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  1. African Journals Online: Northern Mariana Islands

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online: Northern Mariana Islands. Home > African Journals Online: Northern Mariana Islands. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free to read Titles This ...

  2. Northern Mariana Islands Marine Monitoring Team Reef Flat Surveys

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands' (CNMI) interagency marine monitoring team conducts surveys on reef flat areas on the islands of Saipan, Tinian and...

  3. Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands ESI: INVERT (Invertebrate Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for intertidal-, reef-, and mangrove-associated invertebrate species in Guam and the Northern Mariana...

  4. Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for reef, pelagic, benthic, and estuarine fish species in Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands. Vector...

  5. Mariana

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Mariana source code has been open sourced. Download the tar file Mariana.tgz below. I would love feedback. Mariana is an auto-classifier algorithm that...

  6. Territory Boundary Polygons, Northern Marianas Islands (CNMI), 1999, US Census Bureau

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Boundaries of the northern most islands of the Northern Marianas Islands (CNMI). Siapan, Rota and Tinian are not included in these data set. TIGER, TIGER/Line, and...

  7. Seismic hazard assessment for Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Charles S.; Haller, Kathleen M.; Luco, Nicholas; Petersen, Mark D.; Frankel, Arthur D.

    2012-01-01

    We present the results of a new probabilistic seismic hazard assessment for Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands. The Mariana island arc has formed in response to northwestward subduction of the Pacific plate beneath the Philippine Sea plate, and this process controls seismic activity in the region. Historical seismicity, the Mariana megathrust, and two crustal faults on Guam were modeled as seismic sources, and ground motions were estimated by using published relations for a firm-rock site condition. Maps of peak ground acceleration, 0.2-second spectral acceleration for 5 percent critical damping, and 1.0-second spectral acceleration for 5 percent critical damping were computed for exceedance probabilities of 2 percent and 10 percent in 50 years. For 2 percent probability of exceedance in 50 years, probabilistic peak ground acceleration is 0.94 gravitational acceleration at Guam and 0.57 gravitational acceleration at Saipan, 0.2-second spectral acceleration is 2.86 gravitational acceleration at Guam and 1.75 gravitational acceleration at Saipan, and 1.0-second spectral acceleration is 0.61 gravitational acceleration at Guam and 0.37 gravitational acceleration at Saipan. For 10 percent probability of exceedance in 50 years, probabilistic peak ground acceleration is 0.49 gravitational acceleration at Guam and 0.29 gravitational acceleration at Saipan, 0.2-second spectral acceleration is 1.43 gravitational acceleration at Guam and 0.83 gravitational acceleration at Saipan, and 1.0-second spectral acceleration is 0.30 gravitational acceleration at Guam and 0.18 gravitational acceleration at Saipan. The dominant hazard source at the islands is upper Benioff-zone seismicity (depth 40–160 kilometers). The large probabilistic ground motions reflect the strong concentrations of this activity below the arc, especially near Guam.

  8. Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands ESI: ESI (Environmental Sensitivity Index Shoreline Types - Lines)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector lines representing the shoreline and coastal habitats for Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands, classified according to the...

  9. Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands ESI: M_MAMMAL (Marine Mammal Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for dolphins in Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands. Vector polygons in this data set represent marine...

  10. Recruitment and Retention Problems in Paradise? Lessons from the Northern Mariana Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rude, Harvey; And Others

    This paper reports on a study that examined teacher recruitment and retention practices in the Northern Mariana Islands public school system. The study was conducted due to shortages of special education teachers and related services personnel. Based on a review of school district documents on recruitment and retention practices and interviews…

  11. 76 FR 55501 - Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands Transitional Worker Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-07

    ... necessary professional licenses or educational degrees, for other employment-based status under the INA. DHS... businesses and expanding tourism and economic development in the CNMI. They also argued that the CNRA does... Office, GAO-08-791, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, Managing Potential Impact of Applying U...

  12. Reson 8101ER Multibeam Sonar Data from Cruise SE1002 Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands and Guam

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Reson 8101ER multibeam Data were collected in February 11 - March 14, 2010 aboard NOAA Ship Oscar Elton Sette in the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands and...

  13. C-CAP Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), Rota 1946-2005-Era Land Cover Change Analysis

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains the 1946-era and 2005-era classifications of Rota, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands and can be used to analyze change. This data...

  14. Vegetation assessment of forests of Pagan Island, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Linda W.

    2011-01-01

    As part of the Marianas Expedition Wildlife Surveys-2010, the forest vegetation of the island of Pagan, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), was sampled with a series of systematic plots along 13 transects established for monitoring forest bird populations. Shrubland and grassland were also sampled in the northern half of the island. Data collected were woody plant density, tree diameter at breast height, woody plant density in height classes below 2 m, and ground cover measured with the point-intercept method. Coconut forests (Cocos nucifera) were generally found to have low native tree diversity, little regeneration of trees and shrubs in the forest understory, and little live ground cover. The sole exception was a coconut-dominated forest of the northeast side of the island that exhibited high native tree diversity and a large number of young native trees in the understory. Ironwood (Casuarina equisetifolia) forests on the northern half of the island were nearly monocultures with almost no trees other than ironwood in vegetation plots, few woody plants in the understory, and low ground cover dominated by native ferns. Mixed native forests of both northern and southern sections of the island had a diversity of native tree species in both the canopy and the sparse understory. Ground cover of native forests in the north had a mix of native and alien species, but that of the southern half of the island was dominated by native ferns and woody plants.

  15. A Re-Os Study of Depleted Trench Peridotites from Northern Mariana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, T.; Snow, J. E.; Heri, A. R.; Brandon, A. D.; Ishizuka, O.

    2017-12-01

    Trench peridotites provide information about the influence of subduction initiation on the extent of mantle wedge melting. They preserve melting records throughout subduction history, and as a result, likely experience multiple melt extraction events leading to successive depletion of melt/fluid mobile major and trace elements. To track melting histories of trench peridotites, Re-Os and PGEs can be used as reliable tracers to constrain early melt extraction or re-fertilization events. The Izu-Bonin-Mariana arc, being the largest intra-oceanic subduction system, provides an excellent area to study the formation of supra-subduction zone mantle and crust. Residual peridotite (harzburgite and dunite) samples were collected by dredging from the landward slope of the northern Mariana Trench. The samples are serpentinized to various extents (typical of abyssal peridotites), leaving behind relict grains of spinel, enstatite and olivine embedded within a serpentine matrix along with occasional interstitial diopside. Major element analyses of primary minerals reveal a wide range of variations in Cr# of spinels from 0.31-0.85 indicating 16-20% of melt fraction with dunites apparently experiencing the highest amount of partial melting. For Re-Os and PGE geochemistry, samples with high amounts of spinel (>4 vol %) and variable Cr# were chosen. Initial results show that bulk rock 187Os/188Os ratios range from 0.1113 to 0.1272. All of the samples are sub-chondritic, but in some cases, they are more radiogenic than average abyssal peridotites. Os abundances vary from 1-9 ppb. Sub-chondritic values can be attributed to the samples having evolved from a Re-depleted mantle source indicating a previous melt-extraction event. The cpx-harzburgites, having lower Cr# ( 0.4) are more radiogenic than ultra depleted dunites (Cr# 0.8), which might indicate preferential removal of Os during an apparent higher degree of partial melting experienced by dunites. The higher 187Os/188Os ratios of

  16. Compositional Variations of Paleogene and Neogene Tephra From the Northern Izu-Bonin-Mariana Arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepley, F. J., III; Barth, A. P.; Brandl, P. A.; Hickey-Vargas, R.; Jiang, F.; Kanayama, K.; Kusano, Y.; Li, H.; Marsaglia, K. M.; McCarthy, A.; Meffre, S.; Savov, I. P.; Yogodzinski, G. M.

    2014-12-01

    A primary objective of IODP Expedition 351 was to evaluate arc initiation processes of the Izu-Bonin-Mariana (IBM) volcanic arc and its compositional evolution through time. To this end, a single thick section of sediment overlying oceanic crust was cored in the Amami Sankaku Basin where a complete sediment record of arc inception and evolution is preserved. This sediment record includes ash and pyroclasts, deposited in fore-arc, arc, and back-arc settings, likely associated with both the ~49-25 Ma emergent IBM volcanic arc and the evolving Ryukyu-Kyushu volcanic arc. Our goal was to assess the major element evolution of the nascent and evolving IBM system using the temporally constrained record of the early and developing system. In all, more than 100 ash and tuff layers, and pyroclastic fragments were selected from temporally resolved portions of the core, and from representative fractions of the overall core ("core catcher"). The samples were prepared to determine major and minor element compositions via electron microprobe analyses. This ash and pyroclast record will allow us to 1) resolve the Paleogene evolutionary history of the northern IBM arc in greater detail; 2) determine compositional variations of this portion of the IBM arc through time; 3) compare the acquired data to an extensive whole rock and tephra dataset from other segments of the IBM arc; 4) test hypotheses of northern IBM arc evolution and the involvement of different source reservoirs; and 5) mark important stratigraphic markers associated with the Neogene volcanic history of the adjacent evolving Ryukyu-Kyushu arc.

  17. Mariana Gardella. Las críticas de los filósofos megáricos a la ontología platónica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Javier Barrionuevo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available El libro Las críticas de los filósofos megáricos a la ontología platónica de Mariana Gardella emprende una tarea hermenéutica vacante en los estudios de filosofía antigua, rescatando el lugar de los filósofos megáricos en el contexto de la filosofía griega del siglo IV a.C. Para este propósito busca recuperar no sólo las teorías y argumentos filosóficos propuestos por los miembros de dicha escuela, sino también el ámbito intelectual en el cual se inscriben los discursos.

  18. Endangered Green Turtles (Chelonia mydas of the Northern Mariana Islands: Nesting Ecology, Poaching, and Climate Concerns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tammy M. Summers

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Marine turtles in the western Pacific remain threatened by anthropogenic impacts, but the region lacks long-term biological data for assessing conservation status and trends. The Central West Pacific (CWP population of green turtles (Chelonia mydas was listed as Endangered by the U.S. in 2016, highlighting a need to fill existing data gaps. This study focuses on the subset of this population nesting in the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI. Using 11 years of nesting data, we (i estimate reproductive demographic parameters, (ii quantify abundance and trends, and (iii estimate the impacts of anthropogenic threats, such as poaching of nesting females and increasing sand temperatures. In 2006–2016, nesting beach surveys, identification tagging, and nest excavations were conducted on Saipan, and rapid assessments of nesting activity were conducted on Tinian and Rota. On Saipan, temperature data-loggers were deployed inside nests and evidence of poaching (adults and eggs was recorded. This study documents year-round nesting with a peak in March–July. Nester abundance for the three islands combined was 11.9 ± 5.7 (mean ± standard deviation females annually, with at least 62.8 ± 35.1 nests observed per year. For 39 tagged individuals, straight carapace length was 95.6 ± 4.5 cm, remigration interval was 4.6 ± 1.3 years, and somatic growth was 0.3 ± 0.2 cm/yr. Reproductive parameter estimates included clutch frequency of 7.0 ± 1.3 nests per female, inter-nesting interval of 11.4 ± 1.0 days, clutch size of 93.5 ± 21.4 eggs, incubation period of 56.7 ± 6.4 days, hatching success of 77.9 ± 27.0%, and emergence success of 69.6 ± 30.3%. Mean nest temperature of 30.9 ± 1.5°C was above the pivotal threshold of 29.0°C for temperature dependent sex determination, suggesting a female bias may already exist. Model results suggest (i hatching success decreases and embryonic death increases when nests experience maximum temperatures

  19. Geology, Streamflow, and Water Chemistry of the Talufofo Stream Basin, Saipan, Northern Mariana Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izuka, Scot K.; Ewart, Charles J.

    1995-01-01

    A study of the geology, streamflow, and water chemistry of Talufofo Stream Basin, Saipan, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, was undertaken to determine the flow characteristics of Talufofo Stream and the relation to the geology of the drainage basin. The Commonwealth government is exploring the feasibility of using water from Talufofo Stream to supplement Saipan's stressed municipal water supply. Streamflow records from gaging stations on the principal forks of Talufofo Stream indicate that peak streamflows and long-term average flow are higher at the South Fork gaging station than at the Middle Fork gaging station because the drainage area of the South Fork gaging station is larger, but persistent base flow from ground-water discharge during dry weather is greater in the Middle Fork gaging station. The sum of the average flows at the Middle Fork and South Fork gaging stations, plus an estimate of the average flow at a point in the lower reaches of the North Fork, is about 2.96 cubic feet per second or 1.91 million gallons per day. Although this average represents the theoretical maximum long-term draft rate possible from the Talufofo Stream Basin if an adequate reservoir can be built, the actual amount of surface water available will be less because of evaporation, leaks, induced infiltration, and reservoir-design constraints. Base-flow characteristics, such as stream seepage and spring discharge, are related to geology of the basin. Base flow in the Talufofo Stream Basin originates as discharge from springs near the base of limestones located in the headwaters of Talufofo Stream, flows over low-permeability volcanic rocks in the middle reaches, and seeps back into the high-permeability limestones in the lower reaches. Water sampled from Talufofo Stream during base flow had high dissolved-calcium concentrations (between 35 and 98 milligrams per liter), characteristic of water from a limestone aquifer. Concentrations of potassium, sodium, and chloride

  20. Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands ESI: MGT (Management Area Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains geographical boundary information for National Park Service properties, wildlife refuges, and other management areas in Guam and the Northern...

  1. Constraints on the diversity and distribution of coral-reef assemblages in the volcanic Northern Mariana Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houk, P.; Starmer, J.

    2010-03-01

    A central problem for jurisdictional scientists and managers is to reconcile how multiple environmental regimes, encompassing continuous, intermittent and human disturbances, influence pertinent ecological management targets. The presence of heterogeneous environments throughout the volcanic Northern Mariana Islands (NMI), coupled with the availability of descriptive physical data, form the basis examining environmental-ecological relationships. Since 2003, coral abundances and macrobiota (all visibly recognizable taxa greater than 2 cm) occurrences have been estimated at 42 reef slopes along the volcanic archipelago. Analyses showed that reef types acted as surrogates of coral growth capacity and the modern assemblages residing upon them, being highest and most favorable, respectively, where relatively high salinity levels, low-to-moderate wave exposure, and an absence of volcanic activity for ~90 years existed. However, island size was the greatest constraint on species richness overall, but relations with corals were dampened by volcanic activity and increased for sponges and algae where greater connection with the island aquifer existed (i.e., relatively low salinity levels). The number of years since volcanic activity has occurred was positively related to the residuals of species-area relationships and coral cover, with a ~90-year time frame predicted for recovery. Notably, no relationships with watershed characteristics or distance from CNMI’s main fishing port and coral-reef assemblages or species richness were found. Further examination of specific management concerns, such as fisheries and feral animal populations, should be designed to account for the inherent differences in driving environmental regimes. Management strategies focused upon conserving biodiversity and ecosystem function should be centered at the island level, matching the operational scale of dominant environmental-ecological relationships. Marine reserves represent a strategy pertinent

  2. Construction, Geologic, and Hydrologic Data from Five Exploratory Wells on Rota, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, 1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carruth, Rob

    2005-01-01

    Rota is the southernmost of the 14 small islands that make up the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. Reduced springflow at Matan Hanom and As Onan springs occurred during a drought associated with the 1997-98 El Nino. Water from the two developed springs constituted the only municipal water source for the island at that time. In April 1998, reduced water supplies forced the Commonwealth Utilities Corporation to restrict water service in the principal villages of Songsong and Sinapalu for the duration of the dry season. In 1999, Five exploratory wells, EX-1 through EX-5 (CUC wells SP-MW1, SP-1, -2, -3, and SP-MW2), were drilled in the Sinapalu region of Rota to (1) assess the availability of fresh ground-water resources in an area where no other well information were available, and (2) to provide a new water source to help mitigate the impacts of drought associated with recurring El Nino weather events. The wells penetrated mainly light colored (dirty white to brownish), fragmental limestones containing abundant coral remains. Sustained-rate, recovery, and step-drawdown aquifer tests were attempted at each of the five exploratory wells to estimate aquifer properties in the vicinity of the wells and to assess the potential for new water sources. At wells EX-1 (CUC well SPMW1) and EX-5 (CUC well SP-MW2), attempts to conduct sustained-rate aquifer tests resulted in excessive drawdown to the pump intakes in the vicinity of the wells. At well EX-2 (CUC well SP-1), the maximum drawdown measured in the pumped well was 3.93 ft during 8 days of sustained pumping at an average rate of 187 gal/min. At well EX-3 (CUC well SP-2), the maximum drawdown measured in the pumped well was 2.31 ft during 8 days of sustained pumping at an average rate of 108 gal/min, and at well EX-4 (CUC well SP-3), the maximum drawdown measured in the pumped well was 3.27 ft during 8 days of sustained pumping at an average rate of 139 gal/min. Specific conductance at the end of 8 days of

  3. Population ecology of the tonguefish Symphurus thermophilus (Pisces; Pleuronectiformes; Cynoglossidae) at sulphur-rich hydrothermal vents on volcanoes of the northern Mariana Arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunnicliffe, Verena; Tyler, Jennifer; Dower, John F.

    2013-08-01

    Flatfish are a major component of the hydrothermal vent community on three seamounts of the northern Mariana Volcanic Arc in the northwest Pacific. Nikko, Kasuga-2 and Daikoku seamounts host vent fields between 375 and 480 m depth where high temperature vents release molten sulphur. The small cynoglossid tonguefish, Symphurus thermophilus Munroe and Hashimoto, is ubiquitous in all vent habitats observed on these seamounts: among extensive fields of tubeworms and mussels and on solid sulphur surfaces on Nikko; on sulphur-rich sediments and barnacle-covered boulders on Kasuga-2; and on recent sulphur flows and on broad areas of loose and semi-consolidated sediments on Daikoku. We recorded repeated forays by individuals onto flows of molten sulphur as these surfaces cooled. Based on observations using ROVs, the mean density is 90 fish/m2 with maximum counts over 200 fish/m2 on Daikoku sediments. Compared to collected tonguefish from Daikoku and Kasuga-2, those from Nikko have significantly greater lengths and, on average, six times the mass. Otolith data indicate upper ages of 13 years with Nikko tonguefish growing significantly faster. Diets of tonguefish on the three seamounts reflect the different habitats and prey availability; in Daikoku specimens, small crustaceans and polychaetes are most common while on Nikko, gut contents are predominantly larger shrimp. We made the unusual observation of stunned midwater fish falling to the seafloor near the vents where S. thermophilus immediately attacked them. This tonguefish has a wide diet range and foraging behaviour that likely influence the differing growth rates and sizes of fish inhabiting the different vent sites. Limited genetic data suggest that larval exchange probably occurs among sites where the common habitat factor is high levels of elemental sulphur forming hard and partly unconsolidated substrata. Here, in the northern range of the Mariana Trench Marine National Monument, S. thermophilus, despite having an

  4. Seed dispersal turns an experimental plantation on degraded land into a novel forest in urban northern Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oscar Abelleira; Elvia J. Meléndez Ackerman; Diana García Montiel; John A. Parrotta

    2015-01-01

    Planting tree species with desirable traits may catalyze forest regeneration in increasingly common degraded lands by restoring soil properties and attracting seed dispersers. We sampled forest regeneration in an experimental plantation of Albizia lebbek, an introduced N-fixing species, on a degraded pasture in northern Puerto Rico, 27 years after its establishment. We...

  5. Secondhand Smoke Concentrations in Hospitality Venues in the Pacific Basin: Findings from American Samoa, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, and Guam

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Brian A; Dube, Shanta R; Ko, Jean Y

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Secondhand smoke (SHS) from burning tobacco products causes disease and premature death among nonsmokers. Although the number of laws prohibiting smoking in indoor public places continues to increase, millions of nonsmokers in the United States (US) and its territories remain exposed to SHS. This study assessed indoor air pollution from SHS in hospitality venues in three US Pacific Basin territories. Methods Air monitors were used to assess PM2.5, an environmental marker for SHS, in 19 smoke-permitted and 18 smoke-free bars and restaurants in American Samoa, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), and Guam. Observational logs were used to record smoking and other sources of air pollution. Differences in average PM2.5 concentrations were determined using bivariate statistics. Results The average PM2.5 level in venues where smoking was always permitted [arithmetic mean (AM)=299.98 μg/m3; geometric mean (GM)=200.39 μg/m3] was significantly higher (p<0.001) than smoke-free venues [AM=8.33 μg/m3; GM=6.14 μg/m3]. In venues where smoking was allowed only during certain times, the average level outside these times [AM=42.10 μg/m3; GM=41.87 μg/m3] was also significantly higher (p<0.001) than smoke-free venues. Conclusions Employees and patrons of smoke-permitted bars and restaurants are exposed to dangerous levels of air pollution from SHS, even during periods when active smoking is not occurring. Prohibiting smoking in all public indoor areas, irrespective of the venue type or time of day, is the only way to fully protect nonsmokers from SHS exposure in these environments. PMID:22393958

  6. Secondhand smoke concentrations in hospitality venues in the Pacific Basin: findings from American Samoa, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, and Guam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Brian A; Dube, Shanta R; Ko, Jean Y

    2011-01-01

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) from burning tobacco products causes disease and premature death among nonsmokers. Although the number of laws prohibiting smoking in indoor public places continues to increase, millions of nonsmokers in the United States (US) and its territories remain exposed to SHS. This study assessed indoor air pollution from SHS in hospitality venues in three US Pacific Basin territories. Air monitors were used to assess PM2.5, an environmental marker for SHS, in 19 smoke-permitted and 18 smoke- free bars and restaurants in American Samoa, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), and Guam. Observational logs were used to record smoking and other sources of air pollution. Differences in average PM2.5 concentrations were determined using bivariate statistics. The average PM2.5 level in venues where smoking was always permitted [arithmetic mean (AM)=299.98 μg/m3; geometric mean (GM)=200.39 μg/ m3] was significantly higher (p<0.001) than smoke-free venues [AM=8.33 μg/m3; GM=6.14 μg/m3]. In venues where smoking was allowed only during certain times, the average level outside these times [AM=42.10 μg/m3; GM=41.87 μg/m3] was also significantly higher (p<0.001) than smoke-free venues. Employees and patrons of smoke-permitted bars and restaurants are exposed to dangerous levels of air pollution from SHS, even during periods when active smoking is not occurring. Prohibiting smoking in all public indoor areas, irrespective of the venue type or time of day, is the only way to fully protect nonsmokers from SHS exposure in these environments.

  7. 75 FR 79264 - E-2 Nonimmigrant Status for Aliens in the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands With Long...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-20

    .... USCIS-2008-0035] RIN 1615-AB75 E-2 Nonimmigrant Status for Aliens in the Commonwealth of the Northern... period is a provision authorizing the Secretary of Homeland Security to classify an alien foreign... alien, notwithstanding the treaty requirements otherwise applicable. Id. Eligible investors are those...

  8. EX1605L3 (CAPSTONE CNMI & Mariana Trench MNM (ROV & Mapping)) (EM302)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains oceanographic data collected in the deep water areas around the Commonwealth of the Northern Marianas Islands (CNMI). Operations for this...

  9. Tectonics and Non-isostatic Topography of the Mariana Trench and Adjacent Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongyu, L.; Lin, J.; Zhou, Z.; Zhang, F.

    2017-12-01

    Multi-types of geophysical data including multibeam bathymetry, sediment thickness, gravity anomaly, and crustal magnetic age were analyzed to investigate tectonic processes of the Mariana Trench and the surrounding plates. We calculated non-Airy-isostatic topography by removing from the observed bathymetry the effects of sediment loading, thermal subsidence, and Airy local isostatically-compensated topography. The Mariana Trench was found to be associated with a clearly defined zone of negative non-isostatic topography, which was caused by flexural bending of the subducting Pacific plate and with the maximum depth anomaly and flexural bending near the Challenger Deep. In contrast, the Caroline Ridge and Caroline Islands Chain have much more subdued non-isostatic topography, indicating their higher topography is largely compensated by thicker crust. Along the Mariana Trough, the northern and central segments appear to be associated with relatively low magma supply as indicated by the relatively low topography and thin crust. In contrast, the southern Mariana Trough is associated with relatively high magma supply as indicated by the relatively high and smoother topography, an axial high spreading center, and relatively thick crust. The southern end of the Mariana Trough was also found to be associated with positive non-isostatic topographic anomaly, which might be caused by the complex tectonic deformation of the overriding Mariana and Philippine Sea plates and their interaction with the subducting Pacific plate. Analysis further revealed that the southern Mariana Arc, located between the Mariana Trench and Mariana Trough, is associated with positive non-isostatic topographic anomalies, which may be explained by the late stage magmatic loading on the older and thus stronger lithospheric plate of the Mariana volcanic arc.

  10. Preliminary Estimate of Earthworm Abundance and Species Richness in Spathodea campanulata Beauv. Forests in Northern Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    ARIEL E. LUGO; OSCAR J. ABELLEIRA; SONIA BORGES; LAUREN J. COLÓN; SYNDI MELÉNDEZ; MARIELA A. RODRÍGUEZ

    2006-01-01

    The alien tree species Spathodea campanulata forms monodominant stands in abandoned agricultural lands in Puerto Rico. In July 2005, we excavated three replicate randomly located soil pits (25 by 25 by 30 cm) in each of six stands of Spathodea. Three of the stands were located in the moist alluvial geoclimatic zone and three were in the moist karst geoclimatic zone,...

  11. Diario de una infancia. Mariana

    OpenAIRE

    Casal, Silvana

    2017-01-01

    Resumen: Este artículo está centrado en el análisis del diario de infancia que una de mis entrevistadas, Mariana, escribió durante su niñez en la dictatorial República Argentina a partir del secuestro de su padre, producido en 1977, situación que dio pie al exilio familiar en México. Mariana nos permite entrar en su universo, conocer sus sentimientos y emociones, y acercarnos -a través de sus palabras plasmadas en las cartas que le escribe a su padre desaparecido- a su vida cotidiana y a trav...

  12. Noble gas and carbon isotopes in Mariana Trough basalt glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, M.; Jambon, A.; Gamo, T.; Nishio, Y.; Sano, Y.

    1998-01-01

    Noble gas elemental and isotopic compositions have been measured as well as the abundance of C and its isotopic ratios in 11 glasses from submarine pillow basalts collected from the Mariana Trough. The 3 He/ 4 He ratios of 8.22 and 8.51 R atm of samples dredged from the central Mariana Trough (similar18N) agree well with that of the Mid-Ocean Ridge Basalt (MORB) glasses (8.4±0.3 R atm ), whereas a mean ratio of 8.06±0.35 R atm in samples from the northern Mariana Trough (similar20N) is slightly lower than those of MORB. One sample shows apparent excess of 20 Ne and 21 Ne relative to atmospheric Ne, suggesting incorporation of solar-type Ne in the magma source. There is a positive correlation between 3 He/ 4 He and 40 Ar/ 36 Ar ratios, which may be explained by mixing between MORB-type and atmospheric noble gases. Excess 129 Xe is observed in the sample which also shows 20 Ne and 21 Ne excesses. Observed δ 13 C values of similar20N samples vary from -3.76 per thousand to -2.80 per thousand, and appear higher than those of MORB, and the corresponding CO 2 / 3 He ratios are higher than those of MARA samples at similar18N, suggesting C contribution from the subducted slab. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  13. Oceanographic data collected during the EX1605L2 (CAPSTONE CNMI & Mariana Trench MNM (Mapping)) on NOAA Ship OKEANOS EXPLORER in the North Pacific Ocean from 2016-05-20 to 2016-06-11 (NCEI Accession 0155917)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains oceanographic data collected in the Commonwealth of the Northern Marianas Islands (CNMI), beginning in Mutan, Saipan and concluding in Santa...

  14. Insular Area energy vulnerability, Puerto Rico, US Virgin Islands. Technical Appendix 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stern, M.; Willard, E.E.; Efferding, S.

    1994-05-01

    This report was prepared in response to Section 1406 of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (P.L. 192-486). The Act directed the Department of Energy (DOE) to ''conduct a study of the implications of the unique vulnerabilities of the insular areas to an oil supply disruption,'' and to ''outline how the insular areas shall gain access to vital oil supplies during times of national emergency.'' The Act defines the insular areas to be the US Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico in the Caribbean, and Guam, American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), and Palau in the Pacific. This report is the analysis of Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands. In the study, ''unique vulnerabilities'' were defined as susceptibility to: (1) more frequent or more likely interruptions of oil supplies compared to the mainland, and/or (2) disproportionately larger or more likely economic losses in the event of an oil supply disruption. In order to asses unique vulnerabilities, the study examined in the insular areas' experience during past global disruptions of oil supplies and during local emergencies caused by natural disasters. The effects of several possible future global disruptions and local emergencies were also analyzed. Analyses were based on historical data, simulations using energy and economic models, and interviews with officials in the insular governments and the energy industry

  15. Insular Area energy vulnerability, Puerto Rico, US Virgin Islands. Technical Appendix 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stern, M.; Willard, E.E.; Efferding, S. [Ensys Energy & Systems, Inc., Flemington, NJ (United States)

    1994-05-01

    This report was prepared in response to Section 1406 of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (P.L. 192-486). The Act directed the Department of Energy (DOE) to ``conduct a study of the implications of the unique vulnerabilities of the insular areas to an oil supply disruption,`` and to ``outline how the insular areas shall gain access to vital oil supplies during times of national emergency.`` The Act defines the insular areas to be the US Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico in the Caribbean, and Guam, American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), and Palau in the Pacific. This report is the analysis of Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands. In the study, ``unique vulnerabilities`` were defined as susceptibility to: (1) more frequent or more likely interruptions of oil supplies compared to the mainland, and/or (2) disproportionately larger or more likely economic losses in the event of an oil supply disruption. In order to asses unique vulnerabilities, the study examined in the insular areas` experience during past global disruptions of oil supplies and during local emergencies caused by natural disasters. The effects of several possible future global disruptions and local emergencies were also analyzed. Analyses were based on historical data, simulations using energy and economic models, and interviews with officials in the insular governments and the energy industry.

  16. Diario de una infancia. Mariana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Beatriz Casal

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo está centrado en el análisis del diario de infancia que una de mis entrevistadas, Mariana, escribió durante su niñez en la dictatorial República Argentina a partir del secuestro de su padre, producido en 1977, situación que dio pie al exilio familiar en México. Mariana nos permite entrar en su universo, conocer sus sentimientos y emociones, y acercarnos –a través de sus palabras plasmadas en las cartas que le escribe a su padre desaparecido– a su vida cotidiana y a través de ella a la de muchos otros niños que vivieron situaciones de violencia similares. Mi propósito es enfatizar que los niños son actores sociales y su aporte es vital en la construcción de una historia que los incluya como agentes activos. Abordaré la importancia histórica de escuchar la voz de los niños y el significado de acceder a escritos elaborados por ellos mismos durante la infancia.

  17. Mariana Trench Bathymetric Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) created a bathymetric digital elevation model (DEM) for the Mariana Trench and adjacent seafloor in the Western...

  18. Marianas Boat Fishing Cost Earnings Study 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent a cost-earnings study of the boat based fishing in the Mariana Archipelago fielded in 2011. Data collected include fisher classification, vessel...

  19. Oceanographic data and information collected during the EX1605L3 (CAPSTONE CNMI & Mariana Trench MNM (ROV & Mapping)) on NOAA Ship OKEANOS EXPLORER in the North Pacific Ocean from 2016-06-17 to 2016-07-10 (NCEI Accession 0156334)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains oceanographic data collected in the deep water areas around the Commonwealth of the Northern Marianas Islands (CNMI). Operations for this...

  20. Reparação e desamparo: o exercício da justiça através das notificações (Mariana, Minas Gerais, 1711-1888

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro de Araujo Antunes

    Full Text Available Este artigo visa apresentar alguns resultados derivados da pesquisa de 783 autos de notificação, custodiados pelo Arquivo Histórico da Casa Setecentista (AHCS, em Mariana (MG. Os dados trabalhados, atinentes ao período de 1711 a 1888, foram obtidos através do uso de variáveis estabelecidas numa ficha de coleta em formato eletrônico. Através dos resultados já obtidos, é possível apontar hipóteses sobre o funcionamento da Justiça no termo de Mariana.

  1. 76 FR 18773 - Marianas Trench Marine National Monument, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, et al...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-05

    ... during public scoping. Climate change impacts and adaptation. Marine debris impacts and removal. Invasive..., related marine resources and species, and conservation efforts. Traditional access to the Monument by... activities do not degrade the Monument's coral reef ecosystem or related marine resources or species, or...

  2. 7 CFR 1219.101 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Person means any individual, group of individuals, partnership, corporation, association, cooperative, or... Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, the United States Virgin Islands...

  3. Elasto-plastic deformation and plate weakening due to normal faulting in the subducting plate along the Mariana Trench

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhiyuan; Lin, Jian

    2018-06-01

    We investigated variations in the elasto-plastic deformation of the subducting plate along the Mariana Trench through an analysis of flexural bending and normal fault characteristics together with geodynamic modeling. Most normal faults were initiated at the outer-rise region and grew toward the trench axis with strikes mostly subparallel to the local trench axis. The average trench relief and maximum fault throws were measured to be significantly greater in the southern region (5 km and 320 m, respectively) than the northern and central regions (2 km and 200 m). The subducting plate was modeled as an elasto-plastic slab subjected to tectonic loading at the trench axis. The calculated strain rates and velocities revealed an array of normal fault-like shear zones in the upper plate, resulting in significant faulting-induced reduction in the deviatoric stresses. We then inverted for solutions that best fit the observed flexural bending and normal faulting characteristics, revealing normal fault penetration to depths of 21, 20, and 32 km beneath the seafloor for the northern, central, and southern regions, respectively, which is consistent with the observed depths of the relocated normal faulting earthquakes in the central Mariana Trench. The calculated deeper normal faults of the southern region might lead to about twice as much water being carried into the mantle per unit trench length than the northern and central regions. We further calculated that normal faulting has reduced the effective elastic plate thickness Te by up to 52% locally in the southern region and 33% in both the northern and central regions. The best-fitting solutions revealed a greater apparent angle of the pulling force in the southern region (51-64°) than in the northern (22-35°) and central (20-34°) regions, which correlates with a general southward increase in the seismically-determined dip angle of the subducting slab along the Mariana Trench.

  4. 1969 Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands Historical Scanned Imagery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These images are part of a project funded by NOAA Office for Coastal Management to develop a high quality, user-friendly, attributed, centralized, multi-territorial...

  5. 1947 Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands Historical Scanned Imagery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These images are part of a project funded by NOAA Office for Coastal Management to develop a high quality, user-friendly, attributed, centralized, multi-territorial...

  6. 1946 Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands Historical Scanned Imagery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These images are part of a project funded by NOAA Office for Coastal Management to develop a high quality, user-friendly, attributed, centralized, multi-territorial...

  7. 1949 Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands Historical Scanned Imagery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These images are part of a project funded by NOAA Office for Coastal Management to develop a high quality, user-friendly, attributed, centralized, multi-territorial...

  8. Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands Strategic Energy Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conrad, M. D.; Ness, J. E.

    2013-07-01

    Describes various energy strategies available to CNMI to meet the territory's goal of diversifying fuel sources and reducing fossil energy consumption. The information presented in this strategic energy plan will be used by the CNMI Governor's Energy Task Force to develop an energy action plan. Available energy strategies include policy changes, education and outreach, and expanding the use of a range of energy technologies, including renewable electricity production and buildings energy efficiency and conservation.

