

  1. Evaporative Condensers in Comfortable Air Conditioning System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Ying-de; ZHU Dong-sheng; DU Gui-mei; LI Yuan-xi; SUN He-jing; LIU Qing-ming

    2009-01-01

    The operating theory of an evaporative condenser was expatiated.The difference between an e-vaporative condensing refrigeration system and a general refrigeration system was analyzed.Compared with the air-cooled and the water-cooled,the virtues of energy-conservation and water-conservation of evaporative con-densers were analyzed.Some questions existing in the application of evaporative condensers were pointed out,the corresponding solving methods were analyzed accordingly,and the development trend of evaporative con-densing technique in mechanical refrigeration system field and the applied foreground of evaporative condensers in comfortable air conditioning were prospected.

  2. A Study to Investigate the Sleeping Comfort of Mattress using Finite Element Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Hiroaki; Kamijo, Masayoshi; Shimizu, Yoshio

    Sleep is an essential physiological activity for human beings and many studies have so far investigated sleeping comfort of mattresses. The appropriate measurement of stress distribution within the human body would provide valuable information to us. For the appropriate measurement to estimate stress distribution within the human body, numerical analysis is considered one of the most desirable techniques, and Finite Element Method (FEM), which is widely accepted as a useful numerical technique, was utilized in this study. Since human body dimensions have individual differences, however, it is presumed that the way of the internal stress distribution also changes due to the differences and that the mattress preference varies among different body forms. Thus, we developed three human FEM models reproducing the body forms of three types of male subjects, and investigated the sleeping comfort of mattress based on the relationship between FEM analysis findings and sensory testing results. In comparison with the results of both FEM analysis and sensory testing in the neck region, we found, the sensory testing results corresponded to the FEM analysis findings, and it was possible to estimate subjects' preferences of mattress and comfort in the neck region using the FEM analysis. In this study, we believe, the FEM analysis managed to quantify the subjects' preferences for mattress and to prove itself that it is the valuable tools to examine the sleeping comfort of mattress.

  3. Heating methods and comfort; Oppvarmingsloesninger og komfort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skree, Jostein

    2004-07-01

    Comfort is subjective. The feeling of pleasant temperature is affected by the relationship between the temperatures of the floors, walls and ceiling, and the air temperature. These temperatures should be relatively close. When energy conservation advertisements state that a room temperature of 20 - 22 degrees centigrade is enough, they refrain from making it clear that the temperature is felt differently in different situations. Different heating systems have different properties. The temperature at which the heat is transferred is also a topic. In new and energy-efficient flats it is quite common that fireplaces and stoves are little used; it is getting too hot and the temperature must be regulated by opening the windows, which results in draught problems. Some electric heaters have small surface and large airflow to the heating element. This type of heater is energy-saving because the air heats up rapidly and little heat energy is stored. But large airflow and possible dust burning are inconveniences. The most popular electric heaters, with electronic thermostat, represent a compromise between surface area, radiation heat and hot air. Comfort and selection of heating system also have something to do with the shape of the house and flat. Wood stoves and heat pumps, which deliver the heat as air, are most appropriate in houses with open spaces and small base.

  4. Thermal performance study and evaluation of comfort temperatures in vernacular buildings of North-East India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Manoj Kumar; Atreya, S.K. [Instrument Design and Development Centre, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi 110016 (India); Mahapatra, Sadhan [Department of Energy, Tezpur University, Tezpur 784028, Assam (India)

    2010-02-15

    Solar passive techniques are being used in vernacular buildings throughout the world. Researchers have done extensive study on thermal performance of vernacular buildings in the different parts of the world. Vernacular architecture of North-Eastern India represents the principle of climate-responsive architecture, which still lacks experimental validation and quantitative analysis. Thermal comfort not only makes the occupants comfortable but also governs energy consumption in the building. Detailed field studies on thermal performances of typical traditional vernacular dwellings in different bioclimatic zones have been undertaken. This field study includes detailed survey of 150 vernacular dwellings, field tests and thermal sensation vote of 300 occupants on ASHRAE thermal sensation scale. Field test includes measurement of temperature, humidity, illumination level and building design parameters. Thermal performances of these vernacular dwellings were evaluated for winter, pre-summer, summer/monsoon and pre-winter months of the year 2008. This evaluation is based on 'adaptive approach', which is the outcome of the field studies and is now part of ASHRAE standard 55/2004 for predicting comfortable temperature of naturally ventilated buildings. This study also tried to find out the range of comfort temperature in these vernacular buildings for different season of the year. It has been found that these vernacular dwellings perform quite satisfactorily except in the winter months and the occupants feel comfortable in a wider range of temperature. (author)

  5. Surveying the comfort perception of the ergonomic design of bluetooth earphones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Hsiao-Ping; Chiang, Hsin-Yu; Liu, Chien-Hsiou; Wang, Ming-Hsu; Chiou, Wen-Ko

    2014-01-01

    Bluetooth earphones can facilitate communications among workers engaged in manual (e.g., professional driver)or visual tasks (e.g., security guard). If workers remove their Bluetooth earphones due to poor fit, then communication effectiveness will decline, especially during manual or visual tasks. (1) To identify which design properties of Bluetooth earphones can contribute to user comfort, and (2) to identify if person characteristics (i.e., gender and ear shapes in this study) are related to differences in comfort perception during earphone use. 198 participants were recruited for this study.Individuals used four models of Bluetooth earphones in randomized order while performing computer tasks and then completed questionnaires on comfort perception specifically designed for this study. The 2 × 3 × 4 mixed design analysis of variance (ANOVA) was conducted to investigate the effects of gender, ear shape, and model condition. The results indicated that there were significant differences in model on comfort perception. For earplugs, the shape of the earphone and the elasticity of material are important ergonomic concerns to improve the comfort perception. In addition, the adjustable tail length is an important ergonomic design property for the ear-hook. The information gained in this study should be useful in improving the ergonomic fitness of Bluetooth earphones.

  6. Visual comfort is affected by urban colorscape tones in hazy weather

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Liu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available People׳s visual perception and recognition of urban colorscape tones change significantly in hazy weather. A psychological experiment is conducted in this study to investigate visual comfort related to commercial and residential buildings. Visual observations are performed on the tones of an urban colorscape during hazy weather and air pollution in Harbin, China. Fifty-eight color samples selected through an orthogonal method are evaluated through a Likert scale by 30 subjects in a laboratory setting. Statistical analysis is performed with the maximal information coefficient and R language. Experimental results show that the changing threshold values of color tones are related to the visual comfort levels of the subjects. The influence of the three factors of color tones on visual comfort level is relatively independent, and the effects of value and chroma contrast on color comfort level are greater than that of hue contrast in hazy weather. Furthermore, the comfort recognition threshold values of color tones in hazy weather are determined through data comparisons and analyses.

  7. Combining several thermal indices to generate a unique heat comfort assessment methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wissam EL Hachem

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The proposed methodology hopes to provide a systematic multi-disciplinary approach to assess the thermal environment while minimizing unneeded efforts. Design/methodology/approach: Different factors affect the perception of the human thermal experience: metabolic rate (biology, surrounding temperatures (heat balance and environmental factors and cognitive treatment (physiology.This paper proposes a combination of different multidisciplinary variables to generate a unique heat comfort assessment methodology. The variables at stake are physiological, biological, and environmental. Our own heat analysis is thoroughly presented and all relevant equations are described. Findings: Most companies are oblivious about potential dangers of heat stress accidents and thus about methods to monitor and prevent them. This methodology enables the company or the concerned individual to conduct a preliminary assessment with minimal wasted resources and time in unnecessary steps whilst providing a guideline for a detailed study with minimal error rates if needed. More so, thermal comfort is an integral part of sound ergonomics practices, which in turn are decisive for the success of any lean six sigma initiative. Research limitations/implications: This methodology requires several full implementations to finalize its design. Originality/value: Most used heat comfort models are inherently uncertain and tiresome to apply. An extensive literature review confirms the need for a uniform assessment methodology that combines the different thermal comfort models such as the Fanger comfort model (PMV, PPD and WGBT since high error rates coupled with tiresome calculations often hinder the thermal assessment process.

  8. The type of loose seton for complex anal fistula is essential to improve perianal comfort and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristo, I; Stift, A; Staud, C; Kainz, A; Bachleitner-Hofmann, T; Chitsabesan, P; Riss, S

    2016-06-01

    The use of a loose seton for complex anal fistulae can cause perianal discomfort and reduced quality of life. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of the novel knot-free Comfort Drain on quality of life, perianal comfort and faecal continence compared to conventional loose setons. Forty-four patients treated for complex anal fistula at a single institution between July 2013 and September 2014 were included in the study. A matched-pair analysis was performed to compare patients with a knot-free Comfort Drain and controls who were managed by conventional knotted setons. The 12-item Short Form survey (SF-12) questionnaire was used to assess quality of life. Additionally, patients reported perianal comfort and faecal incontinence using a Visual Analog Scale (VAS) and the St Mark's Incontinence Score. The Comfort Drain was associated with improved quality of life with significant higher median physical (P = 0.001) and mental (P = 0.04) health scores compared with a conventional loose seton. According to the VAS, patients with a Comfort Drain in situ reported greater perianal comfort with significantly less burning sensation (P fistula-in-ano. Colorectal Disease © 2016 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  9. Pensionäride probleemid jõuavad Euroopa Komisjoni / Arvo Einre ; interv. Asse Soomets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Einre, Arvo, 1931-2012

    2005-01-01

    Eesti Pensionäride Ühendus sai Euroopa Komisjoni eakate nõukojalt (The European Older People Platform) kutse 31. märtsil Brüsselis toimuvale AGE töökoosolekule, kus käsitletakse pensionäride olukorda EL-i liikmesriikides. Eesti esindajana sõidab üritusele Eesti Pensionäride Ühenduse aseesimees Arvo Einre

  10. The effect of therapeutic horseback riding on balance in community-dwelling older adults: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homnick, Tamara D; Henning, Kim M; Swain, Charlene V; Homnick, Douglas N

    2015-02-01

    Equine assisted activities (hippotherapy and therapeutic riding) improve balance in patients with disabilities such as cerebral palsy, but have not been systematically studied in older adults, at risk of falls due to balance deficits. We conducted a 10-week, single blind, controlled trial of the effect of a therapeutic horseback riding course on measures of balance in community-dwelling adults 65 years and older. Nine riders and six controls completed the trial. Controls were age matched to riders and all participants were recruited from the local community. Both groups showed improvements in balance during the trial, but did not reach statistical significance. Sample size was small, participants had relatively high initial balance scores, and controls tended to increase their physical activities, likely influencing outcomes. No adverse events occurred and the supervised therapeutic riding program appeared to be a safe and effective form of exercise to improve balance in older adults. A power analysis was performed to estimate numbers of participants needed for a larger study.

  11. Analysis of comfort care in laparoscopic complete cholecystectomy rehabilitation%腹腔镜胆囊完全切除术康复中的舒适护理分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宗晓洁; 薛晓洁

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To discuss the effect of comfort care in laparoscopic complete cholecystectomy rehabilitation.Methods:118 patients with laparoscopic cholecystectomy were selected.They were randomly divided into the observation group and the control group,59 cases in each.The control group received routine nursing,and the observation group was given comfort care system.We analyzed nursing effect of the two groups.Results:In the observation group the physiological factors was superior to the control group,and the length of time to be shorter than that of the control group(P<0.05).The observation group on nursing satisfaction was higher than that of the control group(P<0.05).Conclusion:Using comfort care in laparoscopic complete cholecystectomy rehabilitation can significantly improve the patient's physiological and psychological state.It is helpful to postoperative recovery.%目的:探讨对腹腔镜胆囊完全切除术康复期的患者实施舒适护理的临床成效。方法:收治行腹腔镜胆囊完全切除术患者118例,随机分为观察组和对照组,各59例。对照组实施常规的护理干预,观察组进行系统的舒适护理。分析统计两组的护理成效。结果:观察组的生理状态要优于对照组,住院时间要短于对照组(P<0.05);观察组对护理的满意度高于对照组(P<0.05)。结论:对腹腔镜胆囊完全切除术康复期的患者实施舒适护理能够显著改善患者的生理和心理状态,有利于患者术后恢复。

  12. 舒适护理模式在老年慢性心力衰竭患者的应用效果分析%Comfort Care Model in the Application Effect Analysis of Elderly Patients with Chronic Heart Failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭晶

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study and analyze the effect of the application of comfortable nursing in elderly patients with chronic heart failure. Methods Our hospital in September 2013 to April 2014 were treated 65 cases of chronic heart failure patients for the study, the use of comfort care model,the statistical effect. Results At the end of treatment,the patient anxiety,tension and fear to get significant relief,nursing satisfaction,care before and after satisfaction was 75.4% (49/65) and 93.8 (61/65),the above data groups significant difference (P<0.05),the difference was statistically significant. Conclusion The comfortable nursing in elderly patients with chronic mental exhaustion can achieve good results,to improve the quality of life of patients,the modes worthwhile promotion and use in clinical practice.%目的:研究并分析舒适护理模式在老年慢性心力衰竭患者的应用效果。方法选择我院于2013年9月到2014年4月收治的65例慢性心力衰竭患者为研究对象,采用舒适护理模式,统计疗效。结果在护理结束后,患者焦虑、紧张与恐惧感得到显著的缓解,在护理满意度方面,护理前后满意度分别为75.4%(49/65)与93.8(61/65),上述数据组间比较差异显著(P<0.05),差异有统计学意义。结论将舒适护理模式应用在老年慢性心理衰竭患者中能够取得良好的成效,提升患者的生活质量,该种模式值得在临床中进行推广和使用。

  13. Design of a digital ride quality augmentation system for commuter aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, T. A.; Amin, S. P.; Paduano, J. D.; Downing, D. R.

