Richardson Number, stability and turbulence- A coherent view
Varkey, M.J.
As turbulence in water is governed by vertical mobility controlled by static stability and horizontal mobility controlled by currents, the Richardson Number should give a measure of turbulence also. It is argued in this note that inverse...
Elementary stratified flows with stability at low Richardson number
Barros, Ricardo [Mathematics Applications Consortium for Science and Industry (MACSI), Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Limerick, Limerick (Ireland); Choi, Wooyoung [Department of Mathematical Sciences, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, New Jersey 07102-1982 (United States)
2014-12-15
We revisit the stability analysis for three classical configurations of multiple fluid layers proposed by Goldstein [“On the stability of superposed streams of fluids of different densities,” Proc. R. Soc. A. 132, 524 (1931)], Taylor [“Effect of variation in density on the stability of superposed streams of fluid,” Proc. R. Soc. A 132, 499 (1931)], and Holmboe [“On the behaviour of symmetric waves in stratified shear layers,” Geophys. Publ. 24, 67 (1962)] as simple prototypes to understand stability characteristics of stratified shear flows with sharp density transitions. When such flows are confined in a finite domain, it is shown that a large shear across the layers that is often considered a source of instability plays a stabilizing role. Presented are simple analytical criteria for stability of these low Richardson number flows.
Modified Richardson Number in Non-Uniform Saturated Moist Flow
YANG Shuai; GAO Shou-Ting
2006-01-01
@@ As a useful index, I.e. The Richardson number Ri, is modified in non-uniform saturated moist flow, based on the fact that liquid water is partially dropped out in parcel air. This is more realistic in real moist atmosphere,especially in the rainfall process. The modified Ri presents adequately the influence of numerator, I.e. Brunt-Vaisala frequency (BVF), on instability. Compared to several former formulae generalized by Durran and Klemp,the modified Ri evidently decreases the stability in rainy regions. In theory, the modified BVF and Ri fix the discontinuity of latent heat release in the transition areas between saturated and unsaturated air by introducing the condensation probability function. Furthermore, the diagnostic analysis of the modilied Ri validates the rationality of its application in the non-uniform saturated moist process.
Richardson, H.; Basu, S.; Holtslag, A.A.M.
2013-01-01
For many decades, attempts have been made to find the universal value of the critical bulk Richardson number (Ri Bc ; defined over the entire stable boundary layer). By analyzing an extensive large-eddy simulation database and various published wind-tunnel data, we show that Ri Bc is not a constant,
Lee, Aaron T; Asay-Davis, Xylar; Barranco, Joseph
2010-01-01
Gravitational instability (GI) of a dust-rich layer at the midplane of a gaseous circumstellar disk is one proposed mechanism to form planetesimals, the building blocks of rocky planets and gas giant cores. Self-gravity competes against the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability (KHI): gradients in dust content drive a vertical shear which risks overturning the dusty subdisk and forestalling GI. To understand the conditions under which the disk can resist the KHI, we perform 3D simulations of stratified subdisks in the limit that dust particles are small and aerodynamically well coupled to gas. This limit screens out the streaming instability and isolates the KHI. Each subdisk is assumed to have a vertical density profile given by a spatially constant Richardson number Ri. We vary Ri and the midplane dust-to-gas ratio mu and find that the critical Richardson number dividing KH-unstable from KH-stable flows is not unique; rather Ri_crit grows nearly linearly with mu for mu=0.3-10. Only for disks of bulk solar metallicit...
Grachev, Andrey A.; Andreas, Edgar L.; Fairall, Christopher W.; Guest, Peter S.; Persson, P. Ola G.
2013-04-01
Measurements of atmospheric turbulence made over the Arctic pack ice during the Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic Ocean experiment (SHEBA) are used to determine the limits of applicability of Monin-Obukhov similarity theory (in the local scaling formulation) in the stable atmospheric boundary layer. Based on the spectral analysis of wind velocity and air temperature fluctuations, it is shown that, when both the gradient Richardson number, Ri, and the flux Richardson number, Rf, exceed a `critical value' of about 0.20-0.25, the inertial subrange associated with the Richardson-Kolmogorov cascade dies out and vertical turbulent fluxes become small. Some small-scale turbulence survives even in this supercritical regime, but this is non-Kolmogorov turbulence, and it decays rapidly with further increasing stability. Similarity theory is based on the turbulent fluxes in the high-frequency part of the spectra that are associated with energy-containing/flux-carrying eddies. Spectral densities in this high-frequency band diminish as the Richardson-Kolmogorov energy cascade weakens; therefore, the applicability of local Monin-Obukhov similarity theory in stable conditions is limited by the inequalities Ri < Ri cr and Rf < Rf cr. However, it is found that Rf cr = 0.20-0.25 is a primary threshold for applicability. Applying this prerequisite shows that the data follow classical Monin-Obukhov local z-less predictions after the irrelevant cases (turbulence without the Richardson-Kolmogorov cascade) have been filtered out.
A mass flux closure function in a GCM based on the Richardson number
Yang, Young-Min; Kang, In-Sik; Almazroui, Mansour
2014-03-01
A mass flux closure in a general circulation model (GCM) was developed in terms of the mean gradient Richardson number (GRN), which is defined as the ratio between the buoyancy and the shear-driven kinetic energy in the planetary boundary layer. The cloud resolving model (CRM) simulations using the tropical ocean and global atmosphere-coupled ocean-atmosphere response experiment forcing show that cloud-base mass flux is well correlated with the GRN. Using the CRM simulations, a mass flux closure function is formulated as an exponential function of the GRN and it is implemented in the Arakawa-Schubert convective scheme. The GCM simulations with the new mass flux closure are compared to those of the GCM with the conventional mass flux closure based on convective available potential energy. Because of the exponential function, the new closure permits convective precipitation only when the GRN has a sufficiently large value. When the GRN has a relatively small value, the convection is suppressed while the convective instability is released by large-scale precipitation. As a result, the ratio of convective precipitation to total precipitation is reduced and there is an increase in the frequency of heavy precipitation, more similar to the observations. The new closure also improves the diurnal cycle of precipitation due to a time delay of the large GRN with respect to convective instability.
Grachev, Andrey A; Fairall, Christopher W; Guest, Peter S; Persson, P Ola G
2012-01-01
Measurements of atmospheric turbulence made over the Arctic pack ice during the Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic Ocean experiment (SHEBA) are used to determine the limits of applicability of Monin-Obukhov similarity theory (in the local scaling formulation) in the stable atmospheric boundary layer. Based on spectral analysis of wind velocity and air temperature fluctuations, it is shown that when both gradient Richardson number, Ri, and flux Richardson number, Rf, exceed a 'critical value' about 0.20-0.25, the inertial subrange associated with the Kolmogorov cascade dies out and vertical turbulent fluxes become small. Some small-scale turbulence survives even in the supercritical regime, but this is non-Kolmogorov turbulence and it decays rapidly with further increasing stability. Similarity theory is based on the turbulent fluxes in the high-frequency part of the spectra that are associated with energy-containing/flux-carrying eddies. Spectral densities in this high-frequency band diminish as the Kolmogorov...
Hansen-Hansen, Erik
2004-01-01
Fotografen Terry Richardson blander pornografi, humor og mode på sin helt egen facon. Og det sælger. Det har gjort ham til en af de mest indflydelsesrige modefotografer i verden. Men politisk korrekt, det er han ikke. Erik Hansen-Hansen forklarer fænomenet. Udgivelsesdato: Juli......Fotografen Terry Richardson blander pornografi, humor og mode på sin helt egen facon. Og det sælger. Det har gjort ham til en af de mest indflydelsesrige modefotografer i verden. Men politisk korrekt, det er han ikke. Erik Hansen-Hansen forklarer fænomenet. Udgivelsesdato: Juli...
Richardson, Eileen
2010-01-01
Bournemouthi Ülikooli professor Eileen Richardson projektist ”Inequalities in access to rural communities”, mis on mõeldud Kanada ja Euroopa tervishoiuerialade tudengitele ning mille eesmärgiks on edendada erinevate tervishoiuerialade tudengite vahetust, rajada õpetlaste ja töötavate tervishoiuspetsialistide võrgustik arendamaks välja ühised õppekavad ja juhendid. Projektiga ühines ka Tallinna Tervishoiu Kõrgkool
Fort Richardson moose tagging project
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Of the big game animals that inhabit the Fort Richardson-Elmendorf AFB military reservation, moose (Alces a1ces gigas) are the predominant species and may be found...
Fort Richardson moose range rehabilitation program
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Areas to be rehabilitated have been selected for traditional winter moose range along the Glen Highway on Fort Richardson. We use a field reconnaissance to...
2015-04-01
aspen, and/or cottonwood. Surface fuels include mosses, lichens , leaf litter, grasses, and shrubs. Fires in these mixed stands are generally of...1 UNITED STATES AIR FORCE JOINT BASE ELMENDORF-RICHARDSON, ALASKA ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT FOR WILDLAND FIRE PREVENTION ACTIVITIES AT JBER...Assessment for Wildland Fire Prevention Activities at Joint-Base Elmendorf-Richardson (JBER), Alaska 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c
CNARA: reliability assessment for genomic copy number profiles.
Ai, Ni; Cai, Haoyang; Solovan, Caius; Baudis, Michael
2016-10-12
DNA copy number profiles from microarray and sequencing experiments sometimes contain wave artefacts which may be introduced during sample preparation and cannot be removed completely by existing preprocessing methods. Besides, large derivative log ratio spread (DLRS) of the probes correlating with poor DNA quality is sometimes observed in genome screening experiments and may lead to unreliable copy number profiles. Depending on the extent of these artefacts and the resulting misidentification of copy number alterations/variations (CNA/CNV), it may be desirable to exclude such samples from analyses or to adapt the downstream data analysis strategy accordingly. Here, we propose a method to distinguish reliable genomic copy number profiles from those containing heavy wave artefacts and/or large DLRS. We define four features that adequately summarize the copy number profiles for reliability assessment, and train a classifier on a dataset of 1522 copy number profiles from various microarray platforms. The method can be applied to predict the reliability of copy number profiles irrespective of the underlying microarray platform and may be adapted for those sequencing platforms from which copy number estimates could be computed as a piecewise constant signal. Further details can be found at https://github.com/baudisgroup/CNARA . We have developed a method for the assessment of genomic copy number profiling data, and suggest to apply the method in addition to and after other state-of-the-art noise correction and quality control procedures. CNARA could be instrumental in improving the assessment of data used for genomic data mining experiments and support the reliable functional attribution of copy number aberrations especially in cancer research.
A Freudian Reading of Samuel Richardson's Pamela
Shadi Torabi Sarijaloo
2016-03-01
Full Text Available Richardson's Pamela (1740_1 is replete with elements and incidents that make it worthy enough to be viewed from Freud's perspective. The present study focuses upon how Richardson's characters unconsciously attempt to conceal and repress their own conflicting emotions, thoughts, wishes, impulses and how they struggle against their anxiety-ridden situations to regain their psychic balance. Moreover, the repetition of certain occurrences and elements play a crucial role in generating the uncanny effect in Pamela, including the role of double and déjà-vu, the castle-like settings, heroine's intimidating situations and also her master's past secret. In addition, the way Richardson's characters dress for the noteworthy masquerade ball scene and the ambiguous words of Pamela's master are considerably implies something that is affiliated with characters' psyche according to Freud's condensation theory. With regard to Freud's concepts of The 'Tripartite Psyche', 'Anxiety and Ego Defense Mechanisms' and 'Uncanny' the researcher attempts to delve into the heroine and her master's psyche through her letters which reveal the contents of the heroine's unconscious mind. Keywords: Tripartite Psyche, Anxiety and Ego Defense Mechanisms, Uncanny
Marion Richardson: "Art and the Child," a Forgotten Classic
Armstrong, Michael
2015-01-01
Marion Richardson was a revolutionary art teacher and schools inspector. First published in 1948, her book "Art and the Child" is one of the most remarkable educational documents of the period between the first and second world wars. This article reviews Richardson's philosophy and practice of art and suggests its continuing…
Skew Littlewood-Richardson rules from Hopf algebras
Lam, Thomas; Sottile, Frank
2009-01-01
We use Hopf algebras to prove a version of the Littlewood-Richardson formula for skew Schur functions, which implies a conjecture of Assaf and McNamara. We also establish a similar skew Littlewood-Richardson formula for Schur P- and Q-functions.
颜孙安; 姚清华; 林香信; 林虬; 苏德森
2015-01-01
Nutrient contents of the large yellow croakers,Pseudosciaena crocea Richardson,grown in seine net, pond or net cage fed with same feed were compared with those of the fish caught in the wild.The results showed that (a)the protein content of the wild croakers was higher than those of the aquacultured counterparts,(b)the fat and energy contents and E/P ratio were lower in the wild than the aquacultured croakers,(c)the total,essential and essential for children amino acids were significantly different among the groups grown under different settings,(d) no significant difference was found in the flavoring amino acids or ΣBCAA/ΣAAA in the fish raised in the different aquaculural settings (P >0.05),(d)the essential amino acid content in the fish was greater than 80% of the total amino acids,(e)the E/T and E/N ratios of all samples fell within the FAO/WHO model,(f)significant differences were found among the groups on the contents of saturated,monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids,as well as DHA+EPA and ΣUSFA/ΣSFA (P <0.05),and (g)the ΣSFA/ΣMUFA/ΣPUFA and Σ (n-6)PUFA/Σ(n-3)PUFA indices of the fish from all groups followed those formulated by Chinese Nutrition Society.Other than the fatty acids,all of the evaluation criteria on the croakers grown in seine net were the best among the fish from the tested groups.%采用国标的方法，对同一海域大围网、池塘和网箱三大养殖模式下大黄鱼肌肉的营养成分进行测定，以野生大黄鱼为对照，分析不同养殖模式大黄鱼肌肉营养成分差异。结果表明，养殖大黄鱼肌肉蛋白质含量低，粗脂肪含量、能值和 E／P 值较高；不同组间氨基酸总量、必需氨基酸总量和儿童必需氨基酸总量均存在显著性差异（P ＜0．05）；呈味氨基酸含量、支／芳值组间差异均不显著（P ＞0．05）；必需氨基酸指数均大于80％，E／T、E／N 均符合 FAO／WHO 模式；饱和脂肪酸、单不饱和脂肪酸、
Knight, John; Raats, Peter
2016-04-01
The EGU Division on Nonlinear Processes in Geophysics awards the Lewis Fry Richardson Medal. Richardson's significance is highlighted in http://www.egu.eu/awards-medals/portrait-lewis-fry-richardson/, but his contributions to soil physics and to numerical solutions of heat and diffusion equations are not mentioned. We would like to draw attention to those little known contributions. Lewis Fry Richardson (1881-1953) made important contributions to many fields including numerical weather prediction, finite difference solutions of partial differential equations, turbulent flow and diffusion, fractals, quantitative psychology and studies of conflict. He invented numerical weather prediction during World War I, although his methods were not successfully applied until 1950, after the invention of fast digital computers. In 1922 he published the book `Numerical weather prediction', of which few copies were sold and even fewer were read until the 1950s. To model heat and mass transfer in the atmosphere, he did much original work on turbulent flow and defined what is now known as the Richardson number. His technique for improving the convergence of a finite difference calculation is known as Richardson extrapolation, and was used by John Philip in his 1957 semi-analytical solution of the Richards equation for water movement in unsaturated soil. Richardson's first papers in 1908 concerned the numerical solution of the free surface problem of unconfined flow of water in saturated soil, arising in the design of drain spacing in peat. Later, for the lower boundary of his atmospheric model he needed to understand the movement of heat, liquid water and water vapor in what is now called the vadose zone and the soil plant atmosphere system, and to model coupled transfer of heat and flow of water in unsaturated soil. Finding little previous work, he formulated partial differential equations for transient, vertical flow of liquid water and for transfer of heat and water vapor. He
Richardson-Schottky transport mechanism in ZnS nanoparticles
Ali, Hassan; Khan, Usman; Rafiq, M. A.; Falak, Attia; Narain, Adeela; Jing, Tang; Xu, Xiulai
2016-05-01
We report the synthesis and electrical transport mechanism in ZnS semiconductor nanoparticles. Temperature dependent direct current transport measurements on the compacts of ZnS have been performed to investigate the transport mechanism for temperature ranging from 300 K to 400 K. High frequency dielectric constant has been used to obtain the theoretical values of Richardson-Schottky and Poole-Frenkel barrier lowering coefficients. Experimental value of the barrier lowering coefficient has been calculated from conductance-voltage characteristics. The experimental value of barrier lowering coefficient βexp lies close to the theoretical value of Richardson-Schottky barrier lowering coefficient βth,RS showing Richardson-Schottky emission has been responsible for conduction in ZnS nanoparticles for the temperature range studied.
Richardson-Schottky transport mechanism in ZnS nanoparticles
Hassan Ali
2016-05-01
Full Text Available We report the synthesis and electrical transport mechanism in ZnS semiconductor nanoparticles. Temperature dependent direct current transport measurements on the compacts of ZnS have been performed to investigate the transport mechanism for temperature ranging from 300 K to 400 K. High frequency dielectric constant has been used to obtain the theoretical values of Richardson-Schottky and Poole-Frenkel barrier lowering coefficients. Experimental value of the barrier lowering coefficient has been calculated from conductance-voltage characteristics. The experimental value of barrier lowering coefficient βexp lies close to the theoretical value of Richardson-Schottky barrier lowering coefficient βth,RS showing Richardson-Schottky emission has been responsible for conduction in ZnS nanoparticles for the temperature range studied.
Parametrization of the Richardson weather generator within the European Union
Voet, van der P.; Kramer, K.; Diepen, van C.A.
1996-01-01
The Richardson model for mathematically generating daily weather data was parametrized. Thirty years' time-series of the 355 main meteorological stations in the European Union formed the database. Model parameters were derived from both observed weather station data and interpolated weather data on
Parametrization of the Richardson weather generator within the European Union
Voet, van der P.; Kramer, K.; Diepen, van C.A.
1996-01-01
The Richardson model for mathematically generating daily weather data was parametrized. Thirty years' time-series of the 355 main meteorological stations in the European Union formed the database. Model parameters were derived from both observed weather station data and interpolated weather data on
Gloria Richardson: Her Life and Work in SNCC.
Cook, Melanie B.
1988-01-01
Gloria Richardson was one of the Black women activists whose work is largely unnoticed but who was an inspirational worker for civil rights. As the coordinator of the Cambridge branch of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee, she challenged local racist laws and policies. (VM)
The Littlewood-Richardson rule, theory and implementation
M.A.A. van Leeuwen
1997-01-01
textabstractWe present the implementation of the Littlewood-Richardson rule in LiE. We describe the mathematical problem it applies to, formulate the rule, and indicate a proof. In a brief historical sketch we indicate some early formulations and partial proofs. We derive a formulation of the rule
The founder of Vicks: Lunsford Richardson (1854-1919).
Al Aboud, Khalid
2010-01-01
Vicks VapoRub (Procter & Gamble, Cincinnati, OH) is one of the most popular over-the-counter therapies in the world, used to provide relief from the symptoms of the common cold and non-life-threatening respiratory infections. Even as more advanced products have come and gone, VapoRub continues to dominate the market almost 9 decades after the death of its formulator, Lunsford Richardson (Figure).
Image Restoration Using the Damped Richardson-Lucy Iteration
White, R. L.
The most widely used image restoration technique for optical astronomical data is the Richardson-Lucy (RL) iteration. The RL method is well-suited to optical and ultraviolet because it converges to the maximum likelihood solution for Poisson statistics in the data, which is appropriate for astronomical images taken with CCD or photon-counting detectors. Images restored using the RL iteration have good good photometric linearity and can be used for quantitative analysis, and typical RL restorations require a manageable amount of computer time. Despite its advantages, the RL method has some serious shortcomings. Noise amplification is a problem, as for all maximum likelihood techniques. If one performs many RL iterations on an image containing an extended object such as a galaxy, the extended emission develops a ``speckled'' appearance. The speckles are the result of fitting the noise in the data too closely. The only limit on the amount of noise amplification in the RL method is the requirement that the image not become negative. The usual practical approach to limiting noise amplification is simply to stop the iteration when the restored image appears to become too noisy. However, in most cases the number of iterations needed is different for different parts of the image. Hundreds of iterations may be required to get a good fit to the high signal-to-noise image of a bright star, while a smooth, extended object may be fitted well after only a few iterations. Thus, one would like to be able to slow or stop the iteration automatically in regions where a smooth model fits the data adequately, while continuing to iterate in regions where there are sharp features (edges or point sources). The need for a spatially adaptive convergence criterion is exacerbated when CCD readout noise is included in the RL algorithm (Snyder, Hammoud, & White, 1993, JOSA A , 10 , 1014), because the rate of convergence is then slower for faint stars than for bright stars. This paper will
Number-specific and general cognitive markers of preschoolers' math ability profiles.
Gray, Sarah A; Reeve, Robert A
2016-07-01
Different number-specific and general cognitive markers have been claimed to underlie preschoolers' math ability. It is unclear, however, whether similar/different cognitive markers, or combinations of them, are associated with different patterns of emerging math abilities (i.e., different patterns of strength and weakness). To examine this question, 103 preschoolers (40-60 months of age) completed six math tasks (count sequence, object counting, give a number, naming numbers, ordinal relations, and arithmetic), three number-specific markers of math ability (dot enumeration, magnitude comparison, and spontaneous focusing on numerosity), and four general markers (working memory, response inhibition, attention, and vocabulary). A three-step latent profile modeling procedure identified five math ability profiles that differed in their patterns of math strengths and weaknesses; specifically, the profiles were characterized by (a) excellent math ability on all math tasks, (b) good arithmetic ability, (c) good math ability but relatively poor count sequence recitation ability, (d) average ability on all math tasks, and (e) poor ability on all math tasks. After controlling for age, only dot enumeration and spontaneous focusing on numerosity were associated with the math ability profiles, whereas vocabulary was also marginally significant, and these markers were differentially associated with different profiles; that is, different cognitive markers were associated with different patterns of strengths and weaknesses in math abilities. Findings are discussed in terms of their implications for the development of math cognition.
75 FR 17178 - Nebraska Disaster Number NE-00033
2010-04-05
..., Merrick, Nuckolls, Pierce, Platte, Polk, Richardson, Sarpy, Wayne. All other information in the original declaration remains unchanged. (Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance Numbers 59002 and 59008) James...
76 FR 56853 - Nebraska Disaster Number NE-00041
2011-09-14
... Loans): Lincoln, Nemaha, Richardson. Contiguous Counties: (Economic Injury Loans Only): Kansas: Brown.... (Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance Numbers 59002 and 59008) James E. Rivera, Associate...
Skagerlund, Kenny; Träff, Ulf
2016-01-01
This study investigated if developmental dyscalculia (DD) in children with different profiles of mathematical deficits has the same or different cognitive origins. The defective approximate number system hypothesis and the access deficit hypothesis were tested using two different groups of children with DD (11-13 years old): a group with…
Sequenza: allele-specific copy number and mutation profiles from tumor sequencing data.
Favero, F; Joshi, T; Marquard, A M; Birkbak, N J; Krzystanek, M; Li, Q; Szallasi, Z; Eklund, A C
2015-01-01
Exome or whole-genome deep sequencing of tumor DNA along with paired normal DNA can potentially provide a detailed picture of the somatic mutations that characterize the tumor. However, analysis of such sequence data can be complicated by the presence of normal cells in the tumor specimen, by intratumor heterogeneity, and by the sheer size of the raw data. In particular, determination of copy number variations from exome sequencing data alone has proven difficult; thus, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays have often been used for this task. Recently, algorithms to estimate absolute, but not allele-specific, copy number profiles from tumor sequencing data have been described. We developed Sequenza, a software package that uses paired tumor-normal DNA sequencing data to estimate tumor cellularity and ploidy, and to calculate allele-specific copy number profiles and mutation profiles. We applied Sequenza, as well as two previously published algorithms, to exome sequence data from 30 tumors from The Cancer Genome Atlas. We assessed the performance of these algorithms by comparing their results with those generated using matched SNP arrays and processed by the allele-specific copy number analysis of tumors (ASCAT) algorithm. Comparison between Sequenza/exome and SNP/ASCAT revealed strong correlation in cellularity (Pearson's r = 0.90) and ploidy estimates (r = 0.42, or r = 0.94 after manual inspecting alternative solutions). This performance was noticeably superior to previously published algorithms. In addition, in artificial data simulating normal-tumor admixtures, Sequenza detected the correct ploidy in samples with tumor content as low as 30%. The agreement between Sequenza and SNP array-based copy number profiles suggests that exome sequencing alone is sufficient not only for identifying small scale mutations but also for estimating cellularity and inferring DNA copy number aberrations. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of
Critical Rayleigh number of for error function temperature profile with a quasi-static assumption
Kerr, Oliver S
2016-01-01
When a semi-infinite body is heated from below by a sudden increase in temperature (or cooled from above) an error function temperature profile grows as the heat diffuses into the fluid. The stability of such a profile is investigated using a large-wavelength asymptotic expansion under the quasi-static, or frozen-time, approximation. The critical Rayleigh number for this layer is found to be $Ra=\\pi^{1/2}$ based on the length-scale $(\\kappa t)^{1/2}$ where $\\kappa$ is the thermal diffusivity and $t$ the time since the onset of heating.
RECONSIDERING FRIEDMAN, RICHARDSON AND THE CONSTITUTIVE A PRIORI
Álvaro J. Peláez Cedrés
2006-08-01
Full Text Available The contemporary interpretations on the a priori in the philosophy of science have been dominated mainly by a semantic and a pragmatic reading. Although the contribution of these conceptions has been valuable, it is my point of view that they have rejected without justification the fundamental meaning of the original Kantian notion, that is, the idea of the constitution of the experience. In this paper I intend to do two things: first, after a presentation of the argument between Friedman and Richardson, both supporters of the semantic and pragmatic readings, I will show the historical reasons that one can use to reject the semantic interpretation of the a priori. Then, I will sketch a conception of the constitutive a priori which, tracking the proposals of philosophers of the 19th century, will insist on the idea that the experience is dominated by a formal function which consists in the production of “invariants”.
Geology and ground-water resources of Richardson County, Nebraska
Emery, Philip A.
1964-01-01
Richardson County is in the extreme southeast corner of Nebraska. It has an area of 545 square miles, and in 1960 it had a population of 13,903. The county is in the physiographic region referred to as the Dissected Loess-covered Till Prairies. Major drainage consists of the Big Nemaha River, including its North and South Forks, and Muddy Creek. These streams flow southeastward and empty into the Missouri River, which forms the eastern boundary of the county. The climate of Richardson County is subhumid; the normal annual precipitation is about 35 inches. Agriculture is the chief industry, and corn is the principal crop. Pleistocene glacial drift, loess, and alluvial deposits mantle the bedrock except in the southern and southwestern parts of the county where the bedrock is at the surface. Ground water is obtained from glacial till, fluvioglacial material, terrace deposits, and coarse alluvial deposits, all of Pleistocene age--and some is obtained from bedrock aquifers of Pennsylvanian and Permian age. Adequate supplies of ground water are in many places difficult to locate because the water-bearing sands and gravels of Pleistocene age vary in composition and lack lateral persistence. Perched water tables are common in the upland areas and provide limited amounts of water to many of the shallow wells, Very few wells in bedrock yield adequate supplies, as the permeability of the rock is low and water that is more than a few tens of feet below the bedrock surface is highly mineralized. Recharge is primarily from local precipitation, and water levels in many wells respond rapidly to increased or decreased precipitation. The quality of the ground water is generally satisfactory for most uses, although all the water is hard, and iron and manganese concentrations, in some areas, are relatively high. Ground water is used mainly for domestic and stock purposes.
Low copy number DNA profiling from isolated sperm using the aureka®-micromanipulation system.
Schneider, C; Müller, U; Kilper, R; Siebertz, B
2012-07-01
A new cell isolation technique linked to the aureka® micromanipulation system (aureka®) was used to pick sperm from mixed samples containing sperm and epithelial cells. Both cell types were stained using the HY-LITER™ high-resolution, fluorescent staining kit. To isolate a single sperm of interest under a fluorescent microscope, a specific microsphere picking technique was used. This sensitive and reliable cell identification and isolation technique enables low-copy-number (LCN) DNA profiling, as few as 20 sperm are sufficient for obtaining a full short tandem repeat (STR) profile without any allelic drop out. The presented protocol covers the whole workflow, from sample staining and cell pick up to STR analysis.
Ghost images and feasibility of reconstructions with the Richardson-Lucy algorithm
Llacer, Jorge; Nunez, Jorge
1994-09-01
This paper is the result of a question that was raised at the recent workshop on 'The Restoration of HST Images and Spectra II', that took place at the Space Telescope Science Institute in November 1993, for which there was no forthcoming answer at that time. The question was: What is the null space (ghost images) of the Richardson-Lucy (RL) algorithm? Another question that came up for which there is a straight-forward answer was: What does the MLE algorithm really do? In this paper we attempt to answer both questions. This paper will begin with a brief description of the null space of an imaging system, with particular emphasis on the Hubble telescope. The imaging conditions under which there is a possibly damaging null space will be described in terms of linear methods of reconstruction. For the uncorrected Hubble telescope, it is shown that for a PSF computed by TINYTIM on a 512 X 512 dimension, there is no null space. We introduce the concept of a 'nearly null' space, with an unsharp distinction between the 'measurement' and the 'null' components of an image and generate a reduced resolution Hubble Point Spread Function (PSF) that has that nearly null space. We then study the propagation characteristics of null images in the Maximum Likelihood Estimator (MLE), or Richardson-Lucy algorithm, and the nature of its possible effects, but we find in computer simulations that the algorithm is very robust to those effects: if they exist, the effects are local and tend to disappear with increasing iteration numbers. We then demonstrate how a PSF that has small components in frequency domain results in noise magnification, just as one would expect in linear reconstruction. The answer to the second question is given in terms of the residuals of a reconstruction and the concept of feasibility.
Ali Hassan, Nur Zarina; Mokhtar, Norfilza Mohd; Kok Sin, Teow; Mohamed Rose, Isa; Sagap, Ismail; Harun, Roslan; Jamal, Rahman
2014-01-01
Integrative analyses of multiple genomic datasets for selected samples can provide better insight into the overall data and can enhance our knowledge of cancer. The objective of this study was to elucidate the association between copy number variation (CNV) and gene expression in colorectal cancer (CRC) samples and their corresponding non-cancerous tissues. Sixty-four paired CRC samples from the same patients were subjected to CNV profiling using the Illumina HumanOmni1-Quad assay, and validation was performed using multiplex ligation probe amplification method. Genome-wide expression profiling was performed on 15 paired samples from the same group of patients using the Affymetrix Human Gene 1.0 ST array. Significant genes obtained from both array results were then overlapped. To identify molecular pathways, the data were mapped to the KEGG database. Whole genome CNV analysis that compared primary tumor and non-cancerous epithelium revealed gains in 1638 genes and losses in 36 genes. Significant gains were mostly found in chromosome 20 at position 20q12 with a frequency of 45.31% in tumor samples. Examples of genes that were associated at this cytoband were PTPRT, EMILIN3 and CHD6. The highest number of losses was detected at chromosome 8, position 8p23.2 with 17.19% occurrence in all tumor samples. Among the genes found at this cytoband were CSMD1 and DLC1. Genome-wide expression profiling showed 709 genes to be up-regulated and 699 genes to be down-regulated in CRC compared to non-cancerous samples. Integration of these two datasets identified 56 overlapping genes, which were located in chromosomes 8, 20 and 22. MLPA confirmed that the CRC samples had the highest gains in chromosome 20 compared to the reference samples. Interpretation of the CNV data in the context of the transcriptome via integrative analyses may provide more in-depth knowledge of the genomic landscape of CRC.
Nur Zarina Ali Hassan
Full Text Available Integrative analyses of multiple genomic datasets for selected samples can provide better insight into the overall data and can enhance our knowledge of cancer. The objective of this study was to elucidate the association between copy number variation (CNV and gene expression in colorectal cancer (CRC samples and their corresponding non-cancerous tissues. Sixty-four paired CRC samples from the same patients were subjected to CNV profiling using the Illumina HumanOmni1-Quad assay, and validation was performed using multiplex ligation probe amplification method. Genome-wide expression profiling was performed on 15 paired samples from the same group of patients using the Affymetrix Human Gene 1.0 ST array. Significant genes obtained from both array results were then overlapped. To identify molecular pathways, the data were mapped to the KEGG database. Whole genome CNV analysis that compared primary tumor and non-cancerous epithelium revealed gains in 1638 genes and losses in 36 genes. Significant gains were mostly found in chromosome 20 at position 20q12 with a frequency of 45.31% in tumor samples. Examples of genes that were associated at this cytoband were PTPRT, EMILIN3 and CHD6. The highest number of losses was detected at chromosome 8, position 8p23.2 with 17.19% occurrence in all tumor samples. Among the genes found at this cytoband were CSMD1 and DLC1. Genome-wide expression profiling showed 709 genes to be up-regulated and 699 genes to be down-regulated in CRC compared to non-cancerous samples. Integration of these two datasets identified 56 overlapping genes, which were located in chromosomes 8, 20 and 22. MLPA confirmed that the CRC samples had the highest gains in chromosome 20 compared to the reference samples. Interpretation of the CNV data in the context of the transcriptome via integrative analyses may provide more in-depth knowledge of the genomic landscape of CRC.
Schertzer, D.; Lovejoy, S.
famous, pioneering book "Weather prediction by numerical processes" (1922). As a consequence of his atmospheric studies, the nondimensional number associated with fluid convective stability has been called the "Richardson number". In addition, his book presents a study of the limitations of numerical integration of these equations, it was in this book that - through a celebrated poem - that the suggestion that turbulent cascades were the fundamental driving mechanism of the atmosphere was first made. In these cascades, large eddies break up into smaller eddies in a manner which involves no characteristic scales, all the way from the planetary scale down to the viscous scale. This led to the Richardson law of turbulent diffusion (1926) and tot he suggestion that particles trajectories might not be describable by smooth curves, but that such trajectories might instead require highly convoluted curves such as the Peano or Weierstrass (fractal) curves for their description. As a founder of the cascade and scaling theories of atmospheric dynamics, he more or less anticipated the Kolmogorov law (1941). He also used scaling ideas to invent the "Richardson dividers method" of successively increasing the resolution of fractal curves and tested out the method on geographical boundaries (as part of his wartime studies). In the latter work he anticipated recent efforts to study scale invariance in rivers and topography. His complex life typifies some of the hardships that the European scientific community has had to face. His educational career is unusual: he received a B.A. degree in physics, mathematics, chemistry, biology and zoology at Cambridge University, and he finally obtained his Ph.D. in mathematical psychology at the age of 47 from the University of London. As a conscientious objector he was compelled to quit the United Kingdom Meteorological Office in 1920 when the latter was militarized by integration into the Air Ministry. He subsequently became the head of a physics
D. Schertzer
1994-01-01
his famous, pioneering book "Weather prediction by numerical processes" (1922. As a consequence of his atmospheric studies, the nondimensional number associated with fluid convective stability has been called the "Richardson number". In addition, his book presents a study of the limitations of numerical integration of these equations, it was in this book that - through a celebrated poem - that the suggestion that turbulent cascades were the fundamental driving mechanism of the atmosphere was first made. In these cascades, large eddies break up into smaller eddies in a manner which involves no characteristic scales, all the way from the planetary scale down to the viscous scale. This led to the Richardson law of turbulent diffusion (1926 and tot he suggestion that particles trajectories might not be describable by smooth curves, but that such trajectories might instead require highly convoluted curves such as the Peano or Weierstrass (fractal curves for their description. As a founder of the cascade and scaling theories of atmospheric dynamics, he more or less anticipated the Kolmogorov law (1941. He also used scaling ideas to invent the "Richardson dividers method" of successively increasing the resolution of fractal curves and tested out the method on geographical boundaries (as part of his wartime studies. In the latter work he anticipated recent efforts to study scale invariance in rivers and topography. His complex life typifies some of the hardships that the European scientific community has had to face. His educational career is unusual: he received a B.A. degree in physics, mathematics, chemistry, biology and zoology at Cambridge University, and he finally obtained his Ph.D. in mathematical psychology at the age of 47 from the University of London. As a conscientious objector he was compelled to quit the United Kingdom Meteorological Office in 1920 when the latter was militarized by integration into the Air Ministry. He subsequently became the head of a physics
Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP): Richardson syndrome and other PSP variants.
Lopez, G; Bayulkem, K; Hallett, M
2016-10-01
Phenotypic heterogeneity of progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) has been increasingly reported in the literature and can be the source of incorrect clinical diagnosis particularly in the early stages of the disease when the classically associated symptoms of early falls and supranuclear gaze palsy may not be apparent. In addition to Richardson syndrome (RS), several atypical clinical phenotypes have been described. Advances in genetic, neuroimaging, and biochemical/molecular technologies contribute to the identification of these clinical subtypes in the context of typical PSP pathological findings. Our goal is to review the phenomenology reported in the literature that is associated with confirmed histopathological changes consistent with a PSP diagnosis and to highlight the clinical spectrum of PSP. A systematic review of the literature in PubMed through July 2015 using MeSH terms and key words related to PSP was conducted. Articles describing PSP classifications, diagnostic criteria, and case reports were reviewed and summarized. Additional PSP phenotypes not seen in recent clinicopathological studies are included. These include primary lateral sclerosis, pallido-nigro-luysian degeneration, axonal dystrophy, and multiple system atrophy in the spectrum of atypical PSP variants beyond the traditionally classified PSP subtypes. This review is intended to help with the diagnostic challenges of atypical PSP variants. We believe that large multicenter clinicopathological studies will help expand our understanding of etiology and specific mechanisms of neurodegeneration and will aid in the appropriate interpretation of outcomes when conducting clinical and basic science research.
Magnetic field assisted fluidization: A modified Richardson-Zaki equation
Jose; Manuel; Valverde; Antonio; Castellanos
2007-01-01
Magnetic particles can be uniformly fluidized by coupling the gas flow with an externally imposed magnetic field. Interparticle forces generated by the magnetic field cause aggregation of the particles in chain-like structures preferentially oriented along the magnetic field lines. In the present paper, we study the implications of the formation of these special types of aggregates on the empirical Richardson-Zaki (RZ) equation, originally proposed to describe the expansion of fluidized beds of non-aggregated particles. We have addressed two important issues, namely the flow regime,which is a function of the size of the aggregates, and the effect of shape and orientation of the chain-like aggregates with respect to gas flow on fluid drag. We propose a modified RZ equation (MRZE) in which the velocity scale, given by the terminal settling velocity of the individual aggregates, and the RZ exponent are predetermined as a function of the chain length. The chain length depends on the ratio of the magnetic energy to gravitational energy, and is estimated from the magnetic field intensity, and particle magnetization, size and density. Predictions of the MRZE are successfully compared with published results in the literature on the expansion of magnetic particles in the presence of externally applied magnetic fields.
Gene expression profiling and gene copy-number changes in malignant mesothelioma cell lines.
Zanazzi, Claudia; Hersmus, Remko; Veltman, Imke M; Gillis, Ad J M; van Drunen, Ellen; Beverloo, H Berna; Hegmans, Joost P J J; Verweij, Marielle; Lambrecht, Bart N; Oosterhuis, J Wolter; Looijenga, Leendert H J
2007-10-01
Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is an asbestos-induced tumor that acquires aneuploid DNA content during the tumorigenic process. We used instable MM cell lines as an in vitro model to study the impact of DNA copy-number changes on gene expression profiling, in the course of their chromosomal redistribution process. Two MM cell lines, PMR-MM2 (early passages of in vitro culture) and PMR-MM7 (both early and late passages of in vitro culture), were cytogenetically characterized. Genomic gains and losses were precisely defined using microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH), and minimal overlapping analysis led to the identification of the common unbalanced genomic regions. Using the U133Plus 2.0 Affymetrix gene chip array, we analyzed PMR-MM7 early and late passages for genome-wide gene expression, and correlated the differentially expressed genes with copy-number changes. The presence of a high number of genetic imbalances occurring from early to late culture steps reflected the tendency of MM cells toward genomic instability. The selection of specific chromosomal abnormalities observed during subsequent cultures demonstrated the spontaneous evolution of the cancer cells in an in vitro environment. MM cell lines were characterized by copy-number changes associated with the TP53 apoptotic pathway already present at the first steps of in vitro culture. Prolonged culture led to acquisition of additional chromosomal copy-number changes associated with dysregulation of genes involved in cell adhesion, regulation of mitotic cell cycle, signal transduction, carbohydrate metabolism, motor activity, glycosaminoglycan biosynthesis, protein binding activity, lipid transport, ATP synthesis, and methyltransferase activity.
Stability-based comparison of class discovery methods for DNA copy number profiles.
Isabel Brito
Full Text Available MOTIVATION: Array-CGH can be used to determine DNA copy number, imbalances in which are a fundamental factor in the genesis and progression of tumors. The discovery of classes with similar patterns of array-CGH profiles therefore adds to our understanding of cancer and the treatment of patients. Various input data representations for array-CGH, dissimilarity measures between tumor samples and clustering algorithms may be used for this purpose. The choice between procedures is often difficult. An evaluation procedure is therefore required to select the best class discovery method (combination of one input data representation, one dissimilarity measure and one clustering algorithm for array-CGH. Robustness of the resulting classes is a common requirement, but no stability-based comparison of class discovery methods for array-CGH profiles has ever been reported. RESULTS: We applied several class discovery methods and evaluated the stability of their solutions, with a modified version of Bertoni's [Formula: see text]-based test [1]. Our version relaxes the assumption of independency required by original Bertoni's [Formula: see text]-based test. We conclude that Minimal Regions of alteration (a concept introduced by [2] for input data representation, sim [3] or agree [4] for dissimilarity measure and the use of average group distance in the clustering algorithm produce the most robust classes of array-CGH profiles. AVAILABILITY: The software is available from http://bioinfo.curie.fr/projects/cgh-clustering. It has also been partly integrated into "Visualization and analysis of array-CGH"(VAMP[5]. The data sets used are publicly available from ACTuDB [6].
Temperature variance profiles of turbulent thermal convection at high Rayleigh numbers
He, Xiaozhou; Bodenschatz, Eberhard; Ahlers, Guenter
2016-11-01
We present measurements of the Nusselt number Nu , and of the temperature variance σ2 as a function of vertical position z, in turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard convection of two cylindrical samples with aspect ratios (diameter D/height L) Γ = 0 . 50 and 0 . 33 . Both samples had D = 1 . 12 m but different L. We used compressed SF6 gas at pressures up to 19 bars as the fluid. The measurements covered the Rayleigh-number range 1013 < Ra < 5 ×1015 at a Prandtl number Pr = 0 . 80 . Near the side wall we found that σ2 is independent of Ra when plotted as a function of z / λ where λ ≡ L / (2 Nu) is a thermal boundary-layer thickness. The profiles σ2 (z / λ) for the two Γ values overlapped and followed a logarithmic function for 20 z / λ 120 . With the observed "-1"-scaling of the temperature power spectra and on the basis of the Perry-Townsend similarity hypothesis, we derived a fitting function σ2 =p1 ln (z / λ) +p2 +p3(z / λ) - 0 . 5 which describes the σ2 data up to z / λ = 1500 . Supported by the Max Planck Society, the Volkswagenstiftung, the DFD Sonderforschungsbereich SFB963, and NSF Grant DMR11-58514.
Environmental contaminants in an osprey egg from the Upper Richardson Lake, Maine
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — On July 19, 2003 a non-viable, addled osprey (Pandion haliaetus) egg was collected from a nest at the northern end of Upper Richardson Lake in Richardsontown...
Wei, Xianlong; Wang, Sheng; Chen, Qing; Peng, Lianmao
2014-05-29
Probing the validity of classical macroscopic physical laws at the nanoscale is important for nanoscience research. Herein, we report on experimental evidence that electron emission from individual hot carbon nanotubes (CNTs) heated by self-Joule-heating does not obey Richardson's law of thermionic emission. By using an in-situ multi-probe measurement technique, electron emission density (J) and temperature (T) of individual self-Joule-heated CNTs are simultaneously determined. Experimental ln(J/T(2)) - 1/T plots are found to exhibit an upward bending feature deviating from the straight lines in Richardson plots, and the measured electron emission density is more than one order of magnitude higher than that predicted by Richardson's law. The breakdown of Richardson's law implies a much better electron emission performance of individual CNTs as compared to their macroscopic allotropes and clusters, and the need of new theoretical descriptions of electron emission from individual low-dimensional nanostructures.
Novel amplifications in pediatric medulloblastoma identified by genome-wide copy number profiling.
Nord, Helena; Pfeifer, Susan; Nilsson, Pelle; Sandgren, Johanna; Popova, Svetlana; Strömberg, Bo; Alafuzoff, Irina; Nistér, Monica; Díaz de Ståhl, Teresita
2012-03-01
Medulloblastoma (MB) is a WHO grade IV, invasive embryonal CNS tumor that mainly affects children. The aggressiveness and response to therapy can vary considerably between cases, and despite treatment, ~30% of patients die within 2 years from diagnosis. Furthermore, the majority of survivors suffer long-term side-effects due to severe management modalities. Several distinct morphological features have been associated with differences in biological behavior, but improved molecular-based criteria that better reflect the underlying tumor biology are in great demand. In this study, we profiled a series of 25 MB with a 32K BAC array covering 99% of the current assembly of the human genome for the identification of genetic copy number alterations possibly important in MB. Previously known aberrations as well as several novel focally amplified loci could be identified. As expected, the most frequently observed alteration was the combination of 17p loss and 17q gain, which was detected in both high- and standard-risk patients. We also defined minimal overlapping regions of aberrations, including 16 regions of gain and 18 regions of loss in various chromosomes. A few noteworthy narrow amplified loci were identified on autosomes 1 (38.89-41.97 and 84.89-90.76 Mb), 3 (27.64-28.20 and 35.80-43.50 Mb), and 8 (119.66-139.79 Mb), aberrations that were verified with an alternative platform (Illumina 610Q chips). Gene expression levels were also established for these samples using Affymetrix U133Plus2.0 arrays. Several interesting genes encompassed within the amplified regions and presenting with transcript upregulation were identified. These data contribute to the characterization of this malignant childhood brain tumor and confirm its genetic heterogeneity.
