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Sample records for ricino melia azedarach

  1. PHYSICAL ANALYSIS OF QUALITY WOOD Melia azedarach

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    T. J. da Silva

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Forest species, in general, present a slow growth, which results and profits can manifest themselves in the long run, it becomes necessary the study and discovery of new species that may provide raw materials and return on invested capital more immediate, being that the Melia azedarach wood is a potential option. In the absence of information about, the objective of this paper is to determine its physical properties: basic density and shrinkage of the Melia azedarach species in the Itapeva-SP region. The data obtained in this study allow to classify wood Melia azedarach as wood of average density and good dimensional stability. Feature that makes it ideal for its use in furniture industry. The low amount of research related to quality of this wood prevents the commercial use of it to achieve its full potential harnessing its effectively, and essential investments in this field.

  2. Potent limonoid insect antifeedant from Melia azedarach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpinella, Cecilia; Ferrayoli, Carlos; Valladares, Graciela; Defago, Maria; Palacios, Sara

    2002-08-01

    Systematic fractionation of a fruit extract from Argentine Melia azedarach L., which was monitored by an insect antifeedant bioassay, led to the isolation of meliartenin, a limonoid antifeedant, which existed as a mixture of two interchangeable isomers. At 4 microg/cm2 and 1 microg/cm2, the isomeric mixture was as active as azadirachtin in strongly inhibiting the larval feeding of Epilachna paenulata Germ. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) and the polyphagous pest, Spodoptera eridania (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), respectively.

  3. Propagação de Melia azedarach L.

    OpenAIRE

    Fevereiro, M.J.; Delgado, F.M.G.

    1996-01-01

    A espécie Melia azedarach L. tem sido cultivada tanto como ornamental, como para aproveitamento da sua madeira para diversos fins. Mas, estudos recentes revelaram que esta espécie contém em vários órgãos (folhas, frutos, sementes e casca) substâncias com potencial utilização no controlo de algumas pragas, compostos estes, que podem obviar alguns dos problemas ambientais causados pelos insecticidas à base de petróleo.

  4. Actividad antibacteriana de extracto de hojas de Melia azedarach L

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    Johanna Norela Rojas Sierra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Título en ingles: Antibacterial activity of leaf extract Melia azedarach L. Resumen: El trabajo tuvo como objetivo evaluar la actividad antibacteriana de extractos de hojas de Melia azedarach L. sobre seis bacterias patógenas. Inicialmente mediante extracción por el método Soxhlet se obtuvo extracto total en etanol y a partir de éste se prepararon fracciones líquido-líquido con éter de petróleo y acetato de etilo. El extracto total y las dos fracciones fueron diluidos a diferentes concentraciones (ppm para evaluar in vitro su actividad antibacteriana.  Las bacterias de mayor susceptibilidad fueron las patógenas de humanos Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa y Klebsiella oxytoca, en relación a la fitopatógena Burkholderia glumae quien mostró resistencia a todos los tratamientos. Las bacterias patógenas fueron más susceptibles a la fracción éter de petróleo a concentración mínima de 25 ppm. El screen fitoquímico de la planta indicó presencia de metabolitos secundarios tipo alcaloides, terpenos/esteroles, saponinas, taninos y antocianinas. Estos resultados evidencian el posible uso de M. azederach como alternativa de control biológico sobre las bacterias analizadas. Palabras clave: bacterias; patógenas; inhibición; extractos. Abstract: The work was objective to evaluate the antibacterial activity of extracts from leaves of Melia azedarach (L on six pathogenic bacteria. Total ethanol extract was obtained initially by extraction with method Soxhlet and from this prepared liquid-liquid fractions with petroleum ether and ethyl acetate. The total extract and the two fractions were diluted at different concentrations (ppm to evaluate its antibacterial activity in vitro.  More susceptible bacteria were the pathogenic human Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella oxytoca, in relation to the plant pathogen Burkholderia glumae who showed resistance to all treatments

  5. Melia azedarach L. extracts and their activity on Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae

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    Marise M. O. Cabral

    Full Text Available Crudes extracts and fractions from seeds of Melia azedarach L. (Meliaceae have been assayed on Musca domestica Linnaeus, 1758 (Diptera: Muscidae. Thus, the post-embryonic development of the flies was reduced and the delay from newly hatched larvae to adults had significant increase. In addition, the pupal weights were reduced and the sexual ratio altered. Toxicity to fly eggs was also observed.

  6. Diversity of polyketides produced by Penicillium species isolated from Melia azedarach and Murraya paniculata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pastre, Renata; Marinho, Andrey M.R.; Rodrigues-Filho, Edson; Souza, Antonia Q.L.; Pereira, Jose Odair

    2007-01-01

    Eight compounds comprising four groups of polyketides, the xanthone fusarindin, the mixed peptide alkaloid-polyketide GKK1032, the anthraquinones crysophanol, citreoveridin and janthinone, and the azaphylones dihydrocitrinone, citrinin and citrinin H-1, were identified in Penicillium species isolated as endophytic fungi from Melia azedarach and Murraya paniculata. The antibacterial activity of the azaphylones was tested and showed that citrinin H-1 is more active than citrinin. (author)

  7. Actividad antialimentaria e insecticida de un extracto de hojas senescentes de Melia azedarach (Meliaceae Antifeedant and insecticide activity of an extract from senescent leaves of Melia azedarach (Meliaceae

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    Graciela Valladares

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Continuando con la búsqueda de nuevos insecticidas naturales obtenidos de plantas, se estudió la actividad de un extracto de hojas senescentes (amarillas de Melia azedarach L. (Meliaceae. Mediante pruebas de elección se estudió el efecto antialimentario del extracto sobre cinco especies de Lepidoptera y cuatro especies de Coleoptera. Se evaluó además el efecto sobre la supervivencia de larvas y adultos de Epilachna paenulata Germar (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae, en pruebas sin elección de alimento. En las pruebas de elección el extracto de hojas senescentes de M. azedarach inhibió fuertemente la alimentación de ocho de las nueve especies evaluadas. Por otra parte, al recibir exclusivamente alimento tratado con extracto de M. azedarach, tanto adultos como larvas de E. paenulata sufrieron un aumento significativo en la tasa de mortalidad, no alcanzando estas últimas el estado pupal. Los insectos comieron menos y presentaron menor peso corporal en comparación con los controles, sugiriendo que el incremento en la mortalidad podría estar vinculado a la fuerte actividad antialimentaria del extracto. Los efectos observados se relacionaron significativamente con la concentración empleada.In the course of screening for novel naturally occurring insecticides from plants, the activity of a senescent (yellow leaf extract of Melia azedarach L. (Meliaceae was investigated. Antifeedant effects were tested on five Lepidoptera and four Coleoptera species, in laboratory choice tests. Further effects on insect feeding and survival were studied in no-choice tests with larvae and adults of Epilachna paenulata Germar (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae. In the choice tests, M. azedarach yellow leaf extract strongly deterred feeding in eight out of the nine species considered. Larvae and adults of E. paenulata which received only extract-treated food suffered higher mortality rates; larvae did not reach the pupal stage. Insects receiving extract-treated food ate

  8. Behavioural responses of diamondback moth Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) to extracts derived from Melia azedarach and Azadirachta indica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charleston, D.S.; Kfir, R.; Vet, L.E.M.; Dicke, M.

    2005-01-01

    The impact of three different doses of botanical insecticide derived from the syringa tree, Melia azedarach and the neem tree, Azadirachta indica was tested on the behaviour of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus). Both botanical insecticides had a significant impact on larval

  9. Anthelmintic activity of Melia azedarach fruits in lambs naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes / Atividade anti-helmíntica do fruto da Melia azedarach em cordeiros naturalmente infectados com nematódeos gastrintestinais

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    Daniela Guzzo

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the anthelmintic activity of Melia azedarach grounded dry fruits, in lambs naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes. Twenty four (24 mixed-breed Ile de France x Corriedale, male lambs, aged 3 month, were separeted into three (3 groups of eight (8 animals: the first group was medicated with 5mg.Kg-1 of albendazole orally, in a single dose, the second group was medicated with 2g.Kg-1 of Melia azedarach fruits orally, in a single dose, and the third group remained untreated, as control. The results showed that the group that presented the best efficacy was the one treated with albendazole (51.96%, followed by the group treated with Melia azedarach fruits that presented 33.21% of efficacy.Objetivou-se neste trabalho avaliar a atividade anti-helmíntica dos frutos secos e moídos da planta Melia azedarach, em cordeiros naturalmente infectados com nematódeos gastrintestinais. Utilizou-se 24 cordeiros, com 90 dias de idade, machos, mestiços Ile de France x Corridale, os quais foram divididos em 3 grupos de oito animais cada, sendo: grupo 1, medicado com 5mg.Kg-1 em dose única, de albendazole pela via oral (V.O; grupo 2, com 2g.Kg-1 (V.O, em dose única, do fruto do cinamomo (Melia azedarach e o grupo 3, controle, não recebeu nenhum tipo de tratamento. Os resultados encontrados demonstraram que o grupo tratado com albendazole foi o que apresentou melhor eficácia 51.96%, seguido do grupo tratado com frutos de cinamomo o qual apresentou eficácia de 33.21%.

  10. Actividad molusquicida del Paraiso (Melia azedarach L. (Meliaceae sobre Lymnaea cubensis, molusco vector de Fasciolosis

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    Perez Marlene Piña

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN: La Fasciolosis constituye en diversas regiones una fuente importante de pérdidas económicas y cuando se descuidan las medidas de control de sus hospedadores (moluscos, junto a condiciones ecológicas favorables, pueden ocurrir casos aislados de Fasciolosis humana. Dentro de los métodos alternativos para su control está el uso de extractos vegetales y se pretendió evaluar el probable empleo del jugo extraído del fruto y semillas del Paraiso (Melia azedarach L. en el control de Lymnaea cubensis, principal vector de la Fasciolosis en Cuba. MATERIAL Y MÉTODO: Diferentes concentraciones del jugo extraído del fruto y semillas del Paraiso (Melia azedarach L. fueron testados para determinar las dosis letales media (DL50 y máxima (DL90 usando un programa computarizado Probit-Log. Siete series experimentales fueron probadas usando 72 moluscos en cada una. Para determinar la influencia sobre la frecuencia cardíaca fueron testados tres grupos de 10 moluscos, dos fueron tratados con las DL50=0,88627 y DL90=1,7641, respectivamente, mientras que el tercero fue considerado como testigo. RESULTADOS Y CONCLUSIONES: Se observó una marcada influencia de ambas dosis sobre la frecuencia cardíaca del molusco estudiado. Estos resultados son alentadores, pues demuestran el potencial empleo de esta planta en el control de moluscos indeseables.

  11. Actividad molusquicida del Paraiso (Melia azedarach L. (Meliaceae sobre Lymnaea cubensis, molusco vector de Fasciolosis

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    Marlene Piña Perez

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN: La Fasciolosis constituye en diversas regiones una fuente importante de pérdidas económicas y cuando se descuidan las medidas de control de sus hospedadores (moluscos, junto a condiciones ecológicas favorables, pueden ocurrir casos aislados de Fasciolosis humana. Dentro de los métodos alternativos para su control está el uso de extractos vegetales y se pretendió evaluar el probable empleo del jugo extraído del fruto y semillas del Paraiso (Melia azedarach L. en el control de Lymnaea cubensis, principal vector de la Fasciolosis en Cuba. MATERIAL Y MÉTODO: Diferentes concentraciones del jugo extraído del fruto y semillas del Paraiso (Melia azedarach L. fueron testados para determinar las dosis letales media (DL50 y máxima (DL90 usando un programa computarizado Probit-Log. Siete series experimentales fueron probadas usando 72 moluscos en cada una. Para determinar la influencia sobre la frecuencia cardíaca fueron testados tres grupos de 10 moluscos, dos fueron tratados con las DL50=0,88627 y DL90=1,7641, respectivamente, mientras que el tercero fue considerado como testigo. RESULTADOS Y CONCLUSIONES: Se observó una marcada influencia de ambas dosis sobre la frecuencia cardíaca del molusco estudiado. Estos resultados son alentadores, pues demuestran el potencial empleo de esta planta en el control de moluscos indeseables.

  12. C25 steroid epimers produced by Penicillium janthinellum, a fungus isolated from fruits Melia azedarach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marinho, Andrey M. do Rosario; Rodrigues-Filho, Edson; Ferreira, Antonio Gilberto [Sao Carlos Univ., SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Santos, Lourivaldo S. [Para Univ., Belem, PA (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2005-11-15

    A plant-derived fungus, Penicillium janthinellum, obtained from Melia azedarach, produced ergosterol and ergosterol 5a,8a-peroxide along with a mixture of rare C25 steroid epimers. The C25 steroids, named neocyclocitrinols, shows exactly the same tetracyclic ring system present in cyclocitrinol, which was isolated from a sponge-derived Penicillium citrinum, with the same bicyclo [4:4:1] skeleton at A/B rings, but showing different side chains. The P. janthinellum was cultid over white corn and the three steroids were isolated by several silica gel based chromatographic procedures and identified by extensive NMR methods, mainly {sup 1}H - {sup 13}C correlations and {sup 1}H - {sup 1}H COSY and TOCSY. The biosynthetic origin of the cyclocitrinols is also discussed. (author)

  13. C25 steroid epimers produced by Penicillium janthinellum, a fungus isolated from fruits Melia azedarach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinho, Andrey M. do Rosario; Rodrigues-Filho, Edson; Ferreira, Antonio Gilberto; Santos, Lourivaldo S.

    2005-01-01

    A plant-derived fungus, Penicillium janthinellum, obtained from Melia azedarach, produced ergosterol and ergosterol 5a,8a-peroxide along with a mixture of rare C25 steroid epimers. The C25 steroids, named neocyclocitrinols, shows exactly the same tetracyclic ring system present in cyclocitrinol, which was isolated from a sponge-derived Penicillium citrinum, with the same bicyclo [4:4:1] skeleton at A/B rings, but showing different side chains. The P. janthinellum was cultivated over white corn and the three steroids were isolated by several silica gel based chromatographic procedures and identified by extensive NMR methods, mainly 1 H - 13 C correlations and 1 H - 1 H COSY and TOCSY. The biosynthetic origin of the cyclocitrinols is also discussed. (author)

  14. Production of biodiesel from melia azedarach seed oil: a non- edible feedstock for biodiesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhtar, T.; Tariq, M.I.; Ranaa, S.I.

    2011-01-01

    Biodiesel (BD) is a first-generation biofuel that has emerged as a renewable alternative diesel fuel, obtained by the transesterification of vegetable oils and animals fats, using a short-chain alcohol and a catalyst that may be an acid, a base or an enzyme. BD can be used in the existing compression-ignition engines without any further modification. Presently, most of the BD production is being carried out using edible vegetable oil which has put a strain on the food supply and, hence, has led it into a competition with the food industry. It has also resulted in a rise in the prices of such feed stocks. Hence, search for the newer and non-edible feed stocks is becoming increasingly important. The objective of the present work is to explore the utility of Melia azedarach seed oil, a non-edible feedstock, for the preparation of BD. The oil was extracted by using n-hexane as a solvent and a oil content of 32% was obtained. As a result of transesterification using sodium hydroxide and methanol, 80% conversion of the oil into BD was obtained. Fatty acid profile of the oil and the BD were found to be almost the same. Different fuel properties of the BD prepared were studied including viscosity, iodine number, acid number, cold point and cetane number, and the values obtained are 4.7, 112, 0.45 mg KOH/g, < -10 deg. C and 45, respectively. Although the oxidation stability is less than the required standard value by EN 14214, but it can be enhanced by introducing some additives into the final product. Other properties were found to be in agreement with the required specifications for BD by EN 14214, hence Melia azedarach seed oil is a suitable non-edible feedstock for the production of BD. (author)

  15. Atividade inseticida de Eugenia uniflora L. e Melia azedarach L. sobre Atta laevigata Smith

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    Paulo Henrique Jung

    Full Text Available As formigas cortadeiras estão entre os principais insetos pragas das florestas plantadas brasileiras, causando danos econômicos desde a implantação até a sua colheita. Em razão das questões ambientais e da exigência da certificação florestal, métodos alternativos estão sendo desenvolvidos para o controle do gênero Atta. Neste sentido, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a atividade inseticida de pitangueira (Eugenia uniflora L. e cinamomo (Melia azedarach L. sobre soldados de Atta laevigatta Smith. Para tal, a partir de folhas, foram obtidos extratos pelos processos de decocção, infusão, maceração, extrato alcoólico e extração de óleo essencial, em diferentes concentrações. O óleo essencial de E. uniflora, nas concentrações de 1,25, 2,5 e 5%, apresentou potencial inseticida sobre soldados de A. laevigata, quando comparado às demais formas de obtenção. O extrato alcoólico de M. azedarach, a 10%, também apresentou potencial inseticida, podendo estes extratos serem testados em práticas de campo.

  16. Ovary histology and quantification of hemolymph proteins of Rhipicephalus (Boophilusmicroplus treated with Melia azedarach

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    Lorena Alessandra Dias de Sousa

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze ovary histology and quantify total protein in the hemolymph of Rhipicephalus (Boophilusmicroplus females treated with hexane extracts from green fruits of Melia azedarach. Eight engorged females were immersed in the extract at 0.25% concentration, and eight in water containing 5% acetone (control. The females were dissected 72 hours after treatment, and the ovaries were weighed and subjected to standard histological techniques. The total protein concentration was measured in the hemolymph of 200 females, of which 100 were treated as described above and 100 served as a control. In the treated group, ovary weight reduction and predominance of immature oocytes were observed. In addition, there were decreases in the diameters of the cytoplasm and germ vesicle of the oocytes in the treated group, compared with the controls. The protein concentration in the hemolymph was higher in the treated group than in the controls. The morphological changes observed in the treated ovaries included: presence of vacuolization; alteration of oocyte morphology, which changed from rounded to elongated; deformation of the chorion; and disorganization of the yolk granules. These results demonstrate the action ofM. azedarach fruit extracts on R.(B. microplus oogenesis.

  17. Steroids produced by Penicillium herquei, an endophytic fungus isolated from the fruits of Melia azedarach (Meliaceae); Esteroides produzidos por Penicillium herquei, um fungo endofitico isolado dos frutos de Melia azedarach (Meliaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marinho, Andrey Moacir do Rosario [Universidade do Estado do Para, Belem, PA (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Naturais], e-mail: andreymoacir@yahoo.com.br; Marinho, Patricia Santana Barbosa; Rodrigues Filho, Edson [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCAR), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2009-07-01

    Six compounds comprising the groups of steroids, the ergosterol, the ergosterol peroxide, the cerevisterol, the neociclocitrinols, the ergosta-4,6,8(14),22-tetraen-3-one, the 25-hydroxy-ergosta-4,6,8(14),22-tetraen-3-one, were isolated from Penicillium herquei fungus obtained from Melia azedarach. The structures were identified by spectral methods of RMN 1D and 2D and MS. (author)

  18. Diversity of polyketides produced by Penicillium species isolated from Melia azedarach and Murraya paniculata; Diversidade de policetideos produzidos por especies de penicillium isolados de Melia azedarach e Murraya paniculata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pastre, Renata; Marinho, Andrey M.R.; Rodrigues-Filho, Edson [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: edson@dq.ufscar.br; Souza, Antonia Q.L.; Pereira, Jose Odair [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Genetica e Evolucao

    2007-07-01

    Eight compounds comprising four groups of polyketides, the xanthone fusarindin, the mixed peptide alkaloid-polyketide GKK1032, the anthraquinones crysophanol, citreoveridin and janthinone, and the azaphylones dihydrocitrinone, citrinin and citrinin H-1, were identified in Penicillium species isolated as endophytic fungi from Melia azedarach and Murraya paniculata. The antibacterial activity of the azaphylones was tested and showed that citrinin H-1 is more active than citrinin. (author)

  19. Experimental intoxication by the leaves of Melia azedarach (Meliaceae in cattle Intoxicação experimental pelas folhas de Melia azedarach (Meliaceae em bovinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria del Carmen Méndez

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Green leaves of Melia azedarach were administered at single doses ranging from 5 to 30 g/kg bw to 11 calves. Clinical signs were depression, ruminal stasis, dry feces with blood, ataxia, muscle tremors, sternal recumbency, hypothermia and abdominal pain. Serum AST and CPK were increased. Signs appeared from 8 to 24 hours after dosing, and the clinical course lasted from 2 to 72 hours. Three calves dosed with 30g/kg bw died. The macroscopic findings included intestinal congestion, yellow discoloration of the liver, brain congestion and dry feces with blood in the rectum. The liver showed swollen and vacuolated hepatocytes. Necrotic hepatocytes were scattered throughout the parenchyma or concentrated in the periacinar zone. Degenerative and necrotic changes were observed in the epithelium of the forestomachs. There was also necrosis of the lymphoid tissue. Skeletal muscles showed hyaline degeneration and fiber necrosis. The necrotic fragments contained floccular or granular debris with infiltration by macrophages and satellite cells.Folhas verdes de Melia azedarach foram administradas em dose única a 11 bovinos nas doses de 5 a 30g/kg de peso vivo. Os sinais clínicos caracterizaram-se por depressão, atonia ruminal, fezes duras com sangue, incoordenação, tremores musculares, decúbito esternal, hipotermia e dores abdominais. Os níveis séricos de AST e CPK estavam aumentados. O aparecimento dos sinais clínicos foi observado entre 8-24 horas após a ingestão das folhas e o curso clínico durou entre 2 e 72 horas. Três animais que receberam 30g/kg morreram. Os achados macroscópicos caracterizaram-se por congestão dos intestinos e do cérebro, fígado amarelado e presença de fezes duras com sangue no reto. Os hepatócitos estavam tumefeitos e com vacuolização citoplasmática. Observaram-se hepatócitos necróticos distribuídos no parênquima ou próximos à veia centrolobular. Lesões degenerativas e necróticas foram observadas no epit

  20. Limonoids from Melia azedarach Fruits as Inhibitors of Flaviviruses and Mycobacterium tubercolosis.

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    Giuseppina Sanna

    Full Text Available The biological diversity of nature is the source of a wide range of bioactive molecules. The natural products, either as pure compounds or as standardized plant extracts, have been a successful source of inspiration for the development of new drugs. The present work was carried out to investigate the cytotoxicity, antiviral and antimycobacterial activity of the methanol extract and of four identified limonoids from the fruits of Melia azedarach (Meliaceae. The extract and purified limonoids were tested in cell-based assays for antiviral activity against representatives of ssRNA, dsRNA and dsDNA viruses and against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Very interestingly, 3-α-tigloyl-melianol and melianone showed a potent antiviral activity (EC50 in the range of 3-11μM against three important human pathogens, belonging to Flaviviridae family, West Nile virus, Dengue virus and Yellow Fever virus. Mode of action studies demonstrated that title compounds were inhibitors of West Nile virus only when added during the infection, acting as inhibitors of the entry or of a very early event of life cycle. Furthermore, 3-α-tigloyl-melianol and methyl kulonate showed interesting antimycobacterial activity (with MIC values of 29 and 70 μM respectively. The limonoids are typically lipophilic compounds present in the fruits of Melia azeradach. They are known as cytotoxic compounds against different cancer cell lines, while their potential as antiviral and antibacterial was poorly investigated. Our studies show that they may serve as a good starting point for the development of novel drugs for the treatment of infections by Flaviviruses and Mycobacterium tuberculosis, for which there is a continued need.

  1. The Responses of Mulch Closure on the Germination of Mindi (Melia azedarach Linn.

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    Nurmawati Siregar

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the factors that determine the successful of the development of mindi is the availability of seedling. The seedlings can be propagated generatively by using seeds, however there is a problem related to the hardness of the testa that make it difficult to germinate, so it needs environment condition treatments to get optimal germination, one of this is mulching. The use mulch possibly get the improvement of temperature, humidity, infiltration and evapotranspiration. The study is aimed to determine the effect of mulch and to find out the best mulch type on the germination of mindi (Melia azedarach Linn. seed. Randomized completely design was employed that arranged factorially, consisted of (A mulch types factor and mulch thicknesses factor (B. There were 5 (five types of mulch treatment i.e rice straws, transparent plastics, dark plastics, zeolite and without mulch. The thicknesses of mulch consisted of one layer and two layers of mulch. Germination capacity, germination speed and growth simultaneously were observed. The results showed, mulching effect on germination mindi the best type of mulch is black or transparent plastic mulch while the thickness of the mulch does not affect the germination. Mindi seed capable of germination in the dark and light conditions on the conditions of temperature and humidity high temperatures.

  2. Symmetric Supercapacitor Electrodes from KOH Activation of Pristine, Carbonized, and Hydrothermally Treated Melia azedarach Stones

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    Carlos Moreno-Castilla

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Waste biomass-derived activated carbons (ACs are promising materials for supercapacitor electrodes due to their abundance and low cost. In this study, we investigated the potential use of Melia azedarach (MA stones to prepare ACs for supercapacitors. The ash content was considerably lower in MA stones (0.7% ash than that found in other lignocellulosic wastes. ACs were prepared by KOH activation of pristine, carbonized, and hydrothermally-treated MA stones. The morphology, composition, surface area, porosity, and surface chemistry of the ACs were determined. Electrochemical measurements were carried out in three- and two-electrode cells, 3EC and 2EC, respectively, using 1 M H2SO4 as the electrolyte. The highest capacitance from galvanostatic charge-discharge (GCD in 2EC ranged between 232 and 240 F·g−1 at 1 A·g−1. The maximum energy density reached was 27.4 Wh·kg−1 at a power density of 110 W·kg−1. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS revealed an increase in equivalent series resistance (ESR and charge transfer resistance (RCT with greater ash content. Electrochemical performance of MA stone-derived ACs was compared with that of other ACs described in the recent literature that were prepared from different biomass wastes and results showed that they are among the best ACs for supercapacitor applications.

  3. Symmetric Supercapacitor Electrodes from KOH Activation of Pristine, Carbonized, and Hydrothermally Treated Melia azedarach Stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Castilla, Carlos; García-Rosero, Helena; Carrasco-Marín, Francisco

    2017-07-04

    Waste biomass-derived activated carbons (ACs) are promising materials for supercapacitor electrodes due to their abundance and low cost. In this study, we investigated the potential use of Melia azedarach (MA) stones to prepare ACs for supercapacitors. The ash content was considerably lower in MA stones (0.7% ash) than that found in other lignocellulosic wastes. ACs were prepared by KOH activation of pristine, carbonized, and hydrothermally-treated MA stones. The morphology, composition, surface area, porosity, and surface chemistry of the ACs were determined. Electrochemical measurements were carried out in three- and two-electrode cells, 3EC and 2EC, respectively, using 1 M H₂SO₄ as the electrolyte. The highest capacitance from galvanostatic charge-discharge (GCD) in 2EC ranged between 232 and 240 F·g -1 at 1 A·g -1 . The maximum energy density reached was 27.4 Wh·kg -1 at a power density of 110 W·kg -1 . Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) revealed an increase in equivalent series resistance (ESR) and charge transfer resistance (R CT ) with greater ash content. Electrochemical performance of MA stone-derived ACs was compared with that of other ACs described in the recent literature that were prepared from different biomass wastes and results showed that they are among the best ACs for supercapacitor applications.

  4. Studying, the Insecticidal Effects of Melia azedarach and Citrus limonum Extracts on Two Aphid Species

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    maryam Pahlavan Yali

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. is the most principal plant food for 35 percent of the world's population, and canola (Brassica napus L. is one of the most important brassicaceous crops that play a major role in the development of edible oil. The greenbug, Schizaphis graminum (Rondani and cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae (L. are the main pests of wheat and canola, respectively, which can considerably limit profitable production of these crops either through direct feeding or via transmission of plant pathogenic viruses. Although chemical control is the most effective and easiest way to control aphids, but this method causes problems such as pesticide residues in food and environment, and development of resistance to insecticides. The utilization of plant extracts is an environmentally safe method that can be used in control of these aphids. Among these, the products of the Melia seed (Melia azedarach Linnaeus and lemon peel (Citrus limonum Risso can be noted. Negative associations between phenolic compounds present in plant species and aphid’s invasion have been recorded for some aphid species. In this study, our goal was to determine the amount of phenol in plant extracts of Melia seed and lemon peel and evaluate the toxicity of these compounds on the wheat aphid and cabbage aphid in various doses after different time periods. Materials and methods: This research was conducted in a growth chamber (temperature 25 ± 1˚C, 65± 5% RH and a photoperiod of 16L: 8D. S. graminum and B. brassicae were bred on wheat (Pishtaz cultivar and canola (Hyola401 cultivar, respectively. The extraction of Melia seed and lemon peel was carried out and then contact toxicity bioassay was done to evaluate the insecticidal effects of these extracts on nymphs of wheat and cabbage aphids using a completely randomized design. The leaves of wheat and canola plants, impregnated with three different concentrations of each extract (10, 50 and 80 g/ml and

  5. Biologically active polyketides produced by Penicillium janthinellum isolated as an endophytic fungus from fruits of Melia azedarach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinho, Andrey M. do Rosario; Rodrigues-Filho, Edson; Moitinho, Maria da Luz R.; Santos, Lourivaldo S.

    2005-01-01

    Penicillium janthinellum, isolated as an endophytic fungus from fruits of Melia azedarach, was cultivated over 20 days on ground and autoclaved white corn, where the known polyketides citrinin, emodin, 1,6,8-trihydroxy-3-hydroxymethylanthraquinone, and a new modified anthraquinone, named janthinone, were produced and isolated by classical chromatographic procedures and identified by MS and 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic data. The antibacterial properties of these polyketides were investigated. Citrinin inhibited 100% of Leishmania growth after 48h at a concentration of 40 μg mL -1 . (author)

  6. Biologically active polyketides produced by Penicillium janthinellum isolated as an endophytic fungus from fruits of Melia azedarach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marinho, Andrey M. do Rosario; Rodrigues-Filho, Edson [Sao Carlos Univ., SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Moitinho, Maria da Luz R. [Universidade Estadual de Maringa, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Analises Clinicas; Santos, Lourivaldo S. [Para Univ., Belem, PA (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: edson@dq.ufscar.br

    2005-04-01

    Penicillium janthinellum, isolated as an endophytic fungus from fruits of Melia azedarach, was cultivated over 20 days on ground and autoclaved white corn, where the known polyketides citrinin, emodin, 1,6,8-trihydroxy-3-hydroxymethylanthraquinone, and a new modified anthraquinone, named janthinone, were produced and isolated by classical chromatographic procedures and identified by MS and 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic data. The antibacterial properties of these polyketides were investigated. Citrinin inhibited 100% of Leishmania growth after 48h at a concentration of 40 {mu}g mL{sup -1}. (author)

  7. Effect of fruit and leaves of Meliaceae plants (Azadirachta indica and Melia azedarach) on the development of Lutzomyia longipalpis larvae (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) under experimental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade-Coelho, Cláudia A; Souza, Nataly A; Gouveia, Cheryl; Silva, Vanderlei C; Gonzalez, Marcelo S; Rangel, Elizabeth F

    2009-09-01

    This no-choice, laboratory study focuses on the feeding of dried, ground, homogeneous powdered, unprocessed fruit and leaves of Azadirachta indica and Melia azedarach to Lutzomyia longipalpis larvae to determine the effects on their mortality and metamorphosis. A. indica and M. azedarach fruit and leaves significantly increased larval mortality in comparison to larvae fed the untreated, standard diet. A. indica fruit and leaves blocked the molting of the larvae to the fourth instar, resulting in them remaining as third instars until the end of the experiment. M. azedarach fruit also blocked the molting of larvae, which remained permanently in the fourth instar. Feeding M. azedarach leaves resulted in greater molt inhibition. All insects in this group stopped their development as second-instar larvae. No antifeedant effect was detected for any experimental treatment. The results indicate that nontoxic, unprocessed materials obtained from A. indica and M. azedarach are potent development inhibitors of L. longipalpis larvae.