    1984-01-01

    Commuter aircraft typically have low wing loadings, and fly at low altitudes, and so they are susceptible to undesirable accelerations caused by random atmospheric turbulence. Larger commercial aircraft typically have higher wing loadings and fly at altitudes where the turbulence level is lower, and so they provide smoother rides. This project was initiated based on the goal of making the ride of the commuter aircraft as smooth as the ride experienced on the major commercial airliners. The objectives of this project were to design a digital, longitudinal mode ride quality augmentation system (RQAS) for a commuter aircraft, and to investigate the effect of selected parameters on those designs.

  14. The Recovery-Based Interprofessional Distance Education (RIDE) Rotation: Content and Rationale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beebe, Lora; Raynor, Hollie; Roman, Marian W; Thompson, Dixie; Ray, Shaunta

    2015-01-01

    A faculty team of two psychiatric nurse practitioners, an exercise physiologist, a registered dietician and a pharmacist developed the 8-week Recovery-Based Interprofessional Distance Education (RIDE) rotation for graduate students in the four disciplines. Organizing the RIDE rotation around the recovery model ensured an emphasis upon optimal health and quality of life. RIDE faculty engaged in project planning for several months before the RIDE rotation was offered to students. In this paper, we describe details of the 8-week program. Our next step will be to analyze student feedback and de-identified evaluation data from the first student cohort.

  15. Subdural hematoma in a teenager related to roller-coaster ride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldan-Valadez, Ernesto; Facha, M T; Martinez-Lopez, Manuel; Herrera-Mora, Patricia

    2006-07-01

    Reports about neurological injury related to roller-coaster rides mostly involve adults; we present a case of subdural hematoma in a pediatric patient presented 14 days after a roller-coaster ride. These rides show extreme up-and-down, to-and-fro, and rotatory acceleration/deceleration forces that could produce tensile and shearing stresses with tearing of bridging cerebral veins resulting in subdural hemorrhage. Pediatricians should consider roller-coaster riding a modern cause of subdural hematoma, as well as a possible cause of unexplained neurologic events in otherwise healthy adolescents.

  16. Does variation in clothing make us more thermally comfortable?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vorre, Mette Havgaard; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    2014-01-01

    In the same room, people will wear different amounts of clothes if there is no strict dress code. Ideally everybody would put on just the right amount to feel thermally comfortable, but that is not always the case. To improve simulations of thermal comfort, an estimate of clothing insulation...... among people is higher at low temperatures than at high temperatures, and that people do choose their clothing according to thermal preference, but that the distribution of thermal comfort votes is the same....

  17. A model to assess the comfort of automotive seat cushions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiaxing, Zhan; Fard, Mohammad; Jazar, Reza

    2014-01-01

    A large number of independent and interacting factors affect seating comfort such as seat shape, stability, lumbar support and seat height. Although many subjective comfort studies have been conducted, few of them considered seating comfort from its subassembly level. This paper analyzed the automotive seat cushion designed with geared four-bar linkage for the seat height adjustment. The operation torque and lift distance of this mechanism was investigated as 2 major comfort factors. Ten cushions with this kind of design in the market were compared and assessed.

  18. Progress in thermal comfort research over the last twenty years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Dear, R J; Akimoto, T; Arens, E A; Brager, G; Candido, C; Cheong, K W D; Li, B; Nishihara, N; Sekhar, S C; Tanabe, S; Toftum, J; Zhang, H; Zhu, Y

    2013-12-01

    Climate change and the urgency of decarbonizing the built environment are driving technological innovation in the way we deliver thermal comfort to occupants. These changes, in turn, seem to be setting the directions for contemporary thermal comfort research. This article presents a literature review of major changes, developments, and trends in the field of thermal comfort research over the last 20 years. One of the main paradigm shift was the fundamental conceptual reorientation that has taken place in thermal comfort thinking over the last 20 years; a shift away from the physically based determinism of Fanger's comfort model toward the mainstream and acceptance of the adaptive comfort model. Another noticeable shift has been from the undesirable toward the desirable qualities of air movement. Additionally, sophisticated models covering the physics and physiology of the human body were developed, driven by the continuous challenge to model thermal comfort at the same anatomical resolution and to combine these localized signals into a coherent, global thermal perception. Finally, the demand for ever increasing building energy efficiency is pushing technological innovation in the way we deliver comfortable indoor environments. These trends, in turn, continue setting the directions for contemporary thermal comfort research for the next decades.

  19. Adaptive thermal comfort standards in the hot-humid tropics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicol, F. [Oxford Brookes University, Oxford (United Kingdom). Oxford Centre for Sustainable Development

    2004-07-01

    Field studies conducted in tropical climates have found that the International standard for indoor climate, IS07730 based on Fanger's predicted mean vote (PMV/PPD) equations, does not adequately describe comfortable conditions. This paper presents some of the evidence and suggests ways in which International standards are failing and how they might be complemented using adaptive comfort standards derived from the results of local comfort surveys. In particular the implications of air movement and humidity for adaptive comfort standards are considered. (author)

  20. A neural network evaluation model for individual thermal comfort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Weiwei; Lian, Zhiwei; Zhao, Bo [Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2007-10-15

    An evaluation model for individual thermal comfort is presented based on the BP neural network. The train data came from a thermal comfort survey. The evaluation results of the model showed a good match with the subject's real thermal sensation, which indicated that the model can be used to evaluate individual thermal comfort rightly. Taken a room air conditioner as an example, the application of the NNEM in creating a microenvironment for individual was discussed. The result showed that the NNEM can play an important role of connecting individual thermal comfort with the control on the air conditioner. (author)

  1. Validation of the Comfort scale for relatives of people in critical states of health 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Kátia Santana; Menezes, Igor Gomes; Mussi, Fernanda Carneiro

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: this methodological study aims to present the construct validity of the Comfort scale for family members of people in a critical state of health (ECONF). Method: this is a methodological study. The sample was made up of 274 family members of adults receiving inpatient treatment in six Intensive Care Units (ICU) in the State of Bahía responded to 62 items distributed in 7 dimensions. The validation procedures adopted were based on the techniques of the Classical Test Theory. Results: the analysis of dimensionality was undertaken through principal components analysis, a scale being obtained with 55 items distributed in four factors: Safety, Support, Family member-relative interaction and Integration with oneself and the everyday. The analysis of the items' , discriminative power, undertaken by the item-total correlation-coefficient showed a good relationship of the items with their respective factors. From the ECONF's reliability test, from the analysis of internal consistency, a raised Alpha Cronbach coefficient was obtained for the 4 factors and the general measurement. Conclusion: the comfort scale presented satisfactory psychometric parameters, thus constituting the first valid instrument for evaluating the comfort of family members of people in a critical state of health. The advance made by the study lies in its theoretical framework on comfort, and provides the health team with a scale based on empirical evidence. PMID:26444168

  2. 咸宁市社区居家老年人精神慰藉需求及其影响因素分析%Analysis of emotional comfort demand of the elderly at home in community in Xianning city and its influencing fac-tors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔令磷; 张志霞; 叶艳胜; 汪娟; 马香香; 李秀; 朱晚香

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To probe into emotional comfort demand of the elderly at home in community in Xianning city and its influencing factors.Methods:A total of 476 elderly at home in 4 communities in Xianning city were randomly selected for the questionnaire.Results:The total score for emotional comfort demand was(9.25±3.09);the top two demands were neighborhood mutual assistance(2.61±0.95)and volunteers companying(1.96±1.05);the lowest demand was remarriage(1.14±0.54).Multiple linear regression analysis showed that education lev-el,marital status,self rated health status,living condition and depression status were the maj or factors affect-ing the emotional comfort demand of the elderly,which explained 1 1 .7% of the total variance.Conclusion:Ori-ented by the demands of the elderly,further emotional comfort services should be provided in multi level and multi faceted in order to realize the healthy aging.%[目的]探讨咸宁市社区居家老年人精神慰藉需求现状及影响因素。[方法]随机抽取咸宁市4个社区,对476名老人进行问卷调查。[结果]社区老年人精神慰藉需求总分为(9.25±3.09)分,需求程度前两位为邻里互助(2.61分±0.95分)和志愿者陪伴(1.96分±1.05分),需求程度最低的是老年人婚姻牵线搭桥(1.14分±0.54分);多元线性回归分析显示文化程度、婚姻状况、自评健康状况、居住状况以及抑郁状况是社区居家老年人精神慰藉需求的主要影响因素,共同解释总变异的11.7%。[结论]应以老年人需求为导向,多层次、多方面发展居家养老精神慰藉服务,促进健康老龄化的实现。

  3. Evaporative cooling: water for thermal comfort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Rui Camargo

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Evaporative cooling is an environmentally friendly air conditioning system that operates using induced processes of heat and mass transfer, where water and air are the working fluids. It consists, specifically, in water evaporation, induced by the passage of an air flow, thus decreasing the air temperature. This paper presents three methods that can be used as reference for efficient use of evaporative cooling systems, applying it to several Brazilian cities, characterized by different climates. Initially it presents the basic operation principles of direct and indirect evaporative cooling and defines the effectiveness of the systems. Afterwards, it presents three methods that allows to determinate where the systems are more efficient. It concludes that evaporative cooling systems have a very large potential to propitiate thermal comfort and can still be used as an alternative to conventional systems in regions where the design wet bulb temperature is under 24ºC.

  4. Thermal Comfort and Optimum Humidity Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Jokl

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The hydrothermal microclimate is the main component in indoor comfort. The optimum hydrothermal level can be ensured by suitable changes in the sources of heat and water vapor within the building, changes in the environment (the interior of the building and in the people exposed to the conditions inside the building. A change in the heat source and the source of water vapor involves improving the heat - insulating properties and the air permeability of the peripheral walls and especially of the windows. The change in the environment will bring human bodies into balance with the environment. This can be expressed in terms of an optimum or at least an acceptable globe temperature, an adequate proportion of radiant heat within the total amount of heat from the environment (defined by the difference between air and wall temperature, uniform cooling of the human body by the environment, defined a by the acceptable temperature difference between head and ankles, b by acceptable temperature variations during a shift (location unchanged, or during movement from one location to another without a change of clothing. Finally, a moisture balance between man and the environment is necessary (defined by acceptable relative air humidity. A change for human beings means a change of clothes which, of course, is limited by social acceptance in summer and by inconvenient heaviness in winter. The principles of optimum heating and cooling, humidification and dehumidification are presented in this paper.Hydrothermal comfort in an environment depends on heat and humidity flows (heat and water vapors, occurring in a given space in a building interior and affecting the total state of the human organism.

  5. Thermal Comfort and Optimum Humidity Part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Jokl

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The hydrothermal microclimate is the main component in indoor comfort. The optimum hydrothermal level can be ensured by suitable changes in the sources of heat and water vapor within the building, changes in the environment (the interior of the building and in the people exposed to the conditions inside the building. A change in the heat source and the source of water vapor involves improving the heat - insulating properties and the air permeability of the peripheral walls and especially of the windows. The change in the environment will bring human bodies into balance with the environment. This can be expressed in terms of an optimum or at least an acceptable globe temperature, an adequate proportion of radiant heat within the total amount of heat from the environment (defined by the difference between air and wall temperature, uniform cooling of the human body by the environment, defined a by the acceptable temperature difference between head and ankles, b by acceptable temperature variations during a shift (location unchanged, or during movement from one location to another without a change of clothing. Finally, a moisture balance between man and the environment is necessary (defined by acceptable relative air humidity. A change for human beings means a change of clothes which, of course, is limited by social acceptance in summer and by inconvenient heaviness in winter. The principles of optimum heating and cooling, humidification and dehumidification are presented in this paper.Hydrothermal comfort in an environment depends on heat and humidity flows (heat and water vapors, occurring in a given space in a building interior and affecting the total state of the human organism.

  6. Designing for Comfort and Reliability in an Intelligent Car Seat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Wahab

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, intelligent safety systems are installed in modern cars in view of minimising road hazards. An intelligent air bag system for example, comprised several subsystems that are integrated to include the weight sensor system, image sensor system, crash sensor system and tyre pressure monitoring system. These systems when poorly positioned into the car seat, will certainly affect comfort and reliability of the car seat. This research presents the design work on an intelligent car seat, which is equipped with a load cell type-sensory system. The load cells are used to detect the weight of a passenger for the deployment of an air bag system. The proposed design is validated against displacement and stress analysis using an 80 kg load to simulate the weight of a passenger. Results from the design validation indicated that the proposed configuration and material is appropriate for use in the intelligent car seat application.

  7. The social comfort of wearable technology and gestural interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, Lucy E; Profita, Halley; Zeagler, Clint; Clawson, James; Gilliland, Scott; Do, Ellen Yi-Luen; Budd, Jim

    2014-01-01

    The "wearability" of wearable technology addresses the factors that affect the degree of comfort the wearer experiences while wearing a device, including physical, psychological, and social aspects. While the physical and psychological aspects of wearing technology have been investigated since early in the development of the field of wearable computing, the social aspects of wearability have been less fully-explored. As wearable technology becomes increasingly common on the commercial market, social wearability is becoming an ever-more-important variable contributing to the success or failure of new products. Here we present an analysis of social aspects of wearability within the context of the greater understanding of wearability in wearable technology, and focus on selected theoretical frameworks for understanding how wearable products are perceived and evaluated in a social context. Qualitative results from a study of social acceptability of on-body interactions are presented as a case study of social wearability.