  9. Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands Energy Action Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conrad, M. D.; Ness, J. E.

    2013-07-01

    This document describes the three near-term energy strategies selected by the CNMI Energy Task Force during action planning workshops conducted in March 2013, and outlines the steps being taken to implement those strategies. The three energy strategies selected by the task force are (1) designing a demand-side management program focusing on utility, residential and commercial sectors, (2) developing an outreach and education plan focused on energy conservation in government agencies and businesses, including workplace rules, and (3) exploring waste-to-energy options. The task force also discussed several other medium- and long-term energy strategies that could be explored at a future date.

  10. Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands ESI: BENTPT (Benthic Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for Coral Areas of Special Significance (CASS) and Seagrass Areas of Special Significance (SASS) in Guam...

  11. Northern Mariana Islands Marine Monitoring Team Sea Temperature Measurements

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Site specific monitoring of sea temperature is conducted using submersible temperature dataloggers at selected sites and depths around the islands of Saipan and Rota.

  12. Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for pelagic birds, shorebirds, wading birds, waterfowl, gulls, terns, and passerine birds in Guam and the...

  13. CRED REA Coral Population Parameters at Rota, Marianas Archipelago, 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 6 sites at Rota in the Marianas...

  14. REST Service - Resource Assessment Investigation of the Mariana Archipelago (RAIOMA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data service represents a subset of fisheries research carried out by the Pacific Island Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) in the Mariana Archipelago. Specific...

  15. CRED REA Algal Assessments at Guam, Marianas Archipelago in 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Twelve quadrats were sampled along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments, conducted at 10 sites at Guam in the Marianas...

  16. CRED REA Algal Assessments at Rota, Marianas Archipelago in 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Twelve quadrats were sampled along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments, conducted at 6 sites at Rota in the Marianas...

  17. CRED REA Algal Assessments at Maug, Marianas Archipelago in 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Twelve quadrats were sampled along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments, conducted at 9 sites at Maug in the Marianas...

  18. Island in Crisis: Response to Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenere, Frank J.

    2018-01-01

    On September 6, 2017, Hurricane Irma, a Category 5 storm packing winds of 185 miles per hour skirted the northern coast of Puerto Rico, leaving 1 million residents without electrical power. Schools were closed for 5 days, but a major calamity was narrowly avoided. Overall, residents were grateful for their good fortune, but the same could not be…

  19. Causes of earthquake spatial distribution beneath the Izu-Bonin-Mariana Arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xiangchao; Li, Sanzhong; Wang, Yongming; Suo, Yanhui; Dai, Liming; Géli, Louis; Zhang, Yong; Guo, Lingli; Wang, Pengcheng

    2018-01-01

    Statistics about the occurrence frequency of earthquakes (1973-2015) at shallow, intermediate and great depths along the Izu-Bonin-Mariana (IBM) Arc is presented and a percent perturbation relative to P-wave mean value (LLNL-G3Dv3) is adopted to show the deep structure. The correlation coefficient between the subduction rate and the frequency of shallow seismic events along the IBM is 0.605, proving that the subduction rate is an important factor for shallow seismic events. The relationship between relief amplitudes of the seafloor and earthquake occurrences implies that some seamount chains riding on the Pacific seafloor may have an effect on intermediate-depth seismic events along the IBM. A probable hypothesis is proposed that the seamounts or surrounding seafloor with high degree of fracture may bring numerous hydrous minerals into the deep and may result in a different thermal structure compared to the seafloor where no seamounts are subducted. Fluids from the seamounts or surrounding seafloor are released to trigger earthquakes at intermediate-depth. Deep events in the northern and southern Mariana arc are likely affected by a horizontal propagating tear parallel to the trench.

  20. Geochemistry of southern Pagan Island lavas, Mariana arc: The role of subduction zone processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marske, J.P.; Pietruszka, A.J.; Trusdell, F.A.; Garcia, M.O.

    2011-01-01

    New major and trace element abundances, and Pb, Sr, and Nd isotopic ratios of Quaternary lavas from two adjacent volcanoes (South Pagan and the Central Volcanic Region, or CVR) located on Pagan Island allow us to investigate the mantle source (i.e., slab components) and melting dynamics within the Mariana intra-oceanic arc. Geologic mapping reveals a pre-caldera (780-9.4ka) and post-caldera (<9.4ka) eruptive stage for South Pagan, whereas the eruptive history of the older CVR is poorly constrained. Crystal fractionation and magma mixing were important crustal processes for lavas from both volcanoes. Geochemical and isotopic variations indicate that South Pagan and CVR lavas, and lavas from the northern volcano on the island, Mt. Pagan, originated from compositionally distinct parental magmas due to variations in slab contributions (sediment and aqueous fluid) to the mantle wedge and the extent of mantle partial melting. A mixing model based on Pb and Nd isotopic ratios suggests that the average amount of sediment in the source of CVR (~2.1%) and South Pagan (~1.8%) lavas is slightly higher than Mt. Pagan (~1.4%) lavas. These estimates span the range of sediment-poor Guguan (~1.3%) and sediment-rich Agrigan (~2.0%) lavas for the Mariana arc. Melt modeling demonstrates that the saucer-shaped normalized rare earth element (REE) patterns observed in Pagan lavas can arise from partial melting of a mixed source of depleted mantle and enriched sediment, and do not require amphibole interaction or fractionation to depress the middle REE abundances of the lavas. The modeled degree of mantle partial melting for Agrigan (2-5%), Pagan (3-7%), and Guguan (9-15%) lavas correlates with indicators of fluid addition (e.g., Ba/Th). This relationship suggests that the fluid flux to the mantle wedge is the dominant control on the extent of partial melting beneath Mariana arc volcanoes. A decrease in the amount of fluid addition (lower Ba/Th) and extent of melting (higher Sm/Yb), and

  1. Telluric Imaginary and Images on Mariana Tragedy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Orellana

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The text holds on the analysis of the mythical aspects in the journalistic coverage of the destruction occurred on the night of November 5, 2015 in Bento Rodrigues district in the Brazilian city of Mariana, Minas Gerais. We dedicate our analysis to the visual aspects of human and environmental tragedy. The text contains five sections. Initially, we discuss the application of the myths which facilitate the approach of telluric mythemes in Brazil. Next, we deal with the symbolism of mud and poetic land. On continuation, we address matters of death and the destruction of life in Rio Doce. It can be observed as the imaginary mythical heroic becomes an important vector in which the journalistic discourse proposes their narratives and imaginary related to the feminine universe persist with pejorative notions; that are defined by mytheme mud and its imagery leads.

  2. 50 CFR 665.420 - Mariana coral reef ecosystem fisheries. [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mariana coral reef ecosystem fisheries. [Reserved] 665.420 Section 665.420 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... PACIFIC Mariana Archipelago Fisheries § 665.420 Mariana coral reef ecosystem fisheries. [Reserved] ...

  3. Allozyme variation in Picea mariana from Newfoundland: Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    William B. Critchfield

    1987-01-01

    In their recent paper describing the distribution of genetic variation in black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) B.S.P.) on the island of Newfoundland, Yeh et el. (1986) concluded that a center of variability in west-central Newfoundland derived from ancestral populations that persisted on the island during the last (Wisconsin) glaciation. They...

  4. Trench Advance By the Subduction of Buoyant Features - Application to the Izu-Bonin-Marianas Arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goes, S. D. B.; Fourel, L.; Morra, G.

    2014-12-01

    Most subduction trenches retreat, not only today but throughout the Cenozoic. However, a few trenches clearly advance during part of the evolution, including Izu-Bonin Marianas (IBM) and Kermadec. Trench retreat is well understood as a basic consequence of slab pull, but it is debated what causes trench advance. The IBM trench underwent a complex evolution: right after its initiation, it rotated clockwise, leading to very fast retreat in the north and slow retreat in the south. But since 10-15 Ma, IBM trench motions have switched to advance at the southern end, and since 5 Ma also the northern end is advancing. Based on 2-D subduction models, it has been proposed proposed that the change in age of the subducting plate at the IBM trench (from 40-70 m.y. at the initiation of the trench 45 m.y. ago to 100-140 m.y. lithosphere subducting at the trench today) and its effect on plate strength could explain the transition from trench retreat to trench advance, and that the age gradient (younger in the north and older in the south) could explain the rotation of the trench. However, with new 3-D coupled fluid-solid subduction model where we can include such lateral age gradients, we find that this does not yield the observed behaviour. Instead, we propose an alternative mechanism, involving the subduction of the buoyant Caroline Island Ridge at the southern edge of the Mariana trench and show that it can explain both trench motion history and the current morphology of the IBM slab as imaged by seismic tomography.

  5. Age and size effects on seed productivity of northern black spruce

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. N. Viglas; C. D. Brown; J. F. Johnstone

    2013-01-01

    Slow-growing conifers of the northern boreal forest may require several decades to reach reproductive maturity, making them vulnerable to increases in disturbance frequency. Here, we examine the relationship between stand age and seed productivity of black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) Britton, Sterns & Poggenb.) in Yukon Territory and Alaska....

  6. Tectonics of the Philippine Sea plate before and after 52 Ma subduction initiation to form the Izu-Bonin-Mariana arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizuka, O.; Tani, K.; Harigane, Y.; Umino, S.; Stern, R. J.; Reagan, M. K.; Hickey-Vargas, R.; Yogodzinski, G. M.; Kusano, Y.; Arculus, R. J.

    2016-12-01

    Robust tectonic reconstruction of the evolving Philippine Sea Plate for the period immediately before and after subduction initiation 52 Ma to form the Izu-Bonin-Mariana (IBM) arc is prerequisite to understand cause of subduction initiation (SI) and test competing hypotheses for SI such as spontaneous or induced nucleation. Understanding of nature and origin of overriding and subducting plates is especially important because plate density is a key parameter controlling SI based on numerical modeling (e.g., Leng and Gurnis 2015). There is increasing evidence that multiple geological events related to changing stress fields took place in and around Philippine Sea plate about the time of SI 52 Ma (Ishizuka et al., 2011). For our understanding of the early IBM arc system to increase, it is important to understand the pattern and tempo of these geological events, particularly the duration and extent of seafloor spreading in the proto arc associated with SI, and its temporal relationship with spreading in the West Philippine Basin (WPB). IODP Exp. 351 provided evidence of SI-related seafloor spreading west of the Kyushu-Palau Ridge (Arculus et al., 2015). Planned age determination of the basement crust at Site U1438 will constrain the timing and geometry of SI-related spreading and its relationship to variation in mode of spreading in the WPB including rotation of spreading axis. Some tectonic reconstructions suggest that part of the IBM arc could have formed on "young" WPB crust. Dredging of the northern Mariana forearc crust and mantle in 2014 aimed to test this hypothesis. Preliminary data indicates that early arc crustal section of the N. Mariana forearc is geochemically and temporally similar to that exposed in the Bonin and southern Mariana forearcs. New tectonic reconstructions for the nascent IBM system will be presented based on these observations.

  7. A tale of two arcs? Plate tectonics of the Izu-Bonin-Mariana (IBM) arc using subducted slab constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, J. E.; Suppe, J.; Renqi, L.; Kanda, R. V. S.

    2014-12-01

    Published plate reconstructions typically show the Izu-Bonin Marianas arc (IBM) forming as a result of long-lived ~50 Ma Pacific subduction beneath the Philippine Sea. These reconstructions rely on the critical assumption that the Philippine Sea was continuously coupled to the Pacific during the lifetime of the IBM arc. Because of this assumption, significant (up to 1500 km) Pacific trench retreat is required to accommodate the 2000 km of Philippine Sea/IBM northward motion since the Eocene that is constrained by paleomagnetic data. In this study, we have mapped subducted slabs of mantle lithosphere from MITP08 global seismic tomography (Li et al., 2008) and restored them to a model Earth surface to constrain plate tectonic reconstructions. Here we present two subducted slab constraints that call into question current IBM arc reconstructions: 1) The northern and central Marianas slabs form a sub-vertical 'slab wall' down to maximum 1500 km depths in the lower mantle. This slab geometry is best explained by a near-stationary Marianas trench that has remained +/- 250 km E-W of its present-day position since ~45 Ma, and does not support any significant Pacific slab retreat. 2) A vanished ocean is revealed by an extensive swath of sub-horizontal slabs at 700 to 1000 km depths in the lower mantle below present-day Philippine Sea to Papua New Guinea. We call this vanished ocean the 'East Asian Sea'. When placed in an Eocene plate reconstruction, the East Asian Sea fits west of the reconstructed Marianas Pacific trench position and north of the Philippine Sea plate. This implies that the Philippine Sea and Pacific were not adjacent at IBM initiation, but were in fact separated by a lost ocean. Here we propose a new IBM arc reconstruction constrained by subducted slabs mapped under East Asia. At ~50 Ma, the present-day IBM arc initiated at equatorial latitudes from East Asian Sea subduction below the Philippine Sea. A separate arc was formed from Pacific subduction below

  8. 75 FR 32310 - Importation of Fresh Unshu Oranges from the Republic of Korea into the Continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-08

    ... through Friday, except holidays. To be sure someone is there to help you, please call (202) 690-2817..., Florida, Hawaii, Louisiana, the Northern Mariana Islands, Puerto Rico, Texas, and the U.S. Virgin Islands... Mariana Islands, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. (ii) Unshu oranges from Honshu Island or...

  9. Age of Izu-Bonin-Mariana arc basement

    OpenAIRE

    Ishizuka, O; Hickey-Vargas, R; Arculus, RJ; Yogodzinski, GM; Savov, IP; Kusano, Y; McCarthy, A; Brandl, PA; Sudo, M

    2018-01-01

    Documenting the early tectonic and magmatic evolution of the Izu–Bonin–Mariana (IBM) arc system in the Western Pacific is critical for understanding the process and cause of subduction initiation along the current convergent margin between the Pacific and Philippine Sea plates. Forearc igneous sections provide firm evidence for seafloor spreading at the time of subduction initiation (52 Ma) and production of “forearc basalt”. Ocean floor drilling (International Ocean Discovery Program Expedit...

  10. The Tragedy in Mariana (MG: Aphorizations, Media and Argumentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glaucia Muniz Proença Lara

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In situations of disaster or tragedy of major proportions, as it was the case of the disruption of the dam belonging to the mining company Samarco, in Mariana - MG, the voices of the victims – people now dispossessed of all or almost all – are highlighted, dividing media space with the speech of authorities and experts. Articulating this issue with the notion of aphorization proposed by Maingueneau (2012, our goal is to analyze the special section of the newspaper Estado de Minas (12/05/2015 , entitled: “Mariana voices: pain in the first person” (“Vozes de Mariana: a dor em primeira pessoa”, so as to find out how secondary aphrorizations (i.e. those that are detached from a text in the form of titles, intertitles and/or photo captions related to the victims are (reconstructed by the newspaper. Articulating French Discourse Analysis with the contributions of Argumentative Semantics (see, for example, DUCROT 1987 , KOCH , 1992, we intend to grasp, in the examined aphorizations, linguistic “marks”, such as vocabulary selection, modalizers, presupposition markers, among others, that allow us to reconstruct the feelings (“the pain” manifested by these “anonymous voices” about the tragedy. We assume, therefore, the fundamental role that the media play in the construction of public opinion, to the extent that, by highlighting or silencing certain voices, they will (conform images of the events and of the participating actors.

  11. Early response of ground layer plant communities to wildfire and harvesting disturbance in forested peatland ecosystems in northern Minnesota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erika R. Rowe; Anthony W. D' Amato; Brian J. Palik; John C. Almendinger

    2017-01-01

    A rare, stand-replacing fire in northern Minnesota, USA provided the opportunity to compare the effects of wildfire and timber harvesting in two peatland forest communities, nutrient-poor black spruce (Picea mariana) bogs (BSB) and nutrient-rich tamarack (Larix laricina) swamps (RTS). We found the response between the two...

  12. REFERENCIAL TEÓRICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Fernandes de Souza

    Full Text Available A autora aborda o conhecimento teórico na enfermagem, focaliza algumas publicações consideradas importantes sobre o mesmo e tece considerações sobre modelos conceituais e teorias como referencial para atuação profissional.

  13. Puerto Rico, humedales [Puerto Rico, wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, D. Briane; Hefner, John M.; Dopazo, Teresa

    1999-01-01

    La isla de Puerto Rico, localizada al noreste del Mar Caribe y sus islas principales, Vieques, Culebra e Isla de Mona, poseen humedales en abundancia . El clima subtropical, la lluvia abundante y las complejas formas topográficas y geológicas de estas islas dan origen a los humedales, que varían desde los raros e inusuales bosques cubiertos por nubes en las tierras altas, hasta los extensos manglares, yerbas marinas y arrecifes de coral a lo largo de las costas Norte y Sur. Sin embargo, los humedales en Puerto Rico han disminuido en los últimos siglos como resultado del aumento en el desarrollo agrícola, poblacional y turístico. Algunos tipos de humedales como los bosques de palo de pollo (Pterocarpus officinalis) se han reducido a sólo unos pocos remanentes (figura 1).Biológicamente hablando, los humedales de las islas están entre las áreas más productivas. Los humedales asociados con el bosque pluvial en las tierras altas del interior de Puerto Rico contienen varias plantas raras y especies de animales que no se encuentran en otras partes de la Isla. El agua de escorrentía proveniente de los humedales en las partes altas de la Isla proveen una fuente de agua que utilizan varias ciudades para abasto público. Los humedales costeros como los mangles, los colchones de yerbas marinas y los arrecifes de coral proveen áreas para la reproducción y crianza de varios peces, crustáceos y otras especies en la cadena alimenticia (López y otros, 1988). De esta manera, los humedales costeros contribuyen a la productividad biológica de las aguas llanas del mar alrededor de las islas . Los humedales también estabilizan las costas atrapando y reteniendo sedimentos no consolidados y amortiguan la acción de las olas y de las tormentas que tienen el potencial de causar daños en la zona.El valor de los humedales de Puerto Rico para la vida silvestre está muy bien documentado . Por ejemplo, las salinas de Cabo Rojo, en la costa suroeste, proveen áreas para el

  14. Mantle Serpentinization near the Central Mariana Trench Constrained by Ocean Bottom Surface Wave Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, C.; Wiens, D. A.; Lizarralde, D.; Eimer, M. O.; Shen, W.

    2017-12-01

    We investigate the crustal and uppermost mantle seismic structure across the Mariana trench by jointly inverting Rayleigh wave phase and group velocities from ambient noise and longer period phase velocities from Helmholtz tomography of teleseismic waveforms. We use data from a temporary deployment in 2012-2013, consisting of 7 island-based stations and 20 broadband ocean bottom seismographs, as well as data from the USGS Northern Mariana Islands Seismograph Network. To avoid any potential bias from the starting model, we use a Bayesian Monte-Carlo algorithm to invert for the azimuthally-averaged SV-wave velocity at each node. This method also allows us to apply prior constraints on crustal thickness and other parameters in a systematic way, and to derive formal estimates of velocity uncertainty. The results show the development of a low velocity zone within the incoming plate beginning about 80 km seaward of the trench axis, consistent with the onset of bending faults from bathymetry and earthquake locations. The maximum depth of the velocity anomaly increases towards the trench, and extends to about 30 km below the seafloor. The low velocities persist after the plate is subducted, as a 20-30 km thick low velocity layer with a somewhat smaller velocity reduction is imaged along the top of the slab beneath the forearc. An extremely low velocity zone is observed beneath the serpentine seamounts in the outer forearc, consistent with 40% serpentinization in the forearc mantle wedge. Azimuthal anisotropy results show trench parallel fast axis within the incoming plate at uppermost mantle depth (2%-4% anisotropy). All these observations suggest the velocity reduction in the incoming plate prior to subduction results from both serpentinized normal faults and water-filled cracks. Water is expelled from the cracks early in subduction, causing a modest increase in the velocity of the subducting mantle, and moves upward and causes serpentinization of the outer forearc

  15. Terrestrial bird population trends on Aguiguan (Goat Island), Mariana Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amidon, Fred; Camp, Richard J.; Marshall, Ann P.; Pratt, Thane K.; Williams, Laura; Radley, Paul; Cruz, Justine B.

    2014-01-01

    The island of Aguiguan is part of the Mariana archipelago and currently supports populations of four endemic species, including one endemic genus, Cleptornis. Bird population trends since 1982 were recently assessed on the neighbouring islands of Saipan, Tinian, and Rota indicating declines in some native species. Point-transect surveys were conducted in 2008 by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to assess population densities and trends on Aguiguan. Densities for six of the nine native birds—White-throated Ground-dove Gallicolumba xanthonura, Collared Kingfisher Todiramphus chloris, Rufous Fantail Rhipidura rufifrons, Golden White-eye Cleptornis marchei, Bridled White-eye Zosterops conspicillatus and Micronesian Starling Aplonis opaca—and the non-native bird—Island Collared-dove Streptopelia bitorquata—were significantly greater in 2008 than in 1982. No differences in densities were detected among the surveys for Mariana Fruit-dove Ptilinopus roseicapilla, and Micronesian MyzomelaMyzomela rubratra. Three federally and locally listed endangered birds—Nightingale Reed-warbler Acrocephalus luscinius, Mariana Swiftlet Collocalia bartschi, and Micronesian Megapode Megapodius laperous)—were either not detected during the point-transect counts, the surveys were not appropriate for the species, or the numbers of birds detected were too small to estimate densities. The factors behind the increasing trends for some species are unknown but may be related to increased forest cover on the island since 1982. With declining trends for some native species on neighbouring islands, the increasing and stable trends on Aguiguan is good news for forest bird populations in the region, as Aguiguan populations can help support conservation efforts on other islands in the archipelago.

  16. [Aquatic heteroptera from Mariana County, Minas Gerais, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Marco A A; de Melo, Alan L; Vianna, Gustavo J C

    2006-01-01

    In surveys carried out in lotic and lentic environments in Mariana County, Minas Gerais state, Brazil, 35 genera and 64 species of aquatic and semi-aquatic Heteroptera were recorded, distributed in 13 families. Thirty four species were collected in lentic environments, while in lotic environments 48 species were collected, some of them common to both environments. Nepomorpha presented the greatest number of species (45), markedly for the family Naucoridae, represented by 12 species. Among the 19 Gerromorpha species collected, eight were Veliidae and six were Gerridae.

  17. Os vazios institucionais na mineração: um estudo de caso em Mariana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Braga Rodrigues

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: A tragédia do rompimento da barragem de Fundão, considerado como o pior desastre socioambiental do país, ocorrida no município de Mariana, no distrito de Bento Rodrigues, em Minas Gerais, no dia 05 de novembro de 2015, por volta das 16 horas, instiga a investigação científica em várias áreas do conhecimento. Este trabalho busca contribuir para o debate sobre os vazios institucionais nas políticas públicas ambientais que incidem no setor econômico minerário. Associado a este objetivo, propõe uma reflexão numa perspectiva pluridimensional acerca da promoção de um alinhamento estratégico entre os atores que compõem o cenário da extração de minérios, a partir do rompimento da barragem de Fundão. Foi utilizada a análise hermenêutico-dialética e fez-se uma análise qualitativa, a partir de dois níveis de interpretação: o campo das determinações fundamentais (o contexto sócio-histórico e o encontro dos fatos empíricos. Foi realizada uma pesquisa documental. Verificou-se que as atividades minerárias evidenciam a existência de muitos vazios institucionais, desde a concepção de projetos até a sua execução. Evidenciou-se que o sistema jurídico atual não abarca a complexidade que o impacto socioambiental do desastre da barragem de Fundão provocou. A omissão da participação da comunidade local nos processos de licenciamento ambiental da mineração também está associada a vazios institucionais.   Palavras-chave: Mineração; Barragem de rejeito de Fundão; Vazios institucionais; Gestão de impactos sociais.    

  18. An Interdisciplinary Exploration of the Mariana Region with the NOAA ship Okeanos Explorer: Scientific Highlights from the April-July 2016 Expedition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glickson, D.; Amon, D.; Pomponi, S. A.; Fryer, P. B.; Elliott, K.; Lobecker, E.; Cantwell, K. L.; Kelley, C.

    2016-12-01

    From April to July 2016, an interdisciplinary team of ship-based and shore-based scientists investigated the biology and geology of the Marianas region as part of the 3-year NOAA Campaign to Address the Pacific monument Science, Technology, and Ocean NEeds (CAPSTONE) using the telepresence-enabled NOAA ship Okeanos Explorer. The focus of the expedition was on the Marianas Trench Marine National Monument and the waters of the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. A variety of habitats were explored, including deep-sea coral and sponge communities, bottom fisheries, mud volcanoes, hydrothermal vents, Prime Crust Zone seamounts, and the Trench subduction zone. The expedition successfully collected baseline information at 41 sites at depths from 240 to 6,000 m. High-resolution imagery was obtained along the dive tracks, both in the water column and on the seafloor. Over 130 biological and geologic samples were collected. Many of the organisms documented are likely to be new species or new records of occurrence, and dozens of observations were the first ever collected in situ. Almost 74,000 square kilometers of seafloor were mapped, greatly improving both coverage and resolution in the region. New geologic features were mapped and explored, including ridges and new lava flow fields. Public engagement was substantial, with over 3.1 million total views of the live streaming video/audio feeds. The telepresence paradigm was tested rigorously, with active participation from 100 scientists in five countries and at least nine time zones. The shore-based team provided strong scientific expertise, complementing and expanding the knowledge of the ship-based science leads.

  19. CRED REA Fish Team Belt Transect Survey at Guam, Marianas Archipelago, 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 3 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 10 sites at Guam in the Marianas...

  20. CRED REA Fish Team Belt Transect Survey at Rota, Marianas Archipelago, 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 3 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 6 sites at Rota in the Marianas...

  1. CRED REA Fish Team Belt Transect Survey at Saipan, Marianas Archipelago, 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 3 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 8 sites at Saipan in the Marianas...

  2. 78 FR 63280 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Extension of an Approved Information Collection Request...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-23

    ... holidays. Instructions: All submissions must include the Agency name and docket number. For detailed..., Puerto Rico, American Samoa, Guam, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands and the U.S. Virgin...

  3. 76 FR 12847 - Public Road Mileage for Apportionment of Highway Safety Funds; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-09

    ... FHWA are from 8 a.m. to 4:30 p.m., e.t., Monday through Friday, except Federal holidays. SUPPLEMENTARY..., Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam, American Samoa, and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana...

  4. 40 CFR 745.223 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... sampling. Business day means Monday through Friday with the exception of Federal holidays. Certified firm... Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam, the Canal Zone, American Samoa, the Northern Mariana Islands, or any...

  5. 25 CFR 513.1 - What definitions apply to the regulations in this part?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., Sunday, or Federal legal holiday. (g) Debt and claim are synonymous and interchangeable. They refer to.... Virgin Islands, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, or the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. (h...

  6. 15 CFR 921.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... United States, in or bordering on, the Atlantic, Pacific, or Arctic Ocean, the Gulf of Mexico, Long... includes Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam, the Commonwealth of the Northern Marianas Islands, the...

  7. 31 CFR 103.26 - Reports of certain domestic coin and currency transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... order requiring any domestic financial institution or group of domestic financial institutions in a... Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the United States Virgin Islands, Guam, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana...

  8. 9 CFR 96.1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Parts of several national entities combined into an area; or (4) A group of national entities (countries... Columbia, Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands of the United States...

  9. 77 FR 26734 - Notice of Intent To Extend a Currently Approved Information Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-07

    ... American Samoa, Guam, Micronesia, Northern Marianas, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands. The objectives of... practices; (2) youth group participants; and (3) staff. NEERS consists of separate software sub-systems for...

  10. 41 CFR 60-300.5 - Equal opportunity clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... hiring of any particular job applicants or from any particular group of job applicants, and nothing... Puerto Rico, Guam, the Virgin Islands, American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands...

  11. 42 CFR 5.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... population group; or (3) a public or nonprofit private medical facility. Health service area means a health... Rico, the Northern Mariana Islands, the Virgin Islands, Guam, American Samoa, and the Trust Territory...

  12. 33 CFR 169.5 - How are terms used in this part defined?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Center means a center established by a SOLAS Contracting Government or a group of Contracting Governments... District of Columbia, Guam, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, American Samoa, the Northern Mariana Islands...

  13. 48 CFR 52.222-35 - Equal Opportunity for Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... particular group of job applicants and is not intended to relieve the Contractor from any requirements of... of Columbia, Puerto Rico, the Northern Mariana Islands, American Samoa, Guam, the U.S. Virgin Islands...

  14. 42 CFR 51d.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... government means the governing body of any Indian tribe, band, nation, or other organized group or community... Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Northern Mariana Islands, the Virgin Islands, American Samoa, and the Trust...

  15. Puerto Rico Soil Erodibility (Kffact)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Puerto Rico soil erodibility (Kffactor) - low values indicate low vulnerability to erosion, higher values mean higher susceptibility to runoff.

  16. Columbia University Puerto Rico Study.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Lifetime childhood asthma prevalence (LCAP) percentages in Puerto Rico Health Regions (HR) are substantially higher in northeastern vs. southwestern HR. Higher...

  17. Assessment of distribution and abundance estimates for Mariana swiftlets (Aerodramus bartschi) via examination of survey methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Nathan C.; Haig, Susan M.; Mosher, Stephen M.

    2018-01-01

    We described past and present distribution and abundance data to evaluate the status of the endangered Mariana Swiftlet (Aerodramus bartschi), a little-known echolocating cave swiftlet that currently inhabits 3 of 5 formerly occupied islands in the Mariana archipelago. We then evaluated the survey methods used to attain these estimates via fieldwork carried out on an introduced population of Mariana Swiftlets on the island of O'ahu, Hawaiian Islands, to derive better methods for future surveys. We estimate the range-wide population of Mariana Swiftlets to be 5,704 individuals occurring in 15 caves on Saipan, Aguiguan, and Guam in the Marianas; and 142 individuals occupying one tunnel on O'ahu. We further confirm that swiftlets have been extirpated from Rota and Tinian and have declined on Aguiguan. Swiftlets have remained relatively stable on Guam and Saipan in recent years. Our assessment of survey methods used for Mariana Swiftlets suggests overestimates depending on the technique used. We suggest the use of night vision technology and other changes to more accurately reflect their distribution, abundance, and status.

  18. Los insectos de Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.A. Torres; S. Medina Gaud

    1998-01-01

    This paper is a brief summary of the natural history and importance of the insects of Puerto Rico. We briefly discuss the orders of insects present in Puerto Rico and some of their families. Where possible, we have tried to avoid technical terms for better comprehension of a general audience. We present the observations or characteristics of insects that humans admire...

  19. Layered hydrothermal barite-sulfide mound field, East Diamante Caldera, Mariana volcanic arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, James R.; de Ronde, Cornel E. J.; Koski, Randolph A.; Ditchburn, Robert G.; Mizell, Kira; Tamura, Yoshihiko; Stern, Robert J.; Conrad, Tracey; Ishizuka, Osamu; Leybourne, Matthew I.

    2014-01-01

    East Diamante is a submarine volcano in the southern Mariana arc that is host to a complex caldera ~5 × 10 km (elongated ENE-WSW) that is breached along its northern and southwestern sectors. A large field of barite-sulfide mounds was discovered in June 2009 and revisited in July 2010 with the R/V Natsushima, using the ROV Hyper-Dolphin. The mound field occurs on the northeast flank of a cluster of resurgent dacite domes in the central caldera, near an active black smoker vent field. A 40Ar/39Ar age of 20,000 ± 4000 years was obtained from a dacite sample. The mound field is aligned along a series of fractures and extends for more than 180 m east-west and >120 m north-south. Individual mounds are typically 1 to 3 m tall and 0.5 to 2 m wide, with lengths from about 3 to 8 m. The mounds are dominated by barite + sphalerite layers with the margins of each layer composed of barite with disseminated sulfides. Rare, inactive spires and chimneys sit atop some mounds and also occur as clusters away from the mounds. Iron and Mn oxides are currently forming small (caldera, mineralization resulted from focused flow along small segments of linear fractures rather than from a point source, typical of hydrothermal chimney fields. Based on the mineral assemblage, the maximum fluid temperatures were ~260°C, near the boiling point for the water depths of the mound field (367–406 m). Lateral fluid flow within the mounds precipitated interstitial sphalerite, silica, and Pb minerals within a network of barite with disseminated sulfides; silica was the final phase to precipitate. The current low-temperature precipitation of Fe and Mn oxides and silica may represent rejuvenation of the system.

  20. 78 FR 7385 - Western Pacific Fisheries; Fishing in the Marianas Trench, Pacific Remote Islands, and Rose Atoll...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    ...-BA98 Western Pacific Fisheries; Fishing in the Marianas Trench, Pacific Remote Islands, and Rose Atoll... Presidential proclamations that created the Marianas Trench, Pacific Remote Islands, and Rose Atoll Marine..., 2009). Proclamation 8337 of January 6, 2009, ``Establishment of the Rose Atoll Marine National Monument...

  1. HINTS Puerto Rico: Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    This final report describes HINTS implementation in Puerto Rico. The report addresses sampling; staffing, training and management of data collection; calling protocol; findings from the CATI Operations, and sample weights.

  2. 77 FR 75885 - Control of Communicable Diseases: Foreign; Scope and Definitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ... legal holidays, from 9 a.m. until 5 p.m., Eastern Standard Time, at 1600 Clifton Road NE., Atlanta..., the Northern Mariana Islands, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. We have... Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Currently, only Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands are explicitly...

  3. Vectorized Shoreline of Rota, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, Derived from IKONOS Imagery, 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — IKONOS imagery was purchased to support the Pacific Islands Geographic Information System (GIS) project and the National Ocean Service's (NOS) coral mapping...

  4. Sarigan Island IKONOS Imagery - IKONOS Imagery for the Northern Mariana Islands, 2001-2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project is a cooperative effort among the National Ocean Service, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science, Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment; the...

  5. Rota Island IKONOS Mosaic Imagery 2001-2003 - IKONOS Imagery for the Northern Mariana Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project is a cooperative effort between the National Ocean Service, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science, Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment,...

  6. Aguijan Island IKONOS Mosaic Imagery 2001-2003 - IKONOS Imagery for the Northern Mariana Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project is a cooperative effort between the National Ocean Service, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science, Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment,...

  7. Sarigan Island IKONOS Mosaic Imagery 2001-2003 - IKONOS Imagery for the Northern Mariana Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project is a cooperative effort between the National Ocean Service, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science, Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment,...

  8. Maug Islands IKONOS Mosaic Imagery 2001-2003 - IKONOS Imagery for the Northern Mariana Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project is a cooperative effort between the National Ocean Service, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science, Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment,...

  9. Aguijan Island IKONOS Imagery - IKONOS Imagery for the Northern Mariana Islands, 2001-2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project is a cooperative effort among the National Ocean Service, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science, Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment; the...

  10. Farallon de Pajaros IKONOS Mosaic Imagery 2001-2003- IKONOS Imagery for the Northern Mariana Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project is a cooperative effort between the National Ocean Service, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science, Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment,...

  11. Rota Island IKONOS Imagery - IKONOS Imagery for the Northern Mariana Islands, 2001-2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project is a cooperative effort among the National Ocean Service, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science, Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment; the...

  12. Farallon de Medinilla IKONOS Imagery - IKONOS Imagery for the Northern Mariana Islands, 2001-2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project is a cooperative effort among the National Ocean Service, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science, Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment; the...

  13. Saipan Island IKONOS Mosaic Imagery 2001-2003 - IKONOS Imagery for the Northern Mariana Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project is a cooperative effort between the National Ocean Service, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science, Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment,...

