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Sample records for rich oxygen isotopes

  1. Exploring Neutron-Rich Oxygen Isotopes with MoNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, N.; Gade, A.; Peters, W. A.; Thoennessen, M.; Baumann, T.; Bazin, D.; Lecouey, J.-L.; Scheit, H.; Schiller, A.; Brown, J.; DeYoung, P. A.; Finck, J. E.; Hinnefeld, J.; Howes, R.; Luther, B.

    2007-01-01

    The Modular Neutron Array (MoNA) was used in conjunction with a large-gap dipole magnet (Sweeper) to measure neutron-unbound states in oxygen isotopes close to the neutron dripline. While no excited states were observed in 24 O, a resonance at 45(2) keV above the neutron separation energy was observed in 23 O

  2. Oxygen isotopic abundances in calcium- aluminum-rich inclusions from ordinary chondrites: implications for nebular heterogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeegan, K D; Leshin, L A; Russell, S S; MacPherson, G J

    1998-04-17

    The oxygen isotopic compositions of two calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) from the unequilibrated ordinary chondrite meteorites Quinyambie and Semarkona are enriched in 16O by an amount similar to that in CAIs from carbonaceous chondrites. This may indicate that most CAIs formed in a restricted region of the solar nebula and were then unevenly distributed throughout the various chondrite accretion regions. The Semarkona CAI is isotopically homogeneous and contains highly 16O-enriched melilite, supporting the hypothesis that all CAI minerals were originally 16O-rich, but that in most carbonaceous chondrite inclusions some minerals exchanged oxygen isotopes with an external reservoir following crystallization.

  3. Geochemistry and oxygen isotope composition of main-group pallasites and olivine-rich clasts in mesosiderites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greenwood, Richard C.; Barrat, Jean-Alix; Scott, Edward R. D.

    2015-01-01

    origin. Although the Dawn mission did not detect mesosiderite-like material on Vesta, evidence linking the mesosiderites and HEDs includes: (i) theirnearly identical oxygen isotope compositions; (ii) the presence in both of coarse-grained Mg-rich olivines; (iii) both have synchronous Lu-Hf and Mn-Cr ages...

  4. Quasi-free one nucleon knockout reactions on neutron-rich oxygen isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atar, Leyla; Aumann, Thomas [TU Darmstadt, Darmstadt (Germany); GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); Bertulani, Carlos [Texas A and M University-Commerce, Commerse (United States); Paschalis, Stefanos [TU Darmstadt, Darmstadt (Germany); Nociforo, Chiara [GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); Collaboration: R3B-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    Recent experiments have shown a reduction of spectroscopic strengths to about 60-70% for stable nuclei. When going to drip lines this tendency is changing, loosely bound nucleons have spectroscopic strengths close unity while deeply bound nucleons have a large reduction of the strength. We aim to make a systematic study of spectroscopic factors (SF) of the Oxygen isotopes using quasi-free (p,2p) and (p,pn) knockout reactions in inverse kinematics. Quasi-free knockout reactions are a direct tool to study the occupancy and the location of valance and deeply bound single particle states. The Oxygen isotopes offer a large variation of separation energies which will allow us to obtain a qualitative and quantitative understanding of SF in a large variation of isospin asymmetry. For this we performed an experiment at the R3B-LAND setup at the GSI with secondary beams containing {sup 14-24}O. The {sup 16-18}O and {sup 21-23}O isotopes have been analyzed and the preliminary results will be presented. The results include the partial cross sections, gamma ray spectra of the residual fragments in coincidence, and the SF obtained via comparison with theory.

  5. Photo-neutron cross sections for unstable neutron-rich oxygen isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leistenschneider, A.; Aumann, T.; Boretzky, K.

    2001-05-01

    The dipole response of stable and unstable neutron-rich oxygen nuclei of masses A = 17 to A = 22 has been investigated experimentally utilizing electromagnetic excitation in heavy-ion collisions at beam energies around 600 MeV/nucleon. A kinematically complete measurement of the neutron decay channel in inelastic scattering of the secondary beam projectiles from a Pb target was performed. Differential electromagnetic excitation cross sections dσ/dE were derived up to 30 MeV excitation energy. In contrast to stable nuclei, the deduced dipole strength distribution appears to be strongly fragmented and systematically exhibits a considerable fraction of low-lying strength, exhausting up to 12% of the energy-weighted dipole sum rule at excitation energies below 15 MeV. (orig.)

  6. Multiple Nebular Gas Reservoirs Recorded by Oxygen Isotope Variation in a Spinel-Rich CAI in CO3 MIL 090019

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, J. I.; Simon, S. B.; Nguyen, A. N.; Ross, D. K.; Messenger, S.

    2017-07-01

    We conducted NanoSIMS ion imaging studies of a primitive spinel-rich CAI from the MIL 090019 CO3 chondrite. It records radial O-isotopic heterogeneity among multiple occurrences of the same mineral, reflecting distinct nebular O-isotopic reservoirs.

  7. Proton-induced knockout reactions with netron-rich oxygen isotopes at R{sup 3}B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atar, Leyla [IKP, TU Darmstadt (Germany); GSI (Germany); Collaboration: R3B-Collaboration

    2014-07-01

    Proton-induced knockout reactions are one of the main goal of the experimental program at the future R{sup 3}B (Reactions with Relativistic Radioactive Beams) Experiment at FAIR. It allows us to obtain spectroscopic information about valence and deeply bound single-nucleon states and to study their evolution over a large variation in isospin. Recent studies have shown that the occupancies of loosely bound valence nucleons in neutron- or proton-rich nuclei have a spectroscopic factor close to unity, whereas single-particle strength for deeply bound nucleons is suppressed in isospin asymmetric systems compared to the predictions of the many-body shell model. Further experimental and theoretical studies are needed for a qualitative and quantitative understanding. For this aim a series of measurements have been performed on the complete oxygen isotopic chain using the existing experimental setup LAND/R{sup 3}B at GSI. We present the main scientific goals, the concepts of the experiment and the preliminary results.

  8. Multiple Nebular Gas Reservoirs Recorded by Oxygen Isotope Variation in a Spinel-rich CAI in CO3 MIL 090019

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, J. I.; Simon, S. B.; Nguyen, A. N.; Ross, D. K.; Messenger, S.

    2017-01-01

    We conducted NanoSIMS O-isotopic imaging of a primitive spinel-rich CAI spherule (27-2) from the MIL 090019 CO3 chondrite. Inclusions such as 27-2 are proposed to record inner nebula processes during an epoch of rapid solar nebula evolution. Mineralogical and textural analyses suggest that this CAI formed by high temperature reactions, partial melting, and condensation. This CAI exhibits radial O-isotopic heterogeneity among multiple occurrences of the same mineral, reflecting interactions with distinct nebular O-isotopic reservoirs.

  9. A study on hydrogen, oxygen, carbon, sulfur and lead isotopes in the rich uranium deposit No.201

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yuexiang; Li Tiangang; Tong Hongshou; Feng Mingyue; Xu Zhan

    1995-01-01

    The uranium deposit No.201 located in Indonesian granite is one of the richest uranium deposits of granite type in China. An attempt is made to investigate the sources of ore-forming solutions and ore-forming materials, and to presume the environment of ore formation in the light of the study on composition of stable isotopes such as hydrogen, oxygen, carbon, sulfur and lead. The research results indicate that the ore-forming fluids in the deposit is mainly composed of meteoric water, the ore-forming materials principally came from pre-Yanshanian granite Massif and possibly, partly from the lower crust, and metallogenesis was undertaken under relatively stable physicochemical conditions

  10. A study on hydrogen, oxygen, carbon, sulfur and lead isotopes in the rich uranium deposit No.201

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuexiang, Li; Tiangang, Li; Hongshou, Tong; Mingyue, Feng; Zhan, Xu [Beijing Research Inst. of Uranium Geology (China)

    1995-09-01

    The uranium deposit No.201 located in Indonesian granite is one of the richest uranium deposits of granite type in China. An attempt is made to investigate the sources of ore-forming solutions and ore-forming materials, and to presume the environment of ore formation in the light of the study on composition of stable isotopes such as hydrogen, oxygen, carbon, sulfur and lead. The research results indicate that the ore-forming fluids in the deposit is mainly composed of meteoric water, the ore-forming materials principally came from pre-Yanshanian granite Massif and possibly, partly from the lower crust, and metallogenesis was undertaken under relatively stable physicochemical conditions.

  11. Theory of oxygen isotope exchange

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Otter, M.W.; Boukamp, Bernard A.; Bouwmeester, Henricus J.M.

    2001-01-01

    Transients for oxygen molecular mass numbers 32, 34 and 36 are derived which can be used for the interpretation of oxygen isotope exchange data based on measurement of concentrations of 16O2, 16O18O and 18O2 in the gas phase. Key parameters in the theory are the rate at which oxygen molecules are

  12. Quasi-free one nucleon knockout reactions on neutron-rich oxygen isotopes at the R3B-LAND setup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atar, Leyla; Aumann, Thomas [TU Darmstadt, Darmstadt (Germany); GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); Bertulani, Carlos [Texas A and M University-Commerce, Commerce (United States); Paschalis, Stefanos [TU Darmstadt, Darmstadt (Germany); Nociforo, Chiara [GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); Collaboration: R3B-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    Recent experiments have showed a reduction of spectroscopic strengths of about 60-70% for stable nuclei. When going to driplines this tendency is changing, loosely bound nucleons have spectroscopic strengths close unity while deeply bound nucleons have a large reduction of the strength. We aim to make a systematic study of spectroscopic factors (SF) of the Oxygen isotopes using quasi-free (p,2p) and (p,pn) knockout reactions in inverse kinematics. Quasi-free knockout reactions are a direct tool to study the occupancy and the location of valance and deeply bound single particle states. The Oxygen isotopes offer a large variation of separation energies which will allow us to obtain a qualitative and quantitative understanding of SF in a large variation of isospin asymmetry. For this we performed an experiment at the R3B-LAND setup at the GSI with a secondary beam {sup 14-24}O. The {sup 16-18}O and {sup 21-23}O isotopes have been analyzed and the preliminary results will be presented. The results include the partial cross sections, gamma ray spectra of the residual fragments in coincidence, and the SF obtained via comparison with theory.

  13. OXYGEN ISOTOPIC COMPOSITIONS OF SOLAR CORUNDUM GRAINS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makide, Kentaro; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Huss, Gary R.; Krot, Alexander N.

    2009-01-01

    Oxygen is one of the major rock-forming elements in the solar system and the third most abundant element of the Sun. Oxygen isotopic composition of the Sun, however, is not known due to a poor resolution of astronomical spectroscopic measurements. Several Δ 17 O values have been proposed for the composition of the Sun based on (1) the oxygen isotopic measurements of the solar wind implanted into metallic particles in lunar soil ( 2 O 3 ) is thermodynamically the first condensate from a cooling gas of solar composition. Corundum-bearing CAIs, however, are exceptionally rare, suggesting either continuous reaction of the corundum condensates with a cooling nebular gas and their replacement by hibonite (CaAl 12 O 19 ) or their destruction by melting together with less refractory condensates during formation of igneous CAIs. In contrast to the corundum-bearing CAIs, isolated micrometer-sized corundum grains are common in the acid-resistant residues from unmetamorphosed chondrites. These grains could have avoided multistage reprocessing during CAI formation and, therefore, can potentially provide constraints on the initial oxygen isotopic composition of the solar nebula, and, hence, of the Sun. Here we report oxygen isotopic compositions of ∼60 micrometer-sized corundum grains in the acid-resistant residues from unequilibrated ordinary chondrites (Semarkona (LL3.0), Bishunpur (LL3.1), Roosevelt County 075 (H3.2)) and unmetamorphosed carbonaceous chondrites (Orgueil (CI1), Murray (CM2), and Alan Hills A77307 (CO3.0)) measured with a Cameca ims-1280 ion microprobe. All corundum grains, except two, are 16 O-rich (Δ 17 O = -22.7 per mille ± 8.5 per mille, 2σ), and compositionally similar to the mineralogically pristine CAIs from the CR carbonaceous chondrites (-23.3 per mille ± 1.9 per mille, 2σ), and solar wind returned by the Genesis spacecraft (-27 per mille ± 6 per mille, 2σ). One corundum grain is highly 17 O-enriched (δ 17 O ∼ +60 per mille, δ 18 O

  14. Oxygen isotope exchange between refractory inclusion in allende and solar nebula Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurimoto; Ito; Nagasawa

    1998-12-04

    A calcium-aluminum-rich inclusion (CAI) from the Allende meteorite was analyzed and found to contain melilite crystals with extreme oxygen-isotope compositions ( approximately 5 percent oxygen-16 enrichment relative to terrestrial oxygen-16). Some of the melilite is also anomalously enriched in oxygen-16 compared with oxygen isotopes measured in other CAIs. The oxygen isotopic variation measured among the minerals (melilite, spinel, and fassaite) indicates that crystallization of the CAI started from oxygen-16-rich materials that were probably liquid droplets in the solar nebula, and oxygen isotope exchange with the surrounding oxygen-16-poor nebular gas progressed through the crystallization of the CAI. Additional oxygen isotope exchange also occurred during subsequent reheating events in the solar nebula.

  15. Isotope anomalies in oxygen isotope exchange equilibrium systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotaka, M.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of the present work is to elucidate the isotope anomalies in oxygen isotope exchange equilibrium systems, according to the calculations of the equilibrium constants for oxygen isotopic exchange reactions, and the calculations of the oxygen isotope separation factors between two phases. The equilibrium constants (K65, K67, K68 and K69) of 16 O- 15 O, 16 O 17 O, 16 O- 18 O, and 16 O- 19 O exchange reactions between diatomic oxides were calculated in a wide temperature range on the basis of quantum statistical mechanics. Many equilibrium constants showed the anomalous mass effects, and then had the crossover temperatures and the mass independent fractionation (MIF) temperatures which held K67 = K65, K67 = K68, or K67 = K69, etc. For example, the equilibrium constants for the reactions between OH and the other diatomic oxides (MO) showed the anomalous mass effects, when M was Li, Na, Mg, K, Fe, Al, Ge, Zr, Pt, etc. The 16 O 15 O, 16 O 17 O, 16 O- 18 O, and 16 O- 19 O oxygen isotope separation factors (S65, S67, S68 and S69) between two phases were calculated, when OH and CO were in the first phase, and SiO was in the second phase. Although the oxygen isotopic exchange equilibria in the two phases had no MIF and crossover temperatures, the separation factors showed the anomalous mass effects and had the temperatures. According to what is called the normal mass effects for the equilibrium constant of isotopic exchange reaction, the value of InK68/InK67 is 1.885. Therefore, the value of InS68/InS67 should be 1.885 too. The value calculated, however, widely changed. It can be concluded from the results obtained in the present work that some oxygen isotopic exchange equilibria cause the anomalous mass effects, the anomalous oxygen isotope separation factors, and then isotope anomalies

  16. Normalization of oxygen and hydrogen isotope data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coplen, T.B.

    1988-01-01

    To resolve confusion due to expression of isotopic data from different laboratories on non-corresponding scales, oxygen isotope analyses of all substances can be expressed relative to VSMOW or VPDB (Vienna Peedee belemnite) on scales normalized such that the ??18O of SLAP is -55.5% relative to VSMOW. H3+ contribution in hydrogen isotope ratio analysis can be easily determined using two gaseous reference samples that differ greatly in deuterium content. ?? 1988.

  17. Bulk Oxygen Isotopic Composition of Ultracarbonaceous Antarctic Micrometeorites with the NanoSIMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakazu, Y.; Engrand, C.; Duprat, J.; Briani, G.; Bardin, N.; Mostefaoui, S.; Duhamel, R.; Remusat, L.

    2014-09-01

    We analyzed the carbon and oxygen isotope ratios of two UCAMMs with the NanoSIMS in order to understand the origin and formation of UCAMMs. One UCAMM has 16O-rich composition and a highly heterogeneous oxygen isotopic distribution.

  18. Carbon and Oxygen isotopic composition in paleoenvironmental determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, J.R.M. da.

    1978-01-01

    This work reports that the carbon and oxygen isotopic composition separate the mollusks from marine environment of the mollusks from continental environment in two groups isotopically different, making the biological control outdone by environment control, in the isotopic fragmentation mechanisms. The patterns from the continental environment are more rich in O 16 than the patterns from marine environments. The C 12 is also more frequent in the mollusks from continental environments. The carbon isotopic composition in paterns from continental environments is situated betwen - 10.31 and - 4,05% and the oxygen isotopic composition is situated between - 6,95 and - 2,41%. To the marine environment patterns the carbon isotopic composition is between - 2,08 and + 2,65% and the oxigen isotopic composition is between - 2,08 and + 0,45%. Was also analysed fossil marine mollusks shells and their isotopic composition permit the formulation of hypothesis about the environment which they lived. (C.D.G.) [pt

  19. Oxygen isotopic fractionation during bacterial sulfate reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balci, N.; Turchyn, A. V.; Lyons, T.; Bruchert, V.; Schrag, D. P.; Wall, J.

    2006-12-01

    Sulfur isotope fractionation during bacterial sulfate reduction (BSR) is understood to depend on a variety of environmental parameters, such as sulfate concentration, temperature, cell specific sulfate reduction rates, and the carbon substrate. What controls oxygen isotope fractionation during BSR is less well understood. Some studies have suggested that carbon substrate is important, whereas others concluded that there is a stoichiometric relationship between the fractionations of sulfur and oxygen during BSR. Studies of oxygen fractionation are complicated by isotopic equilibration between sulfur intermediates, particularly sulfite, and water. This process can modify the isotopic composition of the extracellular sulfate pool (δ18OSO4 ). Given this, the challenge is to distinguish between this isotopic equilibration and fractionations linked to the kinetic effects of the intercellular enzymes and the incorporation of sulfate into the bacterial cell. The δ18OSO4 , in concert with the sulfur isotope composition of sulfate (δ34SSO4), could be a powerful tool for understanding the pathways and environmental controls of BSR in natural systems. We will present δ18OSO4 data measured from batch culture growth of 14 different species of sulfate reducing bacteria for which sulfur isotope data were previously published. A general observation is that δ18OSO4 shows little isotopic change (kinetic effect during BSR and/or equilibration between sulfur intermediates and the isotopically light water (~-5‰) of the growth medium. Our present batch culture data do not allow us to convincingly isolate the magnitude and the controlling parameters of the kinetic isotope effect for oxygen. However, ongoing growth of mutant bacteria missing enzymes critical in the different steps of BSR may assist in this mission.

  20. Stable Oxygen-18 and Deuterium Isotopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Sascha

    The application of stable Oxygen-18 (18O) and Deuterium (2H) isotopes, as a tracer for fluxes between different compartments of the water cycle was subject of the present PhD-thesis. During a three year period, temporal data from a wide range of water cycle constituents was collected from...... the Skjern River catchment, Denmark. The presented applications focused on studying the isotopic 'input signal' to the hydrosphere in the form of precipitation, the isotopic 'output signal' with its related dynamic processes at a coastal saltwater-freshwater interface (groundwater isotopes) and the temporal...... development within a given lowland headwater catchment (stream water isotopes). Based on our investigations on the precipitation isotopic composition a local meteoric water line (LMWL) was constructed and expressed as: δ2H=7.4 δ18O + 5.36‰. Moreover, we showed that under maritime temperature climate influence...

  1. Oxygen Isotopes in Chondritic Interplanetary Dust: Parent-Bodies and Nebular Oxygen Reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleon, J; McKeegan, K D; Leshin, L

    2006-01-01

    Planetary objects have preserved various amounts of oxygen issued from isotopically different oxygen reservoirs reflecting their origin and physico-chemical history. An 16 O-rich component is preserved in refractory inclusions (CAIs) whereas meteorites matrices are enriched in an 16 O-poor component. The origin of these components is still unclear. The most recent models are based on isotope selective photodissociation of CO in a 16 O-rich nebula/presolr cloud resulting in a 16 O-poor gas in the outer part of the nebula. However because most meteorite components are thought to be formed in the inner 3AU of the solar nebula, the precise isotopic composition of outer solar system components is yet unknown. In that respect, the oxygen isotopic composition of cometary dust is a key to understand the origin of the solar system. The Stardust mission will bring back to the Earth dust samples from comet Wild2, a short period comet from the Jupiter family. A precise determination of the oxygen isotope composition of Wild2 dust grains is essential to decipher the oxygen reservoirs of the outer solar system. However, Stardust samples may be extremely fragmented upon impact in the collector. In addition, interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) collected in the stratosphere are likely to contain comet samples. Therefore, they started to investigate the oxygen isotopic composition of a suite of chondritic interplanetary dust particles that includes IDPs of potential cometary origin using a refined procedure to increase the lateral resolution for the analysis of Stardust grains or IDP subcomponents down to ∼ 3 (micro)m. High precision data for 4 IDPs were previously reported, here they have measured 6 additional IDPs

  2. Major events in Neogene oxygen isotopic records

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennett, J.P.; Hodell, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    Changes in oxygen isotopic ratios of foraminiferal calcite during the cainozoic have been one of the primary tools for investigating the history of Arctic and Antarctic glaciation, although interpretations of the oxygen isotopic record differ markedly. The ambiguity in interpretation results mainly from the partitioning of temperature from ice volume effects in delta 18 O changes. Oxygen isotopic records for the Cainozoic show an increase in delta 18 O values towards the present, reflecting gradual cooling and increased glaciation of the Earth's climate since the late Cretaceous. A variety of core material from the South Atlantic and South-west Pacific oceans are investigated. This composite data represents one of the most complete available with which to evaluate the evolution of glaciation during the Neogene. Expansion of ice shelves in Antarctica undoubtedly accompanied the increased glaciation of the northern hemisphere, since eustatic sea-level lowering would positively reinforce ice growth on Antarctica

  3. Recent results on neutron rich tin isotopes by laser spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Roussière, B; Crawford, J E; Essabaa, S; Fedosseev, V; Geithner, W; Genevey, J; Girod, M; Huber, G; Horn, R; Kappertz, S; Lassen, J; Le Blanc, F; Lee, J K P; Le Scornet, G; Lettry, Jacques; Mishin, V I; Neugart, R; Obert, J; Oms, J; Ouchrif, A; Peru, S; Pinard, J; Ravn, H L; Sauvage, J; Verney, D

    2001-01-01

    Laser spectroscopy measurements have been performed on neutron rich tin isotopes using the COMPLIS experimental setup. The nuclear charge radii of the even-even isotopes from A=108 to 132 are compared to the results of macroscopic and microscopic calculations. The improvements and optimizations needed to perform the isotope shift measurement on $^{134}$Sn are presented.

  4. Oxygen isotopic anomalies in Allende inclusion HAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, T.; Mayeda, T.K.; Clayton, R.N.

    1980-01-01

    The oxygen isotopic composition has been measured on the constituent phases of Allende inclusion HAL, which has unusual mineralogical, chemical, and calcium isotopic compositions. The oxygen in HAL is heterogeneous, with the rim showing more ''normal'' composition and the hibonite core showing large deviation from both the terrestrial material and the usual inclusions. The observed pattern indicates that HAL is a bona fide and more devious member of the rare ''FUN'' family, whose isotopic composition is characterized by correlated nuclear effects and extreme mass fractionation. The data imply that HAL has suffered a large oxygen mass fractionation of 25% 0 per mass unit, followed by exchange with oxygen in a second reservoir. The present experiment supports the identification of two distinct reservoirs from which all refractory inclusions in carbonaceous meteorites derived their oxygen. The required fractionation process seems to operate according to the volatility of various elements and could have been caused by evaporation during a heating event. Nuclear anomalies can be produced in the same heating event if the progenitors of the refractory inclusions were macroscopic aggregates of tiny pre-solar interstellar dust grains and if these grains were destroyed differentially during the evaporation

  5. Oxygen isotope fractionation in uranium oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Yongfei

    1995-01-01

    Thermodynamic oxygen isotope factors for uranium oxides have been calculated by means of the modified increment method. The sequence of 18 O-enrichment in the uranium oxides with respect to the common rock-forming minerals is predicted as follows: spinel 3 < illite. Two sets of self-consistent fractionation factors between the uranium oxides and water and between the uranium oxides and the other minerals have been obtained for 0∼1200 degree C. The theoretical results are applicable to the isotopic geothermometry of uranium ores when pairing with other gangue minerals in hydrothermal uranium deposits

  6. Oxygen isotope exchange on palladium catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kravchuk, L.S.; Beschetvertnaya, T.I.; Novorodskij, V.G.; Novikova, M.G.; Zaretskij, M.V.; Valieva, S.V.

    1983-01-01

    Oxygen heteromolecular isotope exchange on unreduced palladium catalysts, distingushing by metal content is studied. Content of 18 O in gaseous phase is eoual to 46%. Calculations of heteroexchange rates are conducted with decrease of the 18 O in the gaseous phase over solid sample. Method of oxygen thermodesorption has been used to establish that palladium, deposited on γ-Al 2 O 3 during exchange process is in oxidized state; in this case strength of Pd-O bond is determined by content dispersity) of the metal. It is shown that significant increase of exchange rate on the samples with Pd >> 0.5 mass.% content can be induced as by side decomposition reaction of its oxide and corresponding dilution of gaseous mixture by ''light'' oxygen so by possibility of exchange with oxygen of PdO phase

  7. Laser Spectroscopy of Neutron Rich Bismuth Isotopes

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    %IS344 :\\\\ \\\\ The aim of the experiment is to measure the optical isotope shifts and hyperfine structures of bismuth isotopes across the N=126 shell closure in order to extract the change in mean square charge radii ($\\delta\\langle r^{2}\\rangle$) and static moments. These include the first isotones of lead to be measured directly above the shell closure and will provide new information on the systematics of the kink ($\\delta\\langle r^{2}\\rangle)$ seen in the lead isotopic chain. After two very successful runs the programme has been extended to include the neutron deficient isotopes below $^{201}$Bi to study the systematics across the $i_{13/2}$ neutron sub-shell closure at N=118.\\\\ \\\\ During the initial 2 runs (9 shifts) the isotope shifts and hyperfine structures of three new isotopes, $ ^{210,212,213}$Bi and the 9$^{-}$ isomer of $^{210}$Bi have been measured. The accuracy of the previous measurements of $^{205,206,208}$Bi have been greatly improved. The samples of $ ^{208,210,210^{m}}$Bi were prepared by c...

  8. Oxygen isotope ratios of the Icelandic crust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattori, K.; Muehlenbachs, K.

    1982-01-01

    Oxygen isotope ratios of hydrothermally altered basalts from depth of up to approx.3 km are reported from three localities in Iceland: International Research Drilling Project (IRDP) core at Reydarfjordur, eastern Iceland (Tertiary age); drill cuttings from Reykjavik (Plio-Pleistocene age); and Halocene drill cuttings from the active Krafla central volcano. Whole rock samples from these three localities have delta 18 O values averaging +3.9 +- 1.3, +2.4 +- 1.1, and -7.7 +- 2.4%, respectively. The observed values in the deeper samples from Krafla are as low as the values for any rocks previously reported. There seems to be a slight negative gradient in delta 18 O with depth at the former two localities and a more pronounced one at Krafla. Oxygen isotope fractionations between epidote and quartz and those between calcite and fluid suggests that the basalts were altered at temperatures of 300 0 --400 0 C. Low deltaD and delta 18 O of epidote and low delta 34 S of anhydrite indicate that the altering fluids in all three areas originated as meteoric waters and have undergone varied 'oxygen shifts'. Differences in the 18 O shift of the fluids are attributed to differences in hydrothermal systems; low water/rock ratios ( 5) at Krafla. The convective hydrothermal activity, which is probably driven by silicic magma beneath the central volcanoes, has caused strong subsolidus depletion of 18 O in the rocks. The primary-magnetic delta 18 O value of the rocks in the Tertiary IRDP core was about +3.9%, which is lower than that obtained for fresh basalt from other places. Such exceptionally low delta 18 O magmas are common in Iceland and may occur as the result of oxygen isotope exchange with or assimilation of altered rocks that form a thick sequence beneath the island due to isostatic subsidence

  9. Uranium Isotope Compositions of Mid-Proterozoic Organic-rich Mudrocks: Evidence for an Episode of Increased Ocean Oxygenation at ca. 1.36 Ga and Evaluation of the Effect of Post-Depositional Hydrothermal Fluid Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, B.; Yang, S.; Lu, X.; Zhang, F.; Zheng, W.

    2016-12-01

    The U isotope system represents a relatively new paleoredox proxy that can help trace the evolution of global ocean redox chemistry, but has rarely been applied to the Mid-Proterozoic. We report U isotope data for marine black shales of the early Mesoproterozoic Velkerri Formation (Roper Group) and late Paleoproterozoic Wollogorang Formation (Tawallah Group) from the McArthur Basin, Northern Australia. An average authigenic δ238U of 0.13 ± 0.04‰ (1SD; relative to standard CRM145) was obtained for six euxinic shales from a 1 m interval that previously yielded a precise Re-Os depositional age of 1361 ± 21 Ma. After correcting for a U isotope fractionation of 0.60-0.85‰ between seawater and open-ocean euxinic sediments, we infer that coeval global seawater had a δ238U of -0.47‰ to -0.72‰, which is 0.1-0.3‰ lighter than modern seawater (-0.40 ± 0.03‰). A U isotope mass-balance model suggests that anoxic marine environments accounted for 25-50% of the global oceanic U sink at 1.36 Ga, which is 3-7 times greater than today. The model suggests that a significant proportion, potentially even a majority, of the seafloor was not covered by anoxic waters. Hence, we infer that a significant extent of the ocean floor was covered by O2-bearing waters at 1.36 Ga. The O2 concentrations of those waters were not necessarily high, and a large expanse of weakly to mildly oxygenated deep waters is consistent with the U isotope data. Uranium isotope data from a 1 m interval in the lower Velkerri Formation, deposited at 1417 ± 29 Ma based on Re-Os geochronology, yield a greater estimate for the extent of ocean anoxia. Hence, the upper Velkerri Formation may capture a transient episode of increased ocean oxygenation. Previous Re-Os isotope data from black shales of the ca. 1.73 Ga Paleoproterozoic Wollogorang Formation yielded an erroneously young date of 1359 ± 150 Ma because hydrothermal fluids percolated through the Tawallah Group rocks at ca. 1640 Ma. Higher δ238U

  10. Asymptotic giant branch stars as producers of carbon and of neutron-rich isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iben, I. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Carbon stars are thought to be in the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) phase of evolution, alternately burning hydrogen and helium in shells above an electron-degenerate carbon-oxygen (CO) core. The excess of carbon relative to oxygen at the surfaces of these stars is thought to be due to convective dredge-up which occurs following a thermal pulse. During a thermal pulse, carbon and neutron-rich isotopes are made in a convective helium-burning zone. In model stars of large CO core mass, the source of neutrons for producing the neutron-rich isotopes is the 22 Ne(α,n) 25 Mg reaction and the isotopes are produced in the solar system s-process distribution. In models of small core mass, the 13 C(α,n) 16 reaction is thought to be responsible for the release of neutrons, and the resultant distribution of neutron-rich isotopes is expected to vary considerably from one star to the next, with the distribution in isolated instances possibly resembling the solar system distribution of r-process isotopes

  11. In situ oxygen isotope compositions in olivines of different types of cosmic spherules: An assessment of relationships to chondritic particles

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rudraswami, N.G.; ShyamPrasad, M.; Jones, R.H.; Nagashima, K.

    bearing cosmic spherules (Rudraswami et al., 2015b). In addition, some Mg-rich relict olivine grains are very 16O-rich, with 17O ranging from −21.9 to -18.7‰, similar to oxygen isotopic compositions observed in calcium aluminium rich inclusions (CAIs... isotope analyses of the olivine grains are provided in Appendix B and Table 1, respectively. 5    Four scoriaceous spherules namely, AAS62-61-P64, AAS62-9-P43, AAS62-9-P51 and AAS62-9- P54 were identified for oxygen isotope studies (Fig. 1a...

  12. High-spin structure of neutron-rich Dy isotopes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Neutron-rich Dy isotopes; high-spin states; g-factors; cranked HFB theory. ... for 164Dy marking a clear separation in the behaviour as a function of neutron ... cipal x-axis as the cranking axis) in this mass region we have planned to make a sys-.

  13. Fission decay properties of ultra neutron-rich uranium isotopes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    in the chain of neutron-rich uranium isotopes is examined here. The neutron ... mean field theory, this nucleus is shown to undergo exotic decay mode of thermal neu- .... For 250U with a fission barrier of 4.3 MeV [5], we obtain the value of.

  14. Oxygen isotopic composition of relict olivine grains in cosmic spherules: Links to chondrules from carbonaceous chondrites

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rudraswami, N.G.; ShyamPrasad, M.; Nagashima, K.; Jones, R.H.

    aluminium rich inclusions (CAIs), amoeboid olivine aggregates (AOAs), and some porphyritic chondrules from carbonaceous chondrites. These grains appear to have recorded the initial oxygen isotopic composition of the inner solar nebula. Three olivine... to the major components of meteorites such as chondrules and calcium-aluminium-rich inclusions (CAIs). CAIs, the first solar system objects in the solar nebula, are formed by condensation of refractory minerals at high temperatures. They are 16O...

  15. Mineralogy and Oxygen Isotope Compositions of an Unusual Hibonite-Perovskite Refractory Inclusion from Allende

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, L. P.; Snead, C.; Rahman, Z.; McKeegan, K. D.

    2012-01-01

    Hibonite-rich Ca- and Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) are among the earliest formed solids that condensed in the early nebula. We discovered an unusual refractory inclusion from the Allende CV3 chondrite (SHAL) containing an approx 500 micron long single crystal of hibonite and co-existing coarse-grained perovskite. The mineralogy and petrography of SHAL show strong similarities to some FUN inclusions, especially HAL. Here we report on the mineralogy, petrography, mineral chemistry and oxygen isotopic compositions in SHAL.

  16. Phosphorus Chemistry in Oxygen Rich Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal, Jacob; Schmidt, Deborah; Anderson, Julie; Ziurys, Lucy M.

    2017-06-01

    Observations of PO and PN have been carried out at the Arizona Radio Observatory at 1, 2, and 3 mm. Multiple transitions of PO and PN have been detected towards the O-rich AGB stars TX Cam and RCas. Data obtained toward supergiant stars VY Canis Majoris and NML Cyg have also been analyzed. Abundances were obtained for these molecules in all four objects using the radiative transfer code ESCAPADE, which is suitable for symmetric and asymmetric stellar outflows. The abundances of PN and PO were found to be in the range 10^{-8} - 10^{-7} relative to H_{2}. While PN appears to be a parent molecule formed by LTE chemistry near the stellar photosphere, PO appears to be created further out from the star at r > 400 R_*.

  17. Shape transition in the neutron rich sodium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campi, X.; Flocard, H.; Kerman, A.K.; Koonin, S.; Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge

    1975-06-01

    Mass spectrometer measurements of the neutron rich sodium isotopes show a sudden increase at 31 Na in the values of the two neutron separation energies. The spherical shell model naturally predicts a sudden decrease at 32 Na after the N=20 shell closure. It is proposed that the explanation for this disagreement lies in the fact that sodium isotopes in this mass region are strongly deformed due to the filling of negative parity orbitals from the 1fsub(7/2) shell. Hartree-Fock calculations are presented in support of this conjecture [fr

  18. Isotopic Hg in an Allende carbon-rich residue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, G. W., Jr.; Jovanovic, S.

    1990-01-01

    A carbon-rich residue from Allende subjected to stepwise heating yielded two isotopically resolvable types of Hg: one with an (Hg-196)/(Hg-202) concentration ratio the same as terrestrial (monitor) Hg; the other enriched in Hg-196 relative to Hg-202 by about 60 percent. Hg with the 202 isotope enriched relative to 196, as is found in bulk Allende, was not observed. Whether the result of mass fractionation or nucleosynthesis, the distinct types of Hg entered different carrier phases and were not thermally mobilized since the accretion of the Allende parent body.

  19. Isotopic Hg in an Allende carbon-rich residue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, G.W. Jr.; Jovanovic, S.

    1990-01-01

    A carbon-rich residue from Allende subjected to stepwise heating yielded two isotopically resolvable types of Hg: one with an (Hg-196)/(Hg-202) concentration ratio the same as terrestrial (monitor) Hg; the other enriched in Hg-196 relative to Hg-202 by about 60 percent. Hg with the 202 isotope enriched relative to 196, as is found in bulk Allende, was not observed. Whether the result of mass fractionation or nucleosynthesis, the distinct types of Hg entered different carrier phases and were not thermally mobilized since the accretion of the Allende parent body. 9 refs

  20. Level structures of neutron-rich Xe isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, I.; Lister, C.J.; Morss, L.R. [and others

    1995-08-01

    The level structures of neutron-rich Xe isotopes were determined by observing prompt gamma-ray coincidences in {sup 248}Cm fission fragments. A 5-mg {sup 248}Cm, in the form of {sup 248}Cm-KCl pellet, was placed inside Eurogam array which consisted of 45 Compton-suppressed Ge detectors and 5 Low-Energy Photon Spectrometers. Transitions in Xe isotopes were identified by the appearance of new peaks in the {gamma}-ray spectra obtained by gating on the gamma peaks of the complementary Mo fragments.

  1. Neutron-rich isotopes of the lightest elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oganesyan, Yu.Ts.; Penionzhkevich, Yu.Eh.; Kalpakchieva, R.

    1989-01-01

    A review is presented of the experimental investigations on the stability of very neutron-rich light nuclei carried out at the JINR Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions. Results on mass excess measurements are reported for 4 H, 5 H, 6 H, 7 H and for the superheavy helium isotope 9 He. Some results from the joint JINR-Ganil experiment on the search for and study of new neutron-rich light nuclei are also given. Analyzed are new possibilities for the investigation of multineutron decay of light nuclei. 14 refs.; 10 figs

  2. Decay properties of some neutron-rich praseodymium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skarnemark, G.; Aronsson, P.O.; Stender, E.; Trautmann, N.; Kaffrell, N.; Bjoernstad, T.; Kvale, E.; Skarestad, M.

    1976-01-01

    Neutron-rich Pr isotopes produced in the thermal neutron-induced fission of 235 U have been investigated by means of γ-γ coincidence experiments. The nuclides have been separated from the fission product mixture, using the fast chemical separation system SISAK in connection with a gas jet recoil transport system. The results include assignments of several new γ-ray energies and partial decay schemes for 147 Pr, 148 Pr, 149 Pr and 150 Pr. (orig.) [de

  3. Evaporation Induced Oxygen Isotope Fractionation in Impact Ejecta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macris, C. A.; Young, E. D.; Kohl, I. E.; zur Loye, T. E.

    2017-12-01

    Tektites are natural glasses formed as quenched impact melt ejecta. Because they experienced extreme heating while entrained in a hot impact vapor plume, tektites allow insight into the nature of these ephemeral events, which play a critical role in planetary accretion and evolution. During tektite formation, the chemical and isotopic composition of parent materials may be modified by (1) vapor/liquid fractionation at high T in the plume, (2) incorporation of meteoric water at the target site, (3) isotope exchange with atmospheric oxygen (if present), or some combination of the three. Trends from O isotope studies reveal a dichotomy: some tektite δ18O values are 4.0-4.5‰ lower than their protoliths (Luft et al. 1987; Taylor & Epstein 1962), opposite in direction to a vaporization induced fractionation; increases in δ18O with decreasing SiO2 in tektites (Taylor & Epstein 1969) is consistent with vapor fractionation. Using an aerodynamic levitation laser furnace (e.g. Macris et al. 2016), we can experimentally determine the contributions of processes (1), (2) and (3) above to tektite compositions. We conducted a series of evaporation experiments to test process (1) using powdered tektite fused into 2 mm spheres and heated to 2423-2473 K for 50-90 s while levitated in Ar in the furnace. Mass losses were from 23 to 26%, reflecting evaporation of Si and O from the melt. The starting tektite had a δ18O value of 10.06‰ (±0.01 2se) and the residues ranged from 13.136‰ (±0.006) for the least evaporated residue to 14.30‰ (±0.02) for the most evaporated (measured by laser fluorination). The increase in δ18O with increasing mass loss is consistent with Rayleigh fractionation during evaporation, supporting the idea that O isotopes are fractionated due to vaporization at high T in an impact plume. Because atmospheric O2 and water each have distinctive Δ17O values, we should be able to use departures from our measured three-isotope fractionation law to evaluate

  4. The transport of oxygen isotopes in hydrothermal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKibbin, R.; Absar, A.; Blattner, P.

    1986-01-01

    As groundwater passes through porous rocks, exchange of oxygen between the fluid and the solid matrix causes a change in the oxygen isotope concentrations in both water and rock. If the rate at which the exchange takes place can be estimated (as a function of the isotope concentrations and temperature) then the time taken for a rock/water system to come to equilibrium with respect to isotope concentration might be calculated. In this paper, the equation for isotope transport is derived using conservation laws, and a simple equation to describe the rate of isotope exchange is proposed. These are combined with the equations for fluid flow in a porous medium, to produce a general set of equations describing isotope transport in a hydrothermal system. These equations are solved numerically, using typical parameters, for the one-dimensional case. Oxygen isotope data from the basement rocks underlying Kawerau geothermal field are modelled. The results indicate that the time taken for exchange of 18 O to present-day values is less than the postulated age of hydrothermal alteration in that field. This suggests that, although controlled by similar parameters, oxygen isotope exchange, in felsic rocks at least, is much faster than hydrothermal alteration. This conclusion is consistent with the petrographic observations from the Kawerau system as well as other geothermal fields

  5. A latitudinal study of oxygen isotopes within horsehair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, E.; Bronk Ramsey, C.; McConnell, J. R.

    2016-12-01

    This study aims to explore the hypothesis that 'if oxygen isotope ratios deplete with decreasing temperature then a study of oxygen isotope ratios within horsehair from Oxfordshire to Iceland will show a latitudinal depletion gradient'. By looking at oxygen isotope values at different geographical positions, we can track the relationship with latitude and with different regional climate features. This will provide a firmer understanding of how to compare climate records from different locations. Additionally, a comparison of the horse breeds from this study to those analysed within previous studies will create an even better understanding of the intra-species variation within the δ18O values of horsehair. A total of 24 horses were sampled on the 7th March from Thordale Stud in Shetland, the Icelandic Food And Veterinary Authority in Iceland, the Exmoor Pony Centre in Exmoor and the Pigeon House Equestrian Centre in Oxfordshire. By starting the sampling process from the most recent growth at the follicle, the sampling date becomes a chronological marker, temporally fixing the first sample within a sequential set of data points extending for one year or longer, depending on the length of each individual hair. The samples were analysed for oxygen isotope values using an IRMS coupled within a Sercon HTEA. Preliminary results show a latitudinal gradient is evident on comparison between the locations, consistent with the findings of Darling and Talbot's study of fresh water isotopes in the British Isles (2003). These results support the hypothesis, showing that a study of oxygen isotope ratios within horse hair from Oxfordshire to Iceland showing a latitudinal depletion gradient, consistent with a depletion of oxygen isotope ratios due to decreasing temperatures. Darling, W. and Talbot, J. (2003). The O and H stable isotope composition of freshwaters in the British Isles. 1. Rainfall. Hydrol. Earth System Science, 7(2), pp.163-181.

  6. Oxygen isotope variations at the margin of a CAI records circulation within the solar nebula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Justin I; Hutcheon, Ian D; Simon, Steven B; Matzel, Jennifer E P; Ramon, Erick C; Weber, Peter K; Grossman, Lawrence; DePaolo, Donald J

    2011-03-04

    Micrometer-scale analyses of a calcium-, aluminum-rich inclusion (CAI) and the characteristic mineral bands mantling the CAI reveal that the outer parts of this primitive object have a large range of oxygen isotope compositions. The variations are systematic; the relative abundance of (16)O first decreases toward the CAI margin, approaching a planetary-like isotopic composition, then shifts to extremely (16)O-rich compositions through the surrounding rim. The variability implies that CAIs probably formed from several oxygen reservoirs. The observations support early and short-lived fluctuations of the environment in which CAIs formed, either because of transport of the CAIs themselves to distinct regions of the solar nebula or because of varying gas composition near the proto-Sun.

