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Sample records for richness estimates obtained

  1. An Improved Cluster Richness Estimator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozo, Eduardo; /Ohio State U.; Rykoff, Eli S.; /UC, Santa Barbara; Koester, Benjamin P.; /Chicago U. /KICP, Chicago; McKay, Timothy; /Michigan U.; Hao, Jiangang; /Michigan U.; Evrard, August; /Michigan U.; Wechsler, Risa H.; /SLAC; Hansen, Sarah; /Chicago U. /KICP, Chicago; Sheldon, Erin; /New York U.; Johnston, David; /Houston U.; Becker, Matthew R.; /Chicago U. /KICP, Chicago; Annis, James T.; /Fermilab; Bleem, Lindsey; /Chicago U.; Scranton, Ryan; /Pittsburgh U.

    2009-08-03

    Minimizing the scatter between cluster mass and accessible observables is an important goal for cluster cosmology. In this work, we introduce a new matched filter richness estimator, and test its performance using the maxBCG cluster catalog. Our new estimator significantly reduces the variance in the L{sub X}-richness relation, from {sigma}{sub lnL{sub X}}{sup 2} = (0.86 {+-} 0.02){sup 2} to {sigma}{sub lnL{sub X}}{sup 2} = (0.69 {+-} 0.02){sup 2}. Relative to the maxBCG richness estimate, it also removes the strong redshift dependence of the richness scaling relations, and is significantly more robust to photometric and redshift errors. These improvements are largely due to our more sophisticated treatment of galaxy color data. We also demonstrate the scatter in the L{sub X}-richness relation depends on the aperture used to estimate cluster richness, and introduce a novel approach for optimizing said aperture which can be easily generalized to other mass tracers.

  2. Robust Optical Richness Estimation with Reduced Scatter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rykoff, E.S.; /LBL, Berkeley; Koester, B.P.; /Chicago U. /Chicago U., KICP; Rozo, E.; /Chicago U. /Chicago U., KICP; Annis, J.; /Fermilab; Evrard, A.E.; /Michigan U. /Michigan U., MCTP; Hansen, S.M.; /Lick Observ.; Hao, J.; /Fermilab; Johnston, D.E.; /Fermilab; McKay, T.A.; /Michigan U. /Michigan U., MCTP; Wechsler, R.H.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC

    2012-06-07

    Reducing the scatter between cluster mass and optical richness is a key goal for cluster cosmology from photometric catalogs. We consider various modifications to the red-sequence matched filter richness estimator of Rozo et al. (2009b), and evaluate their impact on the scatter in X-ray luminosity at fixed richness. Most significantly, we find that deeper luminosity cuts can reduce the recovered scatter, finding that {sigma}{sub ln L{sub X}|{lambda}} = 0.63 {+-} 0.02 for clusters with M{sub 500c} {approx}> 1.6 x 10{sup 14} h{sub 70}{sup -1} M{sub {circle_dot}}. The corresponding scatter in mass at fixed richness is {sigma}{sub ln M|{lambda}} {approx} 0.2-0.3 depending on the richness, comparable to that for total X-ray luminosity. We find that including blue galaxies in the richness estimate increases the scatter, as does weighting galaxies by their optical luminosity. We further demonstrate that our richness estimator is very robust. Specifically, the filter employed when estimating richness can be calibrated directly from the data, without requiring a-priori calibrations of the red-sequence. We also demonstrate that the recovered richness is robust to up to 50% uncertainties in the galaxy background, as well as to the choice of photometric filter employed, so long as the filters span the 4000 {angstrom} break of red-sequence galaxies. Consequently, our richness estimator can be used to compare richness estimates of different clusters, even if they do not share the same photometric data. Appendix A includes 'easy-bake' instructions for implementing our optimal richness estimator, and we are releasing an implementation of the code that works with SDSS data, as well as an augmented maxBCG catalog with the {lambda} richness measured for each cluster.

  3. Estimating tree species richness from forest inventory plot data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald E. McRoberts; Dacia M. Meneguzzo

    2007-01-01

    Montreal Process Criterion 1, Conservation of Biological Diversity, expresses species diversity in terms of number of forest dependent species. Species richness, defined as the total number of species present, is a common metric for analyzing species diversity. A crucial difficulty in estimating species richness from sample data obtained from sources such as inventory...

  4. IMPROVEMENT OF THE RICHNESS ESTIMATES OF maxBCG CLUSTERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozo, Eduardo; Rykoff, Eli S.; Koester, Benjamin P.; Hansen, Sarah; Becker, Matthew; Bleem, Lindsey; McKay, Timothy; Hao Jiangang; Evrard, August; Wechsler, Risa H.; Sheldon, Erin; Johnston, David; Annis, James; Scranton, Ryan

    2009-01-01

    Minimizing the scatter between cluster mass and accessible observables is an important goal for cluster cosmology. In this work, we introduce a new matched filter richness estimator, and test its performance using the maxBCG cluster catalog. Our new estimator significantly reduces the variance in the L X -richness relation, from σ lnLx 2 = (0.86±0.02) 2 to σ lnLx 2 = (0.69±0.02) 2 . Relative to the maxBCG richness estimate, it also removes the strong redshift dependence of the L X -richness scaling relations, and is significantly more robust to photometric and redshift errors. These improvements are largely due to the better treatment of galaxy color data. We also demonstrate the scatter in the L X -richness relation depends on the aperture used to estimate cluster richness, and introduce a novel approach for optimizing said aperture which can easily be generalized to other mass tracers.

  5. Targeted estimation of nuisance parameters to obtain valid statistical inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Laan, Mark J

    2014-01-01

    In order to obtain concrete results, we focus on estimation of the treatment specific mean, controlling for all measured baseline covariates, based on observing independent and identically distributed copies of a random variable consisting of baseline covariates, a subsequently assigned binary treatment, and a final outcome. The statistical model only assumes possible restrictions on the conditional distribution of treatment, given the covariates, the so-called propensity score. Estimators of the treatment specific mean involve estimation of the propensity score and/or estimation of the conditional mean of the outcome, given the treatment and covariates. In order to make these estimators asymptotically unbiased at any data distribution in the statistical model, it is essential to use data-adaptive estimators of these nuisance parameters such as ensemble learning, and specifically super-learning. Because such estimators involve optimal trade-off of bias and variance w.r.t. the infinite dimensional nuisance parameter itself, they result in a sub-optimal bias/variance trade-off for the resulting real-valued estimator of the estimand. We demonstrate that additional targeting of the estimators of these nuisance parameters guarantees that this bias for the estimand is second order and thereby allows us to prove theorems that establish asymptotic linearity of the estimator of the treatment specific mean under regularity conditions. These insights result in novel targeted minimum loss-based estimators (TMLEs) that use ensemble learning with additional targeted bias reduction to construct estimators of the nuisance parameters. In particular, we construct collaborative TMLEs (C-TMLEs) with known influence curve allowing for statistical inference, even though these C-TMLEs involve variable selection for the propensity score based on a criterion that measures how effective the resulting fit of the propensity score is in removing bias for the estimand. As a particular special

  6. Microstructural characterization of the geopolymer obtained from iron-rich metakaolin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vassalo, Erica Antunes de S.; Aguilar, Maria Teresa P.; Gumieri, Adriana Guerra

    2014-01-01

    Geopolymer is a material derived from precursors rich in SiO_2 and Al_2O_3, activated in an alkaline solution by means of a polymerization process. In this process, units of tetrahedral aluminosilicate structures are organized in repetitions that share oxygen. One of the precursors most commonly used to obtain geopolymer is metakaolin. Recent studies have reported iron enhancement in a partial replacement of the aluminium present in metakaolin. This paper presents the microstructural characterization and analysis of a geopolymer obtained by means of the activation of iron-rich metakaolin with sodium hydroxide at 12, 15 and 18 mol, both at room temperature and in an oven at 85±3°C. The geopolymers obtained were classified and analysed using X-ray fluorescence testing (EDX-720), a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and a Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The results enabled an assessment of their physical-chemical and microstructural characteristics, as well as their reactive potential. (author)

  7. Reliability of fish size estimates obtained from multibeam imaging sonar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hightower, Joseph E.; Magowan, Kevin J.; Brown, Lori M.; Fox, Dewayne A.

    2013-01-01

    Multibeam imaging sonars have considerable potential for use in fisheries surveys because the video-like images are easy to interpret, and they contain information about fish size, shape, and swimming behavior, as well as characteristics of occupied habitats. We examined images obtained using a dual-frequency identification sonar (DIDSON) multibeam sonar for Atlantic sturgeon Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus, striped bass Morone saxatilis, white perch M. americana, and channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus of known size (20–141 cm) to determine the reliability of length estimates. For ranges up to 11 m, percent measurement error (sonar estimate – total length)/total length × 100 varied by species but was not related to the fish's range or aspect angle (orientation relative to the sonar beam). Least-square mean percent error was significantly different from 0.0 for Atlantic sturgeon (x̄  =  −8.34, SE  =  2.39) and white perch (x̄  = 14.48, SE  =  3.99) but not striped bass (x̄  =  3.71, SE  =  2.58) or channel catfish (x̄  = 3.97, SE  =  5.16). Underestimating lengths of Atlantic sturgeon may be due to difficulty in detecting the snout or the longer dorsal lobe of the heterocercal tail. White perch was the smallest species tested, and it had the largest percent measurement errors (both positive and negative) and the lowest percentage of images classified as good or acceptable. Automated length estimates for the four species using Echoview software varied with position in the view-field. Estimates tended to be low at more extreme azimuthal angles (fish's angle off-axis within the view-field), but mean and maximum estimates were highly correlated with total length. Software estimates also were biased by fish images partially outside the view-field and when acoustic crosstalk occurred (when a fish perpendicular to the sonar and at relatively close range is detected in the side lobes of adjacent beams). These sources of

  8. Obtaining and Estimating Low Noise Floors in Vibration Sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Rune; Larsen, Jesper Abildgaard

    2007-01-01

    For some applications like seismic applications and measuring ambient vibrations in structures, it is essential that the noise floors of the sensors and other system components are low and known to the user. Some of the most important noise sources are reviewed and it is discussed how the sensor...... can be designed in order to obtain a low noise floor. Techniques to estimate the noise floors for sensors are reviewed and are demonstrated on a commercial commonly used sensor for vibration testing. It is illustrated how the noise floor can be calculated using the coherence between simultaneous...

  9. Bioactive compounds and antioxidant potential for polyphenol-rich cocoa extract obtained by agroindustrial residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbay Alves, Taís Vanessa; Silva da Costa, Russany; Aliakbarian, Bahar; Casazza, Alessandro Alberto; Perego, Patrizia; Pinheiro Arruda, Mara Silvia; Carréra Silva Júnior, José Otávio; Converti, Attilio; Ribeiro Costa, Roseane Maria

    2017-11-10

    Processing of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) beans responsible for agricultural exports leads to large amounts of solid waste that were discarded, however, this one presents high contents of metabolites with biological activities. The major objective of this study was to valorise cocoa agroindustrial residue obtained by hydraulic pressing for extract rich in antioxidants. For it, the centesimal composition of residue was investigated, the green extraction was carried out from the residue after, the bioactive compounds, sugar contents and screaming by HPTLC were quantified for extract. The extract has a total polyphenol content of 229.64 mg/g and high antioxidant activity according to ABTS 225.0 μM/g. HTPLC analysis confirmed the presence in the extract, residue of terpenes, sesquiterpenes, flavonoids and antioxidant activity. These results, as a whole, suggest that the extract from the cocoa residue has interesting characteristics to alternative crops with potential industrial uses.

  10. Method to obtain platelet-rich plasma from rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiane M. Pazzini

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Platelet-rich plasma (PRP is a product easy and inxpesnsive, and stands out to for its growth factors in tissue repair. To obtain PRP, centrifugation of whole blood is made with specific time and gravitational forces. Thus, the present work aimed to study a method of double centrifugation to obtain PRP in order to evaluate the effective increase of platelet concentration in the final product, the preparation of PRP gel, and to optimize preparation time of the final sample. Fifteen female White New Zealand rabbits underwent blood sampling for the preparation of PRP. Samples were separated in two sterile tubes containing sodium citrate. Tubes were submitted to the double centrifugation protocol, with lid closed and 1600 revolutions per minute (rpm for 10 minutes, resulting in the separation of red blood cells, plasma with platelets and leucocytes. After were opened and plasma was pipetted and transferred into another sterile tube. Plasma was centrifuged again at 2000rpm for 10 minutes; as a result it was split into two parts: on the top, consisting of platelet-poor plasma (PPP and at the bottom of the platelet button. Part of the PPP was discarded so that only 1ml remained in the tube along with the platelet button. This material was gently agitated to promote platelets resuspension and activated when added 0.3ml of calcium gluconate, resulting in PRP gel. Double centrifugation protocol was able to make platelet concentration 3 times higher in relation to the initial blood sample. The volume of calcium gluconate used for platelet activation was 0.3ml, and was sufficient to coagulate the sample. Coagulation time ranged from 8 to 20 minutes, with an average of 17.6 minutes. Therefore, time of blood centrifugation until to obtain PRP gel took only 40 minutes. It was concluded that PRP was successfully obtained by double centrifugation protocol, which is able to increase the platelet concentration in the sample compared with whole blood

  11. Media Screening for Obtaining Haematococcus pluvialis Red Motile Macrozooids Rich in Astaxanthin and Fatty Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Thomas O; McDougall, Gordon J; Campbell, Raymond; Stanley, Michele S; Day, John G

    2017-12-26

    Astaxanthin from Haematococcus pluvialis is commercially produced in a two-stage process, involving green vegetative (macrozooid) and red aplanospore stages. This approach has been scaled up to an industrial process but constraints limit its commercial success and profitability, including: contamination issues, high pigment extraction costs, requirements for high light levels and photo-bleaching in the red stage. However, in addition to the aplanospore stage, this alga can produce astaxanthin in vegetative palmelloid and motile macrozooid cells. In this study, a two-stage process utilising different media in the green stage, with subsequent re-suspension in medium without nitrate was employed to optimise the formation of red motile macrozooids. Optimal growth in the green phase was obtained on cultivation under mixotrophic conditions in EG:JM media followed by re-suspension in medium without nitrate resulting in red motile macrozooids with an astaxanthin content of 2.74% (78.4% of total carotenoids) and a lipid content of 35.3% (rich in unsaturated fatty acids. It is envisaged that the red motile macrozooids could be harvested and fed as a whole-cell product directly in the animal feed and aquaculture sectors, or used as a blend of carotenoids and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in nutraceutical products.

  12. Media Screening for Obtaining Haematococcus pluvialis Red Motile Macrozooids Rich in Astaxanthin and Fatty Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas O. Butler

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Astaxanthin from Haematococcus pluvialis is commercially produced in a two-stage process, involving green vegetative (macrozooid and red aplanospore stages. This approach has been scaled up to an industrial process but constraints limit its commercial success and profitability, including: contamination issues, high pigment extraction costs, requirements for high light levels and photo-bleaching in the red stage. However, in addition to the aplanospore stage, this alga can produce astaxanthin in vegetative palmelloid and motile macrozooid cells. In this study, a two-stage process utilising different media in the green stage, with subsequent re-suspension in medium without nitrate was employed to optimise the formation of red motile macrozooids. Optimal growth in the green phase was obtained on cultivation under mixotrophic conditions in EG:JM media followed by re-suspension in medium without nitrate resulting in red motile macrozooids with an astaxanthin content of 2.74% (78.4% of total carotenoids and a lipid content of 35.3% (rich in unsaturated fatty acids. It is envisaged that the red motile macrozooids could be harvested and fed as a whole-cell product directly in the animal feed and aquaculture sectors, or used as a blend of carotenoids and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs in nutraceutical products.

  13. Development of new apple beverages rich in isothiocyanates by using extracts obtained from ultrasound-treated cauliflower by-products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amofa-Diatuo, Tracy; Anang, Daniel M.; Barba Orellana, Francisco Jose

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a new apple juice beverage enriched with isothiocyanates (ITC) - rich extracts obtained from cauliflower by-products. Ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) at different amplitudes (20-100%) and extraction times (0-10. min) at a frequency of 24. kHz was em......The objective of this study was to develop a new apple juice beverage enriched with isothiocyanates (ITC) - rich extracts obtained from cauliflower by-products. Ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) at different amplitudes (20-100%) and extraction times (0-10. min) at a frequency of 24. k......) and UAE (20%, 3. min), respectively. Moreover, the highest recovery of total phenolic compounds (TPC) (≈105. mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/L) μM) was found after UAE (100% amplitude, 3. min) of TPC from stems. ITC-rich extracts obtained from caulifower by-products at the optimum UAE conditions were...

  14. Methane Emission Estimates from Landfills Obtained with Dynamic Plume Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hensen, A.; Scharff, H.

    2001-01-01

    Methane emissions from 3 different landfills in the Netherlands were estimated using a mobile Tuneable Diode Laser system (TDL). The methane concentration in the cross section of the plume is measured downwind of the source on a transect perpendicular to the wind direction. A gaussian plume model was used to simulate the concentration levels at the transect. The emission from the source is calculated from the measured and modelled concentration levels.Calibration of the plume dispersion model is done using a tracer (N 2 O) that is released from the landfill and measured simultaneously with the TDL system. The emission estimates for the different locations ranged from 3.6 to 16 m 3 ha -1 hr -1 for the different sites. The emission levels were compared to emission estimates based on the landfill gas production models. This comparison suggests oxidation rates that are up to 50% in spring and negligible in November. At one of the three sites measurements were performed in campaigns in 3 consecutive years. Comparison of the emission levels in the first and second year showed a reduction of the methane emission of about 50% due to implementation of a gas extraction system. From the second to the third year emissions increased by a factor of 4 due to new land filling. Furthermore measurements were performed in winter when oxidation efficiency was reduced. This paper describes the measurement technique used, and discusses the results of the experimental sessions that were performed

  15. Redox potential distribution of an organic-rich contaminated site obtained by the inversion of self-potential data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, M.; Jardani, A.; Soueid Ahmed, A.; Revil, A.; Brigaud, L.; Bégassat, Ph.; Dupont, J. P.

    2017-11-01

    Mapping the redox potential of shallow aquifers impacted by hydrocarbon contaminant plumes is important for the characterization and remediation of such contaminated sites. The redox potential of groundwater is indicative of the biodegradation of hydrocarbons and is important in delineating the shapes of contaminant plumes. The self-potential method was used to reconstruct the redox potential of groundwater associated with an organic-rich contaminant plume in northern France. The self-potential technique is a passive technique consisting in recording the electrical potential distribution at the surface of the Earth. A self-potential map is essentially the sum of two contributions, one associated with groundwater flow referred to as the electrokinetic component, and one associated with redox potential anomalies referred to as the electroredox component (thermoelectric and diffusion potentials are generally negligible). A groundwater flow model was first used to remove the electrokinetic component from the observed self-potential data. Then, a residual self-potential map was obtained. The source current density generating the residual self-potential signals is assumed to be associated with the position of the water table, an interface characterized by a change in both the electrical conductivity and the redox potential. The source current density was obtained through an inverse problem by minimizing a cost function including a data misfit contribution and a regularizer. This inversion algorithm allows the determination of the vertical and horizontal components of the source current density taking into account the electrical conductivity distribution of the saturated and non-saturated zones obtained independently by electrical resistivity tomography. The redox potential distribution was finally determined from the inverted residual source current density. A redox map was successfully built and the estimated redox potential values correlated well with in

  16. Limited sampling hampers “big data” estimation of species richness in a tropical biodiversity hotspot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engemann, Kristine; Enquist, Brian J.; Sandel, Brody Steven

    2015-01-01

    in Ecuador, one of the most species-rich and climatically heterogeneous biodiversity hotspots. Species richness estimates were calculated based on 205,735 georeferenced specimens of 15,788 species using the Margalef diversity index, the Chao estimator, the second-order Jackknife and Bootstrapping resampling...

  17. A Hybrid Dry and Aqueous Fractionation Method to Obtain Protein-Rich Fractions from Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avila Ruiz, Geraldine; Arts, Anke; Minor, Marcel; Schutyser, Maarten

    2016-01-01

    Combination of dry and aqueous fractionation is investigated to obtain protein-rich fractions from quinoa in a milder and more sustainable way compared to conventional wet fractionation. Dry fractionation of quinoa involved milling and subsequent air classification, generating a protein-enriched

  18. Fungicidal values of bio-oils and their lignin-rich fractions obtained from wood/bark fast pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Dinesh; Shi, Jenny; Nicholas, Darrel D; Pittman, Charles U; Steele, Philip H; Cooper, Jerome E

    2008-03-01

    Pine wood, pine bark, oak wood and oak bark were pyrolyzed in an auger reactor. A total of 16 bio-oils or pyrolytic oils were generated at different temperatures and residence times. Two additional pine bio-oils were produced at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in a fluidized-bed reactor at different temperatures. All these bio-oils were fractionated to obtain lignin-rich fractions which consist mainly of phenols and neutrals. The pyrolytic lignin-rich fractions were obtained by liquid-liquid extraction. Whole bio-oils and their lignin-rich fractions were studied as potential environmentally benign wood preservatives to replace metal-based CCA and copper systems that have raised environmental concerns. Each bio-oil and several lignin-rich fractions were tested for antifungal properties. Soil block tests were conducted using one brown-rot fungus (Gloeophyllum trabeum) and one white-rot fungus (Trametes versicolor). The lignin-rich fractions showed greater fungal inhibition than whole bio-oils for a impregnation solution 10% concentration level. Water repellence tests were also performed to study wood wafer swelling behavior before and after bio-oil and lignin-rich fraction treatments. In this case, bio-oil fractions did not exhibit higher water repellency than whole bio-oils. Comparison of raw bio-oils in soil block tests, with unleached wafers, at 10% and 25% bio-oil impregnation solution concentration levels showed excellent wood preservation properties at the 25% level. The good performance of raw bio-oils at higher loading levels suggests that fractionation to generate lignin-rich fractions is unnecessary. At this more effective 25% loading level in general, the raw bio-oils performed similarly. Prevention of leaching is critically important for both raw bio-oils and their fractions to provide decay resistance. Initial tests of a polymerization chemical to prevent leaching showed some success.

  19. Comparative performance of the protocol of plasma rich in growth factors - universal 1 (PRGF-U1 for obtaining platelet rich plasma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Aguirre

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare the platelet concentration obtained after application of the protocol of plasma rich in growth factors - universal 1 (PRGF-U1 and the protocol of Anitua and Andia (PRP-A for obtaining platelet rich plasma. Material and Method: A descriptive, cross-sectional and comparative study was carried out with a simple random probabilistic sample consisting of 16 patients who attended the Periodontics service of the Unit of Second Specialization in Stomatology of the National University of Trujillo. Five blood samples were obtained from each patient, after applying a health questionnaire to rule out any disease or drug consumption, in order to obtain the baseline platelet concentration and that obtained after PRGF-U1 and PRP-A. To compare the platelet concentrations of the two protocols, Student’s t-test was used considering a significance level of p<0.05. RESULTS: The baseline platelet concentration was 371,250±68,203 platelets/μL, for PRGF-U1 it was 747,875±121,645 platelets/μL and for PRP-A it was 595,000±129,202 platelets/μL. A statistically significant difference (p<0.001 was found between both protocols. Conclusion: The PRGF-U1 protocol yielded a higher platelet concentration compared to the Anitúa and Andía protocol.

  20. Estimating the spatial and temporal distribution of species richness within Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Wathen

    Full Text Available Evidence for significant losses of species richness or biodiversity, even within protected natural areas, is mounting. Managers are increasingly being asked to monitor biodiversity, yet estimating biodiversity is often prohibitively expensive. As a cost-effective option, we estimated the spatial and temporal distribution of species richness for four taxonomic groups (birds, mammals, herpetofauna (reptiles and amphibians, and plants within Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks using only existing biological studies undertaken within the Parks and the Parks' long-term wildlife observation database. We used a rarefaction approach to model species richness for the four taxonomic groups and analyzed those groups by habitat type, elevation zone, and time period. We then mapped the spatial distributions of species richness values for the four taxonomic groups, as well as total species richness, for the Parks. We also estimated changes in species richness for birds, mammals, and herpetofauna since 1980. The modeled patterns of species richness either peaked at mid elevations (mammals, plants, and total species richness or declined consistently with increasing elevation (herpetofauna and birds. Plants reached maximum species richness values at much higher elevations than did vertebrate taxa, and non-flying mammals reached maximum species richness values at higher elevations than did birds. Alpine plant communities, including sagebrush, had higher species richness values than did subalpine plant communities located below them in elevation. These results are supported by other papers published in the scientific literature. Perhaps reflecting climate change: birds and herpetofauna displayed declines in species richness since 1980 at low and middle elevations and mammals displayed declines in species richness since 1980 at all elevations.

  1. Obtaining numerically consistent estimates from a mix of administrative data and surveys

    OpenAIRE

    de Waal, A.G.

    2016-01-01

    National statistical institutes (NSIs) fulfil an important role as providers of objective and undisputed statistical information on many different aspects of society. To this end NSIs try to construct data sets that are rich in information content and that can be used to estimate a large variety of population figures. At the same time NSIs aim to construct these rich data sets as efficiently and cost effectively as possible. This can be achieved by utilizing already available administrative d...

  2. On the Origin of Light Emission in Silicon Rich Oxide Obtained by Low-Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition

    OpenAIRE

    Aceves-Mijares, M.; González-Fernández, A. A.; López-Estopier, R.; Luna-López, A.; Berman-Mendoza, D.; Morales, A.; Falcony, C.; Domínguez, C.; Murphy-Arteaga, R.

    2012-01-01

    Silicon Rich Oxide (SRO) has been considered as a material to overcome the drawbacks of silicon to achieve optical functions. Various techniques can be used to produce it, including Low-Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition (LPCVD). In this paper, a brief description of the studies carried out and discussions of the results obtained on electro-, cathode-, and photoluminescence properties of SRO prepared by LPCVD and annealed at 1,100°C are presented. The experimental results lead us to accept th...

  3. Estimation of anisotropy parameters in organic-rich shale: Rock physics forward modeling approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herawati, Ida, E-mail: ida.herawati@students.itb.ac.id; Winardhi, Sonny; Priyono, Awali [Mining and Petroleum Engineering Faculty, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Bandung, 40132 (Indonesia)

    2015-09-30

    Anisotropy analysis becomes an important step in processing and interpretation of seismic data. One of the most important things in anisotropy analysis is anisotropy parameter estimation which can be estimated using well data, core data or seismic data. In seismic data, anisotropy parameter calculation is generally based on velocity moveout analysis. However, the accuracy depends on data quality, available offset, and velocity moveout picking. Anisotropy estimation using seismic data is needed to obtain wide coverage of particular layer anisotropy. In anisotropic reservoir, analysis of anisotropy parameters also helps us to better understand the reservoir characteristics. Anisotropy parameters, especially ε, are related to rock property and lithology determination. Current research aims to estimate anisotropy parameter from seismic data and integrate well data with case study in potential shale gas reservoir. Due to complexity in organic-rich shale reservoir, extensive study from different disciplines is needed to understand the reservoir. Shale itself has intrinsic anisotropy caused by lamination of their formed minerals. In order to link rock physic with seismic response, it is necessary to build forward modeling in organic-rich shale. This paper focuses on studying relationship between reservoir properties such as clay content, porosity and total organic content with anisotropy. Organic content which defines prospectivity of shale gas can be considered as solid background or solid inclusion or both. From the forward modeling result, it is shown that organic matter presence increases anisotropy in shale. The relationships between total organic content and other seismic properties such as acoustic impedance and Vp/Vs are also presented.

  4. Estimation of anisotropy parameters in organic-rich shale: Rock physics forward modeling approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herawati, Ida; Winardhi, Sonny; Priyono, Awali

    2015-01-01

    Anisotropy analysis becomes an important step in processing and interpretation of seismic data. One of the most important things in anisotropy analysis is anisotropy parameter estimation which can be estimated using well data, core data or seismic data. In seismic data, anisotropy parameter calculation is generally based on velocity moveout analysis. However, the accuracy depends on data quality, available offset, and velocity moveout picking. Anisotropy estimation using seismic data is needed to obtain wide coverage of particular layer anisotropy. In anisotropic reservoir, analysis of anisotropy parameters also helps us to better understand the reservoir characteristics. Anisotropy parameters, especially ε, are related to rock property and lithology determination. Current research aims to estimate anisotropy parameter from seismic data and integrate well data with case study in potential shale gas reservoir. Due to complexity in organic-rich shale reservoir, extensive study from different disciplines is needed to understand the reservoir. Shale itself has intrinsic anisotropy caused by lamination of their formed minerals. In order to link rock physic with seismic response, it is necessary to build forward modeling in organic-rich shale. This paper focuses on studying relationship between reservoir properties such as clay content, porosity and total organic content with anisotropy. Organic content which defines prospectivity of shale gas can be considered as solid background or solid inclusion or both. From the forward modeling result, it is shown that organic matter presence increases anisotropy in shale. The relationships between total organic content and other seismic properties such as acoustic impedance and Vp/Vs are also presented

  5. USING TAXONOMIC REVISION DATA TO ESTIMATE THE GLOBAL SPECIES RICHNESS AND CHARACTERISTICS OF UNDESCRIBED SPECIES OF DIVING BEETLES (COLEOPTERA: DYTISCIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Nilsson-Örtman

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Many methods used for estimating species richness are either difficult to use on poorly known taxa or require input data that are laborious and expensive to collect. In this paper we apply a method which takes advantage of the carefully conducted tests of how the described diversity compares to real species richness that are inherent in taxonomic revisions. We analyze the quantitative outcome from such revisions with respect to body size, zoogeographical region and phylogenetic relationship. The best fitting model is used to predict the diversity of unrevised groups if these would have been subject to as rigorous species level hypothesis-testing as the revised groups. The sensitivity of the predictive model to single observations is estimated by bootstrapping over resampled subsets of the original data. The Dytiscidae is with its 4080 described species (end of May 2009 the most diverse group of aquatic beetles and have a world-wide distribution. Extensive taxonomic work has been carried out on the family but still the number of described species increases exponentially in most zoogeographical regions making many commonly used methods of estimation difficult to apply. We provide independent species richness estimates of subsamples for which species richness estimates can be reached through extrapolation and compare these to the species richness estimates obtained through the method using revision data. We estimate there to be 5405 species of dytiscids, a 1.32-fold increase over the present number of described species. The undescribed diversity is likely to be biased towards species with small body size from tropical regions outside of Africa.

  6. Standardization of a Protocol for Obtaining Platelet Rich Plasma from blood Donors; a Tool for Tissue Regeneration Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Lina Andrea; Escobar, Magally; Peñuela, Oscar

    2015-01-01

    To develop a protocol for obtaining autologous platelet rich plasma in healthy individuals and to determine the concentration of five major growth factors before platelet activation. This protocol could be integrated into the guidelines of good clinical practice and research in regenerative medicine. Platelet rich plasma was isolated by centrifugation from 38 healthy men and 42 women ranging from 18 to 59 years old. The platelet count and quantification of growth factors were analyzed in eighty samples, stratified for age and gender of the donor. Analyses were performed using parametric the t-test or Pearson's analysis for non-parametric distribution. P platelet counts from 1.6 to 4.9 times (mean = 2.8). There was no correlation between platelet concentration and the level of the following growth factors: VEGF-D (r = 0.009, p = 0.4105), VEGF-A (r = 0.0068, p = 0.953), PDGF subunit AA (p = 0.3618; r = 0.1047), PDGF-BB (p = 0.5936; r = 0.6095). In the same way, there was no correlation between donor gender and growth factor concentrations. Only TGF-β concentration was correlated to platelet concentration (r = 0.3163, p = 0.0175). The procedure used allowed us to make preparations rich in platelets, low in leukocytes and red blood cells, and sterile. Our results showed biological variations in content of growth factors in PRP. The factors influencing these results should be further studied.

  7. On the Origin of Light Emission in Silicon Rich Oxide Obtained by Low-Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Aceves-Mijares

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Silicon Rich Oxide (SRO has been considered as a material to overcome the drawbacks of silicon to achieve optical functions. Various techniques can be used to produce it, including Low-Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition (LPCVD. In this paper, a brief description of the studies carried out and discussions of the results obtained on electro-, cathode-, and photoluminescence properties of SRO prepared by LPCVD and annealed at 1,100°C are presented. The experimental results lead us to accept that SRO emission properties are due to oxidation state nanoagglomerates rather than to nanocrystals. The emission mechanism is similar to Donor-Acceptor decay in semiconductors, and a wide emission spectrum, from 450 to 850 nm, has been observed. The results show that emission is a function of both silicon excess in the film and excitation energy. As a result different color emissions can be obtained by selecting the suitable excitation energy.

  8. Limited sampling hampers "big data" estimation of species richness in a tropical biodiversity hotspot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engemann, Kristine; Enquist, Brian J; Sandel, Brody; Boyle, Brad; Jørgensen, Peter M; Morueta-Holme, Naia; Peet, Robert K; Violle, Cyrille; Svenning, Jens-Christian

    2015-02-01

    Macro-scale species richness studies often use museum specimens as their main source of information. However, such datasets are often strongly biased due to variation in sampling effort in space and time. These biases may strongly affect diversity estimates and may, thereby, obstruct solid inference on the underlying diversity drivers, as well as mislead conservation prioritization. In recent years, this has resulted in an increased focus on developing methods to correct for sampling bias. In this study, we use sample-size-correcting methods to examine patterns of tropical plant diversity in Ecuador, one of the most species-rich and climatically heterogeneous biodiversity hotspots. Species richness estimates were calculated based on 205,735 georeferenced specimens of 15,788 species using the Margalef diversity index, the Chao estimator, the second-order Jackknife and Bootstrapping resampling methods, and Hill numbers and rarefaction. Species richness was heavily correlated with sampling effort, and only rarefaction was able to remove this effect, and we recommend this method for estimation of species richness with "big data" collections.

  9. Method for calculating the variance and prediction intervals for biomass estimates obtained from allometric equations

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kirton, A

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available for calculating the variance and prediction intervals for biomass estimates obtained from allometric equations A KIRTON B SCHOLES S ARCHIBALD CSIR Ecosystem Processes and Dynamics, Natural Resources and the Environment P.O. BOX 395, Pretoria, 0001, South... intervals (confidence intervals for predicted values) for allometric estimates can be obtained using an example of estimating tree biomass from stem diameter. It explains how to deal with relationships which are in the power function form - a common form...

  10. Estimation and Forecasting in Vector Autoregressive Moving Average Models for Rich Datasets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dias, Gustavo Fruet; Kapetanios, George

    We address the issue of modelling and forecasting macroeconomic variables using rich datasets, by adopting the class of Vector Autoregressive Moving Average (VARMA) models. We overcome the estimation issue that arises with this class of models by implementing an iterative ordinary least squares (...

  11. Influence of Sampling Effort on the Estimated Richness of Road-Killed Vertebrate Wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bager, Alex; da Rosa, Clarissa A.

    2011-05-01

    Road-killed mammals, birds, and reptiles were collected weekly from highways in southern Brazil in 2002 and 2005. The objective was to assess variation in estimates of road-kill impacts on species richness produced by different sampling efforts, and to provide information to aid in the experimental design of future sampling. Richness observed in weekly samples was compared with sampling for different periods. In each period, the list of road-killed species was evaluated based on estimates the community structure derived from weekly samplings, and by the presence of the ten species most subject to road mortality, and also of threatened species. Weekly samples were sufficient only for reptiles and mammals, considered separately. Richness estimated from the biweekly samples was equal to that found in the weekly samples, and gave satisfactory results for sampling the most abundant and threatened species. The ten most affected species showed constant road-mortality rates, independent of sampling interval, and also maintained their dominance structure. Birds required greater sampling effort. When the composition of road-killed species varies seasonally, it is necessary to take biweekly samples for a minimum of one year. Weekly or more-frequent sampling for periods longer than two years is necessary to provide a reliable estimate of total species richness.

  12. Estimation of niobium, tantalum and zirconium in a carbonate rich ore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navale, A.S.; Venkatakrishnan, R.R.; Sreenivas, T.

    2013-01-01

    A simple method using ICP-OES for estimation of tantalum, niobium and zirconium in a carbonate rich matrix is described. The sample is boiled with 10% v/v hydrochloric acid for 15 min and filtered. The residue is fused with ammonium bifluoride-ammonium sulphate flux and the melt is leached with water. Nb, Ta and Zr are estimated in the water leach by ICP-OES. (author)

  13. Analysis of cytokine profile and growth factors in platelet-rich plasma obtained by open systems and commercial columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pochini, Alberto de Castro; Antonioli, Eliane; Bucci, Daniella Zanetti; Sardinha, Luiz Roberto; Andreoli, Carlos Vicente; Ferretti, Mario; Ejnisman, Benno; Goldberg, Anna Carla; Cohen, Moisés

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate growth factors and cytokines in samples of platelet-rich plasma obtained by three different centrifugation methods. Peripheral blood of six individuals with no hematological diseases, aged 18 to 68 years, was drawn to obtain platelet-rich plasma, using the open method and commercial columns by Medtronic and Biomet. The products obtained with the different types of centrifugation were submitted to laboratory analysis, including pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines by flow cytometry assays, the concentration of fibroblast growth factors-2 (FGF-2) and transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-β1). The diverse separation methods generated systematically different profiles regarding number of platelets and leukocytes. The Medtronic system yielded a product with the highest concentration of platelets, and the open method, with the lowest concentration of platelets. The results of cytokine analysis showed that the different types of centrifugation yielded products with high concentrations of interleukin 8, interleukin 1β. The open system resulted in a product with high levels of interleukin 6. Other cytokines and chemokines measured were similar between systems. The product obtained with the open method showed higher levels of TGF-β1 in relation to other systems and low FGF-2 levels. The formed elements, growth factors and cytokines in samples of platelet-rich plasma varied according to the centrifugation technique used. Avaliar fatores de crescimento e citocinas em amostras de plasma rico em plaquetas obtidas por três diferentes métodos de centrifugação. Foi coletado sangue periférico de seis indivíduos, sem doença hematológica, com idades entre 18 e 68 anos, para obtenção de plasma rico em plaquetas, utilizando o método aberto e sistemas comerciais das empresas Medtronic e Biomet. Os produtos obtidos com os diferentes tipos de centrifugação foram submetidos às análises laboratoriais, incluindo citocinas próinflamatórias e quimiocinas

  14. Species richness and occupancy estimation in communities subject to temporary emigration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kery, M.; Royle, J. Andrew; Plattner, M.; Dorazio, R.M.

    2009-01-01

    Species richness is the most common biodiversity metric, although typically some species remain unobserved. Therefore, estimates of species richness and related quantities should account for imperfect detectability. Community dynamics can often be represented as superposition of species-specific phenologies (e. g., in taxa with well-defined flight [insects], activity [rodents], or vegetation periods [plants]). We develop a model for such predictably open communities wherein species richness is expressed as the sum over observed and unobserved species of estimated species-specific and site-specific occurrence indicators and where seasonal occurrence is modeled as a species-specific function of time. Our model is a multispecies extension of a multistate model with one unobservable state and represents a parsimonious way of dealing with a widespread form of 'temporary emigration.'' For illustration we use Swiss butterfly monitoring data collected under a robust design (RD); species were recorded on 13 transects during two secondary periods within data, where secondary samples are pooled. The latter model yielded unrealistically high estimates of total community size of 274 species. In contrast, estimates were similar under models applied to RD data with constant (122) or seasonally varying (126) detectability for each species, but the former was more parsimonious and therefore used for inference. Per transect, 6 44 (mean 21.1) species were detected. Species richness estimates averaged 29.3; therefore only 71% (range 32-92%) of all species present were ever detected. In any primary period, 0.4-5.6 species present were overlooked. Detectability varied by species and averaged 0.88 per primary sampling period. Our modeling framework is extremely flexible; extensions such as covariates for the occurrence or detectability of individual species are easy. It should be useful for communities with a predictable form of temporary emigration where rigorous estimation of community

  15. Obtaining anthocyanin-rich extracts from frozen açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart. pulp using pressurized liquid extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Carolina ALCÁZAR-ALAY

    Full Text Available Abstract Açai is considered a functional food, and in addition to being a source of energy and fiber, it is a valuable source of bioactive compounds such as anthocyanins, minerals and fatty acids. In the present work, antioxidant-rich extracts from açai pulp were obtained using pressurized liquid extraction (PLE. The effects of the independent variables, including solvent type (pure ethanol and ethanol/water (50:50 v/v, citric acid (0 and 0.3%, w/w, pressure (20 and 80 bar and temperature (30 and 60 °C were evaluated using a full factorial design. The extraction was affected primarily by the solvent type and the citric acid percentage. The results indicate that the maximum overall yield (X0 was 64± 9 (%, d.b. when the process was performed using ethanol (99.5% and citric acid (0.3% w/w. The maximum total anthocyanin content and anthocyanin recovered from the raw material were 7 ± 1 (mg anthocyanin/g extract, d.b. and 11 ± 2 (%, d.b., respectively.

  16. Estimation of the frequency and magnetic field dependence of the skin depth in Co-rich magnetic microwires from GMI experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arcady Zhukov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We studied giant magnetoimpedance (GMI effect in magnetically soft amorphous Co-rich microwires in the extended frequency range. From obtained experimentally dependences of the GMI ratio on magnetic field at different frequencies we estimated the penetration depth and its dependence on applied magnetic field and frequency.

  17. Plant DNA barcodes can accurately estimate species richness in poorly known floras.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig Costion

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Widespread uptake of DNA barcoding technology for vascular plants has been slow due to the relatively poor resolution of species discrimination (∼70% and low sequencing and amplification success of one of the two official barcoding loci, matK. Studies to date have mostly focused on finding a solution to these intrinsic limitations of the markers, rather than posing questions that can maximize the utility of DNA barcodes for plants with the current technology. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we test the ability of plant DNA barcodes using the two official barcoding loci, rbcLa and matK, plus an alternative barcoding locus, trnH-psbA, to estimate the species diversity of trees in a tropical rainforest plot. Species discrimination accuracy was similar to findings from previous studies but species richness estimation accuracy proved higher, up to 89%. All combinations which included the trnH-psbA locus performed better at both species discrimination and richness estimation than matK, which showed little enhanced species discriminatory power when concatenated with rbcLa. The utility of the trnH-psbA locus is limited however, by the occurrence of intraspecific variation observed in some angiosperm families to occur as an inversion that obscures the monophyly of species. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We demonstrate for the first time, using a case study, the potential of plant DNA barcodes for the rapid estimation of species richness in taxonomically poorly known areas or cryptic populations revealing a powerful new tool for rapid biodiversity assessment. The combination of the rbcLa and trnH-psbA loci performed better for this purpose than any two-locus combination that included matK. We show that although DNA barcodes fail to discriminate all species of plants, new perspectives and methods on biodiversity value and quantification may overshadow some of these shortcomings by applying barcode data in new ways.

  18. Plant DNA barcodes can accurately estimate species richness in poorly known floras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costion, Craig; Ford, Andrew; Cross, Hugh; Crayn, Darren; Harrington, Mark; Lowe, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Widespread uptake of DNA barcoding technology for vascular plants has been slow due to the relatively poor resolution of species discrimination (∼70%) and low sequencing and amplification success of one of the two official barcoding loci, matK. Studies to date have mostly focused on finding a solution to these intrinsic limitations of the markers, rather than posing questions that can maximize the utility of DNA barcodes for plants with the current technology. Here we test the ability of plant DNA barcodes using the two official barcoding loci, rbcLa and matK, plus an alternative barcoding locus, trnH-psbA, to estimate the species diversity of trees in a tropical rainforest plot. Species discrimination accuracy was similar to findings from previous studies but species richness estimation accuracy proved higher, up to 89%. All combinations which included the trnH-psbA locus performed better at both species discrimination and richness estimation than matK, which showed little enhanced species discriminatory power when concatenated with rbcLa. The utility of the trnH-psbA locus is limited however, by the occurrence of intraspecific variation observed in some angiosperm families to occur as an inversion that obscures the monophyly of species. We demonstrate for the first time, using a case study, the potential of plant DNA barcodes for the rapid estimation of species richness in taxonomically poorly known areas or cryptic populations revealing a powerful new tool for rapid biodiversity assessment. The combination of the rbcLa and trnH-psbA loci performed better for this purpose than any two-locus combination that included matK. We show that although DNA barcodes fail to discriminate all species of plants, new perspectives and methods on biodiversity value and quantification may overshadow some of these shortcomings by applying barcode data in new ways.

  19. Quantitative estimation of defects from measurement obtained by remote field eddy current inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davoust, M.E.; Fleury, G.

    1999-01-01

    Remote field eddy current technique is used for dimensioning grooves that may occurs in ferromagnetic pipes. This paper proposes a method to estimate the depth and the length of corrosion grooves from measurement of a pick-up coil signal phase at different positions close to the defect. Grooves dimensioning needs the knowledge of the physical relation between measurements and defect dimensions. So, finite element calculations are performed to obtain a parametric algebraic function of the physical phenomena. By means of this model and a previously defined general approach, an estimate of groove size may be given. In this approach, algebraic function parameters and groove dimensions are linked through a polynomial function. In order to validate this estimation procedure, a statistical study has been performed. The approach is proved to be suitable for real measurements. (authors)

  20. Methods for obtaining distributions of uranium occurrence from estimates of geologic features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, C.E.; McLaren, R.A.

    1980-04-01

    The problem addressed in this paper is the determination of a quantitative estimate of a resource from estimates of fundamental variables which describe the resource. Due to uncertainty about the estimates, these basic variables are stochastic. The evaluation of random equations involving these variables is the core of the analysis process. The basic variables are originally described in terms of a low and a high percentile (the 5th and 95th, for example) and a central value (the mode, mean or median). The variable thus described is then generally assumed to be represented by a three-parameter lognormal distribution. Expressions involving these variables are evaluated by computing the first four central moments of the random functions (which are usually products and sums of variables). Stochastic independence is discussed. From the final set of moments a Pearson distribution is obtained; the high values of skewness and kurtosis resulting from uranium data require obtaining Pearson curves beyond those described in published tables. A cubic spline solution to the Pearson differential equation accomplishes this task. A sample problem is used to illustrate the application of the process; sensitivity to the estimated values of the basic variables is discussed. Appendices contain details of the methods and descriptions of computer programs

  1. Methods for obtaining distributions of uranium occurrence from estimates of geologic features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, C.E.; McLaren, R.A.

    1980-04-01

    The problem addressed in this report is the determination of a quantitative estimate of a resource from estimates of fundamental variables which describe the resource. Due to uncertainty about the estimates, these basic variables are stochastic. The evaluation of random equations involving these variables is the core of the analysis process. The basic variables are originally described in terms of a low and a high percentile (the 5th and 95th, for example) and a central value (the mode, mean or median). The variable thus described is then generally assumed to be represented by a three-parameter lognormal distribution. Expressions involving these variables are evaluated by computing the first four central moments of the random functions (which are usually products and sums of variables). Stochastic independence is discussed. From the final set of moments a Pearson distribution is obtained; the high values of skewness and kurtosis resulting from uranium data requires obtaining Pearson curves beyond those described in published tables. A cubic spline solution to the Pearson differential equation accomplishes this task. A sample problem is used to illustrate the application of the process; sensitivity to the estimated values of the basic variables is discussed. Appendices contain details of the methods and descriptions of computer programs

  2. Estimating species richness and status of solitary bees and bumblebees in agricultural semi-natural habitats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calabuig, Isabel

    2000-01-01

    Estimation of Western Europe number of bee species varies between 2000 and 4500 (Williams 1995) but there are substantial indications of a decline in bee species in Europe and other regions. In Denmark, wild bee species richness, distribution, and abundance have not been studied in detail for about...... 75 years, and nothing is known about which species are potentially vulnerable or endangered. A rough estimate of solitary bees and bumblebees includes approximately 238 species (26 genera) and 29 species respectively. In a pan-trap survey of six kilometres of semi-natural habitats in a Danish...... agricultural landscape, 72 solitary bee species and 19 species of bumblebees were recorded, several of which are considered vulnerable or endangered in neighbouring countries. Nesting conditions for rare cavity-nesting species and the possible role of the semi-natural habitats as corridors for species...

  3. Colour evaluation of a phycobiliprotein-rich extract obtained from Nostoc PCC9205 in acidic solutions and yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de O Moreira, Isabela; Passos, Thaís S; Chiapinni, Claudete; Silveira, Gabrielle K; Souza, Joana C M; Coca-Vellarde, Luis Guillermo; Deliza, Rosires; de Lima Araújo, Kátia G

    2012-02-01

    Phycobiliproteins are coloured proteins produced by cyanobacteria, which have several applications because of their colour properties. However, there is no available information about the colour stability of phycobiliproteins from Nostoc sp. in food systems. The aim of this work was to study the colour stability of a purple-coloured phycobiliprotein-rich extract from the cyanobacterium Nostoc PCC9205 in acidic solutions and yogurt. Variations of pH for Nostoc PCC9205 extract have shown stability for the L* (lightness) and a* (redness) indexes in the range 1.0-7.0. The b* index (blueness), however, increased at pH values below 4.0, indicating loss of the blue colour. The Nostoc PCC9205 extract was used as colorant in yogurt (pH 4.17) stored for 60 days. Instrumental colour analysis showed no changes for the L* and a* indexes during storage, whereas the b* index changed after 20 days of storage. A multiple comparison test showed colour instability after 20 days of storage. A hedonic scale test performed on the 60th day of storage showed acceptability of the product. The red component of the phycobiliprotein-rich extract from Nostoc PCC9205 presented an improved stability in acidic media and yogurt compared with the blue component of this extract. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Sugarcane leaf area estimate obtained from the corrected Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Moura Pereira

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Large farmland areas and the knowledge on the interaction between solar radiation and vegetation canopies have increased the use of data from orbital remote sensors in sugarcane monitoring. However, the constituents of the atmosphere affect the reflectance values obtained by imaging sensors. This study aimed at improving a sugarcane Leaf Area Index (LAI estimation model, concerning the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI subjected to atmospheric correction. The model generated by the NDVI with atmospheric correction showed the best results (R2 = 0.84; d = 0.95; MAE = 0.44; RMSE = 0.55, in relation to the other models compared. LAI estimation with this model, during the sugarcane plant cycle, reached a maximum of 4.8 at the vegetative growth phase and 2.3 at the end of the maturation phase. Thus, the use of atmospheric correction to estimate the sugarcane LAI is recommended, since this procedure increases the correlations between the LAI estimated by image and by plant parameters.

  5. The use of importance sampling in a trial assessment to obtain converged estimates of radiological risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, K.; Lucas, R.

    1986-12-01

    In developing a methodology for assessing potential sites for the disposal of radioactive wastes, the Department of the Environment has conducted a series of trial assessment exercises. In order to produce converged estimates of radiological risk using the SYVAC A/C simulation system an efficient sampling procedure is required. Previous work has demonstrated that importance sampling can substantially increase sampling efficiency. This study used importance sampling to produce converged estimates of risk for the first DoE trial assessment. Four major nuclide chains were analysed. In each case importance sampling produced converged risk estimates with between 10 and 170 times fewer runs of the SYVAC A/C model. This increase in sampling efficiency can reduce the total elapsed time required to obtain a converged estimate of risk from one nuclide chain by a factor of 20. The results of this study suggests that the use of importance sampling could reduce the elapsed time required to perform a risk assessment of a potential site by a factor of ten. (author)

  6. Models to estimate volume of individual trees by morphometry of crowns obtained with lidar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro Orfanó Figueiredo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The volumetric estimate from digital scanning of the forests through the use of LIDAR increases the precision of forest management techniques in planning tropical forest logging operations. The use of this remote detection technology allows the incorporation of crown morphometric variables which are still little known and little used due to the difficulty of collecting field data for volume equations. The objective of this study was to build equations capable of estimating the stem volume of dominant and codominant individual trees from the crown's morphometry obtained by airborne LIDAR, considering two forest inventory situations: a with the collection of diameter at breast height (DBH, and crown morphometric variables obtained from LIDAR data and b using only the crown morphometry variables. For the selection of models the factors considered were: the correlation matrix of predictor variables and the combination of variables that generates the best results by statistical criteria Syx, Syx(% and Pressp, and that were homoscedastic and had a normal and independent distribution of errors. The influence analysis was performed for the best equations. The results for the statistical fit of the equations to the two situations allowed the selection of models with and without DBH, with R2aj.( % values of a 92.92 and b 79.44, Syx(% values of a 16.73 and b 27.47, and, Pressp criterion values of a 201.15 m6 and b 537.47 m6, respectively. Through morphometric variables it was possible to develop equations capable of accurately estimating the stem volume of dominant and codominant trees in tropical forests.

  7. How many dinosaur species were there? Fossil bias and true richness estimated using a Poisson sampling model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starrfelt, Jostein; Liow, Lee Hsiang

    2016-04-05

    The fossil record is a rich source of information about biological diversity in the past. However, the fossil record is not only incomplete but has also inherent biases due to geological, physical, chemical and biological factors. Our knowledge of past life is also biased because of differences in academic and amateur interests and sampling efforts. As a result, not all individuals or species that lived in the past are equally likely to be discovered at any point in time or space. To reconstruct temporal dynamics of diversity using the fossil record, biased sampling must be explicitly taken into account. Here, we introduce an approach that uses the variation in the number of times each species is observed in the fossil record to estimate both sampling bias and true richness. We term our technique TRiPS (True Richness estimated using a Poisson Sampling model) and explore its robustness to violation of its assumptions via simulations. We then venture to estimate sampling bias and absolute species richness of dinosaurs in the geological stages of the Mesozoic. Using TRiPS, we estimate that 1936 (1543-2468) species of dinosaurs roamed the Earth during the Mesozoic. We also present improved estimates of species richness trajectories of the three major dinosaur clades: the sauropodomorphs, ornithischians and theropods, casting doubt on the Jurassic-Cretaceous extinction event and demonstrating that all dinosaur groups are subject to considerable sampling bias throughout the Mesozoic. © 2016 The Authors.

  8. Evaluating the performance of species richness estimators: sensitivity to sample grain size

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hortal, Joaquín; Borges, Paulo A. V.; Gaspar, Clara

    2006-01-01

    and several recent estimators [proposed by Rosenzweig et al. (Conservation Biology, 2003, 17, 864-874), and Ugland et al. (Journal of Animal Ecology, 2003, 72, 888-897)] performed poorly. 3.  Estimations developed using the smaller grain sizes (pair of traps, traps, records and individuals) presented similar....... Data obtained with standardized sampling of 78 transects in natural forest remnants of five islands were aggregated in seven different grains (i.e. ways of defining a single sample): islands, natural areas, transects, pairs of traps, traps, database records and individuals to assess the effect of using...

  9. An Optimal Estimation Method to Obtain Surface Layer Turbulent Fluxes from Profile Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, D.

    2015-12-01

    In the absence of direct turbulence measurements, the turbulence characteristics of the atmospheric surface layer are often derived from measurements of the surface layer mean properties based on Monin-Obukhov Similarity Theory (MOST). This approach requires two levels of the ensemble mean wind, temperature, and water vapor, from which the fluxes of momentum, sensible heat, and water vapor can be obtained. When only one measurement level is available, the roughness heights and the assumed properties of the corresponding variables at the respective roughness heights are used. In practice, the temporal mean with large number of samples are used in place of the ensemble mean. However, in many situations the samples of data are taken from multiple levels. It is thus desirable to derive the boundary layer flux properties using all measurements. In this study, we used an optimal estimation approach to derive surface layer properties based on all available measurements. This approach assumes that the samples are taken from a population whose ensemble mean profile follows the MOST. An optimized estimate is obtained when the results yield a minimum cost function defined as a weighted summation of all error variance at each sample altitude. The weights are based one sample data variance and the altitude of the measurements. This method was applied to measurements in the marine atmospheric surface layer from a small boat using radiosonde on a tethered balloon where temperature and relative humidity profiles in the lowest 50 m were made repeatedly in about 30 minutes. We will present the resultant fluxes and the derived MOST mean profiles using different sets of measurements. The advantage of this method over the 'traditional' methods will be illustrated. Some limitations of this optimization method will also be discussed. Its application to quantify the effects of marine surface layer environment on radar and communication signal propagation will be shown as well.

  10. Evaluation of species richness estimators based on quantitative performance measures and sensitivity to patchiness and sample grain size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willie, Jacob; Petre, Charles-Albert; Tagg, Nikki; Lens, Luc

    2012-11-01

    Data from forest herbaceous plants in a site of known species richness in Cameroon were used to test the performance of rarefaction and eight species richness estimators (ACE, ICE, Chao1, Chao2, Jack1, Jack2, Bootstrap and MM). Bias, accuracy, precision and sensitivity to patchiness and sample grain size were the evaluation criteria. An evaluation of the effects of sampling effort and patchiness on diversity estimation is also provided. Stems were identified and counted in linear series of 1-m2 contiguous square plots distributed in six habitat types. Initially, 500 plots were sampled in each habitat type. The sampling process was monitored using rarefaction and a set of richness estimator curves. Curves from the first dataset suggested adequate sampling in riparian forest only. Additional plots ranging from 523 to 2143 were subsequently added in the undersampled habitats until most of the curves stabilized. Jack1 and ICE, the non-parametric richness estimators, performed better, being more accurate and less sensitive to patchiness and sample grain size, and significantly reducing biases that could not be detected by rarefaction and other estimators. This study confirms the usefulness of non-parametric incidence-based estimators, and recommends Jack1 or ICE alongside rarefaction while describing taxon richness and comparing results across areas sampled using similar or different grain sizes. As patchiness varied across habitat types, accurate estimations of diversity did not require the same number of plots. The number of samples needed to fully capture diversity is not necessarily the same across habitats, and can only be known when taxon sampling curves have indicated adequate sampling. Differences in observed species richness between habitats were generally due to differences in patchiness, except between two habitats where they resulted from differences in abundance. We suggest that communities should first be sampled thoroughly using appropriate taxon sampling

  11. Evaluation of quality of kefir from milk obtained from goats supplemented with a diet rich in bioactive compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cais-Sokolińska, Dorota; Pikul, Jan; Wójtowski, Jacek; Danków, Romualda; Teichert, Joanna; Czyżak-Runowska, Grażyna; Bagnicka, Emilia

    2015-04-01

    The composition of bioactive components in dairy products depends on their content in raw milk and the processing conditions. The experimental material consisted of the milk of dairy goats supplemented with 120 g d(-1) per head of false flax cake. The aim of the study was to evaluate the quality of kefir produced from goat's milk with a higher content of bioactive components resulting from supplementation of the goats' diet with false flax cake. The administration of false flax cake to goats had a positive effect on the fatty acid profile of the raw milk, causing an increase in the proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), including conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and n-3 fatty acids. Their increased percentage was detected in the kefir after production as well as after storage. The processing value of the harvested milk did not differ from the qualitative characteristics of milk from goats of the control group. Increasing the proportion of bioactive components in goat's milk did not result in changes in the acidity, texture, colour, flavour, aroma or consistency of the kefir obtained. Milk and kefir obtained after the administration of false flax cake to goats contain bioactive components (PUFA including CLA, n-3 and monoenic trans fatty acids) in significant amounts. Kefir from experimental goat's milk did not differ in quality from kefir made from the milk of the control group. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Comparison between Winkler's extractor and pitfall traps to estimate leaf litter ants richness (Formicidae at a rainforest site in southest Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Orsolon-Souza

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare in the same site the efficiency of the two most used techniques for sampling ant diversity, Winkler's extractors and pitfalls. We studied communities of leaf litter ants from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest, compared richness estimates for genera and species, and built species accumulation curves. These two methods resulted in a satisfactory sampling of richness; 21.3% of the genera and 47.6% of the species were collected exclusively with Winkler's extractors, whereas 6.4% of the genera and 9.5% of the species were collected exclusively with pitfalls. Winkler's extractor had proven to be the most efficient single sampling technique to estimate richness. However, pitfalls also recorded a significant portion of the total richness. Despite differences in efficiency, species accumulation curves for both techniques were similar, as well as the curve obtained with both methods combined. We noticed that Winkler's extractors were c. 74.0% more efficient than pitfalls in the Atlantic Forest. Therefore, sampling techniques must be used with a well-structured sampling design in order to advance knowledge on the ant fauna of Brazilian biomes, especially in the leaf litter, allowing more complete environmental analyses.

  13. A Comparison of Platelet Count and Enrichment Percentages in the Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP) Obtained Following Preparation by Three Different Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabarish, Ram; Lavu, Vamsi; Rao, Suresh Ranga

    2015-02-01

    Platelet rich plasma (PRP) represents an easily accessible and rich source of autologous growth factors. Different manual methods for the preparation of PRP have been suggested. Lacuna in knowledge exists about the efficacy of PRP preparation by these different manual methods. This study was performed to determine the effects of centrifugation rate revolutions per minute (RPM) and time on the platelet count and enrichment percentages in the concentrates obtained following the three different manual methods of PRP preparation. In vitro experimental study. This was an experimental study in which platelet concentration was assessed in the PRP prepared by three different protocols as suggested by Marx R (method 1), Okuda K (method 2) and Landesberg R (method 3). A total of 60 peripheral blood samples, (n=20 per method) were obtained from healthy volunteers. Baseline platelet count was assessed for all the subjects following which PRP was prepared. The platelet count in the PRP was determined using coulter counter (Sysmex XT 2000i). The mean of the platelet count obtained and their enrichment percentage were calculated and intergroup comparison was done (Tukey's HSD test). The number of platelets and enrichment percentage in PRP prepared by method 1 was higher compared to method 2 and method 3; this difference in platelet concentrates was found to be statistically significant (p < 0.05). The centrifugation rate and time appear to be important parameters, which influence the platelet yield. Method 1 which had lower centrifugation rate and time yielded a greater platelet count and enrichment percentage.

  14. Estimation of the species richness of fish parasite fauna: an ecological approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ieshko Evgeny Pavlovich

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We studied the biological diversity of the parasite fauna in pike from four habitats found in northern lakes of Karelia. The curves of the expected species richness versus sampling effort (the number of examined specimens dependency were plotted. A universal approach to the description of the new species replenishment dynamics is proposed – including finding (through combinatorial analysis the median value between the fastest and the slowest paths of the species richness growth followed by approximation using logistic function . Our analysis showed that the leading ecological factors controlling the formation of the parasite species richness in a specific waterbody are the richness of infracommunities and the age composition of the host sample. The sample of 15 host specimens contains at least 80% of all species in the parasite community.

  15. Application of DNA barcoding in biodiversity studies of shallow-water octocorals: molecular proxies agree with morphological estimates of species richness in Palau

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadden, C. S.; Brown, A. S.; Brayton, C.; Hunt, C. B.; van Ofwegen, L. P.

    2014-06-01

    The application of DNA barcoding to anthozoan cnidarians has been hindered by their slow rates of mitochondrial gene evolution and the failure to identify alternative molecular markers that distinguish species reliably. Among octocorals, however, multilocus barcodes can distinguish up to 70 % of morphospecies, thereby facilitating the identification of species that are ecologically important but still very poorly known taxonomically. We tested the ability of these imperfect DNA barcodes to estimate species richness in a biodiversity survey of the shallow-water octocoral fauna of Palau using multilocus ( COI, mtMutS, 28S rDNA) sequences obtained from 305 specimens representing 38 genera of octocorals. Numbers and identities of species were estimated independently (1) by a taxonomic expert using morphological criteria and (2) by assigning sequences to molecular operational taxonomic units (MOTUs) using predefined genetic distance thresholds. Estimated numbers of MOTUs ranged from 73 to 128 depending on the barcode and distance threshold applied, bracketing the estimated number of 118 morphospecies. Concordance between morphospecies identifications and MOTUs ranged from 71 to 75 % and differed little among barcodes. For the speciose and ecologically dominant genus Sinularia, however, we were able to identify 95 % of specimens correctly simply by comparing mtMutS sequences and in situ photographs of colonies to an existing vouchered database. Because we lack a clear understanding of species boundaries in most of these taxa, numbers of morphospecies and MOTUs are both estimates of the true species diversity, and we cannot currently determine which is more accurate. Our results suggest, however, that the two methods provide comparable estimates of species richness for shallow-water Indo-Pacific octocorals. Use of molecular barcodes in biodiversity surveys will facilitate comparisons of species richness and composition among localities and over time, data that do not

  16. Obtaining appropriate interval estimates for age when multiple indicators are used

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fieuws, Steffen; Willems, Guy; Larsen, Sara Tangmose

    2016-01-01

    When an estimate of age is needed, typically multiple indicators are present as found in skeletal or dental information. There exists a vast literature on approaches to estimate age from such multivariate data. Application of Bayes' rule has been proposed to overcome drawbacks of classical regres...... the need for interval estimation. To illustrate and evaluate the method, Köhler et al. (1995) third molar scores are used to estimate the age in a dataset of 3200 male subjects in the juvenile age range.......When an estimate of age is needed, typically multiple indicators are present as found in skeletal or dental information. There exists a vast literature on approaches to estimate age from such multivariate data. Application of Bayes' rule has been proposed to overcome drawbacks of classical...... regression models but becomes less trivial as soon as the number of indicators increases. Each of the age indicators can lead to a different point estimate ("the most plausible value for age") and a prediction interval ("the range of possible values"). The major challenge in the combination of multiple...