  14. Maug Islands IKONOS Imagery - IKONOS Imagery for the Northern Mariana Islands, 2001-2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project is a cooperative effort among the National Ocean Service, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science, Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment; the...

  15. Anatahan Island IKONOS Imagery - IKONOS Imagery for the Northern Mariana Islands, 2001-2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project is a cooperative effort among the National Ocean Service, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science, Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment; the...

  16. Pagan Island IKONOS Imagery - IKONOS Imagery for the Northern Mariana Islands, 2001-2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project is a cooperative effort among the National Ocean Service, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science, Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment; the...

  17. Tinian Island IKONOS Imagery - IKONOS Imagery for the Northern Mariana Islands, 2001-2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project is a cooperative effort among the National Ocean Service, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science, Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment; the...

  18. Tinian Island IKONOS Mosaic Imagery 2001-2003 - IKONOS Imagery for the Northern Mariana Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project is a cooperative effort between the National Ocean Service, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science, Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment,...

  19. Alamagan Island IKONOS Imagery - IKONOS Imagery for the Northern Mariana Islands, 2001-2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project is a cooperative effort among the National Ocean Service, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science, Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment; the...

  20. Farallon de Pajaros IKONOS Imagery - IKONOS Imagery for the Northern Mariana Islands, 2001-2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project is a cooperative effort among the National Ocean Service, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science, Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment; the...

  1. Farallon de Medinilla IKONOS Mosaic Imagery 2001-2003 - IKONOS Imagery for the Northern Mariana Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project is a cooperative effort between the National Ocean Service, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science, Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment,...

  2. Asuncion Island IKONOS Mosaic Imagery 2001-2003 - IKONOS Imagery for the Northern Mariana Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project is a cooperative effort between the National Ocean Service, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science, Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment,...

  3. Anatahan Island IKONOS Mosaic Imagery 2001-2003 - IKONOS Imagery for the Northern Mariana Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project is a cooperative effort between the National Ocean Service, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science, Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment,...

  4. Agrihan Island IKONOS Imagery - IKONOS Imagery for the Northern Mariana Islands, 2001-2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project is a cooperative effort among the National Ocean Service, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science, Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment; the...

  5. Guguan Island IKONOS Mosaic Imagery 2001-2003 - IKONOS Imagery for the Northern Mariana Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project is a cooperative effort between the National Ocean Service, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science, Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment,...

  6. Saipan Island IKONOS Imagery - IKONOS Imagery for the Northern Mariana Islands, 2001-2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project is a cooperative effort among the National Ocean Service, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science, Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment; the...

  7. Asuncion Island IKONOS Imagery - IKONOS Imagery for the Northern Mariana Islands, 2001-2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project is a cooperative effort among the National Ocean Service, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science, Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment; the...

  8. Alamagan Island IKONOS Mosaic Imagery 2001-2003 - IKONOS Imagery for the Northern Mariana Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project is a cooperative effort between the National Ocean Service, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science, Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment,...

  9. Benthic Habitats of the Alamagan, Northern Mariana Archipelago 2001-2003, Derived From IKONOS Imagery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project is a cooperative effort between the National Ocean Service, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science, Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment,...

  10. Benthic Habitats of the Asuncion Island Northern Mariana Archipelago 2001-2003, Derived From IKONOS Imagery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project is a cooperative effort between the National Ocean Service, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science, Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment,...

  11. Benthic Habitats of the Maug Islands Northern Mariana Archipelago 2001-2003, Derived From IKONOS Imagery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project is a cooperative effort between the National Ocean Service, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science, Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment,...

  12. Benthic Habitats of the Sarigan, Northern Mariana Archipelago 2001-2003, Derived From IKONOS Imagery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project is a cooperative effort between the National Ocean Service, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science, Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment,...

  13. Benthic Habitats of the Northern Mariana Archipelago Derived From IKONOS Imagery, 2001-2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project is a cooperative effort among the National Ocean Service, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science, Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment; the...

  14. Vectorized Shoreline of Saipan, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, Derived from IKONOS Imagery, 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — IKONOS imagery was purchased to support the Pacific Islands Geographic Information System (GIS) project and the National Ocean Service's (NOS) coral mapping...

  15. Vectorized Shoreline of Tinian, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, Derived from IKONOS Imagery, 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — IKONOS imagery was purchased to support the Pacific Islands Geographic Information System (GIS) project and the National Ocean Service's (NOS) coral mapping...

  16. Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands ESI: SOCECON (Socioeconomic Resource Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains human-use resource data for airports, aquaculture sites, archaeological/historic sites, boat ramps, coast guard stations, dive sites, marinas,...

  17. C-CAP Land Cover, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), Rota 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set consists of land derived from high resolution imagery and was analyzed according to the Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) protocol to determine...

  18. BioSearch Marinelife Observer Program for the Northern Mariana Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — BioSearch is a volunteer monitoring program targeting recreational divers and boaters and designed to gather information about occurrences of large or rare...

  19. 78 FR 70248 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-25

    ... of the 1970 Act Amendments, CNMI was part of the post-World War II United Nations' Trust Territory of...) accordingly. EPA indicated that these changes to each subpart had no substantive effect but were rather made..., provisions of the Social Security Act and the Public Health Service Act. Paragraph (2) states ``those laws...

  20. Rugosity grid (5 m) derived from gridded bathymetry of Saipan Island, Commonwealth of the Northern Marianas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Rugosity is derived from gridded (5 m cell size) bathymetry from two sources: Multibeam bathymetry collected by Coral Reef Ecosystem Division aboard NOAA R/V AHI,...

  1. H11674: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Saipan Harbor, Northern Mariana Islands, 2007-05-24

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  2. 5 m Gridded multibeam bathymetry of Rota Island, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Rota Island, CNMI. Bottom coverage was achieved in depths between 0 and -1905 meters; this 5-m grid has data only to -400 m. The netCDF and Arc ASCII grids include...

  3. Gridded multibeam bathymetry of Rota Island, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded bathymetry shelf, bank and slope environments of Rota Island, CNMI. Bottom coverage was achieved in depths between 0 and -1905 meters. The netCDF and Arc...

  4. C-CAP Land Cover, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), Rota 1946

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set consists of land derived from scanned black and white aerial photographs and was analyzed according to the Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP)...

  5. Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands ESI: HYDRO (Hydrography Lines and Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector lines and polygons representing coastal hydrography used in the creation of the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) for Guam and the...

  6. Vectorized Shoreline of Saipan, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, Derived from IKONOS Imagery, 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — IKONOS imagery was purchased to support the Pacific Islands Geographic Information System (GIS) project and the National Ocean Service's (NOS) coral mapping...

  7. Vectorized Shoreline of Sarigan, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands 2001, Derived from IKONOS Imagery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — IKONOS imagery was purchased to support the Pacific Islands Geographic Information System (GIS) project and the National Ocean Service's (NOS) coral mapping...

  8. A serpentinite-hosted ecosystem in the Southern Mariana Forearc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohara, Yasuhiko; Reagan, Mark K; Fujikura, Katsunori; Watanabe, Hiromi; Michibayashi, Katsuyoshi; Ishii, Teruaki; Stern, Robert J; Pujana, Ignacio; Martinez, Fernando; Girard, Guillaume; Ribeiro, Julia; Brounce, Maryjo; Komori, Naoaki; Kino, Masashi

    2012-02-21

    Several varieties of seafloor hydrothermal vents with widely varying fluid compositions and temperatures and vent communities occur in different tectonic settings. The discovery of the Lost City hydrothermal field in the Mid-Atlantic Ridge has stimulated interest in the role of serpentinization of peridotite in generating H(2)- and CH(4)-rich fluids and associated carbonate chimneys, as well as in the biological communities supported in highly reduced, alkaline environments. Abundant vesicomyid clam communities associated with a serpentinite-hosted hydrothermal vent system in the southern Mariana forearc were discovered during a DSV Shinkai 6500 dive in September 2010. We named this system the "Shinkai Seep Field (SSF)." The SSF appears to be a serpentinite-hosted ecosystem within a forearc (convergent margin) setting that is supported by fault-controlled fluid pathways connected to the decollement of the subducting slab. The discovery of the SSF supports the prediction that serpentinite-hosted vents may be widespread on the ocean floor. The discovery further indicates that these serpentinite-hosted low-temperature fluid vents can sustain high-biomass communities and has implications for the chemical budget of the oceans and the distribution of abyssal chemosynthetic life.

  9. Vertically distinct microbial communities in the Mariana and Kermadec trenches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, Sierra; Osuntokun, Oladayo; Xia, Qing; Nelson, Alex; Blanton, Jessica; Allen, Eric E.; Church, Matthew J.; Bartlett, Douglas H.

    2018-01-01

    Hadal trenches, oceanic locations deeper than 6,000 m, are thought to have distinct microbial communities compared to those at shallower depths due to high hydrostatic pressures, topographical funneling of organic matter, and biogeographical isolation. Here we evaluate the hypothesis that hadal trenches contain unique microbial biodiversity through analyses of the communities present in the bottom waters of the Kermadec and Mariana trenches. Estimates of microbial protein production indicate active populations under in situ hydrostatic pressures and increasing adaptation to pressure with depth. Depth, trench of collection, and size fraction are important drivers of microbial community structure. Many putative hadal bathytypes, such as members related to the Marinimicrobia, Rhodobacteraceae, Rhodospirilliceae, and Aquibacter, are similar to members identified in other trenches. Most of the differences between the two trench microbiomes consists of taxa belonging to the Gammaproteobacteria whose distributions extend throughout the water column. Growth and survival estimates of representative isolates of these taxa under deep-sea conditions suggest that some members may descend from shallower depths and exist as a potentially inactive fraction of the hadal zone. We conclude that the distinct pelagic communities residing in these two trenches, and perhaps by extension other trenches, reflect both cosmopolitan hadal bathytypes and ubiquitous genera found throughout the water column. PMID:29621268

  10. Initial magmatism and evolution of the Izu-Bonin-Mariana Arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arculus, R. J.

    2016-12-01

    Expedition 351 of the IODP targeted site U1438 in the Amami Sankaku Basin, northwestern Philippine Sea , 70 km west of the northern Kyushu-Palau Ridge (KPR). The latter formed a chain of stratovolcanoes of the Izu-Bonin-Mariana (IBM) arc, and a remnant arc following migration of the volcanic front eastwards during Shikoku backarc basin formation in the Miocene. Unravelling causes of subduction initiation drove the primary aims of the Expedition involving recovery of igneous basement below the KPR, and a history of the magmatic evolution of the KPR preserved in a clastic record. All these aims were achieved, but with some surprises. Out of 1600m drilled in 4700m water depth, 150m of igneous oceanic crust comprising low-K, tholeiitic basalt lava flows were recovered at U1438. The lavas are variably glassy to microphyric, Cr-spinel-olivine-plagioclase-clinopyroxene-bearing, have high V/Ti, very low absolute rare earth element abundances and low La/Yb, and radiogenic Hf at a given 143/144Nd compared to basalts of mid-ocean ridges. The basement is geochemically and petrologically similar to so-called "forearc basalts" recovered trenchward of the active IBM volcanic front, and of similar or older age (≥52Ma). Highly melt-depleted mantle source(s) were involved and high-temperature, low-pressure dehydration of the subducting Pacific Plate. Compositions of glass (formerly melt) inclusions in clinopyroxene-bearing clasts and sandstones in sediments overlying the basement show a change from medium-Fe (aka "calcalkaline") to low-Fe (tholeiitic) magmas during the Eocene-Oligocene evolution of the KPR. Widespread magmatism along- and across-strike of the nascent IBM system coupled with geologic constraints from the western Philippine Sea, indicate subduction initiation at the IBM arc likely propagated adjacent to Mesozoic-aged arcs/basins to the west of the KPR, following plate reorganization subsequent to the demise of the Izanagi-Pacific Ridge along eastern Asia at 60Ma

  11. Age of Izu-Bonin-Mariana arc basement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizuka, Osamu; Hickey-Vargas, Rosemary; Arculus, Richard J.; Yogodzinski, Gene M.; Savov, Ivan P.; Kusano, Yuki; McCarthy, Anders; Brandl, Philipp A.; Sudo, Masafumi

    2018-01-01

    Documenting the early tectonic and magmatic evolution of the Izu-Bonin-Mariana (IBM) arc system in the Western Pacific is critical for understanding the process and cause of subduction initiation along the current convergent margin between the Pacific and Philippine Sea plates. Forearc igneous sections provide firm evidence for seafloor spreading at the time of subduction initiation (52 Ma) and production of "forearc basalt". Ocean floor drilling (International Ocean Discovery Program Expedition 351) recovered basement-forming, low-Ti tholeiitic basalt crust formed shortly after subduction initiation but distal from the convergent margin (nominally reararc) of the future IBM arc (Amami Sankaku Basin: ASB). Radiometric dating of this basement gives an age range (49.3-46.8 Ma with a weighted average of 48.7 Ma) that overlaps that of basalt in the present-day IBM forearc, but up to 3.3 m.y. younger than the onset of forearc basalt activity. Similarity in age range and geochemical character between the reararc and forearc basalts implies that the ocean crust newly formed by seafloor spreading during subduction initiation extends from fore- to reararc of the present-day IBM arc. Given the age difference between the oldest forearc basalt and the ASB crust, asymmetric spreading caused by ridge migration might have taken place. This scenario for the formation of the ASB implies that the Mesozoic remnant arc terrane of the Daito Ridges comprised the overriding plate at subduction initiation. The juxtaposition of a relatively buoyant remnant arc terrane adjacent to an oceanic plate was more favourable for subduction initiation than would have been the case if both downgoing and overriding plates had been oceanic.

  12. Mantle contamination and the Izu-Bonin-Mariana (IBM) 'high-tide mark': evidence for mantle extrusion caused by Tethyan closure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flower, M. F. J.; Russo, R. M.; Tamaki, K.; Hoang, N.

    2001-04-01

    Western Pacific basins are characterized by three remarkable attributes: (1) complex kinematic histories linked to global-scale plate interactions; (2) DUPAL-like contaminated mantle; and (3) rapid post-Mesozoic rollback of the confining arc-trench systems. The coincidence of slab steepening, extreme arc curvature, and vigorous basin opening associated with the Mariana convergent margin suggests that rollback continues in response to an east-directed mantle 'wind'. Against a backdrop of conflicting kinematic and genetic interpretations we explore the notion that eastward asthenospheric flow driven by diachronous Tethyan closure caused stretching of eastern Eurasia and concomitant opening of western Pacific basins. Marking the eastern boundary of the latter, the Izu-Bonin-Mariana forearc may be regarded as a litho-tectonic 'high-tide mark' comprising igneous and metamorphic products from successive episodes (since ca. 45 Ma.) of arc sundering and backarc basin opening. The forearc also forms an isotopic boundary separating contaminated western Pacific mantle from the N-MORB Pacific Ocean reservoir. While the isotopic composition of western Pacific mantle resembles that feeding Indian Ocean hotspot and spreading systems, its spatial-temporal variation and the presence of subduction barriers to the south appear to preclude northward flow of Indian Ocean mantle and require an endogenous origin for sub-Eurasian contaminated mantle. It is concluded that the extrusion of Tethyan asthenosphere, contaminated by sub-Asian cratonic lithosphere, was a major cause of western Pacific arc rollback and basin opening. The model is consistent with paleomagnetic and geologic evidence supporting independent kinematic histories for constituent parts of the Philippine Sea and Sunda plates although interpretation of these is speculative. Compounded by effects of the Australia-Indonesia collision, late-Tethyan mantle extrusion appears to have produced the largest DUPAL domain in the

  13. The Indians of Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Robert; And Others

    Produced for use in a coordinated program of studies for students in the Connecticut Migratory Children's Program and for other students whose native language is Spanish, this book about the Indians of Puerto Rico is intended as supplementary reading material for pre-school through fifth grade. The book, illustrated with black and white drawings,…

  14. Cobertura desarrollada de Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    William A. Gould; Sebastian Martinuzzi; Olga M. Ramos Gonzalez

    2008-01-01

    Este mapa representa la cobertura desarrollada en Puerto Rico (Martinuzzi et al. 2007). Cobertura desarrollada se define aqui como areas urbanas, construidas y sin vegetacion, que resultan de actividad humana. Tipicamente, estas incluyen estructuras construidas, concreto, asfalto, u otra infraestructura. La cobertura desarrollada se creo mediante el analisis de...

  15. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Benthic Images Collected from Climate Stations across the Mariana Archipelago in 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Photoquadrat benthic images were collected at NCRMP climate stations and permanent sites identified by the Ocean and Climate Change team across the Mariana...

  16. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Towed-diver Surveys of Large-bodied Fishes of the Marianas since 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The towed-diver method is used to conduct surveys of large-bodied (> 50 cm) fishes in the Hawaiian and Mariana Archipelagos, American Samoa, and the Pacific...

  17. Integrated hard and soft bottom seafloor substrate maps at select islands in American Samoa and the Mariana Archipelago

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Seafloor substrate (i.e., hard vs. soft bottom) from 0 to 50 m depths around islands in American Samoa and Mariana Archipelago produced by the NOAA Coral Reef...

  18. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Benthic Images Collected from Climate Stations across the Mariana Archipelago in 2014 (NCEI Accession 0157759)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Photoquadrat benthic images were collected at NCRMP climate stations and permanent sites identified by the Ocean and Climate Change team across the Mariana...

  19. CRED SVP Drifting Buoy Argos_ID 28638 Data, Saipan in the Marianas Archipelago, 200308-200503 (NODC Accession 0067473)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED SVP drifter Argos_ID 28638 was deployed in the region of Marianas Archipelago to assess ocean currents and sea surface temperature. SVP drifter data files...

  20. CRED SVP Drifting Buoy Argos_ID 29099 Data, Rota in the Marianas Archipelago, 200309-200402 (NODC Accession 0067473)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED SVP drifter Argos_ID 29099 was deployed in the region of Marianas Archipelago to assess ocean currents and sea surface temperature. SVP drifter data files...

  1. 40 CFR 131.40 - Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Puerto Rico 131.40 Section 131.40... Federally Promulgated Water Quality Standards § 131.40 Puerto Rico (a) Use designations for marine waters. In addition to the Commonwealth's adopted use designations, the following waterbodies in Puerto Rico...

  2. Cavalgando no dorso do tempo: a constituição da narrativa e o aspecto contemporâneo no romance de Mariana Lage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella Banducci Amizo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta uma reflexão sobre o livro No dorso do leão (2013, primeiro romance da escritora mineira Mariana Lage. A partir da problematização dos estudos de teóricos como Theodor Adorno e Walter Benjamin, assim como dos brasileiros Jaime Ginzburg e Silviano Santiago, entre outros, trata dos principais elementos presentes na obra referentes à constituição da narrativa na contemporaneidade.  A narrativa se desenvolve por meio de cartas e notas, as quais transmitem ideias e sentimentos das personagens, explorando a busca por uma identidade e um sentido para a existência, a fuga e a procura de si mesmo, o caos interior como reflexo do caótico com que se lida externamente. O artigo, atento a tais aspectos, procura refletir sobre a relação da obra com a produção literária contemporânea.

  3. Molecular Variation in Picea Rubens and Picea Mariana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobola, Michael S.

    Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) variation was examined among samples from the entire range of red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.), the eastern complex of black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) B.S.P.), control -cross red-on-black hybrids, and natural populations of red and black spruce. Within-species and population variation was examined. In addition an accurate species index capable of identifying red spruce, black spruce and hybridization between the two species was developed. The nuclear rDNA repeat unit size in Picea ranged from a minimum of 32 kbp to greater than 40 kbp, two to three fold larger than the typical angiosperm rDNA unit. At a size greater than 32 kbp and a concentration averaging 1.2-1.3 times 10^4 copies per pg genomic DNA, the rDNA repeat constitutes approximately 4% of the spruce genome. The rDNA repeat units were found to be polymorphic within an individual genome with up to five distinct rDNA repeat unit types (alleles) evident. The RFLPs observed in the rDNA repeat were not species specific; however, noticeable trends in internal allelic frequencies were noticed which were useful for between-species differentiation. One marker (EMW 4.35) displayed a significant relationship with geographic origins and habitat suggesting that the observed between-species variation for this marker may be due to selection rather than the result of a true species difference. Variation in the nuclear rDNA repeat could not accurately differentiate hybrids from black spruce. Additional markers were required to identify hybrids. RFLPs were identified for the organelle genomes of red spruce, and black spruce. The organelle inheritance pattern was deduced using controlled-cross hybrids. Organelle markers were combined with allelic data from the nuclear rDNA repeat to derive a simple three character index capable of identifying red spruce, black spruce and hybridization between the two species. Significant gene flow was observed between red and black spruce

  4. Drinking and Driving in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caetano, Raul; Vaeth, Patrice A C; Romano, Eduardo; Canino, Glorisa

    2018-01-09

    Epidemiological information is lacking for driving under the influence of alcohol (DUI) in Puerto Rico. To examine the prevalence and correlates of DUI in Puerto Rico. Data are from a household sample of 1510 individuals, aged 18-64 years in San Juan, Puerto Rico. The response rate was 83%. The rate of 12 month self-reported DUI was 20% among men and 8% among women (p Puerto Rico was high, but the proportion of people arrested for DUI in a span of 12 months or during their lifetime was low. Stricter enforcement of DUI laws may be necessary to minimize DUI in urban Puerto Rico.

  5. Northern employment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zavitz, J.

    1997-01-01

    Hiring practices and policies and employment opportunities that were available in the Beaufort Sea and MacKenzie Delta project for local residents and for people from southern Canada were dealt with in this chapter. Depending on the source, Northern hiring was a mere token, or a genuine and successful effort on the part of the companies to involve the native population and to share with them the benefits of the project. The fact remains that opening up job opportunities for Northerners was not easily attained, and would never have been realized without the involvement of government and community organizations. Government also played a major role in developing policies and training regimes. By the end of exploration operations, the hiring of Northern residents in the oil and gas industry had become a requirement of drilling applications. Training programs were also created to ensure that Northern residents received the means necessary to take advantage of Northern employment opportunities

  6. Canyons off northwest Puerto Rico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, W.D.; Glover, L.K.; Hollister, C.D.

    1980-01-01

    The Nuclear-Research Submarine NR-1 was used to study morphoplogy, sediment, and sediment-water interactions off the northwest coast of Puerto Rico. New detailed bathymetry from the surface-support ship, USS Portland, shows several submarine canyons in the area, some of them unreported previously. The north coast canyons, Arecibo, Tiberones and Quebradillas, are primarily erosional features although no recent turbidity-current evidence is seen. The canyons are presently filling with river-transported sediments. (orig./ME)

  7. Geology of Saipan, Mariana Islands; Part 4, Submarine topography and shoal-water ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloud, Preston E.

    1959-01-01

    The topography of the sea floor within 10 miles of Saipan broadly resembles that of the land. Eastward, toward the Mariana trench, slopes are about 6°, without prominent benches or scarps. This is inferred to indicate easterly continuation of generally pyroclastic bedrock. The westward slope averages 2° to 3° and consists mainly of nearly flat benches and westfacing scarps. This is taken to imply westward continuation of a limestone bench-and-fault-scarp topography. Projection of known faults to sea and through Tinian, on the basis of topographic trends, suggests a pattern of west-dipping normal faults that parallel the strike of the Mariana ridge and affect the shape and position of islands at the crest of the ridge.

  8. Genetic structure, diversity, and interisland dispersal in the endangered Mariana Common Moorhen (Gallinula chloropus guami)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Mark P.; Mullins, Thomas D.; Haig, Susan M.; Takano, Leilani L.; Garcia, Karla

    2015-01-01

    The Mariana Common Moorhen (Gallinula chloropus guami) is a highly endangered taxon, with fewer than 300 individuals estimated to occur in the wild. The subspecies is believed to have undergone population declines attributable to loss of wetland habitats on its native islands in the Mariana Islands. We analyzed mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences (control region and ND2 genes) and nuclear microsatellite loci in Mariana Common Moorhens from Guam and Saipan, the two most distal islands inhabited by the subspecies. Our analyses revealed similar nuclear genetic diversity and effective population size estimates on Saipan and Guam. Birds from Guam and Saipan were genetically differentiated (microsatellites: FST = 0.152; control region: FST = 0.736; ND2: FST= 0.390); however, assignment tests revealed the presence of first-generation dispersers from Guam onto Saipan (1 of 27 sampled birds) and from Saipan onto Guam (2 of 28 sampled birds), suggesting the capability for long-distance interpopulation movements within the subspecies. The observed dispersal rate was consistent with long-term estimates of effective numbers of migrants per generation between islands, indicating that movement between islands has been an ongoing process in this system. Despite known population declines, bottleneck tests revealed no signature of historical bottleneck events, suggesting that the magnitude of past population declines may have been comparatively small relative to the severity of declines that can be detected using genetic data.

  9. Heat flow in the Izu-Ogasawara (Bonin)-Mariana arc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamazaki, T. (Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan))

    1992-04-27

    New heat flow data of 218 points obtained from 1984 to 1989 in the Izu-Ogasawara(Bonin)-Mariana Arc and their interpretation are presented. The purpose of the measurements is to evaluate the potential of hydrothermal activity and to increase an understanding of the tectonics in this region. The Sumisu Rift shows high and variable heat flow values, which suggests the existence of hydrothermal circulation. The Nishinoshima Trough is bounded on the west by a steep fault scarp, and heat flow is higher in the trough than to the west of the scarp. This contrast was considered to reflect difference in crustal thickness caused by old rifting. Local high heat flow associated with an intrusive body is found in the trough. The Mariana Trough north of 22{degree}N, which is currently in a rifting stage, shows thermal asymmetry. In the Mariana Trough south of 22{degree}N, which has developed to a spreading stage, anomalous temperature profiles suggesting hydrothermal circulation are found near the spreading centers. 44 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  10. 77 FR 75939 - Control of Communicable Diseases: Foreign; Scope and Definitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ... Monday through Friday, except for legal holidays, from 9 a.m. until 5 p.m., Eastern Standard Time, at..., Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. We.... Virgin Islands. Currently, only Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands are explicitly listed in the...

  11. The Puerto Rico Healthcare Crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Jesse

    2015-12-01

    The Commonwealth of Puerto Rico is an organized nonincorporated territory of the United States with a population of more than 3.5 million U.S. citizens. The island has been the focus of much recent attention due to the recent default on its debt (estimated at more than $70 billion), high poverty rates, and increasing unemployment. Less attention, however, has been given to the island's healthcare system, which many believe is on the verge of collapsing. Healthcare makes up 20% of the Puerto Rican economy, and this crisis affects reimbursement rates for physicians while promoting the disintegration of the island's healthcare infrastructure. A major contributor relates to a disparity in federal funding provided to support the island's healthcare system when compared with that provided to the states in the mainland and Hawaii. Puerto Rico receives less federal funding for healthcare than the other 50 states and the District of Columbia even though it pays its share of social security and Medicare taxes. To make matters worse, the U.S. Center for Medicaid and Medicare Services is planning soon to implement another 11% cut in Medical Advantage reimbursements. This disparity in support for healthcare is considered responsible for ∼$25 billion of Puerto Rico's total debt. The impact of these events on the health of Puerto Ricans in the island cannot be entirely predicted, but the loss of healthcare providers and diminished access to care are a certainty, and quality care will suffer, leading to serious implications for those with chronic medical disorders including respiratory disease.

  12. Los bosques de Puerto Rico, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humfredo Marcano Vega; Thomas J. Brandeis; Jeffery A. Turner; No Other

    2015-01-01

    Este informe presenta los resultados del cuarto inventario forestal de las islas del Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico. El área de bosque en la isla grande de Puerto Rico se mantuvo constante o aumentó ligeramente del año 2004 al 2009. Este cambio parece indicar que la tasa de incremento de cubierta forestal en la isla grande de Puerto Rico ha disminuido desde que...

  13. Diets of the Sympatric Pacific Sheath-Tailed Bat (Emballonura semicaudata rotensis) and Mariana Swiftlet (Aerodramus bartschi) on Aguiguan, Mariana Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, Ernest W.; Wiles, Gary J.; O'Shea, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    The Pacific sheath-tailed bat (Emballonura semicaudata rotensis) and Mariana swiftlet (Aerodramus bartschi) are two rare insectivorous taxa restricted to the southern Mariana Islands in western Micronesia. It is believed that populations of both have dwindled because of impacts to their food resources. However, there is little information on the food habits of A. bartschi and none exists for E. s. rotensis. In an effort to better understand the feeding habits of both, we investigated their diets using guano analysis. Guano was collected from two roosts in caves during a 2-week period in June and July at the onset of the rainy season. Important orders of insects consumed (percentage volume) by bats roosting at one cave included hymenopterans (64%), coleopterans (10%), lepidopterans (8%), isopterans (8%), and psocopterans (5%), whereas those at a second cave included lepidopterans (45%), hymenopterans (41%), coleopterans (10%), and isopterans (5%). Swiftlets, which roosted in only one of the caves, fed mostly on hymenopterans (88%) and hemipterans (6%). Significant differences existed between the two taxa in several insect orders eaten, with E. s. rotensis consuming more lepidopterans and coleopterans and A. bartschi taking more hymenopterans and hemipterans. Within Hymenoptera, bats fed more on ichneumoideans, whereas swiftlets ate more formicid alates and chalicidoideans. This new information on the feeding habits of E. s. rotensis and A. bartschi provides insight on the complexity of their diets during June and July, and serves as baseline information for future studies and management of their habitat.

  14. Manatee mortality in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mignucci-Giannoni, A. A.; Montoya-Ospina, R. A.; Jimenez-Marrero, N. M.; Rodriguez-Lopez, M.; Williams, E.H.; Bonde, R.K.

    2000-01-01

    The most pressing problem in the effective management of the West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus) in Puerto Rico is mortality due to human activities. We assessed 90 cases of manatee strandings in Puerto Rico based on historical data and a coordinated carcass salvage effort from 1990 through 1995. We determined patterns of mortality, including type of event, condition of carcasses, spatial and temporal distribution, gender, size/age class, and the cause of death. The spatial distribution of stranding events was not uniform, with the north, northeast, and south coasts having the highest numbers. Six clusters representing the highest incidence included the areas of Fajardo and Ceiba, Bahia de Jobos, Toa Baja, Guayanilla, Cabo Rojo, and Rio Grande to Luquillo. The number of reported cases has increased at an average rate of 9.6%/yr since 1990. The seasonality of stranding events showed a bimodal pattern, from February through April and in August and September. Most identified causes of death were due to human interaction, especially captures and watercraft collisions. Natural causes usually involved dependent calves. From 1990 through 1995, most deaths were attributed to watercraft collisions. A reduction in anthropogenic mortality of this endangered species can be accomplished only through education and a proactive management and conservation plan that includes law enforcement, mortality assessment, scientific research, rescue and rehabilitation, and inter- and intraagency cooperation.

  15. Physical Properties and Seismic Structure of Izu-Bonin-Mariana Fore Arc crust: Results From IODP Expedition 352 and Comparison with Oceanic Crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christeson, G. L.; Morgan, S.; Kodaira, S.; Yamashita, M.

    2015-12-01

    Most of the well-preserved ophiolite complexes are believed to form in supra-subduction zone settings. One of the goals of IODP Expedition 352 was to test the supra-subduction zone ophiolite model by drilling forearc crust at the northern Izu-Bonin-Mariana (IBM) system. IBM forearc drilling successfully cored 1.22 km of volcanic lavas and underlying dikes at four sites. A surprising observation is that basement compressional velocities measured from downhole logging average ~3.0 km/s, compared to values of 5 km/s at similar basement depths at oceanic crust sites 504B and 1256D. Typically there is an inverse relationship in extrusive lavas between velocity and porosity, but downhole logging shows similar porosities for the IBM and oceanic crust sites, despite the large difference in measured compressional velocities. These observations can be explained by a difference in crack morphologies between IBM forearc and oceanic crust, with a smaller fractional area of asperity contact across cracks at EXP 352 sites than at sites 504B and 1256D. Seismic profiles at the IBM forearc image many faults, which may be related to the crack population.

  16. Duelo lírico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Casis

    1982-01-01

    Full Text Available Juan Casís, editor Contiene: -El centenario o la generación polemista / Javier Arango Ferrer -Prólogo / Roberto Liévano -A un gran poeta / Un poeta oscuro -A un poeta oscuro / Eduardo Castillo -A un poeta pequeño / Un poeta oscuro -Al poeta E. C. / Luis Paredes -A un poeta oscuro y pequeño / Eduardo Castillo -Un sonámbulo / Un poeta oscuro -A dos poetas líricos / Joaquin Güell -La tregua de Dios / Miguel Rasch Isla -Epílogo  -Por la cruz de la espada / Eduardo Castillo  -Evangelio poético / Ángel María Céspedes -El símbolo / Delio Seravile -Brindis / Raimundo Rivas

  17. Hospitalidade Organizacional: Panorama Teórico-Empírico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alberto Carvalho dos Santos Claro

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste texto é o de apresentar as discussões teórico-conceituais sobre Hospitalidade, particularmente a vertente da Hospitalidade Organizacional (HO, que se ocupa das relações hospitaleiras no ambiente do espaço de trabalho. Trata-se de um estudo exploratório, baseado em revisão bibliográfica, seguida de pesquisa de campo por meio de levantamento junto a gestores de pessoas (especialistas ou juízes, sobre o entendimento do tema, visando contribuir para a futura criação de escala de medida para quantificar o grau de HO em uma organização. Como resultado, apresenta-se contribuição teórica para o amadurecimento desta tendência organizacional e indicadores que poderão ser futuramente usados em estudos empíricos e na construção de um instrumento com escala validada para ser utilizada em organizações em qualquer setor de atividade econômica. Palavras-chave: Hospitalidade. Hospitalidade Organizacional. Gestão de Pessoas.Organizational Hospitality: Theorical and Empirical Developments This paper aim is to present the theoretical and conceptual discussions about hospitality, particularly the  Organizational Hospitality (OH, which is concerned with the hospitable relations in the workplace. It’s an exploratory study, based on literature review and field survey with people managers (experts or judges about their understanding about the question. The result indicates that the development of organizational indicators could be used in future empirical studies and to the construction of a validated scale that can be used in any sector of the economic activity. Keywords: Hospitality. Organizational Hospitality. People Management. Indicators.José Alberto Carvalho dos Santos Claro – Doutor. Professor Adjunto da Universidade Federal de São Paulo [UNIFESP], Campus Baixada Santista, Santos, SP. Endereço Lattes http://lattes.cnpq.br/0865792662046289 E-mail: albertoclaro@albertoclaro.pro.br  

  18. P-wave Velocity Structure Across the Mariana Trench and Implications for Hydration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eimer, M. O.; Wiens, D.; Lizarralde, D.; Cai, C.