  7. The molecular physics of photolytic fractionation of sulfur and oxygen isotopes in planetary atmospheres (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, M. S.; Schmidt, J. A.; Hattori, S.; Danielache, S.; Meusinger, C.; Schinke, R.; Ueno, Y.; Nanbu, S.; Kjaergaard, H. G.; Yoshida, N.

    2013-12-01

    Atmospheric photochemistry is able to produce large mass independent anomalies in atmospheric trace gases that can be found in geological and cryospheric records. This talk will present theoretical and experimental investigations of the molecular mechanisms producing photolytic fractionation of isotopes with special attention to sulfur and oxygen. The zero point vibrational energy (ZPE) shift and reflection principle theories are starting points for estimating isotopic fractionation, but these models ignore effects arising from isotope-dependent changes in couplings between surfaces, excited state dynamics, line densities and hot band populations. The isotope-dependent absorption spectra of the isotopologues of HCl, N2O, OCS, CO2 and SO2 have been examined in a series of papers and these results are compared with experiment and ZPE/reflection principle models. Isotopic fractionation in planetary atmospheres has many interesting applications. The UV absorption of CO2 is the basis of photochemistry in the CO2-rich atmospheres of the ancient Earth, and of Mars and Venus. For the first time we present accurate temperature and isotope dependent CO2 absorption cross sections with important implications for photolysis rates of SO2 and H2O, and the production of a mass independent anomaly in the Ox reservoir. Experimental and theoretical results for OCS have implications for the modern stratospheric sulfur budget. The absorption bands of SO2 are complex with rich structure producing isotopic fractionation in photolysis and photoexcitation.

  8. Radiochemical search for neutron-rich isotopes of element 107

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaedel, M.

    1987-01-01

    Recent mass calculations have indicated that there is a region of deformed nuclei around neutron number N=162 that is especially stable against spontaneous fission. Barrier heights of about 5 MeV for Z = 107 nuclides can be extrapolated. To search for new, neutron-rich isotopes of element 107 in radiochemical experiments with 254 Es as a target an on-line chemical separation of element 107 (EKA-Rhenium), especially from the actinide elements is needed. An on-line gas-phase chemistry was developed with the homolog Re based on the volatility of the oxide which is transported in an O 2 containing atmosphere along a temperature gradient in a quartz tube and is condensed onto a thin Ta coated Ni-foil. The authors applied this technique in two series of experiments with their rotating wheel on-line gas-phase chemistry apparatus at the 88-inch cyclotron where they irradiated 254 Es as a target with 93 MeV and 96 MeV 16 O ions to search for 266 107. The assignment of the observed alpha events between 8 and 9 MeV to possibly (1) non actinide contaminants like 212 Po, (2) known isotopes of heavy elements like 261 105, or (3) a new isotope will be discussed

  9. Unexpectedly large charge radii of neutron-rich calcium isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia Ruiz, R F; Blaum, K; Ekström, A; Frömmgen, N; Hagen, G; Hammen, M; Hebeler, K; Holt, J D; Jansen, G R; Kowalska, M; Kreim, K; Nazarewicz, W; Neugart, R; Neyens, G; Nörtershäuser, W; Papenbrock, T; Papuga, J; Schwenk, A; Simonis, J; Wendt, K A; Yordanov, D T

    2016-01-01

    Despite being a complex many-body system, the atomic nucleus exhibits simple structures for certain ‘magic’ numbers of protons and neutrons. The calcium chain in particular is both unique and puzzling: evidence of doubly magic features are known in 40,48Ca, and recently suggested in two radioactive isotopes, 52,54Ca. Although many properties of experimentally known calcium isotopes have been successfully described by nuclear theory, it is still a challenge to predict the evolution of their charge radii. Here we present the first measurements of the charge radii of 49,51,52Ca, obtained from laser spectroscopy experiments at ISOLDE, CERN. The experimental results are complemented by state-of-the-art theoretical calculations. The large and unexpected increase of the size of the neutron-rich calcium isotopes beyond N = 28 challenges the doubly magic nature of 52Ca and opens new intriguing questions on the evolution of nuclear sizes away from stability, which are of importance for our understanding of neutron-...

  10. Expanding the isotopic toolbox: Applications of hydrogen and oxygen stable isotope ratios to food web studies

    OpenAIRE

    Hannah B Vander Zanden; David X Soto; Gabriel J Bowen; Keith A Hobson; Keith A Hobson

    2016-01-01

    The measurement of stable carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) isotopes in tissues of organisms has formed the foundation of isotopic food web reconstructions, as these values directly reflect assimilated diet. In contrast, stable hydrogen (δ2H) and oxygen (δ18O) isotope measurements have typically been reserved for studies of migratory origin and paleoclimate reconstruction based on systematic relationships between organismal tissue and local environmental water. Recently, innovative applicat...

  11. Expanding the Isotopic Toolbox: Applications of Hydrogen and Oxygen Stable Isotope Ratios to Food Web Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Vander Zanden, Hannah B.; Soto, David X.; Bowen, Gabriel J.; Hobson, Keith A.

    2016-01-01

    The measurement of stable carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) isotopes in tissues of organisms has formed the foundation of isotopic food web reconstructions, as these values directly reflect assimilated diet. In contrast, stable hydrogen (δ2H) and oxygen (δ18O) isotope measurements have typically been reserved for studies of migratory origin and paleoclimate reconstruction based on systematic relationships between organismal tissue and local environmental water. Recently, innovative applicatio...

  12. Rate of oxygen isotope exchange between selenate and water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Masanori; Poulson, Simon R

    2012-04-17

    The rate of oxygen isotope exchange between selenate and water was investigated at conditions of 10 to 80 °C and pH -0.6 to 4.4. Oxygen isotope exchange proceeds as a first-order reaction, and the exchange rate is strongly affected by reaction temperature and pH, with increased rates of isotope exchange at higher temperature and lower pH. Selenate speciation (HSeO(4)(-) vs SeO(4)(2-)) also has a significant effect on the rate of isotope exchange. The half-life for isotope exchange at example natural conditions (25 °C and pH 7) is estimated to be significantly in excess of 10(6) years. The very slow rate of oxygen isotope exchange between selenate and water under most environmental conditions demonstrates that selenate-δ(18)O signatures produced by biogeochemical processes will be preserved and hence that it will be possible to use the value of selenate-δ(18)O to investigate the biogeochemical behavior of selenate, in an analogous fashion to the use of sulfate-δ(18)O to study the biogeochemical behavior of sulfate.

  13. CARBON AND OXYGEN ISOTOPIC RATIOS FOR NEARBY MIRAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinkle, Kenneth H. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory P.O. Box 26732, Tucson, AZ 85726 (United States); Lebzelter, Thomas [Department of Astrophysics, University of Vienna Türkenschanzstrasse 17, A-1180 Vienna (Austria); Straniero, Oscar, E-mail: khinkle@noao.edu, E-mail: thomas.lebzelter@univie.ac.at, E-mail: straniero@oa-teramo.inaf.it [INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Collurania I-64100 Teramo (Italy)

    2016-07-01

    Carbon and oxygen isotopic ratios are reported for a sample of 46 Mira and SRa-type variable asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars. Vibration–rotation first and second-overtone CO lines in 1.5–2.5 μ m spectra were measured to derive isotopic ratios for {sup 12}C/{sup 13}C, {sup 16}O/{sup 17}O, and {sup 16}O/{sup 18}O. Comparisons with previous measurements for individual stars and with various samples of evolved stars, as available in the extant literature, are discussed. Models for solar composition AGB stars of different initial masses are used to interpret our results. We find that the majority of M-stars have main sequence masses ≤2 M {sub ⊙} and have not experienced sizable third dredge-up (TDU) episodes. The progenitors of the four S-type stars in our sample are slightly more massive. Of the six C-stars in the sample three have clear evidence relating their origin to the occurrence of TDU. Comparisons with O-rich presolar grains from AGB stars that lived before the formation of the solar system reveal variations in the interstellar medium chemical composition. The present generation of low-mass AGB stars, as represented by our sample of long period variables (LPVs), shows a large spread of {sup 16}O/{sup 17}O ratios, similar to that of group 1 presolar grains and in agreement with theoretical expectations for the composition of mass 1.2–2 M {sub ⊙} stars after the first dredge-up. In contrast, the {sup 16}O/{sup 18}O ratios of present-day LPVs are definitely smaller than those of group 1 grains. This is most probably a consequence of the the decrease with time of the {sup 16}O/{sup 18}O ratio in the interstellar medium due to the chemical evolution of the Milky Way. One star in our sample has an O composition similar to that of group 2 presolar grains originating in an AGB star undergoing extra-mixing. This may indicate that the extra-mixing process is hampered at high metallicity, or, equivalently, favored at low metallicity. Similarly to O-rich

  14. A Quantitative, Time-Dependent Model of Oxygen Isotopes in the Solar Nebula: Step one

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuth, J. A.; Paquette, J. A.; Farquhar, A.; Johnson, N. M.

    2011-01-01

    The remarkable discovery that oxygen isotopes in primitive meteorites were fractionated along a line of slope I rather than along the typical slope 0,52 terrestrial fractionation line occurred almost 40 years ago, However, a satisfactory, quantitative explanation for this observation has yet to be found, though many different explanations have been proposed, The first of these explanations proposed that the observed line represented the final product produced by mixing molecular cloud dust with a nucleosynthetic component, rich in O-16, possibly resulting from a nearby supernova explosion, Donald Clayton suggested that Galactic Chemical Evolution would gradually change the oxygen isotopic composition of the interstellar grain population by steadily producing O-16 in supernovae, then producing the heavier isotopes as secondary products in lower mass stars, Thiemens and collaborators proposed a chemical mechanism that relied on the availability of additional active rotational and vibrational states in otherwise-symmetric molecules, such as CO2, O3 or SiO2, containing two different oxygen isotopes and a second, photochemical process that suggested that differential photochemical dissociation processes could fractionate oxygen , This second line of research has been pursued by several groups, though none of the current models is quantitative,

  15. Weakly bound structures in neutron rich Si isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, D.; Saxena, G.; Yadav, H.L.

    2009-01-01

    Production of radioactive beams have facilitated the nuclear structure studies away from the line of β-stability, especially for the neutron rich drip line nuclei. Theoretical investigations of these nuclei have been carried out by using various approaches viz. few body model or clusters, shell model and mean field theories, both nonrelativistic as well as relativistic mean field (RMF). The advantage of the RMF approach, however, is that in this treatment the spin-orbit interaction is included in a natural way. This is especially advantageous for the description of drip-line nuclei for which the spin-orbit interaction plays an important role. In this communication we report briefly the results of our calculations for the Si isotopes carried out within the framework of RMF + BCS approach

  16. The electric dipole response of neutron rich tin isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horvat, Andrea; Aumann, Thomas; Rossi, Dominic; Schindler, Fabia [Institut fuer Kernphysik, TU Darmstadt (Germany); Boretzky, Konstanze [GSI Helmholzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Johansen, Jacob [Aarhus University (Denmark); Schrock, Philipp [The University of Tokyo (Japan); Collaboration: R3B-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    Studies of the dipole response in medium heavy and heavy neutron rich nuclei reveal valuable information about the isospin dependence of the nuclear equation of state. Therefore an experimental campaign investigating both the electric dipole response via Coulomb excitation and neutron removal along the tin isotope chain ({sup 124-134}Sn) has been carried out at the R3B (Reactions with Relativistic Radioactive Beams) setup at GSI (Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung) for which the analysis is ongoing. The E1 response was induced via relativistic Coulomb scattering by a lead target in inverse kinematics, and calls for a kinematically complete determination of all reaction products in order to reconstruct the excitation energy by means of the invariant mass method. The goal is to obtain the Coulomb excitation cross section up to the adiabatic cut-off energy, covering the giant dipole resonance (GDR) range.

  17. Delayed Particle Study of Neutron Rich Lithium Isotopes

    CERN Multimedia

    Marechal, F; Perrot, F

    2002-01-01

    We propose to make a systematic complete coincidence study of $\\beta$-delayed particles from the decay of neutron-rich lithium isotopes. The lithium isotopes with A=9,10,11 have proven to contain a vast information on nuclear structure and especially on the formation of halo nuclei. A mapping of the $\\beta$-strength at high energies in the daughter nucleus will make possible a detailed test of our understanding of their structure. An essential step is the comparison of $\\beta$-strength patterns in $^{11}$Li and the core nucleus $^{9}$Li, another is the full characterization of the break-up processes following the $\\beta$-decay. To enable such a measurement of the full decay process we will use a highly segmented detection system where energy and emission angles of both charged and neutral particles are detected in coincidence and with high efficiency and accuracy. We ask for a total of 30 shifts (21 shifts for $^{11}$Li, 9 shifts $^{9}$Li adding 5 shifts for setting up with stable beam) using a Ta-foil target...

  18. CAN GALACTIC CHEMICAL EVOLUTION EXPLAIN THE OXYGEN ISOTOPIC VARIATIONS IN THE SOLAR SYSTEM?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lugaro, Maria; Liffman, Kurt; Ireland, Trevor R.; Maddison, Sarah T.

    2012-01-01

    A number of objects in primitive meteorites have oxygen isotopic compositions that place them on a distinct, mass-independent fractionation line with a slope of one on a three-isotope plot. The most popular model for describing how this fractionation arose assumes that CO self-shielding produced 16 O-rich CO and 16 O-poor H 2 O, where the H 2 O subsequently combined with interstellar dust to form relatively 16 O-poor solids within the solar nebula. Another model for creating the different reservoirs of 16 O-rich gas and 16 O-poor solids suggests that these reservoirs were produced by Galactic chemical evolution (GCE) if the solar system dust component was somewhat younger than the gas component and both components were lying on the line of slope one in the O three-isotope plot. We argue that GCE is not the cause of mass-independent fractionation of the oxygen isotopes in the solar system. The GCE scenario is in contradiction with observations of the 18 O/ 17 O ratios in nearby molecular clouds and young stellar objects. It is very unlikely for GCE to produce a line of slope one when considering the effect of incomplete mixing of stellar ejecta in the interstellar medium. Furthermore, the assumption that the solar system dust was younger than the gas requires unusual timescales or the existence of an important stardust component that is not theoretically expected to occur nor has been identified to date.

  19. Beyond the neutron drip line: The unbound oxygen isotopes 25O and 26O

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caesar, C.; Simonis, J.; Adachi, T.

    2013-01-01

    The very neutron-rich oxygen isotopes 25O and 26O are investigated experimentally and theoretically. The unbound states are populated in an experiment performed at the R3B-LAND setup at GSI via proton-knockout reactions from 26F and 27F at relativistic energies around 442 and 414 MeV/nucleon, res...

  20. Spectroscopy of neutron-rich isotopes of nickel and iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girod, M.; Dessagne, P.; Bernas, M.; Langevin, M.; Pougheon, F.; Roussel, P.

    1987-01-01

    Spectroscopy of neutron rich isotopes of 67 Ni, 68 Ni and 62 Fe is studied using the quasi-elastic transfer reactions ( 14 C, 16 O) and ( 14 C, 17 O) on mass separated targets of 70 Zn and of 64 Ni. The structure of these new nuclei is investigated through the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (HFB) calculations, using the D1SA interaction. Inertial parameters are calculated in the cranking approximation. Collective excited states are obtained consistently by solving the Bohr Hamiltonian. Based on these results, quantum numbers are tentatively assigned to the observed states and angular distributions, measured and calculated from the DWBA, are used to check this assignment. The spectroscopy of more neutron rich nuclei, yet unknown, is anticipated. A sharper test of wave functions is provided by the monopole operator of the O 2 + → O 1 + transition in 68 Ni, which have been deduced from the halflife measurement performed in delayed coincidence experiments. An impressive agreement is obtained between the measured halflife and its value calculated using complete HFB wave functions

  1. Carbon and oxygen isotope compositions of the carbonate facies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Vindhyan sedimentary succession in central India spans a wide time bracket from the Paleopro- terozoic to the Neoproterozoic period.Chronostratigraphic significance of stable carbon and oxygen isotope ratios of the carbonate phase in Vindhyan sediments has been discussed in some recent studies.However,the ...

  2. Nitrogen and Oxygen Isotopic Studies of the Marine Nitrogen Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casciotti, Karen L

    2016-01-01

    The marine nitrogen cycle is a complex web of microbially mediated reactions that control the inventory, distribution, and speciation of nitrogen in the marine environment. Because nitrogen is a major nutrient that is required by all life, its availability can control biological productivity and ecosystem structure in both surface and deep-ocean communities. Stable isotopes of nitrogen and oxygen in nitrate and nitrite have provided new insights into the rates and distributions of marine nitrogen cycle processes, especially when analyzed in combination with numerical simulations of ocean circulation and biogeochemistry. This review highlights the insights gained from dual-isotope studies applied at regional to global scales and their incorporation into oceanic biogeochemical models. These studies represent significant new advances in the use of isotopic measurements to understand the modern nitrogen cycle, with implications for the study of past ocean productivity, oxygenation, and nutrient status.

  3. Possibilities of production of neutron-rich Md isotopes in multi-nucleon transfer reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mun, Myeong-Hwan; Lee, Young-Ouk [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institue, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Adamian, G.G.; Antonenko, N.V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-15

    The possibilities of production of yet unknown neutron-rich isotopes of Md are explored in several multi-nucleon transfer reactions with actinide targets and stable and radioactive beams. The projectile-target combinations and bombarding energies are suggested to produce new neutron-rich isotopes of Md in future experiments. (orig.)

  4. Oxygen isotope analysis of plant water without extraction procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gan, K.S.; Wong, S.C.; Farquhar, G.D.; Yong, J.W.H.

    2001-01-01

    Isotopic analyses of plant water (mainly xylem, phloem and leaf water) are gaming importance as the isotopic signals reflect plant-environment interactions, affect the oxygen isotopic composition of atmospheric O 2 and CO 2 and are eventually incorporated into plant organic matter. Conventionally, such isotopic measurements require a time-consuming process of isolating the plant water by azeotropic distillation or vacuum extraction, which would not complement the speed of isotope analysis provided by continuous-flow IRMS (Isotope-Ratio Mass Spectrometry), especially when large data sets are needed for statistical calculations in biological studies. Further, a substantial amount of plant material is needed for water extraction and leaf samples would invariably include unenriched water from the fine veins. To measure sub-microlitre amount of leaf mesophyll water, a new approach is undertaken where a small disc of fresh leaf is cut using a specially designed leaf punch, and pyrolysed directly in an IRMS. By comparing with results from pyrolysis of the dry matter of the same leaf, the 18 O content of leaf water can be determined without extraction from fresh leaves. This method is validated using a range of cellulose-water mixtures to simulate the constituents of fresh leaf. Cotton leaf water δ 18 O obtained from both methods of fresh leaf pyrolysis and azeotropic distillation will be compared. The pyrolysis technique provides a robust approach to measure the isotopic content of water or any volatile present in a homogeneous solution or solid hydrous substance

  5. CO self-shielding as the origin of oxygen isotope anomalies in the early solar nebula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, J R; Young, E D

    2005-05-19

    The abundances of oxygen isotopes in the most refractory mineral phases (calcium-aluminium-rich inclusions, CAIs) in meteorites have hitherto defied explanation. Most processes fractionate isotopes by nuclear mass; that is, 18O is twice as fractionated as 17O, relative to 16O. In CAIs 17O and 18O are nearly equally fractionated, implying a fundamentally different mechanism. The CAI data were originally interpreted as evidence for supernova input of pure 16O into the solar nebula, but the lack of a similar isotope trend in other elements argues against this explanation. A symmetry-dependent fractionation mechanism may have occurred in the inner solar nebula, but experimental evidence is lacking. Isotope-selective photodissociation of CO in the innermost solar nebula might explain the CAI data, but the high temperatures in this region would have rapidly erased the signature. Here we report time-dependent calculations of CO photodissociation in the cooler surface region of a turbulent nebula. If the surface were irradiated by a far-ultraviolet flux approximately 10(3) times that of the local interstellar medium (for example, owing to an O or B star within approximately 1 pc of the protosun), then substantial fractionation of the oxygen isotopes was possible on a timescale of approximately 10(5) years. We predict that similarly irradiated protoplanetary disks will have H2O enriched in 17O and 18O by several tens of per cent relative to CO.

  6. Hyperfine structure and isotope shift of the neutron-rich barium isotopes 139-146Ba and 148Ba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wendt, K.; Ahmad, S.A.; Klempt, W.; Neugart, R.; Otten, E.W.

    1988-01-01

    The hyperfine structure and isotope shift in the 6s 2 S 1/2 -6p 2 P 3/2 line of Ba II (455.4 nm) have been measured by collinear fast-beam laser spectroscopy for the neutron-rich isotopes 139-146 Ba and 148 Ba. Nuclear moments and mean square charge radii of these isotopes have been recalculated. The isotope shift of the isotope 148 Ba (T 1/2 = 0.64 s) could be studied for the first time, yielding δ 2 > 138,148 = 1.245(3) fm 2 . (orig.)

  7. How the oxygen isotope ratio of rain water influences the isotope ratio of chicken eggshell carbonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Gregory; Grimes, Stephen

    2015-04-01

    The stable oxygen isotope ratio of chicken eggshell carbonate was analysed from chicken eggs laid under free range, and organic farming regimes from across the UK. The eggshell carbonate oxygen isotope data shows a clear depletion in delta18O distribution from the southwest to the northeast. Although consistently offset by around 1 permil, the same isotopic distribution as that seen in eggshell carbonate is observed in the delta18O ratio of rainfall and groundwater from across the UK. This distribution is related to the Rayleigh distillation of rainfall driven by westerly winds across the UK landmass. The clear relationship observed between eggshell delta18O values and that of rainwater presumably reflects the nature of free range chickens which must be drinking locally derived rainwater and supplementing their diet and water intake with locally derived food. These results suggest that the oxygen isotope value of chicken eggshells can be used as a forensic tool to identify the locality that free range and organic eggs were laid within the UK. Furthermore, if suitable material is preserved in the archaeological and geological record then such a relationship can potentially be used to establish the oxygen isotope value of rainwater from which ancient and / or ancestral birds lived.

  8. Oxygen isotopic signature of CO2 from combustion processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. A. Brand

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available For a comprehensive understanding of the global carbon cycle precise knowledge of all processes is necessary. Stable isotope (13C and 18O abundances provide information for the qualification and the quantification of the diverse source and sink processes. This study focuses on the δ18O signature of CO2 from combustion processes, which are widely present both naturally (wild fires, and human induced (fossil fuel combustion, biomass burning in the carbon cycle. All these combustion processes use atmospheric oxygen, of which the isotopic signature is assumed to be constant with time throughout the whole atmosphere. The combustion is generally presumed to take place at high temperatures, thus minimizing isotopic fractionation. Therefore it is generally supposed that the 18O signature of the produced CO2 is equal to that of the atmospheric oxygen. This study, however, reveals that the situation is much more complicated and that important fractionation effects do occur. From laboratory studies fractionation effects on the order of up to 26%permil; became obvious in the derived CO2 from combustion of different kinds of material, a clear differentiation of about 7‰ was also found in car exhausts which were sampled directly under ambient atmospheric conditions. We investigated a wide range of materials (both different raw materials and similar materials with different inherent 18O signature, sample geometries (e.g. texture and surface-volume ratios and combustion circumstances. We found that the main factor influencing the specific isotopic signatures of the combustion-derived CO2 and of the concomitantly released oxygen-containing side products, is the case-specific rate of combustion. This points firmly into the direction of (diffusive transport of oxygen to the reaction zone as the cause of the isotope fractionation. The original total 18O signature of the material appeared to have little influence, however, a contribution of specific bio

  9. Singlet oxygen reactivity in water-rich solvent mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Sousa

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The 3-methylindole (3MI oxygenation sensitized by psoralen (PSO has been investigated in 100%, 20% and 5% O2-saturated water/dioxane (H2O/Dx mixtures. The lowering of the ¹O2* chemical rate when water (k chem∆3MI = 1.4 × 109 M-1 s-1 is replaced by deuterated water (k chem∆3MI = 1.9 × 108 M-1 s-1 suggests that hydrogen abstraction is involved in the rate determining step. A high dependence of the chemical rate constant on water concentration in H2O/Dx mixtures was found showing that water molecules are absolutely essential for the success of the 3MI substrate oxidation by ¹O2* in water-rich solvent mixtures.

  10. Oxygen Isotope Composition of Nitrate Produced by Freshwater Nitrification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boshers, D.; Granger, J.; Bohlke, J. K.

    2016-12-01

    Measurements of the naturally occurring nitrogen and oxygen stable isotope ratios of nitrate (NO3-), δ15N and δ18O, can be used to determine the source, dispersal, and fate of natural and contaminant NO3- in aquatic environments. To this end, it is necessary to know the extent to which NO3- isotopologues are modified by biological reactions, as heavy and light isotopes have different reaction rates. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of the δ18O of ambient water on the isotope composition of NO3- produced during nitrification, the biological oxidation of ammonium (NH4+) to nitrite (NO2-) and then NO3-, which is poorly constrained in freshwater systems. To determine the δ18O of NO3- produced by nitrification in freshwater, we collected water from a stream in New England, which we amended with NH4+ and with increments of 18O-enriched water, to monitor the isotope composition of NO3- produced by a natural consortium of nitrifiers. Added NH4+ was completely oxidized to NO3- over 26 days. The final δ18O of nitrified NO3- revealed sensitivity to the δ18O of water mediated by (a) isotopic equilibration between water and NO2- and (b) kinetic isotope fractionation during O-atom incorporation from water into NO2- and NO3-. Our results concur with nitrifying culture experiments that have demonstrated analogous sensitivity of the δ18O of nitrified NO3- to equilibrium and kinetic O isotope effects (Buchwald et al. 2012), as well as show that these dynamics need to be considered to interpret NO3- isotope distribution in freshwater environments.

  11. Circumstellar ammonia in oxygen-rich evolved stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, K. T.; Menten, K. M.; Kamiński, T.; Wyrowski, F.; Lacy, J. H.; Greathouse, T. K.

    2018-04-01

    Context. The circumstellar ammonia (NH3) chemistry in evolved stars is poorly understood. Previous observations and modelling showed that NH3 abundance in oxygen-rich stars is several orders of magnitude above that predicted by equilibrium chemistry. Aims: We would like to characterise the spatial distribution and excitation of NH3 in the oxygen-rich circumstellar envelopes (CSEs) of four diverse targets: IK Tau, VY CMa, OH 231.8+4.2, and IRC +10420. Methods: We observed NH3 emission from the ground state in the inversion transitions near 1.3 cm with the Very Large Array (VLA) and submillimetre rotational transitions with the Heterodyne Instrument for the Far-Infrared (HIFI) aboard Herschel Space Observatory from all four targets. For IK Tau and VY CMa, we observed NH3 rovibrational absorption lines in the ν2 band near 10.5 μm with the Texas Echelon Cross Echelle Spectrograph (TEXES) at the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF). We also attempted to search for the rotational transition within the excited vibrational state (v2 = 1) near 2 mm with the IRAM 30m Telescope. Non-LTE radiative transfer modelling, including radiative pumping to the vibrational state, was carried out to derive the radial distribution of NH3 in the CSEs of these targets. Results: We detected NH3 inversion and rotational emission in all four targets. IK Tau and VY CMa show blueshifted absorption in the rovibrational spectra. We did not detect vibrationally excited rotational transition from IK Tau. Spatially resolved VLA images of IK Tau and IRC +10420 show clumpy emission structures; unresolved images of VY CMa and OH 231.8+4.2 indicate that the spatial-kinematic distribution of NH3 is similar to that of assorted molecules, such as SO and SO2, that exhibit localised and clumpy emission. Our modelling shows that the NH3 abundance relative to molecular hydrogen is generally of the order of 10-7, which is a few times lower than previous estimates that were made without considering radiative

  12. OXYGEN-RICH SUPERNOVA REMNANT IN THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    This is a NASA Hubble Space Telescope image of the tattered debris of a star that exploded 3,000 years ago as a supernova. This supernova remnant, called N132D, lies 169,000 light-years away in the satellite galaxy, the Large Magellanic Cloud. A Hubble Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 image of the inner regions of the supernova remnant shows the complex collisions that take place as fast moving ejecta slam into cool, dense interstellar clouds. This level of detail in the expanding filaments could only be seen previously in much closer supernova remnants. Now, Hubble's capabilities extend the detailed study of supernovae out to the distance of a neighboring galaxy. Material thrown out from the interior of the exploded star at velocities of more than four million miles per hour (2,000 kilometers per second) plows into neighboring clouds to create luminescent shock fronts. The blue-green filaments in the image correspond to oxygen-rich gas ejected from the core of the star. The oxygen-rich filaments glow as they pass through a network of shock fronts reflected off dense interstellar clouds that surrounded the exploded star. These dense clouds, which appear as reddish filaments, also glow as the shock wave from the supernova crushes and heats the clouds. Supernova remnants provide a rare opportunity to observe directly the interiors of stars far more massive than our Sun. The precursor star to this remnant, which was located slightly below and left of center in the image, is estimated to have been 25 times the mass of our Sun. These stars 'cook' heavier elements through nuclear fusion, including oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, iron etc., and the titanic supernova explosions scatter this material back into space where it is used to create new generations of stars. This is the mechanism by which the gas and dust that formed our solar system became enriched with the elements that sustain life on this planet. Hubble spectroscopic observations will be used to determine the exact

  13. Scavenging of oxygen vacancies at modulation-doped oxide interfaces: Evidence from oxygen isotope tracing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yunzhong; Döbeli, M.; Pomjakushina, E.

    2017-01-01

    , the mechanisms underlying the extreme mobility enhancement remain elusive. Herein, we used 18O isotope exchanged SrTi18O3 as substrates to create 2DEG at room temperature with and without the LSMO buffer layer. By mapping the oxygen profile across the interface between STO18 and disordered LaAlO3 or yttria...

  14. Oxygen isotope variations in phosphate of biogenic apatites. Pt.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolodny, Y.; Luz, B.; Navon, O.

    1983-01-01

    The major advantage of the oxygen in phosphate isotope paleothermometry is that it is a system which records temperatures with great sensitivity while bone (and teeth) building organisms are alive, and the record is nearly perfectly preserved after death. Fish from seven water bodies of different temperatures (3-23 0 C) and different delta 18 O (values - 16 to + 3) of the water were analysed. The delta 18 O values of the analysed PO 4 vary from 6 to 25. The system passed the following tests: (a) the temperature deduced from isotopic analyses of the sequence of fish from Lake Baikal are in good agreement with the temperatures measured in the thermally stratified lake; (b) the isotopic composition of fish bone phosphate is not influenced by the isotopic composition of the phosphate which is fed to the fish, but only by temperature and water composition. Isotopic analysis of fossil fish in combination with analysis of mammal bones should be a useful tool in deciphering continental paleoclimates. (orig.)

  15. Identification of new neutron-rich actinide isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oura, Yasuji; Sakama, Minoru; Ohyama, T. [Tokyo Metropolitan Univ. (Japan)] [and others

    1999-10-01

    To advance research on new neutron-deficient actinide isotopes using an on-line isotope separator combined with a gas-jet injector installed in the JAERI Tandem accelerator, Tokai, performance test of the equipment was carried out. Efficiency of the product isotopes being transported from the target chamber to the measuring system was greatly improved by employing lead iodides (PbI{sub 2}) as the aerosol carrier. With the help of this technique, the authors succeeded in synthesizing and identifying actinide isotopes, {sup 235}Am and {sup 236}Am, and measured their alpha-decay half-life. (S. Ohno)

  16. Structure of the neutron-rich lithium isotopes in heavy-ion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bespalova, O.V.; Galakhmatova, B.S.; Romanovskij, E.A.; Shitikova, K.V.; Burov, V.V.; Rzyanin, M.V.; Miller, H.G.; Yen, G.D.

    1993-01-01

    The structure properties, for factors, angular distributions and interaction cross sections of Li neutron-rich isotopes have been analyzed in the unified way. A good qualitative agreement with the experiment data was obtained. 20 refs.; 11 figs.; 1 tab

  17. Radioactivity of neutron rich oxygen, fluorine and neon isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, A.T.; Page, R.D.; Tarasov, O.

    1999-01-01

    The γ-radiation and neutrons emitted following the β-decays of 24 O, 25-27 F and 28-30 Ne have been measured. The nuclides were produced in the quasi-fragmentation of a 78 MeV/A 36 S beam, separated in-flight and identified through time-of-flight and energy loss measurements. The ions were stopped in a silicon detector system, which was used to detect the β-particles emitted in their subsequent radioactive decay. The coincident γ-rays were measured using four large Ge detectors mounted close to the implantation point and the neutrons were detected using forty-two 3 He proportional counters. The measured γ-ray energy spectra are compared with shell model calculations and, where available, the level energies are deduced from transfer reactions

  18. Kinetic theory of oxygen isotopic exchange between minerals and water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criss, R.E.; Gregory, R.T.; Taylor, H.P.

    1987-01-01

    Kinetic and mass conservation equations are used to describe oxygen isotopic exchange between minerals and water in "closed" and open hydrothermal systems. In cases where n coexisting mineral phases having different reaction rates are present, the exchange process is described by a system of n + 1 simultaneous differential equations consisting of n pseudo first-order rate equations and a conservation of mass equation. The simultaneous solutions to these equations generate curved exchange trajectories on ??-?? plots. Families of such trajectories generated under conditions allowing for different fluid mole fractions, different fluid isotopic compositions, or different fluid flow rates are connected by positive-sloped isochronous lines. These isochrons reproduce the effects observed in hydrothermally exchanged mineral pairs including 1) steep positive slopes, 2) common reversals in the measured fractionation factors (??), and 3) measured fractionations that are highly variable over short distances where no thermal gradient can be geologically demonstrated. ?? 1987.

  19. Oxygen isotope geochemistry of The Geysers reservoir rocks, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunderson, Richard P.; Moore, Joseph N.

    1994-01-20

    Whole-rock oxygen isotopic compositions of Late Mesozoic graywacke, the dominant host rock at The Geysers, record evidence of a large liquid-dominated hydrothermal system that extended beyond the limits of the present steam reservoir. The graywackes show vertical and lateral isotopic variations that resulted from gradients in temperature, permeability, and fluid composition during this early liquid-dominated system. All of these effects are interpreted to have resulted from the emplacement of the granitic "felsite" intrusion 1-2 million years ago. The {delta}{sup 18}O values of the graywacke are strongly zoned around a northwest-southeast trending low located near the center of and similar in shape to the present steam system. Vertical isotopic gradients show a close relationship to the felsite intrusion. The {delta}{sup 18}O values of the graywacke decrease from approximately 15 per mil near the surface to 4-7 per mil 300 to 600 m above the intrusive contact. The {delta}{sup 18}O values then increase downward to 8-10 per mil at the felsite contact, thereafter remaining nearly constant within the intrusion itself. The large downward decrease in {delta}{sup 18}O values are interpreted to be controlled by variations in temperature during the intrusive event, ranging from 150{degree}C near the surface to about 425{degree}C near the intrusive contact. The upswing in {delta}{sup 18}O values near the intrusive contact appears to have been caused by lower rock permeability and/or heavier fluid isotopic composition there. Lateral variations in the isotopic distributions suggests that the effects of temperature were further modified by variations in rock permeability and/or fluid-isotopic composition. Time-integrated water:rock ratios are thought to have been highest within the central isotopic low where the greatest isotopic depletions are observed. We suggest that this region of the field was an area of high permeability within the main upflow zone of the liquid

  20. Triple oxygen isotope systematics of structurally bonded water in gypsum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herwartz, Daniel; Surma, Jakub; Voigt, Claudia; Assonov, Sergey; Staubwasser, Michael

    2017-07-01

    The triple oxygen isotopic composition of gypsum mother water (gmw) is recorded in structurally bonded water in gypsum (gsbw). Respective fractionation factors have been determined experimentally for 18O/16O and 17O/16O. By taking previous experiments into account we suggest using 18αgsbw-gmw = 1.0037; 17αgsbw-gmw = 1.00195 and θgsbw-gmw = 0.5285 as fractionation factors in triple oxygen isotope space. Recent gypsum was sampled from a series of 10 ponds located in the Salar de Llamara in the Atacama Desert, Chile. Total dissolved solids (TDS) in these ponds show a gradual increase from 23 g/l to 182 g/l that is accompanied by an increase in pond water 18O/16O. Gsbw falls on a parallel curve to the ambient water from the saline ponds. The offset is mainly due to the equilibrium fractionation between gsbw and gmw. However, gsbw represents a time integrated signal biased towards times of strong evaporation, hence the estimated gmw comprises elevated 18O/16O compositions when compared to pond water samples taken on site. Gypsum precipitation is associated with algae mats in the ponds with lower salinity. No evidence for respective vital effects on the triple oxygen isotopic composition of gypsum hydration water is observed, nor are such effects expected. In principle, the array of δ18Ogsbw vs. 17Oexcess can be used to: (1) provide information on the degree of evaporation during gypsum formation; (2) estimate pristine meteoric water compositions; and (3) estimate local relative humidity which is the controlling parameter of the slope of the array for simple hydrological situations. In our case study, local mining activities may have decreased deep groundwater recharge, causing a recent change of the local hydrology.

  1. Oxygen isotope studies of early Precambrian granitic rocks from the Giants Range batholith, northeastern Minnesota, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, S.

    1974-01-01

    Oxygen isotope studies of granitic rocks from the 2.7 b.y.-old composite Giants Range batholith show that: (1) ??(O18)quartz values of 9 to 10 permil characterize relatively uncontaminated Lower Precambrian, magmatic granodiorites and granites; (2) granitic rocks thought to have formed by static granitization have ??(O18)quartz values that are 1 to 2 permil higher than magmatic granitic rocks; (3) satellite leucogranite bodies have values nearly identical to those of the main intrusive phases even where they transect O18-rich metasedimentary wall rocks; (4) oxygen isotopic interaction between the granitic melts and their O18-rich wall rocks was minimal; and (5) O18/O18 ratios of quartz grains in a metasomatic granite are largely inherited from the precursor rock, but during the progression - sedimentary parent ??? partially granitized parent ??? metasomatic granite ??? there is gradual decrease in ??(O18)quartz by 1 to 2 permil. ?? 1974.

  2. Oxygen and carbon isotopic compositions of gases respired by humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epstein, S.; Zeiri, L.

    1988-01-01

    Oxygen-isotope fractionation associated with respiration in human individuals at rest is linearly related to the fraction of the O 2 utilized in the respiration process. The slope of this relationship is affected by a history of smoking, by vigorous exercise, and by the N 2 /O 2 ratio of the inhaled gas. For patients who suffer anemia-related diseases, the slope of this relationship is directly proportional to their level of hemoglobin. These results introduce a new approach for studying the mechanisms of O 2 consumption in human respiration and how they are affected by related diseases

  3. Oxygen isotopic analyses of individual planktic foraminifera species: Implications for seasonality in the western Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naidu, P.D.; Niitsuma, N.; Naik, S.S.

    The variation of stable isotopes between individual shells of planktic foraminifera of a given species and size may provide short-term seasonal insight on Paleoceanography. In this context, oxygen isotope analyses of individual Globigerinoides...

  4. K isomerism and collectivity in neutron-rich rare-earth isotopes.

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Zena

    2016-01-01

    Neutron-rich rare-earth isotopes were produced by in-flight fission of 238U ions at the Radioactive Isotope Beam Factory (RIBF), RIKEN, Japan. In-flight fission of a heavy, high-intensity beam of 238U ions on a light target provides the cleanest secondary beams of neutron-rich nuclei in the rare-earth region of isotopes. In-flight fission is advantageous over other methods of nuclear production, as it allows for a secondary beam to be extracted, from which the beam species can be separated an...

  5. Oxygen isotope systematics of chondrules in the Murchison CM2 chondrite and implications for the CO-CM relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaumard, Noël; Defouilloy, Céline; Kita, Noriko T.

    2018-05-01

    High-precision oxygen three-isotope measurements of olivine and pyroxene were performed on 29 chondrules in the Murchison CM2 chondrite by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). The oxygen isotope ratios of analyzed chondrules all plot very close to the primitive chondrule minerals (PCM) line. In each of 24 chondrules, the olivine and/or pyroxene grains analyzed show indistinguishable oxygen isotope ratios. Exceptions are minor occurrences of isotopically distinguished relict olivine grains, which were found in nine chondrules. The isotope homogeneity of these phenocrysts is consistent with a co-magmatic crystallization of olivine and pyroxene from the final chondrule melts and a significant oxygen isotope exchange between the ambient gas and the melts. Homogeneous type I chondrules with Mg#'s of 98.9-99.5 have host chondrule Δ17O values ranging from -6.0‰ to -4.1‰, with one exception (Δ17O: -1.2‰; Mg#: 99.6). Homogeneous chondrules with Mg#'s poor H2O ice (∼0.3-0.4× the CI dust; Δ17O > 0‰) and at dust enrichments of ∼300-2000×. Regarding the Mg# and oxygen isotope ratios, the chondrule populations sampled by CM and CO chondrites are similar and indistinguishable. The similarity of these 16O-rich components in CO and CM chondrites is also supported by the common Fe/Mn ratio of olivine in type II chondrules. Although they accreted similar high-temperature silicates, CO chondrites are anhydrous compared to CM chondrites, suggesting they derived from different parent bodies formed inside and outside the snow line, respectively. If chondrules in CO and CM chondrites formed at the same disk locations but the CM parent body accreted later than the CO parent body, the snow line might have crossed the common chondrule-forming region towards the Sun between the time of the CO and CM parent bodies accretion.