Electron number density profiles derived from radio occultation on the CASSIOPE spacecraft
Shume, E. B.; Vergados, P.; Komjathy, A.
2017-01-01
good agreement with density profiles estimated from ionosonde data, measured over nearby stations to the latitude and longitude of the RO tangent points, (2) in good agreement with density profiles inferred from GPS RO measured by the Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere......, and Climate (COSMIC), and (3) in general agreement with density profiles estimated using the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) climatological model. Using both CASSIOPE and COSMIC RO observations, we identify, for the first time, that there exist differences in the characteristics of the electron...
Use of predefined biochemical admission profiles does not reduce the number of tests or total cost
Pareek, Manan; Haidl, Felix; Folkestad, Lars
2014-01-01
The objective of this pilot study was to evaluate whether the use of predefined biochemical profiles as an alternative to individually ordered blood tests by the treating physicians resulted in fewer tests or a lower total cost.......The objective of this pilot study was to evaluate whether the use of predefined biochemical profiles as an alternative to individually ordered blood tests by the treating physicians resulted in fewer tests or a lower total cost....
Schouten, Philip C.; Grigoriadis, Anita; Kuilman, Thomas; Mirza, Hasan; Watkins, Johnathan A.; Cooke, Saskia A.; van Dyk, Ewald; Severson, Tesa M.; Rueda, Oscar M.; Hoogstraat, Marlous; Verhagen, Caroline V. M.; Natrajan, Rachael; Chin, Suet-Feung; Lips, Esther H.; Kruizinga, Janneke; Velds, Arno; Nieuwland, Marja; Kerkhoven, Ron M.; Krijgsman, Oscar; Vens, Conchita; Peeper, Daniel; Nederlof, Petra M.; Caldas, Carlos; Tutt, Andrew N.; Wessels, Lodewyk F.; Linn, Sabine C.
Breast cancers with BRCA1 germline mutation have a characteristic DNA copy number (CN) pattern. We developed a test that assigns CN profiles to be 'BRCA1-like' or 'non-BRCA1-like', which refers to resembling a BRCA1-mutated tumor or resembling a tumor without a BRCA1 mutation, respectively.
Schouten, P.C.; Grigoriadis, A.; Kuilman, T.; Mirza, H.; Watkins, J.A.; Cooke, S.A.; Van Dyk, E.; Severson, T.M.; Rueda, O.M.; Hoogstraat, M.; Verhagen, C.; Natrajan, R.; Chin, S.F.; Lips, E.H.; Kruizinga, J.; Velds, A.; Nieuwland, M.; Kerkhoven, R.M.; Krijgsman, O.; Vens, C.; Peeper, D.; Nederlof, P.M.; Caldas, C.; Tutt, A.N.; Wessels, L.F.A.; Linn, S.C.
2015-01-01
Breast cancers with BRCA1 germline mutation have a characteristic DNA copy number (CN) pattern. We developed a test that assigns CN profiles to be ‘BRCA1-like’ or ‘non-BRCA1-like’, which refers to resembling a BRCA1-mutated tumor or resembling a tumor without a BRCA1 mutation, respectively.
Schouten, P.C.; Grigoriadis, A.; Kuilman, T.; Mirza, H.; Watkins, J.A.; Cooke, S.A.; Dyk, E. van; Severson, T.M.; Rueda, O.M.; Hoogstraat, M.; Verhagen, C.V.M.; Natrajan, R.; Chin, S.F.; Lips, E.H.; Kruizinga, J.; Velds, A.; Nieuwland, M.; Kerkhoven, R.M.; Krijgsman, O.; Vens, C.; Peeper, D.; Nederlof, P.M.; Caldas, C.; Tutt, A.N.; Wessels, L.F.; Linn, S.C.
2015-01-01
Breast cancers with BRCA1 germline mutation have a characteristic DNA copy number (CN) pattern. We developed a test that assigns CN profiles to be 'BRCA1-like' or 'non-BRCA1-like', which refers to resembling a BRCA1-mutated tumor or resembling a tumor without a BRCA1 mutation, respectively.
Grosjean, Mélissa Vieille; Delerue, Nicolas; Taheri, Faissal Bakkali; Doucas, George; Konoplev, Ivan Vasilyevich; Reichold, Armin; Clarke, Christine Isabel
2014-01-01
The E-203 collaboration is testing a device on FACET at SLAC to measure the longitudinal profile of electron bunches using Smith-Purcell radiation. At FACET the electron bunches have an energy of 20~GeV and a duration of a few hundred femtoseconds. Smith-Purcell radiation is emitted when a charged particle passes close to the surface of a metallic grating. We have studied the stability of the measurement from pulse to pulse and the resolution of the measure depending on the number of gratings used.
75 FR 67618 - Safety Zone: Richardson Ash Scattering by Fireworks, San Francisco, CA
2010-11-03
... Sausalito Ferry docks in Sausalito, CA. From 6:15 p.m. until 7 p.m., the area to which the temporary safety... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone: Richardson Ash Scattering by Fireworks, San... establishing a temporary safety zone in the navigable waters of San Francisco Bay 1,500 feet off Yellow Bluff...
Richardson-Gaudin integrability in the contraction limit of the quasispin
De Baerdemacker, Stijn
2012-01-01
Background: The reduced, level-independent, Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer Hamiltonian is exactly diagonalizable by means of a Bethe Ansatz wavefunction, provided the free variables in the Ansatz are the solutions of the set of Richardson-Gaudin equations. On the one side, the Bethe Ansatz is a simple product state of generalised pair operators. On the other hand, the Richardson-Gaudin equations are strongly coupled in a non-linear way, making them prone to singularities. Unfortunately, it is non-trivial to give a clear physical interpretation to the Richardson-Gaudin variables because no physical operator is directly related to the individual variables. Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to shed more light on the critical behavior of the Richardson-Gaudin equations, and how this is related to the product wave structure of the Bethe Ansatz. Method: A pseudo-deformation of the quasi-spin algebra is introduced, leading towards a Heisenberg-Weyl algebra in the contraction limit of the deformation parameter. This e...
Briti ekspert : euroliidus kaob Eestist tööpuudus / Michael Richardson ; interv. Airi Ilisson
Richardson, Michael
2003-01-01
Eestis Suurbritannia tööreformi tutvustava töö- ja sotsiaalnõuniku sõnul on Suurbritannias peaaegu kadunud pikaajaline töötus noorte hulgas, vanematest inimestest on vaid üksikud tööta kauem kui aasta. Vt. samas: Kes on Michael Richardson?
Scientific recognition in numbers: analysis of the profile of a vanguard from Lattes curricula vitae
Miguel Ângelo Montagner
2010-01-01
Full Text Available The objective was to analyze the possibilities and limitations of quantitative study on an institution and its professionals, taking into account the Lattes curriculum vitae platform. Through exploring this material, we sought to delineate the profile of professors of the UNICAMP School of Medical Sciences and to characterize their scientific production, main activities and academic profile. The methodology used was quantitative. Based on descriptive statistics, we outlined and analyzed the main characteristics these professors presented in their curricula vitae, which are stored in the database of the Lattes Platform. Next, using qualitative analysis based on the theories of Pierre Bourdieu, we emphasized the difficulties in achieving good descriptions of researchers' social and scientific paths based on the Lattes Platform. Thus, the Lattes system consists of a repository of finished scientific actions, comprising a linear, non-historical succession within official science.
Molecular profile and copy number analysis of sporadic colorectal cancer in Taiwan
Li Ling-Hui; Liu Jin-Hwang; Chang Hwey-May; Chang Ya-Hui; Chang Shih-Ching; Lin Jen-Kou; Lin Chien-Hsing; Chen Yuan-Tsong; Tsai Shih-Feng; Chen Wei-Shone
2011-01-01
Abstract Background Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major health concern worldwide, and recently becomes the most common cancer in Asia. The case collection of this study is one of the largest sets of CRC in Asia, and serves as representative data for investigating genomic differences between ethnic populations. We took comprehensive and high-resolution approaches to compare the clinicopathologic and genomic profiles of microsatellite instability (MSI) vs. microsatellite stability (MSS) in Taiwa...
Soumen Bhattacharyya; Anita Gupta; S G Nakhate; Pushpa M Rao
2006-12-01
Europium (Eu+) ions were confined in a Paul trap and detected by non-destructive method. Storage time of Eu+ ions achieved in vacuum was improved by orders of magnitude employing buffer gas cooling. The experimentally detected signal was fitted to the ion response signal and the total number of ions trapped was estimated. It is found that the peak signal amplitude as well as the product of FWHM and the peak signal amplitude is proportional to the total number of trapped ions. The trapped ion secular frequency was swept at different rates and its effect on the absorption line profile was studied both experimentally and theoretically.
Accurate and objective copy number profiling using real-time quantitative PCR.
D'haene, Barbara; Vandesompele, Jo; Hellemans, Jan
2010-04-01
Copy number changes are known to be involved in numerous human genetic disorders. In this context, qPCR-based copy number screening may serve as the method of choice for targeted screening of the relevant disease genes and their surrounding regulatory landscapes. qPCR has many advantages over alternative methods, such as its low consumable and instrumentation costs, fast turnaround and assay development time, high sensitivity and open format (independent of a single supplier). In this chapter we provide all relevant information for a successfully implement of qPCR-based copy number analysis. We emphasize the significance of thorough in silico and empirical validation of the primers, the need for a well thought-out experiment design, and the importance of quality controls along the entire workflow. Furthermore, we suggest an appropriate and practical way to calculate copy numbers and to objectively interpret the results. The provided guidelines will most certainly improve the quality and reliability of your qPCR-based copy number screening.
Genome-wide copy number profiling of mouse neural stem cells during differentiation
U. Fischer
2015-09-01
Full Text Available There is growing evidence that gene amplifications were present in neural stem and progenitor cells during differentiation. We used array-CGH to discover copy number changes including gene amplifications and deletions during differentiation of mouse neural stem cells using TGF-ß and FCS for differentiation induction. Array data were deposited in GEO (Gene Expression Omnibus, NCBI under accession number GSE35523. Here, we describe in detail the cell culture features and our TaqMan qPCR-experiments to validate the array-CGH analysis. Interpretation of array-CGH experiments regarding gene amplifications in mouse and further detailed analysis of amplified chromosome regions associated with these experiments were published by Fischer and colleagues in Oncotarget (Fischer et al., 2015. We provide additional information on deleted chromosome regions during differentiation and give an impressive overview on copy number changes during differentiation induction at a time line.
Genome-wide copy number profiling to detect gene amplifications in neural progenitor cells
U. Fischer
2014-12-01
Full Text Available DNA sequence amplification occurs at defined stages during normal development in amphibians and flies and seems to be restricted in humans to drug-resistant and tumor cells only. We used array-CGH to discover copy number changes including gene amplifications and deletions during differentiation of human neural progenitor cells. Here, we describe cell culture features, DNA extraction, and comparative genomic hybridization (CGH analysis tailored towards the identification of genomic copy number changes. Further detailed analysis of amplified chromosome regions associated with this experiment, was published by Fischer and colleagues in PLOS One in 2012 (Fischer et al., 2012. We provide detailed information on deleted chromosome regions during differentiation and give an overview on copy number changes during differentiation induction for two representative chromosome regions.
Konopka, Karl-Heinz; Harbers, Marten; Houghton, Andrea; Kortekaas, Rudie; van Vliet, Andre; Timmerman, Wia; den Boer, Johan A.; Struys, Michel M. R. F.; van Wijhe, Marten
2012-01-01
Due to the lack of a specific diagnostic tool for neuropathic pain, a grading system to categorize pain as ‘definite’, ‘probable’, ‘possible’ and ‘unlikely’ neuropathic was proposed. Somatosensory abnormalities are common in neuropathic pain and it has been suggested that a greater number of abnormalities would be present in patients with ‘probable’ and ‘definite’ grades. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the presence of somatosensory abnormalities by means of Quantitative Sensory Testing (QST) in patients with a clinical diagnosis of neuropathic pain and correlated the number of sensory abnormalities and sensory profiles to the different grades. Of patients who were clinically diagnosed with neuropathic pain, only 60% were graded as ‘definite’ or ‘probable’, while 40% were graded as ‘possible’ or ‘unlikely’ neuropathic pain. Apparently, there is a mismatch between a clinical neuropathic pain diagnosis and neuropathic pain grading. Contrary to the expectation, patients with ‘probable’ and ‘definite’ grades did not have a greater number of abnormalities. Instead, similar numbers of somatosensory abnormalities were identified for each grade. The profiles of sensory signs in ‘definite’ and ‘probable’ neuropathic pain were not significantly different, but different from the ‘unlikely’ grade. This latter difference could be attributed to differences in the prevalence of patients with a mixture of sensory gain and loss and with sensory loss only. The grading system allows a separation of neuropathic and non-neuropathic pain based on profiles but not on the total number of sensory abnormalities. Our findings indicate that patient selection based on grading of neuropathic pain may provide advantages in selecting homogenous groups for clinical research. PMID:22927981
Molecular profile and copy number analysis of sporadic colorectal cancer in Taiwan
Li Ling-Hui
2011-06-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Colorectal cancer (CRC is a major health concern worldwide, and recently becomes the most common cancer in Asia. The case collection of this study is one of the largest sets of CRC in Asia, and serves as representative data for investigating genomic differences between ethnic populations. We took comprehensive and high-resolution approaches to compare the clinicopathologic and genomic profiles of microsatellite instability (MSI vs. microsatellite stability (MSS in Taiwanese sporadic CRCs. Methods 1,173 CRC tumors were collected from the Taiwan population, and sequencing-based microsatellite typing assay was used to determine MSI and MSS. Genome-wide SNP array was used to detect CN alterations in 16 MSI-H and 13 MSS CRCs and CN variations in 424 general controls. Gene expression array was used to evaluate the effects of CN alterations, and quantitative PCR methods were used to replicate the findings in independent clinical samples. Results These 1,173 CRC tumors can be classified into 75 high-frequency MSI (MSI-H (6.4%, 96 low-frequency MSI (8.2% and 1,002 MSS (85.4%. Of the 75 MSI-H tumors, 22 had a BRAF mutation and 51 showed MLH1 promoter hypermethylation. There were distinctive differences in the extent of CN alterations between CRC MSS and MSI-H subtypes (300 Mb vs. 42 Mb per genome, p-value Conclusions Sporadic CRCs with MSI-H displayed distinguishable clinicopathologic features, which differ from those of MSS. Genomic profiling of the two types of sporadic CRCs revealed significant differences in the extent and distribution of CN alterations in the cancer genome. More than half of expressed genes showing CN differences can directly contribute to their expressional diversities, and the biological functions of the genes associated with CN changes in sporadic CRCs warrant further investigation to establish their possible clinical implications.
Mc Sherry, E A; Mc Goldrick, A; Kay, E W; Hopkins, A M; Gallagher, W M; Dervan, P A
2007-11-01
Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) archival clinical specimens are invaluable in discovery of prognostic and therapeutic targets for diseases such as cancer. However, the suitability of FFPE-derived genetic material for array-based comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH) studies is underexplored. In this study, genetic profiles of matched FFPE and fresh-frozen specimens were examined to investigate DNA integrity differences between these sample types and determine the impact this may have on genetic profiles. Genomic DNA was extracted from three patient-matched FFPE and fresh-frozen clinical tissue samples. T47D breast cancer control cells were also grown in culture and processed to yield a fresh T47D sample, a fresh-frozen T47D sample and a FFPE T47D sample. DNA was extracted from all the samples; array-CGH conducted and genetic profiles of matched samples were then compared. A loss of high molecular weight DNA was observed in the FFPE clinical tissues and FFPE T47D samples. A dramatic increase in absolute number of genetic alterations was observed in all FFPE tissues relative to matched fresh-frozen counterparts. In future, alternative fixation and tissue-processing procedures, and/or new DNA extraction and CGH profiling protocols, may be implemented, enabling identification of changes involved in disease progression using stored clinical specimens.
KS inertial range and validity of Richardson's law
Nicolleau, F. C. G. A.
Kinematic Simulation (KS) is a Lagrangian model where a synthetic Eulerian velocity field u(x, t) is assumed. It is then possible to track one, two or many particles and study their trajectories by integrating this velocity field. We use the KS code developed in [6] based on [3] for incompressible isotropic turbulence. The three-dimensional KS turbulent velocity field used in this paper is kinematically presented by a truncated Fourier series, sum of N k random Fourier modes: uleft( {x,t} right) = sumlimits_{n = 0}^{N_k } {{a}n \\cos left( {{k}n .{x} + ω _n t} right) + {b}n sin left( {{k}n .{x} + ω _n t} right)} where N k is the total number of modes included, a n and b n are decomposition coefficients corresponding to the wave vector k n , and ωn is the unsteadiness frequency.
Shams, Sara; Granberg, Tobias; Martola, Juha; Li, Xiaozhen; Shams, Mana; Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad; Cavallin, Lena; Aspelin, Peter; Kristoffersen-Wiberg, Maria; Wahlund, Lars-Olof
2016-03-01
Cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) are hypothesised to have an important yet unknown role in the dementia disease pathology. In this study we analysed increasing number of CMBs and their independent associations with routine cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers in a continuum of cognitive impairment. A total of 1039 patients undergoing dementia investigation were analysed and underwent lumbar puncture, and an MRI scan. CSF samples were analysed for amyloid β (Aβ) 42, total tau (T-tau), tau phosphorylated at threonine 18 (P-tau) and CSF/serum albumin ratios. Increasing number of CMBs were independently associated with low Aβ42 levels, in the whole cohort, Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment (p CMBs (p CMBs when compared to zero CMBs, but did not change in the rest of the cohort. White matter hyperintensities were associated with low Aβ42 in the whole cohort and Alzheimer's disease (p CMBs in cognitive impairment, and there is an accumulative effect with increasing number of CMBs. © The Author(s) 2015.
Integrated mutation, copy number and expression profiling in resectable non-small cell lung cancer
Do Hongdo
2011-03-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to identify critical genes involved in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC pathogenesis that may lead to a more complete understanding of this disease and identify novel molecular targets for use in the development of more effective therapies. Methods Both transcriptional and genomic profiling were performed on 69 resected NSCLC specimens and results correlated with mutational analyses and clinical data to identify genetic alterations associated with groups of interest. Results Combined analyses identified specific patterns of genetic alteration associated with adenocarcinoma vs. squamous differentiation; KRAS mutation; TP53 mutation, metastatic potential and disease recurrence and survival. Amplification of 3q was associated with mutations in TP53 in adenocarcinoma. A prognostic signature for disease recurrence, reflecting KRAS pathway activation, was validated in an independent test set. Conclusions These results may provide the first steps in identifying new predictive biomarkers and targets for novel therapies, thus improving outcomes for patients with this deadly disease.
Deblurring, Localization and Geometry Correction of 2D QR Bar Codes Using Richardson Lucy Method
Manpreet Kaur
2014-09-01
Full Text Available This paper includes the recognition of 2D QR bar codes. This paper describes the deblurring, localization and geometry correction of 2D QR bar codes. The images captured are blurred due motion between the image and the camera. Hence the image containing the QR barcode cannot be read by QR reader. To make the QR barcode readable the images are need to be deblurred. Lucy Richardson method and Weiner Deconvolution Method is used to deblurr and localize the bar code. From both of the methods Lucy Richardson Method is best because this method takes less time for execution than the other method. Simulink Model is used for the Geometry correction of the QR bar code. In future, we would like to investigate the generalization of our algorithm to handle more complicated motion blur.
Global copy number profiling of cancer genomes | Office of Cancer Genomics
In this article, we introduce a robust and efficient strategy for deriving global and allele-specific copy number alternations (CNA) from cancer whole exome sequencing data based on Log R ratios and B-allele frequencies. Applying the approach to the analysis of over 200 skin cancer samples, we demonstrate its utility for discovering distinct CNA events and for deriving ancillary information such as tumor purity. Availability and implementation: https://github.com/xfwang/CLOSE CONTACT: xuefeng.wang@stonybrook.edu or michael.krauthammer@yale.edu. (Publication Abstract)
Qiumei Huang; Yidu Yang
2008-01-01
In this paper,we introduce a new extrapolation formula by combining Richardson extrapolation and Sloan iteration algorithms.Using this extrapolation formula,we obtain some asymptotic expansions of the Galerkin finite element method for semi-simple eigenvalue problems of Fredholm integral equations of the second kind and improve the accuracy of the numerical approximations of the corresponding eigenvalues.Some numerical experiments are carried out to demonstrate the effectiveness of OUr new method and to confirm our theoretical results.
Mikulasova, Aneta; Smetana, Jan; Wayhelova, Marketa; Janyskova, Helena; Sandecka, Viera; Kufova, Zuzana; Almasi, Martina; Jarkovsky, Jiri; Gregora, Evzen; Kessler, Petr; Wrobel, Marek; Walker, Brian A; Wardell, Christopher P; Morgan, Gareth J; Hajek, Roman; Kuglik, Petr
2016-12-01
Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) is a benign condition with an approximate 1% annual risk of symptomatic plasma cell disorder development, mostly to multiple myeloma (MM). We performed genomewide screening of copy-number alterations (CNAs) in 90 MGUS and 33 MM patients using high-density DNA microarrays. We identified CNAs in a smaller proportion of MGUS (65.6%) than in MM (100.0%, P = 1.31 × 10(-5) ) and showed median number of CNAs is lower in MGUS (3, range 0-22) than in MM (13, range 4-38, P = 1.82 × 10(-10) ). In the MGUS cohort, the most frequent losses were located at 1p (5.6%), 6q (6.7%), 13q (30.0%), 14q (14.4%), 16q (8.9%), 21q (5.6%), and gains at 1q (23.3%), 2p (6.7%), 6p (13.3%), and Xq (7.8%). Hyperdiploidy was detected in 38.9% of MGUS cases, and the most frequent whole chromosome gains were 3 (25.6%), 5 (23.3%), 9 (37.8%), 15 (23.3%), and 19 (32.2%). We also identified CNAs such as 1p, 6q, 8p, 12p, 13q, 16q losses, 1q gain and hypodiploidy, which are potentially associated with an adverse prognosis in MGUS. In summary, we showed that MGUS is similar to MM in that it is a genetically heterogeneous disorder, but overall cytogenetic instability is lower than in MM, which confirms that genetic abnormalities play important role in monoclonal gammopathies. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Adsuara, J. E.; Cordero-Carrión, I.; Cerdá-Durán, P.; Mewes, V.; Aloy, M. A.
2017-03-01
The Scheduled Relaxation Jacobi (SRJ) method is an extension of the classical Jacobi iterative method to solve linear systems of equations (Au = b) associated with elliptic problems. It inherits its robustness and accelerates its convergence rate computing a set of P relaxation factors that result from a minimization problem. In a typical SRJ scheme, the former set of factors is employed in cycles of M consecutive iterations until a prescribed tolerance is reached. We present the analytic form for the optimal set of relaxation factors for the case in which all of them are strictly different, and find that the resulting algorithm is equivalent to a non-stationary generalized Richardson's method where the matrix of the system of equations is preconditioned multiplying it by D = diag (A). Our method to estimate the weights has the advantage that the explicit computation of the maximum and minimum eigenvalues of the matrix A (or the corresponding iteration matrix of the underlying weighted Jacobi scheme) is replaced by the (much easier) calculation of the maximum and minimum frequencies derived from a von Neumann analysis of the continuous elliptic operator. This set of weights is also the optimal one for the general problem, resulting in the fastest convergence of all possible SRJ schemes for a given grid structure. The amplification factor of the method can be found analytically and allows for the exact estimation of the number of iterations needed to achieve a desired tolerance. We also show that with the set of weights computed for the optimal SRJ scheme for a fixed cycle size it is possible to estimate numerically the optimal value of the parameter ω in the Successive Overrelaxation (SOR) method in some cases. Finally, we demonstrate with practical examples that our method also works very well for Poisson-like problems in which a high-order discretization of the Laplacian operator is employed (e.g., a 9- or 17-points discretization). This is of interest since the
An algorithm to estimate PBL heights from wind profiler data
Molod, A.; Salmun, H.
2016-12-01
An algorithm was developed to estimate planetary boundary layer (PBL) heights from hourlyarchived wind profiler data from the NOAA Profiler Network (NPN) sites located throughoutthe central United States from the period 1992-2012. The long period of record allows ananalysis of climatological mean PBL heights as well as some estimates of year to yearvariability. Under clear conditions, summertime averaged hourly time series of PBL heightscompare well with Richardson-number based estimates at the few NPN stations with hourlytemperature measurements. Comparisons with clear sky MERRA estimates show that the windprofiler (WP) and the Richardson number based PBL heights are lower by approximately 250-500 m.The geographical distribution of daily maximum WP PBL heights corresponds well with theexpected distribution based on patterns of surface temperature and soil moisture. Windprofiler PBL heights were also estimated under mostly cloudy conditions, but the WP estimatesshow a smaller clear-cloudy condition difference than either of the other two PBL height estimates.The algorithm presented here is shown to provide a reliable summer, fall and springclimatology of daytime hourly PBL heights throughout the central United States. The reliabilityof the algorithm has prompted its use to obtain hourly PBL heights from other archived windprofiler data located throughout the world.
Genome-wide copy number profiling using high-density SNP array in chickens.
Yi, G; Qu, L; Chen, S; Xu, G; Yang, N
2015-04-01
Phenotypic diversity is a direct consequence resulting mainly from the impact of underlying genetic variation, and recent studies have shown that copy number variation (CNV) is emerging as an important contributor to both phenotypic variability and disease susceptibility. Herein, we performed a genome-wide CNV scan in 96 chickens from 12 diversified breeds, benefiting from the high-density Affymetrix 600 K SNP arrays. We identified a total of 231 autosomal CNV regions (CNVRs) encompassing 5.41 Mb of the chicken genome and corresponding to 0.59% of the autosomal sequence. The length of these CNVRs ranged from 2.6 to 586.2 kb with an average of 23.4 kb, including 130 gain, 93 loss and eight both gain and loss events. These CNVRs, especially deletions, had lower GC content and were located particularly in gene deserts. In particular, 102 CNVRs harbored 128 chicken genes, most of which were enriched in immune responses. We obtained 221 autosomal CNVRs after converting probe coordinates to Galgal3, and comparative analysis with previous studies illustrated that 153 of these CNVRs were regarded as novel events. Furthermore, qPCR assays were designed for 11 novel CNVRs, and eight (72.73%) were validated successfully. In this study, we demonstrated that the high-density 600 K SNP array can capture CNVs with higher efficiency and accuracy and highlighted the necessity of integrating multiple technologies and algorithms. Our findings provide a pioneering exploration of chicken CNVs based on a high-density SNP array, which contributes to a more comprehensive understanding of genetic variation in the chicken genome and is beneficial to unearthing potential CNVs underlying important traits of chickens. © 2015 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.
B. Almeida-Pittito
2010-11-01
Full Text Available We investigated the impact of lifestyle goal achievement on cardiovascular risk factors after a 2-year behavioral intervention program applied to 394 adults (113 with diabetes, mean age 60.2 ± 11.4 years, 56% women and targeting four goals: ≥5% weight loss; ≥150 min/week physical activities; <10% saturated fat intake/day; ≥400 g fruit and vegetable intake/day. Baseline characteristics and changes in variables after intervention among the four categories of number of goals achieved (none, 1, 2, and ≥3 were compared by independent ANOVA or the Kruskal-Wallis test. Individuals without diabetes achieving a higher number of goals were more likely to be older (3 or 4 goals: 61.8 ± 12.6 years vs none: 53.3 ± 10.3 years, P < 0.05 and to have a lower mean BMI (3 or 4 goals: 21.7 ± 2.6 kg/m² vs none: 29.0 ± 4.8 kg/m², P < 0.05, diastolic blood pressure (3 or 4 goals: 77.3 ± 2.1 mmHg vs none: 85.4 ± 9.6 mmHg, P < 0.05, triglyceride (3 or 4 goals: 116.1 ± 95.1 mg/dL vs none: 144.8 ± 65.5 mg/dL, P < 0.05 and insulin levels (3 or 4 goals: 3.6 ± 2.4 μU/L vs none: 5.7 ± 4.0 μU/L, P < 0.05 than those achieving fewer goals. The absolute changes in cardiovascular risk factors tended to be more pronounced with increasing number of goals achieved in individuals without diabetes. The intervention had a beneficial impact on the cardiometabolic profile of individuals with normal or altered glucose metabolism. The number of goals achieved in this lifestyle intervention was associated with the magnitude of improvement of cardiovascular risk factors in individuals without diabetes. Participants with a better cardiometabolic profile seemed to be more likely to have a healthy lifestyle.
Zhang, Kun; Wang, Dongfang; Bian, Qinggen; Duan, Yusen; Zhao, Mengfei; Fei, Dongnian; Xiu, Guangli; Fu, Qingyan
2017-04-01
A tethered balloon-based measurement campaign of particle number concentration (PNC) and particle number size distribution (PNSD) in the size range of 15.7-661.2 nm was conducted within the lower troposphere of 1000 m in Shanghai, a Chinese megacity, during December of 2015. The meteorological conditions, PNC, and PNSD were synchronously measured at the ground-based station as well as by the tethered balloon. On ground level, the 88.2 nm particles were found to have the highest PNC. The Pearson correlation analysis based on the ground level data showed NO2 had a strong correlation with PNC. The synchronous measurement of PNC and PNSD at the ground station and on the tethered balloon showed that the 15.7-200 nm particles had higher PNC on ground level, but the PNC of 200-661.2 nm particles was higher at 400 m. One haze event (Dec 22nd-Dec 23rd) was selected for detailed discussion on the variation of vertical profiles of PNSD and PNC. The vertical distribution of characteristics of PNC and PNSD were observed and compared. Results indicated that the highest MaxDm (the diameter with the highest PNC) during those three launches all appeared at a high altitude, usually above 300 m. Compared to the clean days, the relatively bigger MaxDm at each height in the haze days also indicated regional transport of pollutants might contribute to more to that haze event.
Genome-wide copy number profiling of single cells in S-phase reveals DNA-replication domains.
Van der Aa, Niels; Cheng, Jiqiu; Mateiu, Ligia; Zamani Esteki, Masoud; Kumar, Parveen; Dimitriadou, Eftychia; Vanneste, Evelyne; Moreau, Yves; Vermeesch, Joris Robert; Voet, Thierry
2013-04-01
Single-cell genomics is revolutionizing basic genome research and clinical genetic diagnosis. However, none of the current research or clinical methods for single-cell analysis distinguishes between the analysis of a cell in G1-, S- or G2/M-phase of the cell cycle. Here, we demonstrate by means of array comparative genomic hybridization that charting the DNA copy number landscape of a cell in S-phase requires conceptually different approaches to that of a cell in G1- or G2/M-phase. Remarkably, despite single-cell whole-genome amplification artifacts, the log2 intensity ratios of single S-phase cells oscillate according to early and late replication domains, which in turn leads to the detection of significantly more DNA imbalances when compared with a cell in G1- or G2/M-phase. Although these DNA imbalances may, on the one hand, be falsely interpreted as genuine structural aberrations in the S-phase cell's copy number profile and hence lead to misdiagnosis, on the other hand, the ability to detect replication domains genome wide in one cell has important applications in DNA-replication research. Genome-wide cell-type-specific early and late replicating domains have been identified by analyses of DNA from populations of cells, but cell-to-cell differences in DNA replication may be important in genome stability, disease aetiology and various other cellular processes.
Kuder-Richardson Coefficient Based Trust Mechanism for Service Discovery in MANETs
S. Pariselvam
2013-10-01
Full Text Available Service discovery in Mobile Ad hoc networks is highly crucial due to the lack of centralized infrastructure. Furthermore, varieties of services available through the network may require different levels of security. Thus, a need arises for formulating and deploying an efficient trust oriented service discovery mechanism distributed in each and every node in the ad hoc scenario in order to reduce thecomplexity in providing the services to the network users. In this paper, we have proposed a Kuder-Richardson co-efficient based trust mechanism (KRCBM for service discovery in MANET. This effective mechanism works with the aid of the trust value called Kuder-Richardson co-efficient, which manipulates the reliability of the group of nodes participating in the ad hoc environment. This trust model possesses an inherent ability of designating various protection levels for services discovery. Based on the designated level of the services, secure communication is established. The performances of KRCBM are analyzed through ns-2 simulations with the help of performance metrics like packet delivery ratio, ControlOverhead and total overhead. From the simulation results obtained, it is proved that the proposed mechanism performs well when compared to the other trust based mechanisms available in the literature by reducing the packet drops to a maximum extent.
Baltink, H.K.; Holtslag, A.A.M. [Royal Netherlands Meteorological Inst., KNMI, De Bilt (Netherlands)
1997-10-01
From October 1994 through January 1997 the Tropospheric Energy Budget Experiment (TEBEX) was executed by KNMI. The main objectives are to study boundary layer processes and cloud variability on the sub-grid scale of present Global Climate Models and to improve the related sub-grid parametrizations. A suite of instruments was deployed to measure a large number of variables. Measurements to characterize ABL processes were focussed around the 200 m high meteorological observation tower of the KNMI in Cabauw. In the framework of TEBEX a 1290 MHz wind-profiler/RASS was installed in July 1994 at 300 m from tower. Data collected during TEBEX are used to assess the performance of a Regional Atmospheric Climate Model (RACMO). This climate model runs also in a operational forecast mode once a day. The diagnostic ABL-height (h{sub model}) is calculated from the RACMO forecast output. A modified Richardson`s number method extended with an excess parcel temperature is applied for all stability conditions. We present the preliminary results of a comparison of h{sub model} from forecasts with measured h{sub TS} derived from profiler and sodar data for July 1995. (au)
Whole-genome single-cell copy number profiling from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples.
Martelotto, Luciano G; Baslan, Timour; Kendall, Jude; Geyer, Felipe C; Burke, Kathleen A; Spraggon, Lee; Piscuoglio, Salvatore; Chadalavada, Kalyani; Nanjangud, Gouri; Ng, Charlotte K Y; Moody, Pamela; D'Italia, Sean; Rodgers, Linda; Cox, Hilary; da Cruz Paula, Arnaud; Stepansky, Asya; Schizas, Michail; Wen, Hannah Y; King, Tari A; Norton, Larry; Weigelt, Britta; Hicks, James B; Reis-Filho, Jorge S
2017-03-01
A substantial proportion of tumors consist of genotypically distinct subpopulations of cancer cells. This intratumor genetic heterogeneity poses a substantial challenge for the implementation of precision medicine. Single-cell genomics constitutes a powerful approach to resolve complex mixtures of cancer cells by tracing cell lineages and discovering cryptic genetic variations that would otherwise be obscured in tumor bulk analyses. Because of the chemical alterations that result from formalin fixation, single-cell genomic approaches have largely remained limited to fresh or rapidly frozen specimens. Here we describe the development and validation of a robust and accurate methodology to perform whole-genome copy-number profiling of single nuclei obtained from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded clinical tumor samples. We applied the single-cell sequencing approach described here to study the progression from in situ to invasive breast cancer, which revealed that ductal carcinomas in situ show intratumor genetic heterogeneity at diagnosis and that these lesions may progress to invasive breast cancer through a variety of evolutionary processes.
Massias, Bastien; Urdaci, Maria C
2009-05-01
The ProReg XL Tool (Profile Regrouping Excel Tool) is a new tool suite designed to rapidly regroup a large number of identical electrophoretic profiles. This tool suite is coded in Visual Basic Application for Microsoft Excel, and thus requires this spreadsheet software to operate. It was designed for use with a new screening strategy of clones from an rrs (16S rDNA) clone library, but it may also be helpful in other electrophoretic applications. ProReg XL Tool is organized in different steps where the user has the capability--in addition to regrouping electrophoretic profiles--to control gel quality, determine signal attenuation, and draw pie charts.
Petricevic, Sue; Whitaker, Jonathan; Buckleton, John; Vintiner, Sue; Patel, Jayshree; Simon, Pauline; Ferraby, Helen; Hermiz, Waseem; Russell, Amanda
2010-10-01
The characteristics of STR profiles produced from approximately 1 ng starting template using the AMPFlSTR SGM Plus multiplex and 28 PCR cycles, are well documented. However, the analysis of samples perceived as low in starting template (less than 100 pg), and referred to as low template DNA (LTDNA), can require a test of higher sensitivity in order to achieve successful results. One way of increasing this sensitivity is to increase the number of PCR amplification cycles from 28 to 34. This type of analysis has become known as low copy number, or LCN, DNA profiling. Amplification of LTDNA under LCN conditions can result in increased incidents of profile characteristics such as allelic 'drop-in' and allelic 'drop-out'. Adopting a testing regime which includes duplicate analysis, and maintaining a laboratory environment of stringent and monitored cleanliness, enables the scientist to identify and control these phenomena for a reliable interpretation of the DNA profiling results. A recent court ruling has questioned the reliability of LCN analysis and commented on the paucity of publications surrounding the validation of the technique. We present data for the LCN validation undertaken in our laboratory, and describe the guidelines and working practices we have developed for the analysis and interpretation of profiles generated after LCN profiling. This study augments the published record relating to LCN validation and should act as a useful guide for other laboratories who are considering implementing LCN profiling.
Ummu Fatimah Ria Lestari
2016-04-01
Full Text Available This study discusses the function of the building of Dokwi Vam and Kembu Vam contained in the novel-Sovereign Ruler of the Earth works Don Richardson. In general, this novel tells the story of the life of Stan Dale and Yali tribe. Stan Dale is a missionary who served in Papua. He struggled to introduce Christianity to the Yali tribe. This study uses the description of the technical literature. This research resulted in a description of the function of the building of Dokwi Vam and Kembu Vam contained in the novel Lord of-Ruler of the Earth works Don Richardson. Dokwi Vam used as a museum (where the old stuff to worship as they still follow animism, while the Kembu Vam serves as a temple / animism worship in Yali tribe. Penelitian ini membahas tentang fungsi bangunan Dokwi Vam dan Kembu Vam yang terdapat dalam novel Penguasa-Penguasa Bumi karya Don Richardson. Secara umum, novel ini bercerita tentang kehidupan Stan Dale dan suku Yali. Stan Dale adalah seorang missionaris yang melayani di Tanah Papua. Ia berjuang untuk memperkenalkan agama Nasrani kepada suku Yali. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode deskripsi dengan teknik studi pustaka. Penelitian ini menghasilkan deskripsi tentang fungsi bangunan Dokwi Vam dan Kembu Vam yang terdapat dalam novel Penguasa-Penguasa Bumi karya Don Richardson. Dokwi Vam digunakan sebagai museum (tempat barang-barang kuno untuk penyembahan karena mereka masih menganut kepercayaan animisme, sedangkan Kembu Vam berfungsi sebagai rumah peribadatan/penyembahan dalam kepercayaan animisme suku Yali.
Galaktionov, E. V.; Galaktionova, N. E.; Tropp, E. A.
2016-12-01
Variational formulations of the problems of sessile and pendent drops are given taking into account the force of gravity in the axially symmetric case. Approximate expressions that describe the surface profiles of these drops by the asymptotic method for small Bond numbers have been obtained by the linearization method in the case of strong wetting.
Gill, Peter; Buckleton, John
2010-07-01
In this paper we critically examine the causes of the underlying confusion that relates to the issue of low-template (LT) DNA profile interpretation. Firstly, there is much difficulty in attempting to distinguish between LT-DNA vs. conventional DNA because there is no discrete 'cut-off' point that can be reasonably defined or evaluated. LT-DNA is loosely characterised by drop-out (where alleles may be missing) and drop-in (where additional alleles may be present). We have previously described probabilistic methods that can be used to incorporate these phenomena using likelihood ratio (LR) principles. This is preferred to the random man not excluded (RMNE) method, because we cannot identify a coherent way forward within the restrictions provided by this framework. Most LT-DNA profiles are interpreted using a 'consensus' profile method, we called this the 'biological model', where only those alleles that are duplicated in consecutive tests are reported. We recognise that there is an increased need for probabilistic models to take precedence over the biological model. These models are required for all kinds of DNA profiles, not just those that are believed to be low-template. We also recognise that there is a need for education and training if the methods we recommend are to be widely introduced.
Water ice in the dark dune spots of Richardson crater on Mars
Kereszturi, A; Schmidt, F
2010-01-01
In this study we assess the presence, nature and properties of ices - in particular water ice - that occur within these spots using HIRISE and CRISM observations, as well as the LMD Global Climate Model. Our studies focus on Richardson crater (72{\\deg}S, 179{\\deg}E) and cover southern spring and summer (LS 175{\\deg} - 17 341{\\deg}). Three units have been identified of these spots: dark core, gray ring and bright halo. Each unit show characteristic changes as the season progress. In winter, the whole area is covered by CO2 ice with H2O ice contamination. Dark spots form during late winter and early spring. During spring, the dark spots are located in a 10 cm thick depression compared to the surrounding bright ice-rich layer. They are spectrally characterized by weak CO2 ice signatures that probably result from spatial mixing of CO2 ice rich and ice free regions within pixels, and from mixing of surface signatures due to aerosols scattering. The bright halo shaped by winds shows stronger CO2 absorptions than th...
Adsuara, J E; Cerdá-Durán, P; Mewes, V; Aloy, M A
2016-01-01
The Scheduled Relaxation Jacobi (SRJ) method is an extension of the classical Jacobi iterative method to solve linear systems of equations ($Au=b$) associated with elliptic problems. It inherits its robustness and accelerates its convergence rate computing a set of $P$ relaxation factors that result from a minimization problem. In a typical SRJ scheme, the former set of factors is employed in cycles of $M$ consecutive iterations until a prescribed tolerance is reached. We present the analytic form for the optimal set of relaxation factors for the case in which all of them are different, and find that the resulting algorithm is equivalent to a non-stationary generalized Richardson's method. Our method to estimate the weights has the advantage that the explicit computation of the maximum and minimum eigenvalues of the matrix $A$ is replaced by the (much easier) calculation of the maximum and minimum frequencies derived from a von Neumann analysis. This set of weights is also optimal for the general problem, res...
Diffusion tensor MRI contributes to differentiate Richardson's syndrome from PSP-parkinsonism.
Agosta, Federica; Pievani, Michela; Svetel, Marina; Ječmenica Lukić, Milica; Copetti, Massimiliano; Tomić, Aleksandra; Scarale, Antonio; Longoni, Giulia; Comi, Giancarlo; Kostić, Vladimir S; Filippi, Massimo
2012-12-01
This study investigated the regional distribution of white matter (WM) damage in Richardson's syndrome (PSP-RS) and progressive supranuclear palsy-Parkinsonism (PSP-P) using diffusion tensor (DT) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The DT MRI classificatory ability in diagnosing progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) syndromes, when used in combination with infratentorial volumetry, was also quantified. In 37 PSP (21 PSP-RS, 16 PSP-P) and 42 controls, the program Tract-Based Spatial Statistics (TBSS; www.fmrib.ox.ac.uk/fsl/tbss) was applied. DT MRI metrics were derived from supratentorial, thalamic, and infratentorial tracts. The magnetic resonance parkinsonism index (MRPI) was calculated. All PSP harbored diffusivity abnormalities in the corpus callosum, frontoparietal, and frontotemporo-occipital tracts. Infratentorial WM and thalamic radiations were severely affected in PSP-RS and relatively spared in PSP-P. When MRPI and DT MRI measures were combined, the discriminatory power increased for each comparison. Distinct patterns of WM alterations occur in PSP-RS and PSP-P. Adding DT MRI measures to MRPI improves the diagnostic accuracy in differentiating each PSP syndrome from healthy individuals and each other.
A. MARCHINI
2014-09-01
Full Text Available An anthurid isopod new to the Mediterranean Sea has recently been observed in samples from three localities of the Italian coast: the Lagoon of Venice (North Adriatic Sea, La Spezia (Ligurian Sea and Olbia (Sardinia, Tyrrhenian Sea. The specimens collected showed strong affinity to a species originally described from the NW Pacific Ocean: Paranthura japonica Richardson, 1909. The comparison with specimens collected from the Bay of Arcachon (Atlantic coast of France, where P. japonica had been recently reported as non-indigenous, confirmed the identity of the species. This paper reports the most relevant morphological details of the Italian specimens, data on the current distribution of the species and a discussion on the pathways responsible for its introduction. The available data suggest that the presence of this Pacific isopod in several regions of coastal Europe might be due to a series of aquaculture-mediated introduction events that occurred during the last decades of the 1900s. Since then, established populations of P. japonica, probably misidentified, remained unnoticed for a long time.
Suryanarayana, Phanish; Pask, John E
2016-01-01
We generalize the recently proposed Alternating Anderson-Jacobi (AAJ) method (Pratapa et al., J. Comput. Phys. (2016), 306, 43--54) to include preconditioning, and demonstrate its efficiency and scaling in the solution of large, sparse linear systems on parallel computers. The resulting preconditioned Alternating Anderson-Richardson (AAR) method reduces to the AAJ method for a particular choice of preconditioner. The AAR method employs Anderson extrapolation at periodic intervals within a preconditioned Richardson iteration to accelerate convergence. In this work, we develop a version of the method that is particularly well suited for scalable high-performance computing. In applications to Helmholtz and Poisson equations, we show that the strong and weak parallel scaling of AAR is superior to both Generalized Minimal Residual (GMRES) and Conjugate Gradient (CG) methods, using the same preconditioning, in large-scale parallel calculations employing up to 110,592 computational cores. Moreover, we find that the ...
