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Sample records for rich vocabulary instruction

  1. EST Vocabulary Instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célia D.S. Bell

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at contributing to the investigation on the instruction of EST (English for Science and Technology vocabulary, in terms of receptive use of the language. It evaluates the effectiveness of two teaching approaches to the acquisition of vocabulary. The first approach consisted of teaching vocabulary through the use of dictionaries, where the words were merely translated into the learners’ L1 or defined in the target language thus promoting superficial level of word processing. The second approach employed activities promoting deep level of word processing. Data were analysed quantitatively. Results indicated that the two approaches seem to have some equipotentiality, as far as EST vocabulary is concerned.

  2. Improving Vocabulary of English Language Learners through Direct Vocabulary Instruction

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    Hunt, Meghan; Feng, Jay

    2016-01-01

    This is a report of a professional development project. The purpose of the project was to provide professional development to teachers in vocabulary instructional strategies and to examine vocabulary acquisition of English language learners. The participants were 8 second grade ELL students and 6 second grade teachers. The eight second grade…

  3. Four Practical Principles for Enhancing Vocabulary Instruction

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    Manyak, Patrick C.; Von Gunten, Heather; Autenrieth, David; Gillis, Carolyn; Mastre-O'Farrell, Julie; Irvine-McDermott, Elizabeth; Baumann, James F.; Blachowicz, Camille L. Z.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents four practical principles that lead to enhanced word-meaning instruction in the elementary grades. The authors, a collaborative team of researchers and classroom teachers, identified and developed these principles and related instructional activities during a three-year vocabulary instruction research project. The principles…

  4. Integrating Curriculum through the Learning Cycle: Content-Based Reading and Vocabulary Instruction

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    Spencer, Brenda H.; Guillaume, Andrea M.

    2006-01-01

    The content areas provide rich contexts for developing vocabulary. This article presents some principles and a lesson model--the learning cycle--that can be used to develop vocabulary while building understanding in science. Because science instruction and the learning cycle model promote learning in real-world contexts, they provide students with…

  5. Direct Vocabulary Instruction in Preschool: A Comparison of Extended Instruction, Embedded Instruction, and Incidental Exposure

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    Loftus-Rattan, Susan M.; Mitchell, Alison M.; Coyne, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    Based on its coincidence with a significant period in language development for children, preschool provides a favorable setting to foster vocabulary growth. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of two instructional conditions and an incidental exposure condition for teaching targeted vocabulary words to preschool students…

  6. The Effect of Vocabulary on Introductory Microbiology Instruction

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    Richter, Emily

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the effect of the translation of traditional scientific vocabulary into plain English, a process referred to as Anglicization, on student learning in the context of introductory microbiology instruction. Data from Anglicized and Classical-vocabulary lab sections were collected. Data included exam scores as well as pre and…

  7. Impacts of Vocabulary Acquisition Techniques Instruction on Students' Learning

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    Orawiwatnakul, Wiwat

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine how the selected vocabulary acquisition techniques affected the vocabulary ability of 35 students who took EN 111 and investigate their attitudes towards the techniques instruction. The research study was one-group pretest and post-test design. The instruments employed were in-class exercises…

  8. Lexical Coverage of TED Talks: Implications for Vocabulary Instruction

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    Nurmukhamedov, Ulugbek

    2017-01-01

    Teachers of English are often in search of authentic audio and video materials that promote learners' listening comprehension and vocabulary development. TED Talks, a set of freely available web presentations, could be a useful resource to promote vocabulary instruction. The present replication study examines the lexical coverage of TED Talks by…

  9. Measuring Teachers' Knowledge of Vocabulary Development and Instruction

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    Duguay, Annie; Kenyon, Dorry; Haynes, Erin; August, Diane; Yanosky, Tiffany

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the development of an instrument to measure teachers' knowledge of vocabulary development and instruction, the Teacher Knowledge of Vocabulary Survey (TKVS). This type of knowledge has become increasingly important as all classroom teachers are expected to help students meet language and literacy standards that include…

  10. Imagery and Verbal Coding Approaches in Chinese Vocabulary Instruction

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    Shen, Helen H.

    2010-01-01

    This study consists of two instructional experiments. Within the framework of dual coding theory, the study compares the learning effects of two instructional encoding methods used in Chinese vocabulary instruction among students learning beginning Chinese as a foreign language. One method uses verbal encoding only, and the other method uses…

  11. Effects of multimedia vocabulary instruction on adolescents with learning disabilities.

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    Kennedy, Michael J; Deshler, Donald D; Lloyd, John Wills

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this experimental study is to investigate the effects of using content acquisition podcasts (CAPs), an example of instructional technology, to provide vocabulary instruction to adolescents with and without learning disabilities (LD). A total of 279 urban high school students, including 30 with LD in an area related to reading, were randomly assigned to one of four experimental conditions with instruction occurring at individual computer terminals over a 3-week period. Each of the four conditions contained different configurations of multimedia-based instruction and evidence-based vocabulary instruction. Dependent measures of vocabulary knowledge indicated that students with LD who received vocabulary instruction using CAPs through an explicit instructional methodology and the keyword mnemonic strategy significantly outperformed other students with LD who were taught using the same content, but with multimedia instruction that did not adhere to a specific theoretical design framework. Results for general education students mirrored those for students with LD. Students also completed a satisfaction measure following instruction with multimedia and expressed overall agreement that CAPs are useful for learning vocabulary terms. © Hammill Institute on Disabilities 2013.

  12. Vocabulary Word Instruction for Students Who Read Braille

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    Savaiano, Mackenzie E.; Compton, Donald L.; Hatton, Deborah D.; Lloyd, Blair P.

    2016-01-01

    The association made between the meaning, spelling, and pronunciation of a word has been shown to help children remember the meanings of words. The present study addressed whether the presence of a target word in Braille during instruction facilitated vocabulary learning more efficiently than an auditory-only instructional condition. The authors…

  13. Learning How to Improve Vocabulary Instruction through Teacher Study Groups

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    Dimino, Joseph; Taylor, Mary Jo

    2009-01-01

    Professional development with proven positive effects on vocabulary instruction and student achievement: that's what reading teachers are looking for, and that's what the Teacher Study Group (TSG) model delivers. With the nine complete TSG sessions in this book, K-8 teachers will form dynamic in-school learning groups with their fellow educators…

  14. Consolidation of vocabulary during sleep: The rich get richer?

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    James, Emma; Gaskell, M Gareth; Weighall, Anna; Henderson, Lisa

    2017-06-01

    Sleep plays a role in strengthening new words and integrating them with existing vocabulary knowledge, consistent with neural models of learning in which sleep supports hippocampal transfer to neocortical memory. Such models are based on adult research, yet neural maturation may mean that the mechanisms supporting word learning vary across development. Here, we propose a model in which children may capitalise on larger amounts of slow-wave sleep to support a greater demand on learning and neural reorganisation, whereas adults may benefit from a richer knowledge base to support consolidation. Such an argument is reinforced by the well-reported "Matthew effect", whereby rich vocabulary knowledge is associated with better acquisition of new vocabulary. We present a meta-analysis that supports this association between children's existing vocabulary knowledge and their integration of new words overnight. Whilst multiple mechanisms likely contribute to vocabulary consolidation and neural reorganisation across the lifespan, we propose that contributions of existing knowledge should be rigorously examined in developmental studies. Such research has potential to greatly enhance neural models of learning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A New Twist on Vocabulary Instruction for Students with Learning Disabilities in Biology

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    Grillo, Kelly J.; Dieker, Lisa A.

    2013-01-01

    An essential element of science instruction is content literacy. In order to improve literacy specific to science, vocabulary must be addressed. As Jitendra et al. (2004) pointed out, "because learning vocabulary during independent reading is very inefficient for students with reading difficulties, vocabulary and word learning skills must be…

  16. Incorporating Vocabulary Instruction in Individual Reading Fluency Interventions with English Language Learners

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    Johnston, Lauren E.; Mercer, Sterett H.; Geres-Smith, Rhonda

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this preliminary study was to determine whether incorporating vocabulary instruction in individual reading fluency interventions for English Language Learners (ELLs) would improve reading comprehension. Two vocabulary instructional procedures were contrasted with a fluency-building only condition in an alternating-treatments design…

  17. Corpus-aided language pedagogy : the use of concordance lines in vocabulary instruction

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    Kazaz, İlknur

    2015-01-01

    Ankara : The Program of Teaching English as a Foreign Language Bilkent University, 2015. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 2015. Includes bibliographical references leaves 83-91. This study investigated the effectiveness of the use of a concordance software and concordance lines as a pedagogical tool to learn the target vocabulary of a text book. The purpose of the study was to compare the effects of corpus-aided vocabulary instruction with traditional vocabulary teac...

  18. Sustainability of Breadth and Depth of Vocabulary after Implicit versus Explicit Instruction in Kindergarten

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    Damhuis, Carmen M. P.; Segers, Eliane; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the sustained effects of explicit versus implicit instruction on the breadth and depth of children's vocabularies, while taking their general vocabulary and verbal short-term memory into account. Two experimental groups with 12 and 15 kindergarten children respectively learned two sets of 17 words counterbalanced to be taught first…

  19. Sustainability of Breadth and Depth of Vocabulary after Implicit versus Explicit Instruction in Kindergarten

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damhuis, C.M.P.; Segers, P.C.J.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the sustained effects of explicit versus implicit instruction on the breadth and depth of children's vocabularies, while taking their general vocabulary and verbal short-term memory into account. Two experimental groups with 12 and 15 kindergarten children respectively learned two

  20. Effect of Focused Vocabulary Instruction on 7th Graders' Reading Comprehension

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    Horn, Mary; Feng, Jianhua

    2012-01-01

    This study reports an investigation on the effects of directed vocabulary and whole class instruction on improving students' vocabulary acquisition and reading comprehension. Fifty-eight seventh grade students participated in the study, and a pre-test/post-test experimental design was employed. The results did not indicate any statistically…

  1. The Application of SPSS in Analyzing the Effect of English Vocabulary Strategy Instruction

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    Chen, Shaoying

    2010-01-01

    The vocabulary learning is one of very important part in the college English teaching. Correct analysis of the result of vocabulary strategy instruction can offer feedbacks for English teaching, and help teachers to improve the teaching method. In this article, the issue how to use SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Science) to…

  2. Classroom-based narrative and vocabulary instruction: results of an early-stage, nonrandomized comparison study.

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    Gillam, Sandra Laing; Olszewski, Abbie; Fargo, Jamison; Gillam, Ronald B

    2014-07-01

    This nonrandomized feasibility study was designed to provide a preliminary assessment of the impact of a narrative and vocabulary instruction program provided by a speech-language pathologist (SLP) in a regular classroom setting. Forty-three children attending 2 first-grade classrooms participated in the study. Children in each classroom were divided into high- and low-risk subgroups on the basis of their performance on a narrative test. Narrative and vocabulary instruction was provided by an SLP in 1 classroom for three 30-min periods per week for 6 weeks. The children in the experimental classroom made clinically significant improvements on narrative and vocabulary measures; children in the comparison classroom did not. Within the experimental classroom, children in the high-risk subgroup demonstrated greater gains in narration and fewer gains in vocabulary than children in the low-risk subgroup. There were no subgroup differences in the comparison classroom. These preliminary results provide early evidence of the feasibility of implementing a narrative instruction program in a classroom setting. Children at a high risk for language difficulties appeared to profit more from the narrative instruction than from the embedded vocabulary instruction. More extensive research on this instructional program is warranted.

  3. Captioned Instructional Video: Effects on Content Comprehension, Vocabulary Acquisition and Language Proficiency

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    BavaHarji, Madhubala; Alavi, Zhinoos Kamal; Letchumanan, Krishnaveni

    2014-01-01

    This experimental design study examined the effects of viewing captioned instructional videos on EFL learners' content comprehension, vocabulary acquisition and language proficiency. It also examined the participants' perception of viewing the captioned instructional videos. The 92 EFL students in two classes, who were undertaking the "Tape…

  4. Attention to Orthographic and Phonological Word Forms in Vocabulary Instruction for Kindergarten English Learners

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    Vadasy, Patricia F.; Sanders, Elizabeth A.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined benefits of connecting meaning, speech, and print in vocabulary learning for kindergarten English learners. Students screened eligible with limited English proficiency were randomly assigned to two instruction conditions. Both groups received direct instruction in high frequency root words. One condition featured added…

  5. Effect of Instructional vs. Authentic Video Materials on Introvert and Extrovert Iranian EFL Learners' Vocabulary Learning

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    Parya Isazadeh

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The study delved into the effect of instructional video materials vs. authentic video materials on vocabulary learning of extrovert and introvert Iranian EFL learners. To this end, Nelson proficiency test was administered to one hundred eighty (n=180 language learners. Considering 1 standard deviation above and below the mean score, one hundred twenty three (n=123 language learners were selected for the study. These participants were distributed into 4 experimental groups (with 25 learners and a control group (with 23 learners. Researcher-made vocabulary pretest and posttest which were designed using the vocabularies from the movies were also administered to the participants. The findings of the study after three weeks of treatment revealed that both authentic video materials and instructional video materials can have positive effect on vocabulary learning of Iranian EFL leaners. This effect, however, is not different among extrovert learners. It was also revealed that introvert EFL learners benefit more from authentic video materials. The findings of the study could be used by material developers or language teachers who may wish to use video materials in their classes. Keywords: Authentic video materials, Instructional video materials, Vocabulary learning, Introversion, Extroversion

  6. Reading Stories to Learn Math: Mathematics Vocabulary Instruction for Children with Early Numeracy Difficulties.

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    Hassinger-Das, Brenna; Jordan, Nancy C; Dyson, Nancy

    2015-12-01

    The present study involved examining whether a storybook reading intervention targeting mathematics vocabulary, such as "equal," "more," and "less," and associated number concepts would increase at-risk children's vocabulary knowledge and number competencies. Children with early numeracy difficulties (N = 124) were recruited from kindergarten classes in four schools. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three groups: a storybook number competencies (SNC) intervention, a number sense intervention, or a business-as-usual control. Interventions were carried out in groups of four children over 8 weeks (24 thirty-minute sessions). Findings demonstrated that the SNC intervention group outperformed the other groups on measures of mathematics vocabulary, both in terms of words that were closely aligned to the intervention and those that were not. There was no effect of the SNC intervention, however, on general mathematics measures, suggesting a need to provide the mathematics vocabulary work along with more intensive instruction in number concepts.

  7. Assessing Library Instruction through Web Usability and Vocabulary Studies

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    Castonguay, Remi

    2008-01-01

    Can we use the methods of Web usability testing to learn about library instruction? This article is among the first in the field trying to establish a link between usability and instruction. The author discusses useful insights that Web usability can bring to our pedagogy as well as to the efficiency of library instruction. The result of a Web…

  8. The Effect of Mnemonic Vocabulary Instruction on Reading Comprehension of Students

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    Parima Fasih

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The present article was an investigation of mnemonic vocabulary teaching to improve reading comprehension in the EFL classrooms. A major problem with the most of the past researches was that they paid no or little attention to the effects of using mnemonic strategies to improve reading comprehension. The purpose of this paper was to investigate how key word mnemonic vocabulary teaching can improve reading comprehension of the students. To this end, 360 third grade senior high school students from 6 senior high schools of Zanjan were selected through multistage cluster random sampling method and based on Cambridge placement test (2010, 345 students proved to be upper intermediate. A quasi-experimental design was used to determine the effects of a mnemonic vocabulary intervention on reading comprehension. In this article there were one control group (A, n=115, and two experimental groups (B, n=115; C, n=115 all of which were male and there were selected randomly by the researchers. During one month in four weeks, every week in two thirty-minute session, group B received direct vocabulary instruction and group C received key word mnemonic instruction. The quantitative component of this article was comprised of the Unit Cloze test. In order to test the effects of Mnemonic Vocabulary Teaching on reading comprehension, the covariance analysis was employed and the results demonstrated that by eliminating the covariance factor of the pre-test, mnemonic vocabulary instruction improved the reading comprehension of the students. The use of keyword mnemonics as a means to differentiate instruction is an educational implication that can assist teachers seeking better student achievement outcomes.

  9. Effect of Instructional vs. Authentic Video Materials on Introvert and Extrovert Iranian EFL Learners' Vocabulary Learning

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    Isazadeh, Parya; Makui, Selma Mohammad Zadeh; Ansarian, Loghman

    2016-01-01

    The study delved into the effect of instructional video materials vs. authentic video materials on vocabulary learning of extrovert and introvert Iranian EFL learners. To this end, Nelson proficiency test was administered to one hundred eighty (n = 180) language learners. Considering 1 standard deviation above and below the mean score, one hundred…

  10. The Shakespeare in All of Us: A Monumental, Multitudinous, Premeditated Approach to Vocabulary Instruction

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    Savino, Jennifer Ann

    2011-01-01

    Shakespeare, who worked actively with words through punning, playing, and inventing, serves as the model for students to experience a deepening knowledge of vocabulary and love of words. Through instructional activities aimed at increasing word play, word exposure, and word consciousness, students gain the verbal capacity needed to understand…

  11. Supports for Vocabulary Instruction in Early Language and Literacy Methods Textbooks

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    Wright, Tanya S.; Peltier, Marliese R.

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the extent to which the content and recommendations in recently published early language and literacy methods textbooks may support early childhood teachers in learning to provide vocabulary instruction for young children. We completed a content analysis of 9 textbooks with coding at the sentence level.…

  12. Engaging in vocabulary learning in science: the promise of multimodal instruction

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    Townsend, Dianna; Brock, Cynthia; Morrison, Jennifer D.

    2018-02-01

    To a science 'outsider', science language often appears unnecessarily technical and dense. However, scientific language is typically used with the goal of being concise and precise, which allows those who regularly participate in scientific discourse communities to learn from each other and build upon existing scientific knowledge. One essential component of science language is the academic vocabulary that characterises it. This mixed-methods study investigates middle school students' (N = 59) growth in academic vocabulary as it relates to their teacher's instructional practices that supported academic language development. Students made significant gains in their production of general academic words, t(57) = 2.32, p = .024 and of discipline-specific science words, t(57) = 3.01, p = .004 in science writing. Results from the qualitative strand of this inquiry contextualised the students' learning of academic vocabulary as it relates to their teacher's instructional practices and intentions as well as the students' perceptions of their learning environment. These qualitative findings reveal that both the students and their teacher articulated that the teacher's intentional use of resources supported students' academic vocabulary growth. Implications for research and instruction with science language are shared.

  13. The Effectiveness of Computer-Based Spaced Repetition in Foreign Language Vocabulary Instruction: A Double-Blind Study

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    Chukharev-Hudilainen, Evgeny; Klepikova, Tatiana A.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present paper is twofold; first, we present an empirical study evaluating the effectiveness of a novel CALL tool for foreign language vocabulary instruction based on spaced repetition of target vocabulary items. The study demonstrates that by spending an average of three minutes each day on automatically generated vocabulary…

  14. The Influence of Mathematics Vocabulary Instruction Embedded within Addition Tutoring for First-Grade Students with Mathematics Difficulty

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    Powell, Sarah R.; Driver, Melissa K.

    2015-01-01

    Researchers and practitioners indicate students require explicit instruction on mathematics vocabulary terms, yet no study has examined the effects of an embedded vocabulary component within mathematics tutoring for early elementary students. First-grade students with mathematics difficulty (MD; n = 98) were randomly assigned to addition tutoring…

  15. Effects of Multimedia Instruction on L2 Acquisition of High-Level, Low-Frequency English Vocabulary Words

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    Cho, Euna

    2017-01-01

    The present study examined the effects of multimedia enhancement in video form in addition to textual information on L2 vocabulary instruction for high-level, low-frequency English words among Korean learners of English. Although input-based incidental learning of L2 vocabulary through extensive reading has been conventionally believed to be…

  16. Academic Vocabulary Learning in First Through Third Grade in Low-Income Schools: Effects of Automated Supplemental Instruction.

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    Goldstein, Howard; Ziolkowski, Robyn A; Bojczyk, Kathryn E; Marty, Ana; Schneider, Naomi; Harpring, Jayme; Haring, Christa D

    2017-11-09

    This study investigated cumulative effects of language learning, specifically whether prior vocabulary knowledge or special education status moderated the effects of academic vocabulary instruction in high-poverty schools. Effects of a supplemental intervention targeting academic vocabulary in first through third grades were evaluated with 241 students (6-9 years old) from low-income families, 48% of whom were retained for the 3-year study duration. Students were randomly assigned to vocabulary instruction or comparison groups. Curriculum-based measures of word recognition, receptive identification, expressive labeling, and decontextualized definitions showed large effects for multiple levels of word learning. Hierarchical linear modeling revealed that students with higher initial Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Fourth Edition scores (Dunn & Dunn, 2007) demonstrated greater word learning, whereas students with special needs demonstrated less growth in vocabulary. This model of vocabulary instruction can be applied efficiently in high-poverty schools through an automated, easily implemented adjunct to reading instruction in the early grades and holds promise for reducing gaps in vocabulary development.

  17. An Investigation of Learner-Control Variables in Vocabulary Learning Using Traditional Instruction and Two Forms of Computer-Based Instruction.

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    Balajthy, Ernest

    1988-01-01

    Investigates college students' ability to monitor learner-controlled vocabulary instruction when performed in traditional workbook-like tasks and in two different computer-based formats: video game and text game exercises. Suggests that developmental reading students are unable to monitor their own vocabulary development accurately. (MM)

  18. The Effect of Semantic Mapping as a Vocabulary Instruction Technique on EFL Learners with Different Perceptual Learning Styles

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    Esmaeel Abdollahzadeh

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Traditional and modern vocabulary instruction techniques have been introduced in the past few decades to improve the learners’ performance in reading comprehension. Semantic mapping, which entails drawing learners’ attention to the interrelationships among lexical items through graphic organizers, is claimed to enhance vocabulary learning significantly. However, whether this technique suits all types of learners has not been adequately investigated. This study examines the effectiveness of employing semantic mapping versus traditional approaches in vocabulary instruction to EFL learners with different perceptual modalities. A modified version of Reid’s (1987 perceptual learning style questionnaire was used to determine the learners’ modality types. The results indicate that semantic mapping in comparison to the traditional approaches significantly enhances vocabulary learning of EFL learners. However, although visual learners slightly outperformed other types of learners on the post-test, no significant differences were observed among intermediate learners with different perceptual modalities employing semantic mapping for vocabulary practice.

  19. Analysis of the effect of specific vocabulary instruction on high school chemistry students' knowledge and understanding

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    Labrosse, Peggy

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of specific vocabulary instruction on high school chemistry students' knowledge and understanding. Students might be able to formally recite a definition for a term without actually having understood the meaning of the term and its connection to other terms or to related concepts. Researchers (Cassels & Johnstone, 1983; Gabel, 1999; Johnstone, 1991) have been studying the difficulty students have in learning science, particularly chemistry. Gabel (1999) suggests that, "while research into misconceptions (also known as alternative conceptions) and problem-solving has dominated the field for the past 25 years, we are no closer to a solution that would improve the teaching and learning of chemistry" (P. 549). Gabel (1999) relates the difficulty in learning chemistry to use of language. She refers to student difficulty both with words that have more than one meaning in English and with words that are used to mean one idea in chemistry and another idea in every day language. The Frayer Model, a research-based teaching strategy, is a graphic organizer which students use to create meaningful definitions for terms in context (Frayer, Frederick, & Klausmeier, 1969). It was used as the treatment---the specific vocabulary instruction---in this research study. The researcher collected and analyzed data to answer three research questions that focused on the effect of using the Frayer model (a graphic organizer) on high school students' knowledge and understanding of academic language used in chemistry. The research took place in a New England high school. Four intact chemistry classes provided the student participants; two classes were assigned to the treatment group (TG) and two classes were assigned to the control group (CG). The TG received vocabulary instruction on 14 chosen terms using the Frayer Model. The CG received traditional vocabulary instruction with no special attention to the 14 terms selected for this study

  20. The Effectiveness of Synectics Instructional Model on Foreign Language Vocabulary Teaching

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    Bahadır

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study, which is an experimental research with pre-test and post-test control groups, aims to determine the effectiveness of the Synectics Instructional Model on foreign language vocabulary teaching. The research was conducted with two experimental and two control groups and 82 students taking part in these groups. The experimental application of the research was carried out during the fall semester of 2016-2017, with a total of 16 class hours in English reading course in English preparatory class. Research data was gathered from an English vocabulary achievement test which was designed by the researchers. In the process of analyzing the research data, dependent and independent t-tests, Cohen’s d effect size test and thematic analysis were used. The major findings reveal that Synectics based vocabulary teaching has a strong effect on the level of learning and the persistence of the learning. On the other hand, there is a considerable difference between the numbers of the words that students learn indirectly in the process in favor of the experimental group students. Finally, the analysis also reveals that the experimental and control group students have variability in terms of the thematic diversity and semantic equivalence of the words learned indirectly in the process.

  1. Improving listening comprehension skills relying on metacognitive strategies - focus on vocabulary and specific l2 instruction

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    Jerotijević-Tišma Danica

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims at investigating the application of an instructional method specifically focused on the expansion of metacognitive awareness and its effect on Serbian EFL students’ listening comprehension. The current study is a follow-up research of a similar study by Vandergrift and Tafaghodtari (2010. However, we sought to expand the previous research by investigating the relationship between the students’ current level of L2 (target language vocabulary and listening test scores. Our study likewise differed in the sample of participants, the target language, teaching and testing material used, and the duration of the very experiment. To answer the proposed research questions we conducted an experiment with 57 Serbian secondary school EFL (English as a Foreign Language learners divided into experimental (n=27 and control group (n=30. The results of the pre- and post-tests of the two groups showed the beneficial effects of developing metacognitive strategies and the strong positive correlation between the level of vocabulary and listening comprehension. The paper underlines important pedagogical implications especially regarding the enhancement of metacognitive awareness and vocabulary proficiency of students in order to improve performance on listening comprehension tasks.

  2. Output-Based Instruction, Learning Styles and Vocabulary Learning in the EFL Context of Iran

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    Behnaz Rastegar

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Language learners' productive role in teaching and learning processes has recently been the focus of attention. Therefore, this study aimed at investigating the effect of oral vs. written output-based instruction on English as a foreign language (EFL learners' vocabulary learning with a focus on reflective vs. impulsive learning styles. To this end, 131 learners were chosen among 182 learners by taking Nelson vocabulary proficiency test. Next, the participants received a valid Persian version of reflective thinking (Kember et al., 2000 and Barratt, Patton and Stanford (1975 BIS (Barratt’s Impulsiveness Scale 11 impulsiveness questionnaires, based on which both experimental groups were divided into impulsive and reflective subgroups, but the control group consisted of both impulsive and reflective learners. After 15 sessions of intervention and based on the results through one-way ANOVA and independent t-test it was concluded that both oral output and written output had significant effect on vocabulary learning of reflective and impulsive EFL Learners. It was also observed that the effect of both oral output and written output on impulsive (oral group’s mean=21.04; written groups’ mean= 21.75 learners and reflective learners (oral groups’ mean=22.38; written group’s mean: 22.23 is not significantly different. Pedagogical implications are discussed.

  3. A comparative study on the effectiveness of still pictures and moving pictures as aids in vocabulary instruction to Turkish EFL students

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    Kumbaroğlu, Didem

    1998-01-01

    Ankara : The Institute of Economics and Social Sciences of Bilkent Univ., 1998. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 1998. Includes bibliographical refences. Vocabulary instruction is an important aspect of language teaching, whose difficulty is acknowledged by researchers as well as teachers and students. Still pictures and moving pictures (video) are often used as aids in EFL vocabulary instruction. However, few studies have been conducted to examine the role of ...

  4. Translating Vocabulary Research to Social Studies Instruction: Before, during, and after Text-Reading Strategies

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    Hairrell, Angela; Simmons, Deborah; Swanson, Elizabeth; Edmonds, Meaghan; Vaughn, Sharon; Rupley, William H.

    2011-01-01

    In the upper elementary grades, content-area text gains increasing importance as a primary source of reading and information. This article focuses on the specialized vocabulary demands of social studies texts and presents a framework of teaching and learning strategies based on vocabulary research. Strategies are introduced before, during, and…

  5. Comparing Teacher-Directed and Computer-Assisted Instruction of Elementary Geography Place Vocabulary

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    Salsbury, Denise E.

    2006-01-01

    Increased knowledge of geographic place name vocabulary continues to be important to student academic success. Place knowledge is a vital part of students' learning to be responsible citizens by helping them become more conscious of the world around them and preparing the world around them and preparing them to enter a global workplace. This study…

  6. Embedded Instruction Improves Vocabulary Learning during Automated Storybook Reading among High-Risk Preschoolers

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    Goldstein, Howard; Kelley, Elizabeth; Greenwood, Charles; McCune, Luke; Carta, Judith; Atwater, Jane; Guerrero, Gabriela; McCarthy, Tanya; Schneider, Naomi; Spencer, Trina

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: We investigated a small-group intervention designed to teach vocabulary and comprehension skills to preschoolers who were at risk for language and reading disabilities. These language skills are important and reliable predictors of later academic achievement. Method: Preschoolers heard prerecorded stories 3 times per week over the course…

  7. A framework for automatic annotation of web pages using the Google Rich Snippets vocabulary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, van der J.; Boon, F.; Hogenboom, F.P.; Frasincar, F.; Kaymak, U.

    2011-01-01

    One of the latest developments for the Semantic Web is Google Rich Snippets, a service that uses Web page annotations for displaying search results in a visually appealing manner. In this paper we propose the Automatic Review Recognition and annOtation of Web pages (ARROW) framework, which is able

  8. Exploring Taiwanese Students' Perceptions of Active Explicit Vocabulary Instruction: A Case Study in an English Medium Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, I-Chia

    2018-01-01

    Vocabulary knowledge is considered important in second and foreign language learning because learners' insufficient vocabulary has been consistently reported as a significant problem in their achievement of second-language (L2) learning. Despite of numerous vocabulary studies, few of them have implemented a learner-centered and interactive…

  9. Studies of Danish L2 learners’ vocabulary knowledge and the lexical richness of their written production in English

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Birgit; Danelund, Lise

    2015-01-01

    A number of lexical studies report a strong correlation between L2 learners’ vocabulary size and depth and their writing skills. Three Danish empirical studies explore this relationship further by looking at the vocabulary knowledge of young upper-secondary school learners of English...... analysis of written essays from learners across two educational levels. All studies show a surprisingly low level of receptive and productive vocabulary knowledge for the pupils tested. Moreover, the lexical analyses of the texts reveal that the learners do not exploit the vocabulary resources they have...... in their written production. Even the high-level learners, who have more L2 vocabulary, are using a “playing-it-safe strategy”, relying on familiar high-frequent lexical items in their writing. The results are discussed in light of the meaning-based teaching approaches used in Danish EFL classrooms and the lack...

  10. Acquiring Reading and Vocabulary in Dutch and English: The Effect of Concurrent Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Leij, Aryan; Bekebrede, Judith; Kotterink, Mieke

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the effect of concurrent instruction in Dutch and English on reading acquisition in both languages, 23 pupils were selected from a school with bilingual education, and 23 from a school with education in Dutch only. The pupils had a Dutch majority language background and were comparable with regard to social-economic status (SES).…

  11. Acquiring reading and vocabulary in Dutch and English: the effect of concurrent instruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Leij, A.; Bekebrede, J.; Kotterink, M.

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the effect of concurrent instruction in Dutch and English on reading acquisition in both languages, 23 pupils were selected from a school with bilingual education, and 23 from a school with education in Dutch only. The pupils had a Dutch majority language background and were

  12. Capturing the complexity: Content, type, and amount of instruction and quality of the classroom learning environment synergistically predict third graders' vocabulary and reading comprehension outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Carol McDonald; Spencer, Mercedes; Day, Stephanie L; Giuliani, Sarah; Ingebrand, Sarah W; McLean, Leigh; Morrison, Frederick J

    2014-08-01

    We examined classrooms as complex systems that affect students' literacy learning through interacting effects of content and amount of time individual students spent in literacy instruction along with the global quality of the classroom-learning environment. We observed 27 third grade classrooms serving 315 target students using two different observation systems. The first assessed instruction at a more micro-level; specifically, the amount of time individual students spent in literacy instruction defined by the type of instruction, role of the teacher, and content. The second assessed the quality of the classroom-learning environment at a more macro level focusing on classroom organization, teacher responsiveness, and support for vocabulary and language. Results revealed that both global quality of the classroom learning environment and time individual students spent in specific types of literacy instruction covering specific content interacted to predict students' comprehension and vocabulary gains whereas neither system alone did. These findings support a dynamic systems model of how individual children learn in the context of classroom literacy instruction and the classroom-learning environment, which can help to improve observations systems, advance research, elevate teacher evaluation and professional development, and enhance student achievement.

  13. Capturing the complexity: Content, type, and amount of instruction and quality of the classroom learning environment synergistically predict third graders’ vocabulary and reading comprehension outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Carol McDonald; Spencer, Mercedes; Day, Stephanie L.; Giuliani, Sarah; Ingebrand, Sarah W.; McLean, Leigh; Morrison, Frederick J.

    2014-01-01

    We examined classrooms as complex systems that affect students’ literacy learning through interacting effects of content and amount of time individual students spent in literacy instruction along with the global quality of the classroom-learning environment. We observed 27 third grade classrooms serving 315 target students using two different observation systems. The first assessed instruction at a more micro-level; specifically, the amount of time individual students spent in literacy instruction defined by the type of instruction, role of the teacher, and content. The second assessed the quality of the classroom-learning environment at a more macro level focusing on classroom organization, teacher responsiveness, and support for vocabulary and language. Results revealed that both global quality of the classroom learning environment and time individual students spent in specific types of literacy instruction covering specific content interacted to predict students’ comprehension and vocabulary gains whereas neither system alone did. These findings support a dynamic systems model of how individual children learn in the context of classroom literacy instruction and the classroom-learning environment, which can help to improve observations systems, advance research, elevate teacher evaluation and professional development, and enhance student achievement. PMID:25400293

  14. Vocabulary Instruction through Books Read in American Sign Language for English-Language Learners with Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Joanna E.; Fredrick, Laura D.; Easterbrooks, Susan R.

    2010-01-01

    Reading to children improves vocabulary acquisition through incidental exposure, and it is a best practice for parents and teachers of children who can hear. Children who are deaf or hard of hearing are at risk for not learning vocabulary as such. This article describes a procedure for using books read on DVD in American Sign Language with…

  15. Using an Online Vocabulary Memorization Tool versus Traditional Vocabulary Exercises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Bakla

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to reveal what Memrise, an online vocabulary study tool, can offer to upper-intermediate EFL learners compared to traditional vocabulary exercises in L2 vocabulary learning. Two groups of upper-intermediate learners (N=80 were randomly assigned to the experimental group and the control group and were given the Vocabulary Knowledge Scale, VKS for short, as the pre-test and post-test. The participants in both groups were exposed to the target vocabulary items in the same reading text. While those in the experimental group created list of target vocabulary items collaboratively in Memrise and then studied the sets individually, the learners in the control group did traditional vocabulary exercises. The results of the post-tests indicated that there was a significant difference between the control group and the experimental group in favor of the experimental group. The researchers discuss possible pedagogical implications of this significant finding for EFL vocabulary instruction.

  16. Semantic Richness and Word Learning in Children with Hearing Loss Who Are Developing Spoken Language: A Single Case Design Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Emily; Douglas, W. Michael; Schuele, C. Melanie

    2015-01-01

    Children with hearing loss who are developing spoken language tend to lag behind children with normal hearing in vocabulary knowledge. Thus, researchers must validate instructional practices that lead to improved vocabulary outcomes for children with hearing loss. The purpose of this study was to investigate how semantic richness of instruction…

  17. Learning vocabulary through a serious game in Primary Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heitink, Maaike Christine; Fisser, Petra; Voogt, Joke; McBride, Ron; Searson, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the effect of a serious game on the vocabulary of students in primary education. 206 students and 10 teachers used the game during vocabulary lessons in three conditions: (a)online game and vocabulary instruction, (b)online game only, and (c)paper game and vocabulary instruction.

  18. Teaching Vocabulary to Preschool Children with Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Emily; Douglas, W. Michael

    2016-01-01

    Despite poor vocabulary outcomes for children with hearing loss, few studies have evaluated the effectiveness of specific vocabulary teaching methods on vocabulary learning for this group. The authors compared three vocabulary instruction conditions with preschool children with hearing loss: (a) explicit, direct instruction; (b) follow-in…

  19. Using Data-Rich Instruction for Climate Change Education: Road Blocks and Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyman, M.; Ellwein, A. L.; Daniel, M.; Connealy, S.

    2011-12-01

    The plethora of web-based databases provides an opportunity to develop and support authentic, inquiry-based teaching strategies that use real climate data in K-12 science classrooms. Classroom use of real climate data has the potential to improve student ability to "do" science by developing students' critical thinking skills such as evaluation of data, using evidence to support conclusions, and providing opportunities to build scientific, technical and communication skills in addressing real-world problems. However, there are roadblocks to implementing data-rich instruction including the fact that many climate datasets are not accessible to those without training and may require advanced technical, math and data skills to utilize. In June 2011 we convened an Innovation Working Group (IWG), Using Climate Data in Classrooms, sponsored by NM EPSCoR to consider issues and strategies for effective data-rich climate science education. The IWG participants concluded that developing data literacy skills is essential for students and teachers to participate in data-rich projects. This includes knowledge of models, facility with working and interpreting data and comfort with ambiguity that is inherent in climate science. As an outcome of the workshop, we are developing a data literacy survey that will be used to gather information from pre- and in-service teachers about their data skills and the instructional methods that teachers use to develop students' data literacy. Survey results will be used to re-design pre-service teacher training and develop teacher professional development programs at two institutions, the University of New Mexico and Western State. A challenge to using data-rich instruction is the volume of data available and the myriad formats in which it is presented. A first-level web search on "climate data" results in well over 10 million hits, a signature of the formidable task of choosing which site is best suited for instruction. During the IWG

  20. The Effects of YouTube in Multimedia Instruction for Vocabulary Learning: Perceptions of EFL Students and Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabooha, Raniah; Elyas, Tariq

    2018-01-01

    The present study sought to examine the improvement in vocabulary comprehension and retention of Saudi English as foreign language female students at King Abdul Aziz University as a result of integrating YouTube in their reading classes. The study also investigated the perceptions of both students as well as teachers towards the inclusion of…

  1. Acquiring, Teaching, and Testing Vocabulary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobarg, Mats

    1997-01-01

    Argues that treatment of foreign language vocabulary will vary predictably according to whether the instructional activity is based on a structural or a lexical/collocational view of language. Notes that in a structural approach, vocabulary learning is primarily a frequency- and input-based individual endeavor, while the lexical approach is more…

  2. German Vocabulary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombs, Virginia M.

    This article discusses in general terms derivational aspects of English vocabulary. Citing examples of Anglo-Saxon origin, the author provides a glimpse into the nature of the interrelatedness of English, German, and French vocabulary. (RL)

  3. Vocabulary by Gamification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsley, Tara L.; Grabner-Hagen, Melissa M.

    2018-01-01

    Gamification uses game elements such as quests, challenges, levels, and rewards to motivate and engage students in the classroom. Given the engagement that students feel during gameplay, it is sensible to include elements of game design to motivate students and create a space for comprehensive vocabulary instruction. Designing a gamified…

  4. Teaching Vocabulary in Colour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnoinska, Anna

    1998-01-01

    Describes one teacher's use of color to make classroom instruction more interesting. Techniques included using colored paper for handouts, conducting an experiment to see whether the use of colors could enhance students' memory power, and using colored flashcards to teach vocabulary. (Author/VWL)

  5. Oral vocabulary training program for Spanish third-graders with low socio-economic status: A randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Gomes-Koban

    Full Text Available Although the importance of vocabulary training in English speaking countries is well recognized and has been extensively studied, the same is not true for Spanish-few evidence based vocabulary studies for Spanish-speaking children have been reported. Here, two rich oral vocabulary training programs (definition and context, based on literature about vocabulary instruction for English-speaking children, were developed and applied in a sample of 100 Spanish elementary school third-graders recruited from areas of predominantly low socio-economic status (SES. Compared to an alternative read-aloud method which served as the control, both explicit methods were more effective in teaching word meanings when assessed immediately after the intervention. Nevertheless, five months later, only the definition group continued to demonstrate significant vocabulary knowledge gains. The definition method was more effective in specifically teaching children word meanings and, more broadly, in helping children organize and express knowledge of words. We recommend the explicit and rich vocabulary instruction as a means to fostering vocabulary knowledge in low SES children.

  6. Effects of Individualized Word Retrieval in Kindergarten Vocabulary Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damhuis, Carmen M. P.; Segers, Eliane; Scheltinga, Femke; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2016-01-01

    We examined the effects of adaptive word retrieval intervention on a classroom vocabulary program on children's vocabulary acquisition in kindergarten. In the experimental condition, word retrieval was provided in a classroom vocabulary program, combining implicit and explicit vocabulary instructions. Children performed extra word retrieval…

  7. Profiling vocabulary acquisition in Irish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Toole, Ciara; Fletcher, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Investigations into early vocabulary development, including the timing of the acquisition of nouns, verbs and closed-class words, have produced conflicting results, both within and across languages. Studying vocabulary development in Irish can contribute to this area, as it has potentially informative features such as a VSO word order, and semantically rich prepositions. This study used a parent report adapted for Irish, to measure vocabulary development longitudinally for children aged between 1,04 and 3,04. The findings indicated that the children learned closed-class words at relatively smaller vocabulary sizes compared to children acquiring other languages, and had a strong preference for nouns.

  8. A case study of a vocabulary strategy in a high school class of special education students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prevost, Jill K.

    In the United States, almost 7000 students drop out of high school every day and the most common reason is academic failure. The economic, social, and emotional cost of dropping out of high school are enormous. Vocabulary knowledge is essential for students to grasp the concepts of a content area and there has been little research reported for scaffolding vocabulary learning in content classes. The purpose of this study was to investigate a vocabulary instructional strategy in a high school biology class. The research questions focused on understanding the vocabulary instructional strategy and student perception of the strategy. This was an evaluative case study using a convenience sample of a college preparatory biology class of special education students. Participants included eight males and two females who were identified as having learning, emotional or health disabilities with average to low average intelligence. Informal interviews, observations, school records, student and teacher artifacts and rich description were used for data triangulation. Analysis involved coding and grouping data by category, and identification of relationships between categories. Three themes emerged from this study: Students believed the strategy helped them to learn vocabulary, the strategy gave direction to instruction, and the strategy can be difficult to implement. The skill level of our future work force and the health of our society is linked to our nation's high school graduation rate. Development of instructional strategies that result in student academic success will improve our high school graduation rate which will result in positive social change.