  8. Extracts of Azadirachta indica and Melia azedarach seeds inhibit folliculogenesis in albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.K. Roop

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The seed oil of Azadirachta indica A. Juss (neem is used in traditional medicine for its antidiabetic, spermicidal, antifertility, antibacterial, and wound healing properties. The present study was undertaken to investigate the quantitative aspects of follicular development in cyclic female albino rats (135 ± 10 g; 8 groups with 6 animals in each group after oral administration of polar (PF and non-polar (NPF fractions of A. indica seed extract at 3 and 6 mg kg body weight-1 day-1 and Melia azedarach Linn. (dharek seed extract at 24 mg kg body weight-1 day-1 for 18 days. The extracts were prepared using a flash evaporator at 35°C and then dissolved in olive oil to prepare doses on a per kg body weight basis. There was a significant reduction (P = 0.05 in the number of normal single layered follicles (A. indica: 0.67 ± 0.33 and 4.67 ± 2.03 after 3 and 6 mg/kg NPF, and 3.33 ± 1.67 and 1.00 ± 1.00 after 3 and 6 mg/kg PF vs control: 72.67 ± 9.14 and M. azedarach: 0.60 ± 0.40 and 1.80 ± 1.2 after 24 mg/kg PF and NPF, respectively, vs control: 73.40 ± 7.02 and follicles in various stages (I-VII of follicular development in all treatment groups. These extracts also significantly reduced (P = 0.05 the total number of normal follicles in the neem (14.67 ± 5.93 and 1.00 ± 1.00 after 3 and 6 mg/kg PF and 3.67 ± 0.88 and 5.33 ± 2.03 after 3 and 6 mg/kg NPF and dharek (13.00 ± 3.58 and 14.60 ± 2.25 after 24 mg/kg NPF and PF treatments compared to control (216.00 ± 15.72 and 222.20 ± 19.52, respectively. Currently, indiscriminate use of persistent and toxic rodenticides to control rodent populations has created serious problems such as resistance and environmental contamination. Therefore, it becomes necessary to use ecologically safe and biologically active botanical substances that are metabolized and are not passed on to the next trophic level, and that interfere with the reproductive potential particularly growth and differentiation of

  9. Impact of botanical pesticides derived from Melia azedarach and Azadirachta indica plants on the emission of volatiles that attract parasitoids of the diamondback moth to cabbage plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charleston, D.S.; Gols, R.; Hordijk, C.A.; Kfir, R.; Vet, L.E.M.; Dicke, M.

    2006-01-01

    Herbivorous and carnivorous arthropods use chemical information from plants during foraging. Aqueous leaf extracts from the syringa tree Melia azedarach and commercial formulations from the neem tree Azadirachta indica, Neemix 4.5®, were investigated for their impact on the flight response of two

  10. Impact of botanical pesticides derived from Melia azedarach and Azadirachta indica on the biology of two parasitoid species of the diamondback moth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charleston, D.S.; Kfir, R.; Dicke, M.; Vet, L.E.M.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of two botanical pesticides was tested on two species of parasitoids, Cotesia plutellae and Diadromus collaris. Aqueous leaf extracts from the syringa tree, Melia azedarach and commercial formulations from the neem tree, Azadirachta indica, Neemix 4.5 were investigated in the laboratory

  11. Actividad biológica de extractos de Melia azedarach sobre larvas de Spodoptera eridania (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae Biological activity of extracts of Melia azedarach on larvae of Spodoptera eridania (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María R. Rossetti

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available En la búsqueda de compuestos botánicos con potencial uso insecticida, se evaluó la actividad de extractos de fruto maduro y hojas senescentes de Melia azedarach L. (2, 5 y 10%, sobre larvas de Spodoptera eridania Cramer (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae especie polífaga considerada plaga esporádica de importantes cultivos. Mediante pruebas de elección, se registró el consumo y se calculó un índice de inhibición alimentaria. En pruebas sin posibilidad de elección se estimó el consumo, la mortalidad, el peso de larvas y excretas, y se calcularon índices nutricionales. Cuando las larvas pudieron optar, se observó un fuerte efecto antialimentario de los extractos. En los ensayos de alimentación obligada, los extractos de fruto y hoja redujeron fuertemente el consumo y peso larval respecto al control, excepto la menor dosis de fruto. Ninguna oruga llegó a pupar al entregarle alimento rociado con extracto de hoja o con extracto de fruto en las dosis más altas. Los índices nutricionales corroboraron la actividad antialimentaria, revelando efectos negativos de los extractos sobre las tasas relativas de consumo y crecimiento, y sobre la eficiencia de utilización del alimento ingerido y digerido, aunque la digestibilidad no fue afectada. Los resultados sugieren que los extractos de M. azedarach podrían ser incorporados en programas de manejo de este insecto plaga.In the course of searching for plant chemicals with potential insecticide properties, the activity of Melia azedarach L. senescent leaf and ripe fruit extracts (2, 5 and 10% was evaluated on larvae of Spodoptera eridania Cramer (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae. This polyphagous species is considered a sporadic pest on many important crops. Food consumption was assessed and an antifeedant index was calculated through choice tests. Also, food consumption, larval mortality, weight and depositions were recorded and nutritional indices were calculated in no-choice tests. Results from choice tests

  12. Actividad molusquicida del Paraiso (Melia azedarach L. (Meliaceae sobre Lymnaea cubensis, molusco vector de Fasciolosis Molluscicidal activity of Paraiso (Melia azedarach L. (Meliaceae on Lymnaea cubensis, host snail of Fasciolosis

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    Marlene Piña Perez

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN: La Fasciolosis constituye en diversas regiones una fuente importante de pérdidas económicas y cuando se descuidan las medidas de control de sus hospedadores (moluscos, junto a condiciones ecológicas favorables, pueden ocurrir casos aislados de Fasciolosis humana. Dentro de los métodos alternativos para su control está el uso de extractos vegetales y se pretendió evaluar el probable empleo del jugo extraído del fruto y semillas del Paraiso (Melia azedarach L. en el control de Lymnaea cubensis, principal vector de la Fasciolosis en Cuba. MATERIAL Y MÉTODO: Diferentes concentraciones del jugo extraído del fruto y semillas del Paraiso (Melia azedarach L. fueron testados para determinar las dosis letales media (DL50 y máxima (DL90 usando un programa computarizado Probit-Log. Siete series experimentales fueron probadas usando 72 moluscos en cada una. Para determinar la influencia sobre la frecuencia cardíaca fueron testados tres grupos de 10 moluscos, dos fueron tratados con las DL50=0,88627 y DL90=1,7641, respectivamente, mientras que el tercero fue considerado como testigo. RESULTADOS Y CONCLUSIONES: Se observó una marcada influencia de ambas dosis sobre la frecuencia cardíaca del molusco estudiado. Estos resultados son alentadores, pues demuestran el potencial empleo de esta planta en el control de moluscos indeseables.INTRODUÇÃO: A Fasciolosis constitui em diversas regiões fonte importante de perdas econômicas, e quando não se adotam medidas de controle de seus hospedeiros (moluscos, junto a condições ecológicas favoráveis, pode ocorrer o aparecimento de casos isolados de Fasciolosis humana. Dentro dos métodos alternativos para o seu controle está o uso de extratos vegetais e se tem pretendido avaliar o provável emprego do suco extraído do fruto e sementes do Paraíso (Melia azedarach L., no controle de Lymnaea cubensis, principal vetor da Fasciolosis em Cuba. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Diferentes concentra

  13. Steroids from the leaves of Chinese Melia azedarach and their cytotoxic effects on human cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shi-Biao; Ji, Yan-Ping; Zhu, Jing-Jing; Zhao, Yun; Xia, Gang; Hu, Ying-He; Hu, Jin-Feng

    2009-09-01

    Three new (1-3) and several known (4-6) steroids were isolated from the leaves of Chinese Melia azedarach. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by means of spectroscopic methods including 2D NMR techniques and mass spectrometry to be (20S)-5,24(28)-ergostadiene-3beta,7alpha,16beta,20-tetrol (1), (20S)-5-ergostene-3beta,7alpha,16beta,20-tetrol (2), and 2alpha,3beta-dihydro-5-pregnen-16-one (3). The cytotoxicities of the isolated compounds against three human cancer cell lines (A549, H460, U251) were evaluated; only compounds 1, 2, and (20S)-5-stigmastene-3beta,7alpha,20-triol (4) were found to show significant cyctotoxic effects with IC(50)s from 12.0 to 30.1 microg/mL.

  14. Phytochemically evaluation and net anti-oxidant activity of Tunisian Melia azedarach leaves extract from their ProAntidex parameter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maroua Akacha

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Phytotherapy is a discipline which is interested in the design, the preparation and the interpretation of structure activity relationship of the natural bioactive molecules. In this context, ethanolic leaves extract of Melia azedarach L. was phytochemically analysed on the bases of HPLC and by GC–MS. Extract wase tested for his in vitro antioxidant activities by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, H2O2, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, Ferric Reducing Power (FRP and Ferrous ion chelating abilities methods. The antioxidant activity of the extract was analyzed simultaneously with their pro-oxidant capacity. The ratio of pro-oxidant to the antioxidant activity (ProAntidex represents a useful index of the net free radical scavenging potential of the synthesized compounds. Tested extract showed significant antioxidant activity with a moderate ProAntidex.

  15. Microbial transformation of vanillin isolated from melia azedarach to vanillyl alcohol followed by protease inhibition and antioxidant activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahwar, D.; Raza, M.A.; Ali, T.; Ahmad, V.U.

    2011-01-01

    Vanillin [1) was isolated from ethanolic extract of Melia azedarach L. and incubated in the culture of Aspergillus niger GC-4, which resulted in vanillyl alcohol (2). The product was identified by mass, /sup 1/H and 13C-NMR spectroscopy. Protease inhibition potential was measured using in vitro model, which indicated significant enzyme inhibition activity of vanillyl alcohol as compared to vanillin (1). Compound 1 and 2 were screened for antioxidant activity using phosphomolybdate and diphenyl picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) in vitro model systems. Dose-dependant increase in the antioxidant activity of vanillyl alcohol was observed in phosphomolybdate method, while vanillin was found to be inactive. Vanillyl alcohol showed remarkable decay of the free radicals in the solution of DPPH within first two minutes which finally became constant after five minutes. In contrast, vanillin exhibited much lower antioxidant activity. (author)

  16. AVALIAÇÃO DA TOXICIDADE AGUDA DO EXTRATO HEXÂNICO DE FRUTOS DE Melia azedarach (MELIACEAE EM CAMUNDONGOS

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    Hélio Bernardes Pires Júnior

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was developed aiming to evaluate the acute effects of Melia azedarach hexanic fruit extract on mice. Two treated groups, one for each dose, 300 mg/kg and 2000 mg/kg, were prepared. For each treatment group, a non-treated control group was used. All groups were composed of six animals, three of each sex. The animals were evaluated at 30 min., 1h, 2h, 4h, 6h, 12h and 24h and then daily, for 14 days after treatment, following the Hippocratic screening. At each three days weight gain and ration consumption were evaluated. Macroscopic and microscopic alterations were evaluated in the heart, kidneys, lungs, liver, spleen, intestine and brain. No alteration in the Hippocratic screening in both doses, during the 14-days interval, was observed. The mice treated with the 2000 mg/kg doses consumed fewer rations than the animals of the control group; however, weight gain was statistically similar. No statistic difference was observed between the weight of the organs, and they had no macroscopic alterations. No histopathologic alterations were found on the examined organs, for both doses, except for lung alterations such as hyperaemia, haemorrage and edema in both treated and control groups. Based on the results obtained, we conclude that the hexanic extract of M. azedarach green fruits had no acute effects against Swiss mice.

  17. Actividad biológica de extractos de Melia azedarach sobre larvas de Spodoptera eridania (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María R. ROSSETTI

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available En la búsqueda de compuestos botánicos con potencial uso insecticida, se evaluó la actividad de extractos de fruto maduro y hojas senescentes de Melia azedarach L. (2, 5 y 10%, sobre larvas de Spodoptera eridania Cramer (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae especie polífaga considerada plaga esporádica de importantes cultivos. Mediante pruebas de elección, se registró el consumo y se calculó un índice de inhibición alimentaria. En pruebas sin posibilidad de elección se estimó el consumo, la mortalidad, el peso de larvas y excretas, y se calcularon índices nutricionales. Cuando las larvas pudieron optar, se observó un fuerte efecto antialimentario de los extractos. En los ensayos de alimentación obligada, los extractos de fruto y hoja redujeron fuertemente el consumo y peso larval respecto al control, excepto la menor dosis de fruto. Ninguna oruga llegó a pupar al entregarle alimento rociado con extracto de hoja o con extracto de fruto en ldosis más altas. Los índices nutricionales corroboraron la actividad antialimentaria, revelando efectos negativos de los extractos sobre las tasas relativas de consumo y crecimiento, y sobre la eficiencia de utilización del alimento ingerido y digerido, aunque la digestibilidad no fue afectada. Los resultados sugieren que los extractos de M. azedarach podrían ser incorporados en programas de manejo de este insecto plaga.

  18. Chemical characterization of Azadirachta indica grafted on Melia azedarach and analyses of azadirachtin by HPLC-MS-MS (SRM) and meliatoxins by MALDI-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forim, Moacir Rossi; Cornélio, Vivian Estevam; da Silva, M Fátima das G F; Rodrigues-Filho, Edson; Fernandes, João B; Vieira, Paulo C; Matinez, Sueli Souza; Napolitano, Michael P; Yost, Richard A

    2010-01-01

    Melia azedarach adapted to cool climates was selected as rootstocks for vegetative propagation of Azadirachta indica. Cleft grafting of A. indica on M. azedarach rootstock showed excellent survival. Little is known about the chemistry of grafting. The roots, stems, leaves and seeds of this graft were examined in order to verify if grafted A. indica would produce limonoids different from those found in non-grafted plants. Intact matured fruits were also studied to verify if they were free of meliatoxins. After successive chromatographic separations the extracts afforded several limonoids. HPLC-MS/MS and MALDI-MS were used to develop sensitive methods for detecting azadirachtin on all aerial parts of this graft and meliatoxins in fruits, respectively. The stem afforded the limonoid salannin, which was previously found in the oil seeds of A. indica. Salannin is also found in the root bark of M. azedarach. Thus, the finding of salannin in this study suggests that it could have been translocated from the M. azedarach rootstock to the A. indica graft. HPLC-MS/MS analyses showed that azadirachtin was present in all parts of the fruits, stem, flowers and root, but absent in the leaves. The results of MALDI-MS analyses confirmed the absence of meliatoxins in graft fruits. This study showed that A. indica grafted onto M. azedarach rootstock produces azadirachtin, and also that its fruits are free of meliatoxins from rootstocks, confirming that this graft forms an excellent basis for breeding vigorous Neem trees in cooler regions.

  19. Antifeedant activity of Jatropha gossypifolia and Melia azedarach senescent leaf extracts on Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and their potential use as synergists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullangpoti, Vasakorn; Wajnberg, Eric; Audant, Pascaline; Feyereisen, René

    2012-09-01

    To reduce rates of synthetic insecticide applications, natural product alternatives and synergists are needed. A study has been made of the toxicity of ethanolic senescent leaf extracts (SLEs) of Jatropha gossypifolia and Melia azedarach on larvae of the noctuid pest Spodoptera frugiperda. Their effects as syngergists and inhibitors of several enzyme activities are also reported. When added to the diet, M. azedarach SLE showed lower toxicity than J. gossypifolia SLE. However, after 2 weeks on the diet, the M. azedarach SLE proved to be lethal to 100% of the larval population. Artificial diets with both SLEs have an antifeedant effect on armyworm larvae. Acute toxicity after topical application in a dipping assay was relatively low for both J. gossypifolia and M. azedarach SLEs (LC(50) of 2.6 and 1.4 g L(-1), respectively, after 24 h). However, mixtures of the SLEs of M. azedarach and J. gossypifolia had a strong synergistic effect with cypermethrin. Synergism was higher with the J. gossypifolia SLE, perhaps because it contains several natural products with a methylenedioxyphenyl moiety. Both extracts inhibited P450, general esterase and acetylcholinesterase activities in vitro and in vivo. Both J. gossypifolia and M. azedarach SLEs are antifeedants to armyworm larvae when present in the food, and also have a synergistic effect with cypermethrin in topical assays. Although the synergistic effect is less than with piperonyl butoxide, both SLEs have some inhibitor activity against detoxification enzymes and acetylcholinesterase. Thus J. gossypifolia and M. azedarach SLEs may be considered as ecofriendly approaches for the control of S. frugiperda in order to reduce cypermethrin usage. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Leaf phenology and wood formation of white cedar trees (Melia azedarach L. and their responses to climate variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kritsadapan Palakit

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to investigate the response of leaf phenologies and wood increments of Melia azedarach L. on climate variability. The visual estimation indicated the leaf flushing in January-July, the leaf maturation in January-November, and the leaf abscission in May-June and October-December. Monthly wood investigations of the inside bark diameters (IBD indicated an annual-ring formation with the wood increment in February-November and the dormancy in December-January. The outside bark diameter (OBD exhibited growth variations with phases of slow increment in September-October, shrinkage in December-February, and fast increment in March-August. The relationship among monthly climates, leaf phenologies and wood increments, indicated the significant correlations of the soil moisture and the abundances of mature dark green leaves on the IBD, while the OBD was fluctuated due to the direct effect of the IBD and the indirect effect of the soil moisture and mature dark green leaf abundances.

  1. Bioactive compound synthesis of Ag nanoparticles from leaves of Melia azedarach and its control for mosquito larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanibai, R; Velayutham, K

    2015-02-01

    Larvicidal activity of synthesized Ag nanoparticles using 2,7.bis[2-[diethylamino]-ethoxy]fluorence isolate from the Melia azedarach leaves against Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus. Six fractions were collected and concentrated, fraction three showed a single spot on TLC which was found to be a pure compound. The structures were elucidated by analyses of UV, MS, and NMR spectral data. The maximum mortality was fluorence against A. aegypti and C. quinquefasciatus (LC50 = 7.94, LC90 = 23.82 ppm and LC50 = 13.58 and LC90 = 40.03 ppm). The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized and confirmed as Ag nanoparticles by using UV-visible spectroscopy, XRD and HRTEM analysis. The maximum activity was observed in synthesized AgNPs against A. aegypti and C. quinquefasciatus (LC50 = 4.27 and 3.43 µg/mL; LC90 = 12.61 and 10.29 µg/mL). Rephrase test was studied to analyze the toxicological effects of Mesocyclops pehpeiensis for 24 h at synthesized AgNPs. This method is considered as an innovative alternative approach that can be used to control mosquitoes. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. GROWTH AND MINERAL NUTRITION OF NEEM (Azadirachta indica A. Juss. AND CINNAMOMUM (Melia azedarach Linn. SUBMITTED TO SALINITY

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    Antonio Lucineudo de Oliveira Freire

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to verify the effects of soil salinity on growth and nutrient and sodium accumulation in neem (Azadirachta indica and cinnamomum (Melia azedarach. The experimental delineation was completely randomized in a 2 x 4 factorial arrangement, with two species (neem and cinnamomum, four salinity levels (electrical conductivity 0.49 (non saline soil, 4.15, 6.33 and 10.45 dS m-1 and four replications. Initially, plants were grown in tubes, and 60 days after emergence, they were transferred to pots containing 3 kg of substrate [soil + manure (2:1], according to the saline treatment. After 45 days, plant height, dry matter (leaves, stem, shoot (stem + leaves, roots and total and N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S and Na+ shoot accumulation were evaluated. Salinity reduced the plant height in both species, but the effect was more pronounced in neem. Increases in soil salinity caused an increase in the accumulation of Na + and reduced the accumulation of nutrients in shoots of both species, especially in neem. The cinnamomum was more tolerant to salinity levels of soils than neem.

  3. Assessing The Effect of Carbon Dioxide on Physio-Morphological Traits of Bitter Olive (Melia azedarach Linn. Under Greenhouse Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvaneh Yousefvand

    2017-02-01

    dry weight, dry matter biomass, and physiological characteristics including proline content of leaves, soluble sugar of leaves, a andb chlorophyll content, total chlorophyll content, carotenoid, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and water content of leaves were measured. To analyze the data, normality was assessed using Kolmogorov–Smirnov test. Analysis of variance was performed to detect the difference between the different levels of treatment for all traits. Difference among treatments means were compared by using Duncan test. All the analyses were performed using SAS statistical software. Results and Discussion: The results showed that CO2at the concentrations of 750 and 1100 ppm affected significantly all the measured morphological properties except for plant height, root dry weight and physiological traits such as proline, N, and leaves relative water content. However, CO2concentration of 750 ppm had the highest effect on the studied parameters, so that mean dry weight of shoot, dry matter biomass and proline increased up to more than three times, and shoots and roots wet weight and wet matter biomass increased up to more than two times compared to control. The greatest diameter of the collar and the amount of nitrogen were observed at 750 ppm concentration. Concentrations of 750 and 1100 ppm caused a significant increasein the number of leaves (up to two times and the height of stem compared to control. The increase observed inmorphological characteristics may be owing to photosynthesis stimulation during the experiment in CO2-elevated chamber. Soluble sugar as an important product of photosynthesis increased but the differences were not significant. Soluble sugar may be used for synthesis of morphological characteristics. Conclusion: Growth of Melia azedarach in elevated-CO2 chamber strongly reacted to theincrease in photosynthesis. Therefore, based on the results of this study,CO2 elevation in glasshouse can be proposed for increasing the growth of plant

  4. Physical and Chemical Characterization of Melia azedarach L. Fruit and Leaf for Use as Botanical Insecticide Caracterización Física y Química del Fruto y Hoja de Melia azedarach para Uso en Manejo Integrado de Plagas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Italo Chiffelle G

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available A study was undertaken of the physical and chemical characteristics and insecticide properties of melia (Melia azedarach L. (Meliaceae fruit and leaves; melia has been introduced in Chile for ornamental purposes. The physical and chemical properties were evaluated in two stages of fruit and leaf maturity, i.e., green /mature, and mature/juvenile, respectively. Laboratory bioassays were carried out on Drosophila melanogaster Meigen (Diptera: Drosophilidae as an insect model. The diameter of M. azedarach fruit was in the lower limit in relation to other studies. The flour obtained from green fruit had an average dry weight inferior to that of mature fruit. The average dry leaf weights were similar in both juvenile and mature states. The green fruits had 50% initial humidity, similar to juvenile (60% and mature (57% leaves, but greater than the mature fruits (44%. The chemical analysis of the fruit maturity stages determined a slight increase in crude fiber content as maturity increased. There was a decrease in the lipid content of leaves close to 60% at maturity. Furthermore, an analysis of polyphenols was made using HPLC-DAD (High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Diode Array Detector, and 14 compounds were identified as causes of the insecticidal effect of the M. azedarach fruit, of which three would correspond to flavonoids: one catechin and two kaempherols. Finally, the aqueous fruit and leaf extracts of M. azedarach were effective insecticides on D. melanogaster, reaching 90% mortality (125 000 mg kg-1 with juvenile leaves and 73.3% (10 700 mg kg-1 with green fruit.Se estudiaron las características físicas, químicas y las propiedades insecticidas del fruto y hojas de melia (Melia azedarach L. (Meliaceae, árbol introducido con fines ornamentales en Chile. Se evaluaron las propiedades físicas y químicas de dos estados de madurez del fruto, verde y maduro, y de las hojas, juveniles y maduras. Las propiedades insecticidas se evaluaron

  5. Detection of heavy metals in leaves of melia azedarach and eucalyptus citriodora as biomonitring tools in the region of Quetta valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khattak, M.I.

    2012-01-01

    The concentrations of heavy metals viz., Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn in leaves of two tree species, Melia azedarach and Eucalyptus citriodora (Safeda) from different sampling sites at urban areas in Quetta city , were measured. Correlation between elements and the use of tree leaves as indicators of environmental pollution was investigated. The results show that the higher concentrations of heavy metals in Eucalyptus leaves of the areas of the Hudda, Barori and Mashraqi by Pass and in the areas with dense transportation activities are in function. So this preliminary study presents scientific basis to establish the applicability of the tree leaves as bio-monitoring tool for the rapid evaluation of the pollution status in the Quetta city by analyzing heavy metals concentration in the tree leaves. (author)

  6. Autoclave mediated one-pot-one-minute synthesis of AgNPs and Au-Ag nanocomposite from Melia azedarach bark extract with antimicrobial activity against food pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pani, Alok; Lee, Joong Hee; Yun, Soon-Ii

    2016-01-01

    The increasing use of nanoparticles and nanocomposite in pharmaceutical and processed food industry have increased the demand for nontoxic and inert metallic nanostructures. Chemical and physical method of synthesis of nanostructures is most popular in industrial production, despite the fact that these methods are labor intensive and/or generate toxic effluents. There has been an increasing demand for rapid, ecofriendly and relatively cheaper synthesis of nanostructures. Here, we propose a strategy, for one-minute green synthesis of AgNPs and a one-pot one-minute green synthesis of Au-Ag nanocomposite, using Melia azedarach bark aqueous extract as reducing agent. The hydrothermal mechanism of the autoclave technology has been successfully used in this study to accelerate the nucleation and growth of nano-crystals. The study also presents high antimicrobial potential of the synthesized nano solutions against common food and water born pathogens. The multistep characterization and analysis of the synthesized nanomaterial samples, using UV-visible spectroscopy, ICP-MS, FT-IR, EDX, XRD, HR-TEM and FE-SEM, also reveal the reaction dynamics of AgNO3, AuCl3 and plant extract in synthesis of the nanoparticles and nanocomposite. The antimicrobial effectiveness of the synthesized Au-Ag nanocomposite, with high gold to silver ratio, reduces the dependency on the AgNPs, which is considered to be environmentally more toxic than the gold counterpart. We hope that this new strategy will change the present course of green synthesis. The rapidity of synthesis will also help in industrial scale green production of nanostructures using Melia azedarach.

  7. Green-synthesised nanoparticles from Melia azedarach seeds and the cyclopoid crustacean Cyclops vernalis: an eco-friendly route to control the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anbu, Priya; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Dinesh, Devakumar; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Suresh, Udaiyan; Alarfaj, Abdullah A; Munusamy, Murugan A; Higuchi, Akon; Hwang, Jiang-Shiou; Kumar, Suresh; Nicoletti, Marcello; Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-09-01

    The impact of green-synthesised mosquitocidal nanoparticles on non-target aquatic predators is poorly studied. In this research, we proposed a single-step method to synthesise silver nanoparticles (Ag NP) using the seed extract of Melia azedarach. Ag NP were characterised using a variety of biophysical methods, including UV-vis spectrophotometry, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. In laboratory assays on Anopheles stephensi, Ag NP showed LC50 ranging from 2.897 (I instar larvae) to 14.548 ppm (pupae). In the field, the application of Ag NP (10 × LC50) lead to complete elimination of larval populations after 72 h. The application of Ag NP in the aquatic environment did not show negative adverse effects on predatory efficiency of the mosquito natural enemy Cyclops vernalis. Overall, this study highlights the concrete possibility to employ M. azedarach-synthesised Ag NP on young instars of malaria vectors.

  8. Efeito de extratos aquosos de Azadirachta indica, Melia azedarach e Aspidosperma pyrifolium no desenvolvimento e oviposição de Plutella xylostella Effect of aqueous extracts of Azadirachta indica (A. Juss, Melia azedarach (L. and Aspidosperma pyrifolium (Mart. on the development and oviposition of Plutella xylostella (L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adalci Leite Torres

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliados a CL50 e o efeito de extratos aquosos de plantas na biologia, oviposição e período embrionário de Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae. Para determinação da CL50 foram utilizadas concentrações entre 0,03 e 0,8 % para amêndoas de Azadirachta indica (A. Juss. 0,5 e 7,0 % para casca de Aspidosperma pyrifolium (Mart. e 0,5 e 12,5 % para frutos de Melia azedarach (L., obtendo-se as CL50 de 0,06; 2,17 e 2,90%, respectivamente. Verificou-se que os extratos aquosos de todas as espécies vegetais afetaram o desenvolvimento do inseto, principalmente na fase larval. Na fase de pupa, os extratos reduziram a massa e a viabilidade. Houve deformação de adultos para os extratos de A. pyrifolium e M. azedarach e o de A. indica causou maior porcentagem. Todos os extratos possuem efeito tóxico para ovos de P. xylostella, sendo dependente do aumento da concentração. Nos extratos da casca de A. pyrifolium, do fruto de M. azedarach e da amêndoa de A. indica observa-se ação ovicida quando usados na concentração letal de lagartas de primeiro ínstar da praga. Em observações do ovo de P. xylostella com auxílio de um microscópio eletrônico de varredura, verificou-se a existência de microporos onde pode ocorrer a penetração do produto ovicida, além da constatação da textura rugosa da casca do ovo que pode reter ou fixar os extratos.The effects of aqueous extracts of plants on the biology, preference for oviposition and embryonic period of Plutella xylostella were evaluated. Concentrations between 0.03 and 0.8 % for kernel of Azadirachta indica, 0.5 and 7.0% for peel of Aspidosperma pyrifolium and 0.5 and 12.5% for fruits of Melia azedarach were used, with LC50 values of 0.06; 2.17 and 2.90%, respectively, being obtained. It was verified that the aqueous extracts of all of the appraised vegetable species affected the development of the insect, mainly in the larval phase. In the pupae phase, the extracts reduced the

  9. AVALIAÇÃO DAS PROPRIEDADES DE PAINÉIS COMPENSADOS DE Melia azedarach L. PRODUZIDOS COM DIFERENTES GRAMATURAS E TEMPOS DE PRENSAGEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosilani Trianoski

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available RESUMOO Brasil é um grande produtor de painéis compensados, suas florestas de Pinus são as mais utilizadas nesse processo e grande parte dessa produção é destinada à indústria moveleira. Muitas espécies têm sido introduzidas no país para essa e outras finalidades, entre elas a Melia azedarach, que ainda requer diversos estudos tecnológicos para a melhor utilização de sua madeira. Nesse contexto, o objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar a viabilidade de utilização da Melia azedarach para a produção de painéis compensados e o efeito da gramatura de adesivo e do tempo de prensagem sobre as propriedades dos painéis. Foram utilizadas cinco árvores provenientes de um plantio experimental localizado em Corupá, SC, das quais foram obtidas amostras para determinação da densidade básica (COPANT 461/1972 e das propriedades químicas (TAPPI 204, 1997; 207, 1999; 280, 1999; 212, 2002; 252, 2002, bem como para a obtenção das lâminas. Os painéis foram produzidos com dimensões de 500 mm x 500 mm x 10 mm (cinco lâminas, segundo um delineamento em arranjo fatorial (3x2 com três gramaturas (320 g/m2,360g/m2 e 400 g/m2 e dois tempos de prensagem (8 e 10 min, adesivo ureia-formaldeído, pressão específica de 1 MPa e temperatura de 110 °C. As propriedades dos painéis foram avaliadas a partir do ensaio de flexão estática (EN:310:2002 e resistência da linha de cola ao cisalhamento (EN 3141:2004 e EN 314-2:2002. Os resultados indicaram diferença estatística significativa dos efeitos principais: a gramatura e tempo de prensagem apenas no módulo de elasticidade no sentido perpendicular e a inexistência de diferença estatística significativa entre as médias a partir da interação dessas duas variáveis de resposta. Concluiu-se que a espécie apresenta viabilidade técnica para a produção de painéis compensados, podendo maximizar a produtividade e minimizar os custos de produção, por meio da utilização da menor gramatura de

  10. Antifeeding and Insecticide Properties of Aqueous and Ethanolic Fruit Extracts from Melia azedarach L.on the Elm Leaf Beetle Xanthogaleruca luteola Müller Propiedades Antialimentaria e Insecticida de Extractos Acuosos y Etanólicos del Fruto de Melia azedarach L. en el Escarabajo de la Hoja del Olmo Xanthogaleruca luteola Müller

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    Italo Chiffelle

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Xanthogaleruca luteola Müller (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae, a defoliator of Ulmus species currently present in several regions of central Chile, causes severe damage to trees, mainly in park areas, street tree-lines and gardens. The antifeeding and insecticidal activities of extracts from immature fruit of Melia azedarach L. (Meliaceae were determined on adults of X. luteola in laboratory bioassays. Several concentrations of the extracts obtained with water and ethanol were used and their effectiveness and LC50 were determined. The antifeeding action of the water extracts caused 100% deterrence over concentrations of 3.6% w/v. Both extracts were effective insecticides against adults, causing 86% mortality (2.4% w/v, with a better performance of the ethanol extracts, with a LC50 of 0.9% w/v on the 3rd day after exposure, and 6.6% w/v on the 5th day with the water extract.Xanthogaleruca luteola Müller (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae, un defoliador de especies de Ulmus presente en varias regiones de Chile central, causa daño severo en árboles principalmente en áreas de parques, árboles de calles, y jardines. Se determinó el efecto antialimentario e insecticida de extractos de frutos inmaduros de Melia azedarach L. (Meliaceae sobre adultos de X. luteola en bioensayos de laboratorio. Se usaron varias concentraciones con agua y etanol de los extractos y se determinó su efectividad y su CL50. La acción antialimentaria de los extractos de agua causó un 100% de deterrencia sobre concentraciones de 3,6% p/v. Ambos extractos fueron efectivos como insecticidas contra los adultos, causando un 86% de mortalidad (2,4% p/v, con un mejor comportamiento de los extractos con etanol con una CL50 de 0,9% p/v al tercer día después de la exposición, y 6,6% p/v al quinto día con los extractos acuosos.