Castell, A.; Medrano, M.; Sole, C.; Cabeza, L.F. [GREA Innovacio concurrent, Universitat de Lleida, Pere de Cabrera s/n, 25001 Lleida (Spain)
2010-10-15
The efficiency of thermal energy storage and solar collector systems is improved if the water tank is stratified. There are many parameters to characterize stratification but no work compares their suitability. This paper identifies the most used dimensionless numbers to characterize stratification in water tanks and studies their suitability. Experiments with different flow rates were done and the dimensionless numbers were determined. Richardson is the best number to define stratification in a water tank, while Mix number presents some problems and a bad behaviour. The other numbers do not clearly characterize stratification but can be useful combined with Richardson. (author)
Noël, Marie-Pascale; Rousselle, Laurence
2011-01-01
Studies on developmental dyscalculia (DD) have tried to identify a basic numerical deficit that could account for this specific learning disability. The first proposition was that the number magnitude representation of these children was impaired. However, Rousselle and Noël (2007) brought data showing that this was not the case but rather that these children were impaired when processing the magnitude of symbolic numbers only. Since then, incongruent results have been published. In this paper, we will propose a developmental perspective on this issue. We will argue that the first deficit shown in DD regards the building of an exact representation of numerical value, thanks to the learning of symbolic numbers, and that the reduced acuity of the approximate number magnitude system appears only later and is secondary to the first deficit.
Budía Alba, A; López Acón, J D; Polo-Rodrigo, A; Bahílo-Mateu, P; Trassierra-Villa, M; Boronat-Tormo, F
2015-06-01
To assess the safety of increasing the number of waves per session in the treatment of urolithiasis using extracorporeal lithotripsy. Prospective, comparative, nonrandomized parallel study of patients with renoureteral lithiasis and an indication for extracorporeal lithotripsy who were consecutively enrolled between 2009 and 2010. We compared group I (160 patients) treated on schedule with a standard number of waves/session (mean 2858,3±302,8) using a Dornier lithotripter U/15/50 against group II (172 patients) treated with an expanded number of waves/session (mean, 6728,9±889,6) using a Siemens Modularis lithotripter. The study variables were age, sex, location, stone size, number of waves/session and total number of waves to resolution, stone-free rate (SFR) and rate of complications (Clavien-Dindo classification). Student's t-test and the chi-squared test were employed for the statistical analysis. The total rate of complications was 11.9% and 10.46% for groups I and II, respectively (P=.39). All complications were minor (Clavien-Dindo grade I). The most common complications were colic pain and hematuria in groups I and II, respectively, with a similar treatment intolerance rate (P>.05). The total number of waves necessary was lower in group II than in group I (P=.001), with SFRs of 96.5% and 71.5%, respectively (P=.001). Treatment with an expanded number of waves per session in extracorporeal lithotripsy does not increase the rate of complications or their severity. However, it could increase the overall effectiveness of the treatment. Copyright © 2014 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
La fotografia tra Arte e Scienza sociale. Arturo Ghergo, Bob Richardson, Bettina Rheims
Alessandra Olivares
2015-12-01
Full Text Available What does the photography in contemporary visual culture? In the ever increasing interference between art and society, photography took over, as you can see, a leading role in what Enrico Menduni defines the process of "picture show", especially if it isconsidered in its close relationship with the advertising industry. However you cannot ignore the fact that, being closely bound to functions that is responsible, photography is also a social practice. These considerations have a concrete response in the contemporary art. Arturo Ghergo (1901-1959, Bob Richardson (1928-2005 and Bettina Rheims (1952 are artists with very different poetics that while making photographs on commission (for movies, advertising, fashion and magazines told through pictures their time (and the aspects of reality that have characterized reaching high and recognized results of artistic and aesthetic value. They are just three of the many photographers who put us in front of the hybrid status of photography as "a medium [...] inextricably linked to two aspects: aesthetic and sociological" (Dorfles 2012. Discussions on the border between photography-craft and photography-art, which long have marked and restricted the destiny of many photographers, today finally appear anachronistic, but not entirely overcome. We see more and more often a dissolution of identity between the two areas with important examples of the deep connection of the dichotomy between art and social aspects. If it is true that art has always told, interpreted and reflected on the reality that is part, what seems interesting to highlight is the fact that the impact on the collective imaginary that new visual media, photography in primis, have had and continue to have increasingly appears to have no background. Therefore, art has never been so close to life.
Konopka, Karl-Heinz; Harbers, Marten; Houghton, Andrea; Kortekaas, Rudie; van Vliet, Andre; Timmerman, Wia; den Boer, Johan A.; Struys, Michel M. R. F.; van Wijhe, Marten
2012-01-01
Due to the lack of a specific diagnostic tool for neuropathic pain, a grading system to categorize pain as 'definite', 'probable', 'possible' and 'unlikely' neuropathic was proposed. Somatosensory abnormalities are common in neuropathic pain and it has been suggested that a greater number of
Chaturvedi, N.; Menezes, R.X. de; Goeman, J.J.
2014-01-01
This paper presents an efficient algorithm based on the combination of Newton Raphson and Gradient Ascent, for using the fused lasso regression method to construct a genome-based classifier. The characteristic structure of copy number data suggests that feature selection should take genomic location
Zhang, Yanliang; Xue, Qiuyue; Pan, Guoqing; Meng, Qing H.; Tuo, Xiaoyu; Cai, Xuemei; Chen, Zhenghui; Li, Ya; Huang, Tao; Duan, Xincen; Duan, Yong
2017-01-01
Objectives Lung cancer in Xuanwei (LCXW), China, is known throughout the world for its distinctive characteristics, but little is known about its pathogenesis. The purpose of this study was to screen potential novel “driver genes” in LCXW. Methods Genome-wide DNA copy number alterations (CNAs) were detected by array-based comparative genomic hybridization and differentially expressed genes (DEGs) by gene expression microarrays in 8 paired LCXW and non-cancerous lung tissues. Candidate driver genes were screened by integrated analysis of CNAs and DEGs. The candidate genes were further validated by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Results Large numbers of CNAs and DEGs were detected, respectively. Some of the most frequently occurring CNAs included gains at 5p15.33-p15.32, 5p15.1-p14.3, and 5p14.3-p14.2 and losses at 11q24.3, 21q21.1, 21q22.12-q22.13, and 21q22.2. Integrated analysis of CNAs and DEGs identified 24 candidate genes with frequent copy number gains and concordant upregulation, which were considered potential oncogenes, including CREB3L4, TRIP13, and CCNE2. In addition, the analysis identified 19 candidate genes with a negative association between copy number change and expression change, considered potential tumor suppressor genes, including AHRR, NKD2, and KLF10. One of the most studied oncogenes, MYC, may not play a carcinogenic role in LCXW. Conclusions This integrated analysis of CNAs and DEGs identified several potential novel LCXW-related genes, laying an important foundation for further research on the pathogenesis of LCXW and identification of novel biomarkers or therapeutic targets. PMID:28056099
Cheng H Lee
Full Text Available Despite recent large-scale profiling efforts, the best prognostic predictor of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM remains the patient's age at diagnosis. We describe a global pattern of tumor-exclusive co-occurring copy-number alterations (CNAs that is correlated, possibly coordinated with GBM patients' survival and response to chemotherapy. The pattern is revealed by GSVD comparison of patient-matched but probe-independent GBM and normal aCGH datasets from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA. We find that, first, the GSVD, formulated as a framework for comparatively modeling two composite datasets, removes from the pattern copy-number variations (CNVs that occur in the normal human genome (e.g., female-specific X chromosome amplification and experimental variations (e.g., in tissue batch, genomic center, hybridization date and scanner, without a-priori knowledge of these variations. Second, the pattern includes most known GBM-associated changes in chromosome numbers and focal CNAs, as well as several previously unreported CNAs in >3% of the patients. These include the biochemically putative drug target, cell cycle-regulated serine/threonine kinase-encoding TLK2, the cyclin E1-encoding CCNE1, and the Rb-binding histone demethylase-encoding KDM5A. Third, the pattern provides a better prognostic predictor than the chromosome numbers or any one focal CNA that it identifies, suggesting that the GBM survival phenotype is an outcome of its global genotype. The pattern is independent of age, and combined with age, makes a better predictor than age alone. GSVD comparison of matched profiles of a larger set of TCGA patients, inclusive of the initial set, confirms the global pattern. GSVD classification of the GBM profiles of an independent set of patients validates the prognostic contribution of the pattern.
Yusof, Mohd Fahmi Mohd, E-mail: mfahmi@usm.my; Hamid, Puteri Nor Khatijah Abdul; Tajuddin, Abdul Aziz [School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang (Malaysia); Bauk, Sabar [School of Distance Education, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang (Malaysia); Hashim, Rokiah [School of Industrial Technologies, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang (Malaysia)
2015-04-29
Plug density phantoms were constructed in accordance to CT density phantom model 062M CIRS using binderless, pre-treated and tannin-based Rhizophora Spp. particleboards. The Rhizophora Spp. plug phantoms were scanned along with the CT density phantom using Siemens Somatom Definition AS CT scanner at three CT energies of 80, 120 and 140 kVp. 15 slices of images with 1.0 mm thickness each were taken from the central axis of CT density phantom for CT number and CT density profile analysis. The values were compared to water substitute plug phantom from the CT density phantom. The tannin-based Rhizophora Spp. gave the nearest value of CT number to water substitute at 80 and 120 kVp CT energies with χ{sup 2} value of 0.011 and 0.014 respectively while the binderless Rhizphora Spp. gave the nearest CT number to water substitute at 140 kVp CT energy with χ{sup 2} value of 0.023. The tannin-based Rhizophora Spp. gave the nearest CT density profile to water substitute at all CT energies. This study indicated the suitability of Rhizophora Spp. particleboard as phantom material for the use in CT imaging studies.
Chaturvedi, Nimisha; de Menezes, Renée X; Goeman, Jelle J
2014-05-01
This paper presents an efficient algorithm based on the combination of Newton Raphson and Gradient Ascent, for using the fused lasso regression method to construct a genome-based classifier. The characteristic structure of copy number data suggests that feature selection should take genomic location into account for producing more interpretable results for genome-based classifiers. The fused lasso penalty, an extension of the lasso penalty, encourages sparsity of the coefficients and their differences by penalizing the L1-norm for both of them at the same time, thus using genomic location. The major advantage of the algorithm over other existing fused lasso optimization techniques is its ability to predict binomial as well as survival response efficiently. We apply our algorithm to two publicly available datasets in order to predict survival and binary outcomes.
TANG Jin-yun; TANG Jie; WANG Yuan
2007-01-01
A new analytical model was developed to predict the gravity wave drag (GWD) induced by an isolated 3-dimensional mountain, over which a stratified, nonrotating non-Boussinesq sheared flow is impinged. The model is confined to small amplitude motion and assumes the ambient velocity varying slowly with height. The modified Taylor-Goldstein equation with variable coefficients is solved with a Wentzel-KramersBrillouin (WKB) approximation, formally valid at high Richardson numbers. With this WKB solution, generic formulae of second order accuracy, for the GWD and surface pressure perturbation (both for hydrostatic and non-hydrostatic flow) are presented, enabling a rigorous treatment on the effects by vertical variations in wind profiles. In an ideal test to the circular bell-shaped mountain, it was found that when the wind is linearly sheared,that the GWD decreases as the Richardson number decreases. However, the GWD for a forward sheared wind (wind increases with height) decreases always faster than that for the backward sheared wind (wind deceases with height). This difference is evident whenever the model is hydrostatic or not.
The Tamm-Dancoff Approximation as the boson limit of the Richardson-Gaudin equations for pairing
De Baerdemacker, Stijn
2010-01-01
A connection is made between the exact eigen states of the BCS Hamiltonian and the predictions made by the Tamm-Dancoff Approximation. This connection is made by means of a parametrised algebra, which gives the exact quasi-spin algebra in one limit of the parameter and the Heisenberg-Weyl algebra in the other. Using this algebra to construct the Bethe Ansatz solution of the BCS Hamiltonian, we obtain parametrised Richardson-Gaudin equations, leading to the secular equation of the Tamm-Dancoff Approximation in the bosonic limit. An example is discussed in depth.
F. Ovsiew
1993-01-01
Full Text Available Mental manifestations are characteristic of the syndrome described by Steele, Richardson, and Olszewski as progressive supranuclear palsy (SRO. Discussions emphasize cognitive aspects, namely the “subcortical dementia” for which the disease is prototypical, but personality change has been mentioned beginning with the earliest accounts. Psychosis has been virtually absent from neuropsychiatric descriptions, perhaps curiously so in view of the association between subcortical disease and delusions. We report here a case of autopsy-proven SRO in which a schizophrenia-like psychosis was a central feature.
Bidabadi, Mehdi; Haghiri, Ali; Rahbari, Alireza
2010-04-15
In this study, an attempt has been made to analytically investigate the concentration and velocity profiles of particles across flame propagation through a micro-iron dust cloud. In the first step, Lagrangian particle equation of motion during upward flame propagation in a vertical duct is employed and then forces acting upon the particle, such as thermophoretic force (resulted from the temperature gradient), gravitation and buoyancy are introduced; and consequently, the velocity profile as a function of the distance from the leading edge of the combustion zone is extracted. In the resumption, a control volume above the leading edge of the combustion zone is considered and the change in the particle number density in this control volume is obtained via the balance of particle mass fluxes passing through it. This study explains that the particle concentration at the leading edge of the combustion zone is more than the particle agglomeration in a distance far from the flame front. This increase in the particle aggregation above the combustion zone has a remarkable effect on the lower flammability limits of combustible particle cloud. It is worth noticing that the velocity and particle concentration profiles show a reasonable compatibility with the experimental data.
Aboura, Azzedine; Dupas, Claire; Tachdjian, Gérard; Portnoï, Marie-France; Bourcigaux, Nathalie; Dewailly, Didier; Frydman, René; Fauser, Bart; Ronci-Chaix, Nathalie; Donadille, Bruno; Bouchard, Philippe; Christin-Maitre, Sophie
2009-11-01
Premature ovarian failure (POF) is defined by amenorrhea of at least 4- to 6-month duration, occurring before 40 yr of age, with two FSH levels in the postmenopausal range. Its etiology remains unknown in more than 80% of cases. Standard karyotypes, having a resolution of 5-10 Mb, have identified critical chromosomal regions, mainly located on the long arm of the X chromosome. Array comparative genomic hybridization (a-CGH) analysis is able to detect submicroscopic chromosomal rearrangements with a higher genomic resolution. We searched for copy number variations (CNVs), using a-CGH analysis with a resolution of approximately 0.7 Mb, in a cohort of patients with POF. We prospectively included 99 women. Our study included a conventional karyotype and DNA microarrays comprising 4500 bacterial artificial chromosome clones spread on the entire genome. Thirty-one CNVs have been observed, three on the X chromosome and 28 on autosomal chromosomes. Data have been compared to control populations obtained from the Database of Genomic Variants (http://projects.tcag.ca/variation). Eight statistically significantly different CNVs have been identified in chromosomal regions 1p21.1, 5p14.3, 5q13.2, 6p25.3, 14q32.33, 16p11.2, 17q12, and Xq28. We report the first study of CNV analysis in a large cohort of Caucasian POF patients. In the eight statistically significant CNVs we report, we found five genes involved in reproduction, thus representing potential candidate genes in POF. The current study along with emerging information regarding CNVs, as well as data on their potential association with human diseases, emphasizes the importance of assessing CNVs in cohorts of POF women.
Magdy M. El-Halfawy
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Süveyş Körfezi’nde (Mısır lokum balığı Saurida undosquamis (Richardson dişi bireylerinin büyüme ve üremesi. Ekim 2004’ten Mayıs 2005’e kadar Süveyş Körfezinden trol ile yakalanan ve Attaka balıkçı limanından çıkarılan 434 Lokum balığının (Saurida undosquamis ilk olgunluk boyu, yumurtlama dönemi, büyüme parametreleri ve yaş kompozisyonu ele alındı. Dişilerin total uzunluğu 13.2 ile 34 cm arasında değişim göstermiştir. Boy (L-Ağırlık (W arasındaki ilişki W=0.0038 L3.1666 olarak tespit edildi. FISAT programı ile analizi yapılan boy frekanslarından elde edilen yaş verileri von Bertalanffy denkleminin (1938 büyüme parametrelerinin tahmininde kullanıldı. Tahmin edilen parametreler L∞=35.56cm, K=0.26 ve t=-1.059 idi. Saurida undosquamis dişileri için maksimum yaş 6 olarak tespit edilmiştir. Yakalananlar içinde 3 yaş grubu dominant olarak gözlenmiştir. Ovaryum, gonadosomatik indeks ve oosit çapının makroskobik görüntülerinden Saurida undosquamis’in yumurtlama mevsiminin Aralık ve Mayıs’ta iki dönemlik artış göstermesiyle birlikte tüm yıl boyunca sürdüğü anlaşıldı. Gonadların, bakir, olgun bakir, gelişmekte olan, gelişmiş, yumurtlayan ve yumurtalarını dökmüş gibi dış görünüşe dayanan yedi aşaması belirlendi. Dişilerin 18.1cm’lik total boyda olgunluğa ulaşmığı tespit edilmiştir. Total, doğal ve avcılıktan kaynaklanan ölümlerinin yıllık değerleri sırasıyla 1.22, 0.99 ve 0.23 yıl-1 olarak hesaplandı. Tüketim oranı (E 0.81 olarak tahmin edildi. Her toplamadaki ilgili verim ve biomas analizleri Süveyş körfezindeki Saurida undosquamis dişi stoklarının tüketilmiş oldugu bulunmuştur. Bireylerin en azından %50’sinin toplanma ve yumurtlatma için korunmasını garantilemek amacıyla, şu anki kullanım oranının yaklaşık %53.1’e kadar azaltılması gerekmektedir
James F.HARE; Kurtis J.WARKENTIN
2012-01-01
Alarm calls are emitted by Richardson's ground squirrels Urocitellus richardsonii in response to avian and terrestrial predators.Conspecifics detecting these calls respond with increased vigilance,promoting predator detection and evasion,but in doing so,lose time from foraging.That loss can be minimized if alarm call recipients discriminate among signalers,and weight their response accordingly.For juvenile ground squirrels,we predicted that the trade-off between foraging and vigilance could be optimized via selective response to alarm calls emitted by their own dam,and/or neighboring colony members over calls broadcast by less familiar conspecifics.Alarm calls of adult female Richardson's ground squirrels were elicited in the field using a predator model and recorded on digital audio tape.Free-living focal juveniles were subjected to playbacks of a call of their mother,and on a separate occasion a call from either another adult female from their own colony,or an adult female from another colony.Neither immediate postural responses and escape behavior,nor the duration of vigilance manifested by juveniles differed with exposure to alarm calls of the three adult female signaler types.Thus,juveniles did not respond preferentially to alarm calls emitted by their mothers or colony members,likely reflecting the high cost of ignoring alarm signals where receivers have had limited opportunity to establish past signaler reliability.
Ivana Trajanoska
2016-05-01
Full Text Available Hormis dans quelques articles occasionnels, le grand potentiel d’une recherche musico-littéraire du roman Pilgrimage de Dorothy Richardson reste encore peu exploré. Dans ce sens, cet article tente de dévoiler le lien fondamental entre la musique et ce roman moderniste. En s’appuyant sur Barthes, Huxley, Prieto, nous cernons la musicalisation du roman que Richardson met en avant. Nous recherchons la possibilité d’un emprunt de forme musicale comme modèle narratif, la nature et le but de cette expérimentation moderniste. En outre, nous examinons ce que la musicalisation de Pilgrimage apporte à ce récit, comment elle l’enrichit et l’approfondit, et la façon dont elle a permis à Richardson d’exprimer son avis sur la structure, le contenu du roman et sur la représentation du temps. Apart from occasional contributions, the great potential of a musico-literary research on Pilgrimage by Dorothy Richardson remains underexplored. In this perspective, the present article aims at revealing the fundamental link between music and the writing of Richardson’s modernist novel. Building upon Barthes, Huxley, Prieto critical statements, the article outlines how Richardson achieves the musicalisation of fiction in her novel. The possibility of borrowing a musical form as a narrative model, as well as the nature and the purpose of such modernist experimentation, will be explored. Furthermore, the article scrutinises the effect of the muscalisation of Pilgrimage on its narrative form, how it enriched and deepened the novel, and helped Richardson express her opinions on the structure and content of the novel and its strategies of representation of time.
Aragona, Caterina Oriana; Cairo, Valentina; Scuruchi, Michele; Lo Gullo, Alberto; D’Ascola, Angela; Alibrandi, Angela; Loddo, Saverio; Quartuccio, Sebastiano; Morace, Carmela; Mormina, Enricomaria; Basile, Giorgio; Saitta, Antonino; Imbalzano, Egidio
2017-01-01
CD34+ circulating progenitor cells (CD34+CPCs) are a population of multipotent cells which can delay the development of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in conditions of increased CV risk. MicroRNAs (miRs) 221 and 222 modulate different genes regulating angiogenesis and inflammation; moreover, miR221/22 have beenshown to participate in differentiation and proliferation of CD34+CPCs, inhibiting cell migration and homing. miR221/222 in CD34+CPCs from hypertensive subjects are also increased and associated with CD34+cell number and reactive oxygen species (ROS). We evaluated CD34+CPC number, intracellular miR221/222 and ROS levels, arterial stiffness (AS)and echocardiography indices at baseline (T0).Then, after a six-month treatment with olmesartan, 20 mg/day (T1), in 57 hypertensive patients with left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and with no additional risk factor for CVD, and in 29 healthy controls (baseline),fibrinogen, C-reactive protein (CRP), glucose and lipid profiles were also evaluated.At T1, blood pressure values, CRP and fibrinogen levels, ROS and miR221/222 were significantly decreased (all p <0.001), as were AS indices and LV mass index (p<0.001), while cell number was increased (p<0.001). Olmesartan is effective in reducing miR and ROS levels in CD34+CPCs from hypertensive subjects, as well as in increasing CD34+CPC number, providing multilevel CV protection, in addition to its expected pharmacological effects. PMID:28301500
Cherry Bansal
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Background: Fine needle aspiration (FNA is a quick, minimally invasive procedure for evaluation of breast tumors. The Scarff-Bloom-Richardson (SBR grade on histological sections is a well-established tool to guide selection of adjuvant systemic therapy. Grade evaluation is possible on cytology smears to avoid and minimize the morbidity associated with overtreatment of lower grade tumors. Aim : The aim was to test the hypothesis whether breast FNA from the peripheral portion of the lesion is representative of Scarff-Bloom-Richardson grade on histopathology as compared to FNA from the central portion. Materials and Methods : Fine-needle aspirates and subsequent tissue specimens from 45 women with ductal carcinoma (not otherwise specified were studied. FNAs were performed under ultrasound guidance from the central as well as the peripheral third of the lesion for each case avoiding areas of necrosis/calcification. The SBR grading was compared on alcohol fixed aspirates and tissue sections for each case. Results : Comparative analysis of SBR grade on aspirates from the peripheral portion and histopathology by the Pearson chi-square test (χ2 =78.00 showed that it was statistically significant (P<0.001 with 93% concordance. Lower mitotic score on aspirates from the peripheral portion was observed in only 4 out of 45 (9% cases. The results of the Pearson chi-square test (χ2 = 75.824 with statistically significant (P=0.000. Conclusion : This prospective study shows that FNA smears from the peripheral portion of the lesion are representative of the grading performed on the corresponding histopathological sections. It is possible to score and grade by SBR system on FNA smears.
Moose census, Fort Richardson, Ship Creek Drainage, November 1981, and moose hunt recommendations
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Provides results of a helicopter aerial survey for moose to determine populations and the recommendations for moose harvest including numbers, age ratio, and...
Awad, Manal; Al-Shamrany, Muneera; Locker, David; Allen, Finbarr; Feine, Jocelyne
2008-02-01
The 49-item Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP) has shown strong responsiveness, reliability and validity. However, the large number of items included may limit its use in clinical trials, clinical practice and surveys. The main objective of this study is to assess the effect of reducing the number of items in each domain, one at a time, on responsiveness, reliability and validity of the OHIP in edentulous populations. Data used in this study were obtained from two randomized clinical trials comparing mandibular implant overdentures and conventional dentures among 102 subjects between 35 and 65 years of age, and 60 subjects over the age of 65 years. Participants were edentulous individuals who wished to replace their current prostheses. Subjects in both trials were asked to complete the 49-item OHIP prior to treatment and at 2 months post-treatment. Within the study, effect sizes were computed at each stage of item reduction using the impact method. Intraclass correlation coefficients and Pearson's correlation coefficients were also assessed at each stage of item reduction. In addition, receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to indicate the accuracy with which measurement changes corresponded to judgements of important changes in Oral Health Related Quality of Life (OHRQL). The results indicated that, in general, domain responsiveness was not affected by the reduction of the number of items used per domain. However, there was a decrease in reliability, especially within the 'psychological' and 'social' disabilities and 'handicap' domains (35- to 65-year group). In addition, there was a decrease in construct validity of the 'physical pain', 'psychological' and 'social disabilities' domains (35- to 65-year group), as well as on 'physical pain', 'psychological discomfort', 'physical' and 'psychological' disabilities in the 65-year and older group. This occurred primarily, when reducing from two to one item per domain. Among the 35- to 65-year group
Measurements and Modelling of the Wind Speed Profile in the Marine Atmospheric Boundary Layer
Peña, Alfredo; Gryning, Sven-Erik; Hasager, Charlotte B.
2008-12-01
We present measurements from 2006 of the marine wind speed profile at a site located 18 km from the west coast of Denmark in the North Sea. Measurements from mast-mounted cup anemometers up to a height of 45 m are extended to 161 m using LiDAR observations. Atmospheric turbulent flux measurements performed in 2004 with a sonic anemometer are compared to a bulk Richardson number formulation of the atmospheric stability. This is used to classify the LiDAR/cup wind speed profiles into atmospheric stability classes. The observations are compared to a simplified model for the wind speed profile that accounts for the effect of the boundary-layer height. For unstable and neutral atmospheric conditions the boundary-layer height could be neglected, whereas for stable conditions it is comparable to the measuring heights and therefore essential to include. It is interesting to note that, although it is derived from a different physical approach, the simplified wind speed profile conforms to the traditional expressions of the surface layer when the effect of the boundary-layer height is neglected.
Hampton, J A; Lantz, R C; Hinton, D E
1989-05-01
Hepatic stroma and parenchyma with its component cell types were quantitatively described in adult male and female actively-spawning 5-year-old rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri, Richardson). Point-count morphometry of glycol methacrylate sections estimated volume compartments for stroma and parenchyma. Veins composed 85% of the stroma while arteries and bile ducts occupied approximately 6-7% each. Parenchyma accounted for 95% of hepatic volume. Point-count morphometry of transmission electron micrographs estimated volume compartments as well as numerical and surface density measurements for parenchymal components. Within the hepatic parenchymal compartment, hepatocytes occupied 85% and showed significant sex differences. Female hepatocytes were significantly more numerous but were smaller, only 60% of the volume of male hepatocytes. Since hepatocyte nuclear volume was equal in both sexes, differences were due to reduced cytoplasmic volume in females. Perisinusoidal macrophages of females occupied larger volumes of their respective parenchymal compartments, and their larger mean cytoplasmic volumes suggested activation. Biliary epithelial cells of preductules and ductules were numerous. Ratios of numerical density of hepatocytes to biliary epithelial cells were consistent with a tubular arrangement of hepatocytes. Factors possibly mediating the sexual dimorphism are discussed.
Vio, R; Wamsteker, W
2004-01-01
It is well-known that the noise associated with the collection of an astronomical image by a CCD camera is, in large part, Poissonian. One would expect, therefore, that computational approaches that incorporate this a priori information will be more effective than those that do not. The Richardson-Lucy (RL) algorithm, for example, can be viewed as a maximum-likelihood (ML) method for image deblurring when the data noise is assumed to be Poissonian. Least-squares (LS) approaches, on the other hand, arises from the assumption that the noise is Gaussian with fixed variance across pixels, which is rarely accurate. Given this, it is surprising that in many cases results obtained using LS techniques are relatively insensitive to whether the noise is Poissonian or Gaussian. Furthermore, in the presence of Poisson noise, results obtained using LS techniques are often comparable with those obtained by the RL algorithm. We seek an explanation of these phenomena via an examination of the regularization properties of par...
Amore, Paolo; Fernandez, Francisco M; Rösler, Boris
2015-01-01
We apply second order finite difference to calculate the lowest eigenvalues of the Helmholtz equation, for complicated non-tensor domains in the plane, using different grids which sample exactly the border of the domain. We show that the results obtained applying Richardson and Pad\\'e-Richardson extrapolation to a set of finite difference eigenvalues corresponding to different grids allows to obtain extremely precise values. When possible we have assessed the precision of our extrapolations comparing them with the highly precise results obtained using the method of particular solutions. Our empirical findings suggest an asymptotic nature of the FD series. In all the cases studied, we are able to report numerical results which are more precise than those available in the literature.
邹建武; 祝明波; 董巍; 李相平
2014-01-01
方位超分辨是国内外雷达界持续探索的一项技术难题。为解决高斯噪声情况下天线低通效应造成的方位低分辨力问题，利用基于泊松噪声情况下Richardson-Lucy( RL)算法对其进行研究。针对RL算法中高斯噪声被放大出现虚假目标和RL算法收敛速度慢的缺点，提出了一种改进RL算法。该算法首先使用低通滤波去除高频段的噪声，然后利用加速RL算法进行方位超分辨。仿真结果表明：与原RL算法相比，改进RL算法能降低高斯噪声的影响，消除虚假目标；在信噪比低至0 dB时，相对于半功率波束宽度，改进RL算法的最大分辩倍数为1.8倍，与维纳逆滤波算法相比具有较强的噪声适应能力，可以应用于雷达方位超分辨。%Azimuth super-resolution remains a technical problem needed to be explored in radar domain both at home and abroad. In order to solve the low resolution problem caused by antenna’s low-pass effect under the condition of Gaussian noise, Richardson-Lucy ( RL) algorithm is used in research based on the Poisson noise. For the drawback of false target because of amplified effect of Gaussian noise and slow con-vergence rate, an improved RL algorithm is proposed. Firstly, the improved algorithm uses the low-pass filter to remove the noise in high frequency band, then its azimuth super resolution is solved by the acceler-ated RL algorithm. Simulation results show that, compared with the original RL algorithm, the improved RL algorithm can reduce the Gaussian noise, eliminate false targets, with regards to the half-power beam-width, its maximum resolution ratio can be reach 1. 8 times when the signal-to-noise ratio(SNR) is low to 0 dB, which shows the improved RL algorithm has strong noise adaptation capability compared with Wie-ner inverse filtering algorithm and can be used in radar azimuth super-resolution.
Abrashkevich, A. G.; Abrashkevich, D. G.
1994-09-01
A FORTRAN-77 program is presented which solves the Sturm-Liouville problem for a system of coupled second-order differential equations by the finite difference method of the second order using the iterative Richardson extrapolation of the difference eigensolutions on a sequence of doubly condensed meshes. The same extrapolational procedure and error estimations are applied to the eigenvalues and eigenfunctions. Zero-value (Dirichlet) or zero-gradient (Neumann) boundary conditions are considered.
Barnes, Cris William [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2015-02-24
At the request of Katherine Richardson-McDaniel, Staff Member to U.S. Senator Martin Heinrich (D-NM), a high-level briefing was requested about MaRIE 1.0, the Matter-Radiation Interactions in Extremes effort at Los Alamos National Laboratory. What it would be, the mission need motivation, the scientific challenge, and the current favorable impact on both programs and people are shown in viewgraph form.
Pfannkuche Hans-Juergen
2006-06-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Tegaserod is effective in treating IBS patients with constipation, and does not alter gallbladder motility in healthy individuals or in patients with IBS. However, it is not known if tegaserod affects the biliary tract in gallstone disease, so to this end the effects of tegaserod on bile composition and hepatic secretion of Richardson ground squirrels maintained on an enriched cholesterol diet were examined. Results Animals were fed either a control (0.03% or enriched (1% cholesterol diet for 28 days, and treated s.c. with tegaserod (0.1 mg/kg BID or vehicle. Bile flow, bile acid, phospholipids and cholesterol secretion were measured with standard methods. Tegaserod treatment or enriched cholesterol diet, alone or combination, did not alter body or liver weights. The enriched cholesterol diet increased cholesterol saturation index (CSI, cholesterol concentrations in gallbladder and hepatic duct bile by ~50% and decreased bile acids in gallbladder bile by 17%. Tegaserod treatment reversed these cholesterol-induced changes. None of the treatments, drug or diet, altered fasting gallbladder volume, bile flow and bile salts or phospholipid secretion in normal diet and cholesterol-fed animals. However, tegaserod treatment prevented the decreases in bile acid pool size and cycling frequency caused by the enriched cholesterol diet, consequent to re-establishing normal bile acid to concentrations in the gall bladder. Tegaserod had no effect on these parameters with normal diet animals. Conclusion Tegaserod treatment results in increased enterohepatic cycling and lowers cholesterol saturation in the bile of cholesterol-fed animals. These effects would decrease conditions favorable to cholesterol gallstone formation.
Agosta, Federica; Kostić, Vladimir S; Galantucci, Sebastiano; Mesaros, Sarlota; Svetel, Marina; Pagani, Elisabetta; Stefanova, Elka; Filippi, Massimo
2010-08-01
In this study, we wished to test, using magnetic resonance imaging and voxel-based morphometry (VBM), whether specific cortical and subcortical patterns of brain grey (GM) and white matter (WM) tissue loss can be detected in patients with Richardson's syndrome (PSP-RS) and progressive supranuclear palsy-parkinsonism (PSP-P), and possibly account for their clinical heterogeneity. Twenty patients with PSP, classified as PSP-RS (10 patients) or PSP-P (10 patients), and 24 healthy controls were studied. The Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM5) and the Diffeomorphic Anatomical Registration using Exponentiated Lie algebra method were used to perform a VBM analysis. Compared with controls, both patient groups showed GM loss in the central midbrain, cerebellar lobes, caudate nuclei, frontotemporal cortices and right hippocampus. WM loss was detected in both conditions in the midbrain, left superior cerebellar peduncle, internal capsulae, and left premotor and bilateral prefrontal regions. Compared with PSP-P, patients with PSP-RS showed additional regions of GM loss in the midbrain, left cerebellar lobe and dentate nuclei. PSP-RS was also associated with a more severe WM loss in the midbrain, internal capsulae, and orbitofrontal, prefrontal and precentral/premotor regions, bilaterally. Patients with PSP-P showed a more pronounced GM loss only in the frontal cortex, bilaterally. This study shows that, albeit the overall pattern of brain atrophy associated with PSP appears remarkably consistent across the spectrum of clinical features recorded in life, major anatomical differences between these two conditions do exist. Such a different topographical distribution of tissue damage may account for the clinical differences between PSP-RS and PSP-P.
Pinkhardt, Elmar H; Jürgens, Reinhart; Becker, Wolfgang; Valdarno, Federica; Ludolph, Albert C; Kassubek, Jan
2008-12-01
Vertical gaze palsy is a highly relevant clinical sign in parkinsonian syndromes. As the eponymous sign of progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), it is one of the core features in the diagnosis of this disease. Recent studies have suggested a further differentiation of PSP in Richardson's syndrome (RS) and PSP-parkinsonism (PSPP). The aim of this study was to search for oculomotor abnormalities in the PSP-P subset of a sample of PSP patients and to compare these findings with those of (i) RS patients, (ii) patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD), and (iii) a control group. Twelve cases of RS, 5 cases of PSP-P, and 27 cases of IPD were examined by use of video-oculography (VOG) and compared to 23 healthy normal controls. Both groups of PSP patients (RS, PSP-P) had significantly slower saccades than either IPD patients or controls, whereas no differences in saccadic eye peak velocity were found between the two PSP groups or in the comparison of IPD with controls. RS and PSP-P were also similar to each other with regard to smooth pursuit eye movements (SPEM), with both groups having significantly lower gain than controls (except for downward pursuit); however, SPEM gain exhibited no consistent difference between PSP and IPD. A correlation between eye movement data and clinical data (Hoehn & Yahr scale or disease duration) could not be observed. As PSP-P patients were still in an early stage of the disease when a differentiation from IPD is difficult on clinical grounds, the clear-cut separation between PSP-P and IPD obtained by measuring saccade velocity suggests that VOG could contribute to the early differentiation between these patient groups.
The size of non-hippocampal brain regions varies by season and sex in Richardson's ground squirrel.
Keeley, R J; Burger, D K; Saucier, D M; Iwaniuk, A N
2015-03-19
Sex- and season-specific modulation of hippocampal size and function is observed across multiple species, including rodents. Other non-hippocampal-dependent behaviors exhibit season and sex differences, and whether the associated brain regions exhibit similar variation with sex and season remains to be fully characterized. As such, we examined the brains of wild-caught Richardson's ground squirrels (RGS; Urocitellus richardsonii) for seasonal (breeding, non-breeding) and sex differences in the volumes of specific brain areas, including: total brain volume, corpus callosum (CC), anterior commissure (AC), medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), total neocortex (NC), entorhinal cortex (EC), and superior colliculus (SC). Analyses of variance and covariance revealed significant interactions between season and sex for almost all areas studied, primarily resulting from females captured during the breeding season exhibiting larger volumes than females captured during the non-breeding season. This was observed for volumes of the AC, mPFC, NC, EC, and SC. Where simple main effects of season were observed for males (the NC and the SC), the volume advantage favoured males captured during the NBr season. Only two simple main effects of sex were observed: males captured in the non-breeding season had significantly larger total brain volume than females captured in the non-breeding season, and females captured during the breeding season had larger volumes of the mPFC and EC than males captured in the breeding season. These results indicate that females have more pronounced seasonal differences in brain and brain region sizes. The extent to which seasonal differences in brain region volumes vary with behaviour is unclear, but our data do suggest that seasonal plasticity is not limited to the hippocampus and that RGS is a useful mammalian species for understanding seasonal plasticity in an ecologically relevant context.
Zhang, G.; Leclerc, M. Y.; Karipot, A.
2010-11-01
The particularities of the physics of the canopy layer pose challenges to the determination and use of traditional universal functions so helpful in the atmospheric surface layer. Progress toward "universal-like functions" such as those provided by Monin-Obukhov similarity theory for the canopy layer has been modest. One of the challenges lies in that the assumptions underlying Monin-Obukhov similarity theory do not hold within a canopy layer. This paper thus examines the local flux-profile relations for wind (Φm) and for temperature (Φh). It uses three different stability parameters, i.e., h/L(h) at tree top, local z/L(z), and the local bulk Richardson number (Ri), within a tall forest canopy in nighttime stable (indicated by h/L(h) > 0) conditions. Results suggest that the in-canopy Φm can be described using the local Richardson number Ri. Furthermore, Φm is found to increase linearly with Ri in the upper canopy layer for |Ri| 1, |Φm| decreases with |Ri| in a power function, a result consistent for all levels of measurements within the canopy. When both local Φh and local Ri are positive, i.e., the local downward turbulent heat flux is consistent with the local temperature gradient, the local Φh increases with the local Ri when Ri 1. The relationship between local Φh and Ri disappears when counter-gradient heat transfer occurs in strongly stable conditions. A self-correlation analysis is used to examine the influence of self-correlation and the physical meaning of these relationships.
AnilKumar, N.; Sankaranarayanan, V.N.; Josanto, V.
(L) values at section-1 and section 2 and the estuary was found to be well mixed. During the monsoon period the stratification was higher and the variation in log R sub(L) was high from flood to ebb tide. The lower part of the estuary is a turbidity maximum...
Rasmussen, A.; Soerensen, J.H.; Nielsen, N.W. [Danish Meteorological Inst., DMI, Copenhagen (Denmark)
1997-10-01
A sensitivity study is performed of vertical profiles from the numerical weather prediction model DMI-HIRLAM (DMI-HIgh Resolution Limited Area Model). The study involves profiles of horizontal wind, temperature and humidity in the lower troposphere up to 2500 meter. Detailed comparisons of analysed as well as forecast profiles are made with measured data from several radio-sonde stations throughout Europe. Methods for estimating the Mixing Height (MH) based on a bulk Richardson number method, the Vogelezang and Holtslag method and parcel methods are also studied. The methods are inter-compared, and MH based on data from DMI-HIRLAM are compared with the corresponding MH based on radiosonde data. For convective conditions the MH estimates are also compared with subjective estimates of the MH. In this paper preliminary results mainly based on data from Jaegersborg (Copenhagen) are presented. Results based on data from 1994-95 show that the resemblance between measured profiles and the DMI-HIRLAM profiles is fairly good in general. Also the estimates of the MH based on DMI-HIRLAM data is in general of nearly the same quality as estimations based on observed data. However, especially in convective conditions there is a tendency by DMI-HIRLAM to underestimate the strength of the mixing and thereby relatively large errors in the estimates of the MH can occur. (au)
Randers, Morten Bredsgaard; Nybo, Lars; Petersen, Jesper
2010-01-01
for all player groups, independently of age, sex, social background and number of players, and a high number of intense actions both for men and women. Thus, small-sided football games appear to have the potential to create physiological adaptations and improve performance with regular training...
Hehir-Kwa, J.Y.; Egmont-Peterson, M.; Janssen, I.M.; Smeets, D.F.C.M.; Geurts van Kessel, A.H.M.; Veltman, J.A.
2007-01-01
Recently, comparative genomic hybridization onto bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) arrays (array-based comparative genomic hybridization) has proved to be successful for the detection of submicroscopic DNA copy-number variations in health and disease. Technological improvements to achieve a
Mochammad Hatta
Full Text Available Multi-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis differentiated 297 Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi blood culture isolates from Makassar in 76 genotypes and a single unique S. Typhi genotype was isolated from the cholecystectomy specimens of four patients with cholelithiasis. The high diversity in S. Typhi genotypes circulating in Makassar indicates that the number of carriers could be very large, which may complicate disease prevention and control.
Isaev, S. A.; Baranov, P. A.; Sudakov, A. G.; Popov, I. A.
2016-08-01
A modification of the popular model of shear stress transport aimed at calculating the separation flow of an incompressible viscous liquid is justified. The modification eliminates the nonphysical pumping of the vortex viscosity in the cores of large-scale vortices. It has been verified with regard to the influence of the streamline curvature on the vortex viscosity by introducing a reciprocal linear function of the turbulent Richardson number with the Isaev-Kharchenko-Usachov constant equal to 0.02.Verification is based on solving the test problem an axisymmetric steady flow about a disk-cylinder tandem with an optimally configured nose, which has an ultralow profile drag for a Reynolds number of 5 × 105. It has been shown that the Menter combined boundary conditions are valid if y + y of the wall does not exceed two.
Faribault, Alexandre; Tschirhart, Hugo; Muller, Nicolas
2016-05-01
In this work we present a determinant expression for the domain-wall boundary condition partition function of rational (XXX) Richardson-Gaudin models which, in addition to N-1 spins \\frac{1}{2}, contains one arbitrarily large spin S. The proposed determinant representation is written in terms of a set of variables which, from previous work, are known to define eigenstates of the quantum integrable models belonging to this class as solutions to quadratic Bethe equations. Such a determinant can be useful numerically since systems of quadratic equations are much simpler to solve than the usual highly nonlinear Bethe equations. It can therefore offer significant gains in stability and computation speed.
Paulo Cesar Trevisol-Bittencourt
1992-01-01
Paralisia supranuclear progressiva (PSP) foi inicialmente identificada como entidade distinta por Richardson, Steele e Olszewski há cerca de 25 anos. Observações clínicas subsequentes não apenas têm confirmado mas, também acrescentaram novas informações aos relatos pioneiros. PSP pode ser descrita como transtorno neurológico gradualmente incapacitante com rigidez extrapiramidal, bradieinesia, dificuldade na marcha com quedas frequentes, paralisia pseudo-bulbar, demência e oftalmoplegia supran...
Hehir-Kwa, J.Y.; Egmont-Peterson, M.; Janssen, I.M.; Smeets, D.F.C.M.; Geurts van Kessel, A.H.M.; Veltman, J.A.
2007-01-01
Recently, comparative genomic hybridization onto bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) arrays (array-based comparative genomic hybridization) has proved to be successful for the detection of submicroscopic DNA copy-number variations in health and disease. Technological improvements to achieve a high
Hatta, M.; Pastoor, R.; Scheelbeek, P.F.D.; Sultan, A.R.; Dwiyanti, R.; Labeda, I.; Smits, H.L.
2011-01-01
Multi-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis differentiated 297 Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi blood culture isolates from Makassar in 76 genotypes and a single unique S. Typhi genotype was isolated from the cholecystectomy specimens of four patients with cholelithiasis. The high diversity
Hatta, M.; Pastoor, R.; Scheelbeek, P.F.D.; Sultan, A.R.; Dwiyanti, R.; Labeda, I.; Smits, H.L.