    2017-12-01

    Estimates of the water flux at subduction zones remain uncertain, particularly the amount of water brought into the trench by the subducting plate. Normal faulting related to the bending of the incoming plate has been proposed to provide pathways for water to hydrate the crust and upper mantle. A passive and active source seismic experiment spanning both the incoming plate and forearc was conducted in 2012 in central Mariana to examine the role of hydration at subduction zones. The active-source component of the survey used the R/V M.G. Langsethairgun array and 68 short period sensors, including suspended hydrophones, deployed on 4 transects. This study at the Mariana trench offers a comparison to related studies of incoming plate hydration in Middle America, where differing thermal structures related to plate age predict different stability fields for hydrous minerals. The forearc structure is also of interest, since Mariana is characterized by large serpentine seamounts and may have a serpentinized mantle wedge. The velocity structure will also be important for the relocation of earthquakes in the incoming plate, since the seismicity can offer a constraint for the depth extent of these bending faults. We examine the P-wave velocity structure along a 400-km long wide-angle refraction transect perpendicular to the trench and spanning both the forearc and incoming plate. Preliminary results indicate a velocity reduction in the crust and uppermost mantle at the bending region of the incoming plate, relative to the plate's structure away from the trench. This reduction suggests that outer-rise faults extend into the upper mantle and may have promoted serpentinization of that material. Mantle Pn refraction phases are not observed in the forearc, consistent with the ambient noise tomography results that show upper-mantle velocities similar to that of the lower crust. The lack of contrast between the upper mantle and crustal velocities from the ambient noise has been

  19. Fault plane orientations of deep earthquakes in the Izu-Bonin-Marianas subduction zone system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myhill, R.; Warren, L. M.

    2011-12-01

    We present the results of directivity analysis on 45 deep earthquakes within the Izu-Bonin-Marianas subduction zone between 1993 and 2011. The age of the subducting Pacific plate increases from north to south along the trench, from 120 Ma offshore Tokyo to over 150 Ma east of the Mariana Islands. The dip of the deep slab generally increases from north to south, and is steep to overturned beneath the southern Bonin Islands and Marianas. Between 34 and 26 degrees north, a peak in seismicity at 350-450 km depth marks a decrease in dip as the slab approaches the base of the upper mantle. We observe directivity for around 60 percent of the analysed earthquakes, and use the propagation characteristics to find the best fitting rupture vector. In 60-70 percent of cases with well constrained rupture directivity, the best fitting rupture vector allows discrimination of the fault plane and the auxiliary plane of the focal mechanism. The identified fault planes between 100 km and 500 km are predominantly near-horizontal or south-southwest dipping. Rotated into the plane of the slab, the fault plane poles form a single cluster, since the more steeply dipping fault planes are found within more steeply dipping sections of slab. The dominance of near-horizontal fault planes at intermediate depth agrees with results from previous studies of the Tonga and Middle-America subduction zones. However, the presence of a single preferred fault plane orientation for large deep-focus earthquakes has not been previously reported, and contrasts with the situation for deep-focus earthquakes in the Tonga-Kermadec subduction system. Ruptures tend to propagate away from the top surface of the slab. We discuss potential causes of preferred fault plane orientations within subducting slabs in the light of existing available data, and the implications for mechanisms of faulting at great depths within the Earth.

  20. 187Os/188Os of boninites from the Izu-Bonin-Mariana forearc, IODP Exp 352

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niles, D. E.; Nelson, W. R.; Reagan, M. K.; Pearce, J. A.; Godard, M.; Shervais, J. W.

    2016-12-01

    The Izu-Bonin-Mariana (IBM) subduction zone is an ideal laboratory in which to study the evolution of a subduction zone from its initiation to the development of modern-day arc volcanism. Boninite lavas were produced in the IBM forearc region during the early stages of subduction and are thought to have been generated by flux melting the previously depleted mantle wedge. Mariana forearc mantle peridotites record unradiogenic 187Os/188Os signatures (0.1193-0.1273) supporting the existence of variably depleted mantle in this region (Parkinson et al., 1998). In order to understand the connection between the regional mantle, slab-derived fluids, and the generation of boninites, Re-Os isotopic data were measured on subset of boninite-series lavas obtained during IODP Expedition 352. Preliminary age-corrected (48 Ma) 187Os/188Os isotopic data for boninite-series lavas (sites U1439C and U1442A) are unradiogenic to modestly radiogenic (0.1254-0.1390) compared to primitive mantle (0.1296), consistent with Os isotopic data from boninite sands from the Bonin Islands (0.1279-0.1382; Suzuki et al., 2011). The least radiogenic boninites have 187Os/188Os (< 0.1296) values consistent with average MORB mantle recorded globally by abyssal peridotites (0.1238 ± 0.0042; Rudnick & Walker, 2009). However, boninite lavas were not derived from the most refractory ancient mantle recorded by Mariana peridotites. Unradiogenic boninites generally have higher Os abundances (0.043-0.567 ppb), whereas more radiogenic boninites have low Os abundances (0.015-0.036). Due to their low Os abundances, the moderately radiogenic isotopic signatures may be the result of interaction with highly radiogenic seawater or incorporation of radiogenic sediment (e.g. Suzuki et al. 2011). However, the radiogenic values could also be the result of fluid flux from the subducting Pacific plate.

  1. Looking for Larvae Above an Erupting Submarine Volcano, NW Rota-1, Mariana Arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu, S.; Hanson, M.; Tunnicliffe, V.; Chadwick, W. W., Jr.; Breuer, E. R.

    2016-02-01

    In 2009 the first marine protected areas for deep-sea hydrothermal vents in U.S. waters were established as part of the Volcanic Unit of the Marianas Trench Marine National Monument. In this region, hydrothermal vents are located along the Mariana Arc and back-arc spreading center. In particular hydrothermal vents are located near the summit of NW Rota-1, an active submarine volcano on the Mariana Arc which was erupting between 2003 and 2010 and ceased as of 2014. NW Rota-1 experienced a massive landslide in late 2009, decimating the habitat on the southern side of the volcano. This project looked at zooplankton tow samples taken from the water column above NW Rota-1 in 2010, searching for larvae which have the potential to recolonize the sea floor after such a major disturbance. Samples were sorted in entirety into coarse taxa, and then larvae were removed for DNA barcoding. Overall zooplankton composition was dominated by copepods, ostracods, and chaetognaths, the majority of which are pelagic organisms. Comparatively few larvae of benthic invertebrates were found, but shrimp, gastropod, barnacle, and polychaete larvae did appear in low numbers in the samples. Species-level identification obtained via genetic barcoding will allow for these larvae to be matched to species known to inhabit the benthic communities at NW Rota-1. Identified larvae will give insight into the organisms which can re-colonize the seafloor vent communities after a disturbance such as the 2009 landslide. Communities at hydrothermal vents at other submarine volcanoes in the Monument may act as sources for these larvae, but connectivity in this region of complex topography is unknown. As the microinvertebrate biodiversity in the Monument has yet to be fully characterized, our project also provides an opportunity to better describe both the zooplankton and benthic community composition in this area of the Monument.

  2. Diets of the sympatric pacific sheath-tailed bat (Emballonura semicaudata rotensis) and Mariana Swiftlet (Aerodramus bartscht) on Aguiguan, Mariana Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, E.W.; Wiles, G.J.; O'Shea, T.J.

    2011-01-01

    The Pacific sheath-tailed bat (Emballonura semicaudata rotensis) and Mariana swiftlet (Aerodramus bartschi) are two rare insectivorous taxa restricted to the southern Mariana Islands in western Micronesia. It is believed that populations of both have dwindled because of impacts to their food resources. However, there is little information on the food habits of A. bartschi and none exists for E. s. rotensis. In an effort to better understand the feeding habits of both, we investigated their diets using guano analysis. Guano was collected from two roosts in caves during a 2-week period in June and July at the onset of the rainy season. Important orders of insects consumed (percentage volume) by bats roosting at one cave included hymenopterans (64%), coleopterans (10%), lepidopterans (8%), isopterans (8%), and psocopterans (5%), whereas those at a second cave included lepidopterans (45%), hymenopterans (41%), coleopterans (10%), and isopterans (5%). Swiftlets, which roosted in only one of the caves, fed mostly on hymenopterans (88%) and hemipterans (6%). Significant differences existed between the two taxa in several insect orders eaten, with E. s. rotensis consuming more lepidopterans and coleopterans and A. bartschi taking more hymenopterans and hemipterans. Within Hymenoptera, bats fed more on ichneumoideans, whereas swiftlets ate more formicid alates and chalicidoideans. This new information on the feeding habits of E. s. rotensis and A. bartschi provides insight on the complexity of their diets during June and July, and serves as baseline information for future studies and management of their habitat. ?? 2011 by University of Hawai'i Press All rights reserved.

  3. Status and trends of the land bird avifauna on Tinian and Aguiguan, Mariana Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Richard J.; Pratt, Thane K.; Amidon, Fred; Marshall, Ann P.; Kremer, Shelly; Laut, Megan

    2012-01-01

    Avian surveys were conducted on the islands of Tinian and Aguiguan, Marianas Islands, in 2008 by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to provide current baseline densities and abundances and assess population trends using data collected from previous surveys. On Tinian, during the three surveys (1982, 1996, and 2008), 18 species were detected, and abundances and trends were assessed for 12 species. Half of the 10 native species—Yellow Bittern (Ixobrychus sinensis), White-throated Ground-Dove (Gallicolumba xanthonura), Collared Kingfisher (Todiramphus chloris), Rufous Fantail (Rhipidura rufifrons), and Micronesian Starling (Aplonis opaca)—and one alien bird—Island Collared-Dove (Streptopelia bitorquata)—have increased since 1982. Three native birds—Mariana Fruit-Dove (Ptilinopus roseicapilla), Micronesian Honeyeater (Myzomela rubratra), and Tinian Monarch (Monarcha takatsukasae)—have decreased since 1982. Trends for the remaining two native birds—White Tern (Gygis alba) and Bridled White-eye (Zosterops saypani)—and one alien bird—Eurasian Tree Sparrow (Passer montanus)—were considered relatively stable. Only five birds—White-throated Ground-Dove, Mariana Fruit-Dove, Tinian Monarch, Rufous Fantail, and Bridled White-eye—showed significant differences among regions of Tinian by year. Tinian Monarch was found in all habitat types, with the greatest monarch densities observed in limestone forest, secondary forest, and tangantangan (Leucaena leucocephala) thicket and the smallest densities found in open fields and urban/residential habitats. On Aguiguan, 19 species were detected on one or both of the surveys (1982 and 2008), and abundance estimates were produced for nine native and one alien species. Densities for seven of the nine native birds—White-throated Ground-Dove, Mariana Fruit-Dove, Collared Kingfisher, Rufous Fantail, Bridled White-eye, Golden White-eye (Cleptornis marchei), and Micronesian Starling—and the alien bird— Island

  4. Seismological Imaging of Melt Production Regions Beneath the Backarc Spreading Center and Volcanic Arc, Mariana Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiens, Douglas; Pozgay, Sara; Barklage, Mitchell; Pyle, Moira; Shiobara, Hajime; Sugioka, Hiroko

    2010-05-01

    We image the seismic velocity and attenuation structure of the mantle melt production regions associated with the Mariana Backarc Spreading Center and Mariana Volcanic Arc using data from the Mariana Subduction Factory Imaging Experiment. The passive component of this experiment consisted of 20 broadband seismographs deployed on the island chain and 58 ocean-bottom seismographs from June, 2003 until April, 2004. We obtained the 3D P and S wave velocity structure of the Mariana mantle wedge from a tomographic inversion of body wave arrivals from local earthquakes as well as P and S arrival times from large teleseismic earthquakes determined by multi-channel cross correlation. We also determine the 2-D attenuation structure of the mantle wedge using attenuation tomography based on local and regional earthquake spectra, and a broader-scale, lower resolution 3-D shear velocity structure from inversion of Rayleigh wave phase velocities using a two plane wave array analysis approach. We observe low velocity, high attenuation anomalies in the upper mantle beneath both the arc and backarc spreading center. These anomalies are separated by a higher velocity, lower attenuation region at shallow depths (< 80 km), implying distinct magma production regions for the arc and backarc in the uppermost mantle. The largest magnitude anomaly beneath the backarc spreading center is found at shallower depth (25-50 km) compared to the arc (50-100 km), consistent with melting depths estimated from the geochemistry of arc and backarc basalts (K. Kelley, pers. communication). The velocity and attenuation signature of the backarc spreading center is narrower than the corresponding anomaly found beneath the East Pacific Rise by the MELT experiment, perhaps implying a component of focused upwelling beneath the spreading center. The strong velocity and attenuation anomaly beneath the spreading center contrasts strongly with preliminary MT inversion results showing no conductivity anomaly in the

  5. 33 CFR 334.1420 - Pacific Ocean off Orote Point, Apra Harbor, Island of Guam, Marianas Islands; small arms firing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean off Orote Point, Apra Harbor, Island of Guam, Marianas Islands; small arms firing range. 334.1420 Section 334.1420... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1420 Pacific Ocean off Orote Point, Apra Harbor, Island of Guam...

  6. 75 FR 15723 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Draft Revised Recovery Plan for the Mariana Fruit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-30

    ... Wildlife Service, announce the availability of the Draft Revised Recovery Plan for the Mariana Fruit Bat or... and assistance of a Recovery Team appointed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Section 4(f) of the... life history and ecology, this recovery plan focuses on the first 10 years of the recovery process. As...

  7. Susceptibility of burned black spruce (Picea mariana) forests to non-native plant invasions in interior Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katie V. Spellman; Christa P.H. Mulder; Teresa N. Hollingsworth

    2014-01-01

    As climate rapidly warms at high-latitudes, the boreal forest faces the simultaneous threats of increasing invasive plant abundances and increasing area burned by wildfire. Highly flammable and widespread black spruce (Picea mariana) forest represents a boreal habitat that may be increasingly susceptible to non-native plant invasion. This study assess the role of burn...

  8. Puerto Rico Above Ground Biomass Map, 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This image dataset details the U.S. Commonwealth of Puerto Rico above-ground forest biomass (AGB) (baseline 2000) developed by the United States (US) Environmental...

  9. Puerto Rico ESI/RSI: HABITATS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) and Reach Sensitivity Index (RSI) data for Puerto Rico. ESI data characterize estuarine...

  10. Puerto Rico ESI/RSI: HYDRO (Hydrology)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) and Reach Sensitivity Index (RSI) data for Puerto Rico. ESI data characterize estuarine...

  11. Puerto Rico ESI/RSI: KARST

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) and Reach Sensitivity Index (RSI) data for Puerto Rico. ESI data characterize estuarine...

  12. Puerto Rico Relative Vulnerability to Erosion

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical factors, such as the slope of the land, the texture of the soil, and the precipitation regime influence erosion in an area. Parts of Puerto Rico are very...

  13. Puerto Rico ESI/RSI: INDEX

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) and Reach Sensitivity Index (RSI) data for Puerto Rico. ESI data characterize estuarine...

  14. Puerto Rico ESI/RSI: BIRDS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) and Reach Sensitivity Index (RSI) data for Puerto Rico. ESI data characterize estuarine...

  15. Puerto Rico ESI and RSI: WETLANDS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) and Reach Sensitivity Index (RSI) data for Puerto Rico. ESI data characterize estuarine...

  16. Breast Cancer Epidemiology in Puerto Rico

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nazario, Cruz M; Freudenheim, Jo

    2008-01-01

    This project has two mayor goals: to design and conduct a pilot case-control breast cancer study among Puerto Rican women, and to train and develop researchers in breast cancer at the University of Puerto Rico...

  17. Estimated Bathymetry of the Puerto Rico shelf

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This classification of estimated depth represents the relative bathymetry of Puerto Rico's shallow waters based on Landsat imagery for NOAA's Coastal Centers for...

  18. A record of spontaneous subduction initiation in the Izu-Bonin-Mariana arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arculus, Richard J.; Ishizuka, Osamu; Bogus, Kara A.; Gurnis, Michael; Hickey-Vargas, Rosemary; Aljahdali, Mohammed H.; Bandini-Maeder, Alexandre N.; Barth, Andrew P.; Brandl, Philipp A.; Drab, Laureen; Do Monte Guerra, Rodrigo; Hamada, Morihisa; Jiang, Fuqing; Kanayama, Kyoko; Kender, Sev; Kusano, Yuki; Li, He; Loudin, Lorne C.; Maffione, Marco; Marsaglia, Kathleen M.; McCarthy, Anders; Meffre, Sebastién; Morris, Antony; Neuhaus, Martin; Savov, Ivan P.; Sena, Clara; Tepley, Frank J., III; van der Land, Cees; Yogodzinski, Gene M.; Zhang, Zhaohui

    2015-09-01

    The initiation of tectonic plate subduction into the mantle is poorly understood. If subduction is induced by the push of a distant mid-ocean ridge or subducted slab pull, we expect compression and uplift of the overriding plate. In contrast, spontaneous subduction initiation, driven by subsidence of dense lithosphere along faults adjacent to buoyant lithosphere, would result in extension and magmatism. The rock record of subduction initiation is typically obscured by younger deposits, so evaluating these possibilities has proved elusive. Here we analyse the geochemical characteristics of igneous basement rocks and overlying sediments, sampled from the Amami Sankaku Basin in the northwest Philippine Sea. The uppermost basement rocks are areally widespread and supplied via dykes. They are similar in composition and age--as constrained by the biostratigraphy of the overlying sediments--to the 52-48-million-year-old basalts in the adjacent Izu-Bonin-Mariana fore-arc. The geochemical characteristics of the basement lavas indicate that a component of subducted lithosphere was involved in their genesis, and the lavas were derived from mantle source rocks that were more melt-depleted than those tapped at mid-ocean ridges. We propose that the basement lavas formed during the inception of Izu-Bonin-Mariana subduction in a mode consistent with the spontaneous initiation of subduction.

  19. Community Structure Comparisons of Hydrothermal Vent Microbial Mats Along the Mariana Arc and Back-arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hager, K. W.; Fullerton, H.; Moyer, C. L.

    2015-12-01

    Hydrothermal vents along the Mariana Arc and back-arc represent a hotspot of microbial diversity that has not yet been fully recognized. The Mariana Arc and back-arc contain hydrothermal vents with varied vent effluent chemistry and temperature, which translates to diverse community composition. We have focused on iron-rich sites where the dominant primary producers are iron oxidizing bacteria. Because microbes from these environments have proven elusive in culturing efforts, we performed culture independent analysis among different microbial communities found at these hydrothermal vents. Terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and Illumina sequencing of small subunit ribosomal gene amplicons were used to characterize community members and identify samples for shotgun metagenomics. Used in combination, these methods will better elucidate the composition and characteristics of the bacterial communities at these hydrothermal vent systems. The overarching goal of this study is to evaluate and compare taxonomic and metabolic diversity among different communities of microbial mats. We compared communities collected on a fine scale to analyze the bacterial community based on gross mat morphology, geography, and nearby vent effluent chemistry. Taxa richness and evenness are compared with rarefaction curves to visualize diversity. As well as providing a survey of diversity this study also presents a juxtaposition of three methods in which ribosomal small subunit diversity is compared with T-RFLP, next generation amplicon sequencing, and metagenomic shotgun sequencing.

  20. Geoenvironmental cartography and diagnostic applied territorial ordination of the Mariana county

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José F. do P. Filho

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Mariana County, located in the central area of Minas Gerais has confronted several recurrent problems from precarious administration and land use in the last decades. The disrespect of local geological and geomorphological peculiarities, the pressure exercided on the physical environment by the accelerated growth of the population and the lack of public politics of urban planning contributed to the present situation. The complexity of the geological and geomorphological components, associated with varied antropic intervention (inapropriate areas ocupation, deforestation, drainage and landscape alteration, fluvial water polution with effluents and by irregular disposal of solid wastes and debris have contributed for many environment problems, mainly in the urban areas. The initial focus was the county physical environment study, focusing the environment and geological aspects in a scale of 1:50.000, with the main objective to supply subsidies for territorial planning. Later, from analysis of compiled and produced cartographical documents of the physical environment, that support the biotic and antropic life, were evaluated the general land properties, the land use conflicts and the existent impacts, with the objective to define the capacity of the diferents territorial units. A derived thematic map (recommendation land use obtained from cartographical documents was the basis for a final physical environment analysis and proposition of adequate measures of land use and settlement. This study was the base for the the Mariana Environment and Urbanistc Law that was approved by the common council in January of 2004.

  1. Puerto Rico: Information for Status Deliberations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-03-01

    Rico has suffered a temporary setback from the destruction caused by Hurricane Hugo , both the availability and quality of the island’s housing stock...34"ý Prnce omi Puerto Rico aw (US li ANTIUDAN (U.S.) ,M S oh’ Montserrat (UK) !tGuadsiffupe (FR.) HONDURAS DOMdINICA Caribbean Sea Rosea q Martinique...Housing (the most recent data available). While the island has suffered a temporary setback because of the destruction caused by Hurricane Hugo

  2. 27 CFR 26.126 - Taxpayment in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Taxpayment in Puerto Rico..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Liquors and Articles Purchased by Tourists in Puerto Rico § 26.126 Taxpayment in Puerto Rico. Liquors upon which all...

  3. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Stratified Random Surveys (StRS) of Coral Demography (Adult and Juvenile Corals) across the Mariana Archipelago since 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data described here result from benthic coral demographic surveys for two life stages (juveniles, adults) across the Mariana archipelago since 2014. Juvenile...

  4. CRED SVP Drifting Buoy Argos_ID 29103 Data, Pathfinder Reef in the Marianas Archipelago, 200309-200406 (NODC Accession 0067473)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED SVP drifter Argos_ID 29103 was deployed in the region of Marianas Archipelago to assess ocean currents and sea surface temperature. SVP drifter data files...

  5. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Stratified Random Surveys (StRS) of Reef Fish, including Benthic Estimate Data of the Mariana Archipelago since 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The stationary point count (SPC) method is used to conduct reef fish surveys in the Hawaiian and Mariana Archipelagos, American Samoa, and the Pacific Remote Island...

  6. Hazardous Waste Cleanup: Thermo King de Puerto Rico Incorporated in Arecibo, Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thermo King de Puerto Rico, Inc. facility is located in the Zeno Gandia Industrial Area in Arecibo, Puerto Rico. Major features of the facility include six buildings used for manufacturing and storage, a wastewater treatment plant, a hazardous waste and no

  7. Habitat Zone, Cover and Structure Maps of Alamagan, Northern Mariana Archipelago 2001-2003, Derived From IKONOS Imagery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project is a cooperative effort between the National Ocean Service, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science, Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment,...

  8. Habitat Zone, Cover and Structure Maps of the Sarigan, Northern Mariana Archipelago 2001-2003, Derived From IKONOS Imagery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project is a cooperative effort between the National Ocean Service, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science, Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment,...

  9. Habitat Zone, Cover and Structure Maps of Agrihan Island, Northern Mariana Archipelago 2001-2003, Derived From IKONOS Imagery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project is a cooperative effort between the National Ocean Service, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science, Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment,...

  10. Habitat Zone, Cover and Structure Maps of Anatahan, Northern Mariana Archipelago 2001-2003, Derived From IKONOS Imagery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project is a cooperative effort between the National Ocean Service, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science, Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment,...

  11. Habitat Zone, Cover and Structure Maps of the Asuncion Island Northern Mariana Archipelago 2001-2003, Derived From IKONOS Imagery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project is a cooperative effort between the National Ocean Service, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science, Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment,...

  12. Marine Resource Survey in waters surrounding Guam and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (SE1002, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The goals of the cruise were to collect a variety of data to assess the status of marine resources in waters surrounding Guam and CNMI. Marine resource habitats were...

  13. 76 FR 50183 - Western Pacific Fisheries; Approval of a Marine Conservation Plan for the Northern Mariana Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    ... responsible fisheries. (c) Development of a fish marketing plan that includes market identification, transportation, fish products, branding and ecolabeling, and other marketing issues. (d) Enhance fishing...

  14. 78 FR 16257 - Notice of Intent To Prepare the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands Joint Military...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-14

    ... uninterrupted schedule. These RTAs are needed to support ongoing operational requirements, changes to U.S. force.... MARFORPAC, as the Executive Agent, has invited the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA); International...., Dandan Elementary School Cafeteria, Dandan Road, Dandan, Saipan, CNMI 96960 Thursday, April 11, 2013, 4...

  15. Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement, Guam and Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands Military Relocation (2012 Roadmap Adjustments)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    whether for cultural practices, recreation, tourism , or academic study would also diminish the cultural resources of Guam. MITIGATION MEASURES AND...opportunities for important cultural practices. Reduced access to cultural sites, whether for cultural practices, recreation, tourism , or academic study...playgrounds, active sports areas, parks, residences, motels, hotels, schools, churches, places of worship, libraries, and hospitals. C 72 (Exterior

  16. Northern Mariana Islands: Garment and Tourist Industries Play a Dominant Role in the Commonwealth’s Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-02-01

    6.330 9.873 11.037 Nonresident worker fee 0.693 0.797 1.705 1.902 2.406 3.575 Corporate income tax 0.060 0.025 0.000 0.000 0.372 0.218 Business gross... corporate income tax returns. Included among the deductible taxes are ordinary state or local taxes paid or accrued during the year; Social Security...directly paid by those manufacturers are incomplete. For example, when paying corporate income tax , some U.S. corporations include the sales

  17. 20 CFR 625.30 - Appeal Procedures for Guam, American Samoa, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... as the referee deems necessary. Any issue involved in the claim shall be considered and passed upon... and kept. Such transcript together with all exhibits, papers, and requests filed in the proceeding... of the referee shall be kept on file at his/her office or agency for at least 3 years. [55 FR 557...

  18. Bathymetric Position Index (BPI) Zones 5m grid derived from gridded bathymetry of Saipan Island, Commonwealth of the Northern Marianas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — BPI Zones are derived from a focal mean analysis on bathymetry and slope. The bathymetry grid (5 m cell size) is derived from bathymetry from two sources: Multibeam...

  19. Bathymetric Position Index (BPI) Structures 5m grid derived from gridded bathymetry of Saipan Island, Commonwealth of the Northern Marianas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — BPI Structures are derived from a focal mean analysis on bathymetry and slope. The bathymetry grid (5 m cell size) is derived from two sources: Multibeam bathymetry...

  20. Slope 10 m grid derived from gridded bathymetry of Agrihan Island, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Slope is derived from gridded (10 m cell size) multibeam bathymetry, collected aboard NOAA Ship Hiialaka'i and R/V AHI. Cell values reflect the maximum rate of...

  1. Slope 10 m grid derived from gridded bathymetry of Pagan Island, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Slope is derived from gridded (10 m cell size) multibeam bathymetry, collected aboard NOAA Ship Hiialaka'i and R/V AHI. Cell values reflect the maximum rate of...

  2. Slope 10 m grid derived from gridded bathymetry of Guguan Island, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Slope is derived from gridded (10 m cell size) multibeam bathymetry, collected aboard NOAA Ship Hiialaka'i and R/V AHI. Cell values reflect the maximum rate of...

  3. NCCOS Assessment: Benthic habitat maps of Saipan Lagoon, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (NCEI Accession 0162517)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Highly detailed maps of benthic habitats within the lagoon along the western shore of Saipan were created by NOAA NCCOS. This data collection includes the...

  4. 75 FR 60438 - Record of Decision for the Guam and Commonwealth of Northern Mariana Islands Military Relocation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-30

    ... Andersen AFB, rehabilitation of existing wells, interconnects with the GWA water system, and construction... existing Navy Apra Harbor landfill until the new GovGuam public landfill at Layon is completed. Relative to...

  5. 2007 Reson 8101ER Multibeam Sonar Data from Cruise AHI0702 - Guam and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Reson 8101ER multibeam Data were collected between 9 May - 19 May 2007 aboard NOAA Survey Launch Acoustic Habitat Investigator (AHI) at Santa Rosa Reef, Guam Island,...

  6. 2007 Reson 8101ER Multibeam Sonar Data from Cruise AHI0703 - Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Reson 8101ER multibeam Data were collected between 23 May - 9 June 2007 aboard NOAA Survey Launch Acoustic Habitat Investigator (AHI) at Maug Islands, Pagan Island,...

  7. Slope 10 m grid derived from gridded bathymetry of Maug Island, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Slope is derived from gridded (10 m cell size) multibeam bathymetry, collected aboard NOAA Ship Hiialaka'i and R/V AHI. Cell values reflect the maximum rate of...

  8. Slope 10 m grid derived from gridded bathymetry of Asuncion Island, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Slope is derived from gridded (10 m cell size) multibeam bathymetry collected aboard NOAA Ship Hiialaka'i and R/V AHI. Cell values reflect the maximum rate of change...

  9. Slope 10 m grid derived from gridded bathymetry of Sarigan Island, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Slope is derived from gridded (10 m cell size) multibeam bathymetry, collected aboard NOAA Ship Hiialaka'i and R/V AHI. Cell values reflect the maximum rate of...

  10. Slope 5 m grid derived from gridded bathymetry of Rota Island, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Slope is derived from gridded (5 m cell size) multibeam bathymetry, collected aboard NOAA Ship Hiialaka'i and R/V AHI. Cell values reflect the maximum rate of change...

  11. Slope 10 m grid derived from gridded bathymetry of Supply Reef, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Slope is derived from gridded (10 m cell size) multibeam bathymetry, collected aboard NOAA Ship Hiialaka'i and R/V AHI. Cell values reflect the maximum rate of...

  12. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands, maps and geographic information systems data (NODC Accession 0002825)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Currently, the most widely used approach to sensitive environment mapping in the United States is the NOAA Environmental Sensitivity Index or ESI. This approach...

  13. Habitat Zone, Cover and Structure Maps of the Pagan, Northern Mariana Archipelago 2001-2003, Derived From IKONOS Imagery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project is a cooperative effort between the National Ocean Service, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science, Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment,...

  14. Draft Environmental Impact Statement for Divert Activities and Exercises, Guam and Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    and other wildlife from suitable habitat in the 7 proposed Project Area. Smaller, less-mobile species and those seeking refuge in burrows could 8...the NONROAD model and were provided to e²M by Larry Landman of the Air Quality and Modeling Center (Landman.Larry@epamail.epa.gov) on 12/14/07...Emission factors are taken from the NONROAD model and were provided to e²M by Larry Landman of the Air Quality and Modeling Center (Landman.Larry

  15. Rugosity 10 m grid derived from gridded bathymetry of Alamagan Island, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Rugosity is derived from gridded (10 m cell size) multibeam bathymetry, collected aboard NOAA Ship Hi'ialakai and R/V AHI, using the Benthic Terrain Modeler with...

  16. Rugosity 10 m grid derived from gridded bathymetry of Pagan Island, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Rugosity is derived from gridded (10 m cell size) multibeam bathymetry, collected aboard NOAA Ship Hiialaka'i and R/V AHI, using the Benthic Terrain Modeler with...

  17. Rugosity 10 m grid derived from gridded bathymetry of Agrihan Island, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Rugosity is derived from gridded (10 m cell size) multibeam bathymetry, collected aboard NOAA Ship Hiialaka'i and R/V AHI, using the Benthic Terrain Modeler with...

  18. Rugosity 10 m grid derived from gridded bathymetry of Maug Island, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Rugosity is derived from gridded (10 m cell size) multibeam bathymetry, collected aboard NOAA Ship Hiialaka'i and R/V AHI, using the Benthic Terrain Modeler with...

  19. Rugosity 10 m grid derived from gridded bathymetry of Asuncion Island, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Rugosity is derived from gridded (10 m cell size) multibeam bathymetry collected aboard NOAA Ship Hiialaka'i and R/V AHI, using the Benthic Terrain Modeler with...

  20. Rugosity 10 m grid derived from gridded bathymetry of Guguan Island, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Rugosity is derived from gridded (5 m cell size) multibeam bathymetry, collected aboard NOAA Ship Hiialaka'i and R/V AHI, using the Benthic Terrain Modeler with...

  1. Benthic Habitats of the Fallon de Medinilla, Northern Mariana Archipelago 2001-2003, Derived From IKONOS Imagery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project is a cooperative effort between the National Ocean Service, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science, Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment,...

  2. Current land bird distribution and trends in population abundance between 1982 and 2012 on Rota, Mariana Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Richard J.; Brinck, Kevin W.; Gorresen, P. Marcos; Amidon, Fred A.; Radley, Paul M.; Berkowitz, S. Paul; Banko, Paul C.

    2015-01-01

    The western Pacific island of Rota is the fourth largest human-inhabited island in the Mariana archipelago and designated an Endemic Bird Area. Between 1982 and 2012, 12 point-transect distance-sampling surveys were conducted to assess bird population status. Surveys did not consistently sample the entire island; thus, we used a ratio estimator to estimate bird abundances in strata not sampled during every survey. Trends in population size were reliably estimated for 11 of 13 bird species, and 7 species declined over the 30-y time series, including the island collared-dove Streptopelia bitorquata, white-throated ground-dove Gallicolumba xanthonura, Mariana fruit-dove Ptilinopus roseicapilla, collared kingfisher Todiramphus chloris orii, Micronesian myzomela Myzomela rubratra, black drongo Dicrurus macrocercus, and Mariana crow Corvus kubaryi. The endangered Mariana crow (x̄  =  81 birds, 95% CI 30–202) declined sharply to fewer than 200 individuals in 2012, down from 1,491 birds in 1982 (95% CI  =  815–3,115). Trends increased for white tern Gygis alba, rufous fantail Rhipidura rufifrons mariae, and Micronesian starling Aplonis opaca. Numbers of the endangered Rota white-eye Zosterops rotensis declined from 1982 to the late 1990s but returned to 1980s levels by 2012, resulting in an overall stable trend. Trends for the yellow bittern Ixobrychus sinensis were inconclusive. Eurasian tree sparrow Passer montanus trends were not assessed; however, their numbers in 1982 and 2012 were similar. Occupancy models of the 2012 survey data revealed general patterns of land cover use and detectability among 12 species that could be reliably modeled. Occupancy was not assessed for the Eurasian tree sparrow because of insufficient detections. Based on the 2012 survey, bird distribution and abundance across Rota revealed three general patterns: 1) range restriction, including Mariana crow, Rota white-eye, and Eurasian tree sparrow; 2) widespread distribution, low

  3. Petrology of the axial ridge of the Mariana Trough backarc spreading center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkins, J.W.; Lonsdale, P.F.; Macdougall, J.D.; Volpe, A.M.

    1990-01-01

    The axial ridge of the Mariana Trough backarc basin, between 17deg40'N and 18deg30'N rises as much as 1 km above the floor of a 10-15 km wide rift valley. Physiographic segmentation, with minor ridge offsets and overlaps, coincides with a petrologic segmentation seen in trace element and isotope chemistry. Analyses of 239 glass and 40 aphyric basalt samples, collected with ALVIN and by dredging, show that the axial ridge is formed largely of (olivine) hypersthene-normative tholeiitic basalt. About half of these are enriched in both LIL elements and volatiles, but are depleted in HFS elements like other rocks found throughout much of the Mariana Trough. The LIL enrichments distinguish these rocks from N-MORB even though Nd and Sr isotope ratios indicate that much of the crust formed from a source similar to that for N-MORB. In addition to LIL-enriched basalt there is LIL depleted basalts even more closely resembling N-MORB in major and trace elements as well as Sr, Nd and Pb isotopes. Both basalt varieties have higher Al and lower total Fe than MORB at equivalent Mg level. Mg ranges from relatively ''primitive'' (e.g. Mg 65-70) to more highly fractionated (e.g. Mg 45-50). Highest parts of the axial ridge are capped by pinnacles with elongated pillows of basaltic andesite (e.g. 52-56%) SiO 2 . These are due to extreme fractional crystallization of basalts forming the axial ridge. Active hydrothermal vents with chimneys and mats of opaline silica, barite, sphalerite and lesser amounts of pyrite, chalcopyrite and galena formed near these silicic rocks. The vents are surrounded by distinctive vent animals, polychaete worms, crabs and barnacles. Isotope data indicate that the Mariana Trough crust was derived from a heterogeneous source including mantle resembling the MORB-source and an ''arc-source'' component. The latter was depleted in HFS elements in previous melting events and later modified by addition of H 2 O and LIL elements. (orig.)