  6. OXYGEN ISOTOPIC COMPOSITIONS OF THE ALLENDE TYPE C CAIs: EVIDENCE FOR ISOTOPIC EXCHANGE DURING NEBULAR MELTING AND ASTEROIDAL THERMAL METAMORPHISM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krot, A N; Chaussidon, M; Yurimoto, H; Sakamoto, N; Nagashima, K; Hutcheon, I D; MacPherson, G J

    2008-02-21

    Based on the mineralogy and petrography, coarse-grained, igneous, anorthite-rich (Type C) calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) in the CV3 carbonaceous chondrite Allende have been recently divided into three groups: (i) CAIs with melilite and Al,Ti-diopside of massive and lacy textures (coarse grains with numerous rounded inclusions of anorthite) in a fine-grained anorthite groundmass (6-1-72, 100, 160), (ii) CAI CG5 with massive melilite, Al,Ti-diopside and anorthite, and (iii) CAIs associated with chondrule material: either containing chondrule fragments in their peripheries (ABC, TS26) or surrounded by chondrule-like, igneous rims (93) (Krot et al., 2007a,b). Here, we report in situ oxygen isotopic measurements of primary (melilite, spinel, Al,Ti-diopside, anorthite) and secondary (grossular, monticellite, forsterite) minerals in these CAIs. Spinel ({Delta}{sup 17}O = -25{per_thousand} to -20{per_thousand}), massive and lacy Al,Ti-diopside ({Delta}{sup 17}O = -20{per_thousand} to -5{per_thousand}) and fine-grained anorthite ({Delta}{sup 17}O = -15{per_thousand} to -2{per_thousand}) in 100, 160 and 6-1-72 are {sup 16}O-enriched relative spinel and coarse-grained Al,Ti-diopside and anorthite in ABC, 93 and TS26 ({Delta}{sup 17}O ranges from -20{per_thousand} to -15{per_thousand}, from -15{per_thousand} to -5{per_thousand}, and from -5{per_thousand} to 0{per_thousand}, respectively). In 6-1-72, massive and lacy Al,Ti-diopside grains are {sup 16}O-depleted ({Delta}{sup 17}O {approx} -13{per_thousand}) relative to spinel ({Delta}{sup 17}O = -23{per_thousand}). Melilite is the most {sup 16}O-depleted mineral in all Allende Type C CAIs. In CAI 100, melilite and secondary grossular, monticellite and forsterite (minerals replacing melilite) are similarly {sup 16}O-depleted, whereas grossular in CAI 160 is {sup 16}O-enriched ({Delta}{sup 17}O = -10{per_thousand} to -6{per_thousand}) relative to melilite ({Delta}{sup 17}O = -5{per_thousand} to -3{per_thousand}). We infer

  7. Oxygen isotope fractionation between bird bone phosphate and drinking water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiot, Romain; Angst, Delphine; Legendre, Serge; Buffetaut, Eric; Fourel, François; Adolfssen, Jan; André, Aurore; Bojar, Ana Voica; Canoville, Aurore; Barral, Abel; Goedert, Jean; Halas, Stanislaw; Kusuhashi, Nao; Pestchevitskaya, Ekaterina; Rey, Kevin; Royer, Aurélien; Saraiva, Antônio Álamo Feitosa; Savary-Sismondini, Bérengère; Siméon, Jean-Luc; Touzeau, Alexandra; Zhou, Zhonghe; Lécuyer, Christophe

    2017-06-01

    Oxygen isotope compositions of bone phosphate (δ18Op) were measured in broiler chickens reared in 21 farms worldwide characterized by contrasted latitudes and local climates. These sedentary birds were raised during an approximately 3 to 4-month period, and local precipitation was the ultimate source of their drinking water. This sampling strategy allowed the relationship to be determined between the bone phosphate δ18Op values (from 9.8 to 22.5‰ V-SMOW) and the local rainfall δ18Ow values estimated from nearby IAEA/WMO stations (from -16.0 to -1.0‰ V-SMOW). Linear least square fitting of data provided the following isotopic fractionation equation: δ18Ow = 1.119 (±0.040) δ18Op - 24.222 (±0.644); R 2 = 0.98. The δ18Op-δ18Ow couples of five extant mallard ducks, a common buzzard, a European herring gull, a common ostrich, and a greater rhea fall within the predicted range of the equation, indicating that the relationship established for extant chickens can also be applied to birds of various ecologies and body masses. Applied to published oxygen isotope compositions of Miocene and Pliocene penguins from Peru, this new equation computes estimates of local seawater similar to those previously calculated. Applied to the basal bird Confuciusornis from the Early Cretaceous of Northeastern China, our equation gives a slightly higher δ18Ow value compared to the previously estimated one, possibly as a result of lower body temperature. These data indicate that caution should be exercised when the relationship estimated for modern birds is applied to their basal counterparts that likely had a metabolism intermediate between that of their theropod dinosaur ancestors and that of advanced ornithurines.

  8. Sources and Contributions of Oxygen During Microbial Pyrite Oxidation: the Triple Oxygen Isotopes of Sulfate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, K.; Coleman, M. L.; Mielke, R. E.; Young, E. D.

    2008-12-01

    The triple isotopes of oxygen (Δ17O' = δ17O'-0.528 × δ18O' using logarithmic deltas) can trace the oxygen sources of sulfate produced during sulfide oxidation, an important biogeochemical process on Earth's surface and possibly also on Mars [1]. δ18OSO4 compositions are determined by the isotopic selectivity of the mechanism(s) responsible for their changes, and the δ18O value of the reactants (O2 vs. H2O). The relative proportional importance and contribution of each of those sources and mechanisms, as well as their associated isotopic fractionations, are not well understood. We are investigating the use of Δ 17O as a quantitative and qualitative tracer for the different processes and oxygen sources involved in sulfate production. Δ17O signatures are distinct fingerprints of these reservoirs, independent of fractionation factors that can be ambiguous. We conducted controlled abiotic and biotic (Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, A.f.) laboratory experiments in which water was spiked with 18O, allowing us to quantify the sources of sulfate oxygen and therefore the processes attending sulfate formation. Results of this Δ17O tracer study show that A.f. microbes initiate pyrite S-oxidation within hours of exposure, and that sulfate is produced from ~90% atmospheric oxygen. This initial lag-phase (behavior in the initial lag-phase will aid in the understanding of the ecological conditions required for microbial populations to establish and survive. An exponential phase of growth, facilitated by microbial Fe2+-oxidation, follows. The source of sulfate rapidly switches to abiotic sulfide oxidation during exponential growth and the source of oxygen switches from atmospheric O2 to nearly ~100% water. Pending acquisition of complimentary chemistry data (in progress), we interpret our isotope data to indicate that the biotic fractionation factor ɛ18OSO4-O2 of at least ~ -25 to - 35‰ is augmented by microbially induced kinetic fractionation; it is larger than

  9. Collinear resonant ionization spectroscopy for neutron rich copper isotopes

    CERN Multimedia

    This proposal aims to study the spins, magnetic moments and quadrupole moments of copper isotopes A=76-78. The information obtained from this experiment will provide an independent and more precise measurement of the magnetic moment of $^{77}$Cu and values for the spins and magnetic moments of $^{76,78}$Cu as well as the quadrupole moments of $^{76-78}$Cu.

  10. Experimental determination of one- and two-neutron separation energies for neutron-rich copper isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Mian; Wei, Hui-Ling; Song, Yi-Dan; Ma, Chun-Wang

    2017-09-01

    A method is proposed to determine the one-neutron S n or two-neutron S 2n separation energy of neutron-rich isotopes. Relationships between S n (S 2n) and isotopic cross sections have been deduced from an empirical formula, i.e., the cross section of an isotope exponentially depends on the average binding energy per nucleon B/A. The proposed relationships have been verified using the neutron-rich copper isotopes measured in the 64A MeV 86Kr + 9Be reaction. S n, S 2n, and B/A for the very neutron-rich 77,78,79Cu isotopes are determined from the proposed correlations. It is also proposed that the correlations between S n, S 2n and isotopic cross sections can be used to find the location of neutron drip line isotopes. Supported by Program for Science and Technology Innovation Talents at Universities of Henan Province (13HASTIT046), Natural and Science Foundation in Henan Province (162300410179), Program for the Excellent Youth at Henan Normal University (154100510007) and Y-D Song thanks the support from the Creative Experimental Project of National Undergraduate Students (CEPNU 201510476017)

  11. Oxygen isotope studies of the Salton Sea geothermal field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, E.R.

    1978-01-01

    Interbedded shales and sandstones were drilled to a depth of 1588 metres in Sinclair Number Four Well, Salton Sea Geothermal Field. Bottom hole temperatures are approximately 290 0 C. The oxygen dels of hydrothermal and detrital calcite have a systematic relationship at any depth in the geothermal reservoir. Typical values are: vein calcite, +6 0 / 00 ; calcite in white sandstone, +10 0 / 00 ; calcite in dark gray shale, +11 0 / 00 ; calcite in light gray shale, +17 0 / 00 ; calcite in red-brown shale, +20 0 / 00 . This succession represents decreasing water-rock interaction that is also indicated by the clay mineralogy of the shales. Permeability has a marked effect on the equilibration of water and rocks at any given temperature. Original differences in permeability have resulted in partial preservation of original detrital sedimentary compositions. The fluids in the Salton Sea Geothermal Field are probabaly partially evaporated Colorado River water, and their oxygen del values vary as much as 4 0 / 00 throughout the field. Truesdell's (1974) data suggest that dissolved salts may make the water oxygen activity del as much as 6 0 / 00 greater than the concentration del in the geothermal reservoir. Such an uncertainty is a serious impediment to precise isotope geothermometry in this system.(auth.)

  12. Triple oxygen isotopes in biogenic and sedimentary carbonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passey, Benjamin H.; Hu, Huanting; Ji, Haoyuan; Montanari, Shaena; Li, Shuning; Henkes, Gregory A.; Levin, Naomi E.

    2014-09-01

    The 17O anomaly (Δ17O) of natural waters has been shown to be sensitive to evaporation in a way analogous to deuterium excess, with evaporated bodies of water (e.g., leaf waters, lake waters, animal body waters) tending to have lower Δ17O than primary meteoric waters. In animal body water, Δ17O relates to the intake of evaporated waters, evaporative effluxes of water, and the Δ17O value of atmospheric O2, which itself carries signatures of global carbon cycling and photochemical reactions in the stratosphere. Carbonates have the potential to record the triple oxygen isotope compositions of parent waters, allowing reconstruction of past water compositions, but such investigations have awaited development of methods for high-precision measurement of Δ17O of carbonate. We describe optimized methods based on a sequential acid digestion/reduction/fluorination approach that yield Δ17O data with the high precision (∼0.010‰, 1σ) needed to resolve subtle environmental signals. We report the first high-precision Δ17O dataset for terrestrial carbonates, focusing on vertebrate biogenic carbonates and soil carbonates, but also including marine invertebrates and high-temperature carbonates. We determine apparent three-isotope fractionation factors between the O2 analyte derived from carbonate and the parent waters of the carbonate. These in combination with appropriate temperature estimates (from clumped isotope thermometry, or known or estimated body temperatures) are used to calculate the δ18O and Δ17O of parent waters. The clearest pattern to emerge is the strong 17O-depletion in avian, dinosaurian, and mammalian body water (from analyses of eggshell and tooth enamel) relative to meteoric waters, following expected influences of evaporated water (e.g., leaf water) and atmospheric O2 on vertebrate body water. Parent waters of the soil carbonates studied here have Δ17O values that are similar to or slightly lower than global precipitation. Our results suggest

  13. Equilibrium mass-dependent fractionation relationships for triple oxygen isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xiaobin; Liu, Yun

    2011-12-01

    With a growing interest in small 17O-anomaly, there is a pressing need for the precise ratio, ln 17α/ln 18α, for a particular mass-dependent fractionation process (MDFP) (e.g., for an equilibrium isotope exchange reaction). This ratio (also denoted as " θ") can be determined experimentally, however, such efforts suffer from the demand of well-defined process or a set of processes in addition to high precision analytical capabilities. Here, we present a theoretical approach from which high-precision ratios for MDFPs can be obtained. This approach will complement and serve as a benchmark for experimental studies. We use oxygen isotope exchanges in equilibrium processes as an example. We propose that the ratio at equilibrium, θE ≡ ln 17α/ln 18α, can be calculated through the equation below: θa-bE=κa+(κa-κb){ln18βb}/{ln18α} where 18βb is the fractionation factor between a compound "b" and the mono-atomic ideal reference material "O", 18αa-b is the fractionation factor between a and b and it equals to 18βa/ 18βb and κ is a new concept defined in this study as κ ≡ ln 17β/ln 18β. The relationship between θ and κ is similar to that between α and β. The advantages of using κ include the convenience in documenting a large number of θ values for MDFPs and in estimating any θ values using a small data set due to the fact that κ values are similar among O-bearing compounds with similar chemical groups. Frequency scaling factor, anharmonic corrections and clumped isotope effects are found insignificant to the κ value calculation. However, the employment of the rule of geometric mean (RGM) can significantly affect the κ value. There are only small differences in κ values among carbonates and the structural effect is smaller than that of chemical compositions. We provide κ values for most O-bearing compounds, and we argue that κ values for Mg-bearing and S-bearing compounds should be close to their high temperature limitation (i.e., 0.5210 for

  14. Nuclear charge radii of proton-rich strontium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eastham, D.A.; Walker, P.M.; Smith, J.R.H.; Warner, D.D.; Griffith, J.A.R.; Evans, D.E.; Wells, S.A.; Fawcett, M.J.; Grant, I.S.

    1987-01-01

    A new technique of atom-photon coincidence laser spectroscopy has been developed and used to study the isotope shifts of /sup 78-84/Sr. The results show that neither the droplet model nor existing interacting boson model calculations can adequately describe the rapid onset of nuclear deformation below N = 50. The odd-even staggering of the charge radius is found to be opposite to that normally encountered, indicating the possible existence of permanent octupole distortions

  15. Aspherical Dust Envelopes Around Oxygen-Rich AGB Stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Won Suh

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available We model the aspherical dust envelopes around O-rich AGB stars. We perform the radiative transfer model calculations for axisymmetric dust distributions. We simulate what could be observed from the aspherical dust envelopes around O-rich AGB stars by presenting the model spectral energy distributions and images at various wavelengths for different optical depths and viewing angles. The model results are very different from the ones with spherically symmetric geometry.

  16. β decay studies of n-rich Cs isotopes with the ISOLDE Decay Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lică, R.; Benzoni, G.; Morales, A. I.; Borge, M. J. G.; Fraile, L. M.; Mach, H.; Madurga, M.; Sotty, C.; Vedia, V.; De Witte, H.; Benito, J.; Berry, T.; Blasi, N.; Bracco, A.; Camera, F.; Ceruti, S.; Charviakova, V.; Cieplicka-Oryńczak, N.; Costache, C.; Crespi, F. C. L.; Creswell, J.; Fernández-Martínez, G.; Fynbo, H.; Greenlees, P.; Homm, I.; Huyse, M.; Jolie, J.; Karayonchev, V.; Köster, U.; Konki, J.; Kröll, T.; Kurcewicz, J.; Kurtukian-Nieto, T.; Lazarus, I.; Leoni, S.; Lund, M.; Marginean, N.; Marginean, R.; Mihai, C.; Mihai, R.; Negret, A.; Orduz, A.; Patyk, Z.; Pascu, S.; Pucknell, V.; Rahkila, P.; Regis, J. M.; Rotaru, F.; Saed-Sami, N.; Sánchez-Tembleque, V.; Stanoiu, M.; Tengblad, O.; Thuerauf, M.; Turturica, A.; Van Duppen, P.; Warr, N.

    2017-05-01

    Neutron-rich Ba isotopes are expected to exhibit octupolar correlations, reaching their maximum in isotopes around mass A = 146. The odd-A neutron-rich members of this isotopic chain show typical patterns related to non-axially symmetric shapes, which are however less marked compared to even-A ones, pointing to a major contribution from vibrations. In the present paper we present results from a recent study focused on 148-150Cs β-decay performed at the ISOLDE Decay Station equipped with fast-timing detectors. A detailed analysis of the measured decay half-lives and decay scheme of 149Ba is presented, giving a first insight in the structure of this neutron-rich nucleus.

  17. Do oxygen isotope values in collagen reflect the ecology and physiology of neotropical mammals?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brooke eCrowley

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Stable isotope data provide insight into the foraging ecology of animals. Traditionally, carbon and nitrogen isotope values have been used to infer dietary and habitat preferences. Oxygen isotopes are used less frequently but may complement the ecological information provided by carbon and nitrogen, particularly in densely forested or arid environments. Additionally, because oxygen is preserved in both bioapatite and collagen, it is useful for paleoecological studies. To investigate the suitability of oxygen isotopes for complementing and building on ecological applications of carbon and nitrogen isotopes, we analyze all three isotopes in bone collagen for nearly identical assemblages of Costa Rican mammals in two ecologically distinct habitats - a evergreen rainforest and a seasonal dry forest. We assess the degree to which differences in habitat, activity pattern, diet, arboreality, and thermoregulation are revealed by each of the isotope systems. Our results highlight the potential of oxygen isotopes in modern and paleoecological contexts. In addition to reflecting habitat type, oxygen isotope values in collagen distinguish species on the basis of vertical habitat stratification and drinking behavior. Within a locality, individuals with low oxygen isotope values likely track meteoric water, whereas those with elevated values most likely consume evaporatively-enriched plant tissues, such as canopy leaves. These patterns will be useful in reconstructing paleoenvironments and interpreting ecological differences among taxa both extant and extinct.

  18. Ion Microprobe Measurements of Comet Dust and Implications for Models of Oxygen Isotope Heterogeneity in the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snead, C. J.; McKeegan, K. D.; Keller, L. P.; Messenger, S.

    2017-01-01

    The oxygen isotopic compositions of anhydrous minerals in carbonaceous chondrites reflect mixing between a O-16-rich and O-17, O18-rich reservoir. The UV photodissociation of CO (i.e. selfshielding) has been proposed as a mass-independent mechanism for producing these isotopically distinct reservoirs. Self-shielding models predict the composition for the CO gas reservoir to be O-16-rich, and that the accreting primordial dust was in isotopic equilibrium with the gaseous reservoir [1, 2]. Self-shielding also predicts that cometary water, presumed to represent the O-17, O-18-rich reservoir, should be enriched in O-17 and O-18, with compositions of 200 -1000per mille, and that the interaction with this O-17, O-18-rich H2O reservoir altered the compositions of the primordial dust toward planetary values. The bulk composition of the solar nebula, which may be an approximation to the 16O-rich gaseous reservoir, has been constrained by the Genesis results [3]. However, material representing the O-17, O-18-rich end-member is rare [4], and dust representing the original accreting primordial dust has been challenging to conclusively identify in current collections. Anhydrous dust from comets, which accreted in the distal cold regions of the nebula at temperatures below approximately 30K, may provide the best opportunity to measure the oxygen isotope composition of primordial dust. Chondritic porous interplanetary dust particles (CP-IDPs) have been suggested as having cometary origins [5]; however, until direct comparisons with dust from a known comet parent body were made, link between CP-IDPs and comets remained circumstantial. Oxygen isotope analyses of particles from comet 81P/Wild 2 collected by NASA's Stardust mission have revealed surprising similarities to minerals in carbonaceous chondrites which have been interpreted as evidence for large scale radial migration of dust components from the inner solar nebula to the accretion regions of Jupiter- family comets [6

  19. Kalahari groundwaters: Their hydrogen, carbon and oxygen isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazor, E.; Verhagen, B.T.; Sellschop, J.P.F.; Robins, N.S.; Hutton, L.G.

    1974-01-01

    Tritium and 14 C measurements have revealed several cases of post-nuclear bomb-test rain recharge of local groundwaters, along with values indicating recharge over larger, yet hydrologically active, time scales. In general, recharge seems to follow rain distribution in being more intense in the northern rather than in the southern Kalahari. Initial δ 13 C values vary over a wide range and reveal some correlation to pH and chemical composition of the water. They cannot be used to correct for fossil carbon dilution in 14 C-age calculations. Radiocarbon-deduced ages range from recent to 30,000 years. Stable hydrogen and oxygen isotopes indicate recharge from direct rain infiltration. (author)

  20. The development of a completely automated oxygen isotope mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahern, T.K.

    1980-01-01

    A completely automated mass spectrometer system has been developed to measure the oxygen isotope ratio of carbon dioxide samples. The system has an accuracy of 0.03 percent, and is capable of analyzing more than 100 samples a day. The system uses an Interdata minicomputer as the primary controller. The intelligence of the system is contained within hardware circuits, software within the minicomputer, and firmware written for a Motorola 6802 microprocessor. A microprocessor-based inlet system controller maximizes the throughput of carbon dioxide samples within the inlet system. The inlet system normally contains four different aliquots of carbon dioxide and introduces these samples to the mass spectrometer through a single admittance leak. The system has been used in the analysis of 111 samples of ice taken from the Steele glacier

  1. Correlation and Stacking of Relative Paleointensity and Oxygen Isotope Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lurcock, P. C.; Channell, J. E.; Lee, D.

    2012-12-01

    The transformation of a depth-series into a time-series is routinely implemented in the geological sciences. This transformation often involves correlation of a depth-series to an astronomically calibrated time-series. Eyeball tie-points with linear interpolation are still regularly used, although these have the disadvantages of being non-repeatable and not based on firm correlation criteria. Two automated correlation methods are compared: the simulated annealing algorithm (Huybers and Wunsch, 2004) and the Match protocol (Lisiecki and Lisiecki, 2002). Simulated annealing seeks to minimize energy (cross-correlation) as "temperature" is slowly decreased. The Match protocol divides records into intervals, applies penalty functions that constrain accumulation rates, and minimizes the sum of the squares of the differences between two series while maintaining the data sequence in each series. Paired relative paleointensity (RPI) and oxygen isotope records, such as those from IODP Site U1308 and/or reference stacks such as LR04 and PISO, are warped using known warping functions, and then the un-warped and warped time-series are correlated to evaluate the efficiency of the correlation methods. Correlations are performed in tandem to simultaneously optimize RPI and oxygen isotope data. Noise spectra are introduced at differing levels to determine correlation efficiency as noise levels change. A third potential method, known as dynamic time warping, involves minimizing the sum of distances between correlated point pairs across the whole series. A "cost matrix" between the two series is analyzed to find a least-cost path through the matrix. This least-cost path is used to nonlinearly map the time/depth of one record onto the depth/time of another. Dynamic time warping can be expanded to more than two dimensions and used to stack multiple time-series. This procedure can improve on arithmetic stacks, which often lose coherent high-frequency content during the stacking process.

  2. Oxygen stable isotopes variation in water precipitation in Poland – anthropological applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisowska-Gaczorek Aleksandra

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of oxygen isotope analysis is to determine the probable place of origin of an individual or the reconstruction of migration paths. The research are methodologically based on referencing oxygen isotope ratios of apatite phosphates (δ18Op to the range of environmental background δ18O, most frequently determined on the basis of precipitation.

  3. Expanding the isotopic toolbox: Applications of hydrogen and oxygen stable isotope ratios to food web studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah B Vander Zanden

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The measurement of stable carbon (δ13C and nitrogen (δ15N isotopes in tissues of organisms has formed the foundation of isotopic food web reconstructions, as these values directly reflect assimilated diet. In contrast, stable hydrogen (δ2H and oxygen (δ18O isotope measurements have typically been reserved for studies of migratory origin and paleoclimate reconstruction based on systematic relationships between organismal tissue and local environmental water. Recently, innovative applications using δ2H and, to a lesser extent, δ18O values have demonstrated potential for these elements to provide novel insights in modern food web studies. We explore the advantages and challenges associated with three applications of δ2H and δ18O values in food web studies. First, large δ2H differences between aquatic and terrestrial ecosystem end members can permit the quantification of energy inputs and nutrient fluxes between these two sources, with potential applications for determining allochthonous vs. autochthonous nutrient sources in freshwater systems and relative aquatic habitat utilization by terrestrial organisms. Next, some studies have identified a relationship between δ2H values and trophic position, which suggests that this marker may serve as a trophic indicator, in addition to the more commonly used δ15N values. Finally, coupled measurements of δ2H and δ18O values are increasing as a result of reduced analytical challenges to measure both simultaneously and may provide additional ecological information over single element measurements. In some organisms, the isotopic ratios of these two elements are tightly coupled, whereas the isotopic disequilibrium in other organisms may offer insight into the diet and physiology of individuals. Although a coherent framework for interpreting δ2H and δ18O data in the context of food web studies is emerging, many fundamental uncertainties remain. We highlight directions for targeted research that

  4. Dolomite clumped isotope constraints on the oxygen isotope composition of the Phanerozoic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryb, U.; Eiler, J. M.

    2017-12-01

    The δ18O value of the Phanerozoic Sea has been debated several decades, largely motivated by an 8‰ increase in δ18O of sedimentary carbonates between the Cambrian and the present. Some previous studies have interpreted this increase to be a primary depositional signal, resulting from an increase in the 18O content of ocean water over time, or from a decrease in ocean temperature increasing the oxygen isotope fractionation between seawater and carbonates. In contrast, other studies have interpreted lower δ18O compositions as the products of diagenetic alteration at elevated burial temperatures. Here, we show that the Phanerozoic dolomite δ18O record overlaps with that of well-preserved calcite fossils, and use carbonate clumped isotope measurements of Cambrian to Pleistocene dolomites to calculate their formation temperatures and the isotopic compositions of their parent-waters. The observed variation in dolomite δ18O is largely explained by dolomite formation at burial temperatures of up to 158°C. The δ18O values of dolomite parent-waters range -2 to +12‰ and are correlated with formation temperatures. Such correlation is consistent with the modification of seawater (0±2‰, VSMOW) toward isotopically heavier compositions through water-rock reactions at elevated burial temperatures. The similarity between the dolomite and calcite δ18O records, and published clumped isotope-based calculations of water compositions, suggests that like dolomite, temporal variations of the calcite δ18O record may also be largely driven by diagenetic alteration. Finally, the relationship we observe between temperature of dolomitization and d18O of dolomite suggests platform carbonates generally undergo dolomitization through reaction with modified marine waters, and that there is no evidence those waters were ever significantly lower in d18O than the modern ocean.

  5. Imaging the Oxygen-Rich Disk Toward the Silicate Carbon Star EU Andromedae

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ohnaka, K; Boboltz, D. A

    2007-01-01

    .... We present multi-epoch, high-angular resolution observations of 22 GHz H2O masers toward the silicate carbon star EU And to probe the spatio-kinematic distribution of oxygen-rich material. Methods...

  6. Growth history of cultured pearl oysters based on stable oxygen isotope analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, R.; Furuta, N.; Suzuki, A.; Kawahata, H.; Shikazono, N.

    2007-12-01

    We investigated the oxygen isotopic ratio in shells of the pearl oyster Pinctada martensii cultivated in embayments in Mie Prefecture, central Japan, to evaluate the biomineralization of shell structures of the species and its pearls in response to environmental change. Microsamples for oxygen isotope analysis were collected from the surfaces of shells (outer, middle, and inner shell layers) and pearls. Water temperature variations were estimated from the oxygen isotope values of the carbonate. Oxygen isotope profiles of the prismatic calcite of the outer shell layer reflected seasonal variations of water temperature, whereas those of nacreous aragonites of the middle and inner shell layers and pearls recorded temperatures from April to November, June to September, and July to September, respectively. Lower temperatures in autumn and winter might slow the growth of nacreous aragonites. The oxygen isotope values are controlled by both variations of water temperature and shell structures; the prismatic calcite of this species is useful for reconstructing seasonal changes of calcification temperature.

  7. Oxygen isotope fractionation between human phosphate and water revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daux, Valérie; Lécuyer, Christophe; Héran, Marie-Anne

    2008-01-01

    to investigate the impact of solid food consumption on the oxygen isotope composition of the total ingested water (drinking water+solid food water). The results, along with those from three, smaller published data sets, can be considered as random estimates of a unique delta18OW/delta18OP linear relationship...... collected at 12 sites located at latitudes ranging from 4 degrees N to 70 degrees N together with the corresponding oxygen composition of tap waters (delta18OW) from these areas. In addition, the delta18O of some raw and boiled foods were determined and simple mass balance calculations were performed......: delta18OW=1.54(+/-0.09)xdelta18OP-33.72(+/-1.51)(R2=0.87: p [H0:R2=0]=2x10(-19)). The delta18O of cooked food is higher than that of the drinking water. As a consequence, in a modern diet the delta18O of ingested water is +1.05 to 1.2 per thousand higher than that of drinking water in the area. In meat...

  8. Microscopic study of neutron-rich dysprosium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargas, Carlos E.; Velazquez, Victor; Lerma, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    Microscopic studies in heavy nuclei are very scarce due to large valence spaces involved. This computational problem can be avoided by means of the use of symmetry-based models. Ground-state, γ and β bands, and their B(E2) transition strengths in 160-168 Dy isotopes, are studied in the framework of the pseudo-SU(3) model which includes the preserving symmetry Q . Q term and the symmetry-breaking Nilsson and pairing terms, systematically parametrized. Additionally, three rotor-like terms are considered, whose free parameters, fixed for all members of the chain, are used to fine tune the moment of inertia of rotational bands and the band head of γ and β bands. The model succesfully describes in a systematic way rotational features in these nuclei and allows to extrapolate toward the midshell nucleus 170 Dy. The results presented show that it is possible to study a full chain of isotopes or isotones in the region with the present model. (orig.)

  9. Microscopic study of neutron-rich dysprosium isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargas, Carlos E. [Universidad Veracruzana, Facultad de Fisica e Inteligencia Artificial, Xalapa (Mexico); Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Facultad de Ciencias, Apartado Postal 70-542, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Velazquez, Victor [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Facultad de Ciencias, Apartado Postal 70-542, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Lerma, Sergio [Universidad Veracruzana, Facultad de Fisica e Inteligencia Artificial, Xalapa (Mexico)

    2013-01-15

    Microscopic studies in heavy nuclei are very scarce due to large valence spaces involved. This computational problem can be avoided by means of the use of symmetry-based models. Ground-state, {gamma} and {beta} bands, and their B(E2) transition strengths in {sup 160-168}Dy isotopes, are studied in the framework of the pseudo-SU(3) model which includes the preserving symmetry Q . Q term and the symmetry-breaking Nilsson and pairing terms, systematically parametrized. Additionally, three rotor-like terms are considered, whose free parameters, fixed for all members of the chain, are used to fine tune the moment of inertia of rotational bands and the band head of {gamma} and {beta} bands. The model succesfully describes in a systematic way rotational features in these nuclei and allows to extrapolate toward the midshell nucleus {sup 170}Dy. The results presented show that it is possible to study a full chain of isotopes or isotones in the region with the present model. (orig.)

  10. Anatomy of the thriple oxygen isotope Terrestrial Fractionatoin Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Z. D.; Pack, A.

    2017-12-01

    In the triple oxygen isotope system, it is well established that the δ17O value of nearly all terrestrial materials is approximately ½ that of the corresponding δ18O value. In triple isotope space then, all samples plot on a slope 1/2 line, termed the Terrestrial Fractionation Line (TFL). It has recently been recognized that subtle, but significant departures from the TFL exist, given by Δ'17O = δ'17O -λ× δ'18O + γ, where λ is the slope of the TFL (γ is the y-intercept and assumed to be zero in most studies). There have been many published λ values, ranging from 0.52 to 0.5305. λ values determined from a best-fit to rock and mineral samples range from 0.5244 to 0.5266. λ values from meteoric waters are 0.527 to 0.528 (γ = 0.007 to 0.034), explained by equilibrium and kinetic processes. Extreme polar glacial samples define a λ >0.53. As pointed out by Matsuhisia et al. (GCA, 1978), there is no single factor that controls the δ17O-δ18O slope, and clearly there is no `correct' TFL line. However, some generalities can be noted. 1) Meteoric waters generally plot with a λ = 0.528 with a Δ'17O = 0.033. At both high and low δ18O values, the Δ'17O values of meteoritic waters decrease. Mantle derived samples plot in a limited δ space, with δ18O values of 5-9‰ and a Δ'17O of -0.05‰. Rock and mineral samples falling outside this narrow range have undergone interaction with meteoric or ocean water at some point in their history, either by alteration or neoform mineral growth. The quartz-water triple isotope fractionation factor varies with temperatures, ranging from 0.5237 to 0.5266 at 0°C and 200°C, respective. A fit to published rock data gives an overall λ = 0.5237-0.5240. These results are most likely explained by the sum of hydrothermal and low-temperature mineral-water fractionations. Attempting to place any significance on a TFL from a set of data in unwarranted without understanding the processes controlling the isotopic compositions of

  11. The oxygen isotope composition of earth's oldest rocks and evidence of a terrestrial magma ocean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rumble, D.; Bowring, S.; Iizuka, T.

    2013-01-01

    Analysis of Hadean and Archean rocks for O-16-O-17-O-18 isotopes demonstrates that the Terrestrial Mass Fractionation Line of oxygen isotopes has had the same slope and intercept for at least the past 4.0 and probably for as long as 4.2Ga. The homogenization of oxygen isotopes required to produce....... But other sources of heat for global melting cannot be excluded such as bolide impacts during early accretion of proto-Earth, the decay of short-lived radioactive isotopes, or the energy released during segregation of core from mantle.......Analysis of Hadean and Archean rocks for O-16-O-17-O-18 isotopes demonstrates that the Terrestrial Mass Fractionation Line of oxygen isotopes has had the same slope and intercept for at least the past 4.0 and probably for as long as 4.2Ga. The homogenization of oxygen isotopes required to produce...... such long-lived consistency was most easily established by mixing in a terrestrial magma ocean. The measured identical oxygen isotope mass fractionation lines for Earth and Moon suggest that oxygen isotope reservoirs of both bodies were homogenized at the same time during a giant moon-forming impact...

  12. Preliminary results of oxygen isotope ratio measurement with a particle-gamma coincidence method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borysiuk, Maciek, E-mail: maciek.borysiuk@pixe.lth.se; Kristiansson, Per; Ros, Linus; Abdel, Nassem S.; Elfman, Mikael; Nilsson, Charlotta; Pallon, Jan

    2015-04-01

    The possibility to study variations in the oxygen isotopic ratio with photon tagged nuclear reaction analysis (pNRA) is evaluated in the current work. The experiment described in the article was performed at Lund Ion Beam Analysis Facility (LIBAF) with a 2 MeV deuteron beam. Isotopic fractionation of light elements such as carbon, oxygen and nitrogen is the basis of many analytical tools in hydrology, geology, paleobiology and paleogeology. IBA methods provide one possible tool for measurement of isotopic content. During this experimental run we focused on measurement of the oxygen isotopic ratio. The measurement of stable isotopes of oxygen has a number of applications; the particular one driving the current investigation belongs to the field of astrogeology and specifically evaluation of fossil extraterrestrial material. There are three stable isotopes of oxygen: {sup 16}O, {sup 17}O and {sup 18}O. We procured samples highly enriched with all three isotopes. Isotopes {sup 16}O and {sup 18}O were easily detected in the enriched samples, but no significant signal from {sup 17}O was detected in the same samples. The measured yield was too low to detect {sup 18}O in a sample with natural abundances of oxygen isotopes, at least in the current experimental setup, but the spectral line from the reaction with {sup 16}O was clearly visible.

  13. Reaeration of oxygen in shallow, macrophyte rich streams. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thyssen, N.; Erlandsen, M.; Jeppesen, E.

    1987-01-01

    The rate coefficient K 2 for the exchange of oxygen between flowing water and the atmosphere (reaeration) has been studied in six Danish streams covering a relatively wide range of hydraulic conditions, pollutional loading, and macrophyte abundance. 103 K 2 measurements were performed in 1978-85. 82 measurements were obtained applying 5 different indirect methods all balancing the sources and sinks of stream dissolved oxygen under conditions of normal operation of the system (3 methods) and under artificial depletion of the oxygen concentration of the stream water by addition of sodium sulfite (2 methods). 21 K 2 values were determined directly applying the gaseous tracer 85 Kr for reaeration. Guidelines for selecting a proper method to determine K 2 knowing macrophyte biomass and loading characteristics of the particular stream are provided. (author)

  14. Oxygen isotope separation by isotopically selective infrared multiphoton dissociation of 2,3-dihydropyran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoyama, Atsushi; Ohba, Hironori; Akagi, Hiroshi; Yokoyama, Keiichi; Saeki, Morihisa; Katsumata, Keiichi

    2008-01-01

    Oxygen isotopic selectivity on infrared multiphoton dissociation of 2,3-dihydropyran has been studied by the examination of the effects of excitation frequency, laser fluence, and gas pressure on the dissociation probability of 2,3-dihydropyran and isotopic composition of products. Oxygen-18 was enriched in a dissociation product: 2-propenal. The enrichment factor of 18 O and the dissociation probability were measured at laser frequency between 1033.5 and 1057.3 cm -1 ; the laser fluence of 2.2 - 2.3 J/cm 2 ; and the 2,3-dihydropyran pressure of 0.27 kPa. The dissociation probability decreases as the laser frequency being detuned from the absorption peak of 2,3-dihydropyran around 1081 cm -1 . On the other hand, the enrichment factor increases with detuning the frequency. The enrichment factor of 18 O increases with increasing the 2,3-dihydropyran pressure at the laser fluence below 3 J/cm 2 and the laser frequency of 1033.5 cm -1 , whereas the yield of 2-propenal decreases with increasing the pressure. Very high enrichment factor of 751 was obtained by the irradiation of 0.53 kPa of 2,3-dihydropyran at 2.1 J/cm 2 . (author)

  15. Microscopic multiphonon approach to spectroscopy in the neutron-rich oxygen region

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Gregorio, G.; Knapp, F.; Lo Iudice, N.; Veselý, P.

    2018-03-01

    Background: A fairly rich amount of experimental spectroscopic data have disclosed intriguing properties of the nuclei in the region of neutron rich oxygen isotopes up to the neutron dripline. They, therefore, represent a unique laboratory for studying the evolution of nuclear structure away from the stability line. Purpose: We intend to give an exhaustive microscopic description of low and high energy spectra, dipole response, weak, and electromagnetic properties of the even 22O and the odd 23O and 23F. Method: An equation of motion phonon method generates an orthonormal basis of correlated n -phonon states (n =0 ,1 ,2 ,⋯ ) built of constituent Tamm-Dancoff phonons. This basis is adopted to solve the full eigenvalue equations in even nuclei and to construct an orthonormal particle-core basis for the eigenvalue problem in odd nuclei. No approximations are involved and the Pauli principle is taken into full account. The method is adopted to perform self-consistent, parameter free, calculations using an optimized chiral nucleon-nucleon interaction in a space encompassing up to two-phonon basis states. Results: The computed spectra in 22O and 23O and the dipole cross section in 22O are in overall agreement with the experimental data. The calculation describes poorly the spectrum of 23F. Conclusions: The two-phonon configurations play a crucial role in the description of spectra and transitions. The large discrepancies concerning the spectra of 23F are ultimately traced back to the large separation between the Hartree-Fock levels belonging to different major shells. We suggest that a more compact single particle spectrum is needed and can be generated by a new chiral potential which includes explicitly the contribution of the three-body forces.

  16. Temperature evolution and the oxygen isotope composition of Phanerozoic oceans from carbonate clumped isotope thermometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkes, Gregory A.; Passey, Benjamin H.; Grossman, Ethan L.; Shenton, Brock J.; Yancey, Thomas E.; Pérez-Huerta, Alberto

    2018-05-01

    Surface temperature is among the most important parameters describing planetary climate and habitability, and yet there remains considerable debate about the temperature evolution of the Earth's oceans during the Phanerozoic Eon (541 million years ago to present), the time during which complex metazoan life radiated on Earth. Here we critically assess the emerging record of Phanerozoic ocean temperatures based on carbonate clumped isotope thermometry of fossil brachiopod and mollusk shells, and we present new data that fill important gaps in the Late Paleozoic record. We evaluate and reject the hypothesis that solid-state reordering of 13C-18O bonds has destroyed the primary clumped isotope temperature signal of most fossils during sedimentary burial at elevated temperatures. The resulting Phanerozoic record, which shows a general coupling between tropical seawater temperatures and atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) levels since the Paleozoic, indicates that tropical temperatures during the icehouse climate of the Carboniferous period were broadly similar to present (∼25-30 °C), and suggests that benthic metazoans were able to thrive at temperatures of 35-40 °C during intervals of the early and possibly the latest Paleozoic when CO2 levels were likely 5-10× higher than present-day values. Equally important, there is no resolvable trend in seawater oxygen isotope ratios (δ18 O) over the past ∼500 million years, indicating that the average temperature of oxygen exchange between seawater and the oceanic crust has been high (∼270 °C) since at least the early Paleozoic, which points to mid-ocean ridges as the dominant locus of water-rock interaction over the past half-billion years.

  17. Alpha radioactivity for proton-rich even Pb isotopes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Alpha radioactivity; proton-rich nuclei; half-life. PACS Nos 23.60.+e; 23.90. ... Z/N ∼= 0.65 to the region close to proton drip line with Z/N ∼= 0.82. The existing ... In the present work we have studied the systematic for alpha emission ..... 80. 0.200. 0.402. 0.497. 8.0. 320.51. 0.333. 0.754. 0.441. 16.0. 1300.72. 0.414. 0.927.

  18. Carbon-13 and oxygen-18 isotope effects in the decarboxylation of nicotinic acid of natural isotopic composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zielinski, M.; Zielinska, A.; Papiernik-Zielinska, H.; McKenzie, J.A.; Bernasconi, S.; Paul, H.

    1998-01-01

    Carbon-13 and oxygen-18 isotope effects in the decarboxylation of nicotinic acid of natural isotopic composition above and below its melting temperature have been studied and compared with the primary (PKIE) and secondary kinetic isotope effects (SKIE) of 13 C and 18 O, respectively, in the decarboxylation of other heterocyclic acids. The temperature dependence of the secondary oxygen-18 isotope effects is negative in the total 221-255 deg C temperature interval investigated initially. The 13 C KIE measured above melting point of N.A. (temperature interval 235-270 deg C) are located in the range 1.007-1.009. Below melting point of nicotinic acid the 13 C KIE are larger and reveal the negative temperature dependence ( 13 C KIE decreases with decreasing the reaction temperature from 1.013/at 230 deg C to 1.0114/at 221 deg C). A discussion of the above isotopic results is presented. (author)

  19. Oxygen Isotopes Archived in Subfossil Chironomids: Advancing a Promising Proxy for Lake Water Isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasher, G. E.; Axford, Y.; Blair, N. E.

    2017-12-01

    Oxygen isotopes measured in subfossil chironomid head capsules (aquatic insect remains) in lake sediments are beginning to offer paleoclimate insights from previously under-studied areas of the world. Since the first published pilot study demonstrated the potential of chironomid δ18O to record lake water δ18O (Wooller et al., 2004), subsequent work has refined our understanding of this proxy: confirming via lab cultures that growth water controls head capsule δ18O (Wang et al., 2009), refining laboratory pretreatment protocols, and further validating the method by demonstrating strong agreement between carbonate and chironomid-derived paleo-isotope records (Verbruggen et al., 2009, 2010, 2011). However, outstanding questions remain, including the seasonality of chironomid growth, possible species-dependent vital effects, and diagenetic effects on the protein-chitin complex that comprise chironomid cuticles. To address some of these questions, we summarize available data from paired modern chironomid-lake water δ18O values from around the world and discuss climatic and environmental factors affecting chironomid isotopic signatures. We also present new data on the resistance of these subfossils to diagenesis and degradation throughout the late Quaternary using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Pyrolysis Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) of chironomid remains up to >100,000 years old. As chironomids are nearly ubiquitous in lakes globally and, we argue, molecularly stable through glacial and interglacial cycles, this proxy has the potential to greatly expand the spatial and temporal resolution of Quaternary paleo-isotopes and thus climate records. In addition to reviewing and presenting new methodological advances, we also present applications of chironomid δ18O from millennial- to centennial-scale Holocene Greenland lake records.

  20. Stable isotope ratio measurements in hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen using Raman scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harney, R.C.; Bloom, S.D.; Milanovich, F.P.

    1975-01-01

    A method for measuring stable isotope ratios using laser Raman scattering was developed which may prove of significant utility and benefit in stable isotope tracer studies. Crude isotope ratio measurements obtained with a low-power laser indicate that with current technology it should be possible to construct an isotope ratio measurement system using laser Raman scattering that is capable of performing 0.1 percent accuracy isotope ratio measurements of 16 O/ 18 O in natural abundance oxygen gas or 14 N/ 15 N in natural abundance nitrogen gas in times less than two minutes per sample. Theory pertinent to the technique, designs of specific isotope ratio spectrometer systems, and data relating to isotope ratio measurements in hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen are presented. In addition, the current status of several studies utilizing this technique is discussed. (auth)

  1. Fractionation of oxygen isotopes between mammalian bone-phosphate and environmental drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luz, B.; Kolodny, V.; Horowitz, M.

    1984-01-01

    The delta 18 O of mammalian bone-phosphate varies linearly with delta 18 O of environmental water, but is not in isotopic equilibrium with that water. This situation is explained by a model of delta 18 O in body water in which the important fluxes of exchangeable oxygen through the body are taken into account. Fractionation of oxygen isotopes between body and environmental drinking water is dependent on the rates of drinking and respiration. Isotopic fractionation can be estimated from physiological data and the estimates correlate very well with observed fractionation. Species whose water consumption is large relative to its energy expenditure is sensitive to isotopic ratio changes in environmental water. (author)

  2. Near Surface CO2 Triple Oxygen Isotope Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasadhar Mahata

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The isotopic composition of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is a powerful tool for constraining its sources and sinks. In particular, the 17O oxygen anomaly [Δ17O = 1000 × ln(1 + δ17O/1000 - 0.516 × 1000 × ln(1 + δ18O/1000], with a value > 0.5‰ produced in the middle atmosphere, provides an ideal tool for probing the exchange of carbon dioxide between the biosphere/hydrosphere and atmosphere. The biosphere/hydrosphere and anthropogenic emissions give values ≤ 0.3‰. Therefore, any anomaly in near surface CO2 would reflect the balance between stratospheric input and exchange with the aforementioned surface sources. We have analyzed Δ17O values of CO2 separated from air samples collected in Taipei, Taiwan, located in the western Pacific region. The obtained mean anomaly is 0.42 ± 0.14‰ (1-σ standard deviation, in good agreement with model prediction and a published decadal record. Apart from typically used δ13C and δ18O values, the Δ17O value could provide an additional tracer for constraining the carbon cycle.