  11. Avaliação da eficácia de extratos oleosos de frutos verdes e maduros de cinamomo (Melia azedarach sobre Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae Evaluation of efficacy of ripe and unripe fruit oil extracts of Melia azedarach against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus (Acari: ixodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena A. Dias de Sousa

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Extratos hexânicos obtidos dos frutos de Melia azedarach foram testados sobre fêmeas ingurgitadas e larvas de Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus. Foram produzidos quatro extratos: um de frutos verdes e três com frutos maduros, sendo um com os frutos imediatamente processados, outro com frutos armazenados por cinco meses e um testado após armazenamento do extrato por 2 (dois anos a 4ºC. Os testes foram feitos em triplicata, em diluições de 0,25% a 0,0156%. A eficácia dos extratos foi avaliada através da comparação da Reprodução Estimada dos lotes "controle e tratado" para fêmeas, da mortalidade para as larvas, e do cálculo das DL50 e da potência relativa para larvas e fêmeas. O extrato de frutos verdes apresentou uma eficácia variando de 3,6% a 100% para fêmeas, e o de frutos maduros variou de 5,2% a 99,7%. Os dois extratos causaram uma mortalidade de 100% das larvas nas maiores concentrações. O extrato de frutos armazenados apresentou eficácia de 14% a 83% sobre fêmeas, enquanto o extrato armazenado em geladeira apresentou eficácia de 8,4% a 100% e ambos não apresentaram efeito larvicida. Os resultados obtidos demonstram uma superioridade do extrato verde, com uma menor DL50 e potência 1,497 vezes superior ao extrato de frutos maduros.Hexanic extracts gotten of the fruits of cinamomo (Melia azedarach were tested on engourged females and larvae of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus. Four extracts were produced: one of unripe fruits and three of ripe fruits, being one with the fruits immediately processed, another one with fruits stored for five months and one tested after storage of the extract for 2 (two years at 4ºC. The tests were made in triplicate, in 0.25%- 0.0156% dilutions. The effectiveness of extracts was evaluated through the comparison of the Reproduction Estimate of the groups "controlled and treated" for females, of mortality for the larvae, and of the calculation of the DL50 and the relative power for

  12. Coriandrum sativum and Melia azedarach

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aghomotsegin

    2015-10-07

    Oct 7, 2015 ... of the gas used and the electron gun were programmed initially. .... antibacterial activity maximum zone formation against E. coli (Table 3). ..... tandem repeat, typing technology, locus information and allele frequency in ...

  13. The Survey of Melia Azaderach L. ash in Removal of Hexavalent Chromium from Synthetic Electroplating Industry Wastewater

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    MT Ghaneian

    2014-11-01

    Conclusion: Melia azedarach ash is an effective adsorbent in removal of hexavalent chromium from synthetic electroplating industries wastewater. In addition, the use of this biosorbent in preparation and application aspects is simple and cheap compared to many other natural and man-made adsorbent.

  14. Evaluación de extractos cetónicos de paraíso, eucalipto y ricino sobre Myzus persicae (Homoptera: Aphididae)

    OpenAIRE

    Carrizo, Paola; Pelicano, Alicia; Caffarini, Patricia

    2004-01-01

    En el cultivo de pimiento, Myzus persicae es una plaga cuyo manejo se basa en el uso de agroquímicos de síntesis. Una alternativa de menor impacto ambiental para su control es la aplicación de extractos naturales. El objetivo del trabajo fue evaluar el efecto de extractos provenientes de Melia azedarach, Eucalyptus globulus y Ricinus communis sobre este pulgón. Se escogió la técnica del film residual en papel de filtro, manteniendo los individuos sobre hojas de pimiento ornamental. Se uti...

  15. Antibacterial triterpenoids from Melia toosendan

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    Qin Zhu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A new lanostan-type triterpenoid with hydroperoxy group, toosendanin A (1, together with two known triterpenoids, meliastatin 3 (2 and ursolic acid (3, w ere isolated and identified from the stems of Melia toosendan. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by 1D- and 2D-NMR spectra and other spectroscopic studies. These compounds were assayed for the antibacterial activities against some hospital pathogenic bacteria. Toosendanin A (1 exhibited strong antibacterial activity against K. pneumoniae .

  16. The Responses of Mulch Closure on the Germination of Mindi (Melia azedarach Linn.)

    OpenAIRE

    Nurmawati Siregar

    2017-01-01

    One of the factors that determine the successful of the development of mindi is the availability of seedling. The seedlings can be propagated generatively by using seeds, however there is a problem related to the hardness of the testa that make it difficult to germinate, so it needs environment condition treatments to get optimal germination, one of this is mulching. The use mulch possibly get the improvement of temperature, humidity, infiltration and evapotranspiration. The study is aimed to...

  17. Anti-Urolithiatic Activity of Melia Azedarach Linn Leaf Extract in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in industrialized countries [1]. Urinary calculi may cause obstruction, hydronephrosis, infection and hemorrhage in the urinary tract system [2]. Since the mid-1980s, management of nephrolithiasis has been by non-surgical methods such as lithotripsy, fiberoptic technology, electrical sparks and laser techniques, which ...

  18. The Variability of Seed Viability and Seed Vigour of Mindi (Melia azedarachlinn. from Several Populations in The Community Forest of West Java

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    Yulianti Bramasto

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The procurement of good quality seeds for the development of mindi (Melia azedarach L. in the community forest is absolutely necessary. The purpose of this research is to investigate the diversity of the viability and seedling vigor of mindi from different populations with various treatments of dormancy breaking. The sample materials were mindi seeds that were collected from 6 locations (6 seed lots or seed sources which were located in the community forest of West Java. There are 10 treatments of dormancy breaking that were applied in this study. The experiment design was Randomized Complete Design (RAL. The breaking dormancy  was focused to the delignification of hard seed coat.  Results showed that the most effective dormancy breaking for mindi seed was soaking in consentrated Sulfuric Acid (H2SO4 as long as 30 to 45 minutes. The first count for germination of mindi was on the 16 day and the final count was on the 31 day.The average value of germination percentage (DB for all seed sources was 40 %, while the highest which is 60% was mindi from Sumedang seed source. The highest value of germination rate that is 6,543%/etmal was seed  from Sumedangand seed from Gambung was the lowest (1,400 %/etmal. Keywords : community forest, Melia azedarach L., variation, viability, vigor.

  19. Interim Results on Improvement of Melia volkensii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kariuki, J.G.; Kimondo, J.M; Muchri, D.K

    2007-01-01

    Melia volkensii is important in some dry lands of Kenya as a high quality timber, for fodder, shade and construction. It is both drought resistant and fast growing and is termite resistant. Demand for the species has led to dysgenic selection, resulting in the selection of superior trees, progressively leading to a pool of poor parent trees remaining in most populations. A genetic improvement strategy and implementation plan was initiated in the year 2005. The main objective was genetic improvement of melia volkensii through selection, breeding and propagation. Specific objectives was to develop new plantations that are superior to their predecessors in one or several key economic traits and to maximize value of logs produced by farmers. The basic material for selection of plus trees were the natural and on farm populations across most of the species' natural range. Selection was carried out in nine transects located in various areas from Isiolo to Voi, through assessment of candidate trees and subsequent comparison with nearest 5 check trees. Site characterization and passport data collection was also carried out. Various selection criteria were used including diameter at breast height (dbh), height, form (straightness and branching habit), resistance to diseases, pests and spiral grain tendency. For establishment of hedges , stressing of root through severing part of the root to produce scions was done, followed by scion selection and grafting. Initial results showed the existence of two main forms in M. volkensii i.e crop and tree ideotypes. Crop ideotypes are shorter, have shorter clear boles with deep large and spreading crowns, mainly found in Mwingi, Nuu, Tseikuru and some parts of Kitui. Tree ideotypes are taller with long clear boles, light branching and sparce crowns mainly found in Voi, Mbeere,Mutha and Embu. Intermediate forms also exist. Because the breeding objective was timber production, the tree ideotypes were favoured in selection. In all nine

  20. Impact of botanical extracts derived from Melia azedarach and Azadirachta indica on populations of Plutella xylostella and its natural enemies: A field test of laboratory findings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charleston, D.S.; Kfir, R.; Dicke, M.; Vet, L.E.M.

    2006-01-01

    Differences between results from ecological laboratory studies and what actually happens in the field can be large. Therefore, field experiments are essential to validate laboratory findings. In previous laboratory trials we investigated the impact of aqueous leaf extracts from the syringa tree,

  1. Impact of botanical extracts derived from Melia azedarach and Azadirachta indica on populations of Plutella xylostella and its natural enemies: a field test of laboratory findings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charleston, D.S.; Kfir, R.; Dicke, M.; Vet, L.E.M.

    2006-01-01

    Differences between results from ecological laboratory studies and what actually happens in the field can be large. Therefore, field experiments are essential to validate laboratory findings. In previous laboratory trials we investigated the impact of aqueous leaf extracts from the syringa tree,

  2. Optimizing the size of root cutting in Melia volkensii Gürke for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Melia volkensii is a tree species growing in semi-arid regions of East Africa, and is recognized as one of the most valuable forestry species in such regions of Kenya. The use of root cutting is an easy method for its clonal propagation, but the most appropriate conditions have not been systematically examined. In this study ...

  3. [Effect of meliae toosendan fructus on nerves system and its mechanism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Xiao-Xue; Tang, Da-Xuan; Xiong, Jing-Yue; Liang, Ya-Jun; Mu, Dao-Hua; Yang, Xiao-Wei; Hang, Min; Tan, Zheng-Huai

    2013-05-01

    To study the effect of the ethanol extract of stir-bake to yellowish Meliae Toosendan Fructus on nerve system and its mechanism. The effect of the ethanol extract on sensory nerve was carried out through ache models induced by hot board method and radiant heat stimulation method in mice. The thermalgesia liminal value was investigated. The effect of the ethanol extract on the A-delta fiber and C fiber was measured by electrical stimulation procedure. Motor nerve conduction velocity (NCV) was measured by indirect detection method in vivo. The pathology changes of the motor nerve were observed by transmission electron microscope and the silver stain test. The ethanol extract of Meliae Toosendan Fructus could increase the thermalgesia liminal value of mice and reduce the conduction velocity of motor nerves. Meanwhile, pathology results showed the changes of the fiber of motor nerve, including demyelination and the number of Schwann cells dropping. The ethanol extract of stir-bake to yellowish Meliae Toosendan Fructus can reduce the pain sensitivity of mice and slow down NCV, which may be related to decreasing of the number of Schwann cells.

  4. Rooting Ability of Melia volkensii Cuttings Under Different Auxin Concentration Levels and Provenances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oeba, V.O; Muok, B.; Odee, D

    2007-01-01

    Melia volkensii is one of the most popular fast growing agro-forestry tree species in East Africa's arid and semi arid lands. It is valued for for production of termite resistant timber. Kenya Forestry Research Institute is carrying out studies on management, improvement and domestication of species with a major focus on improving low germination mortality and other propagation methods. Vegetative propagation was investigated in order to supplement more seedlings for increased demand of the species. The objective of this study was to determine and predict the effect of varying levels of auxin concentrations on rooting of melia volkensii shoot cuttings under different provenances. The experiment was set in a split plot design and conducted in a non-mist propagator. The number of roots was recorded for every cutting in the experiment. Mean cumulative cutting percentage were analysed using ANOVA procedures by first checking homogeneity of variance; Pearson correlation were carried out to check the interrelation of the factors with rooting and Logistic ability of the cuttings. The results showed that cuttings inoculated with 0.3 mgl-1 s ignificantly (p n ot showing any rooting from three provenances. In conclusion 0.03 mgl-1 s hould be used for further vegetative propagation of M. vokensii. Cutting from Taveta inoculated with 0.3 mgl-1 w ould significantly increase the number of seedlings for planting

  5. Protective effects of the ethanolic extract of Melia toosendan fruit against colon cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Xue-Lian; Yang, Xin-Ying; Park, Hyun; Kim, Youn-Chul; Kim, Sung-Yeon; Kang, Baek-Dong; Park, Won-Cheol; Choi, Du-Young; Kjm, Ok-jin

    2012-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the leading causes of death in the world. Plant-derived products have proven to be valuable sources for discovery and development of unique anticancer drugs. In this study, the inhibitory effects of ethanolic extract of Melia toosendan fruit (EMTF), a traditional medicine in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia were evaluated in vitro and in vivo against colon cancer. Human colon cancer cells SW480 and murine colorectal adenocarcinoma cells CT26 were used to investigate cell proliferation. The results showed that EMTF inhibited cell proliferation of SW480 and CT26 by promoting apoptosis as indicated by nuclear chromatin condensation and DNA fragmentation. Through increasing mitochondrial membrane permeability and cytochrome c release from mitochondria, EMTF induced caspase-9 activity which further activated caspase-3 and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage, leading the tumor cells to apoptosis. The in vivo results confirmed reduction of tumor volume and apoptotic effects and the side effects were not induced by EMTF. Therefore, EMTF may be an effective chemotherapeutic agent for colon cancer treatment. (author)

  6. Meliae cortex extract exhibits anti-allergic activity through the inhibition of Syk kinase in mast cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jun Ho; Ko, Na Young; Kim, Nam Wook; Mun, Se Hwan; Kim, Jie Wan; Her, Erk; Kim, Bo Kyung; Seo, Dong Wan; Chang, Hyun Wook; Moon, Tae Chul; Han, Jeung Whan; Kim, Young Mi; Choi, Wahn Soo

    2007-01-01

    The anti-allergic action of various Oriental medicinal herbs was investigated using in vitro and in vivo experimental models. Of these extracts, the ethanol extract of Meliae cortex (MC) exhibited the most potent activity in mast cells; its IC 50 values were 29 ± 1.5 μg/ml for antigen stimulation and 57 ± 3.4 μg/ml for thapsigargin stimulation. It inhibited compound-48/80-induced systemic anaphylaxis by 52.9% at a dose of 300 mg/kg in mice; it also inhibited the expression of the proinflammatory mediator TNF-α. With regard to its mechanism of action, MC suppressed the activating phosphorylation of Syk, a key enzyme in mast-cell signaling processes and that of Akt in a dose-dependent manner. It also inhibited the MAP kinase ERK1/2, which is critical for the production of inflammatory cytokines in mast cells, as indicated by the suppression of the activating phosphorylation of ERK1/2. Taken together, these results suggest that the anti-allergic activity of MC may be due to the inhibition of histamine secretion and cytokine expression through the Syk inhibition in mast cells

  7. Potencial Insecticida de Extractos de MeliaAzederach L (Meliaceae. Actividad Biologica y Efectos sobre Spodoptera Frugiperda J.E: Smith

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vergara Ruiz Rodrigo

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available En la búsqueda de alternativas de Spodoptera frugiperda J.E. Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, diferentes al uso de insecticidas se planifico esta investigación con el objetivo de precisas las propiedades insecticidas de extractos de Melia azederach L. para el control de larvas en estado L2. El trabajo se adelantó en Laboratorios de la Universidad del Tolima en Ibagué, ubicados en una zona de vida correspondiente al bosque húmedo Montano Bajo (bh-MB, las condiciones de temperatura fueron de 28 ±2°C y 70%de humedad relativa. Estos trabajos se realizaron durante 1994 y 1995. Los extractos se obtuvieron empleando tres solventes: alcohólico y etéreo trabajando con un diseño complemente al azar con arreglo factorial 3ˆ2, con 5 replicaciones. Antes de hacer las aplicaciones de los extractos se procedió a verificar su actividad biológica sobre Artemia salina. La dieta alimenticia natural y la cría masiva de Spodoptera frugiperda, se organizó de tal forma que se pudiera obtener material para toda la investigación. Después de efectuados los tratamientos se hicieron lecturas de mortalidad hasta los 6 días y porteriormente se continuaron realizando observaciones bioecológicas sobre los individuos sobrevivientes, hasta el estado adulto y etapa de oviposición El análisis de mortalidad demostró que los extractos tienen un efecto antialimentario sobre las larvas del insecto-plaga, siendo el extracto alcohólico en su dosis alta el mejor. Al efectuar el establecimiento de las dosis letales medidas se precisó que se pueden trabajar concentraciones entre 1.000-3.000 ppm para obtener óptimos resultados. El efecto antialimentario de los extractos produce en los individuos sobrevivientes una prolongación de la duración en días de las fases de su ciclo de vida.

  8. Growdon Gate/Road Relocation and Property Acquisition Environmental Assessment. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    black walnut (Juglans nigra), pecan ( Carya illinoensis ), blackberry (Rubus sp.), greenbriar (Smilax sp.), poison ivy (Rhus radicans), giant...Riparian Cedar elm (Ulmus crassifolia), black willow (Salix nigra), hackberry (Celtis laevigata), chinaberry (Melia azedarach), pecan ( Carya ... illinoensis ), Canada wildrye (Elymus candensis), poison ivy (Rhus radicans), greenbrier (Smilax spp.), and giant ragweed (Ambrosia trifida) Urban

  9. 1388-IJBCS-Article-Melia Mamatchi+

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KODJIO NORBERT

    Ecologie du Développement Durable,. INERIS, Paris. Alméida J-A, Diniz Y-S, Marques S-F-G,. Faine L-A, Ribas B-O, Burneiko R-C,. Novelli E-L-B. 2002. The use of the oxydative stress response as biomarkers in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

  10. In Vivo Inhibition of Lipid Accumulation in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulistiyani; Purwakusumah, E. P.; Andrianto, D.

    2017-03-01

    This is a preliminary research report on the use of Caenorhabditis elegans as a model to establish anti-obesity screening assay of the natural plant resources. Nematode C. elegans has been used as experimental animal model for understanding lipid accumulation. The objective of this research was to investigate the effect of selected plant extracts on lipid accumulation in C. elegans. Currently no report could be found regarding lipid accumulation in C.elegans treated with ethanolic leaf extracts of jabon merah (Anthocephalus macrophyllus), jati belanda (Guazuma ulmifolia), and Mindi (Melia Azedarach) plants. Lipid accumulation was determined qualitatively using lipid staining method and quantitatively by colorimetry using sulpho-phospho-vanillin reagent. Data showed that lipid accumulation was inhibited up to 72% by extract of M. azedarach, about 35% by both of A. macrophyllus and G. ulmifolia extracts, and up to 25% by orlistat (a synthetic slimming drug). Ethanolic extract of A. macrophyllus, G. ulmifolia, and M. azedarach leaves were shown to inhibit lipid accumulation in C. elegans and M. azedarach leaves extracts was the most effective inhibitor. C.elegans were shown to be an effective model for in vivo lipid accumulation mechanism and potential to be used as a rapid screening assay for bioactive compounds with lipid accumulation inhibitory activity.

  11. Phytoremediation of heavy metal contaminated soil potential by woody plants on Tonglushan ancient copper spoil heap in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Wei; Bao, Jianguo; Zheng, Jin; Xu, Fen; Wang, Liuming

    2018-01-02

    Fast-growing metal-accumulating woody plants are considered potential candidates for phytoremediation of metals. Tonglushan mining, one of the biggest Cu production bases in China, presents an important source of the pollution of environment. The sample was collected at Tonglushan ancient copper spoil heap. The aims were to measure the content of heavy metal in the soil and woody plants and to elucidate the phytoremediation potential of the plants. The result showed that soil Cu, Cd and Pb were the main contamination, the mean contents of which were 3166.73 mg/kg, 3.66 mg/kg and 137.06 mg/kg respectively, which belonged to severe contamination. Fourteen species from 14 genera of 13 families were collected and investigated; except for Ligutrum lucidum, the other 13 woody plants species were newly recorded in this area. In addition, to assess the ability of metal accumulation of these trees, we proposed accumulation index. Data suggested that Platanus × acerilolia, Broussonetia papyrifera, Ligutrum lucidum, Viburnum awabuki, Firmiana simplex, Robina pseudoacacia, Melia azedarach and Osmanthus fragrans exhibited high accumulated capacity and strong tolerance to heavy metals. Therefore, Platanus × acerilolia and Broussonetia papyrifera can be planted in Pb contaminated areas; Viburnum awabuki, Firmiana simplex, Robina pseudoacacia and Melia azedarach are the suitable trees for Cd contaminated areas; Viburnum awabuki, Melia azedarach, Ligutrum lucidum, Firmiana simplex, Osmanthus fragrans and Robina pseudoacacia are appropriate to Cu, Pb and Cd multi-metal contaminated areas.

  12. Invasive alien woody plants of the northern Cape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Henderson

    1991-10-01

    Full Text Available The frequency and abundance of invasive alien woody plants were recorded along roadsides and at watercourse crossings in 31% (90/286 of the quarter degree squares in the study area. The survey yielded 23 species of which the most prominent invaders were Prosopis spp. The most prominent remaining species were: Opuntia ficus-indica, Nicotiana glauca and Melia azedarach. The greatest abundance and diversity of alien invader plants were recorded near human settlements. More than half of the total recorded species have invaded perennial riverbanks. The episodic Molopo and Kuruman Rivers have been invaded almost exclusively by  Prosopis spp., which in places have formed extensive stands.

  13. Exotic woody plant invaders of the Transvaal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Henderson

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available The frequency and abundance o ;f exotic, woody plant invaders were recorded in 60% of the quarter degree squares in the study area. Sixty-one invaders were encountered o f which the most important and aggressive were Acacia dealbaia, Populus spp.,  Melia azedarach, Opuntia ficus-indica, Salix babylonica and  Acacia mearnsii. Invasion patterns are discussed and an attempt is made to correlate distribution with environmental factors. Attention is drawn to the areas of greatest invasion and the areas that are liable to show the greatest expansion in the future.

  14. Efeito de extratos aquosos de meliáceas sobre Bemisia tabaci biótipo B em tomateiro Effect of aqueous extracts of meliaceous plants on Bemisia tabaci B biotype on tomato plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANTONIO PANCRÁCIO DE SOUZA

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparou-se a bioatividade de extratos aquosos a 3% (p/v de três meliáceas, Melia azedarach L. (frutos verdes, Trichilia pallida Swartz (ramos e Azadirachta indica A. Juss (sementes, em relação à mosca branca Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius biótipo B, criada em tomateiro. No primeiro experimento os extratos foram aplicados sobre ovos e sobre ninfas com três dias de idade, avaliando-se a mortalidade e a duração das fases de ovo e de ninfa. No segundo experimento os extratos foram aplicados apenas sobre as ninfas, avaliando-se a mortalidade nessa fase e a longevidade e fecundidade dos adultos. Em relação à fase de ovo, o extrato de T. pallida foi o que provocou maior mortalidade, seguindo-se os de A. indica e M. azedarach. A maior mortalidade ninfal foi constatada com o extrato de A. indica, seguindo-se os de T. pallida e M. azedarach. Nenhum dos extratos afetou a duração das fases de ovo e de ninfa, assim como a longevidade e fecundidade.The objective of this research was to compare the effect of aqueous extracts of fresh fruits of Melia azedarach L., twigs of Trichilia pallida Swartz and seeds of zadirachta indica A. Juss, on eggs and nymphs of silverleaf whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius B biotype reared on tomato plants. The extracts were tested at a concentration of 3%. In the first experiment, the extracts were applied on eggs and 3-day-old nymphs. Records were taken on mortality, duration of egg and nymphal stages. In the second experiment the extracts were applied on 3-day-old nymphs and records were taken on nymphal mortality, adult longevity and fecundity. The extracts of T. pallida were the most effective on eggs, followed by A. indica and M. azedarach. The extracts of A. indica were the most effective on nymphs followed by T. pallida and M. azedarach. In both experiments, the duration of egg and nymph stages, longevity and fecundity were not affected by the extracts.

  15. Efficacy of chitosan supported organic acaricide extract from Melia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRISCILA FERNANDA

    2016-06-29

    Jun 29, 2016 ... Article Number: C63C43059225. ISSN 1684-5315. Copyright © 2016 ... License 4.0 International License ... combat R. (B.) microplus has stimulated the search for .... plates, previously identified (Drummond et al., 1973).

  16. Morphological and RAPD-marker characterization of Melia volkensii ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    COMPAQ

    2015-04-15

    Apr 15, 2015 ... principal coordinates, cluster analysis, analysis of similarities (Anosim) and similarity percentages analysis (SIMPER) revealed significant ... poles, animal fodder, bee forage, mulch, analgesics and botanical pesticides(Kokwaro ..... contamination with proteins, whose peak absorbance is usually at 280 nm.

  17. Efficacy of chitosan supported organic acaricide extract from Melia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conductometric titration, ultraviolet-visible ("UV-Vis") and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis were conducted with materials to evaluate the chitosan anchoring ability. In vitro test was used in engorged females for each treatment, which consisted of control, raw extract and three treatments with increasing ...

  18. Analysis of genetic structure in Melia volkensii (Gurke.) populations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2Farm Forestry Programme, Kenya Forestry Research Institute, P. O. Box 20412, Nairobi, Kenya. Accepted 5 ... were used to estimate genetic distances between populations and for construction of neighbour-joining phenograms. Analysis of Molecular Variance (AMOVA) indicated significant genetic differentiation between ...

  19. Production of oriented strand board using four wood species from forest plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setsuo Iwakiri

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of using wood of Acrocarpus fraxinifolius, grevílea robusta, Melia azedarach, Toona ciliata, and mixture of these species for OSB manufacturing. The panels were produced in the laboratory with a nominal density of 0.80 g / cm ³, using phenol-formaldehyde resin in an amount of 6% of solid resin. There were evaluated the properties of water absorption and thickness swelling - 2 and 24 hours, internal bond, modulus of elasticity and modulus of rupture in the parallel and perpendicular direction, according to EN standards. The OSB panels produced with four species and the mixture of these species showed average values of mechanical properties above the minimum standard established by the CSA 437/1993. The results of the physical and mechanical properties obtained indicate the feasibility of the use of wood of Acrocarpus fraxinifolius, grevílea robusta, Melia azedarach and Toona ciliata, and mixture of these species for OSB manufacturing.

  20. Antifungal activity of methanolic extracts of some indigenous plants against common soil-borne fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuba, T.; Abid, M.; Shaukat, S. S.; Shaikh, A.

    2016-01-01

    Present study was conducted to evaluate the fungicidal property of methanolic extracts of some indigenous plants of Karachi such as Hibiscus rosa-sinensis (leaves), The spesia populnea (leaves, stem and fruit), Withania somnifera (leaves and stem), Solanum surattense (shoot) and Melia azedarach (fruit) against common soil-borne phytopathogens viz., Macrophomina phaseolina, Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium oxysporum by using food poison technique. Among the eight methanolic extracts of tested parts of plants, seven showed antifungal activity, of which T. populnea leaves and S. surattense shoots inhibited growth of all three test pathogens. Leaves of H. rosa-sinensis did not exhibit antifungal activity. T. populnea (leaves and stem), W. somnifera (stem) and M. azedarach (fruit) suppressed growth of Rhizoctonia solani by 100 percent. T. populnea leaves and M. azedarach fruit inhibited growth of M. phaseolina by 100 percent and 82 percent, respectively T. populnea leaves inhibited 99 percent mycelial growth of F. oxysporum. It is concluded that the methanolic extracts of the tested indigenous plants contain natural fungicidal compounds, which can be used for the control of common soil-borne pathogens. (author)

  1. Allelopathic effects of leaf extracts of three agroforestry trees on germination and early seedling growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Majeed

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding of the growth promotory or inhibitory allelopathic effects of agroforestry trees on other plants is necessary for selection of suitable crops to be cultivated in their vicinity. In this experiment, aqueous leaf extracts of three agroforestry trees (Populus deltoides, Melia azedarach and Morus alba were evaluated on germination and seedling growth of wheat applied at concentration 1, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 g L-1 while distilled water was used as control treatment. Lower concentration of extracts (1 and 1.5 g L-1 of P. deltoides stimulated percent germination, root and stem height and dry biomass while higher concentration (2 and 2.5 g L-1 had no effect on these parameters. Mean germination time (MGT was not affected by the extract and its concentration. Aqueous extracts of M. azedarach and M. alba at concentration > 1 g L-1 significantly lowered the studied parameters except MGT which was significantly prolonged. Negative allelopathy was more evident at the highest aqueous extract concentration (2.5 g L-1 of the two trees. Extracts of M. alba were found more growth inhibitory than those of M. azedarach. The study suggests that lower concentration of leaf extracts of P. deltoides imparts stimulatory while M. azedarch and M. alba have negative allelopathic effects on wheat germination.

  2. Influence of some plant extracts on the ovi-position behavior of Aedes fluviatilis and Culex quinquifasciatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulhakim A. El Maghrbi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Alcoholic/acetone extracts of nine species of plants (Allium tuberosum, Apium leptophylum, Carica papaya, Cymbopogon citratus, Euphorbia cotinofolia, Melia azedarach, Ocimum canum, Ricinus communis and Tagetes erecta were tested in respect to their influence on the ovi-position behavior of the mosquito, Aedes fluviatilis and Culex quinquifasciatus in concentrations of 100, 10 and 1 mg/L. Three days after mosquito females had fed on blood of anesthetized mice and pigeon respectively, experimental and control dishes were placed into cages for 24 h then number of eggs laid in each dish was counted. Alcoholic/acetone extracts of C. papaya, C. citratus and T. erecta at 100 mg/L; E. cotinofolia and O. canum at 100 and 10 mg/L were proved to be repulsive for ovi-position of Ae. fluviatilis. On the other hand, acetone extracts of A. tuberosum and M. azederach at 100 and 10 mg/L; A. leptophyllum, O. canum, E. cotinofolia and R. communis at 100 mg/L produced same effect on ovi-position behavior of Ae. fluviatilis. Alcoholic extracts E. cotinofolia, R. communis (100 mg/L and M. azedarach (100 and 10 mg/L were attractive to Cx. quinquifasciatus. Five acetone extracts (A. tuberosum, A. leptophylum, C. papaya, C. Citrates and M. azedarach were repulsive for ovi-position at 100 mg/L. Acetone extract of A. tuberosum and M. azedarach at 10 and 1 mg/L and C. citratus at 10 mg/L maintained the same properties. Our results concluded that each plant extract has the potential to control ovi-position behavior of mosquito. The differences in obtained responses necessitate the adoption of deeper research to isolate the active principle of such plants for potential use in mosquito control program.