  4. Mariana Forearc Serpentine Mud Volcanoes Harbor Novel Communities of Extremophilic Archaea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, A. C.; Moyer, C. L.

    2005-12-01

    Since the Eocene (45 Ma) the Pacific Plate has been subducting beneath the Philippine Plate in the western Pacific ocean. This process has given rise to the Mariana Islands. As a direct result of this non-accretionary subduction, the Mariana Island Arc contains a broad forearc zone of serpentinite mud volcanoes located between the island chain and the trench. Forearc faulting, due to high pressure and low temperature build-up, produce slurries of mud and rock that mix with slab derived fluids and rise in conduits. Due to dehydration of the overlying mantle, native rock is converted to serpentinite, which squeezes out at fractures along the sea floor. This results in giant mud volcanoes (~30 km diameter and ~2 km high) that form a chain between 50 and 150 km behind the trench axis. Microbial samples were collected using Jason II from seven mud volcanoes along the length of the forearc and community fingerprinting was applied to genomic DNA using terminal restriction length polymorphism (T-RFLP). The resulting data were compared with traditional clone library and sequence analysis from samples obtained from the southernmost mud volcano, South Chamorro, site 1200, holes D and E, sampled during ODP Leg 195. The dominant archaeal phylotypes found clustered into two groups within the Methanobacteria, a class of anaerobic methanogens and methylotrophs. These phylotypes were detected at three of the seven mud volcanoes sampled and comprised 61% of the archaeal clone library from 1200 E. The first group was most closely related to the order Methanobacteriales, however, these novel phylotypes had similarity values of up to 0.90 at best with some resulting at 0.48. The second novel group of phylotypes were most closely related to order Methanosarcinales, with similarity values in the range of 0.50 to 0.22, indicating a relatively weak association with known phylotypes. At 1200 D, phylotypes associated with non-thermophilic Marine Group I Crenarchaeota were detected

  5. Crustal evolution derived from the Izu-Bonin-Mariana arc velocity images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, N.; Kodaira, S.; Tatsumi, Y.; Miura, S.; Sato, T.; Yamashita, M.; No, T.; Takahashi, T.; Noguchi, N.; Takizawa, K.; Kaiho, Y.; Kaneda, Y.

    2010-12-01

    The Izu-Bonin-Mariana arc is known as one of typical oceanic island arcs, which has developed by subduction between oceanic crusts producing continental materials. Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology has carried out seismic surveys using a multi-channel reflection survey system (MCS) and ocean bottom seismographs (OBSs) in the Izu-Bonin-Mariana (IBM) arc since 2002, and reported these crustal images. As the results, we identified the structural characteristics of whole Izu-Bonin-Mariana arc. Rough structural characteristics are, 1) middle crust with Vp of 6 km/s, 2) upper part of the lower crust with Vp of 6.5-6.8 km/s, 3) lower part of the lower crust with Vp of 6.8-7.5 km/s, and 4) lower mantle velocity beneath the arc crusts. In addition, structural variation along the volcanic front, for example, thickness variation of andesitic layers was imaged and the distributions is consistent with those of rhyolite volcanoes, that is, it suggested that the cause the structural variation is various degree of crustal growth (Kodaira et al., 2007). Moreover, crustal thinning with high velocity lower crust across arc was also imaged, and it is interpreted that such crust has been influenced backarc opening (Takahashi et al., 2009). According to Tatsumi et al. (2008), andesitic middle crust is produced by differentiation of basaltic lower crust and a part of the restites are transformed to the upper mantle. This means that region showing much crustal differentiation has large volume of transformation of dense crustal materials to the mantle. We calculated volume profiles of the lower crust along all seismic lines based on the petrologic model, and compared them with observed real volumes obtained by seismic images. If the real volume of the lower crust is large, it means that the underplating of dense materials to the crustal bottom is dominant rather than transformation of dense materials to the upper mantle. According to obtained profiles to judge if the

  6. Imagen y autoridad en una regencia: los retratos de Mariana de Austria y los límites del poder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes LLORENTE

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Durante los siglos XVI y XVII, la corona española recayó siempre sobre un varón de la Casa de Habsburgo. A pesar del importante papel que jugaron varias mujeres de la familia real como regentes, gobernadoras o virreinas, éstas habían quedado siempre subordinadas a la figura masculina del rey. Tras la muerte de Felipe IV, la regencia de Mariana de Austria, madre de un rey-niño, abrió un período sin precedentes en este sentido en la historia de los Habsburgo españoles.No existiendo antecedentes recientes que poder emplear como referencia, Mariana tuvo que reinventar mucho de sus nuevas funciones y de su imagen y ambas cosas se reflejan en su representación pública, particularmente en sus retratos. Las tipologías del retrato que crean Juan Bautista del Mazo y Carreño Miranda son novedosas en sus soluciones, pero lo son aún más en el tema mismo de los retratos: una mujer, la reina Mariana, en el ejercicio del poder.ABSTRACT: In the 16th and 17th centuries, the Habsburg crown had always rested on a male head, and although various female members of the royal family had played such key political roles such as regents, governors or viceroys, they had always remained subordínate to a male king. After the death of Philip IV the regency of queen Mariana de Austria, mother of a child-king, opens a period in the history of the Spanish Habsburgs, which is unique in this sense.Having no recent model available to use as a reference, queen Mariana saw herself in the need for reinventing much of her new functions and image, which can be perceived in her public depictions and particularly in her portraits. The portrait typologies created by Juan Bautista del Mazo and Carreño de Miranda are new as to the visual formulae they introduce, but more radically so as to the protrait's theme: a woman, Mariana, who acts as a ruler.

  7. Persistencia del conducto onfalomesentérico

    OpenAIRE

    Mariño, Laura P.; Fraga, Juan I.; Rubio, Soraya; Segarra, Juan; Gaetano, Mauro; Ossés, José A.

    2009-01-01

    La persistencia del conducto onfalomesentérico es una de las formas de presentación más raras de los restos embrionarios derivados de este conducto. Se presenta el caso de un recién nacido en el que se constata salida de contenido intestinal a través del ombligo. Se confirma el diagnóstico de persistencia del conducto onfalomesentérico mediante fistulografía umbilical, procediéndose a su corrección quirúrgica (resección de conducto onfalomesentérico). Se describe la metodología diagnóstica, s...

  8. Thermoluminescence dosimetry in Northwest Puerto Rico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Block, A.M.; Clements, R.G.; Rosa, L.I.; Santos, F.

    1975-01-01

    In October, 1973, the Puerto Rico Water Resources Authority sought the initiation of studies aimed at determining background radiological characteristics of the northwestern quadrant of Puerto Rico using thermoluminescent dosemeters. Some of the studies were required for supporting data for the environmental report submitted as part of the licensing procedure in the establishment of thermonuclear electric power generation facilities in Barrio Islote, Arecibo, Puerto Rico. Previous studies of radiological characteristics of the area had been made using sodium iodide sensing equipment in an airplane flying at an altitude of 500 ft. The results are expressed in counts per second, and provide useful comparative levels for radioactivity measured with the thermoluminescent detectors. (U.S.)

  9. Ancient mantle in a modern arc: osmium isotopes in izu-bonin-mariana forearc peridotites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson; Hawkesworth; Cohen

    1998-09-25

    Mantle peridotites drilled from the Izu-Bonin-Mariana forearc have unradiogenic 187Os/188Os ratios (0.1193 to 0.1273), which give Proterozoic model ages of 820 to 1230 million years ago. If these peridotites are residues from magmatism during the initiation of subduction 40 to 48 million years ago, then the mantle that melted was much more depleted in incompatible elements than the source of mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB). This result indicates that osmium isotopes record information about ancient melting events in the convecting upper mantle not recorded by incompatible lithophile isotope tracers. Subduction zones may be a graveyard for ancient depleted mantle material, and portions of the convecting upper mantle may be less radiogenic in osmium isotopes than previously recognized.

  10. Hydrothermal manganese oxide deposits from the Izu-Ogasawara (Bonin)-Mariana Arc and adjacent areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Usui, A.; Nishimura, A. (Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan))

    1992-04-27

    Modern and fossil hydrothermal manganese oxide deposits were discovered from a number of locations in the Izu-Ogasawara(Bonin)-Mariana Arc and adjacent areas during the Hakurei-Maru cruises from 1984 to 1989. This paper describes the occurrence and characteristics of these manganese deposits and their geological significance. It was found that the mineralogical and chemical composition and microstructure of the deposits are typically different from manganese nodules and crusts of hydrogenetic or diagenetic origin. Hardpans, veinlets, sheets, and irregular mass of the hydrothermal manganese deposits often cover a large area of sea bed, which suggests possible high-temperature hydrothermal sulfide deposits in their vicinity. On the other hand, the manganese minerals sometimes occur as substrate of younger hydrogenetic crusts and as nucleus of hydrogenetic nodules, which can provide a geological history of low-temperature hydrothermal activity on the past island arcs. 45 refs., 19 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. El monumento a Mariana Pineda o el culto civil a la revolución moderna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Gómez Román

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available La significación que, en la construcción del Estado liberal, se concedió a los proyectos conmemorativos alcanzó en el dedicado a Mariana Pineda en Granada uno de sus desarrollos más expresivos. Resultado de un largo proceso (1836-1873, las fuertes connotaciones ideológicas de la empresa motivaron su carácter intermitente y variable, como reflejo de las contradicciones dominantes sobre el encargo público en esos momentos. Testimonio de un pasado próximo y cercano en la memoria local, a su indiscutible función de exaltación patriótica une el interés de tratarse del único monumento erigido en España en aquel siglo a la memoria de una heroína.

  12. ARMAS NO TERMO DE MARIANA (1707-1736: LEGISLAÇÃO E DIREITO COMUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabella Fátima Oliveira de Sales

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to discuss the features of the legislation - related to the possession and use of weapons - established by the Portuguese Crown in their fields, as well as the influence of these procedures and customary practices of direct in Minas Gerais during the first three decades of the eighteenth century, especially in the Termo de Mariana. This approach allows us to infer issues about the nature of relations established between center and periphery, to the extent that the State created parameters that should be followed by society to maintain the established order, however, the legitimacy of such power was based on ample bargaining with social groups. In this context, one can see how the laws regarding weapons were adapted to the local context. Moreover, this study also contributes to thinking about the environment of violence and conflict that marked the mining region in its first occupations.

  13. Primary factors affecting water quality and quantity in four watersheds in Eastern Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Sheila F.; Stallard, Robert F.

    2009-01-01

    As part of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Water, Energy, and Biogeochemical Budgets (WEBB) program, four small watersheds in eastern Puerto Rico were monitored to identify and evaluate the effects of geology, landcover, atmospheric deposition, and other factors on stream water quality and quantity. Two catchments are located on coarse-grained granitic plutonic rocks, which weather to quartz- and clay-rich, sandy soils, and two are located on fine-grained volcanic rocks and volcaniclastic sediments, which weather to quartz-poor, fine-grained soils. These differing soil materials result in different hydrologic regimes. Soils on the granitic rocks have greater permeability than those developed on the volcaniclastic rocks, allowing more water infiltration and potentially greater landslide erosion rates. For each bedrock type, one catchment was covered with mature rainforest, and the other catchment was affected by agricultural practices typical of eastern Puerto Rico. These practices led to the erosion of much of the original surface soil in the agricultural watersheds, which introduced large quantities of sediment to stream channels. The agricultural watersheds are undergoing natural reforestation, like much of Puerto Rico. Eastern Puerto Rico receives large atmospheric inputs of marine salts, pollutants from the Northern Hemisphere, and Saharan Desert dust. Marine salts contribute over 80 percent of the ionic charge in precipitation, with peak inputs in January. Intense storms, mostly hurricanes, are associated with exceptionally high chloride concentrations in stream waters. Temperate pollution contributes nitrate, ammonia, and sulfate, with maximum inputs during northern cold fronts in January, April, and May. Pollution inputs have increased through time. Desert dust peaks in June and July, during times of maximum dust transport from the Saharan Desert across the Atlantic Ocean.

  14. Plasma rico en plaquetas vs. plasma rico en factores de crecimiento

    OpenAIRE

    Carrasco Luna, Joaquín; Bonete Lluch, D.; Gomar Sancho, Francisco

    2009-01-01

    El desarrollo de los preparados plasmáticos ha generado grandes expectativas en la reparación ósea y han alcanzado gran desarrollo comercial de los kits de obtención del Plasma Rico en Plaquetas (PRP), también conocido como concentrado rico en plaquetas (PRC), gel de plaquetas autólogo, y plasma rico en factores de crecimiento (PRF) y su efecto sobre la regeneración esquelética. La generación de concentrados plasmáticos de plaquetas tiene como objetivo la liberación de factores de...

  15. The green areas of San Juan, Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga M. Ramos-González

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Green areas, also known as green infrastructure or urban vegetation, are vital to urbanites for their critical roles in mitigating urban heat island effects and climate change and for their provision of multiple ecosystem services and aesthetics. Here, I provide a high spatial resolution snapshot of the green cover distribution of the city of San Juan, Puerto Rico, by incorporating the use of morphological spatial pattern analysis (MSPA as a tool to describe the spatial pattern and connectivity of the city's urban green areas. Analysis of a previously developed IKONOS 4-m spatial resolution classification of the city of San Juan from 2002 revealed a larger area of vegetation (green areas or green infrastructure than previously estimated by moderate spatial resolution imagery. The city as a whole had approximately 42% green cover and 55% impervious surfaces. Although the city appeared greener in its southern upland sector compared to the northern coastal section, where most built-up urban areas occurred (66% impervious surfaces, northern San Juan had 677 ha more green area cover dispersed across the city than the southern component. MSPA revealed that most forest cover occurred as edges and cores, and green areas were most commonly forest cores, with larger predominance in the southern sector of the municipality. In dense, built-up, urban land, most of the green areas occurred in private yards as islets. When compared to other cities across the United States, San Juan was most similar in green cover features to Boston, Massachusetts, and Miami, Florida. Per capita green space for San Juan (122.2 m²/inhabitant was also comparable to these two U.S. cities. This study explores the intra-urban vegetation variation in the city of San Juan, which is generally overlooked by moderate spatial resolution classifications in Puerto Rico. It serves as a starting point for green infrastructure mapping and landscape pattern analysis of the urban green spaces

  16. Online Classroom Research and Analysis Activities Using MARGINS-Related Resources for the Izu-Bonin-Mariana Subduction System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, J. G.

    2007-12-01

    Students today have online access to nearly unlimited scientific information in an entirely unfiltered state. As such, they need guidance and training in identifying and assessing high-quality information resources for educational and research use. The extensive research data resources available online for the Izu-Bonin-Mariana (IBM) subduction system that have been developed with MARGINS Program and related NSF funding are an ideal venue for focused Web research exercises that can be tailored to a range of undergraduate geoscience courses. This presentation highlights student web research activities examining: a) The 2003-2005 eruptions of Anatahan Volcano in the Mariana volcanic arc. MARGINS-supported geophysical research teams were in the region when the eruption initiated, permitting a unique "event response" data collection and analysis process, with preliminary results presented online at websites linked to the MARGINS homepage, and ultimately published in a special issue of the Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. In this activity, students will conduct a directed Web surf/search effort for information on and datasets from the Anatahan arc volcano, which they will use in an interpretive study of recent magmatic activity in the Mariana arc. This activity is designed as a homework exercise for use in a junior-senior level Petrology course, but could easily be taken into greater depth for the benefit of graduate-level volcanology or geochemistry offerings. b) Geochemical and mineralogical results from ODP Legs 125 and 195 focused on diapiric serpentinite mud volcanoes, which erupt cold, high pH fluids, serpentine muds, and serpentinized ultramafic clasts at a number of sites in the forearc region of the Mariana subduction zone. The focus of this activity is an examination of the trace element chemistry of the forearc serpentines and their associated upwelling porefluids as a means of understanding the roles of ionic radius, valence, and system

  17. Sex Differences and Depression in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canino, Glorisa J.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Examined sex differences in rates of depressive disorders and depressive symptomatology, as measured by the Diagnostic Interview Schedule, for an island-wide probability sample of Puerto Rico. Found depression significantly more prevalent among women than men. Discusses risk factors from a sex-role and cultural perspective. (Author/KS)

  18. Tortuguero Bay [Puerto Rico] environmental studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, E.D.; Youngbluth, M.J.; Nutt, M.E.; Yoshioka, P.; Canoy, M.J.

    1975-01-01

    Site selection surveys and environmental research studies of seven coastal sites in Puerto Rico for construction of power generating facilities were carried out. Data are presented on the physical, chemical, and geological parameters of the Tortuguero Bay site, and the ecological parameters of zooplankton, benthic invertebrates, plant and fish communities. (U.S.)

  19. Areas naturales protegidas de Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    William A. Gould; Maya Quinones; Mariano Solórzano; Waldemar Alcobas; Caryl Alarcon

    2011-01-01

    En este mapa mostramos las areas naturales protegidas designadas para la conservacion de los recursos naturales en Puerto Rico y regiones reguladas por ley con el potencial de mejorar la conservacion de los mismos. La designacion de areas protegidas es un proceso dinamico debido a que es el resultado de la constante evolucion de valores en los diferentes sectores de la...

  20. Lichens in Puerto Rico: an ecosystem approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joel A. Mercado-Díaz; William A. Gould; Grizelle Gonzalez; Robert. Lücking

    2015-01-01

    This work presents basic information on tropical lichenology. It also describes general aspects about the ecology and biodiversity of these organisms in eight forest ecosystems present along an elevational gradient in northeastern Puerto Rico. These ecosystems consist of elfin woodlands, palo colorado, sierra palm, tabonuco, lowland moist, dry, mangrove, and...

  1. A Chronological History of Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovar, Federico Ribes

    This book presents a chronological history of Puerto Rico from prehistory and discovery through December of 1972. It includes information on the persons and events that influenced the course of Puerto Rican history. A table of contents and a selective index are included. (Author/AM)

  2. U.S. Wood Shipments to Puerty Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    James E. Granskog

    1992-01-01

    Puerto Rico's importance as an offshore market for U.S. wood products is often overlooked. Because of its unique Commonwealth status, trade flows between the United States and Puerto Rico are recorded separately and are not counted in the U.S. foreign trade statistics. In 1991, wood product shipments from the United States to Puerto Rico totaled more than $83...

  3. Development of highly reliable in silico SNP resource and genotyping assay from exome capture and sequencing: an example from black spruce (Picea mariana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavy, Nathalie; Gagnon, France; Deschênes, Astrid; Boyle, Brian; Beaulieu, Jean; Bousquet, Jean

    2016-03-01

    Picea mariana is a widely distributed boreal conifer across Canada and the subject of advanced breeding programmes for which population genomics and genomic selection approaches are being developed. Targeted sequencing was achieved after capturing P. mariana exome with probes designed from the sequenced transcriptome of Picea glauca, a distant relative. A high capture efficiency of 75.9% was reached although spruce has a complex and large genome including gene sequences interspersed by some long introns. The results confirmed the relevance of using probes from congeneric species to perform successfully interspecific exome capture in the genus Picea. A bioinformatics pipeline was developed including stringent criteria that helped detect a set of 97,075 highly reliable in silico SNPs. These SNPs were distributed across 14,909 genes. Part of an Infinium iSelect array was used to estimate the rate of true positives by validating 4267 of the predicted in silico SNPs by genotyping trees from P. mariana populations. The true positive rate was 96.2% for in silico SNPs, compared to a genotyping success rate of 96.7% for a set 1115 P. mariana control SNPs recycled from previous genotyping arrays. These results indicate the high success rate of the genotyping array and the relevance of the selection criteria used to delineate the new P. mariana in silico SNP resource. Furthermore, in silico SNPs were generally of medium to high frequency in natural populations, thus providing high informative value for future population genomics applications. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Islands on the edge: housing development and other threats to America's Pacific and Caribbean Island forests: a Forests on the Edge report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan M. Stein; Mary A. Carr; Greg C. Liknes; Sara J. Comas

    2014-01-01

    This report provides an overview of expected housing density changes and related impacts to private forests on America's islands in the Pacific and Caribbean, specifically Hawaii, Guam, American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. We discuss the vulnerability of island forests to conversion for housing...

  5. Medicaid and CHIP: Opportunities Exist to Improve U.S. Insular Area Demographic Data That Could Be Used to Help Determine Federal Funding. GAO-09-558R

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, Linda T.

    2009-01-01

    The five largest insular areas of the United States--American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), Guam, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands--receive federal funding through Medicaid and the State Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP), joint federal-state programs that finance health care for certain low-income…

  6. 78 FR 24155 - Notice of Availability of a Pest Risk Analysis for Interstate Movement of Sapote Fruit From...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-24

    ... hours are 8 a.m. to 4:30 p.m., Monday through Friday, except holidays. To be sure someone is there to... Hawaii, Puerto Rico, the U.S. Virgin Islands, Guam, and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands...

  7. 78 FR 53497 - Uniform Procedures for State Highway Safety Grant Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-29

    ...., Eastern Time, Monday through Friday, except Federal holidays. Whichever way you submit your comments... holidays. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Barbara Sauers, Program Manager, National Highway Traffic Safety... Columbia, Puerto Rico, U.S. Virgin Islands, Guam, American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana...

  8. 78 FR 37653 - Notice of Fiscal Year (FY) 2014 Safety Grants and Solicitation for Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-21

    ... p.m., ET, Monday through Friday, except Federal holidays. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background and... matching funds. The FMCSA Administrator waives the matching funds requirement for the Virgin Islands... Rico, Guam, American Samoa, the Northern Marianas, and the U.S. Virgin Islands, and the District of...

  9. Evaluation of DoD Compliance with the Sex Offender Registration and Notification Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-29

    entry as non-military personnel. According to INTERPOL, U.S. Armed Forces, with support from the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and...the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, Guam, American Samoa, the Northern Mariana Islands, the U.S. Virgin Islands, and Indian Tribes) in which he or she

  10. 78 FR 76791 - Availability of Version 4.0 of the Connect America Fund Phase II Cost Model; Adopting Current...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-19

    ... Virgin Islands Telephone Corporation d/b/a Innovative Telephone (Vitelco). CAM v4.0 incorporates several... connecting the islands in Hawaii, Puerto Rico, the U.S. Virgin Islands, and the Northern Mariana Islands, and... whether a census block group is identified as having hard rock was modified for the non- contiguous areas...

  11. 12 CFR 1805.201 - Certification as a Community Development Financial Institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... States, Puerto Rico, Guam, American Samoa, the Virgin Islands, and the Northern Mariana Islands); and..., census tract, block numbering area, block group, or American Indian or Alaska Native area (as such units... Areas that are used to comprise an Investment Area shall be limited to census tracts, block groups and...

  12. 75 FR 32673 - Finding of Failure To Submit Section 110 State Implementation Plans for Interstate Transport for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-09

    ... Ms. Gobeail McKinley, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards, Geographic Strategies Group, Mail... and the U.S. Region II, 290 Broadway, 25th Floor, New Virgin Islands. York, NY 10007-1866. Cristina... Northern Mariana Islands, Guam, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. EPA is making a finding of...

  13. 42 CFR 411.101 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Under Group Health Plans: General Provisions § 411.101 Definitions. As used in this subpart and in... individual States, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam, American Samoa, the Northern Mariana Islands, and... taxes on employers and employees under section 21 of the Internal Revenue Code. Group health plan (GHP...

  14. 34 CFR 370.6 - What definitions apply?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., in which case it is individual advocacy; (2) More than one individual or a group or class of... advocacy. Class action means a formal legal suit on behalf of a group or class of individuals filed in a... Rico, The United States Virgin Islands, Guam, American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana...

  15. Proteome analysis of the hypercholestrolemic rat, RICO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, S.Y.; Park, K.-S.; Paik, Y.-K.; Seong, J.-K.

    2001-01-01

    In an attempt to develop novel markers for hypercholesterolemia, hepatic tissues and serum prepared from hypeicholesterolemic rat (i e RICO) were analyzed by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-ToF). Results were compared to those of paired inbreed rat (WKY). Comparative analysis of the respective spot patterns in 2DE revealed that the numbers of differential expression proteins were identified in serum and liver tissues of RICO. Some of the representative proteins annotated in 2DE were apolipoprotein family and numerous lipid metabolism related proteins. Especially, we found that protein disulfide isomerase subunits (ER-60) in 2DE have differential post-translational modification pattern by MALDI-ToF analysis. Our results suggest that the proteomic analysis of these proteins might be a novel approach to identify the molecular events in detail during lipid disorder such atherosclerosis

  16. Breast Cancer Epidemiology in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    Preparándonos para vencer: Programa para identificar las necesidades de información y apoyo para las mujeres sobrevivientes de cáncer de mama...of recruitment. Controls were identified from participants in the Estudio Continuo de Salud (ECS), a National Health Survey in Puerto Rico, which was...menopausal at interview, as expected by the age criteria for inclusion . Eighty eight percent (88%) of the participants had their first pregnancy before age

  17. Aves municipales oficiales de Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlos M. Domínguez Cristóbal

    2009-01-01

    Las aves constituyen uno de los recursos de muy poco uso como símbolo oficial representativo de los municipios en Puerto Rico. Es muy probable que la decisión que màs pueda influenciar en esa selección esté relacionada con la movilidad de las aves ya que éstas no se limitan a una municipalidad en específico...

  18. Sand and gravel resources of Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Rafael W.

    Many of Puerto Rico's beaches are eroding, and though rates of erosion vary, it is a major concern for the tourism and residential development industries. More than 85 percent of the population lives within 7 kilometers of the coast and they are heavily dependent on tourists that are attracted by the island's beaches and coral reefs. High-quality scientific data are needed to help formulate public policy regarding residential and commercial construction along the coast, beach replenishment, and future use of marine resources. Scientists have long recognized that the causes of coastal land loss are not limited to a relative rise in sea level, but can be manmade as well. For example, sediment supply to beaches especially along the north shore of Puerto Rico has been strongly affected by upstream river channeling, dam construction, various agricultural practices, paving and urbanization, as well as shallow-water oceanographic processes. The response to coastal erosion in Puerto Rico has been mostly crisis based leading to engineered solutions that have a negative effect on the coastal environment.

  19. Colonialism and Sanctity in the Mariana Islands: the soldiers of Gideon (1676-1690

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Coello de la Rosa

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article I analyze the conquest and conversion of the Marianas (1676- 1690 as a discursive reality that turned the islands in a violent theater wherein the chamorros were defined as ruthless warriors (warrior’s ethos, and the Jesuits, on the contrary, as victims of the betrayals and retaliations of their newly converted «children» (martyr’s ethos. The hagiographers elevated their Jesuit martyrs to the category of «moral heroes», turning their deeds into a strong element of cohesion and identity for the missionaries preaching in the archipelago. In addition, the superiors wrote informaciones or memorials in which they stood out the behaviour of the military «heroes» of the colonization. We refer to José de Quiroga y Losada, captain and major sergeant of the garrison, and to the «loyal Indian» don Ignacio de Hineti, Indian sergeant and a «good Christian», whose military expeditions were directed to deal with the «anomaly» of the chamorros’ resistance. After the Second Great War (1683-86, the Jesuits clearly adopted the political and religious leadership in the islands, becoming the founders of a real «missionary state» wherein their martyrs acted as moral referents of the subjugated territories.

  20. The magma plumbing system in the Mariana Trough back-arc basin at 18° N

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Zhiqing; Zhao, Guangtao; Han, Zongzhu; Huang, Bo; Li, Min; Tian, Liyan; Liu, Bo; Bu, Xuejiao

    2018-04-01

    Mafic magmas are common in back-arc basin, once stalled in the crust, these magmas may undergo different evolution. In this paper, compositional and textural variations of plagioclase as well as mineral-melt geothermobarometry are presented for basalts erupted from the central Mariana Trough (CMT). These data reveal crystallization conditions and we attempt a reconstruction of the magma plumbing system of the CMT. Plagioclase megacrysts, phenocrysts, microphenocrysts, microlites, olivine, spinel, and clinopyroxene have been recognized in basalt samples, using BSE images and compositional features. The last three minerals are homogeneous as microphenocrysts. Mineral-melt barometry indicates that plagioclase crystals crystallized and eventually grew into phenocrysts and megacrysts in mush zone with depth of 5-9 km, in which the normal zoning plagioclases crystallized in the interval of various batches of basic magma recharging. Plagioclase megacrysts and phenocrysts were dissolved and/or resorbed, when new basic magmas injected into the mush zone near Moho depth. It is inferred that magma extracted from the mush zone, and adiabatically ascended via different pathways. Some basaltic magmas underwent plagioclase and clinopyroxene microphenocrysts crystallization in low-pressure before eruption. Plagioclase microlites and outermost rims probably crystallized after eruption.

  1. Soil physical, chemical and gas-flux characterization from Picea mariana stands near Erickson Creek, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Jonathan A.; Harden, Jennifer W.; Manies, Kristen L.

    2011-01-01

    Fire is a particularly important control on the carbon (C) balance of the boreal forest, and fire-return intervals and fire severity appear to have increased since the late 1900s in North America. In addition to the immediate release of stored C to the atmosphere through organic-matter combustion, fire also modifies soil conditions, possibly affecting C exchange between terrestrial and atmospheric pools for decades after the burn. The effects of fire on ecosystem C dynamics vary across the landscape, with topographic position and soil drainage functioning as important controls. The data reported here contributed to a larger U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) study, published in the journal Ecosystems by O'Donnell and others (2009). To evaluate the effects of fire and drainage on ecosystem C dynamics, we selected sample sites within the 2003 Erickson Creek fire scar to measure CO2 fluxes and soil C inventories in burned and unburned (control) sites in both upland and lowland black spruce (Picea mariana) forests. The results of this study suggested that although fire can create soil climate conditions which are more conducive to rapid decomposition, rates of C release from soils may be constrained after fire by changes in moisture and (or) substrate quality that impede rates of decomposition. Here, we report detailed site information, methodology, and data (in spreadsheet files) from that study.

  2. Environmental factors affecting large-bodied coral reef fish assemblages in the Mariana Archipelago.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin L Richards

    Full Text Available Large-bodied reef fishes represent an economically and ecologically important segment of the coral reef fish assemblage. Many of these individuals supply the bulk of the reproductive output for their population and have a disproportionate effect on their environment (e.g. as apex predators or bioeroding herbivores. Large-bodied reef fishes also tend to be at greatest risk of overfishing, and their loss can result in a myriad of either cascading (direct or indirect trophic and other effects. While many studies have investigated habitat characteristics affecting populations of small-bodied reef fishes, few have explored the relationship between large-bodied species and their environment. Here, we describe the distribution of the large-bodied reef fishes in the Mariana Archipelago with an emphasis on the environmental factors associated with their distribution. Of the factors considered in this study, a negative association with human population density showed the highest relative influence on the distribution of large-bodied reef fishes; however, depth, water temperature, and distance to deep water also were important. These findings provide new information on the ecology of large-bodied reef fishes can inform discussions concerning essential fish habitat and ecosystem-based management for these species and highlight important knowledge gaps worthy of additional research.

  3. Identification of Free-living and Particle-Associated Microbial Communities Present in Hadal regions of the Mariana Trench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan eTarn

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Relatively few studies have described the microbial populations present in ultra-deep hadal environments, largely as a result of difficulties associated with sampling. Here we report Illumina-tag V6 16S rRNA sequence-based analyses of the free-living and particle-associated microbial communities recovered from locations within two of the deepest hadal sites on Earth, the Challenger Deep (10,918 meters below surface-mbs and the Sirena Deep (10,667 mbs within the Mariana Trench, as well as one control site (Ulithi Atoll, 761 mbs. Seawater samples were collected using an autonomous lander positioned ~1m above the seafloor. The bacterial populations within the Mariana Trench bottom water samples were dissimilar to other deep-sea microbial communities, though with overlap with those of diffuse flow hydrothermal vents and deep-subsurface locations. Distinct particle-associated and free-living bacterial communities were found to exist. The hadal bacterial populations were also markedly different from one another, indicating the likelihood of different chemical conditions at the two sites. In contrast to the bacteria, the hadal archaeal communities were more similar to other less deep datasets and to each other due to an abundance of cosmopolitan deep-sea taxa. The hadal communities were enriched in thirty four bacterial and four archaeal operational taxonomic units (OTUs including members of the Gammaproteobacteria, Epsilonproteobacteria, Marinimicrobia, Cyanobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria, Gemmatimonadetes, Atribacteria, Spirochaetes, and Euryarchaeota. Sequences matching cultivated piezophiles were notably enriched in the Challenger Deep, especially within the particle-associated fraction, and were found in higher abundances than in other hadal studies, where they were either far less prevalent or missing. Our results indicate the importance of heterotrophy, sulfur-cycling, and methane and hydrogen utilization within the bottom waters of the deeper

  4. Identification of Free-Living and Particle-Associated Microbial Communities Present in Hadal Regions of the Mariana Trench.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarn, Jonathan; Peoples, Logan M; Hardy, Kevin; Cameron, James; Bartlett, Douglas H

    2016-01-01

    Relatively few studies have described the microbial populations present in ultra-deep hadal environments, largely as a result of difficulties associated with sampling. Here we report Illumina-tag V6 16S rRNA sequence-based analyses of the free-living and particle-associated microbial communities recovered from locations within two of the deepest hadal sites on Earth, the Challenger Deep (10,918 meters below surface-mbs) and the Sirena Deep (10,667 mbs) within the Mariana Trench, as well as one control site (Ulithi Atoll, 761 mbs). Seawater samples were collected using an autonomous lander positioned ~1 m above the seafloor. The bacterial populations within the Mariana Trench bottom water samples were dissimilar to other deep-sea microbial communities, though with overlap with those of diffuse flow hydrothermal vents and deep-subsurface locations. Distinct particle-associated and free-living bacterial communities were found to exist. The hadal bacterial populations were also markedly different from one another, indicating the likelihood of different chemical conditions at the two sites. In contrast to the bacteria, the hadal archaeal communities were more similar to other less deep datasets and to each other due to an abundance of cosmopolitan deep-sea taxa. The hadal communities were enriched in 34 bacterial and 4 archaeal operational taxonomic units (OTUs) including members of the Gammaproteobacteria, Epsilonproteobacteria, Marinimicrobia, Cyanobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria, Gemmatimonadetes, Atribacteria, Spirochaetes, and Euryarchaeota. Sequences matching cultivated piezophiles were notably enriched in the Challenger Deep, especially within the particle-associated fraction, and were found in higher abundances than in other hadal studies, where they were either far less prevalent or missing. Our results indicate the importance of heterotrophy, sulfur-cycling, and methane and hydrogen utilization within the bottom waters of the deeper regions of the Mariana Trench

  5. Atmospheric inputs to watersheds of the Luquillo Mountains in eastern Puerto Rico: Chapter D in Water quality and landscape processes of four watersheds in eastern Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallard, Robert F.; Murphy, Sheila F.; Stallard, Robert F.

    2012-01-01

    Twenty years of precipitation-chemistry data from the National Atmospheric Deposition Program site at El Verde, Puerto Rico, demonstrate that three major sources control the composition of solutes in rain in eastern Puerto Rico. In order of importance, these sources are marine salts, temperate contamination from the Northern Hemisphere, and Sahara Desert dust. Marine salts are a source of roughly 82 percent of the ionic charge in precipitation; marine salt inputs are greatest in January. Evaluation of 15 years of U.S. Geological Survey data for four watersheds in eastern Puerto Rico suggests that large storms, including hurricanes, are associated with exceptionally high chloride concentrations in stream waters. Some of these storms were missed in sampling by the National Atmospheric Deposition Program, and therefore its data on the marine contribution likely underestimate chloride. The marine contribution is a weak source of acidity. Temperate contamination contributes about 10 percent of the ionic charge in precipitation; contaminants are primarily nitrate, ammonia, and sulfate derived from various manmade and natural sources. Peak deposition of temperate contaminants is during January, April, and May, months in which strong weather fronts arrive from the north. Temperate contamination, a strong source of acidity, is the only component that is increasing through time. Sahara Desert dust provides 5 percent of the ionic charge in precipitation; it is strongly seasonal, peaking in June and July during times of maximum dust transport from the Sahara and sub-Saharan regions. This dust contributes, on average, enough alkalinity to neutralize the acidity in June and July rains.