  3. Neutron-rich polonium isotopes studied with in-source laser spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Dexters, Wim; Cocolios, T E

    This work studies the unknown region of neutron rich polonium isotopes. The polonium isotopes, with Z=84, lie above the magic lead nuclei (Z=82). The motivation for this research can mainly be found in these lead nuclei. When looking at the changes in the mean square charge radii beyond the N=126 shell gap, a kink is observed. This kink is also found in the radon (Z=86) and radium (Z=88) isotopes. The observed effect cannot be reproduced with our current models. The polonium isotopes yield more information on the kink and they are also able to link the known charge radii in lead isotopes to those in radon and radium. Additionally, the nuclear moments of the odd-neutron isotope $^{211}$Po are investigated. This nucleus has two protons and one neutron more than the doubly magic nucleus $^{208}$Pb. Nuclear moments of isotopes close to this doubly magic nucleus are good tests for the theoretic models. Besides pushing the models to their limits, the nuclear moments of $^{211}$Po also yield new information on the f...

  4. Oxygen and hydrogen isotope fractionation during cellulose metabolism in Lemna gibba L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yakir, D.; DeNiro, M.J.

    1990-01-01

    Lemna gibba L. B3 was grown under heterotrophic, photoheterotrophic, and autotrophic conditions in water having a variety of hydrogen and oxygen isotopic compositions. The slopes of the linear regression lines between the isotopic composition of water and leaf cellulose indicated that under the three growth conditions about 40, 70, and 100% of oxygens and carbon-bound hydrogens of cellulose exchanged with those of water prior to cellulose formation. Using the equations of the linear relationships, we estimated the overall fractionation factors between water and the exchanged oxygen and carbon bound-hydrogen of cellulose. At least two very different isotope effects must determine the hydrogen isotopic composition of Lemna cellulose. One reflects the photosynthetic reduction of NADP, while the second reflects exchange reactions that occur subsequent to NADP reduction. Oxygen isotopic composition of cellulose apparently is determined by a single type of exchange reaction with water. Under different growth conditions, variations in metabolic fluxes affect the hydrogen isotopic composition of cellulose by influencing the extent to which the two isotope effects mentioned above are recorded. The oxygen isotopic composition of cellulose is not affected by such changes in growth conditions

  5. Chemical complexity in the winds of the oxygen-rich supergiant star VY Canis Majoris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziurys, L. M.; Milam, S. N.; Apponi, A. J.; Woolf, N. J.

    2007-06-01

    The interstellar medium is enriched primarily by matter ejected from old, evolved stars. The outflows from these stars create spherical envelopes, which foster gas-phase chemistry. The chemical complexity in circumstellar shells was originally thought to be dominated by the elemental carbon to oxygen ratio. Observations have suggested that envelopes with more carbon than oxygen have a significantly greater abundance of molecules than their oxygen-rich analogues. Here we report observations of molecules in the oxygen-rich shell of the red supergiant star VY Canis Majoris (VY CMa). A variety of unexpected chemical compounds have been identified, including NaCl, PN, HNC and HCO+. From the spectral line profiles, the molecules can be distinguished as arising from three distinct kinematic regions: a spherical outflow, a tightly collimated, blue-shifted expansion, and a directed, red-shifted flow. Certain species (SiO, PN and NaCl) exclusively trace the spherical flow, whereas HNC and sulphur-bearing molecules (amongst others) are selectively created in the two expansions, perhaps arising from shock waves. CO, HCN, CS and HCO+ exist in all three components. Despite the oxygen-rich environment, HCN seems to be as abundant as CO. These results suggest that oxygen-rich shells may be as chemically diverse as their carbon counterparts.

  6. Shape mixing dynamics in the low-lying states of proton-rich Kr isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Koichi; Hinohara, Nobuo

    2011-01-01

    We study the oblate-prolate shape mixing in the low-lying states of proton-rich Kr isotopes using the five-dimensional quadrupole collective Hamiltonian. The collective Hamiltonian is derived microscopically by means of the CHFB (constrained Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov) + Local QRPA (quasiparticle random phase approximation) method, which we have developed recently on the basis of the adiabatic self-consistent collective coordinate method. The results of the numerical calculation show the importance of large-amplitude collective vibrations in the triaxial shape degree of freedom and rotational effects on the oblate-prolate shape mixing dynamics in the low-lying states of these isotopes.

  7. High-accuracy mass measurements of neutron-rich Kr isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Delahaye, P; Blaum, K; Carrel, F; George, S; Herfurth, F; Herlert, A; Kellerbauer, A G; Kluge, H J; Lunney, D; Schweikhard, L; Yazidjian, C

    2006-01-01

    The atomic masses of the neutron-rich krypton isotopes 84,86-95Kr have been determined with the tandem Penning trap mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP with uncertainties ranging from 20 to 220 ppb. The masses of the short-lived isotopes 94Kr and 95Kr were measured for the first time. The masses of the radioactive nuclides 89Kr and 91Kr disagree by 4 and 6 standard deviations, respectively, from the present Atomic-Mass Evaluation database. The resulting modification of the mass surface with respect to the two-neutron separation energies as well as implications for mass models and stellar nucleosynthesis are discussed.

  8. LBA-ECO CD-02 Carbon, Nitrogen, Oxygen Stable Isotopes in Organic Material, Brazil

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set reports the measurement of stable carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen isotope ratios in organic material (plant, litter and soil samples) in forest canopy...

  9. LBA-ECO CD-02 Carbon, Nitrogen, Oxygen Stable Isotopes in Organic Material, Brazil

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set reports the measurement of stable carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen isotope ratios in organic material (plant, litter and soil samples) in forest...

  10. Ras Umm Sidd Oxygen Isotope (delta 18O) Data for 1750 to 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Ras Umm Sidd bimonthly coral oxygen isotope data (coral core RUS-95). Notes on the data: File (Ras Umm Sidd d18O.txt.) includes columns for Year AD (bimonthly...

  11. Comparison of interglacial warm events since the marine oxygen isotope stage 11

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Oba, T.; Banakar, V.K.

    Large numbers of oxygen isotopic curves of benthic foraminifcral tests from deep-sea sediment cores have been published. The curves are well-established reliable proxies for past climate and relative sea level fluctuations. In order to understand...

  12. Palmyra Island Monthly Oxygen Isotope Data (delta 18O) for 1886-1998

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Palmyra Island Monthly Coral Oxygen Isotope Data. 112-yr, monthly-resolved coral record from Palmyra Island (5 deg 52 min N, 162 deg 8 min W). The coral was drilled...

  13. Oxygen isotope systematics of chondrules in the Allende CV3 chondrite: High precision ion microprobe studies

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rudraswami, N.G.; Ushikubo, T.; Nakashima, D.; Kita, N.T.

    grains and some of them were derived from precursors related to refractory inclusions. However, most relict olivine grains show oxygen isotope ratios that overlap with those in homogeneous chondrules. The delta sup(17)O values of four barred olivine...

  14. Interaction cross sections and matter radii of oxygen isotopes using the Glauber model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Suhel; Usmani, A. A.; Ahmad, Shakeb; Khan, Z. A.

    2017-05-01

    Using the Coulomb modified correlation expansion for the Glauber model S matrix, we calculate the interaction cross sections of oxygen isotopes (O-2616) on 12C at 1.0 GeV/nucleon. The densities of O-2616 are obtained using (i) the Slater determinants consisting of the harmonic oscillator single-particle wave functions (SDHO) and (ii) the relativistic mean-field approach (RMF). Retaining up to the two-body density term in the correlation expansion, the calculations are performed employing the free as well as the in-medium nucleon-nucleon (N N ) scattering amplitude. The in-medium N N amplitude considers the effects arising due to phase variation, higher momentum transfer components, and Pauli blocking. Our main focus in this work is to reveal how could one make the best use of SDHO densities with reference to the RMF one. The results demonstrate that the SDHO densities, along with the in-medium N N amplitude, are able to provide satisfactory explanation of the experimental data. It is found that, except for O,2423, the predicted SDHO matter rms radii of oxygen isotopes closely agree with those obtained using the RMF densities. However, for O,2423, our results require reasonably larger SDHO matter rms radii than the RMF values, thereby predicting thicker neutron skins in 23O and 24O as compared to RMF ones. In conclusion, the results of the present analysis establish the utility of SDHO densities in predicting fairly reliable estimates of the matter rms radii of neutron-rich nuclei.

  15. EQUILIBRIUM AND KINETIC NITROGEN AND OXYGEN-ISOTOPE FRACTIONATIONS BETWEEN DISSOLVED AND GASEOUS N2O

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    INOUE, HY; MOOK, WG

    1994-01-01

    Experiments were performed to determine the equilibrium as well as kinetic stable nitrogen and oxygen isotope fractionations between aqueous dissolved and gaseous N2O. The equilibrium fractionations, defined as the ratio of the isotopic abundance ratios (15R and 18R, respectively) of gaseous and

  16. Sulfur and Oxygen Isotope Fractionation During Bacterial Sulfur Disproportionation Under Anaerobic Haloalkaline Conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poser, Alexander; Vogt, Carsten; Knöller, Kay; Sorokin, Dimitry Y.; Finster, Kai W.; Richnow, Hans H.

    2016-01-01

    Sulfur and oxygen isotope fractionation of elemental sulfur disproportionation at anaerobic haloalkaline conditions was evaluated for the first time. Isotope enrichment factors of the strains Desulfurivibrio alkaliphilus and Dethiobacter alkaliphilus growing at pH 9 or 10 were −0.9‰ to −1‰ for

  17. Nuclear structure far from stability: the neutron-rich 69-79Cu isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franchoo, Serge

    2015-01-01

    Far from stability, the nuclear structure that is predicted by the shell model is evolving. Old magic numbers disappear, while new ones appear. Our understanding of the underlying nuclear force that drives these changes is still incomplete. After a short overview across the nuclear chart, we discuss the strength functions of the shell-model orbitals in the neutron-rich copper isotopes towards the 78 Ni doubly-magic nucleus. These were measured in a 72 Zn(d, 3 He) 71 Cu proton pick-up reaction in inverse kinematics with a radioactive beam at the Ganil laboratory in France. We also present the latest results from a 80 Zn(p,2p) 79 Cu knockout experiment at Riken in Japan, leading to selective population of hole states in 79 Cu. Our findings show that the Z=28 shell gap in the neutron-rich copper isotopes is surprisingly steady against the addition of neutrons beyond N=40. (author)

  18. Oxygen isotope study of the Long Valley magma system, California: isotope thermometry and convection in large silicic magma bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindeman, Ilya; Valley, John

    2002-07-01

    Products of voluminous pyroclastic eruptions with eruptive draw-down of several kilometers provide a snap-shot view of batholith-scale magma chambers, and quench pre-eruptive isotopic fractionations (i.e., temperatures) between minerals. We report analyses of oxygen isotope ratio in individual quartz phenocrysts and concentrates of magnetite, pyroxene, and zircon from individual pumice clasts of ignimbrite and fall units of caldera-forming 0.76 Ma Bishop Tuff (BT), pre-caldera Glass Mountain (2.1-0.78 Ma), and post-caldera rhyolites (0.65-0.04 Ma) to characterize the long-lived, batholith-scale magma chamber beneath Long Valley Caldera in California. Values of δ18O show a subtle 1‰ decrease from the oldest Glass Mountain lavas to the youngest post-caldera rhyolites. Older Glass Mountain lavas exhibit larger ( 1‰) variability of δ18O(quartz). The youngest domes of Glass Mountain are similar to BT in δ18O(quartz) values and reflect convective homogenization during formation of BT magma chamber surrounded by extremely heterogeneous country rocks (ranging from 2 to +29‰). Oxygen isotope thermometry of BT confirms a temperature gradient between "Late" (815 °C) and "Early" (715 °C) BT. The δ18O(quartz) values of "Early" and "Late" BT are +8.33 and 8.21‰, consistent with a constant δ18O(melt)=7.8+/-0.1‰ and 100 °C temperature difference. Zircon-melt saturation equilibria gives a similar temperature range. Values of δ18O(quartz) for different stratigraphic units of BT, and in pumice clasts ranging in pre-eruptive depths from 6 to 11 km (based on melt inclusions), and document vertical and lateral homogeneity of δ18O(melt). Worldwide, five other large-volume rhyolites, Lava Creek, Lower Bandelier, Fish Canyon, Cerro Galan, and Toba, exhibit equal δ18O(melt) values of earlier and later erupted portions in each of the these climactic caldera-forming eruptions. We interpret the large-scale δ18O homogeneity of BT and other large magma chambers as evidence

  19. Oxygen Isotope Records in Modern Oyster Shells from Chi Ku, Tainan and Their Implication of Seasonality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y. C.; Mii, H. S.; Li, K. T.

    2015-12-01

    To exam whether oxygen isotope records of Crassostrea gigasoysters can be used as proxies of environment, 133 cultivated oysters and 21 water samples were collected from Chi Ku area, Tainan City, southern Taiwan in December of 2012, and from March, 2013 to July, 2014. Instrumental air and water temperatures and precipitation records were obtained from a nearest Central Weather Bureau (CWB) station roughly 16 km north of Chi Ku. The oxygen and carbon isotope values of the ligamental area of the modern oyster shells are from -6.92‰ to -0.08‰ (-3.05 ± 1.17‰, N = 2280; 1σ; VPDB) and from -5.57‰ to 0.63‰ (-1.88 ± 0.81‰), respectively. Oxygen isotope values of the water samples are mainly between -0.28‰ and 0.74‰ (0.18 ± 0.29‰, N = 20; 1σ; VSMOW). However, water oxygen isotope value of -2.75‰ was observed for the water sample collected immediately after a typhoon heavy rainfall. Seasonal temperature fluctuation pattern of estimated oxygen isotope temperatures from modern shells is similar to that of CWB instrumental records. However, the oxygen isotope temperatures are respectively about 3 °C and 10°C higher than those of instrumental records for winter and summer. Higher estimated oxygen isotope temperatures are most likely caused by underestimated fraction of freshwater. We analyzed 5 archaeological oyster shells of Siraya culture (500~250B.P.) collected from Wu Chien Tuso North (WCTN) archaeological site of Tainan branch of Southern Taiwan Science Park to infer the harvest season of mollusks. Oxygen isotope values of the ligamental area of the archaeological oyster shells are between -5.98‰ and -1.26‰ (-3.34 ± 1.37‰, N = 60; 1σ), and carbon isotope values are between -3.21‰ and 0.60‰ (-2.04‰ ± 0.55‰). The oxygen isotope records of archaeological oyster shells also showed clear seasonality. Most of the oysters were collected in autumn and winter. Oxygen isotope values of archaeological oyster shells was 1‰ greater than that

  20. Quadrupole collectivity beyond N = 50 in neutron- rich Se and Kr isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elman, Brandon; Gade, A.; Barofsky, D.; Bender, P. C.; Bowry, M.; Hjorth-Jensen, M.; Kemper, K. W.; Lipschutz, S.; Lunderberg, E.; Sachmpazidi, N.; Terpstra, N.; Walters, W. B.; Weisshaar, D.; Westerberg, A.; Williams, S. J.; Wimmer, K.

    2017-09-01

    We will present results on measuring the B (E 2 ;01+ ->2n+) strength for the neutron-rich 88,90Kr and 86Se isotopes from intermediate-energy Coulomb excitation. The electric quadrupole transition strengths to the first 2+ state complete, with considerably improved uncertainties, the evolution of quadrupole collectivity in the Kr and Se isotopes approaching N = 60 , for which 90Kr and 86Se had previously been the most uncertain. We also report significant excitation strength to several higher lying 2+ states in the krypton isotopes. The results confirm shell model calculations in the π (fpg) - ν (sdg) shell with only a minimally tuned shell model setup that is based on a nucleon-nucleon interaction derived from effective field theory with effective charges adjusted to 86Kr.

  1. Hydrogen and oxygen isotope exchange reactions over illuminated and nonilluminated TiO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, S.

    1987-01-01

    Hydrogen isotope exchange between H 2 , gaseous H 2 O, and the surface hydroxyls of TiO 2 , and oxygen isotope exchange between O 2 , CO 2 , CO, H 2 O vapor, and the hydroxyls over TiO 3 were studied at room temperature in the dark and under illumination. Hydrogen isotope exchange between H 2 O and the hydroxyls occurred rapidly in the dark, but the exchange involving H 2 did not occur at all even under illumination. Oxygen isotope exchange among H 2 O vapor, CO 2 , and the hydroxyls easily took place in the dark, but the exchange involving O 2 required band-gap illumination. Dioxygen isotope equilibration was much faster than the other photoexchange reactions. Although the oxygen exchange between O 2 and illuminated TiO 2 has been considered to involve lattice-oxygen exchange, the present experiments revealed that the hydroxyls of TiO 2 mainly participate in the exchange reaction. The oxygen exchange between O 2 and H 2 O vapor was strongly inhibited by H 2 O vapor itself probably because oxygen adsorption was retarded by adsorbed water. Oxygen in CO was not exchanged with the other substrates under any conditions tested

  2. Fractionation of oxygen and hydrogen isotopes at the hydrate gas forming in the sea sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pashkina, V.I.; Esikov, A.D.

    1990-01-01

    The paper gives data on isotope composition of interstitial and near-bottom waters sampled in a region of gas-hydrate formation in the Sea of Okhotsk. The studies show that heavy isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen is used in gas-hydrate formation, with the result that isotope composition of its constitution water constitutes δ 18 O=+1.99per mille, δD=+23per mille relatively to SMOW. Formation of autogenic carbonates leads to isotope exchange with interstitial water wich, in turn, changes its primary isotope composition in the direction of increasing of O-18 content. The near-bottom waters are isotope-light relatively to the SMOW standard and to the mean isotope composition of interstitial water in the studied region of gas-hydrate spreading. (orig.) [de

  3. Oxygen isotope calibration of the onset of ice-rafting and history of glaciation in the North Atlantic region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shackleton, N.J.; Backman, J.; Zimmerman, H.; Kent, D.V.; Hall, M.A.; Roberts, David G.; Schnitker, D.; Baldauf, J.G.; Desprairies, A.; Homrighausen, R.; Huddlestun, P.; Keene, J.B.; Kaltenback, A.J.; Krumsiek, K.A.O.; Morton, A.C.; Murray, J.W.; Westberg-Smith, J.

    1984-01-01

    We report here that DSDP Site 552A, cored with the hydraulic piston corer on the west flank of Rockall Bank, recovered an undisturbed sequence of alternating white deep-sea carbonate oozes and dark-coloured layers that are rich in glacial debris. Oxygen isotope analysis of the sequence together with detailed nannofossil and palaeomagnetic stratigraphy shows that the first major horizon of ice-rafting occurred at about 2.4 Myr, and was preceded by a minor pulse of ice-rafting at about 2.5 Myr. The carbon isotope record shows that the site has been bathed by a water mass of similar characteristics to present-day North Atlantic deep water at least since 3.5 Myr. ?? 1984 Nature Publishing Group.

  4. Sources of Holocene variability of oxygen isotopes in paleoclimate archives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. LeGrande

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Variability in water isotopes has been captured in numerous archives and used to infer past climate changes. Here we examine water isotope variability over the course of the Holocene using the water-isotope enabled, coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model, GISS ModelE-R. Eight Holocene time slices, ~1000 years apart are simulated and driven by estimated changes in orbital configuration, greenhouse gases, and ice sheet extent. We find that simulated water isotope archives match well with those seen in ice cores, ocean sediment cores, and speleothems. The climate changes associated with the water isotope changes, however, are more complex than simple modern spatial slope interpretations might suggest. In particular, water isotope variability in Asian speleothems is linked to alterations in landward water vapor transport, not local precipitation, and ice sheet changes over North America lead to the masking of temperature signals in Summit, Greenland. Salinity-seawater isotope variability is complicated by inter-ocean basin exchanges of water vapor. Water isotopes do reflect variability in the hydrology, but are better interpreted in terms of regional hydrological cycle changes rather than as indicators of local climate.

  5. A non-terrestrial 16O-rich isotopic composition for the protosolar nebula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashizume, Ko; Chaussidon, Marc

    2005-03-31

    The discovery in primitive components of meteorites of large oxygen isotopic variations that could not be attributed to mass-dependent fractionation effects has raised a fundamental question: what is the composition of the protosolar gas from which the host grains formed? This composition is probably preserved in the outer layers of the Sun, but the resolution of astronomical spectroscopic measurements is still too poor to be useful for comparison with planetary material. Here we report a precise determination of the oxygen isotopic composition of the solar wind from particles implanted in the outer hundreds of nanometres of metallic grains in the lunar regolith. These layers of the grains are enriched in 16O by >20 +/- 4 per thousand relative to the Earth, Mars and bulk meteorites, which implies the existence in the solar accretion disk of reactions--as yet unknown--that were able to change the 17O/16O and 18O/16O ratios in a way that was not dependent strictly on the mass of the isotope. Photochemical self-shielding of the CO gas irradiated by ultraviolet light may be one of these key processes, because it depends on the abundance of the isotopes, rather than their masses.

  6. Application of carbon and oxygen stable isotopes to the study of Brazilian precambrian

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torquato, J.R.F.

    1980-01-01

    Samples of carbonated rocks of precambrian age are studied. The stable carbon and oxygen isotopes are applied to the study of terrestrial materials considering the variations of some element isotopic composition in function of the environment of sedimentation. The isotopic analysis was done using mass spectrometers. The analytical results and the description of region geology of the site of each sample are presented. The isotopic data are interpreted aiming to the environment of sedimentation. New techniques for better improvement of carbon and oxygen ratios, are proposed, such as: to use the analysis of surface trend and the isotopic logging in mapping of surface and subsurface. A new method for approximated determination of the ages of precambrian carbonated rocks, considering the limitations of their new technique, is also presented. (M.C.K.) [pt

  7. Simultaneous determination of stable carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen isotopes in cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loader, N J; Street-Perrott, F A; Daley, T J; Hughes, P D M; Kimak, A; Levanič, T; Mallon, G; Mauquoy, D; Robertson, I; Roland, T P; van Bellen, S; Ziehmer, M M; Leuenberger, M

    2015-01-06

    A technological development is described through which the stable carbon-, oxygen-, and nonexchangeable hydrogen-isotopic ratios (δ(13)C, δ(18)O, δ(2)H) are determined on a single carbohydrate (cellulose) sample with precision equivalent to conventional techniques (δ(13)C 0.15‰, δ(18)O 0.30‰, δ(2)H 3.0‰). This triple-isotope approach offers significant new research opportunities, most notably in physiology and medicine, isotope biogeochemistry, forensic science, and palaeoclimatology, when isotopic analysis of a common sample is desirable or when sample material is limited.

  8. Sulfur cycling in contaminated aquifers: What can we learn from oxygen isotopes in sulfate? (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoeller, K.; Vogt, C.; Hoth, N.

    2009-12-01

    Bacterial reduction of dissolved sulfate (BSR) is a key process determining the natural attenuation in many contaminated aquifers. For example, in groundwater bodies affected by acid mine drainage (AMD) BSR reduces the contaminant load by producing alkalinity and facilitating a sustainable fixation of sulfur in the sediment. In aquifers contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons sulfate may act as a terminal electron acceptor for the anaerobic oxidation of the organic contaminants to carbon dioxide and water. Due to the isotope selectivity of sulfate reducing bacteria, BSR shows the most pronounced isotope fractionation within the sulfur cycle. While sulfur displays a straightforward kinetic enrichment in the residual sulfate described by the enrichment factor epsilon (ɛ), the mechanism of oxygen isotope fractionation is still being discussed controversially. Nevertheless, it is agreed on that oxygen isotope exchange between ambient water and residual sulfate occurs during BSR in natural environments. With respect to this potential isotope exchange, the fractionation parameter theta (θ) is introduced instead of the kinetic enrichment factor epsilon (ɛ). The dual isotope system considering both sulfate-sulfur and sulfate-oxygen isotope fractionation and the respective fractionation parameters ɛ and θ provides an excellent tool for the recognition and quantification of BSR. Beyond that, the dual isotope approach may help identify and estimate interfering sulfur transformations such as re-oxidation and disproportionation processes which is especially vital for the understanding of the overall natural attenuation potential of the investigated aquifers. We present two examples from different field studies showing the benefits of applying the combination of sulfur and oxygen isotopes in dissolved sulfate to reveal the details of the sulfur cycle. The first case study is concerned with the evaluation of the potential for BSR in an AMD-affected aquifer close to an

  9. Stable carbon and oxygen isotope study on benthic foraminifera ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ajoy K Bhaumik

    2017-07-24

    Jul 24, 2017 ... of a species for isotopic analysis has forced us to select multiple species from down-core samples. Thus ... microhabitat, climatic variability, bottom and pore ...... Trends, rhythms, and aberrations in global climate 65 Ma.

  10. Isotopic-spectral determination of hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen and carbon in semiconductor materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudich, G.K.; Eremeev, V.A.; Li, V.N.; Nemets, V.M.

    1981-01-01

    Techniques of low-temperature isotopic-spectral determination of impurities of hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen and carbon in semiconductor materials Bi, Ge, Pb tellurides are developed. The techniques include selection into special vessel with the known volume (exchanger) of sample analyzed, dosed introduction into exchanger of rare isotope of the element determined ( 2 H, 15 N, 18 O, 13 C) in the form of isotope-containing gas, balancing of the determined element isotopes in the system sample-isotope, containing gas, spectroscopic, determination of its isotope composition in gaseous phase of the system and calculation of the amount of the element determined in the sample. The lower boundaries of the amounts determined constitute 10 -7 , 10 -7 , 10 -6 and 10 -5 mass % respectively when sample of 20 g are used [ru

  11. Production and separation of neutron-rich rare isotopes around and below the Fermi energy

    CERN Document Server

    Souliotis, G A; Chubarian, G; Yennello, S J

    2003-01-01

    The production of n-rich rare isotopes around and below the Fermi energy is investigated using beams from the K500 Superconducting Cyclotron and the MARS recoil separator at the Cyclotron Institute of Texas A and M University. The experimental results from the reactions of 25 MeV/nucleon sup 8 sup 6 Kr + sup 6 sup 4 Ni and 21 MeV/nucleon sup 1 sup 2 sup 4 Sn + sup 1 sup 2 sup 4 Sn are presented and compared with simulations. The calculations involve a deep inelastic transfer (DIT) code for the primary interaction stage followed by the code GEMINI for the de-excitation stage. The results are also compared with the EPAX parametrization. The data on the 25 MeV/nucleon sup 8 sup 6 Kr + sup 6 sup 4 Ni reaction show that both proton-removal and several-neutron pick-up isotopes are produced. An enhancement is observed in the production of n-rich isotopes close to the projectile relative to the predictions of DIT/GEMINI and the expectations of EPAX. The data of 21 MeV/nucleon sup 1 sup 2 sup 4 Sn + sup 1 sup 2 sup 4 ...

  12. Hydrogeochemical and stable isotopic investigations on CO2-rich mineral waters from Harghita Mts. (Eastern Carpathians, Romania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kis, Boglárka-Mercedesz; Baciu, Călin; Kármán, Krisztina; Kékedy-Nagy, Ladislau; Francesco, Italiano

    2013-04-01

    There is a worldwide interest on geothermal, mineral and groundwater as a resource for energy, drinking water supply and therapeutic needs. The increasing trend in replacing tap water with commercial bottled mineral water for drinking purposes has become an economic, hydrogeologic and medical concern in the last decades. Several investigations have been carried out worldwide on different topics related to geothermal and mineral waters, dealing with mineral water quality assessment, origin of geothermal and mineral waters, geochemical processes that influence water chemistry and water-rock interaction In Romania, the Călimani-Gurghiu-Harghita Neogene to Quaternary volcanic chain (Eastern Carpathians) is one of the most important areas from the point of view of CO2-rich mineral waters. These mineral water springs occur within other post-volcanic phenomena like dry CO2 emissions, moffettes, bubbling pools, H2S gas emissions etc. Mineral waters from this area are used for bottling, local spas and drinking purposes for local people. The number of springs, around 2000 according to literature data, shows that there is still a significant unexploited potential for good quality drinking water in this area. Within the youngest segment of the volcanic chain, the Harghita Mts., its volcaniclastic aprons and its boundary with the Transylvanian Basin, we have carried out an investigation on 23 CO2-rich mineral water springs from a hydrogeochemical and stable isotopic point of view. The mineral waters are Ca-Mg-HCO3 to Na-Cl type. Sometimes mixing between the two types can be observed. We have detected a great influence of water-rock interaction on the stable isotopic composition of the mineral waters, shown by isotopic shifts to the heavier oxygen isotope, mixing processes between shallow and deeper aquifers and local thermal anomalies. Acknowledgements: The present work was financially supported by the Romanian National Research Council, Project PN-II-ID-PCE-2011-3-0537 and by

  13. The effect of phosphomonoesterases on the oxygen isotope composition of phosphate

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Sperber, Christian; Kries, Hajo; Tamburini, Federica; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Frossard, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Plants and microorganisms under phosphorus (P) stress release extracellular phosphatases as a strategy to acquire inorganic phosphate (Pi). These enzymes catalyze the hydrolysis of phosphoesters leading to a release of Pi. During the enzymatic hydrolysis an isotopic fractionation (ε) occurs leaving an imprint on the oxygen isotope composition of the released Pi which might be used to trace phosphorus in the environment. Therefore, enzymatic assays with acid phosphatases from wheat germ and potato tuber and alkaline phosphatase from Escherichia coli were prepared in order to determine the oxygen isotope fractionation caused by these enzymes. Adenosine 5‧ monophosphate and glycerol phosphate were used as substrates. The oxygen isotope fractionation caused by acid phosphatases is 20-30‰ smaller than for alkaline phosphatases, resulting in a difference of 5-7.5‰ in δ18O of Pi depending on the enzyme. We attribute the enzyme dependence of the isotopic fractionation to distinct reaction mechanisms of the two types of phosphatases. The observed difference is large enough to distinguish between the two enzymatic processes in environmental samples. These findings show that the oxygen isotope composition of Pi can be used to trace different enzymatic processes, offering an analytical tool that might contribute to a better understanding of the P-cycle in the environment.

  14. Oxygen isotope exchange rate between dissolved sulfate and water at hydrothermal temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiba, H.; Sakai, H.

    1985-01-01

    Oxygen isotope exchange rate between dissolved sulfate and water was experimentally determined at 100, 200 and 300 deg C. The isotope exchange rate is strongly dependent on temperature and pH of the solution. Combining the temperature and pH dependence of the reaction rate, the exchange reaction was estimated to be first-order with respect to sulfate. The logarithm of apparent rate constant of exchange reaction at a given temperature is a function of the pH calculated at the experimental temperatures. From the pH dependence of the apparent rate constant, it was deduced that the isotope exchange reaction between dissolved sulfate and water proceeds through collision between H 2 SO 4 0 and H 2 O at low pH, and between HSO 4 - and H 2 O at intermediate pH. The isotope exchange rate obtained indicates that oxygen isotope geothermometry utilizing the studied isotope exchange is suitable for temperature estimation of geothermal reservoirs. The extrapolated half-life of this reaction to oceanic temperature is about 10 9 years, implying that exchange between oceanic sulfate and water cannot control the oxygen isotope ratio of oceanic sulfates. (author)

  15. Hydrogen and oxygen isotope ratios of geothermal waters in the southern hachimantai area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsubaya, Osamu; Etchu, Hiroshi; Takenaka, Teruo; Yoshida, Yutaka.

    1985-01-01

    Geothermal waters from the Matsukawa and Kakkonda Geothermal Plants, wells at Amihari-Motoyu, and Nyuto and Tazawako areas were isotopically studied. The geothermal waters from Mutsukawa, Kakkonda and Amihari-Motoyu have hydrogen isotope ratios similar to the local meteoric waters, while have higher oxygen isotope ratios than the local meteoric waters. This relationship of hydrogen and oxygen isotope ratios, that is called ''oxygen shift'', means that these geothermal waters are meteoric waters undergone the oxygen isotope exchange with rocks at high temperature of underground. The exygen shifts are 2 -- 3 per mil in Matsukawa and Kakkonda, and 7 per mil in Amihari-Motoyu. This difference may be important to understand the processe of water-rock interaction in this area. The geothermal waters at Nyuto and Tazawako areas also show 2 -- 3 per mil oxygen shift. The steam from the Tazawako-cho well and the hot spring water form the Tsurunoyu are estimated to be vapor and liquid phases separated form a single geothermal water of NaCl type, though the hot water from the Tsurunoyu is diluted with shallow meteoric water. (author)

  16. Study on the preparation of boron-rich film by magnetron sputtering in oxygen atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Zhangmin; Yang, Yiming; Huang, Jian; Ren, Bing; Yu, Hongze; Xu, Run; Ji, Huanhuan; Wang, Lin; Wang, Linjun, E-mail: ljwang@shu.edu.cn

    2016-12-01

    Highlights: • Boron ({sup 10}B) oxide films were successfully grown using RF magnetron sputtering. • Effects of oxygen partial pressure on the property of the films were studied. • Substrates were covered with B-rich film and film surface was covered with B{sub 2}O{sub 3}. • The growth mechanism of films in oxygen atmosphere was analyzed using XPS. - Abstract: In this paper, the growth of boron ({sup 10}B) oxide films on (1 0 0) silicon substrate were achieved by radio frequency (r.f.) magnetron sputtering under the different oxygen partial pressure with a target of boron and boron oxide. The structure and properties of deposited films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy spectrometer (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), respectively. The results showed that the substrate was covered with boron-rich films tightly and the surface of films was covered with B{sub 2}O{sub 3}. And the growth mechanism of boron-rich film in oxygen atmosphere was also analyzed.

  17. Oxygen isotopic composition of mammal bones as a new tool for studying ratios of paleoenvironmental water and paleoclimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longinelli, A.

    1984-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to try to establish quantitative relationships between the average oxygen isotopic composition of local meteoric water, the oxygen isotopic composition of mammal body water and the oxygen isotopic composition of phosphate in mammal bones. These relationships, after calibration of the method on living specimens, would allow quantitative paleoclimatological research based on the measurement of delta 18 O(PO 4 3- ) of fossil mammal bones

  18. Isotopic and Geochemical Signatures of Melgaco CO{sub 2} Rich Cold Mineralwaters, NW Portugal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carreira, P. M.; Nunes, D. [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Unidade de Ciencias Quimicas e Radiofarmaceuticas, Sacavem (Portugal); Marques, J. M. [Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Lisbon (Portugal); Carvalho, M. R. [Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciencias, Departamento de Geologia, Lisbon (Portugal); Antunes da Silva, M. [UNICER Bebidas, S.A, S. Mamede de Infesta (Portugal)

    2013-07-15

    The isotopic and chemical compositions of CO{sub 2} rich mineral waters found in the NW of Portugal were investigated. These mineral waters are mainly related to granitic and granodioritic rocks. Based on their chemical composition, two water types are distinguished (Ca-HCO{sub 3} and Ca-Na-HCO{sub 3}), indicating different underground flow paths. Through comparison with local shallow groundwaters, water chemistry indicates that the Melgaco mineral waters evolved through water-rock interaction with the hosted rocks. Stable isotope data indicates the meteoric origin of these CO{sub 2} rich mineral waters, being recharged from about 480 up to 730 m a.s.l. Considering the {delta}{sup 18}O, {delta}{sup 2}H and the hydrochemical data, no indication of mixing seems to occur between the shallow and deep groundwater systems. The {delta}{sup 13}C determinations carried out on TDIC of the CO{sub 2} rich mineral waters point to the hypothesis of methanogenesis (upper mantle CH{sub 4} source) within the system, leading to {sup 13}C enrichment. The negligible {sup 14}C content ({approx} 2 pMC) also indicates a mantle derived carbon source for the groundwater system. (author)

  19. Investigation of the single Particle Structure of the neutron-rich Sodium Isotopes $^{27-31}\\!$Na

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    We propose to study the single particle structure of the neutron-rich isotopes $^{27-31}\\!$Na. These isotopes will be investigated via neutron pickup reactions in inverse kinematics on a deuterium and a beryllium target. Scattered beam particles and transfer products are detected in a position sensitive detector located around 0$^\\circ$. De-excitation $\\gamma$-rays emitted after an excited state has been populated will be registered by the MINIBALL Germanium array. The results will shed new light on the structure of the neutron-rich sodium isotopes and especially on the region of strong deformation around the N=20 nucleus $^{31}\\!$Na.

  20. Determination of spin, magnetic moment and isotopic shift of neutron rich 205Hg by optical pumping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, J.; Bonn, J.; Huber, G.; Kluge, H.J.; Otten, E.W.; European Organisation for Nuclear Research, Geneva

    1975-01-01

    Neutron rich 205 Hg(Tsub(1/2) = 5.2 min) was produced and on-line mass separated at the ISOLDE facility at CERN. The polarization achieved by optical pumping via the atomic line (6s 21 S 0 - 6s6p 3 P 1 , lambda = 2,537 A) was monitored by the β decay asymmetry. Hyperfine structure and isotopic shift of the 205 Hg absorption line was determined by Zeeman scanning. In addition a magnetic resoncance was performed on the polarized 205 Hg nuclei in the atomic ground state. The results are: I( 205 Hg) = 1/2 (confirmed); μ(I, 205 Hg) = 0.5915(1)μ(N) (uncorrected for diamagnetism); isotopic shift deltaν(204/205) = ν( 205 Hg) - ν( 204 Hg) = -1.8(1)GHz. μ(I) and IS are discussed briefly in the frame of current literature. (orig.) [de

  1. Mass measurements of neutron-rich indium isotopes toward the N =82 shell closure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babcock, C.; Klawitter, R.; Leistenschneider, E.; Lascar, D.; Barquest, B. R.; Finlay, A.; Foster, M.; Gallant, A. T.; Hunt, P.; Kootte, B.; Lan, Y.; Paul, S. F.; Phan, M. L.; Reiter, M. P.; Schultz, B.; Short, D.; Andreoiu, C.; Brodeur, M.; Dillmann, I.; Gwinner, G.; Kwiatkowski, A. A.; Leach, K. G.; Dilling, J.

    2018-02-01

    Precise mass measurements of the neutron-rich In-130125 isotopes have been performed with the TITAN Penning trap mass spectrometer. TITAN's electron beam ion trap was used to charge breed the ions to charge state q =13 + thus providing the necessary resolving power to measure not only the ground states but also isomeric states at each mass number. In this paper, the properties of the ground states are investigated through a series of mass differentials, highlighting trends in the indium isotopic chain as compared to its proton-magic neighbor, tin (Z =50 ). In addition, the energies of the indium isomers are presented. The (8-) level in 128In is found to be 78 keV lower than previously thought and the (21 /2- ) isomer in 127In is shown to be lower than the literature value by more than 150 keV.

  2. Biological fractionation of oxygen and carbon isotopes by recent benthic foraminifera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodruff, F.; Douglas, R.G.

    1980-01-01

    Recent deep-sea benthic foraminifera from five East Pacific Rise box core tops have been analyzed for oxygen and carbon isotopic composition. The five equatorial stations, with water depths of between 3200 and 4600 m, yielded fourteen specific and generic taxonomic groups. Of the taxa analyzed, Uvigerina spp. most closely approaches oxygen isotopic equilibrium with ambient sea water. Pyrgo spp. was next closest to isotopic equilibrium, being on the average 0.59 per thousand depleted in 18 O relative to Uvigerina spp. Oridorsalis umbonatus also has relatively high delta 18 O values. Most other taxa were depleted in 18 O by large amounts. In no taxa was the carbon in the CaCO 3 secreted in carbon isotopic equilibrium with the dissolved HCO 3 - of ambient sea water. (Auth.)

  3. Modelling and Mapping Oxygen-18 Isotope Composition of Precipitation in Spain for Hydrologic and Climatic Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez-Arevalo, J.; Diaz-Teijeiro, M. F. [Centro de Estudios y Experimentacion de Obras Publicas (CEDEX), Madrid (Spain); Castano, S. [Geological Survey of Spain (IGME), Madrid (Spain)

    2013-07-15

    A simple multiple regression model based on two geographic factors (latitude and elevation) has been developed that reproduces reasonably well the spatial distribution of the current mean oxygen-18 isotope composition in precipitation over spain. In a preliminary analysis, additional geographic and climatic factors do not improve the performance of the model. A continuous digital map of oxygen-18 isotope composition in precipitation has been produced by combining the polynomial model with a digital elevation model using GIS tools. Application of the resulting map to several groundwater case studies in spain has shown it to be useful as a reference of the input function to recharge. Further validation of the model, and further testing of its usefulness in surface hydrology and climatic studies, is ongoing through comparison of model results with isotope data from the GNIP database and from isotope studies in hydrogeology and climate change taking place in spain. (author)

  4. Application of the generator coordinate method to neutron-rich Se and Ge isotopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Higashiyama Koji

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The quantum-number projected generator coordinate method (GCM is applied to the neutron-rich Se and Ge isotopes, where the monopole and quadrupole pairing plus quadrupole-quadrupole interaction is employed as an effective interaction. The energy spectra obtained by the GCM are compared to both the shell model results and the experimental data. The GCM reproduces well the energy levels of high-spin states as well as the low-lying states. The structure of the low-lying collective states is analyzed through the GCM wave functions.

  5. β decay and isomeric properties of neutron-rich Ca and Sc isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, H. L.; Mantica, P. F.; Berryman, J. S.; Stoker, J. B.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Carpenter, M. P.; Kay, B. P.; Lauritsen, T.; Zhu, S.; Broda, R.; Cieplicka, N.; Fornal, B.; Grinyer, G. F.; Minamisono, K.; Hoteling, N.; Stefanescu, I.; Walters, W. B.

    2010-01-01

    The isomeric and β-decay properties of neutron-rich 53-57 Sc and 53,54 Ca nuclei near neutron number N=32 are reported, and the low-energy level schemes of 53,54,56 Sc and 53-57 Ti are presented. The low-energy level structures of the 21 Sc isotopes are discussed in terms of the coupling of the valence 1f 7/2 proton to states in the corresponding 20 Ca cores. Implications with respect to the robustness of the N=32 subshell closure are discussed, as well as the repercussions for a possible N=34 subshell closure.

  6. Ground-state configuration of neutron-rich Aluminum isotopes through Coulomb Breakup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakraborty S.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Neutron-rich 34,35Al isotopes have been studied through Coulomb excitation using LAND-FRS setup at GSI, Darmstadt. The method of invariant mass analysis has been used to reconstruct the excitation energy of the nucleus prior to decay. Comparison of experimental CD cross-section with direct breakup model calculation with neutron in p3/2 orbital favours 34Al(g.s⊗νp3/2 as ground state configuration of 35Al. But ground state configuration of 34Al is complicated as evident from γ-ray spectra of 33Al after Coulomb breakup of 34Al.

  7. Study of neutron-rich $^{51−53}$ Ca isotopes via $\\beta$-decay

    CERN Multimedia

    The high Q$_\\beta$ values in certain neutron-rich regions of the chart of nuclides opens up the possibility to study states in the daughter nuclei which lie at high excitation energy, above the neutron separation threshold. We propose to perform spectroscopy of the $\\beta$-delayed neutron emission of the $^{51-53}$K isotopes to study the population of single-particle or particle-hole states both below and above the neutron separation threshold. The VANDLE neutron detector will be used in combination with the IDS tape station setup and Ge detectors.