  9. Some Techniques for Teaching Vocabulary. ERIC Focus Reports on the Teaching of Foreign Languages, Number 27.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Joseph; Patin, Paul

    Discussion of techniques for teaching vocabulary in language programs centers on five major areas: (1) "knowing" the word, (2) selection of vocabulary, (3) grading vocabulary for presentation, (4) teaching methods, and (5) vocabulary expansion in advanced levels. Theory of vocabulary instruction is largely supported by writings of Nelson Brooks,…

  10. Learning vocabulary through a serious game in Primary Education

    OpenAIRE

    Heitink, Maaike Christine; Fisser, Petra; Voogt, Joke; McBride, Ron; Searson, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the effect of a serious game on the vocabulary of students in primary education. 206 students and 10 teachers used the game during vocabulary lessons in three conditions: (a)online game and vocabulary instruction, (b)online game only, and (c)paper game and vocabulary instruction. Both immediate learning and retention effects were examined. Additionally a student questionnaire and teacher interview regarding their experiences has been employed. Results show a significant le...

  11. Efficacy of Using Vocabulary Flashcards in Braille

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savaiano, Mackenzie E.; Lloyd, Blair P.; Hatton, Deborah D.

    2017-01-01

    This article reports on a study that examined whether vocabulary flashcards facilitate spelling acquisition. The study was designed to evaluate whether students who are blind can learn to spell words accurately and incidentally when academic vocabulary instruction is used. Auditory information was provided prior to the introduction of a flashcard,…

  12. Predicting Contextual Informativeness for Vocabulary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapelner, Adam; Soterwood, Jeanine; Nessaiver, Shalev; Adlof, Suzanne

    2018-01-01

    Vocabulary knowledge is essential to educational progress. High quality vocabulary instruction requires supportive contextual examples to teach word meaning and proper usage. Identifying such contexts by hand for a large number of words can be difficult. In this work, we take a statistical learning approach to engineer a system that predicts…

  13. Organizing Vocabulary (Open to Suggestion).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Dorothy J.

    1990-01-01

    Describes a technique for vocabulary instruction in which students complete a chart by providing two synonyms, an antonym, and the pronunciation of a given word. Reports that, even though the chart is easy to complete, students using it began to think both critically and creatively. (RS)

  14. Motivate Students to Engage in Word Study Using Vocabulary Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Jenny C.; Narkon, Drue E.

    2011-01-01

    Vocabulary instruction across the content areas aids reading comprehension, making it time well spent in the classroom. Although students with learning disabilities (LD) need many practice opportunities to learn new words, engaging them in vocabulary instruction may prove challenging. Due to their past difficulties in acquiring reading skills,…

  15. The Key to Enhancing Students' Mathematical Vocabulary Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccomini, Paul J.; Sanders, Sharon; Jones, Julie

    2008-01-01

    The importance of learning mathematical vocabulary is vital for the development of proficiency in mathematics. In an effort to improve students' mathematical performance, educators must use research-validated instructional methods to teach important mathematical vocabulary. Mnemonic instruction is a set of evidenced-based strategies used to…

  16. Vocabulary Theatre: A Peer-Teaching Approach for Academic Vocabulary Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robb, Elizabeth; Sinatra, Richard; Eschenauer, Robert

    2014-01-01

    This mixed methods counterbalanced study compared the gain score means of two different approaches to vocabulary acquisition--Vocabulary Theater (VT) and Teacher Directed Instruction (TDI) for 8th grade students from three schools in New York. The purpose of the study was to explore the effects of a peer teaching approach on students' vocabulary…

  17. Interactive Highlighting for Just-in-Time Formative Assessment during Whole-Class Instruction: Effects on Vocabulary Learning and Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce, Héctor R.; Mayer, Richard E.; Figueroa, Verónica A.; López, Mario J.

    2018-01-01

    This article examines the effectiveness of a software that supports formative assessment in real-time of learners' vocabulary knowledge through an interactive highlighting method. Students in a classroom are given a passage on their computer screen and asked to highlight the words they do not understand. This information is summarized on the…

  18. Vocabulary Instruction and Mexican-American Bilingual Students: How Two High School Teachers Integrate Multiple Strategies to Build Word Consciousness in English Language Arts Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajayi, Lasisi

    2015-01-01

    Despite the significance of vocabulary knowledge to student learning, limited studies have examined English language arts (ELA) teachers' skills and practices that may be effective for building word consciousness in high school Mexican-American bilingual students. The research objective of the present study is to examine how two high school ELA…

  19. Changing learning with new interactive and media-rich instruction environments: virtual labs case study report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Camillan

    2003-01-01

    Technology has created a new dimension for visual teaching and learning with web-delivered interactive media. The Virtual Labs Project has embraced this technology with instructional design and evaluation methodologies behind the simPHYSIO suite of simulation-based, online interactive teaching modules in physiology for the Stanford students. In addition, simPHYSIO provides the convenience of anytime web-access and a modular structure that allows for personalization and customization of the learning material. This innovative tool provides a solid delivery and pedagogical backbone that can be applied to developing an interactive simulation-based training tool for the use and management of the Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS) image information system. The disparity in the knowledge between health and IT professionals can be bridged by providing convenient modular teaching tools to fill the gaps in knowledge. An innovative teaching method in the whole PACS is deemed necessary for its successful implementation and operation since it has become widely distributed with many interfaces, components, and customizations. This paper will discuss the techniques for developing an interactive-based teaching tool, a case study of its implementation, and a perspective for applying this approach to an online PACS training tool. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  20. The Impact of Teacher Study Groups in Vocabulary on Teaching Practice, Teacher Knowledge, and Student Vocabulary Knowledge: A Large-Scale Replication Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayanthi, Madhavi; Dimino, Joseph; Gersten, Russell; Taylor, Mary Jo; Haymond, Kelly; Smolkowski, Keith; Newman-Gonchar, Rebecca

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this replication study was to examine the impact of the Teacher Study Group (TSG) professional development in vocabulary on first-grade teachers' knowledge of vocabulary instruction and observed teaching practice, and on students' vocabulary knowledge. Sixty-two schools from 16 districts in four states were randomly assigned to…

  1. Vocabulary development at home: A multimedia elaborated picture supporting parent-toddler interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gremmen, M.C.; Molenaar, I.; Teepe, R.C.

    2016-01-01

    Some children enter elementary school with large vocabulary delays, which negatively influence their later school performance. A rich home language environment can support vocabulary development through frequent high-quality parent-toddler interaction. Elaborated picture home activities can support

  2. Impact of Training Deep Vocabulary Learning Strategies on Vocabulary Retention of Iranian EFL Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Javad Es-hagi Sardroud

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Considering the overall tendency of foreign language learners to use mechanical strategies of rote rehearsal in vocabulary learning and their resistance towards use of 'deep' vocabulary learning strategies, namely contextual guessing, Keyword Method, metacognitive strategy, and semantic mapping, this study intended (a to explore what impact the instruction of these deep strategies, on vocabulary retention of 32 post-intermediate adult EFL Iranian learners, (b to determine how the variable of gender influences the vocabulary retention of students after receiving training in these strategies. To this end, on the basis of a strategy-based model of instruction–CALLA (Chamot & O'Malley, 1994, the experimental group received training in using 'deep' vocabulary learning strategies while the control group received only the common method of vocabulary teaching. After the treatment, following factorial design, the performance of the participants in the teacher-made vocabulary test as posttest was analyzed statistically.  The results indicated higher vocabulary retention for the experimental group, and it was revealed that female students were more receptive to strategy training. This study provides evidence for confirmation of 'depth of processing' hypothesis and the emerging theory about the impact of gender on effective strategy teaching and use, and it recommends incorporation of teaching these 'deep' strategies of vocabulary learning into EFL classrooms.

  3. Online Independent Vocabulary Learning Experience of Hong Kong University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunice Tang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In response to the limited vocabulary size of its undergraduates, an independent vocabulary learning platform, VLearn was designed and launched in a university in Hong Kong. As an elearning environment that supports self-directed vocabulary learning of Chinese learners, the primary aim of VLearn is to equip users with appropriate knowledge and skills for vocabulary expansion. This paper introduces the contents of VLearn, and the theoretical underpinnings of its design. It also reports on the vocabulary learning experience of its users during an eight week evaluation study. Suggestions are made on how independent vocabulary building at higher education, as well as comprehensive vocabulary instruction at early years could be supported by means of technology.

  4. The efficacy of a vocabulary intervention for dual-language learners with language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo, Maria Adelaida; Morgan, Gareth P; Thompson, Marilyn S

    2013-04-01

    In this study, the authors evaluated the efficacy of a Spanish-English versus English-only vocabulary intervention for dual-language learners (DLLs) with language impairment compared to mathematics intervention groups and typically developing controls with no intervention. Further, in this study the authors also examined whether the language of instruction affected English, Spanish, and conceptual vocabulary differentially. The authors randomly assigned 202 preschool DLLs with language impairment to 1 of 4 conditions: bilingual vocabulary, English-only vocabulary, bilingual mathematics, or English-only mathematics. Fifty-four DLLs with typical development received no intervention. The vocabulary intervention consisted of a 12-week small-group dialogic reading and hands-on vocabulary instruction of 45 words. Postintervention group differences and linear growth rates were examined in conceptual, English, and Spanish receptive and expressive vocabulary for the 45 treatment words. Results indicate that the bilingual vocabulary intervention facilitated receptive and expressive Spanish and conceptual vocabulary gains in DLLs with language impairment compared with the English vocabulary intervention, mathematics intervention, and no-intervention groups. The English-only vocabulary intervention differed significantly from the mathematics condition and no-intervention groups on all measures but did not differ from the bilingual vocabulary intervention. Vocabulary growth rates postintervention slowed considerably. Results support the idea that bilingual interventions support native- and second-language vocabulary development. English-only intervention supports only English. Use of repeated dialogic reading and hands-on activities facilitates vocabulary acquisition.

  5. Teaching Academic Vocabulary to Adolescents with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, Kristen D.; Sanchez, Victoria; Flynn, Lindsay J.; O'Connor, Rollanda E.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the efforts of a U.S. History teacher to directly teach word meanings using the "robust vocabulary instruction" (RVI) approach, because research supports this method as a way to improve vocabulary knowledge for a range of students, including adolescents reading below grade level (i.e., struggling readers) and…

  6. The Effects of Content-Enriched Shared Book Reading versus Vocabulary-Only Discussions on the Vocabulary Outcomes of Preschool Dual Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard-Durodola, Sharolyn D.; Gonzalez, Jorge E.; Saenz, Laura; Resendez, Nora; Kwok, Oiman; Zhu, Leina; Davis, Heather

    2018-01-01

    Research Findings: This study compared the effects of content-based shared book-reading instruction versus an explicit vocabulary-only condition on the vocabulary development of preschool dual language learners (DLLs). Using shared book reading as the mode of instruction, we randomly assigned 48 bilingual preschool teachers and 281…

  7. Personalization of Reading Passages Improves Vocabulary Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilman, Michael; Collins-Thompson, Kevyn; Callan, Jamie; Eskenazi, Maxine; Juffs, Alan; Wilson, Lois

    2010-01-01

    The REAP tutoring system provides individualized and adaptive English as a Second Language vocabulary practice. REAP can automatically personalize instruction by providing practice readings about topics that match interests as well as domain-based, cognitive objectives. While most previous research on motivation in intelligent tutoring…

  8. Facilitating vocabulary acquisition of young English language learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugo-Neris, Mirza J; Jackson, Carla Wood; Goldstein, Howard

    2010-07-01

    This study examined whether English-only vocabulary instruction or English vocabulary instruction enhanced with Spanish bridging produced greater word learning in young Spanish-speaking children learning English during a storybook reading intervention while considering individual language characteristics. Twenty-two Spanish-speaking children learning English (ages 4-6) who participated in a summer education program for migrant families were randomly assigned to receive 2 weeks of each instruction: (a) word expansions in English or (b) English readings with word expansions in Spanish. Researcher-created measures of target vocabulary were administered, as were English and Spanish standardized measures of language proficiency and vocabulary. Results revealed significant improvement in naming, receptive knowledge, and expressive definitions for those children who received Spanish bridging. Spanish expansions produced the greatest gains in the children's use of expressive definitions. Initial language proficiency in both languages was found to affect participants' gains from intervention, as those with limited skills in both languages showed significantly less vocabulary growth than those with strong skills in Spanish. Additional benefits to using Spanish expansions in vocabulary instruction were observed. Future research should explore additional ways of enhancing the vocabulary growth of children with limited skills in both languages in order to support and strengthen the child's first language and promote second language acquisition.

  9. Influence of Native Language Vocabulary and Topic Knowledge on Foreign Language Vocabulary Learning in Health Care Providers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Foresee Drumhiller

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Adults attending short, language for specific purpose courses may have expertise not utilized in general foreign language courses. The present study investigates two factors that may influence the acquisition of medical Spanish vocabulary in such persons: native English vocabulary size and topic knowledge. Forty-four health care workers attended 12 hr of medical Spanish instruction. Prior to instruction, the Nelson–Denny Vocabulary Test, a Medical Spanish vocabulary test, and an English Medical Terminology Test (an indicator of topic knowledge were administered. The Medical Spanish Vocabulary Test was readministered at posttest. Individually, both English medical terminology knowledge and English vocabulary size were significant predictors of medical Spanish vocabulary acquisition, but English medical terminology knowledge explained most of the variance in medical Spanish vocabulary acquisition. The results are discussed in terms of the impact of expert memory organization on the ability to learn new labels in a second language. A curricular shift toward content-centered vocabulary in language for specific purpose courses may be advantageous for some groups of foreign language learners.

  10. An Investigation of High School Social Studies Teachers' Understandings of Vocabulary Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, Janis; Antuna, Marcos; Juarez, Lucinda; Wood, Karen D.; Vintinner, Jean

    2018-01-01

    This qualitative study focused on high school social studies teachers' understandings of and perspectives about vocabulary acquisition and instruction. The research questions were the following: (1) What do high school social studies teachers understand about vocabulary instruction? and (2) How do high school social studies teachers support…

  11. Strengthening Academic Vocabulary with Word Generation® Helps Sixth-Grade Students Improve Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtari, Kouider; Velten, Justin

    2015-01-01

    In this quasi-experimental study, we assessed the promise of Word Generation, a research-based academic vocabulary program, on improving the reading achievement outcomes of struggling sixth-grade readers in an after-school small group instructional setting. After 34 hours of academic vocabulary instruction, we compared the performance of a…

  12. The Value of Picture-Book Reading-Based Collaborative Output Activities for Vocabulary Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chia-Ho

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of three instructional modes: picture-book reading-only (PRO), picture-book reading plus vocabulary instruction (PRVI), and picture-book reading plus reading-based collaborative output activity (PRCOA) on young adult EFL (English as a foreign language) learners' vocabulary acquisition and retention. Eighty…

  13. A study of students' beliefs about vocabulary knowledge and acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Michelle Andersen

    Using the vocabulary of a discipline is important for students, especially in the sciences (Gee, 2003). Therefore, the extant literature has emphasized the need for more research on vocabulary knowledge and acquisition (Simpson, et al., 2004). This study investigated whether or not community college students' beliefs about vocabulary knowledge and acquisition changed as a result of a one-semester enrollment in a vocabulary-rich biology course. The rationale for the study, a review of the existing research underlying the study, the methodology of the study, and the results and conclusions of the study will be discussed.

  14. Enriching Students’ Vocabulary Mastery Using Graphic Organizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syaifudin Latif Darmawan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This action research is carried out to (1 identify whether graphic organizers enrich student’s vocabulary mastery; and (2 to describe the classroom situation when graphic organizers are employed in instructional process of vocabulary. The research is conducted in two cycles from March to May 2016/2017 in the eight years of SMP Muhammadiyah Sekampung, East lampung. The procedure of the research consists of identifying the problem, planning the action, implementing the action, observing the action, and reflecting the result of the research. Qualitative data are collected through interview, observation, questionnaire, and research diary. Quantitative data are collected through test. To analyze qualitative data, the researcher used constant comparative method. It consists of four steps: (1 comparing incidents applicable to each category; (2 Integrating categories and their properties; (3 delimiting the theory; (4 Writing the theory. Meanwhile, to analyze quantitative data, the researcher employed descriptive statistic.    The result of the research shows that using graphic organizers can enrich students’ vocabulary mastery and classroom situation. The improvement on students’ vocabulary included; a the students are able to speak English; b the students are able to understand the meaning of the text as they have a lot of vocabularies. The improvement of the classroom situation; (a students come on time in the class (b students are more motivated to join the class (c Students pay more attention in the instructional process (d students’ participation in responding the questions are high.

  15. Interactive electronic storybooks for kindergartners to promote vocabulary growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, Daisy J. H.; Bus, Adriana G

    2012-01-01

    The goals of this study were to examine (a) whether extratextual vocabulary instructions embedded in electronic storybooks facilitated word learning over reading alone and (b) whether instructional formats that required children to invest more effort were more effective than formats that required

  16. The Effects of Play-Based Intervention on Vocabulary Acquisition by Preschoolers at Risk for Reading and Language Delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Ragan H.; Hardy, Jessica K.; Kaiser, Ann P.

    2017-01-01

    Closing the vocabulary gap for young children at risk for reading and language delays due to low socioeconomic status may have far reaching effects, as the relationship between early vocabulary knowledge and later academic achievement has been well-established. Vocabulary instruction for young children at risk for reading and language delays…

  17. Food and Feed Commodity Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food and Feed Vocabulary was developed to consolidate all the major OPP Commodity Vocabularies into one standardized vocabulary. The EPA-preferred term is the only term that can be used in setting tolerances.

  18. Vocabulary Development at Home: A Multimedia Elaborated Picture Supporting Parent-Toddler Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gremmen, M. C.; Molenaar, I.; Teepe, R. C.

    2016-01-01

    Some children enter elementary school with large vocabulary delays, which negatively influence their later school performance. A rich home language environment can support vocabulary development through frequent high-quality parent-toddler interaction. Elaborated picture home activities can support this rich home language environment. This study…

  19. Swimming in New Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donohue, Kerri; Buck, Gayle

    2017-01-01

    This article describes an informal program in one school where grade K-1 students learn a variety of new science vocabulary words relating to animal characteristics. The students are introduced to a new group of animals and their characteristics through storytelling, games, discussion, and crafts (see Table 1, p. 34). The new vocabulary words are…

  20. Vocabularies in the VO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, A. J. G.; Gray, N.; Ounis, I.

    2009-09-01

    There are multiple vocabularies and thesauri within astronomy, of which the best known are the 1993 IAU Thesaurus and the keyword list maintained by A&A, ApJ and MNRAS. The IVOA has agreed on a standard for publishing vocabularies, based on the W3C skos standard, to allow greater automated interaction with them, in particular on the Web. This allows links with the Semantic Web and looks forward to richer applications using the technologies of that domain. Vocabulary-aware applications can benefit from improvements in both precision and recall when searching for bibliographic or science data, and lightweight intelligent filtering for services such as VOEvent streams. In this paper we present two applications, the Vocabulary Explorer and its companion the Mapping Editor, which have been developed to support the use of vocabularies in the Virtual Observatory. These combine Semantic Web and Information Retrieval technologies to illustrate the way in which formal vocabularies might be used in a practical application, provide an online service which will allow astronomers to explore and relate existing vocabularies, and provide a service which translates free text user queries into vocabulary terms.

  1. Effects of Hierarchy Vocabulary Exercises on English Vocabulary Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ching-Ying; Hsu, Wei Shu

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the effectiveness of hierarchy vocabulary exercises and copying vocabulary exercises on EFL students' vocabulary acquisition and reading comprehension. Two specific factors were probed: (a) vocabulary gains and retention from different exercises; (b) reading comprehension performance through different…

  2. Vocabulary Control for Information Retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, F. W.

    This book deals with properties of vocabularies for indexing and searching document collections; the construction, organization, display, and maintenance of these vocabularies; and the vocabulary as a factor affecting the performance of retrieval systems. Most of the text is concerned with vocabularies for post-coordinate retrieval systems, with…

  3. Linking open vocabularies

    CERN Document Server

    Greifender, Elke; Seadle, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Linked Data (LD), Linked Open Data (LOD) and generating a web of data, present the new knowledge sharing frontier. In a philosophical context, LD is an evolving environment that reflects humankinds' desire to understand the world by drawing on the latest technologies and capabilities of the time. LD, while seemingly a new phenomenon did not emerge overnight; rather it represents the natural progression by which knowledge structures are developed, used, and shared. Linked Open Vocabularies is a significant trajectory of LD. Linked Open Vocabularies targets vocabularies that have traditionally b

  4. Tagging vs. Controlled Vocabulary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogers, Toine; Petras, Vivien

    2015-01-01

    The popularity of social tagging has sparked a great deal of debate on whether tags could replace or improve upon professional metadata as descriptors of books and other information objects. In this paper we present a large-scale empirical comparison of the contributions of individual information...... that tags and controlled vocabulary terms do not actually outperform each other consistently, but seem to provide complementary contributions: some information needs are best addressed using controlled vocabulary terms whereas other are best addressed using tags....

  5. Examining Listening Previewing as a Classwide Strategy to Promote Reading Comprehension and Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Renee O.; Musti-Rao, Shobana; Hale, Andrea D.; McGuire, Shannon; Hailley, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Classwide instructional strategies to improve not only reading fluency but also comprehension and vocabulary knowledge are essential for student reading success. The current study examined the immediate effects of two classwide listening previewing strategies on reading comprehension and vocabulary knowledge. Twenty-one, fourth-grade general…

  6. Mnemonic Versus Nonmnemonic Vocabulary-Learning Strategies: Putting "Depth" to Rest. Report from the Project on Studies in Language: Reading and Communication. Working Paper No. 312.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressley, Michael; And Others

    A study examined the efficacy of the keyword method of vocabulary instruction by comparing it with five methods designed to increase semantic processing of the definitions of the vocabulary words. Subjects in all five experiments were college students. In the first three experiments, recall of the definitions from the vocabulary words was the…

  7. An overview of the age factor and its pedagogical implications for vocabulary acquisition

    OpenAIRE

    Exp??sito Morillas, Mar??a del Pilar

    2011-01-01

    This?? research?? deals with??the??age??effects??on??the??acquisition??of??vocabulary??as??a??second??language??in??an??instructed??setting.??The??literature??review??on??the??age??factor??in??reference?? to?? vocabulary?? acquisition??shows?? an?? advantage?? of?? the??late starters?? over the?? early??starters?? in?? instructed?? settings.?? However,?? early??starters?? surpass?? late starters?? in??naturalistic?? settings?? in?? the?? long??run?? when?? the?? basic?? conditions??are??fulfi...

  8. Using Vocabulary Notebooks for Vocabulary Acquisition and Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubiner, Deborah

    2017-01-01

    Vocabulary knowledge is recognized as an essential element for second language acquisition and reading comprehension. One known way to encourage and support vocabulary development amongst second language learners is keeping a vocabulary notebook. The primary purpose of the present study was to document two aspects of student teachers' own…

  9. THE VOCABULARY TEACHING AND VOCABULARY LEARNING: PERCEPTION, STRATEGIES, AND INFLUENCES ON STUDENTS' VOCABULARY MASTERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Nur Asyiah

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Vocabulary plays pivotal role in foreign language learning. However, vocabulary teaching and vocabulary learning in TEFL seems to be neglected. The study was aimed to investigate how vocabulary teaching and learning are perceived by teacher and students, strategies to teach and learn the vocabulary, and also influences of students’ vocabulary learning strategy on their vocabulary mastery. Accordingly, a mix method design was employed to one English teacher and 30 junior high school students to reveal the issues being investigated. The findings showed that both teacher and students have positive response on vocabulary teaching and learning. Concerning strategies, it was found that teacher mostly employed Fully-contextual strategy, meanwhile Determination and Metacognitive strategy were found as the most favored VLS chosen by students. The study also confirmed that there is a significant relationship between students’ vocabulary learning strategy and their vocabulary mastery (r-value Discovery = .023 and r-value Consolidating = .000, p<.05. It is recommended for EFL teachers to give a bigger portion to vocabulary in the EFL teaching and to teach vocabulary using the combination of fully-contextual and de-contextual strategy. It is also suggested to introduce students to various kinds of vocabulary learning strategies.  

  10. Vocabulary Learning Strategies of Japanese Life Science Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Andrea; Kobayashi, Kaoru

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates vocabulary learning strategy (VLS) preferences of lower and higher proficiency Japanese university science students studying English as a foreign language. The study was conducted over a 9-week period as the participants received supplemental explicit VLS instruction on six strategies. The 38 participants (14 males and 24…

  11. Content Area Vocabulary Videos in Multiple Contexts: A Pedagogical Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, C. Lorraine; Kapavik, Robin Robinson

    2015-01-01

    The authors challenged pre-service teachers to digitally define a social studies or mathematical vocabulary term in multiple contexts using a digital video camera. The researchers sought to answer the following questions: 1. How will creating a video for instruction affect pre-service teachers' attitudes about teaching with technology, if at all?…

  12. Vocabulary development at home: A multimedia elaborated picture supporting parent-toddler interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gremmen, M.C.; Molenaar, I.; Teepe, R.C.

    2016-01-01

    Some children enter elementary school with large vocabulary delays, which negatively influence their later school performance.A rich home language environment can support vocabulary development through frequent high-quality parent–toddler interaction. Elaborated picture home activities can support

  13. Longitudinal analysis of receptive vocabulary growth in young Spanish English-speaking children from migrant families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Carla Wood; Schatschneider, Christopher; Leacox, Lindsey

    2014-01-01

    The authors of this study described developmental trajectories and predicted kindergarten performance of Spanish and English receptive vocabulary acquisition of young Latino/a English language learners (ELLs) from socioeconomically disadvantaged migrant families. In addition, the authors examined the extent to which gender and individual initial performance in Spanish predict receptive vocabulary performance and growth rate. The authors used hierarchical linear modeling of 64 children's receptive vocabulary performance to generate growth trajectories, predict performance at school entry, and examine potential predictors of rate of growth. The timing of testing varied across children. The ELLs (prekindergarten to 2nd grade) participated in 2-5 testing sessions, each 6-12 months apart. The ELLs' average predicted standard score on an English receptive vocabulary at kindergarten was nearly 2 SDs below the mean for monolingual peers. Significant growth in the ELLs' receptive vocabulary was observed between preschool and 2nd grade, indicating that the ELLs were slowly closing the receptive vocabulary gap, although their average score remained below the standard score mean for age-matched monolingual peers. The ELLs demonstrated a significant decrease in Spanish receptive vocabulary standard scores over time. Initial Spanish receptive vocabulary was a significant predictor of growth in English receptive vocabulary. High initial Spanish receptive vocabulary was associated with greater growth in English receptive vocabulary and decelerated growth in Spanish receptive vocabulary. Gender was not a significant predictor of growth in either English or Spanish receptive vocabulary. ELLs from low socioeconomic backgrounds may be expected to perform lower in English compared with their monolingual English peers in kindergarten. Performance in Spanish at school entry may be useful in identifying children who require more intensive instructional support for English vocabulary

  14. Elementary Students' Retention of Environmental Science Knowledge: Connected Science Instruction versus Direct Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Bhaskar; DeFranco, Cristina

    2008-01-01

    This study compares 3rd-grade elementary students' gain and retention of science vocabulary over time in two different classes--"connected science instruction" versus "direct instruction." Data analysis yielded that students who received connected science instruction showed less gain in science knowledge in the short term compared to students who…

  15. Automatic Identification of Nutritious Contexts for Learning Vocabulary Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostow, Jack; Gates, Donna; Ellison, Ross; Goutam, Rahul

    2015-01-01

    Vocabulary knowledge is crucial to literacy development and academic success. Previous research has shown learning the meaning of a word requires encountering it in diverse informative contexts. In this work, we try to identify "nutritious" contexts for a word--contexts that help students build a rich mental representation of the word's…

  16. The pace of vocabulary growth helps predict later vocabulary skill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Meredith L.; Raudenbush, Stephen W.; Goldin-Meadow, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Children vary widely in the rate at which they acquire words—some start slow and speed up, others start fast and continue at a steady pace. Do early developmental variations of this sort help predict vocabulary skill just prior to kindergarten entry? This longitudinal study starts by examining important predictors (SES, parent input, child gesture) of vocabulary growth between 14 and 46 months (n=62), and then uses growth estimates to predict children's vocabulary at 54 months. Velocity and acceleration in vocabulary development at 30 months predicted later vocabulary, particularly for children from low socioeconomic backgrounds. Understanding the pace of early vocabulary growth thus improves our ability to predict school readiness, and may help identify children at risk for starting behind. PMID:22235920

  17. The effect of vocabulary notebooks on vocabulary acquisition

    OpenAIRE

    Bozkurt, Neval

    2007-01-01

    Ankara : The Department of Teaching English as a Foreign Language, Bilkent University, 2007. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 2007. Includes bibliographical references leaves 82-87 This study investigated the effectiveness of vocabulary notebooks on vocabulary acquisition, and the attitudes of teachers and learners towards keeping vocabulary notebooks. The study was conducted with the participation of 60 pre-intermediate level students, divided into one treatment ...

  18. The Impact of a Systematic and Explicit Vocabulary Intervention in Spanish with Spanish-Speaking English Learners in First Grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cena, Johanna; Baker, Doris Luft; Kame'enui, Edward J.; Baker, Scott K.; Park, Yonghan; Smolkowski, Keith

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the impact of a 15-min daily explicit vocabulary intervention in Spanish on expressive and receptive vocabulary knowledge and oral reading fluency in Spanish, and on language proficiency in English. Fifty Spanish-speaking English learners who received 90 min of Spanish reading instruction in an early transition model were…

  19. Effects of a Vocabulary Acquisition and Assessment System on Students' Performance in a Blended Learning Class for English Subject

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Jiyou; Chen, Yuhao; Ding, Zhuhui; Ruan, Meixian

    2012-01-01

    Vocabulary acquisition and assessment are regarded as the key basis for the instruction of English as a second language. However, it is time-consuming, fallible and repetitive for the school teachers and parents to assess the proficiency of the students' vocabulary acquisition. We customized the open source course management system Moodle to build…

  20. Teaching Vocabulary to Preschoolers with Disabilities Using Adult-Child Shared Bookreading: A Comparison of Traditional and Electronic Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodehouse, Sara Bernice

    2013-01-01

    This study sought to validate adult-child shared storybook reading as a method for teaching target vocabulary words to preschool children with disabilities. The Vocabulary Learning through Books (VLTB) instructional procedure incorporates, adult-child book reading, questioning during reading requiring the child to answer with a target word, and…

  1. The Effects of Self-Regulation on Science Vocabulary Acquisition of English Language Learners with Learning Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Woori; Linan-Thompson, Sylvia

    2013-01-01

    This multiple-probe study examined the effects of self-regulation on the acquisition of science vocabulary by four third-grade English language learners (ELLs) with learning difficulties. The students were provided only direct vocabulary instruction in a baseline phase, followed by intervention and maintenance phases into which self-regulation…

  2. An Analysis of Implementation Strategies in a School-Wide Vocabulary Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roskos, Katheen A.; Moe, Jennifer Randazzo; Rosemary, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    From an improvement research perspective, this study explores strategies used to implement a school-wide vocabulary intervention into language arts instruction at an urban elementary school. Academic language time, an innovative change in the instructional delivery system, allots time and structure for deliberate teaching of cross-disciplinary…

  3. Using Evidence-Based Multimedia to Improve Vocabulary Performance of Adolescents With LD: A UDL Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Michael J.; Thomas, Cathy Newman; Meyer, J. Patrick; Alves, Kat D.; Lloyd, John Wills

    2014-01-01

    Universal Design for Learning (UDL) is a framework that is commonly used for guiding the construction and delivery of instruction intended to support all students. In this study, we used a related model to guide creation of a multimedia-based instructional tool called content acquisition podcasts (CAPs). CAPs delivered vocabulary instruction…

  4. Empirical Studies on English Vocabulary Learning Strategies in Mainland China over the Past Two Decades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongxin Dai

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Wen and Wang (2004 reviewed the empirical studies over the past two decades (from 1984 to 2003 on learning strategies that Chinese EFL learners used. This article, following their methodological framework, reviews about 45 empirical studies on Chinese EFL learners’ English vocabulary learning strategies, conducted by Mainland Chinese scholars over the past two decades. The review shows that more than half of the Chinese scholars are interested in questionnaire investigation of EFL learners’ preferences for vocabulary learning. The reports of the questionnaire investigations indicate that most Chinese EFL learners prefer rote learning of vocabulary to learning vocabulary in context or through language use. The experimental studies suggest that strategies-based instruction results in the learners’ vocabulary achievement. Cognitive and metacognitive strategies are the two groups of strategies that Chinese researchers show particular interest in.

  5. Vocabulary Constraint on Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Sutarsyah

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This case study was carried out in the English Education Department of State University of Malang. The aim of the study was to identify and describe the vocabulary in the reading text and to seek if the text is useful for reading skill development. A descriptive qualitative design was applied to obtain the data. For this purpose, some available computer programs were used to find the description of vocabulary in the texts. It was found that the 20 texts containing 7,945 words are dominated by low frequency words which account for 16.97% of the words in the texts. The high frequency words occurring in the texts were dominated by function words. In the case of word levels, it was found that the texts have very limited number of words from GSL (General Service List of English Words (West, 1953. The proportion of the first 1,000 words of GSL only accounts for 44.6%. The data also show that the texts contain too large proportion of words which are not in the three levels (the first 2,000 and UWL. These words account for 26.44% of the running words in the texts.  It is believed that the constraints are due to the selection of the texts which are made of a series of short-unrelated texts. This kind of text is subject to the accumulation of low frequency words especially those of content words and limited of words from GSL. It could also defeat the development of students' reading skills and vocabulary enrichment.

  6. Professional development to differentiate kindergarten Tier 1 instruction: Can already effective teachers improve student outcomes by differentiating Tier 1 instruction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otaiba, Stephanie Al; Folsom, Jessica S; Wanzek, Jeannie; Greulich, Luana; Wasche, Jessica; Schatschneider, Christopher; Connor, Carol

    Two primary purposes guided this quasi-experimental within-teacher study: (1) to examine changes from baseline through two years of professional development (Individualizing Student Instruction) in kindergarten teachers' differentiation of Tier 1 literacy instruction; (2) to examine changes in reading and vocabulary of three cohorts of the teachers' students ( n = 416). Teachers' instruction was observed and students were assessed on standardized measures of vocabulary and word reading. Results suggested that teachers significantly increased their differentiation and students showed significantly greater word reading outcomes relative to baseline. No change was observed for vocabulary. Results have implications for supporting teacher effectiveness through technology-supported professional development.

  7. Nuclear engineering vocabulary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumont, X.; Andrieux, C.

    2001-01-01

    The members of the CSTNIN - the Special Commission for Nuclear Engineering Terminology and Neology - have just produced a Nuclear Engineering Vocabulary, published by SFEN. A 120-page document which, to date, includes 400 nuclear engineering terms or expressions. For each term or expression, this Glossary gives: the primary and secondary subject field in which it is applied, a possible abbreviation, its definition, a synonym if appropriate, any relevant comments, any associated word(s), the English equivalent, its status on the date of publication of the Glossary. (author)

  8. Learners' independent records of vocabulary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaw, Philip; Leeke, Philip

    1999-01-01

    Handbooks recommend a variety of quite complicated procedures for learning and remembering vocabulary, but most learners only engage in very simple procedures. The aim of this project was to establish a basis for identifying optimal vocabulary recording procedures by finding out what learners...

  9. Strategies for teaching and learning vocabulary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Teng

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article presents an overview of current research on second language vocabulary learning and proposes eight strategies for teaching and learning vocabulary. First, to facilitate effective vocabulary teaching, choosing high-frequency words is essential. Teachers of vocabulary also need to add explicit, intentional teaching to incidental learning. In addition, vocabulary learning strategies including morphological awareness and lexical inference provides a platform by which learners can improve both receptive and productive vocabulary knowledge. This article also suggests that productive vocabulary knowledge needs more attention than receptive vocabulary knowledge, and that available textbooks seldom address vocabulary sufficiently. In summary, it is very important for all learners and teachers to acknowledge that learning vocabulary is incremental in nature, and we should develop a principled, long-term program for teaching and learning vocabulary.

  10. Fiche Pratique: Magic Circus; Une revolte? Non, une revolution!; 1789: tous en scene; Lexique de didactique, les 39 marches. (Practical Ideas: Magic Circus; A Revolt? No, a Revolution!; 1789: All on Stage; The Vocabulary of Instruction: 39 Steps).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezende de Rezende, Eleonora; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Four articles present practical classroom ideas related to language instruction, including (1) a children's circus production; (2) a language-learning game using the French Revolution as its theme; (3) a play using the French Revolution as its theme; and (4) definitions of terminology used in language teaching. (MSE)

  11. Sibship size, sibling cognitive sensitivity, and children's receptive vocabulary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prime, Heather; Pauker, Sharon; Plamondon, André; Perlman, Michal; Jenkins, Jennifer

    2014-02-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine the relationship between sibship size and children's vocabulary as a function of quality of sibling interactions. It was hypothesized that coming from a larger sibship (ie, 3+ children) would be related to lower receptive vocabulary in children. However, we expected this association to be moderated by the level of cognitive sensitivity shown by children's next-in-age older siblings. Data on 385 children (mean age = 3.15 years) and their next-in-age older siblings (mean age = 5.57 years) were collected and included demographic questionnaires, direct testing of children's receptive vocabulary, and videos of mother-child and sibling interactions. Sibling dyads were taped engaging in a cooperative building task and tapes were coded for the amount of cognitive sensitivity the older sibling exhibited toward the younger sibling. Hierarchical regression analyses were conducted and showed an interaction between sibship size and sibling cognitive sensitivity in the prediction of children's receptive vocabulary; children exposed to large sibships whose next-in-age older sibling exhibited higher levels of cognitive sensitivity were less likely to show low vocabulary skills when compared with those children exposed to large sibships whose siblings showed lower levels of cognitive sensitivity. Children who show sensitivity to the cognitive needs of their younger siblings provide a rich environment for language development. The negative impact of large sibships on language development is moderated by the presence of an older sibling who shows high cognitive sensitivity.

  12. Reading is FUNdamental: The effect of a reading programme on vocabulary development in a high poverty township school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scheepers, Ruth

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the development of the vocabulary of grade 7 learners in a reading project currently underway at a school in Atteridgeville, a township on the outskirts of Pretoria. A library has been established at the school and teachers throughout the school attend workshops designed to heighten their awareness of the value of reading and the importance of vocabulary, and to provide them with strategies to facilitate the development of reading. This paper focuses on the vocabulary development of grade 7 learners – they are in the senior phase of primary school and will soon be entering high school where they will be faced with more academic vocabulary in context-reduced textbooks. Learners’ vocabulary was tested early in the year and then again towards the end to assess whether increased access to books and reading had had an effect on vocabulary growth. Results revealed that learners at the project school showed a lack of vocabulary, even at the end of the study period, not only in terms of academic words but also high frequency words. Extensive reading alone is clearly not enough – learners need explicit vocabulary instruction: in order to read successfully at high school level, learners need a working knowledge of academic vocabulary, and this knowledge is developed by reading – but learners cannot read successfully without an adequate basic high-frequency vocabulary.

  13. The Function of Negotiation in Iranian EFL Students’ Vocabulary Acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Soleimani

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Negotiation is believed to play a key role in language learning in general and vocabulary learning in particular. The present study aimed at investigating the effect of types of instructions (negotiation, non-negotiation, or in isolation on learning and recalling of new words by Iranian learners. Using a quasi-experimental research design, 39 EFL students of a secondary school were sampled and assigned into three experimental groups: the input plus negotiated group (IPN, the input without negotiated group (IWN, and the elaborative, un-instructed input group (EUI. The first group had the chance for negotiated interaction; the second one received the input without any negotiation with their instructor and the last group received elaborative input without any interaction with their teachers. The groups were rated on their degree of comprehension and the acquisition of vocabulary items. The results revealed that negotiation had a non-significant effect over non-negotiation tasks. However, the results indicated that negotiation was significantly effective against un-instruction task. Thus, in acquisition and retention of new vocabulary, IPN group was not significantly different than IWN group, but they outperformed those learners who used their own strategy to learn new words (EUI.

  14. Effective Strategies for Turning Receptive Vocabulary into Productive Vocabulary in EFL Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraj, Avan Kamal Aziz

    2015-01-01

    Vocabulary acquisition has been a main concern of EFL English teachers and learners. There have been tons of research to examine the student's level of receptive vocabulary and productive vocabulary, but no research has conducted on how turning receptive vocabulary into productive vocabulary. This study has reported the impact of the teaching…

  15. Training in Metacognitive Strategies for Students’ Vocabulary Improvement by Using Learning Journals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itala Diaz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effects of metacognitive strategies to help beginning young learners with difficulties increasing and retaining vocabulary. This was a qualitative study in which participants first went through metacognitive strategy instruction to provide awareness of learning strategies. Following this instruction, students underwent a set of five interventions based on the cognitive academic language learning approach instructional model. These interventions, together with journaling progress, were used to train them in the use of the metacognitive strategies planning, monitoring, and evaluating. The findings showed that metacognitive strategy training has positively contributed to vocabulary acquisition skills, as participants were able to raise consciousness about some learning strategies and the use of metacognitive strategies to increase their vocabulary learning.

  16. Second Language Vocabulary Growth at Advanced Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Meral

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the receptive vocabulary growth of advanced EFL learners in an English-medium degree programme. The study used the Vocabulary Size Test in a cross-sectional design to measure the vocabulary size of learners at various stages of study. The effect of word frequency on vocabulary development and the presence of an…

  17. Vocabularies of happiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana Bratu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to explore through interviews the vocabularies of happiness that interviewees invoke in face-to-face interactions to account for their happiness or lack thereof and, especially, for the (unhappiness of others. In other words, how do respondents present their own or others’ happiness – be they close or distant acquaintances, or people in general, in an interview conversation? Also, what understanding of others do these accounts make visible? This work embraces a discursive psychological (DP perspective, focusing on how different versions of happiness are being put together by respondents presenting themselves as competent and credible individuals, while at the same time positioning themselves in a moral order of happiness.

  18. DSpace and customized controlled vocabularies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skourlas, C.; Tsolakidis, A.; Kakoulidis, P.; Giannakopoulos, G.