  6. Rb-Sr isochronous of the alkaline volcanoes from the Bonin-Mariana tectonics zone (Pacific Ocean)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Govorov, I.N.; Gerasimov, N.S.; Tatarin, I.A.

    1996-01-01

    Description of petrogeochemical peculiarities of rocks of the Bonin-Mariana tectonic zone (Pacific Ocean) and the results on the dating of the alkaline volcanoes are presented. The established age of the Kadzan volcano equals approximately 138 ± 30 mln years; the initial ratio 87 Sr/ 86 Sr) 0 is equal to 0.70275 ± 0.0047. The age of the Ramapo complex constitutes 4 ± 66 mln years; the initial ratio ( 87 Sr/ 86 Sr) 0 equals 0.70313 ± 0.00045 [ru

  7. [Methodology to prevent mercury exposure among adolescents from goldmine areas in Mariana, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Câmara; Filhote; Lima; Alheira; Martins; Dantas; Luiz

    1996-04-01

    The main objective of this study was to promote the evaluation of an educational method to identify health risks among adolescents exposed to mercury by their work in gold mining production.The project was carried out with adolescents from a public school from the District of Monsenhor Horta, Municipality of Mariana, state of Minas Gerais. Statistical evaluation of the results revealed a significant increase in the amount of correct answers between the first and fifth stage concerning the definition of work accidents and its importance in relation to work-related diseases, accidents on route to and from the work place and violence at work site itself.

  8. Queen Mariana of Austria's Journey to Spain: political divergences and protocol tensions within the house of Habsburg (1648-1649

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Tercero Casado

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Spain’s isolation at the end of the Thirty Year’s War due to the Empire’s separate signature with France and Sweden in the Peace of Westphalia unleashed brief but intense political turmoil between the two Habsburg branches. Although Philip IV and Mariana of Austria’s marriage was ensured, the new Queen’s journey to Spain brought attention to the failure of another engagement between her brother and Emperor’s son, the King of Hungary Ferdinand, and the Infanta Maria Theresa. Given such context, the trip undoubtedly emphasized the tensions between both European powers.

  9. Swimming depth of migrating silver eels Anguilla japonica released at seamounts of the West Mariana Ridge, their estimated spawning sites

    OpenAIRE

    Aoyama, J.; Hissmann, Karen; Yoshinaga, T.; Sasai, S.; Uto, T.; Ueda, H.

    1999-01-01

    Five hormone-treated female Japanese silver eels Anguilla japonica were tagged with ultrasonic transmitters and released by submersible in the West Pacific at seamounts of the West Mariana Ridge, their supposed spawning grounds. Four eels were tracked for 60 to 423 min in the vicinity of the seamounts. They did not settle at the seamounts but swam at a mean speed of 0.37 m s-1 into open water above deep ground. Their mean swimming depth ranged from 81 to 172 m. Experiments suggest that pre-ma...

  10. 26 CFR 1.1402(a)-9 - Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 12 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Puerto Rico. 1.1402(a)-9 Section 1.1402(a)-9...) INCOME TAXES Tax on Self-Employment Income § 1.1402(a)-9 Puerto Rico. (a) Residents. A resident of Puerto... alien, a citizen of the United States, or a citizen of Puerto Rico, shall compute his net earnings from...

  11. Plasma rico en plaquetas Platelet -rich plasma

    OpenAIRE

    J. González Lagunas

    2006-01-01

    El Plasma Rico en Plaquetas es una suspensión concentrada de la sangre centrifugada que contiene elevadas concentraciones de trombocitos. Durante los últimos años, este producto ha aparecido de forma repetida en publicaciones científicas y en medios de comunicación generales como un producto que por sus características induce la curación y regeneración de los tejidos. La premisa de su uso es que las elevadas concentraciones de plaquetas en el PRP, liberan cantidades significativas de factores...

  12. Plasma rico em plaquetas na Implantologia

    OpenAIRE

    Rego, Luis André Ferreira Lopes

    2014-01-01

    Projeto de Pós-Graduação/Dissertação apresentado à Universidade Fernando Pessoa como parte dos requisitos para obtenção do grau de Mestre em Medicina Dentária As reabilitações orais implanto-suportadas resolveram grandes limitações das próteses removíveis convencionais. No entanto, o tempo de espera e o sucesso no tratamento com implantes trouxeram novos desafios, tal como o uso de concentrados autólogos de plaquetas para promoção da osteointegração. O plasma rico em plaquetas é definido c...

  13. histórico da tecnologia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Cezar de Freitas

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza la contribución de Álvaro Vieira Pinto para los estudios de economía y educación. Su concepto de trabajo tecnológicamente elaborado puede ser reconocido como resultado de una profunda investigación sobre las relaciones humanas que encontramos en la “cultura de la economía”. Su camino teórico hasta los escritos de Marx, muestran una capacidad erudita de relacionar educación y emancipación política con la historia de la tecnología.

  14. Transformation of juvenile Izu-Bonin-Mariana oceanic arc into mature continental crust: An example from the Neogene Izu collision zone granitoid plutons, Central Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Satoshi; Tani, Kenichiro

    2017-04-01

    Granitic rocks (sensulato) are major constituents of upper continental crust. Recent reviews reveal that the average composition of Phanerozoic upper continental crust is granodioritic. Although oceanic arcs are regarded as a site producing continental crust material in an oceanic setting, intermediate to felsic igneous rocks occurring in modern oceanic arcs are dominantly tonalitic to trondhjemitic in composition and have lower incompatible element contents than the average upper continental crust. Therefore, juvenile oceanic arcs require additional processes in order to get transformed into mature continental crust enriched in incompatible elements. Neogene granitoid plutons are widely exposed in the Izu Collision Zone in central Japan, where the northern end of the Izu-Bonin-Mariana (IBM) arc (juvenile oceanic arc) has been colliding with the Honshu arc (mature island arc) since Middle Miocene. The plutons in this area are composed of various types of granitoids ranging from tonalite to trondhjemite, granodiorite, monzogranite and granite. Three main granitoid plutons are distributed in this area: Tanzawa plutonic complex, Kofu granitic complex, and Kaikomagatake granitoid pluton. Tanzawa plutonic complex is dominantly composed of tonalite and trondhjemite and characterized by low concentration of incompatible elements and shows geochemical similarity with modern juvenile oceanic arcs. In contrast, Kofu granitic complex and Kaikomagatake granitoid pluton consists mainly of granodiorite, monzogranite and granite and their incompatible element abundances are comparable to the average upper continental crust. Previous petrogenetic studies on these plutons suggested that (1) the Tanzawa plutonic complex formed by lower crustal anatexis of juvenile basaltic rocks occurring in the IBM arc, (2) the Kofu granitic complex formed by anatexis of 'hybrid lower crust' comprising of both basaltic rocks of the IBM arc and metasedimentary rocks of the Honshu arc, and (3) the

  15. Metodologia para prevenir exposição ao mercúrio em adolescentes de garimpos de ouro em Mariana, Minas Gerais, Brasil Methodology to prevent mercury exposure among adolescents from goldmine areas in Mariana, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volney de M. Câmara

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available O principal objetivo deste estudo foi promover a avaliação de uma metodologia educativa para identificar e refletir, criticamente, sobre os riscos à saúde de adolescentes causados pelo trabalho em garimpos de ouro. O projeto foi realizado com adolescentes que estudavam na Escola Estadual Cônego Braga do Distrito de Monsenhor Horta, Município de Mariana, Minas Gerais, Brasil. A avaliação dos resultados através de testes estatísticos revelou um significativo acréscimo de respostas corretas da primeira para a última fase sobre a definição de acidentes de trabalho e sua equiparação com as doenças do trabalho, os acidentes de trajeto e as agressões no local de trabalho.The main objective of this study was to promote the evaluation of an educational method to identify health risks among adolescents exposed to mercury by their work in gold mining production.The project was carried out with adolescents from a public school from the District of Monsenhor Horta, Municipality of Mariana, state of Minas Gerais. Statistical evaluation of the results revealed a significant increase in the amount of correct answers between the first and fifth stage concerning the definition of work accidents and its importance in relation to work-related diseases, accidents on route to and from the work place and violence at work site itself.

  16. Narrar la ausencia. Una lectura de Los topos de Félix Bruzzone y de Diario de una Princesa Montonera de Mariana Perez

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Cobas Carral

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes Los topos, by Félix Bruzzone and Diario de una Princesa Montonera, by Mariana Eva Perez to explore the modes of recovery of the recent past ligated with Argentina’s last military dictatorship from the perspective of two “desaparecidos”‘s children.

  17. Genetic variation in carbon isotope discrimination and its relationship to growth under field conditions in full-sib families of Picea mariana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence B. Flanagan; Kurt H. Johnsen

    1995-01-01

    Measurements of the stable carbon isotope composition of leaf tissue were made on Picea mariana (Mill.) B.S.P. trees from four full-sib families grown on three different field sites at the Petawawa National Forestry Institute, Ontario, Canada. The four families chosen exhibited genetic variation for growth characteristics. Genetic...

  18. In-situ Raman microprobe studies of plant cell walls: macromolecular organization and compositional variability in the secondary wall of Picea mariana (Mill.) B.S.P.

    Science.gov (United States)

    U.P. Agarwal; R.H. Atalla

    1986-01-01

    Native-state organization and distribution of cell-wall components in the secondary wall of woody tissue from P. mariana (Black Spruce) have been investigated using polarized Raman microspectroscopy. Evidence for orientation is detected through Raman intensity variations resulting from rotations of the exciting electric vector with respect to cell-wall geometry....

  19. IODP Expedition 351 Izu-Bonin-Mariana Arc Origins: Age model for Site U1438

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Antony; Maffione, Marco; Kender, Sev; Aljahdali, Mohammed; Bandini, Alexandre; Guerra, Rodrigo do Monte

    2015-04-01

    We report preliminary paleomagnetic and paleontological results from International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Expedition 351, which recovered an unprecedented ~1.4 km thick volcaniclastic sedimentary record documenting the initiation and subsequent evolution of the Izu-Bonin-Mariana (IBM) intra-oceanic arc-basin system. Magnetostratigraphic and biostratigraphic constraints provide a high-resolution temporal framework for interpretation of this record. Paleomagnetic analyses of archive half core samples provide a continuous record of the geomagnetic field inclination down to 847 mbsf that allows construction of a detailed site magnetostratigraphy that closely matches the Geomagnetic Polarity Timescale (Gradstein et al., 2012). A total of 87 geomagnetic reversals have been recognized in the studied succession, extending back to ~36 Ma. Despite sporadic microfossil occurrences in parts, calcareous nannofossils, planktonic foraminifera and radiolarians each contribute to the age model for the entire Site. All nannofossil marker species for Oligocene to Eocene Zones NP25 to NP19/20 are recognised. Beneath paleomagnetic control (847-1449 mbsf), foraminifera and radiolarians provide the only age control. The most salient features of the age model are that: (i) average linear sedimentation rates during the Plio-Pleistocene range from 1.4 to 2.2 cm/ka; (ii) there was a reduction in sedimentation rates to 0.25 - 0.5 cm/ka throughout the Miocene; and (iii) sedimentation rates sharply increase again in the Oligocene to Late Eocene to a maximum of ~20 cm/ka. These quantitative constraints closely match (non-quantitative) inferences based on the lithostratigraphy of the site, with fine-grained/coarse-grained sediments dominating in periods with low/high sedimentation rates respectively.

  20. Long Term Seismic Observation in Mariana by OBSs : Double Seismic Zone and Upper Mantle Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiobara, H.; Sugioka, H.; Mochizuki, K.; Oki, S.; Kanazawa, T.; Fukao, Y.; Suyehiro, K.

    2005-12-01

    In order to obtain the deep arc structural image of Mariana, a large-scale seismic observation by using 58 long-term ocean bottom seismometers (LTOBS) had been performed from June 2003 until April 2004, which is a part of the MARGINS program funded by the NSF. Prior to this observation, a pilot long-term seismic array observation was conducted in the same area by using 10 LTOBSs from Oct. 2001 until Feb. 2003. At that time, 8 LTOBSs were recovered but one had no data. Recently, 2 LTOBSs, had troubles in the releasing, were recovered by the manned submersible (Shinkai 6500, Jamstec) for the research of the malfunction in July 2005. By using all 9 LTOBS's data, those are about 11 months long, hypocenter determination was performed and more than 3000 local events were found. Even with the 1D velocity structure based on the iasp91 model, double seismic zones and a systematic shift of epicenters between the PDE and this study were observed. To investigate the detail of hypocenter distribution and the 3D velocity structure, the DD inversion (tomoDD: Zhang and Thurber, 2003) was applied for this data set with the 1D structure initial model except for the crust, which has been surveyed by using a dense airgun-OBS system (Takahashi et al., 2003). The result of relocated hypocenters shows clear double seismic zones until about 200 km depth, a high activity area around the fore-arc serpentine sea-mount, the Big Blue, and a lined focuses along the current ridge axis in the back-arc basin, and the result of the tomography shows a image of subducting slab and a low-Vs region below the same sea-mount mentioned. The wedge mantle structure was not clearly resolved due to the inadequate source-receiver coverage, which will be done in the recent experiment.

  1. Spawning sites of the Japanese eel in relation to oceanographic structure and the West Mariana Ridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyama, Jun; Watanabe, Shun; Miller, Michael J; Mochioka, Noritaka; Otake, Tsuguo; Yoshinaga, Tatsuki; Tsukamoto, Katsumi

    2014-01-01

    The Japanese eel, Anguilla japonica, spawns within the North Equatorial Current that bifurcates into both northward and southward flows in its westward region, so its spawning location and larval transport dynamics seem important for understanding fluctuations in its recruitment to East Asia. Intensive research efforts determined that Japanese eels spawn along the western side of the West Mariana Ridge during new moon periods, where all oceanic life history stages have been collected, including eggs and spawning adults. However, how the eels decide where to form spawning aggregations is unknown because spawning appears to have occurred at various latitudes. A salinity front formed from tropical rainfall was hypothesized to determine the latitude of its spawning locations, but an exact spawning site was only found once by collecting eggs in May 2009. This study reports on the collections of Japanese eel eggs and preleptocephali during three new moon periods in June 2011 and May and June 2012 at locations indicating that the distribution of lower salinity surface water or salinity fronts influence the latitude of spawning sites along the ridge. A distinct salinity front may concentrate spawning south of the front on the western side of the seamount ridge. It was also suggested that eels may spawn at various latitudes within low-salinity water when the salinity fronts appeared unclear. Eel eggs were distributed within the 150-180 m layer near the top of the thermocline, indicating shallow spawning depths. Using these landmarks for latitude (salinity front), longitude (seamount ridge), and depth (top of the thermocline) to guide the formation of spawning aggregations could facilitate finding mates and help synchronize their spawning.

  2. Enigmatic cranial superstructures among Chamorro ancestors from the Mariana Islands: gross anatomy and microanatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heathcote, Gary M; Bromage, Timothy G; Sava, Vincent J; Hanson, Douglas B; Anderson, Bruce E

    2014-06-01

    This study focuses on the gross anatomy, anatomic relations, microanatomy, and the meaning of three enigmatic, geographically patterned, and quasi-continuous superstructures of the posterior cranium. Collectively known as occipital superstructures (OSSs), these traits are the occipital torus tubercle (TOT), retromastoid process (PR), and posterior supramastoid tubercle (TSP). When present, TOT, PR, and TSP develop at posterior cranial attachment sites of the upper trapezius, superior oblique, and sternocleidomastoid muscles, respectively. Marked expression and co-occurrence of these OSSs are virtually circumscribed within Oceania and reach highest recorded frequencies in protohistoric Chamorros (CHamoru) of the Mariana Islands. Prior to undertaking scanning electron microscopy (SEM) work, our working multifactorial model for OSS development was that early-onset, long-term, and chronic activity-related microtrauma at enthesis sites led to exuberant reactive or reparative responses in a substantial minority of genetically predisposed (and mostly male) individuals. SEM imaging, however, reveals topographic patterning that questions, but does not negate, activity induction of these superstructures. Although OSSs appear macroscopically as relatively large and discrete phenomena, SEM findings reveal a unique, widespread, and seemingly systemic distribution of structures over the occipital surface that have the appearance of OSS microforms. Nevertheless, apparent genetic underpinnings, anatomic relationships with muscle entheses, and positive correlation of OSS development with humeral robusticity continue to suggest that these superstructures have potential to at once bear witness to Chamorro population history and inform osteobiographical constructions of chronic activity patterns in individuals bearing them. Further work is outlined that would illuminate the proximate and ultimate meanings of OSS. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Lateral-delivered organic matter boosts hadal bacterial abundance in the Mariana Trench: A hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, C.; Liu, H.; Lu, F.; Zou, L.; Tian, J.

    2017-12-01

    Hadal trenches are part of the least investigated biosphere on Earth due to the great challenge of sampling. Limited studies on microbiology by far have suggested that the hadalsphere hosts a heterotrophic microbial community that is likely fed by organic matter from surface-sinking biomass or re-suspended and laterally transported sediments. The uniqueness of trench environment and its potential role in global carbon sequestration entitle a detailed study on microbial-driven carbon cycle of the trench system. In this study, we conducted a vertical sampling of the microbial community and measured the environmental factors from the epipelagic zone down to the hadal zone at the Mariana Trench. 16S rRNA gene composition showed high stratification at the first 1000 meters below surface (mbs) but a nearly uniformed microbial community composition was observed at the abyssopelagic and the hadalpelagic water columns. The deep-sea bacteria were generally chemoheterotrophs and the majority of them were similar to those present at the ocean surface, suggesting influence of epipelagic primary production on deep sea bacterial communication at the trench location. Several deep-sea-enriched but surface-depleted bacteria could be characterized by potential degraders of polysaccharides and n-alkanes. Therefore, recalcitrant hydrocarbons or carbohydrates are likely important carbon sources supporting the deep-sea biosphere. In spite of consistent community composition, a remarkable increase in biomass of small-sized microbial aggregates was detected at 8727 mbs. Enhanced CDOM proportions in the trench imply intensified microbial activity in hadal water compared to the above water column, which agree with the notion of possible extra carbon input from lateral transportation of slope material. These observations extend our understanding in carbon cycle driven by metabolically diverse microorganisms at the trench and may shed light on the complexity of hadal biogeochemistry.

  4. Burden of stroke in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zevallos, Juan; Santiago, Fernando; González, Juan; Rodríguez, Abiezer; Pericchi, Luis; Rodríguez-Mercado, Rafael; Nobo, Ulises

    2015-01-01

    Stroke is the fifth leading cause of death and the first cause of long-term disability in Puerto Rico. Trained staff reviewed and independently validated the medical records of patients who had been hospitalized with possible stroke at any of the 20 largest hospitals located in Puerto Rico during 2007, 2009, and 2011. The mean age of the 5005 newly diagnosed stroke patients (51·2% female) was 70 years. At the time of hospitalization, women were 4½ years older, were less likely to be married (60·2% vs. 39·9%, P diabetes (56·0% vs. 54·8%), hypertension (89·1% vs. 85·0%), and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-Chol) > 100 mg/dL (65·7% vs. 57·5%) P < 0·05. Ischemic stroke represented 75% of all types of strokes. Atrial fibrillation was mentioned in 7·9% of the medical records. The risk for dying before discharge was similar for both genders, but was 40% higher for women than for men at one-year follow-up: age-adjusted odds ratio = 1·4 (95% confidence interval = 1·2-1·5). © 2014 World Stroke Organization.

  5. Estimated water use in Puerto Rico, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Rivera, Wanda L.

    2014-01-01

    Water-use data were aggregated for the 78 municipios of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico for 2010. Five major offstream categories were considered: public-supply water withdrawals and deliveries, domestic and industrial self-supplied water use, crop-irrigation water use, and thermoelectric-power freshwater use. One instream water-use category also was compiled: power-generation instream water use (thermoelectric saline withdrawals and hydroelectric power). Freshwater withdrawals for offstream use from surface-water [606 million gallons per day (Mgal/d)] and groundwater (118 Mgal/d) sources in Puerto Rico were estimated at 724 million gallons per day. The largest amount of freshwater withdrawn was by public-supply water facilities estimated at 677 Mgal/d. Public-supply domestic water use was estimated at 206 Mgal/d. Fresh groundwater withdrawals by domestic self-supplied users were estimated at 2.41 Mgal/d. Industrial self-supplied withdrawals were estimated at 4.30 Mgal/d. Withdrawals for crop irrigation purposes were estimated at 38.2 Mgal/d, or approximately 5 percent of all offstream freshwater withdrawals. Instream freshwater withdrawals by hydroelectric facilities were estimated at 556 Mgal/d and saline instream surface-water withdrawals for cooling purposes by thermoelectric-power facilities was estimated at 2,262 Mgal/d.

  6. El centro histórico de la villa de Candelaria (Tenerife

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Sebastián López García

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Candelaria destaca en Tenerife con un alto grado de significación por el protagonismo que tuvo en algunos episodios notables de la isla. La Aparición de la imagen de la Virgen en estas tierras del menceyato de Güimar constituyo una singular página de Ia etapa de contactos entre la cultura guanche y los primeros evangelizadores de Canarias, circunstancia que derivará en la particular devoción que el pueblo tinerfeño y canario dispensará a esta advocación mariana a través de los siglos. Si se le compara con otros centros históricos tinerfeños, Candelaria contrasta con ellos por la modestia de su núcleo. En sus orígenes, pasó por varias vicisitudes durante los siglos XV y XVI, para comenzar a consolidarse a partir de las centurias del XVII y XVIII. Una serie de espacios e inmuebles formarán parte de su constante histórica y atestiguarán este pasado, entre ellos destacan la Cueva de los Camellos, la Cueva de Achbinico- San Blas, Convento de Dominicos, Basílica de Nuestra Señora de Candelaria, plaza de los peregrinos, Casa del Cabildo, Iglesia de Santa Ana, etc.Candelaria stands out within Tenerife for its leading role in some of the most outstanding episodes of the Island. The appearance of Virgin Mary within the lands of the Güimar "menceyato", was a singularly important episode in the period of contact between "guanche" culture and the first wave of evangelists that arrived in the Canaries. This circumstance led to the particularly strong devotion felt throughout the Centuries by the inhabitants of Tencrife, as well as by canarians in general, to the worship of Virgin Mary. In contrast to other historical centres in Tenerife, Candelaria has a small core, which started to consolidate from the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries onwards. A series of public spaces and buildings stand witness to thi spast; standing out amongst them are the Camel's Cave, the Cave of Achbinico-San Blas, the Convent of the Dorninicans, the Basilica

  7. SEMBLANZA DEL PROFESOR EDMUNDO RICO "1897 - 1967"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Agusti Pastor

    1981-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Finalizaba el año de 1925 cuando un jurado, reunido en los viejos claustros de Santa Inés, otorgaba a EDMUNDO RICO el grado de Doctor en Medicina y Cirugía. Ese jurado examinador integrado por los profesionales más destacados de la época y presidido por el Profesor José María Lombana Barreneche, estaba constituido por los profesores Carios Esguerra, Roberto Franco, Luis Felipe Calderón y Juan N. Corpas, siendo Secretario de la Facultad el entonces muy joven médico José del Carmen Acosta. Es de anotar que los hombres mencionados llenan todo un periodo médico en 10 que va corrido del presente siglo.

    La tesis del graduado versaba sobre la patogenia y tratamiento de la rabia y en ella exhibía ya el novel galeno su estilo inconfundible, por ser tan personal; esa tesis todavía tiene actualidad y en ella se describe, como en una novela de suspenso, la carrera a muerte que se entabla a través del sistema nervioso, entre el virus de la hidrofobia y las antitoxinas
    correspondientes, siendo la meta de la carrera los centros nerviosos superiores. No es de extrañar que ya Rico exhibiera veteranía en su amena prosa, si siendo estudiante había escrito numerosas siluetas sobre varios profesores y había colaborado ocasionalmente en la prensa periódica.
    Estaba en vigencia en aquéllos tiempos la antigua y gallarda usanza de respetar, acatar y estimar a los profesores de la Facultad. Y en verdad que Rico siempre fue fiel a tal postulado de elemental hidalguía, a pesar de ser un hombre esencialmente irreverente. Eran los tiempos en que a la muerte del Profesor Rivas, su cadáver fue transportado en hombros por sus alumnos reprobados.
    Regían por entonces los principios de la medicina francesa, a la sazón a la cabeza de la ciencia universal, y por tanto Rico fue a perfeccionar sus estudios a la antigua Lutecia. Alli al comienzo siguió cursillos de cirugía, abandonándolos prestamente para dedicarse a las ciencias psicol

  8. Regional-scale input of dispersed and discrete volcanic ash to the Izu-Bonin and Mariana subduction zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scudder, Rachel P.; Murray, Richard W.; Schindlbeck, Julie C.; Kutterolf, Steffen; Hauff, Folkmar; McKinley, Claire C.

    2014-11-01

    We have geochemically and statistically characterized bulk marine sediment and ash layers at Ocean Drilling Program Site 1149 (Izu-Bonin Arc) and Deep Sea Drilling Project Site 52 (Mariana Arc), and have quantified that multiple dispersed ash sources collectively comprise ˜30-35% of the hemipelagic sediment mass entering the Izu-Bonin-Mariana subduction system. Multivariate statistical analyses indicate that the bulk sediment at Site 1149 is a mixture of Chinese Loess, a second compositionally distinct eolian source, a dispersed mafic ash, and a dispersed felsic ash. We interpret the source of these ashes as, respectively, being basalt from the Izu-Bonin Front Arc (IBFA) and rhyolite from the Honshu Arc. Sr-, Nd-, and Pb isotopic analyses of the bulk sediment are consistent with the chemical/statistical-based interpretations. Comparison of the mass accumulation rate of the dispersed ash component to discrete ash layer parameters (thickness, sedimentation rate, and number of layers) suggests that eruption frequency, rather than eruption size, drives the dispersed ash record. At Site 52, the geochemistry and statistical modeling indicates that Chinese Loess, IBFA, dispersed BNN (boninite from Izu-Bonin), and a dispersed felsic ash of unknown origin are the sources. At Site 1149, the ash layers and the dispersed ash are compositionally coupled, whereas at Site 52 they are decoupled in that there are no boninite layers, yet boninite is dispersed within the sediment. Changes in the volcanic and eolian inputs through time indicate strong arc-related and climate-related controls.

  9. Community Structure of Lithotrophically-Driven Hydrothermal Microbial Mats from the Mariana Arc and Back-Arc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin W. Hager

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The Mariana region exhibits a rich array of hydrothermal venting conditions in a complex geological setting, which provides a natural laboratory to study the influence of local environmental conditions on microbial community structure as well as large-scale patterns in microbial biogeography. We used high-throughput amplicon sequencing of the bacterial small subunit (SSU rRNA gene from 22 microbial mats collected from four hydrothermally active locations along the Mariana Arc and back-arc to explore the structure of lithotrophically-based microbial mat communities. The vent effluent was classified as iron- or sulfur-rich corresponding with two distinct community types, dominated by either Zetaproteobacteria or Epsilonproteobacteria, respectively. The Zetaproteobacterial-based communities had the highest richness and diversity, which supports the hypothesis that Zetaproteobacteria function as ecosystem engineers creating a physical habitat within a chemical environment promoting enhanced microbial diversity. Gammaproteobacteria were also high in abundance within the iron-dominated mats and some likely contribute to primary production. In addition, we also compare sampling scale, showing that bulk sampling of microbial mats yields higher diversity than micro-scale sampling. We present a comprehensive analysis and offer new insights into the community structure and diversity of lithotrophically-driven microbial mats from a hydrothermal region associated with high microbial biodiversity. Our study indicates an important functional role of for the Zetaproteobacteria altering the mat habitat and enhancing community interactions and complexity.

  10. Bacterial Community Sstructure and Novel Species of Magnetotactic Bacteria in Sediments from a Seamount in the Mariana Volcanic Arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    PAN, H.; LIU, J.; Zhang, W.; Xiao, T.; Wu, L. F.

    2017-12-01

    Seamounts are unique ecosystems where undersea mountains rise abruptly from the sea floor and interact dynamically with underwater currents, creating peculiar biological habitats with various microbial community structures. Certain bacteria associated with seamounts form conspicuous extracellular iron oxide structures, including encrusted stalks, flattened bifurcating tubes, and filamentous sheaths. To extend knowledge of seamount microorganisms we performed a systematic analysis of the population composition and occurrence of live magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) in sediments of a seamount in the Mariana volcanic arc. Proteobacteria dominated at 13 stations, and were the second in abundance to members of the Firmicutes at a deep station on a steep slope facing the Yap-Mariana trench. We found MTB that synthesize intracellular iron-oxide nanocrystals in biogenic sediments at all 14 stations, at seawater depths ranging from 238 to 2023 m. A novel flagellar apparatus, and the most complex yet reported, was observed in magnetotactic cocci; it comprises one or two bundles of 19 flagella arranged in a 3:4:5:4:3 array. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences identified 16 novel species of MTB specific to this seamount. The geographic properties at the various stations on the seamount appear to be important in shaping the microbial community structure.

  11. Stable isotope compositions of serpentinite seamounts in the Mariana forearc: Serpentinization processes, fluid sources and sulfur metasomatism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alt, J.C.; Shanks, Wayne C.

    2006-01-01

    The Mariana and Izu-Bonin arcs in the western Pacific are characterized by serpentinite seamounts in the forearc that provide unique windows into the mantle wedge. We present stable isotope (O, H, S, and C) data for serpentinites from Conical seamount in the Mariana forearc and S isotope data for Torishima seamount in the Izu-Bonin forearc in order to understand the compositions of fluids and temperatures of serpentinization in the mantle wedge, and to investigate the transport of sulfur from the slab to the mantle wedge. Six serpentine mineral separates have a restricted range of ??18O (6.5-8.5???). Antigorite separates have ??D values of -29.5??? to -45.5??? that reflect serpentinization within the mantle wedge whereas chrysotile has low ??D values (-51.8??? to -84.0???) as the result of re-equilibration with fluids at low temperatures. Fractionation of oxygen isotopes between serpentine and magnetite indicate serpentinization temperatures of 300-375 ??C. Two late cross-fiber chrysotile veins have higher ??18O values of 8.9??? to 10.8??? and formed at lower temperatures (as low as ???100 ??C). Aqueous fluids in equilibrium with serpentine at 300-375 ??C had ??18O = 6.5-9??? and ??D = -4??? to -26???, consistent with sediment dehydration reactions at temperatures arc lavas. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Estructura y química del suelo en un bosque de Castilla elastica en el carso del norte de Puerto Rico: resultados de una calicata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian A. Viera Martinez; Oscar Abelleira; Ariel E. Lugo

    2008-01-01

    We dug a soil pit of 1m x 1m x 1m in a forest dominated by Castilla elastica, a tree for shade coffee introduced in the karst of northern Puerto Rico. We found four soil horizons (designation notes in parenthesis) (A) organic soil matter (E) mineral soil leachate (B) aerobic mineral soil, and (C) saturated soil. The total storage of soil organic matter was 143 Mg/ha....

  13. 33 CFR 165.755 - Safety Zone; Guayanilla, Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Zone; Guayanilla, Puerto Rico (a) The following area is established as a safety zone during the... the Eco-Electrica waterfront facility in Guayanilla Bay, Puerto Rico. The safety zone remains in... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety Zone; Guayanilla, Puerto...

  14. 78 FR 3495 - Puerto Rico Disaster #PR-00017

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-16

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 13437 and 13438] Puerto Rico Disaster PR-00017 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico Dated 01/03/2013. Incident: Heavy...

  15. 75 FR 39060 - Puerto Rico Disaster #PR-00009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-07

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12214 and 12215] Puerto Rico Disaster PR-00009 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico (FEMA-1919-DR...

  16. 76 FR 55155 - Puerto Rico Disaster #PR-00014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-06

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12768 and 12769] Puerto Rico Disaster PR-00014 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico (FEMA-4017-DR), dated 08/ 27/2011...

  17. 76 FR 67244 - Puerto Rico Disaster Number PR-00014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-31

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12768 and 12769] Puerto Rico Disaster Number PR-00014 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 5. SUMMARY: This is an amendment of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico (FEMA-4017...

  18. 75 FR 51294 - Puerto Rico Disaster # PR-00010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-19

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12270 and 12271] Puerto Rico Disaster PR-00010 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the Commonwealth of PUERTO RICO dated 08/11/2010. Incident: Severe...

  19. 76 FR 59179 - Puerto Rico Disaster Number PR-00014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-23

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12768 and 12769] Puerto Rico Disaster Number PR-00014 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 2. SUMMARY: This is an amendment of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico (FEMA-4017...

  20. 75 FR 69733 - Puerto Rico Disaster #PR-00012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-15

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12368 and 12369] Puerto Rico Disaster PR-00012 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 1. SUMMARY: This is an amendment of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico...

  1. 75 FR 68394 - Puerto Rico Disaster # PR-00012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-05

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Disaster Declaration 12368 and 12369 Puerto Rico Disaster PR-00012 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico (FEMA--1946--DR...

  2. 78 FR 4966 - Puerto Rico Disaster #PR-00018

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-23

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 13445 and 13446] Puerto Rico Disaster PR-00018 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico dated 01/10/2013. Incident: Tropical...

  3. 76 FR 55154 - Puerto Rico Disaster #PR-00015

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-06

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12770 and 12771] Puerto Rico Disaster PR-00015 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico (FEMA-4017-DR...

  4. 76 FR 56858 - Puerto Rico Disaster Number PR-00014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-14

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12768 and 12769] Puerto Rico Disaster Number PR-00014 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 1. SUMMARY: This is an amendment of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico (FEMA-4017...

  5. 76 FR 44647 - Puerto Rico Disaster #PR-00013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12699 and 12700] Puerto Rico Disaster PR-00013 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico (FEMA-4004-DR...

  6. 76 FR 66768 - Puerto Rico Disaster #PR-00016

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-27

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12897 and 12898] Puerto Rico Disaster PR-00016 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico (FEMA-4040-DR), dated 10/ 18/2011...

  7. 75 FR 2165 - Puerto Rico Disaster No. PR-00007

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-14

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration Nos. 12004 and 12005; Puerto Rico Disaster No. PR-00007] Puerto Rico Disaster No. PR-00007 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the Commonwealth of...

  8. Uso de terreno urbano y rural en Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian Martinuzzi; William A. Gould; Olga M. Ramos Gonzalez; Maya Quinones; Michael E. Jimenez

    2008-01-01

    El Proyecto de Analisis de Gap de Puerto Rico (PRGAP) (Gould et al. 2008) desarrollo tres usos de terrenos para Puerto Rico: Urbano, Suburbano, y Rural (Martinuzzi et al. 2007). Estas regiones tambien pueden ser consideradas como urbano, densamente-poblado rural, y escasamente-poblado rural, o como urbano y area silvestre con una interfase de area silvestre-urbana. La...