  8. Coulomb excitation of neutron-rich $^{134-136}$Sn isotopes

    CERN Multimedia

    We propose to study excited states in the isotopes $^{134,136}$Sn by $\\gamma$-ray spectroscopy following "safe" Coulomb excitation. The experiment aims to investigate the evolution of quadrupole collectivity beyond the magic shell closure at N = 82 by the determination of B(E2) values and electric quadrupole moments $\\mathcal{Q}_2$. Recent shell-model calculations using realistic interactions predict possible enhanced collectivity in neutron-rich regions. Evidence for this could be obtained by this experiment. Furthermore, the currently unknown excitation energies of the 2$^+_{1}$ and 4$^+_{1}$ states in $^{136}$Sn will be measured for the first time.

  9. ZIRCONIUM—HAFNIUM ISOTOPE EVIDENCE FROM METEORITES FOR THE DECOUPLED SYNTHESIS OF LIGHT AND HEAVY NEUTRON-RICH NUCLEI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akram, W.; Schönbächler, M. [School of Earth, Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences, The University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Sprung, P. [Institut für Planetologie, Universität Münster, Wilhelm-Klemm-Strasse 10, D-48149 Münster (Germany); Vogel, N. [Institute for Geochemistry and Petrology, ETH, Clausiusstrasse 25, 8092 Zürich (Switzerland)

    2013-11-10

    Recent work based on analyses of meteorite and terrestrial whole-rock samples showed that the r- and s- process isotopes of Hf were homogeneously distributed throughout the inner solar system. We report new Hf isotope data for Calcium-Aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) of the CV3 carbonaceous chondrite Allende, and novel high-precision Zr isotope data for these CAIs and three carbonaceous chondrites (CM, CO, CK). Our Zr data reveal enrichments in the neutron-rich isotope {sup 96}Zr (≤1ε in {sup 96}Zr/{sup 90}Zr) for bulk chondrites and CAIs (∼2ε). Potential isotope effects due to incomplete sample dissolution, galactic and cosmic ray spallation, and the nuclear field shift are assessed and excluded, leading to the conclusion that the {sup 96}Zr isotope variations are of nucleosynthetic origin. The {sup 96}Zr enrichments are coupled with {sup 50}Ti excesses suggesting that both nuclides were produced in the same astrophysical environment. The same CAIs also exhibit deficits in r-process Hf isotopes, which provides strong evidence for a decoupling between the nucleosynthetic processes that produce the light (A ≤ 130) and heavy (A > 130) neutron-rich isotopes. We propose that the light neutron-capture isotopes largely formed in Type II supernovae (SNeII) with higher mass progenitors than the supernovae that produced the heavy r-process isotopes. In the context of our model, the light isotopes (e.g. {sup 96}Zr) are predominantly synthesized via charged-particle reactions in a high entropy wind environment, in which Hf isotopes are not produced. Collectively, our data indicates that CAIs sampled an excess of materials produced in a normal mass (12-25 M{sub ☉}) SNII.

  10. Multiple taxon multiple locality approach to providing oxygen isotope evidence for warm-blooded theropod dinosaurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricke, Henry C.; Rogers, Raymond R.

    2000-09-01

    Oxygen isotope ratios of fossil remains of coexisting taxa from several different localities can be used to help investigate dinosaur thermoregulation. Focusing on the Late Cretaceous, oxygen isotope ratios of crocodile tooth enamel from four separate localities exhibit less of a decrease with latitude than do ratios of tooth enamel from coexisting theropod dinosaurs. A shallower latitudinal gradient for crocodiles is consistent with how oxygen isotope ratios should vary for heterothermic animals having body temperatures coupled with their environments (“cold blooded”), while a steeper gradient for theropods is consistent with how these ratios should vary for homeothermic animals having constant body temperatures independent of their environments (“warm blooded”). This inferred homoethermy in theropods is likely due to higher rates of metabolic heat production relative to crocodiles and is not an artifact of body size.

  11. Rb-Sr Isotopic Systematics of Alkali-Rich Fragments in the Yamato-74442 LL-Chondritic Breccia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, T.; Misawa, K.; Okano, O.; Shih, C.-Y.; Nyquist, L. E.; Simo, J. I.; Tappa, M. J.; Yoneda, S.

    2012-01-01

    Alkali-rich igneous fragments were identified in the brecciated LL-chondrites, Kr henberg (LL5)], Bhola (LL3-6) and Yamato (Y)-74442 (LL4), and show characteristic fractionation patterns of alkaline elements. The K-Rb-Cs-rich fragments in Kr henberg, Bhola, and Y-74442 are very similar in mineralogy and petrography (olivine + pyroxene + glass), suggesting that they could have come from related precursor materials. We have undertaken Rb-Sr isotopic studies on alkali-rich fragments in Y-74442 to precisely determine their crystallization ages and the isotopic signatures of their precursor material(s).

  12. Oxygen isotopic signature of CO2 from combustion processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schumacher, M.; Werner, R. A.; Meijer, H. A. J.; Brand, W. A.; Geilmann, H.; Neubert, R. E. M.; Kaiser, J.; Jansen, Henk G.

    2011-01-01

    For a comprehensive understanding of the global carbon cycle precise knowledge of all processes is necessary. Stable isotope (C-13 and O-18) abundances provide information for the qualification and the quantification of the diverse source and sink processes. This study focuses on the delta O-18

  13. No oxygen isotope exchange between water and APS-sulfate at surface temperature: Evidence from quantum chemical modeling and triple-oxygen isotope experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohl, Issaku E.; Asatryan, Rubik; Bao, Huiming

    2012-10-01

    In both laboratory experiments and natural environments where microbial dissimilatory sulfate reduction (MDSR) occurs in a closed system, the δ34S ((34S/32S)sample/(34S/32S)standard - 1) for dissolved SO42- has been found to follow a typical Rayleigh-Distillation path. In contrast, the corresponding δ18O ((18O/16O)sample/(18O/16O)standard) - 1) is seen to plateau with an apparent enrichment of between 23‰ and 29‰ relative to that of ambient water under surface conditions. This apparent steady-state in the observed difference between δ18O and δ18OO can be attributed to any of these three steps: (1) the formation of adenosine-5'-phosphosulfate (APS) from ATP and SO42-, (2) oxygen exchange between sulfite (or other downstream sulfoxy-anions) and water later in the MDSR reaction chain and its back reaction to APS and sulfate, and (3) the re-oxidation of produced H2S or precursor sulfoxy-anions to sulfate in environments containing Fe(III) or O2. This study examines the first step as a potential pathway for water oxygen incorporation into sulfate. We examined the structures and process of APS formation using B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) hybrid density functional theory, implemented in the Gaussian-03 program suite, to predict the potential for oxygen exchange. We conducted a set of in vitro, enzyme-catalyzed, APS formation experiments (with no further reduction to sulfite) to determine the degree of oxygen isotope exchange between the APS-sulfate and water. Triple-oxygen-isotope labeled water was used in the reactor solutions to monitor oxygen isotope exchange between water and APS sulfate. The formation and hydrolysis of APS were identified as potential steps for oxygen exchange with water to occur. Quantum chemical modeling indicates that the combination of sulfate with ATP has effects on bond strength and symmetry of the sulfate. However, these small effects impart little influence on the integrity of the SO42- tetrahedron due to the high activation energy required for

  14. Laser Spectroscopic Analysis of Liquid Water Samples for Stable Hydrogen and Oxygen Isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Stable isotope ratios of hydrogen and oxygen are tracers of choice for water cycle processes in hydrological, atmospheric and ecological studies. The use of isotopes has been limited to some extent because of the relatively high cost of isotope ratio mass spectrometers and the need for specialized operational skills. Here, the results of performance testing of a recently developed laser spectroscopic instrument for measuring stable hydrogen and oxygen isotope ratios of water samples are described, along with a procedure for instrument installation and operation. Over the last four years, the IAEA Water Resources Programme conducted prototype and production model testing of these instruments and this publication is the outcome of those efforts. One of the main missions of the IAEA is to promote the use of peaceful applications of isotope and nuclear methods in Member States and this publication is intended to facilitate the use of laser absorption based instruments for hydrogen and oxygen stable isotope analyses of liquid water samples for hydrological and other studies. The instrument uses off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy to measure absolute abundances of 2 HHO, HH 18 O, and HHO via laser absorption. Test results using a number of natural and synthetic water standards and samples with a large range of isotope values demonstrate adequate precision and accuracy (e.g. precisions of 1 per mille for δ 2 H and 0.2 per mille for δ 18 O). The laser instrument has much lower initial and maintenance costs than mass spectrometers and is substantially easier to operate. Thus, these instruments have the potential to bring about a paradigm shift in isotope applications by enabling researchers in all fields to measure isotope ratios by themselves. The appendix contains a detailed procedure for the installation and operation of the instrument. Using the procedure, new users should be able to install the instrument in less than two hours. It also provides step

  15. A Plant-Based Proxy for the Oxygen Isotope Ratio of Atmospheric Water Vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helliker, B.

    2007-12-01

    Atmospheric water vapor is a major component of the global hydrological cycle, but the isotopic balance of vapor is largely unknown. It is shown here that the oxygen isotope ratio of leaf water in the epiphytic Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plant Tillandsia usneoides (Spanish Moss) is controlled by the oxygen isotope ratio of atmospheric water vapor in both field and lab studies. Assuming that the leaf-water isotopic signature (and hence the atmospheric water vapor signature) is recorded in plant organic material, the atmospheric water vapor oxygen isotope ratios for Miami, Florida (USA) were reconstructed for several years from 1878 to 2005 using contemporary and herbarium specimens. T. usneoides ranges from Virginia, USA southwards through the tropics to Argentina, and the CAM epiphytic lifeform is widespread in other species. Therefore, epiphytes may be used to reconstruct the isotope ratio of atmospheric water for spatial scales that span over 60° of latitude and temporal scales that cover the last century of global temperature increase.

  16. The Oxygen Isotopic Composition of MIL 090001: A CR2 Chondrite with Abundant Refractory Inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Lindsay P.; McKeegan, K. D.; Sharp, Z. D.

    2012-01-01

    MIL 090001 is a large (>6 kg) carbonaceous chondrite that was classified as a member of the CV reduced subgroup (CVred) that was recovered during the 2009-2010 ANSMET field season [1]. Based on the abundance of refractory inclusions and the extent of aqueous alteration, Keller [2] suggested a CV2 classification. Here we report additional mineralogical and petrographic data for MIL 090001, its whole-rock oxygen isotopic composition and ion microprobe analyses of individual phases. The whole rock oxygen isotopic analyses show that MIL 090001 should be classified as a CR chondrite.

  17. Isotopes of carbon and oxygen in the carbonate impurities of coal have potential as palaeoenvironmental indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verhagen, B.T.; Falcon, R.M.

    1990-01-01

    The nature and systematics of impurities such as carbonates need to be established in order to understand their provenance in coal seams with reference to mining, beneficiation and ultimately their elimination or reduction. To this end, mineralogical and carbon-13 and oxygen-18 isotopic studies were undertaken on carbonate occurrences in coal from the eastern Transvaal highveld. Isotopic variations of considerable amplitude and individual values of extreme ''lightness'' are to be found in the carbonates in coal of the Witbank and adjacent basins. The observed isotopic ratios have a clear bearing on the nature and origins of the carbonates. 1 tab., 1 fig

  18. Oxygen and Magnesium Isotopic Compositions of Asteroidal Materials Returned from Itokawa by the Hayabusa Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurimoto, H; Abe, M.; Ebihara, M.; Fujimura, A.; Hashizume, K.; Ireland, T. R.; Itoh, S.; Kawaguchi, K.; Kitajima, F.; Mukai, T.; hide

    2011-01-01

    The Hayabusa spacecraft made two touchdowns on the surface of Asteroid 25143 Itokawa on November 20th and 26th, 2005. The Asteroid 25143 Itokawa is classified as an S-type asteroid and inferred to consist of materials similar to ordinary chondrites or primitive achondrites [1]. Near-infrared spectroscopy by the Hayabusa spacecraft proposed that the surface of this body has an olivine-rich mineral assemblage potentially similar to that of LL5 or LL6 chondrites with different degrees of space weathering [2]. The spacecraft made the reentry into the Earth s atmosphere on June 12th, 2010 and the sample capsule was successfully recovered in Australia on June 13th, 2010. Although the sample collection processes on the Itokawa surface had not been made by the designed operations, more than 1,500 grains were identified as rocky particles in the sample curation facility of JAXA, and most of them were judged to be of extraterrestrial origin, and definitely from Asteroid Itokawa on November 17th, 2010 [3]. Although their sizes are mostly less than 10 microns, some larger grains of about 100 microns or larger were also included. The mineral assembly is olivine, pyroxene, plagioclase, iron sulfide and iron metal. The mean mineral compositions are consistent with the results of near-infrared spectroscopy from Hayabusa spacecraft [2], but the variations suggest that the petrologic type may be smaller than the spectroscopic results. Several tens of grains of relatively large sizes among the 1,500 grains will be selected by the Hayabusa sample curation team for preliminary examination [4]. Each grain will be subjected to one set of preliminary examinations, i.e., micro-tomography, XRD, XRF, TEM, SEM, EPMA and SIMS in this sequence. The preliminary examination will start from the last week of January 2011. Therefore, samples for isotope analyses in this study will start from the last week of February 2011. By the time of the LPSC meeting we will have measured the oxygen and

  19. 99 Tc NMR determination of the oxygen isotope content in 18 O-enriched water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasov, Valerii P; Kirakosyan, Gayana А; German, Konstantin E

    2018-03-01

    99 Tc NMR has been suggested as an original method of evaluating the content of oxygen isotopes in oxygen-18-enriched water, a precursor for the production of radioisotope fluorine-18 used in positron emission tomography. To this end, solutions of NH 4 TcO 4 or NaTcO 4 (up to 0.28 mol/L) with natural abundance of oxygen isotopes in virgin or recycled 18 O-enriched water have been studied by 99 Tc NMR. The method is based on 16 O/ 17 O/ 18 O intrinsic isotope effects in the 99 Tc NMR chemical shifts, and the statistical distribution of oxygen isotopes in the coordination sphere of TcO 4 - and makes it possible to quantify the composition of enriched water by measuring the relative intensities of the 99 Tc NMR signals of the Tc 16 O 4-n 18 O n - isotopologues. Because the oxygen exchange between TcO 4 - and enriched water in neutral and alkaline solutions is characterized by slow kinetics, gaseous HCl was bubbled through a solution for a few seconds to achieve the equilibrium distribution of oxygen isotopes in the Tc coordination sphere without distortion of the oxygen composition of the water. Pertechnetate ion was selected as a probe due to its high stability in solutions and the significant 99 Tc NMR shift induced by a single 16 O→ 18 O substitution (-0.43 ± 0.01 ppm) in TcO 4 - and spin coupling constant 1 J( 99 Tc- 17 O) (131.46 Hz) favourable for the observation of individual signals of Tc 16 O 4-n 18 O n - isotopologues. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Oxygen isotope exchange with quartz during pyrolysis of silver sulfate and silver nitrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauer, Andrew J; Kunasek, Shelley A; Sofen, Eric D; Erbland, Joseph; Savarino, Joel; Johnson, Ben W; Amos, Helen M; Shaheen, Robina; Abaunza, Mariana; Jackson, Terri L; Thiemens, Mark H; Alexander, Becky

    2012-09-30

    Triple oxygen isotopes of sulfate and nitrate are useful metrics for the chemistry of their formation. Existing measurement methods, however, do not account for oxygen atom exchange with quartz during the thermal decomposition of sulfate. We present evidence for oxygen atom exchange, a simple modification to prevent exchange, and a correction for previous measurements. Silver sulfates and silver nitrates with excess (17)O were thermally decomposed in quartz and gold (for sulfate) and quartz and silver (for nitrate) sample containers to O(2) and byproducts in a modified Temperature Conversion/Elemental Analyzer (TC/EA). Helium carries O(2) through purification for isotope-ratio analysis of the three isotopes of oxygen in a Finnigan MAT253 isotope ratio mass spectrometer. The Δ(17)O results show clear oxygen atom exchange from non-zero (17)O-excess reference materials to zero (17)O-excess quartz cup sample containers. Quartz sample containers lower the Δ(17)O values of designer sulfate reference materials and USGS35 nitrate by 15% relative to gold or silver sample containers for quantities of 2-10 µmol O(2). Previous Δ(17)O measurements of sulfate that rely on pyrolysis in a quartz cup have been affected by oxygen exchange. These previous results can be corrected using a simple linear equation (Δ(17)O(gold) = Δ(17)O(quartz) * 1.14 + 0.06). Future pyrolysis of silver sulfate should be conducted in gold capsules or corrected to data obtained from gold capsules to avoid obtaining oxygen isotope exchange-affected data. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Seasonal variation in kangaroo tooth enamel oxygen and carbon isotopes in southern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookman, Tom H.; Ambrose, Stanley H.

    2012-09-01

    Serial sampling of tooth enamel growth increments for carbon and oxygen isotopic analyses of Macropus (kangaroo) teeth was performed to assess the potential for reconstructing paleoseasonality. The carbon isotope composition of tooth enamel apatite carbonate reflects the proportional intake of C3 and C4 vegetation. The oxygen isotopic composition of enamel reflects that of ingested and metabolic water. Tooth enamel forms sequentially from the tip of the crown to the base, so dietary and environmental changes during the tooth's formation can be detected. δ13C and δ18O values were determined for a series of enamel samples drilled from the 3rd and 4th molars of kangaroos that were collected along a 900 km north-south transect in southern Australia. The serial sampling method did not yield pronounced seasonal isotopic variation patterns in Macropus enamel. The full extent of dietary isotopic variation may be obscured by attenuation of the isotopic signal during enamel mineralisation. Brachydont (low-crowned) Macropus teeth may be less sensitive to seasonal variation in isotopic composition due to time-averaging during mineralisation. However, geographic variations observed suggest that there may be potential for tracking latitudinal shifts in vegetation zones and seasonal environmental patterns in response to climate change.

  2. The Aro 1 mm Survey of the Oxygen-Rich Envelope of Supergiant Star NML Cygnus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Jessica L.; Ziurys, L. M.; Woolf, N. J.

    2011-06-01

    Although a number of molecular line surveys of carbon-rich circumstellar envelopes (CSE) have been performed, only one oxygen-rich CSE, that of VY Canis Majoris (VY CMa), has been studied in depth. The Arizona Radio Observatory (ARO) 1 mm survey of VY CMa showed a very different and interesting chemistry dominated by sulfur- and silicon-bearing compounds as well as a number of more exotic species. A similar survey of the oxygen rich star NML Cygnus (NML Cyg) from 215 to 285 GHz is currently under way using the ARO Sub-millimeter Telescope. Initial observations show that this circumstellar envelope appears to be as chemically rich as that of VY CMa. Molecules including 12CO, 13CO, 12CN, 13CN, HCN, HCO+, CS, SO{_2}, SiO and 30SiO have been observed in NML Cyg. Line profiles of this source also suggest that there may be multiple outflows and that the circumstellar envelope is not spherically symmetric. Current results will be presented.

  3. Study of shape transition in the neutron-rich Os isotopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P.R.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The neutron-rich isotopes of tungsten, osmium and platinum have different shapes in their ground states and present also shape transitions phenomena. Spectroscopic information for these nuclei is scarce and often limited to the gamma rays from the decay of isomeric states. For the neutron-rich even-even osmium isotopes 194Os and 198Os, a shape transition between a slightly prolate deformed to an oblate deformed ground state was deduced from the observed level schemes. For the even-even nucleus lying in between, 196Os, no gamma ray transition is known. In order to elucidate the shape transition and to test the nuclear models describing it, this region was investigated through gamma-ray spectroscopy using the AGATA demonstrator and the large acceptance heavy-ion spectrometer PRISMA at LNL, Italy. A two-nucleon transfer from a 198Pt target to a stable 82Se beam was utilized to populate medium-high spin states of 196Os. The analysis method and preliminary results, including the first life-time measurement of isomeric states with AGATA, are presented.

  4. Odd-even parity splittings and octupole correlations in neutron-rich Ba isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Y.; Wang, H.; Wang, L.-J.; Yao, J. M.

    2018-02-01

    The odd-even parity splittings in low-lying parity-doublet states of atomic nuclei with octupole correlations have usually been interpreted as rotational excitations on top of octupole vibration in the language of collective models. In this paper, we report a deep analysis of the odd-even parity splittings in the parity-doublet states of neutron-rich Ba isotopes around neutron number N =88 within a full microscopic framework of beyond-mean-field multireference covariant energy density functional theory. The dynamical correlations related to symmetry restoration and quadrupole-octupole shape fluctuation are taken into account with a generator coordinate method combined with parity, particle-number, and angular-momentum projections. We show that the behavior of odd-even parity splittings is governed by the interplay of rotation, quantum tunneling, and shape evolution. Similar to 224Ra, a picture of rotation-induced octupole shape stabilization in the positive-parity states is exhibited in the neutron-rich Ba isotopes.

  5. Decay studies and mass measurements on isobarically pure neutron-rich Hg and Tl isotopes

    CERN Multimedia

    Schweikhard, L C; Savreux, R P; Hager, U D K; Beck, D; Blaum, K

    2007-01-01

    We propose to perform mass measurements followed by $\\beta$- and $\\gamma$-decay studies on isobarically pure beams of neutron-rich Hg and Tl isotopes, which are very poorly known due to a large contamination at ISOL-facilities with surface-ionised francium. The aim is to study the binding energies of mother Hg and Tl nuclides, as well as the energies, spins and parities of the excited and ground states in the daughter Tl and Pb isotopes. The proposed studies will address a new subsection of the nuclear chart, with Z 126, where only 9 nuclides have been observed so far. Our studies will provide valuable input for mass models and shell-model calculations: they will probe the proton hole-neutron interaction and will allow to refine the matrix elements for the two-body residual interaction. Furthermore, they also give prospects for discovering new isomeric states or even new isotopes, for which the half-lives are predicted in the minute- and second-range.\\\\ To reach the isobaric purity, the experiments will be p...

  6. Nuclear structure studies of the neutron-rich Rubidium isotopes using Coulomb excitation

    CERN Multimedia

    Reiter, P; Blazhev, A A; Voulot, D; Meot, V H; Simpson, G S; Georgiev, G P; Gaudefroy, L; Roig, O

    We propose to study the properties of odd-mass neutron-rich rubidium isotopes by the Coulomb-excitation technique, using the Miniball array coupled to the REX-ISOLDE facility. The results from similar measurements from the recent years (e.g. for the odd-mass and the odd-odd Cu isotopes, IS435) have shown the strong potential in such measurements for gaining information both for single-particle-like and collective states in exotic nuclei. Since there is practically no experimental information for excited states in the odd-mass Rb isotopes beyond $^{93}$Rb, the present study should be able to provide new data in a region of spherical ($^{93}$Rb and $^{95}$Rb) as well as well-deformed nuclei ($^{97}$Rb and $^{99}$Rb). Of particular interest is the rapid shape change that occurs when going from $^{95}$Rb (${\\varepsilon}_{2}$=0.06) to $^{97}$Rb (${\\varepsilon}_{2}$=0.3). These results should be of significant astrophysical interest as well, due to the close proximity of the r-process path.

  7. Evolution of Single Particle and Collective properties in the Neutron-Rich Mg Isotopes

    CERN Multimedia

    Reiter, P; Wiens, A; Fitting, J; Lauer, M; Van duppen, P L E; Finke, F

    2002-01-01

    We propose to study the single particle and collective properties of the neutron-rich Mg isotopes in transfer reactions and Coulomb excitation using REX-ISOLDE and MINIBALL. From the Coulomb excitation measurement precise and largely model independent B( E2 ; 0$^{+}_{g.s.}\\rightarrow$ 2$^{+}_{1}$ ) will be determined for the even-even isotopes. For the odd isotopes the distribution of the E2 strength over a few low-lying states will be measured. The sign of the M1/E2 mixing ratio, extracted from angular distributions, is characteristic of the sign of the deformation, as is the resulting level scheme. The neutron-pickup channel in the transfer reactions will allow for a determination of the single particle properties (spin, parity, spectroscopic factors) of these nuclei. This information will give new insights in changes of nuclear structure in the vicinity of the island of deformation around $^{32}$Mg. A total of 24 shifts of REX beam time is requested.

  8. Low-energy Coulomb excitation of neutron-rich zinc isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Van de Walle, J; Behrens, T; Bildstein, V; Blazhev, A; Cederkäll, J; Clément, E; Cocolios, T E; Davinson, T; Delahaye, P; Eberth, J; Ekström, A; Fedorov, D V; Fedosseev, V; Fraile, L M; Franchoo, S; Gernhäuser, R; Georgiev, G; Habs, D; Heyde, K; Huber, G; Huyse, M; Ibrahim, F; Ivanov, O; Iwanicki, J; Jolie, J; Kester, O; Köster, U; Kröll, T; Krücken, R; Lauer, M; Lisetskiy, A F; Lutter, R; Marsh, B A; Mayet, P; Niedermaier, O; Pantea, M; Raabe, R; Reiter, P; Sawicka, M; Scheit, H; Schrieder, G; Schwalm, D; Seliverstov, M D; Sieber, T; Sletten, G; Smirnova, N; Stanoiu, M; Stefanescu, I; Thomas, J C; Valiente-Dobón, J J; Van Duppen, P; Verney, D; Voulot, D; Warr, N; Weisshaar, D; Wenander, F; Wolf, B H; Zielinska, M

    2009-01-01

    At the radioactive ion beam facility REX-ISOLDE, neutron-rich zinc isotopes were investigated using low-energy Coulomb excitation. These experiments have resulted in B(E2,20) values in 74-80Zn, B(E2,42) values in 74,76Zn and the determination of the energy of the first excited 2 states in 78,80Zn. The zinc isotopes were produced by high-energy proton- (A=74,76,80) and neutron- (A=78) induced fission of 238U, combined with selective laser ionization and mass separation. The isobaric beam was postaccelerated by the REX linear accelerator and Coulomb excitation was induced on a thin secondary target, which was surrounded by the MINIBALL germanium detector array. In this work, it is shown how the selective laser ionization can be used to deal with the considerable isobaric beam contamination and how a reliable normalization of the experiment can be achieved. The results for zinc isotopes and the N=50 isotones are compared to collective model predictions and state-of-the-art large-scale shell-model calculations, i...

  9. Evolution of nuclear structure in neutron-rich odd-Zn isotopes and isomers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Wraith

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Collinear laser spectroscopy was performed on Zn (Z=30 isotopes at ISOLDE, CERN. The study of hyperfine spectra of nuclei across the Zn isotopic chain, N=33–49, allowed the measurement of nuclear spins for the ground and isomeric states in odd-A neutron-rich nuclei up to N=50. Exactly one long-lived (>10 ms isomeric state has been established in each 69–79Zn isotope. The nuclear magnetic dipole moments and spectroscopic quadrupole moments are well reproduced by large-scale shell–model calculations in the f5pg9 and fpg9d5 model spaces, thus establishing the dominant term in their wave function. The magnetic moment of the intruder Iπ=1/2+ isomer in 79Zn is reproduced only if the νs1/2 orbital is added to the valence space, as realized in the recently developed PFSDG-U interaction. The spin and moments of the low-lying isomeric state in 73Zn suggest a strong onset of deformation at N=43, while the progression towards 79Zn points to the stability of the Z=28 and N=50 shell gaps, supporting the magicity of 78Ni.

  10. Study of the structure of yrast bands of neutron-rich 114-124Pd isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Ritu; Devi, Rani; Khosa, S. K.

    2018-02-01

    The projected shell model calculations have been carried out in the neutron-rich 114-124Pd isotopic mass chain. The results have been obtained for the deformation systematics of E(2+1) and E(4+1)/E({2}+1) values, BCS subshell occupation numbers, yrast spectra, backbending phenomena, B( E2) transition probabilities and g-factors in these nuclei. The observed systematics of E(2+1) values and R_{42} ratios in the 114-124Pd isotopic mass chain indicate that there is a decrease of collectivity as the neutron number increases from 68 to 78. The occurrence of backbending in these nuclei as well as the changes in the calculated B( E2) transition probabilities and g -factors predict that there are changes in the structure of yrast bands in these nuclei. These changes occur at the spin where there is crossing of g-band by 2-qp bands. The predicted backbendings and predicted values of B( E2)s and g-factors in some of the isotopes need to be confirmed experimentally.

  11. Investigation of reduced transition-strengths in neutron-rich chromium isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braunroth, Thomas; Dewald, Alfred; Fransen, Christoph; Litzinger, Julia [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Universitaet Koeln (Germany); Iwasaki, Hironori [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, MSU (United States); Lemasson, Antoine [GANIL, Laboratoire Commun DSM/CEA (France); Lenzi, Silvia [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Padova (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Padova (Italy)

    2015-07-01

    Neutron-rich nuclei close to N=40 are known for their rapid changes in nuclear structure. While {sup 68}Ni exhibits signatures of a shell closure, experimental data - e.g. excitation energies of the 2{sup +}{sub 1}-state and B(E2;2{sup +}{sub 1} → 0{sup +}{sub 1})-values - along the isotopic chains in even more exotic Fe and Cr-isotopes suggest a sudden rise in collective behaviour for N → 40. Lifetimes of low-lying yrast states in {sup 58,60,62}Cr were measured with the Recoil Distance Doppler-shift (RDDS) technique at NSCL, MSU (USA) to deduce model independent B(E2)-values. After fragmentation of a primary {sup 82}Se beam (E=140 AMeV) on a {sup 9}Be target and subsequent filtering with the A1900 fragment separator, high purity {sup 59,61,63}Mn-beams (E ∝ 95 AMeV) impinged on the {sup 9}Be plunger target, where excited states in the above mentioned Cr-isotopes were then populated in one proton knockout reactions. The S800 spectrograph allowed a clear recoil identification, which then lead to clean γ-spectra as measured by the Segmented Germanium Array (SeGA). Final results of this experiment will be shown and discussed in the context of state-of-the-art shell-model calculations.

  12. Chemical and oxygen isotope zonings in garnet from subducted continental crust record mineral replacement and metasomatism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vho, Alice; Rubatto, Daniela; Regis, Daniele; Baumgartner, Lukas; Bouvier, Anne-Sophie

    2017-04-01

    Garnet is a key mineral in metamorphic petrology for constraining pressure, temperature and time paths. Garnet can preserve multiple growth stages due to its wide P-T stability field and the relatively slow diffusivity for major and trace elements at sub-solidus temperatures. Pressure-temperature-time-fluid paths of the host rock may be reconstructed by combining metamorphic petrology with microscale trace element and oxygen isotope measurements in garnet. Subduction zones represent relevant geological settings for geochemical investigation of element exchanges during aqueous fluid-rock interactions. The Sesia Zone consists of a complex continental sequence containing a variety of mono-metamorphic and poly-metamorphic lithologies such as metagranitoids, sediments and mafic boudins. The precursor Varisican-Permian amphibolite-facies basement (6-9 kbar 650-850°C; Lardeaux and Spalla, 1991; Robyr et al., 2013) experienced high pressure metamorphism (15-22 kbar 500-550°C; Regis, et al. 2014; Robyr et al., 2013) during Alpine subduction. In different lithologies of the Internal Complex (Eclogitic Micaschist Complex), including metabasites from the Ivozio Complex, Ti-rich metasediments from Val Malone and pre-Alpine Mn-quartzites associated to metagabbros from Cima Bonze, garnet is abundant and shows a variety of complex textures that cannot be reconciled with typical growth zoning, but indicate resorption and replacement processes and possible metasomatism. In-situ, microscale oxygen isotopes analysis of garnet zones was performed by ion microprobe with the SwissSIMS Cameca IMS 1280-HR at University of Lausanne and SHRIMP-SI at the Australian National University. Each sample has a distinct δ18O composition, and the δ18O values show different degrees of variation between domains. Homogeneously low values of < 5‰ are measured in the garnets from the Ivozio Complex metagabbro. Intragrain variations of up to 3.5‰ in the porphyroblasts from Val Malone metasediments

  13. Magnesium Isotopic Evidence for Ancient Subducted Oceanic Crust in LOMU-Like Potassium-Rich Volcanic Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yang; Teng, Fang-Zhen; Ying, Ji-Feng; Su, Ben-Xun; Hu, Yan; Fan, Qi-Cheng; Zhou, Xin-Hua

    2017-10-01

    To evaluate the role of subducted oceanic crust in the genesis of potassium-rich magmas, we report high-precision Mg isotopic data for a set of Cenozoic volcanic rocks from Northeast China. These rocks overall are lighter in Mg isotopic composition than the normal mantle and display considerable Mg isotopic variations, with δ26Mg ranging from -0.61 to -0.23. The covariation of δ26Mg with TiO2 in these rocks suggests that their light Mg isotopic compositions were derived from recycled oceanic crust in the form of carbonated eclogite in the source region. The strong correlations between δ26Mg and (Gd/Yb)N ratio as well as Sr-Pb isotopes further indicate a multicomponent and multistage origin of these rocks. Magnesium isotopes may thus be used as a novel tracer of recycled oceanic crust in the source region of mantle-derived magmas.

  14. Analytical techniques for determination of framework oxygen isotope ratio of wairakite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noto, Masami; Kusakabe, Minoru; Uchida, Tetsuo.

    1990-01-01

    Dehydration techniques were developed for the analysis of isotopic ratios of framework oxygen of wairakite, one of calcium zeolites often encountered in geothermal systems. Channel water in wairakite were separated from aluminosilicate framework by dehydration in vacuum at 300 deg, 400 deg, 450 deg, 500 deg, 550 deg, 650 deg, 750 deg, 850 deg, and 950 degC, and by stepwise heating at temperatures from 300 deg to 700 degC. The oxygen isotopic analyses of the separated channel water and the residual aluminosilicate framework of wairakite indicated that dehydration at temperatures higher than 400 degC is accompanied by isotopic exchang between the framework oxygen and dehydrating water vapor. The isotopic exchange during the high temperature dehydration makes the δ 18 O of framework oxygen lower and that of channel water higher than those obtained by dehydration at 300 degC. These results are consistent with dehydration behavior of wairakite under vacuum that the maximum rate of dehydration of channel water is attained at about 400 degC. Consequently it is recommended to dehydrate wairakite at a temperature as low as possible in order to avoid the effect of the isotopic exchange. Time required to attain complete dehydration becomes longer with lowering the temperature of dehydration. To compromise these conflicting effects, the optimum conditions of dehydration have been found that most of the channel water is dehydrated at 300 degC for 24 hours, followed by stepwise heating for additional 17 hours up to 700 degC. We obtained a better than ± 0.1 reproducibility for the framework oxygen isotopic determinations with this technique. (author)

  15. Oxygen isotopic fractionation of O₂ during adsorption and desorption processes using molecular sieve at low temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Insu; Kusakabe, Minoru; Lee, Jong Ik

    2014-06-15

    Cryogenic trapping using molecular sieves is commonly used to collect O2 extracted from silicates for (17)O/(16)O and (18)O/(16)O analyses. However, gases which interfere with (17)O/(16)O analysis, notably NF3, are also trapped and their removal is essential for accurate direct measurement of the (17)O/(16)O ratio. It is also necessary to identify and quantify any isotopic fractionation associated with the use of cryogenic trapping using molecular sieves. The oxygen isotopic compositions of O2 before and after desorption from, and adsorption onto, 13X and 5A molecular sieves (MS13X and MS5A) at 0°C, -78°C, -114°C, and -130°C were measured in order to determine the oxygen isotopic fractionation at these temperatures. We also investigated whether isotopic fractionation occurred when O2 gas was transferred sequentially into a second cold finger, also containing molecular sieve. It was confirmed that significant oxygen isotopic fractionation occurs between the gaseous O2 and that adsorbed onto molecular sieve, if desorption and adsorption are incomplete. As the fraction of released or untrapped O2 becomes smaller with decreasing trapping temperature (from 0 to -130°C), the isotopic fractionation becomes larger. Approximately half of the total adsorbed O2 is released from the molecular sieve during desorption at -114°C, which is the temperature recommended for separation from NF3 (retained on the molecular sieve), and this will interfere with (17)O/(16)O measurements. The use of a single cold finger should be avoided, because partial desorption is accompanied by oxygen isotopic fractionation, thereby resulting in inaccurate isotopic data. The use of a dual cold finger arrangement is recommended because, as we have confirmed, the transfer of O2 from the first trap to the second is almost 100%. However, even under these conditions, a small isotopic fractionation (0.18 ± 0.05‰ in δ(17)O values and 0.26 ± 0.06‰ in δ(18)O values) occurred, with O2 in

  16. Preparation and use of nitrogen (2) oxide of special purity for production of oxygen and nitrogen isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polevoj, A.S.

    1989-01-01

    Problems related with production of oxygen and nitrogen isotopes by means of low-temperature rectification of nitrogen (2) oxide are analyzed. Special attention, in particular, is payed to the techniques of synthesis and high purification of initial NO, utilization of waste flows formed during isotope separation. Ways to affect the initial isotope composition of nitrogen oxide and the rate of its homogeneous-isotope exchange, which provide for possibility of simultaneous production of oxygen and nitrogen isotopes by means of NO rectification, are considered. Description of a new technique for high purification of nitrogen oxide, prepared at decomposition of nitric acid by sulfurous anhydride, suggested by the author is presented

  17. Screening nitrogen-rich bases and oxygen-rich acids by theoretical calculations for forming highly stable salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xueli; Gong, Xuedong

    2014-08-04

    Nitrogen-rich heterocyclic bases and oxygen-rich acids react to produce energetic salts with potential application in the field of composite explosives and propellants. In this study, 12 salts formed by the reaction of the bases 4-amino-1,2,4-trizole (A), 1-amino-1,2,4-trizole (B), and 5-aminotetrazole (C), upon reaction with the acids HNO3 (I), HN(NO2 )2 (II), HClO4 (III), and HC(NO2 )3 (IV), are studied using DFT calculations at the B97-D/6-311++G** level of theory. For the reactions with the same base, those of HClO4 are the most exothermic and spontaneous, and the most negative Δr Gm in the formation reaction also corresponds to the highest decomposition temperature of the resulting salt. The ability of anions and cations to form hydrogen bonds decreases in the order NO3 (-) >N(NO2 )2 (-) >ClO4 (-) >C(NO2 )3 (-) , and C(+) >B(+) >A(+) . In particular, those different cation abilities are mainly due to their different conformations and charge distributions. For the salts with the same anion, the larger total hydrogen-bond energy (EH,tot ) leads to a higher melting point. The order of cations and anions on charge transfer (q), second-order perturbation energy (E2 ), and binding energy (Eb ) are the same to that of EH,tot , so larger q leads to larger E2 , Eb , and EH,tot . All salts have similar frontier orbitals distributions, and their HOMO and LUMO are derived from the anion and the cation, respectively. The molecular orbital shapes are kept as the ions form a salt. To produce energetic salts, 5-aminotetrazole and HClO4 are the preferred base and acid, respectively. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Oxygen and hydrogen isotope ratios in tree rings: how well do models predict observed values?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Waterhouse, JS

    2002-07-30

    Full Text Available . Cosmo- chim. Acta 46 (1982) 955^965. [35] W.M. Buhay, T.W.D. Edwards, Climate in southwestern Ontario, Canada, between AD 1610 and 1885 inferred from oxygen and hydrogen isotopic measurements of wood cellulose from trees in di?erent hydrological set...

  19. Estimating of gas transfer velocity using triple isotopes of dissolved oxygen.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarma, V.V.S.S.; Abe, O.; Honda, M.; Saino, T.

    variations in oxygen isotopes are found to be higher than the direct estimations at low wind speed (<5 m s sup(-1)) and lower at high wind speeds (>13 m s sup(-1)) and showed significant spatial variability. The method presented here can be used to derive...

  20. A study of oxygen isotopic fractionation during bio-induced calcite precipitation in eutrophic Baldeggersee, Switzerland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teranes, J.L.; McKenzie, J.A.; Bernasconi, S.M.; Lotter, A.F.; Sturm, M.

    1999-01-01

    Abstract—In order to better understand environmental factors controlling oxygen isotope shifts in autochthonous lacustrine carbonate sequences, we undertook an extensive one-year study (March, 1995 to February, 1996) of water-column chemistry and daily sediment trap material from a small lake in

  1. Oxygen and carbon isotope analyses of a Late Quaternary core in the Zaire (Congo) fan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olausson, E.

    1984-01-01

    Oxygen and carbon isotope analyses have been carried out on samples from a core of the Angola Basin (6 0 50'S, 10 0 45'E, depth 2100 m). The pelagic foraminifer Globigerinoides ruber, a species with a shallow water habitat, and two benthic species Uvigerina peregrina and Bulimina aculeata have been analysed. The data are given relative to PDB. (Auth.)

  2. ANALYTICAL EMPLOYMENT OF STABLE ISOTOPES OF CARBON, NITROGEN, OXYGEN AND HYDROGEN FOR FOOD AUTHENTICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Novelli

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Stable isotopes of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and hydrogen were used for analytical purposes for the discrimination of the type of production (farming vs. fishing in the case of sea bass and for geographical origin in the case of milk. These results corroborate similar experimental evidences and confirm the potential of this analytical tool to support of food traceability.

  3. Measurement of infiltration rates in urban sewer systems by use of oxygen isotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bénédittis, J; Bertrand-Krajewski, J L

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents the principle of a method to measure infiltration rates in sewer systems based on the use of oxygen isotopes and its application in Lyon (France). In the urban area of Lyon, significant differences in delta 18O that can reach 3 per thousand are observed between the oxygen isotopic compositions of groundwater originating from Rhone, Saone and from their associated alluvial aquifers. Drinking water supplying Lyon results mainly from pumping in the Rhone alluvial aquifer. Therefore, in some areas, the difference of isotopic composition between wastewater resulting from the consumption of drinking water and local groundwater can be used to measure infiltration in sewer systems. The application in the catchment of Ecully shows that the infiltration flow rate presents strong fluctuations at an hourly scale: it varies between 15 and 40 m3/h. This variability could be explained by non-constant discharges of pumping and by variations of the water level in the sewer.

  4. Nitrogen and Oxygen Isotope Effects of Ammonia Oxidation by Thermophilic Thaumarchaeota from a Geothermal Water Stream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishizawa, Manabu; Sakai, Sanae; Konno, Uta; Nakahara, Nozomi; Takaki, Yoshihiro; Saito, Yumi; Imachi, Hiroyuki; Tasumi, Eiji; Makabe, Akiko; Koba, Keisuke; Takai, Ken

    2016-08-01

    Ammonia oxidation regulates the balance of reduced and oxidized nitrogen pools in nature. Although ammonia-oxidizing archaea have been recently recognized to often outnumber ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in various environments, the contribution of ammonia-oxidizing archaea is still uncertain due to difficulties in the in situ quantification of ammonia oxidation activity. Nitrogen and oxygen isotope ratios of nitrite (δ(15)NNO2- and δ(18)ONO2-, respectively) are geochemical tracers for evaluating the sources and the in situ rate of nitrite turnover determined from the activities of nitrification and denitrification; however, the isotope ratios of nitrite from archaeal ammonia oxidation have been characterized only for a few marine species. We first report the isotope effects of ammonia oxidation at 70°C by thermophilic Thaumarchaeota populations composed almost entirely of "Candidatus Nitrosocaldus." The nitrogen isotope effect of ammonia oxidation varied with ambient pH (25‰ to 32‰) and strongly suggests the oxidation of ammonia, not ammonium. The δ(18)O value of nitrite produced from ammonia oxidation varied with the δ(18)O value of water in the medium but was lower than the isotopic equilibrium value in water. Because experiments have shown that the half-life of abiotic oxygen isotope exchange between nitrite and water is longer than 33 h at 70°C and pH ≥6.6, the rate of ammonia oxidation by thermophilic Thaumarchaeota could be estimated using δ(18)ONO2- in geothermal environments, where the biological nitrite turnover is likely faster than 33 h. This study extended the range of application of nitrite isotopes as a geochemical clock of the ammonia oxidation activity to high-temperature environments. Because ammonia oxidation is generally the rate-limiting step in nitrification that regulates the balance of reduced and oxidized nitrogen pools in nature, it is important to understand the biological and environmental factors underlying the regulation of

  5. Intracrystalline oxygen isotope effects in CuSO4.5H2O and their dependence on crystallization temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinzinger, K.