    2015-02-01

    The open source platform of DSpace could be defined as a repository application used to provide access to digital resources. DSpace is installed and used by more than 1000 organizations worldwide. A predefined taxonomy of keyword, called the Controlled Vocabulary, can be used for describing and accessing the information items stored in the repository. In this paper, we describe how the users can create, and customize their own vocabularies. Various heterogeneous items, such as research papers, videos, articles and educational material of the repository, can be indexed in order to provide advanced search functionality using new controlled vocabularies.

  19. Using Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition to Enrich the Students Vocabulary Mastery

    OpenAIRE

    Asmayanti, St

    2015-01-01

    The research aimed to find out the improvement the students'vocabulary in terms of improving their understanding about of nouns and adjectives. To explain the increase, the researcher used a classroom action research (CAR) which was conducted in two cycles in which each cycle consisted of four meetings.The subject was the students at the eight grade of SMP Askari Pallangga Gowa. The number of samples consisted of 37 students. The research findings indicated that using Incidental Vocabulary Ac...

  20. The effect of the integration of talking toys on preschoolers’ vocabulary learning in English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burcu Güngör

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Appropriate conditions and suitable materials can inspire young children to learn a new language effortlessly. The present study attempted to investigate the effects of English talking toys as teaching materials on vocabulary learning of very young learners (VYL based on their gender. The study was conducted at one of the public preschools in Yenimahalle/Ankara with 48 five-year old children from two classes. The first group of students was the experimental group and they were instructed using English talking toys as a teaching material. On the other hand, the other class was the control group and was instructed using flashcards. The target vocabulary for this study, which was incorporated into a Vocabulary Checklist Test, was developed after a close scrutiny of the relevant literature (i.e. vocabulary learning in young learners and examination of the theme-related curriculum employed in the chosen preschool. To assess preschoolers' learning of target words in English, a new Vocabulary Checklist Test was developed by the researcher. The results of a series of t-tests showed that the class instructed with English talking toys performed better on both receptive and expressive/productive vocabulary. The results also indicated that there was not any significant difference between males and females in terms of the effect of English talking toys on preschool children's vocabulary learning. The findings suggest that English talking toys are not only used for entertainment and recreational purposes, they can also be used as teaching material particularly when it comes to teaching basic English vocabulary. The current study contributed to areas such as early childhood education, foreign/second language learning, foreign language testing and evaluation.

  1. Implementing Controlled Composition to Improve Vocabulary Mastery of EFL Students

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    Juriah Juriah

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this study was to know how (1 Controlled composition teaching techniques implemented by the English teacher at SDN 027 Samarinda to improve vocabulary mastery, and (2 Controlled composition teaching techniques improves vocabulary mastery of the sixth grade students of SDN 027 Samarinda. This research used a Classroom Action Research (CAR as the research design. The subject of the research is the sixth grade students in the 2013/2014 academic year that consists of 43 students. The instruments employed in this study were observation checklist, field note, and vocabulary test. The result of the research showed that in cycle 1 the students’ achievement did not fulfill the minimal criteria of success. However the result of the cycle 1 was better than the preliminary study. The criteria of success did not fulfill in cycle one, some enhancement of the implementation of Controlled Composition were made in cycle two in the form of: Instruct the students bring dictionary, give more examples English sentences, guide the students find the mining of words in the dictionary and write a paragraph, more motivate the students and preparing a media/ picture .Meanwhile the students ’achievement in cycle two showed that fulfilled the criteria of success. Based on the findings and discussion, the conclusions : Firstly, Controlled composition was implemented well by the teacher of SDN 027 Samarinda. Controlled composition was implemented and gave impacts in: (a increasing the students’ vocabulary mastery significantly, (b making the students able to spell the vocabularies, (c making the students understand the meaning English words, and (d making the students able to pronounce English words quite good. Secondly, Controlled composition improved the students’ vocabulary mastery; it was only 20.9% of the students who achieved the English passing grade in the preliminary study, but then 81.39% of the students achieved the English passing grade in

  2. A phenomenological study on the impacts of embedding disciplinary literacy during science instruction on elementary teachers' metacognition of instructional techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Kelley

    The educational community has been increasing its focus on literacy for several years. The modern definition of literacy requires students to be an informed and integrated thinker, synthesizing new information beyond the mere ability to read and write (Guzzetti & Bang, 2011). This qualitative phenomenological study focused on how teachers of science view literacy and how that view changes when they implement the concept of disciplinary literacy into science instruction. This phenomenological study examined how teachers became more metacognitive of their instructional methods after implementation of the Question-Answer Relationship strategy (QAR) and direct vocabulary instruction into their science instruction. Teachers utilized schema theory and social cognitive theory to integrate the two strategies into their science lessons throughout the study. This phenomenological study collected data during a six-week implementation period through interviews, observations, teacher journals and collection of artifacts from 12 teachers who taught students in grades one through five and three literacy specialists in a rural central Maine school. These data sources were analyzed using Moustakas' (1994) seven steps to discover themes that were identified from the data. Findings from this study, as viewed through the pragmatic lens, suggested that teachers benefit from systematic reflection of their teaching to develop literacy rich content area lessons that address all of the students' learning needs.

  3. Orthographic facilitation in oral vocabulary acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricketts, Jessie; Bishop, Dorothy V M; Nation, Kate

    2009-10-01

    An experiment investigated whether exposure to orthography facilitates oral vocabulary learning. A total of 58 typically developing children aged 8-9 years were taught 12 nonwords. Children were trained to associate novel phonological forms with pictures of novel objects. Pictures were used as referents to represent novel word meanings. For half of the nonwords children were additionally exposed to orthography, although they were not alerted to its presence, nor were they instructed to use it. After this training phase a nonword-picture matching posttest was used to assess learning of nonword meaning, and a spelling posttest was used to assess learning of nonword orthography. Children showed robust learning for novel spelling patterns after incidental exposure to orthography. Further, we observed stronger learning for nonword-referent pairings trained with orthography. The degree of orthographic facilitation observed in posttests was related to children's reading levels, with more advanced readers showing more benefit from the presence of orthography.

  4. Perceptions of Digital Competency among Student Teachers: Contributing to the Development of Student Teachers' Instructional Self-Efficacy in Technology-Rich Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elstad, Eyvind; Christophersen, Knut-Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Adequate self-efficacy is useful for motivating individuals to engage in continued improvement. This study explores the potential antecedents of instructional self-efficacy beliefs among Norwegian student teachers attending a programme for secondary school teachers. The most important finding was the strong association between the student…

  5. TOEFL IBT vocabulary flash review

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    Llc, Learning Express

    2014-01-01

    The Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) measures the English proficiency of people whose native language isn't English. This portable guide features 600 essential TOEFL vocabulary flashcards, bound in a convenient book format, with definitions, sample sentences, synonyms, and pronunciation. The cards include the most-tested vocabulary on the exam. The perfect companion to any TOEFL study plan, this book is pocket-sized for portability and great for study anywhere, anytime!

  6. Enhancing Social Studies Vocabulary and Comprehension for 7th Grade English Language Learners: Findings from Two Experimental Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Sharon; Martinez, Leticia R.; Reutebuch, Colleen K.; Carlson, Coleen D.; Thompson, Sylvia L.; Franci, David J.

    2010-01-01

    The authors identified instructional practices associated with improved outcomes for English language learners (ELLs): (1) research-based vocabulary and concept instruction, (2) the use of media to build comprehension and concept knowledge, (3) the use of graphic organizers, and (4) structured peer-pairings. The purpose of our two studies was to…

  7. The effects of audibility and novel word learning ability on vocabulary level in children with cochlear implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Lisa S; Geers, Ann E; Nicholas, Johanna G

    2014-07-01

    A novel word learning (NWL) paradigm was used to explore underlying phonological and cognitive mechanisms responsible for delayed vocabulary level in children with cochlear implants (CIs). One hundred and one children using CIs, 6-12 years old, were tested along with 47 children with normal hearing (NH). Tests of NWL, receptive vocabulary, and speech perception at 2 loudness levels were administered to children with CIs. Those with NH completed the NWL task and a receptive vocabulary test. CI participants with good audibility (GA) versus poor audibility (PA) were compared on all measures. Analysis of variance was used to compare performance across the children with NH and the two groups of children with CIs. Multiple regression analysis was employed to identify independent predictors of vocabulary outcomes. Children with CIs in the GA group scored higher in receptive vocabulary and NWL than children in the PA group, although they did not reach NH levels. CI-aided pure tone threshold and performance on the NWL task predicted independent variance in vocabulary after accounting for other known predictors. Acquiring spoken vocabulary is facilitated by GA with a CI and phonological learning and memory skills. Children with CIs did not learn novel words at the same rate or achieve the same receptive vocabulary levels as their NH peers. Maximizing audibility for the perception of speech and direct instruction of new vocabulary may be necessary for children with CIs to reach levels seen in peers with NH.

  8. INCIDENTAL VOCABULARY LEARNING THROUGH READING

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    Holly Warzecha, M.A. TESOL

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the following paper is to take a closer look at the benefits of incidental learning through reading, with a specific focus on vocabulary acquisition. The teaching of vocabulary has traditionally been an explicit process where the target vocabulary is taken out of context and taught separately. However, this kind of explicit teaching and learning may only take into account a form-meaning connection. Therefore, this paper explores research on incidental learning and specifically looks at what it takes to acquire new vocabulary incidentally through reading while considering the coverage rates of texts, how many words must be known already from the text, how many repetitions it takes to learn a word, types of texts that promote learning, and the effects of pairing students‘ reading with learner tasks. After reviewing many studies, it can be concluded that more reading is better. More specifically, extensive reading of chosen novels at an appropriate level and interest to the students showed important gains in vocabulary. In addition, readings that were supplemented with additional activities that focused on both form and meaning showed an even higher increase in word retention.

  9. Breadth and Depth of Vocabulary Knowledge and Their Effects on L2 Vocabulary Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardakçi, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    Breadth and depth of vocabulary knowledge have been studied from many different perspectives, but the related literature lacks serious studies dealing with their effects on vocabulary profiles of EFL learners. In this paper, with an aim to fill this gap, the relative effects of breadth and depth of vocabulary knowledge on L2 vocabulary profiles…

  10. The Relationship between Vocabulary Learning Strategies and Breadth and Depth of Vocabulary Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xian; Lu, Xiaofei

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between vocabulary learning strategies and vocabulary breadth and depth knowledge. One hundred and fifty first-year university students in China took the Vocabulary Levels Test, a meaning recall task, and the Depth of Vocabulary Knowledge Test. The first two tests were used to elicit two types of vocabulary…

  11. Exploring vocabulary language in action

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    Gardner, Dee

    2013-01-01

    Routledge Introductions to Applied Linguistics is a series of introductory level textbooks covering the core topics in Applied Linguistics, primarily designed for those beginning postgraduate studies, or taking an introductory MA course as well as advanced undergraduates. Titles in the series are also ideal for language professionals returning to academic study. The books take an innovative 'practice to theory' approach, with a 'back-to-front' structure. This leads the reader from real-world problems and issues, through a discussion of intervention and how to engage with these concerns, before finally relating these practical issues to theoretical foundations. Additional features include tasks with commentaries, a glossary of key terms, and an annotated further reading section. Vocabulary is the foundation of language and language learning and as such, knowledge of how to facilitate learners’ vocabulary growth is an indispensable teaching skill and curricular component. Exploring Vocabulary is designed t...

  12. Understanding disciplinary vocabularies using a full-text enabled domain-independent term extraction approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Erjia; Williams, Jake; Chen, Zheng

    2017-01-01

    Publication metadata help deliver rich analyses of scholarly communication. However, research concepts and ideas are more effectively expressed through unstructured fields such as full texts. Thus, the goals of this paper are to employ a full-text enabled method to extract terms relevant to disciplinary vocabularies, and through them, to understand the relationships between disciplines. This paper uses an efficient, domain-independent term extraction method to extract disciplinary vocabularies from a large multidisciplinary corpus of PLoS ONE publications. It finds a power-law pattern in the frequency distributions of terms present in each discipline, indicating a semantic richness potentially sufficient for further study and advanced analysis. The salient relationships amongst these vocabularies become apparent in application of a principal component analysis. For example, Mathematics and Computer and Information Sciences were found to have similar vocabulary use patterns along with Engineering and Physics; while Chemistry and the Social Sciences were found to exhibit contrasting vocabulary use patterns along with the Earth Sciences and Chemistry. These results have implications to studies of scholarly communication as scholars attempt to identify the epistemological cultures of disciplines, and as a full text-based methodology could lead to machine learning applications in the automated classification of scholarly work according to disciplinary vocabularies.

  13. Jump-Start Your Middle School Students' Background Knowledge and Vocabulary Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Elizabeth; Williams-Rossi, Dara

    2012-01-01

    One of the most challenging tasks in increasingly diverse classrooms is helping students develop the "knowledge and language of science to communicate scientific explanations and ideas" (NRC 1996, p. 144). In this article, the authors share one of their favorite methods for incorporating and reinforcing science vocabulary instruction in…

  14. E-Books in the Early Literacy Environment: Is There Added Value for Vocabulary Development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roskos, Kathleen A.; Sullivan, Shannon; Simpson, Danielle; Zuzolo, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Using a theory of affordances, this study examines the introduction of e-books into the early literacy environment as resources that can increase children's opportunity for learning vocabulary. Added value was observed under conditions of (1) book browsing, (2) instruction, and (3) a print-only condition. A total of 33 4-year-olds (18 boys, 15…

  15. Word of the Day Improves and Redirects Student Attention while Supporting Vocabulary Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesely, Pamela J.; Gryder, Nancy L.

    2009-01-01

    To learn and master new concepts, including the acquisition of new vocabulary, students must be able to sustain attention during direct instruction, stay focused throughout the guided practice activity, and successfully complete the independent practice assignments. Yet, difficulty with maintaining attention is a common characteristic for students…

  16. Promoting Word Consciousness to Close the Vocabulary Gap in Young Word Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neugebauer, Sabina Rak; Gámez, Perla B.; Coyne, Michael D.; McCoach, D. Betsy; Cólon, Ingrid T.; Ware, Sharon

    2017-01-01

    A proposed avenue for increasing students' vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension is instruction that promotes students' enthusiasm and attention to words, referred to as "word consciousness". This study seeks to investigate, at the utterance level, whether and how word consciousness talk is used in classrooms with young word…

  17. Effects of Explicit Vocabulary Videos Delivered through iPods on Students with Language Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowman, J. Joneen; Dressler, Emily V.

    2016-01-01

    Poor word learning is a hallmark characteristic of students with specific language impairment (SLI). Explicit vocabulary instruction has shown to positively improve word learning in this population. Mobile technology has many advantages making it conducive for addressing the word learning needs of students with SLI. The current study utilized a…

  18. Teaching the Vocabulary of Citation: Action Research in a Southeast Asian Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Jena

    2016-01-01

    This action research project sought to investigate the role of explicit citation vocabulary instruction in the learning of citation style guidelines for an English for Academic Purposes (EAP) writing course at an English-medium university in Northern Thailand. The participants consisted of 120 undergraduate students enrolled in the EAP writing…

  19. Balancing Direction and Independence in Second Language Vocabulary Learning: A Gesture Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathison, Lake

    2017-01-01

    This pilot study looks at the effect of learning second language vocabulary with gesture. Specifically, this current study asks whether researcher-instructed or student-constructed gestures are more effective. Depth of processing theories (Craik and Lockhart 1972) as well as more recent educational frameworks like ICAP ("Interactive,"…

  20. Content Matters: Building Vocabulary and Conceptual Understanding in the Subject Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, Scott

    2004-01-01

    This article focuses on traditional vocabulary instruction that has often had pernicious side effects: drill and kill that turned kids off to reading and word study. This trend can be reversed through careful attention to the needs and predilections of students as well as conspicuous consideration of the ramifications of time-cost. Here, the…

  1. Can Explaining Less Be More? Enhancing Vocabulary through Explicit versus Elaborative Storytelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaahtoranta, Enni; Suggate, Sebastian; Jachmann, Cornelia; Lenhart, Jan; Lenhard, Wolfgang

    2018-01-01

    Shared reading represents an established practice to foster preschool vocabulary development, particularly when coupled with explicit instruction in word meanings. However, a question remains as to whether explicit word definitions detract from story delivery and hence language learning. Accordingly, this study compared explicit versus…

  2. A Dual Coding View of Vocabulary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadoski, Mark

    2005-01-01

    A theoretical perspective on acquiring sight vocabulary and developing meaningful vocabulary is presented. Dual Coding Theory assumes that cognition occurs in two independent but connected codes: a verbal code for language and a nonverbal code for mental imagery. The mixed research literature on using pictures in teaching sight vocabulary is…

  3. BUILDING VOCABULARY USING POP SONGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    author Rahmatika Kayyis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study is to find out whether there is a significant difference between the vocabulary mastery of first semester students taughtusing English pop songs and that taught without using English pop songs as a medium. This study involved 64 students of first semesterof STKIP Muhammadiyah Pringsewu Lampung in the academic year of 2012/2013 as the objects of the study. The result of the study shows there is a significant difference in the student’s vocabulary mastery between the experimental group who are taughtusing English pop songs and that taught without using English pop songs as a medium.The mean of post test score of the experimental group is 16.93 while the mean score of the control group is 14.54. The result of t-test shows that t-observed value which is higher than the t-value of the table (2.572>1.99, with a probability value of 0.008 which is lower than the significance level (0.008 < 0.05. In conclusion, the use of English pop songscould improve the students’ vocabulary mastery.Keywords: Vocabulary, English Pop Songs

  4. Vocabulary development and intervention for English learners in the early grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Doris Luft; Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Ortiz, Miriam; Correa, Vivian; Cole, Ron

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to describe the vocabulary development and promising, evidence-based vocabulary interventions for English learners (ELs) from preschool through second grade. To achieve this purpose, we have taken six steps. First, we describe the elements of language development in the native language (L1) and a second language (L2) and how these elements relate to three phases of reading development (i.e., the prereading phase, the learning to read phase, and the reading to learn phase). We contend that in order for ELs to succeed in school, they need a strong language foundation prior to entering kindergarten. This language foundation needs to continue developing during the "learning to read" and "reading to learn" phases. Second, we describe the limitations of current practice in preschool for ELs related to vocabulary instruction and to family involvement to support children's language development. Third, we report curricular challenges faced by ELs in early elementary school, and we relate these challenges to the increase in reading and language demands outlined in the Common Core State Standards (CCSS). Specific language activities that can help meet some of the demands are provided in a table. Fourth, we synthesize the research on evidence-based vocabulary instruction and intervention and discuss implications for practice with ELs. Fifth, we describe two intervention projects under development that have the potential to improve EL vocabulary and language proficiency in the early grades. We conclude with a summary of the chapter and provide additional resources on the topic.

  5. A Model of Communicative Teaching and Learning of English Vocabulary Through Interactive Actin vities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahraini Sahraini

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Teaching English vocabulary is very important, and it is more than just presenting and introducing new vocabulary to the students. Knowing words is not only memorizing them, but the students need to understand the meaning of the word in context and how the words are used. This can be achieved through correct vocabulary instruction which should involve vocabulary selection, word knowledge, and techniques. The needs of prospective teachers in mastering English both spoken and written, and the ability to teach using English as the language of instruction in the teaching and learning process in the classroom is very important. They also need the skills to teach English effectively and enjoyable to make the students have confident to use English communicatively. Deciding an interesting method for students is also an English teachers’ job to do. In this paper the writer tries to design a model of teaching and learning of English vocabulary through interactive activities. By using a lot of interactive activities, hopefully the students are able to practice to communicate by using English in oral and written.

  6. Computer Multimedia Assisted English Vocabulary Teaching Courseware

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Yue

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available English vocabulary is often regarded as the most boring link in English learning. However, English vocabulary is the basis of all aspects of English learning. Therefore, enriching the process of English vocabulary learning and stimulating the interest of English vocabulary learning are the keys to the reform of English vocabulary teaching. The computer multimedia is developing and popularizing rapidly with the rapid development of informationization and networking, which plays its role in more and more fields. The application of multimedia technology in the field of teaching is no longer strange. This paper mainly studied the design of computer multimedia assisted English vocabulary teaching courseware. First of all, this paper gave an overview of computer multimedia technology from the aspects of concept, characteristics, development and application situation, which cited and analyzed the cognitive learning theory and memory law. Under the guidance of scientific laws and in combination with the requirement analysis and pattern construction of English vocabulary teaching, this paper realized the module design, style design and database design of English vocabulary courseware. Finally, the content of English vocabulary teaching courseware was demonstrated, and its application effect was verified through the combination of subjective evaluation and objective evaluation. This article has an important guiding significance for stimulating students’ interest in English vocabulary learning and enhancing the quality of vocabulary teaching.

  7. THE COMPARISON OF USING SNAKE LADDERS AND SCRABBLE MEDIA TOWARDS VOCABULARY MASTERY OF STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eka Pra Setiawati

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Vocabulary is an essential component in learning English. It influences four English skills; they are listening, speaking, reading, and writing, for getting a good result in English. In teaching learning process, the teacher often implements the less interesting method, technique, or even media of vocabulary mastery in teaching and learning process which make the students to be bored, inactive, an uniterested in memorizing English vocabulary. Some media can be interested as the solutions in vocabulary mastery, they are Snake Ladders media and Scrabble media. The investigation was undergone by quantitative research. The researcher applied experimental research. This research underwent pre-test post-test control group design. To analyze data, t-test formula is used to measure the result of collected data. From the t-test measurement, it showed that t-test is 3.15 and t-table is 2.66. It means that t-hit > t-table. Based on the collected data, there is different result of using Snake Ladders from Scrabble media toward students’ vocabulary mastery. It was found that the students who are taught by using Snake Ladders resulted significant outcome than those are instructed by Scrabble media. It means that Snake Ladders is effective to improve the students’ vocabulary mastery.

  8. Assessment of the Vocabulary Learning and Strategies Used by Teacher Education Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esperanza F. Carranza

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available One way to assess a person’s communicative competence is through his ability to express his thoughts and ideas in appropriate words and meaningful sentences. Vocabulary learning then is critical to learning a language – be it the first, second or even foreign. However, test results, daily communication and English proficiency exams show that students have difficulty in learning vocabulary. This descriptive-evaluative study assessed the vocabulary learning and the strategies used along context clues, word analysis and dictionary skills of the 100 randomly selected second-year education students of the Sorsogon State College. The study utilized survey-questionnaire, teacher- made test and unstructured interview in gathering data. The study revealed that most of the Bachelor of Elementary Education (BEED and Bachelor of Secondary Education (BSED students oftentimes used strategies in learning vocabulary such as reading books and other materials, looking for clues in sentences and use the dictionary to unlock the unfamiliar words. The students attained nearly competent vocabulary performance along context clues, word analysis and dictionary skills. The context clues and word analysis skills are significantly related to the use of learning strategies when tested at 0.05 level. The developed vocabulary module to enhance the skills of the students can be validated and utilized for instruction.

  9. Professional Development to Differentiate Kindergarten Tier 1 Instruction: Can Already Effective Teachers Improve Student Outcomes by Differentiating Tier 1 Instruction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Folsom, Jessica S.; Wanzek, Jeanne; Greulich, Luana; Waesche, Jessica; Schatschneider, Christopher; Connor, Carol M.

    2016-01-01

    Two primary purposes guided this quasi-experimental within-teacher study: (a) to examine changes from baseline through 2 years of professional development (Individualizing Student Instruction) in kindergarten teachers' differentiation of Tier 1 literacy instruction; and (b) to examine changes in reading and vocabulary of 3 cohorts of the teachers'…

  10. The 'robustness' of vocabulary intervention in the public schools: targets and techniques employed in speech-language therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justice, Laura M; Schmitt, Mary Beth; Murphy, Kimberly A; Pratt, Amy; Biancone, Tricia

    2014-01-01

    This study examined vocabulary intervention-in terms of targets and techniques-for children with language impairment receiving speech-language therapy in public schools (i.e., non-fee-paying schools) in the United States. Vocabulary treatments and targets were examined with respect to their alignment with the empirically validated practice of rich vocabulary intervention. Participants were forty-eight 5-7-year-old children participating in kindergarten or the first-grade year of school, all of whom had vocabulary-specific goals on their individualized education programmes. Two therapy sessions per child were coded to determine what vocabulary words were being directly targeted and what techniques were used for each. Study findings showed that the majority of words directly targeted during therapy were lower-level basic vocabulary words (87%) and very few (1%) were academically relevant. On average, three techniques were used per word to promote deep understanding. Interpreting findings against empirical descriptions of rich vocabulary intervention indicates that children were exposed to some but not all aspects of this empirically supported practice. © 2013 Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists.

  11. COMPUTING THE VOCABULARY DEMANDS OF L2 READING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Cobb

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Linguistic computing can make two important contributions to second language (L2 reading instruction. One is to resolve longstanding research issues that are based on an insufficiency of data for the researcher, and the other is to resolve related pedagogical problems based on insufficiency of input for the learner. The research section of the paper addresses the question of whether reading alone can give learners enough vocabulary to read. When the computer’s ability to process large amounts of both learner and linguistic data is applied to this question, it becomes clear that, for the vast majority of L2 learners, free or wide reading alone is not a sufficient source of vocabulary knowledge for reading. But computer processing also points to solutions to this problem. Through its ability to reorganize and link documents, the networked computer can increase the supply of vocabulary input that is available to the learner. The development section of the paper elaborates a principled role for computing in L2 reading pedagogy, with examples, in two broad areas, computer-based text design and computational enrichment of undesigned texts.

  12. WORD ORIGIN HELPS EXPAND LEARNERS’ VOCABULARY A VOCABULARY TEACHING APPROACH

    OpenAIRE

    Li Jing

    2012-01-01

    Word origin (motivation) deals with the connection between name and sense, explaining how a word originated. With the knowledge of how words are originated, learners can grasp a word easier and thus expand their vocabulary more quickly. The introduction to word origin (motivation) by teachers can also help the learners gain interest in the process of learning and learn more about the cultural and historical background of the English-speaking countries. This paper tries to clarify this method ...

  13. Matching Vocabulary Learning Process with Learning Outcome in L2 Academic Writing: An Exploratory Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qing

    2013-01-01

    This exploratory case study of two undergraduates links vocabulary learning approaches with lexical quality measured in academic writing. Employing an array of qualitative data, it is shown that in a "semi-language-rich" learning context, Chinese learners may dispense with rote learning and engage in a more natural learning approach in which…

  14. Effects of Instructional Ratios on Students' Reading Performance in a Regular Education Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Maura L.; Shapiro, Edward S.

    1996-01-01

    Used 4 experimental conditions to examine the effectiveness of different instructional ratios of known to unknown vocabulary words on the reading progress of 46 students. Results suggest that students acquired new information as instructional ratios expanded. An inverse relationship was established between instructional material presented and…

  15. Memory strategies and ESL vocabulary acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carisma Dreyer

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This article compares the effectiveness of three learning strategies (memory strategies for ESL vocabulary acquisition. Four intact ESL classes were divided into one control group and three treatment groups (keyword, semantic, and keyword-semantic. These Afrikaans-speaking standard 6 pupils then received 4 days of instruction. Both multiplechoice and cued-recall instruments were used to measure effects both 1 day and 9 days after instruction. The results indicated that for both the multiple-choice and cued-recall tests the combined keyword-semantic strategy differed statistically Significantly as well as practically significantly from the keyword method. The results, therefore, suggest that the combined keyword-semantic strategy increased retention above the other strategies. Hierdie artikel vergelyk die effektiwiteit van drie taalleerstrategiee (geheue strategiee vir die aanleer van woordeskat met mekaar. Vier intak Engels tweedetaal klasse is verdeel in een kontrole groep en drie eksperimentele groepe (sleutelwoord, semantiese en 'n kombinasie van die sleutelwoord-semantiese strategiee. 'n Groep Afrikaanssprekende standerd ses leerlinge het vir 'n tydperk van vier dae onderrig in elk van bogenoemde strategiee ontvang. Multikeuse en "cued-recall" instrumente is gebruik om die effek van onderrig beide een dag en nege dae na eksperimentering te bepaal. Die resultate het aangetoon dat die gekombineerde sleutelwoord-semantiese strategie statisties betekenisvol sowel as prakties betekenisvol van die sleutelwoord strategie en die kontrole groep verskil het. Dit wil dus voorkom asof die gekombineerde sleutelwoord-semantiese strategie die mees belowende strategie is ten opsigte van die retensie van woordeskat.

  16. Investigating the Role of Pop Songs on Vocabulary Recall, Attitude and Retention of Iranian EFL Learners: The Case of Gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pouya Shakerian

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Pop songs are, in fact, an ideal source for incidental vocabulary learning because teenagers often spend large amounts of their free time listening to music and in particular to pop songs. Employing an experimental approach, this study attempted to investigate the role of pop songs on vocabulary recall, attitude and retention of Iranian advanced adult EFL learners based on their gender. In so doing a language placement test (Quick Oxford Placement Test was administered to 100 male and female language learners studying English at different language institutes in Esfahan, Iran. Ultimately, 60 advanced learners (30 males - 30 females were selected by leaving out the students of other levels of proficiency and randomly divided into two relatively homogenous groups as musical and non-musical groups. While the students of musical group (=30 were taught the new vocabulary in the syllabus through 60 different pop songs chosen by themselves through a questionnaire, the students of the non-musical group (n=30 were taught new vocabulary without using the songs. The participants were examined based on an English vocabulary test developed by the researchers, which probed into the learners’ vocabulary recall. A questionnaire was also used to investigate the attitude of the learners towards the instruction. A month later the vocabulary test was re-administered as a delayed retention test and obtained data were statistically analyzed. The results of t-tests demonstrated that the musical group outscored the non-musical group on vocabulary recall and retention. The results also showed the male learners perform better than the females. Keywords: incidental vocabulary, pop songs, vocabulary recall, attitude, retention

  17. Desirable difficulties in vocabulary learning

    OpenAIRE

    Bjork, RA; Kroll, JF

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 by the Board of Trustees of the University of Illinois. In this article we discuss the role of desirable difficulties in vocabulary learning from two perspectives, one having to do with identifying conditions of learning that impose initial challenges to the learner but then benefit later retention and transfer, and the other having to do with the role of certain difficulties that are intrinsic to language processes, are engaged during word learning, and reflect how language is underst...

  18. Vocabulary Mastery by Using Storytelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sektalonir Oscarini Bhakti

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:  This research investigated 80 students of Diploma III Architecture of Samarinda State Polytechnic to see their vocabularies mastery trough storytelling. Telling the stories is one of the best way to find out the students' English Mastery. Some obstacles are also found in learning English trough performing storytelling in the class such as the suitable material and text for the students, the lack of ability of the students and the teacher in conducting story as well as the readiness and the nervousness of the storytellers. As an English lecturer, the researcher also finds that how to improve vocabularies is one of the students' problems in learning English.  It is proved when the students are asked to tell a story in front of the class. In this research, the students needed telling stories before they had the English vocabulary test.  From the test, it could be concluded that the highest score was 92 got by one (1 student while the lowest score was 46 got by one (1 student.  Meanwhile, the average score was 78 that classified fair (B.  There were two (2 students who got below 50 that classified Fail. The results show that even the students' English mastery were satisfied but the students still need to practice how to tell the story in a good way so that they will master in all aspects. Keywords: Samarinda State Polytechnic, Students' Mastery, Storytelling

  19. Training in Metacognitive Strategies for Students' Vocabulary Improvement by Using Learning Journals (Entrenamiento de estrategias metacognitivas para mejorar vocabulario a través de diarios de aprendizaje)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Itala

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effects of metacognitive strategies to help beginning young learners with difficulties increasing and retaining vocabulary. This was a qualitative study in which participants first went through metacognitive strategy instruction to provide awareness of learning strategies. Following this instruction, students underwent a…

  20. Storytelling: Enhancing Vocabularies For Cerebral Palsy Students

    OpenAIRE

    Aprilina, Raita Gina

    2015-01-01

    This paper reported on a study concerned with teaching vocabulary using storytelling technique in one of SLBs in Bandung. This study aimed to find out the cerebral palsy students' ability in English vocabulary before and after the treatment, and to find out whether storytelling significantly improved English vocabulary of students with cerebral palsy. This study used an experimental method with single subject research with A-B-A design which involved two participants. This study revealed that...

  1. Using Song to Improve Students’ Vocabulary Mastery

    OpenAIRE

    Muflihah, Tatik

    2017-01-01

    Vocabulary mastery is one of the requirements for students to be able to communicate both in spoken and written. There are many ways to improve students’ vocabulary mastery used by the language teacher. This paper aims to examine the use of English song to motivate students in learning English. In addition, this concerns on the use of English song to improve students’ vocabulary mastery. The respondents were fifteen elementary students of community groups of orphans An-nur Surabaya. The data ...

  2. Vocabulary Pruning for Improved Context Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Rasmus Elsborg; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2004-01-01

    Language independent `bag-of-words' representations are surprisingly effective for text classification. The representation is high dimensional though, containing many non-consistent words for text categorization. These non-consistent words result in reduced generalization performance of subsequent...... of term relevancy, when pruning the vocabularies. With reduced vocabularies documents are classified using a latent semantic indexing representation and a probabilistic neural network classifier. Reducing the bag-of-words vocabularies with 90%-98%, we find consistent classification improvement using two...

  3. Supporting Preschool Teachers' Vocabulary Instruction during Storybook Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blamey, Katrin L.; Beauchat, Katherine A.; Sweetman, Heidi

    2012-01-01

    Preschool educators represent a unique population for which to design professional development; as a result, innovative professional development models are necessary. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of training preschool teachers to use a Shared Reading Innovation Configuration (IC) tool on their planning, implementation, and…

  4. Facilitating linguistically diverse parents to enhance toddler's vocabulary development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teepe, R.C.; Molenaar, I.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.; Oostdam, R.J.

    2017-01-01

    Aims: The aim is to investigate effects of a Dutch FLP on linguistically diverse children's vocabulary, specifically curriculumbased and general vocabulary. Moreover, we investigate additional effects including technology-enhanced activities in a FLP. Theoretical background Vocabulary knowledge in

  5. Recommendations for Recognizing Video Events by Concept Vocabularies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habibian, A.; Snoek, C.G.M.

    2014-01-01

    Representing videos using vocabularies composed of concept detectors appears promising for generic event recognition. While many have recently shown the benefits of concept vocabularies for recognition, studying the characteristics of a universal concept vocabulary suited for representing events is

  6. WORD ORIGIN HELPS EXPAND LEARNERS’ VOCABULARY A VOCABULARY TEACHING APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jing

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Word origin (motivation deals with the connection between name and sense, explaining how a word originated. With the knowledge of how words are originated, learners can grasp a word easier and thus expand their vocabulary more quickly. The introduction to word origin (motivation by teachers can also help the learners gain interest in the process of learning and learn more about the cultural and historical background of the English-speaking countries. This paper tries to clarify this method of teaching from four aspects: onomatopoeia, word formation, cultural and historical background and cognitive linguistics.

  7. Human simulations of vocabulary learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillette, J; Gleitman, H; Gleitman, L; Lederer, A

    1999-12-07

    The work reported here experimentally investigates a striking generalization about vocabulary acquisition: Noun learning is superior to verb learning in the earliest moments of child language development. The dominant explanation of this phenomenon in the literature invokes differing conceptual requirements for items in these lexical categories: Verbs are cognitively more complex than nouns and so their acquisition must await certain mental developments in the infant. In the present work, we investigate an alternative hypothesis; namely, that it is the information requirements of verb learning, not the conceptual requirements, that crucially determine the acquisition order. Efficient verb learning requires access to structural features of the exposure language and thus cannot take place until a scaffolding of noun knowledge enables the acquisition of clause-level syntax. More generally, we experimentally investigate the hypothesis that vocabulary acquisition takes place via an incremental constraint-satisfaction procedure that bootstraps itself into successively more sophisticated linguistic representations which, in turn, enable new kinds of vocabulary learning. If the experimental subjects were young children, it would be difficult to distinguish between this information-centered hypothesis and the conceptual change hypothesis. Therefore the experimental "learners" are adults. The items to be "acquired" in the experiments were the 24 most frequent nouns and 24 most frequent verbs from a sample of maternal speech to 18-24-month-old infants. The various experiments ask about the kinds of information that will support identification of these words as they occur in mother-to-child discourse. Both the proportion correctly identified and the type of word that is identifiable changes significantly as a function of information type. We discuss these results as consistent with the incremental construction of a highly lexicalized grammar by cognitively and pragmatically

  8. Sound Symbolism in Basic Vocabulary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Wichmann

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between meanings of words and their sound shapes is to a large extent arbitrary, but it is well known that languages exhibit sound symbolism effects violating arbitrariness. Evidence for sound symbolism is typically anecdotal, however. Here we present a systematic approach. Using a selection of basic vocabulary in nearly one half of the world’s languages we find commonalities among sound shapes for words referring to same concepts. These are interpreted as due to sound symbolism. Studying the effects of sound symbolism cross-linguistically is of key importance for the understanding of language evolution.

  9. Facilitating Vocabulary Acquisition of Children With Cochlear Implants Using Electronic Storybooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messier, Jane; Wood, Carla

    2015-10-01

    The present intervention study explored the word learning of 18 children with cochlear implants in response to E-book instruction. Capitalizing on the multimedia options available in electronic storybooks, the intervention incorporated videos and definitions to provide a vocabulary intervention that includes evidence-based teaching strategies. The extent of the children's word learning was assessed using three assessment tasks: receptive pointing, expressively labeling, and word defining. Children demonstrated greater immediate expressive labeling gains and definition generation gains for words taught in the treatment condition compared to those in the comparison condition. In addition, the children's performance on delayed posttest vocabulary assessments indicated better retention across the expressive vocabulary task for words taught within the treatment condition as compared to the comparison condition. Findings suggest that children with cochlear implants with functional speech perception can benefit from an oral-only multimedia-enhanced intensive vocabulary instruction. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Intentional Vocabulary Learning Using Digital Flashcards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Hsiu-Ting

    2015-01-01

    As an attempt to follow through on the claims made by proponents of intentional vocabulary learning, the present study set out to examine whether and how digital flashcards can be incorporated into a university course to promote the vocabulary learning of English language learners. The overall research findings underscore the value of learning…

  11. Hypermedia and Vocabulary Acquisition for Second Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meli, Rocio

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of multimedia as a delivery tool for enhancing vocabulary in second-language classrooms. The mixed method design focused on specific techniques to help students acquire Spanish vocabulary and communication skills. The theoretical framework for this study consisted of second language theories…

  12. Tuning in to Vocabulary Frequency in Coursebooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Loughlin, Richard

    2012-01-01

    For second language learners vocabulary growth is of major importance, and for many learners commercially published coursebooks will be the source of this vocabulary learning. In this preliminary study, input from three levels of the coursebook series "New English File" (Oxenden and Latham-Koenig, 2006; Oxenden, Latham-Koenig, and Seligson, 2004,…

  13. Vocabulary Growth of the Advanced EFL Learner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Meral

    2015-01-01

    This article reports the results of two studies on the vocabulary growth of advanced learners of English as a foreign language in an English-medium degree programme. Growth in learners' written receptive and productive vocabularies was investigated in one cross-sectional and one longitudinal study over three years. The effect of word frequency on…

  14. In search of the best technique for vocabulary acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mohseni-Far

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Teade plagiaadi kohta / Report of an Act of Plagiarism (6. mai 2012 / 6 May, 2012ERÜ aastaraamatus 4 (2008 lk 121–138 ilmunud Mohammad Mohseni-Far'i artikli "In Search of the Best Technique for Vocabulary Acquisition" näol on tegemist iseenda plagiaadiga. Sama artikkel on 2008. a ilmunud lisaks ERÜ aastaraamatule veel KAKS KORDA ligilähedases sõnastuses ning ligilähedase pealkirjaga. Kuna autor on tegelnud sõnastuse muutmisega, siis järelikult on tegemist teadliku plagiaadiga. Vt ka Check for Plagiarism On the Web.We are sorry to inform that Mohammad Mohseni-Far, the author of 'In Search of the Best Technique for Vocabulary Acquisition' published in ERÜ aastaraamat / EAAL yearbook, Vol. 4 (2008 pp. 121–138, has published the same article TWICE in another journal just by changing the title and a few wordings. The plagiarism is verified, using the Check for Plagiarism On the Web.A Cognitively-oriented Encapsulation of Strategies Utilized for Lexical Development: In search of a flexible and highly interactive curriculum. – Porta Linguarum 9 (2008, 35–42. Techniques and Strategies Utilized for Vocabulary Acquisition: the necessity to design a multifaceted framework with an instructionally wise equilibrium. – Porta Linguarum 8 (2007, 137–152.ERÜ aastaraamatu toimetus / Editors of the EAAL yearbook***The present study is intended to critically examine vocabulary learning/acquisition techniques within second/foreign language context. Accordingly, the purpose of this survey is to concentrate particularly on the variables connected with lexical knowledge and establish a fairly all-inclusive framework which comprises and expounds on the most significant strategies and relevant factors within the vocabulary acquisition context. At the outset, the study introduces four salient variables; learner, task and strategy serve as a general structure of inquiry (Flavell’s cognitive model, 1992. Besides, the variable of context

  15. Au Courant: Teaching French Vocabulary and Culture Using the Mass Media. Language in Education: Theory and Practice 65.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berwald, Jean-Pierre

    This volume outlines potential uses of many of the topics associated with daily newspapers, music, film, theater, and sports for vocabulary development and grammar review in French language instruction. The emphasis is on the advantage of using authentic, current materials prepared for the general public but somewhat familiar to students. The…

  16. The effect of proficiency level on the rate of receptive and productive vocabulary acquisition

    OpenAIRE

    Şener, Murat

    2010-01-01

    Ankara : The Department of Teaching English as a Foreign Language, Bilkent University, 2010. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 2010. Includes bibliographical references leaves 99-104. This study investigated the effect of proficiency level on the rate of receptive and productive vocabulary acquisition, in conjunction with an examination of materials and instruction. The study was conducted with the participation of 68 beginner and elementary level students, and their ...