  3. Identification of HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitor Active Compound in Medicinal Forest Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelly Rahmania

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of death worldwide, hypercholesterolemia is one of the causes. Three medicinal forest plants are potential natural resources to be developed as cholesterol-reducing herbal product, but scientific informations on their mechanism is still limited. The objective of this research is to explore the potency of the leaf of Jati Belanda (Guazuma ulmifolia, Jabon (Antocephalus macrophyllus, and Mindi (Melia azedarach as inhibitor of HMG-CoA reductase (HMGR, a key enzyme in the regulation of cholesterol biosynthesis. Samples were macerated in ethanol 96% and the filtrate was partitioned using n-hexane and chloroform to obtain the ethanolic flavonoid extract. The effect of each extracts on the HMG-CoA reductase activity were analyzed using HMGR assay kit. At concentration of 10 ppm the G.ulmifolia ethanolic extract showed the highest inhibitory activity as well as pravastatin control inhibitor.  The phenolic content of the ethanolic extracts of G.ulmifolia, A.macrophyllus, and M.azedarach were: 11.00, 34.83, and 13.67 mg gallic acid AE/g dried leaves, respectively. The flavonoid content of the ethanolic extracts of G.ulmifolia, A.macrophyllus, and M.azedarach were: 0.22, 0.64, and 0.78 mg QE/g dried leaves, respectively. Interestingly, G.ulmifolia extract the lowest concentration of phenolic and flavonoid content. HPLC analysis showed that all samples contain quercetin at similiar small concentrations (6.7%, 6.6%, and 7.0% for G.ulmifolia, A.macrophyllus, and M.azedarach, respectively. This indicating other active compounds may play some roles in this inhibitory action on HMG-CoA reductase activity. Further identification using LC-MS/MS showed that G.ulmifolia flavonoid extract contained an unidetified coumpound with molecural weight of 380.0723 Da.  

  4. Seleksi Pohon untuk Sarang Kuntul Kerbau (Bubulcus ibis di Dusun Wisata Ketingan Kab. Sleman Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eko Kosasih

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Habitat selection of Bubulcus ibis in Ketingan Village, Sleman Regency, Yogyakarta was investigated to provide basic information for population management. Presence of Bubulcus ibis nest was surveyed along with identification available tree species. Tree height, canopy size and openness, and distance from human disturbance were also measured for each tree. The Chi Square test showed that bubulcus ibis selected several species as nest trees such as Gnetum gnemon L., Cassia siamea Lamk., Artocarpus heterophyllus Lamk., Calophyllum inophyllum L., Melia azedarach L., Antidesma bunius (L. Spreng., and Dysoxylum gaudichaudianum(Juss. Miq. Tree height, canopy height, canopy diameter and the distance from human disturbance showed a significant difference between used and non-used trees for the nest, however diameter breast high (DBH and canopy openness of trees did not show significant differences. Habitat management of Bubulcus ibis should be improved by controlling its population that needed for the conservation of this bird species.

  5. Dye removal from textile wastewater using bioadsorbent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardazi, S.M.H.

    2014-01-01

    Textile industries throughout the world produce huge quantities of dyes and pigments annually. Effluents from textile industries are dye wastewater, and disposal of these wastes to freshwater bodies causes damage to the environment. Among the treatment technologies, adsorption is an attractive and viable option, provided that the sorbent is inexpensive and readily available for use. In this study, a typical basic dye, methylene blue, in wastewater was treated using Melia azedarach sawdust. The effects of contact time, adsorbent amount and particle size were investigated on the removal efficiency of adsorbent for methylene blue. Complete removal of the dye were attained at higher adsorbent dose of 3 g/L with 50 mg/L initial dye concentration. The maximum adsorption was at 240 minutes, whereas more than 90% removal with 105 meu m particle size of 1 g/L adsorbent for same initial dye concentration. The experimental data best fits with 2 Langmuir adsorption isotherm (R= 0.991). (author)

  6. Host Plants of Xylosandrus mutilatus in Mississippi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, W.D.; Nebeker, T.E.; Gerard, P.D.

    2007-01-01

    Host range of Xylosandrus mutilatus (Blandford) in North America is reported here for the first time. Descriptive data such as number of attacks per host, size of stems at point of attacks, and height of attacks above ground are presented. Hosts observed in Mississippi were Acer rubrum L., Acer saccharum Marsh., Acer palmatum Thunb., Ostrya virginiana (Mill.) K. Koch., Cornus florida L., Fagus grandifolia Ehrh., Liquidamber styraciflua L., Carya spp., Liriodendron tulipifera L., Melia azedarach L., Pinus taeda L., Prunus serotina Ehrh., Prunus americana Marsh., Ulmus alata Michaux, and Vitus rotundifolia Michaux. Liquidamber styraciflua had significantly more successful attacks, significantly higher probability of attacks, and significantly higher number of adult beetles per host tree than did Carya spp., A. rubrum, and L. tulipifera. This information is relevant in determining the impact this exotic beetle may have in nurseries, urban areas, and other forestry systems where this beetle becomes established. (author) [es

  7. Melliferous flora and pollen characterization of honey samples of Apis mellifera L., 1758 in apiaries in the counties of Ubiratã and Nova Aurora, PR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELIZABETE S. SEKINE

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to carry out a survey of the flora with potential for beekeeping in the counties of Ubiratã and Nova Aurora-PR through the collection of plants and pollen analyses in honey samples collected monthly. 208 species of plants were recorded, distributed in 66 families. The families that showed the major richness of pollen types were: Asteraceae, Myrtaceae and Solanaceae. Approximately 80 pollen types were found in honey samples, most of them were characterized as heterofloral. Cultivated plants, such as Glycine max (soybean and Eucalyptus spp., were representative in some months of the year. Exotic species, such as Ricinus communis and Melia azedarach, were also frequent. However, over than 50% of the pollen types belong to native species of the region, such as Schinus terebinthifolius, Baccharis spp. Alchornea triplinervia, Parapiptadenia rigida, Hexaclamys edulis, Zanthoxylum sp. and Serjania spp., indicating the importance of the native vegetation for the survival of the colonies.

  8. Isoprene emission from tropical tree species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padhy, P.K.; Varshney, C.K.

    2005-01-01

    Foliar emission of isoprene was measured in nine commonly growing tree species of Delhi, India. Dynamic flow enclosure technique was used and gas samples were collected onto Tenax-GC/Carboseive cartridges, which were then attached to the sample injection system in the gas chromatograph (GC). Eluting compounds were analysed using a flame ionisation detector (FID). Out of the nine tree species, isoprene emission was found in six species (Eucalyptus sp., Ficus benghalensis, Ficus religiosa, Mangifera indica, Melia azedarach, and Syzygium jambolanum), whereas, in the remaining three tree species (Alstonia scholaris, Azadirachta indica, and Cassia fistula) no isoprene emission was detected or the levels of emission were negligible or below the detection limit (BDL). Among six tree species, the highest hourly emission (10.2±6.8 μg g -1 leaf dry weight, average of five seasons) was observed in Ficus religiosa, while minimum emission was from Melia azedarach (2.2±4.9 μg g -1 leaf dry weight, average of five seasons). Isoprene emission (average of six species), over five seasons, was found to vary between 3.9 and 8.5 μg g -1 leaf dry weight during the rainy season. In addition, significant diurnal variation in isoprene emission was observed in each species. The preliminary estimate made in this study on the annual biogenic VOC emission from India may probably be the first of its kind from this part of the world. - Isoprene flux (diurnal and seasonal) from some tropical tree species was estimated and a regional comparison was made

  9. Isoprene emission from tropical tree species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padhy, P.K. [School of Environmental Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110 067 (India)]. E-mail: padhypk2003@yahoo.com; Varshney, C.K. [School of Environmental Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110 067 (India)

    2005-05-01

    Foliar emission of isoprene was measured in nine commonly growing tree species of Delhi, India. Dynamic flow enclosure technique was used and gas samples were collected onto Tenax-GC/Carboseive cartridges, which were then attached to the sample injection system in the gas chromatograph (GC). Eluting compounds were analysed using a flame ionisation detector (FID). Out of the nine tree species, isoprene emission was found in six species (Eucalyptus sp., Ficus benghalensis, Ficus religiosa, Mangifera indica, Melia azedarach, and Syzygium jambolanum), whereas, in the remaining three tree species (Alstonia scholaris, Azadirachta indica, and Cassia fistula) no isoprene emission was detected or the levels of emission were negligible or below the detection limit (BDL). Among six tree species, the highest hourly emission (10.2{+-}6.8 {mu}g g{sup -1} leaf dry weight, average of five seasons) was observed in Ficus religiosa, while minimum emission was from Melia azedarach (2.2{+-}4.9 {mu}g g{sup -1} leaf dry weight, average of five seasons). Isoprene emission (average of six species), over five seasons, was found to vary between 3.9 and 8.5 {mu}g g{sup -1} leaf dry weight during the rainy season. In addition, significant diurnal variation in isoprene emission was observed in each species. The preliminary estimate made in this study on the annual biogenic VOC emission from India may probably be the first of its kind from this part of the world. - Isoprene flux (diurnal and seasonal) from some tropical tree species was estimated and a regional comparison was made.

  10. Crescimento micelial de dois isolados de Lentinula edodes (Berk. Pegler, em resíduos ligninocelulósicos - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v30i2.3622 Mycelial growth of two isolated strains of Lentinula edodes (Berk. Pegler in lignocellulose residue - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v30i3.3622

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eraldo Schunck da Silva

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Com a finalidade de verificar o crescimento micelial de dois isolados, 42 e 47, de Lentinula edodes, utilizaram-se os substratos: serragens de Eucalyptus sp., de Grevillea robusta e de Melia azedarach; resíduo de algodão e folhas de Panicum maximum em diferentes composições e suplementados com farelos de soja e de arroz. Verificou-se crescimento micelial por meio de medidas do raio avaliadas pela Análise de Dados Longitudinais. Os dados obtidos foram submetidos à analise estatística (Manova. O crescimento foi significativamente diferente ao longo do tempo e este influenciou marcadamente o comportamento dos isolados nos diferentes resíduos. Observaram-se quatro padrões de comportamento para o isolado 42 e cinco, para o 47. As serragens de Eucalyptus sp. e de G. robusta mostraram-se as mais propícias ao crescimento dos dois isolados de L. edodes, confirmando ser essa espécie essencialmente de hábito lignícola.With the purpose of verifying the mycelial growth of two isolated strains of Lentinula edodes – 42 and 47 –, the following substrates were used: sawdusts of Eucalyptus sp., Grevillea robusta and Melia azedarach; cotton residue and leaves of Panicum maximum, in different compositions and complemented with crumbs of soy and rice. Mycelial growth was verified through radius measurements as evaluated by Longitudinal Data Analysis. The obtained data was submitted to statistical analysis (Manova. The growth was significantly different along time, and this influenced remarkably the behavior of the isolated strains in the different residues. Four patterns of behavior were observed for isolate 42, and five for number 47. The sawdusts of Eucalyptus sp. and of G. robusta proved to the most favorable for growing the two isolates of L. edodes, confirming this species to be essentially lignous.

  11. Eficiência de produtos vegetais no controle da lagarta-do-cartucho-do-milho Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E.Smith, 1797 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae Efficience of extracts of plantas in control of fall armyworm in corn Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E.Smith, 1797 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Souza Silva Oliveira

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a eficiência de produtos vegetais no controle de Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E.Smith, 1797 na cultura do milho. Os experimentos foram instalados, nos anos de 2002 e 2004, com a pulverização dos produtos vegetais em cinco tratamentos, e quatro repetições. No ano de 2002, os produtos testados foram: Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (extrato aquoso 2%, e óleo a 1%; Melia azedarach L. (extrato aquoso 2%; Quassia amara L. (extrato aquoso 2%; óleo de nim, Azadirachta indica 1 e 2%. No ano de 2004, os produtos testados foram: A. indica (extrato aquoso 5%, e óleo a 2%, M. azedarach (extrato aquoso 5%, Trichilia pallida Sw. (extrato aquoso 5%. As avaliações, porcentagem de infestação da lagarta-do-cartucho por parcela, foram efetuadas aos três, sete e dez dias após a pulverização dos extratos. Conclui-se que extratos aquosos das plantas A. indica 2%, T.pallida 5%, Q. amara 2% e M. azedarach 2% e 5% e óleo de A. indica 1% e 2% com adição de tenso ativo não iônico, não possuem eficiência necessária como único método de controle da largarta-do-cartucho S. frugiperda em condições de campo. Os produtos começam a afetar o desenvolvimento da lagarta após alguns dias da ingestão das folhas pulverizadas, observado na avaliação efetuada aos sete dias após a aplicação dos extratos.The objective of this work was to study the efficiency of vegetable pesticides in the control of Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E.Smith, 1797 in corn culture. The experiments were installed, in the years of 2002 and 2004, with the spraying of the vegetable products in five treatments, and four repetitions. In the year of 2002 the tested products were: Azadirachta indica A. Juss (aqueous extract 2%, and oil at 1%; Melia azedarach L. (aqueous extract 2%; Quassia amara L. (aqueous extract 2%; nim oil, Azadirachta indica 1 and 2%. In the year of 2004 the tested products were: A. indica (aqueous extract 5%, and oil at 2%, M

  12. Antifungal Potential of Indigenous Medicinal Plants against Myrothecium Leaf Spot of Bitter Gourd ( Momordica charantia L.

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    Muhammad Abid

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Bitter gourd is of great importance due to its usage against the treatment of numerous ailments in human beings. A comprehensive survey at four localities of Southern Punjab, Pakistan was carried out to determine the severity of Myrothecium leaf spot. Maximum disease severity was at C1 (Chak 11/NP and least at C2 (Kot Mehtab. Among isolated species Myrothecium roridum was found more prevalent and pathogenic as compared to M. verrucaria. Antifungal activity using solvent extracts of five medicinal plants (Mangifera indica, Melia azedarach, Nicotiana tabacum, Moringa oleifera and Eucalyptus globosum were evaluated against isolated species by agar well diffusion method at various concentrations (0.01, 0.10, 1.0 and 10.0 µg / mL. N. tabacum revealed maximum zone size (13.40 mm and 8.28 mm with ethanol and chloroform solvents respectively followed by M. azedarach (9.00mm and 6.48mm. However, least inhibition was observed with ethanol and chloroform extracts of E. globosum (6.04mm and 3.88mm zone size respectively. Ethanol extracts showed highest activity when compared to chloroform extracts. Qualitative phytochemical analysis showed that all the selected plants are rich in chemical compounds such as alkaloids, terpenoids, flavonoids and phenols whereas Saponins was only present in N. tabacum while absent in rest of the extracts.

  13. Plant extracts, metaldehyde and saline solutions on the population control of Bradybaena similaris

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    Junir Antonio Lutinski

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This study aimed to test the efficiency of plant extracts, metaldehyde and saline solutions, as alternatives to the population control of the snail Bradybaena similaris , and to investigate the effect of the plant extracts in reducing the damage of the snail on Brassica oleracea . The experiments were performed at the Entomology Laboratory of the Universidade Comunitária da Região de Chapecó (Unochapecó, using a random experimental design with nine treatments in triplicate. Five adult individuals of B. similaris were subjected to each trial, totaling 135 snails. The following treatments were tested: cinnamon ( Melia azedarach , timbó ( Ateleia glazioveana , rosemary ( Rosmarinus officinalis , mate herb ( Ilex paraguariensis , two concentrations of metaldehyde (3% and 5%, two concentrations of salt solution (5% and 10 %, and a control treatment (distilled water. To evaluate the survival of B. similaris it was checked the treatments every 24 hours, over four consecutive days. The results revealed that the two concentrations of metaldehyde were fully efficient, that the saline solution (10% had and intermediate efficiency, and that all other treatments were not effective. The treatment with the M. azedarach extract induced a higher consumption of B. oleracea , while the saline solution at 10% and the extracts of R. officinalis and I. paraguariensis inhibited leaf consumption.

  14. Evaluation of Some Plant Extracts and Gamma Radiation for Controlling Potato Tuber Moth, Phthorimea operculella (Zeller)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghally, S.E.; Abdel Kawy, F.K; Abd-alla, M.S; Mohamed, S.A.

    2005-01-01

    In This work two plant species: fruits of chinaberry, Melia azedarach and leaves of Duranta plumieri were chosen to study the efficiency of these plant extracts with concentrations from 2 to 6 % (w/v) for the first and from 15 to 25% (w/v) for the second with joint action of gamma radiation at 200 Gy in controlling potato tuber moth Ph. operculella. It was noticed that, the solved used have no effect on the larval development. Percent pupation was adversely affected by increasing the concentration of plant extracts. Also the reduction in adult emergence was increased with increasing treatments used. The gradual increase in susceptibility of insect larvae to plant extract was noticed as the dose of gamma irradiation applied. The sex ratio of the resulting adults was not affected at all concentrations used. Duranta extracts have a slight effects on all the stages of Ph. operculella. Percent pupation was 19.54% with Melia fruits extract at concentration 5%, while it was 45.05% with Duranta leaves extract at 15% concentration. Finally Duranta extract had a little toxicity against Ph. operculella comparing with another extract

  15. 'Geed-hindi' - Melia azadirachta l. - a most common cultivated tree in Somalia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazmi, S.M.A.

    1980-01-01

    M. azadirachta (Azadirachta indica), also known as 'meri-meri', a straight-stemmed evergreen exotic which grows to 18 m height, tolerates 250 mm annual rainfall and dry or saline soils. Primary uses are in shelterbelts and as a soil binder; the timber is used for building, fuelwood (at 10 yr old) and charcoal; the fruits (from 5 yr old) yield oil; and the tree has medicinal uses.

  16. Phytobiocidal management of bacterial wilt of tomato caused by Ralstonia solanacearum (Smith) Yabuuchi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Din, N.; Ahmad, M.; Siddique, M.; Ali, A.; Naz, I.; Ullah, N.; Ahmad, F.

    2016-11-01

    Phytobiocides are a good alternative to chemicals in managing bacterial diseases including bacterial wilt of tomato caused by Ralstonia solanacearum. In the present research study, finely ground dried powders of seven widely available medicinal plants/weeds species viz., Peganum harmala (esfand or wild rue), Calotropis procera (sodom apple), Melia azedarach (white cedar), Allium sativum (garlic), Adhatoda vasica (malabar nut), Tagetes patula (marigold) and Nerium oleander (oleander) were assessed for their anti-microbial activity, both in-vitro (10% w/v) and in-vivo (10, 20, 30, and 40 g/kg of potted soil) against R. solanacearum. Aqueous extracts (prepared as 10% w/v, soaking for 48-72 h and filtering) of C. procera, A. vasica, and T. patula inhibited the in-vitro growth of the bacterial pathogen over 60% of that produced by the standard antibiotic streptomycin. A. sativum, N. oleander and P. harmala aqueous extracts were less effective while M. azedarach showed no effect against R. solanacearum. The higher dose (40 g/kg of soil) of C. procera, A. vasica and T. patula decreased disease severity quite effectively and increased yield and plant growth characters as much as the standard antibiotic did. No phytotoxicity of medicinal plants powder was observed on tomato plants. Alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, saponins and terpenoids were detected in the aqueous extracts of T. patula and A. vasica whereas C. procera was found to have only alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins and saponins. Our data suggest that dried powders of T. patula, C. procera and A. vasica (40 g/kg of soil) could be used as an effective component in the integrated disease management programs against bacterial wilt of tomato. (Author)

  17. Citotoxicidad de extractos de plantas medicinales sobre la línea celular de carcinoma de pulmón humano A549 Cytotoxicity of medicinal plant extracts on the human lung carcinoma cell line A549

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    Alexis Díaz García

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: evaluar el efecto de 10 extractos de plantas medicinales sobre el crecimiento de la línea celular humana de carcinoma de pulmón A549. METODOS: el efecto de los extractos sobre la células tumorales se midió a través de un ensayo colorimétrico mediante el empleo del bromuro de 3-(4,5-dimetil-tiazol-2-yl-2,5-difenil tetrazolio a concentraciones entre 3,9-250 µg/mL durante 72 h y se calculó la concentración citotóxica media para cada uno. RESULTADOS: del total de los extractos evaluados solo cuatro (Parthenium hysterophorus, Bixa orellana, Momordica charantia y Cucurbita maxima evidenciaron concentraciones citotóxicas medias inferiores a 100 µg/mL. Excepto Parthenium hysterophorus, las restantes se emplean en la medicina tradicional para el tratamiento del cáncer. Los extractos de Cecropia peltata, Melia azedarach, Annona glabra, Artemisia absintium, Lepidium virginicum y Bidens pilosa no mostraron efectos citotóxicos significativos. CONCLUSIONES: Los extractos de plantas que se emplean en la medicina tradicional para el tratamiento del cáncer, mostraron citotoxicidad sobre las células tumorales. El conocimiento etnobotánico representa una herramienta importante en la selección de plantas medicinales, en la búsqueda de nuevos compuestos para el tratamiento del cáncer.OBJECTIVES: to evaluate the effect of 10 Cuban medicinal plant extracts on the human lung tumor cell line A549. METHODS: the effect of the plant extracts on tumor cells was determined by a colorimetric assay using the 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT at concentrations ranging from 3,9-250 µg/mL for 72 hours and the mean cytotoxic concentration was calculated for each of them. RESULTS: the ethanolic extracts of Parthenium hysterophorus, Bixa orellana, Momordica charantia and Cucurbita maxima showed mean cytotoxic concentrations under 100 µg/mL. Except for P. hysterophorus, the others are used in traditional medicine to fight

  18. Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELIZABETE S. SEKINE

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to carry out a survey of the flora with potential for beekeeping in the counties of Ubiratã and Nova Aurora-PR through the collection of plants and pollen analyses in honey samples collected monthly. 208 species of plants were recorded, distributed in 66 families. The families that showed the major richness of pollen types were: Asteraceae, Myrtaceae and Solanaceae. Approximately 80 pollen types were found in honey samples, most of them were characterized as heterofloral. Cultivated plants, such as Glycine max (soybean and Eucalyptus spp., were representative in some months of the year. Exotic species, such as Ricinus communis and Melia azedarach, were also frequent. However, over than 50% of the pollen types belong to native species of the region, such as Schinus terebinthifolius, Baccharis spp. Alchornea triplinervia, Parapiptadenia rigida, Hexaclamys edulis, Zanthoxylum sp. and Serjania spp., indicating the importance of the native vegetation for the survival of the colonies.O objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar um levantamento da flora com potencial apícola nos municípios de Ubiratã e Nova Aurora-PR, por meio da coleta de plantas e análises polínicas em amostras de mel coletadas mensalmente. Foram registradas 208 espécies de plantas, distribuídas em 66 famílias. As famílias que apresentaram maior riqueza de tipos polínicos foram Asteraceae, Myrtaceae e Solanaceae. Aproximadamente 80 tipos polínicos foram encontrados nas amostras de mel e, na maioria, foram caracterizados como heteroflorais. Plantas cultivadas, como Glycine max (soja e Eucalyptus spp. foram representativas em alguns meses do ano. Espécies exóticas, tais como Ricinus communis and Melia azedarach também foram frequentes. No entanto, mais de 50% dos tipos polínicos pertencem a espécies nativas da região, tais como Schinus terebinthifolius, Baccharis spp., Alchornea triplinervea, Parapiptadenia rigida, Hexaclamys edulis, Zanthoxylum sp

  19. Castor Seed Poisoning in Humans: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-18

    semillas do ricino. Arch Argon Pad 1961; 56:337-339. 40. Kraszewska Z, Switlik I, Stalewski R, Gest3nberger J. Ostre zatrucie nasionami drzewa...por ingestion de semillas de ricino. A proposito de un caso. Med Clin (Barcelona) 1988; 90:716-717. 54. Ehrlich P. Experimentelle Unterzuchungen

  20. NEEM: UNUSUALLY VERSATILE PLANT GENUS AZADIRACHTA WITH MANY USEFUL AND SO FAR INSUFFICIENTLY EXPLOITED PROPERTIES FOR AGRICULTURE, MEDICINE, AND INDUSTRY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, H E; Langner, S S; Leithold, G; Schmutterer, H

    2014-01-01

    Neem plants (Rutales: Meliaceae) are well known for their multitude of human benefits in various fields. Specifically well investigated are the Indian neem tree Azadirachta indica A. Juss., the Thai neem A. siamensis Val., the originally Malaysian/Philippinean neem A. excelsa (Jack) and, as a close relative, the Persian lilac, Melia azedarach. The major and most active natural products are azadirachtin, salannin, nimbin and marrangin from Azadirachta species, and azadirachtin analogues like meliantriol from Melia species. Neem fruits, leaves, bark, and roots have specific virtues. They have been traditionally exploited for a considerable part of human history and are documented in Sanskrit texts. Due to human activity in trade and travel both at land and sea, the plant species has been distributed around the globe and is cultivated in many tropical, and subtropical regions. A multitude of natural products of neem have been isolated, chemically characterized or identified, and investigated for their properties in the management of insects, Acarina, Crustacea, nematodes, bacteria, fungi, viruses and soil fertility (for reviews see Kraus, 2002; Schmutterer, 2002A; Rembold, 2002; Koul, 2004; Schmutterer and Huber, 2005; Kleeberg and Strang, 2009; Hummel et al., 2008, 2011, 2012). Neem products are virtually nontoxic, compatible with beneficial insects, pollinators and bees. They are environmentally benign, sustainable, renewable, and of a price affordable for developed countries. In conclusion, neem is a prime example of a natural resource with many beneficial applications in agriculture, human and veterinary medicine. So far, its use is practically free of resistance problems which are frustratingly prevalent in many areas of synthetic insecticide and drug development. Investigating more neem applications will increase future human welfare and health while being of general ecological benefit to the planet.

  1. Citotoxicidad de extractos de plantas medicinales sobre la línea celular de carcinoma de pulmón humano A549

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Díaz García

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: evaluar el efecto de 10 extractos de plantas medicinales sobre el crecimiento de la línea celular humana de carcinoma de pulmón A549. METODOS: el efecto de los extractos sobre la células tumorales se midió a través de un ensayo colorimétrico mediante el empleo del bromuro de 3-(4,5-dimetil-tiazol-2-yl-2,5-difenil tetrazolio a concentraciones entre 3,9-250 µg/mL durante 72 h y se calculó la concentración citotóxica media para cada uno. RESULTADOS: del total de los extractos evaluados solo cuatro (Parthenium hysterophorus, Bixa orellana, Momordica charantia y Cucurbita maxima evidenciaron concentraciones citotóxicas medias inferiores a 100 µg/mL. Excepto Parthenium hysterophorus, las restantes se emplean en la medicina tradicional para el tratamiento del cáncer. Los extractos de Cecropia peltata, Melia azedarach, Annona glabra, Artemisia absintium, Lepidium virginicum y Bidens pilosa no mostraron efectos citotóxicos significativos. CONCLUSIONES: Los extractos de plantas que se emplean en la medicina tradicional para el tratamiento del cáncer, mostraron citotoxicidad sobre las células tumorales. El conocimiento etnobotánico representa una herramienta importante en la selección de plantas medicinales, en la búsqueda de nuevos compuestos para el tratamiento del cáncer.

  2. Ethnopharmacological application of medicinal plants to cure skin diseases and in folk cosmetics among the tribal communities of North-West Frontier Province, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Arshad Mehmood; Khan, M A; Ahmad, Mushtaq; Zafar, Muhammad; Jahan, Sarwat; Sultana, Shahzia

    2010-03-24

    The present investigation is an attempt to find out ethnopharmacological application of medicinal plants to cure skin diseases and in folk cosmetics. We interviewed respondents in 30 remote sites of North-West Frontier Province by a structured interview form in the local language and respondents were queried for the type of herbal cure known to him. A total of 66 plant species belonging to 45 families have been recorded. Seventy-five medications for 15 skin diseases and cosmetics were documented. The mode of application was topical as well as oral administration. Water, milk, ghee, oil, eggs, sulphur and butter are used during administration of herbal remedies. About 15 plant species are known for their use to cure multiple skin diseases. Among these Berberis lyceum, Bergenia ciliata, Melia azedarach, Otostegia limbata, Phyla nodiflora, Prunus persica and Zingiber officinale constitutes major plants. The herbal cosmetics products range from face freshness, removal of ugly spots, hair care, and colouring of palm, feet, gums, and teeth. Most of the reported species are wild and rare; this demands an urgent attention to conserve such vital resources so as to optimize their use in the primary health care system. Since most of the skin diseases are caused by bacteria, viruses and fungi in this context, phytochemical screening for active constituents, biological activities and clinical studies is of global importance. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Eriophyid-myte (Acari: Eriophyoidea: Eriophyidae as moontlike beheeragente van ongewenste uitheemse plante in Suid-Afrika

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Craemer

    1996-07-01

    Full Text Available Eriophyid-myte kom waarskynlik op die meeste hoër plante voor en is oor die algemeen baie gasheerspesifiek. Sommiges is skadelik genoeg om oorweeg te word vir biologiese beheerprogramme teen ongewenste plante. Algemene belangstelling in die gebruik van eriophyids vir onkruidbeheer het onlangs ontstaan en vyf spesies is reeds, meestal suksesvol, gebruik vir onkruidbeheer in ander lande. Eriophyid-myte is nog nie as onkruidbeheeragente in Suid-Afrika benut nie. Sewentien spesies wat simptome veroorsaak wat moontlik nuttig kan wees vir die beheer van 12 plantspesies, wat as onkruide in Suid-Afrika beskou word, word gelys en bespreek. Die onkruide is: Acacia saligna (Port Jackson, Acroptilon repens (Russiese dissel, Cardaria draba (peperbos cardaria, Chromolaena odorata (paraffienbos. Convolvulus arvensis (akkerwinde, Cuscuta epithymum (dodder, Hypericum perforatum (St. Janskruid, Lantana camara (lantana, Melia azedarach (sering, Opuntia inermis (doringturksvy, Solanum elaeagnifolium (satansbos, S. mauritianum (luisboom en Spartium junceum (Spaanse besem. Sommige van hierdie eriophyid-spesies kan moontlik suksesvol as onkruidbeheeragente in Suid-Afrika gebruik word en derhalwe is verdere navorsing in hierdie verband geregverdig.

  4. Invasive, naturalized and casual alien plants in southern Africa: a sum­mary based on the Southern African Plant Invaders Atlas (SAPIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Henderson

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of this publication is to provide an overview of the species identity, invasion status, geographical extent, and abundance of alien plants in South Africa, Swaziland and Lesotho, based on field records from 1979 to the end of 2000. The dataset is all the species records for the study area in the Southern African Plant Invaders Atlas (SAPIA database during this time period. A total of 548 naturalized and casual alien plant species were catalogued and invasion was recorded almost throughout the study area. Most invasion, in terms of both species numbers and total species abundance, was recorded along the southern, southwestern and eastern coastal belts and in the adjacent interior. This area includes the whole of the Fynbos and Forest Biomes, and the moister eastern parts of the Grassland and Savanna Biomes. This study reinforces previous studies that the Fynbos Biome is the most extensively invaded vegetation type in South Africa but it also shows that parts of Savanna and Grassland are as heavily invaded as parts of the Fynbos. The Fabaceae is prominent in all biomes and Acacia with 17 listed species, accounts for a very large proportion of all invasion. Acacia mearmii was by far the most prominent invasive species in the study area, followed by A. saligna, Lantana camara, A. cyclops, Opuntia ficus-indica. Solarium mauritianum, Populus alba/xcanescens, Melia azedarach, A. dealbata and species of Prosopis.