    1976-01-01

    In copper sulphate pentahydrate the water molecules occupy three different sites, connected with different oxygen isotope ratios. Results of measurements of the change of these isotope ratios with crystallization temperature are reported. The temperature dependence found here provides the basis for the determination of crystallization temperatures of hydrated crystals from such intracrystalline oxygen isotope fractionation. Suppositions necessary for the application of this method are discussed. (author)

  6. Calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions with fractionation and unidentified nuclear effects (FUN CAIs): II. Heterogeneities of magnesium isotopes and 26Al in the early Solar System inferred from in situ high-precision magnesium-isotope measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Changkun; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Krot, Alexander N.; Huss, Gary R.; Davis, Andrew M.; Bizzarro, Martin

    2017-03-01

    Calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions with isotopic mass fractionation effects and unidentified nuclear isotopic anomalies (FUN CAIs) have been studied for more than 40 years, but their origins remain enigmatic. Here we report in situ high precision measurements of aluminum-magnesium isotope systematics of FUN CAIs by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). Individual minerals were analyzed in six FUN CAIs from the oxidized CV3 carbonaceous chondrites Axtell (compact Type A CAI Axtell 2271) and Allende (Type B CAIs C1 and EK1-4-1, and forsterite-bearing Type B CAIs BG82DH8, CG-14, and TE). Most of these CAIs show evidence for excess 26Mg due to the decay of 26Al. The inferred initial 26Al/27Al ratios [(26Al/27Al)0] and the initial magnesium isotopic compositions (δ26Mg0) calculated using an exponential law with an exponent β of 0.5128 are (3.1 ± 1.6) × 10-6 and 0.60 ± 0.10‰ (Axtell 2271), (3.7 ± 1.5) × 10-6 and -0.20 ± 0.05‰ (BG82DH8), (2.2 ± 1.1) × 10-6 and -0.18 ± 0.05‰ (C1), (2.3 ± 2.4) × 10-5 and -2.23 ± 0.37‰ (EK1-4-1), (1.5 ± 1.1) × 10-5 and -0.42 ± 0.08‰ (CG-14), and (5.3 ± 0.9) × 10-5 and -0.05 ± 0.08‰ (TE) with 2σ uncertainties. We infer that FUN CAIs recorded heterogeneities of magnesium isotopes and 26Al in the CAI-forming region(s). Comparison of 26Al-26Mg systematics, stable isotope (oxygen, magnesium, calcium, and titanium) and trace element studies of FUN and non-FUN igneous CAIs indicates that there is a continuum among these CAI types. Based on these observations and evaporation experiments on CAI-like melts, we propose a generic scenario for the origin of igneous (FUN and non-FUN) CAIs: (i) condensation of isotopically normal solids in an 16O-rich gas of approximately solar composition; (ii) formation of CAI precursors by aggregation of these solids together with variable abundances of isotopically anomalous grains-possible carriers of unidentified nuclear (UN) effects; and (iii) melt evaporation of these precursors

  7. Investigation of neutron-rich rare-earth nuclei including the new isotopes 177Tm and 184Lu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rykaczewski, K.; Gippert, K.L.; Runte, E.; Schmidt-Ott, W.D.; Tidemand-Petersson, P.; Kurcewicz, W.; Nazarewicz, W.

    1989-01-01

    Decays of neutron-rich isotopes in the rare-earth region were studied by means of on-line mass separation and β-γ spectroscopy using multinucleon-transfer reactions between beams of 136 Xe (9 and 11.7 MeV/u), 186 W (11.7 and 15 MeV/u) and 238 U (11.4 MeV/u) and targets of nat W and Ta. The higher beam energies appear to be advantageous for the production of such isotopes. Two new isotopes were identified: 177 Tm with a half-life T 1/2 = 85±10/15 s, and 184 Lu with T 1/2 ≅ 18 s. A new 47 s-activity found at A = 171 is tentatively assigned to the decay of the new isotope 171 Ho. The properties of the ground and excited states of neutron-rich lanthanide isotopes are interpreted within the shell model using the deformed Woods-Saxon potential. A change of the ground-state configuration for odd-mass neutron-rich lutetium isotopes from π 7/2 + [404] to π 9/2 - [514] is suggested, this change being due to the influence of a large hexadecapole deformation. The role of a possible isometric state in 180 Lu for the nucleosynthesis of 180m Ta is discussed. (orig.)

  8. Controls of oxygen isotope ratios of nitrate formed during nitrification in soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer, B.; Bollwerk, S.M.; Vorhoff, B.; Mansfeldt, T.; Veizer, J.

    1999-01-01

    The isotopic composition of nitrate is increasingly used to determine sources and transformations of nitrogen in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Oxygen isotope ratios of nitrate appear to be particularly useful, since they allow the differentiation between nitrate from atmospheric deposition (δ 18 O nitrate between +25 and +70 per mille), nitrate from fertilizers (δ 18 O nitrate +23 per mille), and nitrate derived from nitrification processes in soils (δ 18 O nitrate 3 molecule derive from H 2 O (with negative δ 18 O values dependent upon location) and one oxygen derives from atmospheric O 2 (δ 18 O = +23.5 per mille).. The objective of this study was to experimentally determine the extent to which water oxygen controls the δ 18 O value of nitrate, which is formed during nitrification in soils

  9. Oxygen isotope exchange in La2NiO(4±δ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananyev, M V; Tropin, E S; Eremin, V A; Farlenkov, A S; Smirnov, A S; Kolchugin, A A; Porotnikova, N M; Khodimchuk, A V; Berenov, A V; Kurumchin, E Kh

    2016-04-07

    Oxygen surface exchange kinetics and diffusion have been studied by the isotope exchange method with gas phase equilibration using a static circulation experimental rig in the temperature range of 600-800 °C and oxygen pressure range of 0.13-2.5 kPa. A novel model which takes into account distributions of the dissociative adsorption and incorporation rates has been developed. The rates of the elementary stages have been calculated. The rate-determining stages for a La2NiO(4±δ) polycrystalline specimen have been discussed. The diffusion activation energies calculated using the gas phase equilibration method (1.4 eV) differ significantly from those calculated using isotope exchange depth profiling (0.5-0.8 eV), which was attributed to the influence of different oxygen diffusion pathways.

  10. Excited-state lifetimes in neutron-rich Ce isotopes from EXILL and FATIMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koseoglou, P.; Pietralla, N.; Stoyanka, I.; Kroell, T. [IKP, TU-Darmstadt, Darmstadt (Germany); Werner, V. [IKP, TU-Darmstadt, Darmstadt (Germany); Yale University (United States); Bernards, C.; Cooper, N. [Yale University (United States); Blanc, A.; Jentschel, M.; Koester, U.; Mutti, P.; Soldner, T.; Urban, W. [ILL Grenoble (France); Bruce, A.M.; Roberts, O.J. [University of Brighton (United Kingdom); Cakirli, R.B. [MPIK Heidelberg (Germany); France, G. de [GANIL Caen (France); Humby, P.; Patel, Z.; Podolyak, Zs.; Regan, P.H.; Wilson, E. [University of Surrey (United Kingdom); Jolie, J.; Regis, J.-M.; Saed-Samii, N.; Wilmsen, D. [KP, University of Cologne (Germany); Paziy, V. [Universidad Complutense (Spain); Simpson, G.S. [PSC Grenoble (France); Ur, C.A. [INFN Legnaro (Italy)

    2016-07-01

    {sup 235}U and {sup 241}Pu fission fragments were measured by a mixed spectrometer consisting of high-resolution Ge and fast LaBr{sub 3}(Ce)-scintillator detectors at the high-flux reactor of the ILL. Prompt γ-ray cascades from the nuclei of interest are selected via Ge-Ge-LaBr{sub 3}-LaBr{sub 3} coincidences. The good energy resolution of the Ge allow precise gates to be set, selecting the cascade, hence, the nucleus of interest. The excellent timing performance of the LaBr{sub 3} detectors in combination with the General Centroid Difference method allows the measurement of lifetimes in the ps range in preparation for the FATIMA experiment at FAIR. The first results on neutron-rich Ce isotopes are presented.

  11. Oxygen-rich hierarchical porous carbon made from pomelo peel fiber as electrode material for supercapacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Liu, Wenlong; Xiao, Dan; Wang, Xinhui

    2017-09-01

    Oxygen-rich hierarchical porous carbon has been fabricated using pomelo peel fiber as a carbon source via an improved KOH activation method. The morphology and chemical composition of the obtained carbon materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS), electron microscopy (EM), Raman spectra and elemental analysis. The unique porous structure with abundant oxygen functional groups is favorable to capacitive behavior, and the as-prepared carbon material exhibits high specific capacitance of 222.6 F g-1 at 0.5 A g-1 in 6 M KOH and superior stability over 5000 cycles. This work not only describes a simple way to prepare high-performance carbon material from the discarded pomelo peel, but also provides a strategy for its disposal issue and contributes to the environmental improvement.

  12. K isomerism and collectivity in neutron-rich rare-earth isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Zena

    Neutron-rich rare-earth isotopes were produced by in-flight fission of 238U ions at the Radioactive Isotope Beam Factory (RIBF), RIKEN, Japan. In-flight fission of a heavy, high-intensity beam of 238U ions on a light target provides the cleanest secondary beams of neutron-rich nuclei in the rare-earth region of isotopes. In-flight fission is advantageous over other methods of nuclear production, as it allows for a secondary beam to be extracted, from which the beam species can be separated and identified. The excited states of nuclei are studied by delayed isomeric or beta-delayed gamma-ray spectroscopy. New K isomers were found in Sm (Z=62), Eu (Z=63), and Gd (Z=64) isotopes. The key results are discussed here. Excited states in the N=102 isotones 166Gd and 164Sm have been observed following isomeric decay for the first time. The K-isomeric states in 166Gd and 164Sm are due to 2-quasiparticle configurations. Based on the decay patterns and potential energy surface calculations, including beta6 deformation, both isomers are assigned a (6-) spin-parity. The half-lives of the isomeric states have been measured to be 950(60)ns and 600(140)ns for 166Gd and 164Sm respectively. Collective observables are discussed in light of the systematics of the region, giving insight into nuclear shape evolution. The decrease in the ground state band energies of 166Gd and 164Sm (N=102) compared to 164Gd and 162Sm (N=100) respectively, presents evidence for the predicted deformed shell closure at N=100. A 4-quasiparticle isomeric state has been discovered in 160Sm: the lightest deformed nucleus with a 4-quasiparticle isomer to date. The isomeric state is assigned an (11+) spin-parity with a measured half-life of 1.8(4)us. The (11+) isomeric state decays into a rotational band structure, based on a (6-) v5/2-[523] ⊗ v7/2+[633] bandhead, determined from the extracted gK-gR values. Potential energy surface and blocked BCS calculations were performed in the deformed midshell region

  13. Evolution of deformation in neutron-rich Ba isotopes up to A =150

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licǎ, R.; Benzoni, G.; Rodríguez, T. R.; Borge, M. J. G.; Fraile, L. M.; Mach, H.; Morales, A. I.; Madurga, M.; Sotty, C. O.; Vedia, V.; De Witte, H.; Benito, J.; Bernard, R. N.; Berry, T.; Bracco, A.; Camera, F.; Ceruti, S.; Charviakova, V.; Cieplicka-Oryńczak, N.; Costache, C.; Crespi, F. C. L.; Creswell, J.; Fernandez-Martínez, G.; Fynbo, H.; Greenlees, P. T.; Homm, I.; Huyse, M.; Jolie, J.; Karayonchev, V.; Köster, U.; Konki, J.; Kröll, T.; Kurcewicz, J.; Kurtukian-Nieto, T.; Lazarus, I.; Lund, M. V.; Mǎrginean, N.; Mǎrginean, R.; Mihai, C.; Mihai, R. E.; Negret, A.; Orduz, A.; Patyk, Z.; Pascu, S.; Pucknell, V.; Rahkila, P.; Rapisarda, E.; Regis, J. M.; Robledo, L. M.; Rotaru, F.; Saed-Samii, N.; Sánchez-Tembleque, V.; Stanoiu, M.; Tengblad, O.; Thuerauf, M.; Turturica, A.; Van Duppen, P.; Warr, N.; IDS Collaboration

    2018-02-01

    The occurrence of octupolar shapes in the Ba isotopic chain was recently established experimentally up to N =90 . To further extend the systematics, the evolution of shapes in the most neutron-rich members of the Z =56 isotopic chain accessible at present, Ba,150148, has been studied via β decay at the ISOLDE Decay Station. This paper reports on the first measurement of the positive- and negative-parity low-spin excited states of 150Ba and presents an extension of the β -decay scheme of 148Cs. Employing the fast timing technique, half-lives for the 21+ level in both nuclei have been determined, resulting in T1 /2=1.51 (1 ) ns for 148Ba and T1 /2=3.4 (2 ) ns for 150Ba. The systematics of low-spin states, together with the experimental determination of the B (E 2 :2+→0+) transition probabilities, indicate an increasing collectivity in Ba-150148, towards prolate deformed shapes. The experimental data are compared to symmetry conserving configuration mixing (SCCM) calculations, confirming an evolution of increasingly quadrupole deformed shapes with a definite octupolar character.

  14. β-decay spectroscopy of neutron-rich 160,161,162Sm isotopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel Z.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Neutron-rich 160,161,162Sm isotopes have been populated at the RIBF, RIKEN via β first time. β-coincident γ rays were observed in all three isotopes including γ rays from the isomeric decay of 160Sm and 162Sm. The isomers in 160Sm and 162Sm have previously been observed but have been populated via β decay for the first time. The isomeric state in 162Sm is assigned a 4−v72+[ 633 ]⊗v12−[ 521 ]${4^ - }v{{7 \\over 2}^ + }\\left[ {633} \\right] \\otimes v{{1 \\over 2}^ - }\\left[ {521} \\right]$ configuration based on the decay pattern. The level schemes of 160Sm and 162Sm are presented. The ground states in the parent nuclei 160Pm and 162Pm are both assigned a 6−v72+[633]⊗π52−[532]${6^ - }v{{7 \\over 2}^ + }\\left[ {633} \\right] \\otimes \\pi {{5 \\over 2}^ - }\\left[ {532} \\right]$ configuration based on the population of states in the daughter nuclei. Blocked BCS calculations were performed to further investigate the spin-parities of the ground states in 160Pm, 161Pm, and 162Pm, and the isomeric state in 162Sm

  15. Coulomb excitation of neutron-rich odd-$A$ Cd isotopes

    CERN Multimedia

    Reiter, P; Kruecken, R; Gernhaeuser, R A; Kroell, T; Leske, J; Marginean, N M

    We propose to study excited states in the odd-${A}$ isotopes $^{123,125,127}$Cd by ${\\gamma}$-ray spectroscopy following "safe" Coulomb excitation. The experiment aims to determine the B(E2) values connecting excited states with the ground state as well as the long-lived (11/2$^{-}$) isomer. The proposed study profits from the unique capability of ISOLDE to produce beams containing Cd in the ground state or in the isomeric state. Our recent results on the neutron-rich even-A Cd nuclei appear to show that these nuclei may possess some collectivity beyond that calculated by modern shell-model predictions. Beyond-mean-field calculations also predict these nuclei to be weakly deformed. These facets are surprising considering their proximity to the doubly magic $^{132}$Sn. Coulomb-excitation studies of odd-${A}$ Cd isotopes may give a unique insight into the deformation-driving roles played by different orbits in this region. Such studies of the onset of collectivity become especially important in light of recent...

  16. Nitrogen and oxygen isotopic constraints on the origin of atmospheric nitrate in coastal Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Savarino

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the year 2001, aerosol samples were collected continuously for 10 to 15 days at the French Antarctic Station Dumont d'Urville (DDU (66°40' S, l40°0' E, 40 m above mean sea level. The nitrogen and oxygen isotopic ratios of particulate nitrate at DDU exhibit seasonal variations that are among the most extreme observed for nitrate on Earth. In association with concentration measurements, the isotope ratios delineate four distinct periods, broadly consistent with previous studies on Antarctic coastal areas. During austral autumn and early winter (March to mid-July, nitrate concentrations attain a minimum between 10 and 30 ng m−3 (referred to as Period 2. Two local maxima in August (55 ng m−3 and November/December (165 ng m−3 are used to assign Period 3 (mid-July to September and Period 4 (October to December. Period 1 (January to March is a transition period between the maximum concentration of Period 4 and the background concentration of Period 2. These seasonal changes are reflected in changes of the nitrogen and oxygen isotope ratios. During Period 2, which is characterized by background concentrations, the isotope ratios are in the range of previous measurements at mid-latitudes: δ18Ovsmow=(77.2±8.6‰; Δ17O=(29.8±4.4‰; δ15Nair=(−4.4±5.4‰ (mean ± one standard deviation. Period 3 is accompanied by a significant increase of the oxygen isotope ratios and a small increase of the nitrogen isotope ratio to δ18Ovsmow=(98.8±13.9‰; Δ17O=(38.8±4.7‰ and δ15Nair=(4.3±8.20‰. Period 4 is characterized by a minimum 15N/14N ratio, only matched by one prior study of Antarctic aerosols, and oxygen isotope ratios similar to Period 2: δ18Ovsmow=(77.2±7.7‰; Δ17O=(31.1±3.2‰; δ15Nair=(−32.7±8.4‰. Finally, during Period 1, isotope ratios reach minimum values for oxygen and intermediate values for nitrogen: δ18Ovsmow=63.2±2.5‰; Δ17O=24.0±1.1‰; δ15Nair=−17.9±4.0‰. Based on the measured

  17. Lifetimes in neutron-rich Nd isotopes measured by Doppler profile method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, I.; Lister, C.J.; Morss, L.R. [and others

    1995-08-01

    Lifetimes of the rotational levels in neutron-rich even-even Nd isotopes were deduced from the analysis of the Doppler broadened line shapes. The experiment was performed at Daresbury with the Eurogam array, which at that time consisted of 45 Compton-suppressed Ge detectors and 5 Low-Energy Photon Spectrometers. The source was in the form of a 7-mm pellet which was prepared by mixing 5-mg; {sup 248}Cm and 65-mg KCl and pressing it under high pressure. Events for which three or more detectors fired were used to construct a cubic data array whose axes represented the {gamma}-ray energies and the contents of each channel the number of events with that particular combination of {gamma}-ray energies. From this cubic array, one-dimensional spectra were generated by placing gates on peaks on the other two axes. Gamma-ray spectra of even-even Nd isotopes were obtained by gating on the transitions in the complimentary Kr fragments. The gamma peaks de-exciting states with I {>=} 12 h were found to be broader than the instrumental line width due to the Doppler effect. The line shapes of they-ray peaks were fitted separately with a simple model for the feeding of the states and assuming a rotational band with constant intrinsic quadruple moment and these are shown in Fig. I-27. The quadrupole moments thus determined were found to be in good agreement with the quadrupole moments measured previously for lower spin states. Because of the success of this technique for the Nd isotopes, we intend to apply this technique to the new larger data set collected with the Eurogam II array. The results of this study were published.

  18. Coordinated Oxygen Isotopic and Petrologic Studies of CAIS Record Varying Composition of Protosolar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Justin I.; Matzel, J. E. P.; Simon, S. B.; Weber, P. K.; Grossman, L.; Ross, D. K.; Hutcheon, I. D.

    2012-01-01

    Ca-, Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) record the O-isotope composition of Solar nebular gas from which they grew [1]. High spatial resolution O-isotope measurements afforded by ion microprobe analysis across the rims and margin of CAIs reveal systematic variations in (Delta)O-17 and suggest formation from a diversity of nebular environments [2-4]. This heterogeneity has been explained by isotopic mixing between the O-16-rich Solar reservoir [6] and a second O-16-poor reservoir (probably nebular gas) with a "planetary-like" isotopic composition [e.g., 1, 6-7], but the mechanism and location(s) where these events occur within the protoplanetary disk remain uncertain. The orientation of large and systematic variations in (Delta)O-17 reported by [3] for a compact Type A CAI from the Efremovka reduced CV3 chondrite differs dramatically from reports by [4] of a similar CAI, A37 from the Allende oxidized CV3 chondrite. Both studies conclude that CAIs were exposed to distinct, nebular O-isotope reservoirs, implying the transfer of CAIs among different settings within the protoplanetary disk [4]. To test this hypothesis further and the extent of intra-CAI O-isotopic variation, a pristine compact Type A CAI, Ef-1 from Efremovka, and a Type B2 CAI, TS4 from Allende were studied. Our new results are equally intriguing because, collectively, O-isotopic zoning patterns in the CAIs indicate a progressive and cyclic record. The results imply that CAIs were commonly exposed to multiple environments of distinct gas during their formation. Numerical models help constrain conditions and duration of these events.

  19. Oxygen isotope fractionation and algal symbiosis in benthic foraminifera from the Gulf of Elat, Israel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchardt, B.; Hansen, H.J.

    1977-01-01

    In order to investigate possible isotopic fractionations due to algal symbiosis the oxygen and carbon isotope compositions of shell carbonate from symbiont-free and symbiont-bearing benthic foraminifera have been compared to that of molluscs living at the same locality. The material was collected over a depth profile in the Gulf of Elat (Aqaba), Israel, covering the interval from 4 to 125 metres. After corrections variations for temperature with depth, characteristic 18 O-depletions were observed in the foraminiferal shell carbonate when compared to the molluscs. These depletions are interpreted as 1) a constant vital effect seen in all the foraminifera studied and 2) an additional, light-dependent vital effect observed in the symbiont-bearing forms only, caused by incorporation of photosynthetic oxygen formed by the symbiotic algae. This additional vital effect emphasizes the difficulties in applying foraminifera to oxygen isotope palaeotemperature analyses. No well-defined differences in carbon isotope compositions are observed between symbiont-bearing and symbiont-free foraminifera. (author)

  20. Oxygen isotope fractionation and algal symbiosis in benthic foraminifera from the Gulf of Elat, Israel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchardt, B; Hansen, H J [Copenhagen Univ. (Denmark)

    1977-01-01

    In order to investigate possible isotopic fractionations due to algal symbiosis the oxygen and carbon isotope compositions of shell carbonate from symbiont-free and symbiont-bearing benthic foraminifera have been compared to that of molluscs living at the same locality. The material was collected over a depth profile in the Gulf of Elat (Aqaba), Israel, covering the interval from 4 to 125 metres. After correcting for variations of temperature with depth, characteristic /sup 18/O-depletions were observed in the foraminiferal shell carbonate when compared to the molluscs. These depletions are interpreted as 1) a constant vital effect seen in all the foraminifera studied and 2) an additional, light-dependent vital effect observed in the symbiont-bearing forms only, caused by incorporation of photosynthetic oxygen formed by the symbiotic algae. This additional vital effect emphasizes the difficulties in applying foraminifera to oxygen isotope palaeotemperature analyses. No well-defined differences in carbon isotope compositions are observed between symbiont-bearing and symbiont-free foraminifera.

  1. The ISO Long Wavelength Spectrometer line spectrum of VY Canis Majoris and other oxygen-rich evolved stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polehampton, E. T.; Menten, K. M.; van der Tak, F. F. S.; White, G. J.

    Context. The far-infrared spectra of circumstellar envelopes around various oxygen-rich stars were observed using the ISO Long Wavelength Spectrometer (LWS). These have been shown to be spectrally rich, particularly in water lines, indicating a high H2O abundance. Aims. We have examined high

  2. Low-temperature, non-stoichiometric oxygen isotope exchange coupled to Fe(II)-goethite interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frierdich, Andrew J. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States); Beard, Brian L. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Rosso, Kevin M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Scherer, Michelle M. [Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States); Spicuzza, Michael J. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Valley, John W. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Johnson, Clark M. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2015-07-01

    The oxygen isotope composition of natural iron oxide minerals has been widely used as a paleoclimate proxy. Interpretation of their stable isotope compositions, however, requires accurate knowledge of isotopic fractionation factors and an understanding of their isotopic exchange kinetics, the latter of which informs us how diagenetic processes may alter their isotopic compositions. Prior work has demonstrated that crystalline iron oxides do not significantly exchange oxygen isotopes with pure water at low temperature, which has restricted studies of isotopic fractionation factors to precipitation experiments or theoretical calculations. Using a double three-isotope method (¹⁸O-¹⁷O-¹⁶O and ⁵⁷Fe-⁵⁶Fe-⁵⁴Fe) we compare O and Fe isotope exchange kinetics, and demonstrate, for the first time, that O isotope exchange between structural O in crystalline goethite and water occurs in the presence of aqueous Fe(II) (Fe(II)aq) at ambient temperature (i.e., 22–50 °C). The three-isotope method was used to extrapolate partial exchange results to infer the equilibrium, mass-dependent isotope fractionations between goethite and water. In addition, this was combined with a reversal approach to equilibrium by reacting goethite in two unique waters that vary in composition by about 16‰ in ¹⁸O/¹⁶O ratios. Our results show that interactions between Fe(II)aq and goethite catalyzes O isotope exchange between the mineral and bulk fluid; no exchange (within error) is observed when goethite is suspended in ¹⁷O-enriched water in the absence of Fe(II)aq. In contrast, Fe(II)-catalyzed O isotope exchange is accompanied by significant changes in ¹⁸O/¹⁶O ratios. Despite significant O exchange, however, we observed disproportionate amounts of Fe versus O exchange, where Fe isotope exchange in goethite was roughly three times that of O. This disparity provides novel insight into the reactivity of oxide minerals in aqueous

  3. Modelling and Mapping Oxygen-18 Isotope Composition of Precipitation in Spain for Hydrologic and Climatic Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez-Arevalo, J.; Diaz-Teijeiro, M.F.; Castano, S.

    2011-01-01

    A simple multiple regression model based on two geographic factors (latitude and elevation) has been developed that reproduces reasonably well the spatial distribution of the current mean oxygen-18 isotope composition in precipitation over Spain. In a preliminary analysis, additional geographic and climatic factors do not improve the performance of the model. A continuous digital map of oxygen-18 isotope composition in precipitation has been produced by combining the polynomial model with a Digital Elevation Model using GIS tools. Application of the resulting map to several case studies in Spain has shown it to be useful as a reference of the isotope input function to groundwater recharge and surface runoff. The results obtained so far show a good fit between modelled stable isotope values and those measured in surface and ground waters from different aquifers and recharge areas. The GIS tools applied to a continuous digital layer of spatial isotope are able to provide accurate information at detailed scales that are not affordable by other means. Further validation of the model, and further testing of its usefulness in surface hydrology and climatic studies, is going on.

  4. Stable sulfur and oxygen isotopes as geochemical tracers of sulfate in karst waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jing; Kobayashi, Tatsuaki; Strosnider, William H. J.; Wu, Pan

    2017-08-01

    Karst water resources, which are extremely sensitive to mining activities, are critical for the support of human societies and ecological systems in many regions worldwide. In order to determine the sources and fate of dissolved sulfate in low-pH karst waters, hydrochemical variations of karst waters with and without acid mine drainage (AMD) impacts were investigated along with stable isotope dynamics. As expected, hydrochemical characteristics and isotopic compositions of the AMD and AMD-downstream water (ADW) were dramatically different from that of the non-AMD-impacted water (NAW). The sources of sulfur isotopes in sulfate were predominantly pyrite oxidation for the AMD and ADW, and atmospheric deposition for the NAW. Based on the general isotope-balance model, the relative proportions of sulfate oxygen derived from water and air were calculated. The mean proportion of sulfate oxygen derived from water in ADW was roughly double that of AMD. This suggests that the sulfate associated with AMD is predominantly influenced by aerobic pyrite oxidation, while that of ADW is likely affected by the dissolution of pyrite under anaerobic conditions in reservoir sediment. This observation was coincident with the noted variations of hydrochemical characteristics and was supported by principal component analysis. These results provide a better understanding of how stable isotopes of sulfate and water can be used to track mining contamination in karst aquifers, which could benefit remediation planning for these distinctive systems.

  5. Oxygen Isotopes in Early Solar System Materials: A Perspective Based on Microbeam Analyses of Chondrules from CV Carbonaceous Chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, R. H.; Leshin, L. A.; Guan, Y.

    2004-01-01

    Some of the biggest challenges to understanding the early history of the solar system include determining the distribution of oxygen isotopes amongst materials that existed in the solar nebula, and interpreting the processes that might have resulted in the observed isotopic distributions. Oxygen isotope ratios in any individual mineral grain from a chondritic meteorite may be the cumulative product of a variety of processes, including stellar nucleosynthetic events, gas/solid interactions in the molecular cloud, mixing of independent isotopic reservoirs in the nebula, mass-independent processing in the nebula, and mass-dependent fractionation effects in various environments. It is not possible to unravel this complex isotopic record unless the distribution of oxygen isotope ratios in chondritic materials is fully understood.

  6. 18O isotopic tracer studies of silicon oxidation in dry oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, C.J.

    1986-01-01

    Oxidation of silicon in dry oxygen has been an important process in the integrated circuit industry for making gate insulators on metal-oxide-semiconductory (MOS) devices. This work examines this process using isotopic tracers of oxygen to determine the transport mechanisms of oxygen through silicon dioxide. Oxides were grown sequentially using mass-16 and mass-18 oxygen gas sources to label the oxygen molecules from each step. The resulting oxides are analyzed using secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). The results of these analyses suggest two oxidant species are present during the oxidation, each diffuses and oxidizes separately during the process. A model from this finding using a sum of two linear-parabolic growth rates, each representing the growth rate from one of the oxidants, describes the reported oxidation kinetics in the literature closely. A fit of this relationship reveals excellent fits to the data for oxide thicknesses ranging from 30 A to 1 μm and for temperatures ranging from 800 to 1200 0 C. The mass-18 oxygen tracers also enable a direct observation of the oxygen solubility in the silicon dioxide during a dry oxidation process. The SIMS profiles establish a maximum solubility for interstitial oxygen at 1000 0 C at 2 x 10 20 cm -3 . Furthermore, the mass-18 oxygen profiles show negligible network diffusion during an 1000 0 C oxidation

  7. Oxygen isotope signature of UV degradation of glyphosate and phosphonoacetate: Tracing sources and cycling of phosphonates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandy, Edward H. [State Key Laboratory of Biogeology and Environmental Geology, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Department of Geology and Geophysics, Yale University, P.O. Box 208109, New Haven, CT 06520-8109 (United States); Department of Chemistry, University of Sierra Leone, Freetown (Sierra Leone); Blake, Ruth E., E-mail: ruth.blake@yale.edu [Department of Geology and Geophysics, Yale University, P.O. Box 208109, New Haven, CT 06520-8109 (United States); School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, and National “International Cooperation Base on Environment and Energy”, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100084 (China); Chang, Sae Jung [Department of Geology and Geophysics, Yale University, P.O. Box 208109, New Haven, CT 06520-8109 (United States); Jun, Yao, E-mail: yaojun@ustb.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Biogeology and Environmental Geology, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Department of Geology and Geophysics, Yale University, P.O. Box 208109, New Haven, CT 06520-8109 (United States); School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, and National “International Cooperation Base on Environment and Energy”, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100084 (China); Yu, Chan [Department of Geology and Geophysics, Yale University, P.O. Box 208109, New Haven, CT 06520-8109 (United States); School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, and National “International Cooperation Base on Environment and Energy”, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: • Phosphonate (phon) hydrolysis by UVR (1.2 kW) attained ≥90% completion in 84 h. • Isotope study reveals both ambient H{sub 2}O and O{sub 2} involvements in phon C-P bond cleavage. • Mechanistic models proposed for phon C-P bond cleavage based on O-isotope analysis. • Model equations used to calculate δ{sup 18}O{sub P-org} of original phon P-moiety-useful as a tracer. • Study shows relevance in tracing phon sources and cycling in the environment. -- Abstract: The degradation of phosphonates in the natural environment constitutes a major route by which orthophosphate (Pi) is regenerated from organic phosphorus and recently implicated in marine methane production, with ramifications to environmental pollution issues and global climate change concerns. This work explores the application of stable oxygen isotope analysis in elucidating the C-P bond cleavage mechanism(s) of phosphonates by UV photo-oxidation and for tracing their sources in the environment. The two model phosphonates used, glyphosate and phosphonoacetic acid were effectively degraded after exposure to UV irradiation. The isotope results indicate the involvement of both ambient water and atmospheric oxygen in the C-P bond cleavage and generally consistent with previously posited mechanisms of UV-photon excitation reactions. A model developed to calculate the oxygen isotopic composition of the original phosphonate P-moiety, shows both synthetic phosphonates having distinctly lower values compared to naturally derived organophosphorus compounds. Such mechanistic models, based on O-isotope probing, are useful for tracing the sources and reactions of phosphonates in the environment.

  8. Stable oxygen and hydrogen isotopes of brines - comparing isotope ratio mass spectrometry and isotope ratio infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, Christian; Koeniger, Paul; van Geldern, Robert; Stadler, Susanne

    2013-04-01

    Today's standard analytical methods for high precision stable isotope analysis of fluids are gas-water equilibration and high temperature pyrolysis coupled to isotope ratio mass spectrometers (IRMS). In recent years, relatively new laser-based analytical instruments entered the market that are said to allow high isotope precision data on nearly every media. This optical technique is referred to as isotope ratio infrared spectroscopy (IRIS). The objective of this study is to evaluate the capability of this new instrument type for highly saline solutions and a comparison of the analytical results with traditional IRMS analysis. It has been shown for the equilibration method that the presence of salts influences the measured isotope values depending on the salt concentration (see Lécuyer et al, 2009; Martineau, 2012). This so-called 'isotope salt effect' depends on the salt type and salt concentration. These factors change the activity in the fluid and therefore shift the isotope ratios measured by the equilibration method. Consequently, correction factors have to be applied to these analytical data. Direct conversion techniques like pyrolysis or the new laser instruments allow the measurement of the water molecule from the sample directly and should therefore not suffer from the salt effect, i.e. no corrections of raw values are necessary. However, due to high salt concentrations this might cause technical problems with the analytical hardware and may require labor-intensive sample preparation (e.g. vacuum distillation). This study evaluates the salt isotope effect for the IRMS equilibration technique (Thermo Gasbench II coupled to Delta Plus XP) and the laser-based IRIS instruments with liquid injection (Picarro L2120-i). Synthetic salt solutions (NaCl, KCl, CaCl2, MgCl2, MgSO4, CaSO4) and natural brines collected from the Stassfurt Salt Anticline (Germany; Stadler et al., 2012) were analysed with both techniques. Salt concentrations ranged from seawater salinity

  9. Measurement of the isotopic composition of galactic cosmic ray carbon, nitrogen and oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiedenbeck, M.E.; Greiner, D.E.; Bieser, F.S.; Crawford, H.J.; Heckman, H.H.; Lindstrom, P.J.

    1979-06-01

    The results of an investigation of the isotopic composition of galactic cosmic ray carbon, nitrogen and oxygen (E approx. 80 to 230 MeV/amu) made using the U.C. Berkeley HKH instrument aboard the ISEE-3 spacecraft are reported. The combination of high mass resolution and a large statistical sample makes possible a precise determination of the relative isotopic abundances for these elements. In local interplanetary space we find: 13 C/C = 0.067 +- 0.008, 15 N/N = 0.54 +- 0.03, 17 O/O 18 O/O = 0.019 +- 0.003

  10. New neutron-rich isotope production in 154Sm+160Gd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Wang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Deep inelastic scattering in 154Sm+160Gd at energies above the Bass barrier is for the first time investigated with two different microscopic dynamics approaches: improved quantum molecular dynamics (ImQMD model and time dependent Hartree–Fock (TDHF theory. No fusion is observed from both models. The capture pocket disappears for this reaction due to strong Coulomb repulsion and the contact time of the di-nuclear system formed in head-on collisions is about 700 fm/c at an incident energy of 440 MeV. The isotope distribution of fragments in the deep inelastic scattering process is predicted with the simulations of the latest ImQMD-v2.2 model together with a statistical code (GEMINI for describing the secondary decay of fragments. More than 40 extremely neutron-rich unmeasured nuclei with 58≤Z≤76 are observed and the production cross sections are at the order of μb to mb. The multi-nucleon transfer reaction of Sm+Gd could be an alternative way to synthesize new neutron-rich lanthanides which are difficult to be produced with traditional fusion reactions or fission of actinides.

  11. Water relations link carbon and oxygen isotope discrimination to phloem sap sugar concentration in eucalyptus globulus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cernusak, L.A.; Farquhar, G.D.; Arthur, D.J; Pate, J.S.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The carbon isotope ratio of phloem sap sugars has been previously observed to correlate strongly with the phloem sap sugar concentration in Eucalyptus globulus. We hypothesized that the correspondence between these two parameters results from co-linearity in their responses to variation in plant water potential. Carbon isotope discrimination is expected to decrease with decreasing plant water potential due to the influence of stomatal conductance on the ratio of intercellular to ambient CO 2 , concentrations (c 1 /c a ). Conversely, we expected the phloem sap sugar concentration to increase with decreasing plant water potential, thereby maintaining positive turgor pressure within the sieve tubes. The study comprised 40 individual Eucalyptus globulus trees growing in three plantations situated on opposing ends of a rainfall gradient in southwestern Australia. A strong correlation was observed between the carbon isotope ratio in phloem sap sugars and phloem sap sugar concentration. Carbon isotope discrimination correlated positively with shoot water potential, whereas phloem sap sugar concentration correlated negatively with shoot water potential. The relationship between carbon isotope discrimination measured in phloem sap sugars collected from the stem and c 1 /c a measured instantaneously on subtending leaves was close to that theoretically predicted. Accordingly, a strong, negative relationship was observed between instantaneous c 1 /c a and the phloem sap sugar concentration. Oxygen isotope discrimination in phloem sap sugars also correlated strongly with phloem sap sugar concentration. A theoretical model suggested that the observed variation in stomatal conductance was sufficient to account for the variation observed in oxygen isotope discrimination across the study. Results strongly support the contention that water relations form a mechanistic link between phloem sap sugar concentration and both instantaneous and integrated measures of the

  12. Oxygen and hydrogen isotope studies of plutonic granitic rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, H.P. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    The primary deltaD values of the biotites and hornblendes in granitic batholiths are remarkably constant at about -50 to -85, identical to the values in regional metamorphic rocks, marine sediments and greenstones, and most weathering products in temperate climates. Therefore the primary water in these igneous rocks is probably not 'juvenile', but is ultimately derived by dehydration and/or partial melting of the lower crust or subducted lithosphere. Most granitic rocks have delta 18 O = +7.0 to +10.0, probably indicating significant involvment of high- 18 O metasedimentary or altered volcanic rocks in the melting process; such an origin is demanded for many other granodiorites and tonalites that have delta 18 O = +10 to +13. Gigantic meteoric-hydrothermal convective circulation systems were established in the epizonal portions of all batholiths, locally producing very low delta 18 O values (particularly in feldspars) during subsolidus exchange. Some granitic plutons in such environments also were emplaced as low- 18 O magmas probably formed by melting or assimilation of hydrothermally altered roof rocks. However, the water/rock ratios were typically low enough that over wide areas the only evidence for meteoric water exchange in the batholiths is given by low D/H ratios (deltaK as low as -180); for example, because of latitudinal isotopic variations in meteoric waters, as one moves north through the Cordilleran batholiths of western North America an increasingly higher proportion of the granitic rocks have deltaD values lower than -120. The lowering of deltaD values commonly corelates with re-setting of K-Ar ages. (Auth.)

  13. Oxygen isotope fractionation in the CaCO3-DIC-H2O system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devriendt, Laurent S.; Watkins, James M.; McGregor, Helen V.

    2017-10-01

    The oxygen isotope ratio (δ18O) of inorganic and biogenic carbonates is widely used to reconstruct past environments. However, the oxygen isotope exchange between CaCO3 and H2O rarely reaches equilibrium and kinetic isotope effects (KIE) commonly complicate paleoclimate reconstructions. We present a comprehensive model of kinetic and equilibrium oxygen isotope fractionation between CaCO3 and water (αc/w) that accounts for fractionation between both (a) CaCO3 and the CO32- pool (α c / CO32-) , and (b) CO32- and water (α CO32- / w) , as a function of temperature, pH, salinity, calcite saturation state (Ω), the residence time of the dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in solution, and the activity of the enzyme carbonic anhydrase. The model results suggest that: (1) The equilibrium αc/w is only approached in solutions with low Ω (i.e. close to 1) and low ionic strength such as in the cave system of Devils Hole, Nevada. (2) The sensitivity of αc/w to the solution pH and/or the mineral growth rate depends on the level of isotopic equilibration between the CO32- pool and water. When the CO32- pool approaches isotopic equilibrium with water, small negative pH and/or growth rate effects on αc/w of about 1-2‰ occur where these parameters covary with Ω. In contrast, isotopic disequilibrium between CO32- and water leads to strong (>2‰) positive or negative pH and growth rate effects on α CO32-/ w (and αc/w) due to the isotopic imprint of oxygen atoms derived from HCO3-, CO2, H2O and/or OH-. (3) The temperature sensitivity of αc/w originates from the negative effect of temperature on α CO32-/ w and is expected to deviate from the commonly accepted value (-0.22 ± 0.02‰/°C between 0 and 30 °C; Kim and O'Neil, 1997) when the CO32- pool is not in isotopic equilibrium with water. (4) The model suggests that the δ18O of planktic and benthic foraminifers reflects a quantitative precipitation of DIC in isotopic equilibrium with a high-pH calcifying fluid, leading

  14. Oxygen isotope variability in snow from western Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica and its relation to temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helsen, M.M.; Wal, R.S.W. van de; Broeke, M.R. van den; As, D. van; Reijmer, C.H.; Meijer, H.A.J.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents (delta) 18 O records from snow pits from four locations in Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica that contain at least four annual cycles. The aim of the study was to analyse in detail these records as well as the prevailing temperatures during accumulation in order to infer to what extent isotopic composition in this area can be interpreted as temperature information. The original seasonal amplitudes of the isotope records were reconstructed by use of a simple back-diffusion model. Automatic weather station data were used to describe the accumulation history and the near-surface temperatures; the temperatures at the atmospheric level of snow formation were inferred from a regional climate model. The results show that the strongly intermittent nature of the accumulation in this area can result in the exclusion of entire seasons from the isotope records. The temperature records also reveal that the oxygen isotope records in these snow pits are biased towards higher temperatures, since snowfall conditions are associated with higher temperatures. This effect is greatest at low temperatures. A comparison between the seasonal extreme isotopic and temperature values points out that on timescales of seasons to several years, isotopic variability cannot be interpreted with confidence as temperature changes at the accumulation sites

  15. Shape Evolution in Neutron-Rich Krypton Isotopes Beyond N=60: First Spectroscopy of ^{98,100}Kr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flavigny, F; Doornenbal, P; Obertelli, A; Delaroche, J-P; Girod, M; Libert, J; Rodriguez, T R; Authelet, G; Baba, H; Calvet, D; Château, F; Chen, S; Corsi, A; Delbart, A; Gheller, J-M; Giganon, A; Gillibert, A; Lapoux, V; Motobayashi, T; Niikura, M; Paul, N; Roussé, J-Y; Sakurai, H; Santamaria, C; Steppenbeck, D; Taniuchi, R; Uesaka, T; Ando, T; Arici, T; Blazhev, A; Browne, F; Bruce, A; Carroll, R; Chung, L X; Cortés, M L; Dewald, M; Ding, B; Franchoo, S; Górska, M; Gottardo, A; Jungclaus, A; Lee, J; Lettmann, M; Linh, B D; Liu, J; Liu, Z; Lizarazo, C; Momiyama, S; Moschner, K; Nagamine, S; Nakatsuka, N; Nita, C; Nobs, C R; Olivier, L; Orlandi, R; Patel, Z; Podolyák, Zs; Rudigier, M; Saito, T; Shand, C; Söderström, P A; Stefan, I; Vaquero, V; Werner, V; Wimmer, K; Xu, Z

    2017-06-16

    We report on the first γ-ray spectroscopy of low-lying states in neutron-rich ^{98,100}Kr isotopes obtained from ^{99,101}Rb(p,2p) reactions at ∼220  MeV/nucleon. A reduction of the 2_{1}^{+} state energies beyond N=60 demonstrates a significant increase of deformation, shifted in neutron number compared to the sharper transition observed in strontium and zirconium isotopes. State-of-the-art beyond-mean-field calculations using the Gogny D1S interaction predict level energies in good agreement with experimental results. The identification of a low-lying (0_{2}^{+}, 2_{2}^{+}) state in ^{98}Kr provides the first experimental evidence of a competing configuration at low energy in neutron-rich krypton isotopes consistent with the oblate-prolate shape coexistence picture suggested by theory.