  17. THE EFFECT OF USING FLASH CARD AND PICTURE STORY IN VOCABULARY MASTERY TO THE SEVENTH GRADER OF SMP PGRI 1 MARGATIGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khoirul Hidayat -

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Based on the content standard, junior high school students are hoped to master vocabulary about 1000 words, so they can understand the conversation. But it fact, most of the students in junior high school do not master vocabulary well. So, the teacher should be able to choose a good media to help students to increase their vocabulary. In this case, flash card with picture story is two of media that can be used to transfer vocabulary material for the students.   The objective of this research is to find the significant differences of using flash card with picture story in vocabulary, and to find which medium is more effective to use as media in vocabulary. This research was true experiment design. Pre test and post test were use to collect the data. There are two problems of the study, (1 are there any significant differences between flash card with picture story in vocabulary mastery for the seventh grade students in SMP PGRI 2 Margatiga academic years 2013/2014?, (2 which one is more effective media in vocabulary learning process, is it flash card or picture story at seventh grade of SMP PGRI 2 Margatiga, academic years 2013/2014?. As a source of data, the researcher utilized flash card with picture story to teach vocabulary for the students. The media help students to learn vocabulary easier and more interesting to understand the subject, so their vocabulary would increase.   The result of the research, it was found that the mean score of picture story in pre test is 53,86, in treatment is 81, and in post test 85,33. Meanwhile the mean score of the flash card media in pre test 59,33, in treatment is 73,5, and in post test is 80,66. It means that the student’s vocabulary has increased, and there is significant difference of using picture story and flash card in vocabulary instruction, and picture story was more effective to use in vocabulary instruction.

  18. Comparative Difficulties with Non-Scientific General Vocabulary and Scientific/Medical Terminology in English as a Second Language (ESL) Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heming, Thomas A; Nandagopal, Shobha

    2012-11-01

    Medical education requires student comprehension of both technical (scientific/medical) and non-technical (general) vocabulary. Our experience with "English as a second language" (ESL) Arab students suggested they often have problems comprehending scientific statements because of weaknesses in their understanding of non-scientific vocabulary. This study aimed to determine whether ESL students have difficulties with general vocabulary that could hinder their understanding of scientific/medical texts. A survey containing English text was given to ESL students in the premedical years of an English-medium medical school in an Arabic country. The survey consisted of sample questions from the Medical College Admission Test (USA). Students were instructed to identify all unknown words in the text. ESL students commenced premedical studies with substantial deficiencies in English vocabulary. Students from English-medium secondary schools had a selective deficiency in scientific/medical terminology which disappeared with time. Students from Arabic-medium secondary schools had equal difficulty with general and scientific/medical vocabulary. Deficiencies in both areas diminished with time but remained even after three years of English-medium higher education. Typically, when teaching technical subjects to ESL students, attention is focused on subject-unique vocabulary and associated modifiers. This study highlights that ESL students also face difficulties with the general vocabulary used to construct statements employing technical words. Such students would benefit from increases in general vocabulary knowledge.

  19. The Impact of Gloss Types on Reading Comprehension, Vocabulary Gain and Vocabulary Retention: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atefeh Elekaei

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The significance and impact of vocabulary learning in reading comprehension and L2 language learning are apparent to teachers, researchers and language learners. Moreover, glosses are found as one of the most effective strategies regarding vocabulary retention. Therefore, the present study attempted to investigate the effect of different types of glosses on reading comprehension, vocabulary gain and vocabulary retention. To this end, 140 Iranian EFL learners learning English were selected and were divided into four groups (footnote gloss group, interlinear gloss group, marginal gloss group, and glossary group. They were required to read a text and answer four reading comprehension questions. In addition, one immediate vocabulary post-test and one delayed vocabulary post-test were taken in order to investigate learners' vocabulary gain and vocabulary retention. In order to analyze the data, one one-way ANOVA and one MANOVA were run. The results of one-way ANOVA revealed that participants who received interlinear glosses significantly outperformed the other groups regarding comprehending the text. Moreover, the immediate vocabulary post-test was conducted immediately after reading test and the delayed post-test was administered after four weeks. The results of MANOVA indicated that the group which received interlinear glosses outperformed the other groups in both vocabulary gain and vocabulary retention. The present study has implications for teachers and learners. Teachers can find better methods to teach new reading passages as well as vocabulary items. Also, glosses help learners to have a better comprehension of difficult passages and they facilitate learning. Moreover, learners can enhance their vocabulary knowledge with the help of glosses.

  20. EDMODO AS A MEDIA TO TEACH VOCABULARY

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    Sutrisno Sadji Evenddy

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at intoducing how to use Edmodo to teach vocabulary. Vocabulary is a component of English language. When we are speaking and writing, we need to master vocabulary related to certain topic. Therefore vocabulary is important thing in learning language. But, mastering English vocabularies is not easy. Teacher needs a media to make an interesting teaching-learning process. One of the most accepted trends in the field of teaching vocabulary in a foreign language teaching is Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL. CALL has several applications that can be used by the teachers in teaching vocabulary. Computer and mobile telephone internet allow immediate connection to a server. In the internet browser the teachers and students can browse Edmodo. One of media is Edmodo. Edmodo is one of social media which can be operated by students, teachers or lecturers, and parents. It is able to be used to post various assignments and students’ learning achievement, actual discussion topics, video, appointments, and to facilitate students’ polls which are related to teaching learning process.

  1. The Dimensional Approach to Vocabulary Testing: What Can We ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1999), i.e. vocabulary size, depth, and receptive-productive knowledge/skills, has influenced test design for measuring L2/FL vocabulary acquisition. This article aims to describe the major vocabulary tests along the vocabulary dimensions and ...

  2. A Research on Vocabulary Teaching Strategies and Students’ Mastery

    OpenAIRE

    Tian Yuan; Liu Bingbing

    2013-01-01

    By means of questionnaire and quantitative research, this article aims at investigating the effects on students’ mastery of vocabulary by studying teachers’ adoption of seven kinds of common vocabulary teaching strategies and the usage of analyzing strategies in intensive English in order to improve vocabulary teaching strategies and to help enlarge students’ vocabulary.

  3. Mobile English Vocabulary Learning Based on Concept-Mapping Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pei-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Numerous researchers in education recognize that vocabulary is essential in foreign language learning. However, students often encounter vocabulary that is difficult to remember. Providing effective vocabulary learning strategies is therefore more valuable than teaching students a large amount of vocabulary. The purpose of this study was to…

  4. Neural changes underlying early stages of L2 vocabulary acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, He; Holcomb, Phillip J; Midgley, Katherine J

    2016-11-01

    Research has shown neural changes following second language (L2) acquisition after weeks or months of instruction. But are such changes detectable even earlier than previously shown? The present study examines the electrophysiological changes underlying the earliest stages of second language vocabulary acquisition by recording event-related potentials (ERPs) within the first week of learning. Adult native English speakers with no previous Spanish experience completed less than four hours of Spanish vocabulary training, with pre- and post-training ERPs recorded to a backward translation task. Results indicate that beginning L2 learners show rapid neural changes following learning, manifested in changes to the N400 - an ERP component sensitive to lexicosemantic processing and degree of L2 proficiency. Specifically, learners in early stages of L2 acquisition show growth in N400 amplitude to L2 words following learning as well as a backward translation N400 priming effect that was absent pre-training. These results were shown within days of minimal L2 training, suggesting that the neural changes captured during adult second language acquisition are more rapid than previously shown. Such findings are consistent with models of early stages of bilingualism in adult learners of L2 ( e.g. Kroll and Stewart's RHM) and reinforce the use of ERP measures to assess L2 learning.

  5. Effects of Social Networking on Iranian EFL Learners’ Vocabulary Acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Khansarian-Dehkordi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to scrutinize social networking effects on Iranian EFL learners’ vocabulary acquisition. Eighty Iranian EFL learners at the intermediate level participated in a pretest-posttest study after taking the placement test. They were then divided into an experimental group whose participants were supposed to equip their mobile phones or tablet PCs with a social networking application, that is, Line and form an online group to take part in eighteen virtual instructional sessions. Participants of the control group, however, underwent classroom learning during which target words were presented through routine classroom activities. Results of the independent-samples t-test in the posttest indicated that participants of the experimental group outperformed those of the control group. Results have important implications for both pedagogy and theory, especially socio-cultural theories of second language development.

  6. A Vocabulary Analysis of the Restaurant Menus

    OpenAIRE

    MIHUT Silvia

    2010-01-01

    The present paper explores the genre of restaurant menus by analyzing existing online lists of breakfast, lunch and dinner options. It shows that a menu is a reflection of the restaurant itself and its vocabulary, whether formal, casual or playful, matches the restaurant concept, location or theme. In addition to providing the food and drink items, menus can also be used to offer other information to the customers. The restaurant menu vocabulary describes the owner/chef's philosophy about foo...

  7. Ontology Based Vocabulary Matching for Oceanographic Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu; Shepherd, Adam; Chandler, Cyndy; Arko, Robert; Leadbetter, Adam

    2014-05-01

    Data integration act as the preliminary entry point as we enter the era of big data in many scientific domains. However the reusefulness of various dataset has met the hurdle due to different initial of interests of different parties, therefore different vocabularies in describing similar or semantically related concepts. In this scenario it is vital to devise an automatic or semi-supervised algorithm to facilitate the convergence of different vocabularies. The Ocean Data Interoperability Platform (ODIP) seeks to increase data sharing across scientific domains and international boundaries by providing a forum to harmonize diverse regional data systems. ODIP participants from the US include the Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) program, whose mission is to capture, catalog, and describe the underway/environmental sensor data from US oceanographic research vessels and submit the data to public long-term archives. In an attempt to harmonize these regional data systems, especially vocabularies, R2R recognizes the value of the SeaDataNet vocabularies served by the NERC Vocabulary Server (NVS) hosted at the British Oceanographic Data Centre as a trusted, authoritative source for describing many oceanographic research concepts such as instrumentation. In this work, we make use of the semantic relations in the vocabularies served by NVS to build a Bayesian network and take advantage of the idea of entropy in evaluating the correlation between different concepts and keywords. The performance of the model is evaluated against matching instruments from R2R against the SeaDataNet instrument vocabularies based on calculated confidence scores in the instrument pairings. These pairings with their scores can then be analyzed for assertion growing the interoperability of the R2R vocabulary through its links to the SeaDataNet entities.

  8. Powerful Vocabulary Acquisition through Texts Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Hasannejad

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate if dual version reading comprehension had a positive effect on Intermediate EFL students’ general vocabulary acquisition, receptive and productive knowledge of vocabulary and students’ synonymous power of words. Two groups were selected - the experimental group and the control group. The study included: (1 four pretests (2 the dual version reading comprehension, and (3 four posttests. It was found that there was no significant difference between the two groups of students on the pretests. However there was a significant difference between the two groups of the students on the posttests. Overall, the dual version reading comprehension vocabulary-learning made the experimental group learners outperformed the control groups in terms of their performance on four types of vocabulary tests. This indicates that students following dual version reading comprehension were more successful in vocabulary acquisition, and developing their receptive knowledge of vocabulary, transferring their receptive knowledge in to the productive knowledge and enhancing the memorization of the synonymous words.

  9. Instruction to Help Young Children Develop Language and Literacy Skills: The Roles of Program Design and Instructional Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, Barbara; Vadasy, Patricia; Smolkowski, Keith

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses the kinds of instructional activities that young children need to develop basic language and literacy skills based on recent research and program evaluations. This includes approaches to develop alphabetic understanding, phonological awareness, vocabulary, and oral language. Activities and materials from the Pre-kindergarten…

  10. Comparing Multidimensional and Continuum Models of Vocabulary Acquisition: An Empirical Examination of the Vocabulary Knowledge Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Jeffrey; Batty, Aaron Olaf; Bovee, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    Second language vocabulary acquisition has been modeled both as multidimensional in nature and as a continuum wherein the learner's knowledge of a word develops along a cline from recognition through production. In order to empirically examine and compare these models, the authors assess the degree to which the Vocabulary Knowledge Scale (VKS;…

  11. COMPUTER-ASSISTED VOCABULARY LEARNING: THE POWER OF GAMING ON STUDENTS’ ENGLISH VOCABULARY ACHIEVEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yune Andryani Pinem

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to find out whether the power of gaming contributed to vocabulary learning and gave significant upgrading in students‘ vocabulary scores through its comparison to the dull and routine vocabulary learning. The subjects, two groups of Indonesian students, were tested in a pre-test before joining two different methods of vocabulary learning, and finally were tested in a post-test. Data were collected from the students‘ pre-test and post-test scores. From the comparison of these two groups‘ data, the output proved that the vocabulary class using ―Little Shop of Treasure‖ online games was better in boosting students‘ scores.

  12. Vocabulary Acquisition for Future Nursing Staff: authenticity in the classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten Hempkin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Research suggests that many ESL teachers either modify or supplement the set textbooks they use in class, or develop their own materials for classroom use. Indeed, in recent years, the internet in particular has opened up a rich and at times perhaps baffling array of resources for those ESL practitioners who wish to incorporate authentic materials into their teaching. While the benefits of authentic materials are well-documented, their use is, however, not entirely unproblematic, and as research into the field of material (authentic or otherwise development grows, this raises a number of issues as to the form these materials should take and how they can best be employed. This article presents a set of vocabulary building activities for future nursing staff; these activities are in use at the Faculty of Health Sciences in Maribor. The article explains the rationale behind them in light of the theoretical framework of language acquisition that underpins them.

  13. Assessing roles of vocabulary knowledge predominating in contextual clues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patcharawadee Promduang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between vocabulary knowledge and the use of contextual clues and whether EFL learners who are well-equipped with reading skills are able to comprehend the text despite a low level of vocabulary knowledge. Therefore, the study focused on which vocabulary dimensions help students guess unfamiliar words. The study was carried out at Hatyai University in Thailand. The population of this study consisted of 34 undergraduates who were studying International Business English and had taken a course in reading techniques. The present study was conducted to conceptually validate the roles of breadth and depth of vocabulary knowledge to improve skills by contextual clue. Vocabulary Depth was specially employed to evaluate two dimensions namely Paradigmatic and Syntagmatic. The Schmitt and Clapham Vocabulary Level Test was used to test vocabulary breadth, while the vocabulary depth was implemented by Read’s Vocabulary Depth Test. Reading parts of the TOEFL were adopted for contextual clue items. There were two statistical analysis tools also implemented in this study: paired-sample t-test and bivariate correlation. First, in an attempt to find which vocabulary dimension predominates in guessing word meaning from the text, a paired-sample t-test was utilized to compare the difference of two vocabulary dimensions in reading part: vocabulary depth and contextual clues, and vocabulary breadth and contextual clues. Second, a bivariate correlation was used to find the degree of relationship between vocabulary knowledge and contextual clues. The consequences of this study identified empirical results that 1 there was a positive relationship between contextual clues and vocabulary depth, the reverse is true in vocabulary breadth. Moreover, vocabulary depth is more significantly crucial than breadth to enhance student’s ability to guess words’ meaning from the context.

  14. LEARNING VOCABULARY THROUGH COLOURFUL PUZZLE GAME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risca Dwiaryanti

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Vocabulary plays an important role because it links to the four skills of listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Those aspects should be integrated in teaching and learning process of English. However, the students must be able to know the meaning of each word or vocabulary of English in order to master the four skills. It is as a mean to create a sentence in daily communication to show someone’s feeling, opinion, idea, desire, etc. So that, both speakers understand what the other speaker mean. However, English as a second language in Indonesia seems very hard for the students to master vocabulary of English. It makes them not easy to be understood directly and speak fluently. The students, sometimes, get difficulties in understanding, memorizing the meaning of the vocabulary, and getting confused in using the new words. There must be an effective strategy to attract students’ interest, break the boredom, and make the class more lively. Based on the writer experience, Colourful Puzzle Game is able to make the students learn vocabulary quickly. It needs teacher’s creativity to create the materials of this game based on the class condition. The teacher just need a game board made from colourful papers, write any command and prohibition words on it. A dice is a tool to decide where the player should stop based on the number. Some pins as counter as sign of each player.

  15. The Effect of Multiple Intelligences on DDL Vocabulary Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asma’a Abdulrazzaq Al-Mahbashi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decades, the potential for the direct use of corpora known as data driven learning (DDL has gained great prominence in English language classrooms. A substantial number of empirical studies demonstrated that DDL instruction positively affects students’ learning. As learning outcomes can be affected by individual differences, some researchers have investigated the efficiency of DDL in the light of learners’ different characteristics to determine the type of learners who were more responsive to DDL. The DDL literature has indicated the need for more research addressing for whom DDL best suits. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to examine whether or not learners’ predominant intelligences were significant predictors of DDL learning outcomes. The sample for this study included 30 female EFL Yemeni students at Sana’a University. The study used three primary instruments:  a multiple intelligence questionnaire, a posttest and a delayed test on the vocabulary that was taught using DDL. The result of the correlation analyses between the participants’ three identified predominant intelligences and their performances in the posttest and delayed test showed an insignificant relationship between the variables. The regression analyses results also revealed that the predominant intelligences insignificantly predicted the participants’ posttest and delayed test performances.  Based on these findings, learners’ needs and preferences should be activated and addressed by classroom instructions for creating a diverse and motivating learning environment.

  16. The Comparison between Contextual Guessing Strategies vs. Memorizing a List of Isolated Words in Vocabulary Learning Regarding Long Term Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leyla Vakili S AMIYAN

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Guessing the meaning of unknown vocabularies within a text is a way of learning new words which is named textual vocabulary acquisition. The main purpose of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of a textual guessing strategy on vocabulary learning at the intermediate le vel. Textual guessing strategy is to guess the meaning of vocabularies with the help of surrounding words or sentences in the co - text without any translation. This paper reports the findings of two quantitative studies conducted on English language learner s with the Intermediate 2 level of proficiency in Kavosh foreign language institute, Mashhad, Iran. Twenty male and female attendants were selected and assigned to ’context’ and ‘non - context’ groups. The context group received an instruction to infer the m eaning of new words while the non - context participants were treated as learning new vocabularies individually (autonomously. The result of the independent sample t - test at the post - test stage revealed that the probability value of t - test with an equality of variances assumption is lower than 0.05 (0.04700. So this result represented that there is a meaningful difference between the experimental group and the control group considering their amount of learning. The results indicated that textual guessing s trategy had more effect on their long term memory. It was also revealed that the words learned through context are used more frequently than those learned in isolation in the speaking repertoire of the participants.

  17. Online Comic in Mandarin Chinese’s Vocabulary Learning: A Case Study of Budi Utama Multilingual School in Yogyakarta, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuning Catur Sri Wilujeng

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to investigate 1 the improvement of CFL elementary-school students’ skill in learning Mandarin Chinese (hereafter referred to as Mandarin vocabulary through creating comic without online resources, creating online comics individually and collaboratively, 2 the CFL elementary-school students’ attitude towards the application of comics in learning Mandarin vocabulary, and 3 the CFL elementary-school students’ attitude towards the application of collaborative activities in learning Mandarin vocabulary. The research design was based on a quasi-experiment using both qualitative and quantitative approaches. Three classes participated in this study: one class was the control group using text-based instruction without online resources; the other two classes were the experimental groups 1 and 2. In the experimental group 1, students worked individually on online comic whereas in the experimental group 2, students worked collaboratively on online comic. All participants were Grade 5 students of Budi Utama Multilingual School in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. The collected and analyzed data included performances on Mandarin vocabulary, in-class observation, questionnaires, and interview. In Mandarin vocabulary performances, the experimental group 2 outperformed the other two groups and the experimental group 1 performed better than the control group. In the students’ attitude, the experimental group 2 behaved more positively than the two other groups, and the control group behaved more positively than the experimental group 1.

  18. Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised (PPVT-R).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vance, H. Robert; Stone, J. E.

    1990-01-01

    The Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised assesses standard American English receptive vocabulary in individuals, both handicapped and nonhandicapped, ages 2 to 40. This paper describes the test's administration, summation of data, standardization, reliability, and validity. (JDD)

  19. Water Quality Vocabulary Development and Deployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, B. A.; Yu, J.; Cox, S. J.

    2013-12-01

    Semantic descriptions of observed properties and associated units of measure are fundamental to understanding of environmental observations, including groundwater, surface water and marine water quality. Semantic descriptions can be captured in machine-readable ontologies and vocabularies, thus providing support for the annotation of observation values from the disparate data sources with appropriate and accurate metadata, which is critical for achieving semantic interoperability. However, current stand-alone water quality vocabularies provide limited support for cross-system comparisons or data fusion. To enhance semantic interoperability, the alignment of water-quality properties with definitions of chemical entities and units of measure in existing widely-used vocabularies is required. Modern ontologies and vocabularies are expressed, organized and deployed using Semantic Web technologies. We developed an ontology for observed properties (i.e. a model for expressing appropriate controlled vocabularies) which extends the NASA/TopQuadrant QUDT ontology for Unit and QuantityKind with two additional classes and two properties (see accompanying paper by Cox, Simons and Yu). We use our ontology to populate the Water Quality vocabulary with a set of individuals of each of the four key classes (and their subclasses), and add appropriate relationships between these individuals. This ontology is aligned with other relevant stand-alone Water Quality vocabularies and domain ontologies. Developing the Water Quality vocabulary involved two main steps. First, the Water Quality vocabulary was populated with individuals of the ObservedProperty class, which was determined from a census of existing datasets and services. Each ObservedProperty individual relates to other individuals of Unit and QuantityKind (taken from QUDT where possible), and to IdentifiedObject individuals. As a large fraction of observed water quality data are classified by the chemical substance involved, the

  20. Motivating Students to Learn Biology Vocabulary with Wikipedia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boriana Marintcheva

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Timely learning of specialized science vocabulary is critical for building a solid knowledge base in any scientific discipline. To motivate students to dedicate time and effort mastering biology vocabulary, I have designed a vocabulary exercise utilizing the popular web encyclopedia Wikipedia. The exercise creates an opportunity for students to connect the challenge of vocabulary learning to a prior positive experience of self-guided learning using a content source they are familiar and comfortable with.

  1. How Does the Keyword Method Affect Vocabulary Comprehension and Usage? Report from the project on Studies in Language: Reading and Communication. Working Paper No. 278.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressley, Michael; And Others

    Four experiments were conducted to determine how the keyword method of vocabulary instruction affects both subjects' comprehension of words encountered in sentences (experiments 1 and 2), and their ability to use words in appropriate sentences (experiments 3 and 4). In the first two experiments, college students were presented sentences containing…

  2. Vocabulary Intervention for Adolescents with Language Disorder: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Hilary; Henry, Lucy; Müller, Lisa-Maria; Joffe, Victoria L.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Language disorder and associated vocabulary difficulties can persist into adolescence, and can impact on long-term life outcomes. Previous reviews have shown that a variety of intervention techniques can successfully enhance students' vocabulary skills; however, none has investigated vocabulary intervention specifically for adolescents…

  3. Crossword Puzzles as a Learning Tool for Vocabulary Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orawiwatnakul, Wiwat

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Since vocabulary is a key basis on which reading achievement depends, various vocabulary acquisition techniques have become pivotal. Among the many teaching approaches, traditional or otherwise, the use of crossword puzzles seems to offer potential and a solution for the problem of learning vocabulary. Method: This study was…

  4. Implicit and Explicit Cognitive Processes in Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ender, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Studies on vocabulary acquisition in second language learning have revealed that a large amount of vocabulary is learned without an overt intention, in other words, incidentally. This article investigates the relevance of different lexical processing strategies for vocabulary acquisition when reading a text for comprehension among 24 advanced…

  5. Vocabulary and Health Care Information Technology: State of the Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimino, James J.

    1995-01-01

    Reviews the controlled medical vocabularies available today and some of the reasons why they have failed to meet the needs of application developers. Topics include standard vocabularies, including International Classification of Diseases and Medical Subject Headings; uses of vocabularies in medical computing; current research; and remaining…

  6. The Impact of Vocabulary Enhancement Activities on Vocabulary Acquisition and Retention among Male and Female EFL Learners in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharafi-Nejad, Maryam; Raftari, Shohreh; Bijami, Maryam; Khavari, Zahra; Ismail, Shaik Abdul Malik Mohamed; Eng, Lin Siew

    2014-01-01

    In general, incidental vocabulary acquisition is represented as the "picking up" of new vocabularies when students are engaged in a variety of reading, listening, speaking, or writing activities. Research has shown when learners read extensively incidental vocabulary acquisition happens. Many EFL students cannot be involved in reading…

  7. The Effect of Vocabulary Self-Selection Strategy and Input Enhancement Strategy on the Vocabulary Knowledge of Iranian EFL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoudi, Golfam

    2017-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate empirically the effect of Vocabulary Self-Selection strategy and Input Enhancement strategy on the vocabulary knowledge of Iranian EFL Learners. After taking a diagnostic pretest, both experimental groups enrolled in two classes. Learners who practiced Vocabulary Self-Selection were allowed to…

  8. The Basics of Blended Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Catlin R.

    2013-01-01

    Even though many of teachers do not have technology-rich classrooms, the rapidly evolving education landscape increasingly requires them to incorporate technology to customize student learning. Blended learning, with its mix of technology and traditional face-to-face instruction, is a great approach. Blended learning combines classroom learning…

  9. The Relationships between Leadership Practice and Teacher Motivation, Capacity, and Work Setting as Related to Change in Literacy Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Linda Marie

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies have indicated the necessity for changes in literacy assessment and instruction. Well respected authorities have agreed that direct, explicit, and systematic instruction in the five basic components of reading (i.e., phonemic awareness, phonics, vocabulary, fluency, and comprehension) is essential to ensure that all students have an…

  10. Word Lists for Vocabulary Learning and Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessard-Clouston, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Within the communicative approach, often the assumption has been that with the right exposure, students will simply "pick up" the vocabulary required for learning and using English, and thus there is no need to focus on or teach it. Yet, as many teachers can attest, this is frequently not the case, and there have been recent efforts to…

  11. Shared Reading to Build Vocabulary and Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesler, Ted

    2010-01-01

    The author presents four approaches to shared reading that he used with first through third graders in a high-needs, urban elementary school with a large population of students from immigrant homes. Using sociocultural and cognitive constructivist principles, the author shows how these approaches built students' academic vocabulary and…

  12. Enhanced Context Recognition by Sensitivity Pruned Vocabularies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Rasmus Elsborg; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2004-01-01

    a latent semantic indexing representation and a probabilistic neural network classifier. Pruning the vocabularies to approximately 20% of the original size, we find consistent context recognition enhancement for two mid size data-sets for a range of training set sizes. We also study the applicability...

  13. Vocabulary of CPH Theory and Modern Physics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Javadi, Hossein; Forouzbakhsh, Farshid; Daei Kasmaei, Hamed

    2016-01-01

    Wherefore CPH theory was presented? There are various theories in physics, but nature is unique. This is not nature's problem that we have various theories; nature obeys simple and unique law. So, we should improve our understanding of physical phenomena and unify theories. There is a compare brief...... of CPH Theory (Creative Particles of Higgs Theory) and modern physics in this vocabulary....

  14. Working Memory and Distributed Vocabulary Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Paul W. B.; Baddeley, Alan D.

    1998-01-01

    Tested the hypothesis that individual differences in immediate-verbal-memory span predict success in second-language vocabulary acquisition. In the two-session study, adult subjects learned 56 English-Finnish translations. Tested one week later, subjects were less likely to remember those words they had difficulty learning, even though they had…

  15. Pictures Improve Memory of SAT Vocabulary Words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Melva; Finkelstein, Arleen

    1994-01-01

    Suggests that students can improve their memory of Scholastic Aptitude Test vocabulary words by associating the words with corresponding pictures taken from magazines. Finds that long-term recall of words associated with pictures was higher than recall of words not associated with pictures. (RS)

  16. Semantic Boggle: A Game for Vocabulary Acquisition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toma, Irina; Alexandru, Cristina-Elena; Dascalu, Mihai; Dessus, Philippe; Trausan-Matu, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Learning a new language is a difficult endeavor, the main encountered problem being vocabulary acquisition. The learning process can be improved through visual representations of coherent contexts, best represented in serious games. The game described in this paper, Semantic Boggle, is a serious

  17. Flooding Vocabulary Gaps to Accelerate Word Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brabham, Edna; Buskist, Connie; Henderson, Shannon Coman; Paleologos, Timon; Baugh, Nikki

    2012-01-01

    Students entering school with limited vocabularies are at a disadvantage compared to classmates with robust knowledge of words and meanings. Teaching a few unrelated words at a time is insufficient for catching these students up with peers and preparing them to comprehend texts they will encounter across the grades. This article presents…

  18. Towards a Southern African English Defining Vocabulary

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    of parameters, such as avoiding synonyms and antonyms, to determine which words are necessary to write definitions in a concise and simple way. It has been found that existing defining vocabularies lack certain words that would make definitions more accessible to southern African learners, and therefore there is a need ...

  19. Notes on an Environmental Pollution Vocabulary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. Science Information Exchange.

    This vocabulary covering the field of environmental pollution was compiled by the staff of the Science Information Exchange, Smithsonian Institution. The view of the approach is to include an outline-classification all physical, life, and social science aspects of environmental pollution, trying to achieve a balance in the representation of each…

  20. Teaching Vocabulary to English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Sharilyn Fox

    2009-01-01

    This study determined if the vocabulary gap for English Language Learners (ELLs) and their peers could be bridged through providing home interventions with multiple exposures to words, definitions, model sentences and context. Ninety-one first grade students from a public school in Southern California with a 95% ELL population were researched. ELL…

  1. Early vocabulary development in children with bilateral cochlear implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Välimaa, Taina; Kunnari, Sari; Laukkanen-Nevala, Päivi; Lonka, Eila

    2018-01-01

    Children with unilateral cochlear implants (CIs) may have delayed vocabulary development for an extended period after implantation. Bilateral cochlear implantation is reported to be associated with improved sound localization and enhanced speech perception in noise. This study proposed that bilateral implantation might also promote early vocabulary development. Knowledge regarding vocabulary growth and composition in children with bilateral CIs and factors associated with it may lead to improvements in the content of early speech and language intervention and family counselling. To analyse the growth of early vocabulary and its composition during the first year after CI activation and to investigate factors associated with vocabulary growth. The participants were 20 children with bilateral CIs (12 boys; eight girls; mean age at CI activation = 12.9 months). Vocabulary size was assessed with the Finnish version of the MacArthur Communicative Development Inventories (CDI) Infant Form and compared with normative data. Vocabulary composition was analysed in relation to vocabulary size. Growth curve modelling was implemented using a linear mixed model to analyse the effects of the following variables on early vocabulary growth: time, gender, maternal education, residual hearing with hearing aids, age at first hearing aid fitting and age at CI activation. Despite clear vocabulary growth over time, children with bilateral CIs lagged behind their age norms in receptive vocabulary during the first 12 months after CI activation. In expressive vocabulary, 35% of the children were able to catch up with their age norms, but 55% of the children lagged behind them. In receptive and expressive vocabularies of 1-20 words, analysis of different semantic categories indicated that social terms constituted the highest proportion. Nouns constituted the highest proportion in vocabularies of 101-400 words. The proportion of verbs remained below 20% and the proportion of function words and

  2. Using assessment to individualize early mathematics instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Carol McDonald; Mazzocco, Michèle M M; Kurz, Terri; Crowe, Elizabeth C; Tighe, Elizabeth L; Wood, Taffeta S; Morrison, Frederick J

    2018-02-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that assessment-informed personalized instruction, tailored to students' individual skills and abilities, is more effective than more one-size-fits-all approaches. In this study, we evaluate the efficacy of Individualizing Student Instruction in Mathematics (ISI-Math) compared to Reading (ISI-Reading) where classrooms were randomly assigned to ISI-Math or ISI-Reading. The literature on child characteristics X instruction or skill X treatment interaction effects point to the complexities of tailoring instruction for individual students who present with constellations of skills. Second graders received mathematics instruction in small flexible learning groups based on their assessed learning needs. Results of the study (n=32 teachers, 370 students) revealed significant treatment effects on standardized mathematics assessments. With effect sizes (d) of 0.41-0.60, we show that we can significantly improve 2nd graders' mathematics achievement, including for children living in poverty, by using assessment data to individualize the mathematics instruction they receive. The instructional regime, ISI-Math, was implemented by regular classroom teachers and it led to about a 4-month achievement advantage on standardized mathematics tests when compared to students in control classrooms. These results were realized within one school year. Moreover, treatment effects were the same regardless of school-level poverty and students' gender, initial mathematics or vocabulary scores. Copyright © 2017 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The Impact of Vocabulary Knowledge Level on EFL Reading Comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shima Kameli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the impact of vocabulary knowledge level on reading comprehension performance among EFL language learners. The ultimate intention was to determine the association between levels of vocabulary knowledge and to clarify the relationship among vocabulary knowledge on reading comprehension performance of EFL Iranian students on subtest of VLT and IELTS. Quantitative data were collected from 220 EFL Iranian adult students at the beginning of second semester of 2011 in private English language institute (BAHAR, Shiraz, Iran. The Vocabulary Levels Test (VLT and Reading Comprehension Test (IELTS were performed in one session as research instruments. The findings indicated that there were positive relationships among different levels of vocabulary test and also test scores on vocabulary size/breadth of vocabulary knowledge, and reading comprehension.

  4. Instructional immediacy in elearning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walkem, Kerrie

    2014-01-01

    Instructor immediacy has been positively associated with many desirable academic outcomes including increased student learning. This study extends existing understanding of instructional immediacy behaviours in elearning by describing postgraduate nursing students' reflections on their own experience. An exploratory, descriptive survey design was used to collect qualitative data. Participants were asked what behaviours or activities help to create rapport or a positive interpersonal connection (immediacy) between students and their online teacher(s). Thematic analysis of the data revealed three main themes: acknowledging and affirming student's personal and professional responsibilities; providing clear and timely information; and utilising rich media. These findings give lecturers insight into instructional strategies they may adopt to increase immediacy in elearning and hence improve student learning outcomes.

  5. The relationship between Iranian EFL learners’ self-regulatory vocabulary strategy use and their vocabulary size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mohammad Reza Amirian

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Self-regulation is referred to as learners’ self-generated ideas and actions which are systematically directed towards achieving educational goals and require learners’ active participation in the learning process (Zimmerman & Bandura, 1994. The present study investigated the relationship between Iranian EFL students’ self-regulation capacity for vocabulary learning and their vocabulary size. For this purpose, the researchers made use of two main instruments: the self-regulation capacity in vocabulary learning scale developed by Tseng et al. (2006 consisting of five subscales of commitment, metacognitive, emotion, satiation and environment control, and a bilingual vocabulary size test developed and validated by Karami (2012. The results of the data analysis revealed no significant relationship between the two variables measured by these instruments. However, the results of the multiple regressions indicated that the metacognitive control compared to the other subscales made a better contribution to the prediction of learners’ vocabulary size. In addition, based on the analysis of variance (ANOVA, which examined and compared the self-regulatory strategy use of learners in different experience groups, the first year students had a higher mean score in their self-regulation capacity, which can possibly be attributed to the strategies they have learnt in their Study Skills courses. Finally, it was suggested that teachers must try to develop self-regulatory power in the learners because their creative effort and informed decisions in trying to improve their own learning are highly important.

  6. Atomic Energy Control Board vocabulary - preliminary edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolet, D.

    1995-09-01

    This preliminary edition was prepared at the Board's request to help it establish a standardized terminology. It was produced by scanning the 99 French and English documents listed at the end of this Vocabulary. The documents include legislation concerning atomic energy and the transportation of radioactive materials, as well as the Board's publications, such as the Consultative Documents, Regulatory Documents and Notices. The terms included from the following areas are: radiation protection, reactor technology, nuclear fuel cycle, radioactive material packaging and transportation, radioactive waste management, uranium mines, and medical and industrial applications of radioelements. Also included are the titles of publications and the names of organizations and units. The vocabulary contains 2,589 concepts, sometimes accompanied by definitions, contexts or usage examples. Where terms have been standardized by the Canadian Committee for the Standardization of Nuclear Terminology, this has been indicated. Where possible, we have verified the terms using the TERMIUM, the Government of Canada Linguistic Data Bank. (author)

  7. The Use of Vocabulary Learning Strategies in Teaching Turkish as a Second Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskin, Sami; Iscan, Adem; Karagoz, Beytullah; Birol, Gülnur

    2017-01-01

    Vocabulary learning is the basis of the language learning process in teaching Turkish as a second language. Vocabulary learning strategies need to be used in order for vocabulary learning to take place effectively. The use of vocabulary learning strategies facilitates vocabulary learning and increases student achievement. Each student uses a…

  8. Helping Children Learn Vocabulary during Computer-Assisted Oral Reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory Aist

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses an indispensable skill using a unique method to teach a critical component: helping children learn to read by using computer-assisted oral reading to help children learn vocabulary. We build on Project LISTEN’s Reading Tutor, a computer program that adapts automatic speech recognition to listen to children read aloud, and helps them learn to read (http://www.cs.cmu.edu/~listen. To learn a word from reading with the Reading Tutor, students must encounter the word and learn the meaning of the word in context. We modified the Reading Tutor first to help students encounter new words and then to help them learn the meanings of new words. We then compared the Reading Tutor to classroom instruction and to human-assisted oral reading as part of a yearlong study with 144 second and third graders. The result: Second graders did about the same on word comprehension in all three conditions. However, third graders who read with the 1999 Reading Tutor, modified as described in this paper, performed statistically significantly better than other third graders in a classroom control on word comprehension gains – and even comparably with other third graders who read one-on-one with human tutors.

  9. Modality of Input and Vocabulary Acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetyana Sydorenko

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the effect of input modality (video, audio, and captions, i.e., on-screen text in the same language as audio on (a the learning of written and aural word forms, (b overall vocabulary gains, (c attention to input, and (d vocabulary learning strategies of beginning L2 learners. Twenty-six second-semester learners of Russian participated in this study. Group one (N = 8 saw video with audio and captions (VAC; group two (N = 9 saw video with audio (VA; group three (N = 9 saw video with captions (VC. All participants completed written and aural vocabulary tests and a final questionnaire.The results indicate that groups with captions (VAC and VC scored higher on written than on aural recognition of word forms, while the reverse applied to the VA group. The VAC group learned more word meanings than the VA group. Results from the questionnaire suggest that learners paid most attention to captions, followed by video and audio, and acquired most words by associating them with visual images. Pedagogical implications of this study are that captioned video tends to aid recognition of written word forms and the learning of word meaning, while non-captioned video tends to improve listening comprehension as it facilitates recognition of aural word forms.

  10. Synthetic phonics and decodable instructional reading texts: How far do these support poor readers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price-Mohr, Ruth Maria; Price, Colin Bernard

    2018-05-01

    This paper presents data from a quasi-experimental trial with paired randomisation that emerged during the development of a reading scheme for children in England. This trial was conducted with a group of 12 children, aged 5-6, and considered to be falling behind their peers in reading ability and a matched control group. There were two intervention conditions (A: using mixed teaching methods and a high percentage of non-phonically decodable vocabulary; P: using mixed teaching methods and low percentage of non-decodable vocabulary); allocation to these was randomised. Children were assessed at pre- and post-test on standardised measures of receptive vocabulary, phoneme awareness, word reading, and comprehension. Two class teachers in the same school each selected 6 children, who they considered to be poor readers, to participate (n = 12). A control group (using synthetic phonics only and phonically decodable vocabulary) was selected from the same 2 classes based on pre-test scores for word reading (n = 16). Results from the study show positive benefits for poor readers from using both additional teaching methods (such as analytic phonics, sight word vocabulary, and oral vocabulary extension) in addition to synthetic phonics, and also non-decodable vocabulary in instructional reading text. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Editorial - Instructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastberg, Peter; Grinsted, Annelise

    2007-01-01

    Why you may wonder - have we chosen a topic which at first glance may seem trivial, and even a bit dull? Well, looks can be deceiving, and in this case they are! There are many good reasons for taking a closer look at instructions.......Why you may wonder - have we chosen a topic which at first glance may seem trivial, and even a bit dull? Well, looks can be deceiving, and in this case they are! There are many good reasons for taking a closer look at instructions....

  12. Vocabulary Use by Low, Moderate, and High ASL-Proficient Writers Compared to Hearing ESL and Monolingual Speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleton, Jenny L; Morgan, Dianne; DiGello, Elizabeth; Wiles, Jill; Rivers, Rachel

    2004-01-01

    The written English vocabulary of 72 deaf elementary school students of various proficiency levels in American Sign Language (ASL) was compared with the performance of 60 hearing English-as-a-second-language (ESL) speakers and 61 hearing monolingual speakers of English, all of similar age. Students were asked to retell "The Tortoise and the Hare" story (previously viewed on video) in a writing activity. Writing samples were later scored for total number of words, use of words known to be highly frequent in children's writing, redundancy in writing, and use of English function words. All deaf writers showed significantly lower use of function words as compared to their hearing peers. Low-ASL-proficient students demonstrated a highly formulaic writing style, drawing mostly on high-frequency words and repetitive use of a limited range of function words. The moderate- and high-ASL-proficient deaf students' writing was not formulaic and incorporated novel, low-frequency vocabulary to communicate their thoughts. The moderate- and high-ASL students' performance revealed a departure from findings one might expect based on previous studies with deaf writers and their vocabulary use. The writing of the deaf writers also differed from the writing of hearing ESL speakers. Implications for deaf education and literacy instruction are discussed, with special attention to the fact that ASL-proficient, deaf second-language learners of English may be approaching English vocabulary acquisition in ways that are different from hearing ESL learners.

  13. Using Assistive Technology to Increase Vocabulary Acquisition and Engagement for Students with Learning Disabilities in the High School Science Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slemrod, Tal

    There is a growing recognition of the importance and effectiveness of instruction in the STEM subjects, including science. The movement towards increased requirements and expectations in science presents a challenge to both students and teachers as many students with Learning Disabilities (LD) often particularly struggle in their science classes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of an assistive technology (AT) intervention targeting the acquisition of science vocabulary for adolescents with LD in a general education secondary biology classroom. Participants for this study included 3 secondary students with LD who were enrolled in a biology class. An alternating treatment design was used to compare the effects of a keyword mnemonic vocabulary intervention via index cards or iPod touch on student, vocabulary acquisition, academic engagement and disruptive behavior. All students' acquired the content vocabulary equally well during both conditions. When using the AT, students' engagement increased compared to baseline conditions. It was clear that the students had a strong interest in using AT to increase their grades and engagement, however the teachers had little access and training on using AT to support their students with disabilities.

  14. Incidental Vocabulary Learning in Second Language Acquisition: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falcon Dario Restrepo Ramos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This literature review aims to analyze previous studies that address the incidental learning of vocabulary in second language acquisition. The articles included in this literature review look into the understanding of vocabulary learning through incidental means, the relationship of reading and incidental vocabulary learning, and the strategies and tasks that promote the incidental learning of vocabulary. The findings show that L2 learners develop much of their vocabulary by incidental means through exposure to words in informative contexts. Moreover, this exposure is promoted by reading, and enhanced through multimodal glosses. Further research may focus on listening for higher lexical retention rates, the circumstances that allow incidental learning of multi-word phrases and collocations, and the use of technology-based methods for incidental vocabulary acquisition.