  5. 1-Cinnamoyl-3,11-dihydroxymeliacarpin is a natural bioactive compound with antiviral and nuclear factor-κB modulating properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barquero, Andrea A.; Michelini, Flavia M.; Alche, Laura E.

    2006-01-01

    We have reported the isolation of the tetranortriterpenoid 1-cinnamoyl-3,11-dihydroxymeliacarpin (CDM) from partially purified leaf extracts of Melia azedarach L. (MA) that reduced both, vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) multiplication. CDM blocks VSV entry and the intracellular transport of VSV-G protein, confining it to the Golgi apparatus, by pre- or post-treatment, respectively. Here, we report that HSV-1 glycoproteins were also confined to the Golgi apparatus independently of the nature of the host cell. Considering that MA could be acting as an immunomodulator preventing the development of herpetic stromal keratitis in mice, we also examined an eventual effect of CDM on NF-κB signaling pathway. CDM is able to impede NF-κB activation in HSV-1-infected conjunctival cells and leads to the accumulation of p65 NF-κB subunit in the cytoplasm of uninfected treated Vero cells. In conclusion, CDM is a pleiotropic agent that not only inhibits the multiplication of DNA and RNA viruses by the same mechanism of action but also modulates the NF-κB signaling pathway

  6. Molecular-Assisted Pollen Grain Analysis Reveals Spatiotemporal Origin of Long-Distance Migrants of a Noctuid Moth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Chang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Pollen grains are regularly used as markers to determine an insect’s movement patterns or host (plant feeding behavior, yet conventional morphology-based pollen grain analysis (or palynology encounters a number of important limitations. In the present study, we combine conventional analytical approaches with DNA meta-barcoding to identify pollen grains attached to migrating adults of the turnip moth, Agrotis segetum (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae in Northeast China. More specifically, pollen grains were dislodged from 2566 A. segetum long-distance migrants captured on Beihuang Island (Bohai Sea and identified to many (plant species level. Pollen belonged to 26 families of plants, including Fagaceae, Oleaceae, Leguminosae, Asteraceae, Pinaceae and Rosaceae, including common species such as Citrus sinensis, Olea europaea, Ligustrum lucidum, Robinia pseudoacacia, Castanopsis echinocarpa, Melia azedarach and Castanea henryi. As the above plants are indigenous to southern climes, we deduce that A. segetum forage on plants in those locales prior to engaging in northward spring migration. Our work validates the use of DNA-assisted approaches in lepidopteran pollination ecology research and provides unique and valuable information on the adult feeding range and geographical origin of A. segetum. Our findings also enable targeted (area-wide pest management interventions or guide the future isolation of volatile attractants.

  7. Effect of extracts of plants with insecticidal activity on the control of Microtheca ochroloma Stal (Col: Chrysomelidae in the laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cíntia Grendene Lima

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Extracts of plants with insecticidal activity were tested on the control of Microtheca ochroloma (Col.: Chrysomelidae, an important insect-pest of Brassicaceae, in the larval and adult phases. Two 3-day-old larvae, kept under laboratory conditions (25ºC temperature, 70% relative humidity and 14 hours of photophase, were placed in a glass tube with a leaf of Chinese cabbage (Brassica chinensis previously treated with aqueous extracts (10% p/v of chinaberry leaf (Melia azedarach, chinaberry branch, and tobacco powder (Nicotiana tabacum. The same procedure was repeated in two assays with adult insects. In the first assay, all the previously-mentioned extracts were used, in addition to DalNeem (commercial product of Azadirachta indica. In the second, the insects were exposed to extracts of tabasco pepper fruits (Capsicum frutescens, Surinam cherry (Eugenia unifl ora, jambolan (Syzygium cuminii and eucalyptus leaves (Eucalyptus sp.. All the tests consisted of 10 insects per treatment, with five repetitions in the first test using adult insects and six repetitions in the others. Observations were made daily up to the fifth day, aiming to evaluate the mortality of the insects. All the tested extracts resulted in an effective control of the larvae of M. ochroloma. In relation to the adult insects, only the extracts of tobacco powder and DalNeem showed effective control.

  8. Synergistic Effects of Natural Medicinal Plant Extracts on Growth Inhibition of Carcinoma (KB) Cells under Oxidative Stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jeong Hee; Ju, Eun Mi; Kim, Jin Kyu

    2000-01-01

    Medicinal plants with synergistic effects on growth inhibition of cancer cells under oxidative stress were screened in this study. Methanol extracts from 51 natural medicinal plants, which were reported to have anticancer effect on hepatoma, stomach cancer or colon cancers which are frequently found in Korean, were prepared and screened for their synergistic activity on growth inhibition of cancer cells under chemically-induced oxidative stress by using MTT assay. Twenty seven samples showed synergistic activity on the growth inhibition in various extent under chemically-induced oxidative stress. Among those samples, eleven samples, such as Melia azedarach, Agastache rugosa, Catalpa ovata, Prunus persica, Sinomenium acutum, Pulsatilla koreana, Oldenlandia diffiusa, Anthriscus sylvestris, Schizandra chinensis, Gleditsia sinensis, Cridium officinale, showed decrease in IC 50 values more than 50%, other 16 samples showed decrease in IC 50 values between 50-25%, compared with the value acquired when medicinal plant sample was used alone. Among those 11 samples, extract of Catalpa ovata showed the highest activity. IC 50 values were decrease to 61% and 28% when carcinoma cells were treated with Catalpa ovata extract in combination of 75 and 100 μM of hydrogen peroxide, respectively

  9. Application of Ethnobotanical Indices on the Use of Traditional Medicines against Common Diseases

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    Imran Khan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed at documenting the detailed ethnomedicinal knowledge of an unexplored area of Pakistan. Semistructured interviews were taken with 55 informants randomly chosen regarding detailed ethnomedicinal and sociocultural information. The study exposed 67 medicinal plant species used to prepare 110 recipes and the major modes of herbal formulation were decoction and powdering (20% each. The disease categories with the highest Fic values were gastrointestinal and dermatological (0.87 each. The study determined 3 plant species, i.e., Acacia modesta Wall., Caralluma tuberculata R.Br., and Withania somnifera (L. Dunal with a FL of 100%. DMR results showed that Olea ferruginea (Sol. Steud. ranked first, Morus alba L. ranked second, and Melia azedarach L. ranked third. Among the 55 informants, the male concentration was high (61% and most of them were over 40 years old while a leading quantity of respondents (45% was uneducated. There is a dire need to take necessary steps for the conservation of important medicinal plants by inhibiting overgrazing and providing alternate fuel resources. Young generations should be educated regarding the importance of ethnomedicinal knowledge and plants with high Fic and FL values should be further checked chemically and pharmacologically for future exploration of modern medicine.

  10. Ethnopharmacological Assessment of Medicinal Plants Used against Livestock Infections by the People Living around Indus River

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    Sakina Mussarat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed to document detailed ethnopharmacological knowledge of medicinal plants against livestock infections of an unexplored remote region of Pakistan. Semistructured questionnaires were used for data collection. Total 43 plants belonging to 26 families were found to be used in ethnoveterinary practices. Seeds (29% were found to be the most frequent plant part used followed by leaves (22%. Ethnoveterinary recipes were mostly prepared in the form of decoction and powdering. Informant consensus factor (Fic results revealed high consensus for gastrointestinal (0.81, mastitis (0.82, and dermatological infections (0.80. Curcuma longa ranked first with highest fidelity level (FL value (66% followed by Trachyspermum ammi that ranked second (58%. Preference ranking (PR results showed that Zingiber officinale, Punica granatum, Triticum aestivum, Gossypium hirsutum, and Withania coagulans were the most preferred species for the treatment of diarrhea. Direct matrix ranking (DMR results showed that Morus alba, Melia azedarach, Withania coagulans, Cassia fistula, Azadirachta indica, and Tamarix aphylla were the multipurpose species of the region. We invite the attention of pharmacologists and chemists for further exploration of plants having high Fic, FL, and PR values in the present study. Conservation strategies should be adopted for the protection of multipurpose plant species.

  11. Toxicidade de compostos sintéticos e naturais sobre Tetranychus urticae e o predador Phytoseiulus macropilis

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    Bruce Veronez

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a toxicidade de compostos sintéticos e naturais sobre Tetranychus urticae e o predador Phytoseiulus macropilis. A mortalidade e a taxa de crescimento de T. urticae e seu predador foram avaliadas após a aplicação de: abamectina, clofentezina, fenpropatrina, fenpiroximato, propargito, enxofre e espiromesifeno, nas concentrações recomendadas; óleos de nim (Natuneem e Sempre Verde Killer Neem a 1%; e extratos aquosos a 10% de Dieffenbachia brasiliensis, Annona squamosa, Ruta graveolens, Agave angustifolia, Melia azedarach, Sonchus oleraceus, Mentha spicata x M. suaveolens, Allium cepa, Laurus nobilis e Eucalyptus saligna. A toxicidade aguda e a influência dos compostos sobre a taxa de crescimento instantâneo dos ácaros foram avaliadas em laboratório. Extratos de A. cepa, A. angustifolia, produtos à base de óleo de nim, espiromesifeno, propargito, fenpiroximato, abamectina e fenpropatrina causaram mortalidade superior a 83% em T. urticae. Extrato de A. angustifolia, Natuneem e clofentezina não causaram mortalidade significativa em P. macropilis. Agave angustifolia e Natuneem não afetaram significativamente a taxa de crescimento deste predador. Propargito, fenpiroximato, abamectina, fenpropatrina, espiromesifeno e extrato de L. nobilis afetaram severamente a população de P. macropilis.

  12. Development of enhanced radioprotectors - Biochemical and molecular genetical approaches on the radioprotective mechanism of natural products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jeong Hee; Lee, Eun Ju; Hong, Jung A [Kyunghee University, Seoul (Korea)

    2000-04-01

    To identify radio-protective agent candidate among medicinal plants and to elucidate the mechanism of action of the candidate material by using modern biochemical and molecular biological methods, we screened radio-protective activity among 48 medicinal plants. Seven samples showed above 20% protective activities against oxidative cell damage: Euryale ferox, Glycyrrhiza uralensis, Salvia miltiorrhiza, Eucomia ulmoides, Paeonia suffruticosa, Spirodela polyrrhiza, and Nelumbo nucifera. We also screened for oxidative stress sensitizing activity among other 51 medicinal plants. Among those samples, 11 samples showed good sensitizing effect; Melia azedarach, Agastache rugosa, Catalpa ovata, Prunus persica, Sinomenium acutum, Pulsatilla koreana, Oldenlandia diffusa, Anthriscus sylvestris, Schizandra chinensis, Gleditsia sinensis, and Cridium officinale. We also reported the radio-protective effect of DTT. The treatment of DTT increased cell survival after gamma-irradiation, decreased in the frequencies of micronucleus, and reduction in DNA fragmentation and apoptotic cells. Induction of apoptosis after UV-C irradiation was revealed by the changes in the relative cell death, increase in the relative amount of apoptotic cells, and the induction of DNA fragmentation. 165 refs., 9 figs., 8 tabs. (Author)

  13. Potential plant poisonings in dogs and cats in southern Africa : review article

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    C.J. Botha

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Plant poisoning occurs less commonly in dogs and cats than in herbivorous livestock, but numerous cases have been documented worldwide, most of them caused by common and internationally widely cultivated ornamental garden and house plants. Few cases of poisoning of cats and dogs have been reported in southern Africa, but many of the plants that have caused poisoning in these species elsewhere are widely available in the subregion and are briefly reviewed in terms of toxic principles, toxicity, species affected, clinical signs, and prognosis. The list includes Melia azedarach (syringa, Brunfelsia spp. (yesterday, today and tomorrow, Datura stramonium (jimsonweed, stinkblaar, a wide variety of lilies and lily-like plants, cycads, plants that contain soluble oxalates, plants containing cardiac glycosides and other cardiotoxins and euphorbias (Euphorbia pulcherrima, E. tirucalli. Poisoning by plant products such as macadamia nuts, onions and garlic, grapes and raisins, cannabis (marijuana, dagga or hashish and castor oil seed or seedcake is also discussed. Many of the poisonings are not usually fatal, but others frequently result in death unless rapid action is taken by the owner and the veterinarian, underlining the importance of awareness of the poisonous potential of a number of familiar plants.

  14. PROCEDURE FOR ANALYSIS COMPLIANCE WITH QUALITY STANDARDS OFFER OF THE BUFFET RESTAURANT CASONA MELIA SANTIAGO DE CUBA

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    Oscar Parada-Pérez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The company hotel Cuban faces the challenge of the competitiveness and the client’s satisfaction in an environment that demands of actions that they assure the quality. This article has as objective to show the application of a procedure for the evaluation of the standards of quality of the offer in the restaurant buffet La Casona of the Hotel Meliá Santiago de Cuba. The results achieved by the application of the procedure allow to perfect the process of taking of decisions and it contributes to the efficiency of the hotel and the elevation of the quality of the service. 

  15. Plant extracts on Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Curculionidae and Beauveria bassianaExtratos vegetais sobre Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Curculionidae e Beauveria bassiana

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    Janaina Zorzetti

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Looking for alternatives to pesticides for Hypothenemus hampei control, the objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of aqueous and ethanolic plant extracts of Moringa oleifera (Moringa and Tephrosia purpurea (tephrosia (seeds, leaves and roots and Melia azedarach (cinnamon, Nerium oleander (oleander and Azadirachta indica (neem (leaves only, on mortality and repellency of H. hampei and its compatibility with Beauveria bassiana, an important natural enemy of this pest. To assess the mortality, coffee leaves (Coffea arabica L were treated by immersion in a solution of endosulfan and plant extracts at a concentration of 10% and then offered to adults of H. hampei. The repellency was evaluated in multiple-choice tests and in no-choice tests among coffee fruit treated and untreated The compatibility between extracts and Beauveria bassiana (CG 452 was analyzed by quantifying germination, colony forming units, growth and yield / productivity of conidia. The highest mortalities were observed when leaves were treated with ethanolic extract of T. purpurea (leaves which did not differ from endosulfan, and aqueous and ethanolic extracts from M. oleifera seeds . In free-choice tests, all the ethanolic extracts showed repellent action, being higher for M. oleifera (root and T. purpurea (seed. The aqueous extracts of M. oleifera (leaves and seeds and N. oleander (leaves showed the highest repellency. In no-choice tests the highest repellency level was for coffee fruits treated with A. indica (leaves. The ethanolic extract of M. oleifera leaves negatively affected B. bassiana germination. These studies showed the potential of these plant extracts for use in the field as an alternative to chemical control, once they are also selective for B. bassiana. Visando alternativas ao uso de agrotóxicos no controle de Hypothenemus hampei, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o potencial de extratos vegetais aquosos e etanólicos de Moringa oleifera

  16. Avaliação de propriedades físicas e mecânicas da madeira de cinco espécies florestais em função da deterioração em dois ambientes Evaluation of physical and mechanical properties of wood from five species as a function of deterioration in two enviroments

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    Henrique Trevisan

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar algumas propriedades físicas e mecânicas da madeira de Eucalyptus urophylla S.T. Blake "Eucalipto" (Myrtaceae, Melia azedarach L. "Cinamomo" (Meliaceae, Lophantera lactescens Ducke, "lanterneira" (Malpighiaceae, Pinus elliottii Engelm. "Pinus" (Pinaceae e Inga marginata Wild "Inga" (Mimosaceae, submetidas ao processo de degradação em razão da exposição à intempérie no período de 12 meses, as madeiras foram colocadas em dois ambientes com características edafoclimáticas diferenciadas, isto é, foram montados dois campos de apodrecimento, sendo um dentro de uma mata secundária e outro a céu aberto, em um pasto formado por gramíneas rasteiras. Na avaliação, adotou-se um índice de deterioração médio, para expressar a degradação causada pelos fatores bióticos, nos corpos-de-prova oriundos de toras expostas nos respectivos ambientes. As determinações da densidade aparente, bem como da resistência à flexão (módulo de elasticidade (MOE e ruptura (MOR e compressão paralela às fibras da madeira, foram realizadas antes e depois da exposição à intempérie. Os resultados indicaram que ocorreram reduções diferenciadas nas propriedades avaliadas. As diminuições significativas da densidade ocorreram somente nos corpos-de-prova oriundos das madeiras expostas dentro da mata, bem como as reduções nos módulos de elasticidade e ruptura foram mais acentuadas nas madeiras procedentes desse ambiente. A resistência à compressão da madeira apresentou-se com reduções maiores, também nesse ambiente.The objective of this work was to evaluate some physical and mechanical properties of Eucalyptus urophylla S.T. Blake - Eucalyptus (Myrtaceae, Melia azedarach L. - Chinaberry (Meliaceae, Lophantera lactescens Ducke - "Lanterneira" (Malpighiaceae, Pinus elliottii Engelm. - Slash Pine (Pinaceae, Inga marginata Wild - Inga (Mimosaceae, subjected to the degradation process caused by the

  17. Evaluation of plant aqueous extracts, added into the soil, on Meloidogyne javanica (Treub, 1885 Chitwood, 1949 / Avaliação de extratos aquosos de várias espécies vegetais, aplicados ao solo, sobre Meloidogyne javanica (Treub, 1885 Chitwood, 1949

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    Leandro Grassi de Freitas

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of plant extracts with nematicidal properties to control plant nematodes can be a useful alternative to small farmers, regarding its low cost and non-toxic effects. The effect of the addition into the soil of aqueous extracts of 20 plant species on Meloidogyne javanica in plants of tomato was studied at greenhouse conditions. These were divided into two groups and evaluated in two separate experiments.The soil in the 2.0 L pots was infested with 5,000 eggs and, in the same day, it was applied 20 mL of aqueous extracts of the 20 plant species (Chrysanthemum parthenium, Arctium lappa, Cymbopogon citratus, Bacharis trimera, Equisetum sp., Melia azedarach, Mentha sp., Ricinus communis, Ocimum basilicum, Momordica charantia, Ruta graveolens, Coleus barbatus, Symphitum officinalis, Polygonum acre, Canavalia ensiformis, Foeniculum vulgare, Petiveria alliacea, Ageratum conyzoides, Mucuna pruriens and Azadirachta indica. Distilled water was used as control. Sixty days later, were evaluated for plant height, the fresh weight of shoot and root and the numbers of galls and eggs per root system. The extracts of Mentha sp., Arctium lappa and Ricinus communis reduced the number of galls of M. javanica in 75.6%; 65.7% and 54.4%; and the number of eggs in 81.7%, 75.9% and 56.6%, respectively.O uso de extratos vegetais com propriedades nematicidas no controle de fitonematóides representa mais uma alternativa para os pequenos produtores, com valor prático e econômico, e sem riscos de contaminação do ambiente. A adição ao solo dos extratos aquosos de 20 espécies de plantas foi avaliada sobre a população de Meloidogyne javanica em plantas de tomateiro, em casa de vegetação. Estas foram divididas em dois grupos e avaliadas em dois experimentos separados. No mesmo dia em que se infestou o solo com 5.000 ovos do nematóide, adicionou-se 20 mL dos extratos aquosos obtidos de folhas de artemísia (Chrysanthemum parthenium, bardana (Arctium lappa

  18. Controle de mosca-branca com extratos vegetais, em tomateiro cultivado em casa-de-vegetação Use of plant extracts on whitefly control in tomato grown in greenhouse

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    Edson LL Baldin

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Visando buscar métodos alternativos no controle da mosca-branca Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius biótipo B em tomateiro, foram realizados testes de atratividade e preferência para oviposição em casa-de-vegetação, utilizando-se quatorze extratos aquosos a 3% (peso/volume. Os extratos foram preparados com partes de Azadirachta indica, Trichilia pallida,Chenopodium ambrosioides,Piper nigrum,Melia azedarach,Ruta graveolens,Ricinus communis,Mentha pulegium,Tagetes erecta,Eucalyptus citriodora,Cymbopogon nardus e Coriandrum sativum. Numa segunda etapa, os extratos mais eficientes em casa-de-vegetação foram observados em laboratório, a fim de avaliar o possível efeito sistêmico dos mesmos sobre ninfas da mosca-branca. Constatou-se que as plantas de tomateiro pulverizadas com extratos à base de folhas de M. pulegium e folhas e sementes de A. indica foram menos atrativas aos adultos do inseto. Plantas pulverizadas com extratos de folhas de A. indica e folhas + ramos de R. communis mostraram efeitos deterrentes à oviposição do inseto, reduzindo o número de ovos; em contrapartida, o extrato à base de folhas de C. nardus estimulou a oviposição da mosca-branca sobre as plantas. O uso dos extratos por via sistêmica não afetou o período de desenvolvimento (ovo-adulto da mosca-branca; entretanto, a presença de extratos de sementes e folhas de A. indica e de folhas de M. pulegium provocou aumento significativo na mortalidade de ninfas de B. tabaci biótipo B.Looking for alternative methods of control to silverleaf whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius biotype B in tomato, attractiveness and oviposition preference tests were accomplished in greenhouse using fourteen aqueous extracts at 3% (weight/volume. The extracts were prepared with parts from Azadirachta indica,Trichilia pallida,Chenopodium ambrosioides,Piper nigrum,Melia azedarach,Ruta graveolens,Ricinus communis,Mentha pulegium,Tagetes erecta,Eucalyptus citriodora, Cymbopogon nardus and

  19. Detecting long-term growth trends using tree rings: a critical evaluation of methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Richard L; Groenendijk, Peter; Vlam, Mart; Zuidema, Pieter A

    2015-05-01

    Tree-ring analysis is often used to assess long-term trends in tree growth. A variety of growth-trend detection methods (GDMs) exist to disentangle age/size trends in growth from long-term growth changes. However, these detrending methods strongly differ in approach, with possible implications for their output. Here, we critically evaluate the consistency, sensitivity, reliability and accuracy of four most widely used GDMs: conservative detrending (CD) applies mathematical functions to correct for decreasing ring widths with age; basal area correction (BAC) transforms diameter into basal area growth; regional curve standardization (RCS) detrends individual tree-ring series using average age/size trends; and size class isolation (SCI) calculates growth trends within separate size classes. First, we evaluated whether these GDMs produce consistent results applied to an empirical tree-ring data set of Melia azedarach, a tropical tree species from Thailand. Three GDMs yielded similar results - a growth decline over time - but the widely used CD method did not detect any change. Second, we assessed the sensitivity (probability of correct growth-trend detection), reliability (100% minus probability of detecting false trends) and accuracy (whether the strength of imposed trends is correctly detected) of these GDMs, by applying them to simulated growth trajectories with different imposed trends: no trend, strong trends (-6% and +6% change per decade) and weak trends (-2%, +2%). All methods except CD, showed high sensitivity, reliability and accuracy to detect strong imposed trends. However, these were considerably lower in the weak or no-trend scenarios. BAC showed good sensitivity and accuracy, but low reliability, indicating uncertainty of trend detection using this method. Our study reveals that the choice of GDM influences results of growth-trend studies. We recommend applying multiple methods when analysing trends and encourage performing sensitivity and reliability

  20. Efeito de extratos de plantas com atividade inseticida no controle de Microtheca ochroloma Stal (Col.: Chrysomelidae, em laboratório

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    Sônia Thereza Bastos Dequech

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2008v21n1p41 Extratos de plantas com atividade inseticida foram testados no controle de  Microtheca ochroloma (Col.: Chrysomelidae, uma importante praga de brassicáceas nas fases larval e adulta. Duas larvas com três dias de idade, mantidas sob condições de laboratório (T:25ºC, U.R:70% e 14 horas de fotofase, foram colocadas em tubos de vidro contendo folha de  couve-chinesa (Brassica chinensis previamente tratada com extratos aquosos (10% p/v de folha de cinamomo (Melia azedarach, de ramo de  cinamomo e de pó-de-fumo (Nicotiana tabacum. O mesmo procedimento foi repetido em dois ensaios com insetos adultos. No primeiro, foram utilizados todos os extratos anteriormente citados mais o extrato de Dal- Neem (produto comercial à base de Azadirachta indica. No segundo, os insetos foram expostos a extratos de frutos de pimenta malagueta (Capsicum frutescens e de folhas de pitangueira (Eugenia uniflora, de jambolão (Syzygium cuminii e de eucalipto (Eucalyptus sp.. Todos os testes constaram de 10 insetos por tratamento, com cinco repetições no primeiro ensaio com insetos adultos e com seis repetições nos demais. As  observações foram realizadas diariamente até o quinto dia, objetivando avaliar a mortalidade dos insetos. Todos os extratos testados  resultaram num controle efetivo de larvas de M.ochroloma.Em  relação aos insetos adultos, apenas os extratos de pó-de-fumo e de Dal- Neem apresentaram efi ciência de controle.

  1. The spatial pattern of leaf phenology and its response to climate change in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Junhu; Wang, Huanjiong; Ge, Quansheng

    2014-05-01

    Leaf phenology has been shown to be one of the most important indicators of the effects of climate change on biological systems. Few such studies have, however, been published detailing the relationship between phenology and climate change in Asian contexts. With the aim of quantifying species' phenological responsiveness to temperature and deepening understandings of spatial patterns of phenological and climate change in China, this study analyzes the first leaf date (FLD) and the leaf coloring date (LCD) from datasets of four woody plant species, Robinia pseudoacacia, Ulmus pumila, Salix babylonica, and Melia azedarach, collected from 1963 to 2009 at 47 Chinese Phenological Observation Network (CPON) stations spread across China (from 21° to 50° N). The results of this study show that changes in temperatures in the range of 39-43 days preceding the date of FLD of these plants affected annual variations in FLD, while annual variations in temperature in the range of 71-85 days preceding LCD of these plants affected the date of LCD. Average temperature sensitivity of FLD and LCD for these plants was -3.93 to 3.30 days °C(-1) and 2.11 to 4.43 days °C⁻¹, respectively. Temperature sensitivity of FLD was found to be stronger at lower latitudes or altitude as well as in more continental climates, while the response of LCD showed no consistent pattern. Within the context of significant warming across China during the study period, FLD was found to have advanced by 5.44 days from 1960 to 2009; over the same period, LCD was found to have been delayed by 4.56 days. These findings indicate that the length of the growing season of the four plant species studied was extended by a total of 10.00 days from 1960 to 2009. They also indicate that phenological response to climate is highly heterogeneous spatially.

  2. Land-Use and Socioeconomic Change, Medicinal Plant Selection and Biodiversity Resilience in Far Western Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baral, Kedar; Paudel, Prashant; Acharya, Ram P.; Thapa-Magar, Khum B.; Cameron, Mary; Bussmann, Rainer W.

    2016-01-01

    Indigenous plant use-systems have evolved under, and constantly adapted to human and non-human impacts. In the last decades however, increasing socioeconomic and cultural transformations, including land-use change, outmigration, globalized markets, the introduction of new species, and climate change have led to a decreasing availability of indigenous resources, and are ultimately leading to a reduction of local use-knowledge. Participant observations, discussions, walks-in-the-woods, semi-structured interviews and informal meetings were carried out in 12 villages of far western Nepal between 2011 and 2015 to assess how sociocultural changes have affected the sustenance of indigenous systems and local biodiversity, when compared to studies carried out in the previous decades. Our findings show that there were no statistically significant differences in subject variable means, but differences were relatively important to plant parts-use and plant growth-forms (p = 0.183 and 0.088 respectively). Cissampelos pareira, Acorus calamus, Calotropis gigantea were found to have the greatest relative importance, whereas Ageratina adenophora, Melia azedarach, Carum carvi were most important based on use values. Among them, C. pareira and A. adenophora were introduced. The spatial distribution of species collected for medicine showed that all habitats were important for collection however, habitats close to villages were more favored. The use of non-indigenous and easily available species and more accessible habitats is becoming more prevalent as primary forests become increasingly overexploited, indigenous species become limited, and sociocultural cause of land use change expand. The utilization of indigenous and non-indigenous species and nearby habitats, although possibly affecting the quality of medicinal species, nonetheless reveals the dynamism of indigenous medicines as an adaptive asset mitigating human and non-human environmental changes. PMID:27936247

  3. An ethnobotanical survey of indigenous medicinal plants in Hafizabad district, Punjab-Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umair, Muhammad; Altaf, Muhammad

    2017-01-01

    Present paper offers considerable information on traditional uses of medicinal plants by the inhabitants of Hafizabad district, Punjab-Pakistan. This is the first quantitative ethnobotanical study from the area comprising popularity level of medicinal plant species intendedby using relative popularity level (RPL) and rank order priority (ROP) indices.Ethnobotanical data were collected by interviewing 166 local informants and 35 traditional health practioners (THPs) from different localities of Hafizabad district. Demographic features of informants; life form, part used, methods of preparation, modes of application and ethnomedicinal uses were documented. Ethnobotanical data were analyzed using quantitative tools, i.e. Relative frequency citation (RFC), use value (UV), informant consensus factor (ICF) fidelity level (FL), RPL and ROP indices. A total of 85 species belonging to 71 genera and 34 families were documented along with ethnomedicinal uses. Solanum surattense, Withania somnifera, Cyperus rotundus, Solanum nigrum and Melia azedarach were the most utilized medicinal plant species with highest used value. The reported ailments were classified into 11 disease categories based on ICF values and highest number of plant species was reported to treat dermatological and gastrointestinal disorders. Withania somnifera and Ranunculus sceleratus with maximum FL (100%), were used against gastrointestinal and urinary disorders, respectively. The RPL and ROP values were calculated to recognize the folk medicinal plant wealth; six out of 32 plant species (19%) were found popular, based on citation by more than half of the maximum number of informant viz. 26. Consequently, the ROP value for these species was more than 75. The comparative assessment with reported literature revealed 15% resemblance and 6% variation to previous data;however79% uses of the reported species were recorded for the first time. The diversity of medicinal plant species and associated traditional

  4. Eficiência de extratos vegetais no controle de Diabrotica speciosa (Germar, 1824 (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae, em laboratório

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    Junir Antonio Lutinski

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2010v23n1p83 Vulgarmente conhecida como “vaquinha”, Diabrotica speciosa (Germar, 1824 ocorre na maioria dos estados brasileiros, destacando-se como uma das mais importantes pragas do feijoeiro e do milho. Visando avaliar a atividade inseticida de extratos brutos aquosos de nove espécies vegetais sobre os adultos deste inseto, realizou-se este trabalho. O experimento, conduzido em laboratório, foi realizado sob delineamento completamente casualizado, com dez tratamentos e quatro repetições. Para tal, utilizou-se um frasco, contendo em seu interior cinco espécimes adultos e uma folha de feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris Linnaeus previamente imersa no extrato, tampado com um recorte de pano poroso e fixado por uma borracha. A variável avaliada foi número de espécimes de D. speciosa vivos. Os tratamentos consistiram em extratos de salvia (Salvia officinalis Linnaeus, cravo (Eugenia caryophyllata Thunb, noz-moscada (Myristica fragans Houtt, cinamomo (Melia azedarach Linnaeus, timbó (Ateleia glazioveana Baill, eucalipto (Eucalyptus citriodora Hook, canela (Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume, figueira (Ficus microcarpa Linnaeus f., alecrim (Rosmarinus officinalis Linnaeus e a testemunha (apenas água destilada. As avaliações de sobrevivência foram realizadas a cada 24 horas, durante 10 dias. Sobre o número de espécimes vivos efetuou-se a análise de variância em bifatorial (10 extratos x 11 horários após a aplicação. As médias foram agrupadas pelo teste de Duncan ao nível de 5% de probabilidade de erro. Os extratos mais eficientes foram o timbó, noz-moscada e cinamomo, com porcentagens de eficiência variando entre 80,4% e 100%.