  16. Co- and defect-rich carbon nanofiber films as a highly efficient electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Il To; Song, Myeong Jun; Shin, Seoyoon; Shin, Moo Whan

    2018-03-01

    Many efforts are continuously devoted to developing high-efficiency, low-cost, and highly scalable oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) electrocatalysts to replace precious metal catalysts. Herein, we successfully synthesize Co- and defect-rich carbon nanofibers (CNFs) using an efficient heat treatment approach involving the pyrolysis of electrospun fibers at 370 °C under air. The heat treatment process produces Co-decorated CNFs with a high Co mass ratio, enriched pyridinic N, Co-pyridinic Nx clusters, and defect-rich carbon structures. The synergistic effects from composition and structural changes in the designed material increase the number of catalytically active sites for the ORR in an alkaline solution. The prepared Co- and defect-rich CNFs exhibit excellent ORR activities with a high ORR onset potential (0.954 V vs. RHE), a large reduction current density (4.426 mA cm-2 at 0.40 V), and a nearly four-electron pathway. The catalyst also exhibits a better long-term durability than commercial Pt/C catalysts. This study provides a novel hybrid material as an efficient ORR catalyst and important insight into the design strategy for CNF-based hybrid materials as electrochemical electrodes.

  17. The Effect of Phytase on the Oxygen Isotope Composition of Phosphate

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Sperber, C.; Tamburini, F.; Bernasconi, S. M.; Frossard, E.

    2013-12-01

    Plants and microorganisms under phosphorus (P) stress release extracellular phosphatases as a strategy to acquire inorganic phosphate (Pi) (1-2). These enzymes catalyze the hydrolysis of phosphoesters leading to a release of Pi. The enzymatic hydrolysis leads, via a nucleophilic attack, to the incorporation of one oxygen atom from the water into the newly formed Pi molecule. During the incorporation, an isotopic fractionation occurs, which might be used to identify the origin of Pi in the environment (3-6). While the effect of phosphomonoesterases and phosphodiesterases on the oxygen isotope composition of phosphate has been examined, there are, so far, no studies dealing with the effect of phytases (4-6). Phytases catalyze the hydrolysis of myo-inositol-hexakis-phosphate (IP6), which is an important component of organic P in many ecosystems (7). Enzymatic assays with phytase from wheat germ and Aspergillus niger were prepared under sterile and temperature controlled conditions in order to determine the effect of phytases on the oxygen isotope composition of phosphate, which has been liberated from IP6 via enzymatic hydrolysis. Assays with phytase from wheat germ lead to a turnover of the substrate close to 100%, while assays with phytase from Aspergillus niger lead to a turnover of the substrate close to 80%. In the case of the assays with phytase from wheat germ, our results indicate that one sixth of the total 24 oxygen which are associated to the phosphates in IP6 are exchanged with oxygen from water. From this we conclude that the incorporation of one oxygen atom from water occurs only at four phosphate molecules of IP6, while two phosphate molecules do not experience an incorporation of oxygen. This suggests that during the enzymatic hydrolysis, four P-O bonds and two C-O bonds are broken. Provided that, the isotopic fractionation can be calculated with an isotopic mass balance resulting in -8.4‰ (×3.6 SD). This is a value very similar to those reported

  18. Non-mass-dependent fractionation of sulfur and oxygen isotopes during UV photolysis of sulfur dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pen, Aranh

    Since the discovery of anomalous sulfur isotope abundance in the geological record in sulfate and sulfide minerals (Farquhar et al., 2000), much effort has been put into understanding their origin to provide new insights into the environmental conditions on the early Earth (Farquhar et al., 2001; Pavlov and Kasting, 2002; Ono et al., 2003; Zahnle et al., 2006; Farquhar et al., 2007; Lyons, 2007; Lyons, 2008). This discovery gained immense interest because of its implications for both the lack of oxygen in the atmosphere during the Archean era 2.5-3.8 Gya (billion years ago), and for rise of oxygen, or the "Great Oxidation Event", that occurred 2.2-2.4 Gya (Holland, 2002). These signatures are believed to be produced in an anticorrelation to oxygen abundance in the early atmosphere, which will aid in quantifying the rate of oxygenation during the "Great Oxidation Event". According to Farquhar et al. (2000), the non-mass-dependent (NMD), or anomalous, fractionation signatures were produced by photochemical reactions of volcanic sulfur species in Earth's early atmosphere (> 2.3 Gya) due to the lack of an oxygen and ozone shield, resulting in an atmosphere transparent to solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation (Farquhar et al., 2001). Interpretation of the anomalous rock records, though, depends on the identification of (1) chemical reactions that can produce the NMD signature (Farquhar and Wing, 2003); and (2) conditions necessary for conversion of the gas-phase products into solid minerals (Pavlov and Kasting, 2002). The focus of my research addresses the first step, which is to determine whether the chemical reactions that occurred in Earth's early atmosphere, resulting in NMD fractionation of sulfur isotopes, were due to broadband UV photochemistry, and to test isotopic self-shielding as the possible underlying mechanism. In this project, our goals were to test isotopic self-shielding during UV photolysis as a possible underlying mechanism for anomalous sulfur isotopic

  19. Technical note: Consistent calculation of aquatic gross production from oxygen triple isotope measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kaiser

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Oxygen triple isotope measurements can be used to calculate aquatic gross oxygen production rates. Past studies have emphasised the appropriate definition of the 17O excess and often used an approximation to derive production rates from the 17O excess. Here, I show that the calculation can be phrased more consistently and without any approximations using the relative 17O/16O and 18O/16O isotope ratio differences (delta values directly. I call this the "dual delta method". The 17O excess is merely a mathematical construct and the derived production rate is independent of its definition, provided all calculations are performed with a consistent definition. I focus on the mixed layer, but also show how time series of triple isotope measurements below the mixed layer can be used to derive gross production.

    In the calculation of mixed layer productivity, I explicitly include isotopic fractionation during gas invasion and evasion, which requires the oxygen supersaturation s to be measured as well. I also suggest how bubble injection could be considered in the same mathematical framework. I distinguish between concentration steady state and isotopic steady state and show that only the latter needs to be assumed in the calculation. It is even possible to derive an estimate of the net production rate in the mixed layer that is independent of the assumption of concentration steady state.

    I review measurements of the parameters required for the calculation of gross production rates and show how their systematic uncertainties as well as the use of different published calculation methods can cause large variations in the production rates for the same underlying isotope ratios. In particular, the 17O excess of dissolved O2 in equilibrium with atmospheric O2 and the 17O excess of photosynthetic O2 need to

  20. Oxygen isotopic ratio of the diatom siliceous valves: development of a new method in quantitative paleoclimatology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labeyrie, Laurent.

    1979-07-01

    This paper describes a new method allowing the measurement of the 18 O/ 16 O ratio of the biogenic silica oxygen, which takes into account the effects due to the organic matter and hydration water associated with this type of silica. By isotopic exchange with enriched water, we have been able to fix a treatment which eliminate all contamination and memory effects. This has permitted us to study the temperature dependance of the hydrated silica-water oxygen isotopic fractionation. As application, we present a study of the variations of the delta 18 O of fossil diatoms valves along an Equatorial Pacific sediment core covering the last 20.000 years. The results demonstrate the usefulness of the delta 18 O of the diatom silica for paleoclimatic investigations [fr

  1. Oxygen isotopes in mammal bone phosphate: A new tool for paleohydrological and paleoclimatological research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longinelli, Antonio

    1984-02-01

    Oxygen isotope analyses of water in blood of humans and domestic pigs indicate that the oxygen isotope fractionation effects between ingested water and body water are the same in all specimens of the same species. The δ18O of body water has been shown to vary linearly with the mean δ18O of local meteoric water. This conclusion also holds for the bone phosphate. Thus, δ18O( PO3-4) values of unaltered fossil bones from humans and domestic pigs can be used to reconstruct the δ18O values of local meteoric waters during the life-times of the mammals. Such data can be used for paleohydrological and paleoclimatological studies both on land and at sea.

  2. Assessment of nitrogen and oxygen isotopic fractionation during nitrification and its expression in the marine environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casciotti, Karen L; Buchwald, Carolyn; Santoro, Alyson E; Frame, Caitlin

    2011-01-01

    Nitrification is a microbially-catalyzed process whereby ammonia (NH(3)) is oxidized to nitrite (NO(2)(-)) and subsequently to nitrate (NO(3)(-)). It is also responsible for production of nitrous oxide (N(2)O), a climatically important greenhouse gas. Because the microbes responsible for nitrification are primarily autotrophic, nitrification provides a unique link between the carbon and nitrogen cycles. Nitrogen and oxygen stable isotope ratios have provided insights into where nitrification contributes to the availability of NO(2)(-) and NO(3)(-), and where it constitutes a significant source of N(2)O. This chapter describes methods for determining kinetic isotope effects involved with ammonia oxidation and nitrite oxidation, the two independent steps in the nitrification process, and their expression in the marine environment. It also outlines some remaining questions and issues related to isotopic fractionation during nitrification. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The Largs high-latitude oxygen isotope anomaly (New Zealand) and climatic controls of oxygen isotopes in magma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blattner, P.; Williams, J.G.

    1991-01-01

    In northern Fiordland the Brook Street terrane of New Zealand consists of two units - the predominantly basaltic Plato and the predominantly andesitic Largs terrane. The Permian Plato terrane has normal to slightly enriched δ 18 O values, whereas the Largs terrane, which is of similar pre-early Triassic age, has not yielded a single normal δ 18 O SMOW result, with all of 17 total rocks showing less than 3.2per mille, seven less than -4per mille, and two less than -9per mille. These strongly anomalous data confirm an earlier suggested terrestrial character of Largs deposition, and demand the presence of Permo-Triassic geothermal systems running on subAntarctic to Antarctic meteoric water. The skewed data spectrum suggests a relatively immature flow system and likely values for the recharge water are -20per mille δ 18 O or less. For a climate distribution similar to the present one, inlcuding polar ice caps, this would indicate over 70deg of southern latitude. Rafts and xenoliths of Largs rocks have been entrained within Mackay Intrusives in the early Triassic. On field evidence the Mackay magmas have also intruded an early Darran Complex, but this complex has been substantially reactivated in the Cretaceous. It has δ 18 O values near 5.0per mille, which is distinctly low for island arc magmas. Since the complex is isotopically homogenous, its δ 18 O is unlikely to be a direct effect of the relatively shallow Largs terrane. More probable is a climate related slight depression of the δ 18 O of magma sources, in which other high-latitude, low-δ 18 O sediments and geothermal systems have been involved. (orig.)

  4. Oxygen isotopic abundances in the atmospheres of seven red giant stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, M.J.; Lambert, D.L.

    1984-01-01

    Abundances ratios of the oxygen isotopes have been measured in α Tau, β And, μ Gem, α Her, β Peg, γ Dra, and α Boo. In all the stars the 16 O/ 18 O ratios are similar; the mean value is 475, which is consistent with the solar system value 16 O/ 18 O = 490. The 16 O/ 17 O ratios range from approx.1000 for β Peg and α Boo to 16 O/ 17 O = 160 for β And

  5. A universal carbonate ion effect on stable oxygen isotope ratios in unicellular planktonic calcifying organisms

    OpenAIRE

    Ziveri, P.; Thoms, S.; Probert, I.; Geisen, M.; Langer, H.

    2012-01-01

    The oxygen isotopic composition (δ18O) of calcium carbonate of planktonic calcifying organisms is a key tool for reconstructing both past seawater temperature and salinity. The calibration of paloeceanographic proxies relies in general on empirical relationships derived from field experiments on extant species. Laboratory experiments have more often than not revealed that variables other than the target parameter influence the proxy signal, which makes proxy c...

  6. Synopsis of oxygen isotopes in geothermal solids and fluids of New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blattner, P.

    1982-01-01

    Geothermal minerals serve as downhole probes of oxygen isotope compositions and thus of parameters of geothermal hydrology. ''Deep'' wells (2500 m) in New Zealand show no sign of Δ 18 O values ''bottoming out''. Ngawha differs from other systems both in the level and profile details of Δ 18 O values. The reservoir fluid at Ngawha hydrogeology may or may not be suited for development of a high-throughput surface recharge system

  7. Permafrost oxygen isotope ratios and chronology of three cores from Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuiver, M.; Yang, I.C.; Denton, G.H.

    1976-01-01

    It is stated that permafrost core sediments, associated with the last intrusion of the Ross Ice Shelf in the New Harbour region, were deposited in marine (0 - 85 m deep) as well as freshwater environments (100 - 125 m). Oxygen isotope ratio measurements on these cores provide palaeoclimatic information and show that the extension of the Ross Ice Shelf predates 150,000 yr BP, whereas the radiocarbon date of its retreat is about 5,800 yr b.p. (author)

  8. Fractionation of hydrogen and oxygen isotopes between hydrated and free water molecules in aqueous urea solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakiuchi, M.; Matsuo, S.

    1985-01-01

    Ratios of D/H and 18 O/ 16 O in the vapor phase in equilibrium with aqueous urea solution with different urea molalities were measured at 15 and 25 0 C. Under the assumption that urea solutions consist of two species, i.e., the urea-water cluster and free water, the results are interpreted to give the average hydration number, i.e., the number of water molecules per urea molecule in the urea-water cluster. Good agreement was obtained for the hydration number estimated independently from hydrogen and oxygen isotopic fractions. On the basis of hydrogen isotopic data at 25 0 C, the average hydration number of urea in the cluster is 6.3 +/- 0.8 at 2.1 m and 2.75 +/- 0.08 at saturation (20.15 m). The corresponding average hydration numbers based on oxygen isotopic data were calculated to be 6.7 +/- 2.4 at 2.1 m and 2.75 +/- 0.25 at urea saturation. HD 16 O is enriched in the urea-water cluster and H 2 18 O is enriched in free water. Isotopic partitioning between the cluster and free water is markedly different from those between hydration spheres and free water in aqueous electrolyte solutions. 29 references, 6 figures, 5 tables

  9. Fractionation of Nitrogen and Oxygen Isotopes and Roles of Bacteria during Denitrification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, J.; Buyanjargal, A.; Jeen, S. W.

    2017-12-01

    Nitrate in groundwater can cause health and environmental problems when not properly treated. The purpose of this study was to develop a treatment method for nitrate in groundwater using organic carbon-based reactive mixtures (i.e., wood chips and gravel) through column experiments and to evaluate reaction mechanisms responsible for the treatment. The column experiments were operated for a total of 19 months. The results from the geochemical analyses for the experiments suggest that cultures of denitrifying bacteria used organic carbon while utilizing nitrate as their electron acceptor via denitrification process. Proteobacteria was the most abundant phylum in all samples, accounting for 45.7% of the bacterial reads, followed by Firmicutes (22.6%) and Chlorobi (10.6%). Bacilli, Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Actinobacteria_c consisted of 32, 30, 23, 11, and 2% of denitrifying bacteria class. The denitrification process caused fractionation of nitrogen and oxygen isotopes of nitrate while nitrate concentration decreased. When fitted to the Rayleigh's fractionation model, enrichment factors (ɛ) were 11.5‰ and 5.6‰ for 15N and 18O isotopes, respectively. Previous studies suggested that nitrogen isotope enrichment factors of denitrification are within the range of 4.7 to 40‰ and oxygen isotopic enrichment factors are between 8 and 18.3‰. This study shows that nitrate in groundwater can be effectively treated using passive treatment systems, such as permeable reactive barriers (PRBs), and denitrificaton is the dominant process reponsible for the removal of nitrate.

  10. Isotopic exchange between CO2 and H2O and labelling kinetics of photosynthetic oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerster, Richard

    1971-01-01

    The reaction of carbon dioxide with water has been studied by measuring the rate of oxygen exchange between C 18 O 2 and H 2 16 O. The mathematical treatment of the kinetics allows to determine with accuracy the diffusion flow between the gas and the liquid phase, in the same way as the CO 2 hydration rate. The velocity constant of this last process, whose value gives the in situ enzymatic activity of carbonic anhydrase, has been established in the case of chloroplast and Euglena suspensions and of aerial leaves. The study of the isotopic exchange between C 18 O 2 and a vegetable submitted to alternations of dark and light has allowed to calculate the isotopic abundance of the metabolized CO 2 whose value has been compared to that of the intracellular water and that of photosynthetic oxygen. In addition, a new method using 13 C 18 O 2 gives the means to measure with accuracy eventual isotopic effects. The labelling kinetics of the oxygen evolved by Euglena suspensions whose water has been enriched with 18 O have been established at different temperatures. (author) [fr

  11. Forensic applications of nitrogen and oxygen isotopes in tracing nitrate sources in urban environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, S.R.; Ging, P.B.; Lee, R.W.; Ebbert, J.C.; Tesoriero, A.J.; Inkpen, E.L.

    2002-01-01

    Ground and surface waters in urban areas are susceptible to nitrate contamination from septic systems, leaking sewer lines, and fertilizer applications. Source identification is a primary step toward a successful remediation plan in affected areas. In this respect, nitrogen and oxygen isotope ratios of nitrate, in conjunction with hydrologic data and water chemistry, have proven valuable in urban studies from Austin, Texas, and Tacoma, Washington. In Austin, stream water was sampled during stremflow and baseflow conditions to assess surface and subsurface sources of nitrate, respectively. In Tacoma, well waters were sampled in adjacent sewered and un-sewered areas to determine if locally high nitrate concentrations were caused by septic systems in the un-sewered areas. In both studies, sewage was identified as a nitrate source and mixing between sewage and other sources of nitrate was apparent. In addition to source identification, combined nitrogen and oxygen isotopes were important in determining the significance of denitrification, which can complicate source assessment by reducing nitrate concentrations and increasing ??15N values. The two studies illustrate the value of nitrogen and oxygen isotopes of nitrate for forensic applications in urban areas. ?? Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. on behalf of AEHS.

  12. Oxygen isotope analyses of ground ice from North of West Siberia, from Yakutia and from Chukotka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaikmaee, R.; Vassilchuk, Y.

    1991-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to make the large amount of original factual material obtained by studying the oxygen isotope composition in different types of permafrost and ground ice available to specialists. The samples analysed were systematically collected over a period of many years from different permafrost areas of the Soviet Union with the aim of elucidating and studying the regularities of isotope composition formation in different types of ground ice and selecting the most promising objects for paleoclimatic reconstructions. Much attention was paid on methodical problems of isotopic analysis starting with the collection, transportation and storage of samples up to the interpretation of the results obtained. Besides permafrost isotope data covering a large geographical area, a good deal of data concerns the isotopic composition of precipitation and surface water in permafrost areas. This is of great consequence as regards the understanding of the regularities of isotope compositions formation in permafrost. The largest chapter gives a brief account of the isotopic composition in different types of ground ice. The conclusion has been reached that in terms of paleoclimatic research syngenetic ice wedges are most promising. Grounding on the representative data bank it may be maintained with certainty that the isotopic composition provides a reliable basis for the differentiation of ice wedges originating in different epochs , however, it also reveals regional regularities. Much more complicated is the interpretation of textural ice isotopic composition. In some cases it is possible to use the distribution of 18 O in vertical sections of textural ice for their stratigraphic division. One has to consider here different mechanisms of textural ice formation as a result of which the initial isotopic composition of the ice-forming water can be in some cases highly modified. A problem of its own is the investigation of 18 O variations in the section of massive

  13. Composition, oxygen isotope geochemistry, and origin of smectite in the metalliferous sediments of the Bauer Deep, southeast Pacific

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, T G [Imperial Coll. of Science and Technology, London (UK). Geology Dept.

    1985-01-01

    The sediments of the Bauer Deep, an open ocean basin situated on the northwest Nazca Plate in the southeast Pacific, constitute a regional metalliferous deposit dominated by authigenic smectite. Two 2-metre long cores from the Bauer Deep were examined to investigate the nature and origin of the smectite. Infra-red and Mossbauer spectroscopy, and wet chemical analysis (LiBO/sub 2/ fusion) of isolated smectite, indicate the mineral is a Mg-rich, Al-rich nontronite. Oxygen isotopic compositions for isolated smectite are uniform and translate to a non-hydrothermal temperature of formation of about 3 deg C. SEM observations show an abundance of well-preserved biogenic opal in surface and near surface sediment but postburial dissolution and transformation of this phase to smectite is evident at depth. Smectite formation is the result of interaction between iron oxyhydroxide, ponded in the Bauer Deep following a hydrothermal origin at the adjacent East Pacific Rise, and biogenic opal. A reaction mechanism is proposed. Regional factors control smectite formation. In particular, formation is inhibited in areas of CaCO/sub 3/ accumulation (topographic elevations) but favoured in areas of oxyhydroxide and opal ponding (topographic depressions.)

  14. Composition, oxygen isotope geochemistry, and origin of smectite in the metalliferous sediments of the Bauer Deep, southeast Pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, T.G.

    1985-01-01

    The sediments of the Bauer Deep, an open ocean basin situated on the northwest Nazca Plate in the southeast Pacific, constitute a regional metalliferous deposit dominated by authigenic smectite. Two 2-metre long cores from the Bauer Deep were examined to investigate the nature and origin of the smectite. Infra-red and Mossbauer spectroscopy, and wet chemical analysis (LiBO 2 fusion) of isolated smectite, indicate the mineral is a Mg-rich, Al-rich nontronite. Oxygen isotopic compositions for isolated smectite are uniform and translate to a non-hydrothermal temperature of formation of about 3 deg C. SEM observations show an abundance of well-preserved biogenic opal in surface and near surface sediment but postburial dissolution and transformation of this phase to smectite is evident at depth. Smectite formation is the result of interaction between iron oxyhydroxide, ponded in the Bauer Deep following a hydrothermal origin at the adjacent East Pacific Rise, and biogenic opal. A reaction mechanism is proposed. Regional factors control smectite formation. In particular, formation is inhibited in areas of CaCO 3 accumulation (topographic elevations) but favoured in areas of oxyhydroxide and opal ponding (topographic depressions.) (author)

  15. Carbon, hydrogen oxygen isotope studies on imbedded old tree ring and paleoclimate reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Yanrong; Mu Zhiguo; Cui Haiting

    2002-01-01

    Tree ring is a kind of natural archives, on which the isotopic analysis is important to study global climate and environmental change. The authors mainly provide a comprehensive introduction to the fractionation models of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen isotope in plants, their research technique and the extract methods from cellulose. That results show isotopic tracer can record the message of climatic variation and has become a powerful tool for paleoclimate reconstruction and for the modern environment changing research. Especially studying on PAGES. the cellulose isotopic analyses of imbedded old tree ring have become the mainly quantitative means of environmental evolvement. In addition, China is a typical monsoon country, research in tree ring stable isotope seasonal variation can give a lot of important information on that. Up to now, the research techniques and works on tree ring in China are still in its earlier stage, and remain many limitations. It needs further accumulate basic research materials, intensity regional contrast and intercross studies on relative subjects

  16. Analysis of Atmospheric Nitrate Deposition in Lake Tahoe Using Multiple Oxygen Isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, J. R.; Michalski, G. M.; Hernandez, L. P.; Thiemens, M. H.; Taylor, K.; Kendall, C.; Wankel, S. D.

    2002-12-01

    Lake Tahoe in the Sierra Nevada Mountain Range is world renown for its depth and water clarity bringing 2.2 million visitors per year resulting in annual revenue of \\1.6 billion from tourism. In past decades the lake has suffered from decreased water clarity (from 32 m plate depth to less than 20), which is believed to be largely the result of algae growth initiated by increased nutrient loading. Lake nutrients have also seen a shift from a nitrogen limited to a phosphorous limited system indicating a large increase in the flux of fixed nitrogen. Several sources of fixed nitrogen of have been suggested including surface runoff, septic tank seepage from ground water and deposition from the atmosphere. Bio-available nitrogen in the form of nitrate (NO_{3}$-) is a main component of this system. Recent studies have estimated that approximately 50% of the nitrogen input into the lake is of atmospheric origin (Allison et al. 2000). However, the impact and magnitude of atmospheric deposition is still one of the least understood aspects of the relationship between air and water quality in the Basin (TRPA Threshold Assessment 2002). The utility of stable isotopes as tracers of nitrate reservoirs has been shown in several studies (Bohlke et al. 1997, Kendall and McDonnell 1998, Durka et al. 1994). Stable nitrogen (δ15N) and oxygen (δ18O) isotopes have been implemented in a dual isotope approach to characterize the various nitrate sources to an ecosystem. While δ18O distinguishes between atmospheric and soil sources of nitrate, processes such as denitrification can enrich the residual nitrate in δ18O leaving a misleading atmospheric signature. The benefit of δ15N as a tracer for NO3- sources is the ability to differentiate natural soil, fertilizer, and animal or septic waste, which contain equivalent δ18O values. The recent implementation of multiple oxygen isotopes to measure Δ17O in nitrate has proven to be a more sensitive tracer of atmospheric deposition. The

  17. The mechanism of oxygen isotopic fractionation during fungal denitrification - A pure culture study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrage-Moennig, Nicole; Rohe, Lena; Anderson, Traute-Heidi; Braker, Gesche; Flessa, Heinz; Giesemann, Annette; Lewicka-Szczebak, Dominika; Well, Reinhard

    2014-05-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) from soil denitrification originates from bacteria and - to an unknown extent - also from fungi. During fungal denitrification, oxygen (O) exchange takes place between H2O and intermediates of the denitrification process as in bacterial exchange[1,2]. However, information about enzymes involved in fungal O exchanges and the associated fractionation effects is lacking. The objectives of this study were to estimate the O fractionation and O exchange during the fungal denitrifying steps using a conceptual model[2] adapted from concepts for bacterial denitrification[3], implementing controls of O exchange proposed by Aerssens, et al.[4] and using fractionation models by Snider et al.[5] Six different pure fungal cultures (five Hypocreales, one Sordariales) known to be capable of denitrification were incubated under anaerobic conditions, either with nitrite or nitrate. Gas samples were analyzed for N2O concentration and its isotopic signatures (SP, average δ15N, δ18O). To investigate O exchange, both treatments were also established with 18O-labelled water as a tracer in the medium. The Hypocreales strains showed O exchange mainly at NO2- reductase (Nir) with NO2- as electron acceptor and no additional O exchange at NO3- reductase (Nar) with NO3- as electron acceptor. The only Hypocreales species having higher O exchange with NO3- than with NO2- also showed O exchange at Nar. The Sordariales species tested seems capable of O exchange at NO reductase (Nor) additionally to O exchange at Nir with NO2-. The data will help to better interpret stable isotope values of N2O from soils. .[1] D. M. Kool, N. Wrage, O. Oenema, J. Dolfing, J. W. Van Groenigen. Oxygen exchange between (de)nitrification intermediates and H2O and its implications for source determination of NO?3- and N2O: a review. Rapid Commun. Mass Spec. 2007, 21, 3569. [2] L. Rohe, T.-H. Anderson, B. Braker, H. Flessa, A. Giesemann, N. Wrage-Mönnig, R. Well. Fungal Oxygen Exchange between

  18. Constraints on the nature of the projectile using siderophile elements and triple-oxygen isotopes: Zhamanshin impact structure, Kazakhstan

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jonášová, Šárka; Ackerman, Lukáš; Žák, Karel; Skála, Roman; Magna, T.; Pack, A.; Deutsch, A.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 51, SI, Supplement 1 (2016), A358-A358 ISSN 1086-9379. [Annual Meeting of the Meteoritical Society /79./. 07.08.2016-12.08.2016, Berlin] Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : impact glass * irghizites * geochemistry * meteoritic component * siderophile elements * osmium isotopes * triple-oxygen Isotopes * Zhamanshin Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry

  19. [Research advances in identifying nitrate pollution sources of water environment by using nitrogen and oxygen stable isotopes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Wei; Liang, Zhi-wei; Li, Wei; Zhu, Yao; Yanng, Mu-yi; Jia, Chao-jie

    2013-04-01

    Water body' s nitrate pollution has become a common and severe environmental problem. In order to ensure human health and water environment benign evolution, it is of great importance to effectively identify the nitrate pollution sources of water body. Because of the discrepant composition of nitrogen and oxygen stable isotopes in different sources of nitrate in water body, nitrogen and oxygen stable isotopes can be used to identify the nitrate pollution sources of water environment. This paper introduced the fractionation factors of nitrogen and oxygen stable isotopes in the main processes of nitrogen cycling and the composition of these stable isotopes in main nitrate sources, compared the advantages and disadvantages of five pre-treatment methods for analyzing the nitrogen and oxygen isotopes in nitrate, and summarized the research advances in this aspect into three stages, i. e. , using nitrogen stable isotope alone, using nitrogen and oxygen stable isotopes simultaneously, and combining with mathematical models. The future research directions regarding the nitrate pollution sources identification of water environment were also discussed.

  20. Shape coexistence in neutron-rich Sr isotopes : Coulomb excitation of $^{96}$Sr

    CERN Multimedia

    Clement, E; Siem, S; Czosnyka, T

    2007-01-01

    The nuclei in the mass region A $\\cong$ 100 around Sr and Zr show a dramatic change of the nuclear ground-state shape from near spherical for N $\\leq$ 58 to strongly deformed for N $\\geq$ 60. Theoretical calculations predict the coexistence of slightly oblate and strongly prolate deformed configurations in the transitional region. However, excited rotational structures based on the highly deformed configuration, which becomes the ground state at N = 60, are not firmly established in the lighter isotopes, and the earlier interpretation of a very abrupt change of shape has been challenged by recent experimental results in favor of a rather gradual change. We propose to study the electromagnetic properties of the neutron-rich nucleus $_{38}^{96}$Sr$_{58}$ by low-energy Coulomb excitation using the REX-ISOLDE facility and the MINIBALL detector array. Both transitional and diagonal matrix elements will be extracted, resulting in a complete description of the transition strengths and quadrupole moments of the low-l...

  1. Numerical modelling of continuous spin detonation in rich methane-oxygen mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trotsyuk, A V

    2016-01-01

    A numerical simulation of a two-dimensional structure of the detonation wave (DW) in a rich (equivalence ratio φ=1.5) methane-air mixture at normal initial condition has been conducted. The computations have been performed in a wide range of channel heights. From the analysis of the flow structure and the number of primary transverse waves in the channel, the dominant size of the detonation cell for studied mixture has been determined to be 45÷50 cm. Based on the fundamental studies of multi-front (cellular) structure of the classical propagating DW in methane mixtures, numerical simulation of continuous spin detonation (CSD) of rich (φ=1.2) methane-oxygen mixture has been carried out in the cylindrical detonation chamber (DC) of the rocket-type engine. We studied the global flow structure in DC, and the detailed structure of the front of the rotating DW. Integral characteristics of the detonation process - the distribution of average values of static and total pressure along the length of the DC, and the value of specific impulse have been obtained. The geometric limit of stable existence of CSD has been determined. (paper)

  2. Detection of CI line emission towards the oxygen-rich AGB star omi Ceti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saberi, M.; Vlemmings, W. H. T.; De Beck, E.; Montez, R.; Ramstedt, S.

    2018-05-01

    We present the detection of neutral atomic carbon CI(3P1-3P0) line emission towards omi Cet. This is the first time that CI is detected in the envelope around an oxygen-rich M-type asymptotic giant branch (AGB) star. We also confirm the previously tentative CI detection around V Hya, a carbon-rich AGB star. As one of the main photodissociation products of parent species in the circumstellar envelope (CSE) around evolved stars, CI can be used to trace sources of ultraviolet (UV) radiation in CSEs. The observed flux density towards omi Cet can be reproduced by a shell with a peak atomic fractional abundance of 2.4 × 10-5 predicted based on a simple chemical model where CO is dissociated by the interstellar radiation field. However, the CI emission is shifted by 4 km s-1 from the stellar velocity. Based on this velocity shift, we suggest that the detected CI emission towards omi Cet potentially arises from a compact region near its hot binary companion. The velocity shift could, therefore, be the result of the orbital velocity of the binary companion around omi Cet. In this case, the CI column density is estimated to be 1.1 × 1019 cm-2. This would imply that strong UV radiation from the companion and/or accretion of matter between two stars is most likely the origin of the CI enhancement. However, this hypothesis can be confirmed by high-angular resolution observations.

  3. Stratigraphy on Oxygen and Carbon Isotope of Paciran Formation East Java

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Premonowati; R P Koesoemadinata; Harsono-Pringgoprawiro; Wahyoe-S-Hantoro

    2004-01-01

    Paleotemperature fluctuation in tropical zone (centennial and decad al scale) has been known. It's based on stable isotopic analysis from each of unconformity zones. Those boundaries have derived on reef units of shallows marine reef complex of Paciran Formation, Tuban area in Northeast Java Basin. From 25 samples have been choosen on undeformed calcite and analyzed by oxygen and carbon stable isotope. It used to validizing a sea level changes during the formation to Reef 1 to Reef 17 from Paciran formation with sea surface temperature (SST) since 4 Ma until now. On early forming of Reef 1 to Reef 3 (since 4 Ma - 2,88 Ma), sea level occurred marine flooding surface. Since the formation of reef 4 (2,59 Ma) to Reef 8 (1,4 Ma) occurred stagnant temperature and almost to warmer condition. Then, δ 18 O have arise up drastically to 5 0/00 and shows warmer condition to Reef 8 formation, in contrary, the sea level have been arised to Reef 10 formation (0,7 Ma). The temperature have been fluctuated between 0,5 o and 1 o C until the formation of Reef 17 (Early Holocene) and continued to Reef 17 formation at 2 o C based on the rapidity sampling of Po rites sp. Wholly, in centennial scale, since the formation of Reef 4 (2,59 Ma) to Reef 17 (1 Ma), the curve of oxygen stable isotope shows decrease or cooler condition. Those condition have conducted to sea level drop since the formation to Reef 7 and Reef 8. There are 4 periods of interglacial since the formation of Reef 4. The warmer condition indicated since the formation of Reef 9, Reef 11 and Reef 17. Recently, a curve of oxygen isotopes reveals warmer drastically or sea level have been arisen. (author)

  4. The Oxygen Isotopic Composition of Phosphate: A Tracer for Phosphate Sources and Cycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mclaughlin, K. [Southern California Coastal Water Research Project, Costa Mesa, University of California, CA (United States); Young, M. B.; Paytan, A.; Kendall, C. [U.S. Geological Survey, University of California, CA (United States)

    2013-05-15

    Phosphorus (P) is a limiting macro-nutrient for primary productivity and anthropogenic P-loading to aquatic ecosystems is one of the leading causes of eutrophication in many ecosystems throughout the world. Because P has only one stable isotope, traditional isotope techniques are not possible for tracing sources and cycling of P in aquatic systems. However, much of the P in nature is bonded to four oxygen (O) atoms as orthophosphate (PO{sub 4}{sup 3-}). The P-O bonds in orthophosphate are strongly resistant to inorganic hydrolysis and do not exchange oxygen with water without biological mediation (enzyme-mediated recycling). Thus, the oxygen isotopic composition of dissolved inorganic phosphate ({delta}{sup 18}O{sub p}) may be used as a tracer for phosphate sources and cycling in aquatic ecosystems. Recently, several studies have been conducted utilizing {delta}{sup 18}O{sub p} as a tracer for phosphate sources and cycling in various aquatic environments. Specifically, work to date indicates that {delta}{sup 18}O{sub p} is useful for determining sources of phosphate to aquatic systems if these sources have unique isotopic signatures and phosphate cycling within the system is limited compared to input fluxes. In addition, because various processes imprint specific fractionation effects, the {delta}{sup 18}O{sub p} tracer can be utilized to determine the degree of phosphorous cycling and processing through the biomass. This chapter reviews several of these studies and discusses the potential to utilize the {delta}{sup 18}O{sub p} of phosphate in rivers and streams. (author)

  5. Oxygen isotopes in garnet and accessory minerals to constrain fluids in subducted crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubatto, Daniela; Gauthiez-Putallaz, Laure; Regis, Daniele; Rosa Scicchitano, Maria; Vho, Alice; Williams, Morgan

    2017-04-01

    Fluids are considered a fundamental agent for chemical exchanges between different rock types in the subduction system. Constraints on the sources and pathways of subduction fluids thus provide crucial information to reconstruct subduction processes. Garnet and U-Pb accessory minerals constitute some of the most robust and ubiquitous minerals in subducted crust and can preserve multiple growth zones that track the metamorphic evolution of the sample they are hosted in. Microbeam investigation of the chemical (major and trace elements) and isotopic composition (oxygen and U-Pb) of garnet and accessory minerals is used to track significant fluid-rock interaction at different stages of the subduction system. This approach requires consideration of the diffusivity of oxygen isotopes particularly in garnet, which has been investigated experimentally. The nature of the protolith and ocean floor alteration is preserved in relict accessory phases within eclogites that have been fully modified at HP conditions (e.g. Monviso and Dora Maira units in the Western Alps). Minerals in the lawsonite-blueschists of the Tavsanli zone in Turkey record pervasive fluid exchange between mafic and sedimentary blocks at the early stage of subduction. High pressure shear zones and lithological boundaries show evidence of intense fluid metasomatism at depth along discontinuities in Monviso and Corsica. In the UHP oceanic crust of the Zermatt-Saas Zone, garnet oxygen isotopes and tourmaline boron isotopes indicate multistage fluid infiltration during prograde metamorphism. Localized exchanges of aqueous fluids are also observed in the subducted continental crust of the Sesia-Lanzo Zone. In most cases analyses of distinct mineral zones enable identification of multiple pulses of fluids during the rock evolution.

  6. INVESTIGATION OF DISSOLVED SULPHATE IN VARIOUS GEOTHERMAL FIELDS OF SUMATRA USING OXYGEN AND SULPHUR ISOTOPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Ristin Pujiindiyati

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available There are at least 30 high temperature systems; eleven active volcanoes, five degassing volcanoes and one caldera volcano controlled by Sumatra Fault Zone over a length of 1700 km. To understand this geothermal field system, some information about geochemistry including isotope composition in its fluid is needed. Sulphur-34 and oxygen-18 isotopes in dissolved sulphate pair have been used to determine the origin of acidic fluid of sulphate and to evaluate the process involved. The fluids from eight hot springs, two fumaroles, four deep wells and crater have been collected in along Sumatra geothermal fields. Sulphur-34 (d 34S (SO4, 0/00 CDT and oxygen-18 (d 18O (SO4, 0/00 SMOW in sulphate is analyzed according to Robinson-Kusakabe and Rafter method, respectively. The d 34S (SO4 values from Sibayak wells are more enriched of 16.8 0/00 to 18.2 0/0 that may indicate the dissolution of anhydrite minerals or isotope partitioning in hydration of SO2. The d 34S (SO4 values from two fumaroles (Pusuk Bukit - North Sumatra and Rantau Dadap - South Sumatra are at depleted value of -0.150/00 and 1.80/00, those are close to d 34S from magmatic sulphur.  In general, the d 34S (SO4 of springs spread in a wide range of 5.250/00 to14.20/00 and show a mixing process between atmospheric sulphate and sulphate from deep wells. The d 18O (SO4 from wells exhibits depleted value around -3.60/00 suggesting that 87.5% of sulphate oxygen is derived from groundwater oxygen and 12.5% is derived from atmospheric molecular oxygen in sulphide oxidation reaction. In the other hand, hot springs (except Semurup, crater and fumaroles have enriched value of d 18O (SO4. These enriched values suggest that a higher percentage of atmospherically derived oxygen compared to those from the depth.   Keywords: isotope, geothermal, Sumatra

  7. Method of controlling injection of oxygen into hydrogen-rich fuel cell feed stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltser, Mark Alexander; Gutowski, Stanley; Weisbrod, Kirk

    2001-01-01

    A method of operating a H.sub.2 --O.sub.2 fuel cell fueled by hydrogen-rich fuel stream containing CO. The CO content is reduced to acceptable levels by injecting oxygen into the fuel gas stream. The amount of oxygen injected is controlled in relation to the CO content of the fuel gas, by a control strategy that involves (a) determining the CO content of the fuel stream at a first injection rate, (b) increasing the O.sub.2 injection rate, (c) determining the CO content of the stream at the higher injection rate, (d) further increasing the O.sub.2 injection rate if the second measured CO content is lower than the first measured CO content or reducing the O.sub.2 injection rate if the second measured CO content is greater than the first measured CO content, and (e) repeating steps a-d as needed to optimize CO consumption and minimize H.sub.2 consumption.

  8. Using Oxygen and Carbon Isotopic Signatures in Order to Infer Climatic and Dietary Information in Roman Edessa, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Dimitra-Ermioni; Dotsika, Elissavet

    2017-12-01

    Even though many isotopic studies have been conducted on ancient populations from Greece for the purpose of dietary reconstruction; mostly through carbon and nitrogen isotopic signals of bone collagen, less attention has been given to the utility of apatite signatures (oxygen and carbon) as dietary and palaeoenvironmental tools. Moreover, until recently the isotopic signal of tooth enamel for both the purposes of environmental and dietary reconstructions has been rarely assessed in ancient Greek societies. Therefore, the present study aims to provide with novel isotopic information regarding Edessa; a town in Northern Greece, during the Roman period. The current study primarily aims to explore the possible differentiation between the present climatic conditions in Edessa in relation to those occurring at the Roman period. Secondly, this study aims to reveal the significant utility of enamel isotopic signatures (carbon and oxygen) in palaeoenvironmental and palaeodietary studies regarding ancient human remains. The isotopic analyses have been conducted at the Stable Isotope and Radiocarbon Unit of INN, NCSR “Demokritos”. The population of Roman Edessa (2nd-4th c. AD) consists of 22 individuals, providing with 19 bone samples and 16 enamel ones. The mean enamel oxygen value is at -7.7 ±1.1 %0, the bone apatite mean oxygen value at -9.2 ±1.9 %0, and finally the mean carbon enamel value is at -11.7 ±1.2 %0. Oxygen values probably indicate that Edessa had a cooler climate during the Roman times in relation to present conditions, even though more research should be carried out in order to be more certain. In addition, the possible existence of non-local individuals has been revealed through the oxygen teeth enamel-bone apatite spacing. Finally, the carbon enamel signature has pointed out possible differentiations between the adult and the juvenile diet. Based on Edessa’s findings, the stated study strongly encourages the enamel oxygen and carbon isotopic signals

  9. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and molecular hydrogen in oxygen-rich planetary nebulae: the case of NGC 6720.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, N L J; Pilleri, P; Berné, O; Cernicharo, J; Joblin, C

    2016-02-11

    Evolved stars are primary sources for the formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and dust grains. Their circumstellar chemistry is usually designated as either oxygen-rich or carbon-rich, although dual-dust chemistry objects, whose infrared spectra reveal both silicate- and carbon-dust features, are also known. The exact origin and nature of this dual-dust chemistry is not yet understood. Spitzer -IRS mid-infrared spectroscopic imaging of the nearby, oxygen-rich planetary nebula NGC 6720 reveals the presence of the 11.3 μ m aromatic (PAH) emission band. It is attributed to emission from neutral PAHs, since no band is observed in the 7-8 μ m range. The spatial distribution of PAHs is found to closely follow that of the warm clumpy molecular hydrogen emission. Emission from both neutral PAHs and warm H 2 is likely to arise from photo-dissociation regions associated with dense knots that are located within the main ring. The presence of PAHs together with the previously derived high abundance of free carbon (relative to CO) suggest that the local conditions in an oxygen-rich environment can also become conducive to in-situ formation of large carbonaceous molecules, such as PAHs, via a bottom-up chemical pathway. In this scenario, the same stellar source can enrich the interstellar medium with both oxygen-rich dust and large carbonaceous molecules.