  15. Vocabulary test Strategies used by the Students to answer Vocabulary Test the Reading Comprehension of TOEFL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suyatman Suyatman

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Test of English as a foreign Language or TOEFL is a standardized test of English for non-native speaker. It consists of three parts or three sections of tests. In Reading Comprehension test, it consists of vocabulary test. To get better result of score, it needs strategies. The purposes of this study are to know the strategies used by the students to answer the vocabulary test on reading section of TOEFL, to know the most strategy used by the students, to know the least strategy used by the students and to know the distribution of strategies used by the students to answer the Vocabulary test of Reading Comprehension of the TOEFL. The researcher used descriptive qualitative research. The subject was twelve students. The instrument was questionnaire that consisted of thirty questions. Data analyzes technique was by using mean score. The result of the research showed that; (1 students used all strategies to answer the vocabulary test of reading comprehension of TOEFL. (2 the most strategies used by the students was ‘Looking for contextual clues to the meaning of unknown words.(3 the least strategy used by the students to answer vocabulary test was ‘Developing a new vocabulary study system, and (4 the distribution of the strategy number 1 was 3.88,strategy number 2 was 3.61, number 3 was 2.94, number four was 2.91, strategy number 5 was3.88, strategy number six was 3.47, strategy number seven was 3.69, strategy number eight was 3.02, strategy number nine was 3.00 and the last strategy was 3.13.

  16. The Use of Hypermedia in Implicit Vocabulary Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Patrícia Nora de Souza

    2011-01-01

    The present work is aimed at investigating the role of hypermedia in implicit vocabulary acquisition in foreign language. On theoretical grounds, the work presents a reflection which contextualizes the discussion on implicit approaches to vocabulary teaching. Besides, a review and a discussion of the literature is carried out, with regard to the advantages of hypermedia in English Language Teaching. Following that, the selection of hypermedia material for implicit vocabulary teaching is prese...

  17. Teaching vocabulary using collocations versus using definitions in EFL classes

    OpenAIRE

    Altınok, Şerife İper

    2000-01-01

    Ankara : Institute of Economics and Social Sciences of Bilkent Univ., 2000. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 2000. Includes bibliographical references leaves 40-43 Teaching words in collocations is a comparatively new technique and it is accepted as an effective one in vocabulary teaching. The purpose of this study was to find out whether teaching vocabulary would result in better learning and remembering vocabulary items. This study investigated the differences betw...

  18. Academic vocabulary in learner writing from extraction to analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Paquot, Magali

    2010-01-01

    Academic vocabulary is in fashion, as witnessed by the increasing number of books published on the topic. In the first part of this book, Magali Paquot scrutinizes the concept of academic vocabulary and proposes a corpus-driven procedure based on the criteria of keyness, range and evenness of distribution to select academic words that could be part of a common-core academic vocabulary syllabus. In the second part, the author offers a thorough analysis of academic vocabulary in the International Corpus of Learner English (ICLE) and describes the factors that account for learners difficulties in

  19. The Use of Hypermedia in Implicit Vocabulary Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Nora de Souza

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The present work is aimed at investigating the role of hypermedia in implicit vocabulary acquisition in foreign language. On theoretical grounds, the work presents a reflection which contextualizes the discussion on implicit approaches to vocabulary teaching. Besides, a review and a discussion of the literature is carried out, with regard to the advantages of hypermedia in English Language Teaching. Following that, the selection of hypermedia material for implicit vocabulary teaching is presented. This material was used in the data collecting which comprised 75 students. The material was evaluated by the students through a questionnaire. The results show that the use of hypermedia can significantly contribute to implicit vocabulary acquisition.

  20. Social validation of vocabulary selection: ensuring stakeholder relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornman, Juan; Bryen, Diane Nelson

    2013-06-01

    The vocabulary needs of individuals who are unable to spell their messages continue to be of concern in the field of augmentative and alternative communication (AAC). Social validation of vocabulary selection has been suggested as one way to improve the effectiveness and relevance of service delivery in AAC. Despite increased emphasis on stakeholder accountability, social validation is not frequently used in AAC research. This paper describes an investigation of the social validity of a vocabulary set identified in earlier research. A previous study used stakeholder focus groups to identify vocabulary that could be used by South African adults who use AAC to disclose their experiences as victims of crime or abuse. Another study used this vocabulary to create communication boards for use by adults with complex communication needs. In this current project, 12 South African adults with complex communication needs who use AAC systems used a 5-point Likert scale to score the importance of each of the previously identified 57 vocabulary items. This two-step process of first using stakeholder focus groups to identify vocabulary, and then having literate persons who use AAC provide information on social validity of the vocabulary on behalf of their peers who are illiterate, appears to hold promise as a culturally relevant vocabulary selection approach for sensitive topics such as crime and abuse.

  1. VOCABULARY PROBLEMS OF THE LIGHTLY MENTALLY RETARDED SCHOOL AGED CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna KOSTIC

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The main research objectives are the problems in the vocabulary of school aged, lightly mentally retarded children. Results of the research indicate which are the most important factors that have impact of the vocabulary and language competence of these persons. The research variables are: sex, IQ, chronological age and school age. Comics-like stories were used as an examination instrument in this research. Their interpretation is helpful in determining the vocabulary level of every single examine. At the end of the research some suggestions are presented, whose goal is to enrich children's vocabulary.

  2. Vocabulary knowledge predicts lexical processing: Evidence from a group of participants with diverse educational backgrounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mainz, N.; Shao, Z.; Brysbaert, M.; Meyer, A.S.

    2017-01-01

    Vocabulary knowledge is central to a speaker's command of their language. In previous research, greater vocabulary knowledge has been associated with advantages in language processing. In this study, we examined the relationship between individual differences in vocabulary and language processing

  3. Instructional scaffolding to improve students' skills in evaluating clinical literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawn, Stefani; Dominguez, Karen D; Troutman, William G; Bond, Rucha; Cone, Catherine

    2011-05-10

    To implement and assess the effectiveness of an activity to teach pharmacy students to critically evaluate clinical literature using instructional scaffolding and a Clinical Trial Evaluation Rubric. The literature evaluation activity centered on a single clinical research article and involved individual, small group, and large group instruction, with carefully structured, evidence-based scaffolds and support materials centered around 3 educational themes: (1) the reader's awareness of text organization, (2) contextual/background information and vocabulary, and (3) questioning, prompting, and self-monitoring (metacognition). Students initially read the article, scored it using the rubric, and wrote an evaluation. Students then worked individually using a worksheet to identify and define 4 to 5 vocabulary/concept knowledge gaps. They then worked in small groups and as a class to further improve their skills. Finally, they assessed the same article using the rubric and writing a second evaluation. Students' rubric scores for the article decreased significantly from a mean pre-activity score of 76.7% to a post-activity score of 61.7%, indicating that their skills in identifying weaknesses in the article's study design had improved. Use of instructional scaffolding in the form of vocabulary supports and the Clinical Trial Evaluation Rubric improved students' ability to critically evaluate a clinical study compared to lecture-based coursework alone.

  4. Sign-Supported English: is it effective at teaching vocabulary to young children with English as an Additional Language?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Chloë R; Hobsbaum, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Children who are learning English as an Additional Language (EAL) may start school with smaller vocabularies than their monolingual peers. Given the links between vocabulary and academic achievement, it is important to evaluate interventions that are designed to support vocabulary learning in this group of children. To evaluate an intervention, namely Sign-Supported English (SSE), which uses conventionalized manual gestures alongside spoken words to support the learning of English vocabulary by children with EAL. Specifically, the paper investigates whether SSE has a positive impact on Reception class children's vocabulary development over and above English-only input, as measured over a 6-month period. A total of 104 children aged 4-5 years were recruited from two neighbouring schools in a borough of Outer London. A subset of 66 had EAL. In one school, the teachers used SSE, and in the other school they did not. Pupils in each school were tested at two time points (the beginning of terms 1 and 3) using three different assessments of vocabulary. Classroom-based observations of the teachers' and pupils' manual communication were also carried out. Results of the vocabulary assessments revealed that using SSE had no effect on how well children with EAL learnt English vocabulary: EAL pupils from the SSE school did not learn more words than EAL pupils at the comparison school. SSE was used in almost half of the teachers' observations in the SSE school, while spontaneous gestures were used with similar frequency by teachers in the comparison school. There are alternative explanations for the results. The first is that the use of signs alongside spoken English does not help EAL children of this age to learn words. Alternatively, SSE does have an effect, but we were unable to detect it because (1) teachers in the comparison school used very rich natural gesture and/or (2) teachers in the SSE school did not know enough BSL and this inhibited their use of spontaneous gesture

  5. Semantic Web-based Vocabulary Broker for Open Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritschel, B.; Neher, G.; Iyemori, T.; Murayama, Y.; Kondo, Y.; Koyama, Y.; King, T. A.; Galkin, I. A.; Fung, S. F.; Wharton, S.; Cecconi, B.

    2016-12-01

    Keyword vocabularies are used to tag and to identify data of science data repositories. Such vocabularies consist of controlled terms and the appropriate concepts, such as GCMD1 keywords or the ESPAS2 keyword ontology. The Semantic Web-based mash-up of domain-specific, cross- or even trans-domain vocabularies provides unique capabilities in the network of appropriate data resources. Based on a collaboration between GFZ3, the FHP4, the WDC for Geomagnetism5 and the NICT6 we developed the concept of a vocabulary broker for inter- and trans-disciplinary data detection and integration. Our prototype of the Semantic Web-based vocabulary broker uses OSF7 for the mash-up of geo and space research vocabularies, such as GCMD keywords, ESPAS keyword ontology and SPASE8 keyword vocabulary. The vocabulary broker starts the search with "free" keywords or terms of a specific vocabulary scheme. The vocabulary broker almost automatically connects the different science data repositories which are tagged by terms of the aforementioned vocabularies. Therefore the mash-up of the SKOS9 based vocabularies with appropriate metadata from different domains can be realized by addressing LOD10 resources or virtual SPARQL11 endpoints which maps relational structures into the RDF format12. In order to demonstrate such a mash-up approach in real life, we installed and use a D2RQ13 server for the integration of IUGONET14 data which are managed by a relational database. The OSF based vocabulary broker and the D2RQ platform are installed at virtual LINUX machines at the Kyoto University. The vocabulary broker meets the standard of a main component of the WDS15 knowledge network. The Web address of the vocabulary broker is http://wdcosf.kugi.kyoto-u.ac.jp 1 Global Change Master Directory2 Near earth space data infrastructure for e-science3 German Research Centre for Geosciences4 University of Applied Sciences Potsdam5 World Data Center for Geomagnetism Kyoto6 National Institute of Information and

  6. Controlled Vocabulary Service Application for Environmental Data Store

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, P.; Piasecki, M.; Lovell, R.

    2013-12-01

    In this paper we present a controlled vocabulary service application for Environmental Data Store (EDS). The purpose for such application is to help researchers and investigators to archive, manage, share, search, and retrieve data efficiently in EDS. The Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS) is used in the application for the representation of the controlled vocabularies coming from EDS. The controlled vocabularies of EDS are created by collecting, comparing, choosing and merging controlled vocabularies, taxonomies and ontologies widely used and recognized in geoscience/environmental informatics community, such as Environment ontology (EnvO), Semantic Web for Earth and Environmental Terminology (SWEET) ontology, CUAHSI Hydrologic Ontology and ODM Controlled Vocabulary, National Environmental Methods Index (NEMI), National Water Information System (NWIS) codes, EPSG Geodetic Parameter Data Set, WQX domain value etc. TemaTres, an open-source, web -based thesaurus management package is employed and extended to create and manage controlled vocabularies of EDS in the application. TemaTresView and VisualVocabulary that work well with TemaTres, are also integrated in the application to provide tree view and graphical view of the structure of vocabularies. The Open Source Edition of Virtuoso Universal Server is set up to provide a Web interface to make SPARQL queries against controlled vocabularies hosted on the Environmental Data Store. The replicas of some of the key vocabularies commonly used in the community, are also maintained as part of the application, such as General Multilingual Environmental Thesaurus (GEMET), NetCDF Climate and Forecast (CF) Standard Names, etc.. The application has now been deployed as an elementary and experimental prototype that provides management, search and download controlled vocabularies of EDS under SKOS framework.

  7. Vocabulary Learning Strategies Used by Medical Students: Croatian Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmina Rogulj

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to be able to fully develop their academic and professional competencies, medical doctors (MDs need to be highly proficient in English, which, among other things, implies the acquisition of vocabulary as an essential part of language knowledge. The current study aims at exploring vocabulary learning strategies (VLS employed by freshman and sophomore medical students at the University of Split School of Medicine, Croatia. In particular, it focuses on (a most and least frequently used VLS; (b relationship between VLS subscales and different types of vocabulary knowledge; (c differences in the mean strategy use between male and female students, and among low-, middle- and high-scoring students. The instruments used in the research were adapted version of the VLS Questionnaire (Pavičić Takač, 2008, p.152 and a vocabulary test designed by the author. The results indicate that medical students use a core inventory of VLS, whereby showing preference for the category of self-initiated vocabulary learning (SI-IVL strategies and some individual formal vocabulary learning (FVL and spontaneous vocabulary learning (SVL strategies. Although students were not in favour of FVL at the level of the category as a whole, the results showed that the more frequently they employed FVL strategies, the better they scored on vocabulary tasks measuring controlled-productive type of vocabulary knowledge. Correlations revealed that female students used SI-IVL and FVL strategies significantly more often than their male counterparts. Results also suggest that there are no statistically significant differences in the mean VLS use among low-, middle- and high-scoring students. In conclusion, the results of this study provide a preliminary insight into the VLS used by medical students and their effect on students' vocabulary learning outcomes as well as into differences by gender and vocabulary proficiency. Since findings have proved rather inconclusive, these

  8. The Grammar of History: Enhancing Content-Based Instruction through a Functional Focus on Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleppegrell, Mary J.; Achugar, Mariana; Oteiza, Teresa

    2004-01-01

    In K-12 contexts, the teaching of English language learners (ELLs) has been greatly influenced by the theory and practice of content-based instruction (CBI). A focus on content can help students achieve grade-level standards in school subjects while they develop English proficiency, but CBI practices have focused primarily on vocabulary and the…

  9. Click, Clack, Moo: Designing Effective Reading Instruction for Children in Preschool and Early Primary Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, Kathy

    2009-01-01

    As teachers have struggled to implement scientifically based instructional practices in reading, some researchers have begun to focus on ways to "boost the value of reading aloud to young children". Such studies seek ways to promote oral language as well as comprehension and vocabulary through read-aloud experiences. Interactive read-alouds…

  10. An Examination of Preschool Teachers' Shared Book Reading Practices in Spanish: Before and after Instructional Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard-Durodola, Sharolyn D.; Gonzalez, Jorge E.; Simmons, Deborah C.; Taylor, Aaron B.; Davis, Matthew J.; Simmons, Leslie; Nava-Walichowski, Miranda

    2012-01-01

    Shared book reading is a prominent practice in preschools; however, limited research has examined this practice in classrooms with English language learners (ELLs). This study investigated the shared book reading practices of seven preschool teachers of Spanish-speaking ELLs to describe their vocabulary instructional practices before and after…

  11. Effects of an Intelligent Web-Based English Instruction System on Students' Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, J.; Chen, Y.; Ding, Z.; Bai, Y.; Yang, B.; Li, M.; Qi, J.

    2013-01-01

    This research conducted quasi-experiments in four middle schools to evaluate the long-term effects of an intelligent web-based English instruction system, Computer Simulation in Educational Communication (CSIEC), on students' academic attainment. The analysis of regular examination scores and vocabulary test validates the positive impact of CSIEC,…

  12. Enhancing Academic Instruction for Adolescent English Language Learners with or at Risk for Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haager, Diane; Osipova, Anna V.

    2017-01-01

    An increasing number of children worldwide attend schools where the language of instruction does not match their native language, presenting significant challenges with learning the content and vocabulary of academic content areas (e.g., social studies, science). In the U.S., these students are designated as English language learners…

  13. Groundwork for a Better Vocabulary. Second Edition. Instructor's Edition. Townsend Press Vocabulary Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R. Kent; Johnson, Beth; Mohr, Carole

    This instructor's edition of a vocabulary textbook for college students, who read at the fifth to eighth grade level, features 25 chapters and teaches 250 basic words. The first and third chapters in each unit contain word-part practices. The second and fourth chapters in each unit contain synonym-antonym practices. The book's last chapter in each…

  14. Analyses of Receptive and Productive Korean EFL Vocabulary: Computer-Based Vocabulary Learning Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Scott Sungki

    2013-01-01

    The present research study investigated the effects of 8 versions of a computer-based vocabulary learning program on receptive and productive knowledge levels of college students. The participants were 106 male and 103 female Korean EFL students from Kyungsung University and Kwandong University in Korea. Students who participated in versions of…

  15. Developing a Vocabulary Size Test Measuring Two Aspects of Receptive Vocabulary Knowledge: Visual versus Aural

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizawa, Kazumi; Iso, Tatsuo; Nadasdy, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Testing learners' English proficiency is central to university English classes in Japan. This study developed and implemented a set of parallel online receptive aural and visual vocabulary tests that would predict learners' English proficiency. The tests shared the same target words and choices--the main difference was the presentation of the…

  16. Active object recognition using vocabulary trees

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Govender, N

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available . Using this quantity, a feature’s uniqueness may be cal- culated. This is done in the following way. The feature’s Figure 3. Viewpoint weightings for a spice bottle object in the database. path through the vocabulary tree is determined by evaluat- ing... on the background will not negatively effect the weighting since all images were captured using the same background and their uniqueness weighting will be extremely low. Figure 3 is an example polar plot of viewpoint weightings for a spice bottle object...

  17. English vocabulary set #1 interactive flashcards book

    CERN Document Server

    REA, The Editors of

    2013-01-01

    REA's Interactive Flashcard books represent a novel approach which combines the merits of flash cards with the ease of using a book. One side of each page includes questions to be answered, with space for writing in one's answers - a feature not usually found on flash cards. The flip side of the same page contains the correct answers, much as flash cards do. English Vocabulary (Set #1) is fully indexed making it easy to locate topics for study. Thanks to the book form, there is no need to look for and fish out appropriate questions from a box and put them back in the proper order, and the

  18. English vocabulary set #2 interactive flashcards book

    CERN Document Server

    REA, The Editors of

    2013-01-01

    REA's Interactive Flashcard books represent a novel approach which combines the merits of flash cards with the ease of using a book. One side of each page includes questions to be answered, with space for writing in one's answers - a feature not usually found on flash cards. The flip side of the same page contains the correct answers, much as flash cards do. English Vocabulary (Set #2) is fully indexed making it easy to locate topics for study. Thanks to the book form, there is no need to look for and fish out appropriate questions from a box and put them back in the proper order, and ther

  19. The relation of linguistic awareness and vocabulary to word reading and spelling for first-grade students participating in response to intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Suk; Apel, Kenn; Al Otaiba, Stephanie

    2013-10-01

    The relations of phonological, orthographic, and morphological awareness and vocabulary to word reading and spelling were examined for 304 first-grade children who were receiving differentiated instruction in a Response to Intervention (RtI) model of instruction. First-grade children were assessed on their phonological, orthographic, and morphological awareness; expressive vocabulary; word reading; and spelling. Year-end word reading and spelling were outcome variables, and phonological, orthographic, and morphological awareness; expressive vocabulary; and RtI status (Tiers 1, 2, & 3) were predictor variables. The 3 linguistic awareness skills were unique predictors of word reading, and phonological and orthographic awareness were unique predictors of spelling. The contributions that these linguistic awareness skills and vocabulary made to word reading and spelling did not differ by children's RtI tier status. These results, in conjunction with previous studies, suggest that even beginning readers and spellers draw on multiple linguistic awareness skills for their word reading and spelling regardless of their level of literacy abilities. Educational implications are discussed.

  20. The relation of linguistic awareness and vocabulary to word reading and spelling for first grade students participating in Response to Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Suk; Apel, Kenn; Otaiba, Stephanie Al

    2013-01-01

    Purpose We examined the relations of phonological, morphological, and orthographic awareness and vocabulary to word reading and spelling for first grade children who were receiving differentiated instruction in a Response to Intervention (RTI) model of instruction (N = 304). Method First grade children were assessed on their phonological, morphological, and orthographic awareness, expressive vocabulary, word reading, and spelling. Year-end word reading and spelling were outcome variables while phonological, morphological, and orthographic awareness, expressive vocabulary, and RTI status (Tiers 1, 2, & 3) were predictor variables assessed in the middle of the school year. Results The three linguistic awareness skills were unique predictors of word reading and phonological and orthographic awareness were unique predictors of spelling. The contributions these linguistic awareness skills and vocabulary made to word reading and spelling did not differ by children's RTI tier status. Conclusion These results, in conjunction with previous studies, suggest that even beginning readers and spellers draw on multiple linguistic awareness skills for their word reading and spelling regardless of their level of literacy skills. Educational implications are discussed. PMID:23833281

  1. Robust Optical Richness Estimation with Reduced Scatter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rykoff, E.S.; /LBL, Berkeley; Koester, B.P.; /Chicago U. /Chicago U., KICP; Rozo, E.; /Chicago U. /Chicago U., KICP; Annis, J.; /Fermilab; Evrard, A.E.; /Michigan U. /Michigan U., MCTP; Hansen, S.M.; /Lick Observ.; Hao, J.; /Fermilab; Johnston, D.E.; /Fermilab; McKay, T.A.; /Michigan U. /Michigan U., MCTP; Wechsler, R.H.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC

    2012-06-07

    Reducing the scatter between cluster mass and optical richness is a key goal for cluster cosmology from photometric catalogs. We consider various modifications to the red-sequence matched filter richness estimator of Rozo et al. (2009b), and evaluate their impact on the scatter in X-ray luminosity at fixed richness. Most significantly, we find that deeper luminosity cuts can reduce the recovered scatter, finding that {sigma}{sub ln L{sub X}|{lambda}} = 0.63 {+-} 0.02 for clusters with M{sub 500c} {approx}> 1.6 x 10{sup 14} h{sub 70}{sup -1} M{sub {circle_dot}}. The corresponding scatter in mass at fixed richness is {sigma}{sub ln M|{lambda}} {approx} 0.2-0.3 depending on the richness, comparable to that for total X-ray luminosity. We find that including blue galaxies in the richness estimate increases the scatter, as does weighting galaxies by their optical luminosity. We further demonstrate that our richness estimator is very robust. Specifically, the filter employed when estimating richness can be calibrated directly from the data, without requiring a-priori calibrations of the red-sequence. We also demonstrate that the recovered richness is robust to up to 50% uncertainties in the galaxy background, as well as to the choice of photometric filter employed, so long as the filters span the 4000 {angstrom} break of red-sequence galaxies. Consequently, our richness estimator can be used to compare richness estimates of different clusters, even if they do not share the same photometric data. Appendix A includes 'easy-bake' instructions for implementing our optimal richness estimator, and we are releasing an implementation of the code that works with SDSS data, as well as an augmented maxBCG catalog with the {lambda} richness measured for each cluster.

  2. Exploring Vocabulary Learning Strategies Used by UPM TESL Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safian, Nur Hanisah; Malakar, Sharmila; Kalajahi, Seyed Ali Rezvani

    2014-01-01

    Vocabulary learning is one of the most challenging factors that learners will face during the process of second language learning. The main pursuit of the present study was to investigate the vocabulary language strategies among Malaysian ESL students majoring in Teaching English as a Second Language (TESL) at University Putra Malaysia. There are…

  3. Using E-Books to Acquire Foundational Academic Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Matthew L.; Spies, Tracy G.; Morgan, Joseph J.

    2017-01-01

    Secondary students identified as English language learners or with learning disabilities present diverse vocabulary and academic challenges related to their exceptional language needs. Limited academic vocabulary may hinder students in accessing academic content and serve as a barrier to achievement. The literature has documented the use of…

  4. Core Vocabulary: Its Morphological Content and Presence in Exemplar Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiebert, Elfrieda H.; Goodwin, Amanda P.; Cervetti, Gina N.

    2018-01-01

    This study addresses the distribution of words in texts at different points of schooling. The first aim was to identify a core vocabulary that accounts for the majority of the words in texts through the lens of morphological families. Results showed that 2,451 morphological families, averaging 4.61 members, make up the core vocabulary of school…

  5. Shyness, Vocabulary and Children's Reticence in Saudi Arabian Preschools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crozier, W. Ray; Badawood, Asma

    2009-01-01

    The aims of the present study are to examine whether preschool children's scores on a standardized test of vocabulary mediate or moderate the relation between shyness and reticence and to test whether any influence of vocabulary would be found for both teacher and parent assessments of shyness. Participants were 108 children (50 males), mean age,…

  6. Information and documentation - Thesauri and interoperability with other vocabularies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke, Marianne; Dalbin, Sylvie; Smedt, Johan De

    ISO 25964-2:2013 is applicable to thesauri and other types of vocabulary that are commonly used for information retrieval. It describes, compares and contrasts the elements and features of these vocabularies that are implicated when interoperability is needed. It gives recommendations for the est...

  7. Contextual Clues Vocabulary Strategies Choice among Business Management Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Siti Nurshafezan; Muhammad, Ahmad Mazli; Kasim, Aini Mohd

    2018-01-01

    New trends in vocabulary learning focus on strategic vocabulary learning to create more active and independent language learners. Utilising suitable contextual clues strategies is seen as vital in enabling and equipping language learners with the skill to guess word meaning accurately, moving away from dependency on a dictionary to improve their…

  8. Vocabulary Acquisition in L2: Does CALL Really Help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averianova, Irina

    2015-01-01

    Language competence in various communicative activities in L2 largely depends on the learners' size of vocabulary. The target vocabulary of adult L2 learners should be between 2,000 high frequency words (a critical threshold) and 10,000 word families (for comprehension of university texts). For a TOEIC test, the threshold is estimated to be…

  9. Is Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition Feasible to EFL Learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jian-ping

    2013-01-01

    For learning English as a foreign language, the efficiency of the approach of incidental vocabulary acquisition depends on the word frequency and text coverage. However, the statistics of English corpus reveals that English is a language that has a large vocabulary size but a low word frequency as well as text coverage, which is obviously not in…

  10. Vocabulary Acquisition through Direct and Indirect Learning Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeimi, Maki; Foo, Thomas Chow Voon

    2015-01-01

    Vocabulary learning has long been considered as one of the essential components for developing language learning. However, language learners are required to not just concern about memorizing definitions but also integrating vocabulary meaning into their present knowledge. Many strategies such as direct or indirect ones may be integrated to enhance…

  11. Japanese Vocabulary Acquisition by Learners in Three Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewey, Dan P.

    2008-01-01

    This study is an investigation of the development of vocabulary knowledge during study abroad (SA), intensive domestic immersion (IM) and academic-year formal classroom (AY) learning. Its focus was the growth of vocabulary knowledge in Japanese--a language where little SA research has been conducted to date. Unlike most studies addressing…

  12. EFL Vocabulary Acquisition through Word Cards: Student Perceptions and Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Darrell

    2017-01-01

    Vocabulary knowledge plays an important role in second language proficiency, and learners need to acquire thousands of words in order to become proficient in the target language. As numerous studies have shown that incidental vocabulary acquisition is not sufficient on its own, it is clear that learners must devote considerable time and effort to…

  13. Memorization versus Semantic Mapping in L2 Vocabulary Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoii, Roya; Sharififar, Samira

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of two cognitive strategies, rote memorization and semantic mapping, on L2 vocabulary acquisition. Thirty-eight intermediate female EFL learners divided into two experimental groups participated in this study. Each experimental group used one of the strategies for vocabulary acquisition. After the four-month…

  14. A Comparative Study of Televised and Non-televised Vocabulary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dell

    Vocabulary Teaching: the Case of Grade Ten in Focus. ... words were taken from Units 2 and 3 (English for Ethiopia, student text for ... On the other hand, even if it was below average, the study indicated that the ..... Table 1: How frequently the teachers use visual aids to teach vocabulary items .... This is a great disadvantage.

  15. Improving Vocabulary Skills through Assistive Technology: Rick's Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey-Glenn, Pam F.; Gentry, James E.

    2008-01-01

    This case study examines the use of two assistive technologies, the Franklin Language Master 6000b and Microsoft PowerPoint 2003, as visual support systems to aid in the vocabulary acquisition skills of a student with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The intervention used children's literature and best practices in teaching vocabulary skills in…

  16. Core vocabulary of young children with Down syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deckers, S.R.J.M.; Zaalen, Y. van; Balkom, L.J.M. van; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a core vocabulary list for young children with intellectual disabilities between 2 and 7 years of age because data from this population are lacking in core vocabulary literature. Children with Down syndrome are considered one of the most valid reference groups

  17. Early Home Language Use and Later Vocabulary Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancilla-Martinez, Jeannette; Lesaux, Nonie K.

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the association between early patterns of home language use (age 4.5 years) and vocabulary growth (ages 4.5 to 12 years) in English and Spanish for 180 Spanish-speaking language minority learners followed from ages 4.5 to 12 years. Standardized measures of vocabulary were administered to children from ages 4.5 to…

  18. Service Learning: Flooding Students with Vocabulary through Read Alouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Kerry; Thompson, Judith

    2014-01-01

    In the spirit of the Steven Stahl 600 Book Kid Challenge, 90 preservice teachers engaged children in 36 read-aloud sessions for a vocabulary improvement service learning project. This article describes how the preservice teachers used narrative and informational books as a vehicle for rare-word vocabulary exposure for children ages 8-12.

  19. Implementing Controlled Composition to Improve Vocabulary Mastery of EFL Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juriah

    2015-01-01

    The purposes of this study was to know how (1) Controlled composition teaching techniques implemented by the English teacher at SDN 027 Samarinda to improve vocabulary mastery, and (2) Controlled composition teaching techniques improves vocabulary mastery of the sixth grade students of SDN 027 Samarinda. This research used a Classroom Action…

  20. Studies and Suggestions on English Vocabulary Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Shigao

    2012-01-01

    To improve vocabulary learning and teaching in ELT settings, two questionnaires are designed and directed to more than 100 students and teachers in one of China's key universities. The findings suggest that an enhanced awareness of cultural difference, metaphorical competence, and learners' autonomy in vocabulary acquisition will effectively…

  1. Teaching Vocabulary through Games--A Sanguine Step

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anil, Beena

    2011-01-01

    Vocabulary is predominant in improving one's communicative skill. Language is more powerful when it is being used perfectly. Teachers should consider the background of learners and aid them to learn and develop their vocabulary in many interesting ways especially through games. This paper deals with a productive and a logical study, done on a set…

  2. KEEFEKTIFAN METODE SCHOOLYARD INQUIRY TERHADAP PENINGKATAN PEMAHAMAN SCIENCE VOCABULARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.D. Pamelasari

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Tantangan yang harus dihadapi dalam mengajar Bahasa Inggris di pada mahasiswa selain jurusan Bahasa Inggris adalah tingkat pemahaman kosakata yang rendah. Hal tersebut berpengaruh pada pemahaman materi mereka, berdasarkan permasalahan tersebut metode schoolyard inquiry digagas untuk membantu meningkatkan pemahaman mereka dalam memahami science vocabulary sebagai metode alternative untuk membantu mereka belajar. Schoolyard inquiry adalah metode belajar kosakata secara mandiri di luar kelas. Hasil analisis menunjukkan bahwa pemahaman science vocabulary mahasiswa Pendidikan IPA FMIPA Unnes mengingkat secara signifikan dan mencapai tingkat tinggi pada level pemahamannya. Melalui metode ini mahasiswa juga dapat mengintegrasikan pembelajaran Bahasa Inggris dengan metode saintifik. Mahasiswa juga memberikan respon positif terhadap metode schoolyard inquiry  ini. The challenge that should be faced of teaching English for non English department students is the low level of students’ vocabulary mastery. It affects their comprehension of material, therefore to help students to master the science vocabulary schoolyard inquiry method was proposed to be used as alternative method to improve students’ vocabulary mastery. Schoolyard inquiry is a method of independent learning that is conducted outside the class. The result showed that the students’ science vocabulary mastery improved significantly most of students reached high level of science vocabulary mastery. Through Schoolyard Inquiry method Students were be able to learn English by applying the scientific skill. The students also gave positive responses of learning vocabulary by using alternatif method of schoolyard inquiry.

  3. Self-reported reading as a predictor of vocabulary knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratheeba, N; Krashen, S

    2013-10-01

    25 engineering students in India, who were highly motivated to improve their English, filled out a questionnaire about their reading habits in English and took a demanding vocabulary test based on words taken from preparation books for the Graduate Records Examination. The correlation between reading habits and vocabulary was substantial (r = .78).

  4. Neural Correlates of High Performance in Foreign Language Vocabulary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedonia, Manuela; Muller, Karsten; Friederici, Angela D.

    2010-01-01

    Learning vocabulary in a foreign language is a laborious task which people perform with varying levels of success. Here, we investigated the neural underpinning of high performance on this task. In a within-subjects paradigm, participants learned 92 vocabulary items under two multimodal conditions: one condition paired novel words with iconic…

  5. Narrow Viewing: The Vocabulary in Related Television Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Michael P. H.; Webb, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the scripts of 288 television episodes were analyzed to determine the extent to which vocabulary reoccurs in related and unrelated television programs, and the potential for incidental vocabulary learning through watching one season (approximately 24 episodes) of television programs. The scripts consisted of 1,330,268 running words…

  6. Video Games Promote Saudi Children's English Vocabulary Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlShaiji, Ohoud Abdullatif

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of Video Games and their role on promoting Saudi Kids' English vocabulary retention. The study attempted to answer whether there was a statistically significant difference (a = 0.05) between the Saudi children's subjects' mean score on the English vocabulary test due to using Video Games…

  7. Fiches pratiques: Le Charme noir; Aux Armes, citoyens!; La Roue de l'histoire; Lexique de didactique: Les 39 Marches (Practical Ideas: Black Charm; To Arms, Citizens!; The Wheel of History; The Vocabulary of Teaching: 39 Steps).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudon, Pierrette; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Three class activities for French second language instruction are described (interpretation of a literary text with reinterpretation by a less experienced group; an exercise in political expressions; and a wheel-of-history game), and a sequel in a series of articles on the vocabulary of language teaching is presented. (MSE)

  8. Elementary Students' Acquisition of Academic Vocabulary Through Engineering Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugelmass, Rachel

    This study examines how STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) inquiry-based learning through a hands-on engineering design can be beneficial in helping students acquire academic vocabulary. This research took place in a second grade dual- language classroom in a public, suburban elementary school. English language learners, students who speak Spanish at home, and native English speakers were evaluated in this study. Each day, students were presented with a general academic vocabulary focus word during an engineering design challenge. Vocabulary pre-tests and post-tests as well as observation field notes were used to evaluate the student's growth in reading and defining the focus academic vocabulary words. A quiz and KSB (knowledge and skill builder) packet were used to evaluate students' knowledge of science and math content and engineering design. The results of this study indicate that engineering design is an effective means for teaching academic vocabulary to students with varying levels of English proficiency.

  9. Applying Integrated Computer Assisted Media (ICAM in Teaching Vocabulary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Opick Dwi Indah

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to find out whether the use of integrated computer assisted media (ICAM is effective to improve the vocabulary achievement of the second semester students of Cokroaminoto Palopo University. The population of this research was the second semester students of English department of Cokroaminoto Palopo University in academic year 2013/2014. The samples of this research were 60 students and they were placed into two groups: experimental and control group where each group consisted of 30 students. This research used cluster random sampling technique. The research data was collected by applying vocabulary test and it was analyzed by using descriptive and inferential statistics. The result of this research was integrated computer assisted media (ICAM can improve vocabulary achievement of the students of English department of Cokroaminoto Palopo University. It can be concluded that the use of ICAM in the teaching vocabulary is effective to be implemented in improving the students’ vocabulary achievement.

  10. Instructional Partners, Principals, Teachers, and Instructional Assistants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indiana State Dept. of Public Instruction, Indianapolis.

    This handbook examines various topics of interest and concern to teachers as they work with instructional assistants forming a classroom instructional partnership and functioning as a team. These topics include: (1) instructional assistant qualifications; (2) duties--instructional, classroom clerical, auxillary; (3) factors to be considered when…

  11. Speeding up Vocabulary Acquisition through Action Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameerchund (Ashraf Maharaj

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Gaining a wider vocabulary is fundamental to language learning. It follows then that the faster students engage and learn new words, the faster will be their proficiency with the target language. Multi-Dimensional Vocabulary Acquisition (or MDVA means approaching new terms / concepts from a variety of perspectives so that the target word is thoroughly analysed, giving students access to all dimensions of the word. There are many dimensions or elements that will help elucidate and unlock meaning, but for the purposes of this chapter new words will be looked at in terms of their antonyms, synonyms and associated words, rhyming counterparts, idiomatic usage, gender considerations, diminutive implications, proverbial usage and likely confusion with other words. In this study the author employs an Action Research methodology where practical classroom exercises involving students’ writing efforts pre- and post MDVA are closely examined. Using the familiar “spiral of cycles” approach, it becomes clear that “unpacking” the target word means that the meaning of many other words associated with the target word becomes explicit. A workshop with faculty is included as part of the practical application of MDVA.

  12. Atomic Energy Control Board vocabulary - preliminary edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nolet, D [Public Works and Government Services Canada, Montreal, PQ (Canada). Terminology and Documentation Directorate

    1995-09-01

    This preliminary edition was prepared at the Board`s request to help it establish a standardized terminology. It was produced by scanning the 99 French and English documents listed at the end of this Vocabulary. The documents include legislation concerning atomic energy and the transportation of radioactive materials, as well as the Board`s publications, such as the Consultative Documents, Regulatory Documents and Notices. The terms included from the following areas are: radiation protection, reactor technology, nuclear fuel cycle, radioactive material packaging and transportation, radioactive waste management, uranium mines, and medical and industrial applications of radioelements. Also included are the titles of publications and the names of organizations and units. The vocabulary contains 2,589 concepts, sometimes accompanied by definitions, contexts or usage examples. Where terms have been standardized by the Canadian Committee for the Standardization of Nuclear Terminology, this has been indicated. Where possible, we have verified the terms using the TERMIUM, the Government of Canada Linguistic Data Bank. (author).

  13. Gradient phonological inconsistency affects vocabulary learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muench, Kristin L; Creel, Sarah C

    2013-09-01

    Learners frequently experience phonologically inconsistent input, such as exposure to multiple accents. Yet, little is known about the consequences of phonological inconsistency for language learning. The current study examines vocabulary acquisition with different degrees of phonological inconsistency, ranging from no inconsistency (e.g., both talkers call a picture /vig/) to mild but detectable inconsistency (e.g., one talker calls a picture a /vig/, and the other calls it a /vIg/), up to extreme inconsistency (e.g., the same picture is both a /vig/ and a /dIdʒ/). Previous studies suggest that learners readily extract consistent phonological patterns, given variable input. However, in Experiment 1, adults acquired phonologically inconsistent vocabularies more slowly than phonologically consistent ones. Experiment 2 examined whether word-form inconsistency alone, without phonological competition, was a source of learning difficulty. Even without phonological competition, listeners learned faster in 1 accent than in 2 accents, but they also learned faster in 2 accents (/vig/ = /vIg/) than with completely different labels (/vig/ = /dIdʒ/). Overall, results suggest that learners exposed to multiple accents may experience difficulty learning when 2 forms mismatch by more than 1 phonological feature, plus increased phonological competition due to a greater number of word forms. Implications for learning from variable input are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  14. The Exploring Nature of Vocabulary Acquisition and Common Main Gaps in the Current Studies of Vocabulary Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazeli, Seyed Hossein

    2012-01-01

    Vocabulary can be a key factor for success, central to a language, and paramount to a language learner. In such situation, the lexicon may be the most important component for learners (Grass and Selinker, 1994), and mastering of vocabulary is an essential component of second/foreign language teaching and learning that has been repeatedly…

  15. The Effects of Vocabulary Knowledge and Dictionary Use on EFL Reading Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Zhifa

    2013-01-01

    The present study mainly investigated the effects of vocabulary knowledge and dictionary use on EFL reading performance. The results show that scores on vocabulary size, specific vocabulary knowledge, and reading comprehension are highly and positively correlated. Scores on specific vocabulary knowledge are more closely correlated with reading…

  16. The Collision of Two Lexicons: Librarians, Composition Instructors and the Vocabulary of

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toni M. Carter

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective – The study has two aims. The first is to identify words and phrases from information literacy and rhetoric and composition that students used to justify the comparability of two sources. The second is to interpret the effectiveness of students’ application of these evaluative vocabularies and explore the implications for librarians and first-year composition instructors’ collaborations. Methods – A librarian and a first-year composition instructor taught a class on source evaluation using the language of information literacy, composition, and rhetorical analysis (i.e., classical, Aristotelian, rhetorical appeals. Students applied the information learned from the instruction session to help them locate and select two sources of comparable genre and rigor for the purpose of an essay assignment. The authors assessed this writing assignment for students’ evaluative diction to identify how they could improve their understanding of each other’s discourse. Results – The authors’ analysis of the student writing sample exposes struggles in how students understand, apply, and integrate the jargon of information literacy and rhetoric and composition. Assessment shows that students chose the language of rhetoric and composition rather than the language of information literacy, they selected the broadest and/or vaguest terms to evaluate their sources, and they applied circular reasoning when justifying their choices. When introduced to analogous concepts or terms between the two discourses, students cherry-picked the terms that allowed for the easiest, albeit, least-meaningful evaluations. Conclusion – The authors found that their unfamiliarity with each other’s discourse revealed itself in both the class and the student writing. They discovered that these miscommunications affected students’ language use in their written source evaluations. In fact, the authors conclude that this oversight in addressing the subtle

  17. Vocabulary Growth in College-Level Students’ Narrative Writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hicham ZYAD

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The nature and size of vocabulary significantly determine quality in a given piece of writing. It therefore follows that an extensive vocabulary repertoire is a key factor to success in academic life. Most certainly, this explains the vast amount of scholarly attention that has been invested in this line of research. In this regard, a wide array of studies have provided evidence suggesting that human assessors of writing quality are substantially influenced by the range and sophistication of the vocabulary used by L2 learners. The studies that offered such evidence used different measurement tools to evaluate the nature and/or size of L2 learners’ vocabulary. However, very few studies have attempted to chart vocabulary knowledge across different college-level proficiency levels in narrative writing productions in the Moroccan context. To contribute to this debate, the present study aims to investigate university L2 learners’ vocabulary knowledge across three proficiency levels from two post-secondary institutions. More specifically, this cross-sectional study operationalized vocabulary knowledge in terms of diversity and sophistication in order to chart growth in the lexical repertoire of 90 participants. Data analysis showed that the participants displayed different levels of vocabulary knowledge. In terms of lexical diversity, second-year students’ vocabulary was as diverse as third-year students but it was not as sophisticated. Nonetheless, sophistication did not differentiate first- and second-year students but it did differentiate between second- and third-year students. Additionally, diversity and sophistication were both good markers of difference between first- and second-year students. The implications of the findings will be discussed.