  9. Characterization of the Network of Protected Areas in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Castro-Prieto; Maya Quinones; William Gould

    2016-01-01

    Our goal was to describe the biodiversity and associated landscape diversity and forest cover characteristics within the network of terrestrial protected areas in Puerto Rico. We conducted spatial analysis to quantify different indicators of diversity at these sites. We found that protected areas in Puerto Rico overlap the most species-rich regions on the island,...

  10. 29 CFR 510.20 - Wage surveys in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... IMPLEMENTATION OF THE MINIMUM WAGE PROVISIONS OF THE 1989 AMENDMENTS TO THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT IN PUERTO... qualify for an extended minimum wage phase-in, the government of Puerto Rico would be required to furnish... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Wage surveys in Puerto Rico. 510.20 Section 510.20 Labor...

  11. Analisis espacial de las areas protegidas terrestres de Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. Quinones; W.A. Gould; J. Castro-Prieto; S. Martinuzzi

    2013-01-01

    En este mapa de investigacion describimos las areas protegidas terrestres de Puerto Rico basado en elementos naturales y antropogenicos del paisaje. Utilizamos datos geoespaciales para calcular la extension y representatividad de elementos del paisaje dentro de las areas protegidas de Puerto Rico, i.e., cobertura del terreno (Gould et al. 2007), asentamientos urbanos...

  12. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Benthic Cover Derived from Analysis of Benthic Images Collected during Stratified Random Surveys (StRS) across the Mariana Archipelago from 2014-03-25 to 2014-05-07 (NCEI Accession 0159148)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data described here result from benthic photo-quadrat surveys conducted along transects at stratified random sites across the Mariana archipelago in 2014 as a...

  13. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Assessing and Monitoring Cryptic Reef Diversity of Colonizing Marine Invertebrates using Autonomous Reef Monitoring Structure (ARMS) Deployed at Coral Reef Sites across the Marianas Archipelago from 2011 to 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Autonomous Reef Monitoring Structures (ARMS) are used to assess and monitor cryptic reef diversity of colonizing marine invertebrates in the Hawaiian and Mariana...

  14. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Stratified Random Surveys (StRS) of Reef Fish, including Benthic Estimate Data of the Mariana Archipelago from 2017-05-03 to 2017-06-20 (NCEI Accession 0166381)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The stationary point count (SPC) method is used to conduct reef fish surveys in the Hawaiian and Mariana Archipelagos, American Samoa, and the Pacific Remote Island...

  15. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Stratified Random Surveys (StRS) of Coral Demography (Adult and Juvenile Corals) across the Mariana Archipelago from 2014-03-25 to 2014-05-07 (NCEI Accession 0159166)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data described here result from benthic coral demographic surveys for two life stages (juveniles, adults) across the Mariana Archipelago in 2014. Juvenile colony...

  16. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Stratified Random Surveys (StRS) of Coral Demography (Adult and Juvenile Corals) across the Mariana Archipelago from 2017-05-05 to 2017-06-21 (NCEI Accession 0166383)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data described here result from benthic coral demographic surveys for two life stages (juveniles, adults) across the Mariana archipelago in 2017. Juvenile colony...

  17. Do corpo histérico ao "corpus" teórico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Ramos de Farias

    1992-09-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo aborda a maneira pela qual Freud, de forma original, efetuou uma leitura no corpo-sintoma da histérica e construiu uma clínica inédita destinada ao tratamento das neuroses. Esta clínica, fundada na transferência, é suportada pelo edifício teórico que tem o inconsciente e a sexualidade como paradigmas.

  18. 78 FR 20887 - Approval of Subzone Status; Pepsi Cola Puerto Rico Distributing, LLC, Toa Baja, Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board [S-132-2012] Approval of Subzone Status; Pepsi Cola Puerto Rico Distributing, LLC, Toa Baja, Puerto Rico On December 7, 2012, the Executive Secretary... activation limit of FTZ 7, on [[Page 20888

  19. IODP Expedition 351 Izu-Bonin-Mariana Arc Origins: Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizuka, O.; Arculus, R. J.; Bogus, K.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding how subduction zones initiate and continental crust forms in intraoceanic arcs requires knowledge of the inception and evolution of a representative intraoceanic arc, such as the Izu-Bonin-Mariana (IBM) Arc system. This can be obtained by exploring regions adjacent to an arc, where unequivocal pre-arc crust overlain by undisturbed arc-derived materials exists. IODP Exp. 351 (June-July 2014) specifically targeted evidence for the earliest evolution of the IBM system following inception. Site U1438 (4711 m water depth) is located in the Amami Sankaku Basin (ASB), west of the Kyushu-Palau Ridge (KPR), a paleo-IBM arc. Primary objectives of Exp. 351 were: 1) determine the nature of the crust and mantle pre-existing the IBM arc; 2) identify and model the process of subduction initiation and initial arc crust formation; 3) determine the compositional evolution of the IBM arc during the Paleogene; 4) establish geophysical properties of the ASB. Seismic reflection profiles indicate a ~1.3 km thick sediment layer overlying ~5.5 km thick igneous crust, presumed to be oceanic. This igneous crust seemed likely to be the basement of the IBM arc. Four holes were cored at Site U1438 spanning the entire sediment section and into basement. The cored interval comprises 5 units: uppermost Unit I is hemipelagic sediment with intercalated ash layers, presumably recording explosive volcanism mainly from the Ryukyu and Kyushu arcs; Units II and III host a series of volcaniclastic gravity-flow deposits, likely recording the magmatic history of the IBM Arc from arc initiation until 25 Ma; Siliceous pelagic sediment (Unit IV) underlies these deposits with minimal coarse-grained sediment input and may pre-date arc initiation. Sediment-basement contact occurs at 1461 mbsf. A basaltic lava flow section dominantly composed of plagioclase and clinopyroxene with rare chilled margins continues to the bottom of the Site (1611 mbsf). The expedition successfully recovered pre-IBM Arc

  20. Understanding Extension in the Southern Marianas and the Challenger Deep: a 21ST Century Geoscientific Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, R. J.; Ribeiro, J. M.; Martinez, F.; Ohara, Y.

    2017-12-01

    The Challenger Deep (CD) is the deepest spot on Earth's solid surface and the reasons for its great depth are controversial. In general, trench depths (without sediments) are thought to reflect slab age; old oceanic lithosphere arrives at the trench deeper so similar downbending makes deeper trenches than young oceanic lithosphere. Slab tears and edges and short slabs also may help trenches deepen by making it easier to roll back. In the case of the CD, we are unsure of subducted oceanic lithosphere age because this lies near the juncture of Jurassic and Oligocene crusts. A slab edge to the west and a slab tear to the east may also help the Pacific plate roll back and contribute to its depth. A possible unexamined reason for CD's great depth may be strong extension of the overlying plate associated with opening of the Mariana Trough backarc basin (MT-BAB). GPS on islands indicate southward-increasing extension rates of at least 45mm/yr at the latitude of Guam (Kato et al. 2003 GRL; see Martinez et al. T037 for more info); extension rates are likely to be greater in the MT-BAB north of CD. There are few convergent margins where strong extension affects the overriding plate. Overriding plate extension may help deepen trenches by narrowing the plate coupling zone (Gvirtzman and Stern 2003 Tectonics). Asthenosphere outflow from the shrinking Philippine Sea plate could also push against the slab to depress it. The region around the CD is very deep water, presenting major challenges for future study. The combined deepwater assets and brainpower of the US, Japan, and China are needed to do this work. Both subducting and overriding plates need study. For the downgoing plate, we need IODP drilling and refraction studies to determine its age and crustal and lithospheric structure; electromagnetic sounding would also help reveal upper plate structure. We need passive OBS studies to map slab tears and edges. We need to better understand the tectonic evolution of the MT

  1. Submarine Flood Basalt Eruptions and Flows of Ontong Java Plateau, Nauru Basin and East Mariana Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, P. J.; Trowbridge, S. R.; Zhang, J.; Johnson, A. L.

    2016-12-01

    The preservation of fresh basalt glasses from the submarine Cretaceous Ontong Java Plateau (OJP), Earth's largest LIP, has allowed correlation of precise lava compositions over 100s of km, as well as determination of eruption depths using dissolved H2O and CO2 contents. Low dissolved H2O in glasses shows that H2O in the mantle source is low [1,2], suggesting mantle temperatures are high. Very high dissolved Cl indicates that magmas interacted extensively with brines. The near total absence of vesicles in OJP glasses contrasts sharply with MORB, and suggests that OJP lavas were saturated or undersaturated with CO2 when they were emplaced, in contrast to MORB that are often oversaturated. The lavas likely remained liquid for a longer period of time so that they degassed to equilibrium levels of dissolved CO2 andlost all bubbles. Very precise major and trace element analyses of glasses, uncomplicated by crystals or alteration, show how lavas within and between widely-spaced drill holes could be related. For example, glasses from Sites 1185B and 1186A, which are about 200 km apart, are compositionally identical within precise limits and must have erupted from the same well-mixed magma chamber. They erupted at about the same depth, but 1186A has a corrected basement depth that is >700m deeper. With a slope of 0.3°, this suggests a flow distance >130km. The eruption depths for glasses from East Mariana and Nauru Basins are similar to those of 1185B and 1186A on OJP, even though their reconstructed basement depths are about 2000 m deeper. It suggests that the plateau lavas flowed into the basins. Similarly, eruption depths in Hole 807C are 3040m for Kwaimbaita lavas but are 1110m [1,2] for Singgalo lavas that directly overlie them. It is unlikely that plateau uplift and subsidence accounts for the observed eruption depths. All of these observations are best explained by very large-volume eruptions whose lavas traveled for long distances, up to 100s of km, into deeper

  2. The eruption of Mount Pagan volcano, Mariana Islands, 15 May 1981

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, N.G.; Koyanagi, R.Y.; Sinton, J.M.; Honma, K.T.

    1984-01-01

    A major explosive eruption occurred 15 May 1981 at Mount Pagan Volcano, the larger of two historic eruptive centers on Pagan Island, Mariana Islands. The eruption was preceded by increased numbers of locally felt earthquakes beginning in late March or early April and by new ground cracks, new sublimates, and increased gas emissions. A swarm of felt earthquakes began at 0745h (local time = UCT+10 hours) 15 May, and at 0915 h, closely following a loud sonic boom, a strong plinian column issued from the volcano. The high-altitude ash cloud (at least 13.5 km) travelled south-southeast, but ash and scoria deposits were thickest (> 2 m) in the NW sector of the island because of the prevailing low-altitude southeasterly winds. The early activity of 15 May probably involved magmatic eruption along a fissure system oriented about N10??E. However, the eruption became hydromagmatic, possibly within minutes, and was largely restricted to three long-lived vents. The northernmost of these built a substantial new scoria-ash cinder cone. Flows and air-fall deposits, consisting almost entirely of juvenile material, exceeded 105 ?? 106 m3 in volume (75 ?? 106 m3 of magma) on land and at least 70-100 ?? 606 m3 at sea. An unknown volume was carried away by stratospheric winds. Lithic blocks and juvenile bombs as large as 1 m in diameter were thrown more than 2 km from the summit, and evidence for base-surge was observed in restricted corridors as low as 200 m elevation on the north and south slopes of the volcano. Neither of these events resulted in serious injuries to the 54 residents of the island, nor did the eruption produce serious chemical hazards in their water supply. Weak eruptions occurred during the ensuing month, and some of these were monitored by ground observations, seismic monitoring, and deformation studies. Precursory seismicity and possibly deformation occurred with some of the observed eruptions. More vigorous eruptions were reported by visiting residents in late

  3. Land Use, Conservation, Forestry, and Agriculture in Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William A. Gould

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Global food security concerns emphasize the need for sustainable agriculture and local food production. In Puerto Rico, over 80 percent of food is imported, and local production levels have reached historical lows. Efforts to increase local food production are driven by government agencies, non-government organizations, farmers, and consumers. Integration of geographic information helps plan and balance the reinvention and invigoration of the agriculture sector while maintaining ecological services. We used simple criteria that included currently protected lands and the importance of slope and forest cover in protection from erosion to identify land well-suited for conservation, agriculture and forestry in Puerto Rico. Within these categories we assessed U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA farmland soils classification data, lands currently in agricultural production, current land cover, and current land use planning designations. We found that developed lands occupy 13 percent of Puerto Rico; lands well-suited for conservation that include protected areas, riparian buffers, lands surrounding reservoirs, wetlands, beaches, and salt flats, occupy 45 percent of Puerto Rico; potential working lands encompass 42 percent of Puerto Rico. These include lands well-suited for mechanized and non-mechanized agriculture, such as row and specialty crops, livestock, dairy, hay, pasture, and fruits, which occupy 23 percent of Puerto Rico; and areas suitable for forestry production, such as timber and non-timber products, agroforestry, and shade coffee, which occupy 19 percent of Puerto Rico.

  4. A Cultural Resources Reconnaissance of Five Projects in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Memorias de Melgarejo). Melgarejo mentions that one of these three mills was located next to the mouth of the Loiza River, and that this was also the...Mexico. Cordova, Pedro Tomas de Memorias historicas de Puerto Rico. D-3 D’Alzina, Ismael 1957 Historia gr~fica de Puerto Rico, 1. Primera Epoca. Ed...Servidumbre de faja de terreno de 5.0 metros de ancho y 400.46 metros de largo a favor de la Autoridad de Acueductos y Alcantarillados de Puerto Rico

  5. Geology of Isla de Mona, Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, E.F.; Wicks, Carol M.; Mylroie, J.; Troester, J.; Alexander, E.C.; Carew, J.L.

    1998-01-01

    Isla de Mona is a carbonate island located in the Mona Passage 68 km west of Puerto Rico. The tectonically uplifted island is 12 km by 5 km, with an area of 55 km2, and forms a raised flat-topped platform or meseta. The meseta tilts gently to the south and is bounded by near vertical cliffs on all sides. These cliffs rise from 80 m above sea level on the north to 20 m above the sea on the southern coast. Along the southwestern and western side of the island a three- to six-meter-high Pleistocene fossil reef abuts the base of the cliff to form a narrow coastal plain. The meseta itself consists of two Mio-Pliocene carbonate units, the lower Isla de Mona Dolomite and the upper Lirio Limestone. Numerous karst features, including a series of flank margin caves primarily developed at the Lirio Limestone/Isla de Mona Dolomite contact, literally ring the periphery of the island.

  6. Plasma rico en plaquetas Platelet -rich plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. González Lagunas

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available El Plasma Rico en Plaquetas es una suspensión concentrada de la sangre centrifugada que contiene elevadas concentraciones de trombocitos. Durante los últimos años, este producto ha aparecido de forma repetida en publicaciones científicas y en medios de comunicación generales como un producto que por sus características induce la curación y regeneración de los tejidos. La premisa de su uso es que las elevadas concentraciones de plaquetas en el PRP, liberan cantidades significativas de factores de crecimiento. En este artículo se van a recoger las evidencias científicas que se han presentado en la literatura médica con respecto al PRP y a la curación ósea, así como las diferentes aplicaciones clínicas que se han sugerido.Platelet-rich plasma is a by-product of centrifuged whole blood that contains high levels of thrombocytes. In the last decade, scientific and media interest has been generated by this product that apparently has the capacity of inducing and promoting tissue healing and regeneration. The premise of its use is that the large number of platelets in PRP release significant amounts of growth factors. In this paper, a critical review of the medical literature regarding PRP and bone healing will be presented. Also, the suggested clinical applications of the product will be addressed.

  7. Economic Cost of Dengue in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halasa, Yara A.; Shepard, Donald S.; Zeng, Wu

    2012-01-01

    Dengue, endemic in Puerto Rico, reached a record high in 2010. To inform policy makers, we derived annual economic cost. We assessed direct and indirect costs of hospitalized and ambulatory dengue illness in 2010 dollars through surveillance data and interviews with 100 laboratory-confirmed dengue patients treated in 2008–2010. We corrected for underreporting by using setting-specific expansion factors. Work absenteeism because of a dengue episode exceeded the absenteeism for an episode of influenza or acute otitis media. From 2002 to 2010, the aggregate annual cost of dengue illness averaged $38.7 million, of which 70% was for adults (age 15+ years). Hospitalized patients accounted for 63% of the cost of dengue illness, and fatal cases represented an additional 17%. Households funded 48% of dengue illness cost, the government funded 24%, insurance funded 22%, and employers funded 7%. Including dengue surveillance and vector control activities, the overall annual cost of dengue was $46.45 million ($12.47 per capita). PMID:22556069

  8. Northern Dimension: Participant Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Busygina Irina

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to the “Northern Dimension” initiative of the EU which also includes North-West Russia, Norway and Iceland. It is noted that the “Northern Dimension” in the theoretical perspective can be considered as part of strategic multi-level interactions between member-states of the EU and Russia. On this basis, the authors analyze implications and effects of the strategic interdependence of all the EU-Russia relation levels.

  9. Northern Dimension: Participant Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Busygina I.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available his article is devoted to the “Northern Dimension” initiative of the EU which also includes North-West Russia, Norway and Iceland. It is noted that the “Northern Dimension” in the theoretical perspective can be considered as part of strategic multi-level interactions between member-states of the EU and Russia. On this basis, the authors analyze implications and effects of the strategic interdependence of all the EU-Russia relation levels.

  10. Characterization of Landslide Sites in Puerto Rico after Hurricanes Irma and María

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, K. S.; Morales Vélez, A. C.

    2017-12-01

    Thousands of landslides in Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands were triggered by the passage of Hurricanes Irma (Sep. 6) and María (Sep. 20) in 2017. Both were classified as Category 5 hurricanes on the Saffir-Simpson scale before making landfall. Most of the mass wasting occurred in the rugged mountainous regions of Puerto Rico and—along with bridge collapse, flooding, and the threat of dam failure—left many communities isolated for up to a month or longer. Aerial photography collected by FEMA and the Civil Air Patrol have allowed for the rapid inventory of landslide sites across the archipelago by the USGS and other groups. Using this dataset and other local information, we identified a list of priority sites that were documented in detail as part of a NSF-GEER (Geotechnical Extreme Event Reconnaissance) mission. The juvenile landscape and short-wavelength topography in most of Puerto Rico present considerable landslide risk that is exaggerated during heavy rainfall events like Hurricane María. Our preliminary work shows that natural escarpments, de-vegetated pastureland in mountainous areas, and road cuts along incised river valleys were areas of concentrated failures during these storms. Notably, the northern karst area suffered fewer failures than the arc basement rocks exposed elsewhere in the island. In addition to previously active landslides at specific sites on the island, new landslides along PR-143 in the municipality of Barranquitas, PR-431 in the municipality of Lares, and PR-109 in the municipality of Añasco are among important mass wasting events that were a focus of the GEER team and remain important in our ongoing research. A team of undergraduate and graduate students led by faculty at the University of Puerto Rico in Mayagüez are working to characterize the complete inventory of landslides in terms of underlying geology, soil type, slope, curvature, rain fall amounts during both atmospheric events, and other local geomorphic and

  11. Radionuclide content of soils from Barrio Islote, Arecibo, Puerto Rico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Block, A.McB.; Clements, R.G.

    1976-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to present and interpret gamma ray energy spectra from natural radioactivity and fallout radionuclides measured on soil samples collected in the projected thermonuclear power plant exclusion zone in Barrio Islote, Puerto Rico

  12. Américo Negrette and Huntington's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Moscovich

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The authors present a historical review of the seminal clinical contribution of Professor Américo Negrette, a Venezuelan neurologist, to the evolution of scientific knowledge about Huntington's disease.

  13. Northeast Puerto Rico and Culebra Island Ground Validation Points 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This shapefile denotes the location of underwater photos and videos taken in shallow water (0-35m) benthic habitats surrounding Northeast Puerto Rico and Culebra...

  14. Northeast Puerto Rico and Culebra Island Accuracy Assessment Points - 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This shapefile denotes the location of underwater photos and videos taken in shallow water (0-35m) benthic habitats surrounding Northeast Puerto Rico and Culebra...

  15. Puerto Rico ESI/RSI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) and Reach Sensitivity Index (RSI) data for Puerto Rico. ESI data characterize estuarine...

  16. Puerto Rico ESI/RSI: T_MAMMAL (Terrestrial Mammals)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) and Reach Sensitivity Index (RSI) data for Puerto Rico. ESI data characterize estuarine...

  17. Puerto Rico ESI/RSI: SOCECON (Socioeconomic Lines and Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) and Reach Sensitivity Index (RSI) data for Puerto Rico. ESI data characterize estuarine...

  18. Puerto Rico ESI and RSI: SHELFBND (Shelf Boundary)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) and Reach Sensitivity Index (RSI) data for Puerto Rico. ESI data characterize estuarine...

  19. Puerto Rico ESI/RSI: BENTHIC (Benthic Marine Habitats)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) and Reach Sensitivity Index (RSI) data for Puerto Rico. ESI data characterize estuarine...

  20. Puerto Rico ESI/RSI: MGT (Management Areas)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) and Reach Sensitivity Index (RSI) data for Puerto Rico. ESI data characterize estuarine...

  1. Puerto Rico ESI/RSI: INVERT (Invertebrate Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) and Reach Sensitivity Index (RSI) data for Puerto Rico. ESI data characterize estuarine...

  2. National Status and Trends: Guanica, Puerto Rico Contaminants Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project assesses chemical contaminant status in sediment and coral tissues (Porites astroides) collected in and around Guanica Bay, Puerto Rico in 2009....

  3. 75 FR 68393 - Puerto Rico Disaster # PR-00011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-05

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12366 and 12367] Puerto Rico Disaster PR-00011 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster [[Page 68394

  4. Particulate Air Contamination in Puerto Rico: A Student Involvement Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckert, Richard R.

    1979-01-01

    Describes a research project undertaken by physics undergraduate students to monitor particulate air contamination in Ponce, Puerto Rico, and to determine the meteorological factors which contribute to it. (GA)

  5. Summit to Sea Characterization of Coastal Watersheds - Puerto Rico 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This Characterization of Coastal Watershed for Puerto Rico, Culebra Island and Vieques Island, is a GIS products suite consisting of layers derived from diverse...

  6. Fajardo, Puerto Rico Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Fajardo, Puerto Rico Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) model....

  7. Ponce, Puerto Rico Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Ponce, Puerto Rico Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) model....

  8. Shallow-Water Benthic Habitats of Southwest Puerto Rico

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Shallow-water (<30m) benthic habitat maps of the nearshore marine environment of two areas in Southwest Puerto Rico (PR), including the Guanica Bay/La Parguera...

  9. Puerto Rico ESI/RSI: INVERT (Invertebrate Lines)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) and Reach Sensitivity Index (RSI) data for Puerto Rico. ESI data characterize estuarine...

  10. Arecibo, Puerto Rico Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Arecibo, Puerto Rico Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) model....

  11. San Juan, Puerto Rico Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The San Juan, Puerto Rico Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) model....

  12. Puerto Rico ESI/RSI: FISHL (Fish Lines)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) and Reach Sensitivity Index (RSI) data for Puerto Rico. ESI data characterize estuarine...

  13. Puerto Rico ESI/RSI: REPTILES (Reptiles and Amphibians)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) and Reach Sensitivity Index (RSI) data for Puerto Rico. ESI data characterize estuarine...

  14. Rainfall-induced landslide susceptibility zonation of Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiara Lepore; Sameer A. Kamal; Peter Shanahan; Rafael L. Bras

    2011-01-01

    Landslides are a major geologic hazard with estimated tens of deaths and $1–2 billion in economic losses per year in the US alone. The island of Puerto Rico experiences one or two large events per year, often triggered in steeply sloped areas by prolonged and heavy rainfall. Identifying areas susceptible to landslides thus has great potential value for Puerto Rico and...

  15. 20 CFR 404.1089 - Figuring net earnings for residents and nonresidents of Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... nonresidents of Puerto Rico. 404.1089 Section 404.1089 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION... Puerto Rico. (a) Residents. If you are a resident of Puerto Rico, whether or not you are an alien, a citizen of the United States, or a citizen of Puerto Rico, you must figure your net earnings from self...

  16. [Terra Mariana 1186-1888 : albums un komentāri] / Kristīne Ante, Reinis Norkārkls

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ante, Kristīne, 1977-

    2015-01-01

    Arvustus: Terra Mariana 1186-1888 : albums un komentāri = Album und Kommentare = album and comments = album i komentarze = album ja kommentaarid. 2 Bde.Hrsg. von Latvijas Nacionālā bibliotēka in Verbindung mit der Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana. Wiss. Redaktion von Andris Lewans in Zusammenarbeit mit Henrichs Soms, Andris Vilks u.a. (Codices e Vaticanis selecti. Series minor, 16.) Modena 2013

  17. Skin cancer in Puerto Rico: a multiannual incidence comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Torre-Lugo, Eneida M; Figueroa, Luz D; Sánchez, Jorge L; Morales-Burgos, Adisbeth; Conde, Daniel

    2010-09-01

    The incidence of skin cancer continues to increase worldwide. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of skin cancer in Puerto Rico in a selected year (2005) and to compare these findings with those previously reported for Puerto Rico in 1974 and 1981 and with other countries. The data was collected from the pathology reports corresponding to the period of January to December 2005 of 21 participating Pathology Laboratories throughout Puerto Rico. The rate and distribution of the main types of skin cancer was calculated based on sex, age, anatomic location and laterality. The incidence of skin cancer in Puerto Rico for 2005 was 6,568 cases, which represent a rate of 167.9 per 100,000 inhabitants. The most common type of skin cancer was basal-cell carcinoma. Skin cancer was more common in males except for melanoma, which was more common in females. The incidence increases with age on all types of skin cancer. The head and neck area was the most frequent location, except for melanoma in women, which was more common on the legs. The incidence rate was 41.5/100,000 in 1974, 52.5/100,000 in 1981 and 167.9/100,000 in 2005, a 305% increase. We found an increasing incidence of skin cancer in Puerto Rico when compared with previous reported data. This analysis provides a comprehensive evaluation of the epidemiology of skin cancer in Puerto Rico.

  18. Benthic Habitats of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands;Photomosaic of Puerto Rico (Salinas), 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photographs using the Habitat Digitizer Extension. Aerial...

  19. Benthic Habitats of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands;Photomosaic of Puerto Rico (Maunabo), 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photographs using the Habitat Digitizer Extension. Aerial...

  20. Benthic Habitats of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands; Photomosaic of Puerto Rico (Isla de Mona), 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photographs using the Habitat Digitizer Extension. Aerial...

  1. Benthic Habitats of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands; Photomosaic of Puerto Rico (Ceiba), 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photographs using the Habitat Digitizer Extension. Aerial...

  2. Benthic Habitats of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands;Photomosaic of Puerto Rico (Luquillo), 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photographs using the Habitat Digitizer Extension. Aerial...

  3. Benthic Habitats of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands; Photomosaic of Puerto Rico (Maunabo), 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photographs using the Habitat Digitizer Extension. Aerial...

  4. Benthic Habitats of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands; Photomosaic of Puerto Rico (Isla de Desecheo), 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photographs using the Habitat Digitizer Extension. Aerial...

  5. Benthic Habitats of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands; Photomosaic of Puerto Rico (Barceloneta), 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photographs using the Habitat Digitizer Extension. Aerial...

  6. Benthic Habitats of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands; Photomosaic of Puerto Rico (San Juan), 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photographs using the Habitat Digitizer Extension. Aerial...

  7. Benthic Habitats of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands; Photomosaic of Puerto Rico (Salinas), 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photographs using the Habitat Digitizer Extension. Aerial...

  8. Benthic Habitats of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands;Photomosaic of Puerto Rico (Barcelon), 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photographs using the Habitat Digitizer Extension. Aerial...

  9. Benthic Habitats of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands;Photomosaic of Puerto Rico (Arroyo), 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photographs using the Habitat Digitizer Extension. Aerial...

  10. Benthic Habitats of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands;Photomosaic of Puerto Rico (East Culebra), 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photographs using the Habitat Digitizer Extension. Aerial...

  11. Benthic Habitats of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands;Photomosaic of Puerto Rico (La Pargue), 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photographs using the Habitat Digitizer Extension. Aerial...

  12. Benthic Habitats of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands;Photomosaic of Puerto Rico (Candelero), 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photographs using the Habitat Digitizer Extension. Aerial...

  13. Benthic Habitats of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands; Photomosaic of Puerto Rico (Rincon), 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photographs using the Habitat Digitizer Extension. Aerial...

  14. Benthic Habitats of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands;Photomosaic of Puerto Rico (Guayanil), 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photographs using the Habitat Digitizer Extension. Aerial...

  15. Benthic Habitats of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands; Photomosaic of Puerto Rico (La Parguera), 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photographs using the Habitat Digitizer Extension. Aerial...

  16. Benthic Habitats of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands; Photomosaic of Puerto Rico (Mayaguez), 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photographs using the Habitat Digitizer Extension. Aerial...

  17. Benthic Habitats of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands;Photomosaic of Puerto Rico (Cabo Rojo), 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photographs using the Habitat Digitizer Extension. Aerial...

  18. Benthic Habitats of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands; Photomosaic of Puerto Rico (Cabo Rojo), 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photographs using the Habitat Digitizer Extension. Aerial...

  19. Benthic Habitats of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands; Photomosaic of Puerto Rico (East Culebra), 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photographs using the Habitat Digitizer Extension. Aerial...

  20. Benthic Habitats of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands; Photomosaic of Puerto Rico (Isla de Vieques), 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photographs using the Habitat Digitizer Extension. Aerial...

  1. Benthic Habitats of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands; Photomosaic of Puerto Rico (Isla de Culebra), 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photographs using the Habitat Digitizer Extension. Aerial...

  2. Benthic Habitats of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands; Photomosaic of Puerto Rico (Ponce), 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photographs using the Habitat Digitizer Extension. Aerial...

  3. Benthic Habitats of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands; Photomosaic of Puerto Rico (Isabela), 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photographs using the Habitat Digitizer Extension. Aerial...

  4. Benthic Habitats of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands; Photomosaic of Puerto Rico (Candelero), 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photographs using the Habitat Digitizer Extension. Aerial...

  5. Benthic Habitats of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands; Photomosaic of Puerto Rico (Arroyo), 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photographs using the Habitat Digitizer Extension. Aerial...

  6. Regional sulfate-hematite-sulfide zoning in the auriferous Mariana anticline, Quadrilátero Ferrífero of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, Alexandre Raphael; Koglin, Nikola; Strauss, Harald; Brätz, Helene; Kwitko-Ribeiro, Rogerio

    2013-10-01

    The distribution of mineral deposits, characterised as barite deposits, hematite-rich auriferous deposits and auriferous tourmaline-sulfide deposits, displays a regional sulfate-hematite-sulfide zoning along the thrust-delineated limbs of the Mariana anticline, in the south-eastern part of the Quadrilátero Ferrífero of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Cross-cut relationships of barite veins and sulfide lodes indicate that sulfidation occurred in a late-tectonic context, which is here attributed to the collapse of the ˜0.6-Ga Brasiliano thrust front. Reconnaissance S-isotopic data from barite and pyrite (Antônio Pereira barite deposit and its adjacent gold deposit, respectively), and arsenopyrite (Passagem de Mariana gold deposit), suggest a new interpretation for the hydrothermal fluid overprint in the Mariana anticline. The Antônio Pereira barite has Δ33S values that are near zero, constraining the sulfate source to rocks younger than 2.45 Ga. The barite-δ34S values are between +19.6 and +20.8 ‰. The Passagem arsenopyrite and tourmaline have Co/Ni ratios that define a positive linear trend with the Antônio Pereira pyrite. The latter has homogenous δ34S values, between +8.8 and +8.9 ‰, which are compatible with thermochemical reduction of aqueous sulfate with the S-isotopic composition of the Antônio Pereira barite.

  7. Invasive cancer incidence - Puerto Rico, 2007-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Mary Elizabeth; Henley, S Jane; Singh, Simple D; Wilson, Reda J; Ortiz-Ortiz, Karen J; Ríos, Naydi Pérez; Torres Cintrón, Carlos R; Luna, Guillermo Tortolero; Zavala Zegarra, Diego E; Ryerson, A Blythe

    2015-04-17

    Cancer is a leading cause of morbidity and death in Puerto Rico. To set a baseline for identifying new trends and patterns of cancer incidence, Puerto Rico Central Cancer Registry staff and CDC analyzed data from Puerto Rico included in U.S. Cancer Statistics (USCS) for 2007-2011, the most recent data available. This is the first report of invasive cancer incidence rates for 2007-2011 among Puerto Rican residents by sex, age, cancer site, and municipality. Cancer incidence rates in Puerto Rico were compared with those in the U.S. population for 2011. A total of 68,312 invasive cancers were diagnosed and reported in Puerto Rico during 2007-2011. The average annual incidence rate was 330 cases per 100,000 persons. The cancer sites with the highest cancer incidence rates included prostate (152), female breast (84), and colon and rectum (43). Cancer incidence rates varied by municipality, particularly for prostate, lung and bronchus, and colon and rectum cancers. In 2011, cancer incidence rates in Puerto Rico were lower for all cancer sites and lung and bronchus, but higher for prostate and thyroid cancers, compared with rates within the U.S. Identifying these variations can aid evaluation of factors associated with high incidence, such as cancer screening practices, and development of targeted cancer prevention and control efforts. Public health professionals can monitor cancer incidence trends and use these findings to evaluate the impact of prevention efforts, such as legislation prohibiting tobacco use in the workplace and public places and the Puerto Rico Cessation Quitline in decreasing lung and other tobacco-related cancers.

  8. Puerto Rico and Florida manatees represent genetically distinct groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Margaret E.; Mignucci-Giannoni, Antonio A.; Tucker, Kimberly Pause; King, Timothy L.; Bonde, Robert K.; Gray, Brian A.; McGuire, Peter M.

    2012-01-01

    The West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus) populations in Florida (T. m. latirostris) and Puerto Rico (T. m. manatus) are considered distinct subspecies and are listed together as endangered under the United States Endangered Species Act. Sustained management and conservation efforts for the Florida subspecies have led to the suggested reclassification of the species to a threatened or delisted status. However, the two populations are geographically distant, morphologically distinct, and habitat degradation and boat strikes continue to threaten the Puerto Rico population. Here, 15 microsatellite markers and mitochondrial control region sequences were used to determine the relatedness of the two populations and investigate the genetic diversity and phylogeographic organization of the Puerto Rico population. Highly divergent allele frequencies were identified between Florida and Puerto Rico using microsatellite (F ST = 0.16; R ST = 0.12 (P ST = 0.66; Φ ST = 0.50 (P E = 0.45; NA = 3.9), were similar, but lower than those previously identified in Florida (HE = 0.48, NA = 4.8). Within Puerto Rico, the mitochondrial genetic diversity values (π = 0.001; h = 0.49) were slightly lower than those previously reported (π = 0.002; h = 0.54) and strong phylogeographic structure was identified (F ST global = 0.82; Φ ST global = 0.78 (P population size (N = 250), and distinct threats and habitat emphasize the need for separate protections in Puerto Rico. Conservation efforts including threat mitigation, migration corridors, and protection of subpopulations could lead to improved genetic variation in the endangered Puerto Rico manatee population.