  17. A level playing field: Obtaining consistent cost estimates for advanced reactor designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, C.R. II; Rohm, H.H.; Humphreys, J.R. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Rules and guidelines for developing cost estimates are given which provide a means for presenting cost estimates for advanced concepts on a consistent and equitable basis. For advanced reactor designs, the scope of a cost estimate includes the plant capital cost, the operating and maintenance cost, the fuel cycle cost, and the cost of decommissioning. Each element is subdivided as is necessary to provide a common reporting format for all power plant concepts. The total generation cost is taken to be a suitable choice for a summary figure of merit. To test the application of the rules and guidelines as well as developing reference costs for current technologies, several different sized coal and pressurized water reactor plant cost estimates have been prepared

  18. An iterative procedure for obtaining maximum-likelihood estimates of the parameters for a mixture of normal distributions, Addendum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, B. C., Jr.; Walker, H. F.

    1975-01-01

    New results and insights concerning a previously published iterative procedure for obtaining maximum-likelihood estimates of the parameters for a mixture of normal distributions were discussed. It was shown that the procedure converges locally to the consistent maximum likelihood estimate as long as a specified parameter is bounded between two limits. Bound values were given to yield optimal local convergence.

  19. A level playing field-obtaining consistent cost estimates for advanced reactor designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, C.R.; Rohm, H.H.; Humphreys, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    A level playing field in sports is necessary to avoid a situation in which a team has an unfair advantage over its competition. Similarly, rules and guidelines for developing cost estimates can be established which, in effect, provide a level playing field whereby cost estimates for advanced power plant concepts can be presented on a consistent and equitable basis. As an example, consider the capital costs shown in Table 1. Both sets of cost are for the exact same power plant; Estimate 1 is expressed in constant dollars while Estimate 2 is presented in nominal or as-spent dollars. As shown, the costs in Table 1 are not directly comparable. Similar problems can be introduced as a result of differing assumptions in any number of parameters including the scope of the cost estimate, inflation/escalation and interest rates, contingency costs, and site location. Of course, the motivation for having consistent cost estimates is to permit comparison among various concepts. As the U.S. Department of Energy sponsors research and development work on several advanced reactor concepts in which expected cost is a key evaluation parameter, the emphasis in this particular endeavor has been in promoting the comparability of advanced reactor cost estimates among themselves and to existing power plant types. To continue with the analogy, the idea is to lay out the playing field and the rules of the contest such that each team participates in the match on an equal basis with the final score being solely determined by the inherent strengths and abilities of the teams. A description of the playing field and some of the more important rules will now be provided

  20. Digestion of Alumina from Non-Magnetic Material Obtained from Magnetic Separation of Reduced Iron-Rich Diasporic Bauxite with Sodium Salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanghui Li

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Recovery of iron from iron-rich diasporic bauxite ore via reductive roasting followed by magnetic separation has been explored recently. However, the efficiency of alumina extraction in the non-magnetic materials is absent. In this paper, a further study on the digestion of alumina by the Bayer process from non-magnetic material obtained after magnetic separation of reduced iron-rich diasporic bauxite with sodium salts was investigated. The results indicate that the addition of sodium salts can destroy the original occurrences of iron-, aluminum- and silicon-containing minerals of bauxite ore during reductive roasting. Meanwhile, the reactions of sodium salts with complex aluminum- and silicon-bearing phases generate diaoyudaoite and sodium aluminosilicate. The separation of iron via reductive roasting of bauxite ore with sodium salts followed by magnetic separation improves alumina digestion in the Bayer process. When the alumina-bearing material in bauxite ore is converted into non-magnetic material, the digestion temperature decreases significantly from 280 °C to 240 °C with a nearly 99% relative digestion ratio of alumina.

  1. The influence of random element displacement on DOA estimates obtained with (Khatri-Rao-)root-MUSIC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inghelbrecht, Veronique; Verhaevert, Jo; van Hecke, Tanja; Rogier, Hendrik

    2014-11-11

    Although a wide range of direction of arrival (DOA) estimation algorithms has been described for a diverse range of array configurations, no specific stochastic analysis framework has been established to assess the probability density function of the error on DOA estimates due to random errors in the array geometry. Therefore, we propose a stochastic collocation method that relies on a generalized polynomial chaos expansion to connect the statistical distribution of random position errors to the resulting distribution of the DOA estimates. We apply this technique to the conventional root-MUSIC and the Khatri-Rao-root-MUSIC methods. According to Monte-Carlo simulations, this novel approach yields a speedup by a factor of more than 100 in terms of CPU-time for a one-dimensional case and by a factor of 56 for a two-dimensional case.

  2. How to efficiently obtain accurate estimates of flower visitation rates by pollinators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fijen, Thijs P.M.; Kleijn, David

    2017-01-01

    Regional declines in insect pollinators have raised concerns about crop pollination. Many pollinator studies use visitation rate (pollinators/time) as a proxy for the quality of crop pollination. Visitation rate estimates are based on observation durations that vary significantly between studies.

  3. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate and fibrinogen concentration of whole blood influences the cellular composition of platelet-rich plasma obtained from centrifugation methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Wenjing; Xu, Zhengliang; Sheng, Jiagen; Xie, Xuetao; Zhang, Changqing

    2017-09-01

    Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), which reflects the sedimentation rate of platelets, leukocytes and erythrocytes in response to centrifugal force, may influence the cellular composition of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) obtained via centrifugation methods. However, no relevant studies have substantiated this. In the present study, blood was collected from 40 healthy volunteers and used to prepare PRP with two plasma-based preparation systems [YinPRP and Plasma Rich in Growth Factor (PRGF) systems] and two buffy coat-based systems (RegenPRP and WEGOPRP systems) in a single-donor model. Volumes of PRP and platelet-poor plasma (PPP) that were removed in the preparation process were recorded. Analyses of ESR, haematocrit, C-reaction protein, coagulation, serum glucose and serum lipid of the whole blood used for PRP preparation were performed to evaluate the levels of ESR and the factors known to influence it. Whole blood analysis was performed to evaluate the cellular composition of PRP. Results demonstrated that there were marked positive correlations between the ESR of the whole blood used for PRP preparation and PPP removal efficiencies, platelet concentrations, platelet capture efficiencies and platelet enrichment factors of PRP formulations obtained from plasma-based systems, and PRP yield efficiency of RegenPRP and PPP removal efficiency of WEGOPRP. Furthermore, there were marked negative correlations between ESR and concentrations and enrichment factors of platelets, leukocytes and erythrocytes of RegenPRP. Fibrinogen concentration of the whole blood, which had a marked positive correlation with ESR, also influenced the cellular composition of PRP. These findings may increase the understanding of PRP preparation and provide substantial evidence for the individualised optimisation of PRP preparation systems used in clinical practice.

  4. Comparison of Sun-Induced Chlorophyll Fluorescence Estimates Obtained from Four Portable Field Spectroradiometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julitta, Tommaso; Corp, Lawrence A.; Rossini, Micol; Burkart, Andreas; Cogliati, Sergio; Davies, Neville; Hom, Milton; Mac Arthur, Alasdair; Middleton, Elizabeth M.; Rascher, Uwe; hide

    2016-01-01

    Remote Sensing of Sun-Induced Chlorophyll Fluorescence (SIF) is a research field of growing interest because it offers the potential to quantify actual photosynthesis and to monitor plant status. New satellite missions from the European Space Agency, such as the Earth Explorer 8 FLuorescence EXplorer (FLEX) mission-scheduled to launch in 2022 and aiming at SIF mapping-and from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) such as the Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2) sampling mission launched in July 2014, provide the capability to estimate SIF from space. The detection of the SIF signal from airborne and satellite platform is difficult and reliable ground level data are needed for calibration/validation. Several commercially available spectroradiometers are currently used to retrieve SIF in the field. This study presents a comparison exercise for evaluating the capability of four spectroradiometers to retrieve SIF. The results show that an accurate far-red SIF estimation can be achieved using spectroradiometers with an ultrafine resolution (less than 1 nm), while the red SIF estimation requires even higher spectral resolution (less than 0.5 nm). Moreover, it is shown that the Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) plays a significant role in the precision of the far-red SIF measurements.

  5. An evaluation of species richness estimators for tardigrades of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Tennessee and North Carolina, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane R. NELSON

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available For the past 5 years we have been conducting a large-scale, multi-habitat inventory of the tardigrades in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park (U.S.A. as part of the All Taxa Biodiversity Inventory (ATBI (see www.dlia.org. In terrestrial habitats, we collected moss, lichen, and soil samples from 19 permanent ATBI plots, representing all major land cover types within the park. Each ATBI plot is 100 × 100 m. In each plot, when available, 16 moss samples, 16 lichen samples, and 4 soil samples were collected in paper bags and air dried in the laboratory. Specimens were isolated with LudoxAM centrifugation, and for each sample up to 50 adults plus eggs were individually mounted on microscope slides in Hoyer's medium and identified using phase contrast and DIC microscopy. Additional collections were made in the limestone caves of the Cades Cove region of the park, bird nests, and 13 different streams. To date (1-Jun-06, 589 samples have been collected, and of these 401 have been analyzed, yielding a total of 8133 identifiable tardigrades or, in some cases, species groups. A total of 73 species have been found in the park, 14 of which we believe are new to science. Seven species richness estimators have been developed to predict total species richness (see EstimateS 7.5 software, viceroy.eeb.uconn.edu/estimates, and these were evaluated by comparing predictions from half of our data to the actual numbers from the total database. The results of this comparison indicate that different estimators work best in different habitats. Using the best estimators in each habitat, EstimateS 7.5 indicates that a total of 96 species are likely to occur throughout the park. Thus, Great Smoky Mountains National Park tardigrade diversity represents 10% of the world's known tardigrade fauna.

  6. Estimating dust production rate of carbon-rich stars in the Small Magellanic Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanni, A.; Marigo, P.; Groenewegen, M. A. T.; Aringer, B.; Pastorelli, G.; Rubele, S.; Girardi, L.; Bressan, A.; Bladh, S.

    We compute a grid of spectra describing dusty Circumstellar Envelopes of Thermally Pulsing Asymptotic Giant Branch carbon-rich stars by employing a physically grounded description for dust growth. The optical constants for carbon dust have been selected in order to reproduce simultaneously the most important color-color diagrams in the Near and Mid Infrared bands. We fit the Spectral Energy Distribution of ≈2000 carbon-rich in the Small Magellanic Cloud and we compute their total dust production rate. We compare our results with the ones in the literature. Different choices of the dust-to-gas ratio and outflow expansion velocity adopted in different works, yield, in some cases, a total dust budget about three times lower than the one derived from our scheme, with the same optical data set for carbon dust.

  7. Characterization of sunflower oils obtained separately by pressing and subsequent solvent extraction from a new line of seeds rich in phytosterols and conventional seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguirre Marta R.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study we evaluate the chemical composition of sunflower oils obtained separately by pressing and subsequent solvent extraction from a new seeds rich in phytosterols (IASP-18 and conventional seeds (HA-89. Results have shown that the total content of oil was much lower in the IASP-18 (18.1% than in the conventional (37.5% seeds. The extraction yield obtained by pressing was as low as 3% in the IASP-18 seeds and 37.5% in HA-89, while in the solvent extraction it was of the same order (~18 wt% on seeds extracted by pressing for the two types of seeds. No significant changes in the fatty acid composition were found between the oils extracted by the two procedures, but the pressed oils presented significantly lower acidity and larger content of the unsaponifiable fraction. Expressed as free sterols, the total sterols were 37–38% more concentrated in the oils extracted with solvent, reaching amounts of 13 700 and 6500 mg/kg in the IASP-18 and HA-89 oils, respectively. No substantial differences were found in the composition of total sterols analysed as free sterols between the oils extracted with the two procedures, but the contents of free sterols and sterol glycosides were much higher in the oils extracted with solvent.

  8. Theoretical estimation of adiabatic temperature rise from the heat flow data obtained from a reaction calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Parichay K.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► This method for estimating ΔT ad (t) against time in a semi-batch reactor is distinctively pioneer and novel. ► It has established uniquely a direct correspondence between the evolution of ΔT ad (t) in RC and C A (t) in a semi-batch reactor. ► Through a unique reaction scheme, the independent effects of heat of mixing and reaction on ΔT ad (t) has been demonstrated quantitatively. ► This work will help to build a thermally safe corridor of a thermally hazard reaction. ► This manuscript, the author believes will open a new vista for further research in Adiabatic Calorimetry. - Abstract: A novel method for estimating the transient profile of adiabatic rise in temperature has been developed from the heat flow data for exothermic chemical reactions that are conducted in reaction calorimeter (RC). It has also been mathematically demonstrated by the present design that there exists a direct qualitative equivalence between the temporal evolution of the adiabatic temperature rise and the concentration of the limiting reactant for an exothermic chemical reaction, carried out in semi batch mode. The proposed procedure shows that the adiabatic temperature rise will always be less than that of the reaction executed at batch mode thereby affording a thermally safe corridor. Moreover, a unique reaction scheme has been designed to establish the independent heat effect of dissolution and reaction quantitatively. It is hoped that the testimony of the transient adiabatic temperature rise that can be prepared by the proposed method, may provide ample scope for further research.

  9. Vineyard Yield Estimation Based on the Analysis of High Resolution Images Obtained with Artificial Illumination at Night

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davinia Font

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a method for vineyard yield estimation based on the analysis of high-resolution images obtained with artificial illumination at night. First, this paper assesses different pixel-based segmentation methods in order to detect reddish grapes: threshold based, Mahalanobis distance, Bayesian classifier, linear color model segmentation and histogram segmentation, in order to obtain the best estimation of the area of the clusters of grapes in this illumination conditions. The color spaces tested were the original RGB and the Hue-Saturation-Value (HSV. The best segmentation method in the case of a non-occluded reddish table-grape variety was the threshold segmentation applied to the H layer, with an estimation error in the area of 13.55%, improved up to 10.01% by morphological filtering. Secondly, after segmentation, two procedures for yield estimation based on a previous calibration procedure have been proposed: (1 the number of pixels corresponding to a cluster of grapes is computed and converted directly into a yield estimate; and (2 the area of a cluster of grapes is converted into a volume by means of a solid of revolution, and this volume is converted into a yield estimate; the yield errors obtained were 16% and −17%, respectively.

  10. Monte Carlo Estimation of Absorbed Dose Distributions Obtained from Heterogeneous 106Ru Eye Plaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaragoza, Francisco J; Eichmann, Marion; Flühs, Dirk; Sauerwein, Wolfgang; Brualla, Lorenzo

    2017-09-01

    The distribution of the emitter substance in 106 Ru eye plaques is usually assumed to be homogeneous for treatment planning purposes. However, this distribution is never homogeneous, and it widely differs from plaque to plaque due to manufacturing factors. By Monte Carlo simulation of radiation transport, we study the absorbed dose distribution obtained from the specific CCA1364 and CCB1256 106 Ru plaques, whose actual emitter distributions were measured. The idealized, homogeneous CCA and CCB plaques are also simulated. The largest discrepancy in depth dose distribution observed between the heterogeneous and the homogeneous plaques was 7.9 and 23.7% for the CCA and CCB plaques, respectively. In terms of isodose lines, the line referring to 100% of the reference dose penetrates 0.2 and 1.8 mm deeper in the case of heterogeneous CCA and CCB plaques, respectively, with respect to the homogeneous counterpart. The observed differences in absorbed dose distributions obtained from heterogeneous and homogeneous plaques are clinically irrelevant if the plaques are used with a lateral safety margin of at least 2 mm. However, these differences may be relevant if the plaques are used in eccentric positioning.

  11. The spatial structure of magnetospheric plasma disturbance estimated by using magnetic data obtained by SWARM satellites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Y.; Iyemori, T.; Aoyama, T.

    2017-12-01

    Field-aligned currents with various spatial scales flow into and out from high-latitude ionosphere. The magnetic fluctuations observed by LEO satellites along their orbits having period longer than a few seconds can be regarded as the manifestations of spatial structure of field aligned currents.This has been confirmed by using the initial orbital characteristics of 3 SWARM-satellites. From spectral analysis, we evaluated the spectral indices of these magnetic fluctuations and investigated their dependence on regions, such as magnetic latitude and MLT and so on. We found that the spectral indices take quite different values between the regions lower than the equatorward boundary of the auroral oval (around 63 degrees' in magnetic latitude) and the regions higher than that. On the other hands, we could not find the clear MLT dependence. In general, the FACs are believed to be generated in the magnetiospheric plasma sheet and boundary layer, and they flow along the field lines conserving their currents.The theory of FAC generation [e.g., Hasegawa and Sato ,1978] indicates that the FACs are strongly connected with magnetospheric plasma disturbances. Although the spectral indices above are these of spatial structures of the FACs over the ionosphere, by using the theoretical equation of FAC generation, we evaluate the spectral indices of magnetospheric plasma disturbance in FAC's generation regions. Furthermore, by projecting the area of fluctuations on the equatorial plane of magnetosphere (i.e. plasma sheet), we can estimate the spatial structure of magnetospheric plasma disturbance. In this presentation, we focus on the characteristics of disturbance in midnight region and discuss the relations to the substorm.

  12. Removal of cadmium (II) from aqueous solution: A comparative study of raw attapulgite clay and a reusable waste–struvite/attapulgite obtained from nutrient-rich wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hao [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Wang, Xuejiang, E-mail: wangxj@tongji.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Ma, Jinxing, E-mail: jinxing.ma@unsw.edu.au [School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Xia, Peng; Zhao, Jianfu [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2017-05-05

    Highlights: • Both nutrient recovery and Cd(II) removal were achieved by MAP/APT. • The nutrient recovery process was used as a novel method of modification. • Compared with raw APT, MAP/APT enhanced Cd(II) adsorption capacity. • Cd(II) adsorption mechanisms from aqueous solution were extensively investigated. - Abstract: In this study, raw attapulgite (APT) and a novel adsorbent, struvite/attapulgite (MAP/APT) obtained from nutrient-rich wastewater treated by MgO modified APT, were applied as the absorbent for Cd(II) ion removal from aqueous solution. The two adsorbents were characterized by BET, SEM-EDS, XRD, FT-IR. Raw APT and MAP/APT separately presented the maximum Cd(II) adsorption capacities of 10.38 mg/g and 121.14 mg/g at pH of 5.45. The Cd(II) adsorption on raw APT and MAP/APT could be well fitted by Freundlich isotherm and Langmuir isotherm, respectively. Pseudo-second order equation was able to properly describe the kinetics of Cd(II) adsorption by raw APT and MAP/APT. The calculated thermodynamic parameters indicated that Cd(II) adsorption onto raw APT and MAP/APT were spontaneous and endothermic. An economic evaluation revealed that the treatment costs of the adsorption process by raw APT and MPA/APT were 0.013 $ per 1000 mg Cd and 0.004 $ per 1000 mg Cd, respectively.

  13. Anti-Dermatophyte and Anti-Malassezia Activity of Extracts Rich in Polymeric Flavan-3-ols Obtained from Vitis vinifera Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonetti, Giovanna; D'Auria, Felicia Diodata; Mulinacci, Nadia; Innocenti, Marzia; Antonacci, Donato; Angiolella, Letizia; Santamaria, Anna Rita; Valletta, Alessio; Donati, Livia; Pasqua, Gabriella

    2017-01-01

    Several human skin diseases are associated with fungi as dermatophytes and Malassezia. Skin mycoses are increasing and new alternatives to conventional treatments with improved efficacy and/or safety profiles are desirable. For the first time, the anti-dermatophytes and the anti-Malassezia activities of Vitis vinifera seed extracts obtained from different table and wine cultivars have been evaluated. Geometric minimal inhibitory concentration ranged from 20 to 97 µg/mL for dermatophytes and from 32 to 161 µg/mL for Malassezia furfur. Dried grape seed extracts analyzed by HPLC/DAD/ESI/MS showed different quali-quantitative compositions in terms of monomeric and polymeric flavan-3-ols. The minimal inhibitory concentrations for Trichophyton mentagrophytes and for M. furfur were inversely correlated with the amount of the polymeric fraction (r = -0.7639 and r = -0.7228, respectively). Differently, the antifungal activity against T. mentagrophytes was not correlated to the content of flavan-3-ol monomers (r = 0.2920) and only weakly correlated for M. furfur (r = -0.53604). These results suggest that extracts rich in polymeric flavan-3-ols, recovered from V.  vinifera seeds, could be used for the treatment of skin fungal infections. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Long-term cytokine and growth factor release from equine platelet-rich fibrin clots obtained with two different centrifugation protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Aristizabal, Román F; López, Catalina; Álvarez, María E; Giraldo, Carlos; Prades, Marta; Carmona, Jorge U

    2017-09-01

    To compare the temporal release (over three weeks) of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 4 (IL-4), IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra), platelet-derived growth factor BB (PDGF-BB) and transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-β 1 ) from two platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) preparations from equine blood obtained at either 240g/8min or 416g/10min. Whole blood from 10 horses was used to obtain PRF clots by two different centrifugation protocols. After 1h of rest, PRF clots were deposited in wells with culture medium, which was changed at 6h, 24h and then every 48h to 21days. Cytokines and GFs were measured by ELISA at 1h (serum supernatants from PRF clots) and all time points of culture medium change. A negative control (plasma) and a positive control (blood lysate) were also included. There were no relevant differences between the two protocols for the temporal release of proteins. However, a significant (p=0.01) effect of time was noted. All cytokines were detected after 6h of PRF clot culture until day 21. GF were detected at 1h until day 21. The concentrations for these proteins diminished gradually over time. A highly significant (p=0.01) correlation was noticed between all the proteins evaluated. Leukocytes enmeshed in PRF clots were able to produce cytokines, TGF-β 1 and PDGF-BB. These findings demonstrate a paramount role of leukocytes in wound healing induced or modified by PRF clots in mammals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A time-frequency analysis method to obtain stable estimates of magnetotelluric response function based on Hilbert-Huang transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jianhua

    2017-05-01

    The time-frequency analysis method represents signal as a function of time and frequency, and it is considered a powerful tool for handling arbitrary non-stationary time series by using instantaneous frequency and instantaneous amplitude. It also provides a possible alternative to the analysis of the non-stationary magnetotelluric (MT) signal. Based on the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT), a time-frequency analysis method is proposed to obtain stable estimates of the magnetotelluric response function. In contrast to conventional methods, the response function estimation is performed in the time-frequency domain using instantaneous spectra rather than in the frequency domain, which allows for imaging the response parameter content as a function of time and frequency. The theory of the method is presented and the mathematical model and calculation procedure, which are used to estimate response function based on HHT time-frequency spectrum, are discussed. To evaluate the results, response function estimates are compared with estimates from a standard MT data processing method based on the Fourier transform. All results show that apparent resistivities and phases, which are calculated from the HHT time-frequency method, are generally more stable and reliable than those determined from the simple Fourier analysis. The proposed method overcomes the drawbacks of the traditional Fourier methods, and the resulting parameter minimises the estimation bias caused by the non-stationary characteristics of the MT data.

  16. Supplementation with an insoluble fiber obtained from carob pod (Ceratonia siliqua L.) rich in polyphenols prevents dyslipidemia in rabbits through SIRT1/PGC-1α pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero-Muñoz, María; Ballesteros, Sandra; Ruiz-Roso, Baltasar; Pérez-Olleros, Lourdes; Martín-Fernández, Beatriz; Lahera, Vicente; de Las Heras, Natalia

    2017-12-22

    To investigate the mechanism implicated in the effect of an insoluble fiber (obtained from carob pod) rich in polyphenols (IFCP) in lipid metabolism in the liver. Male New Zealand rabbits were fed with the following diets for 8 weeks: control diet (CT group), dyslipidemic diet supplemented with 0.5% cholesterol + 14% coconut oil (DL group) and dyslipidemic diet containing 0.5% cholesterol + 14% coconut oil plus 3% IFCP (DL + IFCP group). Dyslipidemic diet with IFCP was able to reduce development of mixed dyslipidemia, liver relative weight and collagen I protein expression compared to DL rabbits. Analyses of the main enzymes implicated in cholesterol and triglycerides metabolism revealed that IFCP increased hepatic concentration of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMG-CoA reductase) and cytochrome P450, family 7, subfamily a, polypeptide 1C (CYP7A1) (82.34, 114.42%, respectively) as well as protein expression of LDL receptor (42.48%) in DL rabbits. Importantly, IFCP also increased hepatic lipase (HL) levels (91.43%) and decreased glycerol phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT) and sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1C (SREBP1c) liver expression levels (20.38 and 41.20%, respectively). Finally, sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1alpha (PGC-1α) hepatic expression increased in DL + IFCP group compared with DL (159.81 and 48.00%, respectively). These findings show that IFCP is able to abrogate the deleterious effects of hepatic dyslipidemia by modulating SIRT1 and PGC-1α pathways.

  17. Estimation of niobium, tantalum and zirconium in a carbonate rich ore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navale, A.S.; Venkatakrishnan, R.R.; Sreenivas, T.

    2013-01-01

    Tantalum, niobium and zirconium form refractory compounds and therefore pose problems in estimation by methods like spectrophotometry, AAS etc. Their estimation is best carried out with ICP-OES as the plasma is capable of breaking the refractory compounds and releases these elements in the form of excited atoms. But another major problem is bringing these elements in solution as they require very strong reagents and tend to hydrolyze easily in solution. Complexing agents need to be added to maintain these elements in dissolved condition. The commonly employed dissolution techniques for these elements are fusion with potassium pyrosulfate (for Nb and Ta), sodium hydroxide or peroxide (for zirconium). Digestion with mineral acids in combination with hydrofluoric acid is also employed

  18. Systematic parameter estimation in data-rich environments for cell signalling dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nim, Tri Hieu; Luo, Le; Clément, Marie-Véronique; White, Jacob K.; Tucker-Kellogg, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Motivation: Computational models of biological signalling networks, based on ordinary differential equations (ODEs), have generated many insights into cellular dynamics, but the model-building process typically requires estimating rate parameters based on experimentally observed concentrations. New proteomic methods can measure concentrations for all molecular species in a pathway; this creates a new opportunity to decompose the optimization of rate parameters. Results: In contrast with conventional parameter estimation methods that minimize the disagreement between simulated and observed concentrations, the SPEDRE method fits spline curves through observed concentration points, estimates derivatives and then matches the derivatives to the production and consumption of each species. This reformulation of the problem permits an extreme decomposition of the high-dimensional optimization into a product of low-dimensional factors, each factor enforcing the equality of one ODE at one time slice. Coarsely discretized solutions to the factors can be computed systematically. Then the discrete solutions are combined using loopy belief propagation, and refined using local optimization. SPEDRE has unique asymptotic behaviour with runtime polynomial in the number of molecules and timepoints, but exponential in the degree of the biochemical network. SPEDRE performance is comparatively evaluated on a novel model of Akt activation dynamics including redox-mediated inactivation of PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homologue). Availability and implementation: Web service, software and supplementary information are available at www.LtkLab.org/SPEDRE Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. Contact: LisaTK@nus.edu.sg PMID:23426255

  19. Ohio USA stoneflies (Insecta, Plecoptera): species richness estimation, distribution of functional niche traits, drainage affiliations, and relationships to other states

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWalt, R. Edward; Cao, Yong; Tweddale, Tari; Grubbs, Scott A.; Hinz, Leon; Pessino, Massimo; Robinson, Jason L.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Ohio is an eastern USA state that historically was >70% covered in upland and mixed coniferous forest; about 60% of it glaciated by the Wisconsinan glacial episode. Its stonefly fauna has been studied in piecemeal fashion until now. The assemblage of Ohio stoneflies was assessed from over 4,000 records accumulated from 18 institutions, new collections, and trusted literature sources. Species richness totaled 102 with estimators Chao2 and ICE Mean predicting 105.6 and 106.4, respectively. Singletons and doubletons totaled 18 species. All North American families were represented with Perlidae accounted for the highest number of species at 34. The family Peltoperlidae contributed a single species. Most species had univoltine–fast life cycles with the vast majority emerging in summer, although there was a significant component of winter stoneflies. Nine United States Geological Survey hierarchical drainage units level 6 (HUC6) were used to stratify specimen data. Species richness was significantly related to the number of unique HUC6 locations, but there was no relationship with HUC6 drainage area. A nonparametric multidimensional scaling analysis found that larger HUC6s in the western part of the state had similar assemblages with lower species richness that were found to align with more savanna and wetland habitat. Other drainages having richer assemblages were aligned with upland deciduous and mixed coniferous forests of the east and south where slopes were higher. The Ohio assemblage was most similar to the well–studied fauna of Indiana (88 spp.) and Kentucky (108 spp.), two neighboring states. Many rare species and several high quality stream reaches should be considered for greater protection. PMID:22539876

  20. Ohio USA stoneflies (Insecta, Plecoptera: species richness estimation, distribution of functional niche traits, drainage affiliations, and relationships to other states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. DeWalt

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Ohio is an eastern USA state that historically was >70% covered in upland and mixed coniferous forest; about 60% of it glaciated by the Wisconsinan glacial episode. Its stonefly fauna has been studied in piecemeal fashion until now. The assemblage of Ohio stoneflies was assessed from over 4,000 records accumulated from 18 institutions, new collections, and trusted literature sources. Species richness totaled 102 with estimators Chao2 and ICE Mean predicting 105.6 and 106.4, respectively. Singletons and doubletons totaled 18 species. All North American families were represented with Perlidae accounted for the highest number of species at 34. The family Peltoperlidae contributed a single species. Most species had univoltine–fast life cycles with the vast majority emerging in summer, although there was a significant component of winter stoneflies. Nine United States Geological Survey hierarchical drainage units level 6 (HUC6 were used to stratify specimen data. Species richness was significantly related to the number of unique HUC6 locations, but there was no relationship with HUC6 drainage area. A nonparametric multidimensional scaling analysis found that larger HUC6s in the western part of the state had similar assemblages with lower species richness that were found to align with more savanna and wetland habitat. Other drainagesricher assemblages were aligned with upland deciduous and mixed coniferous forests of the east and south where slopes were higher. The Ohio assemblage was most similar to the well–studied fauna of Indiana (88 spp. and Kentucky (108 spp., two neighboring states. Many rare species and several high quality stream reaches should be considered for greater protection.

  1. ESPRIT: estimating species richness using large collections of 16S rRNA pyrosequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yijun; Cai, Yunpeng; Liu, Li; Yu, Fahong; Farrell, Michael L; McKendree, William; Farmerie, William

    2009-06-01

    Recent metagenomics studies of environmental samples suggested that microbial communities are much more diverse than previously reported, and deep sequencing will significantly increase the estimate of total species diversity. Massively parallel pyrosequencing technology enables ultra-deep sequencing of complex microbial populations rapidly and inexpensively. However, computational methods for analyzing large collections of 16S ribosomal sequences are limited. We proposed a new algorithm, referred to as ESPRIT, which addresses several computational issues with prior methods. We developed two versions of ESPRIT, one for personal computers (PCs) and one for computer clusters (CCs). The PC version is used for small- and medium-scale data sets and can process several tens of thousands of sequences within a few minutes, while the CC version is for large-scale problems and is able to analyze several hundreds of thousands of reads within one day. Large-scale experiments are presented that clearly demonstrate the effectiveness of the newly proposed algorithm. The source code and user guide are freely available at http://www.biotech.ufl.edu/people/sun/esprit.html.

  2. Comparison of internal dose estimates obtained using organ-level, voxel S value, and Monte Carlo techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimes, Joshua, E-mail: grimes.joshua@mayo.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver V5Z 1L8 (Canada); Celler, Anna [Department of Radiology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver V5Z 1L8 (Canada)

    2014-09-15

    Purpose: The authors’ objective was to compare internal dose estimates obtained using the Organ Level Dose Assessment with Exponential Modeling (OLINDA/EXM) software, the voxel S value technique, and Monte Carlo simulation. Monte Carlo dose estimates were used as the reference standard to assess the impact of patient-specific anatomy on the final dose estimate. Methods: Six patients injected with{sup 99m}Tc-hydrazinonicotinamide-Tyr{sup 3}-octreotide were included in this study. A hybrid planar/SPECT imaging protocol was used to estimate {sup 99m}Tc time-integrated activity coefficients (TIACs) for kidneys, liver, spleen, and tumors. Additionally, TIACs were predicted for {sup 131}I, {sup 177}Lu, and {sup 90}Y assuming the same biological half-lives as the {sup 99m}Tc labeled tracer. The TIACs were used as input for OLINDA/EXM for organ-level dose calculation and voxel level dosimetry was performed using the voxel S value method and Monte Carlo simulation. Dose estimates for {sup 99m}Tc, {sup 131}I, {sup 177}Lu, and {sup 90}Y distributions were evaluated by comparing (i) organ-level S values corresponding to each method, (ii) total tumor and organ doses, (iii) differences in right and left kidney doses, and (iv) voxelized dose distributions calculated by Monte Carlo and the voxel S value technique. Results: The S values for all investigated radionuclides used by OLINDA/EXM and the corresponding patient-specific S values calculated by Monte Carlo agreed within 2.3% on average for self-irradiation, and differed by as much as 105% for cross-organ irradiation. Total organ doses calculated by OLINDA/EXM and the voxel S value technique agreed with Monte Carlo results within approximately ±7%. Differences between right and left kidney doses determined by Monte Carlo were as high as 73%. Comparison of the Monte Carlo and voxel S value dose distributions showed that each method produced similar dose volume histograms with a minimum dose covering 90% of the volume (D90

  3. An Algorithm for Obtaining the Distribution of 1-Meter Lightning Channel Segment Altitudes for Application in Lightning NOx Production Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Harold; Koshak, William J.

    2009-01-01

    An algorithm has been developed to estimate the altitude distribution of one-meter lightning channel segments. The algorithm is required as part of a broader objective that involves improving the lightning NOx emission inventories of both regional air quality and global chemistry/climate models. The algorithm was tested and applied to VHF signals detected by the North Alabama Lightning Mapping Array (NALMA). The accuracy of the algorithm was characterized by comparing algorithm output to the plots of individual discharges whose lengths were computed by hand; VHF source amplitude thresholding and smoothing were applied to optimize results. Several thousands of lightning flashes within 120 km of the NALMA network centroid were gathered from all four seasons, and were analyzed by the algorithm. The mean, standard deviation, and median statistics were obtained for all the flashes, the ground flashes, and the cloud flashes. One-meter channel segment altitude distributions were also obtained for the different seasons.

  4. Estimation of the reactive mineral surface area during CO2-rich fluid-rock interaction: the influence of neogenic phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scislewski, A.; Zuddas, P.

    2010-12-01

    Mineral dissolution and precipitation reactions actively participate to control fluid chemistry during water-rock interaction. It is however, difficult to estimate and well normalize bulk reaction rates if the mineral surface area exposed to the aqueous solution and effectively participating on the reactions is unknown. We evaluated the changing of the reactive mineral surface area during the interaction between CO2-rich fluids and Albitite/Granitoid rocks (similar mineralogy but different abundances), reacting under flow-through conditions. Our methodology, adopting an inverse modeling approach, is based on the estimation of dissolution rate and reactive surface area of the different minerals participating in the reactions by the reconstruction the chemical evolution of the interacting fluids. The irreversible mass-transfer processes is defined by a fractional degree of advancement, while calculations were carried out for Albite, Microcline, Biotite and Calcite assuming that the ion activity of dissolved silica and aluminium ions was limited by the equilibrium with quartz and kaolinite. Irrespective of the mineral abundance in granite and albitite, we found that mineral dissolution rates did not change significantly in the investigated range of time where output solution’s pH remained in the range between 6 and 8, indicating that the observed variation in fluid composition depends not on pH but rather on the variation of the parent mineral’s reactive surface area. We found that the reactive surface area of Albite varied by more than 2 orders of magnitude, while Microcline, Calcite and Biotite surface areas changed by 1-2 orders of magnitude. We propose that parent mineral chemical heterogeneity and, particularly, the stability of secondary mineral phases may explain the observed variation of the reactive surface area of the minerals. Formation of coatings at the dissolving parent mineral surfaces significantly reduced the amount of surface available to react

  5. An iterative procedure for obtaining maximum-likelihood estimates of the parameters for a mixture of normal distributions, 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, B. C., Jr.; Walker, H. F.

    1976-01-01

    The problem of obtaining numerically maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters for a mixture of normal distributions is addressed. In recent literature, a certain successive approximations procedure, based on the likelihood equations, is shown empirically to be effective in numerically approximating such maximum-likelihood estimates; however, the reliability of this procedure was not established theoretically. Here, a general iterative procedure is introduced, of the generalized steepest-ascent (deflected-gradient) type, which is just the procedure known in the literature when the step-size is taken to be 1. With probability 1 as the sample size grows large, it is shown that this procedure converges locally to the strongly consistent maximum-likelihood estimate whenever the step-size lies between 0 and 2. The step-size which yields optimal local convergence rates for large samples is determined in a sense by the separation of the component normal densities and is bounded below by a number between 1 and 2.

  6. An iterative procedure for obtaining maximum-likelihood estimates of the parameters for a mixture of normal distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, B. C., Jr.; Walker, H. F.

    1978-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of obtaining numerically maximum-likelihood estimates of the parameters for a mixture of normal distributions. In recent literature, a certain successive-approximations procedure, based on the likelihood equations, was shown empirically to be effective in numerically approximating such maximum-likelihood estimates; however, the reliability of this procedure was not established theoretically. Here, we introduce a general iterative procedure, of the generalized steepest-ascent (deflected-gradient) type, which is just the procedure known in the literature when the step-size is taken to be 1. We show that, with probability 1 as the sample size grows large, this procedure converges locally to the strongly consistent maximum-likelihood estimate whenever the step-size lies between 0 and 2. We also show that the step-size which yields optimal local convergence rates for large samples is determined in a sense by the 'separation' of the component normal densities and is bounded below by a number between 1 and 2.

  7. A Solution to Modeling Multilevel Confirmatory Factor Analysis with Data Obtained from Complex Survey Sampling to Avoid Conflated Parameter Estimates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiun-Yu Wu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The issue of equality in the between-and within-level structures in Multilevel Confirmatory Factor Analysis (MCFA models has been influential for obtaining unbiased parameter estimates and statistical inferences. A commonly seen condition is the inequality of factor loadings under equal level-varying structures. With mathematical investigation and Monte Carlo simulation, this study compared the robustness of five statistical models including two model-based (a true and a mis-specified models, one design-based, and two maximum models (two models where the full rank of variance-covariance matrix is estimated in between level and within level, respectively in analyzing complex survey measurement data with level-varying factor loadings. The empirical data of 120 3rd graders' (from 40 classrooms perceived Harter competence scale were modeled using MCFA and the parameter estimates were used as true parameters to perform the Monte Carlo simulation study. Results showed maximum models was robust to unequal factor loadings while the design-based and the miss-specified model-based approaches produced conflated results and spurious statistical inferences. We recommend the use of maximum models if researchers have limited information about the pattern of factor loadings and measurement structures. Measurement models are key components of Structural Equation Modeling (SEM; therefore, the findings can be generalized to multilevel SEM and CFA models. Mplus codes are provided for maximum models and other analytical models.

  8. Chromatographic, NMR and vibrational spectroscopic investigations of astaxanthin esters: application to "Astaxanthin-rich shrimp oil" obtained from processing of Nordic shrimps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, B; Thibault, M-H; Djaoued, Y; Pelletier, C; Touaibia, M; Tchoukanova, N

    2015-11-07

    Astaxanthin (ASTX) is a keto carotenoid, which possesses a non-polar linear central conjugated chain and polar β-ionone rings with ketone and hydroxyl groups at the extreme ends. It is well known as a super anti-oxidant, and recent clinical studies have established its nutritional benefits. Although it occurs in several forms, including free molecule, crystalline, aggregates and various geometrical isomers, in nature it exists primarily in the form of esters. Marine animals accumulate ASTX from primary sources such as algae. Nordic shrimps (P. borealis), which are harvested widely in the Atlantic Ocean, form a major source of astaxanthin esters. "Astaxanthin-rich shrimp oil" was developed as a novel product in a shrimp processing plant in Eastern Canada. A compositional analysis of the shrimp oil was performed, with a view to possibly use it as a nutraceutical product for humans and animals. Astaxanthin-rich shrimp oil contains 50% MUFAs and 22% PUFAs, of which 20% are omega-3. In addition, the shrimp oil contains interesting amounts of EPA and DHA, with 10%/w and 8%/w, respectively. Astaxanthin concentrations varied between 400 and 1000 ppm, depending on the harvesting season of the shrimp. Astaxanthin and its esters were isolated from the oil and analysed by NMR, FTIR and Micro-Raman spectroscopy. Astaxanthin mono- and diesters were synthesized and used as standards for the analysis of astaxanthin-rich shrimp oil. NMR and vibrational spectroscopy techniques were successfully used for the rapid characterization of monoesters and diesters of astaxanthin. Raman spectroscopy provided important intermolecular interactions present in the esterified forms of astaxanthin molecules. Also discussed in this paper is the use of NMR, FTIR and Micro-Raman spectroscopy for the detection of astaxanthin esters in shrimp oil.

  9. Estimating evaporative fraction from readily obtainable variables in mangrove forests of the Everglades, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagci, Ali Levent; Santanello, Joseph A.; Jones, John W.; Barr, Jordan G.

    2017-01-01

    A remote-sensing-based model to estimate evaporative fraction (EF) – the ratio of latent heat (LE; energy equivalent of evapotranspiration –ET–) to total available energy – from easily obtainable remotely-sensed and meteorological parameters is presented. This research specifically addresses the shortcomings of existing ET retrieval methods such as calibration requirements of extensive accurate in situ micrometeorological and flux tower observations or of a large set of coarse-resolution or model-derived input datasets. The trapezoid model is capable of generating spatially varying EF maps from standard products such as land surface temperature (Ts) normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and daily maximum air temperature (Ta). The 2009 model results were validated at an eddy-covariance tower (Fluxnet ID: US-Skr) in the Everglades using Ts and NDVI products from Landsat as well as the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensors. Results indicate that the model accuracy is within the range of instrument uncertainty, and is dependent on the spatial resolution and selection of end-members (i.e. wet/dry edge). The most accurate results were achieved with the Ts from Landsat relative to the Ts from the MODIS flown on the Terra and Aqua platforms due to the fine spatial resolution of Landsat (30 m). The bias, mean absolute percentage error and root mean square percentage error were as low as 2.9% (3.0%), 9.8% (13.3%), and 12.1% (16.1%) for Landsat-based (MODIS-based) EF estimates, respectively. Overall, this methodology shows promise for bridging the gap between temporally limited ET estimates at Landsat scales and more complex and difficult to constrain global ET remote-sensing models.

  10. Decoding tactile afferent activity to obtain an estimate of instantaneous force and torque applied to the fingerpad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birznieks, Ingvars; Redmond, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    Dexterous manipulation is not possible without sensory information about object properties and manipulative forces. Fundamental neuroscience has been unable to demonstrate how information about multiple stimulus parameters may be continuously extracted, concurrently, from a population of tactile afferents. This is the first study to demonstrate this, using spike trains recorded from tactile afferents innervating the monkey fingerpad. A multiple-regression model, requiring no a priori knowledge of stimulus-onset times or stimulus combination, was developed to obtain continuous estimates of instantaneous force and torque. The stimuli consisted of a normal-force ramp (to a plateau of 1.8, 2.2, or 2.5 N), on top of which −3.5, −2.0, 0, +2.0, or +3.5 mNm torque was applied about the normal to the skin surface. The model inputs were sliding windows of binned spike counts recorded from each afferent. Models were trained and tested by 15-fold cross-validation to estimate instantaneous normal force and torque over the entire stimulation period. With the use of the spike trains from 58 slow-adapting type I and 25 fast-adapting type I afferents, the instantaneous normal force and torque could be estimated with small error. This study demonstrated that instantaneous force and torque parameters could be reliably extracted from a small number of tactile afferent responses in a real-time fashion with stimulus combinations that the model had not been exposed to during training. Analysis of the model weights may reveal how interactions between stimulus parameters could be disentangled for complex population responses and could be used to test neurophysiologically relevant hypotheses about encoding mechanisms. PMID:25948866

  11. Can Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS and Forest Estimates Derived from Satellite Images Be Used to Predict Abundance and Species Richness of Birds and Beetles in Boreal Forest?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Lindberg

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In managed landscapes, conservation planning requires effective methods to identify high-biodiversity areas. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of airborne laser scanning (ALS and forest estimates derived from satellite images extracted at two spatial scales for predicting the stand-scale abundance and species richness of birds and beetles in a managed boreal forest landscape. Multiple regression models based on forest data from a 50-m radius (i.e., corresponding to a homogenous forest stand had better explanatory power than those based on a 200-m radius (i.e., including also parts of adjacent stands. Bird abundance and species richness were best explained by the ALS variables “maximum vegetation height” and “vegetation cover between 0.5 and 3 m” (both positive. Flying beetle abundance and species richness, as well as epigaeic (i.e., ground-living beetle richness were best explained by a model including the ALS variable “maximum vegetation height” (positive and the satellite-derived variable “proportion of pine” (negative. Epigaeic beetle abundance was best explained by “maximum vegetation height” at 50 m (positive and “stem volume” at 200 m (positive. Our results show that forest estimates derived from satellite images and ALS data provide complementary information for explaining forest biodiversity patterns. We conclude that these types of remote sensing data may provide an efficient tool for conservation planning in managed boreal landscapes.

  12. Estimation of the dose to patients in conventional radiology to starting from the data obtained in the quality controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parra Osorio, V.; Casado Villalon, F. J.; Ortega Cantos, E.; Navarro Guirado, F.; Moreno Saiz, C.; Martin-Viera Cueto, J. A.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to estimate the dose on the surface of the entry of the patient on simple scans with x-rays from the information collected by the unit of Radiophysics in quality controls of equipment.To this end, we have selected three scans collected in this legislation: PA chest and Abdomen AP skull AP. (Author)

  13. Obtaining muonic density estimates via application of matrix formalism to proposed surface detector upgrade at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, David; Engel, Ralph; Roth, Markus [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany); Collaboration: Pierre Auger-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    Event-by-event identification of cosmic ray primary composition lends itself to enhanced event selection in the search for anisotropic arrival directions. Principally, the number of muons reaching Earth's surface in an extensive air shower is indicative of composition. The Pierre Auger Observatory seeks to capitalize on this axiom by improving reconstructed muonic density estimates via an upgrade to its surface detector array. This upgrade, consisting of placing a scintillator on top of each existing water Cherenkov detector, exploits the differing response of two detectors to muonic and electromagnetic particles. Exploitation of this difference may be expressed in a matrix formalism whose application to simulated proton and iron showers is presented here.

  14. Species richness in soil bacterial communities: a proposed approach to overcome sample size bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Noha H; Elshahed, Mostafa S

    2008-09-01

    Estimates of species richness based on 16S rRNA gene clone libraries are increasingly utilized to gauge the level of bacterial diversity within various ecosystems. However, previous studies have indicated that regardless of the utilized approach, species richness estimates obtained are dependent on the size of the analyzed clone libraries. We here propose an approach to overcome sample size bias in species richness estimates in complex microbial communities. Parametric (Maximum likelihood-based and rarefaction curve-based) and non-parametric approaches were used to estimate species richness in a library of 13,001 near full-length 16S rRNA clones derived from soil, as well as in multiple subsets of the original library. Species richness estimates obtained increased with the increase in library size. To obtain a sample size-unbiased estimate of species richness, we calculated the theoretical clone library sizes required to encounter the estimated species richness at various clone library sizes, used curve fitting to determine the theoretical clone library size required to encounter the "true" species richness, and subsequently determined the corresponding sample size-unbiased species richness value. Using this approach, sample size-unbiased estimates of 17,230, 15,571, and 33,912 were obtained for the ML-based, rarefaction curve-based, and ACE-1 estimators, respectively, compared to bias-uncorrected values of 15,009, 11,913, and 20,909.

  15. A convenient method of obtaining percentile norms and accompanying interval estimates for self-report mood scales (DASS, DASS-21, HADS, PANAS, and sAD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, John R; Garthwaite, Paul H; Lawrie, Caroline J; Henry, Julie D; MacDonald, Marie A; Sutherland, Jane; Sinha, Priyanka

    2009-06-01

    A series of recent papers have reported normative data from the general adult population for commonly used self-report mood scales. To bring together and supplement these data in order to provide a convenient means of obtaining percentile norms for the mood scales. A computer program was developed that provides point and interval estimates of the percentile rank corresponding to raw scores on the various self-report scales. The program can be used to obtain point and interval estimates of the percentile rank of an individual's raw scores on the DASS, DASS-21, HADS, PANAS, and sAD mood scales, based on normative sample sizes ranging from 758 to 3822. The interval estimates can be obtained using either classical or Bayesian methods as preferred. The computer program (which can be downloaded at www.abdn.ac.uk/~psy086/dept/MoodScore.htm) provides a convenient and reliable means of supplementing existing cut-off scores for self-report mood scales.

  16. A comparison of morphological and molecular-based surveys to estimate the species richness of Chaetoceros and Thalassiosira (bacillariophyta, in the Bay of Fundy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah E Hamsher

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to compare the ability of morphology and molecular-based surveys to estimate species richness for two species-rich diatom genera, Chaetoceros Ehrenb. and Thalassiosira Cleve, in the Bay of Fundy. Phytoplankton tows were collected from two sites at intervals over two years and subsampled for morphology-based surveys (2010, 2011, a culture-based DNA reference library (DRL; 2010, and a molecular-based survey (2011. The DRL and molecular-based survey utilized the 3' end of the RUBISCO large subunit (rbcL-3P to identify genetic species groups (based on 0.1% divergence in rbcL-3P, which were subsequently identified morphologically to allow comparisons to the morphology-based survey. Comparisons were compiled for the year (2011 by site (n = 2 and by season (n = 3. Of the 34 taxa included in the comparisons, 50% of taxa were common to both methods, 35% were unique to the molecular-based survey, and 12% were unique to the morphology-based survey, while the remaining 3% of taxa were unidentified genetic species groups. The morphology-based survey excelled at identifying rare taxa in individual tow subsamples, which were occasionally missed with the molecular approach used here, while the molecular methods (the DRL and molecular-based survey, uncovered nine cryptic species pairs and four previously overlooked species. The last mentioned were typically difficult to identify and were generically assigned to Thalassiosira spp. during the morphology-based survey. Therefore, for now we suggest a combined approach encompassing routine morphology-based surveys accompanied by periodic molecular-based surveys to monitor for cryptic and difficult to identify taxa. As sequencing technologies improve, molecular-based surveys should become routine, leading to a more accurate representation of species composition and richness in monitoring programs.

  17. Estimating cyclopoid copepod species richness and geographical distribution (Crustacea across a large hydrographical basin: comparing between samples from water column (plankton and macrophyte stands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmar Perbiche-Neves

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Species richness and geographical distribution of Cyclopoida freshwater copepods were analyzed along the "La Plata" River basin. Ninety-six samples were taken from 24 sampling sites, twelve sites for zooplankton in open waters and twelve sites for zooplankton within macrophyte stands, including reservoirs and lotic stretches. There were, on average, three species per sample in the plankton compared to five per sample in macrophytes. Six species were exclusive to the plankton, 10 to macrophyte stands, and 17 were common to both. Only one species was found in similar proportions in plankton and macrophytes, while five species were widely found in plankton, and thirteen in macrophytes. The distinction between species from open water zooplankton and macrophytes was supported by nonmetric multidimensional analysis. There was no distinct pattern of endemicity within the basin, and double sampling contributes to this result. This lack of sub-regional faunal differentiation is in accordance with other studies that have shown that cyclopoids generally have wide geographical distribution in the Neotropics and that some species there are cosmopolitan. This contrasts with other freshwater copepods such as Calanoida and some Harpacticoida. We conclude that sampling plankton and macrophytes together provided a more accurate estimate of the richness and geographical distribution of these organisms than sampling in either one of those zones alone.

  18. Statistical Estimation of the Protein-Ligand Binding Free Energy Based On Direct Protein-Ligand Interaction Obtained by Molecular Dynamics Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haruki Nakamura

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a method for estimating protein-ligand binding free energy (DG based on the direct protein-ligand interaction obtained by a molecular dynamics simulation. Using this method, we estimated the DG value statistically by the average values of the van der Waals and electrostatic interactions between each amino acid of the target protein and the ligand molecule. In addition, we introduced fluctuations in the accessible surface area (ASA and dihedral angles of the protein-ligand complex system as the entropy terms of the DG estimation. The present method included the fluctuation term of structural change of the protein and the effective dielectric constant. We applied this method to 34 protein-ligand complex structures. As a result, the correlation coefficient between the experimental and calculated DG values was 0.81, and the average error of DG was 1.2 kcal/mol with the use of the fixed parameters. These results were obtained from a 2 nsec molecular dynamics simulation.

  19. Assessment of dietary intake of flavouring substances within the procedure for their safety evaluation: advantages and limitations of estimates obtained by means of a per capita method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcella, D; Leclercq, C

    2005-01-01

    The procedure for the safety evaluation of flavourings adopted by the European Commission in order to establish a positive list of these substances is a stepwise approach which was developed by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) and amended by the Scientific Committee on Food. Within this procedure, a per capita amount based on industrial poundage data of flavourings, is calculated to estimate the dietary intake by means of the maximised survey-derived daily intake (MSDI) method. This paper reviews the MSDI method in order to check if it can provide conservative intake estimates as needed at the first steps of a stepwise procedure. Scientific papers and opinions dealing with the MSDI method were reviewed. Concentration levels reported by the industry were compared with estimates obtained with the MSDI method. It appeared that, in some cases, these estimates could be orders of magnitude (up to 5) lower than those calculated considering concentration levels provided by the industry and regular consumption of flavoured foods and beverages. A critical review of two studies which had been used to support the statement that MSDI is a conservative method for assessing exposure to flavourings among high consumers was performed. Special attention was given to the factors that affect exposure at high percentiles, such as brand loyalty and portion sizes. It is concluded that these studies may not be suitable to validate the MSDI method used to assess intakes of flavours by European consumers due to shortcomings in the assumptions made and in the data used. Exposure assessment is an essential component of risk assessment. The present paper suggests that the MSDI method is not sufficiently conservative. There is therefore a clear need for either using an alternative method to estimate exposure to flavourings in the procedure or for limiting intakes to the levels at which the safety was assessed.

  20. An appraisal of the properties of bottom waste obtained from bio-mass congestion to estimate the ways of its environmental use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Śliwka Małgorzata

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The bottom waste obtained from bio-mass burning shows a huge variability of chemical and physical properties, depending on the kind of bio-mass, the type of a cauldron and burning parameters. The huge variability of the bottom ashes from the incineration plant and co-combustion of bio-mass makes it difficult to find any way to its management. In reality, only the bottom ashes from coal combustion and the small amount from lignite combustion are used, mainly in the building industry and in mining industry. The article presents the initial research, concerning the estimation of the properties of the bottom ashes obtained from bio-mass congestion in the fluidized-bed boiler to use them safely for the environment. To determine the influence of the tested waste on plants, a number of pot experiments have been conducted. The plants which have been used are recommended for phytotoxicity estimation, and are also used for biological reclamation.

  1. Estimation of mean tree stand volume using high-resolution aerial RGB imagery and digital surface model, obtained from sUAV and Trestima mobile application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. K. Rybakov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study considers a remote sensing technique for mean volume estimation based on a very high-resolution (VHR aerial RGB imagery obtained using a small-sized unmanned aerial vehicle (sUAV and a high-resolution photogrammetric digital surface model (DSM as well as an innovative technology for field measurements (Trestima. The study area covers approx. 220 ha of forestland in Finland. The work concerns the entire process from remote sensing and field data acquisition to statistical analysis and forest volume wall-to-wall mapping. The study showed that the VHR aerial imagery and the high-resolution DSM produced based on the application of the sUAV have good prospects for forest inventory. For the sUAV based estimation of forest variables such as Height, Basal Area and mean Volume, Root Mean Square Error constituted 6.6 %, 22.6 % and 26.7 %, respectively. Application of Trestima for estimation of the mean volume of the standing forest showed minor difference over the existing Forest Management Plan at all the selected forest compartments. Simultaneously, the results of the study confirmed that the technologies and the tools applied at this work could be a reliable and potentially cost-effective means of forest data acquisition with high potential of operational use.

  2. Estimating Tree Height and Diameter at Breast Height (DBH from Digital Surface Models and Orthophotos Obtained with an Unmanned Aerial System for a Japanese Cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotaro Iizuka

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Methods for accurately measuring biophysical parameters are a key component for quantitative evaluation regarding to various forest applications. Conventional in situ measurements of these parameters take time and expense, encountering difficultness at locations with heterogeneous microtopography. To obtain precise biophysical data in such situations, we deployed an unmanned aerial system (UAS multirotor drone in a cypress forest in a mountainous area of Japan. The structure from motion (SfM method was used to construct a three-dimensional (3D model of the forest (tree structures from aerial photos. Tree height was estimated from the 3D model and compared to in situ ground data. We also analyzed the relationships between a biophysical parameter, diameter at breast height (DBH, of individual trees with canopy width and area measured from orthorectified images. Despite the constraints of ground exposure in a highly dense forest area, tree height was estimated at an accuracy of root mean square error = 1.712 m for observed tree heights ranging from 16 to 24 m. DBH was highly correlated with canopy width (R2 = 0.7786 and canopy area (R2 = 0.7923, where DBH ranged from 11 to 58 cm. The results of estimating forest parameters indicate that drone-based remote-sensing methods can be utilized to accurately analyze the spatial extent of forest structures.

  3. No correlation between ultrasound placental grading at 31-34 weeks of gestation and a surrogate estimate of organ function at term obtained by stereological analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, T T; Loughna, P; Ong, S S; Padfield, J; Mayhew, T M

    2009-08-01

    We test the experimental hypothesis that early changes in the ultrasound appearance of the placenta reflect poor or reduced placental function. The sonographic (Grannum) grade of placental maturity was compared to placental function as expressed by the morphometric oxygen diffusive conductance of the villous membrane. Ultrasonography was used to assess the Grannum grade of 32 placentas at 31-34 weeks of gestation. Indications for the scans included a history of previous fetal abnormalities, previous fetal growth problems or suspicion of IUGR. Placentas were classified from grade 0 (most immature) to grade III (most mature). We did not exclude smokers or complicated pregnancies as we aimed to correlate the early appearance of mature placentas with placental function. After delivery, microscopical fields on formalin-fixed, trichrome-stained histological sections of each placenta were obtained by multistage systematic uniform random sampling. Using design-based stereological methods, the exchange surface areas of peripheral (terminal and intermediate) villi and their fetal capillaries and the arithmetic and harmonic mean thicknesses of the villous membrane (maternal surface of villous trophoblast to adluminal surface of vascular endothelium) were estimated. An index of the variability in thickness of this membrane, and an estimate of its oxygen diffusive conductance, were derived secondarily as were estimates of the mean diameters and total lengths of villi and fetal capillaries. Group comparisons were drawn using analysis of variance. We found no significant differences in placental volume or composition or in the dimensions or diffusive conductances of the villous membrane. Subsequent exclusion of smokers did not alter these main findings. Grannum grades at 31-34 weeks of gestation appear not to provide reliable predictors of the functional capacity of the term placenta as expressed by the surrogate measure, morphometric diffusive conductance.

  4. Validation of an extraction paper chromatography (EPC) technique for estimation of trace levels of 90Sr in 90Y solutions obtained from 90Sr/90Y generator systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usha Pandey; Yogendra Kumar; Ashutosh Dash

    2014-01-01

    While the extraction paper chromatography (EPC) technique constitutes a novel paradigm for the determination of few Becquerels of 90 Sr in MBq quantities of 90 Y obtained from 90 Sr/ 90 Y generator, validation of the technique is essential to ensure its usefulness as a real time analytical tool. With a view to explore the relevance and applicability of EPC technique as a real time quality control (QC) technique for the routine estimation of 90 Sr content in generator produced 90 Y, a systematic validation study was carried out diligently not only to establish its worthiness but also to broaden its horizon. The ability of the EPC technique to separate trace amounts of Sr 2+ in the presence of large amounts of Y 3+ was verified. The specificity of the technique for Y 3+ was demonstrated with 90 Y obtained by neutron irradiation. The method was validated under real experimental conditions and compared with a QC method described in US Pharmacopeia for detection of 90 Sr levels in 90 Y radiopharmaceuticals. (author)

  5. Híbridos pré-comerciais resistentes a Tuta absoluta obtidos de linhagem de tomateiro rica em acilaçúcares Pre-commercial hybrids obtained from an acylsugar-rich tomato inbred line, resistant to Tuta absoluta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel M Maciel

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar o potencial agronômico de híbridos de tomateiro a partir da linhagem TOM-687, rica em acilaçúcares e de resistência comprovada a pragas. O experimento foi instalado na HortiAgro, município de Ijaci, MG. Foi constituído de 30 genótipos (5 híbridos comerciais, 1 linhagem pré-comercial (TOM-687, e 24 híbridos nos quais TOM-687 foi utilizada como um dos pais, os quais foram conduzidos em tutoramento com haste dupla, no espaçamento de 1,30 x 0,50 m, totalizando 15.385 plantas por hectare. Foram realizadas nove colheitas, entre as datas de 01/11/08 a 28/11/08. Foram avaliadas as características de massa média por fruto (g fruto-1 e produção por hectare (t ha-1. Os 24 híbridos que tiveram TOM-687 como um dos pais apresentaram potencial produtivo similar ao das testemunhas comerciais Débora Max, Bravo, Bônus, Kombat e Atyna. Dos 24 híbridos experimentais, quatro (TEX-298, TEX-310, TEX-315 e TEX-316 foram avaliados quanto à resistência à traça-do-tomateiro (Tuta absoluta e mostraram-se mais resistentes do que as testemunhas comerciais.This experiment was designed to assess the agronomic potential of tomato hybrids obtained from the tomato line TOM-687, an acylsugar-rich line with confirmed resistance to an array of tomato pests. The experiment was carried out at the HortiAgro Sementes research station, in Ijaci, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The treatments comprised 30 genotypes (5 commercial hybrid checks, 1 high acylsugar line (TOM-687, and 24 hybrids in which TOM-687 was one of the parents. Plants were trained to two stems, in a spacing of 1.30 m between rows x 0.50 m between plants within a row, totaling 15,385 plants per hectare. Nine harvests were performed between November 1st, 2008 and November 28th,2008. Traits assessed were mean fruit weight (g fruit-1 and total yield (t ha-1. All 24 hybrids with TOM-687 as a parent showed yields similar to those of the commercial check

  6. Estimation of optimal b-value sets for obtaining apparent diffusion coefficient free from perfusion in non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karki, Kishor; Hugo, Geoffrey D; Ford, John C; Olsen, Kathryn M; Saraiya, Siddharth; Groves, Robert; Weiss, Elisabeth

    2015-10-21

    The purpose of this study was to determine optimal sets of b-values in diffusion-weighted MRI (DW-MRI) for obtaining monoexponential apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) close to perfusion-insensitive intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) model ADC (ADCIVIM) in non-small cell lung cancer. Ten subjects had 40 DW-MRI scans before and during radiotherapy in a 1.5 T MRI scanner. Respiratory triggering was applied to the echo-planar DW-MRI with TR ≈ 4500 ms, TE  =  74 ms, eight b-values of 0-1000 μs μm(-2), pixel size  =  1.98 × 1.98 mm(2), slice thickness  =  6 mm, interslice gap  =  1.2 mm, 7 axial slices and total acquisition time ≈6 min. One or more DW-MRI scans together covered the whole tumour volume. Monoexponential model ADC values using various b-value sets were compared to reference-standard ADCIVIM values using all eight b-values. Intra-scan coefficient of variation (CV) of active tumour volumes was computed to compare the relative noise in ADC maps. ADC values for one pre-treatment DW-MRI scan of each of the 10 subjects were computed using b-value pairs from DW-MRI images synthesized for b-values of 0-2000 μs μm(-2) from the estimated IVIM parametric maps and corrupted by various Rician noise levels. The square root of mean of squared error percentage (RMSE) of the ADC value relative to the corresponding ADCIVIM for the tumour volume of the scan was computed. Monoexponential ADC values for the b-value sets of 250 and 1000; 250, 500 and 1000; 250, 650 and 1000; 250, 800 and 1000; and 250-1000 μs μm(-2) were not significantly different from ADCIVIM values (p > 0.05, paired t-test). Mean error in ADC values for these sets relative to ADCIVIM were within 3.5%. Intra-scan CVs for these sets were comparable to that for ADCIVIM. The monoexponential ADC values for other sets-0-1000; 50-1000; 100-1000; 500-1000; and 250 and 800 μs μm(-2) were significantly different from the ADCIVIM values. From Rician noise

  7. The CBM RICH project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamczewski-Musch, J. [GSI Darmstadt (Germany); Becker, K.-H. [University Wuppertal (Germany); Belogurov, S. [ITEP Moscow (Russian Federation); Boldyreva, N. [PNPI Gatchina (Russian Federation); Chernogorov, A. [ITEP Moscow (Russian Federation); Deveaux, C. [University Gießen (Germany); Dobyrn, V. [PNPI Gatchina (Russian Federation); Dürr, M. [University Gießen (Germany); Eom, J. [Pusan National University (Korea, Republic of); Eschke, J. [GSI Darmstadt (Germany); Höhne, C. [University Gießen (Germany); Kampert, K.-H. [University Wuppertal (Germany); Kleipa, V. [GSI Darmstadt (Germany); Kochenda, L. [PNPI Gatchina (Russian Federation); Kolb, B. [GSI Darmstadt (Germany); Kopfer, J. [University Wuppertal (Germany); Kravtsov, P. [PNPI Gatchina (Russian Federation); Lebedev, S.; Lebedeva, E. [University Gießen (Germany); Leonova, E. [PNPI Gatchina (Russian Federation); and others

    2014-12-01

    The Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment will study the properties of super dense nuclear matter by means of heavy ion collisions at the future FAIR facility. An integral detector component is a large Ring Imaging Cherenkov detector with CO{sub 2} gas radiator, which will mainly serve for electron identification and pion suppression necessary to access rare dileptonic probes like e{sup +}e{sup −} decays of light vector mesons or J/Ψ. We describe the design of this future RICH detector and focus on results obtained by building a CBM RICH detector prototype tested at CERN-PS.