  18. Trilingual vocabulary of nuclear waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, H.

    1996-01-01

    This reference document is produced in cooperation with partners in the Union Latine, an international organization dedicated to promoting the Romance languages. In 1992 acting on a request submitted by the Montreal Environment Section of the Translation Bureau, the Terminology and Standardization Directorate published an in-house glossary containing 2500 entries on nuclear waste management. The glossary was produced by scanning bilingual terms in the reports submitted to Atomic Energy of Canada Limited by the Siting Process Task Force on Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal. Because the scale of the nuclear waste management problem has grown considerably since then, the glossary needed to be expanded and revised. The Vocabulary contains some 1000 concepts for a total of approximately 3000 terms in each of the three languages, english, french and spanish. Special attention has been given to defining basic physical concepts, waste classifications and disposal methods

  19. Enterprise vocabulary management; A lexicographic view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Voskuil

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The central theme in this paper is the problem of shifting from natural language descriptions, as in traditional dictionaries and thesauri, to working IT (Information Technology systems that support people carrying out their administrative tasks. An explicit description of the specific language used in an organization is necessary to guarantee properly working IT systems and a healthy flow of information. Traditionally, there are different ways of capturing such a vocabulary. Different options are considered, arguing that the general form of a thesaurus offers the optimal solution for a broad range of cases. Various requirements for such a thesaurus are examined. A real world example is discussed in some detail. Finally, the paper examines how modern Web technology can help optimizing the creation, management and use of enterprise thesauri. Using these technologies, the enterprise thesaurus can take up new roles in managing the information household of an organization.

  20. Trilingual vocabulary of nuclear waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob, H

    1997-12-31

    This reference document is produced in cooperation with partners in the Union Latine, an international organization dedicated to promoting the Romance languages. In 1992 acting on a request submitted by the Montreal Environment Section of the Translation Bureau, the Terminology and Standardization Directorate published an in-house glossary containing 2500 entries on nuclear waste management. The glossary was produced by scanning bilingual terms in the reports submitted to Atomic Energy of Canada Limited by the Siting Process Task Force on Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal. Because the scale of the nuclear waste management problem has grown considerably since then, the glossary needed to be expanded and revised. The Vocabulary contains some 1000 concepts for a total of approximately 3000 terms in each of the three languages, english, french and spanish. Special attention has been given to defining basic physical concepts, waste classifications and disposal methods.

  1. MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES AS PREDICTORS OF READING COMPREHENSION AND VOCABULARY KNOWLEDGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Ali Zarei

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The present study was conducted to investigate types of Multiple Intelligences as predictors of reading comprehension and vocabulary knowledge. To meet this objective, a 60-item TOEFL test and a 90-item multiple intelligences questionnaire were distributed among 240 male and female Iranians studying English at Qazali and Parsian Universities in Qazvin. Data were analyzed using a multiple regression procedure. The result of the data analysis indicated that musical, interpersonal, kinesthetic, and logical intelligences were predicators of reading comprehension. Moreover, musical, verbal, visual, kinesthetic and natural intelligences made significant contributions to predicting vocabulary knowledge.   Key words: Multiple intelligences, reading comprehension, vocabulary knowledge.

  2. Components for Maintaining and Publishing Earth Science Vocabularies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, S. J. D.; Yu, J.

    2014-12-01

    Shared vocabularies are an important aid to geoscience data interoperability. Many organizations maintain useful vocabularies, with Geologic Surveys having a particularly long history of vocabulary and lexicon development. However, the mode of publication is heterogeneous, ranging from PDFs and HTML web pages, spreadsheets and CSV, through various user-interfaces and APIs. Update and maintenance ranges from tightly-governed and externally opaque, through various community processes, all the way to crowd-sourcing ('folksonomies'). A general expectation, however, is for greater harmonization and vocabulary re-use. In order to be successful this requires (a) standardized content formalization and APIs (b) transparent content maintenance and versioning. We have been trialling a combination of software dealing with registration, search and linking. SKOS is designed for formalizing multi-lingual, hierarchical vocabularies, and has been widely adopted in earth and environmental sciences. SKOS is an RDF vocabulary, for which SPARQL is the standard low-level API. However, for interoperability between SKOS vocabulary sources, a SKOS-based API (i.e. based on the SKOS predicates prefLabel, broader, narrower, etc) is required. We have developed SISSvoc for this purpose, and used it to deploy a number of vocabularies on behalf of the IUGS, ICS, NERC, OGC, the Australian Government, and CSIRO projects. SISSvoc Search provides simple search UI on top of one or more SISSvoc sources. Content maintenance is composed of many elements, including content-formalization, definition-update, and mappings to related vocabularies. Typically there is a degree of expert judgement required. In order to provide confidence in users, two requirements are paramount: (i) once published, a URI that denotes a vocabulary item must remain dereferenceable; (ii) the history and status of the content denoted by a URI must be available. These requirements match the standard 'registration' paradigm which is

  3. Promoting Second Language Learners’ Vocabulary Learning Strategies: Can Autonomy and Critical Thinking Make a Contribution?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mania Nosratinia

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Based on the findings of previous studies which highlight the role of vocabulary knowledge in English as a Foreign Language/English as a Second Language (EFL/ESL learners’ learning process, this study investigated the relationship among EFL learners’ Critical Thinking (CT, Autonomy (AU, and choice of Vocabulary Learning Strategies (VLS. To fulfill the purpose of this study, 100 male and female undergraduate EFL learners, between the ages of 18 and 25 (Mage = 21 were randomly selected. These participants, who were receiving formal instruction by means of English as the main language along with learners’ first language, were asked to complete three questionnaires, estimating their CT, AU, and VLS. Analyzing the collected data by Pearson’s product-moment correlation coefficient revealed significant relationships between participants' AU and CT, CT and VLS, and AU and VLS. Furthermore, a linear regression through the stepwise method revealed that between CT and AU, AU is the best predictor of VLS. The findings of this provide EFL teachers, EFL learners, and syllabus designers with insights into the nature of VLS and the way it can be promoted through other internal factors.

  4. Science and Literacy: Incorporating Vocabulary, Reading Comprehension, Research Methods, and Writing into the Science Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieser, K.; Carlson, C.; Bering, E. A.; Slagle, E.

    2012-12-01

    Part of preparing the next generation of STEM researchers requires arming these students with the requisite literacy and research skills they will need. In a unique collaboration, the departments of Physics (ECE) and Psychology at the University of Houston have teamed up with NASA in a grant to develop a supplemental curriculum for elementary (G3-5) and middle school (G6-8) science teachers called Mars Rover. During this six week project, students work in teams to research the solar system, the planet Mars, design a research mission to Mars, and create a model Mars Rover to carry out this mission. Targeted Language Arts skills are embedded in each lesson so that students acquire the requisite academic vocabulary and research skills to enable them to successfully design their Mars Rover. Students learn academic and scientific vocabulary using scientifically based reading research. They receive direct instruction in research techniques, note-taking, summarizing, writing and other important language skills. The interdisciplinary collaboration empowers students as readers, writers and scientists. After the curriculum is completed, a culminating Mars Rover event is held at a local university, bringing students teams in contact with real-life scientists who critique their work, ask questions, and generate excite about STEM careers. Students have the opportunity to showcase their Mars Rover and to orally demonstrate their knowledge of Mars. Students discover the excitement of scientific research, STEM careers, important research and writing tools in a practical, real-life setting.

  5. Improving Elementary School Students’ English Vocabulary Through Local Cultural Content Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frans Manurung

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Elementary students of a certain public school in Indonesia had difficulties in learning English. One of the crucial problems was learning English vocabulary. In an attempt to help the students learn and improve English vocabulary, the researchers decided to use CAR to teach English vocabulary with local cultural content materials. The aim of this study was to investigate how the teaching of English vocabulary with local cultural content materials contributed to the improvement of the students’ English vocabulary mastery. The topics covered in the materials were selected based on schemata theory. Vocabulary learning process was done through several activities provided in the materials: classroom and outside vocabulary learning. The results showed that the teaching of local cultural content materials have contributed to the improvement of the Elementary students’ vocabulary mastery. The schematic knowledge found in the familiar topics has aroused the students’ interest and motivation in learning English vocabulary. Students who were more familiar with the topics could respond to the vocabulary learning better than those who were not familiar with. The vocabulary mastery was more successful only if the students participated in both classroom and outside vocabulary learning process. Keywords: Vocabulary Mastery, Vocabulary Improvement, Local Cultural Content Materials, Vocabulary Learning, Schemata

  6. Exploring Vocabulary Learning Strategies Used by UPM TESL Undergraduates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Hanisah Safian

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Vocabulary learning is one of the most challenging factors that learners will face during the process of second language learning. The main pursuit of the present study was to investigate the vocabulary language strategies among Malaysian ESL students majoring in Teaching English as a Second Language (TESL at University Putra Malaysia.  There are five different categories of vocabulary leaning strategies determination, social, memory, cognitive and metacognitive strategies. Quantitative research design has been used in this study by providing a set of questionnaire of 58 items that was given out to 50 participants at the Faculty of Educational Studies in UPM. The findings of this research hope to help all educators to acknowledge the type of vocabulary strategies used by students in acquiring second language (L2.

  7. STRATEGIES IN IMPROVING READING COMPREHENSION THROUGH VOCABULARY ACQUISITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairil Razali

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Vocabulary acquisition concerns on how people expand the numbers of words they understand when learning a new language. Knowing words in a second or foreign language is vitally important because the reader will be able to understand the written text well and the speaker will be able to communicate basic ideas through vocabulary even if the person does not understand how to create a grammatically correct sentence. As Madsen argued, “mastering vocabulary is the primary thing that every student should acquire in learning English” (Harold, 1983. Therefore, acquiring a sufficiently large vocabulary is one of the important tasks faced by L2 learners in order to comprehend the written texts in reading as one of the four basic features of language learning.

  8. PROMOTING INCIDENTAL VOCABULARY LEARNING THROUGH VERBAL DRAMATIZATION OF WORDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Looi-Chin Ch’ng

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that explicit teaching of vocabulary is often practised in English as a Second Language (ESL classrooms, it has been proven to be rather ineffective, largely because words are not taught in context. This has prompted the increasing use of incidental vocabulary learning approach, which emphasises on repeated readings as a source for vocabulary learning. By adopting this approach, this study aims to investigate students’ ability in learning vocabulary incidentally via verbal dramatization of written texts. In this case, readers’ theatre (RT is used as a way to allow learners to engage in active reading so as to promote vocabulary learning. A total of 160 diploma students participated in this case study and they were divided equally into two groups, namely classroom reading (CR and RT groups. A proficiency test was first conducted to determine their vocabulary levels. Based on the test results, a story was selected as the reading material in the two groups. The CR group read the story through a normal reading lesson in class while the RT group was required to verbally dramatize the text through readers’ theatre activity. Then, a post-test based on vocabulary levels was carried out and the results were compared. The findings revealed that incidental learning was more apparent in the RT group and their ability to learn words from the higher levels was noticeable through higher accuracy scores. Although not conclusive, this study has demonstrated the potential of using readers’ theatre as a form of incidental vocabulary learning activity in ESL settings.

  9. Language understanding and vocabulary of early cochlear implanted children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Percy-Smith, L; Busch, GW; Sandahl, M

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to identify factors associated with the level of language understanding, the level of receptive and active vocabulary, and to estimate effect-related odds ratios for cochlear implanted children's language level.......The aim of the study was to identify factors associated with the level of language understanding, the level of receptive and active vocabulary, and to estimate effect-related odds ratios for cochlear implanted children's language level....

  10. Enhancing students’ vocabulary knowledge using the Facebook environment

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Kamarul Kabilan; Tuti Zalina Mohamed Ernes Zahar

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the effectiveness of using Facebook in enhancing vocabulary knowledge among Community College students. Thirty-three (33) Community College students are exposed to the use of Facebook as an environment of learning and enhancing their English vocabulary. They are given a pre-test and a post-test and the findings indicate that students perform significantly better in the post-test compared to the pre-test. It appears that Facebook could be considered as a supplementary l...

  11. Developing Content Knowledge in Struggling Readers: Differential Effects of Strategy Instruction for Younger and Older Elementary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elleman, Amy M.; Olinghouse, Natalie G.; Gilbert, Jennifer K.; Spencer, Jane Lawrence; Compton, Donald L.

    2017-01-01

    This study compared the effects of 2 strategy-based comprehension treatments intended to promote vocabulary and content knowledge for elementary students at risk for developing reading difficulties (N = 105) with a traditional content approach. The study examined the effectiveness of strategy versus nonstrategy instruction on reading…

  12. Core vocabulary of young children with Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deckers, Stijn R J M; Van Zaalen, Yvonne; Van Balkom, Hans; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a core vocabulary list for young children with intellectual disabilities between 2 and 7 years of age because data from this population are lacking in core vocabulary literature. Children with Down syndrome are considered one of the most valid reference groups for researching developmental patterns in children with intellectual disabilities; therefore, spontaneous language samples of 30 Dutch children with Down syndrome were collected during three different activities with multiple communication partners (free play with parents, lunch- or snack-time at home or at school, and speech therapy sessions). Of these children, 19 used multimodal communication, primarily manual signs and speech. Functional word use in both modalities was transcribed. The 50 most frequently used core words accounted for 67.2% of total word use; 16 words comprised core vocabulary, based on commonality. These data are consistent with similar studies related to the core vocabularies of preschoolers and toddlers with typical development, although the number of nouns present on the core vocabulary list was higher for the children in the present study. This finding can be explained by manual sign use of the children with Down syndrome and is reflective of their expressive vocabulary ages.

  13. Vocabulary Breadth and Field Dependence/Independence Cognitive Styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nassim Golaghaei

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This article is primarily bidirectional in that it is concerned with two fields of cognitive styles of field-dependency/independency on one hand and breadth of vocabulary knowledge on the other hand. In other word, this research is primarily intended to investigate the nature of the students' vocabulary knowledge in the field of passive and active knowledge of L2 words as a whole with regard to their preferred cognitive style of field dependency/independency. A group of 60 undergraduate students majoring in the field of English Language Teaching was selected. They were then divided into two groups based on the basis of their preferred cognitive styles of field-dependency / independency. Four types of tests, the 1000 frequency word-level test, the passive version of vocabulary Levels Test, the Productive Version of the Vocabulary Levels Test, and the Group Imbedded Figures Test were administered to the participants. The conclusion drawn after the analysis of the data was that the fieldindependent group outperformed their field-dependent counterparts in dealing with both passive and productive vocabulary levels. Finally, the findings of this research could be interpreted as being supportive of the idea that the field-dependent/independent cognitive style could be considered as an effective factor influencing the learners' vocabulary learning in the field of second language acquisition.

  14. Linking vocabulary to imagery: Improving science knowledge through multimedia design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Tracy R.

    This qualitative study looked at the vocabulary development of four urban sixth-grade students as they used laser disk and computer technologies to view images and then connect those images to textual definitions through multimedia design. Focusing on three science content areas (the water cycle, the rock cycle, and the web of life), students worked in pairs to create their own multimedia stacks that focused on the prescribed vocabulary. Using a combination of text, images, and audio, students demonstrated their understanding of content vocabulary words and how these words are interconnects within a science topic. Further, the study examined the impact that linking images to vocabulary and textual definitions has on helping students memorize definitions of the science content words. It was found that the use of imagery had a positive affect on the students' ability to identify textual definitions and vocabulary words, though it did not have a great impact on their later recall of word/definition connections. In addition, by designing their own multimedia artifacts, students were able to connect the vocabulary and images within a specific content area and explain their function within a broader science concept. The results of this study were inconclusive as to the impact this activity had on the students' ability to transfer their knowledge to correctly answering questions similar to the ones they see on their state proficiency exam.

  15. Vocabulary test format and differential relations to age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, Ryan P; Salthouse, Timothy A

    2008-06-01

    Although vocabulary tests are generally considered interchangeable, regardless of format, different tests can have different relations to age and to other cognitive abilities. In this study, 4 vocabulary test formats were examined: multiple-choice synonyms, multiple-choice antonyms, produce the definition, and picture identification. Results indicated that, although they form a single coherent vocabulary knowledge factor, the formats have different relations to age. In earlier adulthood, picture identification had the strongest growth, and produce the definition had the weakest. In later adulthood, picture identification had the strongest decline, and multiple-choice synonyms had the least. The formats differed in their relation to other cognitive variables, including reasoning, spatial visualization, memory, and speed. After accounting for the differential relations to other cognitive variables, differences in relation to age were eliminated with the exception of differences for the picture identification test. No theory of the aging of vocabulary knowledge fully explains these findings. These results suggest that using a single indicator of vocabulary may yield incomplete and somewhat misleading results about the aging of vocabulary knowledge.

  16. Does Using Language Games Affect Vocabulary Learning in EFL Classes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beyza Silsüpür

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study attempted to investigate the role of using word games in L2 vocabulary acquisition. 12 female participants from Uludag University were selected for control and experimental groups. Additionally, 35 participants from different universities in Turkey were invited to attend the study. First, an online questionnaire about the effect of games on vocabulary learning was administered to 35 participants. And results were analysed.  Secondly, 12 female participants were divided into two groups as control group and experimental group. Both groups were taught certain words, however, a word game known as “Bingo” were utilized for the experimental group. Finally, a vocabulary quiz was administered to both groups to determine the differences between them. The scores obtained from vocabulary quiz showed that the experimental group outperformed the control group in vocabulary quiz. Even so, there was not a significant difference between the results of the quiz. Similarly, the findings of the questionnaire indicated that the participants preferred learning through vocabulary games rather than traditional way. Also, the findings revealed that games reduce negative feelings during the learning process. It was suggested that teachers should reconsider the role of games and appreciate their educational value.

  17. Application-Based Crossword Puzzles: Players’ Perception and Vocabulary Retention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzulfikri Dzulfikri

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the perceptions of students towards Application-Based Crossword Puzzles and how playing this game can affect the development of vocabulary amongst students. Drawing on Vygostky’s Socio-Cultural Theory which states that the human mind is mediated by cultural artifacts, the nature of this game poses challenges and builds curiosity, allowing players to pay more attention to the words to fill in the boxes which subsequently enhances their retention of vocabulary. This game has very good potential to build positive perceptions and to develop cognition in the linguistic domain of players, i.e. the amount of their vocabulary. In this study, the researcher conducted interviews with eligible or selected student players to find out their perceptions toward this game and administered a vocabulary test to find out how this game had added to the retention in memory of new words acquired by the players from the game. The study findings showed that the participants perceive this game positively and it affects the players’ vocabulary retention positively as indicated by their test results. It is recommended that English teachers consider using Application-Based Crossword Puzzles to help students build their vocabularies especially as part of extracurricular activities.

  18. Using Songs To Support Vocabulary Learning For Grade Four Pupils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashid Al-Azri

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Over the recent years the teaching of foreign language vocabulary has been the subject of much discussion and arguments and a number of research and methodology books on such topic have emerged as it is the case for example with Nation 2001 and Schmitt 2000. For a long time grammar seemed to have attracted more attention but this renewed interest in vocabulary reflects the belief that it is becoming a major component in knowing a language and as some recent scholars would admit even more important than grammar already. In addition to the various strategies used to promote vocabulary learning in the classroom environment songs are widely being used nowadays as a powerful tool in teaching new vocabulary to early grades pupils. Throughout our teaching of young learners we have noticed that they are amazingly captured by songs and they always enjoy listening to them. This might be one of the main reasons why songs have now become one of the cornerstones in the demanding and challenging process of teaching children. The purpose of this research paper is to find out as to what extent and how the use of songs may support new vocabulary learning for grade four pupils in Oman and how much it actually helps these young learners in developing their vocabulary learning habits.

  19. Effects of Multimedia Vocabulary Annotations on Vocabulary Learning and Text Comprehension in ESP Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Huifen

    2012-01-01

    For the past few decades, instructional materials enriched with multimedia elements have enjoyed increasing popularity. Multimedia-based instruction incorporating stimulating visuals, authentic audios, and interactive animated graphs of different kinds all provide additional and valuable opportunities for students to learn beyond what conventional…

  20. The CAPRICE RICH detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basini, G. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Rome (Italy); Codino, A.; Grimani, C. [Perugia Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Perugia (Italy); De Pascale, M.P. [Rome Univ. `Tor Vergata` (Italy). Dip. di Fisica]|[INFN, Sezione Univ. `Tor Vergata` Rome (Italy); Cafagna, F. [Bari Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Bari (Italy); Golden, R.L. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States). Particle Astrophysics Lab.; Brancaccio, F.; Bocciolini, M. [Florence Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Florence (Italy); Barbiellini, G.; Boezio, M. [Trieste Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Trieste (Italy)

    1995-09-01

    A compact RICH detector has been developed and used for particle identification in a balloon borne spectrometer to measure the flux of antimatter in the cosmic radiation. This is the first RICH detector ever used in space experiments that is capable of detecting unit charged particles, such as antiprotons. The RICH and all other detectors performed well during the 27 hours long flight.

  1. Cross-Language Associations in the Development of Preschoolers' Receptive and Expressive Vocabulary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Michelle F; Bohlmann, Natalie L; Palacios, Natalia A

    The increasing population of dual language learners (DLLs) entering preschool classrooms highlights a continued need for research on the development of dual language acquisition, and specifically vocabulary skills, in this age group. This study describes young DLL children's ( N = 177) vocabulary development in both English and Spanish simultaneously, and how vocabulary skills in each language relate to one another, during a contextual shift that places greater emphasis on the acquisition of academic English language skills. Findings demonstrated that DLL preschoolers made gains in vocabulary in both languages with more change evidenced in receptive, in comparison to expressive, vocabulary as well as in English in comparison to Spanish. When examining whether children's vocabulary scores in one language at the beginning of preschool interact with their vocabulary scores in the other language to predict vocabulary growth, no significant associations were found for receptive vocabulary. In contrast, the interaction between initial English and Spanish expressive vocabulary scores was negatively related to growth in English expressive vocabulary. This cross-language association suggests that children who have low expressive vocabulary skills in both languages tend to grow faster in their English expressive vocabulary. The study extends previous work on dual language development by examining growth in expressive and receptive vocabulary in both English and Spanish. It also provides suggestions for future work to inform a more comprehensive understanding of DLL children's development in both languages.

  2. Cross-Language Associations in the Development of Preschoolers’ Receptive and Expressive Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Michelle F.; Bohlmann, Natalie L.; Palacios, Natalia A.

    2016-01-01

    The increasing population of dual language learners (DLLs) entering preschool classrooms highlights a continued need for research on the development of dual language acquisition, and specifically vocabulary skills, in this age group. This study describes young DLL children's (N = 177) vocabulary development in both English and Spanish simultaneously, and how vocabulary skills in each language relate to one another, during a contextual shift that places greater emphasis on the acquisition of academic English language skills. Findings demonstrated that DLL preschoolers made gains in vocabulary in both languages with more change evidenced in receptive, in comparison to expressive, vocabulary as well as in English in comparison to Spanish. When examining whether children's vocabulary scores in one language at the beginning of preschool interact with their vocabulary scores in the other language to predict vocabulary growth, no significant associations were found for receptive vocabulary. In contrast, the interaction between initial English and Spanish expressive vocabulary scores was negatively related to growth in English expressive vocabulary. This cross-language association suggests that children who have low expressive vocabulary skills in both languages tend to grow faster in their English expressive vocabulary. The study extends previous work on dual language development by examining growth in expressive and receptive vocabulary in both English and Spanish. It also provides suggestions for future work to inform a more comprehensive understanding of DLL children's development in both languages. PMID:26807002

  3. An analysis of topics and vocabulary in Chinese oral narratives by normal speakers and speakers with fluent aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Sam-Po; Kong, Anthony Pak-Hin; Lai, Christy

    2018-01-01

    This study analysed the topic and vocabulary of Chinese speakers based on language samples of personal recounts in a large spoken Chinese database recently made available in the public domain, i.e. Cantonese AphasiaBank ( http://www.speech.hku.hk/caphbank/search/ ). The goal of the analysis is to offer clinicians a rich source for selecting ecologically valid training materials for rehabilitating Chinese-speaking people with aphasia (PWA) in the design and planning of culturally and linguistically appropriate treatments. Discourse production of 65 Chinese-speaking PWA of fluent types (henceforth, PWFA) and their non-aphasic controls narrating an important event in their life were extracted from Cantonese AphasiaBank. Analyses of topics and vocabularies in terms of part-of-speech, word frequency, lexical semantics, and diversity were conducted. There was significant overlap in topics between the two groups. While the vocabulary was larger for controls than that of PWFA as expected, they were similar in distribution across parts-of-speech, frequency of occurrence, and the ratio of concrete to abstract items in major open word classes. Moreover, proportionately more different verbs than nouns were employed at the individual level for both speaker groups. The findings provide important implications for guiding directions of aphasia rehabilitation not only of fluent but also non-fluent Chinese aphasic speakers.

  4. Strategy Instruction in Mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Susan R.

    1989-01-01

    Experiments in strategy instruction for mathematics have been conducted using three models (direct instruction, self-instruction, and guided learning) applied to the tasks of computation and word problem solving. Results have implications for effective strategy instruction for learning disabled students. It is recommended that strategy instruction…

  5. Incidental Vocabulary Learning: A Semantic Field Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvaneh Khosravizadeh

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    This study is an attempt to explore the difference between acquiring new words with different semantic fields to which they belong. In other words, the purpose of this study is to scrutinize the contribution of semantic field theory in learning new vocabulary items in an EFL setting. Thirty-eight students of three different levels of education took part in this research. They were exposed to some new words from four different semantic fields, and then they were tested on their acquisition of the words meaning. This exposure was through reading texts and the aim of reading was just comprehension, therefore the words were acquired incidentally. The outcome showed significant differences between groups with different levels of education regarding retention of words from different semantic fields.

  6. Age of acquisition effects in vocabulary learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Shekeila D; Havelka, Jelena

    2010-11-01

    Two experiments examined whether the age of acquisition (AoA) of a concept influences the speed at which native English speakers are able to name pictures using a newly acquired second language (L2) vocabulary. In Experiment 1, participants were taught L2 words associated with pictures. In Experiment 2 a second group of participants were taught the same words associated with L1 translations. Following training both groups performed a picture naming task in which they were asked to name pictures using the newly acquired words. Significant AoA effects were observed only in Experiment 1, in that participants were faster at naming pictures representing early acquired relative to late acquired concepts. The results suggest that the AoA of a concept can exert influence over processing which is independent of the AoA of the word form. The results also indicate that different training methods may lead to qualitative differences in the nature of the links formed between words and concepts during the earliest stages of second language learning. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The Effect of Project Based Learning in Teaching EFL Vocabulary to Young Learners of English: The Case of Pre-school Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma KİMSESİZ

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available English language teaching has newly been introduced to pre-school curriculum in Turkey. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of teaching EFL vocabulary to pre-school children through Project Based Learning (PBL. For this purpose, an experimental design, consisted of observation checklists, exam scores and a short survey, was adopted. Firstly, through a short online survey, 150 kindergarten teachers were asked to specify which techniques they commonly used in their English classes. The primary aim here was to define traditional techniques and the rate of PBL use in Turkey. After defining common techniques, 28 children were randomly assigned to experimental (PBL instruction and control groups (traditional instruction equally and the data was collected in real time classroom setting for 8 weeks. The results showed that (1 PBL was rarely adopted in EFL classes in Turkey, (2 PBL instruction could increase EFL vocabulary learning gains when compared to common methods and (3 young learners were observed to have been more active in PBL classes. The effect of PBL instruction was discussed in local, cognitive and motivational perspectives in the light of previous related research. The potential benefits of further PBL use for young EFL learners and implications were also discussed.

  8. Is vocabulary growth influenced by the relations among words in a language learner's vocabulary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sailor, Kevin M

    2013-09-01

    Several recent studies have explored the applicability of the preferential attachment principle to account for vocabulary growth. According to this principle, network growth can be described by a process in which existing nodes recruit new nodes with a probability that is an increasing function of their connectivity within the existing network. The current study combined subjective estimates of the age of acquisition (AoA) and associations among words in a large corpus to estimate the organization of semantic knowledge at multiple points in vocabulary growth. Consistent with previous studies, the number of connections or relations among words followed a power law distribution in which relatively few words were highly connected with other words and most words were connected to relatively few words. In addition, the growth in the number of connections of a word was a linear function of its initial number of connections, and the ratio of connections to any two words was relatively constant over time. Finally, number of connections to known words was a reliable predictor of a word's AoA. All of these findings can be shown to be consistent with the preferential attachment principle. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  9. Spanish Instruction in Head Start and Dual Language Learners' Academic Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Elizabeth B

    2017-09-01

    Data from the Head Start Impact Study ( N = 1,141) and the Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey, 2009 Cohort ( N = 825) were used to investigate whether Spanish instruction in Head Start differentially increased Spanish-speaking Dual Language Learners' (DLLs) academic achievement. Although hypothesized that Spanish instruction would be beneficial for DLLs' early literacy and math skills, results from residualized growth models showed there were no such positive associations. Somewhat surprisingly, DLL children instructed in Spanish had higher English receptive vocabulary skills at the end of the Head Start year than those not instructed, with children randomly assigned to Head Start and instructed in Spanish having the highest scores. Policy implications for Head Start-eligible Spanish-speaking DLLs are discussed.

  10. Examining the Impact of Vocabulary Strategy Training on Adult EFL Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafiye AKTEKİN

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract - This study aimed to examine the effectiveness of strategy instruction in vocabulary learning. To reach the goal of the study, 70 elementary level EFL learners at the Preparatory School of Mersin University were assigned as study and control groups. At the first stage of the study, through a Vocabulary Strategy Frequency Survey (Cohen, Oxford & Chi, 2002 and Taxonomy (Schmitt, 1997, conscious and/or unconscious use of vocabulary learning strategies in both groups was investigated. The study group received instruction on vocabulary learning strategies which was embedded to the course-book through a 10-week period. For the next stage, it was aimed to raise the teachers’ awareness of vocabulary strategy learning; therefore, discussion and feedback sessions were planned. For the follow-up stage of the study, 10 of the participant students who were then second grade medical students were interviewed in order to investigate the effects of strategy training after 2 academic years. Interviewees were asked about their opinions on strategy use during this period. The findings indicated that vocabulary strategy training can help students to learn and store more vocabulary. Keywords: language learning strategies, vocabulary learning strategies, strategy training, adult EFL learners Özet–Kelime Strateji Eğitiminin İngilizce Öğrenen Yetişkin Öğrenciler Üzerindeki Etkisinin Araştırılması. Bu çalışma kelime öğreniminde strateji kullanımının etkisini ölçmek için yapılmıştır. Bu amaçla, Mersin Üniversitesi Yabancı Diller Yüksekokulundan 70 başlangıç düzey yabancı dil öğrencisi çalışma ve kontrol grubu olarak seçilmişlerdir. İlk olarak, kelime stratejisi sıklık anketi (Cohen, Oxford & Chi, 2002 ve taksonomisi (Schmitt, 1997 ile her iki grubun bilinçli ve/veya bilinçdışı kullandıkları stratejiler araştırılmıştır. Çalışma grubu ders kitaplarına uygun olarak düzenlenmiş etkinliklerle

  11. Modelling vocabulary development among multilingual children prior to and following the transition to school entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeod, Andrea A. N.; Castellanos-Ryan, Natalie; Parent, Sophie; Jacques, Sophie; Séguin, Jean R.

    2017-01-01

    Differences between monolingual and multilingual vocabulary development have been observed but few studies provide a longitudinal perspective on vocabulary development before and following school entry. This study compares vocabulary growth profiles of 106 multilingual children to 211 monolingual peers before and after school entry to examine whether: (1) school entry coincides with different rates of vocabulary growth compared to prior to school entry, (2) compared to monolingual peers, multilingual children show different vocabulary sizes or rates of vocabulary growth, (3) the age of onset of second-language acquisition for multilingual children is associated with vocabulary size or rate of vocabulary growth, and (4) the sociolinguistic context of the languages spoken by multilingual children is associated with vocabulary size or rate of vocabulary growth. Results showed increases in vocabulary size across time for all children, with a steeper increase prior to school entry. A significant difference between monolingual and multilingual children who speak a minority language was observed with regards to vocabulary size at school entry and vocabulary growth prior to school entry, but growth rate differences were no longer present following school entry. Taken together, results suggest that which languages children speak may matter more than being multilingual per se. PMID:29354017

  12. Modelling vocabulary development among multilingual children prior to and following the transition to school entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeod, Andrea A N; Castellanos-Ryan, Natalie; Parent, Sophie; Jacques, Sophie; Séguin, Jean R

    2018-01-01

    Differences between monolingual and multilingual vocabulary development have been observed but few studies provide a longitudinal perspective on vocabulary development before and following school entry. This study compares vocabulary growth profiles of 106 multilingual children to 211 monolingual peers before and after school entry to examine whether: (1) school entry coincides with different rates of vocabulary growth compared to prior to school entry, (2) compared to monolingual peers, multilingual children show different vocabulary sizes or rates of vocabulary growth, (3) the age of onset of second-language acquisition for multilingual children is associated with vocabulary size or rate of vocabulary growth, and (4) the sociolinguistic context of the languages spoken by multilingual children is associated with vocabulary size or rate of vocabulary growth. Results showed increases in vocabulary size across time for all children, with a steeper increase prior to school entry. A significant difference between monolingual and multilingual children who speak a minority language was observed with regards to vocabulary size at school entry and vocabulary growth prior to school entry, but growth rate differences were no longer present following school entry. Taken together, results suggest that which languages children speak may matter more than being multilingual per se.

  13. The Acquisition of Vocabulary Through Three Memory Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libia Maritza Pérez

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study reports on an action research study that explores the implications of applying three vocabulary strategies: word cards, association with pictures, and association with a topic through fables in the acquisition of new vocabulary in a group of EFL low-level proficiency teenagers in a public school in Espinal, Tolima, Colombia. The participants had never used vocabulary strategies before and struggled to memorize and recall words.  Two types of questionnaires, a researcher’s journal, and vocabulary tests were the instruments used to gather data.  The results showed that these strategies were effective to expand the range of words progressively and improve the ability to recall them. The study also found that these strategies involve cognitive and affective factors that can affect students’ perception about the strategies and their use. The implementation of the strategies highlighted the need to train teachers and learners in strategies intended to teach and learn vocabulary and to include them in the English language program in any school.

  14. Expressive vocabulary of children with normal and deviant phonological development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athayde, Marcia de Lima; Mota, Helena Bolli; Mezzomo, Carolina Lisbôa

    2010-01-01

    expressive vocabulary of children with normal and deviant phonological development. to determine whether alterations presented by children with phonological disorders occur only at the phonological level or if there are any impacts on lexical acquisition; to compare the vocabulary performance of children with phonological disorders to reference values presented by the used test. participants of the study were 36 children of both genders, 14 with phonological disorders (Study group) and 22 with typical language development (Control Group). The ABFW - Vocabulary Test (Befi-Lopes, 2000) was used for assessing the expressive vocabulary of children and later to compare the performance of both groups. the performance of children with phonological disorder in the expressive vocabulary test is similar to that of children with normal phonological development. Most of the children of both groups reached the benchmarks proposed by the test for the different semantic fields. The semantic field Places demonstrated to be the most complex for both groups. the alterations presented by children with phonological disorder area limited to the phonological level, having no impact on the lexical aspect of language.

  15. Vocabulary Facilitates Speech Perception in Children With Hearing Aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Kelsey E; Walker, Elizabeth A; Kirby, Benjamin; McCreery, Ryan W

    2017-08-16

    We examined the effects of vocabulary, lexical characteristics (age of acquisition and phonotactic probability), and auditory access (aided audibility and daily hearing aid [HA] use) on speech perception skills in children with HAs. Participants included 24 children with HAs and 25 children with normal hearing (NH), ages 5-12 years. Groups were matched on age, expressive and receptive vocabulary, articulation, and nonverbal working memory. Participants repeated monosyllabic words and nonwords in noise. Stimuli varied on age of acquisition, lexical frequency, and phonotactic probability. Performance in each condition was measured by the signal-to-noise ratio at which the child could accurately repeat 50% of the stimuli. Children from both groups with larger vocabularies showed better performance than children with smaller vocabularies on nonwords and late-acquired words but not early-acquired words. Overall, children with HAs showed poorer performance than children with NH. Auditory access was not associated with speech perception for the children with HAs. Children with HAs show deficits in sensitivity to phonological structure but appear to take advantage of vocabulary skills to support speech perception in the same way as children with NH. Further investigation is needed to understand the causes of the gap that exists between the overall speech perception abilities of children with HAs and children with NH.

  16. Nouns and verbs in the vocabulary acquisition of Italian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Odorico, Laura; Fasolo, Mirco

    2007-11-01

    The vocabulary development of 24 Italian children aged between 1;4 and 1;6 at the beginning of the study was longitudinally monitored on a monthly basis using the Italian version of the MacArthur Communicative Development Inventory drawn up by their mothers. This study analyzes data from children for whom two sampling stages were available; the first corresponding to a vocabulary size as close as possible to 200 words (mean 217, range 167-281), the second to a vocabulary size ranging from 400 to 650 words (mean 518, range 416-648). The children's vocabulary composition was analyzed by calculating, for each sampling stage, the percentage of common nouns, verbs and closed-class words. The increase in percentage points of the various lexical items between the first and second sampling stages was also analyzed. Data confirmed the predominance of nouns over verbs and closed-class words at both sampling stages, while verbs and closed-class words showed a higher percentage increase than nouns. The results provide evidence that children who reached the first sampling point at an earlier age had a higher percentage of nouns than children who reached the same stage at an older age. However, in the passage from the first to the second sampling point no relationship emerged between a style of acquisition based on the acquisition of nouns and an increase in the rate of vocabulary growth.

  17. Coherent image layout using an adaptive visual vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillard, Scott E.; Henry, Michael J.; Bohn, Shawn; Gosink, Luke J.

    2013-03-01

    When querying a huge image database containing millions of images, the result of the query may still contain many thousands of images that need to be presented to the user. We consider the problem of arranging such a large set of images into a visually coherent layout, one that places similar images next to each other. Image similarity is determined using a bag-of-features model, and the layout is constructed from a hierarchical clustering of the image set by mapping an in-order traversal of the hierarchy tree into a space-filling curve. This layout method provides strong locality guarantees so we are able to quantitatively evaluate performance using standard image retrieval benchmarks. Performance of the bag-of-features method is best when the vocabulary is learned on the image set being clustered. Because learning a large, discriminative vocabulary is a computationally demanding task, we present a novel method for efficiently adapting a generic visual vocabulary to a particular dataset. We evaluate our clustering and vocabulary adaptation methods on a variety of image datasets and show that adapting a generic vocabulary to a particular set of images improves performance on both hierarchical clustering and image retrieval tasks.

  18. Vocabulary and working memory in children fit with hearing aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiles, Derek J; McGregor, Karla K; Bentler, Ruth A

    2012-02-01

    To determine whether children with mild-to-moderately severe sensorineural hearing loss (CHL) present with disturbances in working memory and whether these disturbances relate to the size of their receptive vocabularies. Children 6 to 9 years of age participated. Aspects of working memory were tapped by articulation rate, forward and backward digit span in the auditory and visual modalities, Corsi span, parent surveys, and a sequential encoding task. Articulation rate, digit spans, and Corsi spans were also administered in low-level broadband noise. CHL and children with normal hearing (CNH) demonstrated auditory advantage in forward serial recall. CHL demonstrated slower articulation rates than CNH, but similar memory spans. CHL with poor executive function presented with poorer performance on the Corsi span task. The presence of background noise had no effect on performance in either group. CHL presented with significantly smaller receptive vocabularies than their CNH peers. Across groups, receptive vocabulary size was positively correlated with digit span in quiet, Corsi span in noise, and articulation rate. In the presence of mild-to-moderately severe hearing loss, children demonstrated resilient working memory systems. For all children, working memory and vocabulary were related; that is, children with poorer working memory had smaller vocabulary sizes.

  19. Research: Rags to Rags? Riches to Riches?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracey, Gerald W.

    2004-01-01

    Everyone has read about what might be called the "gold gap"--how the rich in this country are getting richer and controlling an ever-larger share of the nation's wealth. The Century Foundation has started publishing "Reality Check", a series of guides to campaign issues that sometimes finds gaps in these types of cherished delusions. The guides…

  20. Study orientation and knowledge of basic vocabulary in Mathematics in the primary school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marthie van der Walt

    2009-09-01

    mathematics on secondary and tertiary levels. The aim of this research was to investigate the extent to which the performance in study orientation (Study Orientation questionnaire in Mathematics (Primary and knowledge of basic vocabulary/terminology in mathematics (Mathematics Vocabulary (Primary (vocabulary as one aspect of language in Mathematics of Grade 4 to 7 learners predict performance in mathematics (Basic Mathematics (Primary. Three standardised questionnaires were administered, namely the Study Orientation questionnaire in Mathematics (Primary, or SOM(P, Mathematics Vocabulary (Primary or (MV(P, and Basic Mathematics (Primary or BM(P. The participants consisted of learners in Grade 4 to 7 (n = 1 103 in North-West Province with respectively Afrikaans, English and Tswana as their home language. Results from the data, by calculating intercorrelations and stepwise regression, confirmed that learners’ performance in mathematics (BM(P can be predicted through their performance in the knowledge of basic vocabulary in mathematics (MV(P, their “maths” anxiety, study attitude towards and study habits in mathematics (SOM(P. The results can be implemented to improve learners’ performance in mathematics when teachers identify inadequate knowledge of basic vocabulary in mathematics as well as study orientation (for example, “maths” anxiety, study attitude towards and study habits in mathematics in the early years of schooling. Learners’ scores can be checked to identify those requiring aid, support, remediation and/or counselling. An analysis of individual answers (particularly those where learner’s replies differ significantly in respect of the answers usually given by good achievers in mathematics could be extremely useful. Enculturing learners to the vocabulary of mathematical language is an aspect of instruction that needs specific attention. The three questionnaires, which are administered in this research, provide mathematics teachers with standardised

  1. Technology-enhanced storytelling stimulating parent–child interaction and preschool children's vocabulary knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teepe, R.C.; Molenaar, I.; Verhoeven, L.