  8. Carter’s Rewriting of Red Riding Hood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄文诣

    2014-01-01

    "Little Red Riding Hood" is known worldwide and almost every child in China has heard this story. The Chinese one(Xiao Hongmao) is mainly derived from the Brothers Grimm’s version, while a less known version in China, called "The Company of Wolves", is written by a British female writer, Angela Carter. By putting different revisions of the same materials side by side, Carter makes a talk with herself. In this article, the author will mainly talk about what Carter learns from the previous version and what she wants to tell us from this exotic short story.

  9. Carter’s Rewriting of Red Riding Hood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄文诣

    2014-01-01

    "Little Red Riding Hood" is known worldwide and almost every child in China has heard this story. The Chinese one (Xiao Hongmao) is mainly derived from the Brothers Grimm’s version, while a less known version in China, called“The Company of Wolves”, is written by a British female writer, Angela Carter. By putting different revisions of the same materials side by side, Carter makes a talk with herself. In this article, the author will mainly talk about what Carter learns from the previous version and what she wants to tell us from this exotic short story.

  10. Split ring floating air riding seal for a turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, Jacob A

    2015-11-03

    A floating air riding seal for a gas turbine engine with a rotor and a stator, an annular piston chamber with an axial moveable annular piston assembly within the annular piston chamber, an annular cavity formed on the annular piston assembly that faces a seal surface on the rotor, and a central passage connecting the annular cavity to the annular piston chamber to supply compressed air to the seal face, where the annular piston assembly is a split piston assembly to maintain a tight seal as coning of the rotor disk occurs.

  11. Compression fractures of the vertebrae during a "bumpy" boat ride.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Chukwunyerenwa, C K

    2012-01-31

    INTRODUCTION: Compression fracture of the vertebrae is common, often the result of falls from height and motor vehicle accidents in the younger age groups. It can occur following minor trauma in the elderly and in those with osteoporosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We present an interesting case of compression fracture of the vertebral bodies occurring simultaneously in a couple during a boat ride while on holiday. One individual had fracture of the T8, while the other fractured the L1 vertebrae. Both injuries were treated conservatively with Taylor braces. CONCLUSION: We highlight one of the potential hazards of this recreational activity, and the almost identical fracture pattern in this couple.

  12. Comfort of workers in office buildings: The European HOPE project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bluyssen, P.M.; Aries, M.; Dommelen, P. van

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that building, social and personal factors can influence one's perceived health and comfort. The aim of the underlying study was to get a better understanding of the relationships between these factors and perceived comfort. Self-administered questionnaires from 5732 resp

  13. Interior effects on comfort in healthcare waiting areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazley, C; Vink, P; Montgomery, J; Hedge, A

    2016-07-21

    This study compared the effects of pre-experience and expectations on participant comfort upon waking, arrival to, and after an appointment, as well as the assessment of properly placed Feng Shui elements in three healthcare waiting rooms. Participants assessed comfort levels using self-report surveys. The researcher conducted 'intention interviews' with each doctor to assess the goals of each waiting area design, and conducted a Feng Shui assessment of each waiting area for properly placed Feng Shui elements. The waiting area designed by the Feng Shui expert rated 'most comfortable', followed by the waiting area design by a doctor, and the lowest comfort rating for the conventional waiting room design. Results show a sufficiently strong effect to warrant further research. Awareness of the external environment, paired with pre-experience and expectation, influences comfort for people over time. Fostering and encouraging a holistic approach to comfort utilizing eastern and western concepts and ergonomic principles creates a sense of "placeness" and balance in the design for comfort in built environments. This is new research information on the influences of the comfort experience over time, to include pre-experience, expectations and the placement of elements in the external environment.

  14. HOT WATER COMFORT TEST PROCEDURE FOR SOLAR COMBISYSTEMS: PROPOSAL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon

    1999-01-01

    A proposal for a test procedure for hot water comfort for solar heating systems for combined space heating and domestic hot water supply was worked out.......A proposal for a test procedure for hot water comfort for solar heating systems for combined space heating and domestic hot water supply was worked out....

  15. Measurement of dynamic comfort in cycling using wireless acceleration sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olieman, Mark; Marin-Perianu, Raluca; Marin-Perianu, Mihai

    2012-01-01

    Comfort in cycling is related to the level of vibration of the bicycle: more vibration results in less comfort for the rider. In this study, the level of vibration is measured in real time using wireless inertial acceleration sensors mounted at four places on the bike: front wheel axel, rear wheel a

  16. Definition of specific comfort parameters, indoor environmental and architectural quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Andrea; Heiselberg, Per Kvols; Knudstrup, Mary-Ann

    2017-01-01

    that improvements in indoor environment, comfort and architecture can motivate the Danish homeowners to complete energy renovations. In order to utilize these results and thereby reduce the energy consumption in the existing Danish building stock, this paper examines which aspects of indoor environment and comfort...... motivating the homeowners since this can influence the effect of the motivation in both negative and positive direction....

  17. Comfort Food: Nourishing Our Collective Stomachs and Our Collective Minds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troisi, Jordan D.; Wright, Julian W. C.

    2017-01-01

    Food is a powerful motivator in human functioning--it serves a biological need, as emotional support, and as a cultural symbol. Until recently, the term "comfort food" has been inadequately and unscientifically defined. In addition, the popular media have oversimplified the concept of comfort food as purely unhealthy food, often consumed…

  18. The aircraft interior comfort experience of 10,032 passengers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, P.; Mastrigt, S. van

    2011-01-01

    One airline strategy aimed at selling more tickets is to provide a superior comfort experience. However, only a small amount of public scientific information is available addressing the passenger’s opinion on comfort. In this study, 10,032 internet trip reports were used to gather opinions about

  19. Comfort Food: Nourishing Our Collective Stomachs and Our Collective Minds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troisi, Jordan D.; Wright, Julian W. C.

    2017-01-01

    Food is a powerful motivator in human functioning--it serves a biological need, as emotional support, and as a cultural symbol. Until recently, the term "comfort food" has been inadequately and unscientifically defined. In addition, the popular media have oversimplified the concept of comfort food as purely unhealthy food, often consumed…

  20. The aircraft interior comfort experience of 10,032 passengers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, P.; Mastrigt, S. van

    2011-01-01

    One airline strategy aimed at selling more tickets is to provide a superior comfort experience. However, only a small amount of public scientific information is available addressing the passenger’s opinion on comfort. In this study, 10,032 internet trip reports were used to gather opinions about asp

  1. Comfort and patient-centred care without excessive sedation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vincent, Jean-Louis; Shehabi, Yahya; Walsh, Timothy S;

    2016-01-01

    and Delirium guidelines, is conveyed in the mnemonic eCASH-early Comfort using Analgesia, minimal Sedatives and maximal Humane care. eCASH aims to establish optimal patient comfort with minimal sedation as the default presumption for intensive care unit (ICU) patients in the absence of recognised medical...

  2. Fast Coordinated Control of DFIG Wind Turbine Generators for Low and High Voltage Ride-Through

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yun; Wu, Qiuwei; Xu, Honghua

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a fast coordinated control scheme of the rotor side converter (RSC), the DC chopper and the grid side converter (GSC) of doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) wind turbine generators (WTGs) which is to improve the low voltage ride through (LVRT) and high voltage ride through (...... verified by time domain simulations using MATLAB-Simulink....

  3. The Value of Optimization in Dynamic Ride-Sharing: a Simulation Study in Metro Atlanta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.A.H. Agatz (Niels); A. Erera (Alan); M.W.P. Savelsbergh (Martin); X. Wang (Xing)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractSmartphone technology enables dynamic ride-sharing systems that bring together people with similar itineraries and time schedules to share rides on short-notice. This paper considers the problem of matching drivers and riders in this dynamic setting. We develop optimization-based approac

  4. Review of ride quality technology needs of industry and user groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckenzie, J. R.; Brumaghim, S. H.

    1975-01-01

    A broad survey of ride quality technology state-of-the-art and a review of user evaluation of this technology were conducted. During the study 17 users of ride quality technology in 10 organizations representing land, marine and air passenger transportation modes were interviewed. Interim results and conclusions of this effort are reported.

  5. Improving Low Voltage Ride Through Capability of Wind Generators Using Dynamic Voltage Restorer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivasankar, Gangatharan; Suresh Kumar, Velu

    2014-08-01

    The increasing wind power integration with power grid has forced the situation to improve the reliability of wind generators for stable operation. One important problem with induction generator based wind farm is its low ride through capability to the grid voltage disturbance. Any disturbance such as voltage dip may cause wind farm outages. Since wind power contribution is in predominant percentage, such outages may lead to stability problem. The proposed strategy is to use dynamic voltage controller (DVR) to compensate the voltage disturbance. The DVR provides the wind generator the ability to remain connected in grid and improve the reliability. The voltage dips due to symmetrical and unsymmetrical faults are considered for analysis. The vector control scheme is employed for fault compensation which uses software phase locked loop scheme and park dq0 transformation technique. Extensive simulation results are included to illustrate the control and operation of DVR.

  6. Impact of summer office set air-conditioning temperature on energy consumption and thermal comfort

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘红; 马小磊; 高亚峰

    2009-01-01

    To explore the relationship between summer office set air-conditioning temperature and energy consumption related to air conditioning use to provide human thermal comfort,a comparison experiment was conducted in three similar offices at temperatures of 24,26 and 28 ℃ respectively. A thermal comfort questionnaire survey was conducted. It is demonstrated that air-conditioner energy consumption at the set temperature of 28 ℃ is 113% and 271% lower than at 26 ℃ and 24 ℃,respectively. A linear relationship exists between air-conditioner energy consumption and the indoor and outdoor temperature difference. When comfortably dressed,over 80% of research participants accept the set temperature of 28 ℃. The regression analysis leads to a neutral temperature of 26.2 ℃ and an acceptable temperature of 28.2 ℃ for over 80% of the research participants subjects,indicating that the current 26 ℃ set temperature for offices in summer,required by Chinese General Office of the State Council,can be increased to 28 ℃. Moreover,analysis of predicted mean vote(PMV) index shows that a set temperature of 27 ℃,not 26 ℃,is sufficiently comfortable for office staff wearing long-sleeve shirts,long pants and leather shoes.

  7. Gender, patient comfort and the neurosurgical operating room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zener, Rebecca; Bernstein, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Neurosurgical patients may be unaware of components of their intra-operative care. The relationship between patient gender and comfort level in the neurosurgical operating room (OR) has not been previously studied. Our objective was to gain insight into patients' perspective of the OR environment, including staffing and observers, the role of medical students, catheterization, exposure, and verbiage, using a qualitative needs assessment. Face-to-face semi-structured interviews were conducted with 20 patients (14 female, six male) who had a neurosurgical operation under general anesthetic within the previous two years. The majority underwent craniotomy for benign tumours. Interviews were transcribed and subjected to modified thematic analysis. Nine themes emerged: 1) perception of the intra-operative environment varies between men and women; 2) lacking awareness about observers is anxiety-provoking for women; 3) being unaware of the hands-on involvement of students is a concern for all patients; 4) disclosure of implantation of foreign and permanent materials into patients is important; 5) catheterization is anxiety provoking for women; 6) pre-operative menstruation screening may minimize embarrassment for women; 7) patients perceive extraneous conversation as a distraction for surgeons; 8) patients trust their surgeon; 9) a relationship exists between interviewer gender and patient comfort in the interview. Although most male and female patients are unaware of OR activities, they are generally not fearful since they trust their surgeon. Women appear to have greater information needs. Patients' information needs must be met without provoking anxiety and yet preserving their personal sense of modesty in the intra-operative environment.

  8. Minimum Makespan Multi-Vehicle Dial-a-Ride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gørtz, Inge Li; Nagarajan, Viswanath; Ravi, R.

    2015-01-01

    Dial-a-Ride problem, there are q vehicles, each having capacity k and where each vehicle j epsilon [q] has its own depot-vertex r(j) epsilon V. A feasible schedule consists of a capacitated route for each vehicle (where vehicle j originates and ends at its depot r(j)) that together move all objects...... from their sources to destinations. The objective is to find a feasible schedule that minimizes the maximum completion time (i.e., makespan) of vehicles, where the completion time of vehicle j is the time when it returns to its depot r(j) at the end of its route. We study the preemptive version......Dial-a-Ride problems consist of a set V of n vertices in a metric space (denoting travel time between vertices) and a set of m objects represented as source-destination pairs {(s(i), t(i))}(i-1)(m), where each object requires to be moved from its source to destination vertex. In the multi-vehicle...

  9. Free-riding behavior in vaccination decisions: an experimental study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoko Ibuka

    Full Text Available Individual decision-making regarding vaccination may be affected by the vaccination choices of others. As vaccination produces externalities reducing transmission of a disease, it can provide an incentive for individuals to be free-riders who benefit from the vaccination of others while avoiding the cost of vaccination. This study examined an individual's decision about vaccination in a group setting for a hypothetical disease that is called "influenza" using a computerized experimental game. In the game, interactions with others are allowed. We found that higher observed vaccination rate within the group during the previous round of the game decreased the likelihood of an individual's vaccination acceptance, indicating the existence of free-riding behavior. The free-riding behavior was observed regardless of parameter conditions on the characteristics of the influenza and vaccine. We also found that other predictors of vaccination uptake included an individual's own influenza exposure in previous rounds increasing the likelihood of vaccination acceptance, consistent with existing empirical studies. Influenza prevalence among other group members during the previous round did not have a statistically significant effect on vaccination acceptance in the current round once vaccination rate in the previous round was controlled for.