  8. Estimation of time-varying pollutant emission rates in a ventilated enclosure: inversion of a reduced model obtained by experimental application of the modal identification method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girault, M; Maillet, D; Bonthoux, F; Galland, B; Martin, P; Braconnier, R; Fontaine, J R

    2008-01-01

    A method is proposed for the estimation of time-varying emission rates of pollutant sources in a ventilated enclosure, through the resolution of an inverse forced convection problem. Unsteady transport–diffusion of the pollutant is considered, with the assumption of a stationary velocity field remaining unchanged during emission (passive contaminant). The pollutant transport equation is therefore linear with respect to concentration. The source's location is also supposed to be known. As the first step, a reduced model (RM) linking concentrations at a set of control points to emission rates of sources is identified from experimental data by using the modal identification method (MIM). This parameter estimation problem uses transient contaminant concentration measurements made at control points inside the ventilated enclosure, corresponding to increasing and decreasing steps of emission rates. Such experimental modelling allows us to avoid dealing with a CFD code involving turbulence modelling and to get rid of uncertainties about sensors position. In a second step, the identified RM is used to solve an inverse forced convection problem: from contaminant concentration measured at the same control points, rates of sources emitting simultaneously are estimated with a sequential in time algorithm using future time steps

  9. Effects of Age and Schooling on Intellectual Performance: Estimates Obtained from Analysis of Continuous Variation in Age and Length of Schooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cliffordson, Christina; Gustafsson, Jan-Eric

    2008-01-01

    The effects of age and schooling on different aspects of intellectual performance, taking track of study into account, are investigated. The analyses were based on military enlistment test scores, obtained by 48,269 males, measuring Fluid ability (Gf), Crystallized intelligence (Gc), and General visualization (Gv) ability. A regression method,…

  10. Attempt to validate breakpoint MIC values estimated from pharmacokinetic data obtained during oxolinic acid therapy of winter ulcer disease in Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar )

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coyne, R.; Bergh, Ø.; Samuelsen, O.

    2004-01-01

    Concentrations of oxolinic acid (OXA) were measured in the plasma, muscle, liver, and kidney of 48 Atlantic salmons (Salmo salar) 1 day after the end of an oral administration. OXA was administered over a period of 13 days to control an outbreak of winter ulcer disease in a commercial marine farm...... administration of OXA. A numerical description of the concentration of the antimicrobial agent achieved in therapy is necessary to determine the resistance or sensitivity of the bacteria involved in the infection. The degree of fish-to-fish variation in the concentrations of OXA, both within the healthy fish...... a useful parameter for describing the concentrations of agents achieved during therapy. The plasma data from this investigation were used to estimate clinically relevant breakpoint minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values. The validity of these breakpoint values was discussed with reference...

  11. The Use of Mixed Effects Models for Obtaining Low-Cost Ecosystem Carbon Stock Estimates in Mangroves of the Asia-Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukoski, J. J.; Broadhead, J. S.; Donato, D.; Murdiyarso, D.; Gregoire, T. G.

    2016-12-01

    Mangroves provide extensive ecosystem services that support both local livelihoods and international environmental goals, including coastal protection, water filtration, biodiversity conservation and the sequestration of carbon (C). While voluntary C market projects that seek to preserve and enhance forest C stocks offer a potential means of generating finance for mangrove conservation, their implementation faces barriers due to the high costs of quantifying C stocks through measurement, reporting and verification (MRV) activities. To streamline MRV activities in mangrove C forestry projects, we develop predictive models for (i) biomass-based C stocks, and (ii) soil-based C stocks for the mangroves of the Asia-Pacific. We use linear mixed effect models to account for spatial correlation in modeling the expected C as a function of stand attributes. The most parsimonious biomass model predicts total biomass C stocks as a function of both basal area and the interaction between latitude and basal area, whereas the most parsimonious soil C model predicts soil C stocks as a function of the logarithmic transformations of both latitude and basal area. Random effects are specified by site for both models, and are found to explain a substantial proportion of variance within the estimation datasets. The root mean square error (RMSE) of the biomass C model is approximated at 24.6 Mg/ha (18.4% of mean biomass C in the dataset), whereas the RMSE of the soil C model is estimated at 4.9 mg C/cm 3 (14.1% of mean soil C). A substantial proportion of the variation in soil C, however, is explained by the random effects and thus the use of the SOC model may be most valuable for sites in which field measurements of soil C exist.

  12. Application of a method of analysis of remote sensing data obtained by targeting the estimated productivity in cane for quantifying panela NDVI (normalized difference vegetation index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Rueda Calier

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The productivity estimation sugar cane is very important for Colombian economy. The Net Primary Production (NPP model is applied on present investigation from Kumar & Monteith to regional scale. Analyzing spatiotemporal with geomantic techniques and edaphoclimatic environment characterization. Field surveys were conducted too, to acquire physiological information of plants evaluated and soil conditions of the plantation under study. The data acquired was input in ArcGIS10.1 software, to make processing these. A series thematic map was resulted from data processing from spatiotemporal distribution of plantation soil characteristics and biophysical characteristics. The variables fPAR, PAR, EUR was calculate from Kumar & Monteith efficiency model. Remote sensing and mathematic models related and fraction absorbed photosynthetically active radiation derivates from Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI and incident photosynthetically active radiation in land sensors recorded was calculated. Chemical and physical properties in laboratory tests were realized to soil, for relation knowledge between edaphoclimatic conditions and biophysical variables related with the sugar cane biomass gainer for Panela production. The information integrated from Geographic Information System (GIS and edaphic data and climatic data in country recorded, shows the behavior of the plantation as it develops.

  13. Quantitative estimation of massive gas hydrate in gas chimney structures, the eastern margin of Japan Sea, from the physical property anomalies obtained by LWD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanahashi, M.; Morita, S.; Matsumoto, R.

    2017-12-01

    Two dedicated LWD (Logging While Drilling) cruises, GR14 and HR15, were conducted in summers of 2014 and 2015, respectively, by Meiji University and Geological Survey of Japan, AIST to explore the gas chimney structures, which are characterized by the columnar acoustic blanking below the topographic mound and/or pockmarks in eastern margin of Japan Sea. Shallow (33 to 172m-bsf, average 136m-bsf) 33 LWD drillings were carried out generally in and around gas chimney structures which are in Oki Trough, Off-Joetsu, and Mogami Trough areas, eastern margin of Japan Sea, during two cruises. Schlumberger LWD tools, GeoVISION (resistivity), TeleScope, ProVISION (NMR) and SonicVISION (sonic) were applied during GR14. NeoScope (neutron) was added and SonicScope was replaced for SonicVISION during HR15. The presence of thick highly-anomalous intervals within the LWD data at site J24L suggests the development of massive gas hydrate within Off-Joetsu, by very high resistivity ( 10,000 Ωm), high Vp ( 3,700 m/s) and Vs (370-1,839 m/s), high neutron porosity ( 1.2), low natural gamma ray intensity ( 0 API), low neutron gamma density ( 0.8 g/cm3), low NMR porosity ( 0.0), low permeability (10-2-10-4 mD), low formation neutron sigma (26-28). The extreme physical properties intervals suggest the development of the almost pure hydrate. Because of the clear contrast between pure hydrate and seawater saturated fine sediments, the hydrate amount can be estimated quantitatively based on the assumptions as the two component system of pure hydrate and the monotonous seawater saturated fine sediments. This study was conducted as a part of the methane hydrate research project funded by METI (the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry, Japan).

  14. WE-G-18C-02: Estimation of Optimal B-Value Set for Obtaining Apparent Diffusion Coefficient Free From Perfusion in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karki, K; Hugo, G; Ford, J; Saraiya, S; Weiss, E [Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States); Olsen, K; Groves, R [Radiology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Diffusion-weighted MRI (DW-MRI) is increasingly being investigated for radiotherapy planning and response assessment. Selection of a limited number of b-values in DW-MRI is important to keep geometrical variations low and imaging time short. We investigated various b-value sets to determine an optimal set for obtaining monoexponential apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) close to perfusion-insensitive intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) model ADC (ADCIVIM) in nonsmall cell lung cancer. Methods: Seven patients had 27 DW-MRI scans before and during radiotherapy in a 1.5T scanner. Respiratory triggering was applied to the echo-planar DW-MRI with TR=4500ms approximately, TE=74ms, pixel size=1.98X1.98mm{sub 2}, slice thickness=4–6mm and 7 axial slices. Diffusion gradients were applied to all three axes producing traceweighted images with eight b-values of 0–1000μs/μm{sup 2}. Monoexponential model ADC values using various b-value sets were compared to ADCIVIM using all b-values. To compare the relative noise in ADC maps, intra-scan coefficient of variation (CV) of active tumor volumes was computed. Results: ADCIVIM, perfusion coefficient and perfusion fraction for tumor volumes were in the range of 880-1622 μm{sup 2}/s, 8119-33834 μm{sup 2}/s and 0.104–0.349, respectively. ADC values using sets of 250, 800 and 1000; 250, 650 and 1000; and 250–1000μs/μm{sup 2} only were not significantly different from ADCIVIM(p>0.05, paired t-test). Error in ADC values for 0–1000, 50–1000, 100–1000, 250–1000, 500–1000, and three b-value sets- 250, 500 and 1000; 250, 650 and 1000; and 250, 800 and 1000μs/μm{sup 2} were 15.0, 9.4, 5.6, 1.4, 11.7, 3.7, 2.0 and 0.2% relative to the reference-standard ADCIVIM, respectively. Mean intrascan CV was 20.2, 20.9, 21.9, 24.9, 32.6, 25.8, 25.4 and 24.8%, respectively, whereas that for ADCIVIM was 23.3%. Conclusion: ADC values of two 3 b-value sets

  15. rich extract on total polyphenols and antioxidant activity obtained

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Z. Ghouila

    USTHB, Organic Functional Analysis Laboratory, 16111 Bab Ezzouar, Algiers, ... Keywords: Ahmeur Bouamer, extraction, grape seeds, total polyphenols, ... These compounds are known as good natural antioxidant agents arising from natural ... surface between solid and liquid phases; this is mainly due to the dispersion of ...

  16. rich extract on total polyphenols and antioxidant activity obtained by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Z. Ghouila

    ABSTRACT: Conventional and non-conventional extraction methods were applied in the first time for the ... The heating of the matrix internally and externally without thermal gradient gives numerous advantages to microwave ... Once in laboratory, the clusters were washed with distilled and de-ionized water, then dried and ...

  17. Frequency and Magnetic Field Dependence of the Skin Depth in Co-rich Soft Magnetic Microwires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zhukov

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We studied giant magnetoimpedance (GMI effect in magnetically soft amorphous Co-rich microwires in the extended frequency range. From obtained experimentally dependences of GMI ratio on magnetic field and different frequencies we estimated the penetration depth and its dependence on applied magnetic field and frequency

  18. The CAPRICE RICH detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basini, G. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Rome (Italy); Codino, A.; Grimani, C. [Perugia Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Perugia (Italy); De Pascale, M.P. [Rome Univ. `Tor Vergata` (Italy). Dip. di Fisica]|[INFN, Sezione Univ. `Tor Vergata` Rome (Italy); Cafagna, F. [Bari Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Bari (Italy); Golden, R.L. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States). Particle Astrophysics Lab.; Brancaccio, F.; Bocciolini, M. [Florence Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Florence (Italy); Barbiellini, G.; Boezio, M. [Trieste Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Trieste (Italy)

    1995-09-01

    A compact RICH detector has been developed and used for particle identification in a balloon borne spectrometer to measure the flux of antimatter in the cosmic radiation. This is the first RICH detector ever used in space experiments that is capable of detecting unit charged particles, such as antiprotons. The RICH and all other detectors performed well during the 27 hours long flight.

  19. Estimation of the Vertical Distribution of Radiocesium in Soil on the Basis of the Characteristics of Gamma-Ray Spectra Obtained via Aerial Radiation Monitoring Using an Unmanned Helicopter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochi, Kotaro; Sasaki, Miyuki; Ishida, Mutsushi; Hamamoto, Shoichiro; Nishimura, Taku; Sanada, Yukihisa

    2017-08-17

    After the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, the vertical distribution of radiocesium in soil has been investigated to better understand the behavior of radiocesium in the environment. The typical method used for measuring the vertical distribution of radiocesium is troublesome because it requires collection and measurement of the activity of soil samples. In this study, we established a method of estimating the vertical distribution of radiocesium by focusing on the characteristics of gamma-ray spectra obtained via aerial radiation monitoring using an unmanned helicopter. The estimates are based on actual measurement data collected at an extended farm. In this method, the change in the ratio of direct gamma rays to scattered gamma rays at various depths in the soil was utilized to quantify the vertical distribution of radiocesium. The results show a positive correlation between the abovementioned and the actual vertical distributions of radiocesium measured in the soil samples. A vertical distribution map was created on the basis of this ratio using a simple equation derived from the abovementioned correlation. This technique can provide a novel approach for effective selection of high-priority areas that require decontamination.

  20. Estimation of the Vertical Distribution of Radiocesium in Soil on the Basis of the Characteristics of Gamma-Ray Spectra Obtained via Aerial Radiation Monitoring Using an Unmanned Helicopter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochi, Kotaro; Sasaki, Miyuki; Ishida, Mutsushi; Sanada, Yukihisa

    2017-01-01

    After the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, the vertical distribution of radiocesium in soil has been investigated to better understand the behavior of radiocesium in the environment. The typical method used for measuring the vertical distribution of radiocesium is troublesome because it requires collection and measurement of the activity of soil samples. In this study, we established a method of estimating the vertical distribution of radiocesium by focusing on the characteristics of gamma-ray spectra obtained via aerial radiation monitoring using an unmanned helicopter. The estimates are based on actual measurement data collected at an extended farm. In this method, the change in the ratio of direct gamma rays to scattered gamma rays at various depths in the soil was utilized to quantify the vertical distribution of radiocesium. The results show a positive correlation between the abovementioned and the actual vertical distributions of radiocesium measured in the soil samples. A vertical distribution map was created on the basis of this ratio using a simple equation derived from the abovementioned correlation. This technique can provide a novel approach for effective selection of high-priority areas that require decontamination. PMID:28817098

  1. Taxa metabólica de repouso de ciclistas estimada por equações e obtida por calorimetria indireta Resting metabolic rate of cyclists estimated by mathematical equations and obtained by indirect calorimetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Guedes Cocate

    2009-10-01

    values below 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Pearson bivariate correlation coefficients were calculated to evaluate the relationship between RMR and fat free mass (FFM. It was verified that the RMR was significantly underestimated in 23.5%, 16.7%, 16.8% and 16.9%, respectively by the equations proposed by HR, FAO/WHO/UNU, Schofield and HB in comparison to RMR obtained by IC. RMR values were significantly correlated with FFM (r=0.551, p=0.03. These results confirm that the equations evaluated in this study are not appropriate to estimate the RMR of athletes. Such results can be explained by the fact that athletes have more FFM and possibly a greater β- adrenergic receptors response to the sympathetic nervous system, which in turn leads to RMR higher than in sedentary people. Therefore, we created an equation considering the FFM and age variables to better estimate athletes´ RMR. However, this equation should be validated in a study involving a greater number of cyclists before it can be clinically used.

  2. Thermodynamics of neutron-rich nuclear matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    López, Jorge A., E-mail: jorgelopez@utep.edu [Department of Physics, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, Texas 79968, U.S.A (United States); Porras, Sergio Terrazas, E-mail: sterraza@uacj.mx; Gutiérrez, Araceli Rodríguez, E-mail: al104010@alumnos.uacj.mx [Universidad Autónoma de Ciudad Juárez, Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, México (Mexico)

    2016-07-07

    This manuscript presents methods to obtain properties of neutron-rich nuclear matter from classical molecular dynamics. Some of these are bulk properties of infinite nuclear matter, phase information, the Maxwell construction, spinodal lines and symmetry energy.

  3. Research: Rags to Rags? Riches to Riches?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracey, Gerald W.

    2004-01-01

    Everyone has read about what might be called the "gold gap"--how the rich in this country are getting richer and controlling an ever-larger share of the nation's wealth. The Century Foundation has started publishing "Reality Check", a series of guides to campaign issues that sometimes finds gaps in these types of cherished delusions. The guides…

  4. Kings Today, Rich Tomorrow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fattoum, Asma

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the King vs. Rich dilemma that founder-CEOs face at IPO. When undertaking IPO, founders face two options. They can either get rich, but then run the risk of losing the control over their firms; or they can remain kings by introducing defensive mechanisms, but this is likel...

  5. Developments on RICH detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besson, P.; Bourgeois, P.

    1996-01-01

    The RICH (ring imaging Cherenkov) detector which is dedicated to Cherenkov radiation detection is described. An improvement made by replacing photo sensible vapor with solid photocathode is studied. A RICH detector prototype with a CsI photocathode has been built in Saclay and used with Saturne. The first results are presented. (A.C.)

  6. Obtaining of inulin acetate

    OpenAIRE

    Khusenov, Arslonnazar; Rakhmanberdiev, Gappar; Rakhimov, Dilshod; Khalikov, Muzaffar

    2014-01-01

    In the article first obtained inulin ester inulin acetate, by etherification of inulin with acetic anhydride has been exposed. Obtained product has been studied using elementary analysis and IR spectroscopy.

  7. Olivine-rich asteroids in the near-Earth space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, Marcel; Perna, D.; Barucci, M. A.; Fornasier, S.; Doressoundiram, A.; Lantz, C.; Merlin, F.; Belskaya, I. N.; Fulchignoni, M.

    2018-03-01

    In the framework of a 30-night spectroscopic survey of small near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) we present new results regarding the identification of olivine-rich objects. The following NEAs were classified as A-type using visible spectra obtained with 3.6 m NTT telescope: (293726) 2007 RQ17, (444584) 2006 UK, 2012 NP, 2014 YS34, 2015 HB117, 2015 LH, 2015 TB179, 2015 TW144. We determined a relative abundance of 5.4% (8 out of 147 observed targets) A-types at hundred meter size range of NEAs population. The ratio is at least five times larger compared with the previously known A-types, which represent less than ˜1% of NEAs taxonomically classified. By taking into account that part of our targets may not be confirmed as olivine-rich asteroids by their near-infrared spectra, or they can have a nebular origin, our result provides an upper-limit estimation of mantle fragments at size ranges bellow 300m. Our findings are compared with the "battered-to-bits" scenario, claiming that at small sizes the olivine-rich objects should be more abundant when compared with basaltic and iron ones.

  8. Olivine-rich asteroids in the near-Earth space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, Marcel; Perna, D.; Barucci, M. A.; Fornasier, S.; Doressoundiram, A.; Lantz, C.; Merlin, F.; Belskaya, I. N.; Fulchignoni, M.

    2018-06-01

    In the framework of a 30-night spectroscopic survey of small near-Earth asteroids (NEAs), we present new results regarding the identification of olivine-rich objects. The following NEAs were classified as A-type using visible spectra obtained with 3.6-m New Technology Telescope: (293726) 2007 RQ17, (444584) 2006 UK, 2012 NP, 2014 YS34, 2015 HB117, 2015 LH, 2015 TB179, 2015 TW144. We determined a relative abundance of 5.4 per cent (8 out of 147 observed targets) A-types at a 100-m size range of NEA population. The ratio is at least five times larger compared with the previously known A-types, which represent less than ˜ 1 per cent of NEAs taxonomically classified. By taking into account that part of our targets may not be confirmed as olivine-rich asteroids by their near-infrared spectra, or they can have a nebular origin, our result provides an upper-limit estimation of mantle fragments at size ranges below 300 m. Our findings are compared with the `battered-to-bits' scenario, claiming that at small sizes the olivine-rich objects should be more abundant when compared with basaltic and iron ones.

  9. Neutron rich nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foucher, R.

    1979-01-01

    If some β - emitters are particularly interesting to study in light, medium, and heavy nuclei, another (and also) difficult problem is to know systematically the properties of these neutron rich nuclei far from the stability line. A review of some of their characteristics is presented. How far is it possible to be objective in the interpretation of data is questioned and implications are discussed

  10. Parameter Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sales-Cruz, Mauricio; Heitzig, Martina; Cameron, Ian

    2011-01-01

    of optimisation techniques coupled with dynamic solution of the underlying model. Linear and nonlinear approaches to parameter estimation are investigated. There is also the application of maximum likelihood principles in the estimation of parameters, as well as the use of orthogonal collocation to generate a set......In this chapter the importance of parameter estimation in model development is illustrated through various applications related to reaction systems. In particular, rate constants in a reaction system are obtained through parameter estimation methods. These approaches often require the application...... of algebraic equations as the basis for parameter estimation.These approaches are illustrated using estimations of kinetic constants from reaction system models....

  11. Estimation of spectral kurtosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutawanir

    2017-03-01

    Rolling bearings are the most important elements in rotating machinery. Bearing frequently fall out of service for various reasons: heavy loads, unsuitable lubrications, ineffective sealing. Bearing faults may cause a decrease in performance. Analysis of bearing vibration signals has attracted attention in the field of monitoring and fault diagnosis. Bearing vibration signals give rich information for early detection of bearing failures. Spectral kurtosis, SK, is a parameter in frequency domain indicating how the impulsiveness of a signal varies with frequency. Faults in rolling bearings give rise to a series of short impulse responses as the rolling elements strike faults, SK potentially useful for determining frequency bands dominated by bearing fault signals. SK can provide a measure of the distance of the analyzed bearings from a healthy one. SK provides additional information given by the power spectral density (psd). This paper aims to explore the estimation of spectral kurtosis using short time Fourier transform known as spectrogram. The estimation of SK is similar to the estimation of psd. The estimation falls in model-free estimation and plug-in estimator. Some numerical studies using simulations are discussed to support the methodology. Spectral kurtosis of some stationary signals are analytically obtained and used in simulation study. Kurtosis of time domain has been a popular tool for detecting non-normality. Spectral kurtosis is an extension of kurtosis in frequency domain. The relationship between time domain and frequency domain analysis is establish through power spectrum-autocovariance Fourier transform. Fourier transform is the main tool for estimation in frequency domain. The power spectral density is estimated through periodogram. In this paper, the short time Fourier transform of the spectral kurtosis is reviewed, a bearing fault (inner ring and outer ring) is simulated. The bearing response, power spectrum, and spectral kurtosis are plotted to

  12. The CBM RICH project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamczewski-Musch, J. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Akishin, P. [Laboratory of Information Technologies, Joint Institute for Nuclear research (JINR-LIT), Dubna (Russian Federation); Becker, K.-H. [Department of Physics, University of Wuppertal, D-42097 Wuppertal (Germany); Belogurov, S. [SSC RF ITEP, 117218 Moscow (Russian Federation); Bendarouach, J. [Institute of Physics II and Institute of Applied Physics, Justus Liebig University Giessen, D-35392 Giessen (Germany); Boldyreva, N. [National Research Centre “Kurchatov Institute” B.P. Konstantinov Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, 188300 Gatchina (Russian Federation); Chernogorov, A. [SSC RF ITEP, 117218 Moscow (Russian Federation); Deveaux, C. [Institute of Physics II and Institute of Applied Physics, Justus Liebig University Giessen, D-35392 Giessen (Germany); Dobyrn, V. [National Research Centre “Kurchatov Institute” B.P. Konstantinov Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, 188300 Gatchina (Russian Federation); Dürr, M. [Institute of Physics II and Institute of Applied Physics, Justus Liebig University Giessen, D-35392 Giessen (Germany); Eschke, J. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Förtsch, J. [Department of Physics, University of Wuppertal, D-42097 Wuppertal (Germany); Heep, J.; Höhne, C. [Institute of Physics II and Institute of Applied Physics, Justus Liebig University Giessen, D-35392 Giessen (Germany); Kampert, K.-H. [Department of Physics, University of Wuppertal, D-42097 Wuppertal (Germany); and others

    2017-02-11

    The CBM RICH detector is an integral component of the future CBM experiment at FAIR, providing efficient electron identification and pion suppression necessary for the measurement of rare dileptonic probes in heavy ion collisions. The RICH design is based on CO{sub 2} gas as radiator, a segmented spherical glass focussing mirror with Al+MgF{sub 2} reflective coating, and Multianode Photomultipliers for efficient Cherenkov photon detection. Hamamatsu H12700 MAPMTs have recently been selected as photon sensors, following an extensive sensor evaluation, including irradiation tests to ensure sufficient radiation hardness of the MAPMTs. A brief overview of the detector design and concept is given, results on the radiation hardness of the photon sensors are shown, and the development of a FPGA-TDC based readout chain is discussed.

  13. The CLEO RICH detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artuso, M.; Ayad, R.; Bukin, K.; Efimov, A.; Boulahouache, C.; Dambasuren, E.; Kopp, S.; Li, Ji; Majumder, G.; Menaa, N.; Mountain, R.; Schuh, S.; Skwarnicki, T.; Stone, S.; Viehhauser, G.; Wang, J.C.; Coan, T.E.; Fadeyev, V.; Maravin, Y.; Volobouev, I.; Ye, J.; Anderson, S.; Kubota, Y.; Smith, A.

    2005-01-01

    We describe the design, construction and performance of a Ring Imaging Cherenkov Detector (RICH) constructed to identify charged particles in the CLEO experiment. Cherenkov radiation occurs in LiF crystals, both planar and ones with a novel 'sawtooth'-shaped exit surface. Photons in the wavelength interval 135-165nm are detected using multi-wire chambers filled with a mixture of methane gas and triethylamine vapor. Excellent π/K separation is demonstrated

  14. CBM RICH geometry optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahmoud, Tariq; Hoehne, Claudia [II. Physikalisches Institut, Giessen Univ. (Germany); Collaboration: CBM-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment at the future FAIR complex will investigate the phase diagram of strongly interacting matter at high baryon density and moderate temperatures in A+A collisions from 2-11 AGeV (SIS100) beam energy. The main electron identification detector in the CBM experiment will be a RICH detector with a CO{sub 2} gaseous-radiator, focusing spherical glass mirrors, and MAPMT photo-detectors being placed on a PMT-plane. The RICH detector is located directly behind the CBM dipole magnet. As the final magnet geometry is now available, some changes in the RICH geometry become necessary. In order to guarantee a magnetic field of 1 mT at maximum in the PMT plane for effective operation of the MAPMTs, two measures have to be taken: The PMT plane is moved outwards of the stray field by tilting the mirrors by 10 degrees and shielding boxes have been designed. In this contribution the results of the geometry optimization procedure are presented.

  15. Mars: a water-rich planet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, M.H.

    1987-01-01

    Good geomorphic evidence is presented for a planet that was once water rich, and that a lower limit on the amount of water available for a given Martian watershed may be estimated by assuming that the volume of material eroded was equal to the volume of water available. This estimate, coupled with high latitude water estimates of 50 to 100 m gives a global inventory of about 500 m total water in the subsurface. It was emphasized that this is a lower limit as considerable water may be bound in weathered debris and in primary minerals

  16. Experiments with neutron-rich isomeric beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rykaczewski, K.; Lewitowicz, M.; Pfuetzner, M.

    1998-01-01

    A review of experimental results obtained on microsecond-isomeric states in neutron-rich nuclei produced in fragmentation reactions and studied with SISSI-Alpha-LISE3 spectrometer system at GANIL Caen is given. The perspectives of experiments based on secondary reactions with isomeric beams are presented

  17. Estimation of the number of histological diagnosis for IgG4-related kidney disease referred to the data obtained from the Japan Renal Biopsy Registry (J-RBR) questionnaire and cases reported in the Japanese Society of Nephrology Meetings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Hitoshi; Kawano, Mitsuhiro; Saeki, Takako; Ubara, Yoshifumi; Hisano, Satoshi; Nagata, Michio; Zen, Yoh; Yanagita, Motoko; Yamaguchi, Yutaka; Nishi, Shinichi; Saito, Takao

    2017-02-01

    More than 2 years have passed since the proposal of the diagnostic criteria for IgG4-related kidney disease (IgG4-RKD). The aim of this study was to estimate the number of histological diagnosis for IgG4-RKD throughout Japan and to clarify the regional distribution of the development of this disease. A questionnaire was supplied to 140 research facilities registered in the Japan Renal Biopsy Registry (J-RBR). The items of the questionnaire were the total number of renal biopsies performed and the number of cases diagnosed as IgG4-RKD in 2012 and 2013 at each facility. Age, sex, and diagnosis category were also included for the IgG4-RKD cases. The geographic distribution of the disease development was evaluated using clinical case reports presented at the Eastern/Western regional meeting of the Japanese Society of Nephrology during the 15 years following 2001. Forty-seven facilities completed the questionnaire, resulting in a collection rate of 34 %. The total numbers of renal biopsies in 2012 and 2013 were 3387 and 3591, respectively. Forty-seven of these cases (24 in 2012 and 23 in 2013) were diagnosed as IgG4-RKD. The frequency of development of IgG4-RKD per one million over 40-year-old individuals during these 15 years varied between 0.9 and 3.1, depending on Japanese geographic region of Japan. The results of the present survey indicate that the number of diagnosis for IgG4-RKD is approximately 130 cases per year throughout Japan, and no regional differences in disease frequency appear to exist.

  18. Modeling Aquatic Macroinvertebrate Richness Using Landscape Attributes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia S. Meixler

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We used a rapid, repeatable, and inexpensive geographic information system (GIS approach to predict aquatic macroinvertebrate family richness using the landscape attributes stream gradient, riparian forest cover, and water quality. Stream segments in the Allegheny River basin were classified into eight habitat classes using these three landscape attributes. Biological databases linking macroinvertebrate families with habitat classes were developed using life habits, feeding guilds, and water quality preferences and tolerances for each family. The biological databases provided a link between fauna and habitat enabling estimation of family composition in each habitat class and hence richness predictions for each stream segment. No difference was detected between field collected and modeled predictions of macroinvertebrate families in a paired t-test. Further, predicted stream gradient, riparian forest cover, and total phosphorus, total nitrogen, and suspended sediment classifications matched observed classifications much more often than by chance alone. High gradient streams with forested riparian zones and good water quality were predicted to have the greatest macroinvertebrate family richness and changes in water quality were predicted to have the greatest impact on richness. Our findings indicate that our model can provide meaningful landscape scale macroinvertebrate family richness predictions from widely available data for use in focusing conservation planning efforts.

  19. Structure of Light Neutron-rich Nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dlouhy, Zdenek

    2007-01-01

    In this contribution we searched for irregularities in various separation energies in the frame of mass measurement of neutron-rich nuclei at GANIL. On this basis we can summarize that the new doubly magic nuclei are 8 He, 22 O and 24 O. They are characterized by extra stability and, except 24 O, they cannot accept and bind additional neutrons. However, if we add to these nuclei a proton we obtain 9 Li and 25 F which are the core for two-neutron halo nucleus 11 Li and enables that fluorine can bound even 6 more neutrons, respectively. In that aspect the doubly magic nuclei in the neutron-rich region can form the basis either for neutron halo or very neutron-rich nuclei. (Author)

  20. Heritability estimates for different Kleiber ratios obtained from growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Kleiber ratio is a measurement for efficiency, independent of body size ... Data included the following performance traits: birth mass, 100-day-, 205-day-, .... classes of stock, were used in the development of this simula- tion program.

  1. Four-Wave Mixing in Silicon-Rich Nitride Waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitrovic, Miranda; Guan, Xiaowei; Ji, Hua

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate four-wave mixing wavelength conversion in silicon-rich nitride waveguides which are a promising alternative to silicon for nonlinear applications. The obtained conversion efficiency reaches -13.6 dB while showing no significant nonlinear loss.......We demonstrate four-wave mixing wavelength conversion in silicon-rich nitride waveguides which are a promising alternative to silicon for nonlinear applications. The obtained conversion efficiency reaches -13.6 dB while showing no significant nonlinear loss....

  2. An improved nonparametric lower bound of species richness via a modified good-turing frequency formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Chun-Huo; Wang, Yi-Ting; Walther, Bruno A; Chao, Anne

    2014-09-01

    It is difficult to accurately estimate species richness if there are many almost undetectable species in a hyper-diverse community. Practically, an accurate lower bound for species richness is preferable to an inaccurate point estimator. The traditional nonparametric lower bound developed by Chao (1984, Scandinavian Journal of Statistics 11, 265-270) for individual-based abundance data uses only the information on the rarest species (the numbers of singletons and doubletons) to estimate the number of undetected species in samples. Applying a modified Good-Turing frequency formula, we derive an approximate formula for the first-order bias of this traditional lower bound. The approximate bias is estimated by using additional information (namely, the numbers of tripletons and quadrupletons). This approximate bias can be corrected, and an improved lower bound is thus obtained. The proposed lower bound is nonparametric in the sense that it is universally valid for any species abundance distribution. A similar type of improved lower bound can be derived for incidence data. We test our proposed lower bounds on simulated data sets generated from various species abundance models. Simulation results show that the proposed lower bounds always reduce bias over the traditional lower bounds and improve accuracy (as measured by mean squared error) when the heterogeneity of species abundances is relatively high. We also apply the proposed new lower bounds to real data for illustration and for comparisons with previously developed estimators. © 2014, The International Biometric Society.

  3. LHCB RICH gas system proposal

    CERN Document Server

    Bosteels, Michel; Haider, S

    2001-01-01

    Both LHCb RICH will be operated with fluorocarbon as gas radiator. RICH 1 will be filled with 4m^3 of C4F10 and RICH 2 with 100m^3 of CF4. The gas systems will run as a closed loop circulation and a gas recovery system within the closed loop is planned for RICH 1, where the recovery of the CF4 will only be realised during filling and emptying of the detector. Inline gas purification is foreseen for the gas systems in order to limit water and oxygen impurities.

  4. Information rich display design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welch, Robin; Braseth, Alf Ove; Veland, Oeystein

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the concept Information Rich Displays. The purpose of Information Rich Displays (IRDs) is to condensate prevailing information in process displays in such a way that each display format (picture) contains more relevant information for the user. Compared to traditional process control displays, this new concept allows the operator to attain key information at a glance and at the same time allows for improved monitoring of larger portions of the process. This again allows for reduced navigation between both process and trend displays and ease the cognitive demand on the operator. This concept has been created while working on designing display prototypes for the offshore petroleum production facilities of tomorrow. Offshore installations basically consist of wells, separation trains (where oil, gas and water are separated from each other), an oil tax measurement system (where oil quality is measured and the pressure increased to allow for export), gas compression (compression of gas for export) and utility systems (water treatment, chemical systems etc.). This means that an offshore control room operator has to deal with a complex process that comprises several functionally different systems. The need for a new approach to offshore display format design is in particular based on shortcomings in today's designs related to the keyhole effect, where the display format only reveals a fraction of the whole process. Furthermore, the upcoming introduction of larger off- and on-shore operation centres will increase the size and complexity of the operators' work domain. In the light of the increased demands on the operator, the proposed IRDs aim to counter the negative effects this may have on the workload. In this work we have attempted to classify the wide range of different roles an operator can have in different situations. The information content and amount being presented to the operator in a display should be viewed in context of the roles the

  5. Testing the Relationships between Diversification, Species Richness, and Trait Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozak, Kenneth H; Wiens, John J

    2016-11-01

    Understanding which traits drive species diversification is essential for macroevolutionary studies and to understand patterns of species richness among clades. An important tool for testing if traits influence diversification is to estimate rates of net diversification for each clade, and then test for a relationship between traits and diversification rates among clades. However, this general approach has become very controversial. Numerous papers have now stated that it is inappropriate to analyze net diversification rates in groups in which clade richness is not positively correlated with clade age. Similarly, some have stated that variation in net diversification rates does not explain variation in species richness patterns among clades across the Tree of Life. Some authors have also suggested that strong correlations between richness and diversification rates are a statistical artifact and effectively inevitable. If this latter point is true, then correlations between richness and diversification rates would be uninformative (or even misleading) for identifying how much variation in species richness among clades is explained by variation in net diversification rates. Here, we use simulations (based on empirical data for plethodontid salamanders) to address three main questions. First, how is variation in net diversification rates among clades related to the relationship between clade age and species richness? Second, how accurate are these net diversification rate estimators, and does the age-richness relationship have any relevance to their accuracy? Third, is a relationship between species richness and diversification rates an inevitable, statistical artifact? Our simulations show that strong, positive age-richness relationships arise when diversification rates are invariant among clades, whereas realistic variation in diversification rates among clades frequently disrupts this relationship. Thus, a significant age-richness relationship should not be a

  6. Caracterización de la Funcionalidad Tecnológica de una Fuente Rica en Fibra Dietaria Obtenida a partir de Cáscara de Plátano / Characterization of Technological Functionality of Dietary Fiber Rich Source Obtained from Plantain Peel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alarcón García Miguel Ángel

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Resumen. Con el objetivo de obtener la fuente de fibra dietaria y realizar su caracterización, cáscaras de plátano verde (Musa AAB fueron sometidas a un proceso industrial que involucró etapas de selección, lavado, troceado, secado (hasta alcanzar una humedad final del 5% y molido. El proceso completo presentó un rendimiento de 2% en fuente de fibra de cáscara de plátano (FFCP. Se determinaron valores de fibra dietaria total (FDT; 46,79%, fibra dietaria soluble (FDS; 1,68% y fibra dietaria insoluble (FDI; 45,12%. El material resultante fue sometido al efecto de la temperatura utilizando 2 niveles (temperatura ambiente, 20 ºC, y temperatura de escaldado para productos cárnicos, 74 °C y bajo estas condiciones fue caracterizado en términos de capacidad de absorción de agua, capacidad de absorción de aceite, capacidad de retención de agua y capacidad de absorción de moléculas orgánicas; variables que no presentaron diferencias estadísticamente significativas, a excepción de la capacidad de absorción de aceite. Por lo anterior, puede concluirse que la FFCP corresponde a un recurso con aptitud para su inclusión en matrices alimenticias tipo cárnicas. / Abstract. Green plantain peels (Musa AAB were subjected to an industrial process involving selection, washing, chopping, drying (until reach a final moisture content of 5% and grounding steps with the aim of obtaining a source of dietary fiber and perform their characterization. The total process yield was 2% as a fiber source plantain peel (FSPP. Values for total dietary fiber (TDF; 46.79%, soluble dietary fiber (SDF; 1.68% and insoluble dietary fiber (IDF; 45.12% were determined. The resulting material was subjected to the effect of two levels of temperature(environmental temperature, 20 ºC, and scalding temperature, 74 °C for meat products. Under these conditions, the FSPP was characterized in terms of water absorption capacity, oil retention capacity, water holding capacity

  7. Differences in species richness patterns between unicellular and multicellular organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillebrand, Helmut; Watermann, Frank; Karez, Rolf; Berninger, Ulrike-G

    2001-01-01

    For unicellular organisms, a lack of effects of local species richness on ecosystem function has been proposed due to their locally high species richness and their ubiquitous distribution. High dispersal ability and high individual numbers may enable unicellular taxa to occur everywhere. Using our own and published data sets on uni- and multicellular organisms, we conducted thorough statistical analyses to test whether (1) unicellular taxa show higher relative local species richness compared to multicellular taxa, (2) unicellular taxa show lower slopes of the species:area relationships and species:individuals relationships, and (3) the species composition of unicellular taxa is less influenced by geographic distance compared to multicellular taxa. We found higher local species richness compared to the global species pool for unicellular organisms than for metazoan taxa. The difference was significant if global species richness was conservatively estimated but not if extrapolated, and therefore higher richness estimates were used. Both microalgae and protozoans showed lower slopes between species richness and sample size (area or individuals) compared to macrozoobenthos, also indicating higher local species richness for unicellular taxa. The similarity of species composition of both benthic diatoms and ciliates decreased with increasing geographic distance. This indicated restricted dispersal ability of protists and the absence of ubiquity. However, a steeper slope between similarity and distance was found for polychaetes and corals, suggesting a stronger effect of distance on the dispersal of metazoans compared to unicellular taxa. In conclusion, we found partly different species richness patterns among uni- and multicellular eukaryotes, but no strict ubiquity of unicellular taxa. Therefore, the effect of local unicellular species richness on ecosystem function has to be reanalyzed. Macroecological patterns suggested for multicellular organisms may differ in

  8. Quantifying uncertainty in estimation of global arthropod species richness

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hamilton, J. A.; Basset, Y.; Benke, K. K.; Grimbacher, P. S.; Miller, S. E.; Novotný, Vojtěch; Samuelson, G. A.; Stork, N. E.; Weiblen, G. D.; Yen, J. D. L.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 176, č. 1 (2010), s. 90-95 ISSN 0003-0147 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : Coleoptera * host specificity * Latin hypercube sampling Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 4.736, year: 2010

  9. Adaptive Reactive Rich Internet Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Kay-Uwe; Stühmer, Roland; Dörflinger, Jörg; Rahmani, Tirdad; Thomas, Susan; Stojanovic, Ljiljana

    Rich Internet Applications significantly raise the user experience compared with legacy page-based Web applications because of their highly responsive user interfaces. Although this is a tremendous advance, it does not solve the problem of the one-size-fits-all approach1 of current Web applications. So although Rich Internet Applications put the user in a position to interact seamlessly with the Web application, they do not adapt to the context in which the user is currently working. In this paper we address the on-the-fly personalization of Rich Internet Applications. We introduce the concept of ARRIAs: Adaptive Reactive Rich Internet Applications and elaborate on how they are able to adapt to the current working context the user is engaged in. An architecture for the ad hoc adaptation of Rich Internet Applications is presented as well as a holistic framework and tools for the realization of our on-the-fly personalization approach. We divided both the architecture and the framework into two levels: offline/design-time and online/run-time. For design-time we explain how to use ontologies in order to annotate Rich Internet Applications and how to use these annotations for conceptual Web usage mining. Furthermore, we describe how to create client-side executable rules from the semantic data mining results. We present our declarative lightweight rule language tailored to the needs of being executed directly on the client. Because of the event-driven nature of the user interfaces of Rich Internet Applications, we designed a lightweight rule language based on the event-condition-action paradigm.2 At run-time the interactions of a user are tracked directly on the client and in real-time a user model is built up. The user model then acts as input to and is evaluated by our client-side complex event processing and rule engine.

  10. Evaluating species richness: biased ecological inference results from spatial heterogeneity in species detection probabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNew, Lance B.; Handel, Colleen M.

    2015-01-01

    Accurate estimates of species richness are necessary to test predictions of ecological theory and evaluate biodiversity for conservation purposes. However, species richness is difficult to measure in the field because some species will almost always be overlooked due to their cryptic nature or the observer's failure to perceive their cues. Common measures of species richness that assume consistent observability across species are inviting because they may require only single counts of species at survey sites. Single-visit estimation methods ignore spatial and temporal variation in species detection probabilities related to survey or site conditions that may confound estimates of species richness. We used simulated and empirical data to evaluate the bias and precision of raw species counts, the limiting forms of jackknife and Chao estimators, and multi-species occupancy models when estimating species richness to evaluate whether the choice of estimator can affect inferences about the relationships between environmental conditions and community size under variable detection processes. Four simulated scenarios with realistic and variable detection processes were considered. Results of simulations indicated that (1) raw species counts were always biased low, (2) single-visit jackknife and Chao estimators were significantly biased regardless of detection process, (3) multispecies occupancy models were more precise and generally less biased than the jackknife and Chao estimators, and (4) spatial heterogeneity resulting from the effects of a site covariate on species detection probabilities had significant impacts on the inferred relationships between species richness and a spatially explicit environmental condition. For a real dataset of bird observations in northwestern Alaska, the four estimation methods produced different estimates of local species richness, which severely affected inferences about the effects of shrubs on local avian richness. Overall, our results

  11. Species richness in natural and disturbed habitats: Asteraceae and Flower-head insects (Tephritidae: Diptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Soraia; Prado, Paulo I; Lewinsohn, Thomas M

    2010-01-01

    Anthropogenic changes in the landscape result in an environmental mosaic with serious consequences for biodiversity. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of the anthropogenic changes on Asteraceae richness and abundance, and to evaluate the consequences for the richness of Tephritidae assemblages in five sampling sites, with three sampled habitats in each: cerrado (Brazilian savanna), eucalyptus stands and pasture. Sampling was carried out in 15 random transects (cerrados and one pasture) and in 30 transects (eucalyptus stands and the remaining pastures). Composition, species richness and insect abundance in each habitat type was estimated by sampling the flower heads for each species of host plant, collected by four people for 1h. Differences in mean abundance of plant population between habitats and sites were tested by two-way ANOVA. Differences in plant species richness between habitats and sites and effects of habitat, site and host plant richness on insect richness were tested using a generalized linear model with Poisson errors. Within each sampling site, cerrados showed higher species richness of Asteraceae than pastures and eucalyptus stands. There were also significant differences in plant richness among sites. Mean population abundance values were significantly different among habitats, but not among sites. Increased host plant richness led to significant insect species richness. There were no additional significant effects of habitat on insect richness. Therefore, anthropogenic alterations in landscape determined the impoverishment of plant assemblages and therefore of insect assemblages, because of the positive relationship between host plant richness and insect richness.

  12. Platelet adhesiveness: the effect of centrifugation on the measurement of adhesiveness in platelet-rich plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, J. A.

    1968-01-01

    Platelet adhesiveness has been measured in citrated whole blood and in platelet-rich plasma obtained from normal subjects, splenectomized patients, and from patients in whom the diagnosis of recurrent venous thrombosis had been made. The duration of centrifugation used in the preparation of platelet-rich plasma was found to have a profound effect on the measurement of platelet adhesiveness because the figure for platelet adhesiveness measured in platelet-rich plasma obtained by centrifugation was considerably lower than that found in citrated whole blood. This effect was particularly marked when platelet-rich plasma was obtained from subjects in whom platelet adhesiveness measured in whole blood was increased. PMID:5699080

  13. Lithium storage into carbonaceous materials obtained from sugarcane bagasse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsubara, Elaine Y.; Lala, Stella M.; Rosolen, Jose Mauricio

    2010-01-01

    Carbonaceous materials with different structures are prepared by carbonization of sugarcane bagasse. Depending on carbonization conditions, it is possible to obtain soot rich in flakes or in honeycomb-shaped micrometric particles, whose concentration has large influence on lithium storage into electrodes. The soot rich in honeycomb-shaped particles provides the best electrochemical performance, with a reversible specific capacity of 310 mAh g -1 . The results suggest that the sugarcane bagasse can be potentially used in the design of anodic materials for lithium ion batteries. (author)

  14. Phosphorus Chemistry in Oxygen Rich Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal, Jacob; Schmidt, Deborah; Anderson, Julie; Ziurys, Lucy M.

    2017-06-01

    Observations of PO and PN have been carried out at the Arizona Radio Observatory at 1, 2, and 3 mm. Multiple transitions of PO and PN have been detected towards the O-rich AGB stars TX Cam and RCas. Data obtained toward supergiant stars VY Canis Majoris and NML Cyg have also been analyzed. Abundances were obtained for these molecules in all four objects using the radiative transfer code ESCAPADE, which is suitable for symmetric and asymmetric stellar outflows. The abundances of PN and PO were found to be in the range 10^{-8} - 10^{-7} relative to H_{2}. While PN appears to be a parent molecule formed by LTE chemistry near the stellar photosphere, PO appears to be created further out from the star at r > 400 R_*.

  15. The STAR-RICH Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Lasiuk, B; Braem, André; Cozza, D; Davenport, M; De Cataldo, G; Dell'Olio, L; Di Bari, D; Di Mauro, A; Dunlop, J C; Finch, E; Fraissard, Daniel; Franco, A; Gans, J; Ghidini, B; Harris, J W; Horsley, M; Kunde, G J; Lasiuk, B; Lesenechal, Y; Majka, R D; Martinengo, P; Morsch, Andreas; Nappi, E; Paic, G; Piuz, François; Posa, F; Raynaud, J; Salur, S; Sandweiss, J; Santiard, Jean-Claude; Satinover, J; Schyns, E M; Smirnov, N; Van Beelen, J; Williams, T D; Xu, Z

    2002-01-01

    The STAR-RICH detector extends the particle idenfication capabilities of the STAR spectrometer for charged hadrons at mid-rapidity. It allows identification of pions and kaons up to ~3 GeV/c and protons up to ~5 GeV/c. The characteristics and performance of the device in the inaugural RHIC run are described.

  16. SOFTWARE SUPPORT FOR RICH PICTURES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valente, Andrea; Marchetti, Emanuela

    2010-01-01

    Rich pictures (RP) are common in object-oriented analysis and design courses, but students seem to have problems in integrating them in their projects' workflow. A new software tool is being developed, specific for RP authoring. To better understand students' issues and working practice with RP...

  17. Platelet-rich fibrin or platelet-rich plasma – which one is better? an opinion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shweta Bansal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The healing of hard and soft tissue in mediated by a wide range of intracellular and extracellular events that are regulated by signaling proteins. Platelets can play a crucial role in periodontal regeneration as they are the reservoirs of growth factors and cytokines which are the key factors for regeneration of bone and maturation of soft tissue. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP is first generation platelet concentrate. However, the short duration of cytokine release and its poor mechanical properties have resulted in search of new material. Platelet-rich fibrin (PRF is a natural fibrin-based biomaterial prepared from an anticoagulant-free blood harvest without any artificial biochemical modification (no bovine thrombin is required that allows obtaining fibrin membranes enriched with platelets and growth factors. The slow polymerization during centrifugation, fibrin-based structure, ease of preparation, minimal expense makes PRF somewhat superior in some aspect to PRP.

  18. Estimating bacterial diversity for ecological studies: methods, metrics, and assumptions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Birtel

    Full Text Available Methods to estimate microbial diversity have developed rapidly in an effort to understand the distribution and diversity of microorganisms in natural environments. For bacterial communities, the 16S rRNA gene is the phylogenetic marker gene of choice, but most studies select only a specific region of the 16S rRNA to estimate bacterial diversity. Whereas biases derived from from DNA extraction, primer choice and PCR amplification are well documented, we here address how the choice of variable region can influence a wide range of standard ecological metrics, such as species richness, phylogenetic diversity, β-diversity and rank-abundance distributions. We have used Illumina paired-end sequencing to estimate the bacterial diversity of 20 natural lakes across Switzerland derived from three trimmed variable 16S rRNA regions (V3, V4, V5. Species richness, phylogenetic diversity, community composition, β-diversity, and rank-abundance distributions differed significantly between 16S rRNA regions. Overall, patterns of diversity quantified by the V3 and V5 regions were more similar to one another than those assessed by the V4 region. Similar results were obtained when analyzing the datasets with different sequence similarity thresholds used during sequences clustering and when the same analysis was used on a reference dataset of sequences from the Greengenes database. In addition we also measured species richness from the same lake samples using ARISA Fingerprinting, but did not find a strong relationship between species richness estimated by Illumina and ARISA. We conclude that the selection of 16S rRNA region significantly influences the estimation of bacterial diversity and species distributions and that caution is warranted when comparing data from different variable regions as well as when using different sequencing techniques.

  19. RICH High Voltages & PDF Analysis @ LHCb

    CERN Multimedia

    Fanchini, E

    2009-01-01

    In the LHCb experiment an important issue is the identification of the hadrons of the final states of the B mesons decays. Two RICH subdetectors are devoted to this task, and the Hybrid Photon Detectors (HPDs) are the photodetectors used to detect Cherenkov light. In this poster there is a description of how the very high voltage (-18 KV) supply stability used to power the HPDs is monitored. It is also presented the basics of a study which can be done with the first collision data: the analysis of the dimuons from the Drell-Yan process. This process is well known and the acceptance of the LHCb detector in terms of pseudorapidity will be very useful to improve the knowledge of the proton structure functions or, alternatively, try to estimate the luminosity from it.

  20. Experimental results obtained at GANIL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borrel, V.

    1993-01-01

    A review of experimental results obtained at GANIL on the study of nuclear structure and nuclear reactions with secondary radioactive beams is presented. Mass measurements by means of the GANIL cyclotrons are described. The possibilities of GANIL/LISE3 for the production and separation of radioactive beams are illustrated through a large variety of experiments. (author). 19 refs., 8 figs

  1. Changes in Species Richness and Composition of Tiger Moths (Lepidoptera: Erebidae: Arctiinae) among Three Neotropical Ecoregions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beccacece, Hernán Mario; Zeballos, Sebastián Rodolfo; Zapata, Adriana Inés

    2016-01-01

    Paraná, Yungas and Chaco Serrano ecoregions are among the most species-rich terrestrial habitats at higher latitude. However, the information for tiger moths, one of the most speciose groups of moths, is unknown in these ecoregions. In this study, we assess their species richness and composition in all three of these ecoregions. Also we investigated whether the species composition of tiger moths is influenced by climatic factors and altitude. Tiger moth species were obtained with samples from 71 sites using standardized protocols (21 sites were in Yungas, 19 in Paraná and 31 in Chaco Serrano). Rarefaction-extrapolation curves, non-parametric estimators for incidence and sample coverage indices were performed to assess species richness in the ecoregions studied. Non metric multidimensional scaling and adonis tests were performed to compare the species composition of tiger moths among ecoregions. Permutest analysis and Pearson correlation were used to evaluate the relationship among species composition and annual mean temperature, annual temperature range, annual precipitation, precipitation seasonality and altitude. Among ecoregions Paraná was the richest with 125 species, followed by Yungas with 63 species and Chaco Serrano with 24 species. Species composition differed among these ecoregions, although Yungas and Chaco Serrano were more similar than Paraná. Species composition was significantly influenced by climatic factors and altitude. This study showed that species richness and species composition of tiger moths differed among the three ecoregions assessed. Furthermore, not only climatic factors and altitude influence the species composition of tiger moths among ecoregions, but also climatic seasonality at higher latitude in Neotropical South America becomes an important factor. PMID:27681478

  2. Changes in Species Richness and Composition of Tiger Moths (Lepidoptera: Erebidae: Arctiinae among Three Neotropical Ecoregions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán Mario Beccacece

    Full Text Available Paraná, Yungas and Chaco Serrano ecoregions are among the most species-rich terrestrial habitats at higher latitude. However, the information for tiger moths, one of the most speciose groups of moths, is unknown in these ecoregions. In this study, we assess their species richness and composition in all three of these ecoregions. Also we investigated whether the species composition of tiger moths is influenced by climatic factors and altitude. Tiger moth species were obtained with samples from 71 sites using standardized protocols (21 sites were in Yungas, 19 in Paraná and 31 in Chaco Serrano. Rarefaction-extrapolation curves, non-parametric estimators for incidence and sample coverage indices were performed to assess species richness in the ecoregions studied. Non metric multidimensional scaling and adonis tests were performed to compare the species composition of tiger moths among ecoregions. Permutest analysis and Pearson correlation were used to evaluate the relationship among species composition and annual mean temperature, annual temperature range, annual precipitation, precipitation seasonality and altitude. Among ecoregions Paraná was the richest with 125 species, followed by Yungas with 63 species and Chaco Serrano with 24 species. Species composition differed among these ecoregions, although Yungas and Chaco Serrano were more similar than Paraná. Species composition was significantly influenced by climatic factors and altitude. This study showed that species richness and species composition of tiger moths differed among the three ecoregions assessed. Furthermore, not only climatic factors and altitude influence the species composition of tiger moths among ecoregions, but also climatic seasonality at higher latitude in Neotropical South America becomes an important factor.

  3. Fission decay properties of ultra neutron-rich uranium isotopes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    in the chain of neutron-rich uranium isotopes is examined here. The neutron ... mean field theory, this nucleus is shown to undergo exotic decay mode of thermal neu- .... For 250U with a fission barrier of 4.3 MeV [5], we obtain the value of.

  4. Geopolymer obtained from coal ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conte, V.; Bissari, E.S.; Uggioni, E.; Bernardin, A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Geopolymers are three-dimensional alumino silicates that can be rapidly formed at low temperature from naturally occurring aluminosilicates with a structure similar to zeolites. In this work coal ash (Tractebel Energy) was used as source of aluminosilicate according a full factorial design in eight formulations with three factors (hydroxide type and concentration and temperature) and two-levels. The ash was dried and hydroxide was added according type and concentration. The geopolymer was poured into cylindrical molds, cured (14 days) and subjected to compression test. The coal ash from power plants belongs to the Si-Al system and thus can easily form geopolymers. The compression tests showed that it is possible to obtain samples with strength comparable to conventional Portland cement. As a result, temperature and molarity are the main factors affecting the compressive strength of the obtained geopolymer. (author)

  5. Truncated States Obtained by Iteration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, W. B.; Almeida, N. G. de

    2008-01-01

    We introduce the concept of truncated states obtained via iterative processes (TSI) and study its statistical features, making an analogy with dynamical systems theory (DST). As a specific example, we have studied TSI for the doubling and the logistic functions, which are standard functions in studying chaos. TSI for both the doubling and logistic functions exhibit certain similar patterns when their statistical features are compared from the point of view of DST

  6. Evaluation of Co-rich manganese deposits by image analysis and photogrammetric techniques

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Yamazaki, T.; Sharma, R.; Tsurusaki, K.

    Stereo-seabed photographs of Co-rich manganese deposits on a mid-Pacific seamount, were analysed using an image analysis software for coverage estimation and size classification of nodules, and a photogrammetric software for calculation of height...

  7. Obtaining zircaloy powder through hydriding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupim, Ivaldete da Silva; Moreira, Joao M.L.

    2009-01-01

    Zirconium alloys are good options for the metal matrix in dispersion fuels for power reactors due to their low thermal neutron absorption cross-section, good corrosion resistance, good mechanical strength and high thermal conductivity. A necessary step for obtaining such fuels is producing Zr alloy powder for the metal matrix composite material. This article presents results from the Zircaloy-4 hydrogenation tests with the purpose to embrittle the alloy as a first step for comminuting. Several hydrogenation tests were performed and studied through thermogravimetric analysis. They included H 2 pressures of 25 and 50 kPa and temperatures ranging between from 20 to 670 deg C. X-ray diffraction analysis showed in the hydrogenated samples the predominant presence of ZrH 2 and some ZrO 2 . Some kinetics parameters for the Zircaloy-4 hydrogenation reaction were obtained: the time required to reach the equilibrium state at the dwell temperature was about 100 minutes; the hydrogenation rate during the heating process from 20 to 670 deg C was about 21 mg/h, and at constant temperature of 670 deg C, the hydride rate was about 1.15 mg/h. The hydrogenation rate is largest during the heating process and most of it occurs during this period. After hydrogenated, the samples could easily be comminuted indicating that this is a possible technology to obtain Zircaloy powder. The results show that only few minutes of hydrogenation are necessary to reach the hydride levels required for comminuting the Zircaloy. The final hydride stoichiometry was between 2.7 and 2.8 H for each Zr atom in the sample (author)

  8. Platelet Counts in Insoluble Platelet-Rich Fibrin Clots: A Direct Method for Accurate Determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutaka Kitamura

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Platelet-rich fibrin (PRF clots have been used in regenerative dentistry most often, with the assumption that growth factor levels are concentrated in proportion to the platelet concentration. Platelet counts in PRF are generally determined indirectly by platelet counting in other liquid fractions. This study shows a method for direct estimation of platelet counts in PRF. To validate this method by determination of the recovery rate, whole-blood samples were obtained with an anticoagulant from healthy donors, and platelet-rich plasma (PRP fractions were clotted with CaCl2 by centrifugation and digested with tissue-plasminogen activator. Platelet counts were estimated before clotting and after digestion using an automatic hemocytometer. The method was then tested on PRF clots. The quality of platelets was examined by scanning electron microscopy and flow cytometry. In PRP-derived fibrin matrices, the recovery rate of platelets and white blood cells was 91.6 and 74.6%, respectively, after 24 h of digestion. In PRF clots associated with small and large red thrombi, platelet counts were 92.6 and 67.2% of the respective total platelet counts. These findings suggest that our direct method is sufficient for estimating the number of platelets trapped in an insoluble fibrin matrix and for determining that platelets are distributed in PRF clots and red thrombi roughly in proportion to their individual volumes. Therefore, we propose this direct digestion method for more accurate estimation of platelet counts in most types of platelet-enriched fibrin matrix.

  9. Vascular plant and vertebrate species richness in national parks of the eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatfield, Jeffrey S.; Myrick, Kaci E.; Huston, Michael A.; Weckerly, Floyd W.; Green, M. Clay

    2013-01-01

    Given the estimates that species diversity is diminishing at 50-100 times the normal rate, it is critical that we be able to evaluate changes in species richness in order to make informed decisions for conserving species diversity. In this study, we examined the potential of vascular plant species richness to be used as a surrogate for vertebrate species richness in the classes of amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals. Vascular plants, as primary producers, represent the biotic starting point for ecological community structure and are the logical place to start for understanding vertebrate species associations. We used data collected by the United States (US) National Park Service (NPS) on species presence within parks in the eastern US to estimate simple linear regressions between plant species richness and vertebrate richness. Because environmental factors may also influence species diversity, we performed simple linear regressions of species richness versus natural logarithm of park area, park latitude, mean annual precipitation, mean annual temperature, and human population density surrounding the parks. We then combined plant species richness and environmental variables in multiple regressions to determine the variables that remained as significant predictors of vertebrate species richness. As expected, we detected significant relationships between plant species richness and amphibian, bird, and mammal species richness. In some cases, plant species richness was predicted by park area alone. Species richness of mammals was only related to plant species richness. Reptile species richness, on the other hand, was related to plant species richness, park latitude and annual precipitation, while amphibian species richness was related to park latitude, park area, and plant species richness. Thus, plant species richness predicted species richness of different vertebrate groups to varying degrees and should not be used exclusively as a surrogate for vertebrate

  10. HTML5 rich media foundation

    CERN Document Server

    David, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    Learn about the new ways in which video and audio can be easily embedded into your HTML5 Web pages. Discover how you can create new Web media content and how JavaScript, CSS, and SVG can be integrated to create a compelling, rich media foundation for your work. HTML 5, is the first major update to the core language of the Web in over a decade The focus of this book is on innovations that most directly effect Web site design and multimedia integration The companion Web site features working demonstrations and tutorial media for hands-on pract

  11. Experimental methodology for obtaining sound absorption coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Macía M

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: the authors propose a new methodology for estimating sound absorption coefficients using genetic algorithms. Methodology: sound waves are generated and conducted along a rectangular silencer. The waves are then attenuated by the absorbing material covering the silencer’s walls. The attenuated sound pressure level is used in a genetic algorithm-based search to find the parameters of the proposed attenuation expressions that include geometric factors, the wavelength and the absorption coefficient. Results: a variety of adjusted mathematical models were found that make it possible to estimate the absorption coefficients based on the characteristics of a rectangular silencer used for measuring the attenuation of the noise that passes through it. Conclusions: this methodology makes it possible to obtain the absorption coefficients of new materials in a cheap and simple manner. Although these coefficients might be slightly different from those obtained through other methodologies, they provide solutions within the engineering accuracy ranges that are used for designing noise control systems.

  12. Conservation and Biodiversity of Rich Fens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Dagmar Kappel

    2014-01-01

    Rich fen is a habitat type dependent on a constant supply of nutrient poor, calcium rich groundwater. A high, stable groundwater table, relatively high pH combined with nutrient poor conditions support a special and very species rich vegetation including many rare and threatened plant species. In...

  13. New helium spectrum variable and a new helium-rich star

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walborn, N.R.

    1974-01-01

    HD 184927, known previously as a helium-rich star, has been found to have a variable helium spectrum; the equivalent widths of five He I lines are larger by an average of 46 percent on a 1974 spectrogram than on one obtained with the same equipment in 1970. HD 186205 has been found to be a new, pronounced helium-rich star. (auth)

  14. Habitability constraints on water-rich exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noack, Lena; Höning, Dennis; Rivoldini, Attilio; Heistracher, Clemens; Zimov, Nastasia; Journaux, Baptiste; Lammer, Helmut; Van Hoolst, Tim; Hendrik Bredehöft, Jan

    2016-04-01

    This research addresses the characterization, modelling, thermal evolution and possible habitability of water-rich exoplanets. Water is necessary for the origin and survival of life as we know it. In the search for habitable worlds, water-rich planets therefore seem obvious candidates. The water layer on such planets could be hundreds of kilometers deep. Depending on the temperature profile and the pressure gradient, it is likely that at great depths a significant part of the water layer is solid high pressure ice. Whether the solid ice layer extends to the bottom of the water layer, or if a shallow lower ocean forms above the silicate mantle, depends amongst others on the thermal state of the planet. We therefore model the thermal evolution of water-rich planets with a 1D parameterized model. Depth-dependent profiles for thermodynamic properties as well as pressure and gravity are obtained by solving the Poisson equation for the gravity and the hydrostatic pressure equation for pre-defined mass and composition (in terms of iron, silicates and water) [1]. For density, equations of state are applied. For the simulation of the thermal evolution of water-rich planets, several parameters (as initial temperatures or layer thicknesses) are unknown. We therefore employ a quantitatve study with more than 20'000 simulations, where we investigated which parameters have the largest influence on the appearance of a lower ocean, i.e. the possible melting of high-pressure ice by heat flowing out of the silicate mantle [2]. We find that the surface temperature has the largest influence on the thickness of water layers, for which a lower ocean can still form between the high-pressure ice layer and the silicate mantle. For higher surface temperatures, not only entirely liquid oceans are possible for deeper water shells, also a liquid ocean can form under high-pressure ice layers of hundreds of kilometer thickness (for a 1 Earth-mass planet). Deeper down, the lower ocean can still

  15. Butterfly Species Richness in Selected West Albertine Rift Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrice Kasangaki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The butterfly species richness of 17 forests located in the western arm of the Albertine Rift in Uganda was compared using cluster analysis and principal components analysis (PCA to assess similarities among the forests. The objective was to compare the butterfly species richness of the forests. A total of 630 butterfly species were collected in 5 main families. The different species fell into 7 ecological groupings with the closed forest group having the most species and the swamp/wetland group with the fewest number of species. Three clusters were obtained. The first cluster had forests characterized by relatively high altitude and low species richness despite the big area in the case of Rwenzori and being close to the supposed Pleistocene refugium. The second cluster had forests far away from the supposed refugium except Kisangi and moderate species richness with small areas, whereas the third cluster had those forests that were more disturbed, high species richness, and low altitudinal levels with big areas.