  5. Enriched cultures of lactic acid bacteria from selected Zimbabwean fermented food and medicinal products with potential as therapy or prophylaxis against yeast infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alec Chabwinja

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the antifungal activity of crude cultures of putative strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB from a selection of Zimbabwean traditional and commercial food/ medicinal products against yeasts (strains of environmental isolates of Candida albicans and Rhodotorula spp.. Methods: Cultures of putative LAB from our selection of fermented products were enriched in de Man, Rogosa and Sharpe and isolated on de Man, Rogosa and Sharpe agar. Results: The crude microbial cultures from the products that showed high antifungal activities (zone of inhibition, mm were as follows: supernatant-free microbial pellet (SFMP from an extract of Melia azedarach leaves [(27.0 ± 2.5 mm] > cell-free culture supernatants (CFCS from Maaz Dairy sour milk and Mnandi sour milk [approximately (26.0 ± 1.8/2.5 mm] > CFCS and SFMP from Amansi hodzeko [(25.0 ± 1.5 mm] > CFCS from Parinari curatellifolia fruit [(24.0 ± 1.5 mm], SFMP from Parinari curatellifolia fruit [(24.0 ± 1.4 mm] and SFMP from mahewu [(20.0 ± 1.5 mm]. These cultures also showed high tolerance to acidic conditions (pH 4.0 and pH 5.0. However, culture from WAYA LGG (shown elsewhere to harbour antimicrobial activities showed no antifungal activity. The LAB could have inhibited yeasts by either competitive exclusion or the release of antimicrobial metabolites. Conclusions: Our cultures of LAB from a selection of Zimbabwean fermented products, especially Ziziphus mauritiana and fermented milk products have great potential for use as antifungal probiotics against yeast infections. Studies are ongoing to determine the exact mechanisms that are employed by the putative LAB to inhibit Candida albicans.

  6. Land-Use and Socioeconomic Change, Medicinal Plant Selection and Biodiversity Resilience in Far Western Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunwar, Ripu M; Baral, Kedar; Paudel, Prashant; Acharya, Ram P; Thapa-Magar, Khum B; Cameron, Mary; Bussmann, Rainer W

    2016-01-01

    Indigenous plant use-systems have evolved under, and constantly adapted to human and non-human impacts. In the last decades however, increasing socioeconomic and cultural transformations, including land-use change, outmigration, globalized markets, the introduction of new species, and climate change have led to a decreasing availability of indigenous resources, and are ultimately leading to a reduction of local use-knowledge. Participant observations, discussions, walks-in-the-woods, semi-structured interviews and informal meetings were carried out in 12 villages of far western Nepal between 2011 and 2015 to assess how sociocultural changes have affected the sustenance of indigenous systems and local biodiversity, when compared to studies carried out in the previous decades. Our findings show that there were no statistically significant differences in subject variable means, but differences were relatively important to plant parts-use and plant growth-forms (p = 0.183 and 0.088 respectively). Cissampelos pareira, Acorus calamus, Calotropis gigantea were found to have the greatest relative importance, whereas Ageratina adenophora, Melia azedarach, Carum carvi were most important based on use values. Among them, C. pareira and A. adenophora were introduced. The spatial distribution of species collected for medicine showed that all habitats were important for collection however, habitats close to villages were more favored. The use of non-indigenous and easily available species and more accessible habitats is becoming more prevalent as primary forests become increasingly overexploited, indigenous species become limited, and sociocultural cause of land use change expand. The utilization of indigenous and non-indigenous species and nearby habitats, although possibly affecting the quality of medicinal species, nonetheless reveals the dynamism of indigenous medicines as an adaptive asset mitigating human and non-human environmental changes.

  7. Anatomy and lignin distribution in reaction phloem fibres of several Japanese hardwoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Kaori; Yoshinaga, Arata; Takabe, Keiji

    2012-09-01

    Although tension wood formation and the structure of gelatinous fibres (G-fibres) have been widely investigated, studies of the influence of the reaction phenomenon on phloem fibres have been few and incomplete in comparison with those of xylem wood fibres. This study was undertaken to clarify the influence of stem inclination on phloem fibres using several Japanese hardwood species that produce different G-fibre types in tension wood. Eight hardwood species were inclined at 30-45° at the beginning of April. Specimens were collected in July and December. The cell-wall structure and lignin distribution of phloem fibres on both the tension and opposite sides were compared by light microscopy, ultraviolet microscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy after staining with acriflavine, and transmission electron microscopy after staining with potassium permanganate. Three types of changes were found in tension-side phloem fibres: (1) increases in the proportion of the syringyl unit in lignin in the S(1) and S(2) layers and compound middle lamella (Cercidiphyllum japonicum), (2) formation of unlignified gelatinous layers (Melia azedarach and Acer rufinerve) and (3) increases in the number of layers (n) in the multi-layered structure of S(1) + S(2) + n (G + L) (Mallotus japonicus). Other species showed no obvious change in cell-wall structure or lignin distribution. Phloem fibres of the tree species examined in our study showed three types of changes in lignin distribution and cell-wall structure. The reaction phenomenon may vary with tree species and may not be closely related to G-fibre type in tension wood.

  8. The use of biomonitors and neutron activation analysis in the study of air pollution of Buenos Aires city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pla, R.R.; Moreno, M.A.; Adler, M.

    2000-01-01

    Biomonitors were used as part of a pollution study of Buenos Aires city atmosphere under the International Atomic Energy Agency Research Contract ARG 7251, from the Co-ordinated Research Programme on Applied Research on Air Pollution using Nuclear Related Analytical Techniques. Lichens were primarily selected as indicators. Two different approaches were conducted, direct sampling of Parmotrema reticulatum, at a few places and the use of lichen bags, filled with Usnea sulcata from a northern national park, and hung at different sites. Simultaneously, tree bark was tried as biomonitor. Platanus acerifolia and Melia azedarach were selected as candidates, for being the most common trees in the city, but only P. acerifolia was analyzed. All the samples were analyzed using instrumental neutron activation analysis at the Ezeiza Atomic Centre of the National Atomic Energy Commission. RA-3) reactor was used for the irradiations, determining: As, Ba, Br, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Ta, Tb, Th, U, Yb and Zn. Concentration values for P. reticulatum compared well with values from literature. For U. sulcata differences were found among the tested sites and also, for some elements an increasing trend with time was observed. Enrichment factors calculated using Sc as reference and Mason's crustal average concentrations showed vehicules and refuse incineration as contributing sources to the aerosol. Tree bark from Buenos Aires and from a smaller city with mainly agricultural activities were analyzed and the results are coincident with those from lichens. This work is the first and preliminar contribution to the study of Buenos Aires aerosol using biomonitors. (author)

  9. Alleviation of Boron Stress through Plant Derived Smoke Extracts in Sorghum bicolor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pirzada Khan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Boron is an essential micronutrient necessary for plant growth at optimum concentration. However, at high concentrations boron affects plant growth and is toxic to cells. Aqueous extract of plant-derived smoke has been used as a growth regulator for the last two decades to improve seed germination and seedling vigor. It has been established that plant-derived smoke possesses some compounds that act like plant growth hormones. The present research was the first comprehensive attempt to investigate the alleviation of boron stress with plant-derived smoke aqueous extract on Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor seed. Smoke extracts of five plants, i.e. Cymbopogon jwarancusa, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Peganum harmala, Datura alba and Melia azedarach each with six dilutions (Concentrated, 1:100, 1:200, 1:300, 1:400 and 1:500 were used. While boron solutions at concentrations of 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 ppm were used for stress. Among the dilutions of smoke, 1:500 of E. camaldulensis significantly increased germination percentage, root and shoot length, number of secondary roots and fresh weight of root and shoot while, boron stress reduced growth of Sorghum. It was observed that combined effect of boron solution and E. camaldulensis smoke extract overcome inhibition and significantly improved plant growth. Present research work investigated that the smoke solution has the potential to alleviate boron toxicity by reducing the uptake of boron by maintaining integrity of plant cell wall. The present investigation suggested that plant derived smoke has the potential to alleviate boron stress and can be used to overcome yield losses caused by boron stress to plants.

  10. Poliuretanos elastoméricos obtenidos a partir de aceite de ricino y almidón de yuca original y modificado con anhídrido propiónico: síntesis, propiedades fisicoquímicas y fisicomecánicas Polyurethane elastomers from castor oil and chemically modified yucca starch: synthesis and physical-chemical, physical-mechanical and thermical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel F. Valero

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical modification of cassava starch was conducted through an acylation reaction by using pyridine and propionic anhydride to replace the functional groups of starch. Polyurethane elastomers were prepared using suspensions of the mixture obtained from castor oil and yucca starch that was modified by a propionic anhydride reaction. The suspensions were characterized by means of tests based on The Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and the Hydroxyl Index. The castor oil-AMP suspensions were used for the PU synthesis. The PUs were characterized by their physical-mechanical properties like tension- deformation and Shore A. hardness, thermal gravimetric analysis and swelling test. The density cross-linking of from swelling tests was determined by applying the Flory-Rehner equation.

  11. Avaliação de biofertilizantes, extratos vegetais e diferentes substâncias alternativas no manejo de tripes em cebola em sistema orgânico Evaluation of biofertilizers, plant extracts, and some alternative substances to manage onion thrips in organic agriculture system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo A.S. Gonçalves

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se substâncias alternativas no manejo de tripes (Thrips tabaci Lind., em cebola, cv, Crioula, no sistema orgânico. Os experimentos foram conduzidos na EPAGRI, Ituporanga (SC. Os períodos entre transplante e colheita foram de 11/09/1996 a 10/01/1997 e 13/08/1997 a 11/12/1997. O delineamento foi de blocos ao acaso com 8 tratamentos em 1996 e 12 tratamentos em 1997 e quatro repetições. Em 1996 os tratamentos incluíram o biofertilizante anaeróbico 50%, biofertilizante aeróbico 5%, sulfato de manganês 1%, extrato hidroalcoólico de própolis 0,2%, macerado de ervas ("fersoral" 2% e 4%, extrato de fumo (Nicotiana tabacum 2 L ha-1 + 1% detergente neutro, testemunha sem aplicação. Em 1997 os tratamentos incluíram o macerado de ervas ("fersoral" 5% 10%, enxofre pó molhável 0,25% + extrato hidroalcoólico de própolis 0,2% + extrato de samambaia 3%, biofertilizante anaeróbico 50%, biofertilizante aeróbico 5%, extrato de losna (Artemisia verlotorum 3%, extrato de timbó (Ateleia glazioviana 0,5%, extrato de samambaia (Pteridium aquilinum 10%, extrato de erva-de-santa-maria (Chenopodium ambrosioides 10%, extrato de cinamomo (Melia azedarach 10%, extrato de camomila (Matricaria chamomilla 5%, testemunha sem aplicação. Para aplicação dos produtos empregou-se pulverizador de pressão constante a base de CO2. Os tratamentos não causaram redução significativa na incidência de tripes e aumentos significativos na produtividade.Alternative substances to manage thrips population (Thrips tabaci Lind. on onion, in an organic agriculture system were evaluated. The experiments were carried out in Ituporanga, Santa Catarina State, Brazil. Plants of onion cv. Crioula were transplanted into two fields on 9th September/96 and 13th August/97 and harvested respectively on 10th January/97 and 11th December/97. A randomized blocks with four replicates were used in both experiments. In 1996 the treatments included the anaerobic liquid

  12. Botanical ethnoveterinary therapies in three districts of the Lesser Himalayas of Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Arshad Mehmood; Khan, Shujaul Mulk; Ahmad, Mushtaq; Khan, Mir Ajab; Quave, Cassandra Leah; Pieroni, Andrea

    2013-12-20

    Ethnoveterinary knowledge is highly significant for persistence of traditional community-based approaches to veterinary care. This is of particular importance in the context of developing and emerging countries, where animal health (that of livestock, especially) is crucial to local economies and food security. The current survey documents the traditional veterinary uses of medicinal plants in the Lesser Himalayas-Pakistan. Data were collected through interviews, focus groups, participant observation, and by administering questionnaires. A total of 105 informants aged between 20-75 years old who were familiar with livestock health issues (i.e. farmers, shepherds, housewives and herbalists) participated in the study. A total of 89 botanical taxa, belonging to 46 families, were reported to have ethnoveterinary applications. The most quoted families were Poaceae (6 taxa), Fabaceae (6), Asteraceae (5), and Polygonaceae (5). Adhatoda vasica was the most cited species (43%), followed by Trachyspermum ammi (37%), and Zanthoxylum armatum var. armatum (36%). About 126 medications were recorded against more than 50 veterinary conditions grouped into seven categories. The highest cultural index values were recorded for Trachyspermum ammi, Curcuma longa, Melia azedarach, Zanthoxylum armatum var. armatum and Adhatoda vasica. The highest informant consensus factor was found for pathologies related to respiratory and reproductive disorders. Comparison with the local plant-based remedies used in human folk medicine revealed that many of remedies were used in similar ways in local human phytotherapy. Comparison with other field surveys conducted in surrounding areas demonstrated that approximately one-half of the recorded plants uses are novel to the ethnoveterinary literature of the Himalayas. The current survey shows a remarkable resilience of ethnoveterinary botanical knowledge in the study area. Most of the species reported for ethnoveterinary applications are wild and under

  13. Indigenous uses of ethnomedicinal plants among forest-dependent communities of Northern Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Antony Joseph; Biswakarma, Saroj; Pala, Nazir A; Shukla, Gopal; Vineeta; Kumar, Munesh; Chakravarty, Sumit; Bussmann, Rainer W

    2018-01-26

    Traditional knowledge on ethnomedicinal plant is slowly eroding. The exploration, identification and documentation on utilization of ethnobotanic resources are essential for restoration and preservation of ethnomedicinal knowledge about the plants and conservation of these species for greater interest of human society. The study was conducted at fringe areas of Chilapatta Reserve Forest in the foothills of the eastern sub-Himalayan mountain belts of West Bengal, India, from December 2014 to May 2016. Purposive sampling method was used for selection of area. From this area which is inhabited by aboriginal community of Indo-Mongoloid origin, 400 respondents including traditional medicinal practitioners were selected randomly for personal interview schedule through open-ended questionnaire. The questionnaire covered aspects like plant species used as ethnomedicines, plant parts used, procedure for dosage and therapy. A total number of 140 ethnomedicinal species was documented, in which the tree species (55) dominated the lists followed by herbs (39) and shrubs (30). Among these total planted species used for ethnomedicinal purposes, 52 species were planted, 62 species growing wild or collected from the forest for use and 26 species were both wild and planted. The present study documented 61 more planted species as compared to 17 planted species documented in an ethnomedicinal study a decade ago. The documented species were used to treat 58 human diseases/ailments including nine species used to eight diseases/ailments of domestic animals. Stomach-related problems were treated by maximum number of plants (40 species) followed by cuts and wounds with 27 plant species and least with one species each for 17 diseases or ailments. Maximum number of 12 diseases/ailments was cured by Melia azedarach followed by Centella asiatica and Rauvolfia serpentina which were used to cure 11 diseases/ailments each. The list of 140 plant species indicates that the Chilapatta Reserve Forest

  14. Carbon stocks assessment in subtropical forest types of Kashmir Himalayas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaheen, H.; Khan, R.W.A.; Hussain, K.; Ullah, T.S.; Mehmood, A.

    2016-01-01

    Estimation of carbon sequestration in forest ecosystem is necessary to mitigate impacts of climate change. Current research project was focused to assess the Carbon contents in standing trees and soil of different subtropical forest sites in Kashmir. Tree biomass was estimated by using allometric equations whereas Soil carbon was calculated by Walkey-Black titration method. Total carbon stock was computed as 186.27 t/ha with highest value of 326 t/ha recorded from Pinus roxburghii forest whereas lowest of 75.86 t/ha at mixed forest. Average biomass carbon was found to be 151.38 t/ha with a maximum value of 294.7 t/ha and minimum of 43.4 t/ha. Pinus roxburghii was the most significant species having biomass value of 191.8 t/ha, followed by Olea cuspidata (68.9 t/ha), Acacia modesta (12.71 t/ha), Dalbergia sissoo (12.01 t/ha), Broussonetia papyrifera (5.93 t/ha), Punica granatum (2.27 t/ha), Mallotus philippensis (2.2 t/ha), Albizia lebbeck (1.8t/ha), Ficus palmata (1.51 t/ha), Acacia arabica (1.4 t/ha), Melia azedarach, (1.14 t/ha) and Ficus carica (1.07 t/ha) respectively. Recorded value of tree density was 492/ha; average DBH was 87.27 cm; tree height was 13.3m; and regeneration value was 83 seedlings/ha. Soil carbon stocks were found to be 34.89 t/ha whereas agricultural soil carbon was calculated as 27.18 t/ha. Intense deforestation was represented by a stump density of 147.4/ha. The results of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) revealed the distinct species clusters on the basis of location, biomass and Carbon stock values. Pinus roxburghii and Olea cuspidata were found to be the major contributors of carbon stock having maximum vector lengths in the PCA Biplot. Forest in the area needs to be managed in a sustainable manner to increase its carbon sequestration potential. (author)

  15. Compatibility of entomopathogenic nematodes and aqueous plant extracts aiming at the control of fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann (Diptera: TephritidaeCompatibilidade de nematóides entomopatogênicos e extratos vegetais aquosos visando o controle da mosca-das-frutas Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann (Diptera: Tephritidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristhiane Rohde

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae has been controlled mainly by the chemical method, which is responsible for environmental and public health impacts. It has often been ineffective due to development of resistant insect populations. Thus, it has necessary to research new effective and less impacting control forms. In this sense, the use of entomopathogenic nematodes and plant extracts has been effective for controlling this pest. However, studies are needed to assess the compatibility between these methods, aiming at their use in integrated management programs for this pest. The aim of this study was to evaluate the compatibility of the nematodes Steinernema carpocapsae ALL and Heterorhabditis sp. JPM4 with aqueous extracts prepared from dried plant of cinnamon leaf, twig and fruit (Melia azedarach, rue leaf (Ruta graveolens, ginger (Zingiber officinale and garlic (Allium sativum for the control of C. capitata. The bioassay was carried out in completely randomized design with four replicates per treatment. Each replication consisted of a glass tube containing 1 mL of plant extract 40% w/v and 1 mL suspension of entomopathogenic nematodes with 1800 JI/mL for S. carpocapsae ALL and 600 JI/mL for Heterorhabditis sp. JPM4. The viability and infectivity of this nematode were evaluated on C. capitata larvae after 48 and 120 hours. It was found that all extracts reduced the viability and infectivity of both nematodes and they were incompatible after 120 hours of exposure. The nematode Heterorhabditis sp. JPM4 was more sensitive than the S. carpocapsae ALL as it showed, in the first 48 hours, a reduction in the viability and infectivity of more than 80 and 75%, respectively, when exposed to all the extracts except the ginger.A mosca-das-frutas Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae tem sido controlada, principalmente, pelo método químico, que é o responsável por impactos ambientais e na saúde pública e, muitas

  16. Remote sensing object-oriented approaches coupled with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hence the combined use of new generation sensor imagery and the employment of object-oriented image classification techniques provided more accurate information on Melia invasion in the study area. This is an encouraging result given the high degree of intermingling of Melia with other plants at the study site.

  17. Phytoextraction potential of cadmium and lead contamination using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aghomotsegin

    2014-12-31

    Dec 31, 2014 ... Vegetative growth, biomass, chemical content and uptake of cadmium (Cd) and ... Vegetative growth and chemical properties of M. azedarach are ..... MSc thesis. ... In: Environmental Science, Engineering and Technology.

  18. Evaluation of the riparian forest state program in Pitangueiras county, Parana / Avaliação do programa estadual “Mata Ciliar” no município de Pitangueiras, Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristovon Videira Ripol

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Riparian forest restoration is fundamental for maintenance of vegetable, animal and human life. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of a Riparian Forest state program in the enlargement of the riparian forests in Pitangueiras county, state of Paraná, in the period of 2004 to 2006. Concerning the riparian reforestation, it was ansewered the reasons that convinced the farmers to join the program, the main difficulties found in its execution, and their views on environmental preservation and law. The results by means of interviews with the farmers and county leaders. It was concluded that the reparian forest state program was efficient due to the partner ship between Pitangueiras City Hall, Government Department of Environment and Coffee Farmer Association. The installation of a native tree nursery in Pitangueiras offered plants to farmers at the opportune period for planting; the farmers have conscience about the necessity of planting riparing forests; and is necessary to do a public policy to include the farmers in the carbon credict projects created with the riparian forest restoration.O uso de extratos vegetais com propriedades nematicidas no controle de fitonematóides representa mais uma alternativa para os pequenos produtores, com valor prático e econômico, e sem riscos de contaminação do ambiente. A adição ao solo dos extratos aquosos de 20 espécies de plantas foi avaliada sobre a população de Meloidogyne javanica em plantas de tomateiro, em casa de vegetação. Estas foram divididas em dois grupos e avaliadas em dois experimentos separados. No mesmo dia em que se infestou o solo com 5.000 ovos do nematóide, adicionou-se 20 mL dos extratos aquosos obtidos de folhas de artemísia (Chrysanthemum parthenium, bardana (Arctium lappa, capim cidreira (Cymbopogon citratus, carqueja (Bacharis trimera, cavalinha (Equisetum sp., cinamomo (Melia azedarach, hortelã (Mentha sp., mamona (Ricinus communis, manjeric

  19. Medicinal plants used for management of malaria among the Luhya community of Kakamega East sub-County, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukungu, Nillian; Abuga, Kennedy; Okalebo, Faith; Ingwela, Raphael; Mwangi, Julius

    2016-12-24

    Malaria remains a major health problem worldwide especially in sub-Saharan Africa. In Kenya, 80% of the population is at risk of contracting the disease. Pregnant mothers and children under five years are the most affected by this disease. Antimalarial drug resistance poses a major threat in the fight against malaria necessitating continuous search for new antimalarial drugs. Due to inadequate and inaccessible health facilities, majority of people living in rural communities heavily depend on traditional medicine which involves the use of medicinal plants for the management of malaria. Most of these indigenous knowledge is undocumented and risks being lost yet such information could be useful in the search of new antimalarial agents. An ethnobotanical survey was carried out among the Luhya community of Kakamega East sub-County, a malaria epidemic region, with the aim of documenting the plants used in the management of malaria. Semi-structured questionnaires were used to collect information from 21 informants who included traditional medicine practitioners and other caregivers who had experience in use of plants in management of malaria. These were drawn from 4 villages located in Kakamega East sub-county, within Kakamega County based on their differences in topography. Information recorded included plant names, parts used, mode of preparation and administration and the sources of plant materials. A literature search was conducted using PubMed and google scholar to identify the reported traditional uses of these plants and studied antiplasmodial activities. In this study, 57% of the informants were aged above 50 years and a total of 61% had either no formal education or had only attained primary school education. A total of 42 plant species belonging to 24 families were identified. Most plants used in the management of malaria in this community belonged to Lamiaceae (18%), Leguminosae (9%) and Compositae (9%) plant families. Plants mostly used included Melia

  20. Abnormal eating attitudes and weight-loss behaviour of adolescent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-06-18

    Jun 18, 2014 ... as anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and eating disorder not ... The existence of eating disorders and abnormal eating attitudes in ...... Skyes DK, Leuser B, Melia M, Gross M. A demographic analysis of 252 patients with.

  1. Determinación de las propiedades físicas y carga crítica del aceite vegetal Jatropha curcas L

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez-Martínez, Calixto; Lafargue-Pérez, Francisco; Sotolongo-Pérez, José Ángel; Rodríguez-Poveda, Annarella; Chitue de Assuncao Nascimento, Juliano

    2012-01-01

    En el trabajo se determinaron las propiedades físicas y la carga critica del aceite de Jatropha curcas L, obtenido de las plantas cultivadas en la provincia de Guantánamo en Cuba. Estas propiedades fueron comparadas con las propiedades de otros aceites vegetales (aceite ricino, aceite de girasol, aceite de colza y aceite de soya) usados como biolubricantes. Los resultados mostraron que las propiedades físicas del aceite de Jatropha curcas L fueron similares a la mayoría de los aceites vegetal...

  2. P{owering 'Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Melia dubia Cav. of Meliaceae is a large deciduous tree. Leaves are compound with toothed leaflets. Flowers are small, greenish-yellow in much-branched inflorescences. Fruits are green, ellipsoidal with a single seed covered by hard portion ( as in a mango fruit) and surrounded by fleshy pulp outside. The bark is bitter ...

  3. Review on herbal remedies used by the 1860 South African Indian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of these plants needs to be noted. In line with the 150 year commemoration of the 1820 settlers, this paper reviews some of the ayurvedic plants being currently utilized and which were brought to South Africa along with the settlers. Key words: Ayurveda, Ocimum tenuiflorum, Tulsi, Moringa oleifera, Melia azederach, ...

  4. O Desenho Cultural da Arquitetura Guarani

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Zibel Costa

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available This work is about the guarani-mbya tribe dwelling, and its relation to their cultural characteristics, especially those found in the ritual and mythological traditions. The guarani-mbya way of life or tradition - teco - can just exist in their own place - tecoa - which means 'place where we live according to our own way of life' (Melia, 1988:104

  5. An efficient protocol for in vitro organogenesis and antioxidant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Total flavonoids and phenolic content in leaves of in vitro Melia dubia was 0.56 ± 0.8 mg quercitin equivalent (QE) and 2.97 ± 0.17 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE) respectively. The antioxidant property was further assed through measurement of DPPH radical scavenging activity. The in-vitro regeneration protocol can be ...

  6. Invasive alien plant species used for the treatment of various ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: The study revealed that Schinus molle L., Catharanthus roseus (L.), Datura stramonium L., Opuntia stricta (Haw.) Haw., Opuntia ficus- indica, Sambucus canadensis L., Ricinus communis L., Melia azedarch L., Argemone ochroleuca and Eriobotrya japonica are used for treatment of various diseases such as chest ...

  7. Palyonological studies of the semi-desert plant species from Pakistan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In case of Calendula arvensis L., Salvia aegyptica, Melia azedarrach tetracolporate pollens were observed, in Carum copticum (L.) Bth, the pollens were bicolpate; in Cynoglosum lanceolatum Forssk., it was fenestrate while in Bougainvillea glabra Choisy., it was periporate. Thus, the present study was fruitful as it avoids the ...

  8. Palyonological studies of the semi-desert plant species from Pakistan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-06-14

    Jun 14, 2010 ... arvensis L., Salvia aegyptica, Melia azedarrach tetracolporate pollens were observed, in Carum copticum. (L.) Bth, the pollens were bicolpate; in Cynoglosum lanceolatum Forssk., it was fenestrate while in. Bougainvillea glabra Choisy., it was periporate. Thus, the present study was fruitful as it avoids the.

  9. Contact Allergy to Neem Oil.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Anton; Jagtman, Berend A; Woutersen, Marjolijn

    2018-01-01

    A case of allergic contact dermatitis from neem oil is presented. Neem oil (synonyms: Melia azadirachta seed oil [INCI name], nim oil, margosa oil) is a vegetable (fixed) oil obtained from the seed of the neem tree Azadirachta indica by cold pressing. Contact allergy to neem oil has been described

  10. “Bio” combustibles o el mito del oro verde ¿Política ambiental, “exportación de naturaleza”, o etnocidio?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Lise Naizot

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available El término “biocombustible” se refiere en su aceptación general a los combustibles que pueden ser obtenidos a partir de biomasa, de leña, y de más de 14 variedades de cultivos (caña de azúcar, soya, palma aceitera, ricino, maíz, colza, girasol, sorgo, trigo, mandioca, etc.. Los dos “biocombustibles”, “bio”etanol y “bio”diesel, son obtenidos, respectivamente, por fermentación de productos ricos en azúcares, almidones o celulosas (bioetanol y de aceites vegetales como la palma africana, girasol, higuerilla, soya, etc. (biodiesel

  11. Determinación de las propiedades físicas y carga crítica del aceite vegetal Jatropha curcas L // Determination of physical properties and critical load of Jatropha curcas L vegetable oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calixto Rodríguez-Martínez

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available En el trabajo se determinaron las propiedades físicas y la carga critica del aceite de Jatropha curcas L, obtenido de las plantas cultivadas en la provincia de Guantánamo en Cuba. Estas propiedades fueron comparadas con las propiedades de otros aceites vegetales (aceite ricino, aceite de girasol, aceite de colza y aceite de soya usados como biolubricantes. Los resultados mostraron que las propiedades físicas del aceite de Jatropha curcas L fueron similares a la mayoría de los aceites vegetales. La carga crítica del aceite de la Jatropha curcas L ocupa una posición intermedia entre el aceite ricino y los aceites de girasol, colza y soya, lo cual permite asegurar que el aceite de Jatropha curcas L es un buen candidato para como biolubricante.Palabras claves: biolubricantes, aceites vegetales, Jatropha curcas L, propiedades físicas, carga crítica._______________________________________________________________________________AbstractIn this paper the physical properties and the critical load of the Jatropha curcas L oil, plantations located in Guantanamo province, Cuba were determined. These properties together with other vegetable oils (castor, sunflower, rapeseed and soybean oils used as biolubricant were compared. These results have showed that the physical properties of the Jatropha curcas L oil were similar to most of vegetable oils.The critical load of Jatropha curcas oil has an intermediate position just castor oil and sunflower, rapeseed and soybean oils. Jatropha curcas oil has good potential as the renewable energy as well as biolubricant feedstock.Key words: biolubricants, vegetable oils, Jatropha curcas L, physical properties, critical load.

  12. Simulation of the evaporation of drops from palm and castor oil biodiesels based on physical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luisa Botero

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available La disminución de reservas y la producción de gases efecto invernadero por parte de los combustibles fósiles han aumentado el uso de biodiesel en motores de combustión interna. Si bien las propiedades físico-químicas del biodiesel son lo suficientemente similares a las del diesel para permitir su uso puro en motores diesel sin necesidad de hacer ajustes de consideración en emotor, la diferente estructura química del diesel y biodiesel causa cambios en la velocidad de evaporación y combustión que pueden afectar el desempeño del motor. En este estudio se desarrolló un modelo que predice la velocidad de evaporación de gotas de biodiesel de palma y ricino a presión atmosférica el cual se validó con resultados experimentales de la evaporación de una gota de n-heptano obtenidos de la literatura. El modelo calcula las propiedades termo-físicas de los combustibles utilizando la teoría de contribución de grupos y predijo que el biodiesel de ricino presenta un tiempo de evaporación mayor que el de palma debido a diferencias en sus propiedades físicas como densidad y entalpía de vaporización las cuales se explican por la diferente composición química del biodiesel y los grupos funcionales presentes en sus alquil ésteres.

  13. Biochemical and molecular genetic approaches on the radioprotective mechanism of natural products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jeong Hee; Lee, Eun Ju; Sung, Woo Kyung; Piao, Wen Hua [Kyunghee University, Seoul (Korea)

    1999-04-01

    We reported the radio-protective effect of DTT. The treatment of DTT increased cell survival after gamma-irradiation, decreased in the frequencies of micronucleus, and reduction in DNA fragmentation and apoptotic cells. Induction of apoptosis after UV-C irradiation was revealed by the changes in the relative cell death, increase in the relative amount of apoptotic cells, and the induction of DNA fragmentation. About 100 medicinal plants were purchased and methanol extract samples were prepared. Radio-protective and radio-sensitizing activities of these samples were screened. Seven samples showed above 20% radio-protective activities: Salvia miltiorrhiza, Areca catechu, Cornus officinalis, Alpiniae officinari rhizoma, Meliae fructus, Alpiniae katsumadaii semen, Betulae cortex. Acanthopanax sessiliflous showed the highest radio-sensitizing effect and 10 other samples revealed moderate activities: Melia japonica, Agastache rugosa, Platycodon gradiflorum, Broussonetia bazinoki, Angelica gigas, Inula helenium, Chelidonium majus, Pulsatilla koreana, Oldenlandia diffusa, Dioscorea batatas. (author). 49 refs., 9 figs., 7 tabs.