2011-01-01
Multi-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis differentiated 297 Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi blood culture isolates from Makassar in 76 genotypes and a single unique S. Typhi genotype was isolated from the cholecystectomy specimens of four patients with cholelithiasis. The high diversity
Salvi Fabrizio
2010-04-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple sclerosis (MS is a complex disorder thought to result from an interaction between environmental and genetic predisposing factors which have not yet been characterised, although it is known to be associated with the HLA region on 6p21.32. Recently, a picture of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI, consequent to stenosing venous malformation of the main extra-cranial outflow routes (VM, has been described in patients affected with MS, introducing an additional phenotype with possible pathogenic significance. Methods In order to explore the presence of copy number variations (CNVs within the HLA locus, a custom CGH array was designed to cover 7 Mb of the HLA locus region (6,899,999 bp; chr6:29,900,001-36,800,000. Genomic DNA of the 15 patients with CCSVI/VM and MS was hybridised in duplicate. Results In total, 322 CNVs, of which 225 were extragenic and 97 intragenic, were identified in 15 patients. 234 known polymorphic CNVs were detected, the majority of these being situated in non-coding or extragenic regions. The overall number of CNVs (both extra- and intragenic showed a robust and significant correlation with the number of stenosing VMs (Spearman: r = 0.6590, p = 0.0104; linear regression analysis r = 0.6577, p = 0.0106. The region we analysed contains 211 known genes. By using pathway analysis focused on angiogenesis and venous development, MS, and immunity, we tentatively highlight several genes as possible susceptibility factor candidates involved in this peculiar phenotype. Conclusions The CNVs contained in the HLA locus region in patients with the novel phenotype of CCSVI/VM and MS were mapped in detail, demonstrating a significant correlation between the number of known CNVs found in the HLA region and the number of CCSVI-VMs identified in patients. Pathway analysis revealed common routes of interaction of several of the genes involved in angiogenesis and immunity contained within this region
Hosseini Nave, Hossein; Mansouri, Shahla; Taati Moghadam, Majid; Moradi, Mohammad
2016-01-01
Background Enteroinvasive Escherichia coli (EIEC) isolates cause dysentery in humans. Several virulence factors associated with EIEC pathogenesis have been characterized. Multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) is a PCR-based method that has been used for genotyping bacterial pathogens. Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution of virulence factor genes in EIEC isolates from patients with diarrhea in Kerman, Iran, as well as the genetic relationship...
Hazra, Purnima; Jit, S
2014-07-01
This paper reports the temperature dependent electrical parameters of p-Silicon nanowires (SiNWs)/n-ZnO thin film based core-shell heterojunction diodes fabricated by conformally deposited zinc oxide (ZnO) by atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique on metal-assisted chemically etched SiNWs. The temperature-dependent current-voltage characteristics of the device have been estimated using the modified thermionic emission model in which a Gaussian distributed barrier height function is assumed to include the effects of barrier inhomogeneity phenomenon at the p-SiNW /n-ZnO heterojunction interface. Various parameters such as the turn-on voltage, ideality factor (eta), barrier height (phi(b)) and reverse saturation current are estimated over the operating temperature range of 303 K to 423 K of the diode. The value of the Richardson constant is observed to be largely changed from an impractical value of 1.989 x 10(-6) A cm(-2) K-2 to a realistic value of 36.6 A cm(-2) K-2 once the barrier inhogeneity phenomenon is taken into consideration in the analysis. The estimated value of the Richardson constant is believed to be the best among the reported results. The study is also believed to be the first in case of p-SiNWs/n-ZnO core-shell heterojunction diodes.
Arredouani, Abdelilah; Culeddu, Nicola; Moustafa, Julia El-Sayed; Tichet, Jean; Balkau, Beverley; Brousseau, Thierry; Manca, Marco; Falchi, Mario
2016-01-01
Low serum salivary amylase levels have been associated with a range of metabolic abnormalities, including obesity and insulin resistance. We recently suggested that a low copy number at the AMY1 gene, associated with lower enzyme levels, also increases susceptibility to obesity. To advance our understanding of the effect of AMY1 copy number variation on metabolism, we compared the metabolomic signatures of high– and low–copy number carriers. We analyzed, using mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), the sera of healthy normal-weight women carrying either low–AMY1 copies (LAs: four or fewer copies; n = 50) or high–AMY1 copies (HAs: eight or more copies; n = 50). Best-fitting multivariate models (empirical P < 1 × $10^{−3})$ of mass spectrometry and NMR data were concordant in showing differences in lipid metabolism between the two groups. In particular, LA carriers showed lower levels of long- and medium-chain fatty acids, and higher levels of dicarboxylic fatty acids and 2-hydrox...
Schick, Bernhard; Wemmert, Silke; Willnecker, Vivienne; Dlugaiczyk, Julia; Nicolai, Piero; Siwiec, Henryk; Thiel, Christian T; Rauch, Anita; Wendler, Olaf
2011-11-01
Juvenile angiofibroma (JA) is a unique fibrovascular tumor, which is almost exclusively found in the posterior nasal cavity of adolescent males. Although histologically classified as benign, the tumor often shows an aggressive growth pattern and has been associated with chromosomal imbalances, amplification of oncogenes and epigenetic dysregulation. We present the first genome-wide profiling of JAs (n=14) with a 100K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) microarray. Among the 30 novel JA-specific amplifications detected on autosomal chromosomes with this technique, the genes encoding the cancer-testis antigen BORIS (brother of the regulator of imprinted sites) and the developmental regulator protein TSHZ1 (teashirt zinc finger homeobox 1) were selected for further analysis. Gains for both BORIS (20q13.3) and TSHZ1 (18q22.3) were confirmed by quantitative genomic PCR. Furthermore, quantitative RT-PCR revealed a significant up-regulation of BORIS (ptool for identifying novel disease-related genes in JAs and newly implicates BORIS and TSHZ1 overexpression in the pathogenesis of JAs. Detection of BORIS in JAs is described with special regard to tumor proliferation and epigenetic dysregulation, and the finding of TSHZ1 amplifications is discussed with special respect to the hypothesis of JAs as malformations of the first branchial arch artery.
Ahlers, Guenter; He, Xiaozhou
2014-01-01
We report on experimental determinations of the temperature field in the interior (bulk) of turbulent Rayleigh-Benard convection for a cylindrical sample with aspect ratio (diameter over height) of 0.50, both in the classical and in the ultimate state. The Prandtl number was close to 0.8. We find a "logarithmic layer" in which the temperature varies as A*ln(z/L) + B with the distance z from the bottom plate of the sample. The amplitude A varies with radial position r. In the classical state these results are in good agreement with direct numerical simulations (DNS); in the ultimate state there are as yet no DNS. A close analogy between the temperature field in the classical state and the "Law of the Wall" for the time-averaged down-stream velocity in shear flow is discussed.
Lo, Aloysius Kou-Fang
1995-09-01
Flux parameters, zero-plane displancement height and roughness length of a forest canopy are determined taking into consideration a transition layer and atmospheric diabatic influences. The present study, unlike previous studies by DeBruin and Moore (1985) and Lo (1990) that accounted for the velocity profile alone, make use of information from both wind and temperature profiles in formulating the governing equations. However, only the top level measurement is assumed to be within the logarithmic regime. In addition to the mass conservation principle (e.g., Lo, 1990; DeBruin and Moore, 1985), an analytic relationship between the Monin-Obukhov length and the bulk Richardson number is employed as the closure equation for the governing system.The present method is applied to profile measurements taken at Camp Borden (den Hartog and Neumann, 1984) in and above a forest canopy with mean crown height of about 18.5 m. Profile data under neutral or near-neutral conditions yieldedd=12.69 m andz 0=0.97 m, which are realistic values. In general,z 0 increases slightly with increasing wind yet remains relatively constant with respect to small variation of stabilities. On the other hand, increases of wind speed reduced values of displacement height,d, by as much as 50%. The influence, if any, of stability ond, however, is not clear from the results of the present study. The validity of using profile data of limited height is also carefully examined. At least for neutral or near-neutral stabilities, the present method can yield realistic results even though the profile heights are substantially below the transition layer height" suggested by Garratt (1978).
Barbara Warmbein
2000-01-01
Photo 01 : September 2000 - Mr Bill Richardson, Secretary of Energy, United States of America (centre) at an LHC interaction region quadrupole test cryostat, part of the US contribution to LHC construction and built by the US-LHC collaboration (hence the Fermilab logo); with l. to r. Dr Mildred Dresselhaus, Dr Carlo Wyss, CERN Director General, Profesor Luciano Maiani, Professor Roger Cashmore, Ambassador George Moose, Dr Peter Rosen, Dr John Ellis. Photo 02 : Mr. Bill Richardson (right), Secretary of Energy United States of America with Prof. Luciano Maiani leaning over one of the LHC magnets produced at Fermilab during his visit to CERN on 16th September 2000.
Pair separation in high Reynolds number turbulence
Bourgoin, M O; Xu, H; Joergensen, J B; Bodenschatz, E; Bourgoin, Mickael; Ouellette, Nicholas T.; Xu, Haitao; Joergensen, Jacob B.; Bodenschatz, Eberhard
2005-01-01
The separation of two nearby particles in a turbulent flow is fundamental in our everyday lives. Turbulent mixing is important everywhere from mundane applications like stirring milk into a cup of tea to technological processes such as the mixing of chemicals in reactors, combustion engines, or jet turbines. Environmental problems such as the spread of pollutants or bioagents in the atmosphere and oceans are fundamentally turbulent mixing processes. Even biological organisms use it to survive in marine ecosystems. Despite intense scientific inquiry, however, no convincing agreement has been found with the Richardson and Batchelor two-particle dispersion predictions over a wide range of timescales. Here we report measurements in a laboratory water flow at very high turbulence intensities (Taylor microscale Reynolds numbers of R_lambda = 690 and 815) that show excellent agreement with a refinement of Batchelor's prediction. We find that even for large initial spatial separations Batchelor scaling is fulfilled. ...
Rinne, R.L. [ed.
1994-02-01
This conference was organized to study and analyze the role of simulation, analysis, modeling, and exercises in the history of NATO policy. The premise was not that the results of past studies will apply to future policy, but rather that understanding what influenced the decision process-and how-would be of value. The structure of the conference was built around discussion panels. The panels were augmented by a series of papers and presentations focusing on particular TNF events, issues, studies, or exercises. The conference proceedings consist of three volumes. Volume 1 contains the conference introduction, agenda, biographical sketches of principal participants, and analytical summary of the presentations and discussion panels. Volume 2 contains a short introduction and the papers and presentations from the conference. This volume contains selected papers by Brig. Gen. Robert C. Richardson III (Ret.).
Large Eddy Simulations of Kelvin Helmholtz instabilities at high Reynolds number stratified flows
Brown, Dana; Goodman, Lou; Raessi, Mehdi
2015-11-01
Simulations of Kelvin Helmholtz Instabilities (KHI) at high Reynolds numbers are performed using the Large Eddy Simulation technique. Reynolds numbers up to 100,000 are achieved using our model. The resulting data set is used to examine the effect of Reynolds number on various statistics, including dissipation flux coefficient, turbulent kinetic energy budget, and Thorpe length scale. It is shown that KHI are qualitatively different at high Re, up to and including the onset of vortex pairing and billow collapse and quantitatively different afterward. The effect of Richardson number is also examined. The results are discussed as they apply to ocean experiments.
Jober Fernando Sobczak
2012-09-01
Full Text Available Hymenoepimecis neotropica (Brues & Richardson (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae, Pimplinae parasitoid of Araneus omnicolor (Keyserling (Araneae, Araneidae: first host record and new occurrence to Brazil. The species of the genus Hymenoepimecis occur only in Neotropical region, being recognized for using as their hosts spiders which build orbicular webs. That wasp was described occurring only in the Guyana. This work expands the geographical distribution of the species to Brazil and records the spider Araneus omnicolor (Araneae, Araneidae as its host. Furthermore, it provides information about the natural history of this interaction.Hymenoepimecis neotropica (Brues & Richardson (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae parasitoide de Araneus omnicolor (Keyserling (Araneae, Araneidae: primeiro registro do hospedeiro e nova ocorrência para o Brasil. Espécies do gênero Hymenoepimecis ocorrem somente na região Neotropical, sendo reconhecidas por utilizarem, como hospedeiras, aranhas que constroem teias orbiculares. Essa vespa foi descrita ocorrendo somente na Guiana. Este trabalho amplia a distribuição geográfica da espécie para o Brasil e registra a aranha Araneus omnicolor (Araneae, Araneidae como sua hospedeira. Além disso, fornece informações sobre a história natural desta interação.
Wranicz, Jerzy Krzysztof; Cygankiewicz, Iwona; Kula, Piotr; Walczak-Jedrzejowska, Renata; Slowikowska-Hilczer, Jolanta; Kula, Krzysztof
2006-01-01
Objectives: To assess the correlations between blood levels of sex steroid hormones and blood lipid profile or the degree of coronary artery stenosis in men with coronary artery disease (CAD). Methods: 111 men with stable CAD, aged 36-73 yrs, unselected for the coexisting clinical coronary risk factors were prospectively studied. Degree of coronary stenosis was assessed angiographically using different indices. Total cholesterol (T-Ch), high density lipoproteins cholesterol (HDL-Ch), low density lipoproteins cholesterol (LDL-Ch), triglicerydes (TG), testosterone, estradiol, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S), and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) were measured in the blood. Free testosterone index (FTI) was calculated. Results: A positive, significant correlations were found between blood concentrations of estradiol and T-Ch (r=0.29, p<0.01) or LDL-Ch (r=0.34, p<0.005) as well as between FTI and blood LDL-Ch (r=0.23, p<0.05). Blood level of estradiol negatively correlated with HDL-Ch/T-Ch ratio (r=-0.21, p<0.05). While blood levels of T-Ch correlated positively with 3 out of 5 applied here indices of coronary stenosis, blood LDL-Ch with two of them. In turn, blood level of testosterone negatively correlated with one index of coronary stenosis (r=-0.26, p<0.05). Conclusion: In men with CAD, plasma estradiol concentrations are predictive for T-Ch, LDL-Ch and HDL-Ch/TCh ratio, and FTI for LDL-Ch. Regression analyses indicated that while sex steroid hormones may predispose toward atherogenic lipid profile and are predictive for the number and degree of coronary artery stenosis, higher blood level of total testosterone was associated with the lower number of stenosis in the coronary arteries. Hence, endogenous testosterone may have beneficial effect on coronary arteries. PMID:23674975
Mendonça, J. Ricardo G.
2012-01-01
We define a new class of numbers based on the first occurrence of certain patterns of zeros and ones in the expansion of irracional numbers in a given basis and call them Sagan numbers, since they were first mentioned, in a special case, by the North-american astronomer Carl E. Sagan in his science-fiction novel "Contact." Sagan numbers hold connections with a wealth of mathematical ideas. We describe some properties of the newly defined numbers and indicate directions for further amusement.
Vorob'ev, Nikolai Nikolaevich
2011-01-01
Fibonacci numbers date back to an 800-year-old problem concerning the number of offspring born in a single year to a pair of rabbits. This book offers the solution and explores the occurrence of Fibonacci numbers in number theory, continued fractions, and geometry. A discussion of the ""golden section"" rectangle, in which the lengths of the sides can be expressed as a ration of two successive Fibonacci numbers, draws upon attempts by ancient and medieval thinkers to base aesthetic and philosophical principles on the beauty of these figures. Recreational readers as well as students and teacher
Number names and number understanding
Ejersbo, Lisser Rye; Misfeldt, Morten
2014-01-01
through using mathematical names for the numbers such as one-ten-one for 11 and five-ten-six for 56. The project combines the renaming of numbers with supporting the teaching with the new number names. Our hypothesis is that Danish children have more difficulties learning and working with numbers, because...... the Danish number names are more complicated than in other languages. Keywords: A research project in grade 0 and 1th in a Danish school, Base-10 system, two-digit number names, semiotic, cognitive perspectives....
Petersen, T Kyle
2015-01-01
This text presents the Eulerian numbers in the context of modern enumerative, algebraic, and geometric combinatorics. The book first studies Eulerian numbers from a purely combinatorial point of view, then embarks on a tour of how these numbers arise in the study of hyperplane arrangements, polytopes, and simplicial complexes. Some topics include a thorough discussion of gamma-nonnegativity and real-rootedness for Eulerian polynomials, as well as the weak order and the shard intersection order of the symmetric group. The book also includes a parallel story of Catalan combinatorics, wherein the Eulerian numbers are replaced with Narayana numbers. Again there is a progression from combinatorics to geometry, including discussion of the associahedron and the lattice of noncrossing partitions. The final chapters discuss how both the Eulerian and Narayana numbers have analogues in any finite Coxeter group, with many of the same enumerative and geometric properties. There are four supplemental chapters throughout, ...
Paulo Cesar Trevisol-Bittencourt
1992-09-01
Full Text Available Paralisia supranuclear progressiva (PSP foi inicialmente identificada como entidade distinta por Richardson, Steele e Olszewski há cerca de 25 anos. Observações clínicas subsequentes não apenas têm confirmado mas, também acrescentaram novas informações aos relatos pioneiros. PSP pode ser descrita como transtorno neurológico gradualmente incapacitante com rigidez extrapiramidal, bradieinesia, dificuldade na marcha com quedas frequentes, paralisia pseudo-bulbar, demência e oftalmoplegia supranuclear característica. Incide em pessoas na meia idade ou idosas, sem distinção racial ou sexual. PSP é importante causa de parkinsonismo e sua etiologia permanece obscura. Neste registro é apresentado o caso de um paciente de Santa Catarina, exibindo inequívoca evidência clínica de PSP. Este é o primeiro caso descrito neste Estado onde, baseando-se em recentes premissas epidemiológicas, poderemos supor a existência de pelo menos mais 50 pacientes com PSP. Em complementação, é apresentada revisão da literatura, com ênfase a aspectos clínicos e terapêuticos da PSP.
Chefranov, Sergey G
2012-01-01
On the base of the Hamilton theory for the time-like photon in isotropic dielectric with refraction index n (S.Antoci, et.al, 2007), we suggest generalization of the Einstein-Plank-Richardson law for the value of the light energy quantum in medium:E=h*nu*n, where h is the Plank's constant, and nu is the light frequency. By use of this new quantum law, we resolve the famous contradiction between de Broglie and Einstein's theories, related with the old Abraham-Minkowski dilemma in the definition of the photon momentum value p (in the medium for n>1). We show that the same value p=p_a=E/(c*n)(c is the speed of light in vacuum) follows now from the both theories of de Broglie and Einstein, which complies with the theory of Abraham, but not with the theory of Minkowski (where p=p_m=E*n/c). Based on the corpuscular approach with p=p_a and E=h*nu*n^2, we give new inference for the Snellius refraction law and resolve more old corresponding corpuscular-wave Newton-Huygens dilemma. We show that even for n-1<<1 th...
无
2004-01-01
THE last digit of my home phone number in Beijing is 4. “So what?” European readers might ask.This was my attitude when I first lived in China; I couldn't understand why Chinese friends were so shocked at my indifference to the number 4. But China brings new discoveries every day, and I have since seen the light. I know now that Chinese people have their own ways of preserving their well being, and that they see avoiding the number 4 as a good way to stay safe.
Andrews, George E
1994-01-01
Although mathematics majors are usually conversant with number theory by the time they have completed a course in abstract algebra, other undergraduates, especially those in education and the liberal arts, often need a more basic introduction to the topic.In this book the author solves the problem of maintaining the interest of students at both levels by offering a combinatorial approach to elementary number theory. In studying number theory from such a perspective, mathematics majors are spared repetition and provided with new insights, while other students benefit from the consequent simpl
Barnes, John
2016-01-01
In this intriguing book, John Barnes takes us on a journey through aspects of numbers much as he took us on a geometrical journey in Gems of Geometry. Similarly originating from a series of lectures for adult students at Reading and Oxford University, this book touches a variety of amusing and fascinating topics regarding numbers and their uses both ancient and modern. The author intrigues and challenges his audience with both fundamental number topics such as prime numbers and cryptography, and themes of daily needs and pleasures such as counting one's assets, keeping track of time, and enjoying music. Puzzles and exercises at the end of each lecture offer additional inspiration, and numerous illustrations accompany the reader. Furthermore, a number of appendices provides in-depth insights into diverse topics such as Pascal’s triangle, the Rubik cube, Mersenne’s curious keyboards, and many others. A theme running through is the thought of what is our favourite number. Written in an engaging and witty sty...
G. Zhang
2010-11-01
Full Text Available The particularities of the physics of the canopy layer pose challenges to the determination and use of traditional universal functions so helpful in the atmospheric surface layer. Progress toward "universal-like functions" such as those provided by Monin-Obukhov similarity theory for the canopy layer has been modest. One of the challenges lies in that the assumptions underlying Monin-Obukhov similarity theory do not hold within a canopy layer. This paper thus examines the local flux-profile relations for wind (Φ_{m} and for temperature (Φ_{h}. It uses three different stability parameters, i.e., h/L(h at tree top, local z/L(z, and the local bulk Richardson number (Ri, within a tall forest canopy in nighttime stable (indicated by h/L(h > 0 conditions. Results suggest that the in-canopy Φ_{m} can be described using the local Richardson number Ri. Furthermore, Φ_{m} is found to increase linearly with Ri in the upper canopy layer for |Ri| < 1. When local |Ri| > 1, |Φ_{m}| decreases with |Ri| in a power function, a result consistent for all levels of measurements within the canopy. When both local Φ_{h} and local Ri are positive, i.e., the local downward turbulent heat flux is consistent with the local temperature gradient, the local Φ_{h} increases with the local Ri when Ri < 1. However, Φ_{h} does not change with Ri (or much more scattered when Ri > 1. The relationship between local Φ_{h} and Ri disappears when counter-gradient heat transfer occurs in strongly stable conditions. A self-correlation analysis is used to examine the influence of self-correlation and the physical meaning of these relationships.
Abrashkevich, A. G.; Abrashkevich, D. G.
1998-09-01
A FORTRAN program is presented which solves the Sturm-Liouville problem for a system of coupled second-order differential equations by the finite difference method of the second order using the iterative Richardson extrapolation of the difference eigensolutions on a sequence of doubly condensed meshes. The same extrapolational procedure and error estimations are applied to the eigenvalues and eigenfunctions. Zero-value (Dirichlet) or zero-gradient (Neumann) boundary conditions are considered.
Sraj, Ihab
2016-08-26
The authors present a polynomial chaos (PC)-based Bayesian inference method for quantifying the uncertainties of the K-profile parameterization (KPP) within the MIT general circulation model (MITgcm) of the tropical Pacific. The inference of the uncertain parameters is based on a Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) scheme that utilizes a newly formulated test statistic taking into account the different components representing the structures of turbulent mixing on both daily and seasonal time scales in addition to the data quality, and filters for the effects of parameter perturbations over those as a result of changes in the wind. To avoid the prohibitive computational cost of integrating the MITgcm model at each MCMC iteration, a surrogate model for the test statistic using the PC method is built. Because of the noise in the model predictions, a basis-pursuit-denoising (BPDN) compressed sensing approach is employed to determine the PC coefficients of a representative surrogate model. The PC surrogate is then used to evaluate the test statistic in the MCMC step for sampling the posterior of the uncertain parameters. Results of the posteriors indicate good agreement with the default values for two parameters of the KPP model, namely the critical bulk and gradient Richardson numbers; while the posteriors of the remaining parameters were barely informative. © 2016 American Meteorological Society.
Sraj, Ihab; Zedler, Sarah E.; Knio, Omar M.; Jackson, Charles S.; Hoteit, Ibrahim
2016-12-01
The authors present a Polynomial Chaos (PC)-based Bayesian inference method for quantifying the uncertainties of the K-Profile Parametrization (KPP) within the MIT General Circulation Model (MITgcm) of the tropical pacific. The inference of the uncertain parameters is based on a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) scheme that utilizes a newly formulated test statistic taking into account the different components representing the structures of turbulent mixing on both daily and seasonal timescales in addition to the data quality, and filters for the effects of parameter perturbations over those due to changes in the wind. To avoid the prohibitive computational cost of integrating the MITgcm model at each MCMC iteration, we build a surrogate model for the test statistic using the PC method. To filter out the noise in the model predictions and avoid related convergence issues, we resort to a Basis-Pursuit-DeNoising (BPDN) compressed sensing approach to determine the PC coefficients of a representative surrogate model. The PC surrogate is then used to evaluate the test statistic in the MCMC step for sampling the posterior of the uncertain parameters. Results of the posteriors indicate good agreement with the default values for two parameters of the KPP model namely the critical bulk and gradient Richardson numbers; while the posteriors of the remaining parameters were barely informative.
Murty, M Ram
2014-01-01
This book provides an introduction to the topic of transcendental numbers for upper-level undergraduate and graduate students. The text is constructed to support a full course on the subject, including descriptions of both relevant theorems and their applications. While the first part of the book focuses on introducing key concepts, the second part presents more complex material, including applications of Baker’s theorem, Schanuel’s conjecture, and Schneider’s theorem. These later chapters may be of interest to researchers interested in examining the relationship between transcendence and L-functions. Readers of this text should possess basic knowledge of complex analysis and elementary algebraic number theory.
Sankaranarayanan, Preethi; Schomay, Theodore E.; Aiello, Katherine A.; Alter, Orly
2015-01-01
The number of large-scale high-dimensional datasets recording different aspects of a single disease is growing, accompanied by a need for frameworks that can create one coherent model from multiple tensors of matched columns, e.g., patients and platforms, but independent rows, e.g., probes. We define and prove the mathematical properties of a novel tensor generalized singular value decomposition (GSVD), which can simultaneously find the similarities and dissimilarities, i.e., patterns of varying relative significance, between any two such tensors. We demonstrate the tensor GSVD in comparative modeling of patient- and platform-matched but probe-independent ovarian serous cystadenocarcinoma (OV) tumor, mostly high-grade, and normal DNA copy-number profiles, across each chromosome arm, and combination of two arms, separately. The modeling uncovers previously unrecognized patterns of tumor-exclusive platform-consistent co-occurring copy-number alterations (CNAs). We find, first, and validate that each of the patterns across only 7p and Xq, and the combination of 6p+12p, is correlated with a patient’s prognosis, is independent of the tumor’s stage, the best predictor of OV survival to date, and together with stage makes a better predictor than stage alone. Second, these patterns include most known OV-associated CNAs that map to these chromosome arms, as well as several previously unreported, yet frequent focal CNAs. Third, differential mRNA, microRNA, and protein expression consistently map to the DNA CNAs. A coherent picture emerges for each pattern, suggesting roles for the CNAs in OV pathogenesis and personalized therapy. In 6p+12p, deletion of the p21-encoding CDKN1A and p38-encoding MAPK14 and amplification of RAD51AP1 and KRAS encode for human cell transformation, and are correlated with a cell’s immortality, and a patient’s shorter survival time. In 7p, RPA3 deletion and POLD2 amplification are correlated with DNA stability, and a longer survival. In Xq
Preethi Sankaranarayanan
Full Text Available The number of large-scale high-dimensional datasets recording different aspects of a single disease is growing, accompanied by a need for frameworks that can create one coherent model from multiple tensors of matched columns, e.g., patients and platforms, but independent rows, e.g., probes. We define and prove the mathematical properties of a novel tensor generalized singular value decomposition (GSVD, which can simultaneously find the similarities and dissimilarities, i.e., patterns of varying relative significance, between any two such tensors. We demonstrate the tensor GSVD in comparative modeling of patient- and platform-matched but probe-independent ovarian serous cystadenocarcinoma (OV tumor, mostly high-grade, and normal DNA copy-number profiles, across each chromosome arm, and combination of two arms, separately. The modeling uncovers previously unrecognized patterns of tumor-exclusive platform-consistent co-occurring copy-number alterations (CNAs. We find, first, and validate that each of the patterns across only 7p and Xq, and the combination of 6p+12p, is correlated with a patient's prognosis, is independent of the tumor's stage, the best predictor of OV survival to date, and together with stage makes a better predictor than stage alone. Second, these patterns include most known OV-associated CNAs that map to these chromosome arms, as well as several previously unreported, yet frequent focal CNAs. Third, differential mRNA, microRNA, and protein expression consistently map to the DNA CNAs. A coherent picture emerges for each pattern, suggesting roles for the CNAs in OV pathogenesis and personalized therapy. In 6p+12p, deletion of the p21-encoding CDKN1A and p38-encoding MAPK14 and amplification of RAD51AP1 and KRAS encode for human cell transformation, and are correlated with a cell's immortality, and a patient's shorter survival time. In 7p, RPA3 deletion and POLD2 amplification are correlated with DNA stability, and a longer survival
DNA profiles from fingermarks.
Templeton, Jennifer E L; Linacre, Adrian
2014-11-01
Criminal investigations would be considerably improved if DNA profiles could be routinely generated from single fingermarks. Here we report a direct DNA profiling method that was able to generate interpretable profiles from 71% of 170 fingermarks. The data are based on fingermarks from all 5 digits of 34 individuals. DNA was obtained from the fingermarks using a swab moistened with Triton-X, and the fibers were added directly to one of two commercial DNA profiling kits. All profiles were obtained without increasing the number of amplification cycles; therefore, our method is ideally suited for adoption by the forensic science community. We indicate the use of the technique in a criminal case in which a DNA profile was generated from a fingermark on tape that was wrapped around a drug seizure. Our direct DNA profiling approach is rapid and able to generate profiles from touched items when current forensic practices have little chance of success.
Thelin, John R.
2013-01-01
What topic would you choose if you had the luxury of writing forever? In this article, John Thelin provides his response: He would opt to write about the history of higher education in a way that relies on quantitative data. "Numbers, please!" is his research request in taking on a longitudinal study of colleges and universities over…
Thelin, John R.
2013-01-01
What topic would you choose if you had the luxury of writing forever? In this article, John Thelin provides his response: He would opt to write about the history of higher education in a way that relies on quantitative data. "Numbers, please!" is his research request in taking on a longitudinal study of colleges and universities over…
Galbraith, Mary J.
1974-01-01
Examination of models for representing integers demonstrates that formal operational thought is required for establishing the operations on integers. Advocated is the use of many models for introducing negative numbers but, apart from addition, it is recommended that operations on integers be delayed until the formal operations stage. (JP)
Little, E.E.; Calfee, R.D.; Linder, G.
2014-01-01
The toxicity of five smelter slag-contaminated sediments from the upper Columbia River and metals associated with those slags (cadmium, copper, zinc) was evaluated in 96-h exposures of White Sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus Richardson, 1836) at 8 and 30 days post-hatch. Leachates prepared from slag-contaminated sediments were evaluated for toxicity. Leachates yielded a maximum aqueous copper concentration of 11.8 μg L−1 observed in sediment collected at Dead Man's Eddy (DME), the sampling site nearest the smelter. All leachates were nonlethal to sturgeon that were 8 day post-hatch (dph), but leachates from three of the five sediments were toxic to fish that were 30 dph, suggesting that the latter life stage is highly vulnerable to metals exposure. Fish maintained consistent and prolonged contact with sediments and did not avoid contaminated sediments when provided a choice between contaminated and uncontaminated sediments. White Sturgeon also failed to avoid aqueous copper (1.5–20 μg L−1). In water-only 96-h exposures of 35 dph sturgeon with the three metals, similar toxicity was observed during exposure to water spiked with copper alone and in combination with cadmium and zinc. Cadmium ranging from 3.2 to 41 μg L−1 or zinc ranging from 21 to 275 μg L−1 was not lethal, but induced adverse behavioral changes including a loss of equilibrium. These results suggest that metals associated with smelter slags may pose an increased exposure risk to early life stage sturgeon if fish occupy areas contaminated by slags.
ZHANG Rui; CHEN Hui-jiao; WEI Bing; ZHANG Hong-ying; PANG Zong-guo; ZHU Hong; ZHANG Zhang; FU Jing; BU Hong
2010-01-01
Background The reproducibility of the Nottingham modification of the Scarff-Bloom-Richardson (NSBR) histological grading system for invasive breast cancer (IBC) adopted by the World Health Organization (WHO) has previously not been studied in Chinese hospitals. The proliferation marker, Ki-67, has been widely applied in detecting IBC. The objective of this study was to assess the reproducibility of the NSBR system among Chinese pathologists and the complementary value that Ki-67 brings to this system.Methods Four general pathologists graded 100 IBC cases independently, which had previously been graded by specialists in breast pathology. The interobserver reproducibility among four general pathologists and pairwise reproducibility between each of them and the specialists were assessed. The Ki-67 labeling index (Ki-67LI) was determined by immunohistochemistry, and its correlations with histological grade and survival were determined.Results With respect to interobserver reproducibility, NSBR grading was fairly reproducible (kappa=0.34); as for the components of NSBR grading, agreement was best for tubule formation (kappa=0.46), intermediate for nuclear pleomorphism (kappa=0.42), and poorest for mitotic count (kappa=0.28). In terms of pairwise reproducibility, agreement was fair to substantial with NSBR grading (kappa=0.30-0.69) and nuclear pleomorphism (kappa=0.28-0.69), moderate to substantial for tubule formation (kappa=0.51-0.78), and slight to substantial for mitotic count (kappa=0.19-0.71).There were characteristic Ki-67LI ranges for grades 1,2 and 3 tumors. Univariate analysis showed that Ki-67 was able to divide grade 2 patients into two different prognostic subgroups. Multivariate analysis of grade 2 patients with negative lymph node demonstrated that Ki-67 was an independent prognosticator for overall survival.Conclusions The reproducibility of grading by general pathologists could be enhanced. Specialization in breast pathology is essential for accurate
76 FR 78957 - Nebraska Disaster Number NE-00043
2011-12-20
... following areas as adversely affected by the disaster. Primary Counties: Richardson, Nemaha. All other... 59002 and 59008) James E. Rivera, Associate Administrator for Disaster Assistance. BILLING CODE...
Bhandari, Prerana; Ahmad, Firoz; Das, Bibhu Ranjan
2017-05-01
Genes related to key cellular pathways are frequently altered in B cell ALL and are associated with poor survival especially in high-risk (HR) subgroups. We examined gene copy number abnormalities (CNA) in 101 Indian HR B cell ALL patients and their correlation with clinicopathological features by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification. Overall, CNA were detected in 59 (59%) cases, with 26, 10 and 23% of cases harboring 1, 2 or +3 CNA. CNA were more prevalent in BCR-ABL1 (60%), pediatric (64%) and high WCC (WBC count) (63%) patients. Frequent genes deletions included CDNK2A/B (26%), IKZF1 (25%), PAX5 (14%), JAK2 (7%), BTG1 (6%), RB1 (5%), EBF1 (4%), ETV6 (4%), while PAR1 region genes were predominantly duplicated (20%). EBF1 deletions selectively associated with adults, IKZF1 deletions occurred frequently in high WCC and BCR-ABL1 cases, while PAR1 region gains significantly associated with MLL-AF4 cases. IKZF1 haploinsufficiency group was predominant, especially in adults (65%), high WCC (60%) patients and BCR-ABL1-negative (78%) patients. Most cases harbored multiple concurrent CNA, with IKZF1 concomitantly occurring with CDNK2A/B, PAX5 and BTG1, while JAK2 occurred with CDNK2A/B and PAX5. Mutually exclusive CNA included ETV6 and IKZF1/RB1, and EBF1 and JAK2. Our results corroborate with global reports, aggregating molecular markers in Indian HR B-ALL cases. Integration of CNA data from rapid methods like MLPA, onto background of existing gold-standard methods detecting significant chromosomal abnormalities, provides a comprehensive genetic profile in B-ALL.
Number names and number understanding
Ejersbo, Lisser Rye; Misfeldt, Morten
2014-01-01
This paper concerns the results from the first year of a three-year research project involving the relationship between Danish number names and their corresponding digits in the canonical base 10 system. The project aims to develop a system to help the students’ understanding of the base 10 syste...
向建国; 向劲; 王星璐; 李钟杰; 谢松光
2011-01-01
2008年6月至7月间于鳡(Elopichthys bambusa Richardson)的主要繁殖季节在湘江采集鳡仔稚鱼共370尾,耳石分析表明这些仔稚鱼日龄在4-25d间,推算孵化日期为5月27日至6月22日.仔鱼前弯曲期向弯曲期转化时间为第6日龄,弯曲期向后弯曲期转化为第10日龄,后弯曲期向稚鱼期转化为15.5日龄.体长生长和耳石生长均在进入后弯曲期后(12-13日龄)出现1个节点:节点后体长生长速度是节点前的5倍,节点后耳石生长速度是节点前的2倍.早期生活史不同阶段鳡微耳石形态显著改变:前弯曲期耳石为圆形；弯曲期耳石前后轴的生长速度明显超过背腹轴生长,耳石也变为椭圆形；后弯曲期耳石进一步延长,耳石后端形成略尖的突起,耳石呈梨形；进入稚鱼期后,耳石后突起变得较为平滑,耳石形状呈贝形.耳石半径和体长的关系在后弯曲期阶段出现节点,节点前后呈不同的直线关系.%Elopichthys bambusa Richardson is a piscivorous fish distributes widely in the east floodplain waters, China. This fish is a potamodromous species, which grows and matures in the floodplain lakes and then naturally migrates into the attached rivers for spawning. E. Bambusa used to be a very important commercial species, however, resource of this fish has been dramatically destroyed in most waters due to overfishing and habitat degradations. With the success of artificial breeding of E. Bambusa in early 2000s, this species becomes an important aquacultural species and also a target species of stock enhancement typically in some reservoirs in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River. Mortality rate of fish during early life stage is high for both wild populations and artificial seeding production. An understanding of early growth and development is essential not only for wild population conservation, but also for artificial seeding production.In this study, a total number of 370 larval and juvenile
C. Yagüe
2006-01-01
Full Text Available Data from SABLES98 experimental campaign have been used in order to study the influence of stability (from weak to strong stratification on the flux-profile relationships for momentum, Φm, and heat, Φh. Measurements from 14 thermocouples and 3 sonic anemometers at three levels (5.8, 13.5 and 32 m for the period from 10 to 28 September 1998 were analysed using the framework of the local-scaling approach (Nieuwstadt, 1984a; 1984b, which can be interpreted as an extension of the Monin-Obukhov similarity theory (Obukhov, 1946. The results show increasing values of Φm and Φh with increasing stability parameter ζ=z/Λ, up to a value of ζ≈1–2, above which the values remain constant. As a consequence of this levelling off in Φm and Φh for strong stability, the turbulent mixing is underestimated when linear similarity functions (Businger et al., 1971 are used to calculate surface fluxes of momentum and heat. On the other hand when Φm and Φh are related to the gradient Richardson number, Ri, a different behaviour is found, which could indicate that the transfer of momentum is greater than that of heat for high Ri. The range of validity of these linear functions is discussed in terms of the physical aspects of turbulent intermittent mixing.
Scudder, Townsend, Ed.
The sociological factors related to marriage and divorce are discussed in this Population Profile. Statistics concerning marital status, marriage stability, divorce, and remarriage are presented and discussed. Alternate life styles are included in the publication, as well as predictions for the future based on present trends. This publication is…
Lucélia Donatti
2007-03-01
Full Text Available The Antarctic fish Notothenia coriiceps Richardson, 1844 lives in an environment of daily and annual photic variation and retina cells have to adjust morphologically to environmental luminosity. After seven day dark or seven day light acclimation of two groups of fish, retinas were extracted and processed for light and transmission electron microscopy. In seven day dark adapted, retina pigment epithelium melanin granules were aggregated at the basal region of cells, and macrophages were seen adjacent to the apical microvilli, between the photoreceptors. In seven day light adapted epithelium, melanin granules were inside the apical microvilli of epithelial cells and macrophages were absent. The supranuclear region of cones adapted to seven day light had less electron dense cytoplasm, and an endoplasmic reticulum with broad tubules. The mitochondria in the internal segment of cones adapted to seven day light were larger, and less electron dense. The differences in the morphology of cones and pigment epithelial cells indicate that N. coriiceps has retinal structural adjustments presumably optimizing vision in different light conditions.O peixe Antártico Notothenia coriiceps Richardson, 1844 habita meios com variações fóticas diária e anual e as células da retina se adaptam morfologicamente a esta luminosidade ambiental. Dois grupos de peixes foram aclimatados durante sete dias à luz constante ou ao escuro constante. Após secção medular, as retinas foram extraídas e processadas para microscopia de luz e microscopia eletrônica de transmissão. No epitélio pigmentar da retina adaptado sete dias ao escuro, os pigmentos de melanina agregam-se na base coroidal das células epiteliais pigmentares e macrófagos são encontrados no interior do processos apicais entre as células fotorreceptoras. No epitélio adaptado sete dias à luz os pigmentos de melanina se dispõem ao longo das projeções apicais das células epiteliais pigmentares e os
Hurwitz numbers and BKP hierarchy
Natanzon, S M
2015-01-01
We consider special series in ratios of the Schur functions which are defined by integers $\\textsc{f}\\ge 0$ and $\\textsc{e} \\le 2$, and also by the set of $3k$ parameters $n_i,q_i,t_i,\\,i=1,..., k$. These series may be presented in form of matrix integrals. In case $k=0$ these series generates Hurwitz numbers for the $d$-fold branched covering of connected surfaces with a given Euler characteristic $\\textsc{e}$ and arbitrary profiles at $\\textsc{f}$ ramification points. If $k>0$ they generate weighted sums of the Hurwitz numbers with additional ramification points which are distributed between color groups indexed by $i=1,...,k$, the weights being written in terms of parameters $n_i,q_i,t_i$. By specifying the parameters we get sums of all Hurwitz numbers with $\\textsc{f}$ arbitrary fixed profiles and the additional profiles provided the following condition: both, the sum of profile lengths and the number of ramification points in each color group are given numbers. In case $\\textsc{e}=\\textsc{f}=1,2$ the ser...
... AACC products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities Lipid Profile Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also ... as: Lipid Panel; Coronary Risk Panel Formal name: Lipid Profile Related tests: Cholesterol ; HDL Cholesterol ; LDL Cholesterol ; Triglycerides ; ...
Hladíková, Radka
2010-01-01
Title: Data Profiling Author: Radka Hladíková Department: Department of Software Engineering Supervisor: Ing. Vladimír Kyjonka Supervisor's e-mail address: Abstract: This thesis puts mind on problems with data quality and data profiling. This Work analyses and summarizes problems of data quality, data defects, process of data quality, data quality assessment and data profiling. The main topic is data profiling as a process of researching data available in existing...
Utz, S.
2010-01-01
This experiment examines how far extraversion of the target (self-generated information), extraversion of the target's friends (friends-generated information), and number of friends (system-generated information) influence the perceived popularity, communal orientation, and social attractiveness of
Utz, S.
2010-01-01
This experiment examines how far extraversion of the target (self-generated information), extraversion of the target's friends (friends-generated information), and number of friends (system-generated information) influence the perceived popularity, communal orientation, and social attractiveness of
Karolinske psychodynamic profile (KAPP)
Mathiesen, Birgit Bork; Søgaard, Ulf
2006-01-01
psykologiske testmetoder, assesment, Karolinska psychodynamic profile (KAPP), psykodynamisk profil......psykologiske testmetoder, assesment, Karolinska psychodynamic profile (KAPP), psykodynamisk profil...
Number of Compositions and Convolved Fibonacci numbers
Janjic, Milan
2010-01-01
We consider two type of upper Hessenberg matrices which determinants are Fibonacci numbers. Calculating sums of principal minors of the fixed order of the first type leads us to convolved Fibonacci numbers. Some identities for these and for Fibonacci numbers are proved. We also show that numbers of compositions of a natural number with fixed number of ones appear as coefficients of characteristic polynomial of a Hessenberg matrix which determinant is a Fibonacci number. We derive the explicit...
Number of Compositions and Convolved Fibonacci numbers
Janjic, Milan
2010-01-01
We consider two type of upper Hessenberg matrices which determinants are Fibonacci numbers. Calculating sums of principal minors of the fixed order of the first type leads us to convolved Fibonacci numbers. Some identities for these and for Fibonacci numbers are proved. We also show that numbers of compositions of a natural number with fixed number of ones appear as coefficients of characteristic polynomial of a Hessenberg matrix which determinant is a Fibonacci number. We derive the explicit formula for the number of such compositions, in terms of convolutions of Fibonacci numbers.
Brian Richardson
2012-12-01
Full Text Available Rezension zu / Review of:Jan Alber / Rüdiger Heinze: Unnatural Narratives – Unnatural Narratology. Berlin 2011. Per Krogh Hansen / Stefan Iversen / Henrik Skov Nielsen / Rolf Reitan (Eds.: Strange Voices in Narrative Fiction. Berlin 2011. David Herman / James Phelan / Peter Rabinowitz / Brian Richardson / Robyn Warhol: Narrative Theory: Core Concepts and Critical Debates. Columbus 2012.
[Legal implication of DNA profiling].
Doutremepuich, Christian
2012-06-01
In recent years, DNA profiling has been used regularly by the justice system, and has seen a number of improvements, with the need for fewer cells, more efficient DNA extraction and purification, and more rapid genotyping. These methods can now identify an individual more rapidly, from a corpse, blood stain, sperm or epithelial cells, by comparison with familial profiles. In France, DNA profiling can only be ordered by a judge.
Richardson, Thomas M.
2014-01-01
We introduce the super Patalan numbers, a generalization of the super Catalan numbers in the sense of Gessel, and prove a number of properties analagous to those of the super Catalan numbers. The super Patalan numbers generalize the super Catalan numbers similarly to how the Patalan numbers generalize the Catalan numbers.
Morgan, Robert M.; And Others
1992-01-01
Presents profiles of three leaders in the field of educational media and technology: Robert Mills Gagne, Florida State University; Robert Heinich, Indiana University; and Charles Francis Schuller, University of Georgia. (SLW)
Ciro, Marco; Bracken, Adrian P; Helin, Kristian
2003-01-01
In the past couple of years, several very exciting studies have demonstrated the enormous power of gene-expression profiling for cancer classification and prediction of patient survival. In addition to promising a more accurate classification of cancer and therefore better treatment of patients......, gene-expression profiling can result in the identification of novel potential targets for cancer therapy and a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms leading to cancer....
Ciro, Marco; Bracken, Adrian P; Helin, Kristian
2003-01-01
In the past couple of years, several very exciting studies have demonstrated the enormous power of gene-expression profiling for cancer classification and prediction of patient survival. In addition to promising a more accurate classification of cancer and therefore better treatment of patients......, gene-expression profiling can result in the identification of novel potential targets for cancer therapy and a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms leading to cancer....