  10. Hardness of Preemptive Finite Capacity Dial-a-Ride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gørtz, Inge Li

    2006-01-01

    In the Finite Capacity Dial-a-Ride problem the input is a metric space, a set of objects, each specifying a source and a destination, and an integer k---the capacity of the vehicle used for making the deliveries. The goal is to compute a shortest tour for the vehicle in which all objects can...... be delivered from their sources to their destinations while ensuring that the vehicle carries at most k objects at any point in time. In the preemptive version an object may be dropped at intermediate locations and picked up later and delivered. Let N be the number of nodes in the input graph. Charikar...... and Raghavachari [FOCS '98] gave a min{O(log N),O(k)}-approximation algorithm for the preemptive version of the problem. In this paper we show that the preemptive Finite Capacity Dial-a-Ride problem has no $min{O(log^{1/4-\\epsilon}N),k^{1-\\epsilon}}$-approximation algorithm for any $\\epsilon>0$ unless all problems...

  11. Effects of horseback riding exercise therapy on hormone levels in elderly persons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sung-Hyoun; Kim, Jin-Woo; Kim, Seon-Rye; Cho, Byung-Jun

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of riding exercise on hormone levels in normal elderly people who were taught horseback riding for 8 weeks. [Subjects] Subjects were classified into an exercise group (n=10) and control group (n=10). [Methods] The two groups, horseback riding exercise group of 10 and control group of 10, were each tested for 15 minutes, 3 times, over 8 weeks. Post-exercise tests were implemented in both groups in the same way as pre-study tests. [Results] The horseback riding group showed a significant difference in the pre- and post-exercise serotonin and cortisol levels. Additionally, serotonin and cortisol levels showed significant differences between the two groups. [Conclusion] Serotonin and cortisol levels significantly increased in the experimental group, suggesting that horseback riding exercise is effective for improving the levels of these hormones. PMID:26311966

  12. Effects of mechanical horseback riding on the balance ability of the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Kwon-Young

    2015-08-01

    [Purpose] This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of mechanical horseback riding exercise on the balance ability of the elderly. [Subjects and Methods] Ten elderly patients were assigned to an experimental group, and they performed 15 min of horseback riding. Another 10 elderly patients were assigned to a control group, and they performed 15 min of one-leg standing exercise. Both exercises were repeated five times a week for a total of six weeks. The participants' balance ability was evaluated. [Results] The horseback-riding group showed significant differences between the pre-and post-test balance abilities as assessed by the Berg Balance Scale (BBS) and the Timed Up and Go (TUG) test. [Conclusion] Horseback riding effectively improves the balance ability of the elderly. Horseback riding should be considered as a therapeutic method for the physical therapy of the elderly.

  13. PHYSIOLOGICAL INFORMATION FOR PAVEMENT HEALTH MONITORING BASED ON SURFACE RIDE QUALITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomiyama, Kazuya; Kawamura, Akira; Takahashi, Kiyoshi; Ishida, Tateki

    Pavement ride quality testing has traditionally been based on subjective questionnaire ratings. The questionnaire survey has ability to directly measure the sense of road users' ride quality. However, it is difficult to quantify the evaluation results based on the questionnaire due to its lack of objectivity. This study examines pavement health monitoring method using physiological information such as heart rate variability (HRV) for detecting mental stress of road users toward pavement ride quality. First, a results of a driving simulator experiment shows that potential mental stress caused by road roughness can be observed in high-frequency oscillations in 0.15-0.4Hz of HRV processed by continuous wavelet transform. Then, the high-frequency oscillations of HRV is summarized as an index related to the mental stress that makes objective ride quality evaluation possible. Finally, this study indicates that the index contributes to improve the accuracy of pavement health monitoring based on surface ride quality.

  14. Climate data and climate change - Analysis of the influence on energy demand, performance requirement and thermal comfort of buildings; Klimadaten und Klimawandel - Untersuchungen zum Einfluss auf den Energiebedarf, den Leistungsbedarf und den thermischen Komfort von Gebaeuden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voss, Karsten; Kuenz, Carolin [Bergische Universitaet Wuppertal (Germany)

    2012-10-15

    Continuous research on climate change has improved the knowledge on climate forecast modelling, so that local and regional climate data sets for the application in building energy modelling are available. The paper analyses the data sets of most known sources and compares the relevant characteristics at four German locations. Simulation results for three commercial building examples (office, school and hotel) illustrate how the climate change may influence heating and cooling demands and capacities as well as the summer thermal comfort if no adjustments with respect to construction, service technology and user behaviour are applied. A significant decrease in space heating demand is contrasted by increased cooling demand and increased indoor temperatures during summer even until 2050. Especially for the office buildings, the summer conditions develop critical, so that active cooling will be mandatory in the summer hot regions. This trend was already detected during the past decade. The forecast is critical for all existing buildings. Significant improvements of the envelope properties such as glazing or shading and passive cooling options become mandatory. The changes predicted for schools and hotels remain moderate.

  15. 33 CFR 165.809 - Security Zones; Port of Port Lavaca-Point Comfort, Point Comfort, TX and Port of Corpus Christi...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Lavaca-Point Comfort, Point Comfort, TX and Port of Corpus Christi Inner Harbor, Corpus Christi, TX. 165... Lavaca-Point Comfort, Point Comfort, TX and Port of Corpus Christi Inner Harbor, Corpus Christi, TX. (a) Location. The following area is designated as a security zone: all waters of the Corpus Christi...

  16. Tabriz Bazaar: sustainability and human comfort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nassehzadeh Tabriz, Shahram [Master of Department of Architecture, Islamic Azad University, Miyaneh Branch (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], email: sh_nassehzadeh@m-iau.ac.ir; Fard, Fariborz Mahdavi Tabatabaei [SABAT TARH CO. (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], email: sabat_arc@yahoo.com

    2011-07-01

    Sustainable developments in energy and the environment have become a main focus of many groups. The built environment has a great influence on environmental sustainability generally. Solutions that respond to the impact of human activities on the environment in urban areas are required. On one hand, averting resource depletion and environmental degradation caused by facilities and infrastructures over their life cycle is a principal goal. On the other hand, it is also a principal goal to create livable, comfortable, safe and productive built environments. Tabriz bazaar, in Iran, is an example of sustainable architecture. It is designed to be suited to the local climate and urban texture with spaces that are varied and have a strong connection to open space. The bazaar plays a significant role in creation of safe urban space as a cultural, social, commercial, educational and sanitarian area. It connects different activities and different people in a safe place. The purpose of this paper is to determine the sustainability of the Tabriz bazaar and the effect that the character of this commercial area has on the quality of human life.

  17. THE "COMFORT WOMEN" OF THE PACIFIC WAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JULIA YURI OKAMOTO

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available During the pacific war, about 80 to 200 thousand women were mobilized by the Japanese imperial army to sexually serve its soldiers, in one of world’s largest cases of human trafficking. Most of the victims, euphemistically known as "comfort women", came from Korea, Japan's colony at the time, and was attracted by false promises of employment or simply kidnapped by Japanese troops. Taken to military brothels throughout the pacific, they were subjected to repeated rape and beatings. Some of them, as young as age 12, were daily forced to have sex with Japanese soldiers, 10, 30, 50 times a day. The few women who survived and were able to return home at the end of the war continued to suffer for their past, through psychological trauma and social ostracism. They remained silent about their experience because of fear and shame. These women would have like to live in peace, being wives, mothers, sisters, grandmothers ... but this choice was denied to all. None received any compensation from the Japanese government official, who continues to evade its legal and moral responsibilities regarding war crime. Sixty-eight years later, they are still waiting for justice.

  18. Testing the stimulus-to-response bridging function of the oddball-P3 by delayed response signals and residue iteration decomposition (RIDE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verleger, Rolf; Metzner, Marvin F; Ouyang, Guang; Śmigasiewicz, Kamila; Zhou, Changsong

    2014-10-15

    It has been proposed that the P3b component of event-related potentials (ERPs) reflects linking of responses to target stimuli. This proposal was tested by disconnecting the temporal link between target stimuli and responses, and by applying residue iteration decomposition (RIDE) for separating the ERP components into stimulus-locked, response-locked, and "intermediate" clusters. Left or right keys had to be pressed in response to frequent (80%) and rare (20%) target letters, but responses had to wait for "go" signals (appearing in 90% of trials). Between blocks, stimulus-onset asynchronies (SOAs) from targets to go-signals varied from 0 ms to 800 ms. Rare targets with their rare responses were expected to evoke large P3bs ("oddball effect"). If related to stimulus processing only, this effect will be equally large across all SOAs and will be modeled by RIDE's stimulus-cluster. If related to response initiation only, the oddball effect will be evoked by go-signals rather than by targets and will be modeled by RIDE's response-cluster. If indicating integration of rare stimuli with their rare responses, the oddball effect will be evoked by targets but will be reduced and stretched in time across SOAs and will be modeled by RIDE's intermediate cluster. RIDE analysis confirmed this latter view, for the most part. SOA effects matched best, though not perfectly, predictions made by the stimulus-response-link view. These results call for a refined account of the oddball effect on P3b in terms of stimulus-response coupling.

  19. Effect of comfort pads and incubator design on neonatal radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Xia; Baad, Michael; Reiser, Ingrid; Feinstein, Kate A.; Lu, Zhengfeng [University of Chicago Medicine, Department of Radiology, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2016-01-15

    There has been increasing interest in patient dose reduction in neonatal intensive care units. Removing comfort pads for radiography has been identified as a potential means to decrease patient dose. To assess the effect of comfort pads and support trays on detector entrance exposure (DEE) and image quality for neonatal radiography, and its implication for patient dose. Comfort pads and support trays from three incubator and warmer systems were examined. The attenuation of the primary beam by these structures was measured using a narrow beam geometry. Their effect on DEE and image quality was then assessed using typical neonatal chest radiography techniques with three configurations: (1) both the comfort pad and support included in the beam, (2) only the support tray included and (3) both the comfort pad and support tray removed. Comfort pads and support trays were found to attenuate the primary beam by 6-15%. Eliminating these structures from the X-ray beam's path was found to increase the detector entrance exposure by 28-36% and increase contrast-to-noise ratio by more than 21%, suggesting room for patient dose reduction when the same image quality is maintained. Comfort pads and tray support devices can have a considerable effect on DEE and image quality, with large variations among different incubator designs. Positioning the image detector directly underneath neonatal patients for radiography is a potential means for patient dose reduction. However, such benefit should be weighed against the risks of moving the patient. (orig.)

  20. Simulation analysis based on vehicle comfort and drive safety of Simulink%基于Simulink车辆舒适性和行驶安全性仿真分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈俊杰; 张新刚; 毛亚峰; 李兆凯

    2011-01-01

    Firstly according to road spectrum measurement data report of mechanical vibration under National GB/T 7031-2005,write simulation program for random road incentive spectrum;establish 1/2 vehicle dynamical model by using lagrangian equations of motion,and make simulation by Simulink,take random road incentive spectrum as input under different grade road surface and different speed,analyse the body acceleration mean square root value and rear wheel moving load mean square root value under different grade road surface and different speed.This has a significant meaning of satisfying the simulation suspention parameter of the automotive driving comfort and driving safety.%根据国标GB/T7031—2005机械振动道路路面谱测量数据报告,在MatLab中编写了随机路面激励谱仿真程序;利用拉格朗日方程建立了1/2车辆动力学模型,并用Simulink对其进行了仿真;以不同等级路面和不同车速下的随机路面激励谱作为输入,分析了车辆在不同等级路面、不同车速下的车身加速度均方根值和后轮的动载荷均方根值。这对满足汽车行驶舒适性和行驶安全性的情况下优化悬架参数具有重要意义。

  1. [Comfort and noise level in infants with helmet interface].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, A; Alvarez Fernández, P; Rey Galán, C; Álvarez Mendiola, P; Álvarez Blanco, S; Vivanco Allende, A

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate comfort and noise intensity using the COMFORT scale in infants who receive respiratory support with a helmet interface. An observational descriptive study was conducted on all infants (1 to 12 months of age) admitted to a PICU from November 1st 2013 to March 31st 2014 and who received non-invasive ventilation with a helmet interface. Tolerance to the interface was assessed by use of the COMFORT scale. The intensity of the noise to which the infants were exposed was measured with a TES1350A HIBOK 412 sound-level meter. Three measurements were made every day. Twenty seven patients with bronchiolitis (median age: 54 days; range: 10 to 256) were included. Median COMFORT score in the first day was 21 points (14 - 28). An increase in patient comfort was found with a gradual decrease in the scores, with a maximum reduction of 22% from the first hours (score of 22) to the fifth day (score of 18). The minimum sound intensity registered was 42dB, and the maximum was 78dB. Background noise intensity was associated with noise intensity in the helmet. No differences were observed in COMFORT score and noise intensity between ventilator devices. Helmet interface was well tolerated by infants. COMFORT score results are an indicator that infants were comfortable or very comfortable. The measured noise intensity was in the safe range permitted by World Health Organization. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Passenger Rail Service Comfortability in Kuala Lumpur Urban Transit System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nordin Noor Hafiza