  14. Rheology of oleogels based on sorbitan and glyceryl monostearates and vegetable oils for lubricating applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez, R.

    2011-09-01

    í, el monoestearato de glicerilo (GMS produce, generalmente, geles más fuertes que el monoestearato de sorbitano (SMS. El uso de aceites de baja viscosidad, como los aceites de colza o de soja, dan lugar a geles con valores más altos de las funciones viscoelásticas lineales que los oleogeles preparados con aceite de ricino. El comportamiento reológico de los oleogeles de SMS depende, además, de la velocidad de enfriamiento durante la gelificación. Por otra parte, los oleogeles estudiados presentan bajos valores del coeficiente de fricción, determinado en un contacto tribológico, aunque sólo algunos oleogeles que contienen GMS y aceite de ricino muestran una estabilidad mecánica adecuada.

  15. Live Life to the Power of PS2: Locating the Digital Games Industry in the New Media Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Kerr, Aphra

    2016-01-01

    The digital games industry is a global entertainment business stretching from Tokyo to San Francisco to London. In May each year, game developers from around the world meet in Los Angeles to pitch their ideas to publishers, sneak a preview of other games and do licensing deals with hardware companies and Hollywood studios. The show has much in common with Melia and Cannes: it has all the glitz, the hype and the stars. The main difference is that the stars are non-human, the digital game produ...

  16. Chemistry and physical properties of estolides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isbell, Terry A.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Estolides are a developing class of natural and synthetic compounds that have been synthesized from hydroxy oils like castor and lesquerella or by the condensation of fatty acids across the olefin of a second fatty acid. Castor and lesquerella estolides are derived from either their triglycerides or their free fatty acids utilizing their hydroxyl moiety to establish the estolide bond. The triglyceride estolides have pour points of 9 to –36ºC but suffer poor oxidative stability with RPVOT times of 29 – 52 minutes even with 1% of an anti-oxidant package incorporated into the samples. In contrast to the triglyceride estolides of castor and lesquerella, the estolides from lesquerolic and ricinoleic acids have very good pour points of –36 to –54ºC. Estolides derived from the acid catalyzed condensation of oleic acid with a variety of fatty acids can be made in good yield and posses a wide range of physical properties. Of particular interest are the saturated capped estolides of oleic that have both good low temperature properties (pour point –5 to – 39ºC and good oxidative stability. Estolides from meadowfoam fatty acids do not have good low temperature properties but have been extensively used in cosmetics where they provide good moisturizing properties.

    Los estólidos son una familia de compuestos sintetizados a partir de aceites hidroxilados como los de ricino o lesquerella o mediante la condensación de ácidos grasos sobre el doble enlace de un segundo ácido graso insaturado. Los estólidos de ricino y lesquerela se derivan tanto de sus triglicéridos como de sus ácidos grasos libres empleándose el residuo hidroxilo para formar los ésteres estólidos de los mismos. Los triglicéridos estólidos tienen puntos de fluidez crítica de entre 9 y -36ºC y baja estabilidad, con tiempos de oxidación en recipiente vacío a presión (RPVOT de entre 29 y 52 minutos incluso con la adición de un 1% de una mezcla antioxidante a las

  17. Detection of olive oil adulteration by low-field NMR relaxometry and UV-Vis spectroscopy upon mixing olive oil with various edible oils; Detección de la adulteración de aceite de oliva mediante relaxometría magnética nuclear de campo bajo y espectroscopía UV-Vis sobre mezcla de aceite de oliva con diversos aceites comestibles.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ok, S.

    2017-07-01

    Adulteration of olive oil using unhealthy substitutes is considered a threat for public health. Low-field (LF) proton (1H) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxometry and ultra-violet (UV) visible spectroscopy are used to detect adulteration of olive oil. Three different olive oil with different oleoyl acyl contents were mixed with almond, castor, corn, and sesame oils with three volumetric ratios, respectively. In addition, Arbequina olive oil was mixed with canola, flax, grape seed, peanut, soybean, and sunflower seed oils with three volumetric ratios. Transverse magnetization relaxation time (T2) curves were fitted with bi-exponential decaying functions. T2 times of each mixture of olive oils and castor oils, and olive oils and corn oils changed systematically as a function of volumetric ratio. To detect the adulteration in the mixtures with almond and sesame oils, both LF 1H NMR relaxometry and UV-Vis spectroscopy were needed, where UV-Vis-spectroscopy detected the adulteration qualitatively. In the mixtures of Arbequina olive oil and flax, peanut, soybean, and sunflower seed oils, both T21 and T22 values became longer systematically as the content of the olive oil was decreased. The unique UV-Vis maximum absorbance of flax oil at 320.0 nm shows the adulteration of olive oil qualitatively. [Spanish] La adulteración del aceite de oliva con sustituyentes menos saludables es una amenaza para la salud pública. En este trabajo, la detección de la adulteración del aceite de oliva se demuestra utilizando tanto relaxometría magnética nuclear de campo bajo (LF) de protones (1H) (RMN) y espectroscopía visible y ultra-violeta (UV). Tres muestras de aceites de oliva con diferentes contenidos en oleico se mezclaron con aceites de almendra, ricino, maíz y sésamo con tres relaciones volumétricas. Además, el de arbequina de California se mezcló con cánola, lino, semilla de uva, cacahuete, soja y aceites de girasol con tres relaciones volumétricas. Las curvas de

  18. Kinetics of enzymatic hydrolysis of methyl ricinoleate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeharika, T. S.V.R.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ricinoleic acid is an unsaturated hydroxy fatty acid that naturally occurs in castor oil in proportions of up to 85–90%. Ricinoleic acid is a potential raw material and finds several applications in coatings, lubricant formulations and pharmaceutical areas. Enzymatic hydrolysis of castor oil is preferred over conventional hydrolysis for the preparation of ricinoleic acid to avoid estolide formation. A kinetics analysis of the enzymatic hydrolysis of Methyl Ricinoleate in the presence of Candida antarctica Lipase B was carried out in this study by varying reaction temperature (40–60 °C and enzyme concentration (2–5%. The optimal conditions were found to be 6 h reaction time, temperature 60°C, buffer to methyl ricinoleate ratio 2:1(v/w and 4% enzyme concentration to achieve a maximum conversion of 98.5%. A first order reversible reaction kinetic model was proposed to describe this reaction and a good agreement was observed between the experimental data and the model values. The effect of temperature on the forward reaction rate constant was determined by fitting data to the Arrhenius equation. The activation energy for forward reaction was found to be 14.69 KJ·mol−1.El ácido ricinoleico es un hidroxiácido insaturado que se produce naturalmente en el aceite de ricino en proporciones de hasta el 85–90%. El ácido ricinoleico es una materia prima con gran potencial y tiene aplicaciones en revestimientos, formulaciones lubricantes y en áreas farmacéuticas. Para la preparación del ácido ricinoleico se prefiere la hidrólisis enzimática del aceite de ricino a la hidrólisis convencional, para evitar la formación de estólidos. En este estudio se llevó a cabo la cinética de la hidrólisis enzimática del ricinoleato de metilo en presencia de lipasa de Candida antarctica B mediante la variación de la temperatura de reacción (40–60 °C y la concentración de la enzima (2–5%. Las condiciones óptimas de la reacción para

  19. Propiedades mecánicas de aceites y grasas vegetales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Dios Alvarado, Juan

    1995-10-01

    Full Text Available Data of mechanical properties are presented for crude oils from avocado pulp, lupin grain, peanuts, soybean, sesame, cotton, castor-oil, linseed and passion fruit seeds; refined oils from sunflower, corn, peanut, olive and soybean; and cocoa, coconut, palm-oil and kernel palm-oil fats.
    Correlation equations which describe the effect of temperature on the refractive index, density, viscosity and surface tension are obtained, and values of coefficient of expansion and activation energy for flow are calculated.

    Se presentan los valores de las principales propiedades mecánicas determinadas en aceites crudos extraídos de pulpa de aguacate, granos o semillas de sésamo, algodón, altramuz o chocho, ricino, linaza, maní o cacahuete, maracuyá y soja; aceites refinados provenientes de semillas de girasol, germen de maíz, maní, oliva y soja; grasas extraídas de cacao, copra de coco, pulpa de palma africana y almendras de palma africana.
    Con los datos experimentales se establecen ecuaciones de correlación que describen el efecto de la temperatura sobre el índice de refracción, la densidad, la viscosidad y la tensión superficial. En cada producto, con los datos de la densidad se calcula el coeficiente volumétrico de expansión térmica y con los de la viscosidad la energía de activación.

  20. Tableros de partículas de bambú (Bambusa vulgaris Schrad y resina poliuretana a base de aceite de rícino (Ricinus communis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Januário José

    Full Text Available Esta investigación tiene como objetivo la elaboración y la evaluación de tableros de partículas homogéneas aglomeradas, utilizándose dos materiales alternativos en la búsqueda de la sustentabilidad del proceso productivo. Fueron utilizadas partículas de Bambusa vulgaris Schrad por la rapidez del ciclo de producción de esta especie de bambú. Como pegante fue utilizada la resina poliuretana a base de aceite de ricino (Ricinus communis L., por su origen parcialmente renovable, y por ser considerada no tóxica. Para la caracterización del material, fueron fabricadas, en escala de laboratorio, tableros de partículas de bambú con dimensiones inferiores al 2.4 mm, combinadas con 5%, 10% y 15% de resina en relación a la masa de partículas de bambú. Probetas fueron evaluadas de acuerdo con las especificaciones de la norma NBR 14810 - Tableros de madera aglomerada. Antes de los ensayos de compresión las probetas fueron evaluadas por medio del ensayo no destructivo por ultra-sonido. Los resultados obtenidos indicaron que los tableros con el contenido de 10% de resina no fue estadísticamente diferente al contenido de 15%, siendo ambos superiores al contenido de 5%. La mayoría de las propiedades de los tableros fueron inferiores a aquellas de los tableros comerciales. No fue posible correlacionar la velocidad del pulso de ultra-sonido con la resistencia a la compresión longitudinal.

  1. Pharmacological management of binge eating disorder: current and emerging treatment options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McElroy SL

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Susan L McElroy, Anna I Guerdjikova, Nicole Mori, Anne M O'MeliaLindner Center of HOPE, Mason, and Department of Psychiatry, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH, USAAbstract: Growing evidence suggests that pharmacotherapy may be beneficial for some patients with binge eating disorder (BED, an eating disorder characterized by repetitive episodes of uncontrollable consumption of abnormally large amounts of food without inappropriate weight loss behaviors. In this paper, we provide a brief overview of BED and review the rationales and data supporting the effectiveness of specific medications or medication classes in treating patients with BED. We conclude by summarizing these data, discussing the role of pharmacotherapy in the BED treatment armamentarium, and suggesting future areas for research.Keywords: binge eating disorder, pharmacotherapy, medication management

  2. Ryoji Ikeda, Data Artist - Prix Ars Electronica Collide@CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Koek, Ariane; Heuer, Rolf; Ikeda, Ryoji; Mr. Horst, Hoertner

    2014-01-01

    at the CERN Globe of Science and Innovation, CERN. You are very warmly invited to the opening presentation of Data Artist, Ryoji Ikeda’s residency at CERN. Ryoji Ikeda, one of the world’s leading electronic composers and visual artists, is the new Prix Ars Electronica Collide@CERN award winner. Ryoji Ikeda and his science inspiration partner, Theoretical Physicist, Dr. Tom Melia will talk about their work in arts and science. They are at the beginning of their creative journey together at CERN. A little about Ryoji Ikeda – the new Prix Ars Electronica Collide@CERN artist in residence. Ryoji Ikeda focuses on the essential characteristics of sound itself and that of visuals as light by means of both mathematical precision and mathematical aesthetics. Ikeda has gained a reputation as one of the few international artists working convincingly across both visual ...

  3. arXiv New relations for graviton-matter amplitudes

    CERN Document Server

    Plefka, Jan

    We present new relations for scattering amplitudes of color ordered gluons, massive quarks and scalars minimally coupled to gravity. Tree-level amplitudes of arbitrary matter and gluon multiplicities involving one graviton are reduced to partial amplitudes in QCD or scalar QCD. The obtained relations are a direct generalization of the recently found Einstein-Yang-Mills relations. The proof of the new relation employs a simple diagrammatic argument trading the graviton-matter couplings to an `upgrade' of a gluon coupling with a color-kinematic replacement rule enforced. The use of the Melia-Johansson-Ochirov color basis is a key element of the reduction. We comment on the generalization to multiple gravitons in the single color trace case.

  4. Macro and Micro-Nutrient Contents of 18 Medicinal Plants used Traditionally to Alleviate Diabetes in Nuevo Leon, Northeast of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maiti, R.; Rodriguez, H. G.; Kumari, C. A.; Sarkar, N. C.

    2016-01-01

    Although several medicinal plants has been documented to alleviate diabetes in Nuevo Leon, Northeast of Mexico, no systematic study has been undertaken to determine the efficacy of these plant species. The present study was undertaken to determine micronutrients (Cu, Fe and Zn) and macro-nutrients (K, Mg and P), C, N and C/N and to select plants with high macro and micronutrient contents for high efficacy in 18 medicinal plants collected from botanical gardens of Forest Science Faculty, UANL, Mexico used in Nuevo Leon in Northeast of Mexico, at the experimental station of Facultad de Ciencias Forestales, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon. Following standard protocols, carbon and nitrogen were determined using a CHN analyzer (Perkin Elmer, model 2400). Mineral contents were using the wet digestion technique (Cherney, 2000). The present study indicated the presence of large variation in the contents of several macro and micronutrients among these 18 species of medicinal plants utilized traditionally to control diabetes and other diseases in Nuevo Leon, Mexico. Among these species containing high nitrogen content (%) are Moringa oleifera (6.25), Melia azadirachta (5.85), Marrubium vulgare (4.56) and Phoradendron villosum (4.9). The C/N values ranged from 8 to 30. The species having high C/N were Agave macroculmis (30), Arbutus xalapensis (26) and Rhus virens (22). The species Melia azadirachta, Marrubium vulgare, Buddleja cordata, Tecoma stans, Hedeoma palmeri, Phoradendron villosum, Opuntia ficus-indica, Arbutus xalapensis exhibited large variations in the contents of macro and micronutrients which, could be considered to be used effectively for the control of diabetes. Few species viz. Marrubium vulgare, Buddleja cordata, Tecoma stans, Hedeoma palmeri, Phoradendron villosum, Opuntia ficus-indica and Arbutus xalapensis on the basis of high nutrient content with respect to C, N, C/N, Cu, Fe, Zn, K, P and Mg are selected and recommended to control diabetes. (author)

  5. AVALIAÇÃO DA ATIVIDADE INSETICIDA DE EXTRATOS VEGETAIS SOBRE Spodoptera eridania (CRAMER (LEPIDOPTERA: NOCTUIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Fazolo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Spodoptera eridania é uma espécie desfolhadora cuja fase larval se alimenta de várias espécies de importância econômica. Dada a grande participação do agronegócio na economia do país e compreendendo a necessidade de buscar métodos que viabilizem o controle de pragas de maneira sustentável e segura para o meio ambiente, o uso de extratos vegetais com potencial inseticida pode oferecer uma alternativa de baixo custo e de fácil produção. Sendo assim, objetivou-se com este estudo avaliar a atividade inseticida de plantas sobre a mortalidade de larvas de S. eridania. Para isto, utilizou-se extratos aquosos de fumo (N. tabacum L., cinamomo (M. azedarach, alho (A. sativum L., pimenta roxa (C. chinense e erva-de-santa-maria (C. ambrosioides L., os quais foram pulverizados sobre lagartas de segundo instar de S. eridania e sobre o alimento fornecido. O extrato de Fumo apresentou-se promissor para o controle de S. eridania, sendo necessárias novas pesquisas que possibilitem verificar concentrações que ocasionem mortalidade acima de 50%, bem como testes de fitotoxidade do extrato na planta hospedeira.

  6. Towards seasonal Arctic shipping route predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, K.; Melia, N.; Hawkins, E.; Day, J. J.

    2017-12-01

    should become a key component of the future Arctic observing system. Melia, N., K. Haines, and E. Hawkins (2016), Sea ice decline and 21st century trans-Arctic shipping routes, Geophys. Res. Lett., doi:10.1002/ 2016GL069315. Melia, N., K. Haines, E. Hawkins and J.J. Day, 2017, Towards seasonal Arctic shipping route predictions. Env. Res. Lett., doi:10.1088/1748-9326/aa7a60

  7. The impact of solarisation integrated with plant bio-fermentation on root knot nematodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, S. K.; Traboulsi, A. F.

    2009-01-01

    The impact of different freshly/dried chopped medicinal or aromatic plant materials as an organic amendment in pot cultures, as well as integrated with solarisation under greenhouse conditions on the root knot nematodes population was evaluated. Results indicated that application of solarisation alone gave good control (72%) but when integrated with different plant materials, the control level increased to 95% with Allium sativum and 90% with Mentha microphylla and slightly less with other plant materials which ranged from75 to 80%. The results of pot experiments revealed that the most significant effect on the number of nematodes was achieved with Tagetes patula followed by Pimpinella anisum, Melia azadirach and Origanium syriacum reaching 0.0, 1.2, 1.2 and 2.5/g of roots, respectively. Total control was obtained with Allium sativum. Origanium syriacum contained the highest amount of essential oil (6%). Results obtained indicated that integrated approach using solarisation combined with plant materials could be the best alternative control for the root-knot nematodes. (author)

  8. Development of enhanced radioprotectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Kyu; Park, K B; Lee, Y I [and others

    1999-04-01

    Biological model systems such as TSH mutations, animals and their reproductive organs, and cultured cell lines has been set up for screening radioprotective or radiosensitizing activities of natural products. About 100 natural plants were in vivo and in vitro tested. Among them, Salvia miltiorrhiza, Areca catechu, Cornus officinalis, and Portulaca oleracea showed 20% of radioprotective activities. On the other hand, Acanthopanax sessiliflous, Melia japonica, and Agastache rugosa revealed radiosensitizing activities. Experimental studies on the farnesyltransferase inhibitors showed the results that some of the inhibits lead to higher levels of cell death after {gamma} -irradiation and increased radiosensitivity in H-ras-transformed NIH3T3 cells and MCF-10A human tumor cells. Molecular biochemical studies on the mechanism of radioprotection was carried out using cultured cells. The treatment of DTT increased cell survival after gamma-irradiation, decreased in the frequencies of micronucleus, and reduction in DNA fragmentation and apoptotic cells. Induction of apoptosis after irradiation was revealed by the changes in the relative cell death, increase in the relative amount of apoptotic cells, and the induction of DNA fragmentation. Samples shown excellent radioprotective or radiosensitizing activities will be subjected to purification to develop radioprotectants and radiosensitizers applicable to human beings. The result of mechanism studies will be applied to elucidate the radioprotection mechanism and the develop enhanced radioprotectors. (author). 145 refs., 21 tabs., 29 figs.

  9. Clarification of Taxonomic Status within the Pseudomonas syringae Species Group Based on a Phylogenomic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Gomila

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Pseudomonas syringae phylogenetic group comprises 15 recognized bacterial species and more than 60 pathovars. The classification and identification of strains is relevant for practical reasons but also for understanding the epidemiology and ecology of this group of plant pathogenic bacteria. Genome-based taxonomic analyses have been introduced recently to clarify the taxonomy of the whole genus. A set of 139 draft and complete genome sequences of strains belonging to all species of the P. syringae group available in public databases were analyzed, together with the genomes of closely related species used as outgroups. Comparative genomics based on the genome sequences of the species type strains in the group allowed the delineation of phylogenomic species and demonstrated that a high proportion of strains included in the study are misclassified. Furthermore, representatives of at least 7 putative novel species were detected. It was also confirmed that P. ficuserectae, P. meliae, and P. savastanoi are later synonyms of P. amygdali and that “P. coronafaciens” should be revived as a nomenspecies.

  10. Evaluation and cross-comparison of vegetation indices for crop monitoring from sentinel-2 and worldview-2 images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psomiadis, Emmanouil; Dercas, Nicholas; Dalezios, Nicolas R.; Spyropoulos, Nikolaos V.

    2017-10-01

    Farmers throughout the world are constantly searching for ways to maximize their returns. Remote Sensing applications are designed to provide farmers with timely crop monitoring and production information. Such information can be used to identify crop vigor problems. Vegetation indices (VIs) derived from satellite data have been widely used to assess variations in the physiological state and biophysical properties of vegetation. However, due to the various sensor characteristics, there are differences among VIs derived from multiple sensors for the same target. Therefore, multi-sensor VI capability and effectiveness are critical but complicated issues in the application of multi-sensor vegetation observations. Various factors such as the atmospheric conditions during acquisition, sensor and geometric characteristics, such as viewing angle, field of view, and sun elevation influence direct comparability of vegetation indicators among different sensors. In the present study, two experimental areas were used which are located near the villages Nea Lefki and Melia of Larissa Prefecture in Thessaly Plain area, containing a wheat and a cotton crop, respectively. Two satellite systems with different spatial resolution, WorldView-2 (W2) and Sentinel-2 (S2) with 2 and 10 meters pixel size, were used. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Leaf Area Index (LAI) were calculated and a statistical comparison of the VIs was made to designate their correlation and dependency. Finally, several other innovative indices were calculated and compared to evaluate their effectiveness in the detection of problematic plant growth areas.

  11. Characterization of wood polymer composite and design of root trainer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitra, K. N.; Abhilash, R. M.; Chauhan, Shakti Singh; Venkatesh, G. S.; Shivkumar, N. D.

    2018-04-01

    Biopolymers have received much attention of researchers due to concerns over disposal of plastics, greenhouse gas emission and environmental problems associated with it. Polylactic Acid (PLA) is one of the thermoplastic biopolymer made from lactic acid by using agricultural resources. PLA has received significant interest due to its competitive properties when compared to commodity plastics such as Polyethylene, Polypropylene and Polystyrene. PLA has interesting properties such as high stiffness, UV stability, clear and glossy finish. However, application of PLA is restricted due to its brittle nature. Engineering and thermal properties of PLA can be improved by reinforcing fibres and fillers. Lignocelluloses or natural fibres such as Jute, Hemp, Bamboo, Sisal and Wood fibres can be used as reinforcement. By using natural fibres, a very bio-compostable composite can be produced. In the present study, short fibres from Melia Dubia wood were extracted and used as reinforcement to PLA Bio-Polymer matrix. Characterization of developed composite was obtained using tensile and flexural tests. Tensile test simulation of composite was performed using Altair Hypermesh, a Finite Element (FE) preprocessor and LS-Dyna an explicit FE solver. MAT_01, an elastic material model in LS-Dyna was used to model the behaviour. Further, the design of Root Trainer using developed composite has been explored. A Root Trainer is an aid to the cultivation of seedlings in nurseries. Root Trainer made by using developed composite has advantage of biodegradability and eco-friendly nature.

  12. Development of enhanced radioprotectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Kyu; Chun, K. J.; Lee, Y. K.; Kim, Y. K.; Lee, B. H.; Song, H. S.; Lee, C. J.; Chung, K. M.; Shin, H. S.; Park, T. W

    2000-04-01

    Biological model systems such as TSH mutations, animals and their reproductive organs, and cultured cell lines and human peripheral lymphocytes have been set up for screening radioprotective or radiosensitizing activities of natural products. About 100 natural plants were in vivo and in vitro tested. Among them, Salvia miltiorrhiza, Areca catechu, Cornus officinalis, and portulaca oleracea showed 20 percent of radioprotective activities. On the other hand, Acanthopanax sessiliflous, Melia japonica, and Agastache rugosa revealed radiosensitizing activities. Experimental studies on the farnesyl transferase inhibitors showed the results that some of the inhibitors lead to higher levels of cell death after {gamma}-irradiation and increased radiosensitivity in H-ras-transformed NIH3T3 cells and MCF-10A human tumor cells. Molecular biochemical studies on the mechanism of radioprotection was carried out using cultured cells. The treatment of DTT increased cell survival after gamma-irradiation,decreased in the frequencies of micronucleus, and reduction in DNA fragmentation and apoptotic cells. Induction of apoptosis after irradiation was revealed by the changes in the relative cell death, increase in the relative amount of apoptotic cells, and the induction of DNA fragmentation. The result of mechanism studies will be applied to elucidate the radioprotection mechanism and to develop enhanced radioprotectors. Furthermore, our results indicate that use of antioxidants in combination can efficiently modulate the radiation-induced cell damage like apoptosis and can be applied to alleviate the cellular damage in tumor patients during radiotherapy. (author)

  13. Ethnomedicinal Evaluation of Medicinal Plants Used against Gastrointestinal Complaints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akash Tariq

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the present study was to document ethnomedicinal plants used against gastrointestinal complaints in five selected remote regions of Pakistan and to select potential medicinal plants for further in vitro and in vivo investigation. Data on ethnomedicinal plants and ethnographic profile of respondents was documented using semistructured questionnaires. The present study revealed utilization of 52 medicinal plants for the treatment of different gastrointestinal infections in studied regions. Apiaceae was the most dominant family reported to be used for the treatment of these infections (4 plants. Among all the plant parts fruit (24%, whole plants and leaves (23% each were the most preferred plant parts used by the healers. Dosage of recipe was found to be related with the age of the patient. Highest degree of informant consensus was reported for vomiting, nausea (0.92 each, abdominal pain (0.9, and diarrhea (0.89. Withania coagulans scored highest FL value (86% followed by Mentha longifolia and Melia azadirachta ranked second with FL value (75% each. Young generation was found to possess little traditional knowledge about utilizing plant recipes against these infections. Plants with high Fic and FL values should be subjected for further phytochemical and pharmacological investigation for scientific validation.

  14. Identification of the protective effects of traditional medicinal plants against SDS-induced Drosophila gut damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yang; Liu, Zonglin; Chen, Yuchen; Jin, Li Hua

    2016-10-01

    Traditional medicinal plants are widely used as immunomodulatory medicines that help improve health. A total of 50 different plants used for the treatment of toxicity were screened for their in vivo protective effects. Flies were fed a standard cornmeal-yeast medium (control group) or the standard medium containing medicinal plant extracts (experimental groups). Assessment of the survival rate was performed by feeding flies with toxic compounds. Gut epithelial cells were analyzed for cell proliferation and death by green fluorescent protein antibodies and 7-aminoactinomycin D staining under the microscope. The expression of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) was evaluated by the quantitative polymerase chain reaction and the results revealed that after feeding the flies with toxic compounds, aqueous extracts from Codonopsis pilosula (Franch.) Nannf ( C. pilosula ), Saussurea lappa (Decne.) C.B.Clarke ( S. lappa ), Imperata cylindrica Beauv.var. major (Nees) C.E. Hubb. ( I. cylindrical var. major ) and Melia toosendan Sied. Et Zucc. ( M.toosendan ) increased the fly survival rate, reduced epithelial cell death and improved gut morphology. In addition, C. pilosula extracts induced the antimicrobial peptide levels (Dpt and Mtk) following treatment with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). However, these extracts were not observed to increase SDS-induced cell proliferation in vivo . These results indicate that there are strong protective effects in extracts of C. pilosula , S. lappa , I. cylindrical var. major and M. toosendan on Drosophila intestinal cells among 50 medicinal plants.

  15. Metabolite Analysis of Toosendanin by an Ultra-High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Quadrupole-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Li

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Toosendanin is the major bioactive component of Melia toosendan Sieb. et Zucc., which is traditionally used for treatment of abdominal pain and as an insecticide. Previous studies reported that toosendanin possesses hepatotoxicity, but the mechanism remains unknown. Its bioavailability in rats is low, which indicates the hepatotoxicity might be induced by its metabolites. In this connection, in the current study, we examined the metabolites obtained by incubating toosendanin with human live microsomes, and then six of these metabolites (M1–M6 were identified for the first time by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-TOF/MS. Further analysis on the MS spectra showed M1, M2, and M3 are oxidative products and M6 is a dehydrogenation product, while M4 and M5 are oxidative and dehydrogenation products of toosendanin. Moreover, their possible structures were deduced from the MS/MS spectral features. Quantitative analysis demonstrated that M1-M5 levels rapidly increased and reached a plateau at 30 min, while M6 rapidly reached a maximal level at 20 min and then decreased slowly afterwards. These findings have provided valuable data not only for understanding the metabolic fate of toosendanin in liver microsomes, but also for elucidating the possible molecular mechanism of its hepatotoxicity.

  16. BASIC PROPERTIES IN RELATION TO DRYING PROPERTIES OF THREE WOOD SPECIES FROM INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efrida Basri

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to investigate basic and drying properties of three wood species from Indonesia, i.e. kuda (Lannea coromandelica Merr., waru (Hibiscus tiliaceus L. and mindi besar (Melia dubia Cav.. The basic properties include density, shrinkages, modulus of rupture (MOR, compression parallel to grain (C//, wood strength and anatomical structures. Meanwhile, the drying properties included drying time and drying defects. The initial-final temperature and humidity for each species was based on defects that resulted from high temperature drying trial. The results showed that the drying properties were significantly affected by wood anatomical structure. The initial-final drybulb temperature and wetbulb depression   for kuda wood are 50 -70ºC and 3-30ºC respectively, while the corresponding figures for waru wood are 65-80ºC and 6-30ºC, and for mindi besar wood are 55-80ºC and 4-30ºC. These drying schedules, however, still need further trial prior to their implementation in the factory-scale operation. All wood species studied have density and considerable strength recommended in their use for light medium construction purposes. Mindi besar wood has decorative appearance so it is suitable for furniture.

  17. Response of tropical trees to sulphur dioxide stress and recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vartshney, C.K.; Mitra, I. [Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi (India). School of Environmental Sciences

    1995-12-31

    Ethylene emission, ascorbic acid content, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activity were measured in four tropical tree species. Six month old saplings of Morus alba Linn., Azadirachta indica A.Juss., Melia-azadirach Linn. and Syzgium jambolina Lamk, were exposed to 0.5 ppm SO{sub 2} for four hours for six consecutive days. Recovery from SO{sub 2} stress was followed for twelve days after termination of the fumigation. SO{sub 2} induced foliar ethylene emission increased during fumigation but declined following termination of fumigation. SO{sub 2} fumigation enhanced the activities of superoxide dismutase and peroxidase in all four species. Their activities, however, declined on withdrawal of SO{sub 2} stress. Ascorbic acid content decreased due to SO{sub 2} stress but exhibited recovery on termination of fumigation. The response of the four plant species was widely different both during the fumigation period and during post-fumigation recovery regime. 26 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Development of enhanced radioprotectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Kyu; Chun, K. J.; Lee, Y. K.; Kim, Y. K.; Lee, B. H.; Song, H. S.; Lee, C. J.; Chung, K. M.; Shin, H. S.; Park, T. W.