On Number of Compositions of Natural Numbers
Janjic, Milan
2010-01-01
We first give a combinatorial interpretation of coefficients of Chebyshev polynomials, which allows us to connect them with compositions of natural numbers. Then we describe a relationship between the number of compositions of a natural number in which a certain number of parts are p-1, and other parts are not less than p with compositions in which all parts are not less than p. Then we find a relationship between principal minors of a type of Hessenberg matrices and compositions of natural numbers.
On Multiplying Negative Numbers.
Crowley, Mary L.; Dunn, Kenneth A.
1985-01-01
Comments on the history of negative numbers, some methods that can be used to introduce the multiplication of negative numbers to students, and an explanation of why the product of two negative numbers is a positive number are included. (MNS)
2003-01-01
All drugs appearing in the Adis Profile Summary table have been selected based on information contained in R&D Insight trade mark, a proprietary product of Adis International. The information in the profiles is gathered from the world's medical and scientific literature, at international conferences and symposia, and directly from the developing companies themselves. The emphasis of Drugs in R&D is on the clinical potential of new drugs, and selection of agents for inclusion is based on products in late-phase clinical development that have recently had a significant change in status.
All Square Chiliagonal Numbers
A?iru, Muniru A.
2016-01-01
A square chiliagonal number is a number which is simultaneously a chiliagonal number and a perfect square (just as the well-known square triangular number is both triangular and square). In this work, we determine which of the chiliagonal numbers are perfect squares and provide the indices of the corresponding chiliagonal numbers and square…
Numbers Defy the Law of Large Numbers
Falk, Ruma; Lann, Avital Lavie
2015-01-01
As the number of independent tosses of a fair coin grows, the rates of heads and tails tend to equality. This is misinterpreted by many students as being true also for the absolute numbers of the two outcomes, which, conversely, depart unboundedly from each other in the process. Eradicating that misconception, as by coin-tossing experiments,…
French, J. R. P.; Muzzall, P.M.
2008-01-01
Plerocercoids of Schistocephalus sp. (Diphyllobothriidae) were found in the body cavities of 2 (0.9%) of 209 slimy sculpins, Cottus cognatus, collected in September 2003 from Lake Michigan, south of Manistique, Michigan, U.S.A. Mean intensity was 1. The mean lengths and weights of these 2 thawed, relaxed plerocercoids were 67 and 72 mm and 427 and 554 mg, respectively. The number of segments in each plerocercoid was 113, and both plerocercoids showed upturned edges of the first segment. The identification of these plerocercoids to species is discussed, and the occurrence of Schistocephalus sp. in fish from the Great Lakes is summarized. This is the first report of Schistocephalus in slimy sculpin from Lake Michigan and the second report of Schistocephalus infecting fish from this lake.
Parameterizing by the Number of Numbers
Fellows, Michael R; Rosamond, Frances A
2010-01-01
The usefulness of parameterized algorithmics has often depended on what Niedermeier has called, "the art of problem parameterization". In this paper we introduce and explore a novel but general form of parameterization: the number of numbers. Several classic numerical problems, such as Subset Sum, Partition, 3-Partition, Numerical 3-Dimensional Matching, and Numerical Matching with Target Sums, have multisets of integers as input. We initiate the study of parameterizing these problems by the number of distinct integers in the input. We rely on an FPT result for ILPF to show that all the above-mentioned problems are fixed-parameter tractable when parameterized in this way. In various applied settings, problem inputs often consist in part of multisets of integers or multisets of weighted objects (such as edges in a graph, or jobs to be scheduled). Such number-of-numbers parameterized problems often reduce to subproblems about transition systems of various kinds, parameterized by the size of the system descripti...
High throughput drug profiling
Entzeroth, Michael; Chapelain, Béatrice; Guilbert, Jacques; Hamon, Valérie
2000-01-01
High throughput screening has significantly contributed to advances in drug discovery. The great increase in the number of samples screened has been accompanied by increases in costs and in the data required for the investigated compounds. High throughput profiling addresses the issues of compound selectivity and specificity. It combines conventional screening with data mining technologies to give a full set of data, enabling development candidates to be more fully compared.
Number words and number symbols a cultural history of numbers
Menninger, Karl
1992-01-01
Classic study discusses number sequence and language and explores written numerals and computations in many cultures. "The historian of mathematics will find much to interest him here both in the contents and viewpoint, while the casual reader is likely to be intrigued by the author's superior narrative ability.
On the number of special numbers
KEVSER AKTAS; M RAM MURTY
2017-06-01
For lack of a better word, a number is called special if it has mutually distinct exponents in its canonical prime factorizaton for all exponents. Let $V (x)$ be the number of special numbers $\\leq x$. We will prove that there is a constant $c$ > 1 such that $V (x) \\sim \\frac{cx}{log x}$. We will make some remarks on determining the error term at the end. Using the explicit abc conjecture, we will study the existence of 23 consecutive special integers.
Smith, David Eugene; Ginsburg, Jekuthiel
Counting, naming numbers, numerals, computation, and fractions are the topics covered in this pamphlet. Number lore and interesting number properties are noted; the derivation of some arithmetic terms is briefly discussed. (DT)
Koninck, Jean-Marie De
2009-01-01
Who would have thought that listing the positive integers along with their most remarkable properties could end up being such an engaging and stimulating adventure? The author uses this approach to explore elementary and advanced topics in classical number theory. A large variety of numbers are contemplated: Fermat numbers, Mersenne primes, powerful numbers, sublime numbers, Wieferich primes, insolite numbers, Sastry numbers, voracious numbers, to name only a few. The author also presents short proofs of miscellaneous results and constantly challenges the reader with a variety of old and new n
Drennan, John D; Lapatra, Scott E; Swan, Christine M; Ireland, Sue; Cain, Kenneth D
2007-09-01
Serum and cutaneous mucus antibodies were monitored in white sturgeon for 15 weeks following intraperitoneal immunization. Ten fish were immunized (50 microg) with white sturgeon iridovirus (WSIV) or white sturgeon gonad (WSGO) tissue culture cells emulsified with or without FCA. An additional group was immunized with FITC:KLH+FCA. Fish were booster immunized at 6 weeks. Fish immunized with FITC:KLH+FCA produced significant serum antibodies to FITC by 6 weeks and this response peaked at 12 weeks (average titer 31,000). Mucosal antibodies to FITC were first detected at 12 weeks and significantly elevated by 15 weeks (average titer 18). Anti-WSIV antibody titers were detected in the serum by 9 weeks in fish immunized with WSIV and WSIV+FCA, but only a small number responded to immunization. At 15 weeks, four fish immunized with WSIV produced serum antibodies (average titer 838) and one fish immunized with WSIV+FCA had a serum titer of 1600. Mucosal anti-WSIV antibody titers of 8 and 16 were observed in two fish from the WSIV group at 12 weeks while four different fish from this group responded at 15 weeks (average titer 4). Western Blot using a monoclonal antibody confirmed immunoglobulin in mucus, and specificity to WSIV was further demonstrated by immunocytochemistry using serum from fish immunized with WSIV. Specific antibody was not detected in mucus of fish immunized with WSIV+FCA, WSGO, or WSGO+FCA. Collectively, these experiments demonstrate that white sturgeon can generate a specific antibody response following immunization, and is the first report showing mucosal immunoglobulin is present in this species.
Vazzana, Anthony; Garth, David
2007-01-01
One of the oldest branches of mathematics, number theory is a vast field devoted to studying the properties of whole numbers. Offering a flexible format for a one- or two-semester course, Introduction to Number Theory uses worked examples, numerous exercises, and two popular software packages to describe a diverse array of number theory topics.
Damian Slota; Roman Witula
2009-01-01
The scope of the paper is the definition and discussion of the polynomial generalizations of the {sc Fibonacci} numbers called here $delta$-{sc Fibonacci} numbers. Many special identities and interesting relations for these new numbers are presented. Also, different connections between $delta$-{sc Fibonacci} numbers and {sc Fibonacci} and {sc Lucas} numbersare proven in this paper.
Wilkie, James E. B.; Bodenhausen, Galen V.
2012-01-01
We examined the possibility that nonsocial, highly generic concepts are gendered. Specifically, we investigated the gender connotations of Arabic numerals. Across several experiments, we show that the number 1 and other odd numbers are associated with masculinity, whereas the number 2 and other even numbers are associated with femininity, in ways…
Wilkie, James E. B.; Bodenhausen, Galen V.
2012-01-01
We examined the possibility that nonsocial, highly generic concepts are gendered. Specifically, we investigated the gender connotations of Arabic numerals. Across several experiments, we show that the number 1 and other odd numbers are associated with masculinity, whereas the number 2 and other even numbers are associated with femininity, in ways…
Burkhart, Jerry
2009-01-01
Prime numbers are often described as the "building blocks" of natural numbers. This article shows how the author and his students took this idea literally by using prime factorizations to build numbers with blocks. In this activity, students explore many concepts of number theory, including the relationship between greatest common factors and…
Searching mixed DNA profiles directly against profile databases.
Bright, Jo-Anne; Taylor, Duncan; Curran, James; Buckleton, John
2014-03-01
DNA databases have revolutionised forensic science. They are a powerful investigative tool as they have the potential to identify persons of interest in criminal investigations. Routinely, a DNA profile generated from a crime sample could only be searched for in a database of individuals if the stain was from single contributor (single source) or if a contributor could unambiguously be determined from a mixed DNA profile. This meant that a significant number of samples were unsuitable for database searching. The advent of continuous methods for the interpretation of DNA profiles offers an advanced way to draw inferential power from the considerable investment made in DNA databases. Using these methods, each profile on the database may be considered a possible contributor to a mixture and a likelihood ratio (LR) can be formed. Those profiles which produce a sufficiently large LR can serve as an investigative lead. In this paper empirical studies are described to determine what constitutes a large LR. We investigate the effect on a database search of complex mixed DNA profiles with contributors in equal proportions with dropout as a consideration, and also the effect of an incorrect assignment of the number of contributors to a profile. In addition, we give, as a demonstration of the method, the results using two crime samples that were previously unsuitable for database comparison. We show that effective management of the selection of samples for searching and the interpretation of the output can be highly informative.
Tan, Shanguang
2007-01-01
A new kind of numbers called Hyper Space Complex Numbers and its algebras are defined and proved. It is with good properties as the classic Complex Numbers, such as expressed in coordinates, triangular and exponent forms and following the associative and commutative laws of addition and multiplication. So the classic Complex Number is developed from in complex plane with two dimensions to in complex space with N dimensions and the number system is enlarged also.
Han, D K; Jones, T R
2005-02-11
The Message Passing Interface (MPI) is the de facto message-passing standard for massively parallel programs. It is often the case that application performance is a crucial factor, especially for solving grand challenge problems. While there have been many studies on the scalability of applications, there have not been many focusing on the specific types of MPI calls being made and their impact on application performance. Using a profiling tool called mpiP, a large spectrum of parallel scientific applications were surveyed and their performance results analyzed.
Bernstein, Jeremy
1991-01-01
For the prominent science writer Jeremy Bernstein, the profile is the most congenial way of communicating science. Here, in what he labels a "series of conversations carried on in the reader's behalf and my own," he evokes the tremendous intellectual excitement of the world of modern physics, especially the quantum revolution. Drawing on his well-known talent for explaining the most complex scientific ideas for the layperson, Bernstein gives us a lively sense of what the issues of quantum mechanics are and of various ways in which individual physicists approached them.The author begins this se
Rips, Lance J; Thompson, Samantha
2014-03-01
Number systems-such as the natural numbers, integers, rationals, reals, or complex numbers-play a foundational role in mathematics, but these systems can present difficulties for students. In the studies reported here, we probed the boundaries of people's concept of a number system by asking them whether "number lines" of varying shapes qualify as possible number systems. In Experiment 1, participants rated each of a set of number lines as a possible number system, where the number lines differed in their structures (a single straight line, a step-shaped line, a double line, or two branching structures) and in their boundedness (unbounded, bounded below, bounded above, bounded above and below, or circular). Participants also rated each of a group of mathematical properties (e.g., associativity) for its importance to number systems. Relational properties, such as associativity, predicted whether participants believed that particular forms were number systems, as did the forms' ability to support arithmetic operations, such as addition. In Experiment 2, we asked participants to produce properties that were important for number systems. Relational, operation, and use-based properties from this set again predicted ratings of whether the number lines were possible number systems. In Experiment 3, we found similar results when the number lines indicated the positions of the individual numbers. The results suggest that people believe that number systems should be well-behaved with respect to basic arithmetic operations, and that they reject systems for which these operations produce ambiguous answers. People care much less about whether the systems have particular numbers (e.g., 0) or sets of numbers (e.g., the positives).
尚必武; 布莱恩·理查森[美国
2012-01-01
Title: Unnatural Narratology and Contemporary Narrative Poetics: An Interview with Professor Brian Richardson Abstract : This interview centers around the current state of and the possible future directions for the research on narrative and narrative theory in general, and unnatural narrative and unnatural narratology in particular. A definition of the term "unnatural narrative" is fol- lowed by a discussion of its relationship with unnatural narratology and other strands of narrative inquiry. The interview has also com- mented on the problematic distinction between classical narratology and postclassical narratology, before the constraints of contemporary narrative theory are talked about and some possible future directions for this rapid developed discipline are outlined.%本访谈主要涉及叙事理论，尤其是非自然叙事及非自然叙事学研究的现状与未来。在阐述了非自然叙事学这一概念之后，本访谈进而梳理了非自然叙事学与其他叙事研究之间的相互关系；接着，访谈对经典叙事学与后经典叙事学之间颇具问题的区分加以说明。最后，访谈谈到了当代叙事理论的局限性和不足，并时未来的叙事学研究提出了建议。
黄钧; 陈琴; 陈意明; 蔡子德; 农永恒; 柯永恩
2001-01-01
A conventional method was used to investigate the flesh contentand to analyse the nutritional components of the flesh in Pseudobagrus fulvidraco (Richardson) from Guijiang river, Guangxi. The results showed that flesh content of the fish was 83.88%. On the basis of dry matter of the flesh, the contents of crude protein, ether extract and ash were 85.96%,5.04% and 5.57% respectively. The amount of amino acids and essential amino acids were 70.21% and 27.39% respect ively. The contents of Ca,P,Cu,Zn,Fe,Mn and Se were 395.8, 1870，3.3, 53.3 ,47.5, 30.3 mg/kg and 7470.6 μg/kg respectively.It was thought that yellowheaded catfish is one of quality fishes with better nutritive value.%采用常规方法测得广西桂江黄颡鱼的含肉率为83.88%；每100g肌肉（干样）中含粗蛋白85.96g，粗脂肪5.04g，粗灰分5.57g，氨基酸总量为70.21g,必需氨基酸含量27.39g,含钙39.58mg,磷187mg,铜0.33mg，锌5.33mg，铁4.75mg，锰3.03mg，硒747.06μg。综合分析结果认为，广西桂江的黄颡鱼是营养价值较高的优质鱼类。
Jarvis, Frazer
2014-01-01
The technical difficulties of algebraic number theory often make this subject appear difficult to beginners. This undergraduate textbook provides a welcome solution to these problems as it provides an approachable and thorough introduction to the topic. Algebraic Number Theory takes the reader from unique factorisation in the integers through to the modern-day number field sieve. The first few chapters consider the importance of arithmetic in fields larger than the rational numbers. Whilst some results generalise well, the unique factorisation of the integers in these more general number fields often fail. Algebraic number theory aims to overcome this problem. Most examples are taken from quadratic fields, for which calculations are easy to perform. The middle section considers more general theory and results for number fields, and the book concludes with some topics which are more likely to be suitable for advanced students, namely, the analytic class number formula and the number field sieve. This is the fi...
All square chiliagonal numbers
Aṣiru, Muniru A.
2016-10-01
A square chiliagonal number is a number which is simultaneously a chiliagonal number and a perfect square (just as the well-known square triangular number is both triangular and square). In this work, we determine which of the chiliagonal numbers are perfect squares and provide the indices of the corresponding chiliagonal numbers and square numbers. The study revealed that the determination of square chiliagonal numbers naturally leads to a generalized Pell equation x2 - Dy2 = N with D = 1996 and N = 9962, and has six fundamental solutions out of which only three yielded integer values for use as indices of chiliagonal numbers. The crossing/independent recurrence relations satisfied by each class of indices of the corresponding chiliagonal numbers and square numbers are obtained. Finally, the generating functions serve as a clothesline to hang up the indices of the corresponding chiliagonal numbers and square numbers for easy display and this was used to obtain the first few sequence of square chiliagonal numbers.
Elvik, Rune; Bjørnskau, Torkel
2017-01-01
Highlights •26 studies of the safety-in-numbers effect are reviewed. •The existence of a safety-in-numbers effect is confirmed. •Results are consistent. •Causes of the safety-in-numbers effect are incompletely known.......Highlights •26 studies of the safety-in-numbers effect are reviewed. •The existence of a safety-in-numbers effect is confirmed. •Results are consistent. •Causes of the safety-in-numbers effect are incompletely known....
Chen, Shi-Chao
2011-01-01
A natural number $n$ is called {\\it multiperfect} or {\\it$k$-perfect} for integer $k\\ge2$ if $\\sigma(n)=kn$, where $\\sigma(n)$ is the sum of the positive divisors of $n$. In this paper, we establish the structure theorem of odd multiperfect numbers analogous as Euler's theorem on odd perfect numbers. We prove the divisibility of the Euler part of odd multiperfect numbers and characterize the forms of odd perfect numbers $n=\\pi^\\alpha M^2$ such that $\\pi\\equiv\\alpha(\\text{mod}8)$. We also present some examples to show the nonexistence of odd perfect numbers as applications.
Matsumoto, Kohji
2002-01-01
The book includes several survey articles on prime numbers, divisor problems, and Diophantine equations, as well as research papers on various aspects of analytic number theory such as additive problems, Diophantine approximations and the theory of zeta and L-function Audience Researchers and graduate students interested in recent development of number theory
Xu, Junyan
2012-01-01
We point out that the recursive formula that appears in Erickson's presentation "Fusible Numbers" is incorrect, and pose an alternate conjecture about the structure of fusible numbers. Although we are unable to solve the conjecture, we succeed in establishing some basic properties of fusible numbers. We suggest some possible approaches to the conjecture, and list further problems in the final chapter.
Landy, David; Silbert, Noah; Goldin, Aleah
2013-01-01
Despite their importance in public discourse, numbers in the range of 1 million to 1 trillion are notoriously difficult to understand. We examine magnitude estimation by adult Americans when placing large numbers on a number line and when qualitatively evaluating descriptions of imaginary geopolitical scenarios. Prior theoretical conceptions…
de Mestre, Neville
2008-01-01
Prime numbers are important as the building blocks for the set of all natural numbers, because prime factorisation is an important and useful property of all natural numbers. Students can discover them by using the method known as the Sieve of Eratosthenes, named after the Greek geographer and astronomer who lived from c. 276-194 BC. Eratosthenes…
Embryonic development of Pelteobagrus fulvidraco (Richardson, 1846)
WANG Weimin; Khalid ABBAS; YAN Ansheng
2006-01-01
For production enhancement and procedure upgrade, the developmental phases of laboratory-reared eggs of catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco were investigated. Twenty mature females and 10 males were collected from Dadongmen wholesale fisheries market in Wuhan City on May 8, 2003. Zygotes were stripped from mature fish after hormone-induced ovulation, fertilized, and incubated through whole embryonic development. The fertilized eggs were stocked in density of 100 eggs/L in white square tanks of 10 L. Incubation water was dechlorinated tap water with continuous aeration. The tanks were lit directly with 60 W fluorescent bulbs with a 12 light: 12 dark photoperiod. Water temperature, dissolved oxygen and pH were 29.0±0.5℃, 6.7±0.4 mg/L and 7.4±0.2, respectively. The results showed that the eggs of P. fulvidraco were yellow, sticky and contained much yolk. The mean diameter of fertilized eggs was 2.03 mm. At the water temperature of 29.0±0.5 ℃, the ontogenesis spent about33 h after fertilization.From fertilization to hatching, the embryonic development can be divided into 30-40 phases, which varies in the emphasis and direction of development. The detailed embryonic movement was also described.
Niederreiter, Harald
2015-01-01
This textbook effectively builds a bridge from basic number theory to recent advances in applied number theory. It presents the first unified account of the four major areas of application where number theory plays a fundamental role, namely cryptography, coding theory, quasi-Monte Carlo methods, and pseudorandom number generation, allowing the authors to delineate the manifold links and interrelations between these areas. Number theory, which Carl-Friedrich Gauss famously dubbed the queen of mathematics, has always been considered a very beautiful field of mathematics, producing lovely results and elegant proofs. While only very few real-life applications were known in the past, today number theory can be found in everyday life: in supermarket bar code scanners, in our cars’ GPS systems, in online banking, etc. Starting with a brief introductory course on number theory in Chapter 1, which makes the book more accessible for undergraduates, the authors describe the four main application areas in Chapters...
Jørgensen, Claus Bjørn; Suetens, Sigrid; Tyran, Jean-Robert
numbers based on recent drawings. While most players pick the same set of numbers week after week without regards of numbers drawn or anything else, we find that those who do change, act on average in the way predicted by the law of small numbers as formalized in recent behavioral theory. In particular......We investigate the “law of small numbers” using a unique panel data set on lotto gambling. Because we can track individual players over time, we can measure how they react to outcomes of recent lotto drawings. We can therefore test whether they behave as if they believe they can predict lotto......, on average they move away from numbers that have recently been drawn, as suggested by the “gambler’s fallacy”, and move toward numbers that are on streak, i.e. have been drawn several weeks in a row, consistent with the “hot hand fallacy”....
Jørgensen, Claus Bjørn; Suetens, Sigrid; Tyran, Jean-Robert
We investigate the “law of small numbers” using a unique panel data set on lotto gambling. Because we can track individual players over time, we can measure how they react to outcomes of recent lotto drawings. We can therefore test whether they behave as if they believe they can predict lotto...... numbers based on recent drawings. While most players pick the same set of numbers week after week without regards of numbers drawn or anything else, we find that those who do change, act on average in the way predicted by the law of small numbers as formalized in recent behavioral theory. In particular......, on average they move away from numbers that have recently been drawn, as suggested by the “gambler’s fallacy”, and move toward numbers that are on streak, i.e. have been drawn several weeks in a row, consistent with the “hot hand fallacy”....
Cocos, Mihail
2011-01-01
In this paper we present a mathematical way of defining musical modes, we derive a formula for the total number of modes and define the musicality of a mode as the total number of harmonic chords whithin the mode. We also give an algorithm for the construction of a duet of melodic lines given a sequence of numbers and a mode. We attach the .mus files of the counterpoints obtained by using the sequence of primes and several musical modes.
Quantum Random Number Generators
Herrero-Collantes, Miguel; Garcia-Escartin, Juan Carlos
2016-01-01
Random numbers are a fundamental resource in science and engineering with important applications in simulation and cryptography. The inherent randomness at the core of quantum mechanics makes quantum systems a perfect source of entropy. Quantum random number generation is one of the most mature quantum technologies with many alternative generation methods. We discuss the different technologies in quantum random number generation from the early devices based on radioactive decay to the multipl...
1977-05-09
from one of the Moscow institutes. In childhood he played at hypnosis with his sister and hypnotized her. He studies In the 11th grade at night school...O R M I N G OR G. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR( s ) 8 C O N T R A C T OR GRANT NUMBER(e) Lev Kolodnyy 9. PERFORMING O R G A N I Z A T I O N NAME AND
Diamond, Harold G; Cheung, Man Ping
2016-01-01
"Generalized numbers" is a multiplicative structure introduced by A. Beurling to study how independent prime number theory is from the additivity of the natural numbers. The results and techniques of this theory apply to other systems having the character of prime numbers and integers; for example, it is used in the study of the prime number theorem (PNT) for ideals of algebraic number fields. Using both analytic and elementary methods, this book presents many old and new theorems, including several of the authors' results, and many examples of extremal behavior of g-number systems. Also, the authors give detailed accounts of the L^2 PNT theorem of J. P. Kahane and of the example created with H. L. Montgomery, showing that additive structure is needed for proving the Riemann hypothesis. Other interesting topics discussed are propositions "equivalent" to the PNT, the role of multiplicative convolution and Chebyshev's prime number formula for g-numbers, and how Beurling theory provides an interpretation of the ...
Suetens, Sigrid; Galbo-Jørgensen, Claus B.; Tyran, Jean-Robert Karl
2016-01-01
as formalized in recent behavioral theory. In particular, players tend to bet less on numbers that have been drawn in the preceding week, as suggested by the ‘gambler’s fallacy’, and bet more on a number if it was frequently drawn in the recent past, consistent with the ‘hot-hand fallacy’.......We investigate the ‘law of small numbers’ using a data set on lotto gambling that allows us to measure players’ reactions to draws. While most players pick the same set of numbers week after week, we find that those who do change react on average as predicted by the law of small numbers...
Hirst, Keith
1994-01-01
Number and geometry are the foundations upon which mathematics has been built over some 3000 years. This book is concerned with the logical foundations of number systems from integers to complex numbers. The author has chosen to develop the ideas by illustrating the techniques used throughout mathematics rather than using a self-contained logical treatise. The idea of proof has been emphasised, as has the illustration of concepts from a graphical, numerical and algebraic point of view. Having laid the foundations of the number system, the author has then turned to the analysis of infinite proc
Suetens, Sigrid; Galbo-Jørgensen, Claus B.; Tyran, Jean-Robert Karl
2016-01-01
We investigate the ‘law of small numbers’ using a data set on lotto gambling that allows us to measure players’ reactions to draws. While most players pick the same set of numbers week after week, we find that those who do change react on average as predicted by the law of small numbers...... as formalized in recent behavioral theory. In particular, players tend to bet less on numbers that have been drawn in the preceding week, as suggested by the ‘gambler’s fallacy’, and bet more on a number if it was frequently drawn in the recent past, consistent with the ‘hot-hand fallacy’....
Godefroy, Gilles
2004-01-01
Numbers are fascinating. The fascination begins in childhood, when we first learn to count. It continues as we learn arithmetic, algebra, geometry, and so on. Eventually, we learn that numbers not only help us to measure the world, but also to understand it and, to some extent, to control it. In The Adventure of Numbers, Gilles Godefroy follows the thread of our expanding understanding of numbers to lead us through the history of mathematics. His goal is to share the joy of discovering and understanding this great adventure of the mind. The development of mathematics has been punctuated by a n
徐慨; 何爱林; 杨敏
2015-01-01
Aimming at the numerical solution of ordinary differential equations of the satellite, a fixed⁃stepsize Adams⁃Cowell numerical integration algorithm based on Richardson extrapolation is presented, Adams algorithm and Cowell algorithm is improved respectively. A detailed theoretical derivation is also proposed, and the general laws of the integration equations� coefficients with different orders are given in tabular form, which facilitates the engineering practice. Finally, spe⁃cific single differential equation and satellite orbit two⁃body equations are taken as examples to test this improved method, ac⁃cording to the simulation result, when compared with the un⁃improved method, the improved method presented here can reach to a higher precise, nearly one order of magnitude with some specific steps, the effectiveness of the improved method can be proved, this improved method can be used in engineering practice.%针对卫星轨道微分方程组的数值解法，提出了一种基于Richardson外推思想的定步长Adams⁃Cowell积分方法，分别对Adams方法和Cowell方法的PECE格式进行外推改进。结合外推改进的详细理论推导，总结出了不同阶积分公式的系数的数学规律，并以表格的形式给出，方便了工程实践。最后，利用卫星轨道二体运动方程对8阶改进的方法进行了仿真分析，由仿真结果可知，和未改进的算法相比，改进后的算法计算精度有了明显改进，在某些特定积分步长下的计算精度能提高一个数量级，证明了改进算法的有效性，此8阶改进的方法可用于工程实践。
Hyperquarks and generation number
Buchmann, Alfons J
2013-01-01
In a model in which quarks and leptons are built up from two spin 1/2 preons as fundamental entities, a new class of fermionic bound states (hyperquarks) arises. It turns out that these hyperquarks are necessary to fulfill the 't Hooft anomaly constraint, which then links the number of fermionic generations to the number of colors and hypercolors.
Multispecies quantum Hurwitz numbers
Harnad, J
2014-01-01
The construction of hypergeometric 2D Toda $\\tau$-functions as generating functions for quantum Hurwitz numbers is extended here to multispecies families. Both the enumerative geometrical significance of these multispecies quantum Hurwitz numbers as weighted enumerations of branched coverings of the Riemann sphere and their combinatorial significance in terms of weighted paths in the Cayley graph of $S_n$ are derived.
Onstad, Torgeir
1991-01-01
After a brief historical account of Leonardo Pisano Fibonacci, some basic results concerning the Fibonacci numbers are developed and proved, and entertaining examples are described. Connections are made between the Fibonacci numbers and the Golden Ratio, biological nature, and other combinatorics examples. (MDH)
Levin, Bruce R; McCall, Ingrid C.; Perrot, Veronique
2017-01-01
We postulate that the inhibition of growth and low rates of mortality of bacteria exposed to ribosome-binding antibiotics deemed bacteriostatic can be attributed almost uniquely to these drugs reducing the number of ribosomes contributing to protein synthesis, i.e., the number of effective riboso...
Kolyada, Sergiy; Rybak, Oleksandr
2013-01-01
We introduce and study the Lyapunov numbers -- quantitative measures of the sensitivity of a dynamical system $(X,f)$ given by a compact metric space $X$ and a continuous map $f:X \\to X$. In particular, we prove that for a minimal topologically weakly mixing system all Lyapunov numbers are the same.
Ascidian gene-expression profiles
Jeffery, William R.
2002-01-01
With the advent of gene-expression profiling, a large number of genes can now be investigated simultaneously during critical stages of development. This approach will be particularly informative in studies of ascidians, basal chordates whose genomes and embryology are uniquely suited for mapping developmental gene networks.
Rugani, Rosa; Sartori, Luisa
2016-01-01
Humans show a remarkable tendency to describe and think of numbers as being placed on a mental number line (MNL), with smaller numbers located on the left and larger ones on the right. Faster responses to small numbers are indeed performed on the left side of space, while responses to large numbers are facilitated on the right side of space (spatial-numerical association of response codes, SNARC effect). This phenomenon is considered the experimental demonstration of the MNL and has been extensively replicated throughout a variety of paradigms. Nevertheless, the majority of previous literature has mainly investigated this effect by means of response times and accuracy, whereas studies considering more subtle and automatic measures such as kinematic parameters are rare (e.g., in a reaching-to-grasp movement, the grip aperture is enlarged in responding to larger numbers than in responding to small numbers). In this brief review we suggest that numerical magnitude can also affect the what and how of action execution (i.e., temporal and spatial components of movement). This evidence could have large implications in the strongly debated issue concerning the effect of experience and culture on the orientation of MNL.
Dudley, Underwood
2008-01-01
Ideal for a first course in number theory, this lively, engaging text requires only a familiarity with elementary algebra and the properties of real numbers. Author Underwood Dudley, who has written a series of popular mathematics books, maintains that the best way to learn mathematics is by solving problems. In keeping with this philosophy, the text includes nearly 1,000 exercises and problems-some computational and some classical, many original, and some with complete solutions. The opening chapters offer sound explanations of the basics of elementary number theory and develop the fundamenta
Kneusel, Ronald T
2015-01-01
This is a book about numbers and how those numbers are represented in and operated on by computers. It is crucial that developers understand this area because the numerical operations allowed by computers, and the limitations of those operations, especially in the area of floating point math, affect virtually everything people try to do with computers. This book aims to fill this gap by exploring, in sufficient but not overwhelming detail, just what it is that computers do with numbers. Divided into two parts, the first deals with standard representations of integers and floating point numb
Morrison, Greg
2010-01-01
We propose a simple real-valued generalization of the well known integer-valued Erdos number as a topological, non-metric measure of the `closeness' felt between two nodes in an undirected, weighted graph. These real-valued Erdos numbers are asymmetric and are able to distinguish between network topologies that standard distance metrics view as identical. We use this measure to study some simple analytically tractable networks, and show the utility of our measure to devise a ratings scheme based on the generalized Erdos number that we deploy on the data from the NetFlix prize, and find a significant improvement in our ratings prediction over a baseline.
Professor Stewart's incredible numbers
Stewart, Ian
2015-01-01
Ian Stewart explores the astonishing properties of numbers from 1 to10 to zero and infinity, including one figure that, if you wrote it out, would span the universe. He looks at every kind of number you can think of - real, imaginary, rational, irrational, positive and negative - along with several you might have thought you couldn't think of. He explains the insights of the ancient mathematicians, shows how numbers have evolved through the ages, and reveals the way numerical theory enables everyday life. Under Professor Stewart's guidance you will discover the mathematics of codes,
Sierpinski, Waclaw
1988-01-01
Since the publication of the first edition of this work, considerable progress has been made in many of the questions examined. This edition has been updated and enlarged, and the bibliography has been revised.The variety of topics covered here includes divisibility, diophantine equations, prime numbers (especially Mersenne and Fermat primes), the basic arithmetic functions, congruences, the quadratic reciprocity law, expansion of real numbers into decimal fractions, decomposition of integers into sums of powers, some other problems of the additive theory of numbers and the theory of Gaussian
Crossley, John N
1987-01-01
This book presents detailed studies of the development of three kinds of number. In the first part the development of the natural numbers from Stone-Age times right up to the present day is examined not only from the point of view of pure history but also taking into account archaeological, anthropological and linguistic evidence. The dramatic change caused by the introduction of logical theories of number in the 19th century is also treated and this part ends with a non-technical account of the very latest developments in the area of Gödel's theorem. The second part is concerned with the deve
Corry, Leo
2015-01-01
The world around us is saturated with numbers. They are a fundamental pillar of our modern society, and accepted and used with hardly a second thought. But how did this state of affairs come to be? In this book, Leo Corry tells the story behind the idea of number from the early days of the Pythagoreans, up until the turn of the twentieth century. He presents an overview of how numbers were handled and conceived in classical Greek mathematics, in the mathematics of Islam, in European mathematics of the middle ages and the Renaissance, during the scientific revolution, all the way through to the
LeVeque, William J
1996-01-01
This excellent textbook introduces the basics of number theory, incorporating the language of abstract algebra. A knowledge of such algebraic concepts as group, ring, field, and domain is not assumed, however; all terms are defined and examples are given - making the book self-contained in this respect.The author begins with an introductory chapter on number theory and its early history. Subsequent chapters deal with unique factorization and the GCD, quadratic residues, number-theoretic functions and the distribution of primes, sums of squares, quadratic equations and quadratic fields, diopha
Weiss, Edwin
1998-01-01
Careful organization and clear, detailed proofs characterize this methodical, self-contained exposition of basic results of classical algebraic number theory from a relatively modem point of view. This volume presents most of the number-theoretic prerequisites for a study of either class field theory (as formulated by Artin and Tate) or the contemporary treatment of analytical questions (as found, for example, in Tate's thesis).Although concerned exclusively with algebraic number fields, this treatment features axiomatic formulations with a considerable range of applications. Modem abstract te
Supersymmetric Displaced Number States
Fredy R. Zypman
2015-06-01
Full Text Available We introduce, generate and study a family of supersymmetric displaced number states (SDNS that can be considered generalized coherent states of the supersymmetric harmonic oscillator. The family is created from the seminal supersymmetric boson-fermion entangling annihilation operator introduced by Aragone and Zypman and later expanded by Kornbluth and Zypman. Using the momentum representation, the states are obtained analytically in compact form as displaced supersymmetric number states. We study their position-momentum uncertainties, and their bunchiness by classifying them according to their Mandel Q-parameter in phase space. We were also able to find closed form analytical representations in the space and number basis.
Cohn, Harvey
1980-01-01
""A very stimulating book ... in a class by itself."" - American Mathematical MonthlyAdvanced students, mathematicians and number theorists will welcome this stimulating treatment of advanced number theory, which approaches the complex topic of algebraic number theory from a historical standpoint, taking pains to show the reader how concepts, definitions and theories have evolved during the last two centuries. Moreover, the book abounds with numerical examples and more concrete, specific theorems than are found in most contemporary treatments of the subject.The book is divided into three parts
Schwartz, Richard Evan
2014-01-01
In the American Mathematical Society's first-ever book for kids (and kids at heart), mathematician and author Richard Evan Schwartz leads math lovers of all ages on an innovative and strikingly illustrated journey through the infinite number system. By means of engaging, imaginative visuals and endearing narration, Schwartz manages the monumental task of presenting the complex concept of Big Numbers in fresh and relatable ways. The book begins with small, easily observable numbers before building up to truly gigantic ones, like a nonillion, a tredecillion, a googol, and even ones too huge for names! Any person, regardless of age, can benefit from reading this book. Readers will find themselves returning to its pages for a very long time, perpetually learning from and growing with the narrative as their knowledge deepens. Really Big Numbers is a wonderful enrichment for any math education program and is enthusiastically recommended to every teacher, parent and grandparent, student, child, or other individual i...
Wanscher, Jørgen Bundgaard; Sørensen, Majken Vildrik
2006-01-01
highly uniform multidimensional draws, which are highly relevant for todays traffic models. This paper shows among others combined shuffling and scrambling seems needless, that scrambling gives the lowest correlation and that there are detectable differences between random numbers, dependent...
Strawn, Candace A.
1998-01-01
Describes LOGO's turtle graphics capabilities based on a sixth-grade classroom's activities with negative numbers and Logo programming. A sidebar explains LOGO and offers suggestions to teachers for using LOGO effectively. (LRW)
Quantum random number generator
Pooser, Raphael C.
2016-05-10
A quantum random number generator (QRNG) and a photon generator for a QRNG are provided. The photon generator may be operated in a spontaneous mode below a lasing threshold to emit photons. Photons emitted from the photon generator may have at least one random characteristic, which may be monitored by the QRNG to generate a random number. In one embodiment, the photon generator may include a photon emitter and an amplifier coupled to the photon emitter. The amplifier may enable the photon generator to be used in the QRNG without introducing significant bias in the random number and may enable multiplexing of multiple random numbers. The amplifier may also desensitize the photon generator to fluctuations in power supplied thereto while operating in the spontaneous mode. In one embodiment, the photon emitter and amplifier may be a tapered diode amplifier.
Quantum random number generators
Herrero-Collantes, Miguel; Garcia-Escartin, Juan Carlos
2017-01-01
Random numbers are a fundamental resource in science and engineering with important applications in simulation and cryptography. The inherent randomness at the core of quantum mechanics makes quantum systems a perfect source of entropy. Quantum random number generation is one of the most mature quantum technologies with many alternative generation methods. This review discusses the different technologies in quantum random number generation from the early devices based on radioactive decay to the multiple ways to use the quantum states of light to gather entropy from a quantum origin. Randomness extraction and amplification and the notable possibility of generating trusted random numbers even with untrusted hardware using device-independent generation protocols are also discussed.
Solar Indices - Sunspot Numbers
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...
Marketing the Program. New Directions for Community Colleges, Number 36.
Keim, William A., Ed.; Keim, Marybelle C., Ed.
1981-01-01
This collection of essays examines the role of marketing in the recruitment and retention of community college students. First, Philip Kotler and Leslie A. Goldgehn define the marketing process and assess its potential benefits. Richard C. Richardson, Jr., and Donald S. Doucette question the effectiveness of marketing in the community college.…
Brown, Ezra; Brunson, Cornelius
2008-01-01
Fibonacci's forgotten number is the sexagesimal number 1;22,7,42,33,4,40, which he described in 1225 as an approximation to the real root of x[superscript 3] + 2x[superscript 2] + 10x - 20. In decimal notation, this is 1.36880810785...and it is correct to nine decimal digits. Fibonacci did not reveal his method. How did he do it? There is also a…
Fetal Biophysical Profile Scoring
H.R. HaghighatKhah
2009-01-01
significance. Fetal breathing movements, amniotic fluid volume, and the non-stress test are the most powerful variables. For example, when the biophysical profile score is 2, the perinatal mortality varies between 428/1000 with only fetal movement present to 66/1000 if the non-stress test is reactive and all of the ultrasound parameters are absent (Manning 1990b. Some authors have, therefore, proposed utilization of a modified biophysical profile that incorporates only the non-stress test and amniotic fluid volume (Miller 1996. Although the positive predictive value of these 2 tests is equivalent to a biophysical profile score of 6, the perinatal mortality is still increased over a normal test score of 8 or 10 (Manning 1990b. The false positive rate with the modified biophysical profile score is also substantially higher. "nConclusions: The fetus expresses its well being or compromised status through a number of different biophysical activities that are controlled by different central nervous system centers. The utilization of the biophysical score for antepartum surveillance in high-risk patients has resulted in a reduction in perinatal mortality when compared to historical controls. The appropriate management of the viable fetus with an abnormal biophysical profile score may also decrease long-term neurological morbidity (Manning 1998. "nIt is unlikely that in the future additional variables will be added to the biophysical profile score. However, perhaps the incorporation of the fetal state (i.e., eye movements and Doppler flow studies of specific fetal vessels (umbilical artery, middle cerebral artery, ductus venosus will be incorporated into a complete assessment of the fetal condition "n "nTable 1. Components of the 30 Minute Biophysical Profile Score "nComponent "nDefinition "nFetal movements "n> 3 body or limb movements "nFetal tone "nOne episode of active extension and flexion of the limbs; opening and closing of hand "nFetal breathing movements "n>1
Standera, Oldrich
This manual provides instructions for completing the COMPENDEX (Computerized Engineering Index) Profile Submission Form used to prepare Current Information Selection (CIS) profiles. An annotated bibliography lists nine items useful in searching for proper profile words. (AB)
State Profiles: FY 2013 Public Libraries Survey
Institute of Museum and Library Services — Pull up a state's profile to find state-level totals on key data such as numbers of libraries and librarians, revenue and expenditure, and collection sizes.These...
Nelson, R.N. (ed.)
1985-05-01
This publication lists all report number codes processed by the Office of Scientific and Technical Information. The report codes are substantially based on the American National Standards Institute, Standard Technical Report Number (STRN)-Format and Creation Z39.23-1983. The Standard Technical Report Number (STRN) provides one of the primary methods of identifying a specific technical report. The STRN consists of two parts: The report code and the sequential number. The report code identifies the issuing organization, a specific program, or a type of document. The sequential number, which is assigned in sequence by each report issuing entity, is not included in this publication. Part I of this compilation is alphabetized by report codes followed by issuing installations. Part II lists the issuing organization followed by the assigned report code(s). In both Parts I and II, the names of issuing organizations appear for the most part in the form used at the time the reports were issued. However, for some of the more prolific installations which have had name changes, all entries have been merged under the current name.
Alizée Dauvergne
2010-01-01
What makes the LHC the biggest particle accelerator in the world? Here are some of the numbers that characterise the LHC, and their equivalents in terms that are easier for us to imagine. Feature Number Equivalent Circumference ~ 27 km Distance covered by beam in 10 hours ~ 10 billion km a round trip to Neptune Number of times a single proton travels around the ring each second 11 245 Speed of protons first entering the LHC 299 732 500 m/s 99.9998 % of the speed of light Speed of protons when they collide 299 789 760 m/s 99.9999991 % of the speed of light Collision temperature ~ 1016 °C ove...
Chromosome numbers in Bromeliaceae
Cotias-de-Oliveira Ana Lúcia Pires
2000-01-01
Full Text Available The present study reports chromosome numbers of 17 species of Bromeliaceae, belonging to the genera Encholirium, Bromelia, Orthophytum, Hohenbergia, Billbergia, Neoglaziovia, Aechmea, Cryptanthus and Ananas. Most species present 2n = 50, however, Bromelia laciniosa, Orthophytum burle-marxii and O. maracasense are polyploids with 2n = 150, 2n = 100 and 2n = 150, respectively, while for Cryptanthus bahianus, 2n = 34 + 1-4B. B chromosomes were observed in Bromelia plumieri and Hohenbergia aff. utriculosa. The chromosome number of all species was determined for the first time, except for Billbergia chlorosticta and Cryptanthus bahianus. Our data supports the hypothesis of a basic number of x = 25 for the Bromeliaceae family and decreasing aneuploidy in the genus Cryptanthus.
Quantum random number generation
Ma, Xiongfeng; Yuan, Xiao; Cao, Zhu; Qi, Bing; Zhang, Zhen
2016-06-01
Quantum physics can be exploited to generate true random numbers, which have important roles in many applications, especially in cryptography. Genuine randomness from the measurement of a quantum system reveals the inherent nature of quantumness—coherence, an important feature that differentiates quantum mechanics from classical physics. The generation of genuine randomness is generally considered impossible with only classical means. On the basis of the degree of trustworthiness on devices, quantum random number generators (QRNGs) can be grouped into three categories. The first category, practical QRNG, is built on fully trusted and calibrated devices and typically can generate randomness at a high speed by properly modelling the devices. The second category is self-testing QRNG, in which verifiable randomness can be generated without trusting the actual implementation. The third category, semi-self-testing QRNG, is an intermediate category that provides a tradeoff between the trustworthiness on the device and the random number generation speed.
CONFUSION WITH TELEPHONE NUMBERS
Telecom Service
2002-01-01
he area code is now required for all telephone calls within Switzerland. Unfortunately this is causing some confusion. CERN has received complaints that incoming calls intended for CERN mobile phones are being directed to private subscribers. This is caused by mistakenly dialing the WRONG code (e.g. 022) in front of the mobile number. In order to avoid these problems, please inform your correspondents that the correct numbers are: 079 201 XXXX from Switzerland; 0041 79 201 XXXX from other countries. Telecom Service
CONFUSION WITH TELEPHONE NUMBERS
Telecom Service
2002-01-01
The area code is now required for all telephone calls within Switzerland. Unfortunately this is causing some confusion. CERN has received complaints that incoming calls intended for CERN mobile phones are being directed to private subscribers. This is caused by mistakenly dialing the WRONG code (e.g. 022) in front of the mobile number. In order to avoid these problems, please inform your correspondents that the correct numbers are: 079 201 XXXX from Switzerland; 0041 79 201 XXXX from other countries. Telecom Service
Earthquake number forecasts testing
Kagan, Yan Y.