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rail transit transportation system is among the public transportation network in Kuala Lumpur City. Some important elements in establishing this system are ticket price, operation cost, maintenance implications, service quality and passenger’s comfortability. The level of passenger’s comfortability in the coach is important to be considered by the relevant authorities and system operators in order to provide comfort and safety to passengers. The objective this research is to study some parameters that impact the comfortability of passengers and to obtain feedbacks from passengers for different rail transit system. Site observations were conducted to obtain data such as noise, vibration, speed and coach layouts which will be verified by using the passenger feedback outcomes. The research will be focused in and around the Kuala Lumpur City for the duration of 10 months. Four rail transit systems were being considered, i.e. Train Type A (LRA, Train Type B (LRB, Train Type C (MRL and Train Type D (CTR. Data parameters obtained from field observations were conducted in the rail coaches during actual operation using apparatus among others the sound level meter (SLM, vibration analyzer (VA and the global positioning system (GPS. Questionnaires were prepared as passenger feedback instrument, focusing on the level of comfortability in rail coaches. The outcomes of these analyses showed that CTR was the best and most comfortable coach, followed by LRA, LRB and MRL. Using the passenger feedbacks (MBP it was also found that the ranking values for the railway transit system using Rail Coach Comfortability (RCC is RCC (MBP were the same as the outcomes using the RCC (parameters. In conclusion, it was found that this research has successfully determined the level of comfortability as determined in its aim and objectives. From this research, it is hoped that the relevant authorities will continue to find ways to enhance the comfortability and safety of its

  3. Randomized Controlled Trial of Therapeutic Horseback Riding in Children and Adolescents With Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriels, Robin L.; Pan, Zhaoxing; Dechant, Briar; Agnew, John A.; Brim, Natalie; Mesibov, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study expands previous equine-assisted intervention research by evaluating the effectiveness of therapeutic horseback riding (THR) on self-regulation, socialization, communication, adaptive, and motor behaviors in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Method Participants with ASD (ages 6–16 years; N=127) were stratified by nonverbal IQ standard scores (≤ 85 or > 85) and randomized to one of two groups for 10 weeks: THR intervention or a barn activity (BA) control group without horses that employed similar methods. The fidelity of the THR intervention was monitored. Participants were evaluated within one month pre- and post-intervention by raters blind to intervention conditions and unblinded caregiver questionnaires. During the intervention, caregivers rated participants’ behaviors weekly. Results Intent-to-treat analysis conducted on the 116 participants who completed a baseline assessment (THR n = 58; BA control n = 58) revealed significant improvements in the THR group compared to the control on measures of irritability (primary outcome) (p=.002; effect size [ES]=.50) and hyperactivity (p=.001; ES=0.53), beginning by week five of the intervention. Significant improvements in the THR group were also observed on a measure of social cognition (p=.05, ES=.41) and social communication (p=.003; ES =.63), along with the total number of words (p=.01; ES=.54) and new words (p=.01; ES=.54) spoken during a standardized language sample. Sensitivity analyses adjusting for age, IQ, and per-protocol analyses produced consistent results. Conclusion This is the first large-scale randomized, controlled trial demonstrating efficacy of THR for the ASD population, and findings are consistent with previous equine-assisted intervention studies. Clinical trial registration information Trial of Therapeutic Horseback Riding in Children and Adolescents With Autism Spectrum Disorder; http://clinicaltrials.gov/; NCT02301195. PMID:26088658

  4. Analysis of lateral dynamics and ride performance of the Superbus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Herk, S.; Terzi, A.; Ockels, W.J.

    2008-01-01

    Vehicle handling and stability are very important at high speeds especially when the vehicle has a weight of about 6 times a normal luxury passenger car as in the case of the Superbus which travels at 250kph. In this paper the high speed performance of the Superbus will be analyzed. First the model

  5. Near-infraed scattering method for fabric thermal comfort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Shou-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Wetting behavior of a clothing assembly plays an important role in thermophysiological body comfort. The instruments and methods utilised for testing purposes should adequately quantify wetting parameters of fabric thermal comfort. The surface conductivity method has been used to for moisture management testing in fabrics, but that method cannot give the detailed information for fiber-liquid interaction. With the new near-infrared scattering method, the wetting mechanism is introduced and interpreted through liquid transfer process from an infinite liquid reservoir. Wetting results from two kinds of fabrics show the difference in fabric thermal comfort.

  6. Outcomes of newly practicing nurses who applied principles of holistic comfort theory during the transition from school to practice: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Miki; Candela, Lori

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this qualitative study was to explore if newly practicing nurses benefited from learning holistic comfort theory during their baccalaureate education, and to provide a conceptual framework to support the transition from school to practice. The study was conducted among graduates of an accelerated baccalaureate nursing program where holistic comfort theory was embedded as a learner-centered philosophy across the curriculum. A phenomenological process using van Manen's qualitative methodology in education involving semi-structured interviews and thematic analysis was used. The nurses recalled what holistic comfort meant to them in school, and described the lived experience of assimilating holistic comfort into their attitudes and behaviors in practice. Themes were established and a conceptual framework was developed to better understand the nurses' lived experiences. Results showed that holistic comfort was experienced as a constructive approach to transcend unavoidable difficulties during the transition from school to practice. Participants described meaningful learning and acquisition of self-strengthening behaviors using holistic comfort theory. Holistic comfort principles were credited for easing nurses into the realities of work and advocating for best patient outcomes. Patient safety and pride in patient care were incidental positive outcomes. The study offers new insights about applying holistic comfort to prepare nurses for the realities of practice. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Achieving success: moving beyond the comfort level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manji, I

    1993-11-01

    Understanding the stages of growth, saturation and transition is the first step to setting meaningful career goals. While this concept is fairly new in dentistry, it is not new in other commercial enterprises. Business managers and owners have known for decades that growth stagnates after a period of time. At that point, a new infusion of energy and a reformation of the business's objectives and methods are needed to launch forward into the next phase of growth. Transition management in dentistry represents periods of growth that are followed by saturation and a comparatively rapid changeover to a new practice form. Saturation occurs when the clinical capacity of a practice is exceeded by the needs of a growing patient base. The key transitions in the career of a dentist are those from school to practising, and practising to retirement. A great number of dentists (due to low motivation, the comfort level or poor management skills) never reach the saturation point during their practising career. For these dentists, starting out and retirement are the only transitions that will ever apply to them. Dentists evaluating transition options must first identify which career stage they belong to since their objectives will be different at each stage. Dentists in the growth phase should focus on practice management and achieving saturation before attempting a transition. Since transitions like start-up, retirement, partnerships, associateships and buy-ins have pivotal roles in the life cycle of a practice, transitions must be managed carefully to achieve successful results.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Methods of 3D data applications to inform design decisions for physical comfort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stavrakos, Stavros-Konstantinos; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema

    2016-01-01

    Many everyday tasks require physical contact with products, such as helmets, headsets, etc. There is a drive for comfortable products that fit the task and the human body, especially in the industry of external ear worn products. Past research on anthropometry stresses that positive comfort...... methods to support design applications (ways of analysis) of 3-dimensional head and ear data with a focus on external ear products. 200 persons representing the Danish population were scanned. The 3-d data was collected, refined and analysed. A matrix containing 29 new ear dimensions was generated....... An analysis of the dataset through understanding of human and product geometry and methods of visualisation of the dataset generated an additional number of 9 advanced dimensions. The paper finally presents all phases of the analysis of the 3D data in the form of a methodological framework. The paper...

  9. Human pelvis motions when walking and when riding a therapeutic horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Brian A; Rigby, B Rhett

    2015-02-01

    A prevailing rationale for equine assisted therapies is that the motion of a horse can provide sensory stimulus and movement patterns that mimic those of natural human activities such as walking. The purpose of this study was to quantitatively measure and compare human pelvis motions when walking to those when riding a horse. Six able-bodied children (inexperienced riders, 8-12years old) participated in over-ground trials of self-paced walking and leader-paced riding on four different horses. Five kinematic measures were extracted from three-dimensional pelvis motion data: anteroposterior, superoinferior, and mediolateral translations, list angle about the anteroposterior axis, and twist angle about the superoinferior axis. There was generally as much or more variability in motion range observed between riding on the different horses as between riding and walking. Pelvis trajectories exhibited many similar features between walking and riding, including distorted lemniscate patterns in the transverse and frontal planes. In the sagittal plane the pelvis trajectory during walking exhibited a somewhat circular pattern whereas during riding it exhibited a more diagonal pattern. This study shows that riding on a horse can generate movement patterns in the human pelvis that emulate many, but not all, characteristics of those during natural walking.

  10. Riding the waves of culture understanding cultural diversity in business

    CERN Document Server

    Trompenaars, Fons

    1993-01-01

    The definitive guide to cross-cultural management--updated to help you lead effectively during a time of unprecedented globalization First published nearly 20 years ago, Riding the Waves of Culture became the standard guide to conducting business in an international context. Now, the third edition provides you with important new information and groundbreaking methods for leading effectively in the most globalized business landscape ever. Fons Trompenaars is a world expert on international management and founder and director of Trompenaars Hampden-Turner (THT), a consulting firm in the field of intercultural management. Charles Hampden-Turner is a Senior Research Associate at the Judge Business School at the University of Cambridge and cofounder and Director of Research and Development at the Trompenaars-Hampden-Turner Group.

  11. Urban Climate Design: Improving thermal comfort in Dutch neighbourhoods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Kleerekoper

    2016-07-01

    discussed in the third part of this thesis provides examples of climate adaptive applications and suggestions for design strategies.Using urban typologies makes it possible to integrate the microclimate in the design without needing urban microclimate expertise. By analysing specific neighbourhood typologies applying a variety of microclimate indicators three simple distinctive parameters emerge: balance between pavement and natural surfaces;building height;built form.Design solutions were applied to reveal spatial implications for most of the neighbourhoods in the analysis and serve as examples and a source of inspiration. Promising and neighbourhood-specific measures were selected per neighbourhood type to support the design process.To demonstrate how microclimates can be managed with design choices, a design case was developed in more detail for three cities. Prioritizing measures at the design stage depends on many external and intrinsic factors. The three designs in this thesis follow the same path: analysis > maximisation > optimisation > integration. When maximization focuses on thermal comfort only design measures concerning this aspect are applied. Prioritization can be applied in a three-step strategy of: warming prevention, passive cooling and active cooling. The design process is an iterative process in which promising combinations may be found in the optimization and this may require additional analysis.This thesis hopes to build bridges between knowledge and science and the practice of the design of public space. That goal is approached with a product that unfolds from the three parts of the study: Factsheets to simply check and evaluate mechanisms and affordances of measures;Guidelines for the further development of knowledge of and design with urban microclimates;A categorized set of measures to be able to select the right measure for the right neighbourhood typology.The study is part of a consortium of complementary research projects and stakeholders with

  12. The Design of a Patient Transportation Robot's Lifting Arms Considering Comfort and Safety without the Presence of a Sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Hoon Lee

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A transportation robot's lifting arms have an effect on the comfort and safety of patients. Improved arms have been designed through dynamic and static analyses to increase safety if a sheet not present on the lifting arms. To design the lifting arms, experimentation is very helpful, however, it is difficult and dangerous to experiment on patients; therefore, a simple human model was made and used for the dynamic analysis. Through the dynamic analysis results, a safe width and comfortable location for the lifting arms were determined. The thickness was then determined by static analysis and optimum design. In addition, tests have been conducted to confirm comfort and safety by deploying the designed lifting arms onto a transportation robot.

  13. Applying Outdoor Environment to Develop Health, Comfort, and Energy Saving in the Office in Hot-Humid Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A human life demand set to emerge in the future is the achievement of sustainability by maintaining a comfortable indoor environment without excessive reliance on energy-consuming air conditioners. The major research processes in this study are: (1 measuring indoor air quality and thermal comfort to evaluate the comfort of an indoor environment; (2 implementing questionnaire survey analysis to explore people’s environmental self-perceptions and conducting a meta-analysis of the measurement results for air quality and physical aspects; and (3 constructing an indoor monitoring and management system. The experimental and analysis results of this research reveal that most of the office occupants preferred a cooler environment with a lower temperature. Additionally, because the summers in Taiwan are humid and hot, the occupants of an indoor space tend to feel uncomfortable because of the high humidity and poor indoor air quality. Therefore, Variable Air Volume (VAV, two air intakes, and exhaust plant are installed to improve indoor environment. After improvement, a lower temperature (approximately 21.2–23.9°C indirectly reduces humidity, thereby making the occupants comfortable. Increasing air velocity to 0.1~0.15 m/s, the carbon dioxide concentrations decrease below the requirement of the WHO. Ninety-five percent of the workers corresponded to the standard comfort zone after this improvement.