  9. Northern Ireland gas industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, R S [Belfast City Council Gas Dept.; Asquith, R S; Brown, J M; McKay, G

    1977-07-01

    Throughout Northern Ireland the production of town gas is derived from hydrocarbon feedstocks. In the larger undertakings in Northern Ireland the feedstock is light distillate; a light petroleum feedstock which is a crude gasoline comprised mainly of pentanes, reformed in catalytic plants. The remaining gas undertakings produce a liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)/air mixture using a mixture of either butane or propane and air. The individual gas units and the type of reforming feedstock are shown. A review of the oil-dependence of town gas and electricity production in Northern Ireland has been considered and is mainly responsible for the high fuel prices experienced in the community. A detailed description of the reforming process has been described, and considerable efforts have been made to optimize the process. In spite of substantial economic savings being made on the processing unit, the gas industry is very susceptible to the changes in oil prices which have escalated rapidly in recent years. The difference in gas prices between the United Kingdom and Northern Ireland indicates that North Sea gas would offer major economic benefits to the gas industry in Northern Ireland, which is operating at a substantial loss at the moment. The industrial concerns, which are dependent on gas and therefore paying high fuel costs, suffer in competition with outside companies. The injection of a moderately cheap natural gas supply to the community may encourage industrial expansion and provide work in a high unemployment area. Although substantial costs must be incurred in distribution pipelines and burner conversions if Northern Ireland changes to natural gas, there appears to be a strong case to introduce North Sea gas in the near future.

  10. Northern blotting analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josefsen, Knud; Nielsen, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Northern blotting analysis is a classical method for analysis of the size and steady-state level of a specific RNA in a complex sample. In short, the RNA is size-fractionated by gel electrophoresis and transferred by blotting onto a membrane to which the RNA is covalently bound. Then, the membrane...... is analysed by hybridization to one or more specific probes that are labelled for subsequent detection. Northern blotting is relatively simple to perform, inexpensive, and not plagued by artefacts. Recent developments of hybridization membranes and buffers have resulted in increased sensitivity closing...

  11. Source, Use, and Disposition of Freshwater in Puerto Rico, 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Rivera, Wanda L.

    2010-01-01

    Water diverted from streams and pumped from wells constitutes the main sources of water for the 78 municipios of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. A better understanding is needed about water-use patterns, particularly about the amount of water used, where and how this water is used and disposed, and how human activities impact water resources. Irrigation practices, indoor and outdoor household uses, industrial uses, and commercial and mining withdrawals affect reservoirs, streams, and aquifers. Accurate and accessible water information for Puerto Rico is critical to ensure that water managers have the ability to protect and conserve this natural resource. The population of Puerto Rico increased 15 percent, from 3.4 million in 1985 to 3.9 million people 2005 and resulted in an increased demand for freshwater, mostly for the public-supply water use category. Almost 99 percent of the residents in Puerto Rico were served by public-supply water systems in 2005. One of the major challenges that water managers confront is the need to provide sufficient freshwater availability in the densely populated areas. Public-supply water is provided by the Puerto Rico Aqueducts and Sewers Authority (PRASA) and by non-PRASA systems. Non-PRASA systems refer to community-operated water systems (water systems that serve a rural or suburban housing area).

  12. Ultramafic clasts from the South Chamorro serpentine mud volcano reveal a polyphase serpentinization history of the Mariana forearc mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahl, Wolf-Achim; Jöns, Niels; Bach, Wolfgang; Klein, Frieder; Alt, Jeffrey C.

    2015-06-01

    Serpentine seamounts located on the outer half of the pervasively fractured Mariana forearc provide an excellent window into the forearc devolatilization processes, which can strongly influence the cycling of volatiles and trace elements in subduction zones. Serpentinized ultramafic clasts recovered from an active mud volcano in the Mariana forearc reveal microstructures, mineral assemblages and compositions that are indicative of a complex polyphase alteration history. Petrologic phase relations and oxygen isotopes suggest that ultramafic clasts were serpentinized at temperatures below 200 °C. Several successive serpentinization events represented by different vein generations with distinct trace element contents can be recognized. Measured in situ Rb/Cs ratios are fairly uniform ranging between 1 and 10, which is consistent with Cs mobilization from sediments at lower temperatures and lends further credence to the low-temperature conditions proposed in models of the thermal structure in forearc settings. Late veins show lower fluid mobile element (FME) concentrations than early veins, suggesting a decreasing influence of fluid discharge from the subducting slab on the composition of the serpentinizing fluids. The continuous microfabric and mineral chemical evolution observed in the ultramafic clasts may have implications as to the origin and nature of the serpentinizing fluids. We hypothesize that opal and smectite dehydration produce quartz-saturated fluids with high FME contents and Rb/Cs between 1 and 4 that cause the early pervasive serpentinization. The partially serpentinized material may then be eroded from the basal plane of the suprasubduction mantle wedge. Serpentinization continued but the interacting fluids did not carry a pronounced sedimentary signature, either because FMEs were no longer released from the slab, or due to an en route loss of FMEs. Late chrysotile veins that document the increased access of fluids in a now fluid-dominated regime are

  13. Philippine Sea Plate inception, evolution, and consumption with special emphasis on the early stages of Izu-Bonin-Mariana subduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lallemand, Serge

    2016-12-01

    We compiled the most relevant data acquired throughout the Philippine Sea Plate (PSP) from the early expeditions to the most recent. We also analyzed the various explanatory models in light of this updated dataset. The following main conclusions are discussed in this study. (1) The Izanagi slab detachment beneath the East Asia margin around 60-55 Ma likely triggered the Oki-Daito plume occurrence, Mesozoic proto-PSP splitting, shortening and then failure across the paleo-transform boundary between the proto-PSP and the Pacific Plate, Izu-Bonin-Mariana subduction initiation and ultimately PSP inception. (2) The initial splitting phase of the composite proto-PSP under the plume influence at ˜54-48 Ma led to the formation of the long-lived West Philippine Basin and short-lived oceanic basins, part of whose crust has been ambiguously called "fore-arc basalts" (FABs). (3) Shortening across the paleo-transform boundary evolved into thrusting within the Pacific Plate at ˜52-50 Ma, allowing it to subduct beneath the newly formed PSP, which was composed of an alternance of thick Mesozoic terranes and thin oceanic lithosphere. (4) The first magmas rising from the shallow mantle corner, after being hydrated by the subducting Pacific crust beneath the young oceanic crust near the upper plate spreading centers at ˜49-48 Ma were boninites. Both the so-called FABs and the boninites formed at a significant distance from the incipient trench, not in a fore-arc position as previously claimed. The magmas erupted for 15 m.y. in some places, probably near the intersections between back-arc spreading centers and the arc. (5) As the Pacific crust reached greater depths and the oceanic basins cooled and thickened at ˜44-45 Ma, the composition of the lavas evolved into high-Mg andesites and then arc tholeiites and calc-alkaline andesites. (6) Tectonic erosion processes removed about 150-200 km of frontal margin during the Neogene, consuming most or all of the Pacific ophiolite

  14. Stable isotope compositions of serpentinite seamounts in the Mariana forearc: Serpentinization processes, fluid sources and sulfur metasomatism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alt, J.C.; Shanks, Wayne C.

    2006-01-01

    The Mariana and Izu-Bonin arcs in the western Pacific are characterized by serpentinite seamounts in the forearc that provide unique windows into the mantle wedge. We present stable isotope (O, H, S, and C) data for serpentinites from Conical seamount in the Mariana forearc and S isotope data for Torishima seamount in the Izu-Bonin forearc in order to understand the compositions of fluids and temperatures of serpentinization in the mantle wedge, and to investigate the transport of sulfur from the slab to the mantle wedge. Six serpentine mineral separates have a restricted range of ??18O (6.5-8.5???). Antigorite separates have ??D values of -29.5??? to -45.5??? that reflect serpentinization within the mantle wedge whereas chrysotile has low ??D values (-51.8??? to -84.0???) as the result of re-equilibration with fluids at low temperatures. Fractionation of oxygen isotopes between serpentine and magnetite indicate serpentinization temperatures of 300-375 ??C. Two late cross-fiber chrysotile veins have higher ??18O values of 8.9??? to 10.8??? and formed at lower temperatures (as low as ???100 ??C). Aqueous fluids in equilibrium with serpentine at 300-375 ??C had ??18O = 6.5-9??? and ??D = -4??? to -26???, consistent with sediment dehydration reactions at temperatures aragonite veins in metabasalt and siltstone clasts within the serpentinite flows have ??18O = 16.7-24.5???, consistent with the serpentinizing fluids at temperatures <250 ??C. ??13C values of 0.1-2.5??? suggest a source in subducting carbonate sediments. The ??34S values of sulfide in serpentinites on Conical Seamount (-6.7??? to 9.8???) result from metasomatism through variable reduction of aqueous sulfate (??34S = 14???) derived from slab sediments. Despite sulfur metasomatism, serpentinites have low sulfur contents (generally < 164 ppm) that reflect the highly depleted nature of the mantle wedge. The serpentinites are mostly enriched in 34S (median ??34Ssulfide = 4.5???), consistent with a 34S

  15. Needle age and season influence photosynthetic temperature response and total annual carbon uptake in mature Picea mariana trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Anna M.; Warren, Jeffrey M.; Hanson, Paul J.; Childs, Joanne; Wullschleger, Stan D.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims The carbon (C) balance of boreal terrestrial ecosystems is sensitive to increasing temperature, but the direction and thresholds of responses are uncertain. Annual C uptake in Picea and other evergreen boreal conifers is dependent on seasonal- and cohort-specific photosynthetic and respiratory temperature response functions, so this study examined the physiological significance of maintaining multiple foliar cohorts for Picea mariana trees within an ombrotrophic bog ecosystem in Minnesota, USA. Methods Measurements were taken on multiple cohorts of needles for photosynthetic capacity, foliar respiration (Rd) and leaf biochemistry and morphology of mature trees from April to October over 4 years. The results were applied to a simple model of canopy photosynthesis in order to simulate annual C uptake by cohort age under ambient and elevated temperature scenarios. Key Results Temperature responses of key photosynthetic parameters [i.e. light-saturated rate of CO2 assimilation (Asat), rate of Rubisco carboxylation (Vcmax) and electron transport rate (Jmax)] were dependent on season and generally less responsive in the developing current-year (Y0) needles compared with 1-year-old (Y1) or 2-year-old (Y2) foliage. Temperature optimums ranged from 18·7 to 23·7, 31·3 to 38·3 and 28·7 to 36·7 °C for Asat, Vcmax and Jmax, respectively. Foliar cohorts differed in their morphology and photosynthetic capacity, which resulted in 64 % of modelled annual stand C uptake from Y1&2 cohorts (LAI 0·67 m2 m−2) and just 36 % from Y0 cohorts (LAI 0·52 m2 m−2). Under warmer climate change scenarios, the contribution of Y0 cohorts was even less; e.g. 31 % of annual C uptake for a modelled 9 °C rise in mean summer temperatures. Results suggest that net annual C uptake by P. mariana could increase under elevated temperature, and become more dependent on older foliar cohorts. Conclusions Collectively, this study illustrates the physiological and

  16. Northern blotting analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josefsen, Knud; Nielsen, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    is analysed by hybridization to one or more specific probes that are labelled for subsequent detection. Northern blotting is relatively simple to perform, inexpensive, and not plagued by artefacts. Recent developments of hybridization membranes and buffers have resulted in increased sensitivity closing...

  17. insurgencies in northern Uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Criminal Court (ICC) investigations into the LRA activities. ... and the rebel movements in northern Uganda, see Human Rights Watch 2003, and ... the ICC, Luis Moreno Ocampo, met at Hotel Intercontinental, Hyde Park, London, ..... expunge criminal liability for war crimes and crimes against humanity, appear.

  18. Mosaic of 10 m gridded multibeam bathymetry and bathymetry derived from multispectral IKONOS satellite imagery of Alamagan Island, Commonwealth of Northern Mariana Islands, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded multibeam bathymetry is integrated with bathymetry derived from multispectral IKONOS satellite data. Gridded (10 m cell size) multibeam bathymetry collected...

  19. Mosaic of 10 m gridded multibeam bathymetry and bathymetry derived from multispectral IKONOS satellite imagery of Asuncion Island, Commonwealth of the Northern Marianas Islands, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded multibeam bathymetry is integrated with bathymetry derived from multpectral IKONOS satellite data. Gridded (10 m cell size) multibeam bathymetry collected...

  20. Mosaic of 5 m gridded multibeam bathymetry and bathymetry derived from multispectral IKONOS satellite imagery of Alamagan Island, Commonwealth of Northern Mariana Islands, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded multibeam bathymetry is integrated with bathymetry derived from multispectral IKONOS satellite data. Gridded (5 m cell size) multibeam bathymetry collected...

  1. Mosaic of 10 m gridded multibeam bathymetry and bathymetry derived from multispectral IKONOS satellite imagery of Maug Island, Commonwealth of the Northern Marianas Islands, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded multibeam bathymetry is integrated with bathymetry derived from multpectral IKONOS satellite data. Gridded (5m and 10 m cell size) multibeam bathymetry...

  2. Mosaic of 5 m gridded multibeam bathymetry and bathymetry derived from multispectral IKONOS satellite imagery of Asuncion Island, Commonwealth of the Northern Marianas Islands, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded multibeam bathymetry is integrated with bathymetry derived from multpectral IKONOS satellite data. Gridded (5 m cell size) multibeam bathymetry collected...

  3. Mosaic of 5 m gridded multibeam bathymetry and bathymetry derived from multispectral IKONOS satellite imagery of Maug Island, Commonwealth of the Northern Marianas Islands, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded multibeam bathymetry is integrated with bathymetry derived from multpectral IKONOS satellite data. Gridded (5m and 10 m cell size) multibeam bathymetry...

  4. CRED Shallow CTD Profiles; Pagan, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands; Cruise: HI0903, Data Date Range: 20090422-20090424 (NODC Accession 0039382).

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED shallow Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts are vertical profiles (max 30 meter depth, downcast only) of temperature, conductivity and pressure. Data are...

  5. CRED Shallow CTD Profiles; Alamagan, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands; Cruise: HI0703, Data Date Range: 20070527-20070528 (NODC Accession 0039382).

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED shallow Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts are vertical profiles (max 30 meter depth, downcast only) of temperature, conductivity and pressure. Data are...

  6. CRED Shallow CTD Profiles; Tinian, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands; Cruise: HI0902, Data Date Range: 20090411-20090413 (NODC Accession 0039382).

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED shallow Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts are vertical profiles (max 30 meter depth, downcast only) of temperature, conductivity and pressure. Data are...

  7. CRED Shallow CTD Profiles; Asuncion Island, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands; Cruise: HA1101_LEGII, Data Date Range: 20110414-20110414. (NODC Accession 0107470)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED shallow Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts are vertical profiles (max 30 meter depth, downcast only) of temperature, conductivity and pressure. Data are...

  8. Habitat Zone, Cover and Structure Maps of the Farallon de Pajaros, Northern Mariana Archipelago 2001-2003, Derived From IKONOS Imagery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project is a cooperative effort between the National Ocean Service, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science, Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment,...

  9. Habitat Zone, Cover and Structure Maps of the Farallon de Medinilla, Northern Mariana Archipelago 2001-2003, Derived From IKONOS Imagery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project is a cooperative effort between the National Ocean Service, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science, Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment,...

  10. CRED Shallow CTD Profiles; Pagan, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands; Cruise: OES0307, Data Date Range: 20030825-20030908 (NODC Accession 0039382).

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED shallow Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts are vertical profiles (max 30 meter depth, downcast only) of temperature, conductivity and pressure. Data are...

  11. CRED Shallow CTD Profiles; Rota, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands; Cruise: OES0511, Data Date Range: 20050929-20050930 (NODC Accession 0039382).

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED shallow Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts are vertical profiles (max 30 meter depth, downcast only) of temperature, conductivity and pressure. Data are...

  12. CRED Shallow CTD Profiles; Saipan, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands; Cruise: HA1101_LEGIII, Data Date Range: 20110430-20110430. (NODC Accession 0107470)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED shallow Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts are vertical profiles (max 30 meter depth, downcast only) of temperature, conductivity and pressure. Data are...

  13. CRED Shallow CTD Profiles; Maug, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands; Cruise: OES0307, Data Date Range: 20030901-20030904 (NODC Accession 0039382).

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED shallow Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts are vertical profiles (max 30 meter depth, downcast only) of temperature, conductivity and pressure. Data are...

  14. Guam and Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI) Benthic Habitat Maps Prepared by Visual Interpretation from IKONOS satellite imagery procured by NOAA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project is a cooperative effort among the National Ocean Service, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science, Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment; the...

  15. Bathymetric Position Index (BPI) Structures 10 m grid derived from gridded bathymetry of Supply Reef, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), USA.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — BPI Structures are derived from two scales of a focal mean analysis on bathymetry and slope. The grid is based on gridded (10 m cell size) multibeam bathymetry,...

  16. CRED Shallow CTD Profiles; Sarigan, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands; Cruise: HI0903, Data Date Range: 20090420-20090421 (NODC Accession 0039382).

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED shallow Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts are vertical profiles (max 30 meter depth, downcast only) of temperature, conductivity and pressure. Data are...

  17. CRED Shallow CTD Profiles; Rota, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands; Cruise: HI0702, Data Date Range: 20070515-20070517 (NODC Accession 0039382).

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED shallow Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts are vertical profiles (max 30 meter depth, downcast only) of temperature, conductivity and pressure. Data are...

  18. CRED Shallow CTD Profiles; Anatahan, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands; Cruise: OES0511, Data Date Range: 20050922-20050923 (NODC Accession 0039382).

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED shallow Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts are vertical profiles (max 30 meter depth, downcast only) of temperature, conductivity and pressure. Data are...

  19. CRED Shallow CTD Profiles; Guguan, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands; Cruise: HI0903, Data Date Range: 20090504-20090505 (NODC Accession 0039382).

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED shallow Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts are vertical profiles (max 30 meter depth, downcast only) of temperature, conductivity and pressure. Data are...

  20. CRED Shallow CTD Profiles; Saipan, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands; Cruise: HI0903, Data Date Range: 20090414-20090420 (NODC Accession 0039382).

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED shallow Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts are vertical profiles (max 30 meter depth, downcast only) of temperature, conductivity and pressure. Data are...

  1. CRED Shallow CTD Profiles; Agrihan, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands; Cruise: HA1101_LEGII, Data Date Range: 20110420-20110422. (NODC Accession 0107470)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED shallow Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts are vertical profiles (max 30 meter depth, downcast only) of temperature, conductivity and pressure. Data are...

  2. CRED Shallow CTD Profiles; Pagan, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands; Cruise: OES0307, Data Date Range: 20030912-20030912 (NODC Accession 0039382).

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED shallow Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts are vertical profiles (max 30 meter depth, downcast only) of temperature, conductivity and pressure. Data are...

  3. CRED Shallow CTD Profiles; Farallon de Pajaros, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands; Cruise: OES0307, Data Date Range: 20030830-20030830 (NODC Accession 0039382).

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED shallow Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts are vertical profiles (max 30 meter depth, downcast only) of temperature, conductivity and pressure. Data are...

  4. CRED Shallow CTD Profiles; Guguan, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands; Cruise: OES0307, Data Date Range: 20030910-20030911 (NODC Accession 0039382).

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED shallow Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts are vertical profiles (max 30 meter depth, downcast only) of temperature, conductivity and pressure. Data are...

  5. CRED Shallow CTD Profiles; Saipan, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands; Cruise: HA1101_LEGII, Data Date Range: 20110407-20110426. (NODC Accession 0107470)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED shallow Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts are vertical profiles (max 30 meter depth, downcast only) of temperature, conductivity and pressure. Data are...

  6. CRED Shallow CTD Profiles; Asuncion Island, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands; Cruise: HI0703, Data Date Range: 20070603-20070604 (NODC Accession 0039382).

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED shallow Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts are vertical profiles (max 30 meter depth, downcast only) of temperature, conductivity and pressure. Data are...

  7. CRED Shallow CTD Profiles; Tinian, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands; Cruise: OES0307, Data Date Range: 20030822-20030823 (NODC Accession 0039382).

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED shallow Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts are vertical profiles (max 30 meter depth, downcast only) of temperature, conductivity and pressure. Data are...

  8. NOAA Office for Coastal Management Coastal Inundation Digital Elevation Model: Guam Weather Forecast Office (GUM WFO) - Saipan, Commonwealth of Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data were created as part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Office for Coastal Management's efforts to create an online mapping viewer...

  9. Bathymetric Position Index (BPI) Zones 10 m grid derived from gridded bathymetry of Maug Island, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, USA.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — BPI Zones are derived from a focal mean analysis on bathymetry and slope. The grid is based on gridded (10 m cell size) multibeam bathymetry, collected aboard NOAA...

  10. CRED Shallow CTD Profiles; Agrihan, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands; Cruise: HI0903, Data Date Range: 20090501-20090502 (NODC Accession 0039382).

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED shallow Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts are vertical profiles (max 30 meter depth, downcast only) of temperature, conductivity and pressure. Data are...

  11. CRED Shallow CTD Profiles; Saipan, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands; Cruise: HI0702, Data Date Range: 20070519-20070521 (NODC Accession 0039382).

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED shallow Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts are vertical profiles (max 30 meter depth, downcast only) of temperature, conductivity and pressure. Data are...

  12. CRED Shallow CTD Profiles; Agrihan, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands; Cruise: HI0703, Data Date Range: 20070528-20070529 (NODC Accession 0039382).

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED shallow Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts are vertical profiles (max 30 meter depth, downcast only) of temperature, conductivity and pressure. Data are...

  13. CRED Shallow CTD Profiles; Sarigan, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands; Cruise: HI0703, Data Date Range: 20070525-20070526 (NODC Accession 0039382).

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED shallow Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts are vertical profiles (max 30 meter depth, downcast only) of temperature, conductivity and pressure. Data are...

  14. CRED Shallow CTD Profiles; Anatahan, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands; Cruise: HI0703, Data Date Range: 20070527-20070527 (NODC Accession 0039382).

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED shallow Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts are vertical profiles (max 30 meter depth, downcast only) of temperature, conductivity and pressure. Data are...

  15. Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI) long-term coral reef monitoring from 2011-10-01 to 2014-09-30 (NCEI Accession 0129268)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Currently, the LTMMP has ~50 long-term monitoring sites across Saipan, Tinian, and Rota that are surveyed on a rotating biennial basis. Three main habitat types are...

  16. Bathymetric Position Index (BPI) Structures 5m grid derived from gridded bathymetry of Tinian Island, Aguijan Island and Tatsumi Bank, Commonwealth of the Northern Marianas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — BPI Structures are derived from a focal mean analysis on bathymetry and slope. The bathymetry grid (5 m cell size) is derived from bathymetry from three sources:...

  17. Environmental Assessment: Farallon De Medinilla and Tinian Military Lease Areas, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, Integrated Natural Resources Management Plan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2004-01-01

    ....) and represents an ecosystem-based approach to natural resources management on the MLAs. The INRMP projects were developed in cooperation with the United States Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS...

  18. CRED Shallow CTD Profiles; Rota, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands; Cruise: HA1101_LEGIII, Data Date Range: 20110501-20110502. (NODC Accession 0107470)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED shallow Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts are vertical profiles (max 30 meter depth, downcast only) of temperature, conductivity and pressure. Data are...

  19. An Examination of Visa Free Travel for Russian and Chinese Citizens to U.S. Territories in the Pacific (Guam and the Commonwealth of the Northern Marianas)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    them. Attack him where he is unprepared, appear where you are not expected. ― Sun Tzu , The Art of War How Did They Get In? The events of 9/11...Recommendations ......................................................................................................... 75 BIBLIOGRAPHY ...www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/presidents-waiver-of-new-visa-rules-will- expose-us-to-threats-300218369.html. 78 BIBLIOGRAPHY 80th U.S. Congress

  20. CRED Shallow CTD Profiles; Farallon de Pajaros, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands; Cruise: HI0903, Data Date Range: 20090427-20090428 (NODC Accession 0039382).

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED shallow Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts are vertical profiles (max 30 meter depth, downcast only) of temperature, conductivity and pressure. Data are...

  1. FOREIGN RELATIONS: Migration From Micronesian Nations Has Had Significant Impact on Guam, Hawaii, and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    ... to live and work in the United States. One of these Compacts was enacted in 1986 with the Federated States of Micronesia and the Republic of the Marshall Islands, while the second Compact was implemented in 1994 with the Republic of Palau...

  2. Bathymetric Position Index (BPI) Zones 10 m grid derived from gridded bathymetry of Sarigan Island, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, USA.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — BPI Zones are derived from a focal mean analysis on bathymetry and slope. The grid is based on gridded (10 m cell size) multibeam bathymetry, collected aboard NOAA...

  3. Bathymetric Position Index (BPI) Structures 10 m grid derived from gridded bathymetry of Maug Island, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), USA.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — BPI Structures are derived from two scales of a focal mean analysis on bathymetry and slope. The grid is based on gridded (10 m cell size) multibeam bathymetry,...

  4. CRED Shallow CTD Profiles; Alamagan, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands; Cruise: HI0903, Data Date Range: 20090503-20090504 (NODC Accession 0039382).

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED shallow Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts are vertical profiles (max 30 meter depth, downcast only) of temperature, conductivity and pressure. Data are...

  5. CRED Shallow CTD Profiles; Pagan, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands; Cruise: OES0511, Data Date Range: 20050906-20050908 (NODC Accession 0039382).

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED shallow Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts are vertical profiles (max 30 meter depth, downcast only) of temperature, conductivity and pressure. Data are...

  6. CRED Shallow CTD Profiles; Pagan, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands; Cruise: HI0703, Data Date Range: 20070604-20070606 (NODC Accession 0039382).

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED shallow Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts are vertical profiles (max 30 meter depth, downcast only) of temperature, conductivity and pressure. Data are...

  7. CRED Shallow CTD Profiles; Anatahan, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands; Cruise: HI0903, Data Date Range: 20090506-20090506 (NODC Accession 0039382).

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED shallow Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts are vertical profiles (max 30 meter depth, downcast only) of temperature, conductivity and pressure. Data are...

  8. CRED Shallow CTD Profiles; Saipan, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands; Cruise: OES0511, Data Date Range: 20050903-20050922 (NODC Accession 0039382).

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED shallow Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts are vertical profiles (max 30 meter depth, downcast only) of temperature, conductivity and pressure. Data are...

  9. CRED Shallow CTD Profiles; Asuncion Island, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands; Cruise: OES0307, Data Date Range: 20030904-20030905 (NODC Accession 0039382).

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED shallow Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts are vertical profiles (max 30 meter depth, downcast only) of temperature, conductivity and pressure. Data are...

  10. Oceanographic temperature, salinity and other profiles from CTD and ADCP taken from the Keifu Maru off the Northern Mariana Islands on 2017-02-12 (NCEI Accession 0162265)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Oceanographic observations performed by Japan Meteorological Agency in area under national jurisdiction of the United States. Data were submitted by the Embassy of...

  11. CRED Shallow CTD Profiles; Rota, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands; Cruise: OES0307, Data Date Range: 20030918-20030920 (NODC Accession 0039382).

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED shallow Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts are vertical profiles (max 30 meter depth, downcast only) of temperature, conductivity and pressure. Data are...

  12. CRED Shallow CTD Profiles; Asuncion Island, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands; Cruise: HI0903, Data Date Range: 20090424-20090426 (NODC Accession 0039382).

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED shallow Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts are vertical profiles (max 30 meter depth, downcast only) of temperature, conductivity and pressure. Data are...

  13. CRED Shallow CTD Profiles; Agrihan, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands; Cruise: OES0307, Data Date Range: 20030826-20030906 (NODC Accession 0039382).

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED shallow Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts are vertical profiles (max 30 meter depth, downcast only) of temperature, conductivity and pressure. Data are...

  14. CRED Shallow CTD Profiles; Farallon de Pajaros, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands; Cruise: OES0511, Data Date Range: 20050909-20050910 (NODC Accession 0039382).

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED shallow Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts are vertical profiles (max 30 meter depth, downcast only) of temperature, conductivity and pressure. Data are...

  15. CRED Shallow CTD Profiles; Alamagan, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands; Cruise: OES0511, Data Date Range: 20050915-20050916 (NODC Accession 0039382).

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED shallow Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts are vertical profiles (max 30 meter depth, downcast only) of temperature, conductivity and pressure. Data are...

  16. CRED Shallow CTD Profiles; Maug, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands; Cruise: HI0703, Data Date Range: 20070529-20070531 (NODC Accession 0039382).

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED shallow Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts are vertical profiles (max 30 meter depth, downcast only) of temperature, conductivity and pressure. Data are...

  17. CRED Shallow CTD Profiles; Sarigan, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands; Cruise: OES0511, Data Date Range: 20050917-20050918 (NODC Accession 0039382).

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED shallow Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts are vertical profiles (max 30 meter depth, downcast only) of temperature, conductivity and pressure. Data are...

  18. CRED Shallow CTD Profiles; Pagan, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands; Cruise: HA1101_LEGII, Data Date Range: 20110411-20110413. (NODC Accession 0107470)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED shallow Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts are vertical profiles (max 30 meter depth, downcast only) of temperature, conductivity and pressure. Data are...

  19. CRED Shallow CTD Profiles; Maug, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands; Cruise: HA1101_LEGII, Data Date Range: 20110418-20110420. (NODC Accession 0107470)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED shallow Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts are vertical profiles (max 30 meter depth, downcast only) of temperature, conductivity and pressure. Data are...

  20. CRED Shallow CTD Profiles; Aguijan (Goat Is.), Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands; Cruise: OES0307, Data Date Range: 20030917-20030917 (NODC Accession 0039382).

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED shallow Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts are vertical profiles (max 30 meter depth, downcast only) of temperature, conductivity and pressure. Data are...

  1. CRED Shallow CTD Profiles; Aguijan (Goat Is.), Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands; Cruise: HI0702, Data Date Range: 20070517-20070518 (NODC Accession 0039382).

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED shallow Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts are vertical profiles (max 30 meter depth, downcast only) of temperature, conductivity and pressure. Data are...

  2. CRED Shallow CTD Profiles; Aguijan (Goat Is.), Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands; Cruise: HI0902, Data Date Range: 20090410-20090410 (NODC Accession 0039382).

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED shallow Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts are vertical profiles (max 30 meter depth, downcast only) of temperature, conductivity and pressure. Data are...

  3. CRED Shallow CTD Profiles; Aguijan (Goat Is.), Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands; Cruise: OES0511, Data Date Range: 20050927-20050928 (NODC Accession 0039382).

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED shallow Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts are vertical profiles (max 30 meter depth, downcast only) of temperature, conductivity and pressure. Data are...

  4. 2007 EM300 and EM3002D Multibeam Sonar Data from Cruise Hi'ialakai HI0703 - Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — EM300 and EM3002D multibeam Data were collected from May 25-June 9, 2007, aboard NOAA Ship Hi'ialakai at Saipan Island, Tinian Island, Sarigan Island, Zealandia...

  5. 2007 EM300 and EM3002D Multibeam Sonar Data from Cruise Hi'ialakai HI0702 - Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — EM300 and EM3002D multibeam Data were collected from May 12-22, 2007, aboard NOAA Ship Hi'ialakai at Santa Rosa Reef, Guam Island, Rota Island, Aguijan Island,...

  6. Bathymetric Position Index (BPI) Structures 10 m grid derived from gridded bathymetry of Alamagan Island, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), USA.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — BPI Structures are derived from two scales of a focal mean analysis on bathymetry and slope. The grid is based on gridded (10 m cell size) multibeam bathymetry,...

  7. Bathymetric Position Index (BPI) Zones 10 m grid derived from gridded bathymetry of Asuncion Island, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, USA.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — BPI Zones are derived from a focal mean analysis on bathymetry and slope. The grid is based on gridded (10 m cell size) multibeam bathymetry collected aboard NOAA...

  8. Rugosity grid derived from gridded bathymetry of Thirty-Five Fathom Bank and Thirty-Seven Fathom Bank, Commonwealth of the Northern Marianas.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Rugosity is derived from gridded (5 m cell size) multibeam bathymetry, aboard NOAA Ship Oscar Elton Sette. Cell values reflect the (surface area) / (planimetric...

  9. Slope 10 m grid derived from gridded bathymetry of Farallon de Pajaros (Uracas) Island, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Slope is derived from gridded (10 m cell size) multibeam bathymetry, collected aboard NOAA Ship Hiialaka'i and R/V AHI. Cell values reflect the maximum rate of...

  10. 2016 Cartographic Boundary File, 2010 Urban Areas (UA) within 2010 County and Equivalent for Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, 1:500,000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The 2016 cartographic boundary KMLs are simplified representations of selected geographic areas from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master Address File / Topologically...

  11. Bathymetric Position Index (BPI) Zones derived from gridded bathymetry of Farallon de Medinilla (FDM), Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana (CNMI), USA.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — BPI Zones are derived from a focal mean analysis on bathymetry and slope. The grid is derived from gridded (5 m cell size) bathymetry and was created using the...

  12. Bathymetric Position Index (BPI) Structures derived from gridded bathymetry of Farallon de Medinilla (FDM), Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana (CNMI), USA.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — BPI Structures are derived from two scales of a focal mean analysis on bathymetry and slope. The grid is based on gridded (5 m cell size) multibeam bathymetry,...

  13. Bathymetric Position Index (BPI) Structures 5 m grid derived from gridded bathymetry of Rota Island, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), USA.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — BPI Structures are derived from two scales of a focal mean analysis on bathymetry and slope. The grid is based on gridded (5 m cell size) multibeam bathymetry,...

  14. Bathymetric Position Index (BPI) Structures 10 m grid derived from gridded bathymetry of Guguan Island, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), USA.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — BPI Structures are derived from two scales of a focal mean analysis on bathymetry and slope. The grid is based on gridded (10 m cell size) multibeam bathymetry,...

  15. Bathymetric Position Index (BPI) Structures 10 m grid derived from gridded bathymetry of Pagan Island, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), USA.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — BPI Structures are derived from two scales of a focal mean analysis on bathymetry and slope. The grid is based on gridded (10 m cell size) multibeam bathymetry,...

  16. Rugosity 10 m grid derived from gridded bathymetry of Farallon de Pajaros (Uracas) Island, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Rugosity is derived from gridded (10 m cell size) multibeam bathymetry, collected aboard NOAA Ship Hiialaka'i and R/V AHI, using the Benthic Terrain Modeler with...

  17. Bathymetric Position Index (BPI) Zones 10 m grid derived from gridded bathymetry of Agrihan Island, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, USA.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — BPI Zones are derived from a focal mean analysis on bathymetry and slope. The grid is based on gridded (10 m cell size) multibeam bathymetry, collected aboard NOAA...

  18. Bathymetric Position Index (BPI) Structures 10 m grid derived from gridded bathymetry of Asuncion Island, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), USA.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — BPI Structures are derived from two scales of a focal mean analysis on bathymetry and slope. The grid is based on gridded (10 m cell size) multibeam bathymetry...

  19. CRED Cumulative Map of Percent Scleractinian Coral Cover along towed camera sled tracks and AUV dive tracks at Rota Island, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This map displays optical validation observation locations and percent coverage of scleractinian coral overlaid on bathymetry. Optical data were collected by CRED...

  20. Bathymetric Position Index (BPI) Zones 5 m grid derived from gridded bathymetry of Rota Island, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, USA.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — BPI Zones are derived from a focal mean analysis on bathymetry and slope. The grid is based on gridded (5 m cell size) multibeam bathymetry, collected aboard NOAA...