  16. Drugs obtained by biotechnology processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Almeida

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the number of drugs of biotechnological origin available for many different diseases has increased exponentially, including different types of cancer, diabetes mellitus, infectious diseases (e.g. AIDS Virus / HIV as well as cardiovascular, neurological, respiratory, and autoimmune diseases, among others. The pharmaceutical industry has used different technologies to obtain new and promising active ingredients, as exemplified by the fermentation technique, recombinant DNA technique and the hybridoma technique. The expiry of the patents of the first drugs of biotechnological origin and the consequent emergence of biosimilar products, have posed various questions to health authorities worldwide regarding the definition, framework, and requirements for authorization to market such products.Nos últimos anos, tem aumentado exponencialmente o número de fármacos de origem biotecnológica ao dispor das mais diversas patologias, entre elas destacam-se, os diferentes tipos de cancêr, as doenças infecciosas (ex. vírus AIDS/HIV, as doenças autoimunes, as doenças cardiovasculares, a Diabetes Mellitus, as doenças neurológicas, as doenças respiratórias, entre outras. A indústria farmacêutica tem recorrido a diferentes tecnologias para a obtenção de novos e promissores princípios ativos, como são exemplo a fermentação, a técnica de DNA Recombinante, a técnica de hidridoma, entre outras. A queda das patentes dos primeiros fármacos de origem biotecnológica e o consequente aparecimento dos produtos biossimilares têm colocado diferentes questões às autoridades de saúde mundiais, sobre a definição, enquadramento e exigências para a autorização de entrada no mercado deste tipo de produtos.

  17. The leucine-rich repeat structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bella, J; Hindle, K L; McEwan, P A; Lovell, S C

    2008-08-01

    The leucine-rich repeat is a widespread structural motif of 20-30 amino acids with a characteristic repetitive sequence pattern rich in leucines. Leucine-rich repeat domains are built from tandems of two or more repeats and form curved solenoid structures that are particularly suitable for protein-protein interactions. Thousands of protein sequences containing leucine-rich repeats have been identified by automatic annotation methods. Three-dimensional structures of leucine-rich repeat domains determined to date reveal a degree of structural variability that translates into the considerable functional versatility of this protein superfamily. As the essential structural principles become well established, the leucine-rich repeat architecture is emerging as an attractive framework for structural prediction and protein engineering. This review presents an update of the current understanding of leucine-rich repeat structure at the primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary levels and discusses specific examples from recently determined three-dimensional structures.

  18. Inferring species richness and turnover by statistical multiresolution texture analysis of satellite imagery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Convertino

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The quantification of species-richness and species-turnover is essential to effective monitoring of ecosystems. Wetland ecosystems are particularly in need of such monitoring due to their sensitivity to rainfall, water management and other external factors that affect hydrology, soil, and species patterns. A key challenge for environmental scientists is determining the linkage between natural and human stressors, and the effect of that linkage at the species level in space and time. We propose pixel intensity based Shannon entropy for estimating species-richness, and introduce a method based on statistical wavelet multiresolution texture analysis to quantitatively assess interseasonal and interannual species turnover. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We model satellite images of regions of interest as textures. We define a texture in an image as a spatial domain where the variations in pixel intensity across the image are both stochastic and multiscale. To compare two textures quantitatively, we first obtain a multiresolution wavelet decomposition of each. Either an appropriate probability density function (pdf model for the coefficients at each subband is selected, and its parameters estimated, or, a non-parametric approach using histograms is adopted. We choose the former, where the wavelet coefficients of the multiresolution decomposition at each subband are modeled as samples from the generalized Gaussian pdf. We then obtain the joint pdf for the coefficients for all subbands, assuming independence across subbands; an approximation that simplifies the computational burden significantly without sacrificing the ability to statistically distinguish textures. We measure the difference between two textures' representative pdf's via the Kullback-Leibler divergence (KL. Species turnover, or [Formula: see text] diversity, is estimated using both this KL divergence and the difference in Shannon entropy. Additionally, we predict species

  19. Rich Language Analysis for Counterterrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidère, Mathieu; Howard, Newton; Argamon, Shlomo

    Accurate and relevant intelligence is critical for effective counterterrorism. Too much irrelevant information is as bad or worse than not enough information. Modern computational tools promise to provide better search and summarization capabilities to help analysts filter and select relevant and key information. However, to do this task effectively, such tools must have access to levels of meaning beyond the literal. Terrorists operating in context-rich cultures like fundamentalist Islam use messages with multiple levels of interpretation, which are easily misunderstood by non-insiders. This chapter discusses several kinds of such “encryption” used by terrorists and insurgents in the Arabic language, and how knowledge of such methods can be used to enhance computational text analysis techniques for use in counterterrorism.

  20. Photoconduction in silicon rich oxide films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luna-Lopez, J A; Carrillo-Lopez, J; Flores-Gracia, F J; Garcia-Salgado, G [CIDS-ICUAP, Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla. Ed. 103 D and C, col. San Manuel, Puebla, Pue. Mexico 72570 (Mexico); Aceves-Mijares, M; Morales-Sanchez, A, E-mail: jluna@buap.siu.m, E-mail: jluna@inaoep.m [INAOE, Luis Enrique Erro No. 1, Apdo. 51, Tonantzintla, Puebla, Mexico 72000 (Mexico)

    2009-05-01

    Photoconduction of silicon rich oxide (SRO) thin films were studied by current-voltage (I-V) measurements, where ultraviolet (UV) and white (Vis) light illumination were applied. SRO thin films were deposited by low pressure chemical vapour deposition (LPCVD) technique, using SiH{sub 4} (silane) and N{sub 2}O (nitrous oxide) as reactive gases at 700 {sup 0}. The gas flow ratio, Ro = [N{sub 2}O]/[SiH{sub 4}] was used to control the silicon excess. The thickness and refractive index of the SRO films were 72.0 nm, 75.5 nm, 59.1 nm, 73.4 nm and 1.7, 1.5, 1.46, 1.45, corresponding to R{sub o} = 10, 20, 30 and 50, respectively. These results were obtained by null ellipsometry. Si nanoparticles (Si-nps) and defects within SRO films permit to obtain interesting photoelectric properties as a high photocurrent and photoconduction. These effects strongly depend on the silicon excess, thickness and structure type. Two different structures (Al/SRO/Si and Al/SRO/SRO/Si metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS)-like structures) were fabricated and used as devices. The photocurrent in these structures is dominated by the generation of carriers due to the incident photon energies ({approx}3.0-1.6 eV and 5 eV). These structures showed large photoconductive response at room temperature. Therefore, these structures have potential applications in optoelectronics devices.

  1. Structure of the neutron-rich lithium isotopes in heavy-ion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bespalova, O.V.; Galakhmatova, B.S.; Romanovskij, E.A.; Shitikova, K.V.; Burov, V.V.; Rzyanin, M.V.; Miller, H.G.; Yen, G.D.

    1993-01-01

    The structure properties, for factors, angular distributions and interaction cross sections of Li neutron-rich isotopes have been analyzed in the unified way. A good qualitative agreement with the experiment data was obtained. 20 refs.; 11 figs.; 1 tab

  2. Operation of the Electronics for the AMS-02RICH Detector Prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguayo, P.; Aguilar, M.; Berdugo, J.; Casaus, J.; Delgado, C.; Diaz, C.; Fernandez, C.; Garcia-Tabares, L.; Lanciotti, E.; Mana, C.; Marin, J.; Martinez, G.; Palomares, C.; Sanchez, E.; Sevilla, I.; Torrento, A.; Wilmott, C.; Yanez, J.

    2002-07-01

    The operation and behaviour of the RICH prototype electronics developed for the AMS-02 experiment is presented. It includes results and conclusions obtained from experimental tests data with cosmic rays. (Author)

  3. Digital literacy and problem solving in technology-rich environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Dolničar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Rapid development and progress, as well as the growing presence of information and communications technologies dictate the need for more highly developed digital skills in individuals. The paper focuses on the concepts of digital skills and problem solving in technology-rich environments. It examines these on the basis of empirical data obtained in the international study PIAAC. The introductory part presents an overview of the literature and the results of previous research in the field of measurement of digital skills, and data on the use of information society services among the EU Member States. The second part of the article refers to the results obtained in the study PIAAC. The results, confirmed by the results of other studies, showed the impact of age and education level on the problem solving in technology-rich environments. Article concludes with suggestions for improving the current state of integration of all population groups in training programs in the field of digital skills.

  4. Cloud based automated framework for semantic rich ontology construction and similarity computation for E-health applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. MuthamilSelvan

    Full Text Available Ontology structure, a core of semantic web is an excellent tool for knowledge representation and semantic visualization. Moreover, knowledge reuse is made possible through similarity measure estimation between two ontologies, threshold estimation and use of simple if-then rules for checking relevancy and irrelevancy measures. Reduced semantic representations of the ontology provide reduced knowledge visualization which is critical especially for e-health data processing and analysis. This usually occurs due to the presence of implicit knowledge and polymorphic objects and can be made semantically rich through the construction by resolving this implicit knowledge occurring in the form of non-dominant words and conditional dependence actions. This paper presents the working of the automated framework for the construction of semantic rich ontology structures and store in the repository. This construction uses dyadic deontic logic based Graph Derivation Representation in order to construct semantically rich ontologies. Moreover, in order to retrieve a set of relevant documents in response to the cloud user document, the degree of similarity between two ontologies is estimated using the traditional cosine similarity measure and simple if-then rules are used to determine the number of relevant documents and obtain such document's metadata for further processing. These working modules will be extremely beneficial to the authenticated cloud users for document retrieval, information extraction and domain dictionary construction which are especially used for e-health applications. The proposed framework is implemented using diabetes dataset and the effectiveness of the experimental results is high when compared to other Graph Derivation Representation methods. The graphical results shown in the paper is an added visualization for viewing the performance of the proposed framework. Keywords: Ontology, Implicit knowledge, Conditional dependence, Graph

  5. Clovamide-rich extract from Trifolium pallidum reduces oxidative stress-induced damage to blood platelets and plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodziejczyk, Joanna; Olas, Beata; Wachowicz, Barbara; Szajwaj, Barbara; Stochmal, Anna; Oleszek, Wieslaw

    2011-09-01

    Numerous plants (including clovers) have been widely used in folk medicine for the treatment of different disorders. This in vitro study was designed to examine the antioxidative effects of the clovamide-rich fraction, obtained from aerial parts of Trifolium pallidum, in the protection of blood platelets and plasma against the nitrative and oxidative damage, caused by peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)). Carbonyl groups and 3-nitrotyrosine in blood platelet and plasma proteins were determined by ELISA tests. Thiol groups level was estimated by using 5,5'-dithio-bis(2-nitro-benzoic acid, DTNB). Plasma lipid peroxidation was measured spectrophotometrically as the production of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. The results from our work indicate that clovamide-rich T. pallidum extract may reveal the protective properties in the prevention against oxidative stress. The presence of clovamide-rich T. pallidum extract (12.5-100 μg/ml) partly inhibited ONOO(-)-mediated protein carbonylation and nitration. All the used concentrations of T. pallidum extract reduced lipid peroxidation in plasma. The antioxidative action of the tested extract in the protection of blood platelet lipids was less effective; the extract at the lowest final concentration (12.5 μg/ml) had no protective effect against lipid peroxidation. The present results indicate that the extract from T. pallidum is likely to be a source of compounds with the antioxidative properties, useful in the prevention against the oxidative stress-related diseases.

  6. Functional richness: Overview of indices and underlying concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legras, G.; Loiseau, N.; Gaertner, J.-C.

    2018-02-01

    Functional richness, currently defined as the amount of niche space occupied by the species within a community, is one of the three major components of functional diversity. Different indices have been developed in order to quantify this component. However, the range of indices available for assessing functional richness, often mathematically complex and based on different rationales, can cause confusion for field ecologists and lead to misinterpretation of the results obtained. In this context, we have provided the first study exclusively focused on the comparison of the definitions, advantages and drawbacks of a large set of functional richness indices. The first part of this work is focused on four indices (FDP&G, FRic, TOP and N-hypervolumes indices) that are currently the most commonly used for assessing functional richness. We have completed our study by including recently developed indices that enable us to take into account the intraspecific trait variability (i.e. FRim index and TDP framework), because there is currently a growing scientific consensus regarding the necessity of including this aspect in the assessment of the functional diversity of communities. We demonstrate that although authors have argued that their index describes the functional richness, each of them describes only part of it, and this part may strongly differ from one index to another. Rather than advocating the general use of a single index and/or systematically avoiding others, our study highlights the need for selecting indices in close relation with the context, the available data and the aims of each study. Such a strategy is an essential preliminary step for preventing misunderstanding and artefactual controversies. Along these lines, we propose some guidelines to help users in selecting the most appropriate indices according both to the facet of functional richness on which they wish to focus and to the characteristics of the available data.

  7. Technical and technological solution for vegetal bio-stimulants obtaining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anghelache, D. G.; Diaconescu, I.; Pătraşcu, R.

    2017-08-01

    The paper presents a modern technology for bio fertilizers resulted from waste plant mass after harvesting crops Experimental products were obtained rich in nutrients, but unstable in terms of existing microorganisms. Therefore, they conducted further studies to obtaining bio fungicide herb, so in all investigations undertaken so far in the laboratory, were able to conclude that the introduction of medicinal plant extracts with fungicidal effect into the bio fertilizers obtained by degradation of plant material post-harvest can get various bio-stimulants with nourishing effect upon the plants. Following this technology the paper’s objective is to identify a flux scheme for experimental equipment which can produce as final outcome this type of bio-stimulant. Also, in this work, this equipment will be chosen and will be designed following and obeying to the request of every step of the above technology.

  8. Antimicrobial effect of platelet-rich plasma and platelet-rich fibrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badade, Pallavi S; Mahale, Swapna A; Panjwani, Alisha A; Vaidya, Prutha D; Warang, Ayushya D

    2016-01-01

    Platelet concentrates have been extensively used in a variety of medical fields to promote soft- and hard-tissue regeneration. The significance behind their use lies in the abundance of growth factors (GFs) in platelets α-granules that promote wound healing. Other than releasing a pool of GFs upon activation, platelets also have many features that indicate their role in the anti-infective host defense. The aim of this study is to evaluate the antimicrobial activities of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) against periodontal disease-associated bacteria. Blood samples were obtained from ten adult male patients. PRP and PRF were procured using centrifugation. The antimicrobial activity of PRP and PRF was evaluated by microbial culturing using bacterial strains of Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans. P. gingivalis and A. actinomycetemcomitans were inhibited by PRP but not by PRF. PRP is a potentially useful substance in the fight against periodontal pathogens. This might represent a valuable property in adjunct to the enhancement of tissue regeneration.

  9. Proton-rich nuclear statistical equilibrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seitenzahl, I.R.; Timmes, F.X.; Marin-Lafleche, A.; Brown, E.; Magkotsios, G.; Truran, J.

    2008-01-01

    Proton-rich material in a state of nuclear statistical equilibrium (NSE) is one of the least studied regimes of nucleosynthesis. One reason for this is that after hydrogen burning, stellar evolution proceeds at conditions of an equal number of neutrons and protons or at a slight degree of neutron-richness. Proton-rich nucleosynthesis in stars tends to occur only when hydrogen-rich material that accretes onto a white dwarf or a neutron star explodes, or when neutrino interactions in the winds from a nascent proto-neutron star or collapsar disk drive the matter proton-rich prior to or during the nucleosynthesis. In this Letter we solve the NSE equations for a range of proton-rich thermodynamic conditions. We show that cold proton-rich NSE is qualitatively different from neutron-rich NSE. Instead of being dominated by the Fe-peak nuclei with the largest binding energy per nucleon that have a proton-to-nucleon ratio close to the prescribed electron fraction, NSE for proton-rich material near freezeout temperature is mainly composed of 56Ni and free protons. Previous results of nuclear reaction network calculations rely on this nonintuitive high-proton abundance, which this Letter explains. We show how the differences and especially the large fraction of free protons arises from the minimization of the free energy as a result of a delicate competition between the entropy and nuclear binding energy.

  10. Species richness of motile cryptofauna across a gradient of reef framework erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enochs, I. C.; Manzello, D. P.

    2012-09-01

    Coral reef ecosystems contain exceptionally high concentrations of marine biodiversity, potentially encompassing millions of species. Similar to tropical rainforests and their insects, the majority of reef animal species are small and cryptic, living in the cracks and crevices of structural taxa (trees and corals). Although the cryptofauna make up the majority of a reef's metazoan biodiversity, we know little about their basic ecology. We sampled motile cryptofaunal communities from both live corals and dead carbonate reef framework across a gradient of increasing erosion on a reef in Pacific Panamá. A total of 289 Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) from six phyla were identified. We used species-accumulation models fitted to individual- and sample-based rarefaction curves, as well as seven nonparametric richness estimators to estimate species richness among the different framework types. All procedures predicted the same trends in species richness across the differing framework types. Estimated species richness was higher in dead framework (261-370 OTUs) than in live coral substrates (112-219 OTUs). Surprisingly, richness increased as framework structure was eroded: coral rubble contained the greatest number of species (227-320 OTUs) and the lowest estimated richness of 47-115 OTUs was found in the zone where the reef framework had the greatest vertical relief. This contradicts the paradigm that abundant live coral indicates the apex of reef diversity.

  11. Upscaling species richness and abundances in tropical forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovo, Anna; Suweis, Samir; Formentin, Marco; Favretti, Marco; Volkov, Igor; Banavar, Jayanth R; Azaele, Sandro; Maritan, Amos

    2017-10-01

    The quantification of tropical tree biodiversity worldwide remains an open and challenging problem. More than two-fifths of the number of worldwide trees can be found either in tropical or in subtropical forests, but only ≈0.000067% of species identities are known. We introduce an analytical framework that provides robust and accurate estimates of species richness and abundances in biodiversity-rich ecosystems, as confirmed by tests performed on both in silico-generated and real forests. Our analysis shows that the approach outperforms other methods. In particular, we find that upscaling methods based on the log-series species distribution systematically overestimate the number of species and abundances of the rare species. We finally apply our new framework on 15 empirical tropical forest plots and quantify the minimum percentage cover that should be sampled to achieve a given average confidence interval in the upscaled estimate of biodiversity. Our theoretical framework confirms that the forests studied are comprised of a large number of rare or hyper-rare species. This is a signature of critical-like behavior of species-rich ecosystems and can provide a buffer against extinction.

  12. Beneath the veil: Plant growth form influences the strength of species richness-productivity relationships in forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberle, B.; Grace, J.B.; Chase, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Aim: Species richness has been observed to increase with productivity at large spatial scales, though the strength of this relationship varies among functional groups. In forests, canopy trees shade understorey plants, and for this reason we hypothesize that species richness of canopy trees will depend on macroclimate, while species richness of shorter growth forms will additionally be affected by shading from the canopy. In this study we test for differences in species richness-productivity relationships (SRPRs) among growth forms (canopy trees, shrubs, herbaceous species) in small forest plots. Location: We analysed 231 plots ranging from 34.0?? to 48.3?? N latitude and from 75.0?? to 124.2?? W longitude in the United States. Methods: We analysed data collected by the USDA Forest Inventory and Analysis program for plant species richness partitioned into different growth forms, in small plots. We used actual evapotranspiration as a macroclimatic estimate of regional productivity and calculated the area of light-blocking tissue in the immediate area surrounding plots for an estimate of the intensity of local shading. We estimated and compared SRPRs for different partitions of the species richness dataset using generalized linear models and we incorporated the possible indirect effects of shading using a structural equation model. Results: Canopy tree species richness increased strongly with regional productivity, while local shading primarily explained the variation in herbaceous plant richness. Shrub species richness was related to both regional productivity and local shading. Main conclusions: The relationship between total forest plant species richness and productivity at large scales belies strong effects of local interactions. Counter to the pattern for overall richness, we found that understorey herbaceous plant species richness does not respond to regional productivity gradients, and instead is strongly influenced by canopy density, while shrub species

  13. Forecasting production in Liquid Rich Shale plays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikfarman, Hanieh

    Production from Liquid Rich Shale (LRS) reservoirs is taking center stage in the exploration and production of unconventional reservoirs. Production from the low and ultra-low permeability LRS plays is possible only through multi-fractured horizontal wells (MFHW's). There is no existing workflow that is applicable to forecasting multi-phase production from MFHW's in LRS plays. This project presents a practical and rigorous workflow for forecasting multiphase production from MFHW's in LRS reservoirs. There has been much effort in developing workflows and methodology for forecasting in tight/shale plays in recent years. The existing workflows, however, are applicable only to single phase flow, and are primarily used in shale gas plays. These methodologies do not apply to the multi-phase flow that is inevitable in LRS plays. To account for complexities of multiphase flow in MFHW's the only available technique is dynamic modeling in compositional numerical simulators. These are time consuming and not practical when it comes to forecasting production and estimating reserves for a large number of producers. A workflow was developed, and validated by compositional numerical simulation. The workflow honors physics of flow, and is sufficiently accurate while practical so that an analyst can readily apply it to forecast production and estimate reserves in a large number of producers in a short period of time. To simplify the complex multiphase flow in MFHW, the workflow divides production periods into an initial period where large production and pressure declines are expected, and the subsequent period where production decline may converge into a common trend for a number of producers across an area of interest in the field. Initial period assumes the production is dominated by single-phase flow of oil and uses the tri-linear flow model of Erdal Ozkan to estimate the production history. Commercial software readily available can simulate flow and forecast production in this

  14. Investigating equality: The poverty and riches indices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eliazar, Iddo

    2016-01-01

    As noise is omnipresent, real-world quantities measured by scientists and engineers are commonly obtained in the form of statistical distributions. In turn, perhaps the most compact representation of a given statistical distribution is via the mean-variance approach: the mean manifesting the distribution’s ‘typical’ value, and the variance manifesting the magnitude of the distribution’s fluctuations about its mean. The mean-variance approach is based on an underlying Euclidean-geometry perspective. So very often real-world quantities of interest are non-negative sizes, and their measurements yield statistical size distributions. In this paper, and in the context of size distributions, we present an alternative to the Euclidean-based mean-variance approach: a mean-equality approach that is based on an underlying socioeconomic perspective. We establish two equality indices that score, on a unit-interval scale, the intrinsic ‘egalitarianism’ of size distributions: (i) the poverty equality index which is particularly sensitive to the existence of very small “poor” sizes; (ii) the riches equality index which is particularly sensitive to the existence of very large “rich” sizes. These equality indices, their properties, their computation, their application, and their connections to the mean-variance approach – are explored and described comprehensively.

  15. Chiral-symmetry restoration in baryon-rich environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kogut, J.; Matsuoka, H.; Stone, M.; Wyld, H.W.; Shenker, S.; Shigemitsu, J.; Sinclair, D.K.

    1983-04-01

    Chiral symmetry restoration in an environment rich in baryons is studied by computer simulation methods in SU(2) and SU(3) gauge theories in the quenched approximation. The basic theory of symmetry restoration as a function of chemical potential is illustrated and the implementation of the ideas on a lattice is made explicit. A simple mean field model is presented to guide one's expectations. The second order conjugate-gradient iterative method and the pseudo-fermion Monte Carlo procedure are convergent methods of calculating the fermion propagator in an environment rich in baryons. Computer simulations of SU(3) gauge theory show an abrupt chiral symmetry restoring transition and the critical chemical potential and induced baryon density are estimated crudely. A smoother transition is observed for the color group SU(2)

  16. LHCb RICH1 Engineering Design Review Report

    CERN Document Server

    Brook, N; Metlica, F; Muir, A; Phillips, A; Buckley, A; Gibson, V; Harrison, K; Jones, C R; Katvars, S G; Lazzeroni, C; Storey, J; Ward, CP; Wotton, S; Alemi, M; Arnabaldi, C; Bellunato, T F; Calvi, M; Matteuzzi, C; Musy, M; Negri, P; Perego, D L; Pessina, G; Chamonal, R; Eisenhardt, S; Lawrence, J; McCarron, J; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Walker, A; Cuneo, S; Fontanelli, F; Gracco, Valerio; Mini, G; Musico, P; Petrolini, A; Sannino, M; Bates, A; MacGregor, A; O'Shea, V; Parkes, C; Paterson, S; Petrie, D; Pickford, A; Rahman, M; Soler, F; Allebone, L; Barber, J H; Cameron, W; Clark, D; Dornan, Peter John; Duane, A; Egede, U; Hallam, R; Howard, A; Plackett, R; Price, D; Savidge, T; Vidal-Sitjes, G; Websdale, D M; Adinolfi, M; Bibby, J H; Cioffi, C; Gligorov, Vladimir V; Harnew, N; Harris, F; McArthur, I A; Newby, C; Ottewell, B; Rademacker, J; Senanayake, R; Somerville, L P; Soroko, A; Smale, N J; Topp-Jørgensen, S; Wilkinson, G; Yang, S; Benayoun, M; Khmelnikov, V A; Obraztsov, V F; Densham, C J; Easo, S; Franek, B; Kuznetsov, G; Loveridge, P W; Morrow, D; Morris, JV; Papanestis, A; Patrick, G N; Woodward, M L; Aglieri-Rinella, G; Albrecht, A; Braem, André; Campbell, M; D'Ambrosio, C; Forty, R W; Frei, C; Gys, Thierry; Jamet, O; Kanaya, N; Losasso, M; Moritz, M; Patel, M; Piedigrossi, D; Snoeys, W; Ullaland, O; Van Lysebetten, A; Wyllie, K

    2005-01-01

    This document describes the concepts of the engineering design to be adopted for the upstream Ring Imaging Cherenkov detector (RICH1) of the reoptimized LHCb detector. Our aim is to ensure that coherent solutions for the engineering design and integration for all components of RICH1 are available, before proceeding with the detailed design of these components.

  17. Island Species Richness Increases with Habitat Diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hortal, J.; Triantis, K.A.; Meiri, S.; Thebault, E.M.C.; Sfenthourakis, S.

    2009-01-01

    Species richness is commonly thought to increase with habitat diversity. However, a recent theoretical model aiming to unify niche and island biogeography theories predicted a hump-shaped relationship between richness and habitat diversity. Given the contradiction between model results and previous

  18. Plant species richness enhances nitrogen retention in green roof plots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Catherine; Schweinhart, Shelbye; Buffam, Ishi

    2016-10-01

    Vegetated (green) roofs have become common in many cities and are projected to continue to increase in coverage, but little is known about the ecological properties of these engineered ecosystems. In this study, we tested the biodiversity-ecosystem function hypothesis using commercially available green roof trays as replicated plots with varying levels of plant species richness (0, 1, 3, or 6 common green roof species per plot, using plants with different functional characteristics). We estimated accumulated plant biomass near the peak of the first full growing season (July 2013) and measured runoff volume after nearly every rain event from September 2012 to September 2013 (33 events) and runoff fluxes of inorganic nutrients ammonium, nitrate, and phosphate from a subset of 10 events. We found that (1) total plant biomass increased with increasing species richness, (2) green roof plots were effective at reducing storm runoff, with vegetation increasing water retention more than soil-like substrate alone, but there was no significant effect of plant species identity or richness on runoff volume, (3) green roof substrate was a significant source of phosphate, regardless of presence/absence of plants, and (4) dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN = nitrate + ammonium) runoff fluxes were different among plant species and decreased significantly with increasing plant species richness. The variation in N retention was positively related to variation in plant biomass. Notably, the increased biomass and N retention with species richness in this engineered ecosystem are similar to patterns observed in published studies from grasslands and other well-studied ecosystems. We suggest that more diverse plantings on vegetated roofs may enhance the retention capacity for reactive nitrogen. This is of importance for the sustained health of vegetated roof ecosystems, which over time often experience nitrogen limitation, and is also relevant for water quality in receiving waters

  19. Platelet-rich plasma in otolaryngology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavrakas, M; Karkos, P D; Markou, K; Grigoriadis, N

    2016-12-01

    Platelet-rich plasma is a novel material that is being used more frequently in many surgical specialties. A literature review on the current and potential uses of platelet-rich plasma in otolaryngology was performed. There is limited evidence on the use of platelet-rich plasma in otolaryngology compared with other specialties: only 11 studies on various subspecialties (otology, rhinology and laryngology) were included in the final review. Based on the limited number of studies, we cannot draw safe conclusions about the value of platelet-rich plasma in otolaryngology. Nevertheless, the available literature suggests that platelet-rich plasma holds promise for future research and may have a number of clinical applications.

  20. Propargyl Recombination: Estimation of the High Temperature, Low Pressure Rate Constant from Flame Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Christian Lund; Skjøth-Rasmussen, Martin Skov; Jensen, Anker

    2005-01-01

    The most important cyclization reaction in hydrocarbon flames is probably recombination of propargyl radicals. This reaction may, depending on reaction conditions, form benzene, phenyl or fulvene, as well as a range of linear products. A number of rate measurements have been reported for C3H3 + C3H......3 at temperatures below 1000 K, while data at high temperature and low pressure only can be obtained from flames. In the present work, an estimate of the rate constant for the reaction at 1400 +/- 50 K and 20 Torr is obtained from analysis of the fuel-rich acetylene flame of Westmoreland, Howard...

  1. Isospin Conservation in Neutron Rich Systems of Heavy Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Ashok Kumar; Garg, Swati

    2018-05-01

    It is generally believed that isospin would diminish in its importance as we go towards heavy mass region due to isospin mixing caused by the growing Coulomb forces. However, it was realized quite early that isospin could become an important and useful quantum number for all nuclei including heavy nuclei due to neutron richness of the systems [1]. Lane and Soper [2] also showed in a theoretical calculation that isospin indeed remains quite good in heavy mass neutron rich systems. In this paper, we present isospin based calculations [3, 4] for the fission fragment distributions obtained from heavy-ion fusion fission reactions. We discuss in detail the procedure adopted to assign the isospin values and the role of neutron multiplicity data in obtaining the total fission fragment distributions. We show that the observed fragment distributions can be reproduced rather reasonably well by the calculations based on the idea of conservation of isospin. This is a direct experimental evidence of the validity of isospin in heavy nuclei, which arises largely due to the neutron-rich nature of heavy nuclei and their fragments. This result may eventually become useful for the theories of nuclear fission and also in other practical applications.

  2. Process optimization for obtaining nano cellulose from curaua fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lunz, Juliana do N.; Cordeiro, Suellem B.; Mota, Jose Carlos F.; Marques, Maria de Fatima V.

    2011-01-01

    This study focuses on the methodology for optimization to obtain nanocellulose from vegetal fibers. An experimental planning was carried out for the treatment of curaua fibers and parameters were estimated, having the concentration of H 2 SO 4 , hydrolysis time, reaction temperature and time of sonication applied as independent variables for further statistical analysis. According to the estimated parameters, the statistically significant effects were determined for the process of obtaining nanocellulose. According to the results obtained from the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) it was observed that certain conditions led to cellulose with degradation temperatures near or even above that of untreated cellulose fibers. The crystallinity index (IC) obtained after fiber treatment (X-ray diffraction) were higher than that of the pure fiber. Treatments with high acid concentrations led to higher IC. (author)

  3. Lettuce facing microcystins-rich irrigation water at different developmental stages: Effects on plant performance and microcystins bioaccumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levizou, Efi; Statiris, George; Papadimitriou, Theodoti; Laspidou, Chrysi S; Kormas, Konstantinos Ar

    2017-09-01

    This study investigated the microcystins (MCs)-rich irrigation water effect on lettuce of different developmental stages, i.e. during a two months period, covering the whole period from seed germination to harvest at marketable size of the plant. We followed four lettuce plant groups receiving MCs-rich water (1.81μgl -1 of dissolved MCs), originating from the Karla Reservoir, central Greece: 1) from seeds, 2) the cotyledon, 3) two true leaves and 4) four true leaves stages, all of which were compared to control plants that received tap water. Lettuce growth, photosynthetic performance, biochemical and mineral characteristics, as well as MCs accumulation in leaves, roots and soil were measured. The overall performance of lettuce at various developmental stages pointed to increased tolerance since growth showed minor alterations and non-enzymatic antioxidants remained unaffected. Plants receiving MCs-rich water from the seed stage exhibited higher photosynthetic capacity, chlorophylls and leaf nitrogen content. Nevertheless, considerable MCs accumulation in various plant tissues occurred. The earlier in their development lettuce plants started receiving MCs-rich water, the more MCs they accumulated: roots and leaves of plants exposed to MCs-rich water from seeds and cotyledons stage exhibited doubled MCs concentrations compared to respective tissues of the 4 Leaves group. Furthermore, roots accumulated significantly higher MCs amounts than leaves of the same plant group. Concerning human health risk, the Estimated Daily Intake values (EDI) of Seed and Cotyledon groups leaves exceeded Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) by a factor of 6, while 2 Leaves and 4 Leaves groups exceeded TDI by a factor of 4.4 and 2.4 respectively. Our results indicate that irrigation of lettuce with MCs-rich water may constitute a serious public health risk, especially when contaminated water is received from the very early developmental stages (seed and cotyledon). Finally, results obtained for

  4. Platelet-rich-fibrin: A novel root coverage approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anilkumar K

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of gingival recession has become an important therapeutic issue due to increasing cosmetic demand. Multiple surgical procedures have been developed to obtain predictable esthetic root coverage. More specifically, after periodontal regenerative surgery, the aim is to achieve complete wound healing and regeneration of the periodontal unit. A recent innovation in dentistry is the preparation and use of platelet-rich plasma (PRP, a concentrated suspension of the growth factors, found in platelets. These growth factors are involved in wound healing and postulated as promoters of tissue regeneration. This paper reports the use of PRF membrane for root coverage on the labial surfaces of the mandibular anterior teeth. This was accomplished using laterally displaced flap technique with platelet rich fibrin (PRF membrane at the recipient site.

  5. Neutron rich nuclei around 132Sn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, Sarmishtha

    2016-01-01

    The neutron rich nuclei with few particles or holes in 132 Sn have various experimental and theoretical interest to understand the evolution of nuclear structure around the doubly magic shell closure Z=50 and N=82. Some of the exotic neutron rich nuclei in this mass region are situated near waiting points in the r-process path and are of special astrophysical interest. Neutron rich nuclei near 132 Sn have been studied using fission fragment spectroscopy. The lifetime of low lying isomeric states have been precisely measured and the beta decay from the ground and isomeric states have been characterized using gamma-ray spectroscopy

  6. Firm size diversity, functional richness, and resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garmestani, A.S.; Allen, Craig R.; Mittelstaedt, J.D.; Stow, C.A.; Ward, W.A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper applies recent advances in ecology to our understanding of firm development, sustainability, and economic development. The ecological literature indicates that the greater the functional richness of species in a system, the greater its resilience - that is, its ability to persist in the face of substantial changes in the environment. This paper focuses on the effects of functional richness across firm size on the ability of industries to survive in the face of economic change. Our results indicate that industries with a richness of industrial functions are more resilient to employment volatility. ?? 2006 Cambridge University Press.

  7. Performance of Front-End Readout System for PHENIX RICH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyama, K.; Hamagaki, H.; Nishimura, S.; Shigaki, K.; Hayano, R.S.; Hibino, M.; Kametani, S.; Kikuchi, J.; Matsumoto, T.; Sakaguchi, T.; Ebisu, K.; Hara, H.; Tanaka, Y.; Ushiroda, T.; Moscone, C.G.; Wintenberg, A.L.; Young, G.R.

    1999-01-01

    A front-end electronics system has been developed for the Ring Imaging Cerenkov (RICH) detector of the PHENIX experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). A high speed custom back-plane with source synchronous bus architecture, a full custom analog ASIC, and board modules with FPGA's and CPLD's were developed for high performance real time data acquisition. The transfer rate of the back-lane has reached 640 MB/s with 128 bits data bus. Total transaction time is estimated to be less than 30 micros per event. The design specifications and test results of the system are presented in this paper

  8. Component Repair Times Obtained from MSPI Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eide, Steven A.; Cadwallader, Lee

    2015-01-01

    Information concerning times to repair or restore equipment to service given a failure is valuable to probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs). Examples of such uses in modern PRAs include estimation of the probability of failing to restore a failed component within a specified time period (typically tied to recovering a mitigating system before core damage occurs at nuclear power plants) and the determination of mission times for support system initiating event (SSIE) fault tree models. Information on equipment repair or restoration times applicable to PRA modeling is limited and dated for U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. However, the Mitigating Systems Performance Index (MSPI) program covering all U.S. commercial nuclear power plants provides up-to-date information on restoration times for a limited set of component types. This paper describes the MSPI program data available and analyzes the data to obtain median and mean component restoration times as well as non-restoration cumulative probability curves. The MSPI program provides guidance for monitoring both planned and unplanned outages of trains of selected mitigating systems deemed important to safety. For systems included within the MSPI program, plants monitor both train UA and component unreliability (UR) against baseline values. If the combined system UA and UR increases sufficiently above established baseline results (converted to an estimated change in core damage frequency or CDF), a ''white'' (or worse) indicator is generated for that system. That in turn results in increased oversight by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and can impact a plant's insurance rating. Therefore, there is pressure to return MSPI program components to service as soon as possible after a failure occurs. Three sets of unplanned outages might be used to determine the component repair durations desired in this article: all unplanned outages for the train type that includes the component of

  9. Component Repair Times Obtained from MSPI Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eide, Steven A. [Curtiss-Wright/Scietech, Ketchum, ID (United States); Cadwallader, Lee [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Information concerning times to repair or restore equipment to service given a failure is valuable to probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs). Examples of such uses in modern PRAs include estimation of the probability of failing to restore a failed component within a specified time period (typically tied to recovering a mitigating system before core damage occurs at nuclear power plants) and the determination of mission times for support system initiating event (SSIE) fault tree models. Information on equipment repair or restoration times applicable to PRA modeling is limited and dated for U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. However, the Mitigating Systems Performance Index (MSPI) program covering all U.S. commercial nuclear power plants provides up-to-date information on restoration times for a limited set of component types. This paper describes the MSPI program data available and analyzes the data to obtain median and mean component restoration times as well as non-restoration cumulative probability curves. The MSPI program provides guidance for monitoring both planned and unplanned outages of trains of selected mitigating systems deemed important to safety. For systems included within the MSPI program, plants monitor both train UA and component unreliability (UR) against baseline values. If the combined system UA and UR increases sufficiently above established baseline results (converted to an estimated change in core damage frequency or CDF), a “white” (or worse) indicator is generated for that system. That in turn results in increased oversight by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and can impact a plant’s insurance rating. Therefore, there is pressure to return MSPI program components to service as soon as possible after a failure occurs. Three sets of unplanned outages might be used to determine the component repair durations desired in this article: all unplanned outages for the train type that includes the component of interest, only

  10. Influence of Silane modified nano silica on the corrosion protection of zinc rich coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Thuy Duong; To Thi Xuan Hang; Trinh Anh Truc; Pham Gia Vu; Bui Van Truoc; Thai Hoang

    2015-01-01

    Zinc rich coatings are the best effective primers for corrosion protection of carbon steel in aggressive conditions. For traditional zinc rich primer the zinc content is very high, more than 90 wt.%. The coating adhesion is decreased with the increase of zinc content, so that it is necessary to decrease the zinc content by using additives. In this study the nano silica modified by N-(2-Aminoethyl)-3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane was prepared and incorporated in zinc rich epoxy coatings containing 85 wt.% zinc powder. The corrosion protection performance of coatings was evaluated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The results obtained show that the presence of nano silica improved corrosion protection of zinc rich epoxy coating and the best protection was obtained with 3 wt.% nano silica. (author)

  11. Anti-Atherogenic Activity of Polyphenol-Rich Extract from Bee Pollen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Rzepecka-Stojko

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of polyphenol-rich ethanol extract of bee pollen (EEP on atherosclerosis induced by a high-fat diet in ApoE-knockout mice. EEP was given with feed in two doses of 0.1 and 1 g/kg body mass (BM. The studies have been conducted in a period of 16 weeks. The following factors were estimated: total cholesterol (TC, oxidized low density lipoproteins (ox-LDL, asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE and angiotensin II (ANG II in the 5th, 10th, 12th, 14th, and 16th week of the experiment. In the last, i.e., 16th week of the studies the development of coronary artery disease (CAD was also estimated histopathologically. Supplementing diet with EEP resulted in decreasing TC level. EEP reduced oxidative stress by lowering the levels of ox-LDL, ADMA, ANG II and ACE. EEP protected coronary arteries by significantly limiting the development of atherosclerosis (the dose of 0.1 g/kg BM or completely preventing its occurrence (the dose of 1 g/kg BM. The obtained results demonstrate that EEP may be useful as a potential anti-atherogenic agent.

  12. Remarks on the low value obtained for the Hubble constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaakkola, Toivo

    1975-01-01

    Some remarks are made on the basis of the data given by Sandage and Tamman, suggesting that these authors have over-estimated the distances to the most luminous galaxies and obtained a value too low for the Hubble constant [fr

  13. Chemical composition and functional characteristics of dietary fiber-rich powder obtained from core of maize straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Jin-Shun; Liu, Xiao-Yan; Zhang, Xiao-Pan; Wang, Lin-Shuang

    2017-07-15

    A novel dietary fiber (MsCDF) based core of maize straw (Core) was prepared by using high boiling solvent of sodium peroxide by high pressure pretreatment (HBSHP). The composition of MsCDF, and several physicochemical properties for MsCDF related to its nutritional quality were investigated. The results revealed that the MsCDF contains high contents total dietary fiber (TDF), soluble dietary fiber (SDF), insoluble dietary fiber (IDF) and two main monosaccharaides, xylose and glucose. Meanwhile, the studies of physicochemical properties of MsCDF indicated that MsCDF performed well water-holding capacity (WHC), oil-holding capacity (OHC), Swelling, solubility (SOL), Glucose dialysis retardation index (GDRI) and adsorption capacity on cholesterol. The results of this study serve as evidence that MsCDF can be used as a functional food additive, Core can be used as a crude material to produce MsCDF and the technology of HBSHP can be used to modify the physico-chemical properties of Core. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Box-Behnken factorial design to obtain a phenolic-rich extract from the aerial parts of Chelidonium majus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosso, Clara; Ferreres, Federico; Gil-Izquierdo, Angel; Valentão, Patrícia; Sampaio, Maria; Lima, Júlio; Andrade, Paula B

    2014-12-01

    A Box-Behnken design (BBD) was developed to study the influence of four parameters (X1: % methanol; X2: extraction time; X3: extraction temperature; X4: solid/solvent ratio) on two responses, namely extraction yield and phenolics content of the aerial parts of Chelidonium majus L. The model presented a good fit to the experimental results for the extraction yield, being significantly influenced by X1 and X4. On the other hand a parameter reduction was necessary to run the model for phenolics content, showing that only X1 and X2 had great influence on the response. Two best extraction conditions were defined: X1=76.8% MeOH, X2=150.0 min, X3=60.0°C and X4=1:100 and X1=69.2%, X2=150 min, X3=42.5°C and X4=1:100. Moreover, the HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS(n) analysis conducted with the center point sample revealed the presence of 15 alkaloids and 15 phenolic compounds, from which the 9 flavonoids and 3 hydroxycinnamic acids are described for the first time. Only phenolic compounds were quantified by a validated HPLC-DAD method, the pair quercetin-3-O-rutinoside+quercetin-3-O-glucoside dominating all the 29 extracts. This study is of great importance for future works that seek to apply the phenolic profile to the quality control of C. majus samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Leveraging data rich environments using marketing analytics

    OpenAIRE

    Holtrop, Niels

    2017-01-01

    With the onset of what is popularly known as “big data”, increased attention is being paid to creating value from these data rich environments. Within the field of marketing, the analysis of customer and market data supported by models is known as marketing analytics. The goal of these analyses is to enhance managerial decision making regarding marketing problems. However, before these data rich environments can be used to guide managerial decision making, firms need to grasp the process of d...

  16. System tests of the LHCb RICH detectors in a charged particle beam

    CERN Document Server

    Skottowe, Hugh

    2009-01-01

    The RICH detectors of the LHCb experiment will provide efficient particle identification over the momentum range 1-100 GeV=c. Results are presented from a beam test of the LHCb RICH system using final production pixel Hybrid Photon Detectors, the final readout electronics and an adapted version of LHCb RICH reconstruction software. Measurements of the photon yields and Cherenkov angle resolutions for both nitrogen and C4F10 radiators agree well with full simulations. The quality of the data and the results obtained demonstrate that all aspects meet the stringent physics requirements of the experiment are now ready for first data.

  17. The choice of the conditions to receive the electrolytic zinc powders for metal-rich compositions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Patrushev

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the work a method of obtaining highly dispersed zinc powders by electrolysis and comparison of the properties of zinc-rich compositions prepared using as a pigment zinc powders obtained by different methods is provided. Conducted measurements have shown that the electrical conductivity of zinc-rich coatings comprising electrolytic zinc powder does not inferior to the conductivity of the film with PZHD-0 powder obtained by the  evaporation-condensation method, despite the significant difference in the amount of zinc pigment. On the basis of the received data one can conclude that the use of electrolytic zinc powder as a pigment will significantly save zinc.

  18. Haemolytic and Antimicrobial Activites of Saponin-Rich Extracts from Guar Meal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saponin-rich GM extract was prepared by refluxing 25 g of GM with 250 ml of EtOH/H2O (1:1, v/v) for 3 h then filtering and distilling EtOH at 50oC. The refluxed extract was partitioned with equal volume of BuOH obtaining crude saponin-rich GM extract with 4.8 ± 0.6% DM of GM that was purified by RP...

  19. Lipase-catalyzed glycerolysis of fish oil to obtain diacylglycerols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baeza-Jiménez, R.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Diacylglycerols (DAG rich in n-3 residues were successfully produced by Novozym 435-catalysed glycerolysis of n-3 PUFA rich fish oil. Orbital and magnetic agitations were evaluated in order to minimize mass transfer limitations and thus assure the homogeneity of the reactant mixture. Different temperatures (65, 70, 75, 80, 85 and 90 °C and speeds (300, 500, 700 and 900 rpm were tested. Optimal conditions to obtain the highest amount of DAG were: 65 °C, with a substrate molar ratio of 3:1 (oil:glycerol, 500 rpm and 15% enzyme load after 2.5 h, with a yield of 60%.Diacilglicéridos (DAG ricos en n-3 fueron producidos en la glicerolisis de aceite de pescado rico en n-3 PUFA catalizada por Novozym 435. Las agitaciones orbital y magnética fueron evaluadas con el propósito de minimizar las limitaciones de transferencia de masa y garantizar la homogeneidad de la mezcla de reactivos. Diferentes temperaturas (65, 70, 75, 80, 85 y 90 °C y velocidades de agitación (300, 500, 700 y 900 rpm fueron empleadas. Las condiciones óptimas para alcanzar la mayor cantidad de DAG fueron: 65 °C, una relación molar de sustratos 3:1 (aceite:glicerol, 500 rpm y 15% de enzima, después de 2.5 h, con un rendimiento de 60%.

  20. Obtaining shale oil suitable for lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giraudel, M

    1851-11-12

    Treats with sulphuric acid and then with soda, obtaining 57 per cent of products suitable for lighting in place of the usual 35 to 40 per cent as obtained by present processes. The product has a less disagreeable odor.

  1. LITHIUM-RICH GIANTS IN GLOBULAR CLUSTERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirby, Evan N.; Cohen, Judith G. [California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Boulevard, MC 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Guhathakurta, Puragra [UCO/Lick Observatory and Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Zhang, Andrew J. [The Harker School, 500 Saratoga Avenue, San Jose, CA 95129 (United States); Hong, Jerry [Palo Alto High School, 50 Embarcadero Road, Palo Alto, CA, 94301 (United States); Guo, Michelle [Stanford University, 450 Serra Mall, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Guo, Rachel [Irvington High School, 41800 Blacow Road, Fremont, CA 94538 (United States); Cunha, Katia [Observatório Nacional, São Cristóvão Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2016-03-10

    Although red giants deplete lithium on their surfaces, some giants are Li-rich. Intermediate-mass asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars can generate Li through the Cameron–Fowler conveyor, but the existence of Li-rich, low-mass red giant branch (RGB) stars is puzzling. Globular clusters are the best sites to examine this phenomenon because it is straightforward to determine membership in the cluster and to identify the evolutionary state of each star. In 72 hours of Keck/DEIMOS exposures in 25 clusters, we found four Li-rich RGB and two Li-rich AGB stars. There were 1696 RGB and 125 AGB stars with measurements or upper limits consistent with normal abundances of Li. Hence, the frequency of Li-richness in globular clusters is (0.2 ± 0.1)% for the RGB, (1.6 ± 1.1)% for the AGB, and (0.3 ± 0.1)% for all giants. Because the Li-rich RGB stars are on the lower RGB, Li self-generation mechanisms proposed to occur at the luminosity function bump or He core flash cannot explain these four lower RGB stars. We propose the following origin for Li enrichment: (1) All luminous giants experience a brief phase of Li enrichment at the He core flash. (2) All post-RGB stars with binary companions on the lower RGB will engage in mass transfer. This scenario predicts that 0.1% of lower RGB stars will appear Li-rich due to mass transfer from a recently Li-enhanced companion. This frequency is at the lower end of our confidence interval.

  2. Autologous blood preparations rich in platelets, fibrin and growth factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fioravanti, C; Frustaci, I; Armellin, E; Condò, R; Arcuri, C; Cerroni, L

    2015-01-01

    Bone regeneration is often needed prior to dental implant treatment due to the lack of adequate quantity and quality after infectious diseases. The greatest regenerative power was obtained with autologous tissue, primarily the bone alive, taken from the same site or adjacent sites, up to the use centrifugation of blood with the selection of the parts with the greatest potential regenerative. In fact, various techniques and technologies were chronologically successive to cope with an ever better preparation of these concentrates of blood. Our aim is to review these advances and discuss the ways in which platelet concentrates may provide such unexpected beneficial therapeutic effects. The research has been carried out in the MEDLINE and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials database by choosing keywords as "platelet rich plasma", "platelet rich fibrin", "platelet growth factors", and "bone regeneration" and "dentistry". Autologous platelet rich plasma is a safe and low cost procedure to deliver growth factors for bone and soft tissue healing. The great heterogeneity of clinical outcomes can be explained by the different PRP products with qualitative and quantitative difference among substance.

  3. Black manganese-rich crusts on a Gothic cathedral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macholdt, Dorothea S.; Herrmann, Siegfried; Jochum, Klaus Peter; Kilcoyne, A. L. David; Laubscher, Thomas; Pfisterer, Jonas H. K.; Pöhlker, Christopher; Schwager, Beate; Weber, Bettina; Weigand, Markus; Domke, Katrin F.; Andreae, Meinrat O.

    2017-12-01

    Black manganese-rich crusts are found worldwide on the façades of historical buildings. In this study, they were studied exemplarily on the façade of the Freiburger Münster (Freiburg Minster), Germany, and measured in-situ by portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF). The XRF was calibrated to allow the conversion from apparent mass fractions to Mn surface density (Mn mass per area), to compensate for the fact that portable XRF mass fraction measurements from thin layers violate the assumption of a homogeneous measurement volume. Additionally, 200-nm femtosecond laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (fs LA-ICP-MS) measurements, scanning transmission X-ray microscopy-near edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (STXM-NEXAFS), Raman spectroscopy, and imaging by light microscopy were conducted to obtain further insight into the crust material, such as potential biogenic contributions, element distributions, trace element compositions, and organic functional groups. While black crusts of various types are present at many places on the minster's facade, crusts rich in Mn (with a Mn surface density >150 μg cm-2) are restricted to a maximum height of about 7 m. The only exceptions are those developed on the Renaissance-Vorhalle (Renaissance Portico) at a height of about 8 m. This part of the façade had been cleaned and treated with a silicon resin as recently as 2003. These crusts thus accumulated over a period of only 12 years. Yet, they are exceptionally Mn-rich with a surface density of 1200 μg cm-2, and therefore require an accumulation rate of about 100 μg cm-2 Mn per year. Trace element analyses support the theory that vehicle emissions are responsible for most of the Mn supply. Lead, barium, and zinc correlate with manganese, indicating that tire material, brake pads, and resuspended road dust are likely to be the element sources. Microscopic investigations show no organisms on or in the Mn-rich crusts. In contrast, Mn-free black

  4. Magnetic moment of extremely proton-rich nucleus 23Al

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagatomo, T; Matsuta, K; Ozawa, A; Nakashima, Y; Matsumiya, R; Mihara, M; Yasuno, T; Chiba, A; Yamada, K; Momota; Ohtsubo, T; Ohta, M; Shinojima, D; Izumikawa, T; Tanaka, H; Yamaguchi, T; Nakajima, S; Maemura, H; Muranaka, K; Kumashiro, S; Fujiwara, H; Yoshida, K; Sumikama, T; Tanaka, K; Ogura, M; Minamisono, K; Fukuda, M; Minamisono, T; Nojiri, Y; Suzuki, T; Tanihata, I; Alonso, J R; Krebs, G F; Symons, T J M

    2005-01-01

    The g-factor of the extremely proton-rich nucleus 23 Al (T 1/2 = 0.47 s) has been measured by means of the β-NMR method for the first time. The g-factor were determined as |g| = 1.557(88) from the obtained NMR spectra. From the comparison between the experimental value and the shell model calculation, the spin parity of the ground state of 23 Al was determined as I π = 5/2 + . Thus, the magnetic moment of 23 Al was determined as vertical bar μvertical bar = 3.89(22)μ N

  5. Fat, Stem Cells, and Platelet-Rich Plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Isaac B; Coleman, Sydney R; Rubin, J Peter

    2016-07-01

    The ideal filler for aesthetic surgery is inexpensive and easy to obtain, natural in appearance and texture, immunologically compatible, and long lasting without risk of infection. By most metrics, autologous fat grafts meet these criteria perfectly. Although facial fat grafting is now a commonly accepted surgical procedure, there has been a wave of activity applying stem cells and platelet-rich plasma (PRP) therapies to aesthetic practice. This article addresses technical considerations in the use of autologous fat transfer for facial rejuvenation, and also explores the current evidence for these stem cell and PRP therapies in aesthetic practice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Level structures of neutron-rich Xe isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, I.; Lister, C.J.; Morss, L.R. [and others

    1995-08-01

    The level structures of neutron-rich Xe isotopes were determined by observing prompt gamma-ray coincidences in {sup 248}Cm fission fragments. A 5-mg {sup 248}Cm, in the form of {sup 248}Cm-KCl pellet, was placed inside Eurogam array which consisted of 45 Compton-suppressed Ge detectors and 5 Low-Energy Photon Spectrometers. Transitions in Xe isotopes were identified by the appearance of new peaks in the {gamma}-ray spectra obtained by gating on the gamma peaks of the complementary Mo fragments.

  7. Species richness, area and climate correlates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nogues, David Bravo; Bastos Araujo, Miguel

    2006-01-01

    affects: (1) the selection of climate variables entering a species richness model; and (2) the accuracy of models in predicting species richness in unsampled grid cells. Location Western Europe. Methods Models are developed for European plant, breeding bird, mammal and herptile species richness using...... seven climate variables. Generalized additive models are used to relate species richness, climate and area. Results We found that variation in the grid cell area was large (50 × 50 km: 8-3311 km2; 220 × 220: 193-55,100 km2), but this did not affect the selection of variables in the models. Similarly...... support the assumption that variation in near-equal area cells may be of second-order importance for models explaining or predicting species richness in relation to climate, although there is a possibility that drops in accuracy might increase with grid cell size. The results are, however, contingent...

  8. Methane Emission and Milk Production of Dairy Cows Grazing Pastures Rich in Legumes or Rich in Grasses in Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Gratton

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the impact of changing pasture composition on reducing emissions of GHGs in dairy grazing systems is an important issue to mitigate climate change. The aim of this study was to estimate daily CH4 emissions of dairy cows grazing two mixed pastures with contrasting composition of grasses and legumes: L pasture with 60% legumes on Dry Matter (DM basis and G pasture with 75% grasses on DM basis. Milk production and CH4 emissions were compared over two periods of two weeks during spring using eight lactating Holstein cows in a 2 × 2 Latin square design. Herbage organic matter intake (HOMI was estimated by chromic oxide dilution and herbage organic matter digestibility (OMD was estimated by faecal index. Methane emission was estimated by using the sulfur hexafluoride (SF6 tracer technique adapted to collect breath samples over 5-day periods. OMD (0.71 and HOMI (15.7 kg OM were not affected by pasture composition. Milk production (20.3 kg/d, milk fat yield (742 g/d and milk protein yield (667 g/d were similar for both pastures. This may be explained by the high herbage allowance (30 kg DM above 5 cm/cow which allowed the cows to graze selectively, in particular in grass sward. Similarly, methane emission expressed as absolute value (368 g/d or 516 L/d or expressed as methane yield (6.6% of Gross Energy Intake (GEI was not affected by treatments. In conclusion, at high herbage allowance, the quality of the diet selected by grazing cows did not differ between pastures rich in legumes or rich in grasses, and therefore there was no effect on milk or methane production.

  9. Methane Emission and Milk Production of Dairy Cows Grazing Pastures Rich in Legumes or Rich in Grasses in Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dini, Yoana; Gere, José; Briano, Carolina; Manetti, Martin; Juliarena, Paula; Picasso, Valentin; Gratton, Roberto; Astigarraga, Laura

    2012-06-08

    Understanding the impact of changing pasture composition on reducing emissions of GHGs in dairy grazing systems is an important issue to mitigate climate change. The aim of this study was to estimate daily CH₄ emissions of dairy cows grazing two mixed pastures with contrasting composition of grasses and legumes: L pasture with 60% legumes on Dry Matter (DM) basis and G pasture with 75% grasses on DM basis. Milk production and CH₄ emissions were compared over two periods of two weeks during spring using eight lactating Holstein cows in a 2 × 2 Latin square design. Herbage organic matter intake (HOMI) was estimated by chromic oxide dilution and herbage organic matter digestibility (OMD) was estimated by faecal index. Methane emission was estimated by using the sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) tracer technique adapted to collect breath samples over 5-day periods. OMD (0.71) and HOMI (15.7 kg OM) were not affected by pasture composition. Milk production (20.3 kg/d), milk fat yield (742 g/d) and milk protein yield (667 g/d) were similar for both pastures. This may be explained by the high herbage allowance (30 kg DM above 5 cm/cow) which allowed the cows to graze selectively, in particular in grass sward. Similarly, methane emission expressed as absolute value (368 g/d or 516 L/d) or expressed as methane yield (6.6% of Gross Energy Intake (GEI)) was not affected by treatments. In conclusion, at high herbage allowance, the quality of the diet selected by grazing cows did not differ between pastures rich in legumes or rich in grasses, and therefore there was no effect on milk or methane production.

  10. Lithium-rich very metal-poor stars discovered with LAMOST and Subaru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Wako; Li, Haining; Matsuno, Tadafumi; Kumar, Yerra Bharat; Shi, Jianrong; Suda, Takuma; Zhao, Gang

    2018-04-01

    Lithium is a unique element that is produced in the Big Bang nucleosynthesis but is destroyed by nuclear reactions inside stars. As a result, almost constant lithium abundance is found in unevolved main-sequence metal-poor stars, although the value is systematically lower than that expected from the standard Big Bang nucleosynthesis models, whereas lithium abundances of red giants are more than one order of magnitudes lower than those of unevolved stars. There are, however, a small fraction of metal-poor stars that show extremely high lithium abundances, which is not explained by standard stellar evolution models. We have discovered 12 new very metal-poor stars that have enhancement of lithium by more than 10 times compared with typical metal-poor stars at similar evolutionary stages by the large-scale spectroscopic survey with LAMOST and the follow-up high-resolution spectroscopy with the Subaru Telescope. The sample shows a wide distribution of evolutionary stages from subgiants to red giants with the metallicity of -3.3 <[Fe/H]< -1.6. The chemical abundance ratios of other elements have been obtained by our spectroscopic study, and an estimate of the binary frequency by radial velocity monitoring is ongoing. The observational results provide new constraints on the scenarios to explain lithium-rich metal-poor stars, such as extra mixing during the evolution along the red giant branch, mass-transfer from a companion AGB star, and engulfment of planet-like objects. These explanations are very unlikely for at least some of lithium-rich objects in our sample, suggesting a new mechanism that enhances lithium during the low-mass star evolution.

  11. Scaling disturbance instead of richness to better understand anthropogenic impacts on biodiversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J Mayor

    Full Text Available A primary impediment to understanding how species diversity and anthropogenic disturbance are related is that both diversity and disturbance can depend on the scales at which they are sampled. While the scale dependence of diversity estimation has received substantial attention, the scale dependence of disturbance estimation has been essentially overlooked. Here, we break from conventional examination of the diversity-disturbance relationship by holding the area over which species richness is estimated constant and instead manipulating the area over which human disturbance is measured. In the boreal forest ecoregion of Alberta, Canada, we test the dependence of species richness on disturbance scale, the scale-dependence of the intermediate disturbance hypothesis, and the consistency of these patterns in native versus exotic species and among human disturbance types. We related field observed species richness in 1 ha surveys of 372 boreal vascular plant communities to remotely sensed measures of human disturbance extent at two survey scales: local (1 ha and landscape (18 km2. Supporting the intermediate disturbance hypothesis, species richness-disturbance relationships were quadratic at both local and landscape scales of disturbance measurement. This suggests the shape of richness-disturbance relationships is independent of the scale at which disturbance is assessed, despite that local diversity is influenced by disturbance at different scales by different mechanisms, such as direct removal of individuals (local or indirect alteration of propagule supply (landscape. By contrast, predictions of species richness did depend on scale of disturbance measurement: with high local disturbance richness was double that under high landscape disturbance.

  12. Bayesian phylogenetic estimation of fossil ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Alexei J; Stadler, Tanja

    2016-07-19

    Recent advances have allowed for both morphological fossil evidence and molecular sequences to be integrated into a single combined inference of divergence dates under the rule of Bayesian probability. In particular, the fossilized birth-death tree prior and the Lewis-Mk model of discrete morphological evolution allow for the estimation of both divergence times and phylogenetic relationships between fossil and extant taxa. We exploit this statistical framework to investigate the internal consistency of these models by producing phylogenetic estimates of the age of each fossil in turn, within two rich and well-characterized datasets of fossil and extant species (penguins and canids). We find that the estimation accuracy of fossil ages is generally high with credible intervals seldom excluding the true age and median relative error in the two datasets of 5.7% and 13.2%, respectively. The median relative standard error (RSD) was 9.2% and 7.2%, respectively, suggesting good precision, although with some outliers. In fact, in the two datasets we analyse, the phylogenetic estimate of fossil age is on average less than 2 Myr from the mid-point age of the geological strata from which it was excavated. The high level of internal consistency found in our analyses suggests that the Bayesian statistical model employed is an adequate fit for both the geological and morphological data, and provides evidence from real data that the framework used can accurately model the evolution of discrete morphological traits coded from fossil and extant taxa. We anticipate that this approach will have diverse applications beyond divergence time dating, including dating fossils that are temporally unconstrained, testing of the 'morphological clock', and for uncovering potential model misspecification and/or data errors when controversial phylogenetic hypotheses are obtained based on combined divergence dating analyses.This article is part of the themed issue 'Dating species divergences using

  13. Origin of the latitudinal richness gradient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engemann, Kristine; Sandel, Brody Steven; Enquist, Brian J.

    2015-01-01

    Spatial variation in richness patterns must be due to variation in rates of speciation, extinction, immigration and emigration. Hotspots of diversity can occur either because they are hotspots of speciation (cradles) or cold spots of extinction (museums) – two major hypotheses that make contrasting...... predictions for the phylogenetic structure of communities. We test these hypotheses by comparing centers of species richness and phylogenetic clustering for vascular plants in the New World. Range maps for 88,417 plant species were extracted from the Botanical Information and Ecology Network (BIEN) database...... and combined with the BIEN mega phylogeny of >80,000 species. We calculated the Phylogenetic Diversity Index (PDI) and Net Relatedness Index (NRI) for each cell in a 100×100 km grid using a new computationally efficient algorithm. Species richness patterns were compared to patterns of PDI and NRI. We found...