  14. Objective Evaluation Method of Steering Comfort Based on Movement Quality Evaluation of Driver Steering Maneuver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Yiyong; LIU Yahui; WANG Man; JI Run; JI Xuewu

    2014-01-01

    The existing research of steering comfort mainly focuses on the subjective evaluation, aiming at designing and optimizing the steering system. In the development of steering system, especially the evaluation of steering comfort, the objective evaluation methods considered the kinematic characteristics of driver steering maneuver are not proposed, which means that the objective evaluation of steering cannot be conducted with the evaluation of kinematic characteristics of driver in steering maneuver. In order to propose the objective evaluation methods of steering comfort, the evaluation of steering movement quality of driver is developed on the basis of the study of the kinematic characteristics of steering maneuver. First, the steering motion trajectories of the driver in both comfortable and certain extreme uncomfortable operation conditions are detected using the Vicon motion capture system. The operation conditions are under the restrictions of the vertical height and horizontal distance between steering wheel center and the H-point of driver, and the steering resisting torque else. Next, the movement quality evaluation of driver steering maneuver is assessed using twelve kinds of evaluation indices based on the kinematic analyses of the steering motion trajectories to propose an objective evaluation method. Finally, an integrated discomfort index of steering maneuver is proposed on the basis of the regression analysis of subjective evaluation rating and the movement quality evaluation indices, including the Jerk, Discomfort and Joint Torque indices. The test results show that the proposed integrated discomfort index gives a good fitting with the subjective evaluation of discomfort, which means it can be used to evaluate or predict the discomfort level of steering maneuver. This paper proposes an objective evaluation method of steering comfort based on the movement quality evaluation of driver steering maneuver.

  15. Summer residence hall renovations focus on student comfort, environmental sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    DeLauder, Rachel

    2009-01-01

    With the majority of students home for the summer, Virginia Tech Housing Services has undertaken a variety of improvements and renovations in its residence halls aimed at increasing comfort and safety for students, while decreasing overall environmental impact.

  16. Thermal Comfort in a Naturally-Ventilated Educational Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Mwale Ogoli

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive study of thermal comfort in a naturally ventilated education building (88,000 ft2 in a Chicago suburb will be conducted with 120 student subjects in 2007. This paper discusses some recent trends in worldwide thermal comfort studies and presents a proposal of research for this building through a series of questionnaire tables. Two research methods used inthermal comfort studies are field studies and laboratory experiments in climate-chambers. The various elements that constitute a “comfortable” thermal environment include physical factors (ambient air temperature, mean radiant temperature, air movement and humidity, personal factors(activity and clothing, classifications (gender, age, education, etc. and psychological expectations (knowledge, experience, psychological effect of visual warmth by, say, a fireplace. Comparisons are made using data gathered from Nairobi, Kenya.Keywords: Comfort, temperature, humidity and ventilation

  17. [Patient's pain feeling and surgeon's comfort--ECCE versus phacoemulsification].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kałuzny, Jakub J; Eliks, Iwona; Mierzejewski, Andrzej; Kałuzny, Bartłomiej

    2004-01-01

    To compare patient's pain and surgeon's comfort during ECCE performed under retrobulbar anesthesia and phacoemulsification under topical anesthesia. 120 patients scheduled for planned routine cataract extraction were divided in 2 groups: group 1-60 eyes, ECCE under retrobulbar anesthesia and group II-60 eyes, phacoemulsification under topical anesthesia. Immediately after operation patients were asked, to answer questions about their feeling during surgery. Simultaneously, the surgeon filled up the questionnaire, concerning patients behavior during the entire procedure. Statistically significant higher level of pain was reported in group I (ECCE). The most painful moment of the procedure was retrobulbar injection. During surgery pain feeling in both groups was similar. Both types of anesthesia provided very good level of surgeon's comfort. The longer operation, the higher level of pain and lower surgeon's comfort were reported in both groups. Patients having ECCE performed under retrobulbar anesthesia reported more pain comparing to phacoemulsification under topical anesthesia. Both anesthesia methods provided high level of surgeon's comfort.

  18. does knowledge influence their attitude and comfort in rendering care?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kemrilib

    Physicians and AIDS care: does knowledge influence their attitude and comfort in rendering ... experience, age and being a consultant or a senior resident influenced attitude, while male ..... having or not having children, prior instructions on ...

  19. implications of climate change on human comfort in buildings

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prince Acheampong

    needed to maintain the condition of air in spaces at comfort levels keep increasing. It is therefore ... present day building design, if not it could pose severe consequences. Resilience of .... 4a: Sandcrete wall with louver blades window. Fig.

  20. The HVAC Control Technology Making Energy Saving Compatible with Comfort

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    高木, 康夫; 米沢, 憲造; 村山, 大; 西村, 信孝; 花田, 雄一; 山崎, 謙一

    2010-01-01

    .... The method is mainly focused on the compatibility of energy savings and comfort. The energy saving is achieved through the next generation air handling unit that controls room humidity without energy loss and the optimal operation of HVAC...

  1. Comfort in using hand tools : theory, design and evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Kuijt-Evers, L.F.M.

    2007-01-01

    Everyone uses hand tools in their daily life, like knife and fork. Moreover, many people use hand tools in their profession as well as during leisure time. It is important that they can work with hand tools that provide comfort. Until now, the avoidance of discomfort was emphasized during the design process of hand tools, like screwdrivers, hand saws and paint brushes. In the near future, the focus will shift towards providing comfort. However, some questions need to be answered to make this ...

  2. The effect of yarn folding on some comfort properties

    OpenAIRE

    Stanković, Snežana; Popović, Dušan; Poparić, Goran

    2013-01-01

    The compressive nature of textile fabrics is known to be a significant factor influencing tactile comfort. In addition, the transport of the heat through the fabric is considered to be the major factor in thermal comfort. Since the thermal behavior of textile fabrics is highly correlated with thickness and porosity, the changes in bulk density of the fabric caused by the compression force would change the heat flux through the fabric. The operation of yarn folding modifies the existing single...

  3. Indoor temperatures for optimum thermal comfort and human performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Dear, R.; Arens, E. A.; Candido, C.;

    2014-01-01

    A response by R. J. de Dear et al to a letter to the editor in response to their article "Progress in thermal comfort research over the last 20 years," published in a 2013 issue.......A response by R. J. de Dear et al to a letter to the editor in response to their article "Progress in thermal comfort research over the last 20 years," published in a 2013 issue....

  4. Health and thermal comfort : from WHO guidance to housing strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Ormandy, David; Ezratty, Véronique

    2012-01-01

    There are many references to the WHO guidance on thermal comfort in housing, but not to the original source material. Based on archive material, this paper gives the evidential basis for the WHO guidance. It then reports on evidence that some groups may be more susceptible to high or low indoor temperatures than others. It examines different methods for measuring thermal comfort, such as air temperature measurement, assessing residents' perception, and predicting satisfaction. Resident's perc...

  5. Physical Environment Comfort Impacts on Office Employee’s Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chua Shirley Jin Lin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Office workplaces today is now no longer only consisting of passive and fixed activity but also towards a more flexible environment activity. The number of office workplaces is hiking from day to day which leads to the increase of the office workers. The productivity will be improved by providing optimum physical environment. The physical environment comfort in a workplace is claimed to be vital as it will encourages healthier, more productive and lower absenteeism rate among employees. The physical environment comfort encompassed optimum room temperature, relative humidity and illuminance level. This research intend to investigate the importance of physical environment comfort by evaluating the comfort based on the existing workplace and determine its effect on employee’s performance. Evaluation between the selected case studies are made in the aspects of employee’s comfort perceive health and absenteeism rate by wielding the elements of physical comfort consisting room temperature, relative humidity and illuminance level. Field study was carried out for 3 institutional building particularly management department. High correlations are found between room temperature, lighting and relative humidity with health related issue such as stuffy, easily tired and difficulty in concentration which affect employees’ productivity and work performances.

  6. Impact of measurable physical phenomena on contact thermal comfort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fojtlín Miloš

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cabin HVAC (Heating Ventilation and Air-conditioning systems have become an essential part of personal vehicles as demands for comfortable transport are still rising. In fact, 85 % of the car trips in Europe are shorter than 18 km and last only up to 30 minutes. Under such conditions, the HVAC unit cannot often ensure desired cabin environment and passengers are prone to experience thermal stress. For this reason, additional comfort systems, such as heated or ventilated seats, are available on the market. However, there is no straightforward method to evaluate thermal comfort at the contact surfaces nowadays. The aim of this work is to summarise information about heated and ventilated seats. These technologies use electrical heating and fan driven air to contact area in order to achieve enhanced comfort. It is also expected, that such measures may contribute to lower energy consumption. Yet, in real conditions it is almost impossible to measure the airflow through the ventilated seat directly. Therefore, there is a need for an approach that would correlate measurable physical phenomena with thermal comfort. For this reason, a method that exploits a measurement of temperatures and humidity at the contact area is proposed. Preliminary results that correlate comfort with measurable physical phenomena are demonstrated.

  7. Feasibility study of context-awareness device Comfort calculation methods and their application to comfort-based access control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Jingjing; Jensen, Christian D.; Ma, Jianfeng

    2016-01-01

    . This allows us to analyze the influence of the context on the comfort level of the device in different perceived contexts in the real world. Moreover, to demonstrate the utility of our device comfort calculation methods, we apply it to comfort-based access control for mobile devices. We present the policy......Mobile devices have become more powerful and are increasingly integrated in the everyday life of people; from playing games, taking pictures and interacting with social media to replacing credit cards in payment solutions. Some actions may only be appropriate in some situations, so the security...... of a mobile device is therefore increasingly linked to its context, such as its location, surroundings (e.g. objects in the immediate environment) and so on. However, situational awareness and context are not captured by traditional security models. In this paper, we examine the notion of Device Comfort...

  8. Analysis of Semi-Active and Passive Suspensions System for Off-Road Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    BenLahcene, Zohir; Faris, Waleed F.; Khan, M. D. Raisuddin

    2009-03-01

    The speed of off-road vehicles over rough terrain is generally determined by the ride quality not by the engine power. For this reason, researches are currently being undertaking to improve the ride dynamics of these vehicles using an advanced suspension system. This study intends to provide a preliminary evaluation of whether semi-active suspensions are beneficial to improving ride and handling in off-road vehicles. One of the greatest challenges in designing off-road vehicle suspension system is maintaining a good balance between vehicle ride and handling. Three configurations of these vehicles; 2-axle, 3-xle and 4-axles have been studied and their performances are compared. The application of several control policies of semi-active suspension system, namely skyhook; ground-hook and hybrid controls have been analyzed and compared with passive systems. The results show that the hybrid control policy yields better comfort than a passive suspension, without reducing the road-holding quality or increasing the suspension displacement. The hybrid control policy is also shown to be a better compromise between comfort, road-holding and suspension displacement than the skyhook and ground-hook control policies. Results show an improvement in ride comfort and vehicle handling using 4-axle over 3-axle and 2-axle when emphasis is placed on the response of the vehicle body acceleration, suspension and tyre deflection.

  9. Adaptive thermal comfort explained by means of the Fanger-model; Adaptief thermisch comfort verklaard met Fanger-model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Linden, W.; Loomans, M.G.L.C.; Hensen, J. [Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2008-07-15

    This article examines the relation between the adaptive thermal comfort (ATC) model and the Fanger model. The most important data collected were the value ranges of individual parameters in relation to ATC assessment. The ATC model uses a relatively simple indicator of thermal comfort. It treats the desired operational indoor temperature as a measure of thermal comfort in direct comparison to the outdoor temperature. This has the advantage of providing a relatively straightforward and transparent way of assessing occupant comfort. The Fanger model makes use of human thermal equilibrium, and is more flexible and more widely applicable. The results of the comparison show that, in a temperate climate like that of the Netherlands, the Fanger model is fully capable of explaining the results of the ATC model. [Dutch] In dit artikel is de relatie tussen het adaptief thermisch comfort (ATC) model en het Fanger-model nader onderzocht. Hierbij is vooral gekeken naar de ranges van waarden van de individuele parameters in relatie tot de ATC-beoordeling. Her ATC-model maakt gebruik van een minder complexe indicator om een uitspraak te doen over het thermisch comfort. Bij deze aanpak wordt de gewenste operatieve binnentemperatuur, als maat voor her thermisch comfort, direct gerelateerd aan de buitentemperatuur. Een voordeel hiervan is dat op een relatief eenvoudige en inzichtelijke manier een waardering van her comfort kan worden gegeven. Het Fanger-model maakt gebruik van de warmtebalans van de mens en is flexibeler en breder toepasbaar. De resultaten van de vergelijking laten zien dat voor een gematigd klimaat als in Nederland het Fanger-model goed in staat is om de resultaten van het ATC-model te verklaren.

  10. Motorcycle riding under the influence of alcohol: results from the SARTRE-4 survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadimitriou, Eleonora; Theofilatos, Athanasios; Yannis, George; Cestac, Julien; Kraïem, Sami

    2014-09-01

    Riding a motorcycle under the influence of alcohol is a dangerous activity, especially considering the high vulnerability of motorcyclists. The present research investigates the factors that affect the declared frequency of drink-riding among motorcyclists in Europe and explores regional differences. Data were collected from the SARTRE-4 (Social Attitudes to Road Traffic Risk in Europe) survey, which was conducted in 19 countries. A total sample of 4483 motorcyclists was interviewed by using a face-to-face questionnaire. The data were analyzed by means of multilevel ordered logit models. The results revealed significant regional differences (between Northern, Eastern and Southern European countries) in drink-riding frequencies in Europe. In general, declared drinking and riding were positively associated with gender (males), increased exposure, underestimation of risk, friends' behaviour, past accidents and alcohol ticket experience. On the other hand, it was negatively associated with underestimation of the amount of alcohol allowed before driving, and support for more severe penalties.

  11. Mitigating Free Riding in Peer-To-Peer Networks: Game Theory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mitigating Free Riding in Peer-To-Peer Networks: Game Theory Approach. ... Through extensive simulations, we show that this mechanism can increase fairness and encourage resource contribution by peers to the network. ... Article Metrics.