2017-10-01
We study the distributions of earthquake numbers in two global earthquake catalogues: Global Centroid-Moment Tensor and Preliminary Determinations of Epicenters. The properties of these distributions are especially required to develop the number test for our forecasts of future seismic activity rate, tested by the Collaboratory for Study of Earthquake Predictability (CSEP). A common assumption, as used in the CSEP tests, is that the numbers are described by the Poisson distribution. It is clear, however, that the Poisson assumption for the earthquake number distribution is incorrect, especially for the catalogues with a lower magnitude threshold. In contrast to the one-parameter Poisson distribution so widely used to describe earthquake occurrences, the negative-binomial distribution (NBD) has two parameters. The second parameter can be used to characterize the clustering or overdispersion of a process. We also introduce and study a more complex three-parameter beta negative-binomial distribution. We investigate the dependence of parameters for both Poisson and NBD distributions on the catalogue magnitude threshold and on temporal subdivision of catalogue duration. First, we study whether the Poisson law can be statistically rejected for various catalogue subdivisions. We find that for most cases of interest, the Poisson distribution can be shown to be rejected statistically at a high significance level in favour of the NBD. Thereafter, we investigate whether these distributions fit the observed distributions of seismicity. For this purpose, we study upper statistical moments of earthquake numbers (skewness and kurtosis) and compare them to the theoretical values for both distributions. Empirical values for the skewness and the kurtosis increase for the smaller magnitude threshold and increase with even greater intensity for small temporal subdivision of catalogues. The Poisson distribution for large rate values approaches the Gaussian law, therefore its skewness
Samuel, Pierre
2008-01-01
Algebraic number theory introduces students not only to new algebraic notions but also to related concepts: groups, rings, fields, ideals, quotient rings and quotient fields, homomorphisms and isomorphisms, modules, and vector spaces. Author Pierre Samuel notes that students benefit from their studies of algebraic number theory by encountering many concepts fundamental to other branches of mathematics - algebraic geometry, in particular.This book assumes a knowledge of basic algebra but supplements its teachings with brief, clear explanations of integrality, algebraic extensions of fields, Gal
Iwaniec, Henryk
2004-01-01
Analytic Number Theory distinguishes itself by the variety of tools it uses to establish results, many of which belong to the mainstream of arithmetic. One of the main attractions of analytic number theory is the vast diversity of concepts and methods it includes. The main goal of the book is to show the scope of the theory, both in classical and modern directions, and to exhibit its wealth and prospects, its beautiful theorems and powerful techniques. The book is written with graduate students in mind, and the authors tried to balance between clarity, completeness, and generality. The exercis
2007-12-26
265–275. [7] H. G. Grundman, ‘ Sequences of consecutive Niven numbers’, Fibonacci Quart. 32 (1994), 174–175. [8] D. R. Heath-Brown and S. Konyagin...paper, we define a natural sequence in relation to q-Niven numbers. For a fixed but arbitrary k ∈ N and a base q ≥ 2, one may ask whether or not there...other words, ak is the smallest Niven number whose sum of the digits is a given positive integer k. We denote by ck the companion sequence ck = ak/k
Clette, Frédéric; Vaquero, José M; Cliver, Edward W
2014-01-01
Our knowledge of the long-term evolution of solar activity and of its primary modulation, the 11-year cycle, largely depends on a single direct observational record: the visual sunspot counts that retrace the last 4 centuries, since the invention of the astronomical telescope. Currently, this activity index is available in two main forms: the International Sunspot Number initiated by R. Wolf in 1849 and the Group Number constructed more recently by Hoyt and Schatten (1998a,b). Unfortunately, those two series do not match by various aspects, inducing confusions and contradictions when used in crucial contemporary studies of the solar dynamo or of the solar forcing on the Earth climate. Recently, new efforts have been undertaken to diagnose and correct flaws and biases affecting both sunspot series, in the framework of a series of dedicated Sunspot Number Workshops. Here, we present a global overview of our current understanding of the sunspot number calibration. While the early part of the sunspot record befor...
Babu, K S; Al-Binni, U; Banerjee, S; Baxter, D V; Berezhiani, Z; Bergevin, M; Bhattacharya, S; Brice, S; Brock, R; Burgess, T W; Castellanos, L; Chattopadhyay, S; Chen, M-C; Church, E; Coppola, C E; Cowen, D F; Cowsik, R; Crabtree, J A; Davoudiasl, H; Dermisek, R; Dolgov, A; Dutta, B; Dvali, G; Ferguson, P; Perez, P Fileviez; Gabriel, T; Gal, A; Gallmeier, F; Ganezer, K S; Gogoladze, I; Golubeva, E S; Graves, V B; Greene, G; Handler, T; Hartfiel, B; Hawari, A; Heilbronn, L; Hill, J; Jaffe, D; Johnson, C; Jung, C K; Kamyshkov, Y; Kerbikov, B; Kopeliovich, B Z; Kopeliovich, V B; Korsch, W; Lachenmaier, T; Langacker, P; Liu, C-Y; Marciano, W J; Mocko, M; Mohapatra, R N; Mokhov, N; Muhrer, G; Mumm, P; Nath, P; Obayashi, Y; Okun, L; Pati, J C; Pattie, R W; Phillips, D G; Quigg, C; Raaf, J L; Raby, S; Ramberg, E; Ray, A; Roy, A; Ruggles, A; Sarkar, U; Saunders, A; Serebrov, A; Shafi, Q; Shimizu, H; Shiozawa, M; Shrock, R; Sikdar, A K; Snow, W M; Soha, A; Spanier, S; Stavenga, G C; Striganov, S; Svoboda, R; Tang, Z; Tavartkiladze, Z; Townsend, L; Tulin, S; Vainshtein, A; Van Kooten, R; Wagner, C E M; Wang, Z; Wehring, B; Wilson, R J; Wise, M; Yokoyama, M; Young, A R
2013-01-01
This report, prepared for the Community Planning Study - Snowmass 2013 - summarizes the theoretical motivations and the experimental efforts to search for baryon number violation, focussing on nucleon decay and neutron-antineutron oscillations. Present and future nucleon decay search experiments using large underground detectors, as well as planned neutron-antineutron oscillation search experiments with free neutron beams are highlighted.
Alladi, Krishnaswami
2008-01-01
Contains chapters on number theory and related topics. This title covers topics that focus on multipartitions, congruences and identities, the formulas of Koshliakov and Guinand in Ramanujan's "Lost Notebook", alternating sign matrices and the Weyl character formulas, theta functions in complex analysis, and elliptic functions
Bell, Eric Temple
1991-01-01
From one of the foremost interpreters for lay readers of the history and meaning of mathematics: a stimulating account of the origins of mathematical thought and the development of numerical theory. It probes the work of Pythagoras, Galileo, Berkeley, Einstein, and others, exploring how ""number magic"" has influenced religion, philosophy, science, and mathematics
Schreuder, M.F.
2012-01-01
A low nephron number is, according to Brenner's hyperfiltration hypothesis, associated with hypertension, glomerular damage and proteinuria, and starts a vicious cycle that ends in renal failure over the long term. Nephron endowment is set during foetal life, and there is no formation of nephrons
Trudgian, Timothy
2009-01-01
One of the difficulties in any teaching of mathematics is to bridge the divide between the abstract and the intuitive. Throughout school one encounters increasingly abstract notions, which are more and more difficult to relate to everyday experiences. This article examines a familiar approach to thinking about negative numbers, that is an…
Haida Numbers and Calculation.
Cogo, Robert
Experienced traders in furs, blankets, and other goods, the Haidas of the 1700's had a well-developed decimal system for counting and calculating. Their units of linear measure included the foot, yard, and fathom, or six feet. This booklet lists the numbers from 1 to 20 in English and Haida; explains the Haida use of ten, hundred, and thousand…
Uniform random number generators
Farr, W. R.
1971-01-01
Methods are presented for the generation of random numbers with uniform and normal distributions. Subprogram listings of Fortran generators for the Univac 1108, SDS 930, and CDC 3200 digital computers are also included. The generators are of the mixed multiplicative type, and the mathematical method employed is that of Marsaglia and Bray.
Jorgensen, C.B.; Suetens, S.; Tyran, J.R.
2011-01-01
We investigate the "law of small numbers" using a unique panel data set on lotto gambling. Because we can track individual players over time, we can measure how they react to outcomes of recent lotto drawings. We can therefore test whether they behave as if they believe they can predict lotto
Prognostic Value Of Immunoglobulin Profile In Human Papilloma Virus Infection
Chattopadhyay S P
2001-01-01
Present study aimed at defining the prognostic value of immunoglobulin profile in human papilloma virus infection by assessing and correlating the levels of immunoglobulin with type, number, duration...
MacCarron, Pádraig; Dunbar, Robin
2016-01-01
The social brain hypothesis predicts that humans have an average of about 150 relationships at any given time. Within this 150, there are layers of friends of an ego, where the number of friends in a layer increases as the emotional closeness decreases. Here we analyse a mobile phone dataset, firstly, to ascertain whether layers of friends can be identified based on call frequency. We then apply different clustering algorithms to break the call frequency of egos into clusters and compare the number of alters in each cluster with the layer size predicted by the social brain hypothesis. In this dataset we find strong evidence for the existence of a layered structure. The clustering yields results that match well with previous studies for the innermost and outermost layers, but for layers in between we observe large variability.
Marco Ruffino
2001-12-01
Full Text Available In this paper I discuss the intuition behind Frege's and Russell's definitions of numbers as sets, as well as Benacerraf's criticism of it. I argue that Benacerraf's argument is not as strong as some philosophers tend to think. Moreover, I examine an alternative to the Fregean-Russellian definition of numbers proposed by Maddy, and point out some problems faced by it.Neste artigo discuto a intuição subjacente à definição de n∨meros como conjuntos proposta por Frege e Russell, assim como a crítica de Benacerraf a esta definição. Eu tento mostrar que o argumento de Benacerraf não é tão forte como alguns filósofos o tomaram. Adicionalmente, examino uma alternativa à definição de Frege e Russell proposta por Maddy, e indico algumas dificuldades encontrada pela mesma.
Sierpinski and Carmichael Numbers
2013-01-16
appear. 31 [21] E. M. Matveev, ‘An explicit lower bound for a homogeneous rational linear form in logarithms of algebraic numbers. II,’ Izv. Ross. Akad...Math. Comp. 37 (1981), 587–593. [23] C. Pontreau, ‘A Mordell- Lang plus Bogomolov type result for curves in G2m,’ Monatsh. Math. 157 (2009), 267–281. [24
Rocker, Graeme M; Verma, Jennifer Y; Demmons, Jillian; Mittmann, Nicole
2015-02-06
The 'Number Needed to Treat' (NNT) is a useful measure for estimating the number of patients that would need to receive a therapeutic intervention to avoid one of the adverse events that the treatment is designed to prevent. We explored the possibility of an adaption of NNT to estimate the 'Number Needed to $ave' (NN$) as a new, conceptual systems metric to estimate potential cost-savings to the health system from implementation of a treatment, or in this case, a program. We used the outcomes of the INSPIRED COPD Outreach ProgramTM to calculate that 26 patients would need to complete the program to avoid healthcare expenditures of $100,000, based on hospital bed days avoided. The NN$ does not translate into 'cost savings' per se, but redirection of resource expenditures for other purposes. We propose that the NN$ metric, if further developed, could help to inform system-level resource allocation decisions in a manner similar to the way that the NNT metric helps to inform individual-level treatment decisions.
Design of a continuously variable Mach-number nozzle
郭善广; 王振国; 赵玉新
2015-01-01
A design method was developed to specify the profile of the continuously variable Mach-number nozzle for the supersonic wind tunnel. The controllable contour design technique was applied to obtaining the original nozzle profile, while other Mach- numbers were derived from the transformation of the original profile. A design scheme, covering a Mach-number range of 3.0
Generalizations of Euler Numbers and Euler Numbers of Higher Order
LUOQiu-ming; QIFeng
2005-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to define the generalized Euler numbers and the generalized Euler numbers of higher order, their recursion formula and some properties were established, accordingly Euler numbers and Euler numbers of higher order were extended.
Betweenness centrality profiles in trees
Fish, Benjamin; Turan, Gyorgy
2016-01-01
Betweenness centrality of a vertex in a graph measures the fraction of shortest paths going through the vertex. This is a basic notion for determining the importance of a vertex in a network. The k-betweenness centrality of a vertex is defined similarly, but only considers shortest paths of length at most k. The sequence of k-betweenness centralities for all possible values of k forms the betweenness centrality profile of a vertex. We study properties of betweenness centrality profiles in trees. We show that for scale-free random trees, for fixed k, the expectation of k-betweenness centrality strictly decreases as the index of the vertex increases. We also analyze worst-case properties of profiles in terms of the distance of profiles from being monotone, and the number of times pairs of profiles can cross. This is related to whether k-betweenness centrality, for small values of k, may be used instead of having to consider all shortest paths. Bounds are given that are optimal in order of magnitude. We also pre...
LeVeque, William J
2002-01-01
Classic two-part work now available in a single volume assumes no prior theoretical knowledge on reader's part and develops the subject fully. Volume I is a suitable first course text for advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate students. Volume II requires a much higher level of mathematical maturity, including a working knowledge of the theory of analytic functions. Contents range from chapters on binary quadratic forms to the Thue-Siegel-Roth Theorem and the Prime Number Theorem. Includes numerous problems and hints for their solutions. 1956 edition. Supplementary Reading. List of Symb
Thurston, H A
2007-01-01
The teaching of mathematics has undergone extensive changes in approach, with a shift in emphasis from rote memorization to acquiring an understanding of the logical foundations and methodology of problem solving. This book offers guidance in that direction, exploring arithmetic's underlying concepts and their logical development.This volume's great merit lies in its wealth of explanatory material, designed to promote an informal and intuitive understanding of the rigorous logical approach to the number system. The first part explains and comments on axioms and definitions, making their subseq
Pati, Jogesh C.; Salam, Abdus
We suggest that baryon-number conservation may not be absolute and that an integrally charged quark may disintegrate into two leptons and an antilepton with a coupling strength G Bmp2≲ 10-9. On the other hand, if quarks are much heavier than low-lying hadrons, the decay of a three-quark system like the proton is highly forbidden (proton lifetime ≳ 1028 y). Motivation for these ideas appears to arise within a unified theory of hadrons and leptons and their gauge interactions. We emphasize the consequences of such a possibility for real quark searches.
Neukirch, Jürgen; Wingberg, Kay
2013-01-01
The second edition is a corrected and extended version of the first. It is a textbook for students, as well as a reference book for the working mathematician, on cohomological topics in number theory. The first part provides algebraic background: cohomology of profinite groups, duality groups, free products, and homotopy theory of modules, with new sections on spectral sequences and on Tate cohomology of profinite groups. The second part deals with Galois groups of local and global fields: Tate duality, structure of absolute Galois groups of local fields, extensions with restricted ramificatio
Quantum random number generator
Stipcevic, M
2006-01-01
We report upon a novel principle for realization of a fast nondeterministic random number generator whose randomness relies on intrinsic randomness of the quantum physical processes of photonic emission in semiconductors and subsequent detection by the photoelectric effect. Timing information of detected photons is used to generate binary random digits-bits. The bit extraction method based on restartable clock theoretically eliminates both bias and autocorrelation while reaching efficiency of almost 0.5 bits per random event. A prototype has been built and statistically tested.
ON THE EFFECT OF REYNOLDS NUMBER ON VON KARMAN'S CONSTANT
赵金印; 解茂昭; F.Durst
2002-01-01
Fully developed turbulence measurements in pipe flow were made in the Reynolds number ranging from 10× 103 to 350 × 103 with a hot-wire anemometer and a Pitot tube. Comparisons were made with the experimental results of previous work. The mean velocity profile and the turbulent intensity in the experiments indicate that for the mean velocity profile, in the fully developed turbulent pipe flow,with the Reynolds number. The empirical relationships could not be considered to be accurate enough to describe the fully developed turbulence over the whole Reynolds number range in pipe flow.
Department of Housing and Urban Development — HOPWA Performance Profiles are generated quarterly for all agencies receiving HOPWA formula or competitive grants. Performance Profiles are available at the national...
EPA's Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program periodically produces detailed profiles of the various industries that report under the program. These profiles contain detailed analyses. This page hosts data highlights for all sectors.
Oak Ridge National Laboratory — The microwave radiometer profiler (MWRP) provides vertical profiles of temperature, humidity, and cloud liquid water content as a function of height or pressure at...
Study on Rail Profile Optimization Based on the Nonlinear Relationship between Profile and Wear Rate
Jianxi Wang
2017-01-01
Full Text Available This paper proposes a rail profile optimization method that takes account of wear rate within design cycle so as to minimize rail wear at the curve in heavy haul railway and extend the service life of rail. Taking rail wear rate as the object function, the vertical coordinate of rail profile at range optimization as independent variable, and the geometric characteristics and grinding depth of rail profile as constraint conditions, the support vector machine regression theory was used to fit the nonlinear relationship between rail profile and its wear rate. Then, the profile optimization model was built. Based on the optimization principle of genetic algorithm, the profile optimization model was solved to achieve the optimal rail profile. A multibody dynamics model was used to check the dynamic performance of carriage running on optimal rail profile. The result showed that the average relative error of support vector machine regression model remained less than 10% after a number of training processes. The dynamic performance of carriage running on optimized rail profile met the requirements on safety index and stability. The wear rate of optimized profile was lower than that of standard profile by 5.8%; the allowable carrying gross weight increased by 12.7%.
Profiles of Nonprofit Education Management Organizations: 2008-2009
Miron, Gary; Urschel, Jessica
2009-01-01
This is the second "Profiles" report to examine nonprofit education management organizations (EMOs). This report is modeled after the 11 annual "Profiles" that cover for-profit EMOs. While the number of schools operated by for-profit EMOs grew rapidly in the 1990s and is now leveling off, the number of schools operated by nonprofit EMOs has been…
Metabolomic Profiling of Prostate Cancer Progression During Active Surveillance
2012-10-01
cancer or a history of transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) for benign prostatic hypertrophy are excluded. Somewhat surprisingly...AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-11-1-0451 TITLE: Metabolomic Profiling of Prostate Cancer...29 September 2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Metabolomic Profiling of Prostate Cancer Progression During Active Surveillance 5b
Beyond natural numbers: negative number representation in parietal cortex.
Blair, Kristen P; Rosenberg-Lee, Miriam; Tsang, Jessica M; Schwartz, Daniel L; Menon, Vinod
2012-01-01
Unlike natural numbers, negative numbers do not have natural physical referents. How does the brain represent such abstract mathematical concepts? Two competing hypotheses regarding representational systems for negative numbers are a rule-based model, in which symbolic rules are applied to negative numbers to translate them into positive numbers when assessing magnitudes, and an expanded magnitude model, in which negative numbers have a distinct magnitude representation. Using an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging design, we examined brain responses in 22 adults while they performed magnitude comparisons of negative and positive numbers that were quantitatively near (difference 6). Reaction times (RTs) for negative numbers were slower than positive numbers, and both showed a distance effect whereby near pairs took longer to compare. A network of parietal, frontal, and occipital regions were differentially engaged by negative numbers. Specifically, compared to positive numbers, negative number processing resulted in greater activation bilaterally in intraparietal sulcus (IPS), middle frontal gyrus, and inferior lateral occipital cortex. Representational similarity analysis revealed that neural responses in the IPS were more differentiated among positive numbers than among negative numbers, and greater differentiation among negative numbers was associated with faster RTs. Our findings indicate that despite negative numbers engaging the IPS more strongly, the underlying neural representation are less distinct than that of positive numbers. We discuss our findings in the context of the two theoretical models of negative number processing and demonstrate how multivariate approaches can provide novel insights into abstract number representation.
冯汉茹; 张其中; 罗芬; 朱成科; 鉏超
2009-01-01
Spawned yellow catfish (Pseudobagrus fulvidraco Richardson) and their fry usually die of infective diseases. In order to enhance the resistant ability of spawning yellow catfish and their fry against pathogens, it is necessary to illuminate changes of immune parameters of periphery blood in immunized mature yellow catfish. In this study, one hundred and thirty healthy mature yellow catfish were randomly divided into test and control groups. Each individual was intraperitoneally injected with 0.2 mL of bacterial suspension at a concentration of 1.0 × 10~8 CFU/mL formalin-killed Aeromonas sobria for the test group, and with 0.2 mL of 0.65% sterile saline solution for the control group. Then, approximate 2 mL of blood was taken from each fish caudal vein at 1, 2, 4, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 d post injection. Three yellow catfish were sacrificed at each sampling time. The haematological indices, such as leucocyte and erythrocyte number per microlitre, differential leucocyte count (DLC), and serum antibody titer and activity of phagocytes, were investigated for each blood sample of the test and control group. The results were as follows : The leucocyte number per microlitre of test group drastically increased and was significantly (or very significantly) higher than that of control from the 2nd day to 35th day post immunization (Fig. 2). The differential leucocyte count (DLC) of the test group prominently increased and was significantly (or very significantly) higher than that of control for neutrophil and monocyte from day 4 to day 7 (Fig. 5 & Fig. 6 ) , and for lymphocytes from the 4th day to 28th day (Fig. 4). The phagocytic percentage and phagocytic index also gradually increased from day 1 to day 7 and peaked at 7 d, then dropped down to the control level (Tab. 2). However, the test group was significantly lower than the control in erythrocyte number per microlitre between the 7th day and 35th day (Fig. 1), and in DLC of thrombocyte between day 4 and day 28 (Fig. 3). The
Lepton family number violation
Herczeg, P.
1999-03-01
At present there is evidence from neutrino oscillation searches that the neutrinos are in fact massive particles and that they mix. If confirmed, this would imply that the conservation of LFN is not exact. Lepton family number violation (LFNV) has been searched for with impressive sensitivities in many processes involving charged leptons. The present experimental limits on some of them (those which the author shall consider here) are shown in Table 1. These stringent limits are not inconsistent with the neutrino oscillation results since, given the experimental bounds on the masses of the known neutrinos and the neutrino mass squared differences required by the oscillation results, the effects of LFNV from neutrino mixing would be too small to be seen elsewhere (see Section 2). The purpose of experiments searching for LFNV involving the charged leptons is to probe the existence of other sources of LFNV. Such sources are present in many extensions of the SM. In this lecture the author shall discuss some of the possibilities, focusing on processes that require muon beams. Other LFNV processes, such as the decays of the kaons and of the {tau}, provide complementary information. In the next Section he shall consider some sources of LFNV that do not require an extension of the gauge group of the SM (the added leptons or Higgs bosons may of course originate from models with extended gauge groups). In Section 3 he discusses LFNV in left-right symmetric models. In Section 4 he considers LFNV in supersymmetric models, first in R-parity conserving supersymmetric grand unified models, and then in the minimal supersymmetric standard model with R-parity violation. The last section is a brief summary of the author`s conclusions.
Valeriya S. Kan
2016-06-01
Full Text Available The article examines the ethnosocial profile of contemporary Tuvans, with a focus on the dynamics of population change, human environment, self-consciousness, interethnic relations and language command. Our study was based on the official data of the Federal Census and the current statistics we obtained from Tuva territorial branch of the Federal State Statistics Service, as well as on the outcomes of the opinion polls held by a team lead by the author in 2008-2015. Due to traditionally high birth rate, the Tuvan population of Russia continues to grow (243422 in 2002, 263934 in 2010. This is also true for their share in the total population of Russia (0.17% in 2002, 0.19% in 2010. The main features of Tuvan human environment are their compact settlement within the Republic of Tuva (249299, or 95% of overall population, as well as living largely in a monoethnic environment, low level of ethnocultural and linguistic diversity and prevalence of rural population. The share of indigenous population in the region has been steadily increasing (64% in 1989, 77% in 2002, 82% in 2002, while those of other groups have been decreasing over time. The net migration remains negative due to ethnic Russians leaving the socially and economically dysfunctional region. Tuvans account for 92% of rural population, and 73% of the urban. The rural-urban balance in Tuva is shifting towards the latter slower than in the national average. Interethnic relations in the region can be described as stable, with a slight degree of tension. Problems mainly happen on the level of day-to-day communication. The sub-ethnicity of Tojin Tuvans is decreasing in numbers (4435 people in 2002, and 1856 in 2010. We believe the reason lies in the change of self-consciousness which accompanied the complete abandonment of nomadic lifestyle. In the article, we also define and describe the factors which contribute to the reproduction of Tuvan ethnicity, including the policy of the regional
Beyond Natural Numbers: Negative Number Representation in Parietal Cortex
Blair, Kristen P.; Rosenberg-Lee, Miriam; Tsang, Jessica M.; Schwartz, Daniel L.; Menon, Vinod
2012-01-01
Unlike natural numbers, negative numbers do not have natural physical referents. How does the brain represent such abstract mathematical concepts? Two competing hypotheses regarding representational systems for negative numbers are a rule-based model, in which symbolic rules are applied to negative numbers to translate them into positive numbers when assessing magnitudes, and an expanded magnitude model, in which negative numbers have a distinct magnitude representation. Using an event-relate...
Alcohol references on undergraduate males' Facebook profiles.
Egan, Katie G; Moreno, Megan A
2011-09-01
Perceived peer alcohol use is a predictor of consumption in college males; frequent references to alcohol on Facebook may encourage alcohol consumption. Content analysis of college males' Facebook profiles identified references to alcohol. The average age of 225 identified profiles was 19.9 years. Alcohol references were present on 85.3% of the profiles; the prevalence of alcohol was similar across each undergraduate grade. The average number of alcohol references per profile was 8.5 but increased with undergraduate year (p = .003; confidence interval = 1.5, 7.5). Students who were of legal drinking age referenced alcohol 4.5 times more than underage students, and an increase in number of Facebook friends was associated with an increase in displayed alcohol references (p < .001; confidence interval = 0.009, 0.02). Facebook is widely used in the college population; widespread alcohol displays on Facebook may influence social norms and cause increases in male college students' alcohol use.
明建华; 叶金云; 张易祥; 吴成龙; 杨霞; 刘黎
2012-01-01
The apparent digestibility of dry matter (DM) , crude protein (CP) , amino acids (AA) , ether extract (EE) , total phosphorus (TP) and gross energy (GE) of domestic fish meal, maggot meal, corn gluten meal, soybean meal, peanut meal, cottonseed meal, rapeseed meal and rice bran were determined for black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus Richardson). The test diets consisted of 70% basal diet and 30% test feed ingredients, and added 0. 1% Y2O3 as an indicator. Two hundred and seventy black carp with an average body weight of (60.17 ± 1. 28) g were randomly divided into 9 groups with 3 replicates in each group and 10 fish in each replicate. The fish in control group were fed a basal diet, and those in experiment groups were randomly fed one of 8 experimental diets. The fecal samples were collected by abdominal pressure method after one week. The results showed that apparent digestibility of DM, CP, EE, TP, GE and total AA of eight feed ingredients were 62.17% to 86. 47% , 83. 34% to 95. 84% , 78. 93% to 100. 06% , 37. 33% to 81. 99% , 66. 75% to 89. 86% and 86. 33% to 96. 58% , respectively. In the eight feed ingredients, the highest apparent digestibility of DM, TP and GE was found in corn gluten meal, while soybean meal had the highest apparent digestibility of CP, EE and total AA. The lowest apparent digestibility of DM and GE was found in cottonseed meal, and rice bran had the lowest apparent digestibility of EE and TP. The apparent digestibility of CP was consistent with the apparent digestibility of total AA in the eight feed ingredients, and the lowest apparent digestibility of CP and total AA was found in maggot meal. In conclusion, soybean meal and corn gluten meal can be used as high-quality plant protein sources to serve as alternative fish meal in feed of black carp. The apparent digestibility of CP and AA is lower in maggot meal, so the amount of maggot meal in feed should not be too high. Peanut meal, cottonseed meal and rapeseed meal are also good plant
On Fibonacci Numbers Which Are Elliptic Korselt Numbers
2014-11-17
On Fibonacci numbers which are elliptic Korselt numbers Florian Luca School of Mathematics University of the Witwatersrand P. O. Box Wits 2050, South...is a CM elliptic curve with CM field Q( √ −d), then the set of n for which the nth Fibonacci number Fn satisfies an elliptic Korselt criterion for Q...SUBTITLE On Fibonacci Numbers Which Are Elliptic Korselt Numbers 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d
Pharmacology profiling of chemicals and proteins
Kringelum, Jens Vindahl
of pharmaceuticals, a process referred to as pharmacology profiling. Pharmacology profiling of chemical and protein based pharmaceuticals has been proven valuable in a number studies [2], however missing values in the drug-protein interaction matrix limits the profile for novel or less studied compounds....... This limitation complicates adverse effect assessment in the early drug-development phase, thus contributing to drugattrition. Prediction models offer the possibility to close these gaps and provide more complete pharmacology profiles, however improvements in performances are required for these tools to serve...... as an alternative to experimentally obtained measurements. Here I present several different tools that aid pharmacology profiling of the two main classes of pharmaceuticals; chemicals (small molecules) and proteins (biopharmaceuticals). Biopharmaceuticals have the inherent risks of eliciting an immune response due...
Percents Are Not Natural Numbers
Jacobs, Jennifer A.
2013-01-01
Adults are prone to treating percents, one representational format of rational numbers, as novel cases of natural number. This suggests that percent values are not differentiated from natural numbers; a conceptual shift from the natural numbers to the rational numbers has not yet occurred. This is most surprising, considering people are inundated…
Digital Stylometry: Linking Profiles Across Social Networks
Vosoughi, Soroush; Zhou, Helen; Roy, Deb
2015-01-01
There is an ever growing number of users with accounts on multiple social media and networking sites. Consequently, there is increasing interest in matching user accounts and profiles across different social networks in order to create aggregate profiles of users. In this paper, we present models for Digital Stylometry, which is a method for matching users through stylometry inspired techniques. We experimented with linguistic, temporal, and combined temporal-linguistic models for matching us...
Aerodynamics profile not in stationary flow
А.А. Загорулько
2006-02-01
Full Text Available Consider the question about influence of unsteady flight on the size of drag and lift coefficients of theaerodynamic profile. Distinctive features of this investigation are obtaining data about aerodynamic drag chancing in process unsteady on high angle at attack and oscillation profile in subsonic and transonic flight. Given analysis of oscillation profile show, that dynamic loops accompany change of lift and dray force. The researches show that it is necessary to clarity the mathematic model of the airplane flight dynamics by introducing numbers, with take into account unsteady effects.
Series of Reciprocal Triangular Numbers
Bruckman, Paul; Dence, Joseph B.; Dence, Thomas P.; Young, Justin
2013-01-01
Reciprocal triangular numbers have appeared in series since the very first infinite series were summed. Here we attack a number of subseries of the reciprocal triangular numbers by methodically expressing them as integrals.
Axiomatic of Fuzzy Complex Numbers
Angel Garrido
2012-01-01
Fuzzy numbers are fuzzy subsets of the set of real numbers satisfying some additional conditions. Fuzzy numbers allow us to model very difficult uncertainties in a very easy way. Arithmetic operations on fuzzy numbers have also been developed, and are based mainly on the crucial Extension Principle. When operating with fuzzy numbers, the results of our calculations strongly depend on the shape of the membership functions of these numbers. Logically, less regular membership functions may lead ...
Number Games, Magnitude Representation, and Basic Number Skills in Preschoolers
Whyte, Jemma Catherine; Bull, Rebecca
2008-01-01
The effect of 3 intervention board games (linear number, linear color, and nonlinear number) on young children's (mean age = 3.8 years) counting abilities, number naming, magnitude comprehension, accuracy in number-to-position estimation tasks, and best-fit numerical magnitude representations was examined. Pre- and posttest performance was…
Pauli Pascal Pyramids, Pauli Fibonacci Numbers, and Pauli Jacobsthal Numbers
Horn, Martin Erik
2007-01-01
The three anti-commutative two-dimensional Pauli Pascal triangles can be generalized into multi-dimensional Pauli Pascal hyperpyramids. Fibonacci and Jacobsthal numbers are then generalized into Pauli Fibonacci numbers, Pauli Jacobsthal numbers, and Pauli Fibonacci numbers of higher order. And the question is: are Pauli rabbits killer rabbits?
Number Games, Magnitude Representation, and Basic Number Skills in Preschoolers
Whyte, Jemma Catherine; Bull, Rebecca
2008-01-01
The effect of 3 intervention board games (linear number, linear color, and nonlinear number) on young children's (mean age = 3.8 years) counting abilities, number naming, magnitude comprehension, accuracy in number-to-position estimation tasks, and best-fit numerical magnitude representations was examined. Pre- and posttest performance was…
On Types of Distance Fibonacci Numbers Generated by Number Decompositions
Anetta Szynal-Liana
2014-01-01
Full Text Available We introduce new types of distance Fibonacci numbers which are closely related with number decompositions. Using special decompositions of the number n we give a sequence of identities for them. Moreover, we give matrix generators for distance Fibonacci numbers and their direct formulas.
Roland E Schmieder
2006-06-01
Full Text Available Aliskiren is a novel oral antihypertensive agent, and the first in the new class of direct renin inhibitors. Here we review the key criteria that a new antihypertensive drug should possess, notably effective blood pressure lowering as monotherapy and combination therapy, 24-hour blood pressure control, safety and tolerability, end-organ protective effects, minimal drug interaction and efficacy during long-term use.Aliskiren fulfils key criteria for a new antihypertensive agent.The drug demonstrates effective blood lowering in a number of studies as monotherapy and in combination with a thiazide diuretic (hydrochlorothiazide, an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ramipril and a calcium channel blocker (amlodipine. Other studies applying ambulatory blood pressure monitoring show that aliskiren maintains blood pressure control for more than 24 hours. Aliskiren, 150 mg and 300 mg have demonstrated a placebo-like safety and tolerability profile, with no interactions with a wide range of commonly used drugs. Three studies (AVOID, ALOFT and ALLAY are ongoing properties. with aliskiren to assess end-organ protective properties.
[Intel random number generator-based true random number generator].
Huang, Feng; Shen, Hong
2004-09-01
To establish a true random number generator on the basis of certain Intel chips. The random numbers were acquired by programming using Microsoft Visual C++ 6.0 via register reading from the random number generator (RNG) unit of an Intel 815 chipset-based computer with Intel Security Driver (ISD). We tested the generator with 500 random numbers in NIST FIPS 140-1 and X(2) R-Squared test, and the result showed that the random number it generated satisfied the demand of independence and uniform distribution. We also compared the random numbers generated by Intel RNG-based true random number generator and those from the random number table statistically, by using the same amount of 7500 random numbers in the same value domain, which showed that the SD, SE and CV of Intel RNG-based random number generator were less than those of the random number table. The result of u test of two CVs revealed no significant difference between the two methods. Intel RNG-based random number generator can produce high-quality random numbers with good independence and uniform distribution, and solves some problems with random number table in acquisition of the random numbers.
Extremal periodic wave profiles
E. van Groesen
2007-01-01
Full Text Available As a contribution to deterministic investigations into extreme fluid surface waves, in this paper wave profiles of prescribed period that have maximal crest height will be investigated. As constraints the values of the momentum and energy integrals are used in a simplified description with the KdV model. The result is that at the boundary of the feasible region in the momentum-energy plane, the only possible profiles are the well known cnoidal wave profiles. Inside the feasible region the extremal profiles of maximal crest height are "cornered" cnoidal profiles: cnoidal profiles of larger period, cut-off and periodically continued with the prescribed period so that at the maximal crest height a corner results.
Axiomatic of Fuzzy Complex Numbers
Angel Garrido
2012-04-01
Full Text Available Fuzzy numbers are fuzzy subsets of the set of real numbers satisfying some additional conditions. Fuzzy numbers allow us to model very difficult uncertainties in a very easy way. Arithmetic operations on fuzzy numbers have also been developed, and are based mainly on the crucial Extension Principle. When operating with fuzzy numbers, the results of our calculations strongly depend on the shape of the membership functions of these numbers. Logically, less regular membership functions may lead to very complicated calculi. Moreover, fuzzy numbers with a simpler shape of membership functions often have more intuitive and more natural interpretations. But not only must we apply the concept and the use of fuzzy sets, and its particular case of fuzzy number, but also the new and interesting mathematical construct designed by Fuzzy Complex Numbers, which is much more than a correlate of Complex Numbers in Mathematical Analysis. The selected perspective attempts here that of advancing through axiomatic descriptions.
Pena, A.
2009-03-15
This thesis consists of two parts. The first is a synopsis of the theoretical progress of the study that is based on a number of journal papers. The papers, which constitute the second part of the report, aim to analyze, measure, and model the wind prole in and beyond the surface layer by combining observations from cup anemometers with lidars. The lidar is necessary to extend the measurements on masts at the Horns Rev offshore wind farm and over at land at Hoevsoere, Denmark. Both sensing techniques show a high degree of agreement for wind speed measurements performed at either sites. The wind speed measurements are averaged for several stability conditions and compare well with the surface-layer wind profile. At Hoevsoere, it is sufficient to scale the wind speed with the surface friction velocity, whereas at Horns Rev a new scaling is added, due to the variant roughness length. This new scaling is coupled to wind prole models derived for flow over the sea and tested against the wind proles up to 160 m at Horns Rev. The models, which account for the boundary-layer height in stable conditions, show better agreement with the measurements than compared to the traditional theory. Mixing-length parameterizations for the neutral wind prole compare well with length-scale measurements up to 300 m at Hoevsoere and 950 m at Leipzig. The mixing-length-derived wind proles strongly deviate from the logarithmic wind prole, but agree better with the wind speed measurements. The length-scale measurements are compared to the length scale derived from a spectral analysis performed up to 160 m at Hoevsoere showing high agreement. Mixing-length parameterizations are corrected to account for stability and used to derive wind prole models. These compared better to wind speed measurements up to 300 m at Hoevsoere than the surface-layer wind prole. The boundary-layer height is derived in nearneutral and stable conditions based on turbulent momentum uxes only and in unstable conditions
Cosmic numbers the numbers that define our universe
Stein, James D
2011-01-01
Our fascination with numbers begins when we are children and continues throughout our lives. We start counting our fingers and toes and end up balancing checkbooks and calculating risk. So powerful is the appeal of numbers that many people ascribe to them a mystical significance. Other numbers go beyond the supernatural, working to explain our universe and how it behaves. In Cosmic Numbers , mathematics professor James D. Stein traces the discovery, evolution, and interrelationships of the numbers that define our world. Everyone knows about the speed of light and absolute zero, but numbers lik
On Bernoulli Numbers and Stirling Numbers%Bernoulli数与Stirling数
高泽图
2001-01-01
In this paper,using the method of formal power series, we study the Bernoulli numbers and the Stirling numbers,and point out the relation between Bernoulli numbers and Stirling numbers,and obtain several identities of including Bernoulli numbers and Stirling numbers.%应用形式幂级数的方法，研究Bernoulli数与Stirling数，指出它们之间的关系，获得几个包含Bernoulli数和Stirling数的恒等式.
Dettlaff, Magda; Yero, Ismael G
2012-01-01
The bondage number $b(G)$ of a nonempty graph $G$ is the cardinality of a smallest set of edges whose removal from $G$ results in a graph with domination number greater than the domination number of $G$. Here we study the bondage number of some grid-like graphs. In this sense, we obtain some bounds or exact values of the bondage number of some Cartesian product, strong product or direct product of two paths.
Dettlaff, Magda; Lemanska, Magdalena; Yero, Ismael G.
2012-01-01
The bondage number $b(G)$ of a nonempty graph $G$ is the cardinality of a smallest set of edges whose removal from $G$ results in a graph with domination number greater than the domination number of $G$. Here we study the bondage number of some grid-like graphs. In this sense, we obtain some bounds or exact values of the bondage number of some strong product and direct product of two paths.
YOUNG ATHLETES' MOTIVATIONAL PROFILES
Juan Antonio Moreno Murcia
2007-06-01
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between motivational characteristics and dispositional flow. In order to accomplish this goal, motivational profiles emerging from key constructs within Achievement Goal Theory and Self-Determination Theory were related to the dispositional flow measures. A sample of 413 young athletes (Age range 12 to 16 years completed the PMCSQ-2, POSQ, SMS and DFS measures. Cluster analysis results revealed three profiles: a "self-determined profile" characterised by higher scores on the task-involving climate perception and on the task orientation; a "non-self-determined profile", characterised by higher scores on ego-involving climate perception and ego orientation; and a "low self-determined and low non-self-determined profile" which had the lowest dispositional flow. No meaningful differences were found between the "self-determined profile" and the "non-self-determined profile" in dispositional flow. The "self-determined profile" was more commonly associated with females, athletes practising individual sports and those training more than three days a week. The "non-self-determined profile" was more customary of males and athletes practising team sports as well as those training just two or three days a week
Velocity profiles in strongly turbulent Taylor-Couette flow
Grossmann, Siegfried; Sun, Chao
2013-01-01
We derive the velocity profiles in strongly turbulent Taylor-Couette flow for the general case of independently rotating cylinders. The theory is based on the Navier-Stokes equations in the appropriate (cylinder) geometry. In particular, we derive the axial and the angular velocity profiles as functions of distance from the cylinder walls and find that both follow a logarithmic profile, with downwards-bending curvature corrections, which are more pronounced for the angular velocity profile as compared to the axial velocity profile, and which strongly increase with decreasing ratio $\\eta$ between inner and outer cylinder radius. In contrast, the azimuthal velocity does not follow a log-law. We then compare the angular and azimuthal velocity profiles with the recently measured profiles in the ultimate state of (very) large Taylor numbers. Though the {\\em qualitative} trends are the same -- down-bending for large wall distances and (properly shifted and non-dimensionalized) angular velocity profile $\\omega^+(r)$...
Number sense as the bridge to number understanding
Ejersbo, Lisser Rye
2016-01-01
In this article, I compare number sense, which is understood as an innate capacity to know about the magnitude and relations of numbers, with number understanding, which is understood as the ability to manipulate the symbolic arithmetic developed in a culture. My research focuses on the question...... of how number sense and number understanding can be used in a synergetic process in learning mathematics. Different research results have shown that consistent training in number sense (K-10) influences mathematical competencies in a positive manner, and that young children aged 5-6 years are able...... to solve symbolic problems that involve the approximate addition and subtraction of large two-digit numbers. Our experiment was conducted in a kindergarten class (age 5-6 years) and in a Grade 2 class (age 7-8 years) with students who had difficulties in number reading and symbolic arithmetic. Keywords...
Venclovas Česlovas
2010-02-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Detection of common evolutionary origin (homology is a primary means of inferring protein structure and function. At present, comparison of protein families represented as sequence profiles is arguably the most effective homology detection strategy. However, finding the best way to represent evolutionary information of a protein sequence family in the profile, to compare profiles and to estimate the biological significance of such comparisons, remains an active area of research. Results Here, we present a new homology detection method based on sequence profile-profile comparison. The method has a number of new features including position-dependent gap penalties and a global score system. Position-dependent gap penalties provide a more biologically relevant way to represent and align protein families as sequence profiles. The global score system enables an analytical solution of the statistical parameters needed to estimate the statistical significance of profile-profile similarities. The new method, together with other state-of-the-art profile-based methods (HHsearch, COMPASS and PSI-BLAST, is benchmarked in all-against-all comparison of a challenging set of SCOP domains that share at most 20% sequence identity. For benchmarking, we use a reference ("gold standard" free model-based evaluation framework. Evaluation results show that at the level of protein domains our method compares favorably to all other tested methods. We also provide examples of the new method outperforming structure-based similarity detection and alignment. The implementation of the new method both as a standalone software package and as a web server is available at http://www.ibt.lt/bioinformatics/coma. Conclusion Due to a number of developments, the new profile-profile comparison method shows an improved ability to match distantly related protein domains. Therefore, the method should be useful for annotation and homology modeling of uncharacterized
Natural Number Bias in Operations with Missing Numbers
Christou, Konstantinos P.
2015-01-01
This study investigates the hypothesis that there is a natural number bias that influences how students understand the effects of arithmetical operations involving both Arabic numerals and numbers that are represented by symbols for missing numbers. It also investigates whether this bias correlates with other aspects of students' understanding of…
GRAPHS WHOSE CIRCULAR CLIQUE NUMBER EQUAL THE CLIQUE NUMBER
XU Baogang; ZHOU Xinghe
2005-01-01
The circular clique number of a graph G is the maximum fractional k/d such that Gkd admits a homomorphism to G. In this paper, we give some sufficient conditions for graphs whose circular clique number equal the clique number, we also characterize the K1,3-free graphs and planar graphs with the desired property.
Introducing Number and Arithmetic Concepts with Number Sticks.
Baroody, Arthur J.
1993-01-01
This article compares the relative merits of using Cuisenaire rods (unsegmented, unnumbered, and representing continuous quantities) and number sticks (segmented, numbered, and representing discrete quantities) to introduce number and arithmetic concepts to beginning students or students with learning difficulties or mental disabilities. (DB)
Multiple Bracket Function, Stirling Number, and Lah Number Identities
Coskun, Hasan
2012-01-01
The author has constructed multiple analogues of several families of combinatorial numbers in a recent article, including the bracket symbol, and the Stirling numbers of the first and second kind. In the present paper, a multiple analogue of another sequence, the Lah numbers, is developed, and certain associated identities and significant properties of all these sequences are constructed.
A Relation between Prime Numbers and Twin Prime Numbers
2001-01-01
Every mathematician has been concerned with prime numbers, and has metwith mysterious surprises about them. Besides intuition, using empirical methods has an important role to findrelations between prime numbers. A relation between any prime numberand any twin prime number has been obtained.