    2016-01-01

    Preschool children's vocabulary mainly develops verbal through interaction. Therefore, the technology-enhanced storytelling (TES) activity Jeffy's Journey is developed to support parent–child interaction and vocabulary in preschool children. TES entails shared verbal storytelling supported by a

  2. Technology-enhanced storytelling stimulating parent-child interaction and preschool children's vocabulary knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teepe, R.C.; Molenaar, I.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2017-01-01

    Preschool children's vocabulary mainly develops verbal through interaction. Therefore, the technology-enhanced storytelling (TES) activity Jeffy's Journey is developed to support parent-child interaction and vocabulary in preschool children. TES entails shared verbal storytelling supported by a

  3. Vocabulary Growth and Reading Development across the Elementary School Years [Introduction to Special Issue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, L.T.W.; Leeuwe, J.F.J. van; Vermeer, A.R.

    2011-01-01

    The associations between vocabulary growth and reading development were examined longitudinally for a representative sample of Dutch children throughout the elementary school period. Data on basic and advanced vocabulary, word decoding, and reading comprehension were collected across the different

  4. On Vocabulary Teaching from the Perspective of Cross-Cultural Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘航

    2013-01-01

    Language is the carrier of culture, and culture determines language application. Vocabulary is the essential element of a language, thus the cultivation of cross-culture communication ability should start from vocabulary.

  5. Definition of Business Rules Using Business Vocabulary and Semantics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Hypský

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the definition of business rules using business vocabulary and semantics. At the beginning business rules, business vocabulary and semantics of business rules are specified. There is also outlined the current state of research on this topic. Then the definition and formalization of business rules using semantics and business vocabulary is described. Based on these proposed procedures was created a tool that implements and simulate these processes. The main advantage of this tool is “Business Rules Layer”, which implements business rules into the system but is separated from this system. Source code of the rules and the system are not mixed together. Finally, the results are evaluated and future development is suggested.

  6. Number-concept acquisition and general vocabulary development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negen, James; Sarnecka, Barbara W

    2012-11-01

    How is number-concept acquisition related to overall language development? Experiments 1 and 2 measured number-word knowledge and general vocabulary in a total of 59 children, ages 30-60 months. A strong correlation was found between number-word knowledge and vocabulary, independent of the child's age, contrary to previous results (D. Ansari et al., 2003). This result calls into question arguments that (a) the number-concept creation process is scaffolded mainly by visuo-spatial development and (b) that language only becomes integrated after the concepts are created (D. Ansari et al., 2003). Instead, this may suggest that having a larger nominal vocabulary helps children learn number words. Experiment 3 shows that the differences with previous results are likely due to changes in how the data were analyzed. © 2012 The Authors. Child Development © 2012 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  7. Reconciliation of patient/doctor vocabulary in a structured resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapi Nzali, Mike Donald; Aze, Jérôme; Bringay, Sandra; Lavergne, Christian; Mollevi, Caroline; Optiz, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    Today, social media is increasingly used by patients to openly discuss their health. Mining automatically such data is a challenging task because of the non-structured nature of the text and the use of many abbreviations and the slang terms. Our goal is to use Patient Authored Text to build a French Consumer Health Vocabulary on breast cancer field, by collecting various kinds of non-experts' expressions that are related to their diseases and then compare them to biomedical terms used by health care professionals. We combine several methods of the literature based on linguistic and statistical approaches to extract candidate terms used by non-experts and to link them to expert terms. We use messages extracted from the forum on ' cancerdusein.org ' and a vocabulary dedicated to breast cancer elaborated by the Institut National Du Cancer. We have built an efficient vocabulary composed of 192 validated relationships and formalized in Simple Knowledge Organization System ontology.

  8. Learning Vocabulary through Paper and Online-Based Glossary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratih Novita Sari

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effect of teaching glossary and personality traits on vocabulary learning. Two groups of students who had different personality (extroverted and introverted were exposed to two types of glosses: paper and online-based glossary. The two groups underwent two-month treatment. Prior to and after the treatment, each group was given pre and posttest. In calculating the data, two-way ANOVA was used. The results of the study showed that extroverted students learned vocabulary better through paper-based glossary, while introverted students learned vocabulary better through online-based. Further research needs to be conducted to determine whether age influences the use of teaching glossary or not

  9. Early Vocabulary Development of Australian Indigenous Children: Identifying Strengths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brad M. Farrant

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study sought to increase our understanding of the factors involved in the early vocabulary development of Australian Indigenous children. Data from the Longitudinal Study of Indigenous Children were available for 573 Indigenous children (291 boys who spoke English (M=37.0 months, SD=5.4 months, at wave 3. Data were also available for 86 children (51 boys who spoke an Indigenous language (M=37.1 months, SD=6.0 months, at wave 3. As hypothesised, higher levels of parent-child book reading and having more children’s books in the home were associated with better English vocabulary development. Oral storytelling in Indigenous language was a significant predictor of the size of children’s Indigenous vocabulary.

  10. Early Vocabulary Development in Rural and Urban Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Vogt

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an adaptation of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories (short version into three languages spoken in Southern Mozambique. The tool was adapted to study vocabulary development among children of 12 to 25 months of age in two communities: a rural, monolingual Changana speaking community and an urban bilingual Ronga and Portuguese speaking community. We present a norming study carried out with the adaptation, as well as a validation study. The norming study revealed various predictors for reported expressive and receptive vocabulary size. These predictors include age, socioeconomic status, reported health problems, caregiving practices, and location. The validation of the CDI among a small sample in both communities shows positive correlations between the reported expressive vocabulary scores and children’s recorded word production. We conclude that the adapted CDI is useful for research purposes and could be used as a template for adaptations into other languages from similar cultures.

  11. Modelling vocabulary development among multilingual children prior to and following the transition to school entry

    OpenAIRE

    MacLeod, Andrea A. N.; Castellanos-Ryan, Natalie; Parent, Sophie; Jacques, Sophie; Séguin, Jean R.

    2017-01-01

    Differences between monolingual and multilingual vocabulary development have been observed but few studies provide a longitudinal perspective on vocabulary development before and following school entry. This study compares vocabulary growth profiles of 106 multilingual children to 211 monolingual peers before and after school entry to examine whether: (1) school entry coincides with different rates of vocabulary growth compared to prior to school entry, (2) compared to monolingual peers, mult...

  12. Semantic representation of CDC-PHIN vocabulary using Simple Knowledge Organization System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Min; Mirhaji, Parsa

    2008-11-06

    PHIN Vocabulary Access and Distribution System (VADS) promotes the use of standards based vocabulary within CDC information systems. However, the current PHIN vocabulary representation hinders its wide adoption. Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS) is a W3C draft specification to support the formal representation of Knowledge Organization Systems (KOS) within the framework of the Semantic Web. We present a method of adopting SKOS to represent PHIN vocabulary in order to enable automated information sharing and integration.

  13. Techniques to improve the vocabulary of the students at the college level

    OpenAIRE

    Sripada Pushpa Nagini; Cherukuri Mani Ramana

    2016-01-01

    The paper suggests effective techniques to improve the vocabulary of the students in English as a Second Language context based on an experimental study. The study was conducted in India (South Asia), in an Engineering college for freshmen in the age group of eighteen to nineteen years. The paper makes a comparison of two vocabulary teaching strategies and the results show that explicit vocabulary teaching is more effective than implicit vocabulary teaching. The experimental group also showed...

  14. Improving Elementary School Students’ English Vocabulary Through Local Cultural Content Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Frans Manurung; Ignatius Harjanto

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Elementary students of a certain public school in Indonesia had difficulties in learning English. One of the crucial problems was learning English vocabulary. In an attempt to help the students learn and improve English vocabulary, the researchers decided to use CAR to teach English vocabulary with local cultural content materials. The aim of this study was to investigate how the teaching of English vocabulary with local cultural content materials contributed to the improvement ...

  15. Incidental second language vocabulary learning from reading novels: a comparison of three mobile modes

    OpenAIRE

    Fisher, Tony; Sharples, Mike; Pemberton, Richard; Ogata, Hiroaki; Uosaki, Noriko; Edmonds, Phil; Hull, Anthony; Tschorn, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on a study in which incidental English vocabulary learning from three mobile modes (book, e-book and e-book with user modelling and adaptive vocabulary learning support) was investigated. The study employed a crossover design to test for vocabulary gain from reading three simplified English novels among a group of Japanese high school students, learning English as a second language. Small vocabulary gains were noted; however there was no significant difference between the m...

  16. Kings Today, Rich Tomorrow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fattoum, Asma

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the King vs. Rich dilemma that founder-CEOs face at IPO. When undertaking IPO, founders face two options. They can either get rich, but then run the risk of losing the control over their firms; or they can remain kings by introducing defensive mechanisms, but this is likel...

  17. Developments on RICH detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besson, P.; Bourgeois, P.

    1996-01-01

    The RICH (ring imaging Cherenkov) detector which is dedicated to Cherenkov radiation detection is described. An improvement made by replacing photo sensible vapor with solid photocathode is studied. A RICH detector prototype with a CsI photocathode has been built in Saclay and used with Saturne. The first results are presented. (A.C.)

  18. New concepts for building vocabulary for cell image ontologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant, Anne L; Elliott, John T; Bhat, Talapady N

    2011-12-21

    There are significant challenges associated with the building of ontologies for cell biology experiments including the large numbers of terms and their synonyms. These challenges make it difficult to simultaneously query data from multiple experiments or ontologies. If vocabulary terms were consistently used and reused across and within ontologies, queries would be possible through shared terms. One approach to achieving this is to strictly control the terms used in ontologies in the form of a pre-defined schema, but this approach limits the individual researcher's ability to create new terms when needed to describe new experiments. Here, we propose the use of a limited number of highly reusable common root terms, and rules for an experimentalist to locally expand terms by adding more specific terms under more general root terms to form specific new vocabulary hierarchies that can be used to build ontologies. We illustrate the application of the method to build vocabularies and a prototype database for cell images that uses a visual data-tree of terms to facilitate sophisticated queries based on a experimental parameters. We demonstrate how the terminology might be extended by adding new vocabulary terms into the hierarchy of terms in an evolving process. In this approach, image data and metadata are handled separately, so we also describe a robust file-naming scheme to unambiguously identify image and other files associated with each metadata value. The prototype database http://sbd.nist.gov/ consists of more than 2000 images of cells and benchmark materials, and 163 metadata terms that describe experimental details, including many details about cell culture and handling. Image files of interest can be retrieved, and their data can be compared, by choosing one or more relevant metadata values as search terms. Metadata values for any dataset can be compared with corresponding values of another dataset through logical operations. Organizing metadata for cell imaging

  19. Using Hypnosis to Enhance Learning Second Language Vocabulary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çetin, Yakup; Çimen, O Arda; Yetkiner, Zeynep Ebrar

    2016-04-01

    In this article, we measure the effects of hypnosis and suggestions for learning second language vocabulary. Participants (N = 70) were randomly assigned to a hypnosis or a control group. They were pre-tested, and then presented 21 Spanish words, post-tested immediately and 1 week later. The data were analyzed using repeated measures analysis of variance with group (experimental versus control) as the between-subjects factor, and time as the within-subjects factor. The experimental group performed significantly better in both tests. Our results indicate that hypnosis is beneficial for second language vocabulary learning and retrieval.

  20. New concepts for building vocabulary for cell image ontologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plant Anne L

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are significant challenges associated with the building of ontologies for cell biology experiments including the large numbers of terms and their synonyms. These challenges make it difficult to simultaneously query data from multiple experiments or ontologies. If vocabulary terms were consistently used and reused across and within ontologies, queries would be possible through shared terms. One approach to achieving this is to strictly control the terms used in ontologies in the form of a pre-defined schema, but this approach limits the individual researcher's ability to create new terms when needed to describe new experiments. Results Here, we propose the use of a limited number of highly reusable common root terms, and rules for an experimentalist to locally expand terms by adding more specific terms under more general root terms to form specific new vocabulary hierarchies that can be used to build ontologies. We illustrate the application of the method to build vocabularies and a prototype database for cell images that uses a visual data-tree of terms to facilitate sophisticated queries based on a experimental parameters. We demonstrate how the terminology might be extended by adding new vocabulary terms into the hierarchy of terms in an evolving process. In this approach, image data and metadata are handled separately, so we also describe a robust file-naming scheme to unambiguously identify image and other files associated with each metadata value. The prototype database http://sbd.nist.gov/ consists of more than 2000 images of cells and benchmark materials, and 163 metadata terms that describe experimental details, including many details about cell culture and handling. Image files of interest can be retrieved, and their data can be compared, by choosing one or more relevant metadata values as search terms. Metadata values for any dataset can be compared with corresponding values of another dataset through logical

  1. Acquisition of Expert/Non-Expert Vocabulary from Reformulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoine, Edwige; Grabar, Natalia

    2017-01-01

    Technical medical terms are complicated to be correctly understood by non-experts. Vocabulary, associating technical terms with layman expressions, can help in increasing the readability of technical texts and their understanding. The purpose of our work is to build this kind of vocabulary. We propose to exploit the notion of reformulation following two methods: extraction of abbreviations and of reformulations with specific markers. The segments associated thanks to these methods are aligned with medical terminologies. Our results allow to cover over 9,000 medical terms and show precision of extractions between 0.24 and 0.98. The results and analyzed and compared with the existing work.

  2. Active Learning: Qualitative Inquiries into Vocabulary Instruction in Chinese L2 Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Helen H.; Xu, Wenjing

    2015-01-01

    Active learning emerged as a new approach to learning in the 1980s. The core concept of active learning involves engaging students not only in actively exploring knowledge but also in reflecting on their own learning process in order to become more effective learners. Because the nonalphabetic nature of the Chinese writing system makes learning to…

  3. Examining the Use of Web-Based Tests for Testing Academic Vocabulary in EAP Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dashtestani, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Interest in Web-based and computer-assisted language testing is growing in the field of English for academic purposes (EAP). In this study, four groups of undergraduate EAP students (n = 120), each group consisted of 30 students, were randomly selected from four different disciplines, i.e. biology, political sciences, psychology, and law. The four…

  4. The Vocabulary Scores of Company Presidents. Technical Report 1984-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Richard M.; Supanich, Gary P.

    In June 1983, 456 presidents from among 5,000 of the largest companies in the United States took a vocabulary test designed by the Johnson O'Connor Research Foundation, with the purpose of reexaming the contention that a large and exact vocabulary is an attribute characterizing executives. This Executive Vocabulary Test consisted of 50…

  5. The Role of Receptive Vocabulary Knowledge in Advanced EFL Listening Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atas, Ufuk

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents an empirical study that investigates the role of vocabulary knowledge in listening comprehension with 33 advanced Turkish learners of English as a foreign language. The Vocabulary Levels Test (Schmitt, Schmitt & Clapham, 2001) is used to measure the vocabulary knowledge of the participants and a standardized listening test…

  6. Developing a Specialized Vocabulary Word List in a Composition Culinary Course through Lecture Notes

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.Nordin, N. R.; Stapa, S. H.; Darus, S.

    2013-01-01

    Learning to write in a composition culinary course is very challenging for L2 learners. The main barrier in writing proficiency within this discipline is the lack of vocabulary, specifically the lack of exposure towards specialized vocabulary. This study aims to provide a corpus of specialized vocabulary within a food writing course. By providing…

  7. E-Book as Facilitator of Vocabulary Acquisition: Support of Adults, Dynamic Dictionary and Static Dictionary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korat, Ofra; Levin, Iris; Atishkin, Shifra; Turgeman, Merav

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effects of three facilitators: adults' support, dynamic visual vocabulary support and static visual vocabulary support on vocabulary acquisition in the context of e-book reading. Participants were 144 Israeli Hebrew-speaking preschoolers (aged 4-6) from middle SES neighborhoods. The entire sample read the e-book without a…

  8. Expressive Vocabulary in Young Children with Down Syndrome: From Research to Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumin, Libby; Councill, Cheryl; Goodman, Mina

    1999-01-01

    Expressive vocabulary was studied in 130 children (ages 1 to 5 years) with Down syndrome. Although there was continuous growth in expressive referential vocabulary from birth through 5 years, age 5 was found to be an important developmental marker for multiword combinations and grammatical vocabulary. (Author/CR)

  9. Learning Vocabulary in a Foreign Language: A Computer Software Based Model Attempt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yelbay Yilmaz, Yasemin

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at devising a vocabulary learning software that would help learners learn and retain vocabulary items effectively. Foundation linguistics and learning theories have been adapted to the foreign language vocabulary learning context using a computer software named Parole that was designed exclusively for this study. Experimental…

  10. Spelling Ability in College Students Predicted by Decoding, Print Exposure, and Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocal, Turkan; Ehri, Linnea

    2017-01-01

    This study examines students' exposure to print, vocabulary and decoding as predictors of spelling skills. Participants were 42 college students (Mean age 22.5, SD = 7.87; 31 females and 11 males). Hierarchical regression analyses showed that most of the variance in spelling was explained by vocabulary knowledge. When vocabulary was entered first…

  11. Semantic Structure in Vocabulary Knowledge Interacts with Lexical and Sentence Processing in Infancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borovsky, Arielle; Ellis, Erica M.; Evans, Julia L.; Elman, Jeffrey L.

    2016-01-01

    Although the size of a child's vocabulary associates with language-processing skills, little is understood regarding how this relation emerges. This investigation asks whether and how the structure of vocabulary knowledge affects language processing in English-learning 24-month-old children (N = 32; 18 F, 14 M). Parental vocabulary report was used…

  12. Linking Research and Practice: Effective Strategies for Teaching Vocabulary in the ESL Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Jihyun

    2010-01-01

    Vocabulary plays a pivotal role in the ESL classroom. Whereas a considerable amount of research has examined effective ESL vocabulary teaching and learning, missing are studies that provide examples of how to put various research findings into practice: that is, apply them to real texts including target vocabulary items. In order to close the gap…

  13. Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition as Student Performance Determinant in Undergraduate Research Modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Joyce

    2017-01-01

    Vocabulary knowledge plays an important role in determining a person's language proficiency level. This study investigates the role vocabulary plays in determining students' performance within research modules at private higher education institutions (HEIs). The discipline-specific vocabulary in this study includes target words, sampled from an…

  14. Vocabulary acquisition in deaf and hard-of-hearing children: Research and interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermans, D.; Wauters, L.N.; Willemsen, M.; Knoors, H.E.T.; Marschark, M.; Spencer, P.E.

    2016-01-01

    Vocabulary knowledge is fundamental to communication, language learning, and acquiring knowledge of the world. Deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) children face considerable challenges in acquiring age-appropriate vocabulary knowledge. The enhancement of children's vocabulary knowledge is therefore one

  15. A Review of Effect of Different Tasks on Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chen L.

    2015-01-01

    Studies of incidental vocabulary acquisition in second language learning have got more and more attention both at home and abroad. By first introducing the definition and theoretical foundations of incidental vocabulary acquisition, this paper reviews empirical studies of effect of different tasks on incidental vocabulary acquisition and points…

  16. Does the Freedom of Reader Choice Affect Second Language Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Barry Lee; Bai, Yi Ling

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the effect of freedom of reader choice on the incidental acquisition of vocabulary was investigated in English as a Foreign Language (EFL) reading classes. Despite advocating free extensive reading as a means of obtaining a native-like L2 vocabulary,existing studies investigating the incidental acquisition of vocabulary have not…

  17. Predicting Expressive Vocabulary Acquisition in Children with Intellectual Disabilities: A 2-Year Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandereet, Joke; Maes, Bea; Lembrechts, Dirk; Zink, Inge

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study's objectives were to describe expressive vocabulary acquisition in children with intellectual disabilities (ID) and to examine specific pre- and early linguistic behaviors used to request and comment, chronological age, cognitive skills, and vocabulary comprehension as predictors of expressive vocabulary. Method: This study…

  18. Dispersion and Frequency: Is There Any Difference as Regards Their Relation to L2 Vocabulary Gains?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcaraz-Mármol, Gema

    2015-01-01

    Despite the current importance given to L2 vocabulary acquisition in the last two decades, considerable deficiencies are found in L2 students' vocabulary size. One of the aspects that may influence vocabulary learning is word frequency. However, scholars warn that frequency may lead to wrong conclusions if the way words are distributed is ignored.…

  19. Lexical Characteristics of Expressive Vocabulary in Toddlers with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kover, Sara T.; Weismer, Susan Ellis

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Vocabulary is a domain of particular challenge for many children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Recent research has drawn attention to ways in which lexical characteristics relate to vocabulary acquisition. The current study tested the hypothesis that lexical characteristics account for variability in vocabulary size of young…

  20. Examining Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition by Person-and Item-Level Factors in Secondary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Jennifer LeeAnn

    2016-01-01

    Vocabulary knowledge is central to the process of reading comprehension (Cromely & Azevedo, 2007; Stahl & Nagy, 2005; Stanovich, 1986). The majority of our vocabulary knowledge is postulated to come from the process of incidental vocabulary acquisition (IVA) while reading (Nagy & Anderson, 1984). Prior studies have estimated an average…

  1. Incidental L2 Vocabulary Acquisition "from" and "while" Reading: An Eye-Tracking Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellicer-Sánchez, Ana

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that reading is an important source of incidental second language (L2) vocabulary acquisition. However, we still do not have a clear picture of what happens when readers encounter unknown words. Combining offline (vocabulary tests) and online (eye-tracking) measures, the incidental acquisition of vocabulary knowledge…

  2. Predicting expressive vocabulary acquisition in children with intellectual disabilities: a 2-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandereet, Joke; Maes, Bea; Lembrechts, Dirk; Zink, Inge

    2010-12-01

    This study's objectives were to describe expressive vocabulary acquisition in children with intellectual disabilities (ID) and to examine specific pre- and early linguistic behaviors used to request and comment, chronological age, cognitive skills, and vocabulary comprehension as predictors of expressive vocabulary. This study included 36 children with ID, age 3;00 (years;months) to 6;05, with an average initial expressive vocabulary of 67 words. Expressive vocabulary acquisition was longitudinally followed over a 2-year period based on 4-monthly administrations of the Dutch version of the MacArthur Communicative Development Inventory/Words and Gestures (I. Zink & M. Lejaegere, 2002). Specific pre- and early linguistic behaviors used to request and comment as well as cognitive skills and vocabulary comprehension were measured at baseline. Individual growth modeling indicated that vocabulary comprehension was the only unique predictor of initial expressive vocabulary. Subsequent vocabulary growth was uniquely predicted by proportion of bimodal gesture + vocalization comments, chronological age, and cognitive skills. The results of this study underscore the great heterogeneity in expressive vocabulary skills in children with ID. The importance of prelinguistic communication, chronological age, cognitive skills, and vocabulary comprehension for explaining differences in expressive vocabulary skills is discussed.

  3. Shyness and Chinese and English Vocabulary Skills in Hong Kong Kindergartners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Xiuli; Ting, Ka-Tsun; McBride-Chang, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    Research Findings: This study examined relations between parent-rated shyness and children's vocabulary skills in 54 Hong Kong Chinese kindergartners who learned English as a foreign language at school. Receptive vocabulary and expressive vocabulary were assessed both in Chinese and in English. Parent-rated shyness was uniquely associated with…

  4. The Influence of the Intermediary System of Cognition on Vocabulary Acquisition for Chinese English-Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yanyan

    2009-01-01

    In the article, the author tries to find out the main factors that affect the subject's vocabulary acquisition by an investigation. It is concluded that vocabulary acquisition models and strategies are something external, what really works upon vocabulary acquisition is the intermediary system of cognition including the knowledge structure and…

  5. A System for English Vocabulary Acquisition Based on Code-Switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, Michal; Karolczak, Krzysztof; Rzepka, Rafal; Araki, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    Vocabulary plays an important part in second language learning and there are many existing techniques to facilitate word acquisition. One of these methods is code-switching, or mixing the vocabulary of two languages in one sentence. In this paper the authors propose an experimental system for computer-assisted English vocabulary learning in…

  6. Students' Perceptions of Vocabulary Knowledge and Learning in a Middle School Science Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Patrick L.; Concannon, James P.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated eighth-grade science students' (13-14-year-olds) perceptions of their vocabulary knowledge, learning, and content achievement. Data sources included pre- and posttest of students' perceptions of vocabulary knowledge, students' perceptions of vocabulary and reading strategies surveys, and a content achievement test.…

  7. Profiling Vocabulary in Psychology Journal Abstracts: A Comparison between Iranian and Anglo-American Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbarian, Is'haaq; Ghanbarzadeh, Zahra; Shahri, Mohammad Afzali

    2017-01-01

    Lexical profiling has yielded fruitful results for language description and pedagogy (Liu, 2014), and particularly highlighted the significance of academic vocabulary for EFL learners in this process. This investigation, likewise, attempts to comparatively profile the vocabulary, more particularly the academic vocabulary, in the…

  8. What Can Errors Tell Us about Differences between Monolingual and Bilingual Vocabulary Learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushanskaya, Margarita

    2018-01-01

    Error patterns in vocabulary learning data were used as a window into the mechanisms that underlie vocabulary learning performance in bilinguals vs. monolinguals. English--Spanish bilinguals (n = 18) and English-speaking monolinguals (n = 18) were taught novel vocabulary items in association with English translations. At testing, participants…

  9. BIBLIOGRAPHY ON INDIVIDUALIZED INSTRUCTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA. Graduate School of Education.

    THIS BIBLIOGRAPHY LISTS MATERIAL ON VARIOUS ASPECTS OF INDIVIDUALIZED INSTRUCTION. APPROXIMATELY 85 UNANNOTATED REFERENCES ARE PROVIDED TO DOCUMENTS DATING FROM 1958 TO 1966. JOURNALS, BOOKS, AND REPORT MATERIALS ARE LISTED. SUBJECT AREAS INCLUDED ARE PROGRAMED INSTRUCTION, TEACHING MACHINES, RESPONSE MODE, SELF-INSTRUCTION, AND COMPUTER-ASSISTED…

  10. The Instructional Capacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Many administrators are so overwhelmed by the basic responsibilities of their daily work that there seems to be little or no time left for providing quality leadership in instruction. Instead, schools employ department chairs, instructional specialists, and coordinators to provide instructional leadership. How can administrators find time in the…

  11. The Effects of Phonological Skills and Vocabulary on Morphophonological Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boersma, Tiffany; Baker, Anne; Rispens, Judith; Weerman, Fred

    2018-01-01

    Morphophonological processing involves the phonological analysis of morphemes. Item-specific phonological characteristics have been shown to influence morphophonological skills in children. This study investigates the relative contributions of broad phonological skills and vocabulary to production and judgement accuracies of the Dutch past tense…

  12. Research on Contextual Memorizing of Meaning in Foreign Language Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Linjing; Xiong, Qingxia; Qin, Yufang

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the role of contexts in the memory of meaning in foreign vocabularies. The study was based on the cognitive processing hierarchy theory of Craik and Lockhart (1972), the memory trace theory of McClelland and Rumelhart (1986) and the memory trace theory of cognitive psychology. The subjects were non-English…

  13. Students' Views on Contextual Vocabulary Teaching: A Constructivist View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosun, Bahadir Cahit

    2016-01-01

    The current study is a quantitative research that aims to throw light on the place of students' views on contextual vocabulary teaching in conformity with Constructivism (CVTC) in the field of foreign language teaching. Hence, the study investigates whether any significant correlation exists between the fourth year university students' attitudes…

  14. Early productive vocabulary predicts academic achievement 10 years later

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bleses, Dorthe; Makransky, Guido; Dale, Philip

    2016-01-01

    comprehension, can be predicted from an early vocabulary measure as early as 16 months with effect sizes (in proportion of variance accounted for) comparable to one year’s mean growth in reading scores. The findings confirm in a relatively large population based study that late talkers are at risk for later...

  15. Vocabulary and Working Memory in Children Fit with Hearing Aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiles, Derek J.; McGregor, Karla K.; Bentler, Ruth A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether children with mild-to-moderately severe sensorineural hearing loss (CHL) present with disturbances in working memory and whether these disturbances relate to the size of their receptive vocabularies. Method: Children 6 to 9 years of age participated. Aspects of working memory were tapped by articulation rate, forward…

  16. Memory Vocabulary Learning Strategies and Long-Term Retention ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was an attempt to compare the impact of teaching through memory strategies, where students were taught the meaning of new vocabulary items by giving them synonyms, antonyms, definitions and mini-contexts. The results were reflected in the students' short-term and long-term memory retention.

  17. Words as "Lexical Units" in Learning/Teaching Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almela, Moisés; Sanchez, Aquilino

    2007-01-01

    One of the genuine contributions of theoretical linguistics to the interdisciplinary field of applied linguistics is to elucidate the nature of "what should be taught" and "how it should be taught". Traditionally, the input supplied in vocabulary teaching has consisted either of word lists (most often) or of words-in-context…

  18. Enhancing ESL Vocabulary Development through the Use of Mobile Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisbet, Deanna; Austin, Dayna

    2013-01-01

    Applications, or apps, that are available for both smart phones and tablets can be an effective tool for promoting vocabulary development among adult learners in English as a second language programs. An app is a software program for a mobile phone or computer operating system. Examples of such apps are provided along with practical…

  19. Information and documentation - Thesauri and interoperability with other vocabularies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalbin, Sylvie; Smedt, Johan De; Marco, F. Javier García

    This part of ISO 25964 gives recommendations for the development and maintenance of thesauri intended for information retrieval applications. It applies to vocabularies used for retrieving information about all types of information resources, irrespective of the media used (text, sound, still or ...

  20. Posters, Self-Directed Learning, and L2 Vocabulary Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, Yakup; Flamand, Lee

    2013-01-01

    Posters, either as promotions by various ELT publishing houses or prepared by ELT teachers and students, are widely used on the walls of many foreign language classrooms. Many of them consist of colourful pictures along with L2 vocabulary, grammar, and texts in order to contribute to the foreign language learning process. However, many ELT…

  1. Sex Differences in L2 Vocabulary Learning Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalan, Rosa Maria Jimenez

    2003-01-01

    Reports the results of a descriptive study on sex differences in the use of a second language. A questionnaire was administered to 581 Spanish-speaking students learning Basque and English as second language to answer the following question: Do male and female second language learners differ in the number and the range of vocabulary strategies…

  2. Perceptual Learning Style Matching and L2 Vocabulary Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tight, Daniel G.

    2010-01-01

    This study explored learning and retention of concrete nouns in second language Spanish by first language English undergraduates (N = 128). Each completed a learning style (visual, auditory, tactile/kinesthetic, mixed) assessment, took a vocabulary pretest, and then studied 12 words each through three conditions (matching, mismatching, mixed…

  3. Oral Vocabulary and Language Acquisition Strategies to Increase Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Grace

    2017-01-01

    This study addresses low literacy achievement in students in kindergarten and first grades. The study was designed to help identify how general education teachers can use specific daily research-based oral vocabulary acquisition strategies to close the literacy gap. This quantitative research helped to determine if the implementation of an oral…

  4. The Impact of Teachers' Commenting Strategies on Children's Vocabulary Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Erica M.; Dickinson, David K.

    2017-01-01

    We examined the relations between teachers' use of comments during book reading sessions in preschool classrooms and the vocabulary growth of children with low and moderately low language ability. Using data from a larger randomized controlled trial, we analyzed comments defined as utterances that give, explain, expand, or define. Comments were…

  5. The Representation of Bilingual Mental Lexicon and English Vocabulary Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Zhang

    2017-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the theories on the organization and development of L1 mental lexicon and the representation mode of bilingual mental lexicon. It analyzes the structure and characteristics of Chinese EFL learners and their problems in English vocabulary acquisition. On the basis of this, it suggests that English vocabulary…

  6. Deliberate Learning and Vocabulary Acquisition in a Second Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgort, Irina

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates outcomes of deliberate learning on vocabulary acquisition in a second language (L2). Acquisition of 48 pseudowords was measured using the lexical decision task with visually presented stimuli. The experiments drew on form priming, masked repetition priming, and automatic semantic priming procedures. Data analyses revealed a…

  7. Understanding Teachers' Pedagogical Knowledge In ESL Vocabulary Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maizatulliza Muhamad

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In communicative language teaching classrooms, one of the main emphases is on students’ ability to use the target language for real life purposes. To achieve this goal, teachers may have to ensure that students have adequate vocabulary to express their feelings and ideas. Previous research on vocabulary teaching and learning tends to be quantitative in nature focusing on testing the effectiveness of some techniques. This research study however, is an attempt to understand teachers’ pedagogical systems that influence their practice in actual classroom interactions during vocabulary teaching and learning. In-depth interviews and classroom observations with two experienced Malaysian ESL teachers were conducted. The interviews highlighted the teachers’ beliefs as well as challenges they faced with regards to vocabulary teaching and learning. The classroom observations revealed that their practice was very much a reflection of their own beliefs, based on their own experience as students as well as teachers. The results of this study showcased the fact that teachers operate within the spectrum of their pedagogical knowledge.

  8. Definitions and explanations of the new financial vocabulary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurgood, J

    NHS reforms have led to a new vocabulary for nurses. This article explains the meaning of the terms budgetary control, establishment, pay and non-pay, zero-based budgeting, trust regimens and the external financing limit. An understanding of these terms will help nurses implement the reforms.

  9. Gamified Vocabulary: Online Resources and Enriched Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Sandra Schamroth; Walsh, Sara

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the ways "gamification" can play a role in adolescents' development of vocabulary. Gamification involves the application of game-design thinking and play elements to non-game activities, such as routine homework or classroom lessons. Drawing upon data from in-school and after-school settings, the authors…

  10. Task type and incidental L2 vocabulary learning: Repetition versus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the effect of task type on incidental L2 vocabulary learning. The different tasks investigated in this study differed in terms of repetition of encounters and task involvement load. In a within-subjects design, 72 Iranian learners of English practised 18 target words in three exercise conditions: three ...

  11. Facilitating vocabulary learning through metacognitive strategy training and learning journals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Luz Trujillo Becerra

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on a mixed- method action research study carried out with participants from three public high schools in different regions in Colombia: Bogotá, Orito and Tocaima.  The overall aim of this study was to analyze whether training in the use of metacognitive strategies (MS through learning journals could improve the participants’ vocabulary learning. The data, collected mainly through students’ learning journals, teachers’ field notes, questionnaires and mind maps, was analyzed following the principles of grounded theory. The results suggested that the training helped participants to develop metacognitive awareness of their vocabulary learning process and their lexical competence regarding daily routines.  Participants also displayed some improvements in critical thinking and self-directed attitudes that could likewise benefit their vocabulary learning. Finally, the study proposes that training in metacognitive and vocabulary strategies should be implemented in language classrooms to promote a higher degree of student control over learning and to facilitate the transference of these strategies to other areas of knowledge.

  12. Applying Cognitive Science Principles to Improve Retention of Science Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shore, Rebecca; Ray, Jenna; Gooklasian, Paula

    2015-01-01

    We investigated whether three student-centred strategies influenced retention of science vocabulary words among 7th grade students. Two of the strategies (drawing pictures and talking about the definition of the terms) were developed to involve the students in more constructive and interactive exercises when compared to the technique that was in…

  13. Improving Students' Vocabulary Mastery by Using Total Physical Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahrurrozi

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to describe how Total Physical Response improves students' vocabulary learning outcomes at the third-grade elementary school Guntur 03 South Jakarta, Indonesia. This research was conducted in the first semester of the academic year 2015-2016 with the number of students as many as 40 students. The method used in this research is a…

  14. The effect of retrieval practice in primary school vocabulary learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goossens, Nicole; Camp, Gino; Verkoeijen, Peter; Tabbers, Huib

    2018-01-01

    The testing effect refers to the finding that retrieval practice leads to better long-term retention than additional study of course material. In the present study, we examined whether this finding generalizes to primary school vocabulary learning. We also manipulated the word learning context.

  15. Impact of Using CALL on Iranian EFL Learners' Vocabulary Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunus, Melor Md; Salehi, Hadi; Amini, Mahdi

    2016-01-01

    Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) integration in EFL contexts has intensified noticeably in recent years. This integration might be in different ways and for different purposes such as vocabulary acquisition, grammar learning, phonology, writing skills, etc. More explicitly, this study is an attempt to explore the effect of using CALL on…

  16. Vocabulary and Sentence Structure in Emergent Spanish Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briceño, Allison

    2016-01-01

    Dual language and bilingual education programs are increasing in number and popularity across the country. However, little information is available on how to teach children to read and write in Spanish. This article explores some of the similarities and differences in vocabulary and sentence structure in Spanish and English and considers the…

  17. A Study of Multimedia Application-Based Vocabulary Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Jing

    2012-01-01

    The development of computer-assisted language learning (CALL) has created the opportunity for exploring the effects of the multimedia application on foreign language vocabulary acquisition in recent years. This study provides an overview the computer-assisted language learning (CALL) and detailed a developing result of CALL--multimedia. With the…

  18. Building English Vocabulary through Roots, Prefixes and Suffixes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurtbasi, Metin

    2015-01-01

    Semantics, the study of the meaning of words, is the sum of the basic elements of four skills, namely, reading, writing, speaking and listening effectively. The knowledge of vocabulary words in lexico-semantics, on the other hand, is essential in every grade level, subject area and assessment for every student. In order to improve students'…

  19. Peek, Peak, Pique: Using Homophones to Teach Vocabulary (and Spelling!).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryle, Marilyn Bogusch

    2000-01-01

    Argues that regular homophone practice enhances vocabulary knowledge, spelling skills, pronunciation ability, and overall reading proficiency. Describes how card games played with decks of homophones helped to accomplish these things. Notes particular benefits of homophone games to English-as-a-second-language students, and outlines key advantages…

  20. Build Your Child's Vocabulary! Ten Fun and Easy Tips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998

    This booklet presents parents with 10 tips for helping their children expand their vocabulary. The 10 tips in the booklet are: read and use context; look for synonyms and antonyms; rhyming and homophones; compound words; look for related words; prefixes and suffixes; word maps; see how words are formed; mine the wealth of other languages; and use…

  1. Comparing dictionary-induced vocabulary learning and inferencing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research examines dictionary-induced vocabulary learning and inferencing in the context of reading. One hundred and four intermediate English learners completed one of two word-focused tasks: reading comprehension and dictionary consultation, and reading comprehen-sion and inferencing. In addition to ...

  2. Distributed Practice and Retrieval Practice in Primary School Vocabulary Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.A.M.C. Goossens (Nicole)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractThe aim of this thesis was to investigate whether particular memory strategies stemming from cognitive and educational psychology, enhance primary school vocabulary learning. Th e memory strategies investigated in this thesis were distributed practice and retrieval practice. Th e

  3. Speaking My Mind: Why I No Longer Teach Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heverly, Jerry

    2011-01-01

    It's one of those assumptions of the English teaching game that students must learn and store up vocabulary as a precondition of tackling literature or history or any of those fields that feature big words. How, some ask, could a child read a challenging passage if he or she didn't understand those key, usually multisyllabic, words often sprinkled…

  4. Distinctiveness and Bidirectional Effects in Input Enhancement for Vocabulary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcroft, Joe

    2003-01-01

    This study examined input enhancement and second language (L2) vocabulary learning while exploring the role of "distinctiveness," the degree to which an item in the input diverges from the form in which other items in the input are presented, with regard to the nature and direction of the effects of enhancement. In this study,…

  5. Children's early reading vocabulary: description and word frequency lists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Morag; Dixon, Maureen; Masterson, Jackie; Gray, Bob

    2003-12-01

    When constructing stimuli for experimental investigations of cognitive processes in early reading development, researchers have to rely on adult or American children's word frequency counts, as no such counts exist for English children. The present paper introduces a database of children's early reading vocabulary, for use by researchers and teachers. Texts from 685 books from reading schemes and story books read by 5-7 year-old children were used in the construction of the database. All words from the 685 books were typed or scanned into an Oracle database. The resulting up-to-date word frequency list of early print exposure in the UK is available in two forms from a website address given in this paper. This allows access to one list of the words ordered alphabetically and one list of the words ordered by frequency. We also briefly address some fundamental issues underlying early reading vocabulary (e.g., that it is heavily skewed towards low frequencies). Other characteristics of the vocabulary are then discussed. We hope the word frequency lists will be of use to researchers seeking to control word frequency, and to teachers interested in the vocabulary to which young children are exposed in their reading material.

  6. Double subtitles as an effective tool for vocabulary learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lazareva, Elena; Loerts, Hanneke

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate if and how the mere minimal exposure to subtitled audio-visual input in an unknown language can enhance incidental vocabulary learning. Three experimental conditions were compared in which native Dutch participants with no prior knowledge of the target language

  7. OpenSKOS next edition: triplestore support for controlled vocabularies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shkaravska, O.; Windhouwer, M.; Kemps-Snijders, M.

    2016-01-01

    OpenSKOS software implements a web-service-based approach to management and use of vocabularies based on SKOS design principles. This paper motivates and describes the most recent developments in the software. These developments include migrating from a relational MySQL database to a triplestore and

  8. Implementing a Musical Program to Promote Preschool Children's Vocabulary Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyeda, Iris Xóchitl Galicia; Gómez, Ixtlixóchitl Contreras; Flores, María Teresa Peña

    2006-01-01

    In light of the correlation between musical and linguistic skills, a program of musical activities was designed to promote discrimination of rhythmic and melodic elements and the association of auditory stimuli with visual stimuli and motor activities. The effects of the program on the vocabulary of preschool children were evaluated and compared…

  9. Reading and Vocabulary Recommendations for Spanish for Native Speakers Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Laura Gutierrez

    1995-01-01

    Focuses on the need for appropriate materials to address the needs of native speakers of Spanish who study Spanish in American universities and high schools. The most important factors influencing the selection of readings should include the practical nature of themes for reading and vocabulary development, level of difficulty, and variety in…

  10. Frequent Daytime Naps Predict Vocabulary Growth in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horváth, Klára; Plunkett, Kim

    2016-01-01

    Background: The facilitating role of sleep for language learning is well-attested in adults and to a lesser extent in infants and toddlers. However, the longitudinal relationship between sleep patterns and early vocabulary development is not well understood. Methods: This study investigates how measures of sleep are related to the development of…

  11. Vocabulary Growth in Armenian-English Bilingual Kindergarteners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovsepian, Alice

    2018-01-01

    Four-year-old (n = 20) and five-year-old (n = 22) bilingual children were tested twice in six months on Armenian (minority language) and English (majority language) picture identification and picture naming tasks to examine receptive and expressive vocabulary growth in both languages. Parental education, Armenian/English language exposure, and…

  12. Redundancy Effect on Retention of Vocabulary Words Using Multimedia Presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samur, Yavuz

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the effect of the redundancy principle in a multimedia presentation constructed for foreign language vocabulary learning on undergraduate students' retention. The underlying hypothesis of this study is that when the students are exposed to the material in multiple ways through animation, concurrent narration,…

  13. Proactive and reactive effects of vigorous exercise on learning and vocabulary comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salis, Andrea S

    2013-06-01

    College students (N = 90) were randomly assigned to participate in vigorous, moderate or no physical exercise and vocabulary recall and comprehension learning activities under varying conditions to assess whether or not increased intensities of exercise, performed either before a vocabulary recall and comprehension learning activity (i.e., proactive effect) or after a vocabulary recall and comprehension learning activity (i.e., reactive effect), would improve vocabulary recall and comprehension. The results demonstrated that performing exercise at a vigorous intensity before or after rehearsing for a vocabulary comprehension test improved test results.