  12. Rider errors and amusement ride safety: observation at three carnival midways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodcock, Kathryn

    2007-03-01

    Over 5000 ride-exposures were observed at three carnival midways, with 103 ride installations. Rider and operator behaviour was observed and compared with posted safety regulations. The observed errors were analysed and clustered qualitatively and quantitatively. Rider errors were seen in 1.4% of individual ride-exposures, and little operator interception was seen. Most errors of both riders and operators were mistakes rather than slips or lapses, and many were violations. Qualitative typology based on error context indicated that social goals, sensory enhancement or convenience goals made sense of most mistakes. The most common single behaviour observed contrary to posted rules was leaning out or extending limbs. Future interventions should consider whether ride features could guide or support riders in achieving their goals rather than obstructing or prohibiting specific behaviours.

  13. The high-riding superior aortic recess of the pericardium: MRI visualization in a child

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, Mervyn [Indiana University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Riley Hospital for Children, Department of Radiology, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Johnson, Tiffanie; Hoyer, Mark [Indiana University School of Medicine, Pediatric Cardiology, Indianapolis, IN (United States)

    2005-12-01

    We report a 4-year-old child with a high-riding superior aortic recess of the pericardium, initially misdiagnosed as a possible vascular malformation. The anatomy of the pericardial recesses is reviewed. (orig.)

  14. Ride Control Systems - Reduced Motions on the Cost of Increased Sectional Forces ?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folsø, R.; Nielsen, Ulrik Dam; Torti, F.

    2003-01-01

    Implementation of passive and active ride control systems into both linear frequency and non-linear time domain strip theories is described. The ride control systems considered can consist of T-foils, fins or a combination of these. These appendages are taken into account by considering the lift...... by adding the lift forces to the exciting forces in the equations of motion. One of the advantages in the time domain is that the angle of attack can be limited easily, as is often the case in real full scale ride control systems. This way cavitation and finally stalling can be avoided. In the frequency...... domain limits on the angle of attack cannot be set. Since the lift coefficient is treated linearly the calculated lift force is severely overestimated in rough sea. Secondly the effect of including ride control systems in the calculations is demonstrated through comparisons of RMS values and of response...

  15. Pilot Findings of Brain Displacements and Deformations during Roller Coaster Rides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Calvin; Wu, Lyndia C; Ye, Patrick P; Laksari, Kaveh; Camarillo, David B; Kuhl, Ellen

    2017-08-14

    With 300,000,000 riders annually, roller coasters are a popular recreational activity. Although the number of roller coaster injuries is relatively low, the precise effect of roller coaster rides on our brains remains unknown. Here we present the quantitative characterization of brain displacements and deformations during roller coaster rides. For two healthy adult male subjects, we recorded head accelerations during three representative rides, and, for comparison, during running and soccer headers. From the recordings, we simulated brain displacements and deformations using rigid body dynamics and finite element analyses. Our findings show that despite having lower linear accelerations than sports head impacts, roller coasters may lead to brain displacements and strains comparable to mild soccer headers. The peak change in angular velocity on the rides was 9.9 rad/sec, which was higher than the 5.6 rad/sec in soccer headers with ball velocities reaching 7 m/sec. Maximum brain surface displacements of 4.0 mm and maximum principal strains of 7.6% were higher than in running and similar to soccer headers, but below the reported average concussion strain. Brain strain rates during roller coaster rides were similar to those in running, and lower than those in soccer headers. Strikingly, on the same ride and at a similar position, the two subjects experienced significantly different head kinematics and brain deformation. These results indicate that head motion and brain deformation during roller coaster rides are highly sensitive to individual subjects. Although our study suggests that roller coaster rides do not present an immediate risk of acute brain injury, their long-term effects require further longitudinal study.

  16. Fault ride-through and voltage support of permanent magnet synchronous generator wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michalke, G.; Hartkopf, T. [Darmstadt Technical Univ., Dept. of Renewable Energies (Germany); Hansen, A.D. [Risoe National Lab., DTU, Wind Energy Dept. (Denmark)

    2007-11-15

    This paper presents a control strategy of direct driven multipole PMSG wind turbines, which enhances the fault ride-through and voltage support capability of such wind turbines during grid faults. A dynamic simulation model of the turbine is implemented in the simulation software DIgSILENT. Simulation results approve the effectiveness of the developed control strategy. It is shown that PMSG wind turbines equipped with such control even enable nearby connected conventional wind turbines to ride-through grid faults. (au)

  17. Control of Doubly-Fed Induction Generator to Ride-Through Recurring Grid Faults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Wenjie; Xu, Dehong; Zhu, Nan;

    2016-01-01

    The wind turbine system (WTS) is required to ride-through recurring grid faults by the new grid codes. Under single grid faults, the fault ride-through (FRT) strategy with rotor-side crowbar is normally used for the doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG) WTS. However, under recurring faults, larger.......5-MW DFIG model and by experiments on a 30-kW DFIG test system....

  18. Simulation of Thermal Comfort of a Residential House

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masine Md. Tap

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In hot and humid climates thermal comfort can become a problem to the occupants of many residential buildings especially when they are not equipped with air-conditioning system. This paper presents outcomes of an ongoing research work to investigate thermal comfort level in a naturally ventilated residential house in Malaysia using computational fluid dynamics (CFD method. Actual measurements of the temperature distribution, relative humidity and air flow pattern were conducted. CFD simulations on the model of the house allow us to visualize the temperature distribution and air flow pattern and velocity in the house. The thermal comfort in the house was found to be well outside the limits specified by ASHRAE standards. CFD simulation was used to investigate the effects of using a ceiling fan installed in the middle of the hall section and rotating at 150 RPM. It was found that the fan produced swirling flow pattern in the hall section resulting in a more uniform temperature distribution inside the house. However, there is no significant improvement in the thermal comfort level in the house. Results of CFD simulations also show that the use of small extractor fans installed on the front and back walls has no significant effects on the thermal comfort level in the house. Although the mechanical ventilation devices did not help improve the thermal comfort in the house being studied, the CFD simulation results can be used by building designers and engineers to further improved the level of thermal comfort in residential houses in hot and humid climates that are naturally ventilated.

  19. Operators' perception of comfort in two tractor cabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, E; Cavallo, E

    2013-01-01

    Workspace characteristics affect the perceived comfort level of the operator and uncomfortable working conditions have been found to have a negative impact on productivity and safety. The comfort of the operator is increasingly recognized by manufacturers as a product's added value. Comfort can positively distinguish a product and increase its competitiveness. The concept of comfort is controversial, and a clear operational definition is missing. Nevertheless, it is widely accepted that comfort is a subjective phenomenon that can be evaluated by the final users. In this study, comfort aspects of the tractor workspace interior (i.e., the cab) were investigated. Users with various levels of expertise and two medium-power utility tractors of different brands were used in a 2 x 2 mixed-factorial experimental design. Participants were involved in a dynamic assessment of the cabs, and their opinions about the different workspaces were collected through a questionnaire. Additionally, objective measurements were taken on both tractors, and subjective data were compared with objective data. Results indicate significant differences in terms of the ease of locating and operating the controls (i.e., rear-mounted three-point linkage, hydraulic system, and power take-off), the ease of starting the tractor, the ease exiting the cab, the required level of concentration in executing the tasks, the adequacy of lateral visibility from the driving station, and the level of noise at the operator's position. This article provides guidance for improving the comfort of tractor workspace interiors. Agricultural machinery manufactures would benefit from research results, differentiating themselves from competitors.

  20. Using the Comfortability-in-Learning Scale to Enhance Positive Classroom Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiener, Michael; Green, Peter; Ahuna, Kelly

    2014-01-01

    A goal of higher education is to advance learning. This study examined the role "comfortability" plays in that process. Defined as the level of comfort students experience with their classmates, instructor, and course material, comfortability addresses how secure a student feels in the classroom. Comfortability was assessed multiple…

  1. The effect of alcohol hangover on the ability to ride a bicycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartung, Benno; Schwender, Holger; Mindiashvili, Nona; Ritz-Timme, Stefanie; Malczyk, Axel; Daldrup, Thomas

    2015-07-01

    To investigate the effects of alcohol on the ability to ride a bicycle, practical cycling tests were carried out at different blood alcohol concentrations (BAC). For this purpose, various alcoholic beverages could be consumed from around 2 p.m. until 11 p.m. Afterwards, the test persons spent the night on the trial site and were provided with dormitory sleeping accommodation. On the following morning, beginning at around 8 a.m., a final cycling test was performed. The performances of those test persons who had returned to state of soberness and of those with residual blood alcohol levels were compared to the performances on the day before. The practical ability to ride a bicycle was significantly reduced in the postalcoholic state compared to the rides of the day before. The relative cycling performance in the postalcoholic state was comparable to the rides under the influence of BAC of around 0.30 g/kg. There were no remarkable differences between the groups with and without residual blood alcohol levels regarding the rides on the next morning. Therefore, it can be assumed that the direct influence of residual blood alcohol levels plays a minor role for the ability to ride a bicycle in the postalcoholic state. Instead, the side effects of the high amounts of alcohol that were consumed the night before are crucial.

  2. Effects of horseback riding exercise therapy on background electroencephalograms of elderly people

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seon-Rye; Cho, Sung-Hyoun; Kim, Jin-Woo; Lee, Hyo-Cheol; Brienen, Marten; Cho, Byung-Jun

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effect of horseback riding exercise on the background electroencephalograms of elderly people who performed horseback riding for 8 weeks. [Subjects] Twenty elderly people were divided into the horseback riding exercise and control group (n = 10 each). [Methods] The exercise was performed for 15 minutes, 3 times per week for 8 weeks. Electroencephalograms were analyzed. Post-exercise evaluation was performed after 8 weeks. [Results] After the horseback riding exercise, the relative slower alpha power index was active in the T3 and P4 domains but suppressed in the Fp1, Fp2, F3, F4, T4, and P3 domains. Moreover, the relative faster alpha power index was active in all domains of the horseback riding exercise group but was suppressed in all domains of the control group. There was a significant difference between groups in the F3 domain. [Conclusion] The alpha power index increased significantly after horseback riding exercise, suggesting the exercise improved background electroencephalogram. PMID:26311985

  3. Understanding of Danish passive houses based on pilot project Comfort Houses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunsgaard, C.

    2010-12-15

    The aim of the research is to investigate the notion of passive houses in Denmark. When this PhD thesis was initiated, the Danish building industry has just started to become interested in the passive house concept, but the knowledge was very limited. To be able to speed up the process of constructing Danish passive houses or other low energy concepts Saint-Gobain Isover Scandinavia took the initiative to the pilot project of the Comfort Houses, ten single-family houses constructed as passive houses, and wanted to share the knowledge with the building industry and other interested. This PhD thesis was a part of the strategy. If the concept of passive houses should be successfully promoted and achieve a significant sale in Denmark, it is believed that it is necessary to do a holistic approach. Besides energy savings and new structural solutions more qualitative aspects like architecture, everyday life and the future ways of living needs to be integrated in the future understanding of passive houses. This Ph.D. thesis therefore studies the following research question: What can the experience from the Comfort Houses enlighten about the future production and use of Danish passive houses? This understanding is achieved through studies of different study fields to be able to create a more holistic understanding of the concept both covering qualitative and quantitative analysis. The main focus will be on the study fields Design Process, Architecture and Everyday Life and the Indoor environment, which will answer the following sub-research questions: 1) How has the consortiums behind the Comfort Houses approached the design process according to teamwork, method and tools? And what barriers and possibilities lie within the approaches? 2) How do the occupants of the Comfort Houses experience the passive house architecture and the technical service systems? And has their everyday life changed by moving into a passive house? If so, how? 3) To what extent do the Comfort Houses

  4. Sound insulation of dwellings - Legal requirements in Europe and subjective evaluation of acoustical comfort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Birgit; Rindel, Jens Holger

    2003-01-01

    insulation requirements in several European countries and (b) a review of investigations related to the subjective and/or objective evaluation. Based on the analysis of several investigations in the field and by laboratory simulations it is suggested how to estimate the degree of satisfaction with a specific......Acoustical comfort is a concept that can be characterised by absence of unwanted sound and by opportunities for acoustic activities without annoying other people. In order to achieve acoustical comfort in dwellings certain requirements have to be fulfilled concerning the airborne sound insulation...... against noise from neighbours the relationship is not so well understood. A comparison of sound insulation requirements in different countries shows that the sound insulation requirements differ considerably in terms of the concepts used, the frequency range considered and the level of requirement...

  5. Use of infrared thermography in detection, remediation, and commissioning of thermal comfort problems in office buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colantonio, Antonio

    2001-03-01

    Thermal comfort complaints within work places are one of the leading causes of workforce productivity loss within office environments. Generally, mechanical systems are relied on to provide adequate indoor environments. In many situations, these systems cannot provide suitable work environments due to unacceptable asymmetrical radiant temperature conditions found in exterior zones of building interiors. Public Works and Government Services Canada (PWGSC) has developed methodologies using infrared technology to assist building and office managers in reducing thermal comfort complaints and improve workforce productivity. Detection, verification, remediation and commissioning of solutions are easily and effectively carried out with the assistance of infrared radiometers and proper inspection and analysis procedures. This paper will outline two case studies and detail methodologies used in each case.