    2000-04-01

    Biological model systems such as TSH mutations, animals and their reproductive organs, and cultured cell lines and human peripheral lymphocytes have been set up for screening radioprotective or radiosensitizing activities of natural products. About 100 natural plants were in vivo and in vitro tested. Among them, Salvia miltiorrhiza, Areca catechu, Cornus officinalis, and portulaca oleracea showed 20 percent of radioprotective activities. On the other hand, Acanthopanax sessiliflous, Melia japonica, and Agastache rugosa revealed radiosensitizing activities. Experimental studies on the farnesyl transferase inhibitors showed the results that some of the inhibitors lead to higher levels of cell death after γ-irradiation and increased radiosensitivity in H-ras-transformed NIH3T3 cells and MCF-10A human tumor cells. Molecular biochemical studies on the mechanism of radioprotection was carried out using cultured cells. The treatment of DTT increased cell survival after gamma-irradiation,decreased in the frequencies of micronucleus, and reduction in DNA fragmentation and apoptotic cells. Induction of apoptosis after irradiation was revealed by the changes in the relative cell death, increase in the relative amount of apoptotic cells, and the induction of DNA fragmentation. The result of mechanism studies will be applied to elucidate the radioprotection mechanism and to develop enhanced radioprotectors. Furthermore, our results indicate that use of antioxidants in combination can efficiently modulate the radiation-induced cell damage like apoptosis and can be applied to alleviate the cellular damage in tumor patients during radiotherapy. (author)

  19. Ethnomedicinal assessment of Irula tribes of Walayar valley of Southern Western Ghats, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjunan Venkatachalapathi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed to explore the traditional knowledge of Irula tribal people who are practicing herbal medicine in Walayar valley, the Southern Western Ghats, India. A total number of 146 species of plants distributed in 122 genera belonging to 58 families were identified as commonly used ethnomedicinal plants by them. Interestingly, 26 new claims were also made in the present study. Through the data obtained from Irula tribal healers, the herbs were mostly used for medicine (40.4% followed by trees (26.7% and climbers (18.5%. In addition leaves were highly used for medicinal purposes, collected from 55 species (38% followed by multiple parts from 18 species (12%. Acorus calamus is the species of higher use value (1.80 assessed to be prescribed most commonly for the treatment of cough. High informant consensus factor (1.0 obtained for insecticidal uses and cooling agent indicates that the usage of Canarium strictum and Melia dubia, and Mimosa pudica and Sesamum indicum respectively for that purposes had obtained high degree of agreement among the healers in using these species for the respective purposes. The most commonly used method of preparation was decoction (63% followed by raw form (23%, paste (12% and powder (2%. Therefore, it is suggested to take-up pharmacological and phytochemical studies to evaluate the species to confirm the traditional knowledge of Irulas on medicinal plants. Keywords: Ethnobotanical surveys, Irula tribes, India

  20. Color-Kinematics Duality for QCD Amplitudes

    CERN Document Server

    Johansson, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    We show that color-kinematics duality is present in tree-level amplitudes of quantum chromodynamics with massive flavored quarks. Starting with the color structure of QCD, we work out a new color decomposition for n-point tree amplitudes in a reduced basis of primitive amplitudes. These primitives, with k quark-antiquark pairs and (n-2k) gluons, are taken in the (n-2)!/k! Melia basis, and are independent under the color-algebra Kleiss-Kuijf relations. This generalizes the color decomposition of Del Duca, Dixon, and Maltoni to an arbitrary number of quarks. The color coefficients in the new decomposition are given by compact expressions valid for arbitrary gauge group and representation. Considering the kinematic structure, we show through explicit calculations that color-kinematics duality holds for amplitudes with general configurations of gluons and massive quarks. The new (massive) amplitude relations that follow from the duality can be mapped to a well-defined subset of the familiar BCJ relations for gluo...

  1. Development of enhanced radioprotectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Kyu; Park, K.B.; Lee, Y.I.

    1999-04-01

    Biological model systems such as TSH mutations, animals and their reproductive organs, and cultured cell lines has been set up for screening radioprotective or radiosensitizing activities of natural products. About 100 natural plants were in vivo and in vitro tested. Among them, Salvia miltiorrhiza, Areca catechu, Cornus officinalis, and Portulaca oleracea showed 20% of radioprotective activities. On the other hand, Acanthopanax sessiliflous, Melia japonica, and Agastache rugosa revealed radiosensitizing activities. Experimental studies on the farnesyltransferase inhibitors showed the results that some of the inhibits lead to higher levels of cell death after γ -irradiation and increased radiosensitivity in H-ras-transformed NIH3T3 cells and MCF-10A human tumor cells. Molecular biochemical studies on the mechanism of radioprotection was carried out using cultured cells. The treatment of DTT increased cell survival after gamma-irradiation, decreased in the frequencies of micronucleus, and reduction in DNA fragmentation and apoptotic cells. Induction of apoptosis after irradiation was revealed by the changes in the relative cell death, increase in the relative amount of apoptotic cells, and the induction of DNA fragmentation. Samples shown excellent radioprotective or radiosensitizing activities will be subjected to purification to develop radioprotectants and radiosensitizers applicable to human beings. The result of mechanism studies will be applied to elucidate the radioprotection mechanism and the develop enhanced radioprotectors. (author). 145 refs., 21 tabs., 29 figs

  2. effect of gamma radiation and some plant extracts on the black cutworm Agrotis Ipsilon (Hufn.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sileem, T.M.

    2004-01-01

    the present study was carried out to determine the effects of gamma radiation and plant extracts separately or combined on certain biological and histological aspects of the black cut worm agrotis ipsilon (Hufn). , throughout two successive generations. this work comprised the study of effects of two low doses 75 and 150 Gy) of gamma irradiation as well as two species of plant extracts(M.azedarach and S. terebinthifolius). special stress was given to study the reproductive biology and the histological changes in the gonads of the parental adult males . parental adult females and their f1 generation. - effect of gamma irradiation on p1 and f1 generation: 1. when full grown male pupae were irradiated with the doses of 75 or 150, the number of deposited eggs per mated female was not significantly affected among p1 generations at the two tested radiation doses while it was significantly affected among f1 generation. 2. the eg hatchability percentage among p1 and f1 generations was significantly reduced by increasing the radiation dose applied to p1 male. 3. the two tested doses of gamma irradiation (75 and 150 Gy) did not clearly affect the percentage of mated females among p1 and f1 generations. 4. the average number of spermatophores per mated female was not evidently different from the control.-effect of plant extracts on p1 and f1 generations:1)effect of petroleum ether (p.t) extract treatment on certain biological aspects. 2) effect of acetone extracts treatment on certain biological aspects.3)effect o plant extracts on reproductive biology through p1 generation.4)effect of plant extracts on the reproductive biology through f1 generation.3. the combined effects of irradiation and plant extracts.4.histological effects of different treatments on on gonads of adult and females

  3. Review on pharmacological and toxicologyical effects of oleum azadirachti oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koriem, Khaled MM

    2013-01-01

    Oleum azadirachti consists of the oil obtained from dried seeds of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (family: Meliaceae). Local names of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. are Abodua, aforo-oyinbo, anwe egyane, arista, azad dirakht, azadarakht, azedarach and bead tree. Indigenous to India, and widely distributed in South and South-East Asia and cultivated in Africa, the South Pacific Islands, South and Central America and Australia, and in southern Florida and California, United States of America, it is a straight-boled deciduous tree, which is 6-25 m high. Bark is dark-brown, externally fissured with a buff inner surface and fibrous fracture. Leaves alternately arranged, pinnately compound and up to 40 cm long, and composed of 8-18 short-petiolate narrow-ovate, pointed and curved toothed leaflets, 3-10 cm long and 1-4 cm wide arranged in alternate pairs. The major constituents are oxidized tetranortriterpenes including azadirachtin (azadirachtin A), azadiriadione, epoxyazadiradione, azadirone, nimbidin, nimbin, deacetylnimbin, salannin, gedunin, mahmoodin, 17-hydroxydiradione and related derivatives. It is of various medicinal uses, such as a contraceptive for intravaginal use, a mosquito repellent, and treatment of vaginal infections, treatment of gastric ulcers, cardiovascular disease, malaria, rheumatism and skin disorders, external applications for treatment of septic wounds,ulcers and boils, treatment of allergic skin reactions, asthma, bruises, colic, conjunctivitis, dysmenorrhoea, fever, gout, headache, itching due to varicella, kidney stones, leukorrhoea, psoriasis, scabies, sprains and muscular pain, and wounds. It is also used as an emmenagogue, tonic, stomatic and vermicide. In conclusion, the plant oil had antifertility, antihyperglycaemic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antiviral, antiulcer, estrogenic, immune, contraceptive, antibacterial, insect repellent, and skin treatment effects. PMID:24075352

  4. Evaluación in vitro de la actividad inhibitoria de extractos vegetales sobre aislados de Colletotrichum spp In vitro evaluation of inhibitory activity of plant extracts on Colletotrichum spp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Pérez Cordero

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la actividad inhibitoria in vitro de extractos de hojas de Melissa officinalis, Origanum vulgare, Jatropha gossypilia, Eucalyptus sp., Melia azederach y Mascagnia concinna sobre aislados de hongo del género Colletotrichum, causante de la enfermedad antracnosis en el cultivo del ñame (Dioscorea alata, D. rotundata en el departamento de Sucre, Colombia. Para la obtención de extractos etanólicos de hojas de M. officinalis y O. vulgare, se utilizó el método de percolación y para las otras especies vegetales, el método de Soxhlet. Una vez preparados los extractos de hojas, se evaluó su actividad inhibitoria sobre seis aislados de hongo del género Colletotrichum (BVC 279a, BVC 279b, BVC 853, BVC 040, BVC 342 y BVC 507. Para la prueba inhibitoria se utilizó el método de siembra directa sobre la superficie del medio papa-dextrosa-agar. Sobre las diferentes cepas se adicionaron 250 µl de cada extracto por separado. Se utilizó un control positivo con nistatina (4 mg/ml y un testigo absoluto sin ningún tipo de tratamiento. La prueba se evaluó midiendo el crecimiento radial de cada cepa con los diferentes tratamientos a 96 y 168 h. Se utilizó un diseño de bloques completamente al azar con tres repeticiones, para probar diferencias significativas entre tratamientos, cepas (aislados y tiempo de inhibición. Los resultados expresados en porcentaje de inhibición, mostraron una alta actividad de los extractos obtenidos de las hojas de las plantas de M. azederach y M. concinna, sobre los hongos evaluados y su acción fue similar al control positivo.The objective of this study was to evaluate in vitro inhibitory activity of extracts from leaves of Melissa officinalis, Origanum vulgare, Jatropha gossypilia, Eucalyptus sp. Melia azederach and Mascagnia concinna on isolated fungus of the genus Colletotrichum, which causes anthracnose disease in the crop of yam (Dioscorea alata, D. rotundata in the department of Sucre, Colombia. To obtain

  5. Impacts of floods on forest trees and their coping strategies in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shukla Rani Basak

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available During recent years, the Government of Bangladesh, Non-Government Organizations (NGOs, semi-government organizations, private organizations and individuals have established a large number of plantations under different programs viz. social forestry, agro-forestry and avenue plantations with indigenous and exotic tree species without considering their habit and habitats. Along with the indigenous species like Albizia procera, Albizia lebbeck, Mangifera indica, Azadirachta indica, Gmelina arborea, Trewia nudiflora and Artocapus heterophyllus and many exotic species e.g. Swietenia macrophylla, Albizia saman, Dalbergia sissoo, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Acacia auriculiformis, Melia sempervirens, Acacia mangium etc. have been planted randomly. With increasing trend of climate-induced floods, millions of trees have been dying due to floods and water-logging. The most affected species are Dalbergia sissoo, Albizia saman, Acacia auriculiformis, Acacia mangium and Artocarpus heterophyllus etc. This situation has caused severe impacts on socio-economic conditions of Bangladesh. The impacts involved a significant loss in terms of investment, biodiversity and afforestation program. Little investigations have been conducted to find out the causes of the deaths and also to find out the suitable adaptation practices to reduce impacts of floods on trees. This synthesis focused on the impacts of floods on plantations and also assessed the potential role of traditional forest management practices in addressing the effects flooding on forests in Bangladesh. The study added important information and revealed knowledge gaps on the causes of large forest deaths. It also provided recommendations for policy on the establishment of frequent floods resilient tree crop plantations.

  6. Evaluación in vitro de la actividad inhibitoria de extractos vegetales sobre aislados de Colletotrichum spp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rojas Sierra2 Johanna

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la actividad inhibitoria in vitro de extractos de hojas de Melissa officinalis, Origanum vulgare,Jatropha gossypilia, Eucalyptus sp., Melia azederach y Mascagnia concinna sobre aislados de hongo delgénero Colletotrichum, causante de la enfermedad antracnosis en el cultivo del ñame (Dioscorea alata, D.rotundata en el departamento de Sucre, Colombia. Para la obtención de extractos etanólicos de hojasde M. officinalis y O. vulgare, se utilizó el método de percolación y para las otras especies vegetales, elmétodo de Soxhlet. Una vez preparados los extractos de hojas, se evaluó su actividad inhibitoria sobreseis aislados de hongo del género Colletotrichum (BVC 279a, BVC 279b, BVC 853, BVC 040, BVC 342 yBVC 507. Para la prueba inhibitoria se utilizó el método de siembra directa sobre la superficie del mediopapa-dextrosa-agar. Sobre las diferentes cepas se adicionaron 250 μl de cada extracto por separado. Seutilizó un control positivo con nistatina (4 mg/ml y un testigo absoluto sin ningún tipo de tratamiento.La prueba se evaluó midiendo el crecimiento radial de cada cepa con los diferentes tratamientos a 96y 168 h. Se utilizó un diseño de bloques completamente al azar con tres repeticiones, para probardiferencias significativas entre tratamientos, cepas (aislados y tiempo de inhibición. Los resultadosexpresados en porcentaje de inhibición, mostraron una alta actividad de los extractos obtenidos de lashojas de las plantas de M. azederach y M. concinna, sobre los hongos evaluados y su acción fue similaral control positivo

  7. Evaluación in vitro de la actividad inhibitoria de extractos vegetales sobre aislados de Colletotrichum spp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Pérez Cordero

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la actividad inhibitoria in vitro de extractos de hojas de Melissa officinalis, Origanum vulgare, Jatropha gossypilia, Eucalyptus sp., Melia azederach y Mascagnia concinna sobre aislados de hongo del género Colletotrichum, causante de la enfermedad antracnosis en el cultivo del ñame (Dioscorea alata, D. rotundata en el departamento de Sucre, Colombia. Para la obtención de extractos etanólicos de hojas de M. officinalis y O. vulgare, se utilizó el método de percolación y para las otras especies vegetales, el método de Soxhlet. Una vez preparados los extractos de hojas, se evaluó su actividad inhibitoria sobre seis aislados de hongo del género Colletotrichum (BVC 279a, BVC 279b, BVC 853, BVC 040, BVC 342 y BVC 507. Para la prueba inhibitoria se utilizó el método de siembra directa sobre la superficie del medio papa-dextrosa-agar. Sobre las diferentes cepas se adicionaron 250 µl de cada extracto por separado. Se utilizó un control positivo con nistatina (4 mg/ml y un testigo absoluto sin ningún tipo de tratamiento. La prueba se evaluó midiendo el crecimiento radial de cada cepa con los diferentes tratamientos a 96 y 168 h. Se utilizó un diseño de bloques completamente al azar con tres repeticiones, para probar diferencias significativas entre tratamientos, cepas (aislados y tiempo de inhibición. Los resultados expresados en porcentaje de inhibición, mostraron una alta actividad de los extractos obtenidos de las hojas de las plantas de M. azederach y M. concinna, sobre los hongos evaluados y su acción fue similar al control positivo.

  8. Testing cosmology from fundamental considerations: Is the Friedmann universe intrinsically flat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Abhas

    2014-02-01

    Recently Melia and Shevchuk (Mon Not R Astron Soc 419:2579,2012) (MS) have proposed the so-called cosmology where the "Gravitational Horizon" of the universe is equal to the distance travelled by light since "Big Bang". Here we would like to see whether the basic claim is correct or not because MS have not given any cogent derivation for the same. Essentially we will compare the twin expressions for the Einstein energy momentum complex (EMC) of the Friedmann universe obtained by using an appropriate superpotential and also by a direct method. To enable a meaningful comparison of the twin expressions, both are computed by using the same quasi-Cartesian coordinates. We however do not claim that Einstein EMC is superior to many other routes of defining EM of a self-gravitating system. In fact, for static isolated spherical syatems, the idea of a coordinate independent field energy of Lynden-Bell and Katz (Mon Not R Astron Soc 213:21, 1985) might be quite physically significant. Yet, here, we use Einstein EMC because (i) our system is non-static and not isolated one (ii) our primary aim is not find any absolute value of EM, and, finally, (iii) only Einstein pseudo-tensor offers equivalent twin expressions for EM which one can be equated irrespective of any physical significance. Following such comparison of equivalent twin expressions of Einstein energy, we find an exact proof as to why Friedmann universe must be spatially flat even though, mathematically one can conceive of curved spaces in any dimension. Additionally, it follows that, apparently, the scale factor as insisted by proposition. Nonetheless, because of close similarity of this form, , with the (vacuum) Milne metric, and also because of implied unphysical equation of state, cosmology is unlikely to represent the physical universe.

  9. Heavy metal tolerance traits of filamentous fungi isolated from gold and gemstone mining sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwatosin Gbemisola Oladipo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Increased environmental pollution has necessitated the need for eco-friendly clean-up strategies. Filamentous fungal species from gold and gemstone mine site soils were isolated, identified and assessed for their tolerance to varied heavy metal concentrations of cadmium (Cd, copper (Cu, lead (Pb, arsenic (As and iron (Fe. The identities of the fungal strains were determined based on the internal transcribed spacer 1 and 2 (ITS 1 and ITS 2 regions. Mycelia growth of the fungal strains were subjected to a range of (0-100 Cd, (0-1000 Cu, (0-400 Pb, (0-500 As and (0-800 Fe concentrations (mgkg-1 incorporated into malt extract agar (MEA in triplicates. Fungal radial growths were recorded every three days over a 13-days' incubation period. Fungal strains were identified as Fomitopsis meliae, Trichoderma ghanense and Rhizopus microsporus. All test fungal exhibited tolerance to Cu, Pb, and Fe at all test concentrations (400-1000 mgkg-1, not differing significantly (p > 0.05 from the controls and with tolerance index >1. T. ghanense and R. microsporus demonstrated exceptional capacity for Cd and As concentrations, while showing no significant (p > 0.05 difference compared to the controls and with a tolerance index >1 at 25 mgkg-1 Cd and 125 mgkg-1 As. Remarkably, these fungal strains showed tolerance to metal concentrations exceeding globally permissible limits for contaminated soils. It is envisaged that this metal tolerance trait exhibited by these fungal strains may indicate their potentials as effective agents for bioremediative clean-up of heavy metal polluted environments.

  10. Biological reclamation of coal mine spoils without topsoil: an amendment study with domestic raw sewage and grass-legume mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maiti, S.K.; Saxena, N.C. [Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad (India). Centre of Mining Environment

    1997-12-31

    A range of tree species were successfully established and grown on spoil site irrigated with domestic raw sewage in India. The heavy metals content in leaves, stem wood, stem bark root wood and root bark differ between species. In general, heavy metals like Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu, and Pb were accumulated more in Eucalyptus then Melia, however only Co accumulated maximum in Acacia. Increase trend was reported in respect of Na, K, Fe, Zn, Cu in grass and vegetables which were grown at a sewage fed farm. However, in all the cases micronutrients and heavy metals contents did not reach the critical limits to produce any phytotoxic effect. Irrigation with raw sewage had no adverse effect on chemical properties of spoil over the 3 year period. This study shows that raising vegetation on spoil material in mining areas irrigated with raw sewage is feasible. However, irrigation by raw sewage caused the accumulation of heavy metals in different plant parts. These plants are not of the fodder type and thus are not entering directly into ecological food chains, hence they can act as heavy metals sinks. On the basis of the Grass-legume experimental study, it may be concluded that N accumulation of coal mine spoil related with nature of spoil, prevailing climate and legume used. In a tropical climate N accumulation rate was found higher than in a temperate one. Addition of phosphorus fertilizer is essential for the reclamation of many mine spoils because even after three years available P level can remain deficient. Available K was found to be sufficient after three years.

  11. Evaluation for Multi Purpose Free Species for Inter Cropping with Maize

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimotho, L.M

    2002-01-01

    The continued increase in Kenya's population has forced people to move into the dry lands and hence increasing demand for food and tree products in these areas. This has forced farmers to clear the existing natural forests to pave way for agricultural activities. In order to address this problem an integrated approach of planting both trees and crops on farm has been adopted. A trial was established to compare the growth performance of some local and exotic timber tree species as well as examine their effect on maize (Zea mays) crop yield. the tree treatments included Acacia polyacantha, caesalpinia velutina, Grevillae robusta, melia azaderach, senna spectabilis and senna siamea, planted at 5m x 5m spacing, in a Randomized Complete Block Design with three (3) replicates. Maize crop (Dry Land Hybrid 1 -DH1) was used as inter-crop during November-January seasons. The maize was planted at a spacing of 90 cm by 40 cm. There was a control with no trees. Growth of the trees was based on increase in both height and girth while whilst the crop yield was asses d by estimating average plot yield under each species. Results indicated that, different tree species affected the maize grain yield differently: i.e. there was no tre effect on maize yield in the earlier stages but as the trees increased in age and hence size some species caused reduction in the maize grain yields while others did not cause any reduction as yet. However, depending on the individual needs various decisions could be made on whether to compromise the crop yields, which are minimal in order to attain some timber products in addition to food. The trial is continuing in order to establish how long each tree species would permit a maize crop

  12. Mobile Health Technology Interventions for Suicide Prevention: Protocol for a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melia, Ruth; Francis, Kady; Duggan, Jim; Bogue, John; O'Sullivan, Mary; Chambers, Derek; Young, Karen

    2018-01-26

    identified mobile applications that appear to present harmful content. The current review will address a gap in the literature by evaluating the efficacy of stand-alone mobile technology tools in suicide prevention. It is imperative that research identifies the evidence base for such tools in suicide prevention in order to inform policy, guide clinical practice, inform users and focus future research. PROSPERO International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews CRD42017072899; https:// www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/display_record.asp?ID=CRD42017072899  (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/ 6tZAj0yqJ). ©Ruth Melia, Kady Francis, Jim Duggan, John Bogue, Mary O'Sullivan, Derek Chambers, Karen Young. Originally published in JMIR Research Protocols (http://www.researchprotocols.org), 26.01.2018.

  13. INVASIVE ALIEN PLANT SPECIES USED FOR THE TREATMENT OF VARIOUS DISEASES IN LIMPOPO PROVINCE, SOUTH AFRICA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maema, Lesibana Peter; Potgieter, Martin; Mahlo, Salome Mamokone

    2016-01-01

    Invasive alien plant species (IAPs) are plants that have migrated from one geographical region to non-native region either intentional or unintentional. The general view of IAPs in environment is regarded as destructive to the ecosystem and they pose threat to native vegetation and species. However, some of these IAPS are utilized by local inhabitants as a substitute for scarce indigenous plants. The aim of the study is to conduct ethnobotanical survey on medicinal usage of invasive plant species in Waterberg District, Limpopo Province, South Africa. An ethnobotanical survey on invasive plant species was conducted to distinguish species used for the treatment of various ailments in the Waterberg, District in the area dominated by Bapedi traditional healers. About thirty Bapedi traditional healers (30) were randomly selected via the snowball method. A guided field work by traditional healers and a semi-structured questionnaire was used to gather information from the traditional healers. The questionnaire was designed to gather information on the local name of plants, plant parts used and methods of preparation which is administered by the traditional healers. The study revealed that Schinus molle L., Catharanthus roseus (L.), Datura stramonium L., Opuntia stricta (Haw.) Haw., Opuntia ficus- indica, Sambucus canadensis L., Ricinus communis L., Melia azedarch L., Argemone ochroleuca and Eriobotrya japónica are used for treatment of various diseases such as chest complaint, blood purification, asthma, hypertension and infertility. The most plant parts that were used are 57.6% leaves, followed by 33.3% roots, and whole plant, seeds and bark at 3% each. Noticeably, most of these plants are cultivated (38%), followed by 28% that are common to the study area, 20% abundant, 12% wild, and 3% occasionally. Schinus molle is the most frequently used plant species for the treatment of various ailments in the study area. National Environmental Management Biodiversity Act (NEMBA

  14. Development of a biofilm inhibitor molecule against multidrug resistant Staphylococcus aureus associated with gestational urinary tract infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balamurugan eP

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Urinary Tract Infection (UTI is a globally widespread human infection caused by an infestation of uropathogens. Eventhough, Escherichia coli is often quoted as being the chief among them, Staphylococcus aureus involvement in UTI especially in gestational UTI is often understated. Staphylococcal accessory regulator A (SarA is a quorum regulator of S. aureus that controls the expression of various virulence and biofilm phenotypes. Since SarA had been a focussed target for antibiofilm agent development, the study aims to develop a potential drug molecule targeting the SarA of S. aureus to combat biofilm associated infections in which it is involved. In our previous studies, we have reported the antibiofilm activity of SarA based biofilm inhibitor, (SarABI with a 50% minimum biofilm inhibitory concentration (MBIC50 value of 200 µg/mL against S. aureus associated with vascular graft infections and also the antibiofilm activity of the root ethanolic extracts of Melia dubia against uropathogenic E. coli. In the present study, in silico design of a hybrid molecule composed of a molecule screened from M. dubia root ethanolic extracts and a modified SarA based inhibitor (SarABIM was undertaken. SarABIM is a modified form of SarABI where the fluorine groups are absent in SarABIM. Chemical synthesis of the hybrid molecule, 4-(Benzylaminocyclohexyl 2-hydroxycinnamate (henceforth referred to as UTI Quorum-Quencher, UTIQQ was then performed, followed by in vitro and in vivo validation. The MBIC¬50 and MBIC90 of UTIQQ were found to be 15 µg/mL and 65 µg/mL respectively. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM images witnessed biofilm reduction and bacterial killing in either UTIQQ or in combined use of antibiotic gentamicin and UTIQQ. Similar results were observed with in vivo studies of experimental UTI in rat model. So, we propose that the drug UTIQQ would be a promising candidate when used alone or, in combination with an antibiotic for staphylococcal

  15. Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. savastanoi: some like it knot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Cayo; Matas, Isabel M; Bardaji, Leire; Aragón, Isabel M; Murillo, Jesús

    2012-12-01

    . Pseudomonas syringae pv. savastanoi. Kingdom Bacteria; Phylum Proteobacteria; Class Gammaproteobacteria; Family Pseudomonadaceae; Genus Pseudomonas; included in genomospecies 2 together with at least P. amygdali, P. ficuserectae, P. meliae and 16 other pathovars from the P. syringae complex (aesculi, ciccaronei, dendropanacis, eriobotryae, glycinea, hibisci, mellea, mori, myricae, phaseolicola, photiniae, sesami, tabaci, ulmi and certain strains of lachrymans and morsprunorum); when a formal proposal is made for the unification of these bacteria, the species name P. amygdali would take priority over P. savastanoi. Gram-negative rods, 0.4-0.8 × 1.0-3.0 μm, aerobic. Motile by one to four polar flagella, rather slow growing, optimal temperatures for growth of 25-30 °C; oxidase negative, arginine dihydrolase negative; elicits the hypersensitive response on tobacco; most isolates are fluorescent and levan negative, although some isolates are nonfluorescent and levan positive. P. savastanoi pv. savastanoi causes tumours in cultivated and wild olive and ash (Fraxinus excelsior). Although strains from olive have been reported to infect oleander (Nerium oleander), this is generally not the case; however, strains of P. savastanoi pv. nerii can infect olive. Pathovars fraxini and nerii are differentiated from pathovar savastanoi mostly in their host range, and were not formally recognized until 1996. Literature before about 1996 generally names strains of the three pathovars as P. syringae ssp. savastanoi or P. savastanoi ssp. savastanoi, contributing to confusion on the host range and biological properties. Symptoms of infected trees include hyperplastic growths (tumorous galls or knots) on the stems and branches of the host plant and, occasionally, on leaves and fruits. The pathogen can survive and multiply on aerial plant surfaces, as well as in knots, from where it can be dispersed by rain, wind, insects and human activities, entering the plant through

  16. Supernova 1987A in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafatos, Minas; Michalitsianos, Andrew G.

    2006-11-01

    and S. W. Bruenn; 23. Neutrino masses from SN 1987A J. Franklin; 24. Supernova neutrinos and their oscillations T. K. Kuo and J. T. Pantaleone; 25. Neutrinos from SN 1987A and cooling of the nascent neutron star D. Q. Lamb, F. Melia and T. J. Loredo; 26. Neutrino Energetics of SN 1987A J. M. Lattimer and A. Yahil; 27. Neutrino emission from cooling neutron stars E. S. Myra, J. M. Lattimer and A. Yahil; 28. Statistical analysis of the time structure of the neutrinos from SN 1987A P. J. Schinder and S. A. Bludman; 29. Neutrino properties from observations of SN 1987A A. Dar; 30. SN 1987A and companion C. Papaliolios, M. Karovska, P. Nisenson, and C. Standley; 31. Supernovae light echoes B. E. Schaefer; 32. A real light echo: Nova Persei 1901 J. E. Felten; 33. IR speckle- interferometry of SN 1987A A. A. Chalabaev, C. Perrier and J. M. Mariotti; 34. Infrared opportunities for Supernova 1987A E. Dwek; 35. The UV interstellar spectrum and environment of SN 1987A F. C. Bruhweiler; 36. The interstellar spectrum of SN 1987A in the ultraviolet J. C. Blades, J. M. Wheatley, N. Panagia, M. Grewing, M. Pettini and W. Wamsteker; 37. The structure and spectrum of SN 1987A J. C. Wheeler, R. P. Harkness, and Z. Barkat; 38. Supernova 1987A: constraints on the theoretical model K. Nomoto and T. Shigeyama; 39. Supernova 1987A: a model and its predictions S. E. Woosley; 40. SN 1987A: circumstellar and interstellar interaction R. A. Chevalier; 41. Theoretical models of Supernova 1987A W. D. Arnett; 42. Evolution of the stellar progenitor of Supernova 1987A J. W. Truran and A. Weiss; 43.Modelling the atmosphere of SN 1987A L. B. Lucy; 44. SN 1987A: a stripped asymptotic- branch giant in a binary system P. C. Joss, Ph. Podsiadlowski, J. J. L. Hsu and S. Rappaport; 45. Pulsar formation and the fall back mass fraction S. A. Colgate; 46. An unusual hard X-ray source in the region of SN 19

  17. BOOK REVIEW Cracking the Einstein Code: Relativity and the Birth of Black Hole Physics With an Afterword by Roy Kerr Cracking the Einstein Code: Relativity and the Birth of Black Hole Physics With an Afterword by Roy Kerr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Bernard

    2011-02-01

    is not good for my blood pressure…remind me not to come to any more gravity conferences!'. The book does not mention this but Feynman's negativity may have resulted from the fact that he attended the meeting primarily to present his early work on quantum gravity. This did not excite the relativists as much as he had hoped, so this may have generated some antipathy. Nevertheless, his impression is interesting because it reflects the prevailing opinion at the time that relativity had made little progress since the 1930s. Feynman clearly did't recognize the significance of the Pound-Rebka experiment (which had recently measured the slowing down of time in the gravitational field of the Earth) or appreciate that a new band of young relativists were instilling fresh energy into the field, unintimidated by the fear (prevalent at the time) of what Einstein might say about their endeavours. The third strength of this book is that it puts Kerr's discovery in broader historical context. It starts with a useful discussion of the earlier development of ideas in special and general relativity. Most of this is well known but it also includes some points which are rarely described in popular accounts. Of particular interest is Melia's account of the exchanges between Einstein and the mathematician David Hilbert in 1915. He suggests that Hilbert may have submitted a paper containing the correct equations of general relativity five days earlier than Einstein, although this is controversial since Einstein's paper was certainly published first and Hilbert may well have modified his own paper after reading it [3]. It is also good to stress the contribution of Emmy Noether, who first found the connection between symmetries and conservation laws. This is described in a book by Leon Lederman and Chris Hill [4] as `certainly one of the most important mathematical theorems ever proved in guiding the development of modern physics'. Since Kerr was himself a mathematician, one important