  14. Platelet-Rich Plasma Increases Pigmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uysal, Cagri A; Ertas, Nilgun Markal

    2017-11-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is an autologous solution of plasma containing 4 to 7 times the baseline concentration of human platelets. Platelet-rich plasma has been widely popular in facial rejuvenation to attenuate wrinkles and has been practically used. The authors have been encountering various patients of increased hiperpigmentation following PRP applications that were performed to attenuate the postinflammatory hiperpigmentation especially after laser treatment. The authors have been using PRP for facial rejuvenation in selected patients and in 1 patient the authors have encountered increased pigmentation over the pigmented skin lesions that were present before the application. The authors recommend that the PRP might increase pigmentation especially in the face region and precautions might be taken before and after the application. Platelet-rich plasma should not be used for the treatment of post inflammatory hiperpigmentation.

  15. Fast Photon Detection for COMPASS RICH1

    CERN Document Server

    Abbon, P; Angerer, H; Apollonio, M; Birsa, R; Bordalo, P; Bradamante, F; Bressan, A; Busso, L; Chiosso, M; Ciliberti, P; Colantoni, M L; Costa, S; Dibiase, N; Dafni, T; Dalla Torre, S; Diaz, V; Duic, v; Delagnes, E; Deschamps, H; Eyrich, W; Faso, D; Ferrero, A; Finger, M; Finger, M Jr; Fischer, H; Gerassimov, S; Giorgi, M; Gobbo, B; Hagemann, R; Von Harrach, D; Heinsius, F H; Joosten, R; Ketzer, B; Königsmann, K; Kolosov, V N; Konorov, I; Kramer, D; Kunne, F; Levorato, S; Maggiora, A; Magnon, A; Mann, A; Martin, A; Menon, G; Mutter, A; Nähle, O; Neyret, D; Nerling, F; Pagano, P; Paul, S; Panebianco, S; Panzieri, D; Pesaro, G; Pizzolotto, C; Polak, J; Rebourgeard, P; Rocco, E; Robinet, F; Schiavon, P; Schill, C; Schoenmeier, P; Silva, L; Slunecka, M; Steiger, L; Sozzi, F; Sulc, M; Svec, M; Tessarotto, F; Teufel, A; Wollny, H

    2006-01-01

    The new photon detection system for COMPASS RICH-1 has been designed to cope with the demanding requests of operation at high beam intensity and at high trigger rates. The detection technique in the central region of RICH-1 has been changed with a system based on multianode photomultipliers coupled to individual fused silica lens telescopes and to a fast, almost dead time free readout system based on the MAD-4 amplifier-discriminator and the F1 TDC-chip. The new photon detection system design and construction are described, as well as its first response in the experiment.

  16. Hamman-Rich syndrome in a goldsmith

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchner, J.; Stein, A.; Jacobi, V.; Viel, K.

    1997-01-01

    We report the case of a 54-year-old goldsmith admitted because of dyspnea on exertion, persistent cough, and weakness under the suspicion of exogenous allergic alveolitis. He rapidly developed progressive lung fibrosis with exitus letalis 7 weeks after admission. Radiological examination (chest X-ray and HRCT) first showed ground glass opacities, and later rapid development of severe interstitial pattern with architectural distraction. The findings were similar to idiopathic lung fibrosis; however, the rare Hamman-Rich syndrome was confirmed by progressive course of the disease. Correlations between Hamann-Rich syndrome and idiopathic lung fibrosis are discussed. (orig.) [de

  17. NSCC-A NEW SCHEME OF CLASSIFICATION OF C-RICH STARS DEVISED FROM OPTICAL AND INFRARED OBSERVATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Mello, A. B.; De Araujo, F. X.; Pereira, C. Bastos; Landaberry, S. J. Codina; Lorenz-Martins, S.

    2009-01-01

    A new classification system for carbon-rich stars is presented based on an analysis of 51 asymptotic giant branch carbon stars through the most relevant classifying indices available. The extension incorporated, which also represents the major advantage of this new system, is the combination of the usual optical indices that describe the photospheres of the objects, with new infrared ones, which allow an interpretation of the circumstellar environment of the carbon-rich stars. This new system is presented with the usual spectral subclasses and C 2 -, j-, MS-, and temperature indices, and also with the new SiC- (SiC/C.A. abundance estimation) and τ- (opacity) indices. The values for the infrared indices were carried out through a Monte Carlo simulation of the radiative transfer in the circumstellar envelopes of the stars. The full set of indices, when applied to our sample, resulted in a more efficient system of classification, since an examination in a wide spectral range allows us to obtain a complete scenario for carbon stars.

  18. Development of a restricted state space stochastic differential equation model for bacterial growth in rich media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jan Kloppenborg; Philipsen, Kirsten Riber; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, bacterial growth in a rich media is analysed in a Stochastic Differential Equation (SDE) framework. It is demonstrated that the SDE formulation and smoothened state estimates provide a systematic framework for data driven model improvements, using random walk hidden states...

  19. Spectroscopy of neutron-rich isotopes of nickel and iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girod, M.; Dessagne, P.; Bernas, M.; Langevin, M.; Pougheon, F.; Roussel, P.

    1987-01-01

    Spectroscopy of neutron rich isotopes of 67 Ni, 68 Ni and 62 Fe is studied using the quasi-elastic transfer reactions ( 14 C, 16 O) and ( 14 C, 17 O) on mass separated targets of 70 Zn and of 64 Ni. The structure of these new nuclei is investigated through the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (HFB) calculations, using the D1SA interaction. Inertial parameters are calculated in the cranking approximation. Collective excited states are obtained consistently by solving the Bohr Hamiltonian. Based on these results, quantum numbers are tentatively assigned to the observed states and angular distributions, measured and calculated from the DWBA, are used to check this assignment. The spectroscopy of more neutron rich nuclei, yet unknown, is anticipated. A sharper test of wave functions is provided by the monopole operator of the O 2 + → O 1 + transition in 68 Ni, which have been deduced from the halflife measurement performed in delayed coincidence experiments. An impressive agreement is obtained between the measured halflife and its value calculated using complete HFB wave functions

  20. Evidence of a metal-rich surface for the Asteroid (16) Psyche from interferometric observations in the thermal infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matter, Alexis; Delbo, Marco; Carry, Benoit; Ligori, Sebastiano

    2013-09-01

    We describe the first determination of thermal properties and size of the M-type Asteroid (16) Psyche from interferometric observations obtained with the Mid-Infrared Interferometric Instrument (MIDI) of the Very Large Telescope Interferometer. We used a thermophysical model to interpret our interferometric data. Our analysis shows that Psyche has a low macroscopic surface roughness. Using a convex 3-D shape model obtained by Kaasalainen et al. (Kaasalainen, M., Torppa, J., Piironen, J. [2002]. Icarus 159, 369-395), we derived a volume-equivalent diameter for (16) Psyche of 247 ± 25 km or 238 ± 24 km, depending on the possible values of surface roughness. Our corresponding thermal inertia estimates are 133 or 114 J m-2 s-0.5 K-1, with a total uncertainty estimated at 40 J m-2 s-0.5 K-1. They are among the highest thermal inertia values ever measured for an asteroid of this size. We consider this as a new evidence of a metal-rich surface for the Asteroid (16) Psyche.

  1. Spectroscopic Comparison of Metal-rich RRab Stars of the Galactic Field with their Metal-poor Counterparts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chadid, Merieme [Université Nice Sophia–Antipolis, Observatoire de la Côte dAzur, UMR 7293, Parc Valrose, F-06108, Nice Cedex 02 (France); Sneden, Christopher [Department of Astronomy and McDonald Observatory, The University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Preston, George W., E-mail: chadid@unice.fr, E-mail: chris@verdi.as.utexas.edu, E-mail: gwp@obs.carnegiescience.edu [Carnegie Observatories, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States)

    2017-02-01

    We investigate atmospheric properties of 35 stable RRab stars that possess the full ranges of period, light amplitude, and metal abundance found in Galactic RR Lyrae stars. Our results are derived from several thousand echelle spectra obtained over several years with the du Pont telescope of Las Campanas Observatory. Radial velocities of metal lines and the H α line were used to construct curves of radial velocity versus pulsation phase. From these we estimated radial velocity amplitudes for metal lines (formed near the photosphere) and H α Doppler cores (formed at small optical depths). We also measured H α emission fluxes when they appear during primary light rises. Spectra shifted to rest wavelengths, binned into small phase intervals, and co-added were used to perform model atmospheric and abundance analyses. The derived metallicities and those of some previous spectroscopic surveys were combined to produce a new calibration of the Layden abundance scale. We then divided our RRab sample into metal-rich (disk) and metal-poor (halo) groups at [Fe/H] = −1.0; the atmospheres of RRab families, so defined, differ with respect to (a) peak strength of H α emission flux, (b) H α radial velocity amplitude, (c) dynamical gravity, (d) stellar radius variation, (e) secondary acceleration during the photometric bump that precedes minimum light, and (f) duration of H α line-doubling. We also detected H α line-doubling during the “bump” in the metal-poor family, but not in the metal-rich one. Although all RRab probably are core helium-burning horizontal branch stars, the metal-rich group appears to be a species sui generis.

  2. Obtaining of potassium dicyan-argentate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sattarova, M.A.; Solojenkin, P.M.

    1997-01-01

    This work is devoted to obtaining of potassium dicyan-argentate. By means of exchange reaction between silver nitrate and potassium cyanide the potassium dicyan-argentate was synthesized. The analysis of obtained samples was carried out by means of titration and potentiometry.

  3. Treating shale oil to obtain sulfonates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaeffer, H

    1921-01-21

    The process shows as its principal characteristics: (1) treating the oil with chlorsulfonic acid at a temperature of about 100/sup 0/C; (2) the transformation of the sulfonic acid obtained into salts; (3) as new industrial products, the sulfonates obtained and their industrial application as disinfectants for hides and wood.

  4. Strategies for obtaining unpublished drug trial data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolfe, Nicole; Gøtzsche, Peter C.; Bero, Lisa Anne

    2013-01-01

    Authors of systematic reviews have difficulty obtaining unpublished data for their reviews. This project aimed to provide an in-depth description of the experiences of authors in searching for and gaining access to unpublished data for their systematic reviews, and to give guidance on best...... practices for identifying, obtaining and using unpublished data....

  5. 38 CFR 21.5725 - Obtaining benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Obtaining benefits. 21... benefits. (a) Actions required of the individual. In order to obtain benefits under the educational assistance and subsistence allowance program, an individual must— (1) File a claim for benefits with VA, and...

  6. Development of a Rich Picture editor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valente, Andrea; Marchetti, Emanuela

    2010-01-01

    rich picture practice into software proved difficult, therefore, we decided to follow a user-centered approach: design and implement a prototype with basic functionalities, then run a usability test with a few students and professionals. The feedback collected in the test validated our hypothesis circa...

  7. Leveraging data rich environments using marketing analytics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holtrop, Niels

    2017-01-01

    With the onset of what is popularly known as “big data”, increased attention is being paid to creating value from these data rich environments. Within the field of marketing, the analysis of customer and market data supported by models is known as marketing analytics. The goal of these analyses is

  8. Proximity focusing RICH with TOF capabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korpar, S.; Adachi, I.; Fujita, K.; Fukushima, T.; Gorisek, A.; Hayashi, D.; Iijima, T.; Ikado, T.; Ishikawa, T.; Kawai, H.; Kozakai, Y.; Krizan, P.; Kuratani, A.; Mazuka, Y.; Nakagawa, T.; Nishida, S.; Ogawa, S.; Pestotnik, R.; Seki, T.; Sumiyoshi, T.; Tabata, M.; Unno, Y.

    2007-01-01

    A proximity focusing RICH counter with a multi-channel micro-channel plate (MCP) PMT was tested as a time-of-flight counter. Cherenkov photons emitted in the radiator medium as well as in the entrance window of the PMT were used for the time-of-flight measurement, and an excellent performance of the counter could be demonstrated

  9. Probing luminescence centers in Na rich feldspar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prasad, Amit Kumar; Lapp, Torben; Kook, Myung Ho

    2016-01-01

    our understanding of the luminescence mechanisms and recombination sites, in a sample of Na rich plagioclase feldspar (oligoclase). Both the UV and violet–blue emissions show resonant excitations arising from a distribution of energy levels. We propose, contrary to the general understanding...

  10. Technology-Rich Schools Up Close

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Barbara B.; Schrum, Lynne

    2013-01-01

    This article observes that schools that use technology well have key commonalities, including a project-based curriculum and supportive, distributed leadership. The authors' research into tech-rich schools revealed that schools used three strategies to integrate technology successfully. They did so by establishing the vision and culture,…

  11. Platelet-rich fibrin: the benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Yuvika Raj; Mohanty, Sujata; Verma, Mahesh; Kaur, Raunaq Reet; Bhatia, Priyanka; Kumar, Varun Raj; Chaudhary, Zainab

    2016-01-01

    Current published data presents confusing results about the effects of platelet-rich fibrin on bone, and there is a need for studies that throw light on its effect. Our main objective therefore was to evaluate (by fractal analysis) osseous regeneration in extraction sockets with and without platelet-rich fibrin in a study with a substantial sample and a reliable technique to calibrate its effects on bone cells. We also assessed the soft tissue response. Thirty-four patients had their bilaterally impacted third molars (68 surgical sites) extracted in this split-mouth study, following which platelet-rich fibrin was placed in one of the sockets. Patients were followed up clinically and radiographically, and a pain score and fractal analysis were used to evaluate healing of soft tissue and bone, respectively. We conclude that platelet-rich fibrin improves healing of both soft and hard tissues. Although osseous healing did not differ significantly between the groups, healing of soft tissue as judged by the pain score was significantly better in the experimental group. Copyright © 2015 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Power Divider for Waveforms Rich in Harmonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, William Herbert, III

    2005-01-01

    A method for dividing the power of an electronic signal rich in harmonics involves the use of an improved divider topology. A divider designed with this topology could be used, for example, to propagate a square-wave signal in an amplifier designed with a push-pull configuration to enable the generation of more power than could be generated in another configuration.

  13. Collective animal behavior from Bayesian estimation and probability matching.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Pérez-Escudero

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Animals living in groups make movement decisions that depend, among other factors, on social interactions with other group members. Our present understanding of social rules in animal collectives is mainly based on empirical fits to observations, with less emphasis in obtaining first-principles approaches that allow their derivation. Here we show that patterns of collective decisions can be derived from the basic ability of animals to make probabilistic estimations in the presence of uncertainty. We build a decision-making model with two stages: Bayesian estimation and probabilistic matching. In the first stage, each animal makes a Bayesian estimation of which behavior is best to perform taking into account personal information about the environment and social information collected by observing the behaviors of other animals. In the probability matching stage, each animal chooses a behavior with a probability equal to the Bayesian-estimated probability that this behavior is the most appropriate one. This model derives very simple rules of interaction in animal collectives that depend only on two types of reliability parameters, one that each animal assigns to the other animals and another given by the quality of the non-social information. We test our model by obtaining theoretically a rich set of observed collective patterns of decisions in three-spined sticklebacks, Gasterosteus aculeatus, a shoaling fish species. The quantitative link shown between probabilistic estimation and collective rules of behavior allows a better contact with other fields such as foraging, mate selection, neurobiology and psychology, and gives predictions for experiments directly testing the relationship between estimation and collective behavior.

  14. APLIKASI SPLINE ESTIMATOR TERBOBOT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Nyoman Budiantara

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available We considered the nonparametric regression model : Zj = X(tj + ej, j = 1,2,…,n, where X(tj is the regression curve. The random error ej are independently distributed normal with a zero mean and a variance s2/bj, bj > 0. The estimation of X obtained by minimizing a Weighted Least Square. The solution of this optimation is a Weighted Spline Polynomial. Further, we give an application of weigted spline estimator in nonparametric regression. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Diberikan model regresi nonparametrik : Zj = X(tj + ej, j = 1,2,…,n, dengan X (tj kurva regresi dan ej sesatan random yang diasumsikan berdistribusi normal dengan mean nol dan variansi s2/bj, bj > 0. Estimasi kurva regresi X yang meminimumkan suatu Penalized Least Square Terbobot, merupakan estimator Polinomial Spline Natural Terbobot. Selanjutnya diberikan suatu aplikasi estimator spline terbobot dalam regresi nonparametrik. Kata kunci: Spline terbobot, Regresi nonparametrik, Penalized Least Square.

  15. Global assessment of the effects of terrestrial acidification on plant species richness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azevedo, Ligia B.; Zelm, Rosalie van; Hendriks, A. Jan; Bobbink, Roland; Huijbregts, Mark A.J.

    2013-01-01

    This study estimates the potential losses of vascular plant species richness due to terrestrial acidification for different world's biomes. We used empirical occurrence data of 2409 species from 140 studies and estimated the relative species richness – pH response curves using logistic regressions. The regressions were then used to quantify the fraction of species that are potentially lost due to soil pH changes. Although we found considerable variability within biomes, out results show that the pH at which species richness was maximized was found to be the lowest in (sub)tropical forests (pH = 4.1) and the highest in deserts (pH = 7.4). We also found that (sub)tropical moist forests are highly sensitive to decreases of in soil pH below 4.1. This study can be coupled with existing atmospheric deposition models to quantify the risk of species richness loss following soil acidification. Highlights: ► We compare the sensitivity of four biomes to soil acidification. ► We develop logistic regressions using observational field data. ► Sub(tropical) moist forests are highly affected by pH decreases. ► Logistic regressions can be linked to global scale atmospheric and soil fate models. -- Relationships of potential species richness loss along a soil pH gradient are proposed

  16. What explains high plant richness in East Asia? Time and diversification in the tribe Lysimachieae (Primulaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Hai-Fei; Zhang, Cai-Yun; Anderberg, Arne A; Hao, Gang; Ge, Xue-Jun; Wiens, John J

    2018-04-17

    What causes the disparity in biodiversity among regions is a fundamental question in biogeography, ecology, and evolutionary biology. Evolutionary and biogeographic processes (speciation, extinction, dispersal) directly determine species richness patterns, and can be studied using integrative phylogenetic approaches. However, the strikingly high richness of East Asia relative to other Northern Hemisphere regions remains poorly understood from this perspective. Here, for the first time, we test two general hypotheses (older colonization time, faster diversification rate) to explain this pattern, using the plant tribe Lysimachieae (Primulaceae) as a model system. We generated a new time-calibrated phylogeny for Lysimachieae (13 genes, 126 species), to estimate colonization times and diversification rates for each region and to test the relative importance of these two factors for explaining regional richness patterns. We find that neither time nor diversification rates alone explain richness patterns among regions in Lysimachieae. Instead, a new index that combines both factors explains global richness patterns in the group and their high East Asian biodiversity. Based on our results from Lysimachieae, we suggest that the high richness of plants in East Asia may be explained by a combination of older colonization times and faster diversification rates in this region. © 2018 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2018 New Phytologist Trust.

  17. Local richness along gradients in the Siskiyou herb flora: R.H. Whittaker revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, James B.; Harrison, Susan; Damschen, Ellen Ingman

    2011-01-01

    In his classic study in the Siskiyou Mountains (Oregon, USA), one of the most botanically rich forested regions in North America, R. H. Whittaker (1960) foreshadowed many modern ideas on the multivariate control of local species richness along environmental gradients related to productivity. Using a structural equation model to analyze his data, which were never previously statistically analyzed, we demonstrate that Whittaker was remarkably accurate in concluding that local herb richness in these late-seral forests is explained to a large extent by three major abiotic gradients (soils, topography, and elevation), and in turn, by the effects of these gradients on tree densities and the numbers of individual herbs. However, while Whittaker also clearly appreciated the significance of large-scale evolutionary and biogeographic influences on community composition, he did not fully articulate the more recent concept that variation in the species richness of local communities could be explained in part by variation in the sizes of regional species pools. Our model of his data is among the first to use estimates of regional species pool size to explain variation in local community richness along productivity-related gradients. We find that regional pool size, combined with a modest number of other interacting abiotic and biotic factors, explains most of the variation in local herb richness in the Siskiyou biodiversity hotspot.

  18. Obtaining of polycrystalline silicon for semiconductor industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukashev, F.; Nauryzbaev, M.; Kolesnikov, B.; Ivanov, Y.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of the project is to create pilot equipment and optimize the process of obtaining polycrystalline silicon on semi-industrial level. In the past several decades, the historical experience in the developing countries has shown that one of the most promising ways to improve the economy,of a country is to establish semiconductor industry. First of all, the results can help increase defense, national security and create industrial production. The silane method, which has been traditionally' used for obtaining technical and polycrystalline silicon, is to obtain and then to pyrolyzed mono-and poly silanes. Although the traditional methods of obtaining silicon hydrides have specific advantages, such as utilizing by-products, they also have clear shortcomings, i.e. either low output of the ultimate product ( through hydrolysis of Mg 2 Si) or high contents of by-products in it or high contents of dissolving vapors (through decomposing Mg 2 Si in non-water solutions)

  19. Production and characterization of pectinases obtained from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Production and characterization of pectinases obtained from Aspergillus fumigatus in submerged fermentation system using pectin extracted from mango peels as carbon source. AL Ezugwu, SOO Eze, FC Chilaka, CU Anyanwu ...

  20. Treatment of biomass to obtain ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunson, Jr., James B.; Elander, Richard T [Evergreen, CO; Tucker, III, Melvin P.; Hennessey, Susan Marie [Avondale, PA

    2011-08-16

    Ethanol was produced using biocatalysts that are able to ferment sugars derived from treated biomass. Sugars were obtained by pretreating biomass under conditions of high solids and low ammonia concentration, followed by saccharification.

  1. Silicon dioxide obtained by Polymeric Precursor Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, C.T.; Granado, S.R.; Lopes, S.A.; Cavalheiro, A.A.

    2011-01-01

    The Polymeric Precursor Method is able for obtaining several oxide material types with high surface area even obtained in particle form. Several MO 2 oxide types such as titanium, silicon and zirconium ones can be obtained by this methodology. In this work, the synthesis of silicon oxide was monitored by thermal analysis, XRD and surface area analysis in order to demonstrate the influence of the several synthesis and calcining parameters. Surface area values as higher as 370m2/g and increasing in the micropore volume nm were obtained when the material was synthesized by using ethylene glycol as polymerizing agent. XRD analysis showed that the material is amorphous when calcinated at 600°C in despite of the time of calcining, but the material morphology is strongly influenced by the polymeric resin composition. Using Glycerol as polymerizing agent, the pore size increase and the surface area goes down with the increasing in decomposition time, when compared to ethylene glycol. (author)

  2. Process for obtaining cobalt and lanthanum nickelate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tapcov, V.; Samusi, N.; Gulea, A.; Horosun, I.; Stasiuc, V.; Petrenco, P.

    1999-01-01

    The invention relates to the process for obtaining polycrystalline ceramics of cobalt and lanthanum nickelate with the perovskite structure from coordinative hetero metallic compounds. The obtained products can be utilized in the industry in the capacity of catalysts. Summary of the invention consists in obtaining polycrystalline ceramics LaCoO 3 and LaNiO 3 with the perovskite structure by pyrolysis of the parent compounds, namely, the coordinative hetero metallic compounds of the lanthanum cobalt or lanthanum nickel. The pyrolysis of the parent compound runs during one hour at 800 C. The technical result of the invention consists in lowering the temperature of the parent compound pyrolysis containing the precise ratio of metals necessary for ceramics obtaining

  3. Primary controls on species richness in higher taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabosky, Daniel L

    2010-12-01

    The disparity in species richness across the tree of life is one of the most striking and pervasive features of biological diversity. Some groups are exceptionally diverse, whereas many other groups are species poor. Differences in diversity among groups are frequently assumed to result from primary control by differential rates of net diversification. However, a major alternative explanation is that ecological and other factors exert primary control on clade diversity, such that apparent variation in net diversification rates is a secondary consequence of ecological limits on clade growth. Here, I consider a likelihood framework for distinguishing between these competing hypotheses. I incorporate hierarchical modeling to explicitly relax assumptions about the constancy of diversification rates across clades, and I propose several statistics for a posteriori evaluation of model adequacy. I apply the framework to a recent dated phylogeny of ants. My results reject the hypothesis that net diversification rates exert primary control on species richness in this group and demonstrate that clade diversity is better explained by total time-integrated speciation. These results further suggest that it may not possible to estimate meaningful speciation and extinction rates from higher-level phylogenies of extant taxa only.

  4. Chemical study of the metal-rich globular cluster NGC 5927

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mura-Guzmán, A.; Villanova, S.; Muñoz, C.; Tang, B.

    2018-03-01

    Globular clusters (GCs) are natural laboratories where stellar and chemical evolution can be studied in detail. In addition, their chemical patterns and kinematics can tell us to which Galactic structure (disc, bulge, halo or extragalactic) the cluster belongs to. NGC 5927 is one of most metal-rich GCs in the Galaxy and its kinematics links it to the thick disc. We present abundance analysis based on high-resolution spectra of seven giant stars. The data were obtained using Fibre Large Array Multi Element Spectrograph/Ultraviolet Echelle Spectrograph (UVES) spectrograph mounted on UT2 telescope of the European Southern Observatory. The principal objective of this work is to perform a wide and detailed chemical abundance analysis of the cluster and look for possible Multiple Populations (MPs). We determined stellar parameters and measured 22 elements corresponding to light (Na, Al), alpha (O, Mg, Si, Ca, Ti), iron-peak (Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn), and heavy elements (Y, Zr, Ba, Ce, Nd, Eu). We found a mean iron content of [Fe/H] = -0.47 ± 0.02 (error on the mean). We confirm the existence of MPs in this GC with an O-Na anti-correlation, and moderate spread in Al abundances. We estimate a mean [α/Fe] = 0.25 ± 0.08. Iron-peak elements show no significant spread. The [Ba/Eu] ratios indicate a predominant contribution from SNeII for the formation of the cluster.

  5. Bat community species richness and composition in a restinga protected area in Southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oprea, M; Esbérard, C E L; Vieira, T B; Mendes, P; Pimenta, V T; Brito, D; Ditchfield, A D

    2009-11-01

    In Brazil, restingas are under severe human-induced impacts resulting in habitat degradation and loss and remain one of the less frequently studied ecosystems. The main objectives of the present study are to describe the bat community in a restinga in Paulo Cesar Vinha State Park, Guarapari municipality, state of Espírito Santo, southeastern Brazil. Fieldwork was conducted twice a month from August 2004 to September 2005. A total sampling effort of 40,300 m(2)/h, represents the largest sampling effort for sampling bats in restingas to date. Bats were sampled in five different vegetational types in the area. Captured bats were processed recording information on species, sex, age, forearm length and weight. Shannon Diversity and Jaccard indexes were used to analyse diversity and similarity among habitats in the Park. A total of 554 captures belonging to 14 species and two families were obtained. Noctilio leporinus was recorded through direct observation and an ultra-sound detector also registered the presence of individuals from the family Molossidae, without being possible to distinguish it at specific level. Frugivores were the most representative guild. Richness was higher in Clusia shrubs (11 species) and Caraís lagoon (10 species). Shannon diversity index was estimated at H' = 1.43 for the overall sample, with Caraís lagoon representing the most diverse habitat (H' = 1.60). The greater similarity (J = 0.714) was observed for the two areas under high human influence.

  6. Bat community species richness and composition in a restinga protected area in Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Oprea

    Full Text Available In Brazil, restingas are under severe human-induced impacts resulting in habitat degradation and loss and remain one of the less frequently studied ecosystems. The main objectives of the present study are to describe the bat community in a restinga in Paulo Cesar Vinha State Park, Guarapari municipality, state of Espírito Santo, southeastern Brazil. Fieldwork was conducted twice a month from August 2004 to September 2005. A total sampling effort of 40,300 m²/h, represents the largest sampling effort for sampling bats in restingas to date. Bats were sampled in five different vegetational types in the area. Captured bats were processed recording information on species, sex, age, forearm length and weight. Shannon Diversity and Jaccard indexes were used to analyse diversity and similarity among habitats in the Park. A total of 554 captures belonging to 14 species and two families were obtained. Noctilio leporinus was recorded through direct observation and an ultra-sound detector also registered the presence of individuals from the family Molossidae, without being possible to distinguish it at specific level. Frugivores were the most representative guild. Richness was higher in Clusia shrubs (11 species and Caraís lagoon (10 species. Shannon diversity index was estimated at H' = 1.43 for the overall sample, with Caraís lagoon representing the most diverse habitat (H' = 1.60. The greater similarity (J = 0.714 was observed for the two areas under high human influence.

  7. Investigation on the production of hydrogen rich gas in a plasma converter for motorcycle applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horng, R.-F.; Chang, Y.-P.; Wu, S.-C.

    2006-01-01

    A plasma fuel converter producing a hydrogen rich gas fuel has been designed and constructed. The methodology included using a high voltage electric arc generator to ionize the mixture of methane fuel and air, which was then reformed into a hydrogen rich gas. It transpired from the experiment that the higher the arc frequency, the higher was the generated hydrogen concentration, with a maximum concentration of 43 vol.% attained with an arc frequency of 200 Hz and an O/C (O 2 /CH 4 ) ratio of 0.10. The maximum hydrogen yield of 0.55 was obtained with an arc frequency of 200 Hz and an O/C ratio between 0.20 and 0.25. By fueling a four stroke motorcycle engine with the hydrogen rich gas, low emissions during the cold start idle condition can be obtained

  8. The HADES-RICH upgrade using Hamamatsu H12700 MAPMTs with DiRICH FEE + Readout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, V.; Traxler, M.

    2018-03-01

    The High Acceptance Di-Electron Spectrometer (HADES) is operational since the year 2000 and uses a hadron blind RICH detector for electron identification. The RICH photon detector is currently replaced by Hamamatsu H12700 MAPMTs with a readout system based on the DiRICH front-end module. The electronic readout chain is being developed as a joint effort of the HADES-, CBM- and PANDA collaborations and will also be used in the photon detectors for the upcoming Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) and PANDA experiments at FAIR . This article gives a brief overview on the photomultipliers and their quality assurance test measurements, as well as first measurements of the new DiRICH front-end module in final configurations.

  9. Front-end readout system for PHENIX RICH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Y.; Hara, H.; Ebisu, K.; Hibino, M.; Kametani, S.; Kikuchi, J.; Wintenberg, A.L.; Walker, J.W.; Franck, S.; Moscone, C.; Jones, J.P.; Young, G.R.; Matsumoto, T.; Sakaguchi, T.; Oyama, K.; Hamagaki, H.

    2000-01-01

    A front-end readout system with a custom backplane and custom circuit modules has been developed for the RICH subsystem of the PHENIX experiment. The design specifications and test results of the backplane and the modules are presented in this paper. In the module design, flexibility for modification is maximized through the use of Complex Programmable Logic Devices. In the backplane design, a source-synchronous bus architecture is adopted for the data and control bus. The transfer speed of the backplane has reached 640 Mbyte/s with a 128-bit data bus. Total transaction time is estimated to be less than 30 μs per event when this system is used in the experiment. This result indicates that the performance satisfies the data-rate requirement of the PHENIX experiment

  10. Geography, topography, and history affect realized-to-potential tree species richness patterns in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenning, J.-C.; Fitzpatrick, Matthew C.; Normand, Signe

    2010-01-01

    by assembly from regional species pools. Using the European tree flora as our study system, we implemented a novel approach to assess the relative importance of local and regional mechanisms that control local species richness. We first identified species pools that tolerate particular local environments....../P richness ratio estimates, but we found consistent support for a negative effect of regional geographic fragmentation and a positive topographic effect. We also identified fairly broad support for the predicted effect of accessibility. We conclude that local tree assemblages in Europe often fail to realize...

  11. Cherenkov angle and charge reconstruction with the RICH detector of the AMS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Barão, F; Borges, J; Gonçalves, P; Pimenta, M; Pérez, I

    2003-01-01

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer experiment to be installed on the International Space Station will be equipped with a proximity focusing Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) detector, for measurements of particle electric charge and velocity. In this note, two possible methods for reconstructing the Cherenkov angle and the electric charge with the RICH are discussed. A Likelihood method for the Cherenkov angle reconstruction was applied leading to a velocity determination for protons with a resolution of around 0.1%. The existence of a large fraction of background photons which can vary from event to event implied a charge reconstruction method based on an overall efficiency estimation on an event-by-event basis.

  12. RICH Detector for Jefferson Labs CLAS12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotta, Richard; Torisky, Ben; Benmokhtar, Fatiha

    2015-10-01

    Jefferson Lab (Jlab) is performing a large-scale upgrade to its Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) up to 12GeV beams. The Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS12) in Hall B is being upgraded and a new hybrid Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) detector is being developed to provide better kaon - pion separation throughout the 3 to 8 GeV/c momentum range. This detector will be used for a variety of Semi-Inclusive Deep Inelastic Scattering experiments. Cherenkov light can be accurately detected by a large array of sophisticated Multi-Anode Photomultiplier Tubes (MA-PMT) and heavier particles, like kaons, will span the inner radii. We are presenting our work on the creation of the RICH's geometry within the CLAS12 java framework. This development is crucial for future calibration, reconstructions and analysis of the detector.

  13. Ring recognition in the CBM RICH detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebedev, S.; Ososkov, G.; Hoehne, C.

    2007-01-01

    Two algorithms of ring recognition, a standalone ring finder (using only RICH information) and an algorithm based on the information from vertex tracks are described. The fake ring problem and its solution using a set of two-dimensional cuts or an artificial neural network are discussed. Results of a comparative study are given. All developed algorithms were tested on large statistics of simulated events and were then included into the CBM framework for common use

  14. Proton radioactivity from proton-rich nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzman, F.; Goncalves, M.; Tavares, O.A.P.; Duarte, S.B.; Garcia, F.; Rodriguez, O.

    1999-03-01

    Half-lives for proton emission from proton-rich nuclei have been calculated by using the effective liquid drop model of heavy-particle decay of nuclei. It is shown that this model is able to offer results or spontaneous proton-emission half-life-values in excellent agreement with the existing experimental data. Predictions of half-life-values for other possible proton-emission cases are present for null orbital angular momentum. (author)

  15. Variation in the diversity and richness of parasitoid wasps based on sampling effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Thomas E; Ward, Darren F

    2018-01-01

    Parasitoid wasps are a mega-diverse, ecologically dominant, but poorly studied component of global biodiversity. In order to maximise the efficiency and reduce the cost of their collection, the application of optimal sampling techniques is necessary. Two sites in Auckland, New Zealand were sampled intensively to determine the relationship between sampling effort and observed species richness of parasitoid wasps from the family Ichneumonidae. Twenty traps were deployed at each site at three different times over the austral summer period, resulting in a total sampling effort of 840 Malaise-trap-days. Rarefaction techniques and non-parametric estimators were used to predict species richness and to evaluate the variation and completeness of sampling. Despite an intensive Malaise-trapping regime over the summer period, no asymptote of species richness was reached. At best, sampling captured two-thirds of parasitoid wasp species present. The estimated total number of species present depended on the month of sampling and the statistical estimator used. Consequently, the use of fewer traps would have caught only a small proportion of all species (one trap 7-21%; two traps 13-32%), and many traps contributed little to the overall number of individuals caught. However, variation in the catch of individual Malaise traps was not explained by seasonal turnover of species, vegetation or environmental conditions surrounding the trap, or distance of traps to one another. Overall the results demonstrate that even with an intense sampling effort the community is incompletely sampled. The use of only a few traps and/or for very short periods severely limits the estimates of richness because (i) fewer individuals are caught leading to a greater number of singletons; and (ii) the considerable variation of individual traps means some traps will contribute few or no individuals. Understanding how sampling effort affects the richness and diversity of parasitoid wasps is a useful

  16. Obtaining of ceramics biphasic dense and porous

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pallone, E.M.J.A.; Rigo, E.C.S.; Fraga, A.F.

    2010-01-01

    Among the bioceramic hydroxyapatite (HAP) and beta-tricalcium phosphate (beta-TCP) are materials commonly used in biomedical field. Their combined properties result in a material with absorbable and at the same time with bioactive surface. Called biphasic ceramics such materials respond more quickly when exposed to physiological environment. In this work, powders of HAP/beta-TCP were obtained by chemical precipitation. After obtaining the post-phase was added at a ratio of 0, 15% and 30w% aqueous solutions of corn starch in order to obtain porous bodies. After mixing the resulting solutions were dried, resigned in tablet form and sintered at 1300 deg C. The initial powder was characterized by X-ray diffraction with Rietveld refinement to quantify the phases present. Bodies-of-evidence has been characterized by calculating the bulk density, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy and diametral compression. (author)

  17. Organoclays obtaining starting up of clays sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, M.M. da; Mota, M.F.; Oliveira, G.C. de; Rodrigues, M.G.F.

    2012-01-01

    Clays have several applications in many areas of fields of technology, however, modification of these materials using organic compounds can be performed to obtain further hydrophobic materials, for applications in the adsorption of organic pollutants. This study aimed to analyze the effects of modifying two clays using sodium quaternary ammonium surfactants through ion exchange reaction process, in obtaining organoclays. The samples with sodium and organoclays were characterized by the techniques of X-ray diffraction (XRD), Infrared Spectroscopy in the region (IV), Gravimetric and Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA / TG) and organic adsorption tests. The results show that the process of obtaining organoclay is efficient, and materials have the potential for future applications in removing organic contaminants. (author)

  18. Obtain of uranium concentrates from fertil liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narvaez Castillo, W.A.

    1992-01-01

    This research tried to encounter the form to remove uranium from the rock in the best way, for that it was used different process like leaching, extraction, concentration and precipitation. To leach the mineral was chosen basic leaching, using a mixture of carbonate-sodium bicarbonate, this method is more adequated for the basic nature of the mineral. In extraction was used specific uranium ionic interchanges, so was chosen a tertiary amine like Alamina 336. The concentration phase is intimately binding with the extraction by ionic interchange, for the capability of resine's extraction to obtain concentrated liquids. When the liquids were obtained with high concentration of uranium in the same time were purified and then were precipitated, for that we employed a precipitant agent like: Sodium hydroxide, Amonium hydroxide, Magnesium hydroxide, Hydrogen peroxide and phosphates. With all concentrates we obtain the YELLOW CAKE

  19. Experiments for obtaining field influence mass particles.

    CERN Document Server

    Yahalomi, E

    2010-01-01

    Analyzing time dilation experiments the existence of a universal field interacting with moving mass particles is obtained. It is found that mass particle changes its properties depend on its velocity relative to this universal scalar field and not on its velocity relative to the laboratory. High energy proton momentum, energy and mass were calculated obtaining new results. Experiments in high energy accelerators are suggested as additional proofs for the existence of this universal field. This universal field may explain some results of other high energy experiments.

  20. Beta spectroscopy on neutron-rich nuclei of mass 93<=A<=100

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pahlmann, B.

    1982-01-01

    In the present thesis for the first time measurements of the Qsub(β) value of the neutron-rich fission products sup(99,100)Sr and 99 Rb were performed. Preliminary results could be obtained on the beta decays of the nuclides 100 Rb and 100 Y. (orig./HSI) [de

  1. Species richness and composition assessment of spiders in a Mediterranean scrubland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondoso Cardoso, Pedro Miguel; Henriques, Sérgio S.; Gaspar, Clara

    2009-01-01

    Intensive fieldwork has been undertaken in Portugal in order to develop a standardized and optimized sampling protocol for Mediterranean spiders. The present study had the objectives of testing the use of semi-quantitative sampling for obtaining an exhaustive species richness assessment of spiders...

  2. Swimming clusters in thallium-rich liquid caesium-thallium alloys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Aart, SA; van der Lugt, W; Badyal, YS; Verkerk, P

    The purpose of the work presented here is to obtain structural information on thallium-rich caesium-thallium alloys by means of neutron diffraction. The alloys exhibit a long-range (>1 nm) superstructure. This range increases with the thallium content. The results are interpreted with the help of a

  3. ISO far-infrared observations of rich galaxy clusters II. Sersic 159-03

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lene; Jørgensen, H.E.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, Hans Ulrik

    2000-01-01

    In a series of papers we investigate far-infrared emission from rich galaxy clusters. Maps have been obtained by ISO at 60 mu m, 100 mu m, 135 mu m, and 200 mu m using the PHT-C camera. Ground based imaging and spectroscopy were also acquired. Here we present the results for the cooling flow...

  4. Method Development to Increase Protein Enrichment During Dry Fractionation of Starch-Rich Legumes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pelgrom, P.J.M.; Boom, R.M.; Schutyser, M.A.I.

    2015-01-01

    A facile method was developed to establish milling settings that optimally separate starch granules from protein bodies and cell wall fibres for starch-rich legumes. Optimal separation was obtained for pea, bean, lentil and chickpea when the particle size distribution curve of flour and isolated

  5. The Effects of Organization Design on Media Richness in Multinational Enterprises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, J. Michael; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Examines effects of two organizational design parameters, divisionalization and centralization, on the media richness choices of Chief Executive Officers (CEOs) of multinational enterprises in obtaining information from foreign subsidiaries on strategic issues. Samples 86 US multinationals; finds formal divisional structure affects CEOs' use of…

  6. Underestimation of species richness in neotropical frogs revealed by mtDNA analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine Fouquet

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Amphibians are rapidly vanishing. At the same time, it is most likely that the number of amphibian species is highly underestimated. Recent DNA barcoding work has attempted to define a threshold between intra- and inter-specific genetic distances to help identify candidate species. In groups with high extinction rates and poorly known species boundaries, like amphibians, such tools may provide a way to rapidly evaluate species richness.Here we analyse published and new 16S rDNA sequences from 60 frog species of Amazonia-Guianas to obtain a minimum estimate of the number of undescribed species in this region. We combined isolation by distance, phylogenetic analyses, and comparison of molecular distances to evaluate threshold values for the identification of candidate species among these frogs.In most cases, geographically distant populations belong to genetically highly distinct lineages that could be considered as candidate new species. This was not universal among the taxa studied and thus widespread species of Neotropical frogs really do exist, contrary to previous assumptions. Moreover, the many instances of paraphyly and the wide overlap between distributions of inter- and intra-specific distances reinforce the hypothesis that many cryptic species remain to be described. In our data set, pairwise genetic distances below 0.02 are strongly correlated with geographical distances. This correlation remains statistically significant until genetic distance is 0.05, with no such relation thereafter. This suggests that for higher distances allopatric and sympatric cryptic species prevail. Based on our analyses, we propose a more inclusive pairwise genetic distance of 0.03 between taxa to target lineages that could correspond to candidate species.Using this approach, we identify 129 candidate species, two-fold greater than the 60 species included in the current study. This leads to estimates of around 170 to 460 frog taxa unrecognized in Amazonia

  7. Species richness of vascular plants along the climatic range of the Spanish dehesas at two spatial scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose M. Garcia del Barrio

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Aims of study: The goals of this paper are to summarize and to compare plant species richness and floristic similarity at two spatial scales; mesohabitat (normal, eutrophic, and oligotrophic dehesas and dehesa habitat; and to establish guidelines for conserving species diversity in dehesas.Area of study: We considered four dehesa sites in the western Peninsular Spain, located along a climatic and biogeographic gradient from north to south. Main results: Average alpha richness for mesohabitats was 75.6 species, and average alpha richness for dehesa sites was 146.3. Gamma richness assessed for the overall dehesa habitat was 340.0 species. The species richness figures of normal dehesa mesohabitat were significantly lesser than of the eutrophic mesohabitat and lesser than the oligotrophic mesohabitat too. No significant differences were found for species richness among dehesa sites. We have found more dissimilarity at local scale (mesohabitat than at regional scale (habitat. Finally, the results of the similarity assessment between dehesa sites reflected both climatic and biogeographic gradients.Research highlights: An effective conservation of dehesas must take into account local and regional conditions all along their distribution range for ensuring the conservation of the main vascular plant species assemblages as well as the associated fauna.Keywords: Agroforestry systems; mesohabitat; non-parametric estimators; alpha richness; gamma richness; floristic similarity; climatic and biogeographic range.

  8. Obtaining the Andersen's chart, triangulation algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabaliauskas, Tomas; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    Andersen’s chart (Andersen & Berre, 1999) is a graphical method of observing cyclic soil response. It allows observing soil response to various stress amplitudes that can lead to liquefaction, excess plastic deformation or stabilizing soil response. The process of obtaining the original chart has...

  9. Purification of alcohol obtained from molasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visnevskaya, G L; Egorov, A S; Sokol' skaya, E V

    1960-01-01

    A study of the composition of alcohol liquids on different plates of a fractionation column of indirect action during purification of alcohol obtained from normal and defective molasses, and from starch raw material, showed that there were two local strength minima in the lower part of the column and on the plates (adjacent and feed). Aldehydes behaved as a typical head impurity; a noticeable increase in their concentration occurred only on the highest plates in the fractionation column. In the zone of the column containing liquids of a strength of 86 to 94% alcohol by weight a sharply pronounced local maximum of ester accumulation were observed, provisionally designated as intermediate, whose presence is apparently one of the causes of the specific sharp taste of alcohol obtained from molasses. These esters hinder the obtaining of high-grade alcohols which are standard in respect to ester content and oxidizability test. Reduction with 0.05N KMnO/sub 4/ occurs most rapidly with alcohol liquids in the zone of ester accumulation; purification of alcohols obtained from grain and potato raw material resulted in no zones of ester accumulation in the column.

  10. Obtaining shale distillate free from sulphur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heyl, G E

    1917-09-14

    A process whereby, from sulfur-containing shale, products free from sulfur may be obtained, consisting of mixing with the finely ground shale a portion of iron salts containing sufficient metal to unite with all the sulfur in the shale and form sulfide therewith, grinding the mixture to a fine state of subdivision and subsequently subjecting it to destructive distillation.

  11. Obtaining a minimal set of rewrite rules

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Davel, M

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors describe a new approach to rewrite rule extraction and analysis, using Minimal Representation Graphs. This approach provides a mechanism for obtaining the smallest possible rule set – within a context-dependent rewrite rule...

  12. Obtainment of tantalum oxide from national ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinatti, D.G.; Ribeiro, S.; Martins, A.H.

    1988-01-01

    The experimental results of tantalum oxides (Ta 2 O 5 ) obtainment from Brazilian ores of tantalite and columbite are described. This study is a part of the technologic and scientific research design of refractory metals (Ti, Zr, Hf, V, Nb, Ta, Cr, Mo and W) and correlate ceramics. (C.G.C.) [pt

  13. Isolation and characterization of microcrystalline cellulose obtained ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, microcrystalline cellulose, coded MCC-PNF, was obtained from palm nut (Elaeis guineensis) fibres. MCC-PNF was examined for its physicochemical and powder properties. The powder properties of MCC-PNF were compared to those of the best commercial microcrystalline cellulose grade, Avicel PH 101.

  14. 47 CFR 54.615 - Obtaining services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... provided under § 54.621, that the requester cannot obtain toll-free access to an Internet service provider... thing of value; (6) If the service or services are being purchased as part of an aggregated purchase... submitted and select the most cost-effective alternative. (b) Receiving supported rate. Except with regard...

  15. Estimation of Parameters Obtained by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy on Systems Containing High Capacities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Rajčić Vujasinović

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Electrochemical systems with high capacities demand devices for electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS with ultra-low frequencies (in order of mHz, that are almost impossible to accomplish with analogue techniques, but this becomes possible by using a computer technique and accompanying digital equipment. Recently, an original software and hardware for electrochemical measurements, intended for electrochemical systems exhibiting high capacities, such as supercapacitors, has been developed. One of the included methods is EIS. In this paper, the method of calculation of circuit parameters from an EIS curve is described. The results of testing on a physical model of an electrochemical system, constructed of known elements (including a 1.6 F capacitor in a defined arrangement, proved the validity of the system and the method.

  16. A Mathematical Technique for Estimating True Temperature Profiles of Data Obtained from Long Time Constant Thermocouples

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-02-01

    zero, and has therefore been ignored. The inverse transform of Equation (11) (but ignoring the 5.8x) term, yields Equation (12), which is the...done for TC #1, this is ignored in the results. The inverse transform of Equation (14) (but ignoring the 10x) term, yields Equation (15), which is...2.568r 2.568 0.36 A^ —— + + —i— + + 0.36r (19) s s s s The inverse transform of Equation (19) (but ignoring the 0.36x) term, yields

  17. Estimate of the residual loads obtained in the end of piles driven in porous soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David de Carvalho

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available In the geotechnical engineering the study about the quantification of the residual loads in the pile end, after the end of the first loading of the load test attempt, highlighted some works on its interpretation in the curve load versus pile settlement. The construction of a mathematical model to study such a phenomenon is based on the Relations of Cambefort Precast-concrete piles were specially built for this research. They have special elements installed all along their length where the residual loads inlaid in the pile end region could be measured by means of deformation strain gauges.

  18. Calculating the variance and prediction intervals for estimates obtained from allometric relationships

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nickless, A

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available that across the range of x values, the variability in the error does not change (i.e. no heteroscedasticity). Often the power function in allometry is used: y = axbε This can be converted to: ln(yi) = β0 + β1 ln(xi) + εi The above assumptions now apply... to the regression relationship with the logged variables. Therefore ln(yi) is assumed to be normally distributed with mean µ=β0+β1 ln(xi) and variance σ2*. From regression theory it is known that the expected value (e) and variance (Var) of ln(yi) is given by...

  19. Spring Small Grains Area Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, W. F.; Mohler, R. J.

    1986-01-01

    SSG3 automatically estimates acreage of spring small grains from Landsat data. Report describes development and testing of a computerized technique for using Landsat multispectral scanner (MSS) data to estimate acreage of spring small grains (wheat, barley, and oats). Application of technique to analysis of four years of data from United States and Canada yielded estimates of accuracy comparable to those obtained through procedures that rely on trained analysis.

  20. Strontium-rich injectable hybrid system for bone regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neves, Nuno, E-mail: nsmneves@gmail.com [Instituto de Investigação e Inovação em Saúde, Universidade do Porto (Portugal); INEB — Instituto de Engenharia Biomédica, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre 823, 4150-180 Porto (Portugal); FMUP — Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade do Porto, Departamento de Cirurgia, Serviço de Ortopedia, Alameda Prof. Hernâni Monteiro, 4200-319 Porto (Portugal); Campos, Bruno B. [FCUP — Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade do Porto, Centro de Investigação em Química, Departamento de Química e Bioquímica, Rua do Campo Alegre 1021/1055, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Almeida, Isabel F.; Costa, Paulo C. [FFUP — Faculdade de Farmácia da Universidade do Porto, Laboratório de Tecnologia Farmacêutica, Departamento de Ciências do Medicamento, Rua de Jorge Viterbo Ferreira 228, 4050-313 Porto (Portugal); Cabral, Abel Trigo [FMUP — Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade do Porto, Departamento de Cirurgia, Serviço de Ortopedia, Alameda Prof. Hernâni Monteiro, 4200-319 Porto (Portugal); and others

    2016-02-01

    Current challenges in the development of scaffolds for bone regeneration include the engineering of materials that can withstand normal dynamic physiological mechanical stresses exerted on the bone and provide a matrix capable of supporting cell migration and tissue ingrowth. The objective of the present work was to develop and characterize a hybrid polymer–ceramic injectable system that consists of an alginate matrix crosslinked in situ in the presence of strontium (Sr), incorporating a ceramic reinforcement in the form of Sr-rich microspheres. The incorporation of Sr in the microspheres and in the vehicle relies on the growing evidence that Sr has beneficial effects in bone remodeling and in the treatment of osteopenic disorders and osteoporosis. Sr-rich porous hydroxyapatite microspheres with a uniform size and a mean diameter of 555 μm were prepared, and their compression strength and friability tested. A 3.5% (w/v) ultrapure sodium alginate solution was used as the vehicle and its in situ gelation was promoted by the addition of calcium (Ca) or Sr carbonate and Glucone-δ-lactone. Gelation times varied with temperature and crosslinking agent, being slower for Sr than for Ca, but adequate for injection in both cases. Injectability was evaluated using a device employed in vertebroplasty surgical procedures, coupled to a texture analyzer in compression mode. Compositions with 35% w of microspheres presented the best compromise between injectability and compression strength of the system, the force required to extrude it being lower than 100 N. Micro CT analysis revealed a homogeneous distribution of the microspheres inside the vehicle, and a mean inter-microspheres space of 220 μm. DMA results showed that elastic behavior of the hybrid is dominant over the viscous one and that the higher storage modulus was obtained for the 3.5%Alg–35%Sr-HAp-Sr formulation. - Highlights: • We developed a Sr rich viscoelastic hybrid system (alginate matrix crosslinked in

  1. Three-dimensional structure and cytokine distribution of platelet-rich fibrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Meng-Yi; Wang, Ching-Wei; Wang, Jyun-Yi; Lin, Ming-Fang; Chan, Wing P

    2017-02-01

    Previous reports have revealed that several cytokines (including platelet-derived growth factor-BB, transforming growth factors-β1 and insulin-like growth factor-1) can enhance the rate of bone formation and synthesis of extracellular matrix in orthopaedics or periodontology. This study aimed to determine the concentration of cytokines within platelet-rich fibrin microstructures and investigate whether there are differences in the different portions of platelet-rich fibrin, which has implications for proper clinical use of platelet-rich fibrin gel. Whole blood was obtained from six New Zealand rabbits (male, 7 to 39 weeks old, weight 2.7-4 kg); it was then centrifuged for preparation of platelet-rich fibrin gels and harvest of plasma. The resultant platelet-rich fibrin gels were used for cytokine determination, histological analyses and scanning electron microscopy. All plasmas obtained were subject to the same cytokine determination assays for the purpose of comparison. Cytokines platelet-derived growth factor-BB and transforming growth factor-β1 formed concentration gradients from high at the red blood cell end of the platelet-rich fibrin gel (p=1.88×10-5) to low at the plasma end (p=0.19). Insulin-like growth factor-1 concentrations were similar at the red blood cell and plasma ends. The porosities of the platelet-rich fibrin samples taken in sequence from the red blood cell end to the plasma end were 6.5% ± 4.9%, 24.8% ± 7.5%, 30.3% ± 8.5%, 41.4% ± 12.3%, and 40.3% ± 11.7%, respectively, showing a gradual decrease in the compactness of the platelet-rich fibrin network. Cytokine concentrations are positively associated with platelet-rich fibrin microstructure and portion in a rabbit model. As platelet-rich fibrin is the main entity currently used in regenerative medicine, assessing cytokine concentration and the most valuable portion of PRF gels is essential and recommended to all physicians.

  2. Three-dimensional structure and cytokine distribution of platelet-rich fibrin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-Yi Bai

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Previous reports have revealed that several cytokines (including platelet-derived growth factor-BB, transforming growth factors-β1 and insulin-like growth factor-1 can enhance the rate of bone formation and synthesis of extracellular matrix in orthopaedics or periodontology. This study aimed to determine the concentration of cytokines within platelet-rich fibrin microstructures and investigate whether there are differences in the different portions of platelet-rich fibrin, which has implications for proper clinical use of platelet-rich fibrin gel. METHODS: Whole blood was obtained from six New Zealand rabbits (male, 7 to 39 weeks old, weight 2.7-4 kg; it was then centrifuged for preparation of platelet-rich fibrin gels and harvest of plasma. The resultant platelet-rich fibrin gels were used for cytokine determination, histological analyses and scanning electron microscopy. All plasmas obtained were subject to the same cytokine determination assays for the purpose of comparison. RESULTS: Cytokines platelet-derived growth factor-BB and transforming growth factor-β1 formed concentration gradients from high at the red blood cell end of the platelet-rich fibrin gel (p=1.88×10-5 to low at the plasma end (p=0.19. Insulin-like growth factor-1 concentrations were similar at the red blood cell and plasma ends. The porosities of the platelet-rich fibrin samples taken in sequence from the red blood cell end to the plasma end were 6.5% ± 4.9%, 24.8% ± 7.5%, 30.3% ± 8.5%, 41.4% ± 12.3%, and 40.3% ± 11.7%, respectively, showing a gradual decrease in the compactness of the platelet-rich fibrin network. CONCLUSION: Cytokine concentrations are positively associated with platelet-rich fibrin microstructure and portion in a rabbit model. As platelet-rich fibrin is the main entity currently used in regenerative medicine, assessing cytokine concentration and the most valuable portion of PRF gels is essential and recommended to all physicians.

  3. Design and R&D of RICH detectors for EIC experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Dotto, A.; Wong, C.-P.; Allison, L.; Awadi, M.; Azmoun, B.; Barbosa, F.; Brooks, W.; Cao, T.; Chiu, M.; Cisbani, E.; Contalbrigo, M.; Datta, A.; Demarteau, M.; Durham, J. M.; Dzhygadlo, R.; Fields, D.; Furletova, Y.; Gleason, C.; Grosse-Perdekamp, M.; Harris, J.; He, X.; van Hecke, H.; Horn, T.; Huang, J.; Hyde, C.; Ilieva, Y.; Kalicy, G.; Kimball, M.; Kistenev, E.; Kulinich, Y.; Liu, M.; Majka, R.; McKisson, J.; Mendez, R.; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Park, K.; Peters, K.; Rao, T.; Pisani, R.; Qiang, Y.; Rescia, S.; Rossi, P.; Sarsour, M.; Schwarz, C.; Schwiening, J.; da Silva, C. L.; Smirnov, N.; Stein, H.; Stevens, J.; Sukhanov, A.; Syed, S.; Tate, A.; Toh, J.; Towell, C.; Towell, R.; Tsang, T.; Wagner, R.; Wang, J.; Woody, C.; Xi, W.; Xie, J.; Zhao, Z. W.; Zihlmann, B.; Zorn, C.

    2017-12-01

    An Electron-Ion Collider (EIC) has been proposed to further explore the strong force and QCD, focusing on the structure and the interaction of gluon-dominated matter. A generic detector R&D program (EIC PID consortium) for the particle identification in EIC experiments was formed to explore technologically advanced solutions in this scope. In this context two Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) counters have been proposed: a modular RICH detector which consists of an aerogel radiator, a Fresnel lens, a mirrored box, and pixelated photon sensor; a dual-radiator RICH, consisting of an aerogel radiator and C2F6 gas in a mirror-focused configuration. We present the simulations of the two detectors and their estimated performance.

  4. Aluminum-rich mesoporous MFI - type zeolite single crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kustova, Marina; Kustov, Arkadii; Christensen, Christina Hviid

    2005-01-01

    Zeolitcs are crystalline materials, which are widely used as solid acid catalysts and supports in many industrial processes. Recently, mesoporous MFI-type zeolite single crystals were synthesized by use of carbon particles as a mesopore template and sodium aluminate as the aluminum Source....... With this technique, only zeolites with relatively low Al contents were reported (Si/Al ratio about 100). In this work, the preparation of aluminum-rich mesoporous MFI-type zeolite single crystals (Si/Al similar to 16-50) using aluminum isopropoxide as the aluminum Source is reported for the first time. All samples...... are characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), ammonia temperature programmed desorption (NH3-TPD), and N-2 adsorption measurements. The obtained zeolites combine the high crystallinity and the characteristic micropores of zeolites with an intracrystalline mesopore system...

  5. Fluorescence and thermoluminescence in silicon oxide films rich in silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berman M, D.; Piters, T. M.; Aceves M, M.; Berriel V, L. R.; Luna L, J. A.

    2009-10-01

    In this work we determined the fluorescence and thermoluminescence (TL) creation spectra of silicon rich oxide films (SRO) with three different silicon excesses. To study the TL of SRO, 550 nm of SRO film were deposited by Low Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition technique on N-type silicon substrates with resistivity in the order of 3 to 5 Ω-cm with silicon excess controlled by the ratio of the gases used in the process, SRO films with Ro= 10, 20 and 30 (12-6% silicon excess) were obtained. Then, they were thermally treated in N 2 at high temperatures to diffuse and homogenize the silicon excess. In the fluorescence spectra two main emission regions are observed, one around 400 nm and one around 800 nm. TL creation spectra were determined by plotting the integrated TL intensity as function of the excitation wavelength. (Author)

  6. The electric dipole response of neutron rich tin isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horvat, Andrea; Aumann, Thomas; Rossi, Dominic; Schindler, Fabia [Institut fuer Kernphysik, TU Darmstadt (Germany); Boretzky, Konstanze [GSI Helmholzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Johansen, Jacob [Aarhus University (Denmark); Schrock, Philipp [The University of Tokyo (Japan); Collaboration: R3B-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    Studies of the dipole response in medium heavy and heavy neutron rich nuclei reveal valuable information about the isospin dependence of the nuclear equation of state. Therefore an experimental campaign investigating both the electric dipole response via Coulomb excitation and neutron removal along the tin isotope chain ({sup 124-134}Sn) has been carried out at the R3B (Reactions with Relativistic Radioactive Beams) setup at GSI (Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung) for which the analysis is ongoing. The E1 response was induced via relativistic Coulomb scattering by a lead target in inverse kinematics, and calls for a kinematically complete determination of all reaction products in order to reconstruct the excitation energy by means of the invariant mass method. The goal is to obtain the Coulomb excitation cross section up to the adiabatic cut-off energy, covering the giant dipole resonance (GDR) range.

  7. Avian species richness in relation to intensive forest management practices in early seral tree plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jay E; Kroll, Andrew J; Giovanini, Jack; Duke, Steven D; Ellis, Tana M; Betts, Matthew G

    2012-01-01

    Managers of landscapes dedicated to forest commodity production require information about how practices influence biological diversity. Individual species and communities may be threatened if management practices truncate or simplify forest age classes that are essential for reproduction and survival. For instance, the degradation and loss of complex diverse forest in young age classes have been associated with declines in forest-associated Neotropical migrant bird populations in the Pacific Northwest, USA. These declines may be exacerbated by intensive forest management practices that reduce hardwood and broadleaf shrub cover in order to promote growth of economically valuable tree species in plantations. We used a Bayesian hierarchical model to evaluate relationships between avian species richness and vegetation variables that reflect stand management intensity (primarily via herbicide application) on 212 tree plantations in the Coast Range, Oregon, USA. Specifically, we estimated the influence of broadleaf hardwood vegetation cover, which is reduced through herbicide applications, on bird species richness and individual species occupancy. Our model accounted for imperfect detection. We used average predictive comparisons to quantify the degree of association between vegetation variables and species richness. Both conifer and hardwood cover were positively associated with total species richness, suggesting that these components of forest stand composition may be important predictors of alpha diversity. Estimates of species richness were 35-80% lower when imperfect detection was ignored (depending on covariate values), a result that has critical implications for previous efforts that have examined relationships between forest composition and species richness. Our results revealed that individual and community responses were positively associated with both conifer and hardwood cover. In our system, patterns of bird community assembly appear to be associated with

  8. Superconductive ceramics obtained with sol gel method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arcangeli, A.; Mosci, A.; Nardi, A.; Vatteroni, R.; Zondini, C.

    1988-01-01

    Several sol gel routes have been considered, studied and developed to produce large quantities of granulates which can be processed to obtain ceramics having good superconducting characteristics. In the considered process a mixture of commercial nitrates is atomized, at room temperature, in a solution 1:1 of Primene JMT and Benzene and a pale blue gel of the starting elements is suddently formed. The granulates obtained are free flowing, very reactive and well suited for pressing. For their intrinsic characteristics they could be very good precursors for the production of large quantities of superconductive ceramics in different forms. The precipitated gel is dried, calcinated, pressed in the form of cylindrical pellets which are sintered up to 960 degrees C. No griding or different thermal treatments are needed. The sintered material has low electric resistence, shows a clear Meissner effect and has a transition temperature of between 91 and 95 K

  9. Acoustic barriers obtained from industrial wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Valles, M; Avila, G; Martinez, S; Terradas, R; Nogués, J M

    2008-07-01

    Acoustic pollution is an environmental problem that is becoming increasingly more important in our society. Likewise, the accumulation of generated waste and the need for waste management are also becoming more and more pressing. In this study we describe a new material--called PROUSO--obtained from industrial wastes. PROUSO has a variety of commercial and engineering, as well as building, applications. The main raw materials used for this environmentally friendly material come from slag from the aluminium recycling process, dust from the marble industry, foundry sands, and recycled expanded polystyrene from recycled packaging. Some natural materials, such as plastic clays, are also used. To obtain PROUSO we used a conventional ceramic process, forming new mineral phases and incorporating polluted elements into the structure. Its physical properties make PROUSO an excellent acoustic and thermal insulation material. It absorbs 95% of the sound in the frequency band of the 500 Hz. Its compressive strength makes it ideal for use in ceramic wall building.

  10. Processing of hydroxyapatite obtained by combustion synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canillas, M.; Rivero, R.; García-Carrodeguas, R.; Barba, F.; Rodríguez, M.A.

    2017-01-01

    One of the reasons of implants failure are the stress forces appearing in the material–tissue interface due to the differences between their mechanical properties. For this reason, similar mechanical properties to the surrounding tissue are desirable. The synthesis of hydroxyapatite by solution combustion method and its processing have been studied in order to obtain fully dense ceramic bodies with improved mechanical strength. Combustion synthesis provides nanostructured powders characterized by a high surface area to facilitate the following sintering. Moreover, synthesis was conducted in aqueous and oxidizing media. Oxidizing media improve homogenization and increase the energy released during combustion. It gives rise to particles whose morphology and size suggest lower surface energies compared with aqueous media. The obtained powders were sintered by using a controlled sintering rate schedule. Lower surfaces energies minimize the shrinkage during sintering and relative densities measurements and diametral compression test confirm improved densification and consequently mechanical properties. [es

  11. Process for obtaining luminescent glass layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heindi, R.; Robert, A.