  6. 基于加速度干扰的圆曲线上行车舒适性的研究%Research of Driving Comfort on Circular Curve Based on Acceleration Noise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗强; 许伦辉; 黄艳国; 蒋晓峰

    2012-01-01

    车辆速度的变化影响到行车舒适性,而加速度干扰正是对车辆速度变化的描述,因此加速度干扰可作为行车舒适性的定量评价指标.选择平面线形中三要素之一的圆曲线上的行车舒适性进行研究,将车辆的加速度按水平和竖直方向进行分解,结合加速度干扰理论,分别建立2个方向的分加速度干扰模型.根据人体对不同振动方向的敏感程度不同,给予不同的计权系数,建立了圆曲线上合加速度干扰模型.最后,选用实际圆曲线道路进行实例仿真,并分析加速度干扰值的变化过程及行车舒适性,分析结果表明圆曲线半径和行车速度均对行车舒适性有较大影响.新模型既可为全面准确评价行车舒适性提供定量的计算表达式,又可在圆曲线道路设计时提供一定的参数设计依据.%The vehicle swing affects traffic safety and riding comfort,while the acceleration noise is exactly a description of vehicle swing. Thus,acceleration noise could be a quantitative evaluation indicator of driving safety and comfort. Combining with acceleration noise theory,two new acceleration noise models are established by dividing vehicle acceleration into horizontal component and vertical component. Different proportion is given because human body is not the same in sensibility to different vibration directions. Then, the synthetic acceleration noise model is established. Finally, simulations are performed by choosing appropriate road. The simulation results show that curvature radius and driving speed have great large influence on riding comfort. The new model can provide not only mathematical model to evaluate riding comfort completely,but also certain parameters for reference in new highway design.

  7. Thermal comfort findings: Scenario at Malaysian automotive industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Ahmad Rasdan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the findings of thermal comfort assessment at Malaysian automotive industry. Nine critical workstations were chosen as subjects for the study in order to determine the thermal comfort among workers at Malaysian automotive industry. The human subjects for the study comprises of the operators from tire receiving, dashboard assembly, drum tester, body assembly, seat assembly, door check assembly, stamping workstation, engine sub assembly and paint shop of the factory. The environmental factors such as Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT, relative humidity, air velocity, illuminance were measured using BABUC A apparatus and Thermal Comfort Measurement equipment. Through questionnaire survey, the demographic data of subjects and their perceptions on thermal comfort at each workstation were assessed based on ISO Standard 7730 and thermal sensation scale using Predicted Mean Vote (PMV. Then, Predicted Percentage of Dissatisfied (PPD is used to estimate the thermal satisfaction of occupants. The results indicated that most of the workstations of the automotive industry are considered as uncomfortable. Tire receiving station is considered having better working environment compared to other stations with lowest PMV index of 1.09 to 1.41 and PPD of 46%. Meanwhile, the engine sub assembly station and paint shop of assembly are considered the worst thermal environment with the PMV index values ranging between 2.1 to 2.9 and PPD values of 81% to 99%. Therefore, these two workstations are considered not comfortable because the thermal sensation scale is warm and almost hot.

  8. Coupling of the Models of Human Physiology and Thermal Comfort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokorny, J.; Jicha, M.

    2013-04-01

    A coupled model of human physiology and thermal comfort was developed in Dymola/Modelica. A coupling combines a modified Tanabe model of human physiology and thermal comfort model developed by Zhang. The Coupled model allows predicting the thermal sensation and comfort of both local and overall from local boundary conditions representing ambient and personal factors. The aim of this study was to compare prediction of the Coupled model with the Fiala model prediction and experimental data. Validation data were taken from the literature, mainly from the validation manual of software Theseus-FE [1]. In the paper validation of the model for very light physical activities (1 met) indoor environment with temperatures from 12 °C up to 48 °C is presented. The Coupled model predicts mean skin temperature for cold, neutral and warm environment well. However prediction of core temperature in cold environment is inaccurate and very affected by ambient temperature. Evaluation of thermal comfort in warm environment is supplemented by skin wettedness prediction. The Coupled model is designed for non-uniform and transient environmental conditions; it is also suitable simulation of thermal comfort in vehicles cabins. The usage of the model is limited for very light physical activities up to 1.2 met only.

  9. COMFORT: evaluating a new communication curriculum with nurse leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, Joy; Wittenberg-Lyles, Elaine

    2013-01-01

    Nursing faculty face increasing instructional demands to keep pace with mounting knowledge and competency requirements for student nurses. In the context of nursing practice, tasks and time pressures detract from the high skill and aptitude expectation of communication. The communication, orientation and opportunity, mindful presence, family, openings, relating, and team (COMFORT) curriculum, an acronym that represents 7 basic nursing communication principles, has been introduced into the communication module of the End-of-Life Nursing Education Consortium, which currently provides the only standardized undergraduate and graduate nurse training in hospice and palliative care. This study examines the potential efficacy of the COMFORT curriculum for everyday communication challenges experienced by members of the Georgia Organization of Nurse Leaders. Participants were prompted to describe communication barriers and then apply an aspect of the COMFORT curriculum to this barrier. Responses revealed primary communication barriers with co-workers and patient/families. Nurses predominantly identified directly correlating components in the COMFORT framework (C-communication, F-family) as solutions to the topics described as barriers. Based on confirmation of extant literature addressing generalist nurse communication challenges, there is support for the inclusion of COMFORT across the nursing curriculum to efficiently and effectively teach communication strategies to nurses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. ON THE DESIGN OF A NEW HUMAN COMFORT INDEX

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯业荣; 王安宇; 林镇国

    2004-01-01

    In designing the human comfort index (CI) used in Guangzhou, a Gaussian curve was adopted as the fundamental profile to develop a "straw hat" model of comfort index. The model projects low or high temperatures into low index values and the moderate temperatures into high index values. Air temperature was chosen as a basic factor in the model. Other factors such as humidity, sunshine and wind speed were introduced by considering them as temperature departures to an equivalent apparent temperature (EAT). Since the index is a relative index, 25(C was chosen as an ideal apparent temperature (the most comfortable state) and a maximum CI value of 100 was assigned at this temperature. While in other circumstances, the index would be lower than 100. By utilizing this model, the daily comfort index values had been calculated for Guangzhou city for 1998-1999, using mean temperature, mean humidity, mean wind speed and total hours of sunshine. Results show that the new model was reasonable and practicable. Not only could it reflect the monthly variation of human comfort in Guangzhou, but also was sensitive to short-term changes of weather conditions.

  11. The psychobiology of comfort eating: implications for neuropharmacological interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, E Leigh

    2012-09-01

    Comfort eating, that is eating induced by negative affect, has been a core theme of explanations for overeating and obesity. Psychobiological explanations and processes underlying comfort eating are examined, as well as its prevalence in clinical and nonclinical populations, to consider who may be susceptible, whether certain foods are comforting, and what the implications for treatment may be. Comfort eating may occur in a substantial minority, particularly in women and the obese. Human and animal theories and models of emotional or stress-induced eating show some convergence, and may incorporate genetic predispositions such as impulsivity and reward sensitivity, associated with dopamine dysregulation underlying incentive salience. Comfort eaters show vulnerability to depression, emotional dysregulation and a need to escape negative affect and rumination. During negative affect, they preferentially consume sweet, fatty, energy-dense food, which may confer protection against stress, evidenced by suppression of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis response, although activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis may itself drive appetite for these palatable foods, and the risk of weight gain is increased. Benefits to mood may be transient, but perhaps sufficient to encourage repeated attempts to prolong mood improvement or distract from negative rumination. Cognitive behavioural treatments may be useful, but reliable drug therapy awaits further pharmacogenomic developments.

  12. Teaching outside the comfort zone: An overstated problem?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Vang Rasmussen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Most teachers will eventually be assigned to teach topics that are outside their main area of expertise. In such situations, the teaching is often considered a major challenge. Lecture-based teaching has been framed as a survival strategy as teachers thereby can seek to control the classroom and avoid unforeseen questions from the students. However, limited literature exists on what can help make teaching efficient and comfortable when teachers have to teach outside their comfort zonether teaching styles have, however, largely been ignored and there is no consensus on how student learning is affected when teachers are working outside their comfort zone. To provide insight into the challenges and opportunities related to teaching outside the comfort zone, I refer to a pedagogical experiment from the ‘Teaching and Learning in Higher Education Programme’ offered by the University of Copenhagen. During this programme, I was assigned to teach a course that was outside my main specialization. Rather than turning to lecture-based teaching, I conducted a number of pedagogical activities including think-pair-share activities and role-play exercises. Based on these experiences, I argue that teachers should break away from the perception that lecture-based teaching is more comfortable. Even more importantly, I believe that teachers must shift their focus to student learning rather than their own performance.

  13. Dynamic Model of Off-road Vehicle for Ride Comfort Simulation%面向平顺性仿真的越野汽车动态模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王乾廷; 周晓军

    2006-01-01

    首先根据越野汽车的结构特点和平顺性试验方法建立越野汽车静态模型;然后把平顺性虚拟测试过程视为变化的系统,从集合观点建立其动态模型,并把多种越野路面包括在模型中.测试结果表明,该建模方法可以用来表征不同越野车型随时间和空间变化的激励与响应特征,扩大了越野汽车平顺性虚拟测试系统的适用范围.

  14. Influence of Body Panel Structure on Vehicle Ride Comfort%车身板件结构对汽车行车舒适性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍兴俊; 郭永进; 余海东

    2007-01-01

    采用有限元与多体动力学相结合的方法分析了车身板件对振动的影响,改变车身板件局部结构,在对振动影响最大的前后地板上增加加强筋后对整车进行振动响应模拟,揭示了车身板件结构对汽车在路面激励下行车舒适性的影响.分析表明,在地板上增加加强筋可以极大地提高汽车的行车舒适性.

  15. 基于近似模型的车辆平顺性优化研究%Optimization and Research of Vehicle Ride Comfort Based on Approximate Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘宇; 刘平; 饶阳

    2013-01-01

    利用多体动力学软件ADAMS/Car建立了某轿车的整车刚柔耦合模型,以悬架弹簧刚度、减震器阻尼为设计变量,驾驶员座椅椅面总加权加速度均方根值为优化目标,在Isight软件中,应用现代DOE采样技术与响应面法构建了设计变量与优化目标的近似模型,在此近似模型基础上,使用序列二次规划法对车辆的平顺性进行了优化.优化结果表明,整车的平顺性得到了改善.

  16. A Research on the Ride Comfort of Truck Cab%载货汽车驾驶室乘坐舒适性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴碧磊; 秦民; 李幼德; 程超; 王新宇

    2006-01-01

    通过计算机仿真模拟了在路面随机输入下驾驶室底板的振动响应;利用Nastran软件对车身的有限元模型进行模态抽取,建立了刚弹耦合模型;对多刚体模型、刚弹耦合振动模型的计算结果与试验进行了对比,验证了模型的正确性;以驾驶室悬置的弹簧刚度、减振器阻尼为影响因素,通过虚拟DOE正交试验分析,显著改善了驾驶室的乘坐舒适性.

  17. Evaluate on Riding Stability & Comfort for Heavy Duty Truck%重型载货车乘坐舒适性与稳定性评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷凤梅

    2011-01-01

    @@ 汽车舒适性与稳定性是汽车主观评估方面的两个最重要的因素.在传统悬架系统设计中,乘坐舒适性与汽车稳定性之间有个制衡关系.汽车驾乘舒适性分析被用于悬架设计,以确保乘员不舒适感不超过某一程度.在传统悬架系统中,有两个确定悬架性能的基本元件,这两个元件是弹簧和减振器.

  18. The Reasearch of Full Car Ride Comfort Based on ADAMS/car%基于ADAMS/Car的整车平顺性仿真研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦辉; 杨竞; 陈兵; 尹忠俊; 李文越

    2008-01-01

    以某轿车为研究对象,借助于ADAMS/Car仿真分析软件建立该车的多体系统动力学整车模型,根据路面理论生成脉冲和随机路面文件,根据国家标准对该车进行整车平顺性仿真并进行客观性评价,结果表明该车的平顺性较好.

  19. Solitons riding on solitons and the quantum Newton's cradle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Manjun; Navarro, R.; Carretero-González, R.

    2016-02-01

    The reduced dynamics for dark and bright soliton chains in the one-dimensional nonlinear Schrödinger equation is used to study the behavior of collective compression waves corresponding to Toda lattice solitons. We coin the term hypersoliton to describe such solitary waves riding on a chain of solitons. It is observed that in the case of dark soliton chains, the formulated reduction dynamics provides an accurate an robust evolution of traveling hypersolitons. As an application to Bose-Einstein condensates trapped in a standard harmonic potential, we study the case of a finite dark soliton chain confined at the center of the trap. When the central chain is hit by a dark soliton, the energy is transferred through the chain as a hypersoliton that, in turn, ejects a dark soliton on the other end of the chain that, as it returns from its excursion up the trap, hits the central chain repeating the process. This periodic evolution is an analog of the classical Newton's cradle.

  20. iRide: A Cooperative Sensor and IP Multimedia Subsystem Based Architecture and Application for ITS Road Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkotob, Muslim; Osipov, Evgeny

    In this paper we present iRide (intelligent ride), an IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) application for warning drivers about hazardous situations on the road. iRide takes real-time information about road conditions and traffic situations from a wireless sensor network installed directly in the road surface. Upon logging to the iRide system, users start to receive periodic updates about the situation on the road along their route ahead. iRide is able to predict hazardous situations like slippery surface or dangerous distance to the nearest car and help drivers avoid accidents. We describe the service and the supporting network architecture of iRide. We discuss the major challenges associated with designing an IMS application for ITS, an intelligent transport system. Having a prototype implementation working on a small scale, we take it to the next step to perform system dimensioning and then verify the feasibility of having such a system using OPNET simulations.