  14. Individual Differences in Very Young Chinese Children's English Vocabulary Breadth and Semantic Depth: Internal and External Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, He; Steinkrauss, Rasmus; Wieling, Martijn; de Bot, Kees

    2018-01-01

    This study examines the English vocabulary development of 43 very young child English as a foreign language (FL) learners (age 3.2-6.2) in China. They were tested twice for vocabulary breadth (reception and production) and semantic depth (paradigmatic and syntagmatic vocabulary knowledge). The development of the English vocabulary knowledge…

  15. Total and Conceptual Vocabulary in Spanish-English Bilinguals from 22 to 30 Months: Implications for Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Core, Cynthia; Hoff, Erika; Rumiche, Rosario; Senor, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Vocabulary assessment holds promise as a way to identify young bilingual children at risk for language delay. This study compares 2 measures of vocabulary in a group of young Spanish-English bilingual children to a single-language measure used with monolingual children. Method: Total vocabulary and conceptual vocabulary were used to…

  16. Vocabulary Knowledge Predicts Lexical Processing: Evidence from a Group of Participants with Diverse Educational Backgrounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Mainz

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Vocabulary knowledge is central to a speaker's command of their language. In previous research, greater vocabulary knowledge has been associated with advantages in language processing. In this study, we examined the relationship between individual differences in vocabulary and language processing performance more closely by (i using a battery of vocabulary tests instead of just one test, and (ii testing not only university students (Experiment 1 but young adults from a broader range of educational backgrounds (Experiment 2. Five vocabulary tests were developed, including multiple-choice and open antonym and synonym tests and a definition test, and administered together with two established measures of vocabulary. Language processing performance was measured using a lexical decision task. In Experiment 1, vocabulary and word frequency were found to predict word recognition speed while we did not observe an interaction between the effects. In Experiment 2, word recognition performance was predicted by word frequency and the interaction between word frequency and vocabulary, with high-vocabulary individuals showing smaller frequency effects. While overall the individual vocabulary tests were correlated and showed similar relationships with language processing as compared to a composite measure of all tests, they appeared to share less variance in Experiment 2 than in Experiment 1. Implications of our findings concerning the assessment of vocabulary size in individual differences studies and the investigation of individuals from more varied backgrounds are discussed.

  17. A cross-language study of decontextualized vocabulary comprehension in toddlerhood and kindergarten readiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, Margaret; Smolak, Erin; Liu, Yushuang; Poulin-Dubois, Diane; Zesiger, Pascal

    2018-04-05

    Recent studies demonstrate that emerging literacy depends on earlier language achievement. Importantly, most extant work focuses on parent-reported production prior to 30 months of age. Of interest is whether and how directly assessed vocabulary comprehension in the 2nd year of life supports vocabulary and kindergarten readiness in the 4th year. We first contrasted orthogonal indices of parent-reported production and directly assessed vocabulary comprehension and found that comprehension was a stronger predictor of child outcomes. We then assessed prediction from vocabulary comprehension controlling for maternal education, preschool attendance, and child sex. In 3 studies early, decontextualized vocabulary comprehension emerged as a significant predictor of 4th year language and kindergarten readiness accounting for unique variance above demographic control variables. Further we found that the effect of early vocabulary on 4th year kindergarten readiness was not mediated by 4th year vocabulary. This pattern of results emerged in English monolingual children (N = 48) and replicated in French monolingual (N = 58) and French-English bilingual children (N = 34). Our findings suggest that early, decontextualized vocabulary may provide a platform for the establishment of a conceptual system that supports both later vocabulary and kindergarten readiness, including the acquisition of a wide range of concepts including print and number. Differences between parent-reported and directly assessed vocabulary and the mechanisms by which decontextualized vocabulary may contribute to conceptual development are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Vocabulary Knowledge Predicts Lexical Processing: Evidence from a Group of Participants with Diverse Educational Backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainz, Nina; Shao, Zeshu; Brysbaert, Marc; Meyer, Antje S.

    2017-01-01

    Vocabulary knowledge is central to a speaker's command of their language. In previous research, greater vocabulary knowledge has been associated with advantages in language processing. In this study, we examined the relationship between individual differences in vocabulary and language processing performance more closely by (i) using a battery of vocabulary tests instead of just one test, and (ii) testing not only university students (Experiment 1) but young adults from a broader range of educational backgrounds (Experiment 2). Five vocabulary tests were developed, including multiple-choice and open antonym and synonym tests and a definition test, and administered together with two established measures of vocabulary. Language processing performance was measured using a lexical decision task. In Experiment 1, vocabulary and word frequency were found to predict word recognition speed while we did not observe an interaction between the effects. In Experiment 2, word recognition performance was predicted by word frequency and the interaction between word frequency and vocabulary, with high-vocabulary individuals showing smaller frequency effects. While overall the individual vocabulary tests were correlated and showed similar relationships with language processing as compared to a composite measure of all tests, they appeared to share less variance in Experiment 2 than in Experiment 1. Implications of our findings concerning the assessment of vocabulary size in individual differences studies and the investigation of individuals from more varied backgrounds are discussed. PMID:28751871

  19. A longitudinal assessment of vocabulary retention in symbol-competent chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beran, Michael J; Heimbauer, Lisa A

    2015-01-01

    A number of studies from the 1960s to 1990s assessed the symbolic competence of great apes and other animals. These studies provided varying forms of evidence that some species were capable of symbolically representing their worlds, both through productive symbol use and comprehension of symbolic stimuli. One such project at the Language Research Center involved training chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) to use lexigram symbols (geometric visual stimuli that represented objects, actions, locations, and individuals). Those studies now are more than 40 years old, and only a few of the apes involved in those studies are still alive. Three of these chimpanzees (and a fourth, control chimpanzee) were assessed across a 10-year period from 1999 to 2008 for their continued knowledge of lexigram symbols and, in the case of one chimpanzee, the continued ability to comprehend human speech. This article describes that longitudinal assessment and outlines the degree to which symbol competence was retained by these chimpanzees across that decade-long period. All chimpanzees showed retention of lexigram vocabularies, although there were differences in the number of words that were retained across the individuals. One chimpanzee also showed continual retention of human speech perception. These retained vocabularies largely consisted of food item names, but also names of inedible objects, locations, individuals, and some actions. Many of these retained words were for things that are not common in the daily lives of the chimpanzees and for things that are rarely requested by the chimpanzees. Thus, the early experiences of these chimpanzees in symbol-rich environments have produced long-lasting memories for symbol meaning, and those competencies have benefited research in a variety of topics in comparative cognition.

  20. Mixed-Method Research on Learning Vocabulary through Technology Reveals Vocabulary Growth in Second-Grade Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, SuHua

    2015-01-01

    A mixed-method embedded research design was employed to investigate the effectiveness of the integration of technology for second-grade students' vocabulary development and learning. Two second-grade classes with a total of 40 students (21 boys and 19 girls) were randomly selected to participate in this study for the course of a semester. One…

  1. Improving the Student's Vocabulary Mastery by Using Constructivism Principle in the Second Year Students of Sman 1 Kauman

    OpenAIRE

    Budairi, Ahmad

    2017-01-01

    Vocabulary plays important roles in mastering English. Vocabulary refers to all words in the whole language used in a particular variety. In this case, the students have some problems. The problems about difficult in mastering vocabulary, that the students are lack of vocabularies, the students often get difficult in expressing their ideas, the students have low motivation. The students felt unsatisfactory in their results. It's caused the students are lack of practice and lack vocabulary to ...

  2. Technologies and practices for maintaining and publishing earth science vocabularies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Simon; Yu, Jonathan; Williams, Megan; Giabardo, Fabrizio; Lowe, Dominic

    2015-04-01

    Shared vocabularies are a key element in geoscience data interoperability. Many organizations curate vocabularies, with most Geologic Surveys having a long history of development of lexicons and authority tables. However, their mode of publication is heterogeneous, ranging from PDFs and HTML web pages, spreadsheets and CSV, through various user-interfaces, and public and private APIs. Content maintenance ranges from tightly-governed and externally opaque, through various community processes, all the way to crowd-sourcing ('folksonomies'). Meanwhile, there is an increasing expectation of greater harmonization and vocabulary re-use, which create requirements for standardized content formalization and APIs, along with transparent content maintenance and versioning. We have been trialling a combination of processes and software dealing with vocabulary formalization, registration, search and linking. We use the Simplified Knowledge Organization System (SKOS) to provide a generic interface to content. SKOS is an RDF technology for multi-lingual, hierarchical vocabularies, oriented around 'concepts' denoted by URIs, and thus consistent with Linked Open Data. SKOS may be mixed in with classes and properties from specialized ontologies which provide a more specific interface when required. We have developed a suite of practices and techniques for conversion of content from the source technologies and styles into SKOS, largely based on spreadsheet manipulation before RDF conversion, and SPARQL afterwards. The workflow for each vocabulary must be adapted to match the specific inputs. In linked data applications, two requirements are paramount for user confidence: (i) the URI that denotes a vocabulary item is persistent, and should be dereferenceable indefinitely; (ii) the history and status of the resource denoted by a URI must be available. This is implemented by the Linked Data Registry (LDR), originally developed for the World Meteorological Organization and the UK

  3. Are pictures good for learning new vocabulary in a foreign language? Only if you think they are not.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Shana K; Olson, Kellie M

    2012-01-01

    The current study explored whether new words in a foreign language are learned better from pictures than from native language translations. In both between-subjects and within-subject designs, Swahili words were not learned better from pictures than from English translations (Experiments 1-3). Judgments of learning revealed that participants exhibited greater overconfidence in their ability to recall a Swahili word from a picture than from a translation (Experiments 2-3), and Swahili words were also considered easier to process when paired with pictures rather than translations (Experiment 4). When this overconfidence bias was eliminated through retrieval practice (Experiment 2) and instructions warning participants to not be overconfident (Experiment 3), Swahili words were learned better from pictures than from translations. It appears, therefore, that pictures can facilitate learning of foreign language vocabulary--as long as participants are not too overconfident in the power of a picture to help them learn a new word.

  4. Long multiplication by instruction sequences with backward jump instructions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2013-01-01

    For each function on bit strings, its restriction to bit strings of any given length can be computed by a finite instruction sequence that contains only instructions to set and get the content of Boolean registers, forward jump instructions, and a termination instruction. Backward jump instructions

  5. Relationship between Vocabulary Size and Reading Comprehension Levels of Malaysian Tertiary Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelina Wan Lin Tan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the relationship between vocabulary size and reading comprehension performance among students in a tertiary institution in a Malaysian context and examined the vocabulary size required for students to achieve reading comprehension at various levels of proficiency. The research questions that guided this study were: 1 What is the vocabulary size of second year diploma students studying Mass Communication?; 2 What is the reading comprehension proficiency of second year diploma students studying Mass Communication?; and 3 What vocabulary size is required for different levels of reading comprehension proficiency? This study used the quantitative approach. The participants were 53 Malaysian second-year students at a private university college in Malaysia who were reading for their Diploma in Mass Communication. The instruments used were the Vocabulary Size Test and the IELTS Reading Test (Academic Module. The findings showed that the average vocabulary size of the students was just over 6000 word families and this vocabulary size was generally insufficient for adequate reading comprehension. Students needed an average vocabulary size of about 8000 word families to achieve adequate reading comprehension and about 10000 word families to achieve proficient reading comprehension. Based on the individual student’s performance, this study did not find a linear relationship between vocabulary size and reading comprehension performance, nor was there a threshold vocabulary size for adequate reading comprehension.

  6. The Relationship between Interpersonal Intelligence, Reading Activity and Vocabulary Learning among Iranian EFL Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustapha Hajebi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to describe the relationship between Interpersonal Intelligence and the learners' vocabulary learning through teaching reading activity so as to see whether this type of intelligence contributes to better vocabulary learning and whether there is any significant relationship between the performance of participants with interpersonal intelligence and their vocabulary learning in reading activity or not. This quantitative study consisted of a vocabulary test, a reading passage, an English proficiency test and a Multiple Intelligences questionnaire followed the study. A pre- test and post -test were conducted to get the differences in the students‟ post- test vocabulary score and their pre- test vocabulary score served as their gain score in vocabulary knowledge through reading. The comparison between the students‟ scores showed that there was no significant difference in the final performance of two groups. Therefore, this study doesn‟t support the idea of relationship between interpersonal intelligence and vocabulary learning through reading, but as a positive point, the present study indicated that reading texts can greatly assist the learners in developing the level of their vocabulary knowledge. This study proved to be useful for Iranian EFL learners and also EFL teachers can adopt the technique in their classes to advance their students' language learning. A comparison of the results after the next course cycle will then allow us to assess the effects of enhancing vocabulary knowledge, which would not be possible without reading texts.

  7. Examining continuity of early expressive vocabulary development: the generation R study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrichs, Jens; Rescorla, Leslie; Schenk, Jacqueline J; Schmidt, Henk G; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Hofman, Albert; Raat, Hein; Verhulst, Frank C; Tiemeier, Henning

    2011-06-01

    The authors investigated continuity and discontinuity of vocabulary skills in a population-based cohort in the Netherlands. Mothers of 3,759 children completed the Dutch version of the MacArthur Short Form Vocabulary Checklist (Zink & Lejaegere, 2003) at 18 months and a Dutch translation of the Language Development Survey (Rescorla, 1989) at 30 months. At both ages, expressive vocabulary delay was defined as vocabulary scores vocabulary development at both ages, 6.2% were "late bloomers," 6.0% had late onset expressive vocabulary delay, and 2.6% had persistent expressive vocabulary delay. Word production and comprehension at 18 months explained 11.5% of the variance in 30-month vocabulary scores, with low birth weight, child age, gender and ethnicity, maternal age and education, and parenting stress explaining an additional 6.2%. Multinomial logistic regression was used to identify biological, demographic, and psychological factors associated with each of the vocabulary delay outcome groups relative to the typically developing group. Although multiple perinatal, demographic, and maternal psychosocial factors significantly predicted vocabulary skills at 30 months, positive predictive value and sensitivity were low. Future studies should address to what extent additional factors, such as brain maturation and genetic influences, can improve the prediction and understanding of continuity and discontinuity of language delay.

  8. Early Vocabulary, Parental Education, and the Frequency of Shared Reading as Predictors of Toddler's Vocabulary and Grammar at Age 2;7: A Slovenian Longitudinal CDI Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marjanovic-Umek, Ljubica; Fekonja-Peklaj, Urška; Socan, Gregor

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this longitudinal study, carried out on a sample of Slovenian-speaking toddlers, was to analyze developmental changes and stability in early vocabulary development; to establish relations between toddler's vocabulary and grammar; and to analyze the effects of parental education and the frequency of shared reading on toddlers' vocabulary…

  9. Do infant vocabulary skills predict school-age language and literacy outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duff, Fiona J; Reen, Gurpreet; Plunkett, Kim; Nation, Kate

    2015-08-01

    Strong associations between infant vocabulary and school-age language and literacy skills would have important practical and theoretical implications: Preschool assessment of vocabulary skills could be used to identify children at risk of reading and language difficulties, and vocabulary could be viewed as a cognitive foundation for reading. However, evidence to date suggests predictive ability from infant vocabulary to later language and literacy is low. This study provides an investigation into, and interpretation of, the magnitude of such infant to school-age relationships. Three hundred British infants whose vocabularies were assessed by parent report in the 2nd year of life (between 16 and 24 months) were followed up on average 5 years later (ages ranged from 4 to 9 years), when their vocabulary, phonological and reading skills were measured. Structural equation modelling of age-regressed scores was used to assess the strength of longitudinal relationships. Infant vocabulary (a latent factor of receptive and expressive vocabulary) was a statistically significant predictor of later vocabulary, phonological awareness, reading accuracy and reading comprehension (accounting for between 4% and 18% of variance). Family risk for language or literacy difficulties explained additional variance in reading (approximately 10%) but not language outcomes. Significant longitudinal relationships between preliteracy vocabulary knowledge and subsequent reading support the theory that vocabulary is a cognitive foundation of both reading accuracy and reading comprehension. Importantly however, the stability of vocabulary skills from infancy to later childhood is too low to be sufficiently predictive of language outcomes at an individual level - a finding that fits well with the observation that the majority of 'late talkers' resolve their early language difficulties. For reading outcomes, prediction of future difficulties is likely to be improved when considering family

  10. Do infant vocabulary skills predict school-age language and literacy outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duff, Fiona J; Reen, Gurpreet; Plunkett, Kim; Nation, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Background Strong associations between infant vocabulary and school-age language and literacy skills would have important practical and theoretical implications: Preschool assessment of vocabulary skills could be used to identify children at risk of reading and language difficulties, and vocabulary could be viewed as a cognitive foundation for reading. However, evidence to date suggests predictive ability from infant vocabulary to later language and literacy is low. This study provides an investigation into, and interpretation of, the magnitude of such infant to school-age relationships. Methods Three hundred British infants whose vocabularies were assessed by parent report in the 2nd year of life (between 16 and 24 months) were followed up on average 5 years later (ages ranged from 4 to 9 years), when their vocabulary, phonological and reading skills were measured. Results Structural equation modelling of age-regressed scores was used to assess the strength of longitudinal relationships. Infant vocabulary (a latent factor of receptive and expressive vocabulary) was a statistically significant predictor of later vocabulary, phonological awareness, reading accuracy and reading comprehension (accounting for between 4% and 18% of variance). Family risk for language or literacy difficulties explained additional variance in reading (approximately 10%) but not language outcomes. Conclusions Significant longitudinal relationships between preliteracy vocabulary knowledge and subsequent reading support the theory that vocabulary is a cognitive foundation of both reading accuracy and reading comprehension. Importantly however, the stability of vocabulary skills from infancy to later childhood is too low to be sufficiently predictive of language outcomes at an individual level – a finding that fits well with the observation that the majority of ‘late talkers’ resolve their early language difficulties. For reading outcomes, prediction of future difficulties is likely to

  11. The CBM RICH project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamczewski-Musch, J. [GSI Darmstadt (Germany); Becker, K.-H. [University Wuppertal (Germany); Belogurov, S. [ITEP Moscow (Russian Federation); Boldyreva, N. [PNPI Gatchina (Russian Federation); Chernogorov, A. [ITEP Moscow (Russian Federation); Deveaux, C. [University Gießen (Germany); Dobyrn, V. [PNPI Gatchina (Russian Federation); Dürr, M. [University Gießen (Germany); Eom, J. [Pusan National University (Korea, Republic of); Eschke, J. [GSI Darmstadt (Germany); Höhne, C. [University Gießen (Germany); Kampert, K.-H. [University Wuppertal (Germany); Kleipa, V. [GSI Darmstadt (Germany); Kochenda, L. [PNPI Gatchina (Russian Federation); Kolb, B. [GSI Darmstadt (Germany); Kopfer, J. [University Wuppertal (Germany); Kravtsov, P. [PNPI Gatchina (Russian Federation); Lebedev, S.; Lebedeva, E. [University Gießen (Germany); Leonova, E. [PNPI Gatchina (Russian Federation); and others

    2014-12-01

    The Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment will study the properties of super dense nuclear matter by means of heavy ion collisions at the future FAIR facility. An integral detector component is a large Ring Imaging Cherenkov detector with CO{sub 2} gas radiator, which will mainly serve for electron identification and pion suppression necessary to access rare dileptonic probes like e{sup +}e{sup −} decays of light vector mesons or J/Ψ. We describe the design of this future RICH detector and focus on results obtained by building a CBM RICH detector prototype tested at CERN-PS.

  12. A mathematics vocabulary questionnaire for use in the intermediate phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marthie van der Walt

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Teachers and psychologists need an instrument to assess learners' language proficiency in mathematics to enable them to plan and evaluate interventions and to facilitate best practice in mathematics classrooms. We describe the development of a mathematics vocabulary questionnaire to measure learners' language proficiency in mathematics in the intermediate phase. It covers all the steps from designing the preliminary questionnaire to standardising the final instrument. A sample of 1 103 Grades 4 to 7 Afrikaans-, English- and Tswana-speaking learners in North West Province completed the Mathematics Vocabulary questionnaire (Primary (MV(P, consisting of 12 items. We analysed the data by calculating discrimination values, performing a factor analysis, determining reliability coefficients, and investigating item bias by language, gender, and grade. We concluded that there was strong evidence of validity and reliability for the MV(P.

  13. Teachers’ Vocabulary Develops Educational Awareness by Constructing Practical Arguments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Lea; Robinson, Sarah

    From a perspective of teachers’ continuing professional development (CPD) this paper considers the importance of the influence of teachers’ vocabulary in relation to their understanding and development of teaching practices. As the teacher spends most of her/his career teaching inside the classroom...... and discussing – teachers’ educational awareness strengthens and teachers develop clearer and more precise methods/tools for shaping and taking advantage of the opportunities offered in their everyday teaching. This paper demonstrates how teachers’ vocabulary forms and shapes dialogical procedures and the extent...... so it may be argued that much their CPD takes place there. However little attention has been given to how teachers develop understanding of their everyday practices, of what works and what doesn’t inside the classroom and how these experiences are reflected upon and articulated. How when teaching...

  14. Good caring and vocabularies of motive among foster carers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Doyle

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Employing C. Wright Mills’ concept of vocabulary of motives, this article examines the motives and attitudes of people who volunteer to foster children with high support needs. Data is drawn from a larger qualitative study involving indepth interviewing of 23 carers. When asked why they had become foster carers participants produced conventional accounts of child-centred altruistic motives–an acceptable vocabulary of motives which satisfied institutional and cultural expectations regarding caregiving. However, closer examination of participants’ experiences and attitudes revealed the likelihood that economic motives were also factors in decisions to foster. It is argued that participants chose to exclude economic motives from their accounts so as to avoid the risk of being seen to be ‘doing it for the money’.

  15. Exercising during learning improves vocabulary acquisition: behavioral and ERP evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt-Kassow, Maren; Kulka, Anna; Gunter, Thomas C; Rothermich, Kathrin; Kotz, Sonja A

    2010-09-20

    Numerous studies have provided evidence that physical activity promotes cortical plasticity in the adult brain and in turn facilitates learning. However, until now, the effect of simultaneous physical activity (e.g. bicycling) on learning performance has not been investigated systematically. The current study aims at clarifying whether simultaneous motor activity influences verbal learning compared to learning in a physically passive situation. Therefore the learning behavior of 12 healthy subjects (4 male, 19-33 years) was monitored over a period of 3 weeks. During that time, behavioral and electrophysiological responses to memorized materials were measured. We found a larger N400 effect and better performance in vocabulary tests when subjects were physically active during the encoding phase. Thus, our data indicate that simultaneous physical activity during vocabulary learning facilitates memorization of new items. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Towards a controlled vocabulary on software engineering education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizard, Sebastián; Vallespir, Diego

    2017-11-01

    Software engineering is the discipline that develops all the aspects of the production of software. Although there are guidelines about what topics to include in a software engineering curricula, it is usually unclear which are the best methods to teach them. In any science discipline the construction of a classification schema is a common approach to understand a thematic area. This study examines previous publications in software engineering education to obtain a first controlled vocabulary (a more formal definition of a classification schema) in the field. Publications from 1988 to 2014 were collected and processed using automatic clustering techniques and the outcomes were analysed manually. The result is an initial controlled vocabulary with a taxonomy form with 43 concepts that were identified as the most used in the research publications. We present the classification of the concepts in three facets: 'what to teach', 'how to teach' and 'where to teach' and the evolution of concepts over time.

  17. Deploying Linked Open Vocabulary (LOV to Enhance Library Linked Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oh, Sam Gyun

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the advent of Linked Data (LD as a method for building webs of data, there have been many attempts to apply and implement LD in various settings. Efforts have been made to convert bibliographic data in libraries into Linked Data, thereby generating Library Linked Data (LLD. However, when memory institutions have tried to link their data with external sources based on principles suggested by Tim Berners-Lee, identifying appropriate vocabularies for use in describing their bibliographic data has proved challenging. The objective of this paper is to discuss the potential role of Linked Open Vocabularies (LOV in providing better access to various open datasets and facilitating effective linking. The paper will also examine the ways in which memory institutions can utilize LOV to enhance the quality of LLD and LLD-based ontology design.

  18. Exposing SAMOS Data and Vocabularies within the Semantic Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dockery, Nkemdirim; Elya, Jocelyn; Smith, Shawn

    2014-05-01

    As part of the Ocean Data Interoperability Platform (ODIP), we at the Center for Ocean-Atmospheric Prediction Studies (COAPS) will present the development process for the exposure of quality-controlled data and core vocabularies managed by the Shipboard Automated Meteorological Oceanographic System (SAMOS) initiative using Semantic Web technologies. Participants in the SAMOS initiative collect continuous navigational (position, course, heading, speed), meteorological (winds, pressure, temperature, humidity, radiation), and near-surface oceanographic (sea temperature, salinity) parameters while at sea. One-minute interval observations are packaged and transmitted back to COAPS via daily emails, where they undergo standardized formatting and quality control. The authors will present methods used to expose these daily datasets. The Semantic Web, a vision of the World Wide Web Consortium, focuses on extending the principles of the web from connecting documents to connecting data. The creation of a web of Linked Data that can be used across different applications in a machine-readable way is the ultimate goal. The Resource Description Framework (RDF) is the standard language and format used in the Semantic Web. RDF pages may be queried using the SPARQL Protocol and RDF Query Language (SPARQL). The authors will showcase the development of RDF resources that map SAMOS vocabularies to internationally served vocabularies such as those found in the Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) Vocabulary Server. Each individual SAMOS vocabulary term (data parameter and quality control flag) will be described in an RDF resource page. These RDF resources will define each SAMOS vocabulary term and provide a link to the mapped vocabulary term (or multiple terms) served externally. Along with enhanced retrieval by parameter, time, and location, we will be able to add additional parameters with the confidence that they follow an international standard. The production of RDF

  19. Enhancing students’ vocabulary knowledge using the Facebook environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Kamarul Kabilan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the effectiveness of using Facebook in enhancing vocabulary knowledge among Community College students. Thirty-three (33 Community College students are exposed to the use of Facebook as an environment of learning and enhancing their English vocabulary. They are given a pre-test and a post-test and the findings indicate that students perform significantly better in the post-test compared to the pre-test. It appears that Facebook could be considered as a supplementary learning environment or learning platform or a learning tool; with meaningful and engaging activities that require students to collaborate, network and functions as a community of practice, particularly for introverted students with low proficiency levels and have low self-esteem.

  20. Using graphic organizers to enhance students' science vocabulary and comprehension of nonfiction science text

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Edna

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the effectiveness of Frayer Model and the Hierarchical Organizer as a literacy strategy to improve ninth grade students' science vocabulary and comprehension of non-fictions text in Environmental Science course. The study implemented a sequential explanatory methodology design that included quantitative and qualitative instruments. The research sample consisted of one hundred and two (102) high school environmental science students entering the ninth grade for the first time. The two treatment groups each consisted of thirty-five (35) students, and the control group consisted of 32 students. Treatment group one used the Frayer Model; treatment group two used Hierarchical Organizer and the control group used the traditional teaching methods without the use of a graph organizer. The investigator taught both treatment groups and the control group to ensure reliability. The two treatment groups were taught using graphic organizers as the main lesson plan tool and the control group was taught using guided notes lecture with PowerPoint. A pretest and post-test were administered to each student. Student test scores were evaluated to determine whether knowledge gains differed between the treatment groups and the control group. It was found that the use of graphic organizer instruction was significantly better for student achievement when compared to the use of PowerPoint instruction and that there was much more interaction between student and teacher during the graphic organizer lessons. The delivery of the lesson by the use of graphic organizers seemed to promote more success than the use of the PowerPoint and lecture.

  1. Recommendations for recognizing video events by concept vocabularies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    represents a video in terms of low-level audiovisual features [16,38,50,35,15,19,37]. In general, these methods first extract from the video various types of...interpretable, but is also reported to outperform the state-of-the-art low-level audiovisual features in recognizing events [31,33]. Rather than training...concept detector accuracy. As a consequence, the vocabulary concepts do not necessarily have a semantic interpreta- tion needed to explain the video content

  2. SCAFFOLDINGAND REINFORCEMENT: USING DIGITAL LOGBOOKS IN LEARNING VOCABULARY

    OpenAIRE

    Khalifa, Salma Hasan Almabrouk; Shabdin, Ahmad Affendi

    2016-01-01

    Reinforcement and scaffolding are tested approaches to enhance learning achievements. Keeping a record of the learning process as well as the new learned words functions as scaffolding to help learners build a comprehensive vocabulary. Similarly, repetitive learning of new words reinforces permanent learning for long-term memory. Paper-based logbooks may prove to be good records of the learning process, but if learners use digital logbooks, the results may be even better. Digital logbooks wit...

  3. Improving Student Vocabulary Mastery Using Word Mapping Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Satuna Indah Wardani

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: The purpose of this study was to find out whether the word mapping strategywas able to improve the students’ vocabulary mastery. The process of masteringis mainly affected by the worst thought of the vocational students who said that English as the most difficult subject to learn and was often tracked into boringcondition since theywere not involved in the process of learning. Thisstudy was conducted by using classroom action research in two cycles and each cycleconsisted of four me...

  4. Benefits of Using Vocabulary Flash Cards in an EFL Classroom

    OpenAIRE

    Jonathan, Aliponga; Christopher C, Johnston

    2013-01-01

    This paper was written to research and advocate the use of English word cards withregard to vocabulary acquisition and English productive and receptive competency. Also,student perceptions of using and making word cards will be examined to show theimportance of including a word card policy in an EFL classroom. Despite all the positiveresearch done on word cards, it is surprising how many Japanese EFL students do notutilize word cards in their English studies. For this research, 108 students f...

  5. Techniques in Presenting Vocabulary to Young Efl Learners

    OpenAIRE

    Awaluddin, Annisa

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on research results aimed at investigating the techniques used by a teacher of a young learner course in presenting meaning and form of vocabulary, as well as the reasons in employing the techniques. This study applied framework from Takač (2008). Observations and interview were carried out to collect the data. The findings indicate that the teacher applied various techniques with various reasons, both in presenting word meaning and form. In presenting word meaning, the tea...

  6. Curriculum Q-Learning for Visual Vocabulary Acquisition

    OpenAIRE

    Zaidi, Ahmed H.; Moore, Russell; Briscoe, Ted

    2017-01-01

    The structure of curriculum plays a vital role in our learning process, both as children and adults. Presenting material in ascending order of difficulty that also exploits prior knowledge can have a significant impact on the rate of learning. However, the notion of difficulty and prior knowledge differs from person to person. Motivated by the need for a personalised curriculum, we present a novel method of curriculum learning for vocabulary words in the form of visual prompts. We employ a re...

  7. MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES AS PREDICTORS OF READING COMPREHENSION AND VOCABULARY KNOWLEDGE

    OpenAIRE

    Abbas Ali Zarei; Nima Shokri Afshar

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: The present study was conducted to investigate types of Multiple Intelligences as predictors of reading comprehension and vocabulary knowledge. To meet this objective, a 60-item TOEFL test and a 90-item multiple intelligences questionnaire were distributed among 240 male and female Iranians studying English at Qazali and Parsian Universities in Qazvin. Data were analyzed using a multiple regression procedure. The result of the data analysis indicated that musical, interpersonal, kin...

  8. Decreasing scoring errors on Wechsler Scale Vocabulary, Comprehension, and Similarities subtests: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linger, Michele L; Ray, Glen E; Zachar, Peter; Underhill, Andrea T; LoBello, Steven G

    2007-10-01

    Studies of graduate students learning to administer the Wechsler scales have generally shown that training is not associated with the development of scoring proficiency. Many studies report on the reduction of aggregated administration and scoring errors, a strategy that does not highlight the reduction of errors on subtests identified as most prone to error. This study evaluated the development of scoring proficiency specifically on the Wechsler (WISC-IV and WAIS-III) Vocabulary, Comprehension, and Similarities subtests during training by comparing a set of 'early test administrations' to 'later test administrations.' Twelve graduate students enrolled in an intelligence-testing course participated in the study. Scoring errors (e.g., incorrect point assignment) were evaluated on the students' actual practice administration test protocols. Errors on all three subtests declined significantly when scoring errors on 'early' sets of Wechsler scales were compared to those made on 'later' sets. However, correcting these subtest scoring errors did not cause significant changes in subtest scaled scores. Implications for clinical instruction and future research are discussed.

  9. Neutron rich nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foucher, R.

    1979-01-01

    If some β - emitters are particularly interesting to study in light, medium, and heavy nuclei, another (and also) difficult problem is to know systematically the properties of these neutron rich nuclei far from the stability line. A review of some of their characteristics is presented. How far is it possible to be objective in the interpretation of data is questioned and implications are discussed

  10. Fine motor skills enhance lexical processing of embodied vocabulary: A test of the nimble-hands, nimble-minds hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suggate, Sebastian; Stoeger, Heidrun

    2017-10-01

    Research suggests that fine motor skills (FMS) are linked to aspects of cognitive development in children. Additionally, lexical processing advantages exist for words implying a high body-object interaction (BOI), with initial findings indicating that such words in turn link to children's FMS-for which we propose and evaluate four competing hypotheses. First, a maturational account argues that any links between FMS and lexical processing should not exist once developmental variables are controlled for. Second, functionalism posits that any link between FMS and lexical processing arises due to environmental interactions. Third, the semantic richness hypothesis argues that sensorimotor input improves lexical processing, but predicts no links between FMS and lexical processing. A fourth account, the nimble-hands, nimble minds (NHNM) hypothesis, proposes that having greater FMS improves lexical processing for high-BOI words. In two experiments, the response latencies of preschool children (n = 90, n = 76, ages = 5;1) to 45 lexical items encompassing high-BOI, low-BOI, and less imageable words were measured, alongside measures of FMS, reasoning, and general receptive/expressive vocabulary. High-BOI words appeared to show unique links to FMS, which remained after accounting for low-BOI and less imageable words, general vocabulary, reasoning, and chronological age. Although further work is needed, the findings provide initial support for the NHNM hypothesis.

  11. Current trends in small vocabulary speech recognition for equipment control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doukas, Nikolaos; Bardis, Nikolaos G.

    2017-09-01

    Speech recognition systems allow human - machine communication to acquire an intuitive nature that approaches the simplicity of inter - human communication. Small vocabulary speech recognition is a subset of the overall speech recognition problem, where only a small number of words need to be recognized. Speaker independent small vocabulary recognition can find significant applications in field equipment used by military personnel. Such equipment may typically be controlled by a small number of commands that need to be given quickly and accurately, under conditions where delicate manual operations are difficult to achieve. This type of application could hence significantly benefit by the use of robust voice operated control components, as they would facilitate the interaction with their users and render it much more reliable in times of crisis. This paper presents current challenges involved in attaining efficient and robust small vocabulary speech recognition. These challenges concern feature selection, classification techniques, speaker diversity and noise effects. A state machine approach is presented that facilitates the voice guidance of different equipment in a variety of situations.

  12. VOCABULARY LEARNING IN AN AUTOMATED GRADED READING PROGRAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsien-Chin Liou

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Adult L2 learners are often encouraged to acquire new words through reading in order to promote language proficiency. Yet preparing suitable reading texts is often a challenge for teachers because the chosen texts must have a high percentage of words familiar to specific groups of learners in order to allow the inference of word meanings from context. With the help of word lists research and advances in quantitative corpus analyses using word frequency computer programs, this study selected sixteen articles from the computer corpus of a local Chinese-English magazine and used them to construct an online English extensive reading program. A preliminary assessment of the reading program was conducted with 38 college students over twelve weeks based upon vocabulary gains from a pretest to a posttest. The results showed that learners improved their vocabulary scores after using the reading program. The online extensive reading syllabus demonstrated that such a design for a reading program is technically feasible and pedagogically beneficial and provides value in both vocabulary gains and learner satisfaction.

  13. Mothers' labeling responses to infants' gestures predict vocabulary outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Janet; Masur, Elise Frank

    2015-11-01

    Twenty-nine infants aged 1;1 and their mothers were videotaped while interacting with toys for 18 minutes. Six experimental stimuli were presented to elicit infant communicative bids in two communicative intent contexts - proto-declarative and proto-imperative. Mothers' verbal responses to infants' gestural and non-gestural communicative bids were coded for object and action labels. Relations between maternal labeling responses and infants' vocabularies at 1;1 and 1;5 were examined. Mothers' labeling responses to infants' gestural communicative bids were concurrently and predictively related to infants' vocabularies, whereas responses to non-gestural communicative bids were not. Mothers' object labeling following gestures in the proto-declarative context mediated the association from infants' gesturing in the proto-declarative context to concurrent noun lexicons and was the strongest predictor of subsequent noun lexicons. Mothers' action labeling after infants' gestural bids in the proto-imperative context predicted infants' acquisition of action words at 1;5. Findings show that mothers' responsive labeling explain specific relations between infants' gestures and their vocabulary development.

  14. Improving Student Vocabulary Mastery Using Word Mapping Strategy

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    Satuna Indah Wardani

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The purpose of this study was to find out whether the word mapping strategywas able to improve the students’ vocabulary mastery. The process of masteringis mainly affected by the worst thought of the vocational students who said that English as the most difficult subject to learn and was often tracked into boringcondition since theywere not involved in the process of learning. Thisstudy was conducted by using classroom action research in two cycles and each cycleconsisted of four meetings. The subject of the research was the third grade of Accounting Department at State Vocational School 1 Pamekasan whichconsisted of 34 students. The research was carried out for one month.Theinstruments used to obtained primary data and the secondary data were vocabulary test, the students’ observation sheets, and questionnaire of the respondent.The result of test in preliminary until the test in cycle two showed that there was the improvement of the number of students who passed the test. Hopefully, this outcome will certainly be useful for both teachers and students in which its harmony will give the progress for learning English,especially vocabulary mastery. 

  15. TEACHING VOCABULARY BY USING REALIA (REAL-OBJECT MEDIA

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    Dodi Irawan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available English is one of scary subject for some students of Indonesia. The students feel afraid to speak in English because of their less word of vocabulary. Realia media is the one simple interesting media that may bring motivation for the student who afraid to study English. Teacher of English can use realia media and bring it in the class to get more attention, and participation of students. In this research, the writer try to focuses on how realia media make significant difference ability of vocabulary to the students. The reserach of this study used a quasi-experimental method the population of this research was taken from the seventh grade Students of SMP Negeri 23 Palembang in the academic of year 2015/2016. Based on the research, it found that there was a significance difference using Realia media in teaching vocabulary. From the result on this research, it was found that there is a significant difference in achievement before and after the treatment in experimental group.

  16. EXPANDING ACADEMIC VOCABULARY WITH AN INTERACTIVE ON-LINE DATABASE

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    Marlise Horst

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available University students used a set of existing and purpose-built on-line tools for vocabulary learning in an experimental ESL course. The resources included concordance, dictionary, cloze-builder, hypertext, and a database with interactive self-quizzing feature (all freely available at www.lextutor.ca. The vocabulary targeted for learning consisted of (a Coxhead's (2000 Academic Word List, a list of items that occur frequently in university textbooks, and (b unfamiliar words students had met in academic texts and selected for entry into the class database. The suite of tools were designed to foster retention by engaging learners in deep processing, an aspect that is often described as missing in computer exercises for vocabulary learning. Database entries were examined to determine whether context sentences supported word meanings adequately and whether entered words reflected the unavailability of cognates in the various first languages of the participants. Pre- and post-treatment performance on tests of knowledge of words targeted for learning in the course were compared to establish learning gains. Regression analyses investigated connections between use of specific computer tools and gains.

  17. Expand your English a guide to improving your academic vocabulary

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    Hart, Steve

    2018-01-01

    Writing academic prose in English is especially difficult for non-native speakers, largely because the standard vocabulary used in this genre can be quite different from colloquial English. Expand Your English: A Guide to Improving Your Academic Vocabulary is a unique and invaluable guide that will enable the reader to overcome this hurdle. It will become the favourite go-to reference book for both beginners and for intermediate learners struggling with the complexities of English-language academic writing. Steve Hart covers 1,000 vocabulary items that are essential for good academic writing. The first section describes 200 key terms in detail, grouping them into logical sets of 10. Through careful repetition, the reader will find it easy to retain, retrieve, and reuse these essential phrases. The second section explains a further 800 terms, grouping them according to function, meaning, and the areas of an essay where they are likely to be used. The expansive scope of Expand Your English gives non-native spea...

  18. Programmed Instruction Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, B. F.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the history and development of teaching machines, invented to restore the important features of personalized instruction as public school class size increased. Examines teaching and learning problems over the past 50 years, including motivation, attention, appreciation, discovery, and creativity in relation to programmed instruction.…

  19. Fashions in Instructional Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapper, Christopher K.

    This paper on instructional development notes the trend toward teaching improvement efforts, classifies instructional development centers in terms of their differing philosophies of operation, and identifies some general problems that have been encountered in institutional efforts to improve teaching and learning. Centers in North America, Europe,…

  20. Vocabulary and syntactic knowledge factors in 5th grade students’ reading comprehension

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    Kouider Mokhtari

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we examined 5th grade students’ levels of vocabulary knowledge and syntactic awareness relative to their reading comprehension performance. The aim was to explore the contributions of vocabulary and syntactic awareness as potential sources of reading comprehension difficulty for these readers. Overall, we found that both vocabulary knowledge and syntactic awareness contributed in significant yet unique ways to students’ reading comprehension performance. Students who showed weaknesses in vocabulary and syntax also performed poorly on measures of reading comprehension. Additionally, we found that syntactic awareness explained a small amount of additional variance in reading comprehension beyond what was explained by vocabulary. The implications of these findings are discussed in light of research and practice addressing the relationships among syntax, vocabulary, and reading comprehension for more and less skilled readers.