    1984-01-01

    Process for obtaining luminescent glass layers, application to the production of devices provided with said layers and to the construction of photoscintillators. The process comprises projecting onto a support, by cathodic sputtering, the material of at least one target, each target including silica and at least one chemical compound able to give luminescent centers, such as a cerium oxide, so as to form at least one luminescent glass layer of the said support. The layer or layers formed preferably undergo a heat treatment such as annealing in order to increase the luminous efficiency thereof. It is in this way possible to form a scintillating glass layer on the previously frosted entrance window of a photomultiplier in order to obtain an integrated photoscintillator

  12. Processing of hydroxyapatite obtained by combustion synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Canillas

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the reasons of implants failure are the stress forces appearing in the material–tissue interface due to the differences between their mechanical properties. For this reason, similar mechanical properties to the surrounding tissue are desirable. The synthesis of hydroxyapatite by solution combustion method and its processing have been studied in order to obtain fully dense ceramic bodies with improved mechanical strength. Combustion synthesis provides nanostructured powders characterized by a high surface area to facilitate the following sintering. Moreover, synthesis was conducted in aqueous and oxidizing media. Oxidizing media improve homogenization and increase the energy released during combustion. It gives rise to particles whose morphology and size suggest lower surface energies compared with aqueous media. The obtained powders were sintered by using a controlled sintering rate schedule. Lower surfaces energies minimize the shrinkage during sintering and relative densities measurements and diametral compression test confirm improved densification and consequently mechanical properties.

  13. Process for obtaining ammonium uranyl tri carbonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, L.R. dos; Riella, H.G.

    1992-01-01

    The procedure adopted for obtaining Ammonium Uranyl Carbonate (AUC) from uranium hexafluoride (U F 6 ) in a aqueous solutions of ammonium hydrogen carbonate is described in this work. The precipitation is made in temperature and pH controlled. This process consists of three steps: evaporation of U F 6 , AUC precipitation and filtration of the AUC slurry. An attempt is made of correlate the parameters involved in the precipitation process of AUC with its and U O 2 characteristics. (author)

  14. Superconducting materials fabrication process and materials obtained

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafon, M.O.; Magnier, C.

    1989-01-01

    The preparation process of a fine powder of YBaCuO type superconductors of easy sintering comprises: mixing in presence of alcohol an aqueous solution of rare earth nitrate or acetate, alkaline earth nitrate or acetate and copper nitrate or acetate and an oxalic acid solution, the pH value of the mixture is comprised between 2 and 4, the obtained precipitate is separated, dried, calcined and eventually crushed [fr

  15. PULP OBTAINING METHOD FOR PACKAGE PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Kuzmich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a new method for obtaining pulp which is used for production of cardboard, paper and package while using carbon dioxide and hydrazine hydrate and neutral-sulfite  shive cooking. Output increase of  the desired product can be explained by reduction in destruction of plant raw material carbohydrates during its cooking process. Quality improvement of the desired product (improvement in bleaching and output is attributed to the fact that usage of carbon dioxide and hydrazine contributes to provision of polysaccharide chain resistance to destruction due to the presence of  end links having structure of metasaccharinic and aldonic acids.The author has developed a new method for pulp obtaining on the basis of the executed investigations  and literature data.  СО2 and hydrazine hydrate have been used for obtaining pulp. Method invention concerns pulp obtaining and it can be used for paper and cardboard package manufacturing in pulp and paper industry.The method is to be carried in the following way: pulp-containing plant raw material is loaded into an autoclave and then aqua solution of sodium monosulfite containing hydrazine hydrate that constitutes 4–5 % of absolute dry pulp-containing raw material mass with liquid module 1:6–1:8 is supplied into the autoclave. The autoclave is closed for operation under pressure and the solution is carbonated under pressure which constitutes 5–8 % of absolute dry plant raw material (shover. Temperature is subsequently raised up to 180 °С in the space of 2 hours and cooking is carried out in the course of 4 hours. Usage of  the proposed method for shover cooking makes it possible to reduce monosulfite cooking process and improve qualitative characteristics and output of the desired product.  In addition to above mentioned fact there is a possibility to improve bleaching and final product output. 

  16. Intra-class correlation estimates for assessment of vitamin A intake in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Girdhar G; Awasthi, Shally; Walter, Stephen D

    2005-03-01

    In many community-based surveys, multi-level sampling is inherent in the design. In the design of these studies, especially to calculate the appropriate sample size, investigators need good estimates of intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC), along with the cluster size, to adjust for variation inflation due to clustering at each level. The present study used data on the assessment of clinical vitamin A deficiency and intake of vitamin A-rich food in children in a district in India. For the survey, 16 households were sampled from 200 villages nested within eight randomly-selected blocks of the district. ICCs and components of variances were estimated from a three-level hierarchical random effects analysis of variance model. Estimates of ICCs and variance components were obtained at village and block levels. Between-cluster variation was evident at each level of clustering. In these estimates, ICCs were inversely related to cluster size, but the design effect could be substantial for large clusters. At the block level, most ICC estimates were below 0.07. At the village level, many ICC estimates ranged from 0.014 to 0.45. These estimates may provide useful information for the design of epidemiological studies in which the sampled (or allocated) units range in size from households to large administrative zones.

  17. Lifetime obtained by ion beam assisted deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakaroun, M. [XLIM-MINACOM-UMR 6172, Faculte des Sciences et Techniques, 123 av. Albert Thomas, 87060 Limoges cedex (France); Antony, R. [XLIM-MINACOM-UMR 6172, Faculte des Sciences et Techniques, 123 av. Albert Thomas, 87060 Limoges cedex (France)], E-mail: remi.antony@unilim.fr; Taillepierre, P.; Moliton, A. [XLIM-MINACOM-UMR 6172, Faculte des Sciences et Techniques, 123 av. Albert Thomas, 87060 Limoges cedex (France)

    2007-09-15

    We have fabricated green organic light-emitting diodes based on tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminium (Alq3) thin films. In order to favor the charge carriers transport from the anode, we have deposited a N,N'-diphenyl-N,N'-bis (3-methylphenyl)-1,1'-diphenyl-4,4'-diamine (TPD) layer (hole transport layer) on a ITO anode. Cathode is obtained with a calcium layer covered with a silver layer. This silver layer is used to protect the other layers against oxygen during the OLED use. All the depositions are performed under vacuum and the devices are not exposed to air during their realisation. In order to improve the silver layer characteristics, we have realized this layer with the ion beam assisted deposition process. The aim of this process is to densify the layer and then reduce the permeation of H{sub 2}O and O{sub 2}. We have used argon ions to assist the silver deposition. All the OLEDs optoelectronic characterizations (I = f(V), L = f(V)) are performed in the ambient air. We compare the results obtained with the assisted layer with those obtained with a classical cathode realized by thermal unassisted evaporation. We have realized lifetime measurements in the ambient air and we discuss about the assisted layer influence on the OLEDs performances.

  18. Performance in space of the AMS-02 RICH detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giovacchini, F., E-mail: francesca.giovacchini@cern.ch

    2014-12-01

    AMS-02 was successfully installed on the International Space Station (ISS) in May 2011, to perform precise measurements of galactic cosmic rays in the 100 MV to few TV magnetic rigidity range. Among several specialized sub-detectors, AMS-02 includes a Ring Imaging Cherenkov detector (RICH), which provides a precise measurement of the particle charge and velocity. The Cherenkov light is produced in a radiator made of silica aerogel and sodium fluoride and collected by means of an array of photomultiplier tubes. Since its launch to space, the detector has been taking data without failures; its functionality and data integrity are monitored and show stable response. In order to achieve the optimal detector performance, calibrations have been performed to account for the dependence of the photodetectors response on temperature and for effective non-uniformities in the detector. The knowledge gathered of the photon yield at the percent level resulted in a charge resolution of 0.3 charge units for He and 0.5 charge units for Si ions. The required precision in the measurements of the particle velocity at the per mil level demanded a more accurate determination of the aerogel refractive index. A map of the aerogel radiator refractive index has been directly inferred from in-flight high statistics data with a precision of Δn/n<2×10{sup −5} on average and its stability with time has also been checked. Finally, a velocity resolution of ∼0.8×10{sup −3} for He and ∼0.5×10{sup −3} for Z>5 ions has been obtained. - Highlights: • AMS-02 RICH detector is fully operational in space and monitored from ground. • Detector calibration for t-dependent and t-independent effects is performed. • Aerogel refractive index fine map has been obtained and its stability checked. • Charge and velocity resolution fulfill design requirements.

  19. Reconstruction and calibration strategies for the LHCb RICH detector

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    - LHCb particle identification - LHCb ring pattern recognition algorithm requirements - RICH pattern recognition - Cherenkov angle reconstruction online - Online PID - Hough transform - Metropolis- Hastings Markov chains - PID online: physics performances - Rich PID Callibration

  20. Frictional processes in smectite-rich gouges sheared at slow to high slip rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aretusini, Stefano; Mittempergher, Silvia; Gualtieri, Alessandro; Di Toro, Giulio

    2015-04-01

    The slipping zones of shallow sections of megathrusts and of large landslides are often smectite-rich (e.g., montmorillonite type). Consequently, similar "frictional" processes operating at high slip rates (> 1 m/s) might be responsible of the large slips estimated in megathrust (50 m for the 2011 Tohoku Mw 9.1 earthquake) and measured in large landslides (500 m for the 1963 Vajont slide, Italy). At present, only rotary shear apparatuses can reproduce simultaneously the large slips and slip rates of these events. Noteworthy, the frictional processes proposed so far (thermal and thermochemical pressurization, etc.) remain rather obscure. Here we present preliminary results obtained with the ROtary Shear Apparatus (ROSA) installed at Padua University. Thirty-one experiments were performed at ambient conditions on pure end-members of (1) smectite-rich standard powders (STx-1b: ~68 wt% Ca-montmorillonite, ~30 wt% opal-CT and ~2 wt% quartz), (2) quartz powders (qtz) and (3) on 80:20 = Stx-1b:qtz mixtures. The gouges were sandwiched between two (1) hollow (25/15 mm external/internal diameter) or (2) solid (25 mm in diameter) stainless-steel made cylinders and confined by inner and outer Teflon rings (only outer for solid cylinders). Gouges were sheared at a normal stress of 5 MPa, slip rates V from 300 μm/s to 1.5 m/s and total slip of 3 m. The deformed gouges were investigated with quantitative (Rietveld method with internal standard) X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). In the smectite-rich standard endmember, (1) for 300 μm/s ≤ V ≤ 0.1 m/s, initial friction coefficient (μi) was 0.6±0.05 whereas the steady-state friction coefficient (μss) was velocity and slip strengthening (μss 0.85±0.05), (2) for 0.1 m/s 0.8 m/s, velocity and slip weakening (μi = 0.7±0.1 and μss = 0.25±0.05). In the 80:20 Stx-1b:qtz mixtures, (1) for 300 μm/s ≤ V ≤ 0.1 m/s, μi ranged was 0.7±0.05 and increased with slip to μss = 0.77±0

  1. Bar quenching in gas-rich galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoperskov, S.; Haywood, M.; Di Matteo, P.; Lehnert, M. D.; Combes, F.

    2018-01-01

    Galaxy surveys have suggested that rapid and sustained decrease in the star-formation rate (SFR), "quenching", in massive disk galaxies is frequently related to the presence of a bar. Optical and near-IR observations reveal that nearly 60% of disk galaxies in the local universe are barred, thus it is important to understand the relationship between bars and star formation in disk galaxies. Recent observational results imply that the Milky Way quenched about 9-10 Gyr ago, at the transition between the cessation of the growth of the kinematically hot, old, metal-poor thick disk and the kinematically colder, younger, and more metal-rich thin disk. Although perhaps coincidental, the quenching episode could also be related to the formation of the bar. Indeed the transfer of energy from the large-scale shear induced by the bar to increasing turbulent energy could stabilize the gaseous disk against wide-spread star formation and quench the galaxy. To explore the relation between bar formation and star formation in gas rich galaxies quantitatively, we simulated gas-rich disk isolated galaxies. Our simulations include prescriptions for star formation, stellar feedback, and for regulating the multi-phase interstellar medium. We find that the action of stellar bar efficiently quenches star formation, reducing the star-formation rate by a factor of ten in less than 1 Gyr. Analytical and self-consistent galaxy simulations with bars suggest that the action of the stellar bar increases the gas random motions within the co-rotation radius of the bar. Indeed, we detect an increase in the gas velocity dispersion up to 20-35 km s-1 at the end of the bar formation phase. The star-formation efficiency decreases rapidly, and in all of our models, the bar quenches the star formation in the galaxy. The star-formation efficiency is much lower in simulated barred compared to unbarred galaxies and more rapid bar formation implies more rapid quenching.

  2. Construction of silica aerogel radiator system for Belle II RICH Counter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, I.; Dolenec, R.; Hataya, K.; Iori, S.; Iwata, S.; Kakuno, H.; Kataura, R.; Kawai, H.; Kindo, H.; Kobayashi, T.; Korpar, S.; Križan, P.; Kumita, T.; Mrvar, M.; Nishida, S.; Ogawa, K.; Ogawa, S.; Pestotnik, R.; Šantelj, L.; Sumiyoshi, T.; Tabata, M.; Yonenaga, M.; Yusa, Y.

    2017-12-01

    We have developed a RICH counter as a new forward particle identification device for the Belle II experiment. As a Cherenkov radiator in this counter, a dual aerogel layer combination consisting of two refractive indicies, n=1.045 and 1.055, is employed. Mass production of these aerogel tiles has been done during 2013-2014 with new method improved by Chiba group. Optical qualities for them have been examined. The refractive indices of the obtained tiles were found to be in good agreement with our expectations, and the transparencies were high enough to be used for the RICH radiator.

  3. Can temporal and spatial NDVI predict regional bird-species richness?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastián Nieto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the distribution of the species and its controls over biogeographic scales is still a major challenge in ecology. National Park Networks provide an opportunity to assess the relationship between ecosystem functioning and biodiversity in areas with low human impacts. We tested the productivity–biodiversity hypothesis which states that the number of species increases with the available energy, and the ​variability–biodiversity hypothesis which states that the number of species increases with the diversity of habitats. The available energy and habitat heterogeneity estimated by the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI was shown as a good predictor of bird-species richness for a diverse set of biomes in previously published studies. However, there is not a universal relationship between NDVI and bird-species richness. Here we tested if the NDVI can predict bird species richness in areas with low human impact in Argentina. Using a dataset from the National Park Network of Argentina we found that the best predictor of bird species richness was the minimum value of NDVI per year which explained 75% of total variability. The inclusion of the spatial heterogeneity of NDVI improved the explanation power to 80%. Minimum NDVI was highly correlated with precipitation and winter temperature. Our analysis provides a tool for assessing bird-species richness at scales on which land-use planning practitioners make their decisions for Southern South America.

  4. COMPASS mirror wall of RICH 1

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2001-01-01

    The COMPASS experiment uses ring imaging Cherenkov (RICH) counters to identify particles produced in high-energy muon collisions, to better understand the spin structure of the nucleon. Charged particles moving faster than the speed of light in the medium through which they are travelling emit a cone of Cherenkov radiation in the direction of their motion. The light in this cone is reflected from these mirrors onto a photo detector so that the size of the cone can be measured, which gives the energy of the particle.

  5. Modeling a neutron rich nuclei source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirea, M.; Bajeat, O.; Clapier, F.; Ibrahim, F.; Mueller, A.C.; Pauwels, N.; Proust, J. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, IN2P3/CNRS, 91 - Orsay (France); Mirea, M. [Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Tandem Lab., Bucharest (Romania)

    2000-07-01

    The deuteron break-up process in a suitable converter gives rise to intense neutron beams. A source of neutron rich nuclei based on the neutron induced fission can be realised using these beams. A theoretical optimization of such a facility as a function of the incident deuteron energy is reported. The model used to determine the fission products takes into account the excitation energy of the target nucleus and the evaporation of prompt neutrons. Results are presented in connection with a converter-target specific geometry. (author000.

  6. HTML5 Designing Rich Internet Applications

    CERN Document Server

    David, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    Implement the powerful new multimedia and interactive capabilities offered by HTML5, including style control tools, illustration tools, video, audio, and rich media solutions. Understand how HTML5 is changing the Web development game with this full-color, project-based treatment that shows you-not just tells you-what HTML5 can do for your Web sites. Reinforce your practical understanding of the new standard with demo applications and tutorials, so that execution is one short step away. The companion website, visualizetheweb.com, is packed full of extra information, online code libraries, and

  7. How countries become rich and reduce poverty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitfield, Lindsay

    2012-01-01

    For the sake of less developed countries, it is time to adjust the discussion of international development assistance on poverty reduction. This article attempts to do so by reviewing new and old literature explaining why some countries are rich and others are poor. History has repeatedly shown...... that building up capabilities in manufacturing and improving the productivity of agriculture are the keys to wealth creation and long-term sustained poverty reduction. Furthermore, industrialisation and increased agricultural productivity are interdependent processes. Discussion about ending world poverty needs...

  8. Modeling a neutron rich nuclei source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirea, M.; Bajeat, O.; Clapier, F.; Ibrahim, F.; Mueller, A.C.; Pauwels, N.; Proust, J.; Mirea, M.

    2000-01-01

    The deuteron break-up process in a suitable converter gives rise to intense neutron beams. A source of neutron rich nuclei based on the neutron induced fission can be realised using these beams. A theoretical optimization of such a facility as a function of the incident deuteron energy is reported. The model used to determine the fission products takes into account the excitation energy of the target nucleus and the evaporation of prompt neutrons. Results are presented in connection with a converter-target specific geometry. (authors)

  9. Structure of neutron-rich nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazarewicz, W.; Oak Ridge National Lab., TN; Warsaw Univ.

    1997-11-01

    One of the frontiers of today's nuclear science is the ''journey to the limits'': of atomic charge and nuclear mass, of neutron-to-proton ratio, and of angular momentum. The new data on exotic nuclei are expected to bring qualitatively new information about the fundamental properties of the nucleonic many-body system, the nature of the nuclear interaction, and nucleonic correlations at various energy-distance scales. In this talk, current developments in nuclear structure of neutron-rich nuclei are discussed from a theoretical perspective

  10. Rapidly involuting congenital hemangioma (RICH): a brief case report

    OpenAIRE

    Scalise, Robert; Bolton, Joanna; Gibbs, Neil F

    2014-01-01

    Congenital hemangiomas (CH) are benign vascular neoplasms that proliferate in utero and have completed development by birth. Two subtypes of CH are recognized: rapidly involuting congenital hemangiomas (RICH) and non-involuting congenital hemangiomas (NICH). Involution of the RICH subtype often begins in the first weeks of life. NICH does not involute, allowing the distinction between RICH and NICH. We report a case of an infant with RICH occurring on the scalp, examined at birth and followed...

  11. Mixed Media Richness and Computer-Mediated Communications

    OpenAIRE

    Atkins, Anthony B.

    2006-01-01

    Mixed richness communications occur when a participant in a conversation receives a different media or combination of media than they transmit. Mixed richness communications occur in the workplace when technical, physiological or practical limitations prevent the use of the same media on both ends of a conversation. Prior research in CMC has focused on same-richness communications, and the design guidelines that are available for same-richness communications may not be applicable to mixed-r...

  12. A new estimator for vector velocity estimation [medical ultrasonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2001-01-01

    A new estimator for determining the two-dimensional velocity vector using a pulsed ultrasound field is derived. The estimator uses a transversely modulated ultrasound field for probing the moving medium under investigation. A modified autocorrelation approach is used in the velocity estimation...... be introduced, and the velocity estimation is done at a fixed depth in tissue to reduce the influence of a spatial velocity spread. Examples for different velocity vectors and field conditions are shown using both simple and more complex field simulations. A relative accuracy of 10.1% is obtained...

  13. Using Google Earth Surface Metrics to Predict Plant Species Richness in a Complex Landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastián Block

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Google Earth provides a freely available, global mosaic of high-resolution imagery from different sensors that has become popular in environmental and ecological studies. However, such imagery lacks the near-infrared band often used in studying vegetation, thus its potential for estimating vegetation properties remains unclear. In this study, we assess the potential of Google Earth imagery to describe and predict vegetation attributes. Further, we compare it to the potential of SPOT imagery, which has additional spectral information. We measured basal area, vegetation height, crown cover, density of individuals, and species richness in 60 plots in the oak forests of a complex volcanic landscape in central Mexico. We modelled each vegetation attribute as a function of surface metrics derived from Google Earth and SPOT images, and selected the best-supported linear models from each source. Total species richness was the best-described and predicted variable: the best Google Earth-based model explained nearly as much variation in species richness as its SPOT counterpart (R2 = 0.44 and 0.51, respectively. However, Google Earth metrics emerged as poor predictors of all remaining vegetation attributes, whilst SPOT metrics showed potential for predicting vegetation height. We conclude that Google Earth imagery can be used to estimate species richness in complex landscapes. As it is freely available, Google Earth can broaden the use of remote sensing by researchers and managers in low-income tropical countries where most biodiversity hotspots are found.

  14. The challenge of accurately documenting bee species richness in agroecosystems: bee diversity in eastern apple orchards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Laura; Park, Mia; Gibbs, Jason; Danforth, Bryan

    2015-01-01

    Bees are important pollinators of agricultural crops, and bee diversity has been shown to be closely associated with pollination, a valuable ecosystem service. Higher functional diversity and species richness of bees have been shown to lead to higher crop yield. Bees simultaneously represent a mega-diverse taxon that is extremely challenging to sample thoroughly and an important group to understand because of pollination services. We sampled bees visiting apple blossoms in 28 orchards over 6 years. We used species rarefaction analyses to test for the completeness of sampling and the relationship between species richness and sampling effort, orchard size, and percent agriculture in the surrounding landscape. We performed more than 190 h of sampling, collecting 11,219 specimens representing 104 species. Despite the sampling intensity, we captured wild bees did not appear to be a factor, as we found no correlation between honeybee and wild bee abundance. Our study shows that the pollinator fauna of agroecosystems can be diverse and challenging to thoroughly sample. We demonstrate that there is high temporal variation in community composition and that sites vary widely in the sampling effort required to fully describe their diversity. In order to maximize pollination services provided by wild bee species, we must first accurately estimate species richness. For researchers interested in providing this estimate, we recommend multiyear studies and rarefaction analyses to quantify the gap between observed and expected species richness. PMID:26380684

  15. Estimating Utility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Simler, Kenneth R.

    2010-01-01

    A fundamental premise of absolute poverty lines is that they represent the same level of utility through time and space. Disturbingly, a series of recent studies in middle- and low-income economies show that even carefully derived poverty lines rarely satisfy this premise. This article proposes a......, with the current approach tending to systematically overestimate (underestimate) poverty in urban (rural) zones.......A fundamental premise of absolute poverty lines is that they represent the same level of utility through time and space. Disturbingly, a series of recent studies in middle- and low-income economies show that even carefully derived poverty lines rarely satisfy this premise. This article proposes...... an information-theoretic approach to estimating cost-of-basic-needs (CBN) poverty lines that are utility consistent. Applications to date illustrate that utility-consistent poverty measurements derived from the proposed approach and those derived from current CBN best practices often differ substantially...

  16. Characterization of Wastewaters obtained from Hatay Tanneries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şana Sungur

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The leather tanning industry is one of the most significant pollutants in terms of both conventional and toxic parameters. On the other hand, leather industry has an important economic role both in Turkey and in the World. In this study, wastewater samples were taken from 15 different tanneries in the Hatay Region. Wastewaters obtained from liming process and chromium tanning process was analyzed. Sulfide, chromium (III, chromium (VI, oil and grease, total suspended solids (TSS, organic matters, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD, chemical oxygen demand (COD, pH and alkalinity were determined according to Turkish Standard Methods. The determined averages values belong to wastewaters obtained from liming process were as following: pH 11.71; COD 16821 mg L-1; BOD 4357 mg L-1; TSS 39023 mg L-1; oil and grease 364 mg L-1; S-2 concentration 802 mg L-1; alkalinity 2115 mg L-1. The determined averages values belong to wastewaters obtained from chromium tanning process were also as following: pH 4.23; COD 6740 mg L-1; BOD 377 mg L-1; Cr+3 concentrations 372 mg L-1; Cr+6 concentrations 127 mg L-1; TSS 14553 mg L-1; oil and grease 343 mg L-1. The results of all analyzes were higher than wastewater discharge standards. As a result, it’s necessary to use more effective treatments in order to reduce the negative impacts of leather tanning industry that affect environment, natural water resources and at last human health and welfare.

  17. Propensity for obtaining alcohol through shoulder tapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toomey, Traci L; Fabian, Lindsey E A; Erickson, Darin J; Lenk, Kathleen M

    2007-07-01

    Underage youth often obtain alcohol from adults who illegally provide the alcohol. One method for obtaining alcohol from adults is shoulder tapping, where youth approach an adult outside an alcohol establishment and ask the adult to purchase alcohol for them. The goal of this study was to assess what percentage of the general and youth-targeted adult population approached outside of a convenience/liquor store will agree to purchase and then provide alcohol to individuals who appear under age 21. We conducted 2 waves of pseudo-underage shoulder tap request attempts, using requesters who were age 21 or older but appeared 18 to 20 years old. In both waves, requests were conducted at randomly selected liquor and convenience stores, requesters explained that the reason they were asking the adult was because they did not have their identification with them, and requesters asked the adults to purchase a 6-pack of beer. During wave 1, we conducted 102 attempts, with the requester approaching the first adult entering the store alone. During wave 2, we conducted 102 attempts where the requester approached the first casually dressed male entering the store alone who appeared to be 21 to 30 years old. During wave 1, 8% of the general sample of approached adults provided alcohol to the pseudo-underage requesters. The odds of adults providing alcohol in urban areas were 9.4 times greater than in suburban areas. During wave 2, 19% of the approached young men provided alcohol to the requesters. No requester, request attempt, establishment, or community characteristics were associated with request attempt outcomes during wave 2. A small percentage of the general population of adults will agree to provide alcohol to underage youth when approached outside an alcohol establishment. The likelihood of underage youth obtaining alcohol through shoulder tapping increases substantially if the youth approach young men.

  18. A general scheme for obtaining graviton spectrums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GarcIa-Cuadrado, G

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this contribution is to present a general scheme for obtaining graviton spectra from modified gravity theories, based on a theory developed by Grishchuk in the mid 1970s. We try to be pedagogical, putting in order some basic ideas in a compact procedure and also giving a review of the current trends in this arena. With the aim to fill a gap for the interface between quantum field theorists and observational cosmologist in this matter, we highlight two interesting applications to cosmology: clues as to the nature of dark energy; and the possibility of reconstruction of the scalar potential in scalar-tensor gravity theories

  19. Obtaining high purity silica from rice hulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José da Silva Júnior

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Many routes for extracting silica from rice hulls are based on direct calcining. These methods, though, often produce silica contaminated with inorganic impurities. This work presents the study of a strategy for obtaining silica from rice hulls with a purity level adequate for applications in electronics. The technique is based on two leaching steps, using respectively aqua regia and Piranha solutions, which extract the organic matrix and inorganic impurities. The material was characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, powder x-ray diffraction (XRD, x-ray fluorescence (XRF, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, particle size analysis by laser diffraction (LPSA and thermal analysis.

  20. Diaphragms obtained by radiochemical grafting in PTFE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nenner, T.; Fahrasmane, A.

    1984-01-01

    Diaphragms for alkaline water electrolysis are prepared by radiochemical grafting of PTFE fabric with styrene, which is later on sulfonated, or with acrylic acid. The diaphragms obtained are mechanically resistant to potash at temperatures up to 200 0 C, but show some degrafting, which limits the lifetime. The sulfonated styrene group has been found to be more stable in electrolysis than the acrylic acid. In both cases, the incorporation of a cross-linking agent like divinyl benzene improves the lifetime of the diaphragms. Electrolysis during 500 hours at 120 0 C and 10 kAm 2 could be performed. (author)

  1. Reliability of "Google" for obtaining medical information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihir Kothari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Internet is used by many patients to obtain relevant medical information. We assessed the impact of "Google" search on the knowledge of the parents whose ward suffered from squint. In 21 consecutive patients, the "Google" search improved the mean score of the correct answers from 47% to 62%. We found that "Google" search was useful and reliable source of information for the patients with regards to the disease etiopathogenesis and the problems caused by the disease. The internet-based information, however, was incomplete and not reliable with regards to the disease treatment.

  2. Domain walls collision in Fe-rich and Co-rich glass covered microwires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalez J.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the results of the investigation of domain walls propagation in Fe-rich and Co-rich microwires performed using Sixtus-Tonks and magneto-optical Kerr effect techniques. It was found that under certain experimental conditions we are able to create the regime of the motion of two domain walls moving to opposite directions which terminates by the collision of the domain walls. Also the domain walls collision was visualized using magneto-optical Kerr effect microscope when the surface giant Barkhausen jump induced by circular magnetic field has been observed.

  3. CARBON-RICH GIANT PLANETS: ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY, THERMAL INVERSIONS, SPECTRA, AND FORMATION CONDITIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madhusudhan, Nikku [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Mousis, Olivier [Institut UTINAM, CNRS-UMR 6213, Observatoire de Besancon, BP 1615, F-25010 Besancon Cedex (France); Johnson, Torrence V. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Lunine, Jonathan I., E-mail: nmadhu@astro.princeton.edu [Department of Astronomy, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)

    2011-12-20

    The recent inference of a carbon-rich atmosphere, with C/O {>=} 1, in the hot Jupiter WASP-12b motivates the exotic new class of carbon-rich planets (CRPs). We report a detailed study of the atmospheric chemistry and spectroscopic signatures of carbon-rich giant (CRG) planets, the possibility of thermal inversions in their atmospheres, the compositions of icy planetesimals required for their formation via core accretion, and the apportionment of ices, rock, and volatiles in their envelopes. Our results show that CRG atmospheres probe a unique region in composition space, especially at high temperature (T). For atmospheres with C/O {>=} 1, and T {approx}> 1400 K in the observable atmosphere, most of the oxygen is bound up in CO, while H{sub 2}O is depleted and CH{sub 4} is enhanced by up to two or three orders of magnitude each, compared to equilibrium compositions with solar abundances (C/O = 0.54). These differences in the spectroscopically dominant species for the different C/O ratios cause equally distinct observable signatures in the spectra. As such, highly irradiated transiting giant exoplanets form ideal candidates to estimate atmospheric C/O ratios and to search for CRPs. We also find that the C/O ratio strongly affects the abundances of TiO and VO, which have been suggested to cause thermal inversions in highly irradiated hot Jupiter atmospheres. A C/O = 1 yields TiO and VO abundances of {approx}100 times lower than those obtained with equilibrium chemistry assuming solar abundances, at P {approx} 1 bar. Such a depletion is adequate to rule out thermal inversions due to TiO/VO even in the most highly irradiated hot Jupiters, such as WASP-12b. We estimate the compositions of the protoplanetary disk, the planetesimals, and the envelope of WASP-12b, and the mass of ices dissolved in the envelope, based on the observed atmospheric abundances. Adopting stellar abundances (C/O = 0.44) for the primordial disk composition and low-temperature formation conditions

  4. Magnesium-rich Basalts on Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, L. M. V.

    2013-05-01

    X-ray and gamma-ray spectrometers on NASA's MESSENGER spacecraft are making key measurements regarding the composition and properties of the surface of Mercury, allowing researchers to more clearly decipher the planet's formation and geologic history. The origin of the igneous rocks in the crust of Mercury is the focus of recent research by Karen Stockstill-Cahill and Tim McCoy (National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution), along with Larry Nittler and Shoshana Weider (Carnegie Institution of Washington) and Steven Hauck II (Case Western Reserve University). Using the well-known MELTS computer code Stockstill-Cahill and coauthors worked with MESSENGER-derived and rock-analog compositions to constrain petrologic models of the lavas that erupted on the surface of Mercury. Rock analogs included a partial melt of the Indarch meteorite and a range of Mg-rich terrestrial rocks. Their work shows the lavas on Mercury are most similar to terrestrial magnesian basalt (with lowered FeO content). The implications of the modeling are that Mg-rich lavas came from high-temperature sources in Mercury's mantle and erupted at high temperature with exceptionally low viscosity into thinly bedded and laterally extensive flows, concepts open to further evaluation by laboratory experiments and by geologic mapping of Mercury's surface using MESSENGER's imaging system and laser altimeter to document flow features and dimensions.

  5. Sports medicine applications of platelet rich plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Allan; Harmon, Kimberly; Woodall, James; Vieira, Amy

    2012-06-01

    Platelet rich plasma (PRP) is a powerful new biologic tool in sports medicine. PRP is a fraction of autologous whole blood containing and increased number of platelets and a wide variety of cytokines such as platelet derived growth factor (PDGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-B1), fibroblast growth factor (FGF), Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) among many others. Worldwide interest in this biologic technology has recently risen sharply. Basic science and preclinical data support the use of PRP for a variety of sports related injuries and disorders. The published, peer reviewed, human data on PRP is limited. Although the scientific evaluation of clinical efficacy is in the early stages, elite and recreational athletes already use PRP in the treatment of sports related injuries. Many questions remain to be answered regarding the use of PRP including optimal formulation, including of leukocytes, dosage and rehabilitation protocols. In this review, a classification for platelet rich plasma is proposed and the in-vitro, preclinical and human investigations of PRP applications in sports medicine will be reviewed as well as a discussion of rehabilitation after a PRP procedure. The regulation of PRP by the World Anti-Doping Agency will also be discussed. PRP is a promising technology in sports medicine; however, it will require more vigorous study in order to better understand how to apply it most effectively.

  6. Carbon nanofibers obtained from electrospinning process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovi de Oliveira, Juliana; Müller Guerrini, Lília; Sizuka Oishi, Silvia; Rogerio de Oliveira Hein, Luis; dos Santos Conejo, Luíza; Cerqueira Rezende, Mirabel; Cocchieri Botelho, Edson

    2018-02-01

    In recent years, reinforcements consisting of carbon nanostructures, such as carbon nanotubes, fullerenes, graphenes, and carbon nanofibers have received significant attention due mainly to their chemical inertness and good mechanical, electrical and thermal properties. Since carbon nanofibers comprise a continuous reinforcing with high specific surface area, associated with the fact that they can be obtained at a low cost and in a large amount, they have shown to be advantageous compared to traditional carbon nanotubes. The main objective of this work is the processing of carbon nanofibers, using polyacrylonitrile (PAN) as a precursor, obtained by the electrospinning process via polymer solution, with subsequent use for airspace applications as reinforcement in polymer composites. In this work, firstly PAN nanofibers were produced by electrospinning with diameters in the range of (375 ± 85) nm, using a dimethylformamide solution. Using a furnace, the PAN nanofiber was converted into carbon nanofiber. Morphologies and structures of PAN and carbon nanofibers were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, Raman Spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analyses and differential scanning calorimeter. The resulting residual weight after carbonization was approximately 38% in weight, with a diameters reduction of 50%, and the same showed a carbon yield of 25%. From the analysis of the crystalline structure of the carbonized material, it was found that the material presented a disordered structure.

  7. Alcoholic Beverages Obtained from Black Mulberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacinto Darias-Martín

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Black mulberry (Morus nigra is a fruit not known only for its nutritional qualities and its flavour, but also for its traditional use in natural medicine as it has a high content of active therapeutic compounds. However, this fruit is not widely produced in Spain but some trees are still found growing in the Canary Islands, particularly on the edges of the ravine. The inhabitants of these islands (Tenerife, La Gomera, La Palma, El Hierro and Lanzarote collect the fruit and prepare homemade beverages for medicinal purposes. Numerous authors have reported that type II diabetes mellitus can be controlled by taking a mixture containing black mulberry and water. Apart from that, this fruit has been used for the treatment of mouth, tongue and throat inflammations. In this study we present some characteristics of black mulberry juice (TSS, pH, titratable acidity, citric acid, lactic acid, polyphenols, anthocyanins, the potassium etc. and alcoholic beverages (alcoholic grade, pH, total acidity, volatile acidity, tannins, phenols etc. obtained from black mulberry. Moreover, we have studied the quality of liquors obtained from black mulberry in Canary Islands.

  8. Cotton nanofibers obtained by different acid conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teixeira, Eliangela de M.; Oliveira, Caue Ribeiro de; Mattoso, Luiz H.C.; Correa, Ana Carolina; Palladin, Priscila

    2009-01-01

    The thermal stability of cellulose nanofibers is related to their application and especially to polymer processing which temperatures of processing are around 200 deg C. In this work, nanofibers of commercial cotton were obtained by acid hydrolysis employing different acids: sulfuric, hydrochloric and a mixture (2:1; sulfuric acid: hydrochloric acid).The morphology of the nanofibers were characterized by transmission microscopy (TEM), crystallinity by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermal stability in air atmosphere by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The results indicated a very similar morphology and crystallinity among them. The main differences were relative to aggregation state e and thermal stability. The aggregation state of the suspensions decreases in the order HCl 2 SO 4 :HCl 2 SO 4- . The hydrolysis with a mix of HCl and H 2 SO 4 resulted in cellulose nanofibers with higher thermal stability than those hydrolyzed with H 2 SO 4 . The hydrolysis employed with a mixture of sulphuric and hydrochloric acids also showed a better dispersion than those suspensions of nanofibers obtained by hydrolysis with only HCl. (author)

  9. Color-magnitude diagrams for six metal-rich, low-latitude globular clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armandroff, Taft E.

    1988-01-01

    Colors and magnitudes for stars on CCD frames for six metal-rich, low-latitude, previously unstudied globular clusters and one well-studied, metal-rich cluster (47 Tuc) have been derived and color-magnitude diagrams have been constructed. The photometry for stars in 47 Tuc are in good agreement with previous studies, while the V magnitudes of the horizontal-branch stars in the six program clusters do not agree with estimates based on secondary methods. The distances to these clusters are different from prior estimates. Redding values are derived for each program cluster. The horizontal branches of the program clusters all appear to lie entirely redwards of the red edge of the instability strip, as is normal for their metallicities.

  10. Patterns and multi-scale drivers of phytoplankton species richness in temperate peri-urban lakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catherine, Arnaud, E-mail: arnocat@mnhn.fr [UMR7245 MCAM MNHN-CNRS, Muséum National d' Histoire Naturelle, CC 39, 12 rue Buffon, F-75231 Paris, Cedex 05 (France); Selma, Maloufi, E-mail: maloufi@mnhn.fr [UMR7245 MCAM MNHN-CNRS, Muséum National d' Histoire Naturelle, CC 39, 12 rue Buffon, F-75231 Paris, Cedex 05 (France); Mouillot, David, E-mail: david.mouillot@univ-montp2.fr [UMR 9190 MARBEC UM2-CNRS-IRD-UM1-IFREMER, CC 93, Place Eugène Bataillon, Université de Montpellier 2, F-34095 Montpellier (France); Troussellier, Marc, E-mail: troussel@univ-montp2.fr [UMR 9190 MARBEC UM2-CNRS-IRD-UM1-IFREMER, CC 93, Place Eugène Bataillon, Université de Montpellier 2, F-34095 Montpellier (France); Bernard, Cécile, E-mail: cbernard@mnhn.fr [UMR7245 MCAM MNHN-CNRS, Muséum National d' Histoire Naturelle, CC 39, 12 rue Buffon, F-75231 Paris, Cedex 05 (France)

    2016-07-15

    Local species richness (SR) is a key characteristic affecting ecosystem functioning. Yet, the mechanisms regulating phytoplankton diversity in freshwater ecosystems are not fully understood, especially in peri-urban environments where anthropogenic pressures strongly impact the quality of aquatic ecosystems. To address this issue, we sampled the phytoplankton communities of 50 lakes in the Paris area (France) characterized by a large gradient of physico-chemical and catchment-scale characteristics. We used large phytoplankton datasets to describe phytoplankton diversity patterns and applied a machine-learning algorithm to test the degree to which species richness patterns are potentially controlled by environmental factors. Selected environmental factors were studied at two scales: the lake-scale (e.g. nutrients concentrations, water temperature, lake depth) and the catchment-scale (e.g. catchment, landscape and climate variables). Then, we used a variance partitioning approach to evaluate the interaction between lake-scale and catchment-scale variables in explaining local species richness. Finally, we analysed the residuals of predictive models to identify potential vectors of improvement of phytoplankton species richness predictive models. Lake-scale and catchment-scale drivers provided similar predictive accuracy of local species richness (R{sup 2} = 0.458 and 0.424, respectively). Both models suggested that seasonal temperature variations and nutrient supply strongly modulate local species richness. Integrating lake- and catchment-scale predictors in a single predictive model did not provide increased predictive accuracy; therefore suggesting that the catchment-scale model probably explains observed species richness variations through the impact of catchment-scale variables on in-lake water quality characteristics. Models based on catchment characteristics, which include simple and easy to obtain variables, provide a meaningful way of predicting phytoplankton

  11. Patterns and multi-scale drivers of phytoplankton species richness in temperate peri-urban lakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catherine, Arnaud; Selma, Maloufi; Mouillot, David; Troussellier, Marc; Bernard, Cécile

    2016-01-01

    Local species richness (SR) is a key characteristic affecting ecosystem functioning. Yet, the mechanisms regulating phytoplankton diversity in freshwater ecosystems are not fully understood, especially in peri-urban environments where anthropogenic pressures strongly impact the quality of aquatic ecosystems. To address this issue, we sampled the phytoplankton communities of 50 lakes in the Paris area (France) characterized by a large gradient of physico-chemical and catchment-scale characteristics. We used large phytoplankton datasets to describe phytoplankton diversity patterns and applied a machine-learning algorithm to test the degree to which species richness patterns are potentially controlled by environmental factors. Selected environmental factors were studied at two scales: the lake-scale (e.g. nutrients concentrations, water temperature, lake depth) and the catchment-scale (e.g. catchment, landscape and climate variables). Then, we used a variance partitioning approach to evaluate the interaction between lake-scale and catchment-scale variables in explaining local species richness. Finally, we analysed the residuals of predictive models to identify potential vectors of improvement of phytoplankton species richness predictive models. Lake-scale and catchment-scale drivers provided similar predictive accuracy of local species richness (R"2 = 0.458 and 0.424, respectively). Both models suggested that seasonal temperature variations and nutrient supply strongly modulate local species richness. Integrating lake- and catchment-scale predictors in a single predictive model did not provide increased predictive accuracy; therefore suggesting that the catchment-scale model probably explains observed species richness variations through the impact of catchment-scale variables on in-lake water quality characteristics. Models based on catchment characteristics, which include simple and easy to obtain variables, provide a meaningful way of predicting phytoplankton

  12. Polypropylene obtained through zeolite supported catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastos, Queli C.; Marques, Maria de Fatima V.

    2004-01-01

    Propylene polymerizations were carried out with φ 2 C(Flu)(Cp)ZrCl 2 and SiMe 2 (Ind)2ZrCl 2 catalysts supported on silica, zeolite sodic mordenite (NaM) and acid mordenite (HM). The polymerizations were performed at different temperatures and varying aluminium/zirconium molar ratios ([Al]/[Zr]). The effect of these reaction parameters on the catalyst activity was investigated using a proposed statistical experimental planning. In the case of f 2 C(Flu)(Cp)ZrCl 2 , SiO 2 and NaM were used as support and the catalyst performance evaluated using toluene and pentane as polymerization solvent. The molecular weight, molecular weight distribution, melting point and crystallinity of the polymers were examined. The results indicate very high activities for the syndiospecific heterogeneous system. Also, the polymers obtained had superior Mw and stereo regularity. (author)

  13. Polypropylene obtained through zeolite supported catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Queli C. Bastos

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Propylene polymerizations were carried out with f2C(Flu(CpZrCl2 and SiMe2(Ind2ZrCl2 catalysts supported on silica, zeolite sodic mordenite (NaM and acid mordenite (HM. The polymerizations were performed at different temperatures and varying aluminium/zirconium molar ratios ([Al]/[Zr]. The effect of these reaction parameters on the catalyst activity was investigated using a proposed statistical experimental planning. In the case of f2C(Flu(CpZrCl2, SiO2 and NaM were used as support and the catalyst performance evaluated using toluene and pentane as polymerization solvent. The molecular weight, molecular weight distribution, melting point and crystallinity of the polymers were examined. The results indicate very high activities for the syndiospecific heterogeneous system. Also, the polymers obtained had superior Mw and stereoregularity.

  14. Process to Obtain Quick Counts from PREP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez–Cruz M.Á.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Considering the Preliminary Electoral Results Program (PERP as a database of the federal elections for president of the Mexican Republic, a methodology was developed in order to find representative samples of ballot boxes installed in the election’s day (quick count in different hours, due to its characteristics of gathering of information, the PREP in the first hours forms a non-representative sample of data. In a particular way, in the election of July 2, 2006, after 3 hours of opening the PREP, it was observed that the accuracy of the process of the quick counts was better than the one obtained by the IFE. Among other things, this allows to lower the cost, to increase the confidentiality of the ballot boxes used in the sampling and to distinguish in a precise moment the winning candidate long before PREP finishes.

  15. The method of obtaining of decorative varnish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salidzhanova, N.S.; Tashbekova, D.M.

    1997-01-01

    The method of obtaining of decorative varnish allowing to remove inhibition action of air oxygen and to improve the varnish hardness is described. It is includes the impregnation of texture paper with mixture of PE-284 type polyether lacquer on the basis of unsaturated oligoethylenglycolfumarath resin and cation type salt, putting it on wooden or asbestos cement slabs and further hardening by pulsed beams of accelerated electrons on moving belt. The radiation dose for one pulse is 1,10 -2 - 9,10 -3 MGy, the number of pulses is 180 - 250, the duration of pulses is 2.3 ms, their frequency is 50 KHz. Chloride, bromide, benzylbromide or iodide of N, N-dialkylaminoethyl (benzil) (met)acrylate are used as cation type salt. (author)

  16. Devices for obtaining information about radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tosswill, C.H.

    1981-01-01

    The invention provides a sensitive, fast high-resolution device for obtaining information about the distribution of gamma and X-radiation sources and provides a radiation detector useful in such a device. It comprises a slit collimator with a multiplicity of slits each with slit-defining walls of material and thickness to absorb beam components impinging on them. The slits extend further in one direction than the other. The detector for separately detecting beam components passing through the slits also provides data output signals. It comprises a plurality of radiation transducing portions which are not photoconductor elements each at the end of a slit. A positioner operates to change the transverse position of the slits and radiation transducing portions relative to the source, wherein each radiation transducing element is positioned within its respective slit between the slit defining walls. Full details and preferred embodiments are given. (U.K.)

  17. Devices for obtaining information about radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tosswill, C.H.

    1981-01-01

    The invention provides a sensitive, fast, high-resolution device for obtaining information about the distribution of gamma and X-radiation sources and provides a radiation detector useful in such a device. It comprises a slit collimator with a multiplicity of slits each with slit-defining walls of material and thickness to absorb beam components impinging on them. The slits extend further in one transverse direction than the other. The detector for separately detecting beam components passing through the slits also provides data output signals. It comprises a plurality of radiation transducing portions, each at the end of a slit. A positioner changes the transverse position of the slits and radiation transducer (a photoconductor) relative to the source. Applications are in nuclear medicine and industry. Full details and preferred embodiments are given. (U.K.)

  18. Obtaining the electrostatic screening from first principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaviv, N.J.; Shaviv, G.

    2003-01-01

    We derive the electrostatic screening effect from first principles and show the basic properties of the screening process. We in particular show that under the conditions prevailing in the Sun the number of particles in the Debye sphere is of the order of unity. Consequently; fluctuations play a dominant role in the screening process. The fluctuations lead to an effective time dependent potential. Particles with low kinetic energy lose on the average energy to the plasma and vice versa with high energy particles. We derive general conditions on the screening energy and show under what conditions the Salpeter approximation is obtained. The connection between the screening and relaxation processes in the plasma is exposed

  19. ORIENTATION OF ENTERPRISES TOWARD OBTAINING COMPETITIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAUL BOGDAN ZAMFIR

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I proposed to emphasize the importance of obtaining competitive advantage by companies on EU internal market. The huge EU market, offers for participating companies the possibility to achieve significant economies of scale and numerous niches (segments market, which can be covered with large quantities of goods, the condition is that niches to be discovered in time, and the firms to be able to adapt promptly at their needs. Thus, the most important positive effect derives from the fact that companies have at their disposal a vast market consisting approximately 500 million consumers, free of customs duties and other restrictions inhindering the movement of goods. On this background, the companies can achieve high series production and thereby can reduce their cost of production and increase their competitiveness. In this context, the companies must meet the standards of the European Union, if they really want to gain competitive advantage on EU market.

  20. Macroinvertebrate Richness Importance in Coastal Tropical Streams of Esmeraldas (Ecuador and Its Use and Implications in Environmental Management Procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Martínez-Sanz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at determining the performance of some indices and community attributes frequently used to assess river quality and test the role of macroinvertebrate taxa richness as element of bioindication in several coastal tropical streams of western Esmeraldas (Ecuador. In addition, a macroinvertebrate taxon list of this region was provided for the first time. Thirteen sampled points distributed across nine streams were selected for this study and nineteen parameters and attributes of bioindication were tested. The differences between nonimpact and impact places were evaluated mainly using one-way analysis of variance. Jackknife 2 and Clench were used to estimate the regional richness and the quality of the inventory, respectively. Seventy taxa (principally genus and family of the main groups of macroinvertebrates were collected. Measured richness and family richness were the best metric followed by Biological Monitoring Working Party/Colombia (BMWP/Col, Odonata richness, Shannon-Weiner, and EPT richness (Ephemeroptera + Plecoptera + Trichoptera indices. Only a slight right trend (Ephemeroptera, Trichoptera, and Chironomidae attributes or incorrect performances (Average Score Per Taxon (ASPT and % EPT were showed by frequently used metrics. Finally, several recommendations were made about taxonomic level used, the ranks of quality of taxa richness, and the effort-results relationship in the field of bioindication.

  1. SPECIES RICHNESS AND UNIFORMITY CONTRIBUTIONS TO BIRD DIVERSITY IN SHADE COFFEE PLANTATIONS IN THE SOUTHEAST OF MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Altamirano González Ortega

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the contribution of the richness and uniformity in the diversity of birds, and their relationship with covariates of vegetation in a coffee landscape in southern Mexico. Species richness and abundance was recorded in 2010 and 2011 in evergreen forests and three different types of coffee production systems. Changes in the values of species richness and uniformity were detected by a SHE analysis (S = species richness, H = diversity and E = evenness. True diversity (the actual number of species actually represent the diversity of species in the samples was also estimated. The tree cover, shrub cover and tree height were covariates of vegetation that explained the variation in species richness and abundance. SHE analysis indicated that cumulative values of bird diversity increased in all plots with species richness, while the values of uniformity of species decreased. This condition changed with management activities of coffee and / or the arrival of migratory birds. The true diversity, when all species had a weight proportional to its abundance (q = 1, was higher in all plots when they were given greater weight to the dominant species (q = 2. Management practices of tree cover and shrubs and bird migration could explain changes in species richness and uniformity during the agricultural cycle.

  2. Emotion regulation, emotional eating and the energy-rich dietary pattern. A population-based study in Chinese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qingyun; Tao, Fangbiao; Hou, Fangli; Zhang, Zhaocheng; Ren, Ling-Ling

    2016-04-01

    Research investigating the influence of emotion regulation (ER) strategies on emotional eating and diet among Chinese adolescents is scarce. The aim of this study was to test associations between two ER strategies (suppression/cognitive reappraisal), emotional eating, and an energy-rich dietary pattern. A total of 4316 adolescents from 10 high schools were surveyed. Dietary patterns were derived using factor analysis. Bivariate correlations were analyzed to examine associations between ER strategies, emotional eating behavior and an energy-rich dietary pattern, by gender. The mediating effect of emotional eating in the relationship between ER and energy-rich food consumption by gender was estimated using structural equation modeling. A higher level of suppression, but no lack of cognitive reappraisal, was associated with emotional eating in boys and girls. A higher level of suppression and lack of cognitive reappraisal were associated with a greater intake of energy-rich foods in girls only. Emotional eating mediated the relationship between a higher level of suppression and a greater intake of energy-rich food in girls. This study revealed significant associations between two ER strategies and an energy-rich dietary pattern in girls, and provided evidence that higher levels of suppression may put girls at risk for emotional eating, potentially affecting the energy-rich dietary pattern. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Is torrefaction of polysaccharides-rich biomass equivalent to carbonization of lignin-rich biomass?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgic, E; Yaman, S; Haykiri-Acma, H; Kucukbayrak, S

    2016-01-01

    Waste biomass species such as lignin-rich hazelnut shell (HS) and polysaccharides-rich sunflower seed shell (SSS) were subjected to torrefaction at 300°C and carbonization at 600°C under nitrogen. The structural variations in torrefied and carbonized biomasses were compared. Also, the burning characteristics under dry air and pure oxygen (oxy-combustion) conditions were investigated. It was concluded that the effects of carbonization on HS are almost comparable with the effects of torrefaction on SSS in terms of devolatilization and deoxygenation potentials and the increases in carbon content and the heating value. Consequently, it can be proposed that torrefaction does not provide efficient devolatilization from the lignin-rich biomass while it is relatively more efficient for polysaccharides-rich biomass. Heat-induced variations in biomass led to significant changes in the burning characteristics under both burning conditions. That is, low temperature reactivity of biomass reduced considerably and the burning shifted to higher temperatures with very high burning rates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Species richness of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi: associations with grassland plant richness and biomass

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hiiesalu, Inga; Pärtel, M.; Davison, J.; Gerhold, P.; Metsis, M.; Moora, M.; Öpik, M.; Vasar, M.; Zobel, M.; Wilson, S. D.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 203, č. 1 (2014), s. 233-244 ISSN 1469-8137 R&D Projects: GA MŠk EE2.3.30.0048 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : belowground plant richness * diversity * productivity Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 6.545, year: 2013

  5. Precision measurements of gas refractivity by means of a Fabry-Perot interferometer illustrated by the monitoring of radiator refractivity in the DELPHI RICH detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Filippas-Tassos, A; Fokitis, E; Maltezos, S; Patrinos, K

    2002-01-01

    With an updated, flexible, highly efficient and easily installed system we obtained accurate refractivity (n-1) values. This system is a refractometer based on a Fabry-Perot interferometer and was used to monitor the refractivity of DELPHI RICH Cherenkov radiators near the VUV region. By using a Pt-Ne spectral lamp and improved alignment and temperature control, the refractivities of C//5F//1//2 and C//4F//1 //0 have been monitored since 1996. With this light source, selected to have large coherence lengths, we can extract the refractivity at several wavelengths from one data set only. The estimated errors of the refractivity measurements are less than 1.2%, and depend on wavelength and the type of gas used. The various parameters affecting the accuracy of the refractometer are also discussed. Finally, results from special sample refractivity measurements of the liquid radiator (C//6F//1//4) in its gas phase, are presented.

  6. Biodegradable Polyelectrolyte Obtained by Radiation Polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craciun, G.; Martin, D.; Manaila, E.; Nemtanu, M.; Brasoveanu, M.; Ighigeanu, D.

    2009-01-01

    Poly electrolytes are water-soluble polymers carrying ionic charge along the polymer chain. Depending upon the charge, these polymers are anionic or cationic. The inherent solid - liquid separating efficiency makes these poly electrolytes a unique class of polymers which find extensive application in potable water, industrial raw and process water, municipal sewage treatment, mineral processing and metallurgy, oil drilling and recovery, etc. Also, due to their ability to produce advanced induced coagulation, a considerable amount of bacteria and viruses are precipitated together with the suspended solids. Especially the acrylamide polymers are very efficacious for water treatment but acrylamide is a toxic monomer and therefore their use are governed by international standards that provide the residual acrylamide monomer content (RAMC) in them be less than 0.05%. Under these circumstances our attention was focused on the following research steps that are presented in this paper: 1) Preparation of a special class of poly electrolytes, named Pn, with very low RAMC values, based on electron beam (EB), microwave (MW) and EB + MW induced co-polymerization of aqueous solutions containing appropriate mixtures of acrylamide (AMD) and acrylic acid (AA) monomers (AMD - AA co-polymers). The Pn were obtained by radiation technology with very small RAMC (under 0.01%) as well as in a wide range of molecular weights and charge densities. Very low AMD monomer content of Pn is due to the major advantages of radiation induced polymerization in aqueous solution containing monomers. Due to water presence in the EB irradiated system, irradiated water radicals facilitate the polymerization process and increase rate and level of monomers conversion in co-polymers. Also, once again, by the presence of water, which absorbs MW energy very strongly, the MW polymerization reaction rate is much enhanced resulting in a reaction time about 50-100 times lowers than by conventional heating. Also

  7. Platelet Rich Plasma and Knee Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikel Sánchez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In orthopaedic surgery and sports medicine, the knee joint has traditionally been considered the workhorse. The reconstruction of every damaged element in this joint is crucial in achieving the surgeon’s goal to restore the knee function and prevent degeneration towards osteoarthritis. In the last fifteen years, the field of regenerative medicine is witnessing a boost of autologous blood-derived platelet rich plasma products (PRPs application to effectively mimic and accelerate the tissue healing process. The scientific rationale behind PRPs is the delivery of growth factors, cytokines, and adhesive proteins present in platelets and plasma, as well as other biologically active proteins conveyed by the plasma such as fibrinogen, prothrombin, and fibronectin; with this biological engineering approach, new perspectives in knee surgery were opened. This work describes the use of PRP to construct and repair every single anatomical structure involved in knee surgery, detailing the process conducted in ligament, meniscal, and chondral surgery.

  8. The neutrino opacity of neutron rich matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcain, P.N., E-mail: pabloalcain@gmail.com [Departamento de Física, FCEyN, UBA and IFIBA, Conicet, Pabellón 1, Ciudad Universitaria, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); IFIBA-CONICET (Argentina); Dorso, C.O. [Departamento de Física, FCEyN, UBA and IFIBA, Conicet, Pabellón 1, Ciudad Universitaria, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); IFIBA-CONICET (Argentina)

    2017-05-15

    The study of neutron rich matter, present in neutron star, proto-neutron stars and core-collapse supernovae, can lead to further understanding of the behavior of nuclear matter in highly asymmetric nuclei. Heterogeneous structures are expected to exist in these systems, often referred to as nuclear pasta. We have carried out a systematic study of neutrino opacity for different thermodynamic conditions in order to assess the impact that the structure has on it. We studied the dynamics of the neutrino opacity of the heterogeneous matter at different thermodynamic conditions with semiclassical molecular dynamics model already used to study nuclear multifragmentation. For different densities, proton fractions and temperature, we calculate the very long range opacity and the cluster distribution. The neutrino opacity is of crucial importance for the evolution of the core-collapse supernovae and the neutrino scattering.

  9. Plasma rich in growth factors in dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Glavina

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF has wider use in many fields of dentistry due to its endogenous biocompatible regenerative potential i.e., their potential to stimulate and accelerate tissue healing and bone regeneration. Aims This review shows the increasing use of PRGF technology in various fields of dentistry. Methods In the last nine years PubMed has been searched in order to find out published articles upon PRGF in dentistry and 36 papers have been included. Results PRGF technology has many advantages with positive clinical and biological outcomes in tissue healing and bone regeneration. Conclusion In order to determine the most effective therapeutic value for patients, further research is required.

  10. Platelet-rich plasma: applications in dermatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde Montero, E; Fernández Santos, M E; Suárez Fernández, R

    2015-03-01

    In recent years, the use of platelet-rich plasma has increased notably in a range of diseases and settings. Uses of these products now go beyond skin rejuvenation therapy in patients with facial ageing. Good outcomes for other dermatological indications such as skin ulcers and, more recently, alopecia have been reported in case series and controlled studies. However, these indications are not currently included in the labeling given that stronger scientific evidence is required to support their real benefits. With the increased use of these products, dermatologists need to become familiar with the underlying biological principles and able to critically assess the quality and outcomes of the studies of these products in different skin diseases. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  11. [Plant signaling peptides. Cysteine-rich peptides].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrowski, Maciej; Kowalczyk, Stanisław

    2015-01-01

    Recent bioinformatic and genetic analyses of several model plant genomes have revealed the existence of a highly abundant group of signaling peptides that are defined as cysteine-rich peptides (CRPs). CRPs are usually in size between 50 and 90 amino acid residues, they are positively charged, and they contain 4-16 cysteine residues that are important for the correct conformational folding. Despite the structural differences among CRP classes, members from each class have striking similarities in their molecular properties and function. The present review presents the recent progress in research on signaling peptides from several families including: EPF/EPFL, SP11/SCR, PrsS, RALF, LURE, and some other peptides belonging to CRP group. There is convincing evidence indicating multiple roles for these CRPs as signaling molecules during the plant life cycle, ranging from stomata development and patterning, self-incompatibility, pollen tube growth and guidance, reproductive processes, and nodule formation.

  12. Fluid inclusion from drill hole DW-5, Hohi geothermal area, Japan: Evidence of boiling and procedure for estimating CO2 content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasada, M.; Roedder, E.; Belkin, H.E.

    1986-01-01

    Fluid inclusion studies have been used to derive a model for fluid evolution in the Hohi geothermal area, Japan. Six types of fluid inclusions are found in quartz obtained from the drill core of DW-5 hole. They are: (I) primary liquid-rich with evidence of boiling; (II) primary liquid-rich without evidence of boiling; (III) primary vapor-rich (assumed to have been formed by boiling); (IV) secondary liquid-rich with evidence of boiling; (V) secondary liquid-rich without evidence of boiling; (VI) secondary vapor-rich (assumed to have been formed by boiling). Homogenization temperatures (Th) range between 196 and 347??C and the final melting point of ice (Tm) between -0.2 and -4.3??C. The CO2 content was estimated semiquantitatively to be between 0 and 0.39 wt. % based on the bubble behavior on crushing. NaCl equivalent solid solute salinity of fluid inclusions was determined as being between 0 and 6.8 wt. % after minor correction for CO2 content. Fluid inclusions in quartz provide a record of geothermal activity of early boiling and later cooling. The CO2 contents and homogenization temperatures of fluid inclusions with evidence of boiling generally increase with depth; these changes, and NaCl equivalent solid solute salinity of the fluid can be explained by an adiabatic boiling model for a CO2-bearing low-salinity fluid. Some high-salinity inclusions without CO2 are presumed to have formed by a local boiling process due to a temperature increase or a pressure decrease. The liquid-rich primary and secondary inclusions without evidence of boiling formed during the cooling process. The salinity and CO2 content of these inclusions are lower than those in the boiling fluid at the early stage, probably as a result of admixture with groundwater. ?? 1986.

  13. WAYS HIERARCHY OF ACCOUNTING ESTIMATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ŞERBAN CLAUDIU VALENTIN

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Based on one hand on the premise that the estimate is an approximate evaluation, completed with the fact that the term estimate is increasingly common and used by a variety of both theoretical and practical areas, particularly in situations where we can not decide ourselves with certainty, it must be said that, in fact, we are dealing with estimates and in our case with an accounting estimate. Completing on the other hand the idea above with the phrase "estimated value", which implies that we are dealing with a value obtained from an evaluation process, but its size is not exact but approximated, meaning is close to the actual size, it becomes obvious the neccessity to delimit the hierarchical relationship between evaluation / estimate while considering the context in which the evaluation activity is derulated at entity level.

  14. Robust DOA Estimation of Harmonic Signals Using Constrained Filters on Phase Estimates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karimian-Azari, Sam; Jensen, Jesper Rindom; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll

    2014-01-01

    In array signal processing, distances between receivers, e.g., microphones, cause time delays depending on the direction of arrival (DOA) of a signal source. We can then estimate the DOA from the time-difference of arrival (TDOA) estimates. However, many conventional DOA estimators based on TDOA...... estimates are not optimal in colored noise. In this paper, we estimate the DOA of a harmonic signal source from multi-channel phase estimates, which relate to narrowband TDOA estimates. More specifically, we design filters to apply on phase estimates to obtain a DOA estimate with minimum variance. Using...

  15. VOSGES, a long and rich geologic history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominique, Carteaux; Cyrille, Delangle; Sophie, Demangel

    2015-04-01

    The study of geology in scientific classes is often too theoretical and abstract for the pupils. How can teachers make the link between some samples of rocks observed in a practical class and the geologic story of the region? There's nothing better than outdoor education to establish a relationship between the rock observed in macroscopic and microscopic scale in the classroom,with the outcrop scale and the landscape scale in the field: all of them are the result of a fascinating geologic history.Our pupils are lucky enough to live at the heart of a modest mountain massif that has a very rich geologic story: the massif from Vosges situated in the east of France. During two expeditions we show the students all the following tectonic processes: Accretion at the scale of the landscape with the Rhenish Ditch (tectonic and volcanic markers) Obductionis observed due to ophiolites found in the massive of Thalhorn (peridotite, gabbro and sedimentary marine rocks of great depth). Collisionis illuminated with numerous sites like the schists of Steige, the phyllite of Villé, the gneisses of Climont. Subductionis captured bystudying the outcrops of magmatic rocks within the continental crust (andesite, diorite, granodiorite). At each of the stops we have the students, from a hand sample, to findits story in a more global context. So the theory becomes reality. A study of thin slides of rocks observed on the ground finishes these exits and so various scales of understanding are approached. The long and rich geologic history of Vosges maybe reconstituted on hundreds of million years, allowing certainly giving another aspect to the living environment of our pupils.