The concrete theory of numbers: initial numbers and wonderful properties of numbers repunit
Tarasov, Boris V
2007-01-01
In this work initial numbers and repunit numbers have been studied. All numbers have been considered in a decimal notation. The problem of simplicity of initial numbers has been studied. Interesting properties of numbers repunit are proved: $gcd(R_a, R_b) = R_{gcd(a,b)}$; $R_{ab}/(R_aR_b)$ is an integer only if $gcd(a,b) = 1$, where $a\\geq1$, $b\\geq1$ are integers. Dividers of numbers repunit, are researched by a degree of prime number.
THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN NUMBER NAMES AND NUMBER CONCEPTS
Ejersbo, Lisser Rye; Misfeldt, Morten
2015-01-01
Different countries have different names for numbers. These names are often related in a regular way to the base-10 place value system used for writing numbers as digits. However, in several languages, this regularity breaks down (e.g., between 10 and 20), and there is limited knowledge of how...... the regularity or irregularity of number naming affects children’s formation of number concepts and arithmetic performance. We investigate this issue by reviewing relevant literature and undertaking a design research project addressing the specific irregularities of the Danish number names. In this project...
Spiking the expectancy profiles
Hansen, Niels Chr.; Loui, Psyche; Vuust, Peter
Melodic expectations have long been quantified using expectedness ratings. Motivated by statistical learning and sharper key profiles in musicians, we model musical learning as a process of reducing the relative entropy between listeners' prior expectancy profiles and probability distributions...... learning over varying timescales enables listeners to generate expectations with reduced entropy....
Household electricity demand profiles
Marszal, Anna Joanna; Heiselberg, Per Kvols; Larsen, Olena Kalyanova
2016-01-01
Highlights •A 1-min resolution household electricity load model is presented. •Model adapts a bottom-up approach with single appliance as the main building block. •Load profiles are used to analyse the flexibility potential of household appliances. •Load profiles can be applied in other domains, e...
Chemical profiling of explosives
Brust, G.M.H.
2014-01-01
The primary goal of this thesis is to develop analytical methods for the chemical profiling of explosives. Current methodologies for the forensic analysis of explosives focus on identification of the explosive material. However, chemical profiling of explosives becomes increasingly important, as
Reinforced aerodynamic profile
2010-01-01
The present invention relates to the prevention of deformations in an aerodynamic profile caused by lack of resistance to the bending moment forces that are created when such a profile is loaded in operation. More specifically, the invention relates to a reinforcing element inside an aerodynamic...
State coal profiles, January 1994
1994-02-02
The purpose of State Coal Profiles is to provide basic information about the deposits, production, and use of coal in each of the 27 States with coal production in 1992. Although considerable information on coal has been published on a national level, there is a lack of a uniform overview for the individual States. This report is intended to help fill that gap and also to serve as a framework for more detailed studies. While focusing on coal output, State Coal Profiles shows that the coal-producing States are major users of coal, together accounting for about three-fourths of total US coal consumption in 1992. Each coal-producing State is profiled with a description of its coal deposits and a discussion of the development of its coal industry. Estimates of coal reserves in 1992 are categorized by mining method and sulfur content. Trends, patterns, and other information concerning production, number of mines, miners, productivity, mine price of coal, disposition, and consumption of coal are detailed in statistical tables for selected years from 1980 through 1992. In addition, coal`s contribution to the State`s estimated total energy consumption is given for 1991, the latest year for which data are available. A US summary of all data is provided for comparing individual States with the Nation as a whole. Sources of information are given at the end of the tables.
Testing Gravity using Void Profiles
Cai, Yan-Chuan; Padilla, Nelson; Li, Baojiu
2016-10-01
We investigate void properties in f(R) models using N-body simulations, focusing on their differences from General Relativity (GR) and their detectability. In the Hu-Sawicki f(R) modified gravity (MG) models, the halo number density profiles of voids are not distinguishable from GR. In contrast, the same f(R) voids are more empty of dark matter, and their profiles are steeper. This can in principle be observed by weak gravitational lensing of voids, for which the combination of a spectroscopic redshift and a lensing photometric redshift survey over the same sky is required. Neglecting the lensing shape noise, the f(R) model parameter amplitudes fR0=10-5 and 10-4 may be distinguished from GR using the lensing tangential shear signal around voids by 4 and 8 σ for a volume of 1 (Gpc/h)3. The line-of-sight projection of large-scale structure is the main systematics that limits the significance of this signal for the near future wide angle and deep lensing surveys. For this reason, it is challenging to distinguish fR0=10-6 from GR. We expect that this can be overcome with larger volume. The halo void abundance being smaller and the steepening of dark matter void profiles in f(R) models are unique features that can be combined to break the degeneracy between fR0 and σ8.
Jessen, Pernille Wegener; King, Nancy J.
2010-01-01
of significant concerns about privacy and data protection. This second article in a two part series on "Profiling the Mobile Customer" explores how to best protect consumers' privacy and personal data through available mechanisms that include industry self-regulation, privacy-enhancing technologies......Mobile customers are increasingly being tracked and profiled by behavioural advertisers to enhance delivery of personalized advertising. This type of profiling relies on automated processes that mine databases containing personally-identifying or anonymous consumer data, and it raises a host...... discusses the current limitations of using technology to protect consumers from privacy abuses related to profiling. Concluding that industry self-regulation and available privacy-enhancing technologies will not be adequate to close important privacy gaps related to consumer profiling without legislative...
Bell Numbers, Determinants and Series
P K Saikia; Deepak Subedi
2013-05-01
In this article, we study Bell numbers and Uppuluri Carpenter numbers. We obtain various expressions and relations between them. These include polynomial recurrences and expressions as determinants of certain matrices of binomial coefficients.
libprofit: Image creation from luminosity profiles
Robotham, A. S. G.; Taranu, D.; Tobar, R.
2016-12-01
libprofit is a C++ library for image creation based on different luminosity profiles. It offers fast and accurate two-dimensional integration for a useful number of profiles, including Sersic, Core-Sersic, broken-exponential, Ferrer, Moffat, empirical King, point-source and sky, with a simple mechanism for adding new profiles. libprofit provides a utility to read the model and profile parameters from the command-line and generate the corresponding image. It can output the resulting image as text values, a binary stream, or as a simple FITS file. It also provides a shared library exposing an API that can be used by any third-party application. R and Python interfaces are available: ProFit (ascl:1612.004) and PyProfit (ascl:1612.005).
Distribution theory of algebraic numbers
Yang, Chung-Chun
2008-01-01
The book timely surveys new research results and related developments in Diophantine approximation, a division of number theory which deals with the approximation of real numbers by rational numbers. The book is appended with a list of challenging open problems and a comprehensive list of references. From the contents: Field extensions Algebraic numbers Algebraic geometry Height functions The abc-conjecture Roth''s theorem Subspace theorems Vojta''s conjectures L-functions.
The theory of algebraic numbers
Pollard, Harry
1998-01-01
An excellent introduction to the basics of algebraic number theory, this concise, well-written volume examines Gaussian primes; polynomials over a field; algebraic number fields; and algebraic integers and integral bases. After establishing a firm introductory foundation, the text explores the uses of arithmetic in algebraic number fields; the fundamental theorem of ideal theory and its consequences; ideal classes and class numbers; and the Fermat conjecture. 1975 edition. References. List of Symbols. Index.
Elementary number theory with programming
Lewinter, Marty
2015-01-01
A successful presentation of the fundamental concepts of number theory and computer programming Bridging an existing gap between mathematics and programming, Elementary Number Theory with Programming provides a unique introduction to elementary number theory with fundamental coverage of computer programming. Written by highly-qualified experts in the fields of computer science and mathematics, the book features accessible coverage for readers with various levels of experience and explores number theory in the context of programming without relying on advanced prerequisite knowledge and con
The Mental Number Line in Dyscalculia: Impaired Number Sense or Access From Symbolic Numbers?
Lafay, Anne; St-Pierre, Marie-Catherine; Macoir, Joël
2016-03-25
Numbers may be manipulated and represented mentally over a compressible number line oriented from left to right. According to numerous studies, one of the primary reasons for dyscalculia is related to improper understanding of the mental number line. Children with dyscalculia usually show difficulty when they have to place Arabic numbers on a physical number line. However, it remains unclear whether they have a deficit with the mental number line per se or a deficit with accessing it from nonsymbolic and/or symbolic numbers. Quebec French-speaking 8- to 9-year-old children with (24) and without (37) dyscalculia were assessed with transcoding tasks (number-to-positionandposition-to-number) designed to assess the acuity of the mental number line with Arabic and spoken numbers as well as with analogic numerosities. Results showed that children with dyscalculia produced a larger percentage absolute error than children without mathematics difficulties in every task except the number-to-position transcoding task with analogic numerosities. Hence, these results suggested that children with dyscalculia do not have a general deficit of the mental number line but rather a deficit with accessing it from symbolic numbers.
Estimating Cognitive Profiles Using Profile Analysis via Multidimensional Scaling (PAMS)
Kim, Se-Kang; Frisby, Craig L.; Davison, Mark L.
2004-01-01
Two of the most popular methods of profile analysis, cluster analysis and modal profile analysis, have limitations. First, neither technique is adequate when the sample size is large. Second, neither method will necessarily provide profile information in terms of both level and pattern. A new method of profile analysis, called Profile Analysis via…
Simple Remarks on Carmichael Numbers
Uchiyama, Shigenori
An odd composite number n for which an-1 ≡ 1 (mod n) for all integers a coprime to n is called a Carmichael number. This paper shows that some class of Carmichael numbers which have relatively large prime factors can be recognized in deterministic polynomial time under the assumption of the Extended Riemann Hypothesis (ERH). Also some related problems are discussed.
Jue, Brian
2010-01-01
Separate a three-digit number into its component digits. After raising each digit to the third power and computing the sum of the cubes, determine how often the original number reappears. Modular arithmetic is used to reduce the number of potential solutions to a more manageable quantity. (Contains 4 tables.)
Fletcher, Rodney
2008-01-01
This article presents a guided investigation into the spacial relationships between the centres of the squares in a Fibonacci tiling. It is essentially a lesson in number pattern, but includes work with surds, coordinate geometry, and some elementary use of complex numbers. The investigation could be presented to students in a number of ways…
Betti Numbers of Gaussian Fields
Park, Changbom; Pranav, Pratyush; Chingangbam, Pravabati; van de Weygaert, Rien; Jones, Bernard; Vegter, Gert; Kim, Inkang; Hidding, Johan; Hellwing, Wojciech A.
2013-01-01
We present the relation between the genus in cosmology and the Betti numbers for excursion sets of three- and two-dimensional smooth Gaussian random fields, and numerically investigate the Betti numbers as a function of threshold level. Betti numbers are topological invariants of figures that can be
Linear or Exponential Number Lines
Stafford, Pat
2011-01-01
Having decided to spend some time looking at one's understanding of numbers, the author was inspired by "Alex's Adventures in Numberland," by Alex Bellos to look at one's innate appreciation of number. Bellos quotes research studies suggesting that an individual's natural appreciation of numbers is more likely to be exponential rather than linear,…
Goldbach numbers in short intervals
李红泽
1995-01-01
Suppose B is a sufficiently large positive constant, ε is a sufficiently small positive constant, N is a sufficiently large natural number, and A = N7/81+ε. It is proved that all even numbers in (N, N + A) with O(Alog-BN) exceptions are Goldbach numbers.
Kraaikamp, C.; Hartono, Y.
2002-01-01
In this note Hurwitzian numbers are defined for the nearest integer, and backward continued fraction expansions, and Nakada's $\\alpha$-expansions. It is shown that the set of Hurwitzian numbers for these continued fractions coincides with the classical set of such numbers.
Random Numbers and Quantum Computers
McCartney, Mark; Glass, David
2002-01-01
The topic of random numbers is investigated in such a way as to illustrate links between mathematics, physics and computer science. First, the generation of random numbers by a classical computer using the linear congruential generator and logistic map is considered. It is noted that these procedures yield only pseudo-random numbers since…
Cognitive representation of negative numbers.
Fischer, Martin H
2003-05-01
To understand negative numbers, must we refer to positive number representations (the phylogenetic hypothesis), or do we acquire a negative mental number line (the ontogenetic hypothesis)? In the experiment reported here, participants made lateralized button responses to indicate the larger of two digits from the range -9 to 9. Digit pairs were displayed spatially congruent or incongruent with either a phylogenetic or an ontogenetic mental number line. The pattern of decision latencies suggests that negative numbers become associated with left space, thus supporting the ontogenetic view.
Schmidt number effects in dissipative particle dynamics simulation of polymers.
Symeonidis, Vasileios; Karniadakis, George Em; Caswell, Bruce
2006-11-14
Simulation studies for dilute polymeric systems are presented using the dissipative particle dynamics method. By employing two different thermostats, the velocity-Verlet and Lowe's scheme, we show that the Schmidt number (S(c)) of the solvent strongly affects nonequilibrium polymeric quantities. The fractional extension of wormlike chains subjected to steady shear is obtained as a function of S(c). Poiseuille flow in microchannels for fixed polymer concentration and varying number of repeated units within a chain is simulated. The nonuniform concentration profiles and their dependence on S(c) are computed. We show the effect of the bounce-forward wall boundary condition on the depletion layer thickness. A power law fit of the velocity profile in stratified Poiseuille flow in a microchannel yields wall viscosities different from bulk values derived from uniform, steady plane Couette flow. The form of the velocity profiles indicates that the slip flow model is not useful for the conditions of these calculations.
Modal Wave Number Tomography and Bottom Parameter Dependence
WANG Ning; LI Peng; SHANG E. C.
2002-01-01
A shallow water tomography scheme based on the modal wave number inversion technique is considered in thispaper. The scheme is based on the assumption that modal wave number for trapped modes can be measured in a suitableway. The tomographic inversion is accomplished in two steps: firstly, the bottom parameters are inverted by using the bot-tom reflection phase shift with the known sound speed profile; secondly, the variation of sound speed profile at differenttime is inverted provided the bottom parameters are known. A numerical simulation shows that the proposed scheme workswell, and the sensitivity analysis of sound speed profile inversion is performed for shallow water environmental parameters:sound speed, density and attenuation coefficient of the bottom.
Quantum random number generator using photon-number path entanglement
Kwon, Osung; Cho, Young-Wook; Kim, Yoon-Ho
2010-08-01
We report an experimental implementation of quantum random number generator based on the photon-number-path entangled state. The photon-number-path entangled state is prepared by means of two-photon Hong-Ou-Mandel quantum interference at a beam splitter. The randomness in our scheme is of truly quantum mechanical origin as it comes from the projection measurement of the entangled two-photon state. The generated bit sequences satisfy the standard randomness test.
Pell Numbers, Pell-Lucas Numbers and Modular Group
Q. Mushtaq; U. Hayat
2007-01-01
We show that the matrix A(g), representing the element g = ((xy)2(xy2)2)m (m≥) of the modular group PSL(2,Z)=(x,y:x2=y3=1),where x:z →-1/z and y :z → -1/z, is a 2×2 symmetric matrix whose entries are Pell numbers and whose trace is a Pell-Lucas number. If g fixes elements of Q(√d), where d is a square-free positive number, on the circuit of the coset diagram, then d ＝ 2 and there are only four pairs of ambiguous numbers on the circuit.
Bernoulli numbers and zeta functions
Arakawa, Tsuneo; Kaneko, Masanobu
2014-01-01
Two major subjects are treated in this book. The main one is the theory of Bernoulli numbers and the other is the theory of zeta functions. Historically, Bernoulli numbers were introduced to give formulas for the sums of powers of consecutive integers. The real reason that they are indispensable for number theory, however, lies in the fact that special values of the Riemann zeta function can be written by using Bernoulli numbers. This leads to more advanced topics, a number of which are treated in this book: Historical remarks on Bernoulli numbers and the formula for the sum of powers of consecutive integers; a formula for Bernoulli numbers by Stirling numbers; the Clausen–von Staudt theorem on the denominators of Bernoulli numbers; Kummer's congruence between Bernoulli numbers and a related theory of p-adic measures; the Euler–Maclaurin summation formula; the functional equation of the Riemann zeta function and the Dirichlet L functions, and their special values at suitable integers; various formulas of ...
Compendium of Experimental Cetane Numbers
Yanowitz, Janet [Ecoengineering, Sharonville, OH (United States); Ratcliff, Matthew A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); McCormick, Robert L. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Taylor, J. D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Murphy, M. J. [Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States)
2017-02-22
This report is an updated version of the 2014 Compendium of Experimental Cetane Number Data and presents a compilation of measured cetane numbers for pure chemical compounds. It includes all available single-compound cetane number data found in the scientific literature up until December 2016 as well as a number of previously unpublished values, most measured over the past decade at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. This version of the compendium contains cetane values for 496 pure compounds, including 204 hydrocarbons and 292 oxygenates. 176 individual measurements are new to this version of the compendium, all of them collected using ASTM Method D6890, which utilizes an Ignition Quality Tester (IQT) a type of constant-volume combustion chamber. For many compounds, numerous measurements are included, often collected by different researchers using different methods. The text of this document is unchanged from the 2014 version, except for the numbers of compounds in Section 3.1, the Appendices, Table 1. Primary Cetane Number Data Sources and Table 2. Number of Measurements Included in Compendium. Cetane number is a relative ranking of a fuel's autoignition characteristics for use in compression ignition engines. It is based on the amount of time between fuel injection and ignition, also known as ignition delay. The cetane number is typically measured either in a single-cylinder engine or a constant-volume combustion chamber. Values in the previous compendium derived from octane numbers have been removed and replaced with a brief analysis of the correlation between cetane numbers and octane numbers. The discussion on the accuracy and precision of the most commonly used methods for measuring cetane number has been expanded, and the data have been annotated extensively to provide additional information that will help the reader judge the relative reliability of individual results.
Duus, Henrik Johannsen; Bjerre, Mogens
2015-01-01
Qualitative value profiling (QVP) is a relatively unknown method of strategic analysis for companies in international business-to-business settings. The purpose of QVP is to reduce the information complexity that is faced by international companies in dealing with business partners. The QVP method...... allows the development of 1) profiles of the target country in which operations are to take place, 2) profiles of the buying center (i.e. the group of decision makers) in the partner company, and 3) profiles of the product/service offering. It also allows the development of a semantic scaling method...... for deeper analysis of all involved factors. This paper presents the method and compares and contrasts it with other similar methods like the PESTELE method known from corporate strategy, the STEEPAL method known from scenario analysis, and the Politics-Institutions-Economy (PIE) framework known from...
... covers 15 topical areas, including population, income and poverty, living arrangements, education, health, and caregiving. A Profile ... Elder Justice Innovation Grants Late Life Domestic Violence World Elder Abuse Awareness Day State Grants to Enhance ...
Prescription Drug Profiles PUF
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This release contains the Prescription Drug Profiles Public Use Files (PUFs) drawn from Medicare prescription drug claims for the year of the date on which the...
California Department of Resources — Beaches are commonly characterized by cross-shore surveys. The resulting profiles represent the elevation of the beach surface and nearshore seabed from the back of...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To enable fisheries managers to comply with National Standard 8 (NS8), NMFS social scientists around the nation are preparing fishing community profiles that present...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Clutter present in radar return signals as used for wind profiling is substantially removed by carrying out a Daubechies wavelet transformation on a time series of...
These articles put a face to some of the thousands of individuals who contribute to NCI’s cancer research efforts. The profiles highlight the work of scientists and clinicians and describe the circumstances and motivation behind their work.
Jessen, Pernille Wegener; King, Nancy J.
2010-01-01
Mobile customers are increasingly being tracked and profiled by behavioural advertisers to enhance delivery of personalized advertising. This type of profiling relies on automated processes that mine databases containing personally-identifying or anonymous consumer data, and it raises a host...... of significant concerns about privacy and data protection. This second article in a two part series on "Profiling the Mobile Customer" explores how to best protect consumers' privacy and personal data through available mechanisms that include industry self-regulation, privacy-enhancing technologies...... and legislative reform. 1 It discusses how well privacy and personal data concerns related to consumer profiling are addressed by two leading industry self-regulatory codes from the UK and the U.S. that aim to establish fair information practices for behavioural advertising by their member companies. It also...
Fire Management Species Profiles
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The objective of the Fire Management Species Profile project is to identify habitat management objectives that are specific, measurable, achievable, clearly...
California Department of Resources — Beaches are commonly characterized by cross-shore surveys. The resulting profiles represent the elevation of the beach surface and nearshore seabed from the back of...
Nieder, Andreas
2016-06-01
Humans and non-human primates share an elemental quantification system that resides in a dedicated neural network in the parietal and frontal lobes. In this cortical network, 'number neurons' encode the number of elements in a set, its cardinality or numerosity, irrespective of stimulus appearance across sensory motor systems, and from both spatial and temporal presentation arrays. After numbers have been extracted from sensory input, they need to be processed to support goal-directed behaviour. Studying number neurons provides insights into how information is maintained in working memory and transformed in tasks that require rule-based decisions. Beyond an understanding of how cardinal numbers are encoded, number processing provides a window into the neuronal mechanisms of high-level brain functions.
Number Comparison and Number Line Estimation Rely on Different Mechanisms
Delphine Sasanguie
2013-12-01
Full Text Available The performance in comparison and number line estimation is assumed to rely on the same underlying representation, similar to a compressed mental number line that becomes more linear with age. We tested this assumption explicitly by examining the relation between the linear/logarithmic fit in a non-symbolic number line estimation task and the size effect (SE in a non-symbolic comparison task in first-, second-, and third graders. In two experiments, a correlation between the estimation pattern in number line estimation and the SE in comparison was absent. An ANOVA showed no difference between the groups of children with a linear or a logarithmic representation considering their SE in comparison. This suggests that different mechanisms underlie both basic number processing tasks.
Disentangling criminal profiling: accuracy, homology, and the myth of trait-based profiling.
Kocsis, Richard N; Palermo, George B
2015-03-01
The scholarly literature over the past decade has chronicled a growing problem in the forensic technique colloquially called criminal profiling. The basis of this conundrum appears to originate from a concept referred to as "offender homology," which presumes an inherent uniformity among offenders that is believed to underpin the analytic process incumbent to criminal profiling. Studies thus far conducted have apparently struggled to find evidence of offender homology, and based upon these findings arguments have been promulgated that various approaches to criminal profiling imputably labeled as "trait-based" are therefore not viable. Indirectly contradicting these arguments, however, have been studies testing profiler accuracy that have found evidence of individuals who appear to use trait-based methods but can nonetheless proficiently predict the characteristics of unknown offenders. Against this backdrop, the present article examines a number of tenets and disjunctions that appear to have arisen from research into offender homology and imputed to the practices of so-called trait-based profiling. The notion of whether trait-based profiling is, in fact, representative of profiling methods is examined and an integrative hypothesis proposed that attempts to resolve the quandary between offender homology and profiler accuracy. © The Author(s) 2013.
Iovane, Gerardo
2007-01-01
In this work we show that the prime distribution is deterministic. Indeed the set of prime numbers P can be expressed in terms of two subsets of N using three specific selection rules, acting on two sets of prime candidates. The prime candidates are obtained in terms of the first perfect number. The asymptotic behaviour is also considered. We obtain for the first time an explicit relation for generating the full set P of prime numbers smaller than n or equal to n.
Number line representations of fractions
Behr, Merlyn J.; Bright, George W.; Wachsmuth, Ipke; Wagner, Sigrid
1982-01-01
The study explored students' interpretations of representations of fractions on number lines and the effect of instruction on those interpretations. Subjects were five fourth-graders, and instruction was a four-day unit on the use of number lines. A 16-item, multiple-choice pre- and posttest was used along with videotaped interviews. Performance improved except when students had to associate a reduced fraction symbol with an equivalent, unreduced fraction representation on a number line. The ...
Filipuzzi, M; Garrigo, E; Venencia, C [Instituto de Radioterapia - Fundacion Marie Curie, Cordoba, Cordoba (Spain); Germanier, A [CEPROCOR, Cordoba, Cordoba (Spain)
2014-06-01
Purpose: To calculate the spatial response function of various radiation detectors, to evaluate the dependence on the field size and to analyze the small fields profiles corrections by deconvolution techniques. Methods: Crossline profiles were measured on a Novalis Tx 6MV beam with a HDMLC. The configuration setup was SSD=100cm and depth=5cm. Five fields were studied (200×200mm2,100×100mm2, 20×20mm2, 10×10mm2and 5×5mm2) and measured were made with passive detectors (EBT3 radiochromic films and TLD700 thermoluminescent detectors), ionization chambers (PTW30013, PTW31003, CC04 and PTW31016) and diodes (PTW60012 and IBA SFD). The results of passive detectors were adopted as the actual beam profile. To calculate the detectors kernels, modeled by Gaussian functions, an iterative process based on a least squares criterion was used. The deconvolutions of the measured profiles were calculated with the Richardson-Lucy method. Results: The profiles of the passive detectors corresponded with a difference in the penumbra less than 0.1mm. Both diodes resolve the profiles with an overestimation of the penumbra smaller than 0.2mm. For the other detectors, response functions were calculated and resulted in Gaussian functions with a standard deviation approximate to the radius of the detector in study (with a variation less than 3%). The corrected profiles resolve the penumbra with less than 1% error. Major discrepancies were observed for cases in extreme conditions (PTW31003 and 5×5mm2 field size). Conclusion: This work concludes that the response function of a radiation detector is independent on the field size, even for small radiation beams. The profiles correction, using deconvolution techniques and response functions of standard deviation equal to the radius of the detector, gives penumbra values with less than 1% difference to the real profile. The implementation of this technique allows estimating the real profile, freeing from the effects of the detector used for the
Brain representations of negative numbers.
Parnes, Michael; Berger, Andrea; Tzelgov, Joseph
2012-12-01
Participants performed a physical comparison task of pairs of positive and pairs of negative one-digit numbers while their electrophysiological brain activity was measured. The numerical value of the presented digits was either congruent or incongruent with the physical size of the digits. Analysis has shown that the earliest event-related potential (ERP) difference between positive and negative numbers was found in the P300 ERP component peak, where there was an inverse effect of congruity in the negative pairs, compared with the positive ones. This pattern of results supports the idea that natural numbers serve as primitives of the human cognitive system, whereas negative numbers are apparently generated if needed.
J. Y. Kang
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Recently, many mathematicians have studied different kinds of the Euler, Bernoulli, and Genocchi numbers and polynomials. In this paper, we give another definition of polynomials Ũn(x. We observe an interesting phenomenon of “scattering” of the zeros of the polynomials Ũn(x in complex plane. We find out some identities and properties related to polynomials Ũn(x. Finally, we also derive interesting relations between polynomials Ũn(x, Stirling numbers, central factorial numbers, and Euler numbers.
Prandtl number of toroidal plasmas
Itoh, Kimitaka (National Inst. for Fusion Science, Nagoya (Japan)); Itoh, Sanae; Fukuyama, Atsushi; Yagi, Masatoshi; Azumi, Masafumi
1993-12-01
Theory of the L-mode confinement in toroidal plasmas is developed. The Prandtl number, the ratio between the ion viscosity and the thermal conductivity is obtained for the anomalous transport process which is caused by the self-sustained turbulence in the toroidal plasma. It is found that the Prandtl number is of order unity both for the ballooning mode turbulence in tokamaks and for the interchange mode turbulence in helical system. The influence on the anomalous transport and fluctuation level is evaluated. Hartmann number and magnetic Prandtl number are also discussed. (author).
MARK SHATTUCK
2016-10-01
In this paper, we consider a two-parameter polynomial generalization, denoted by ${\\mathcal G}_{a,b}(n, k; r)$, of the $r$-Lah numbers which reduces to these recently introduced numbers when $a = b = 1$. We present several identities for ${\\mathcal G}_{a,b}(n, k; r)$ that generalize earlier identities given for the $r$-Lah and $r$-Stirling numbers. We also provide combinatorial proofs of some earlier identities involving the $r$-Lah numbers by defining appropriate sign-changing involutions. Generalizing these arguments yields orthogonality-type relations that are satisfied by ${\\mathcal G}_{a,b}(n, k; r)$.
Compendium of Experimental Cetane Numbers
Yanowitz, J.; Ratcliff, M. A.; McCormick, R. L.; Taylor, J. D.; Murphy, M. J.
2014-08-01
This report is an updated version of the 2004 Compendium of Experimental Cetane Number Data and presents a compilation of measured cetane numbers for pure chemical compounds. It includes all available single compound cetane number data found in the scientific literature up until March 2014 as well as a number of unpublished values, most measured over the past decade at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. This Compendium contains cetane values for 389 pure compounds, including 189 hydrocarbons and 201 oxygenates. More than 250 individual measurements are new to this version of the Compendium. For many compounds, numerous measurements are included, often collected by different researchers using different methods. Cetane number is a relative ranking of a fuel's autoignition characteristics for use in compression ignition engines; it is based on the amount of time between fuel injection and ignition, also known as ignition delay. The cetane number is typically measured either in a single-cylinder engine or a constant volume combustion chamber. Values in the previous Compendium derived from octane numbers have been removed, and replaced with a brief analysis of the correlation between cetane numbers and octane numbers. The discussion on the accuracy and precision of the most commonly used methods for measuring cetane has been expanded and the data has been annotated extensively to provide additional information that will help the reader judge the relative reliability of individual results.
Developing Coping Typologies of Minority Adolescents: A Latent Profile Analysis
Aldridge, Arianna A.; Roesch, Scott C.
2008-01-01
Latent profile analysis (LPA) was used to develop a coping typology of minority adolescents (M = 15.5 years). A multiethnic sample (n = 354) was recruited from a program aimed at serving low-income students. LPA revealed three distinct coping profiles. The first comprised adolescents who used a number of specific coping strategies at a low level…
76 FR 53906 - Availability of Final Toxicological Profile for RDX
2011-08-30
... profile for public review and comment was published in the Federal Register on August 26, 2010, (75 FR... Service (NTIS), 5285 Port Royal Road, Springfield, Virginia 22161, telephone 1- 800-553-6847. There is a charge for this profile as determined by NTIS. Hazardous substance NTIS Order No. CAS Number RDX...
J. Huffer
2004-09-28
The purpose of this calculation is to develop axial profiles for estimating the axial variation in burnup of a boiling water reactor (BWR) assembly spent nuclear fuel (SNF) given the average burnup of an assembly. A discharged fuel assembly typically exhibits higher burnup in the center and lower burnup at the ends of the assembly. Criticality safety analyses taking credit for SNF burnup must account for axially varying burnup relative to calculations based on uniformly distributed assembly average burnup due to the under-burned tips. Thus, accounting for axially varying burnup in criticality analyses is also referred to as accounting for the ''end effect'' reactivity. The magnitude of the reactivity change due to ''end effect'' is dependent on the initial assembly enrichment, the assembly average burnup, and the particular axial profile characterizing the burnup distribution. The set of bounding axial profiles should incorporate multiple BWR core designs and provide statistical confidence (95 percent confidence that 95 percent of the population is bound by the profile) that end nodes are conservatively represented. The profiles should also conserve the overall burnup of the fuel assembly. More background on BWR axial profiles is provided in Attachment I.
Accelerated Profile HMM Searches.
Sean R Eddy
2011-10-01
Full Text Available Profile hidden Markov models (profile HMMs and probabilistic inference methods have made important contributions to the theory of sequence database homology search. However, practical use of profile HMM methods has been hindered by the computational expense of existing software implementations. Here I describe an acceleration heuristic for profile HMMs, the "multiple segment Viterbi" (MSV algorithm. The MSV algorithm computes an optimal sum of multiple ungapped local alignment segments using a striped vector-parallel approach previously described for fast Smith/Waterman alignment. MSV scores follow the same statistical distribution as gapped optimal local alignment scores, allowing rapid evaluation of significance of an MSV score and thus facilitating its use as a heuristic filter. I also describe a 20-fold acceleration of the standard profile HMM Forward/Backward algorithms using a method I call "sparse rescaling". These methods are assembled in a pipeline in which high-scoring MSV hits are passed on for reanalysis with the full HMM Forward/Backward algorithm. This accelerated pipeline is implemented in the freely available HMMER3 software package. Performance benchmarks show that the use of the heuristic MSV filter sacrifices negligible sensitivity compared to unaccelerated profile HMM searches. HMMER3 is substantially more sensitive and 100- to 1000-fold faster than HMMER2. HMMER3 is now about as fast as BLAST for protein searches.
State Profiles: FY 2014 Public Libraries Survey (Data)
Institute of Museum and Library Services — Pull up a state's profile to find state-level totals on key data such as numbers of libraries and librarians, revenue and expenditures, and collection sizes.These...
Profile characteristics of fake Twitter accounts
Supraja Gurajala
2016-10-01
Full Text Available In online social networks, the audience size commanded by an organization or an individual is a critical measure of that entity’s popularity and this measure has important economic and/or political implications. Such efforts to measure popularity of users or exploit knowledge about their audience are complicated by the presence of fake profiles on these networks. In this study, analysis of 62 million publicly available Twitter user profiles was conducted and a strategy to identify automatically generated fake profiles was established. Using a combination of a pattern-matching algorithm on screen-names and an analysis of update times, a reasonable number (∼0.1% of total users of highly reliable fake user accounts were identified. Analysis of profile creation times and URLs of these fake accounts revealed their distinct behavior relative to a ground truth data set. The characteristics of friends and followers of users in the two data sets further revealed the very different nature of the two groups. The ratio of number of followers-to-friends for ground truth users was ∼1, consistent with past observations, while the fake profiles had a median ratio ∼30, indicating that the fake users we identified were primarily focused on gathering friends. An analysis of the temporal evolution of accounts over 2 years showed that the friends-to-followers ratio increased over time for fake profiles while they decreased for ground truth users. Our results, thus, suggest that a profile-based approach can be used for identifying a core set of fake online social network users in a time-efficient manner.
Wave Packets can Factorize Numbers
Mack, H; Haug, F; Freyberger, M; Schleich, W P; Mack, Holger; Bienert, Marc; Haug, Florian; Freyberger, Matthias; Schleich, Wolfgang P.
2002-01-01
We draw attention to various aspects of number theory emerging in the time evolution of elementary quantum systems with quadratic phases. Such model systems can be realized in actual experiments. Our analysis paves the way to a new, promising and effective method to factorize numbers.
Regular Numbers and Mathematical Worlds
Whitacre, Ian; Bouhjar, Khalid; Bishop, Jessica Pierson; Philipp, Randolph; Schappelle, Bonnie P.
2016-01-01
Rather than describing the challenges of integer learning in terms of a transition from positive to negative numbers, we have arrived at a different perspective: We view students as inhabiting distinct mathematical worlds consisting of particular types of numbers (as construed by the students). These worlds distinguish and illuminate students'…
Betti numbers of Gaussian fields
Park, Changbom; Chingangbam, Pravabati; van de Weygaert, Rien; Jones, Bernard; Vegter, Gert; Kim, Inkang; Hidding, Johan; Hellwing, Wojciech A
2013-01-01
We present the relation between the genus in cosmology and the Betti numbers for excursion sets of three- and two-dimensional smooth Gaussian random fields, and numerically investigate the Betti numbers as a function of threshold level. Betti numbers are topological invariants of figures that can be used to distinguish topological spaces. In the case of the excursion sets of a three-dimensional field there are three possibly non-zero Betti numbers; $\\beta_0$ is the number of connected regions, $\\beta_1$ is the number of circular holes, and $\\beta_2$ is the number of three-dimensional voids. Their sum with alternating signs is the genus of the surface of excursion regions. It is found that each Betti number has a dominant contribution to the genus in a specific threshold range. $\\beta_0$ dominates the high-threshold part of the genus curve measuring the abundance of high density regions (clusters). $\\beta_1$ dominates the genus near the median thresholds which measures the topology of negatively curved iso-den...
Ore, Oystein
1988-01-01
A prominent mathematician presents the principal ideas and methods of number theory within a historical and cultural framework. Oystein Ore's fascinating, accessible treatment requires only a basic knowledge of algebra. Topics include prime numbers, the Aliquot parts, linear indeterminate problems, congruences, Euler's theorem, classical construction problems, and many other subjects.
SICs and Algebraic Number Theory
Appleby, Marcus; Flammia, Steven; McConnell, Gary; Yard, Jon
2017-08-01
We give an overview of some remarkable connections between symmetric informationally complete measurements (SIC-POVMs, or SICs) and algebraic number theory, in particular, a connection with Hilbert's 12th problem. The paper is meant to be intelligible to a physicist who has no prior knowledge of either Galois theory or algebraic number theory.
Investigating the Randomness of Numbers
Pendleton, Kenn L.
2009-01-01
The use of random numbers is pervasive in today's world. Random numbers have practical applications in such far-flung arenas as computer simulations, cryptography, gambling, the legal system, statistical sampling, and even the war on terrorism. Evaluating the randomness of extremely large samples is a complex, intricate process. However, the…
Core Knowledge, Language, and Number
Spelke, Elizabeth S.
2017-01-01
The natural numbers may be our simplest, most useful, and best-studied abstract concepts, but their origins are debated. I consider this debate in the context of the proposal, by Gallistel and Gelman, that natural number system is a product of cognitive evolution and the proposal, by Carey, that it is a product of human cultural history. I offer a…
The Algebra of Complex Numbers.
LePage, Wilbur R.
This programed text is an introduction to the algebra of complex numbers for engineering students, particularly because of its relevance to important problems of applications in electrical engineering. It is designed for a person who is well experienced with the algebra of real numbers and calculus, but who has no experience with complex number…
On Counting the Rational Numbers
Almada, Carlos
2010-01-01
In this study, we show how to construct a function from the set N of natural numbers that explicitly counts the set Q[superscript +] of all positive rational numbers using a very intuitive approach. The function has the appeal of Cantor's function and it has the advantage that any high school student can understand the main idea at a glance…
Salman, M.; Broersma, Haitze J.
2007-01-01
For two given graphs $F$ and $H$, the Ramsey number $R(F,H)$ is the smallest positive integer $p$ such that for every graph $G$ on $p$ vertices the following holds: either $G$ contains $F$ as a subgraph or the complement of $G$ contains $H$ as a subgraph. In this paper, we study the Ramsey numbers $
Salman, M.; Broersma, Haitze J.
2004-01-01
For two given graphs $F$ and $H$, the Ramsey number $R(F,H)$ is the smallest positive integer $p$ such that for every graph $G$ on $p$ vertices the following holds: either $G$ contains $F$ as a subgraph or the complement of $G$ contains $H$ as a subgraph. In this paper, we study the Ramsey numbers $
Investigating the Randomness of Numbers
Pendleton, Kenn L.
2009-01-01
The use of random numbers is pervasive in today's world. Random numbers have practical applications in such far-flung arenas as computer simulations, cryptography, gambling, the legal system, statistical sampling, and even the war on terrorism. Evaluating the randomness of extremely large samples is a complex, intricate process. However, the…
Magnetization Profiles of Ferromagnetic Ising Films in a Transverse Field
WANG Xiao-Guang; PAN Shao-Hua; YANG Guo-Zhen
2000-01-01
Within the framework of the mean field theory, we study the magnetization profiles of ferromagnetic Ising films in a transverse field. By the transfer matrix method, we first derive a general nonlinear equation for phase transition temperatures and then calculate the magnetization profiles of the system. The method proposed here can be applied to ferromagnetic films with arbitrary surface layer number, bulk layer number, exchange interaction constants and transverse fields.
Subgrouping Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Patients by Genetic and Immune Profiling
2014-10-01
AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-12-1-0388 TITLE: Subgrouping Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Patients by Genetic and Immune Profiling ...2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Subgrouping Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Patients By Genetic And Immune Profiling 5b. GRANT...studying the results. We have finished the DNA isolation and anticipate the HLA testing to be completed this upcoming year. We want to interrogate the
Profile and Trends of FTA and Foresight
Andersen, Per Dannemand; Alkærsig, Lars
2016-01-01
that the field of FTA seems to have remained remarkably stable over the last decade. As an academic field, FTA has targeted a small number of journals for its publications, which has helped to further define and focus the field. Finally, the chapter concludes that publications in special issues of international......This chapter presents the profile and trends of the academic discipline of Future-oriented Technology Assessment (FTA) and its approaches. This chapter presents the profile and trends of the academic discipline of FTA and its approaches. This is achieved through analyses of the development, focus...
Generalized Bernoulli-Hurwitz numbers and the universal Bernoulli numbers
Onishi, Yoshihiro [Faculty of Education Human Sciences, University of Yamanashi, Takeda, Kofu (Japan)
2011-10-31
The three fundamental properties of the Bernoulli numbers, namely, the von Staudt-Clausen theorem, von Staudt's second theorem, and Kummer's original congruence, are generalized to new numbers that we call generalized Bernoulli-Hurwitz numbers. These are coefficients in the power series expansion of a higher-genus algebraic function with respect to a suitable variable. Our generalization differs strongly from previous works. Indeed, the order of the power of the modulus prime in our Kummer-type congruences is exactly the same as in the trigonometric function case (namely, Kummer's own congruence for the original Bernoulli numbers), and as in the elliptic function case (namely, H. Lang's extension for the Hurwitz numbers). However, in other past results on higher-genus algebraic functions, the modulus was at most half of its value in these classical cases. This contrast is clarified by investigating the analogue of the three properties above for the universal Bernoulli numbers. Bibliography: 34 titles.
青海银; 张援农; 周晨; 赵正予; 陈罡
2014-01-01
本文主要利用MST(mesosphere-stratosphere-troposphere)雷达垂直风速时间序列进行频谱分析，计算B-V(Brunt-Väisälä)频率，再根据B-V频率和温度的关系，本文建立了离散的温度反演模型，最后反演得到了全高度的温度剖面。通过计算温度剖面和探空仪实测温度剖面比较可见，二者的符合度非常高，变化趋势也完全一致。本文还进一步讨论了，利用B-V频率和MST雷达的水平风速还可以计算理查德森数，通过理查德森数可以很清晰的判断大气的稳定性，进而可以量化大气很多动力学特征以及解释大气中的很多波动现象。因此， B-V频率的获得是MST雷达对大气动力学研究的又一贡献，它可以准确地反演大气的温度剖面，同时获取大气动力学稳定性参数。%Atmospheric temperature is an important parameter for studying the process of atmospheric dynamics and pho-tochemistry, and is a significant sign of the atmospheric vertical stratification structure. It is a challenge in atmo-spheric science research to obtain temperature profiles with high space-time resolution all the time. MST (mesosphere-stratosphere-troposphere) radar, which is the modern large-scale ground-based radio remote sensing equipment, can measure 3D atmospheric winds with high space-time resolution and unattended 24 hours a day. This paper uses the time series of vertical wind observed by MST radar to make spectral analysis and calculate B-V (Brunt-Väisälä) frequen-cy. Then this paper builds the discrete model of temperature inversion based on the relationship between B-V frequency and temperature. Compared with actual measurement of temperature from radiosondes, the agreement between the radiosonde profile and the profile from MST radar data is quite good. Furthermore, the Richardson number can also be obtained by using the B-V frequency and horizontal winds, which can judge the atmospheric stability, quantize many of
Urban aerosol number size distributions
T. Hussein
2004-01-01
Full Text Available Aerosol number size distributions have been measured since 5 May 1997 in Helsinki, Finland. The presented aerosol data represents size distributions within the particle diameter size range 8-400nm during the period from May 1997 to March 2003. The daily, monthly and annual patterns of the aerosol particle number concentrations were investigated. The temporal variation of the particle number concentration showed close correlations with traffic activities. The highest total number concentrations were observed during workdays; especially on Fridays, and the lowest concentrations occurred during weekends; especially Sundays. Seasonally, the highest total number concentrations were observed during winter and spring and lower concentrations were observed during June and July. More than 80% of the number size distributions had three modes: nucleation mode (30nm, Aitken mode (20-100nm and accumulation mode (}$'>90nm. Less than 20% of the number size distributions had either two modes or consisted of more than three modes. Two different measurement sites were used; in the first (Siltavuori, 5.5.1997-5.3.2001, the arithmetic means of the particle number concentrations were 7000cm, 6500cm, and 1000cm respectively for nucleation, Aitken, and accumulation modes. In the second site (Kumpula, 6.3.2001-28.2.2003 they were 5500cm, 4000cm, and 1000cm. The total number concentration in nucleation and Aitken modes were usually significantly higher during workdays than during weekends. The temporal variations in the accumulation mode were less pronounced. The lower concentrations at Kumpula were mainly due to building construction and also the slight overall decreasing trend during these years. During the site changing a period of simultaneous measurements over two weeks were performed showing nice correlation at both sites.
Graspable objects shape number processing
Mariagrazia eRanzini
2011-12-01
Full Text Available The field of numerical cognition represents an interesting case for action-based theories of cognition, since number is a special kind of abstract concept. Several studies have shown that within the parietal lobes adjacent neural regions code numerical magnitude and grasping-related information. This anatomical proximity between brain areas involved in number and sensorimotor processes may account for interactions between numerical magnitude and action. In particular, recent studies has demonstrated a causal role of action perception on numerical magnitude processing. If objects are represented in terms of actions (affordances, the causal role of action on number processing should extend to the case of objects affordances. This study investigates the relationship between numbers and objects affordances in two experiments, without (Experiment 1 or with (Experiment 2 a motor action execution (i.e., participants were asked to hold an object in their hands during the task. The task consisted in repeating aloud the odd or even digit within a pair depending on the type of the preceding or following object. Order of presentation (object-number vs. number-object, object type (graspable vs. ungraspable, object size (small vs. large, and Numerical magnitude (small vs. large were manipulated for each experiment. Experiment 1 showed a facilitation – in terms of quicker responses - for graspable over ungraspable objects preceded by numbers, and an effect of numerical magnitude after the presentation of graspable objects. Experiment 2 demonstrated that the action execution enhanced overall the sensitivity to numerical magnitude, however interfering with the effects of objects affordances on number processing. Overall, these findings demonstrate that numbers and graspable objects communicate with each other, supporting the view that abstract concepts may be grounded in motor experience.