  16. HOW TO OBTAIN BOOKS FOR YOUR GROUP

    CERN Multimedia

    Head Librarian

    2000-01-01

    The wide variety of scientific and technical activity engaged in by people working at CERN means that the Library cannot always provide a deep on-site coverage in areas which are outside the core subjects of particle physics and accelerators. As many of you have already experienced, one way of solving this is to borrow books from other libraries. Our Inter-Library Loan (ILL) service currently obtains about 1000 books on loan per year for readers at CERN. However, there may be books which groups need on a more permanent basis, in which case a loan from either our own collection or via ILL is not the appropriate solution. Instead, groups might prefer to purchase such books from their own budgets. To facilitate this, the CERN Library has set up a procedure with the SPL Division, by which you can submit your purchase request to us and be charged via a TID when you receive the book. In addition, via our database interface WebLib, we can provide you with a private virtual catalogue of your group's collection, which...

  17. Evaluation of biodiesel obtained from cottonseed oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rashid, Umer [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad-38040 (Pakistan); Department of Industrial Chemistry, Government College University, Faisalabad-38000 (Pakistan); Anwar, Farooq [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad-38040 (Pakistan); Knothe, Gerhard [United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research, Peoria, IL 61604 (United States)

    2009-09-15

    Esters from vegetable oils have attracted a great deal of interest as substitutes for petrodiesel to reduce dependence on imported petroleum and provide a fuel with more benign environmental properties. In this work biodiesel was prepared from cottonseed oil by transesterification with methanol, using sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, sodium methoxide and potassium methoxide as catalysts. A series of experiments were conducted in order to evaluate the effects of reaction variables such as methanol/oil molar ratio (3:1-15:1), catalyst concentration (0.25-1.50%), temperature (25-65 C), and stirring intensity (180-600 rpm) to achieve the maximum yield and quality. The optimized variables of 6:1 methanol/oil molar ratio (mol/mol), 0.75% sodium methoxide concentration (wt.%), 65 C reaction temperature, 600 rpm agitation speed and 90 min reaction time offered the maximum methyl ester yield (96.9%). The obtained fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy. The fuel properties of cottonseed oil methyl esters (COME), cetane number, kinematic viscosity, oxidative stability, lubricity, cloud point, pour point, cold filter plugging point, flash point, ash content, sulfur content, acid value, copper strip corrosion value, density, higher heating value, methanol content, free and bound glycerol were determined and are discussed in the light of biodiesel standards such as ASTM D6751 and EN 14214. (author)

  18. Electrolytic Hydrogen obtaining by a photovoltaic source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasculete, E.; Condrea, F.; Stanoiu, L.

    2005-01-01

    At present, the developed countries allocate large funds for the financing of some global programs for fundamental and applicative research for development of hydrogen non-conventional production technologies. One of these technologies is the photo-assisted electrolysis. This technology is adopted in the research, which results are presented in this paper. The experimental model includes as basic equipment 100 W photovoltaic source, electrolysis battery press filter type, control unit of the electric energy discharged, accumulator, hydrogen storage unit. Five types of material have been tested for the electrolysis cell diaphragm: asbestos; Netrom- unwoven material from fibers of polypropylene; ion changing composite membrane - polysulfone support with an active layer of sulfonated poly-sulfone (PSS/PSJ) and poly-sulfone support with an active layer of sulfonated poly-eter cetone (SPEEK/PSf); ion-exchange membrane made from sulfonated poly-eter cetone (SPEEK). The graphics and results from the test system are presented. The analysis of the experimental results lead to the establishment of the optimal configuration of battery and of the operational conditions of the assembly. The experimental results give the opportunity to obtain electrolytic hydrogen with a photovoltaic source, in an efficient system, and promote the Romanian research at a level of a demonstrative installation

  19. WAYS OF OBTAINING FINANCING BY TOUR OPERATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARLAN ADRIANA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available domanin.Romania is a country with highly touristic potential that is not exploited to maximum. In order to reach a high quality level of tourism permanent development and modernization are needed and also the establishment of new businesses That conducts other activities other than those which takes place in our country. Ways of getting funds are multiple, depending on individual needs.To develop tourism activities it is necessary to require some funding that can come from various sources: auto-financing, loans from various banks or from third parties and grants offered by the European Union. There are many programs designed to support the development of tourism, such as ROP that allows people to access grants in order to implement projects for the establishment and the development of the activity in the touristic field. The purpose of this article is to highlight funding opportunities for the tourism operators and to assist them in choosing the appropriate form of financing of the current activity or the activity they want to implement in the future and description of how to obtain the necessary funds from various sources.

  20. Shielding design to obtain compact marine reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaji, Akio; Sako, Kiyoshi

    1994-01-01

    The marine reactors equipped in previously constructed nuclear ships are in need of the secondary shield which is installed outside the containment vessel. Most of the weight and volume of the reactor plants are occupied by this secondary shield. An advanced marine reactor called MRX (Marine Reactor X) has been designed to obtain a more compact and lightweight marine reactor with enhanced safety. The MRX is a new type of marine reactor which is an integral PWR (The steam generator is installed in the pressure vessel.) with adopting a water-filled containment vessel and a new shielding design method of no installation of the secondary shield. As a result, MRX is considerably lighter in weight and more compact in size as compared with the reactors equipped in previously constructed nuclear ships. For instance, the plant weight and volume of the containment vessel of MRX are about 50% and 70% of those of the Nuclear Ship MUTSU, in spite of the power of MRX is 2.8 times as large as the MUTSU's reactor. The shielding design calculation was made using the ANISN, DOT3.5, QAD-CGGP2 and ORIGEN codes. The computational accuracy was confirmed by experimental analyses. (author)

  1. A recently developed bifacial platelet-rich fibrin matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Lucarelli

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Platelet-rich plasma (PRP is used clinically in liquid or gel form to promote tissue repair. Because of the poor mechanical properties, conventional PRP is often difficult to handle when used in clinical settings and requires secure implantation in a specific site, otherwise when released growth factors could be washed out during an operation. In this study, we analyzed the end product of a recently developed commercially available system (FIBRINET®, which is a dense pliable, platelet-rich fibrin matrix (PRFM. We characterized the mechanical properties of PRFM and tested whether PRFM releases growth factors and whether released factors induce the proliferation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC. Mechanical properties as well as platelet distribution were evaluated in PRFM. PRFM demonstrated robust mechanical properties, with a tear elastic modulus of 937.3 + 314.6 kPa, stress at a break of 1476.0 + 526.3 kPa, and an elongation at break of 146.3 + 33.8 %. PRFM maintained its mechanical properties throughout the testing process. Microscopic observations showed that the platelets were localized on one side of the matrix. Elevated levels of PDGF-AA, PDGF-AB, EGF, VEGF, bFGF and TGF-β1 were measured in the day 1-conditioned media (CM of PRFM and growth factor levels decreased thereafter. BMP2 and BMP7 were not detectable. MSC culture media supplemented with 20% PRFM-CM stimulated MSC cell proliferation; at 24 and 48 hours the induction of the proliferation was significantly greater than the induction obtained with media supplemented with 20% foetal bovine serum. The present study shows that the production of a dense, physically robust PRFM made through high-speed centrifugation of intact platelets and fibrin in the absence of exogenous thrombin yields a potential tool for accelerating tissue repair.

  2. New Technique for TOC Estimation Based on Thermal Core Logging in Low-Permeable Formations (Bazhen fm.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Evgeny; Popov, Yury; Spasennykh, Mikhail; Kozlova, Elena; Chekhonin, Evgeny; Zagranovskaya, Dzhuliya; Belenkaya, Irina; Alekseev, Aleksey

    2016-04-01

    A practical method of organic-rich intervals identifying within the low-permeable dispersive rocks based on thermal conductivity measurements along the core is presented. Non-destructive non-contact thermal core logging was performed with optical scanning technique on 4 685 full size core samples from 7 wells drilled in four low-permeable zones of the Bazhen formation (B.fm.) in the Western Siberia (Russia). The method employs continuous simultaneous measurements of rock anisotropy, volumetric heat capacity, thermal anisotropy coefficient and thermal heterogeneity factor along the cores allowing the high vertical resolution (of up to 1-2 mm). B.fm. rock matrix thermal conductivity was observed to be essentially stable within the range of 2.5-2.7 W/(m*K). However, stable matrix thermal conductivity along with the high thermal anisotropy coefficient is characteristic for B.fm. sediments due to the low rock porosity values. It is shown experimentally that thermal parameters measured relate linearly to organic richness rather than to porosity coefficient deviations. Thus, a new technique employing the transformation of the thermal conductivity profiles into continuous profiles of total organic carbon (TOC) values along the core was developed. Comparison of TOC values, estimated from the thermal conductivity values, with experimental pyrolytic TOC estimations of 665 samples from the cores using the Rock-Eval and HAWK instruments demonstrated high efficiency of the new technique for the organic rich intervals separation. The data obtained with the new technique are essential for the SR hydrocarbon generation potential, for basin and petroleum system modeling application, and estimation of hydrocarbon reserves. The method allows for the TOC richness to be accurately assessed using the thermal well logs. The research work was done with financial support of the Russian Ministry of Education and Science (unique identification number RFMEFI58114X0008).

  3. Dipole polarizability of neutron rich nuclei and the symmetry energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horvat, Andrea; Johansen, Jacob; Miki, Kenjiro; Schindler, Fabia; Schrock, Philipp [IKP, TU Darmstadt (Germany); Aumann, Thomas [IKP, TU Darmstadt (Germany); GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); Boretzky, Konstanze [GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); Collaboration: R3B-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    As a part of a systematic investigation of the dipole response of stable up to very neutron rich tin isotopes, nuclear and electromagnetic excitation of {sup 124}Sn-{sup 134}Sn has been investigated at relativistic energies in inverse kinematics induced by carbon and lead targets at the LAND-R3B setup at GSI in Darmstadt. The electric dipole response and the nuclear reaction cross section, total and charge-changing, are obtained from the kinematically complete determination of momenta of all particles on an event by event basis. The dipole polarizability is extracted from the Coulomb excitation interaction channel, in order to make use of relevant correlations of this observable with nuclear matter properties such as the symmetry energy at saturation density (J) and it's slope (L). The systematics of the low-lying ''pygmy'' dipole strength, the giant dipole resonance (GDR) and the neutron skin thickness are determined with respect to increasing isospin asymmetry. This talk also discusses the correlations and sensitivities of these variables and observables obtained within the framework of nuclear energy density functional theory.

  4. Climate patterns as predictors of amphibians species richness and indicators of potential stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglin, W.; Hay, L.; McCabe, G.; Nanjappa, P.; Gallant, Alisa L.

    2005-01-01

    Amphibians occupy a range of habitats throughout the world, but species richness is greatest in regions with moist, warm climates. We modeled the statistical relations of anuran and urodele species richness with mean annual climate for the conterminous United States, and compared the strength of these relations at national and regional levels. Model variables were calculated for county and subcounty mapping units, and included 40-year (1960-1999) annual mean and mean annual climate statistics, mapping unit average elevation, mapping unit land area, and estimates of anuran and urodele species richness. Climate data were derived from more than 7,500 first-order and cooperative meteorological stations and were interpolated to the mapping units using multiple linear regression models. Anuran and urodele species richness were calculated from the United States Geological Survey's Amphibian Research and Monitoring Initiative (ARMI) National Atlas for Amphibian Distributions. The national multivariate linear regression (MLR) model of anuran species richness had an adjusted coefficient of determination (R2) value of 0.64 and the national MLR model for urodele species richness had an R2 value of 0.45. Stratifying the United States by coarse-resolution ecological regions provided models for anUrans that ranged in R2 values from 0.15 to 0.78. Regional models for urodeles had R2 values. ranging from 0.27 to 0.74. In general, regional models for anurans were more strongly influenced by temperature variables, whereas precipitation variables had a larger influence on urodele models.

  5. Obtaining cementitious material from municipal solid waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macías, A.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The primary purpose of the present study was to determine the viability of using incinerator ash and slag from municipal solid waste as a secondary source of cementitious materials. The combustion products used were taken from two types of Spanish MSW incinerators, one located at Valdemingómez, in Madrid, and the other in Melilla, with different incineration systems: one with fluidised bed combustion and other with mass burn waterwall. The effect of temperature (from 800 to 1,200 ºC on washed and unwashed incinerator residue was studied, in particular with regard to phase formation in washed products with a high NaCl and KCl content. The solid phases obtained were characterized by X-ray diffraction and BET-N2 specific surface procedures.El principal objetivo del trabajo ha sido determinar la viabilidad del uso de las cenizas y escorias procedentes de la incineración de residuos sólidos urbanos, como materia prima secundaria para la obtención de fases cementantes. Para ello se han empleado los residuos generados en dos tipos de incineradoras españolas de residuos sólidos urbanos: la incineradora de Valdemingómez y la incineradora de Melilla. Se ha estudiado la transformación de los residuos, sin tratamiento previo, en función de la temperatura de calentamiento (desde 800 ºC hasta 1.200 ºC, así como la influencia del lavado de los residuos con alto contenido en NaCl y KCl en la formación de fases obtenidas a las diferentes temperaturas de calcinación. Las fases obtenidas fueron caracterizadas por difracción de rayos X y área superficial por el método BET-N2.

  6. Reduced sensitivity RDX obtained from bachmann RDX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spyckerelle, Christian; Eck, Genevieve [EURENCO France, Sorgues Plant 1928 route d' Avignon, BP 311, 84706 Sorgues Cedex (France); Sjoeberg, Per; Amneus, Anna-Maria [EURENCO Sweden, SE-69186 Karlskoga (Sweden)

    2008-02-15

    In recent years much interest has been generated in a quality of reduced sensitivity RDX (RS-RDX), like I-RDX {sup registered} which, when incorporated in cast cure and even pressable plastic bonded explosives (PBX compositions), can confer reduced shock sensitivity as measured through gap test. At crystal level, lot of work has been done to try to determine which property or properties may explain the behaviour of the corresponding cast PBX composition. But up to now, and despite an international inter-laboratory comparison (Round Robin) of seven lots of RDX from five different manufacturers conducted from 2003 to 2005, even if some techniques lead to interesting results, there is no dedicated specification to apply to RS-RDX. This quality (I-RDX {sup registered}) has proved to retain its low sensitivity even after ageing, which does not seem to be the case for standard RDX produced by the Bachmann process (when re-crystallized under I-RDX conditions in order to obtain RS-RDX). It has been shown that the higher sensitivity of RDX produced by the Bachmann process, or the evolution of sensitivity after ageing of RS-RDX produced from Bachmann RDX may be linked to the presence of octogen (HMX) during the crystallization process. In order to check such hypothesis, low HMX content RDX produced by the Bachmann process has been prepared and evaluated in cast PBX composition (PBX N 109). Results of the characterization of such quality of RDX and its evaluation in cast PBX composition as well as ageing behaviour are presented and discussed; there are indications that removal of HMX from Bachmann RDX may lead to RS-RDX, which retains its RS character even after ageing. (Abstract Copyright [2008], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  7. Distribution load estimation (DLE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seppaelae, A; Lehtonen, M [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1998-08-01

    The load research has produced customer class load models to convert the customers` annual energy consumption to hourly load values. The reliability of load models applied from a nation-wide sample is limited in any specific network because many local circumstances are different from utility to utility and time to time. Therefore there is a need to find improvements to the load models or, in general, improvements to the load estimates. In Distribution Load Estimation (DLE) the measurements from the network are utilized to improve the customer class load models. The results of DLE will be new load models that better correspond to the loading of the distribution network but are still close to the original load models obtained by load research. The principal data flow of DLE is presented

  8. A PUFA-rich diet improves fat oxidation following saturated fat-rich meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Jada L; Miller, Mary K; Skillman, Hannah E; Paton, Chad M; Cooper, Jamie A

    2017-08-01

    To determine substrate oxidation responses to saturated fatty acid (SFA)-rich meals before and after a 7-day polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)-rich diet versus control diet. Twenty-six, normal-weight, adults were randomly assigned to either PUFA or control diet. Following a 3-day lead-in diet, participants completed the pre-diet visit where anthropometrics and resting metabolic rate (RMR) were measured, and two SFA-rich HF meals (breakfast and lunch) were consumed. Indirect calorimetry was used to determine fat oxidation (Fox) and energy expenditure (EE) for 4 h after each meal. Participants then consumed a PUFA-rich diet (50 % carbohydrate, 15 % protein, 35 % fat, of which 21 % of total energy was PUFA) or control diet (50 % carbohydrate, 15 % protein, 35 % fat, of which 7 % of total energy was PUFA) for the next 7 days. Following the 7-day diet, participants completed the post-diet visit. From pre- to post-PUFA-rich diet, there was no change in RMR (16.3 ± 0.8 vs. 16.4 ± 0.8 kcal/20 min) or in incremental area under the curve for EE (118.9 ± 20.6-126.9 ± 14.1 kcal/8h, ns). Fasting respiratory exchange ratio increased from pre- to post-PUFA-rich diet only (0.83 ± 0.1-0.86 ± 0.1, p diet (0.03 ± 0.1-0.23 ± 0.1 g/15 min for cumulative Fox; p diet initiates greater fat oxidation after eating occasional high SFA meals compared to a control diet, an effect achieved in 7 days.

  9. Circumstellar ammonia in oxygen-rich evolved stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, K. T.; Menten, K. M.; Kamiński, T.; Wyrowski, F.; Lacy, J. H.; Greathouse, T. K.

    2018-04-01

    Context. The circumstellar ammonia (NH3) chemistry in evolved stars is poorly understood. Previous observations and modelling showed that NH3 abundance in oxygen-rich stars is several orders of magnitude above that predicted by equilibrium chemistry. Aims: We would like to characterise the spatial distribution and excitation of NH3 in the oxygen-rich circumstellar envelopes (CSEs) of four diverse targets: IK Tau, VY CMa, OH 231.8+4.2, and IRC +10420. Methods: We observed NH3 emission from the ground state in the inversion transitions near 1.3 cm with the Very Large Array (VLA) and submillimetre rotational transitions with the Heterodyne Instrument for the Far-Infrared (HIFI) aboard Herschel Space Observatory from all four targets. For IK Tau and VY CMa, we observed NH3 rovibrational absorption lines in the ν2 band near 10.5 μm with the Texas Echelon Cross Echelle Spectrograph (TEXES) at the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF). We also attempted to search for the rotational transition within the excited vibrational state (v2 = 1) near 2 mm with the IRAM 30m Telescope. Non-LTE radiative transfer modelling, including radiative pumping to the vibrational state, was carried out to derive the radial distribution of NH3 in the CSEs of these targets. Results: We detected NH3 inversion and rotational emission in all four targets. IK Tau and VY CMa show blueshifted absorption in the rovibrational spectra. We did not detect vibrationally excited rotational transition from IK Tau. Spatially resolved VLA images of IK Tau and IRC +10420 show clumpy emission structures; unresolved images of VY CMa and OH 231.8+4.2 indicate that the spatial-kinematic distribution of NH3 is similar to that of assorted molecules, such as SO and SO2, that exhibit localised and clumpy emission. Our modelling shows that the NH3 abundance relative to molecular hydrogen is generally of the order of 10-7, which is a few times lower than previous estimates that were made without considering radiative

  10. Chernobyl source term estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gudiksen, P.H.; Harvey, T.F.; Lange, R.

    1990-09-01

    The Chernobyl source term available for long-range transport was estimated by integration of radiological measurements with atmospheric dispersion modeling and by reactor core radionuclide inventory estimation in conjunction with WASH-1400 release fractions associated with specific chemical groups. The model simulations revealed that the radioactive cloud became segmented during the first day, with the lower section heading toward Scandinavia and the upper part heading in a southeasterly direction with subsequent transport across Asia to Japan, the North Pacific, and the west coast of North America. By optimizing the agreement between the observed cloud arrival times and duration of peak concentrations measured over Europe, Japan, Kuwait, and the US with the model predicted concentrations, it was possible to derive source term estimates for those radionuclides measured in airborne radioactivity. This was extended to radionuclides that were largely unmeasured in the environment by performing a reactor core radionuclide inventory analysis to obtain release fractions for the various chemical transport groups. These analyses indicated that essentially all of the noble gases, 60% of the radioiodines, 40% of the radiocesium, 10% of the tellurium and about 1% or less of the more refractory elements were released. These estimates are in excellent agreement with those obtained on the basis of worldwide deposition measurements. The Chernobyl source term was several orders of magnitude greater than those associated with the Windscale and TMI reactor accidents. However, the 137 Cs from the Chernobyl event is about 6% of that released by the US and USSR atmospheric nuclear weapon tests, while the 131 I and 90 Sr released by the Chernobyl accident was only about 0.1% of that released by the weapon tests. 13 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs

  11. Polymerase matters: non-proofreading enzymes inflate fungal community richness estimates by up to 15 %

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alena K. Oliver; Shawn P. Brown; Mac A. Callaham; Ari Jumpponen

    2015-01-01

    Rare taxa overwhelm metabarcoding data generated using next-generation sequencing (NGS). Low frequency Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) may be artifacts generated by PCR-amplification errors resulting from polymerase mispairing. We analyzed two Internal Transcribed Spacer 2 (ITS2) MiSeq libraries generated with proofreading (ThermoScientific Phusion

  12. Estimating the snake species richness of the Santubong Peninsula (Borneo) in two different ways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooijen, van J.

    2009-01-01

    The distribution of Borneo’s species across the island is far from well-known. This is particularly true for snakes which are hard to find. Given the current rate of habitat destruction and consequent need for conservation strategies, more information is required as to the species composition and

  13. Estimating global arthropod species richness: refining probabilistic models using probability bounds analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hamilton, A. J.; Novotný, Vojtěch; Waters, E. K.; Basset, Y.; Benke, K. K.; Grimbacher, P. S.; Miller, S. E.; Samuelson, G. A.; Weiblen, G. D.; Yen, J. D. L.; Stork, N. E.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 171, č. 2 (2013), s. 357-365 ISSN 0029-8549 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LH11008; GA ČR GA206/09/0115 Grant - others:Czech Ministry of Education(CZ) CZ.1.07/2.3.00/20.0064; National Science Foundarion(US) DEB-0841885; Otto Kinne Foundation, Darwin Initiative(GB) 19-008 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : host specificity * model * Monte Carlo Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.248, year: 2013 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00442-012-2434-5

  14. Overview of galactic results obtained by MAGIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanin, Roberta

    2013-06-15

    MAGIC is a system of two atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes which explores the very-high-energy sky, from some tens of GeV up to tens of TeV. Located in the Canary island of La Palma, MAGIC has the lowest energy threshold among the instruments of its kind, well suited to study the still poorly explored energy band below 100 GeV. Although the space-borne gamma-ray telescope Fermi/LAT is sensitive up to 300 GeV, gamma-ray rates drop fast with increasing energy, so γ-ray collection areas larger than 10{sup 4}m{sup 2}, as those provided by grounds-based instruments, are crucial above a few GeV. The combination of MAGIC and Fermi/LAT observations have provided the first astrophysical spectra sampled in the inverse Compton peak region, resulting in a complete coverage from MeV up to TeV energies, as well as the discovery of a pulsed emission in the very-high-energy band. This paper focuses on the latest results on Galactic sources obtained by MAGIC which are highlighted by the detection of the pulsed gamma-ray emission from the Crab pulsar up to 400 GeV. In addition, we will present the morphological study on the W51 complex which allowed to pinpoint the location of the majority of the emission around the interaction point between the supernova remnant W51C and the star forming region W51B, but also to find a possible contribution from the associated pulsar wind nebula. Other important scientific achievements involve the Crab Nebula with an unprecedented spectrum covering three decades in energy starting from 50 GeV and a morphological study of the unidentified source HESS J1857+026 which supports the pulsar wind nebula scenario. Finally we will report on the searches of very-high-energy signals from gamma-ray binaries, mainly LS I 303+ and HESS J0632+057.

  15. Optimisation of a double-centrifugation method for preparation of canine platelet-rich plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hyeok-Soo; Woo, Heung-Myong; Kang, Byung-Jae

    2017-06-26

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has been expected for regenerative medicine because of its growth factors. However, there is considerable variability in the recovery and yield of platelets and the concentration of growth factors in PRP preparations. The aim of this study was to identify optimal relative centrifugal force and spin time for the preparation of PRP from canine blood using a double-centrifugation tube method. Whole blood samples were collected in citrate blood collection tubes from 12 healthy beagles. For the first centrifugation step, 10 different run conditions were compared to determine which condition produced optimal recovery of platelets. Once the optimal condition was identified, platelet-containing plasma prepared using that condition was subjected to a second centrifugation to pellet platelets. For the second centrifugation, 12 different run conditions were compared to identify the centrifugal force and spin time to produce maximal pellet recovery and concentration increase. Growth factor levels were estimated by using ELISA to measure platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) concentrations in optimised CaCl 2 -activated platelet fractions. The highest platelet recovery rate and yield were obtained by first centrifuging whole blood at 1000 g for 5 min and then centrifuging the recovered platelet-enriched plasma at 1500 g for 15 min. This protocol recovered 80% of platelets from whole blood and increased platelet concentration six-fold and produced the highest concentration of PDGF-BB in activated fractions. We have described an optimised double-centrifugation tube method for the preparation of PRP from canine blood. This optimised method does not require particularly expensive equipment or high technical ability and can readily be carried out in a veterinary clinical setting.

  16. Nonparametric Collective Spectral Density Estimation and Clustering

    KAUST Repository

    Maadooliat, Mehdi

    2017-04-12

    In this paper, we develop a method for the simultaneous estimation of spectral density functions (SDFs) for a collection of stationary time series that share some common features. Due to the similarities among the SDFs, the log-SDF can be represented using a common set of basis functions. The basis shared by the collection of the log-SDFs is estimated as a low-dimensional manifold of a large space spanned by a pre-specified rich basis. A collective estimation approach pools information and borrows strength across the SDFs to achieve better estimation efficiency. Also, each estimated spectral density has a concise representation using the coefficients of the basis expansion, and these coefficients can be used for visualization, clustering, and classification purposes. The Whittle pseudo-maximum likelihood approach is used to fit the model and an alternating blockwise Newton-type algorithm is developed for the computation. A web-based shiny App found at

  17. Nonparametric Collective Spectral Density Estimation and Clustering

    KAUST Repository

    Maadooliat, Mehdi; Sun, Ying; Chen, Tianbo

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a method for the simultaneous estimation of spectral density functions (SDFs) for a collection of stationary time series that share some common features. Due to the similarities among the SDFs, the log-SDF can be represented using a common set of basis functions. The basis shared by the collection of the log-SDFs is estimated as a low-dimensional manifold of a large space spanned by a pre-specified rich basis. A collective estimation approach pools information and borrows strength across the SDFs to achieve better estimation efficiency. Also, each estimated spectral density has a concise representation using the coefficients of the basis expansion, and these coefficients can be used for visualization, clustering, and classification purposes. The Whittle pseudo-maximum likelihood approach is used to fit the model and an alternating blockwise Newton-type algorithm is developed for the computation. A web-based shiny App found at

  18. Mathematical modelling of anisotropy of illite-rich shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesnokov, E.M.; Tiwary, D.K.; Bayuk, I.O.; Sparkman, M.A.; Brown, R.L.

    2009-01-01

    The estimation of illite-rich shale anisotropy to account for the alignment of clays and gas- or brine-filled cracks is presented via mathematical modelling. Such estimation requires analysis to interpret the dominance of one effect over another. This knowledge can help to evaluate the permeability in the unconventional reservoir, stress orientation, and the seal capacity for the conventional reservoir. Effective media modelling is used to predict the elastic properties of the illite-rich shale and to identify the dominant contributions to the shale anisotropy. We consider two principal reasons of the shale anisotropy: orientation of clay platelets and orientation of fluid-filled cracks. In reality, both of these two factors affect the shale anisotropy. The goal of this study is, first, to separately analyse the effect of these two factors to reveal the specific features in P- and S-wave velocity behaviour typical of each of the factors, and, then, consider a combined effect of the factors when the cracks are horizontally or vertically aligned. To do this, we construct four models of shale. The behaviour of P- and S-wave velocities is analysed when gas- and water-filled cracks embedded in a host matrix are randomly oriented, or horizontally or vertically aligned. The host matrix can be either isotropic or anisotropic (of VTI symmetry). In such a modelling, we use published data on mineralogy and clay platelet alignment along with other micromechanical measurements. In the model, where the host matrix is isotropic, the presence of a singularity point (when the difference VS1 - VS2 changes its sign) in shear wave velocities is an indicator of brine-filled aligned cracks. In the model with the VTI host matrix and horizontally aligned cracks filled with gas, an increase in their volume concentration leads to that the azimuth at which the singularity is observed moves toward the symmetry axis. In this case, if the clay content is small (around 20 per cent), the

  19. Constraining the Scatter in the Mass-Richness Relation of maxBCG Clusters With Weak Lensing and X-ray Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozo, Eduardo; /Ohio State U.; Rykoff, Eli S.; /UC, Santa Barbara; Evrard, August; /Michigan U.; Becker, Matthew R.; /Chicago U.; McKay, Timothy; /Michigan U.; Wechsler, Risa H.; /SLAC; Koester, Benjamin P.; /Chicago U. /KICP, Chicago; Hao, Jiangang; /Michigan U.; Hansen, Sarah; /Chicago U. /KICP, Chicago; Sheldon, Erin; /New York U.; Johnston, David; /Houston U.; Annis, James T.; /Fermilab; Frieman, Joshua A.; /Chicago U. /KICP, Chicago /Fermilab

    2009-08-03

    We measure the logarithmic scatter in mass at fixed richness for clusters in the maxBCG cluster catalog, an optically selected cluster sample drawn from SDSS imaging data. Our measurement is achieved by demanding consistency between available weak lensing and X-ray measurements of the maxBCG clusters, and the X-ray luminosity-mass relation inferred from the 400d X-ray cluster survey, a flux limited X-ray cluster survey. We find {sigma}{sub lnM|N{sub 200}} = 0.45{sub -0.18}{sup +0.20} (95%CL) at N{sub 200} {approx} 40, where N{sub 200} is the number of red sequence galaxies in a cluster. As a byproduct of our analysis, we also obtain a constraint on the correlation coefficient between lnL{sub X} and lnM at fixed richness, which is best expressed as a lower limit, r{sub L,M|N} {ge} 0.85 (95% CL). This is the first observational constraint placed on a correlation coefficient involving two different cluster mass tracers. We use our results to produce a state of the art estimate of the halo mass function at z = 0.23 - the median redshift of the maxBCG cluster sample - and find that it is consistent with the WMAP5 cosmology. Both the mass function data and its covariance matrix are presented.

  20. CONSTRAINING THE SCATTER IN THE MASS-RICHNESS RELATION OF maxBCG CLUSTERS WITH WEAK LENSING AND X-RAY DATA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozo, Eduardo; Rykoff, Eli S.; Evrard, August; McKay, Timothy; Hao Jiangang; Becker, Matthew; Wechsler, Risa H.; Koester, Benjamin P.; Hansen, Sarah; Frieman, Joshua; Sheldon, Erin; Johnston, David; Annis, James

    2009-01-01

    We measure the logarithmic scatter in mass at fixed richness for clusters in the maxBCG cluster catalog, an optically selected cluster sample drawn from Sloan Digital Sky Survey imaging data. Our measurement is achieved by demanding consistency between available weak-lensing and X-ray measurements of the maxBCG clusters, and the X-ray luminosity-mass relation inferred from the 400 days X-ray cluster survey, a flux-limited X-ray cluster survey. We find σ lnM|N 200 =0.45 -0.18 +0.20 (95% CL) at N 200 ∼ 40, where N 200 is the number of red sequence galaxies in a cluster. As a byproduct of our analysis, we also obtain a constraint on the correlation coefficient between ln L X and ln M at fixed richness, which is best expressed as a lower limit, r L,M|N ≥ 0.85(95% CL). This is the first observational constraint placed on a correlation coefficient involving two different cluster mass tracers. We use our results to produce a state-of-the-art estimate of the halo mass function at z = 0.23-the median redshift of the maxBCG cluster sample-and find that it is consistent with the WMAP5 cosmology. Both the mass function data and its covariance matrix are presented.

  1. arXiv The Future of RICH Detectors through the Light of the LHCb RICH

    CERN Document Server

    D'Ambrosio, C.; Easo, S.; Petrolini, A.; Ullaland, O.

    2017-12-21

    The limitations in performance of the present RICH system in the LHCb experiment are given by the natural chromatic dispersion of the gaseous Cherenkov radiator, the aberrations of the optical system and the pixel size of the photon detectors. Moreover, the overall PID performance can be affected by high detector occupancy as the pattern recognition becomes more difficult with high particle multiplicities. This paper shows a way to improve performance by systematically addressing each of the previously mentioned limitations. These ideas are applied in the present and future upgrade phases of the LHCb experiment. Although applied to specific circumstances, they are used as a paradigm on what is achievable in the development and realisation of high precision RICH detectors.

  2. Cost to patients of obtaining treatment for HIV/AIDS in South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. South Africa is providing antiretroviral (ARV) drugs for HIV I AIDS free of charge in order to increase access for poorer patients and promote adherence. However, non-drug costs of obtaining treatment may limit access. We estimated the costs that South African patients incur in obtaining antiretroviral therapy ...

  3. Effect of carbo-nitride-rich and oxide-rich inclusions on the pitting susceptibility of depleted uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pu, Zhen; Chen, Xianglin; Meng, Xiandong; Wu, Yanping; Shen, Liang; Wang, Qingfu; Liu, Tianwei; Shuai, Maobing

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •The Volta potential differences relative to the matrix are positive for both types of inclusions. •Both types of inclusions are cathodic in the “inclusion/matrix” microgalvanic couples. •The oxide-rich inclusions show a larger Volta potential value of about 115 mV than the carbo-nitride-rich inclusions. •The oxide-rich inclusions give stronger local galvanic coupling with the matrix. •The oxide-rich inclusions are more predisposed to initiate pitting corrosion. -- Abstract: The effects of carbo-nitride-rich and oxide-rich inclusions on the pitting susceptibility of depleted uranium were investigated by electrochemical corrosion measurements, optical microscopy, scanning Kelvin probe force microscopy (SKPFM), and SEM. The results of the potentiodynamic polarization tests suggest that oxide-rich inclusions are more likely to induce pitting corrosion than carbo-nitride-rich inclusions. This enhanced corrosion may be explained by the strong local galvanic coupling between the oxide-rich inclusion and the surrounding matrix, which, from the sight of SKPFM analysis, exhibits a 115 V higher Volta potential than the coupling between the carbo-nitride-rich inclusions and the matrix, respectively.

  4. Using ecological niche modeling to determine avian richness hotspots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Mirzaei

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Understanding distributions of wildlife species is a key step towards identifying biodiversity hotspots and designing effective conservation strategies. In this paper, the spatial pattern of diversity of birds in Golestan Province, Iran was estimated. Ecological niche modeling was used to determine distributions of 144 bird species across the province using a maximum entropy algorithm. Richness maps across all birds, and separately for rare and threatened species, were prepared as approximations to hotspots. Results showed close similarity between hotspots for all birds and those for rare birds; hotspots were concentrated in the southern and especially the southwestern parts of the province. Hotspots for threatened birds tended more to the central and especially the western parts of the province, which include coastal habitats. Based on three criteria, it is clear that the western part is the most important area of the province in terms of bird Faunas. Despite some shortcomings, hotspot analysis for birds could be applied to guide conservation efforts and provide useful tool towards efficient conservation action.

  5. Evidence for halo kinematics among cool carbon-rich dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farihi, J.; Arendt, A. R.; Machado, H. S.; Whitehouse, L. J.

    2018-04-01

    This paper reports preliminary yet compelling kinematical inferences for N ≳ 600 carbon-rich dwarf stars that demonstrate around 30% to 60% are members of the Galactic halo. The study uses a spectroscopically and non-kinematically selected sample of stars from the SDSS, and cross-correlates these data with three proper motion catalogs based on Gaia DR1 astrometry to generate estimates of their 3-D space velocities. The fraction of stars with halo-like kinematics is roughly 30% for distances based on a limited number of parallax measurements, with the remainder dominated by the thick disk, but close to 60% of the sample lie below an old, metal-poor disk isochrone in reduced proper motion. An ancient population is consistent with an extrinsic origin for C/O >1 in cool dwarfs, where a fixed mass of carbon pollution more readily surmounts lower oxygen abundances, and with a lack of detectable ultraviolet-blue flux from younger white dwarf companions. For an initial stellar mass function that favors low-mass stars as in the Galactic disk, the dC stars are likely to be the dominant source of carbon-enhanced, metal-poor stars in the Galaxy.

  6. Basic Physical Properties of Ammonia-Rich Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shandera, S. E.; Lorenz, R. D.

    2000-10-01

    We report simple measurements of the thermal conductivity, mechanical strength and microwave absorptivity of ammonia hydrate ices, which are likely to be abundant in the Saturnian system. Understanding the dielectric properties of ammonia ice could play an important role in interpreting data from the Cassini spacecraft, which will image Titan's surface by radar in 2004. Thermal conductivity measurements were made by freezing a thin copper wire in the center of ice samples. The wire acted as both heater and temperature sensor, calibrated by a thermocouple also frozen in the sample. Ices with concentrations of 5- 30% ammonia were compared to pure water ice and ices containing salts. Thermal conductivity was found to decrease with increasing concentration of ammonia - a factor of 3 or 4 less than pure water ice for the 30% peritectic composition. Microwave absorptivity was measured by placing insulated ice samples and calibration materials in a conventional microwave oven. The microwave absorptivity was found to increase with increasing concentration of ammonia, although the effect is strongly temperature dependent, and heat leak from the room made quantitative measurement difficult. Mechanical strength was estimated using a ball bearing/accelerometer indentation method. For temperatures 100-150K, ammonia-rich ice has a Young's modulus about 10x smaller than pure ice. These properties affect tidal dissipation and the likelihood and style of cryovolcanism on (and the radar appearance of) the icy satellites and Titan. This work was supported by the Cassini RADAR team and the Arizona Space Grant Consortium.

  7. Ion transport by mitochondria-rich cells in toad skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Hviid; Ussing, H H; Spring, K R

    1987-01-01

    The optical sectioning video imaging technique was used for measurements of the volume of mitochondria-rich (m.r.) cells of the isolated epithelium of toad skin. Under short-circuit conditions, cell volume decreased by about 14% in response to bilateral exposure to Cl-free (gluconate substitution....... Unilateral exposure to a Cl-free solution did not prevent ouabain-induced cell swelling. It is concluded that m.r. cells have an amiloride-blockable Na conductance in the apical membrane, a ouabain-sensitive Na pump in the basolateral membrane, and a passive Cl permeability in both membranes. From...... the initial rate of ouabain-induced cell volume increase the active Na current carried by a single m.r. cell was estimated to be 9.9 +/- 1.3 pA. Voltage clamping of the preparation in the physiological range of potentials (0 to -100 mV, serosa grounded) resulted in a cell volume increase with a time course...

  8. TEMPERATURE AND PRECIPITATION AS PREDICTORS OF SPECIES RICHNESS IN NORTHERN ANDEAN AMPHIBIANS FROM COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ortiz-Yusty Carlos Eduardo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Our objective was to explore the spatial distribution patterns of amphibian speciesrichness in Antioquia, as model for the tropical Andes, and determine how annualmean temperature, annual precipitation, and elevation range influence it. We alsobriefly compare local and global regression models for estimating the relationbetween environmental variables and species richness. Distribution maps for 223amphibian species and environmental variables were generalized onto grid mapsof 752 blocks each covering the entire Department of Antioquia. We explored therelationship between species richness and environment using two global regressionmodels (the Ordinary Least Squares “OLS” and Generalized Linear Squares“GLS” models and one local model (the Geographically Weighted Regression“GWR” model. We found a significant relationship between species richness andenvironmental variables (GLS r2: 0.869; GRW r2: 0.929. The GLS model efficientlyincorporated the spatial autocorrelation effect and handled spatial dependencein the regression error terms while the GWR model showed the best fit (r2 andbalance between number of parameters and fit (AICc. GWR parameters show widevariation within the study area, indicating that relationship between species richnessand climate is spatially complex. Temperature was the most important variablein the GLS and GWR models, and altitude range the least significant. The strongrelationship between environment and amphibian richness is possibly due to lifehistory traits of amphibians, such as ectothermy and water dependency to completethe life cycle

  9. Estimating Canopy Dark Respiration for Crop Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monje Mejia, Oscar Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Crop production is obtained from accurate estimates of daily carbon gain.Canopy gross photosynthesis (Pgross) can be estimated from biochemical models of photosynthesis using sun and shaded leaf portions and the amount of intercepted photosyntheticallyactive radiation (PAR).In turn, canopy daily net carbon gain can be estimated from canopy daily gross photosynthesis when canopy dark respiration (Rd) is known.

  10. Load Estimation by Frequency Domain Decomposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ivar Chr. Bjerg; Hansen, Søren Mosegaard; Brincker, Rune

    2007-01-01

    When performing operational modal analysis the dynamic loading is unknown, however, once the modal properties of the structure have been estimated, the transfer matrix can be obtained, and the loading can be estimated by inverse filtering. In this paper loads in frequency domain are estimated by ...

  11. Vertebrate richness and biogeography in the Big Thicket of Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael H MacRoberts; Barbara R. MacRoberts; D. Craig Rudolph

    2010-01-01

    The Big Thicket of Texas has been described as rich in species and a “crossroads:” a place where organisms from many different regions meet. We examine the species richness and regional affiliations of Big Thicket vertebrates. We found that the Big Thicket is neither exceptionally rich in vertebrates nor is it a crossroads for vertebrates. Its vertebrate fauna is...

  12. Synthesis and study of neutron-rich nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Yixiao

    1995-01-01

    During the past few years our understanding of the decay properties and nuclear structure has been extended in a systematic fashion for the neutron-rich nuclei. This review will first sketch the production and identification of the neutron-rich nuclei throughout the whole mass region, and will then discuss the impressive progress in the studies of the exotic decay properties and nuclear structure of neutron-rich nuclei. Their astrophysical implications will also be outlined

  13. Value-Added Products From FGD Sulfite-Rich Scrubber Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vivak M. Malhotra

    2006-09-30

    Massive quantities of sulfite-rich flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubber materials are produced every year in the USA. In fact, at present, the production of wet sulfite-rich scrubber cake outstrips the production of wet sulfate-rich scrubber cake by about 6 million tons per year. However, most of the utilization focus has centered on FGD gypsum. Therefore, we have recently initiated research on developing new strategies for the economical, but environmentally-sound, utilization of sulfite-rich scrubber material. In this exploratory project (Phase I), we attempted to ascertain whether it is feasible to develop reconstituted wood replacement products from sulfite-rich scrubber material. In pursuit of this goal, we characterized two different wet sulfite-rich scrubber materials, obtained from two power plants burning Midwestern coal, for their suitability for the development of value-added products. The overall strategy adopted was to fabricate composites where the largest ingredient was scrubber material with additional crop materials as additives. Our results suggested that it may be feasible to develop composites with flexural strength as high as 40 MPa (5800 psi) without the addition of external polymers. We also attempted to develop load-bearing composites from scrubber material, natural fibers, and phenolic polymer. The polymer-to-solid ratio was limited to {le} 0.4. The formulated composites showed flexural strengths as high as 73 MPa (10,585 psi). We plan to harness the research outcomes from Phase I to develop parameters required to upscale our value-added products in Phase II.

  14. Aberrant thermoluminescence dates obtained from primary volcanic quartz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerin, Gilles; Samper, Agnes

    2007-01-01

    This study deals with the dating by thermoluminescence (TL) of quartz from six volcanic formations of the Saint Lucia Island (Lesser Antilles Arc). Quartz microcrystals up to one millimetre in size were extracted from dacites and pumice flows and prepared in a way similar to the well-known inclusion technique. The TL properties of these quartz were used to estimate apparent palaeodoses using the multi-aliquot protocol. The quartz TL was studied in three different spectral domains: red, green and ultraviolet/blue. The calculated annual dose-rates yielded a set of 18 age-estimates. For some samples complementary dates were obtained using high temperature TL (HTTL) of plagioclase feldspars. These latter dates combined with previously determined radiocarbon and unspiked K-Ar dates were used to explore the validity of ages computed from the TL of quartz. Individual values for quartz appear to be scattered and do not match ages deduced from 14 C, unspiked K-Ar or HTTL on plagioclase dates. These results indicate that when conventional TL methodologies derived from the inclusion method are applied to volcanic quartz major dating problems are to be expected

  15. Aberrant thermoluminescence dates obtained from primary volcanic quartz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerin, Gilles [Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l' Environnement, CEA-CNRS, avenue de la Terrasse, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)], E-mail: gilles.guerin@u-psud.fr; Samper, Agnes [Laboratoire de geochronologie multitechnique (UPS-IPGP), Universite de Paris-Sud Orsay, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France)

    2007-10-15

    This study deals with the dating by thermoluminescence (TL) of quartz from six volcanic formations of the Saint Lucia Island (Lesser Antilles Arc). Quartz microcrystals up to one millimetre in size were extracted from dacites and pumice flows and prepared in a way similar to the well-known inclusion technique. The TL properties of these quartz were used to estimate apparent palaeodoses using the multi-aliquot protocol. The quartz TL was studied in three different spectral domains: red, green and ultraviolet/blue. The calculated annual dose-rates yielded a set of 18 age-estimates. For some samples complementary dates were obtained using high temperature TL (HTTL) of plagioclase feldspars. These latter dates combined with previously determined radiocarbon and unspiked K-Ar dates were used to explore the validity of ages computed from the TL of quartz. Individual values for quartz appear to be scattered and do not match ages deduced from {sup 14}C, unspiked K-Ar or HTTL on plagioclase dates. These results indicate that when conventional TL methodologies derived from the inclusion method are applied to volcanic quartz major dating problems are to be expected.

  16. Plasma rico en plaquetas Platelet -rich plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. González Lagunas

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available El Plasma Rico en Plaquetas es una suspensión concentrada de la sangre centrifugada que contiene elevadas concentraciones de trombocitos. Durante los últimos años, este producto ha aparecido de forma repetida en publicaciones científicas y en medios de comunicación generales como un producto que por sus características induce la curación y regeneración de los tejidos. La premisa de su uso es que las elevadas concentraciones de plaquetas en el PRP, liberan cantidades significativas de factores de crecimiento. En este artículo se van a recoger las evidencias científicas que se han presentado en la literatura médica con respecto al PRP y a la curación ósea, así como las diferentes aplicaciones clínicas que se han sugerido.Platelet-rich plasma is a by-product of centrifuged whole blood that contains high levels of thrombocytes. In the last decade, scientific and media interest has been generated by this product that apparently has the capacity of inducing and promoting tissue healing and regeneration. The premise of its use is that the large number of platelets in PRP release significant amounts of growth factors. In this paper, a critical review of the medical literature regarding PRP and bone healing will be presented. Also, the suggested clinical applications of the product will be addressed.

  17. The AQUA-RICH atmospheric neutrino experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Antonioli, P; Bellagamba, L; Chesi, Enrico Guido; Cindolo, F; De Pasquale, S; Ekelöf, T J C; Garbini, M; Giusti, P; Grossheim, A; Pesci, A; Learned, J G; Margotti, A; Pinfold, James L; Sartorelli, G; Séguinot, Jacques; Tarantino, A; Weilhammer, Peter; Ypsilantis, Thomas; Zichichi, A; Zuber, K

    1999-01-01

    We describe a 125 m diameter spherical detector containing 1 Mt of water, capable of high rate observation of atmospheric neutrino events (30000/y). The ring imaging Cherenkov (RICH) technique is used to measure velocity, momentum and direction of particles produced by neutrinos interacting in water. The detector will be sited outdoors (under a 50 m water shield) in a natural (further excavated) pit, probably in Sicily. Spherical reflecting mirrors focus Cherenkov light produced by secondaries from interacting neutrinos. Photons are detected by 5310 hybrid photodiodes (HPDs) of 1 m diameter each with 396 pads of 45*45 mm/sup 2/ on the photocathode surface, demagnified to 9*9 mm/sup 2/ on the silicon sensor. For most tracks the ring width will be dominated by multiple scattering which should allow momentum to be determined. Hadrons of momentum p

  18. A Metadata-Rich File System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ames, S; Gokhale, M B; Maltzahn, C

    2009-01-07

    Despite continual improvements in the performance and reliability of large scale file systems, the management of file system metadata has changed little in the past decade. The mismatch between the size and complexity of large scale data stores and their ability to organize and query their metadata has led to a de facto standard in which raw data is stored in traditional file systems, while related, application-specific metadata is stored in relational databases. This separation of data and metadata requires considerable effort to maintain consistency and can result in complex, slow, and inflexible system operation. To address these problems, we have developed the Quasar File System (QFS), a metadata-rich file system in which files, metadata, and file relationships are all first class objects. In contrast to hierarchical file systems and relational databases, QFS defines a graph data model composed of files and their relationships. QFS includes Quasar, an XPATH-extended query language for searching the file system. Results from our QFS prototype show the effectiveness of this approach. Compared to the defacto standard, the QFS prototype shows superior ingest performance and comparable query performance on user metadata-intensive operations and superior performance on normal file metadata operations.

  19. Luminescence characterization of a sodium rich feldspar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correcher, V.; Sanchez M, L.; Garcia G, J.; Rivera, T.

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports on the radioluminescence (RL) and thermoluminescence (TL) properties of a sodium rich feldspar ((Na,K)[AlSi 3 O 8 ]) with a mean molecular composition of orthoclase (Or) and albite (Ab) of Or 1 Ab 99 . Despite the complexity of the luminescence signals of the sample, it is possible to determine six different emission bands at about 300, 380, 420, 460, 550 and 680 nm. The 300 nm emission can be associated to structural defects related to the recombination process in which the Na + ion diffusion-limited is involved. The UV-blue emission band at (i) 380 nm is characteristic of mineral phases containing SiO 4 tetrahedral and could be related to intrinsic defects in the lattice, (ii) the 420 nm band could be associated to the presence of Cu (II) ions placed next to the hole traps or the recombination on a centre formed from a hole-oxygen atom adjacent to two Al atoms (Al-O-Al) and (iii) the 460 nm waveband could be due to the presence of Ti 4+ . The green and red emissions are respectively associated to the presence of Mn 2+ and Fe 3+ ions. The ratio between the relative intensities, peaked at 290 (the more intense waveband) and 550 nm is about 10:1 in both TL and RL; this fact indicates that the efficiency of recombination centres does no changes regardless on the type of the process. (Author)

  20. Coal pyrolysis under hydrogen-rich gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, H.; Sun, C.; Li, B.; Liu, Z. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Taiyuan (China). State Key Laboratory of Coal Conversion, Institute of Coal Chemistry

    1998-04-01

    To improve the economy of the pyrolysis process by reducing the hydrogen cost, it is suggested to use cheaper hydrogen-rich gases such as coke-oven gas (COG) or synthesis gas (SG) instead of pure hydrogen. The pyrolysis of Chinese Xianfeng lignite which was carried out with real COG and SG at 3-5 MPa, a final temperature of 650{degree}C and a heating rate of 5{degree}C/min in a 10g fixed-bed reactor is compared with coal pyrolysis with pure hydrogen and nitrogen under the same conditions. The results indicate that compared with hydropyrolysis at the same total pressure, the total conversion and tar yields from coal pyrolysis with COG and SG decreases while the unwanted water increases. However, at the same H{sub 2} partial pressure, the tar yields and yields of BBTX, PCX and naphthalene from the pyrolysis of coal with COG and SG are all significantly higher than those of hydropyrolysis. Therefore, it is possible to use COG and SG instead of pure hydrogen. 8 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

  1. Platelet rich fibrin in jaw defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nica, Diana; Ianes, Emilia; Pricop, Marius

    2016-03-01

    Platelet rich fibrin (PRF) is a tissue product of autologous origin abundant in growth factors, widely used in regenerative procedures. Aim of the study: Evaluation of the regenerative effect of PRF added in the bony defects (after tooth removal or after cystectomy) Material and methods: The comparative nonrandomized study included 22 patients divided into 2 groups. The first group (the test group) included 10 patients where the bony defects were treated without any harvesting material. The second group included 12 patients where the bony defects were filled with PRF. The bony defect design was not critical, with one to two walls missing. After the surgeries, a close clinically monitoring was carried out. The selected cases were investigated using both cone beam computer tomography (CBCT) and radiographic techniques after 10 weeks postoperatively. Results: Faster bone regeneration was observed in the bony defects filled with PRF comparing with the not grafted bony defects. Conclusions: PRF added in the bony defects accelerates the bone regeneration. This simplifies the surgical procedures and decreases the economic costs.

  2. The HERMES dual-radiator RICH detector

    CERN Document Server

    Jackson, H E

    2003-01-01

    The HERMES experiment emphasizes measurements of semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering. Most of the hadrons produced lie between 2 and 10 GeV, a region in which it had not previously been feasible to separate pions, kaons, and protons with standard particle identification (PID) techniques. The recent development of new clear, large, homogeneous and hydrophobic silica aerogel material with a low index of refraction offered the means to apply RICH PID techniques to this difficult momentum region. The HERMES instrument uses two radiators, C sub 4 F sub 1 sub 0 , a heavy fluorocarbon gas, and a wall of silica aerogel tiles. A lightweight spherical mirror constructed using a newly perfected technique to make resin-coated carbon-fiber surfaces of optical quality provides optical focusing on a photon detector consisting of 1934 photomultiplier tubes (PMT) for each detector half. The PMT array is held in a soft steel matrix to provide shielding against the residual field of the main spectrometer magnet. Ring recon...

  3. Structure of neutron-rich nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazarewicz, W.

    2000-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. The uncharted regions of the (N,Z) plane contain information that can answer many questions of fundamental importance for science: How many protons and neutrons can be clustered together by the strong interaction to form a bound nucleus? What are the proton and neutron magic numbers of the exotic nuclei? What are the properties of very short-lived exotic nuclei with extreme neutron-to-proton ratios? What is the effective nucleon-nucleon interaction in a nucleus that has a very large neutron excess? Nuclear life far from stability is different from that around the stability line; the promised access to completely new combinations of proton and neutron numbers offers prospects for new structural phenomena. The main objective of this talk is to discuss some of the challenges and opportunities of research with exotic nuclei. The covered topics will include: Theoretical challenges; Skins and halos in heavy nuclei; Shape coexistence in exotic nuclei; Beta-decays of neutron-rich nuclei. (author)

  4. The source rock characters of U-rich granite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mingyue, Feng; Debao, He [CNNC Key Laboratory of Uranium Resources Exploration and Evaluation Technology, Beijing Research Institute of Uranium Geology (China)

    2012-03-15

    This paper discusses the stratum composition, lithological association, uranium content of crust and the activation, migration, concentration of uranium at each tectonic cycle in South China. The authors point out that the source rock of U-rich granite is U-rich continental crust which is rich in Si, Al and K. The lithological association is mainly composed of terrestrial clastic rocks formation of mudstone and sandstone, mingled with intermediate-acidic, mafic pyroclastic rocks and carbonate rocks formation. During tectonic movements, the rocks had undergone regional metamorphism, migmatitization, granitization, and formed U-rich granites finally. (authors)

  5. The source rock characters of U-rich granite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Mingyue; He Debao

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the stratum composition, lithological association, uranium content of crust and the activation, migration, concentration of uranium at each tectonic cycle in South China. The authors point out that the source rock of U-rich granite is U-rich continental crust which is rich in Si, Al and K. The lithological association is mainly composed of terrestrial clastic rocks formation of mudstone and sandstone, mingled with intermediate-acidic, mafic pyroclastic rocks and carbonate rocks formation. During tectonic movements, the rocks had undergone regional metamorphism, migmatitization, granitization, and formed U-rich granites finally. (authors)

  6. Richness and composition of gall-inducing arthropods at Coiba National Park, Panama

    OpenAIRE

    Nieves-Aldrey, José Luis; Enrique Medianero, Alicia Ibáñez

    2008-01-01

    Interest in studying galls and their arthropods inducers has been growing rapidly in the last two decades. However, the Neotropical region is probably the least studied region for gall-inducing arthropods. A study of the richness and composition of gall-inducing arthropods was carried out at Coiba National Park in the Republic of Panama. Field data come from samples obtained between August 1997 and September 1999, with three (two-week long) more intensive samplings. Seventeen sites, represent...

  7. Molecular Species of the Enzymatically Synthesized Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Rich Triglyceride

    OpenAIRE

    長田, 恭一; 高橋, 是太郎; 羽田野, 六男; 細川, 雅史

    1991-01-01

    Enzymatic glyceride synthesis and acid interchange using icosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), γ-linolenic acid (GLA), and EPA and DHA concentrated saponified fatty acid mixture obtained from sardine oil were carried out through the use of four kinds of microbial lipases. Lipase TOYO (Chromobacterium viscosum) was the most effective enzyme for glyceride synthesis as well as acid interchange of triglyceride (TG) rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids. There was a general tendenc...

  8. Age estimation in the living

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tangmose, Sara; Thevissen, Patrick; Lynnerup, Niels

    2015-01-01

    A radiographic assessment of third molar development is essential for differentiating between juveniles and adolescents in forensic age estimations. As the developmental stages of third molars are highly correlated, age estimates based on a combination of a full set of third molar scores...... are statistically complicated. Transition analysis (TA) is a statistical method developed for estimating age at death in skeletons, which combines several correlated developmental traits into one age estimate including a 95% prediction interval. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of TA...... in the living on a full set of third molar scores. A cross sectional sample of 854 panoramic radiographs, homogenously distributed by sex and age (15.0-24.0 years), were randomly split in two; a reference sample for obtaining age estimates including a 95% prediction interval according to TA; and a validation...

  9. Variance estimation for generalized Cavalieri estimators

    OpenAIRE

    Johanna Ziegel; Eva B. Vedel Jensen; Karl-Anton Dorph-Petersen

    2011-01-01

    The precision of stereological estimators based on systematic sampling is of great practical importance. This paper presents methods of data-based variance estimation for generalized Cavalieri estimators where errors in sampling positions may occur. Variance estimators are derived under perturbed systematic sampling, systematic sampling with cumulative errors and systematic sampling with random dropouts. Copyright 2011, Oxford University Press.

  10. Antiproliferative and Antioxidant Properties of Anthocyanin Rich Extracts from Blueberry and Blackcurrant Juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoriţa Diaconeasa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed at evaluating the antiproliferative potential of anthocyanin-rich fractions (ARFs obtained from two commercially available juices (blueberry and blackcurrant juices on three tumor cell lines; B16F10 (murine melanoma, A2780 (ovarian cancer and HeLa (cervical cancer. Individual anthocyanin determination, identification and quantification were done using HPLC-MS. Antioxidant activity of the juices was determined through different mechanism methods such as DPPH and ORAC. For biological testing, the juices were purified through C18 cartridges in order to obtain fractions rich in anthocyanins. The major anthocyanins identified were glycosylated cyanidin derivatives. The antiproliferative activity of the fractions was tested using the MTT assay. The antiproliferative potential of ARF was found to be associated with those bioactive molecules, anthocyanins due to their antioxidant potential. The results obtained indicated that both blueberry and blackcurrants are rich sources of antioxidants including anthocyanins and therefore these fruits are highly recommended for daily consumption to prevent numerous degenerative diseases.

  11. Visual Perception Studies in CT images obtained lo low dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adame Brooks, D.; Miller-Clemente, R. A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper has as aims to describe a strategy to evaluate the diagnostic quality of obtained images of method for dose reduction, with the purpose of determining the dose value or values from which the image quality is significantly degraded making it insufficient for the diagnostic. To complement and have an estimate of the quality of the images we established a group of measures of objective type, and the diagnostic quality of the images was evaluated through a group of observers using the analysis ROC and LROC. For ROC and LROC analyzes the behavior of the area under the curve in relation to the four proposed dose levels was obtained. For high dose levels, detection was good. The values of area under the curve decreased as the dose rate decreased, falling to values indicating low accuracy in diagnosis. This result indicates that the area under the curve decreases by the dose rate. We conclude that the objective quality measures selected are representative of the changes that occur in the resulting image and provided information on changes in the perception of observers. The experiments ROC and LROC allowed determine the range of dose values from which the image degradation causes a low accuracy in the diagnostic. (Author)

  12. Parameter estimation in plasmonic QED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahromi, H. Rangani

    2018-03-01

    We address the problem of parameter estimation in the presence of plasmonic modes manipulating emitted light via the localized surface plasmons in a plasmonic waveguide at the nanoscale. The emitter that we discuss is the nitrogen vacancy centre (NVC) in diamond modelled as a qubit. Our goal is to estimate the β factor measuring the fraction of emitted energy captured by waveguide surface plasmons. The best strategy to obtain the most accurate estimation of the parameter, in terms of the initial state of the probes and different control parameters, is investigated. In particular, for two-qubit estimation, it is found although we may achieve the best estimation at initial instants by using the maximally entangled initial states, at long times, the optimal estimation occurs when the initial state of the probes is a product one. We also find that decreasing the interqubit distance or increasing the propagation length of the plasmons improve the precision of the estimation. Moreover, decrease of spontaneous emission rate of the NVCs retards the quantum Fisher information (QFI) reduction and therefore the vanishing of the QFI, measuring the precision of the estimation, is delayed. In addition, if the phase parameter of the initial state of the two NVCs is equal to πrad, the best estimation with the two-qubit system is achieved when initially the NVCs are maximally entangled. Besides, the one-qubit estimation has been also analysed in detail. Especially, we show that, using a two-qubit probe, at any arbitrary time, enhances considerably the precision of estimation in comparison with one-qubit estimation.

  13. Aerogel as Cherenkov radiator for RICH detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellunato, T.; Braem, A.; Buzykaev, A.R.; Calvi, M.; Chesi, E.; Danilyuk, A.F.; Easo, S.; Hansen, C.; Jolly, S.; Joram, C.; Kravchenko, E.A.; Liko, D.; Matteuzzi, C.; Musy, M.; Negri, P.; Neufeld, N.; Onuchin, A.P.; Seguinot, J.; Weilhammer, P.; Wotton, S.

    2003-01-01

    We present here the results obtained using silica aerogel as Cherenkov radiator for the separation and identification of particles in the momentum range from 6 to 10 GeV/c. Photoelectron yield and Cherenkov ring resolution were studied under different experimental conditions and compared to the simulation

  14. An improved estimation and focusing scheme for vector velocity estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Munk, Peter

    1999-01-01

    to reduce spatial velocity dispersion. Examples of different velocity vector conditions are shown using the Field II simulation program. A relative accuracy of 10.1 % is obtained for the lateral velocity estimates for a parabolic velocity profile for a flow perpendicular to the ultrasound beam and a signal...

  15. A rich harvest of data from the LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    After mastering operation with nominal bunch intensities in June, the number of nominal intensity bunches injected into the machine has been carefully increased over the last 3 weeks, and is presently 12 per beam. This achievement has allowed the LHC experiments to record more than 250 nb-1 of integrated luminosity, most of it in recent physics fills. This represents a rich harvest of data that the experiments are now analysing with a view to presenting their latest physics results at the ICHEP conference in Paris from 22 to 28 July. You can follow the event by watching the live webcast or by reading the blog.     The graph shows the loss of four bunches (red, green, pink, and blue in order of time). Other bunches were not affected, as indicated with the cyan trace. The cause and cure of the losses is under investigation. Operation with many nominal bunches is a major technical achievement which the operations teams have obtained this week. The total number of particles per beam in the LH...

  16. Lifetime measurement in neutron-rich A ∝ 100 nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ansari, Saba; Jolie, Jan; Regis, Jean-Marc; Saed-Samii, Nima; Warr, Nigel [Institute for Nuclear Physics, University of Cologne, Cologne (Germany); Collaboration: EXILL-FATIMA-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    Rapid shape changes are observed in the region of neutron rich nuclei with a mass around A=100. Precise lifetime measurements are a key ingredient in the systematic study of the evolution of nuclear deformation and the degree of collectivity in this region. Nuclear lifetimes of excited states can be obtained using the fast-timing technique with LaBr{sub 3}(Ce)-scintillators. We used neutron induced fission of {sup 241}Pu in order to study lifetimes of excited states of fission fragments in the A∝100 region. The EXILL-FATIMA array located at the PF1B cold neutron beam line at the Institut Laue-Langevin comprises of 8 BGO-shielded EXOGAM clover detectors and 16 very fast LaBr{sub 3}(Ce)-scintillator detectors, which were installed around the fission target. We have studied the lifetimes of low lying states for the nuclei {sup 98}Zr, {sup 100}Zr and {sup 102}Zr by applying the generalized centroid difference method. In this contribution we report on the used fast-timing setup and present preliminary results for the studied isotopes.

  17. Platelet rich fibrin and xenograft in treatment of intrabony defect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurav Panda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available For complete periodontal regeneration, delivery of growth factors in the local environment holds a great deal in adjunct to bone grafts. Platelet rich fibrin (PRF is considered as second generation platelet concentrate, consisting of viable platelets, releasing various growth factors such as platelet-derived growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor, transforming growth factor, insulin-like growth factor, epidermal growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor. Hence, this case report aims to investigate the clinical and radiological (bone fill effectiveness of autologous PRF along with the use of xenogenic bone mineral in the treatment of intra bony defects. Intrabony defect was treated with autologous PRF along with the use of xenogenic bone mineral. A decrease in probing pocket depth, gain in clinical attachment level and significant bone fill was observed at end of 6 months. The result obtained with the use of PRF may be attributed to the sustained and simultaneous release of various growth factors over a period of 7 days. In this case report, the positive clinical impact of additional application of PRF with xenogenic graft material in the treatment of periodontal intrabony defect was seen.