Numbered nasal discs for waterfowl
Bartonek, J.C.; Dane, C.W.
1964-01-01
Numbered nasal discs were successfully used in studies requiring large numbers of individually marked waterfowl. The procedure for constructing these discs is outlined. Blue-winged teal (Anas discors) with 5/8-inch discs, and canvasback (Aythya valisineria) and redhead (A. americana) with 3/4-inch discs can be individually identified up to 50 and 80 yards, respectively, with a gunstock-mounted, 20-power spotting scope. The particular value of these markers is their durability, the number of combinations possible, and the apparent absence of behavioral or mortality influence among such species as the blue-winged teal.
CHANGE OF NUMBERING IN SWITZERLAND
Telephone Service
2002-01-01
Swiss telephone numbers are changing to ten-digit numbers. This means that the 0-022 area code will have to be used for calls to the Geneva region. From 29 March it will no longer be possible to make local calls without the 022 code. There will be no change in the procedure for dialling other destinations from CERN, including Zurich. Don't forget to change the numbers stored in your various memories (fax, telephone, modem, etc.). Please contact the switchboard (111) for any further information. Telephone Service IT/CS/TEL
CHANGE OF NUMBERING IN SWITZERLAND
Telephone Service
2002-01-01
Swiss telephone numbers are changing to ten-digit numbers. This means that the 0-022 area code will have to be used for calls to the Geneva region. From 29 March it will no longer be possible to make local calls without the 022 code. There will be no change in the procedure for dialling other destinations from CERN, including Zürich. Don't forget to change the numbers stored in your various memories (fax, telephone), and modems for ACB users. Please contact the switchboard (111) for any further information. Telephone Service IT/CS/TEL
1991-09-01
Country Profile: Hungary has been prepared as a background document for use by US Government agencies and US businesses interested in becoming involved with the new democracies of Eastern Europe as they pursue sustainable economic development. The focus of the Profile is on energy and highlights information on Hungary's energy supply, demand, and utilization. It identifies patterns of energy usage in the important economic sectors, especially industry, and provides a preliminary assessment for opportunities to improve efficiencies in energy production, distribution and use by introducing more efficient technologies. The use of more efficient technologies would have the added benefit of reducing the environmental impact which, although is not the focus of the report, is an issue that effects energy choices. The Profile also presents considerable economic information, primarily in the context of how economic restructuring may affect energy supply, demand, and the introduction of more efficient technologies.
1991-09-01
Country Profile: Hungary has been prepared as a background document for use by US Government agencies and US businesses interested in becoming involved with the new democracies of Eastern Europe as they pursue sustainable economic development. The focus of the Profile is on energy and highlights information on Hungary`s energy supply, demand, and utilization. It identifies patterns of energy usage in the important economic sectors, especially industry, and provides a preliminary assessment for opportunities to improve efficiencies in energy production, distribution and use by introducing more efficient technologies. The use of more efficient technologies would have the added benefit of reducing the environmental impact which, although is not the focus of the report, is an issue that effects energy choices. The Profile also presents considerable economic information, primarily in the context of how economic restructuring may affect energy supply, demand, and the introduction of more efficient technologies.
Menikoff, Ralph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2015-12-14
The Zel’dovich-von Neumann-Doering (ZND) profile of a detonation wave is derived. Two basic assumptions are required: i. An equation of state (EOS) for a partly burned explosive; P(V, e, λ). ii. A burn rate for the reaction progress variable; d/dt λ = R(V, e, λ). For a steady planar detonation wave the reactive flow PDEs can be reduced to ODEs. The detonation wave profile can be determined from an ODE plus algebraic equations for points on the partly burned detonation loci with a specified wave speed. Furthermore, for the CJ detonation speed the end of the reaction zone is sonic. A solution to the reactive flow equations can be constructed with a rarefaction wave following the detonation wave profile. This corresponds to an underdriven detonation wave, and the rarefaction is know as a Taylor wave.
Integral Presentations of Catalan Numbers
Dana-Picard, Thierry
2010-01-01
We compute in three different ways the same definite parametric integral. By-products are the derivation of a combinatorial identity and two integral presentations of Catalan numbers. One of them leads to a presentation using the [gamma] function.
Fibonacci Numbers and the Spreadsheet.
Verderber, Nadine L.
1991-01-01
Described is a classroom activity incorporating a computer spreadsheet to study number patterns generated by the Fibonacci sequence. Included are examples and suggestions for the use of the spreadsheet in other recursive relationships. (JJK)
Spectral numbers in Floer theories
Usher, Michael
2007-01-01
The chain complexes underlying Floer homology theories typically carry a real-valued filtration, allowing one to associate to each Floer homology class a spectral number defined as the infimum of the filtration levels of chains representing that class. These spectral numbers have been studied extensively in the case of Hamiltonian Floer homology by Oh, Schwarz, and others. We prove that the spectral number associated to any nonzero Floer homology class is always finite, and that the infimum in the definition of the spectral number is always attained. In the Hamiltonian case, this implies that what is known as the "nondegenerate spectrality" axiom holds on all closed symplectic manifolds. Our proofs are entirely algebraic and rather elementary, and apply to any Floer-type theory (including Novikov homology) satisfying certain standard formal properties provided that one works with coefficients in a Novikov ring whose degree-zero part \\Lambda_0 is a field. The key ingredient is a theorem about linear transforma...
Department of Homeland Security — SEVIS by the Numbers is a quarterly report that highlights nonimmigrant student and exchange visitor trends, values and information using data from the Student and...
Women In Numbers - Europe workshop
Bucur, Alina; Feigon, Brooke; Schneps, Leila
2015-01-01
Covering topics in graph theory, L-functions, p-adic geometry, Galois representations, elliptic fibrations, genus 3 curves and bad reduction, harmonic analysis, symplectic groups and mould combinatorics, this volume presents a collection of papers covering a wide swath of number theory emerging from the third iteration of the international Women in Numbers conference, “Women in Numbers - Europe” (WINE), held on October 14–18, 2013 at the CIRM-Luminy mathematical conference center in France. While containing contributions covering a wide range of cutting-edge topics in number theory, the volume emphasizes those concrete approaches that make it possible for graduate students and postdocs to begin work immediately on research problems even in highly complex subjects.
Numbers their history and meaning
Flegg, Graham
2003-01-01
Readable, jargon-free book examines the earliest endeavors to count and record numbers, initial attempts to solve problems by using equations, and origins of infinite cardinal arithmetic. "Surprisingly exciting." - Choice.
Social Security Number (SSN) Verification
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This report presents the results of a validation study of Social Security numbers (SSNs) in Medicaid Statistical Information System (MSIS) records for the fourth...
Euclid's Number-Theoretical Work
Zhang, Shaohua
2009-01-01
The object of this paper is to affirm the number-theoretical role of Euclid and the historical significance of Euclid's algorithm. We give a brief introduction about Euclid's number-theoretical work. Our study is the first to show that Euclid's algorithm is essentially equivalent with Division algorithm which is the basis of Theory of Divisibility. Note also that Euclid's algorithm implies Euclid's first theorem and Euclid's second theorem. Thus, in the nature of things, Euclid's algorithm is the most important number-theoretical work of Euclid. For this reason, we further summarize briefly the influence of Euclid's algorithm. It leads to the conclusion that Euclid's algorithm is the greatest number-theoretical achievement of the age.
Poison control center - emergency number
For a POISON EMERGENCY call: 1-800-222-1222 ANYWHERE IN THE UNITED STATES This national hotline number will let you ... is a free and confidential service. All local poison control centers in the United States use this ...
Department of Homeland Security — SEVIS by the Numbers is a quarterly report that highlights nonimmigrant student and exchange visitor trends, values and information using data from the Student and...
Integral Presentations of Catalan Numbers
Dana-Picard, Thierry
2010-01-01
We compute in three different ways the same definite parametric integral. By-products are the derivation of a combinatorial identity and two integral presentations of Catalan numbers. One of them leads to a presentation using the [gamma] function.
Constructing Data Curation Profiles
Michael Witt
2009-12-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a brief literature review and then introduces the methods, design, and construction of the Data Curation Profile, an instrument that can be used to provide detailed information on particular data forms that might be curated by an academic library. These data forms are presented in the context of the related sub-disciplinary research area, and they provide the flow of the research process from which these data are generated. The profiles also represent the needs for data curation from the perspective of the data producers, using their own language. As such, they support the exploration of data curation across different research domains in real and practical terms. With the sponsorship of the Institute of Museum and Library Services, investigators from Purdue University and the University of Illinois interviewed 19 faculty subjects to identify needs for discovery, access, preservation, and reuse of their research data. For each subject, a profile was constructed that includes information about his or her general research, data forms and stages, value of data, data ingest, intellectual property, organization and description of data, tools, interoperability, impact and prestige, data management, and preservation. Each profile also presents a specific dataset supplied by the subject to serve as a concrete example. The Data Curation Profiles are being published to a public wiki for questions and discussion, and a blank template will be disseminated with guidelines for others to create and share their own profiles. This study was conducted primarily from the viewpoint of librarians interacting with faculty researchers; however, it is expected that these findings will complement a wide variety of data curation research and practice outside of librarianship and the university environment.
Boolean complexes and boolean numbers
Tenner, Bridget Eileen
2017-01-01
International audience; The Bruhat order gives a poset structure to any Coxeter group. The ideal of elements in this poset having boolean principal order ideals forms a simplicial poset. This simplicial poset defines the boolean complex for the group. In a Coxeter system of rank n, we show that the boolean complex is homotopy equivalent to a wedge of (n-1)-dimensional spheres. The number of these spheres is the boolean number, which can be computed inductively from the unlabeled Coxeter syste...
Urban aerosol number size distributions
T. Hussein
2003-10-01
Full Text Available Aerosol number size distributions were measured continuously in Helsinki, Finland from 5 May 1997 to 28 February 2003. The daily, monthly and annual patterns were investigated. The temporal variation of the particle number concentration was seen to follow the traffic density. The highest total particle number concentrations were usually observed during workdays; especially on Fridays, and the lower concentrations occurred during weekends; especially Sundays. Seasonally, the highest total number concentrations were usually observed during winter and spring and the lowest during June and July. More than 80\\% of the particle number size distributions were tri-modal: nucleation mode (Dp < 30 nm, Aitken mode (20–100 nm and accumulation mode (Dp > 90 nm. Less than 20% of the particle number size distributions have either two modes or consisted of more than three modes. Two different measurement sites are used; in the first place (Siltavuori, 5 May 1997–5 March 2001, the overall means of the integrated particle number concentrations were 7100 cm^{−3}, 6320 cm^{−3}, and 960 cm^{−3}, respectively, for nucleation, Aitken, and accumulation modes. In the second site (Kumpula, 6 March 2001–28 February 2003 they were 5670 cm^{−3}, 4050 cm^{−3}, and 900 cm^{−3}. The total number concentration in nucleation and Aitken modes were usually significantly higher during weekdays than during weekends. The variations in accumulation mode were less pronounced. The smaller concentrations in Kumpula were mainly due to building construction and also slight overall decreasing trend during these years. During the site changing a period of simultaneous measurements over two weeks were performed showing nice correlation in both sites.
Numbers for reducible cubic scrolls
Israel Vainsencher
2004-12-01
Full Text Available We show how to compute the number of reducible cubic scrolls of codimension 2 in (math blackboard symbol Pn incident to the appropriate number of linear spaces.Mostramos como calcular o número de rolos cúbicos redutíveis de codimensão 2 em (math blackboard symbol Pn incidentes a espaços lineares apropriados.
Random numbers from vacuum fluctuations
Shi, Yicheng; Chng, Brenda; Kurtsiefer, Christian
2016-07-01
We implement a quantum random number generator based on a balanced homodyne measurement of vacuum fluctuations of the electromagnetic field. The digitized signal is directly processed with a fast randomness extraction scheme based on a linear feedback shift register. The random bit stream is continuously read in a computer at a rate of about 480 Mbit/s and passes an extended test suite for random numbers.
Entropy estimation and Fibonacci numbers
Timofeev, Evgeniy A.; Kaltchenko, Alexei
2013-05-01
We introduce a new metric on a space of right-sided infinite sequences drawn from a finite alphabet. Emerging from a problem of entropy estimation of a discrete stationary ergodic process, the metric is important on its own part and exhibits some interesting properties. Notably, the number of distinct metric values for a set of sequences of length m is equal to Fm+3 - 1, where Fm is a Fibonacci number.
Dimensionless numbers in additive manufacturing
Mukherjee, T.; Manvatkar, V.; De, A.; DebRoy, T.
2017-02-01
The effects of many process variables and alloy properties on the structure and properties of additively manufactured parts are examined using four dimensionless numbers. The structure and properties of components made from 316 Stainless steel, Ti-6Al-4V, and Inconel 718 powders for various dimensionless heat inputs, Peclet numbers, Marangoni numbers, and Fourier numbers are studied. Temperature fields, cooling rates, solidification parameters, lack of fusion defects, and thermal strains are examined using a well-tested three-dimensional transient heat transfer and fluid flow model. The results show that lack of fusion defects in the fabricated parts can be minimized by strengthening interlayer bonding using high values of dimensionless heat input. The formation of harmful intermetallics such as laves phases in Inconel 718 can be suppressed using low heat input that results in a small molten pool, a steep temperature gradient, and a fast cooling rate. Improved interlayer bonding can be achieved at high Marangoni numbers, which results in vigorous circulation of liquid metal, larger pool dimensions, and greater depth of penetration. A high Fourier number ensures rapid cooling, low thermal distortion, and a high ratio of temperature gradient to the solidification growth rate with a greater tendency of plane front solidification.
Global electricity company profiles
NONE
1997-12-31
Global Electricity Company Profiles examines the operations and strategies of 60 of the leading electricity companies in the world. Through its analysis of the key players, the report provides a comprehensive review of the current state of the global electricity industry. Using electricity sales as its criteria, the most successful companies are compared in terms of their national, regional and global importance. Global Electricity Company Profiles provides an outline of each company, its structure and operations, as well as key financial data. The detailed performance benchmarking and review of expectations for future development for each individual company provide a wealth of invaluable strategic information not available elsewhere. (author)
Jennifer A. Rasch
Full Text Available ABSTRACTCaridean shrimps are often infested by ectoparasites from the isopod family Bopyridae. Urobopyrus processae is a widespread species of bopyrid parasitizing the branchial (gill chambers of members of the caridean family Processidae, including Ambidexter symmetricus. We examined hypotheses on differential infestation based on gender, castration of the host by the parasite, correlation between host and parasite size, and the fecundity of female parasites. Infestation rates varied from 1.3 to 32.1% between 2010 and 2011. Infested shrimps ranged from 1.26 mm to 6.24 mm carapace length (CL between 2010 and 2011. Female shrimps were infested at a higher rate than males (2010 P = 0.0376; 2011 P = 0.0023. We report for the first time the differential selection between left and right branchial chambers in a caridean shrimp by a bopyrid parasite (P = 0.0209. Female parasite total length (TL increased with host size (CL in both years of sampling (2010 R2adj = 0.6863; 2011 R2adj= 0.8206. The size of male parasite TL was explained by both host CL (2010 R2adj = 0.4591; 2011 R2adj = 0.5490 and parasite female TL (2010 R2adj = 0.5606; 2011 R2adj = 0.6195. The number of embryos in a brood of the female parasite (85-3096 was varied positively with female TL (R2adj = 0.625. Our results show that the bopyrid-shrimp host relationship in processids is typical of those studied in other carideans, indicating similar selective pressures act on bopyrids infesting the branchial chambers of shrimps.
Grammatical typology and frequency analysis: number availability and number use
Dunstan Brown
2013-12-01
Full Text Available The Smith-Stark hierarchy, a version of the Animacy Hierarchy, offers a typology of the cross-linguistic availability of number. The hierarchy predicts that the availability of number is not arbitrary. For any language, if the expression of plural is available to a noun, it is available to any noun of a semantic category further to the left of the hierarchy. In this article we move one step further by showing that the structure of the hierarchy can be observed in a statistical model of number use in Russian. We also investigate three co-variates: plural preference, pluralia tantum and irregularity effects; these account for an item's behaviour being different than that solely expected from its animacy position.
Number matters: control of mammalian mitochondrial DNA copy number.
Clay Montier, Laura L; Deng, Janice J; Bai, Yidong
2009-03-01
Regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis is essential for proper cellular functioning. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) depletion and the resulting mitochondrial malfunction have been implicated in cancer, neurodegeneration, diabetes, aging, and many other human diseases. Although it is known that the dynamics of the mammalian mitochondrial genome are not linked with that of the nuclear genome, very little is known about the mechanism of mtDNA propagation. Nevertheless, our understanding of the mode of mtDNA replication has advanced in recent years, though not without some controversies. This review summarizes our current knowledge of mtDNA copy number control in mammalian cells, while focusing on both mtDNA replication and turnover. Although mtDNA copy number is seemingly in excess, we reason that mtDNA copy number control is an important aspect of mitochondrial genetics and biogenesis and is essential for normal cellular function.
Effects of Prandtl number on the laminar cross flow past a heated cylinder
Ajith Kumar, S.; Mathur, Manikandan; Sameen, A.; Anil Lal, S.
2016-11-01
Flow past a heated cylinder at constant surface temperature is computationally simulated and analyzed in the laminar regime at moderate buoyancy. The parameters governing the flow dynamics are the Reynolds number, Re, the Richardson number, Ri, and the Prandtl number, Pr. We perform our computations in the range 10 ≤ Re ≤ 35, for which the flow past an unheated cylinder results in a steady separation bubble, and vary the other two parameters in the range 0 ≤ Ri ≤ 2, 0.25 ≤ Pr ≤ 100. The heat transfer from the entire cylinder surface, quantified by the average Nusselt number Nuavg, is shown to obey Nuavg = 0.7435Re0.44Pr0.346 in the mixed convection regime we investigate. For a fixed Re and Pr, the flow downstream of the cylinder becomes asymmetric as Ri is increased from zero, followed by a complete disappearance of the vortices in the recirculation bubble beyond a threshold value of Ri. For a fixed Re and Ri, the vortices in the recirculation bubble are again observed to disappear beyond a threshold Pr, but with the reappearance of both the vortices above a larger threshold of Pr. In the limit of large Pr, the time-averaged flow outside the thermal boundary layer but within the near-wake region regains symmetry about the centerline and ultimately converges to a flow field similar to that of Ri = 0; in the far-wake region, however, we observe asymmetric vortex shedding for moderate Pr. The thermal plume structure in the cylinder wake is then discussed, and the plume generation is identified at points on the cylinder where the Nusselt number is a local minimum. The difference between the plume generation and the flow separation locations on the cylinder is shown to converge to zero in the limit of large Pr. We conclude by plotting the lift and drag coefficients as a function of Ri and Pr, observing that CD decreases with Ri for Pr Prt), where Prt ≈ 7.5.
Conversion of Number Systems using Xilinx.
Chinmay V. Deshpande
2015-08-01
Full Text Available There are different types of number systems. Binary number system, octal number system, decimal number system and hexadecimal number system. This paper demonstrates conversion of hexadecimal to binary number using Xilinx software.
BOREAS AFM-06 Mean Wind Profile Data
Wilczak, James; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Newcomer, Jeffrey A. (Editor); Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)
2000-01-01
The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Airborne Fluxes and Meteorology (AFM)-6 team from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/Environment Technology Laboratory (NOAA/ETL) operated a 915-MHz wind/Radio Acoustic Sounding System (RASS) profiler system in the Southern Study Area (SSA) near the Old Jack Pine (OJP) tower from 21 May 1994 to 20 Sep 1994. The data set provides wind profiles at 38 heights, containing the variables of wind speed; wind direction; and the u-, v-, and w-components of the total wind. The data are stored in tabular ASCII files. The mean wind profile data are available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).
BOREAS AFM-06 Mean Temperature Profile Data
Wilczak, James; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Newcomer, Jeffrey A. (Editor); Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)
2000-01-01
The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Airborne Fluxes and Meteorology (AFM)-6 team from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Adminsitration/Environment Technology Laboratory (NOAA/ETL) operated a 915-MHz wind/Radio Acoustic Sounding System (RASS) profiler system in the Southern Study Area (SSA) near the Old Jack Pine (OJP) tower from 21 May 1994 to 20 Sep 1994. The data set provides temperature profiles at 15 heights, containing the variables of virtual temperature, vertical velocity, the speed of sound, and w-bar. The data are stored in tabular ASCII files. The mean temperature profile data are available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).
The MIXMAX random number generator
Savvidy, Konstantin G.
2015-11-01
In this paper, we study the randomness properties of unimodular matrix random number generators. Under well-known conditions, these discrete-time dynamical systems have the highly desirable K-mixing properties which guarantee high quality random numbers. It is found that some widely used random number generators have poor Kolmogorov entropy and consequently fail in empirical tests of randomness. These tests show that the lowest acceptable value of the Kolmogorov entropy is around 50. Next, we provide a solution to the problem of determining the maximal period of unimodular matrix generators of pseudo-random numbers. We formulate the necessary and sufficient condition to attain the maximum period and present a family of specific generators in the MIXMAX family with superior performance and excellent statistical properties. Finally, we construct three efficient algorithms for operations with the MIXMAX matrix which is a multi-dimensional generalization of the famous cat-map. First, allowing to compute the multiplication by the MIXMAX matrix with O(N) operations. Second, to recursively compute its characteristic polynomial with O(N2) operations, and third, to apply skips of large number of steps S to the sequence in O(N2 log(S)) operations.
Transport numbers in transdermal iontophoresis.
Mudry, Blaise; Guy, Richard H; Delgado-Charro, M Begoña
2006-04-15
Parameters determining ionic transport numbers in transdermal iontophoresis have been characterized. The transport number of an ion (its ability to carry charge) is key to its iontophoretic delivery or extraction across the skin. Using small inorganic ions, the roles of molar fraction and mobility of the co- and counterions present have been demonstrated. A direct, constant current was applied across mammalian skin in vitro. Cations were anodally delivered from either simple M(+)Cl(-) solutions (single-ion case, M(+) = sodium, lithium, ammonium, potassium), or binary and quaternary mixtures thereof. Transport numbers were deduced from ion fluxes. In the single-ion case, maximum cationic fluxes directly related to the corresponding ionic aqueous mobilities were found. Addition of co-ions decreased the transport numbers of all cations relative to the single-ion case, the degree of effect depending upon the molar fraction and mobility of the species involved. With chloride as the principal counterion competing to carry current across the skin (the in vivo situation), a maximum limit on the single or collective cation transport number was 0.6-0.8. Overall, these results demonstrate how current flowing across the skin during transdermal iontophoresis is distributed between competing ions, and establish simple rules with which to optimize transdermal iontophoretic transport.
Hardee, J. Gilbert; Satterthwaite, Adaline P.
A profile of Pakistan is sketched in this paper. Emphasis is placed on the nature, scope, and accomplishments of population activities in the country. Topics and sub-topics include: location and description of the country; population (size, growth patterns, age structure, urban/rural distribution, ethnic and religious composition, migration,…
Pena Diaz, Alfredo
prole. The boundary-layer height is derived in nearneutral and stable conditions based on turbulent momentum uxes only and in unstable conditions based on profiles of aerosol backscatter from ceilometer measurements. The lidar measuring technique is used to estimate momentum flux, showing high agreement...
Peshwe, V.B.; Desa, E.
An instrument developed for measuring temperature profiles at sea in depth or time scales is described. PC-based programming offers flexibility in setting up the instrument for the mode of operation prior to each cast. A real time clock built...
Rosholm, Michael; Staghøj, Jonas; Svarer, Michael;
2006-01-01
This paper describes the statistical model used for profiling new unemployed workers in Denmark. When a worker – during his or her first six months in unemployment – enters the employment office for the first time, this model predicts whether or not he or she will be unemployed for more than six ...
Country Education Profiles: Algeria.
International Bureau of Education, Geneva (Switzerland).
One of a series of profiles prepared by the Cooperative Educational Abstracting Service, this brief outline provides basic background information on educational principles, system of administration, structure and organization, curricula, and teacher training in Algeria. Statistics provided by the Unesco Office of Statistics show enrollment at all…
Marzuki, Ariffin Bin; Peng, J. Y.
A profile of Malaysia is sketched in this paper. Emphasis is placed on the nature, scope, and accomplishments of population activities in the country. Topics and sub-topics include: location and description of the country; population (size, growth patterns, age structure, urban/rural distribution, ethnic and religious composition, migration,…
English Teaching Profile: Mexico.
British Council, London (England). English Language and Literature Div.
This profile of the English language teaching situation in Mexico examines the role of English in society and in the educational system. It is noted that the extent to which English is used in Mexico is affected by the country's proximity to the United States. The educational system is described, with emphasis on English instruction which begins…
Emeno, Karla; Bennell, Craig; Snook, Brent; Taylor, Paul Jonathon
Geographic profiling (GP) is an investigative technique that involves predicting a serial offender?s home location (or some other anchor point) based on where he or she committed a crime. Although the use of GP in police investigations appears to be on the rise, little is known about the procedure
COMPENDEX Profile Adjustment Manual.
Standera, Oldrich
If an information system is to survive, the users must be satisfied that it meets their needs promptly and consistently. It is essential to react quickly to any undesired result such as an extemely high or low output, too low a relevance or recall, or both. The search editor should feel responsbile not only for the profile setup but also for its…
Alcohol References on Undergraduate Males’ Facebook Profiles
Egan, Katie G.; Moreno, Megan A.
2011-01-01
Perceived peer alcohol use is a predictor of consumption in college males; frequent references to alcohol on Facebook may encourage alcohol consumption. Content analysis of college males’ Facebook profiles identified references to alcohol. The average age of 225 identified profiles was 19.9 years. Alcohol references were present on 85.3% of the profiles; the prevalence of alcohol was similar across each undergraduate grade. The average number of alcohol references per profile was 8.5 but increased with undergraduate year (p = .003; confidence interval = 1.5, 7.5). Students who were of legal drinking age referenced alcohol 4.5 times more than underage students, and an increase in number of Facebook friends was associated with an increase in displayed alcohol references (p < .001; confidence interval = 0.009, 0.02). Facebook is widely used in the college population; widespread alcohol displays on Facebook may influence social norms and cause increases in male college students’ alcohol use. PMID:21406490
Quasiperpendicular high Mach number Shocks
Sulaiman, A H; Dougherty, M K; Burgess, D; Fujimoto, M; Hospodarsky, G B
2015-01-01
Shock waves exist throughout the universe and are fundamental to understanding the nature of collisionless plasmas. Reformation is a process, driven by microphysics, which typically occurs at high Mach number supercritical shocks. While ongoing studies have investigated this process extensively both theoretically and via simulations, their observations remain few and far between. In this letter we present a study of very high Mach number shocks in a parameter space that has been poorly explored and we identify reformation using in situ magnetic field observations from the Cassini spacecraft at 10 AU. This has given us an insight into quasi-perpendicular shocks across two orders of magnitude in Alfven Mach number (MA) which could potentially bridge the gap between modest terrestrial shocks and more exotic astrophysical shocks. For the first time, we show evidence for cyclic reformation controlled by specular ion reflection occurring at the predicted timescale of ~0.3 {\\tau}c, where {\\tau}c is the ion gyroperio...
Schellekens, A N
2016-01-01
This paper contains some personal reflections on several computational contributions to what is now known as the "String Theory Landscape". It consists of two parts. The first part concerns the origin of big numbers, and especially the number $10^{1500}$ that appeared in work on the covariant lattice construction (with W. Lerche and D. Luest). This part contains some new results. I correct a huge but inconsequential error, discuss some more accurate estimates, and compare with the counting for free fermion constructions. In particular I prove that the latter only provide an exponentially small fraction of all even self-dual lattices for large lattice dimensions. The second part of the paper concerns dealing with big numbers, and contains some lessons learned from various vacuum scanning projects.
Covering Numbers for Convex Functions
Guntuboyina, Adityanand
2012-01-01
In this paper we study the covering numbers of the space of convex and uniformly bounded functions in multi-dimension. We find optimal upper and lower bounds for the $\\epsilon$-covering number of $\\C([a, b]^d, B)$, in the $L_p$-metric, $1 \\le p 0$, and $\\C([a,b]^d, B)$ denotes the set of all convex functions on $[a, b]^d$ that are uniformly bounded by $B$. We summarize previously known results on covering numbers for convex functions and also provide alternate proofs of some known results. Our results have direct implications in the study of rates of convergence of empirical minimization procedures as well as optimal convergence rates in the numerous convexity constrained function estimation problems.
Negative numbers in simple arithmetic.
Das, Runa; LeFevre, Jo-Anne; Penner-Wilger, Marcie
2010-10-01
Are negative numbers processed differently from positive numbers in arithmetic problems? In two experiments, adults (N = 66) solved standard addition and subtraction problems such as 3 + 4 and 7 - 4 and recasted versions that included explicit negative signs-that is, 3 - (-4), 7 + (-4), and (-4) + 7. Solution times on the recasted problems were slower than those on standard problems, but the effect was much larger for addition than subtraction. The negative sign may prime subtraction in both kinds of recasted problem. Problem size effects were the same or smaller in recasted than in standard problems, suggesting that the recasted formats did not interfere with mental calculation. These results suggest that the underlying conceptual structure of the problem (i.e., addition vs. subtraction) is more important for solution processes than the presence of negative numbers.
Put numbers on the sustainability
Hauschild, Michael Zwicky
2014-01-01
exposure of humans, to the local impacts associated with physical transformation of land and extraction of water. Chemicals can cause toxic impacts to humans and ecosystems on all scales. All these impacts need to be quantified if we want to put numbers on sustainability. The life cycle perspective...... on products and systems and the coverage of all relevant environmental impacts are combined in Life cycle assessment (LCA) which is introduced in the talk as the tool to put numbers on environmental sustainability. The basics of LCA are introduced, current applications are presented and a discussion of its...
Newborn infants perceive abstract numbers.
Izard, Véronique; Sann, Coralie; Spelke, Elizabeth S; Streri, Arlette
2009-06-23
Although infants and animals respond to the approximate number of elements in visual, auditory, and tactile arrays, only human children and adults have been shown to possess abstract numerical representations that apply to entities of all kinds (e.g., 7 samurai, seas, or sins). Do abstract numerical concepts depend on language or culture, or do they form a part of humans' innate, core knowledge? Here we show that newborn infants spontaneously associate stationary, visual-spatial arrays of 4-18 objects with auditory sequences of events on the basis of number. Their performance provides evidence for abstract numerical representations at the start of postnatal experience.
Geometric Number Systems and Spinors
Sobczyk, Garret
2015-01-01
The real number system is geometrically extended to include three new anticommuting square roots of plus one, each such root representing the direction of a unit vector along the orthonormal coordinate axes of Euclidean 3-space. The resulting geometric (Clifford) algebra provides a geometric basis for the famous Pauli matrices which, in turn, proves the consistency of the rules of geometric algebra. The flexibility of the concept of geometric numbers opens the door to new understanding of the nature of space-time, and of Pauli and Dirac spinors as points on the Riemann sphere, including Lorentz boosts.
Elementary Number Theory with Applications
Koshy, Thomas
2007-01-01
This second edition updates the well-regarded 2001 publication with new short sections on topics like Catalan numbers and their relationship to Pascal's triangle and Mersenne numbers, Pollard rho factorization method, Hoggatt-Hensell identity. Koshy has added a new chapter on continued fractions. The unique features of the first edition like news of recent discoveries, biographical sketches of mathematicians, and applications--like the use of congruence in scheduling of a round-robin tournament--are being refreshed with current information. More challenging exercises are included both in the t
Magic Numbers in Protein Structures
Lindgård, Per-Anker; Bohr, Henrik
1996-01-01
A homology measure for protein fold classes has been constructed by locally projecting consecutive secondary structures onto a lattice. Taking into account hydrophobic forces we have found a mechanism for formation of domains containing magic numbers of secondary structures and multipla of these ......A homology measure for protein fold classes has been constructed by locally projecting consecutive secondary structures onto a lattice. Taking into account hydrophobic forces we have found a mechanism for formation of domains containing magic numbers of secondary structures and multipla...
Residual number processing in dyscalculia.
Cappelletti, Marinella; Price, Cathy J
2014-01-01
Developmental dyscalculia - a congenital learning disability in understanding numerical concepts - is typically associated with parietal lobe abnormality. However, people with dyscalculia often retain some residual numerical abilities, reported in studies that otherwise focused on abnormalities in the dyscalculic brain. Here we took a different perspective by focusing on brain regions that support residual number processing in dyscalculia. All participants accurately performed semantic and categorical colour-decision tasks with numerical and non-numerical stimuli, with adults with dyscalculia performing slower than controls in the number semantic tasks only. Structural imaging showed less grey-matter volume in the right parietal cortex in people with dyscalculia relative to controls. Functional MRI showed that accurate number semantic judgements were maintained by parietal and inferior frontal activations that were common to adults with dyscalculia and controls, with higher activation for participants with dyscalculia than controls in the right superior frontal cortex and the left inferior frontal sulcus. Enhanced activation in these frontal areas was driven by people with dyscalculia who made faster rather than slower numerical decisions; however, activation could not be accounted for by response times per se, because it was greater for fast relative to slow dyscalculics but not greater for fast controls relative to slow dyscalculics. In conclusion, our results reveal two frontal brain regions that support efficient number processing in dyscalculia.
Residual number processing in dyscalculia
Marinella Cappelletti
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Developmental dyscalculia – a congenital learning disability in understanding numerical concepts – is typically associated with parietal lobe abnormality. However, people with dyscalculia often retain some residual numerical abilities, reported in studies that otherwise focused on abnormalities in the dyscalculic brain. Here we took a different perspective by focusing on brain regions that support residual number processing in dyscalculia. All participants accurately performed semantic and categorical colour-decision tasks with numerical and non-numerical stimuli, with adults with dyscalculia performing slower than controls in the number semantic tasks only. Structural imaging showed less grey-matter volume in the right parietal cortex in people with dyscalculia relative to controls. Functional MRI showed that accurate number semantic judgements were maintained by parietal and inferior frontal activations that were common to adults with dyscalculia and controls, with higher activation for participants with dyscalculia than controls in the right superior frontal cortex and the left inferior frontal sulcus. Enhanced activation in these frontal areas was driven by people with dyscalculia who made faster rather than slower numerical decisions; however, activation could not be accounted for by response times per se, because it was greater for fast relative to slow dyscalculics but not greater for fast controls relative to slow dyscalculics. In conclusion, our results reveal two frontal brain regions that support efficient number processing in dyscalculia.
Residual number processing in dyscalculia.
Cappelletti, M.; Price, C.J.
2014-01-01
Developmental dyscalculia - a congenital learning disability in understanding numerical concepts - is typically associated with parietal lobe abnormality. However, people with dyscalculia often retain some residual numerical abilities, reported in studies that otherwise focused on abnormalities in the dyscalculic brain. Here we took a different perspective by focusing on brain regions that support residual number processing in dyscalculia. All participants accurately performed semantic and ca...
Surrena, Michelle
2011-01-01
In order to inspire her students to work in mixed media, the author chose to highlight the art of Jasper Johns and Robert Indiana, both of whom used numbers and letters as a main focus in their art. In this article, the author describes a mixed-media printmaking project. (Contains 2 online resources.)
Materiales, 1995
1995-01-01
Four booklets present articles on Spanish language and culture aimed at teachers of Spanish in the United States for student use in their classes. Number 17, "Los Jovenes Espanoles" (Spanish Youth), includes articles on Spanish youth sports, music, gangs, thoughts, and t-shirt slogans: (1) "Young Spanish Athletes"; (2)…
Materiales, 1997
1997-01-01
These three journals of contemporary cultural, historical, and social interest contain activities designed to enhance the awareness of students of Spanish as a foreign language regarding the entire panorama of daily life in Spain. Number 21 focuses on the role of modern Spanish women; their career status; female authors; and the changing place of…
Lenstra theorem in number fields
S Subburam
2014-11-01
In this paper, we present a number field version of the celebrated result of Lenstra (Math. Comp. 42(165) (1984) 331–340) in 1984. Also, this result allows us to improve a result of Wikstrőm (On the -ary GCD-algorithm in rings of integers (2005) pp. 1189–1201).
An introduction to Catalan numbers
Roman, Steven
2015-01-01
This textbook provides an introduction to the Catalan numbers and their remarkable properties, along with their various applications in combinatorics. Intended to be accessible to students new to the subject, the book begins with more elementary topics before progressing to more mathematically sophisticated topics. Each chapter focuses on a specific combinatorial object counted by these numbers, including paths, trees, tilings of a staircase, null sums in Zn+1, interval structures, partitions, permutations, semiorders, and more. Exercises are included at the end of book, along with hints and solutions, to help students obtain a better grasp of the material. The text is ideal for undergraduate students studying combinatorics, but will also appeal to anyone with a mathematical background who has an interest in learning about the Catalan numbers. “Roman does an admirable job of providing an introduction to Catalan numbers of a different nature from the previous ones. He has made an excellent choice o...
Questioning Zero and Negative Numbers
Wilcox, Virginia B.
2008-01-01
After experiencing a Developing Mathematical Ideas (DMI) class on the construction of algebraic concepts surrounding zero and negative numbers, the author conducted an interview with a first grader to determine the youngster's existing level of understanding about these topics. Uncovering young students' existing understanding can provide focus…
On badly approximable complex numbers
Esdahl-Schou, Rune; Kristensen, S.
We show that the set of complex numbers which are badly approximable by ratios of elements of , where has maximal Hausdorff dimension. In addition, the intersection of these sets is shown to have maximal dimension. The results remain true when the sets in question are intersected with a suitably...
A generalized sense of number.
Arrighi, Roberto; Togoli, Irene; Burr, David C
2014-12-22
Much evidence has accumulated to suggest that many animals, including young human infants, possess an abstract sense of approximate quantity, a number sense. Most research has concentrated on apparent numerosity of spatial arrays of dots or other objects, but a truly abstract sense of number should be capable of encoding the numerosity of any set of discrete elements, however displayed and in whatever sensory modality. Here, we use the psychophysical technique of adaptation to study the sense of number for serially presented items. We show that numerosity of both auditory and visual sequences is greatly affected by prior adaptation to slow or rapid sequences of events. The adaptation to visual stimuli was spatially selective (in external, not retinal coordinates), pointing to a sensory rather than cognitive process. However, adaptation generalized across modalities, from auditory to visual and vice versa. Adaptation also generalized across formats: adapting to sequential streams of flashes affected the perceived numerosity of spatial arrays. All these results point to a perceptual system that transcends vision and audition to encode an abstract sense of number in space and in time.
Covering Numbers for Semicontinuous Functions
2016-04-29
di Matematica pura ed applicata, CLX:303–320, 1991. [3] H. Attouch and R. J-B Wets. A convergence theory for saddle functions. Transactions of the...P. L. Bartlett, J. Shawe-Taylor, and R. C. Williamson. Covering numbers for support vector machines. IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, 48(1
Learning Potentials in Number Blocks
Majgaard, Gunver; Misfeldt, Morten; Nielsen, Jacob
2012-01-01
This paper describes an initial exploration of how an interactive cubic user-configurable modular robotic system can be used to support learning about numbers and how they are pronounced. The development is done in collaboration with a class of 7-8 year old children and their mathematics teacher....
On badly approximable complex numbers
Esdahl-Schou, Rune; Kristensen, S.
We show that the set of complex numbers which are badly approximable by ratios of elements of , where has maximal Hausdorff dimension. In addition, the intersection of these sets is shown to have maximal dimension. The results remain true when the sets in question are intersected with a suitably...
Counting problems for number rings
Brakenhoff, Johannes Franciscus
2009-01-01
In this thesis we look at three counting problems connected to orders in number fields. First we study the probability that for a random polynomial f in Z[X] the ring Z[X]/f is the maximal order in Q[X]/f. Connected to this is the probability that a random polynomial has a squarefree discriminant. T
Learning Potentials in Number Blocks
Majgaard, Gunver; Misfeldt, Morten; Nielsen, Jacob
2012-01-01
This paper describes an initial exploration of how an interactive cubic user-configurable modular robotic system can be used to support learning about numbers and how they are pronounced. The development is done in collaboration with a class of 7-8 year old children and their mathematics teacher...
Qualitative Analysis of Commercial Social Network Profiles
Melendez, Lester; Wolfson, Ouri; Adjouadi, Malek; Rishe, Naphtali
Social-networking sites have become an integral part of many users' daily internet routine. Commercial enterprises have been quick to recognize this and are subsequently creating profiles for many of their products and services. Commercial enterprises use social network profiles to target and interact with potential customers as well as to provide a gateway for users of the product or service to interact with each other. Many commercial enterprises use the statistics from their product or service's social network profile to tout the popularity and success of the product or service being showcased. They will use statistics such as number of friends, number of daily visits, number of interactions, and other similar measurements to quantify their claims. These statistics are often not a clear indication of the true popularity and success of the product. In this chapter the term product is used to refer to any tangible or intangible product, service, celebrity, personality, film, book, or other entity produced by a commercial enterprise.
Profiles of Nonprofit Education Management Organizations: 2009-2010
Miron, Gary; Urschel, Jessica L.
2010-01-01
This is the third Profiles report to examine nonprofit education management organizations (EMOs). This report is modeled after the 12 annual reports that cover for-profit EMOs. While the number of schools operated by for-profit EMOs grew rapidly in the 1990s and is now leveling off, the data contained in this report illustrate how the number of…
Dahlgaard, Jens Jørn; Nørgaard, Anders; Jakobsen, Søren
1998-01-01
What management skills must Europe's business leaders improve to achieve business excellence? Which country's leaders are best placed for success? Does the next generation have what it takes to compete? In the second half of their study of the leadership styles that drive business excellence, Jens...... Dahlgaard, Anders Nørgaard and Søren Jakobsen describe an excellent leadership profile that provides the answers....
Duus, Henrik Johannsen; Bjerre, Mogens
2015-01-01
Qualitative value profiling (QVP) is a relatively unknown method of strategic analysis for companies in international business-to-business settings. The purpose of QVP is to reduce the information complexity that is faced by international companies in dealing with business partners. The QVP method...... and consequently, for the advancement of international development. Further use of QVP is recommended and suggestions for future research are provided....
Practical Differential Profiling
Schulz, M; De Supinski, B R
2007-02-04
Comparing performance profiles from two runs is an essential performance analysis step that users routinely perform. In this work we present eGprof, a tool that facilitates these comparisons through differential profiling inside gprof. We chose this approach, rather than designing a new tool, since gprof is one of the few performance analysis tools accepted and used by a large community of users. eGprof allows users to 'subtract' two performance profiles directly. It also includes callgraph visualization to highlight the differences in graphical form. Along with the design of this tool, we present several case studies that show how eGprof can be used to find and to study the differences of two application executions quickly and hence can aid the user in this most common step in performance analysis. We do this without requiring major changes on the side of the user, the most important factor in guaranteeing the adoption of our tool by code teams.
Brosch, Noah; Zitrin, Adi
2011-01-01
We investigate the nature of objects in a complete sample of 28 galaxies selected from the first sky area fully covered by ALFALFA, being well-detected and having HI profiles wider than 550 km/s. The selection does not use brightness, morphology, or any other property derived from optical or other spectral bands. We investigate the degree of isolation, the morphology, and other properties gathered or derived from open data bases and show that some objects have wide HI profiles probably because they are disturbed or are interacting, or might be confused in the ALFALFA beam. We identify a sub-sample of 14 galaxies lacking immediate interacting neighbours and showing regular, symmetric, two-horned HI profiles that we propose as candidate high-mass disk systems (CHMDs). We measure the net-Halpha emission from the CHMDs and combine this with public multispectral data to model the global star formation (SF) properties of each galaxy. The Halpha observations show SFRs not higher than a few solar masses per year. Sim...
On Fixing number of Functigraphs
Fazil, Muhammad; Javaid, Imran; Murtaza, Muhammad
2016-01-01
The fixing number of a graph $G$ is the order of the smallest subset $S$ of its vertex set $V(G)$ such that stabilizer of $S$ in $G$, $\\Gamma_{S}(G)$ is trivial. Let $G_{1}$ and $G_{2}$ be disjoint copies of a graph $G$, and let $g:V(G_{1})\\rightarrow V(G_{2})$ be a function. A functigraph $F_{G}$ consists of the vertex set $V(G_{1})\\cup V(G_{2})$ and the edge set $E(G_{1})\\cup E(G_{2})\\cup \\{uv:v=g(u)\\}$. In this paper, we study the behavior of the fixing number in passing from $G$ to $F_{G}...
Ufnarovski, Victor; Ahlander, Bo
2003-09-01
We define the derivative of an integer to be the map sending every prime to 1 and satisfying the Leibnitz rule. The aim of the article is to consider the basic properties of this map and to show how to generalize the notion to the case of rational and arbitrary real numbers. We make some conjectures and find some connections with Goldbach's Conjecture and the Twin Prime Conjecture. Finally, we solve the easiest associated differential equations and calculate the generating function.
Bansal, N.; Pendavingh, R.; Pol, J.G. van der
2013-01-01
We consider the problem of determining mn, the number of matroids on n elements. The best known lower bound on mn is due to Knuth (1974) who showed that log log mn is at least n− 3 2 log n−O(1). On the other hand, Piﬀ (1973) showed that log log mn ≤ n − log n + log log n + O(1), and it has been conj
Complex numbers in quantum theory
Maynard, Glenn
In 1927, Nobel prize winning physicist, E. Schrodinger, in correspondence with Ehrenfest, wrote the following about the new theory: "What is unpleasant here, and indeed directly to be objected to, is the use of complex numbers. Psi is surely fundamentally a real function." This seemingly simple issue remains unexplained almost ninety years later. In this dissertation I elucidate the physical and theoretical origins of the complex requirement. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).