  18. The pygmy dipole resonance in neutron-rich nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hung, Nguyen Quang; Kiet, Hoang Anh Tuan; Duc, Huynh Ngoc; Chuong, Nguyen Thi

    2016-01-01

    The pygmy dipole resonance (PDR), which has been observed via the enhancement of the electric dipole strength E 1 of atomic nuclei, is studied within a microscopic collective model. The latter employs the Hartree-Fock (HF) method with effective nucleon-nucleon interactions of the Skyrme types plus the random-phase approximation (RPA). The results of the calculations obtained for various even-even nuclei such as "1"6"-"2"8O, "4"0"-"5"8Ca, "1"0"0"-"1"2"0Sn, and "1"8"2"-"2"1"8Pb show that the PDR is significantly enhanced when the number of neutrons outside the stable core of the nucleus is increased, that is, in the neutron-rich nuclei. As the result, the relative ratio between the energy weighted sum of the strength of the PDR and that of the GDR (giant dipole resonance) does not exceed 4%. The collectivity of the PDR and GDR states will be also discussed. (paper)

  19. Unexpectedly large charge radii of neutron-rich calcium isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia Ruiz, R F; Blaum, K; Ekström, A; Frömmgen, N; Hagen, G; Hammen, M; Hebeler, K; Holt, J D; Jansen, G R; Kowalska, M; Kreim, K; Nazarewicz, W; Neugart, R; Neyens, G; Nörtershäuser, W; Papenbrock, T; Papuga, J; Schwenk, A; Simonis, J; Wendt, K A; Yordanov, D T

    2016-01-01

    Despite being a complex many-body system, the atomic nucleus exhibits simple structures for certain ‘magic’ numbers of protons and neutrons. The calcium chain in particular is both unique and puzzling: evidence of doubly magic features are known in 40,48Ca, and recently suggested in two radioactive isotopes, 52,54Ca. Although many properties of experimentally known calcium isotopes have been successfully described by nuclear theory, it is still a challenge to predict the evolution of their charge radii. Here we present the first measurements of the charge radii of 49,51,52Ca, obtained from laser spectroscopy experiments at ISOLDE, CERN. The experimental results are complemented by state-of-the-art theoretical calculations. The large and unexpected increase of the size of the neutron-rich calcium isotopes beyond N = 28 challenges the doubly magic nature of 52Ca and opens new intriguing questions on the evolution of nuclear sizes away from stability, which are of importance for our understanding of neutron-...

  20. Thermal transport through Ge-rich Ge/Si superlattices grown on Ge(0 0 1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thumfart, L.; Carrete, J.; Vermeersch, B.; Ye, N.; Truglas, T.; Feser, J.; Groiss, H.; Mingo, N.; Rastelli, A.

    2018-01-01

    The cross-plane thermal conductivities of Ge-rich Si/Ge superlattices have been measured using both time-domain thermoreflectance and the differential 3ω method. The superlattices were grown by molecular beam epitaxy on Ge(0 0 1) substrates. Crystal quality and structural information were investigated by x-ray diffractometry and transmission electron microscopy. The influence of segregation during growth on the composition profiles was modeled using the experimental growth temperatures and deposition rates. Those profiles were then employed to obtain parameter-free theoretical estimates of the thermal conductivity by combining first-principles calculations, Boltzmann transport theory and phonon Green’s functions. Good agreement between theory and experiment is observed. The thermal conductivity shows a strong dependence on the composition and the thickness of the samples. Moreover, the importance of the composition profile is reflected in the fact that the thermal conductivity of the superlattices is considerably lower than predicted values for alloys with the same average composition and thickness. Measurement on different samples with the same Si layer thickness and number of periods, but different Ge layer thickness, show that the thermal resistance is only weakly dependent on the Ge layers. We analyze this phenomenon based on the first-principles mode, and build an approximate parametrization showing that, in this regime, the resistivity of a SL is roughly linear on the amount of Si.

  1. The relationship between species richness and aboveground biomass in a primary Pinus kesiya forest of Yunnan, southwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuaifeng; Lang, Xuedong; Liu, Wande; Ou, Guanglong; Xu, Hui; Su, Jianrong

    2018-01-01

    The relationship between biodiversity and biomass is an essential element of the natural ecosystem functioning. Our research aims at assessing the effects of species richness on the aboveground biomass and the ecological driver of this relationship in a primary Pinus kesiya forest. We sampled 112 plots of the primary P. kesiya forests in Yunnan Province. The general linear model and the structural equation model were used to estimate relative effects of multivariate factors among aboveground biomass, species richness and the other explanatory variables, including climate moisture index, soil nutrient regime and stand age. We found a positive linear regression relationship between the species richness and aboveground biomass using ordinary least squares regressions. The species richness and soil nutrient regime had no direct significant effect on aboveground biomass. However, the climate moisture index and stand age had direct effects on aboveground biomass. The climate moisture index could be a better link to mediate the relationship between species richness and aboveground biomass. The species richness affected aboveground biomass which was mediated by the climate moisture index. Stand age had direct and indirect effects on aboveground biomass through the climate moisture index. Our results revealed that climate moisture index had a positive feedback in the relationship between species richness and aboveground biomass, which played an important role in a link between biodiversity maintenance and ecosystem functioning. Meanwhile, climate moisture index not only affected positively on aboveground biomass, but also indirectly through species richness. The information would be helpful in understanding the biodiversity-aboveground biomass relationship of a primary P. kesiya forest and for forest management.

  2. Properties of flames propagating in rich propane-air mixtures at microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S. F.; Pu, Y. K.; Jia, F.; Jarosinski, J.

    Under normal gravity conditions it was found that the rich flammability limits for propane-air mixture are 9 2 C 3 H 8 equivalence ratio phi 2 42 for upward and 6 3 C 3 H 8 phi 1 60 for downward propagating flames An extremely large concentration gap exists between these two limits which is attributed to the influence of buoyancy and preferential diffusion in the mixture The present study enables a better understanding of flame behaviors in rich propane-air mixtures through microgravity experiments in which flame propagation can be examined in the absence of buoyancy The experiments were carried out in a cubic closed vessel of 80 mm inner length made of quartz glass A high-speed camera recorded flame propagation in the combustion vessel while the pressure history was measured by a transducer to indicate corresponding changes in heat release rate and the temperature development was measured by a thermocouple During the microgravity experiments the vessel was located inside a drop tower assembly The experimental data were compared with similar experiments conducted under normal gravity The flame characteristics were investigated for mixture concentrations between 6 5 C 3 H 8 and 9 2 C 3 H 8 Reliable data related to laminar burning velocity and flame thickness were obtained Some new details of the flame propagation near rich flammability limits were deduced Comparative experiments revealed the influence of gravity on combustion processes of rich propane-air

  3. Urbanization level and woodland size are major drivers of woodpecker species richness and abundance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukasz Myczko

    Full Text Available Urbanization is a process globally responsible for loss of biodiversity and for biological homogenization. Urbanization may have a direct negative impact on species behaviour and indirect effects on species populations through alterations of their habitats, for example patch size and habitat quality. Woodpeckers are species potentially susceptible to urbanization. These birds are mostly forest specialists and the development of urban areas in former forests may be an important factor influencing their richness and abundance, but documented examples are rare. In this study we investigated how woodpeckers responded to changes in forest habitats as a consequence of urbanization, namely size and isolation of habitat patches, and other within-patch characteristics. We selected 42 woodland patches in a gradient from a semi-natural rural landscape to the city centre of Poznań (Western Poland in spring 2010. Both species richness and abundance of woodpeckers correlated positively to woodland patch area and negatively to increasing urbanization. Abundance of woodpeckers was also positively correlated with shrub cover and percentage of deciduous tree species. Furthermore, species richness and abundance of woodpeckers were highest at moderate values of canopy openness. Ordination analyses confirmed that urbanization level and woodland patch area were variables contributing most to species abundance in the woodpecker community. Similar results were obtained in presence-absence models for particular species. Thus, to sustain woodpecker species within cities it is important to keep woodland patches large, multi-layered and rich in deciduous tree species.

  4. Optical High-resolution Spectroscopy of 14 Young α-rich Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuno, Tadafumi; Yong, David; Aoki, Wako; Ishigaki, Miho N.

    2018-06-01

    We report chemical abundances of 14 young α-rich stars including neutron-capture elements based on high-quality optical spectra from HIRES/Keck I and differential line-by-line analysis. From a comparison of the abundance patterns of young α-rich stars to those of nearby bright red giants with a similar metallicity range (‑0.7 branch stars plays an important role in the formation of young α-rich stars. The high frequency of radial velocity variation (more than 50%) is also confirmed. We argue that mass transfer from low-mass red giants is the likely dominant formation mechanism for young α-rich stars. The data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.

  5. SOLAR SOURCES OF 3He-RICH SOLAR ENERGETIC PARTICLE EVENTS IN SOLAR CYCLE 24

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitta, Nariaki V.; Mason, Glenn M.; Wang, Linghua; Cohen, Christina M. S.; Wiedenbeck, Mark E.

    2015-01-01

    Using high-cadence EUV images obtained by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory, we investigate the solar sources of 26 3 He-rich solar energetic particle events at ≲1 MeV nucleon −1 that were well-observed by the Advanced Composition Explorer during solar cycle 24. Identification of the solar sources is based on the association of 3 He-rich events with type III radio bursts and electron events as observed by Wind. The source locations are further verified in EUV images from the Solar and Terrestrial Relations Observatory, which provides information on solar activities in the regions not visible from the Earth. Based on AIA observations, 3 He-rich events are not only associated with coronal jets as emphasized in solar cycle 23 studies, but also with more spatially extended eruptions. The properties of the 3 He-rich events do not appear to be strongly correlated with those of the source regions. As in the previous studies, the magnetic connection between the source region and the observer is not always reproduced adequately by the simple potential field source surface model combined with the Parker spiral. Instead, we find a broad longitudinal distribution of the source regions extending well beyond the west limb, with the longitude deviating significantly from that expected from the observed solar wind speed

  6. Urbanization level and woodland size are major drivers of woodpecker species richness and abundance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myczko, Lukasz; Rosin, Zuzanna M; Skórka, Piotr; Tryjanowski, Piotr

    2014-01-01

    Urbanization is a process globally responsible for loss of biodiversity and for biological homogenization. Urbanization may have a direct negative impact on species behaviour and indirect effects on species populations through alterations of their habitats, for example patch size and habitat quality. Woodpeckers are species potentially susceptible to urbanization. These birds are mostly forest specialists and the development of urban areas in former forests may be an important factor influencing their richness and abundance, but documented examples are rare. In this study we investigated how woodpeckers responded to changes in forest habitats as a consequence of urbanization, namely size and isolation of habitat patches, and other within-patch characteristics. We selected 42 woodland patches in a gradient from a semi-natural rural landscape to the city centre of Poznań (Western Poland) in spring 2010. Both species richness and abundance of woodpeckers correlated positively to woodland patch area and negatively to increasing urbanization. Abundance of woodpeckers was also positively correlated with shrub cover and percentage of deciduous tree species. Furthermore, species richness and abundance of woodpeckers were highest at moderate values of canopy openness. Ordination analyses confirmed that urbanization level and woodland patch area were variables contributing most to species abundance in the woodpecker community. Similar results were obtained in presence-absence models for particular species. Thus, to sustain woodpecker species within cities it is important to keep woodland patches large, multi-layered and rich in deciduous tree species.

  7. Platelet concentration of plateletrich plasma from dogs, obtained through three centrifugation speeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Couto de Magalhães Ferraz

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The platelets release at least 4 growth factors (Platelet Derived Growth Factor. ²1 and ²2 Transforming Growth Factors and Insulin-like Growth Factor which are responsible for the migration and activation of cells that will start the reparation of soft tissues and bones. The Platelet Rich Plasma is an autogenous source for Growth Factors, obtained by platelet concentration by centrifuging total blood. This study aimed the comparison of platelet concentrations in plasma centrifuged in three different centrifugation speeds (1300, 1600 e 3200rpm, for the production of platelet rich plasma. Blood was drowned from 15 dogs, 40ml of each, and these were divided into four groups and centrifuged at 800rpm. Then the first group was centrifuged at 1300rpm, the second at 1600rpm, the third at 3200rpm and the last was used as control, named plasma. The mean percentage increase in the platelet concentration for each technique was: 1300 - 183%, 1600 - 210% and 3200 - 222%. But in centrifugation at 3200 rpm, platelets presented altered morphology and different sizes in every sample studied, which was understood as severe cell damage. It was concluded that the best technique for the preparation of the platelet rich plasma in dogs consisted of the previous centrifugation of the blood at 800rpm for ten minutes, and then the plasma should be separated. This plasma is then submitted to a second centrifugation of 1600rpm for 10 minutes, and the platelet poor plasma is separated and discharged.

  8. Impact of new ingredients obtained from brewer's spent yeast on bread characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Z E; Pinho, O; Ferreira, I M P L V O

    2018-05-01

    The impact of bread fortification with β-glucans and with proteins/proteolytic enzymes from brewers' spent yeast on physical characteristics was evaluated. β-Glucans extraction from spent yeast cell wall was optimized and the extract was incorporated on bread to obtain 2.02 g β-glucans/100 g flour, in order to comply with the European Food Safety Authority guidelines. Protein/proteolytic enzymes extract from spent yeast was added to bread at 60 U proteolytic activity/100 g flour. Both β-glucans rich and proteins/proteolytic enzymes extracts favoured browning of bread crust. However, breads with proteins/proteolytic enzymes addition presented lower specific volume, whereas the incorporation of β-glucans in bread lead to uniform pores that was also noticeble in terms of higher specific volume. Overall, the improvement of nutritional/health promoting properties is highlighted with β-glucan rich extract, not only due to bread β-glucan content but also for total dietary fibre content (39% increase). The improvement was less noticeable for proteins/proteolytic enzymes extract. Only a 6% increase in bread protein content was noted with the addition of this extract and higher protein content would most likely accentuate the negative impact on bread specific volume that in turn could impair consumer acceptance. Therefore, only β-glucan rich extract is a promising bread ingredient.

  9. Solar flare neon and solar cosmic ray fluxes in the past using gas-rich meteorites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nautiyal, C.M.; Rao, M.N.

    1986-01-01

    Methods were developed earlier to deduce the composition of solar flare neon and to determine the solar cosmic ray proton fluxes in the past using etched lunar samples and at present, these techniques are extended to gas rich meteorites. By considering high temperature Ne data points for Pantar, Fayetteville and other gas rich meteorites and by applying the three component Ne-decomposition methods, the solar cosmic ray and galactic cosmic ray produced spallation Ne components from the trapped SF-Ne was resolved. Using appropiate SCR and GCR production rates, in the case of Pantar, for example, a GCR exposure age of 2 m.y. was estimated for Pantar-Dark while Pantar-Light yielded a GCR age of approx. 3 m.y. However the SCR exposure age of Pantar-Dark is two orders of magnitude higher than the average surface exposure ages of lunar soils. The possibility of higher proton fluxes in the past is discussed

  10. Small leucine-rich proteoglycans in the aging skeleton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Young, M F; Bi, Y; Ameye, L

    2006-01-01

    Small Leucine-Rich Proteoglyans (SLRPs) are major skeletal extracellular matrix (ECM) components that comprise a family of 13 members containing repeats of a leucine-rich motif. To examine SLRP function, we generated mice deficient in one or more member and analyzed them at the tissue, cell...

  11. Knowledge and Consumption pattern of Vitamin A rich-foods ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Due to lack of knowledge, some of the household subject some foods rich in vitamin A to traditional medicine use rather than using them to enrich their meals. Conclusion: Knowledge of the technologies for storage and preservation of vitamin A rich foods is very important in stabilizing price and making the foods available ...

  12. Synthesis and study of neutron-rich nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Y.X.

    1995-01-01

    During the past few years our understanding of the decay properties and nuclear structure has been extended in a systematic fashion for the neutron-rich nuclei. This review will discuss the impressive progress in the studies of the exotic decay properties and nuclear structure of n-rich nuclei. Their astrophysical implications will also be outlined. ((orig.))

  13. Platelet rich plasma in dermatology and aesthetic medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Neerja Puri

    2015-01-01

    Platelet rich plasma is a promising therapy in dermatology and aesthetic medicine. In this article we will discuss the pros and cons of platelet rich plasma (PRP) and the usage of PRP in aesthetics. PRP is especially used for conditions like facial and neck rejuvenation, fine lines and wrinkles, abdominal striae and facial scarring.

  14. Platelet rich plasma in dermatology and aesthetic medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neerja Puri

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Platelet rich plasma is a promising therapy in dermatology and aesthetic medicine. In this article we will discuss the pros and cons of platelet rich plasma (PRP and the usage of PRP in aesthetics. PRP is especially used for conditions like facial and neck rejuvenation, fine lines and wrinkles, abdominal striae and facial scarring.

  15. Species richness inside and outside long-term exclosures

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. A. Laycock; D. L. Bartos; K. D. Klement

    2004-01-01

    Recent environmental literature contains claims that livestock grazing has caused reduction in species diversity on Western rangelands. Data of species richness (number of species) is presented from inside and outside 24 long-term exclosures in Montana, Utah, and Wyoming. For the average of all exclosures there was no difference between species richness inside and...

  16. Patterns of coral species richness and reef connectivity in Malaysia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waheed, Z.

    2016-01-01

    Much remains to be discovered about the biodiversity of coral reefs in Malaysia, making this area a priority for coral reef research. This thesis aims to provide insights into the patterns of reef coral species richness and the degree of reef connectivity across Malaysia. For the species richness

  17. Productivity is a poor predictor of plant species richness

    Science.gov (United States)

    P.B. Adler; E.T. Borer; H. Hillebrand; Y. Hautier; A. Hector; S. Harpole; L.R. O’Halloran; J.B. Grace; M. Anderson; J.D. Bakker; L.A. Biederman; C.S. Brown; Y.M. Buckley; L.B. Calabrese; C.-J. Chu; E.E. Cleland; S.L. Collins; K.L. Cottingham; M.J. Crawley; E.I. Damschen; K.W. Davies; N.M. DeCrappeo; P.A. Fay; J. Firn; P. Frater; E.I. Gasarch; D.S. Gruner; N. Hagenah; J. Hille. Ris Lambers

    2011-01-01

    For more than 30 years, the relationship between net primary productivity and species richness has generated intense debate in ecology about the processes regulating local diversity. The original view, which is still widely accepted, holds that the relationship is hump-shaped, with richness first rising and then declining with increasing productivity. Although recent...

  18. Rich Man, Poor Man: Developmental Differences in Attributions and Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigelman, Carol K.

    2012-01-01

    In an examination guided by cognitive developmental and attribution theory of how explanations of wealth and poverty and perceptions of rich and poor people change with age and are interrelated, 6-, 10-, and 14-year-olds (N = 88) were asked for their causal attributions and trait judgments concerning a rich man and a poor man. First graders, like…

  19. Geographic range size and determinants of avian species richness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jetz, Walter; Rahbek, Carsten

    2002-01-01

    Geographic patterns in species richness are mainly based on wide-ranging species because their larger number of distribution records has a disproportionate contribution to the species richness counts. Here we demonstrate how this effect strongly influences our understanding of what determines spe...

  20. Lexical richness and collocational competence in second-language writing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vedder, I.; Benigno, V.

    2016-01-01

    In this article we report on an experiment set up to investigate lexical richness and collocational competence in the written production of 39 low-intermediate and intermediate learners of Italian L2. Lexical richness was assessed by means of a lexical profiling method inspired by Laufer and Nation

  1. Time-averaged molluscan death assemblages: Palimpsests of richness, snapshots of abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidwell, Susan M.

    2002-09-01

    Field tests that compare living communities to associated dead remains are the primary means of estimating the reliability of biological information in the fossil record; such tests also provide insights into the dynamics of skeletal accumulation. Contrary to expectations, molluscan death assemblages capture a strong signal of living species' rank-order abundances. This finding, combined with independent evidence for exponential postmortem destruction of dead cohorts, argues that, although the species richness of a death assemblage may be a time-averaged palimpsest of the habitat (molluscan death assemblages contain, on average, ˜25% more species than any single census of the local live community, after sample-size standardization), species' relative-abundance data from the same assemblage probably constitute a much higher acuity record dominated by the most recent dead cohorts (e.g., from the past few hundred years or so, rather than the several thousand years recorded by the total assemblage and usually taken as the acuity of species-richness information). The pervasive excess species richness of molluscan death assemblages requires further analysis and modeling to discriminate among possible sources. However, time averaging alone cannot be responsible unless rare species (species with low rates of dead-shell production) are collectively more durable (have longer taphonomic half-lives) than abundant species. Species richness and abundance data thus appear to present fundamentally different taphonomic qualities for paleobiological analysis. Relative- abundance information is more snapshot-like and thus taphonomically more straightforward than expected, especially compared to the complex origins of dead-species richness.

  2. Producing diversity: Agroforests Sustain Avian Richness and Abundance in India's Western Ghats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krithi K Karanth

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Globally, protected areas have long been the corner stone of biodiversity conservation efforts. In India’s Western Ghats, small and isolated protected areas are embedded in a matrix of multiple land-uses, most of which include agroforests. These agroforests are being increasingly recognized for their supplementary role in conserving wildlife. We examined bird species richness and densities in areca (Areca catechu, coffee (Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora and rubber (Hevea brasiliensis agroforests in the Western Ghats. We developed a priori hypotheses, predicting that bird species richness and guild density would be highest in coffee, followed by areca and rubber agroforests. We carried out 551 point-count surveys involving 386 hours of sampling in 187 agroforests across a 29,634 km2 area of the Ghats. We observed 204 bird species, of which 170 were residents. The average estimated richness per agroforest was higher in coffee (60.5 compared to rubber (45.4 and areca (34.1. We modeled species richness as a function of relevant biogeographic and environmental covariates. The most influential factors were tree cover, tree density and rainfall in all agroforests, but the strength of these effects varied. Coffee supported higher densities in all four habitat and three feeding guilds compared to areca and rubber. We integrated extensive field sampling with modeling that accounted for imperfect detection, while assessing bird richness and densities across multiple agroforest types. We establish that coffee agroforests are substantially richer in birds than rubber and areca, but all three agroforests play an important role in providing subsidiary habitats for birds in the Ghats. Policy decisions and markets must incorporate such biodiversity values and services provided by these agroforests to sustain and facilitate long-term biodiversity conservation.

  3. Butterfly species richness and diversity in the Trishna Wildlife Sanctuary in South Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumder, Joydeb; Lodh, Rahul; Agarwala, B K

    2013-01-01

    Several wildlife sanctuaries in the world are home to the surviving populations of many endemic species. Trishna wildlife sanctuary in northeast India is protected by law, and is home to the last surviving populations of Asian bison (Bos gorus Smith), spectacle monkey (Trachypithecus phayrie Blyth), capped langur (Trachypithecus pileatus Blyth), slow loris (Nycticebus coucang Boddaert), wild cat (Felis chaus Schreber), and wild boars (Sus scrofa L.), among many other animals and plants. The sanctuary was explored for species richness and diversity of butterflies. A six-month-long study revealed the occurrence of 59 butterfly species that included 21 unique species and 9 species listed in the threatened category. The mixed moist deciduous mature forest of the sanctuary harbored greater species richness and species diversity (39 species under 31 genera) than other parts of the sanctuary, which is comprised of regenerated secondary mixed deciduous forest (37 species under 32 genera), degraded forests (32 species under 28 genera), and open grassland with patches of plantations and artificial lakes (24 species under 17 genera). The majority of these species showed a distribution range throughout the Indo-Malayan region and Australasia tropics, and eight species were distributed in the eastern parts of South Asia, including one species, Labadea martha (F.), which is distributed in the eastern Himalayas alone. Estimator Chao 2 provided the best-predicted value of species richness. The steep slope of the species accumulation curve suggested the occurrence of a large number of rare species, and a prolonged gentle slope suggested a higher species richness at a higher sample abundance. The species composition of vegetation-rich habitats showed high similarity in comparison to vegetation-poor habitats.

  4. The infrared emission of carbonaceous particles around C-rich IRAS sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco, A.; Borghesi, A.; Fonti, S.; Orofino, V.; Strafella, F.

    1997-01-01

    The IRAS spectra of 23 carbon-rich sources have been fitted by means of an improved theoretical model based on the Leung-Spagna radiative transfer code and using extinction data obtained in their laboratory for different types of amorphous carbon and silicon carbide submicron particles. The agreement between observations and theoretical spectra is rather good. A comparison between the IRAS spectrum of the object 12447 + 0425 (RU Vir) and that recently obtained at UKIRT, for the same object but with higher resolution, seems to open new problems

  5. Structure and thermal properties of nanospheres obtained by ethoxy silanes copolymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedroso, Marcos A.S.; Mothe, Cheila G.; Dias, Marcos L.

    2001-01-01

    Thermal and structural characterization of organophylic nano spherical copolymers of tetra ethoxysilane (TEOS) and methyltriethoxysilane (MTEOS) or dimethyldiethoxysilane (DMDEOS) obtained by sol-gel reaction terminated by trimethylchlorosilane are described. 29 Si NMR, wide angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) and thermal analysis (TG/DTG and DTA) were employed. Due to the high reactivity of TEOS, the copolymers are silica-silicon hybrids showing bilayer structure where silica constitutes a core and a alkyl-rich chemical structure constitutes the external layer. The copolymers present higher mass lost at high temperatures than TEOS homopolymer. (author)

  6. USE OF WASTE WATER OF LIVESTOCK IN ORDER TO OBTAIN BIOMASS FODDER CHEAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MELNICIUC CRISTINA

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was the combination of two directions for use of algae: algae biomass obtaining fodder minor and wastewater purification. Subject research have served cianofite species of algae: Nostoc gelatinosum, N. flagelliforme and Anabaena propinqua. As nutrient medium were used wastewater from livestock complexes (poultry and pigs with a rich content of organic substances. Investigations carried out indicate that the largest quantity of biomass of Nostoc flageliforme is achieved in the cultivation with wastewater by 1% from pig complexes -13.2 g / l, Nostoc gelatinosum-1% -68 g / l. and Anabaena propinqua-5%-8.8g/l.

  7. Ecological transfer of radionuclides and metals to free-living earthworm species in natural habitats rich in NORM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mrdakovic Popic, Jelena, E-mail: jelena.mrdakovic.popic@umb.no; Salbu, Brit; Skipperud, Lindis

    2012-01-01

    Transfer of radionuclides ({sup 232}Th and {sup 238}U) and associated metals (As, Cd, Pb and Cr) from soil to free-living earthworm species was investigated in a thorium ({sup 232}Th) rich area in Norway. Sampling took place within former mining sites representing the technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive materials (TENORM), at undisturbed site with unique bedrock geology representing the naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) and at site outside the {sup 232}Th rich area taken as reference Background site. Soil analysis revealed the elevated levels of investigated elements at NORM and TENORM sites. Based on sequential extraction, uranium ({sup 238}U) and cadmium (Cd) were quite mobile, while the other elements were strongly associated with mineral components of soil. Four investigated earthworm species (Aporrectodea caliginosa, Aporrectodea rosea, Dendrodrilus rubidus and Lumbricus rubellus) showed large individual variability in the accumulation of radionuclides and metals. Differences in uptake by epigeic and endogeic species, as well as differences within same species from the NORM, TENORM and Background sites were also seen. Based on total concentrations in soil, the transfer factors (TF) were in ranges 0.03-0.08 and 0.09-0.25, for {sup 232}Th and {sup 238}U, respectively. TFs for lead (Pb), chromium (Cr) and arsenic (As) were low (less than 0.5), while TFs for Cd were higher (about 10). Using the ERICA tool, the estimated radiation exposure dose rate of the earthworms ranged from 2.2 to 3.9 {mu}Gy/h. The radiological risk for investigated earthworms was low (0.28). The obtained results demonstrated that free-living earthworm species can survive in soil containing elevated {sup 232}Th and {sup 238}U, as well As, Cd, Pb and Cr levels, although certain amount of radionuclides was accumulated within their bodies. The present investigation contributes to general better understanding of complex soil-to-biota transfer processes of

  8. Historical dynamics and current environmental effects explain the spatial distribution of species richness patterns of New World monkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Vallejos-Garrido

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Why biodiversity is not uniformly distributed on the Earth is a major research question of biogeography. One of the most striking patterns of disparity in species distribution are the biodiversity hotspots, which generally do not fit with the distribution of relevant components of the Neotropical biota. In this study, we assess the proximal causes of the species-richness pattern of one of the most conspicuous groups of Neotropical mammals, the New World monkeys the Platyrrhini. We test two complementary hypotheses: (1 there is a historical source-sink dynamic (addressed using macroevolutionary and macroecological approaches; (2 the large number of species in the Amazon basin is due to the constraints imposed by environmental variables occurring outside this area. Methods We first characterize spatial patterns of species richness and biodiversity hotspots using a new, objective protocol based on probabilities. Then we evaluate the source-sink hypothesis using BioGeoBEARS analysis and nestedness analysis of species richness patterns. Complementarily, to measure how often different species pairs appear in the same sites, we used null models to estimate the checkerboard score index (C-score. Finally, we evaluate the relationship between several climatic variables and species richness through ordinary least squares (OLS and spatial autoregressive (SAR models, and the potential environmental constraints on the pattern. Results We found one significant cluster of high values for species richness in the Amazon basin. Most dispersal events occurred from the Amazonian subregion to other Neotropical areas. Temperature (T, discrepancy (BR, and NODF indexes show a significant nesting in the matrix ordered by species richness and available energy. The C-score observed was significantly smaller than the null expectation for all sites in the Neotropics where there are records of platyrrhine species. Ten climatic variables comprised the best

  9. Shape evolution in neutron-rich A ~ 140 nuclei beyond the doubly-magic nucleus 132Sn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odahara, Atsuko; Eurica Collaboration

    2014-09-01

    Study for the shape evolution enables us to disentangle competition between spherical (single-particle like) shape and deformed (collective-like) shape as a function of neutron number. Neutron-rich nuclei in the northeast region of the doubly-magic 132Sn locates in one of the best mass region where a variety of collective modes, not only prolate deformation but also octupole collectivity, are expected to appear. These neutron-rich A ~140 nuclei were produced by using in-flight fission reaction of the 345 MeV/u 238U86+ beam at RIKEN RI Beam Factory. This experiment was performed in the framework of the EURICA (EUroball RIken Cluster Array) project based on the highly-efficient β- and isomer-decay spectroscopy methods. Around 20 extremely neutron-rich nuclei with Z=51--55 have been studied in this work. New isomers with half lives of longer than hundreds ns were found in some nuclei, such as the neutron-rich Cs isotopes. Also, preliminary results for the β decay of neutron-rich I and Xe isotopes have been obtained. Systematic change of the shape evolution for these neutron-rich isotopes will be discussed.

  10. Revascularization of Immature Necrotic Teeth: Platelet rich Fibrin an Edge over Platelet rich Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelam Mittal

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Revascularization is one such entity that has found its clinical application in the field of endodontics for the manage-ment of immature permanent necrotic teeth. The protocols for revascularization of such teeth focus especially on delivery of stem cells and scaffolds in a nonsurgical manner rather than concentrated growth micro molecules.The hypothesis: This article proposes the role of platelet concentrates such as platelet rich fibrin (PRF and platelet rich plasma (PRP in accelerating the regenerative process in such teeth. PRF unlike PRP is associated with slow, continuous and substantial re-lease of morphogens. It is hypothesized further if PRF instead of PRP when placed through immature apices in an orthograde manner can open newer gates for fast and controlled growth in young, ne-crotic, non-infected teeth.Evaluation of the hypothesis: Enhancement of the healing kinetics can be evaluated by change in size of periapical radiolucency, thickness of the dentinal walls, root elongation and apical closure compared between preoperative and postoperative standardized two dimensional/three dimensional radiographs taken on regular follow ups.

  11. Effects of metal-rich particulate matter exposure on exogenous and endogenous viral sequence methylation in healthy steel-workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercorio, Roberta; Bonzini, Matteo; Angelici, Laura; Iodice, Simona; Delbue, Serena; Mariani, Jacopo; Apostoli, Pietro; Pesatori, Angela Cecilia; Bollati, Valentina

    2017-11-01

    Inhaled particles have been shown to produce systemic changes in DNA methylation. Global hypomethylation has been associated to viral sequence reactivation, possibly linked to the activation of pro-inflammatory pathways occurring after exposure. This observation provides a rationale to investigate viral sequence (both exogenous and endogenous) methylation in association to metal-rich particulate matter exposure. To verify this hypothesis, we chose the Wp promoter of the Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV-Wp) and the promoter of the human-endogenous-retrovirus w (HERV-w), respectively as a paradigm of an exogenous and an endogenous retroviral sequence, to be investigated by bisulfite PCR Pyrosequencing. We enrolled 63 male workers in an electric furnace steel plant, exposed to high level of metal-rich particulate matter. Comparing samples obtained in the first day of a work week (time 0-baseline, after 2 days off work) and the samples obtained after 3 days of work (time 1-post exposure), the mean methylation of EBV-Wp was significantly higher at baseline compared to post-exposure (mean baseline = 56.7%5mC; mean post-exposure = 47.9%5mC; p-value = 0.009), whereas the mean methylation of HERV-w did not significantly differ. Individual exposure to inhalable particles and metals was estimated based on measures in all working areas and time spent by the study subjects in each area. In a regression model adjusted for age, body mass index and smoking, PM and metal components had a positive association with EBV-Wp methylation (i.e. PM10: β = 5.99, p-value < 0.038; nickel: β = 17.82, p-value = 0.02; arsenic: β = 13.59, p-value < 0.015). The difference observed comparing baseline and post-exposure samples may be suggestive of a rapid change in EBV methylation induced by air particles, while correlation between EBV methylation and PM/metal exposure may represent a more stable adaptive mechanism. Future studies investigating a larger panel of viral sequences could better elucidate

  12. Spray drying of a phenolic-rich membrane filtration fraction of olive mill wastewater: Optimization and dried product quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olive mill wastewater (OMWW) from two California mills (3-phase and 2-phase) was subjected to a two-step membrane filtration process using a novel vibratory system. The obtained reverse osmosis retentate (RO-R) is a phenolic-rich co-product stream, and the reverse osmosis permeate is a near-pure wat...

  13. Reactivity estimation using digital nonlinear H∞ estimator for VHTRC experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Katsuo; Nabeshima, Kunihiko; Yamane, Tsuyoshi

    2003-01-01

    On-line and real-time estimation of time-varying reactivity in a nuclear reactor in necessary for early detection of reactivity anomaly and safe operation. Using a digital nonlinear H ∞ estimator, an experiment of real-time dynamic reactivity estimation was carried out in the Very High Temperature Reactor Critical Assembly (VHTRC) of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. Some technical issues of the experiment are described, such as reactivity insertion, data sampling frequency, anti-aliasing filter, experimental circuit and digitalising nonlinear H ∞ reactivity estimator, and so on. Then, we discussed the experimental results obtained by the digital nonlinear H ∞ estimator with sampled data of the nuclear instrumentation signal for the power responses under various reactivity insertions. Good performances of estimated reactivity were observed, with almost no delay to the true reactivity and sufficient accuracy between 0.05 cent and 0.1 cent. The experiment shows that real-time reactivity for data sampling period of 10 ms can be certainly realized. From the results of the experiment, it is concluded that the digital nonlinear H ∞ reactivity estimator can be applied as on-line real-time reactivity meter for actual nuclear plants. (author)

  14. Homogeneity of Ge-rich nanostructures as characterized by chemical etching and transmission electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollani, Monica; Chrastina, Daniel; Montuori, Valeria; Terziotti, Daniela; Bonera, Emiliano; Vanacore, Giovanni M; Tagliaferri, Alberto; Sordan, Roman; Spinella, Corrado; Nicotra, Giuseppe

    2012-02-03

    The extension of SiGe technology towards new electronic and optoelectronic applications on the Si platform requires that Ge-rich nanostructures be obtained in a well-controlled manner. Ge deposition on Si substrates usually creates SiGe nanostructures with relatively low and inhomogeneous Ge content. We have realized SiGe nanostructures with a very high (up to 90%) Ge content. Using substrate patterning, a regular array of nanostructures is obtained. We report that electron microscopy reveals an abrupt change in Ge content of about 20% between the filled pit and the island, which has not been observed in other Ge island systems. Dislocations are mainly found within the filled pit and only rarely in the island. Selective chemical etching and electron energy-loss spectroscopy reveal that the island itself is homogeneous. These Ge-rich islands are possible candidates for electronic applications requiring locally induced stress, and optoelectronic applications which exploit the Ge-like band structure of Ge-rich SiGe.

  15. Homogeneity of Ge-rich nanostructures as characterized by chemical etching and transmission electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollani, Monica; Chrastina, Daniel; Montuori, Valeria; Vanacore, Giovanni M; Tagliaferri, Alberto; Sordan, Roman; Terziotti, Daniela; Bonera, Emiliano; Spinella, Corrado; Nicotra, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    The extension of SiGe technology towards new electronic and optoelectronic applications on the Si platform requires that Ge-rich nanostructures be obtained in a well-controlled manner. Ge deposition on Si substrates usually creates SiGe nanostructures with relatively low and inhomogeneous Ge content. We have realized SiGe nanostructures with a very high (up to 90%) Ge content. Using substrate patterning, a regular array of nanostructures is obtained. We report that electron microscopy reveals an abrupt change in Ge content of about 20% between the filled pit and the island, which has not been observed in other Ge island systems. Dislocations are mainly found within the filled pit and only rarely in the island. Selective chemical etching and electron energy-loss spectroscopy reveal that the island itself is homogeneous. These Ge-rich islands are possible candidates for electronic applications requiring locally induced stress, and optoelectronic applications which exploit the Ge-like band structure of Ge-rich SiGe. (paper)

  16. Landscape variation in tree species richness in northern Iran forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourque, Charles P-A; Bayat, Mahmoud

    2015-01-01

    Mapping landscape variation in tree species richness (SR) is essential to the long term management and conservation of forest ecosystems. The current study examines the prospect of mapping field assessments of SR in a high-elevation, deciduous forest in northern Iran as a function of 16 biophysical variables representative of the area's unique physiography, including topography and coastal placement, biophysical environment, and forests. Basic to this study is the development of moderate-resolution biophysical surfaces and associated plot-estimates for 202 permanent sampling plots. The biophysical variables include: (i) three topographic variables generated directly from the area's digital terrain model; (ii) four ecophysiologically-relevant variables derived from process models or from first principles; and (iii) seven variables of Landsat-8-acquired surface reflectance and two, of surface radiance. With symbolic regression, it was shown that only four of the 16 variables were needed to explain 85% of observed plot-level variation in SR (i.e., wind velocity, surface reflectance of blue light, and topographic wetness indices representative of soil water content), yielding mean-absolute and root-mean-squared error of 0.50 and 0.78, respectively. Overall, localised calculations of wind velocity and surface reflectance of blue light explained about 63% of observed variation in SR, with wind velocity accounting for 51% of that variation. The remaining 22% was explained by linear combinations of soil-water-related topographic indices and associated thresholds. In general, SR and diversity tended to be greatest for plots dominated by Carpinus betulus (involving ≥ 33% of all trees in a plot), than by Fagus orientalis (median difference of one species). This study provides a significant step towards describing landscape variation in SR as a function of modelled and satellite-based information and symbolic regression. Methods in this study are sufficiently general to be

  17. Comparison of the effects of platelet-rich or growth factor-rich plasma on intestinal anastomosis healing in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giusto, Gessica; Vercelli, Cristina; Iussich, Selina; Tursi, Massimiliano; Perona, Giovanni; Gandini, Marco

    2017-06-19

    The use of autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF) has been proposed for the treatment of several acute and chronic syndromes, such as corneal epithelial defects and dry eye syndrome, gum bleeding during oral surgery, and in orthopaedic surgery. We hypothesized that PRGF, rather than PRP, could be more effective because of its intrinsic characteristics in promoting the healing of intestinal anastomosis. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate and compare the effects of PRP and PRGF on various parameters of anastomotic healing in a swine model. Eight female pigs were randomly assigned to two groups and subjected to hand sewn jeujuno-jejunal appositional extramucosal anastomoses. For each animal, a total of six anastomoses were performed: two were considered controls and received no treatment, while the remaining four anastomoses were treated with PRP or PRGF of which both were prepared at a platelet concentration that was respectively 3.4-fold and 2.81-fold higher than the original platelet count. In each animal, either PRP or PRGF was used as a treatment, to avoid interference among products. Animals were euthanized after 8 days and the anastomoses were evaluated and compared for the presence of adhesions, anastomotic leakage, bursting pressure, and histological appearance. The concentration of platelets in PRP was 3.41-fold higher (range, 3.20-4.24) that the concentration in whole blood, while the concentration in PRGF was 2.81-fold higher (range, 2.89-4.88). The results obtained from the present study highlighted that there are no differences between anastomotic samples treated with either PRP or PRGF preparations, except for a significant increase in epithelization of the intestinal mucosa at the anastomotic site in the PRGF group. Both PRP and PRGF suspensions should be considered a safe strategy and represent a relatively low-cost technology that is flexible enough to be applied in several therapeutic fields. No

  18. Diversification rates and species richness across the Tree of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholl, Joshua P; Wiens, John J

    2016-09-14

    Species richness varies dramatically among clades across the Tree of Life, by over a million-fold in some cases (e.g. placozoans versus arthropods). Two major explanations for differences in richness among clades are the clade-age hypothesis (i.e. species-rich clades are older) and the diversification-rate hypothesis (i.e. species-rich clades diversify more rapidly, where diversification rate is the net balance of speciation and extinction over time). Here, we examine patterns of variation in diversification rates across the Tree of Life. We address how rates vary across higher taxa, whether rates within higher taxa are related to the subclades within them, and how diversification rates of clades are related to their species richness. We find substantial variation in diversification rates, with rates in plants nearly twice as high as in animals, and rates in some eukaryotes approximately 10-fold faster than prokaryotes. Rates for each kingdom-level clade are then significantly related to the subclades within them. Although caution is needed when interpreting relationships between diversification rates and richness, a positive relationship between the two is not inevitable. We find that variation in diversification rates seems to explain most variation in richness among clades across the Tree of Life, in contrast to the conclusions of previous studies. © 2016 The Author(s).

  19. Disturbance alters local-regional richness relationships in appalachian forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belote, R.T.; Sanders, N.J.; Jones, R.H.

    2009-01-01

    Whether biological diversity within communities is limited by local interactions or regional species pools remains an important question in ecology. In this paper, we investigate how an experimentally applied tree-harvesting disturbance gradient influenced local-regional richness relationships. Plant species richness was measured at three spatial scales (2 ha = regional; 576 m2 and 1 m2 = local) on three occasions (one year pre-disturbance, one year post-disturbance, and 10 years post-disturbance) across five disturbance treatments (uncut control through clearcut) replicated throughout the southern Appalachian Mountains, USA. We investigated whether species richness in 576-m2 plots and 1-m2 subplots depended on species richness in 2-ha experimental units and whether this relationship changed through time before and after canopy disturbance. We found that, before disturbance, the relationship between local and regional richness was weak or nonexistent. One year after disturbance local richness was a positive function of regional richness, because local sites were colonized from the regional species pool. Ten years after disturbance, the positive relationship persisted, but the slope had decreased by half. These results suggest that disturbance can set the stage for strong influences of regional species pools on local community assembly in temperate forests. However, as time since disturbance increases, local controls on community assembly decouple the relationships between regional and local diversity. ?? 2009 by the Ecological Society of America.

  20. Species richness alone does not predict cultural ecosystem service value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Rose A.; Pearson, Scott M.; Turner, Monica G.

    2017-01-01

    Many biodiversity-ecosystem services studies omit cultural ecosystem services (CES) or use species richness as a proxy and assume that more species confer greater CES value. We studied wildflower viewing, a key biodiversity-based CES in amenity-based landscapes, in Southern Appalachian Mountain forests and asked (i) How do aesthetic preferences for wildflower communities vary with components of biodiversity, including species richness?; (ii) How do aesthetic preferences for wildflower communities vary across psychographic groups?; and (iii) How well does species richness perform as an indicator of CES value compared with revealed social preferences for wildflower communities? Public forest visitors (n = 293) were surveyed during the summer of 2015 and asked to choose among images of wildflower communities in which flower species richness, flower abundance, species evenness, color diversity, and presence of charismatic species had been digitally manipulated. Aesthetic preferences among images were unrelated to species richness but increased with more abundant flowers, greater species evenness, and greater color diversity. Aesthetic preferences were consistent across psychographic groups and unaffected by knowledge of local flora or value placed on wildflower viewing. When actual wildflower communities (n = 54) were ranked based on empirically measured flower species richness or wildflower viewing utility based on multinomial logit models of revealed preferences, rankings were broadly similar. However, designation of hotspots (CES values above the median) based on species richness alone missed 27% of wildflower viewing utility hotspots. Thus, conservation priorities for sustaining CES should incorporate social preferences and consider multiple dimensions of biodiversity that underpin CES supply. PMID:28320953

  1. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of the Impatiens noli-tangere and Stachys officinalis polyphenolic-rich extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Paun

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study evaluated the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of Impatiens noli-tangere L., Balsaminaceae, and of Stachys officinalis L., Lamiaceae, polyphenolic-rich extracts obtained by nanofiltration process. Results showed the great potential and efficiency of the nanofiltration process to concentrate the herbal extract's main polyphenolic compounds (over 91% phenolic acids and flavonoids retention. S. officinalis polyphenolic-rich extracts had high antioxidant activities (IC50 2.5 µg/ml compared to I. noli-tangere polyphenolic-rich extracts (IC50 19.3 µg/ml and similar with that of ascorbic acid. Polyphenolic-rich extracts were investigated to determine the pro-inflammatory enzymes lipoxygenase, cyclooxygenase-1 and cyclooxygenase-2 and their inhibitory activity. Furthermore, high inhibitory activity of the examined extracts was reported for the first time, for both lipoxygenase (IC50 2.46 and 1.22 µg/ml for I. noli-tangere and S. officinalis polyphenolic-rich extracts, respectively, cyclooxygenase-1 (IC50 18.4 and 10.1 µg/ml for I. noli-tangere and S. officinalis polyphenolic-rich extracts, respectively and cyclooxygenase-2 (IC50 = 1.9 and 1.2 mg/ml for I. noli-tangere and S. officinalis polyphenolic-rich extracts, respectively. Additionally, the in vivo studies showed that S. officinalis polyphenolic-rich extract has a higher anti-inflammatory effect, the hind-paw volume employed for both models determined that I. noli-tangere polyphenolic-rich extract and is also higher than that of diclofenac. It was noticed that their anti-inflammatory effect persists for more than 24 h. The I. noli-tangere and S. officinalis polyphenolic-rich extracts exert anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities and these properties can be at least partly assigned to the presence of ursolic acid, caffeic acid, rosmarinic acid, quercetin and also anthocyanidins (genistin. The obtained results indicate the anti-inflammatory potential of the

  2. Improved automation of dissolved organic carbon sampling for organic-rich surface waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grayson, Richard P; Holden, Joseph

    2016-02-01

    In-situ UV-Vis spectrophotometers offer the potential for improved estimates of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) fluxes for organic-rich systems such as peatlands because they are able to sample and log DOC proxies automatically through time at low cost. In turn, this could enable improved total carbon budget estimates for peatlands. The ability of such instruments to accurately measure DOC depends on a number of factors, not least of which is how absorbance measurements relate to DOC and the environmental conditions. Here we test the ability of a S::can Spectro::lyser™ for measuring DOC in peatland streams with routinely high DOC concentrations. Through analysis of the spectral response data collected by the instrument we have been able to accurately measure DOC up to 66 mg L(-1), which is more than double the original upper calibration limit for this particular instrument. A linear regression modelling approach resulted in an accuracy >95%. The greatest accuracy was achieved when absorbance values for several different wavelengths were used at the same time in the model. However, an accuracy >90% was achieved using absorbance values for a single wavelength to predict DOC concentration. Our calculations indicated that, for organic-rich systems, in-situ measurement with a scanning spectrophotometer can improve fluvial DOC flux estimates by 6 to 8% compared with traditional sampling methods. Thus, our techniques pave the way for improved long-term carbon budget calculations from organic-rich systems such as peatlands. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Process for obtaining oxygen doped zinc telluride monocrystals and scintillator crystals obtained by this process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, Maurice; Moreau, Roland; D'Haenen, J.-P.; Merenda, Pierre.

    1976-01-01

    A process is described for obtaining oxygen doped zinc telluride monocrystals, for use as scintillator crystals for ionising radiation detectors. The following operations are carried out in succession: one or several zinc telluride crystals are introduced into a silica ampoule together with a ternary mixture of zinc tellurium and oxygen, as an oxide or hydroxide of these elements; the ampoule is pumped down to a high vacuum and sealed; the sealed ampoule containing the mixture and monocrystals is placed in a kiln and brought to a uniform temperature sufficient to make the mixture three-phased, depending on its composition; the zinc telluride crystalline compound remains solid; the ampoule is then tempered to bring it quickly back to ambient temperature [fr

  4. Influence of the Se environment on Cu-rich CIS devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deprédurand, Valérie; Bertram, Tobias; Siebentritt, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Besides their better electronic properties, Cu-rich CuInSe 2 solar cells performed worse than the Cu-poor ones. Dominated by interface recombination which lowers their open circuit voltage, they also exhibit lower current. They are indeed limited by a high native doping which leads to tunneling enhanced recombination. In order to decrease this doping, we investigate the effect of the selenium environment during the absorber growth. We demonstrate that the chemical activity of the Se during the growth strongly influences both the film microstructure and the solar cell performance via various structural and opto-electronic characterization on both the absorber and the resulting solar cells: scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry, X-ray diffraction in addition to classical current–voltage and quantum efficiency measurements on the solar cell devices. We show that low Se environment is beneficial to obtain better Cu-rich solar cells.

  5. Goodness of isospin in neutron rich systems from the fission fragment distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Swati; Jain, Ashok Kumar

    2017-09-01

    We present the results of our calculations for the relative yields of neutron-rich fission fragments emitted in 208Pb (18O, fission) reaction by using the concept of the conservation of isospin and compare with the experimental data. We take into account a range of isospin values allowed by the isospin algebra and assume that the fission fragments are formed in isobaric analog states. We also take into account the neutron multiplicity data for various neutron-emission channels in each partition, and use them to obtain the weight factors in calculating the yields. We then calculate the relative yields of the fission fragments. Our calculated results are able to reproduce the experimental trends reasonably well. This is the first direct evidence of the isospin conservation in neutron-rich systems and may prove a very useful tool in their studies.

  6. A study of luminescence from silicon-rich silica fabricated by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trwoga, P.F.

    1998-01-01

    Silicon is the most studied electronic material known to man and dominates the electronics industry in its use as a semiconductors for nearly all integrated electronics. However, optoelectronics is almost entirely based on III-V materials. This technology is used because silicon is a very inefficient light source, whereas the III-V band structure can lend itself to efficient light emission by electron injection. However, due to the overwhelming dominance of silicon based electronics it is still a highly desirable goal to generate light efficiently from silicon based materials. Recently, studies have demonstrated that efficient visible luminescence can be obtained from certain novel forms of silicon. These materials include porous silicon, hydrogenated amorphous silicon, and silicon-rich silica (SiO x x x is studied in detail; in addition, electroluminescence and rare-earth doping of silicon-rich silica is also addressed. (author)

  7. Condition Number Regularized Covariance Estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Joong-Ho; Lim, Johan; Kim, Seung-Jean; Rajaratnam, Bala

    2013-06-01

    Estimation of high-dimensional covariance matrices is known to be a difficult problem, has many applications, and is of current interest to the larger statistics community. In many applications including so-called the "large p small n " setting, the estimate of the covariance matrix is required to be not only invertible, but also well-conditioned. Although many regularization schemes attempt to do this, none of them address the ill-conditioning problem directly. In this paper, we propose a maximum likelihood approach, with the direct goal of obtaining a well-conditioned estimator. No sparsity assumption on either the covariance matrix or its inverse are are imposed, thus making our procedure more widely applicable. We demonstrate that the proposed regularization scheme is computationally efficient, yields a type of Steinian shrinkage estimator, and has a natural Bayesian interpretation. We investigate the theoretical properties of the regularized covariance estimator comprehensively, including its regularization path, and proceed to develop an approach that adaptively determines the level of regularization that is required. Finally, we demonstrate the performance of the regularized estimator in decision-theoretic comparisons and in the financial portfolio optimization setting. The proposed approach has desirable properties, and can serve as a competitive procedure, especially when the sample size is small and when a well-conditioned estimator is required.

  8. Condition Number Regularized Covariance Estimation*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Joong-Ho; Lim, Johan; Kim, Seung-Jean; Rajaratnam, Bala

    2012-01-01

    Estimation of high-dimensional covariance matrices is known to be a difficult problem, has many applications, and is of current interest to the larger statistics community. In many applications including so-called the “large p small n” setting, the estimate of the covariance matrix is required to be not only invertible, but also well-conditioned. Although many regularization schemes attempt to do this, none of them address the ill-conditioning problem directly. In this paper, we propose a maximum likelihood approach, with the direct goal of obtaining a well-conditioned estimator. No sparsity assumption on either the covariance matrix or its inverse are are imposed, thus making our procedure more widely applicable. We demonstrate that the proposed regularization scheme is computationally efficient, yields a type of Steinian shrinkage estimator, and has a natural Bayesian interpretation. We investigate the theoretical properties of the regularized covariance estimator comprehensively, including its regularization path, and proceed to develop an approach that adaptively determines the level of regularization that is required. Finally, we demonstrate the performance of the regularized estimator in decision-theoretic comparisons and in the financial portfolio optimization setting. The proposed approach has desirable properties, and can serve as a competitive procedure, especially when the sample size is small and when a well-conditioned estimator is required. PMID:23730197

  9. Risk estimation using probability machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Logistic regression has been the de facto, and often the only, model used in the description and analysis of relationships between a binary outcome and observed features. It is widely used to obtain the conditional probabilities of the outcome given predictors, as well as predictor effect size estimates using conditional odds ratios. Results We show how statistical learning machines for binary outcomes, provably consistent for the nonparametric regression problem, can be used to provide both consistent conditional probability estimation and conditional effect size estimates. Effect size estimates from learning machines leverage our understanding of counterfactual arguments central to the interpretation of such estimates. We show that, if the data generating model is logistic, we can recover accurate probability predictions and effect size estimates with nearly the same efficiency as a correct logistic model, both for main effects and interactions. We also propose a method using learning machines to scan for possible interaction effects quickly and efficiently. Simulations using random forest probability machines are presented. Conclusions The models we propose make no assumptions about the data structure, and capture the patterns in the data by just specifying the predictors involved and not any particular model structure. So they do not run the same risks of model mis-specification and the resultant estimation biases as a logistic model. This methodology, which we call a “risk machine”, will share properties from the statistical machine that it is derived from. PMID:24581306

  10. Two-proton knockout on neutron-rich nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazin, D.; Brown, B.A.; Campbell, C.M.; Church, J.A.; Dinca, D.C.; Enders, J.; Gade, A.; Glasmacher, T.; Hansen, P.G.; Mueller, W.F.; Olliver, H.; Perry, B.C.; Sherrill, B.M.; Terry, J.R.; Tostevin, J.A.

    2004-01-01

    Two-proton knockout reactions on neutron-rich nuclei [Phys. Rev. Lett. 91 (2003) 012501] have been studied in inverse kinematics at intermediate energy. Strong evidence that the two-proton removal from a neutron-rich system proceeds as a direct reaction is presented, together with a preliminary theoretical discussion of the partial cross sections based on eikonal reaction theory and the many-body shell model. They show that this reaction can be used to characterize the wave functions of the projectiles and holds great promise for the study of neutron-rich nuclei

  11. Relativistic mean field calculations in neutron-rich nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gangopadhyay, G.; Bhattacharya, Madhubrata [Department of Physics, University of Calcutta, 92 Acharya Prafulla Chandra Road, Kolkata 700 009 (India); Roy, Subinit [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Block AF, Sector 1, Kolkata- 700 064 (India)

    2014-08-14

    Relativistic mean field calculations have been employed to study neutron rich nuclei. The Lagrange's equations have been solved in the co-ordinate space. The effect of the continuum has been effectively taken into account through the method of resonant continuum. It is found that BCS approximation performs as well as a more involved Relativistic Continuum Hartree Bogoliubov approach. Calculations reveal the possibility of modification of magic numbers in neutron rich nuclei. Calculation for low energy proton scattering cross sections shows that the present approach reproduces the density in very light neutron rich nuclei.

  12. Fusion enhancement in the reactions of neutron-rich nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bian Baoan; Zhang Fengshou; Zhou Hongyu

    2009-01-01

    The neutron-rich fusion reactions are investigated systematically using the improved isospin dependent quantum molecular dynamics model. By studying the systematic dependence of fusion barrier on neuron excess, we find the enhancement of the fusion cross sections for neutron-rich nuclear reactions that give the lowered static Coulomb barriers. The calculated fusion cross sections agree quantitatively with the experimental data. We further discuss the mechanism of the fusion enhancement of the cross sections for neutron-rich nuclear reactions by analyzing the dynamical lowering of the Coulomb barrier that is attributed to the enhancement of the N/Z ratio at the neck region.

  13. Obtaining Magnetic Properties of Meteorites Using Magnetic Scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kletetschka, G.; Nabelek, L.; Mazanec, M.; Simon, K.; Hruba, J.

    2015-12-01

    Magnetic images of Murchison meteorite's and Chelyabinsk meteorite's thin section have been obtained from magnetic scanning system from Youngwood Science and Engineering (YSE) capable of resolving magnetic anomalies down to 10-3 mT range from about 0.3 mm distance between the probe and meteorite surface (resolution about 0.15 mm). Anomalies were produced repeatedly, each time after application of magnetic field pulse of varying amplitude and constant, normal or reversed, direction. This process resulted in both magnetizing and demagnetizing of the meteorite thin section, while keeping the magnetization vector in the plane of the thin section. Analysis of the magnetic data allows determination of coercivity of remanence (Bcr) for the magnetic sources in situ. Value of Bcr is critical for calculating magnetic forces applicable during missions to asteroids where gravity is compromised. Bcr was estimated by two methods. First method measured varying dipole magnetic field strength produced by each anomaly in the direction of magnetic pulses. Second method measured deflections of the dipole direction from the direction of magnetic pulses (Nabelek et al., 2015). Nabelek, L., Mazanec, M., Kdyr, S., and Kletetschka, G., 2015, Magnetic, in situ, mineral characterization of Chelyabinsk meteorite thin section: Meteoritics & Planetary Science.

  14. A thermodynamic approach to obtain materials properties for engineering applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Y. Austin

    1993-01-01

    With the ever increases in the capabilities of computers for numerical computations, we are on the verge of using these tools to model manufacturing processes for improving the efficiency of these processes as well as the quality of the products. One such process is casting for the production of metals. However, in order to model metal casting processes in a meaningful way it is essential to have the basic properties of these materials in their molten state, solid state as well as in the mixed state of solid and liquid. Some of the properties needed may be considered as intrinsic such as the density, heat capacity or enthalpy of freezing of a pure metal, while others are not. For instance, the enthalpy of solidification of an alloy is not a defined thermodynamic quantity. Its value depends on the micro-segregation of the phases during the course of solidification. The objective of the present study is to present a thermodynamic approach to obtain some of the intrinsic properties and combining thermodynamics with kinetic models to estimate such quantities as the enthalpy of solidification of an alloy.

  15. Comets, volcanism, the salt-rich regolith, and cycling of volatiles on Mars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, B.C.

    1987-01-01

    The composition of the Martian surface and its evolution are examined, reviewing the results of recent theoretical models and composition estimates based on Viking-lander analyses. The data are compiled in tables and characterized in detail, and a high degree of variation among the predictions is noted. The discussion centers on the possible roles of comets (as sources of volatiles), the salt-rich regolith (as an important water sink), and volcanic activity (interfering with volatile-recycling processes and eventually producing a volatile-depleted surface layer). 45 references

  16. Continental scale patterns and predictors of fern richness and phylogenetic diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie eNagalingum

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Because ferns have a wide range of habitat preferences and are widely distributed, they are an ideal group for understanding how diversity is distributed. Here we examine fern diversity on a broad-scale using standard and corrected richness measures as well as phylogenetic indices; in addition we determine the environmental predictors of each diversity metric. Using the combined records of Australian herbaria, a dataset of over 60,000 records was obtained for 89 genera to infer richness. A phylogenetic tree of all the genera was constructed and combined with the herbarium records to obtain phylogenetic diversity patterns. A hotspot of both taxic and phylogenetic diversity occurs in the Wet Tropics of northeastern Australia. Although considerable diversity is distributed along the eastern coast, some important regions of diversity are identified only after sample-standardization of richness and through the phylogenetic metric. Of all of the metrics, annual precipitation was identified as the most explanatory variable, in part, in agreement with global and regional fern studies. Precipitation was combined with a different variable for each different metric. For corrected richness, precipitation is combined with temperature seasonality, while correlation of phylogenetic diversity to precipitation plus radiation indicates support for the species-energy hypothesis. Significantly high and significantly low phylogenetic diversity were found in geographically separate areas. These areas are correlated with different climatic conditions such as seasonality in precipitation. The use of phylogenetic metrics identifies additional areas of significant diversity, some of which have not been revealed using traditional taxonomic analyses, suggesting that different ecological and evolutionary processes have operated over the continent. Our study demonstrates that it is possible and vital to incorporate evolutionary metrics when inferring biodiversity hotspots

  17. ICF with momentum-rich beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maschke, A.W.

    1982-10-01

    A novel approach to obtain thermonuclear ignitions condition is suggested. Utilizing state-of-the-art ion source brightness parameters, and high gradient acceleration columns, it is possible to focus 10 kJ of heavy ions to a few mm spot, using a 1-meter radius spherical ion source. Heavy ion energies of 500 to 1000 keV have the velocity required for volume ignition of DT. The beam mass is typically 10 times greater than that of the DT which is to be burned. A spherical array of ion sources is envisioned, using time-of-flight bunching to achieve the required power density at the central focus. Beam space charge neutralization is assumed to take place in a background plasma. The DT, originally a few mm gas ball, is compressed and heated by the direct transfer of the beam energy to the fuel. The necessary inward mementum is produced directly by the accelerator, not by ablation.

  18. ICF with momentum-rich beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maschke, A.W.

    1982-01-01

    A novel approach to obtain thermonuclear ignitions condition is suggested. Utilizing state-of-the-art ion source brightness parameters, and high gradient acceleration columns, it is possible to focus 10 kJ of heavy ions to a few mm spot, using a 1-meter radius spherical ion source. Heavy ion energies of 500 to 1000 keV have the velocity required for volume ignition of DT. The beam mass is typically 10 times greater than that of the DT which is to be burned. A spherical array of ion sources is envisioned, using time-of-flight bunching to achieve the required power density at the central focus. Beam space charge neutralization is assumed to take place in a background plasma. The DT, originally a few mm gas ball, is compressed and heated by the direct transfer of the beam energy to the fuel. The necessary inward mementum is produced directly by the accelerator, not by ablation

  19. Optimization of Conditions for Obtaining Alginate/Olive Oil Capsules for Application in Dairy Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poirieux Magalie

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Encapsulation is a process of incorporation of bioactive substances in a specific matrix. It results in increasing and/or maintaining of the biological agent concentration in the food matrix or the fermentation system. The encapsulation process is influenced by various factors. The aim of the present work was to investigate the influence of alginate type and concentration, homogenization rate and the oil phase amount in the preparation of capsules rich in olive oil. It has been found that emulsions obtained with medium viscosity alginate were characterized by better stability. To establish the joint influence of the factors was used screening design experiment, the optimization features selected being temperature, centrifugal and microscopic stability. The optimal levels of the factors were established and they we applied for capsule preparation. The obtained capsules showed maximum stability and possibility to be used in dairy product manufacture.

  20. Comparison of different methods in estimating potential evapotranspiration at Muda Irrigation Scheme of Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobri Harun

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Evapotranspiration (ET is a complex process in the hydrological cycle that influences the quantity of runoff and thus the irrigation water requirements. Numerous methods have been developed to estimate potential evapotranspiration (PET. Unfortunately, most of the reliable PET methods are parameter rich models and therefore, not feasible for application in data scarce regions. On the other hand, accuracy and reliability of simple PET models vary widely according to regional climate conditions. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the performance of three temperature-based and three radiation-based simple ET methods in estimating historical ET and projecting future ET at Muda Irrigation Scheme at Kedah, Malaysia. The performance was measured by comparing those methods with the parameter intensive Penman-Monteith Method. It was found that radiation based methods gave better performance compared to temperature-based methods in estimation of ET in the study area. Future ET simulated from projected climate data obtained through statistical downscaling technique also showed that radiation-based methods can project closer ET values to that projected by Penman-Monteith Method. It is expected that the study will guide in selecting suitable methods for estimating and projecting ET in accordance to availability of meteorological data.