  10. Chemical and Oxygen Isotopic Composition of Roman and Late Antique Glass from Northern Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberta Silvestri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper emphasizes the importance of measuring the oxygen isotopic and chemical compositions of ancient glass, in order to constrain some features such as age, raw materials, and production technologies and to identify the “fingerprint” of local productions. In this context, thirty-nine Roman and late Antique glass samples and eight chert samples from northern Greece were selected and analysed for their oxygen isotopic and chemical compositions. Results show that the majority of glass samples are produced using natron as flux and have δ18O values of about 15.5‰, plus or minus a few tenths of one per mil, suggesting that raw materials probably come from Levantine area. Four samples are heavily enriched in 18O, and their chemical composition clearly shows that they were made with soda plant ash as flux. Isotopic and chemical data of Greek chert samples support the hypothesis of local production of the above samples. About half of the glass samples have chemical compositions, which allow their age to be constrained to the late Antique period. For the remaining glass, similarities with literature compositional groups are reported and discussed.

  11. Covariance of oxygen and hydrogen isotopic composition in plant water: Species effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, L.W.; DeNiro, M.J. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles (United States))

    1989-12-01

    Leaf water becomes enriched in the heavy isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen during evapotranspiration. The magnitude of the enrichment has been shown to be influenced by temperature and humidity, but the effects of species-specific factors on leaf water enrichment of D and {sup 18}O have not been studied for different plants growing together. To learn whether leaf water enrichment patterns and processes for D and {sup 18}O are different for individual species growing under the same environmental conditions the authors tested the proposal that leaf waters in plants with crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) show high sloped (m in the leaf water equation {delta}D = m {delta}{sup 18}O + b) than in C{sub 3} plants. They determined the relationships between the stable hydrogen ({delta}D) and oxygen ({delta}{sup 18}O) isotope ratios of leaf waters collected during the diurnal cycle of evapotranspiration for Yucca schidigera, Ephedra aspera, Agave deserti, Prunus ilicifolia, Yucca whipplei, Heteromeles arbutifolia, Dyckia fosteriana, Simmondsia chinensis, and Encelia farinosa growing at two sites in southern California. The findings indicate that m in the aforementioned equation is related to the overall residence time for water in the leaf and proportions of water subjected to repeated evapotranspiration enrichments of heavy isotopes.

  12. Oxygen isotopic tracing study of the dry thermal oxidation of 6H SiC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vickridge, I.C.; Ganem, J.-J.; Battistig, G.; Szilagyi, E.

    2000-01-01

    The (0 0 0 1) and (0 0 0 1-bar) faces of 6H SiC have been oxidised sequentially at 1100 deg. C and 100 mbar in ultra-dry oxygen of natural isotopic concentration and in ultra-dry oxygen highly enriched in 18 O. Measurement of the 18 O isotopic concentration profiles by nuclear resonance profiling with the narrow resonance at 151 keV in 18 O(p,α) 15 N shows that on the carbon-terminated face (0 0 0 1-bar) the oxidation mechanism is rather similar to that observed on Si(1 0 0), but that on the silicon-terminated face (0 0 0 1) the surface isotopic exchange and oxide formation are superposed. The surface exchange observed during a third dry oxidation, in 16 O 2 , is very similar in magnitude and spatial extent on Si(1 0 0), and the two 6H SiC faces, suggesting that at least near the surface the nature and composition of the three oxides are very similar

  13. Oxygen isotopic tracing study of the dry thermal oxidation of 6H SiC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vickridge, I.C. E-mail: vickridge@gps.jussieu.fr; Ganem, J.-J.; Battistig, G.; Szilagyi, E

    2000-03-01

    The (0 0 0 1) and (0 0 0 1-bar) faces of 6H SiC have been oxidised sequentially at 1100 deg. C and 100 mbar in ultra-dry oxygen of natural isotopic concentration and in ultra-dry oxygen highly enriched in {sup 18}O. Measurement of the {sup 18}O isotopic concentration profiles by nuclear resonance profiling with the narrow resonance at 151 keV in {sup 18}O(p,{alpha}){sup 15}N shows that on the carbon-terminated face (0 0 0 1-bar) the oxidation mechanism is rather similar to that observed on Si(1 0 0), but that on the silicon-terminated face (0 0 0 1) the surface isotopic exchange and oxide formation are superposed. The surface exchange observed during a third dry oxidation, in {sup 16}O{sub 2}, is very similar in magnitude and spatial extent on Si(1 0 0), and the two 6H SiC faces, suggesting that at least near the surface the nature and composition of the three oxides are very similar.

  14. Effects of diagenesis on strontium, carbon, nitrogen and oxygen concentration and isotopic composition of bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Bruce K.; Deniro, Michael J.; Schoeninger, Margaret J.; De Paolo, Donald J.; Hare, P. E.

    1986-09-01

    Paleodietary analysis based on variations in the trace element and stable isotopic composition of inorganic and organic phases in fossil bone depends on the assumption that measured values reflect in vivo values. To test for postmortem alteration, we measured 87Sr /86Sr , 13C /12C , 18O /16O and 15N /14N ratios and Sr concentrations in modern and prehistoric (610 to 5470 yr old) bones of animals with marine or terrestrial diets from Greenland. Bones from modern terrestrial feeders have substantially lower Sr concentrations and more radiogenic 87Sr /86Sr ratios than those from modern marine feeders. This contrast was not preserved in the prehistoric samples, which showed almost complete overlap for both Sr concentration and isotopic composition in bones from the two types of animals. Leaching experiments, X-ray diffraction analysis and infrared spectroscopy indicate that alteration of the Sr concentration and isotopic composition in prehistoric bone probably results from nearly complete exchange with groundwater. Oxygen isotope ratios in fossil apatite carbonate also failed to preserve the original discrimination between modern terrestrial and marine feeders. The C isotope ratio of apatite carbonate did not discriminate between animals with marine or terrestrial diets in the modern samples. Even so, the ranges of apatite δ 13C values in prehistoric bone are more scattered than in modern samples for both groups, suggesting alteration had occurred. δ 13C and δ 15N values of collagen in modern bone are distinctly different for the two feeding types, and this distinction is preserved in most of the prehistoric samples. Our results suggest that postmortem alteration of dietary tracers in the inorganic phases of bone may be a problem at all archaeological sites and must be evaluated in each case. While collagen analyzed in this study was resistant to alteration, evaluation of the possibility of diagenetic alteration of its isotopic composition in bones from other

  15. Distribution of oxygen isotopes in the water masses of Drake Passage and the South Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, Michael P.; Grose, Katie E.; McDonagh, Elaine L.; Heywood, Karen J.; Frew, Russell D.; Dennis, Paul F.

    1999-09-01

    Measurements of the ratio of stable isotopes of oxygen (18O and 16O) from samples collected on World Ocean Circulation Experiment sections SR1b (eastern Drake Passage) and A11 (Punta Arenas to Cape Town) are used, together with hydrographic data, to deduce information about the formation and variability of South Atlantic and Southern Ocean water masses. The Drake Passage surface waters south of the Polar Front (PF) are isotopically light (δ18O around -0.4‰) owing to the influence of meteoric waters. The salinity and δ18O of the A11 surface waters yield an apparent freshwater end-member which is much isotopically lighter than the local precipitation, thus advection of these waters from farther south dominates over local effects in determining the surface water properties. The Drake Passage section shows unusual proximity of the two main fronts of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (the PF and Subantarctic Front (SAF)), and we observe cold, fresh, and isotopically light water derived from the temperature-minimum Winter Water at the SAF. This water is of the correct density to freshen the intermediate water north of the SAF and thus play a role in the formation of the comparatively fresh Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW) of the South Atlantic. This confirms the role of Antarctic water in forming the South Atlantic variety of AAIW. Across the A11 section the oxygen isotope and salinity data at the AAIW core show very similar traces, with waters in the Malvinas Current loop showing lowest values of both. At the eastern boundary of the South Atlantic, the input of Red Sea Water from east of South Africa is observed via the presence of anomalously isotopically heavy AAIW. We deduce potentially significant temporal variability in the isotopic composition of Weddell Sea Deep Water (WSDW) by comparing the Drake Passage data to earlier data covering the outflow of the Weddell Sea. The A11 data show WSDW consistent with such variability, indicating that its effects could

  16. Probing the collectivity in neutron-rich Cd isotopes via γ-ray spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naqvi, Farheen

    2011-01-01

    The spin and configurational structure of excited states of 127 Cd, 125 Cd and 129 Cd, having two proton and three, five and one neutron holes, respectively in the doubly magic 132 Sn core have been studied. The isomeric states in Cd isotopes were populated in the fragmentation of a 136 Xe beam at an energy of 750 MeV/u on a 9 Be target of 4 g/cm 2 . The experiment was performed at GSI Darmstadt. The neutron-rich Cd isotopes were selected using the Bρ - ΔE - Bρ method at the FRagment Separator (FRS). Event by event identification of fragments in terms of their A (mass) and Z (charge) was provided by the standard FRS detectors. The reaction residues were implanted in a plastic stopper surrounded by 15 Ge cluster detectors from the RISING array to detect the γ decays. In 127 Cd, an isomeric state with a half-life of 17.5(3) μs has been detected. This yrast (19/2) + isomer is proposed to have mixed proton-neutron configurations and to decay by two competing stretched M2 and E3 transitions. Experimental results are compared with the isotone 129 Sn. In 125 Cd, apart from the previously observed (19/2) + isomer, two new metastable states at 3896 keV and 2141 keV have been detected. A half-life of 13.6(2) μs was measured for the (19/2) + isomer, having a decay structure similar to the corresponding isomeric state in 127 Cd. The higher lying isomers have a half-life of 3.1(1) μs and 2.5(15) ns, respectively. Time distributions of delayed γ transitions and γγ-coincidence relations were exploited to construct decay schemes for the two nuclei. Comparison of the experimental data with shell-model calculations is also discussed. The new information provides input for the proton-neutron interaction in nuclei around the doubly magic 132 Sn core. The γ decays of the isomeric states in 129 Cd were not observed experimentally. The reasons for the non-observation of delayed γ rays for 129 Cd are either an isomeric half-life of less than 93 ns based on the experimentally

  17. Mass measurement and structure studies of neutron-rich isotopes of Zn, Ni, Fe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dessagne, P.

    1982-01-01

    With the Orsay MP Tandem, the reaction ( 14 C, 16 O) on 58 - 60 - 62 - 64 Ni, 64 - 66 - 68 - 70 Zn, 74 - 76 Ge and 82 Se targets, and the reaction ( 14 C, 15 O) on 60 - 62 - 64 Ni, 68 - 70 Zn, 76 Ge targets, have been investigated at 72 MeV bombarding energy. The mass excess of neutron rich nuclei: 63 Fe (-55.19+-.06MeV), 69 Ni(-60.14+-.06 MeV), 75 Zn(.62.7+-08 MeV) have been measured for the first time, and those of 62 Fe, 68 Ni, 74 Zn, 80 Ge have been remeasured. A new equipment has been designed in order to perform measurements at zero degree. From the angular distribution around 0 0 for the 70 Zn( 14 C, 16 O) reaction, the first state of 68 Ni observed for the first time (1.77 MeV +- .04 MeV) has been shown to be a 0 + . This result establishes a new case of 2 1+ - 0 2+ inversion. The systematics of the ( 14 C, 16 O) measurements on the even Ni and Zn isotopes have shown a different behaviour with two series. For the Ni → Fe (g.s.) transitions, the ratio σsub(exp)/σsub(DWBA) increases by a factor of four when the neutron number varies from 30 to 36. Whereas for the Zn → Ni (gs) transitions this ratio remains constant for the first three isotopes and decrease by a factor of two when N=40. For the Ni → Fe transitions, axial and spherical symmetries have been used. In agreement with the shell model no change are found with the spherical symmetry. For the axial symmetry a variation is observed but strongly dapendant of the sub-shell. Hence no clear conclusion can be deduced for the cross section estimate. For the Zn → Ni transitions, the spherical symmetry has been used. One configuration prevails, leading to a qualitative agreement with the experimental results [fr

  18. Stable hydrogen, oxygen and sulfur isotopes composition in different tissues of cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Fengmei; Shi Guangyu; Wang Huiwen; Yang Shuming

    2012-01-01

    In order to research on stable hydrogen, oxygen, sulfur isotopes composition in different tissues of cattle, as well as the breed, δ 2 H and δ 34 S values of different defatted muscle, cattle tail hair, blood, liver, also δ 2h and δ 18 O values of water from muscle were determined by isotope ratio mass spectrometry. The stable sulfur isotope composition was not affected by cattle variety, meanwhile the hydrogen was uncertain; the δ 2 H and δ 34 S values between different defatted muscle, blood, liver, cattle hair were significantly different, at the same time the δ 34 S and δ 2 H values between each tissue were not significantly correlated; the δ 2 H values were strongly correlated with the δ 18 O values of muscle water. The above results indicated that stable sulfur and hydrogen isotopes fractionation in the various tissues were discrepant, thus the proper tissue should be selected according to the purpose and object in the beef traceability. (authors)

  19. Holocene climate variability revealed by oxygen isotope analysis of Sphagnum cellulose from Walton Moss, northern England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, T. J.; Barber, K. E.; Street-Perrott, F. A.; Loader, N. J.; Marshall, J. D.; Crowley, S. F.; Fisher, E. H.

    2010-07-01

    Stable isotope analyses of Sphagnum alpha-cellulose, precipitation and bog water from three sites across northwestern Europe (Raheenmore, Ireland, Walton Moss, northern England and Dosenmoor, northern Germany) over a total period of 26 months were used to investigate the nature of the climatic signal recorded by Sphagnum moss. The δ18O values of modern alpha-cellulose tracked precipitation more closely than bog water, with a mean isotopic fractionation factor αcellulose-precipitation of 1.0274 ± 0.001 (1 σ) (≈27‰). Sub-samples of isolated Sphagnum alpha-cellulose were subsequently analysed from core WLM22, Walton Moss, northern England yielding a Sphagnum-specific isotope record spanning the last 4300 years. The palaeo-record, calibrated using the modern data, provides evidence for large amplitude variations in the estimated oxygen isotope composition of precipitation during the mid- to late Holocene. Estimates of palaeotemperature change derived from statistical relationships between modern surface air temperatures and δ18O precipitation values for the British Isles give unrealistically large variation in comparison to proxies from other archives. We conclude that use of such relationships to calibrate mid-latitude palaeo-data must be undertaken with caution. The δ18O record from Sphagnum cellulose was highly correlated with a palaeoecologically-derived index of bog surface wetness (BSW), suggesting a common climatic driver.

  20. Understanding the circulation of geothermal waters in the Tibetan Plateau using oxygen and hydrogen stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Hongbing; Zhang, Yanfei; Zhang, Wenjie; Kong, Na; Zhang, Qing; Huang, Jingzhong

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Unique geothermal resources in Tibetan Plateau were discussed. • Isotopes were used to trace circulation of geothermal water. • Magmatic water mixing dominates geothermal water evolution. - Abstract: With the uplift of the Tibetan Plateau, many of the world’s rarest and most unique geothermal fields have been developed. This study aims to systematically analyze the characteristics of the hydrogen and oxygen isotopic data of geothermal, river, and lake waters to understand the circulation of groundwater and to uncover the mechanism of geothermal formation in the Tibetan Plateau. Field observations and isotopic data show that geothermal water has higher temperatures and hydraulic pressures, as well as more depleted D and 18 O isotopic compositions than river and lake waters. Thus, neither lakes nor those larger river waters are the recharge source of geothermal water. Snow-melt water in high mountains can vertically infiltrate and deeply circulate along some stretching tensile active tectonic belts or sutures and recharge geothermal water. After deep circulation, cold surface water evolves into high-temperature thermal water and is then discharged as springs at the surface again in a low area, under high water-head difference and cold–hot water density difference. Therefore, the large-scale, high-temperature, high-hydraulic-pressure geothermal systems in the Tibetan Plateau are developed and maintained by rapid groundwater circulation and the heat source of upwelled residual magmatic water. Inevitably, the amount of geothermal water will increase if global warming accelerates the melting of glaciers in high mountains

  1. Hydrogen and oxygen stable isotope ratios of milk in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesson, Lesley A; Valenzuela, Luciano O; O'Grady, Shannon P; Cerling, Thure E; Ehleringer, James R

    2010-02-24

    Models of hydrogen and oxygen incorporation in human tissues recognize the impact of geographic location on the isotopic composition of fluid intake, but inputs can include nonlocal beverages, such as milk. Milk and cow drinking water were collected from dairies, and commercially available milk was purchased from supermarkets and fast food restaurants. It was hypothesized that milk water delta(2)H and delta(18)O values record geographic location information. Correlations between milk water isotope ratios and purchase location tap water were significant. However, the amount of variation in milk delta(2)H and delta(18)O values explained by tap water was low, suggesting a single estimation of fluid input isotope ratios may not always be adequate in studies. The delta(2)H and delta(18)O values of paired milk and cow drinking water were related, suggesting potential for geographical origin assignment using stable isotope analysis. As an application example, milk water delta(18)O values were used to predict possible regions of origin for restaurant samples.

  2. The oxygen isotope effect on the in-plane penetration depth in cuprate superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khasanov, R; Shengelaya, A; Morenzoni, E; Conder, K; Savic, I M; Keller, H

    2004-01-01

    Muon spin rotation (μSR) studies of the oxygen isotope ( 16 O/ 18 O) effect (OIE) on the in-plane magnetic field penetration depth λ ab in cuprate high-temperature superconductors (HTS) are presented. First, the doping dependence of the OIE on the transition temperature T c in various HTS is briefly discussed. It is observed that different cuprate families show similar doping dependences of the OIE on T c . Then, bulk μSR, low-energy μSR, and magnetization studies of the total and site-selective OIE on λ ab are described in some detail. A substantial OIE on λ ab was observed in various cuprate families at all doping levels, suggesting that cuprate HTS are non-adiabatic superconductors. The experiments clearly demonstrate that the total OIE on T c and λ ab arise from the oxygen sites within the superconducting CuO 2 planes, demonstrating that the phonon modes involving the movement of planar oxygen are dominantly coupled to the supercarriers. Finally, it is shown that the OIE on T c and λ ab exhibit a relation that appears to be generic for different families of cuprate HTS. The observation of these unusual isotope effects implies that lattice effects play an essential role in cuprate HTS and have to be considered in any realistic model of high-temperature superconductivity

  3. The oxygen isotope effect on the in-plane penetration depth in cuprate superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khasanov, R [Physik-Institut der Universitaet Zuerich, CH-8057 Zurich (Switzerland); Shengelaya, A [Physik-Institut der Universitaet Zuerich, CH-8057 Zurich (Switzerland); Morenzoni, E [Laboratory for Muon Spin Spectroscopy, Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Conder, K [Laboratory for Neutron Scattering, ETH Zuerich and PSI Villigen, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Savic, I M [Faculty of Physics, University of Belgrade, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia and Montenegro); Keller, H [Physik-Institut der Universitaet Zuerich, CH-8057 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2004-10-13

    Muon spin rotation ({mu}SR) studies of the oxygen isotope ({sup 16}O/{sup 18}O) effect (OIE) on the in-plane magnetic field penetration depth {lambda}{sub ab} in cuprate high-temperature superconductors (HTS) are presented. First, the doping dependence of the OIE on the transition temperature T{sub c} in various HTS is briefly discussed. It is observed that different cuprate families show similar doping dependences of the OIE on T{sub c}. Then, bulk {mu}SR, low-energy {mu}SR, and magnetization studies of the total and site-selective OIE on {lambda}{sub ab} are described in some detail. A substantial OIE on {lambda}{sub ab} was observed in various cuprate families at all doping levels, suggesting that cuprate HTS are non-adiabatic superconductors. The experiments clearly demonstrate that the total OIE on T{sub c} and {lambda}{sub ab} arise from the oxygen sites within the superconducting CuO{sub 2} planes, demonstrating that the phonon modes involving the movement of planar oxygen are dominantly coupled to the supercarriers. Finally, it is shown that the OIE on T{sub c} and {lambda}{sub ab} exhibit a relation that appears to be generic for different families of cuprate HTS. The observation of these unusual isotope effects implies that lattice effects play an essential role in cuprate HTS and have to be considered in any realistic model of high-temperature superconductivity.

  4. Nuclear structure studies of neutron-rich heavy nuclei by mass measurements of francium and radium isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenbusch, Marco [Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universitaet, Institut fuer Physik, 17487 Greifswald (Germany); Collaboration: ISOLTRAP-Collaboration

    2013-07-01

    The mass is a unique property of an atomic nucleus reflecting its binding energy and thus the sum of all interactions at work. Precise measurements of nuclear masses especially of short-lived exotic nuclides provide important input for nuclear structure, nuclear astrophysics, tests of the Standard Model, and weak interaction studies. The Penning-trap mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP at the on-line isotope separator ISOLDE/CERN has been set up for precision mass measurements and continuously improved for accessing more exotic nuclides. The mass uncertainty is typically δm / m=10{sup -8} and the accessible half-life has been reduced to about 50 ms. In this contribution, the results of a measurement campaign of neutron-rich francium and radium isotopes will be presented, i.e. the masses of the isotopic chain of {sup 224-233}Fr and {sup 233,234}Ra, one of the most neutron-rich ensemble obtainable at ISOL facilities. The mass {sup 234}Ra denotes the heaviest mass ever measured with ISOLTRAP. Experimental data in the neutron-rich, heavy mass region is of great interest for studies of structural evolution far from stability, especially because the knowledge from nuclear mass models is scarce. The impact of the new data on the physics in this mass region as well as recent technical developments of ISOLTRAP are discussed.

  5. Application of oxygen and hydrogen isotopes of waters in Tengchong hydrothermal systems of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Minzi; Hou Fagao; Lin Ruifen; Ni Baoling

    1988-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results obtained for hydrothermal systems in Tengchong by using deuterium, oxygen-18 and tritium as natural tracers. On the basis of deuterium and oxygen-18 analyses of 69 thermal springs and some other meteoric, surface and underground water samples it has been confirmed that all geothermal waters are originally meteoric, but the δD of hot spring waters is often lighter than that of local surface and underground waters. It seems that the recharging water is from higher elevations and far from the thermal areas. The differences in oxygen-18 and deuterium contents between thermal springs and deep thermal waters have been calculated for single-stage steam separation from 276 deg. C to 96 deg. C. The oxygen isotope shift of deep thermal water produced by water-rock reactions is of 1.57 per mille and part of the observed oxygen isotope shift of thermal springs seems to have occurred due to subsurface boiling. The tritium content ( 18 O three subsurface processes would have been distinguished, they are subsurface boiling, mixing-subsurface boiling and subsurface boiling-mixing. The springs formed by subsurface boiling have tritium content of less than 5 TU. The tritium content of 5-10 TU is for springs formed by mixing-subsurface boiling and 10-20 TU is for subsurface boiling-mixing. The tritium content of geothermal water in Hot Sea, geothermal field seems higher than that of the Geysers U.S.A. and Wairakei N.Z. It would show that the circulation time of the thermal water in Hot Sea geothermal system is not so long, the reservoir is quite good with percolation and the recharging water is sufficiently enough. The most important applications of oxygen and hydrogen isotopes of water in geothermal study are in two ways, as tracers of water origins and as tracers of reservoir processes. This paper discussed these two aspects of Tengchong hydrothermal systems. 6 refs, 6 figs, 5 tabs

  6. Covariance of oxygen and hydrogen isotopic compositions in plant water: species effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, L.W.; DeNiro, M.J.

    1989-01-01

    Leaf water becomes enriched in the heavy isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen during evapotranspiration. The magnitude of the enrichment has been shown to be influenced by temperature and humidity, but the effects of species—specific factors on leaf water enrichment of D and 18 O have not been studied for different plants growing together. Accordingly, to learn whether leaf water enrichment patterns and processes for D and 18 O are different for individual species growing under the same environmental conditions we tested the proposal that leaf waters in plants with crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) show higher slopes (m in the leaf water equation °D = m ° 18 O + b) than in C 3 plants. We determined the relationships between the stable hydrogen (°D) and oxygen (° 18 O) isotope ratios of leaf waters collected during the diurnal cycle of evapotranspiration for Yucca schidigera, Ephedra aspera, Agave deserti, Prunus ilicifolia, Yucca whipplei, Heteromeles arbutifolia, Dyckia fosteriana, Simmondsia chinensis, and Encelia farinosa growing at two sites in southern California. Slopes (m in the above leaf water equation) ranged from 1.50 to 3.21, compared to °8 for meteoric water, but differences in slope could not be attributed to carboxylation pathway (CAM vs. C 3 ) nor climate (coastal California vs. Sonoran Desert). Higher slopes were correlated with greater overall ranges of leaf water enrichment of D and 18 O. Water in plants with higher slopes also differed most from unaltered meteoric water. Leaf water isotope ratios in plants with lower slopes were better correlated with temperature and humidity. The findings indicate that m in the aforementioned equation is related to the overall residence time for water in the leaf and proportions of water subjected to repeated evapotranspiration enrichments of heavy isotopes

  7. Growth patterns of an intertidal gastropod as revealed by oxygen isotope analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, J. R.; Hill, T. M.; Guerra, C.

    2007-12-01

    The size and morphology of mollusk shells are affected by environmental conditions. As a result, it is difficult to assess growth rate, population age structure, shell morphologies associated with ontogenetic stages, and to compare life history patterns across various environments. Oxygen isotope analysis is a useful tool for estimating minimum ages and growth rates of calcium carbonate secreting organisms. Calcite shell material from members of two northern California populations of the intertidal muricid gastropod Acanthinucella spirata was sampled for isotopic analysis. Individual shells were sampled from apex to margin, thus providing a sequential record of juvenile and adult growth. A. spirata were collected from a sheltered habitat in Tomales Bay and from an exposed reef in Bolinas. Abiotic factors, such as temperature, wave exposure, and substrate consistency, and biotic composition differ significantly between these sites, possibly resulting in local adaptations and variation in life history and growth patterns. Shell morphology of A. spirata changes with age as internal shell margin thickenings of denticle rows associated with external growth bands are irregularly accreted. It is not known when, either seasonally and/or ontogentically, these thickenings and bands form or whether inter or intra-populational variation exists. Preliminary results demonstrate the seasonal oxygen isotopic variability present at the two coastal sites, indicating 5-6 degC changes from winter to summertime temperatures; these data are consistent with local intertidal temperature records. Analysis of the seasonal patterns indicate that: 1) differences in growth rate and seasonal growth patterns at different ontogenetic stages within populations, and 2) differences in growth patterns and possibly age structure between the two A. spirata populations. These findings indicate that isotopic analyses, in addition to field observations and morphological measurements, are necessary to

  8. The Physics and Chemistry of Oxygen-Rich Circumstellar Envelopes as Traced by Simple Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ka Tat

    2018-04-01

    The physics and chemistry of the circumstellar envelopes (CSEs) of evolved stars are not fully understood despite decades of research. This thesis addresses two issues in the study of the CSEs of oxygen-rich (O-rich) evolved stars. In the first project, the ammonia (NH3) chemistry of O-rich stars is investigated with multi-wavelength observations; in the second project, the extended atmosphere and inner wind of the archetypal asymptotic giant branch (AGB) star o Ceti (Mira) is studied with high-angular resolution observations. One of the long-standing mysteries in circumstellar chemistry is the perplexing overabundance of the NH3 molecule. NH3 in O-rich evolved stars has been found in much higher abundance, by several orders of magnitude, than that expected in equilibrium chemistry. Several mechanisms have been suggested in the literature to explain this high NH3 abundance, including shocks in the inner wind, photodissociation of nitrogen by interstellar ultraviolet radiation, and nitrogen enrichment in stellar nucleosynthesis; however, none of these suggestions can fully explain the abundances of NH3 and various other molecular species in the CSEs of O-rich stars. In order to investigate the distribution of NH3 in O-rich CSEs, observations of the spectral lines of NH3 from a diverse sample of evolved stars and in different wavelength regimes are necessary. In this thesis, the NH3 line emission and absorption from four O-rich stars are studied. These targets include the AGB star IK Tauri, the pre-planetary nebula OH 231.8+4.2, the red supergiant VY Canis Majoris, and the yellow hypergiant IRC +10420. The amount of NH3 observational data has increased drastically thanks to the recent advancement of instrumentation. Observations of NH3 rotational line emission at submillimetre/far-infrared wavelengths were possible with the Herschel Space Observatory (2009–2013). The new wideband correlator in the upgraded Karl G. Janksy Very Large Array (VLA) provided data of

  9. Oxygen isotope regional pattern in granitoids from the Cachoeirinha Belt, northeast Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sial, A.N.

    1984-01-01

    Four groups of granitoids are present within the Cachoeirinha belt and in the adjacent migmatitic basement, between 37 0 and 40 0 W long. and 7 0 and 8 0 15' S lat., States of Pernambuco and Paraiba: a) K 2 O - enriched, very porphyritic; b) a calc-alkalic slightly porphyritic group; c) group with trondjemitic affinities; and d) peralkalic group. Petrology and oxygen isotope geochemistry for over 100 samples from these groups were studied. Almost all plutons for which 5 or more samples were analyzed, exhibit a total range of gamma 18 O less than 2% o. A broad range of mean oxygen isotope composition is observed, varying from 6.93 to 12.79% o. There is a systematic regional trend in which the calc-alkalic granitoids (conceicao-type) found within the Cachoeirinha space are the most 18 O - enriched rocks (10.6 to 12.9% o) while the lowest mean gamma 18 O values (4.5 to 9.7% o) are found in the K 2 O - enriched granitoids (Itaporanga-type). Intermediate gamma 18 O values were recorded in the bodies with trondhjemitic affinities (8.9 to 9.8% o) which intruded metasediments of the Salgueiro Group and in the peralkalic granitoids of Catingueira (8.1 to 9.8% o) which intruded Cachoeirinha metamorphics. Among the potassic granitoids, mean gamma 18 O increases from Bodoco to Itaporanga (from west to east). As a whole, the W.R. gamma 18 O of these plutons correlate with the type of grade of metamorphism of the host rocks and, therefore, with the tectonic framework, increasing from those which intruded the gneiss-migmatites to those which intruded the low-grade metamorphics of the Cachoeirinha Group. The possible origin of each rock group is discussed in light of the oxygen isotope geochemistry. (Author) [pt

  10. Oxygen Isotopes in Intra-Back Arc Basalts from the Andean Southern Volcanic Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, B. H.; Wang, Z.; Saal, A. E.; Frey, F. A.; Blusztajn, J.

    2013-12-01

    The chemical compositions of volcanic rocks from the Andean Southern Volcanic Zone (SVZ) reflect complex and dynamic interactions among the subducting oceanic lithosphere, the mantle wedge, and the overlying continental crust. Oxygen isotope ratios of olivine phenocrysts can be a useful means to identifying their relative contributions to the arc magmatism. In this study, we report high-precision oxygen-isotope ratios of olivine phenocrysts in a set of intra-back arc basalts from the SVZ. The samples were collected from monogenetic cinder cones east of the volcanic front (35-39 degrees S), and have been geochemically well-characterized with major and trace element contents, and Sr-Nd-Pb isotope compositions. Compared to lavas from the volcanic front, these intra-back arc lavas have similar radiogenic isotope, and a more alkalic and primitive (higher MgO content) chemical composition. We determined the oxygen-isotope ratios using the CO2-laser-fluorination method set up at the Department of Geology and Geophysics, Yale University following the techniques reported in Wang et al (2011). The samples were analyzed with standards of Gore Mountain Garnet (5.77×0.12‰ 1σ; Valley et al., 1995) and Kilbourne Hole Olivine (5.23×0.07‰ 1σ; Sharp, 1990) in order to account for minor changes in the vacuum line during analyses. The obtained δ18OSMOW values of olivine phenocrysts from the intra-back arc basalts vary from 4.98×0.01 to 5.34×0.01‰. This range, surprisingly, is similar to the δ18O values of olivines from mantle peridotites (5.2×0.2‰). Preliminary results indicate significant correlations of 87Sr/86Sr, 143Nd/144Nd and trace element ratios of the basaltic matrix with the δ18O values of olivine phenocrysts, indicating at least three components involved in the formation of the arc volcanism. By comparing the δ18O with the variations of major and trace element contents (e.g., MgO, TiO2 and Ni), and trace element ratios (e.g. Ba/Nb), we evaluate the effects

  11. Cat-CVD-prepared oxygen-rich μc-Si:H for wide-bandgap material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Yasuhiro; Ortega, Mauricio; Peza, Juan-Manuel; Reyes, Mario-Alfredo; Escobosa, Arturo

    2005-01-01

    Microcrystalline phase-involved oxygen-rich a-Si:H (hydrogenated amorphous silicon) films have been obtained using catalytic chemical vapor deposition (Cat-CVD) process. Pure SiH 4 (silane), H 2 (hydrogen), and O 2 (oxygen) gases were introduced in the chamber by maintaining a pressure of 0.1 Torr. A tungsten catalyzer was fixed at temperatures of 1750 and 1950 deg. C for film deposition on glass and crystalline silicon substrates at 200 deg. C. As revealed from X-ray diffraction spectra, the microcrystalline phase appears for oxygen-rich a-Si:H samples deposited at a catalyzer temperature of 1950 deg. C. However, this microcrystalline phase tends to disappear for further oxygen incorporation. The oxygen content in the deposited films was corroborated by FTIR analysis revealing Si-O-Si bonds and typical Si-H bonding structures. The optical bandgap of the sample increases from 2.0 to 2.7 eV with oxygen gas flow and oxygen incorporation to the deposited films. In the present thin film deposition conditions, no strong tungsten filament degradation was observed after a number of sample preparations

  12. Oxygen isotope effect on 55Mn nuclear magnetic shielding in permanganate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haase, A.R.; Lutz, O.; Mueller, M.; Nolle, A.

    1976-01-01

    By Fourier transform NMR spectroscopy the 55 Mn resonance lines of the different permanganate species 55 Mn 16 Osub(4-n) 18 Osub(n) - (n=0,1,2,3,4) have been resolved in aqueous solutions of potassium permanganate. An isotope effect on the Larmor frequency of 55 Mn of (0.599 +- 0.015)ppm to lower frequency was found for the substition of an 16 O atom by an 18 O atom in the permanganate ion. An oxygen exchange rate in the permanganate-water system is given. (orig.) [de

  13. Oxygen isotope ratios in the shell of Mytilus edulis: Archives of glacier meltwater in Greenland?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Versteegh, E.A.A.; Blicher, M.E.; Mortensen, J.

    2012-01-01

    Melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) is accelerating and will contribute significantly to global sea level rise during the 21st century. Instrumental data on GrIS melting only cover the last few decades, and proxy data extending our knowledge into the past are vital for validating models...... these variations, because it precipitates its shell calcite in oxygen isotopic equilibrium with ambient seawater. As M. edulis shells are known to occur in raised shorelines and archaeological shell middens from previous Holocene warm periods, this species may be ideal in reconstructing past meltwater dynamics. We...

  14. Oxygen 18 isotopic analysis of sub-glacial concentrations of the Laurentide Ice Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hillaire-Marcel, C [Quebec Univ., Montreal (Canada); Cailleux, A [Observatoire de Paris, Section de Meudon, 92 (France); Soucy, J

    1979-07-01

    Calcareous concretions occuring on Grenvillian gneiss have been discovered north of Hull, Quebec. Their structure and isotopic composition (delta/sub PDB//sup 18/O approximately equal to -26%; delta/sub PDB//sup 13/C approximately equal to 0%; /sup 14/C age > 35,000 BP) indicate subglacial conditions of precipitation. It is concluded that they were deposited at the base of the Laurentide ice sheet. Assuming equilibrium conditions with the subglacial film of water during precipitation of calcite, it is possible to define a -27.5 to -31.8% (vs. 'standard mean ocean water' (SMOW)) range for the oxygen-18 content of ice.

  15. Oxidation and combustion of fuel-rich N-butane-oxygen mixture in a standard 20-liter explosion vessel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frolov, S.M.; Basevich, V.Y.; Smetanyuk, V.A.; Belyaev, A.A.; Pasman, H.J.

    2006-01-01

    Experiments on forced ignition of extremely fuel-rich n-butane-oxygen mixture with the equivalence ratio of 23 in the standard 20-liter spherical vessel at elevated initial pressure (4.1 bar) and temperature (500 K) reveal the nonmonotonic influence of the forced ignition delay time on the maximum

  16. CARBON CHEMISTRY IN THE ENVELOPE OF VY CANIS MAJORIS: IMPLICATIONS FOR OXYGEN-RICH EVOLVED STARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziurys, L. M.; Tenenbaum, E. D.; Pulliam, R. L.; Woolf, N. J.; Milam, S. N.

    2009-01-01

    Observations of the carbon-bearing molecules CO, HCN, CS, HNC, CN, and HCO + have been conducted toward the circumstellar envelope of the oxygen-rich red supergiant star, VY Canis Majoris (VY CMa), using the Arizona Radio Observatory (ARO). CO and HCN were also observed toward the O-rich shells of NML Cyg, TX Cam, IK Tau, and W Hya. Rotational transitions of these species at 1 mm, 0.8 mm, and 0.4 mm were measured with the ARO Submillimeter Telescope, including the J = 6 → 5 line of CO at 691 GHz toward TX Cam and W Hya. The ARO 12 m was used for 2 mm and 3 mm observations. Four transitions were observed for HCO + in VY CMa, the first definitive identification of this ion in a circumstellar envelope. Molecular line profiles from VY CMa are complex, indicating three separate outflows: a roughly spherical flow and separate red- and blueshifted winds, as suggested by earlier observations. Spectra from the other sources appear to trace a single outflow component. The line data were modeled with a radiative transfer code to establish molecular abundances relative to H 2 and source distributions. Abundances for CO derived for these objects vary over an order of magnitude, f ∼ 0.4-5 x 10 -4 , with the lower values corresponding to the supergiants. For HCN, a similar range in abundance is found (f ∼ 0.9-9 x 10 -6 ), with no obvious dependence on the mass-loss rate. In VY CMa, HCO + is present in all three outflows with f ∼ 0.4-1.6 x 10 -8 and a spatial extent similar to that of CO. HNC is found only in the red- and blueshifted components with [HCN]/[HNC] ∼ 150-190, while [CN]/[HCN] ∼ 0.01 in the spherical flow. All three velocity components are traced in CS, which has a confined spatial distribution and f ∼ 2-6 x 10 -7 . These observations suggest that carbon-bearing molecules in O-rich shells are produced by a combination of photospheric shocks and photochemistry. Shocks may play a more prominent role in the supergiants because of their macroturbulent

  17. Carbon Chemistry in the Envelope of VY Canis Majoris: Implications for Oxygen-Rich Evolved Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziurys, L. M.; Tenenbaum, E. D.; Pulliam, R. L.; Woolf, N. J.; Milam, S. N.

    2009-04-01

    Observations of the carbon-bearing molecules CO, HCN, CS, HNC, CN, and HCO+ have been conducted toward the circumstellar envelope of the oxygen-rich red supergiant star, VY Canis Majoris (VY CMa), using the Arizona Radio Observatory (ARO). CO and HCN were also observed toward the O-rich shells of NML Cyg, TX Cam, IK Tau, and W Hya. Rotational transitions of these species at 1 mm, 0.8 mm, and 0.4 mm were measured with the ARO Submillimeter Telescope, including the J = 6 → 5 line of CO at 691 GHz toward TX Cam and W Hya. The ARO 12 m was used for 2 mm and 3 mm observations. Four transitions were observed for HCO+ in VY CMa, the first definitive identification of this ion in a circumstellar envelope. Molecular line profiles from VY CMa are complex, indicating three separate outflows: a roughly spherical flow and separate red- and blueshifted winds, as suggested by earlier observations. Spectra from the other sources appear to trace a single outflow component. The line data were modeled with a radiative transfer code to establish molecular abundances relative to H2 and source distributions. Abundances for CO derived for these objects vary over an order of magnitude, f ~ 0.4-5 × 10-4, with the lower values corresponding to the supergiants. For HCN, a similar range in abundance is found (f ~ 0.9-9 × 10-6), with no obvious dependence on the mass-loss rate. In VY CMa, HCO+ is present in all three outflows with f ~ 0.4-1.6 × 10-8 and a spatial extent similar to that of CO. HNC is found only in the red- and blueshifted components with [HCN]/[HNC] ~ 150-190, while [CN]/[HCN] ~ 0.01 in the spherical flow. All three velocity components are traced in CS, which has a confined spatial distribution and f ~ 2-6 × 10-7. These observations suggest that carbon-bearing molecules in O-rich shells are produced by a combination of photospheric shocks and photochemistry. Shocks may play a more prominent role in the supergiants because of their macroturbulent velocities.

  18. Oxygen isotope mass balance of atmospheric nitrate at Dome C, East Antarctica, during the OPALE campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Savarino

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Variations in the stable oxygen isotope composition of atmospheric nitrate act as novel tools for studying oxidative processes taking place in the troposphere. They provide both qualitative and quantitative constraints on the pathways determining the fate of atmospheric nitrogen oxides (NO + NO2 = NOx. The unique and distinctive 17O excess (Δ17O = δ17O − 0.52 × δ18O of ozone, which is transferred to NOx via oxidation, is a particularly useful isotopic fingerprint in studies of NOx transformations. Constraining the propagation of 17O excess within the NOx cycle is critical in polar areas, where there exists the possibility of extending atmospheric investigations to the glacial–interglacial timescale using deep ice core records of nitrate. Here we present measurements of the comprehensive isotopic composition of atmospheric nitrate collected at Dome C (East Antarctic Plateau during the austral summer of 2011/2012. Nitrate isotope analysis has been here combined for the first time with key precursors involved in nitrate production (NOx, O3, OH, HO2, RO2, etc. and direct observations of the transferrable Δ17O of surface ozone, which was measured at Dome C throughout 2012 using our recently developed analytical approach. Assuming that nitrate is mainly produced in Antarctica in summer through the OH + NO2 pathway and using concurrent measurements of OH and NO2, we calculated a Δ17O signature for nitrate on the order of (21–22 ± 3 ‰. These values are lower than the measured values that ranged between 27 and 31 ‰. This discrepancy between expected and observed Δ17O(NO3− values suggests the existence of an unknown process that contributes significantly to the atmospheric nitrate budget over this East Antarctic region. However, systematic errors or false isotopic balance transfer functions are not totally excluded.

  19. Geochemical and stable isotopic constraints on the generation and passive treatment of acidic, Fe-SO{sub 4} rich waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthies, Romy, E-mail: rmatthies@uwaterloo.ca [School of Civil Engineering and Geosciences, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 7RU (United Kingdom); Aplin, Andrew C., E-mail: andrew.aplin@ncl.ac.uk [School of Civil Engineering and Geosciences, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 7RU (United Kingdom); Boyce, Adrian J., E-mail: a.boyce@suerc.gla.ac.uk [Scottish Universities Environment Research Centre, East Kilbride, G75 0QF (United Kingdom); Jarvis, Adam P., E-mail: a.p.jarvis@ncl.ac.uk [School of Civil Engineering and Geosciences, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 7RU (United Kingdom)

    2012-03-15

    Reducing and Alkalinity Producing Systems (RAPS) remediate net-acidic metalliferous mine drainage by creating anoxic conditions in which bacterial sulfate reduction (BSR) raises alkalinity and drives the precipitation of iron and other chalcophilic elements as sulfides. We report chemical and stable isotopic data from a study monitoring the biogeochemical processes involved in the generation of mine waters and their remediation by two RAPS. Sulfur isotopes show that sulfate in all mine waters has a common source (pyrite oxidation), whilst oxygen isotopes show that oxidation of pyritic sulfur is mediated by Fe(III){sub aq}. The isotopic composition of dissolved sulfide, combined with the sulfur and oxygen isotopic composition of sulfate in RAPS effluents, proves BSR and details its dual isotope systematics. The occurrence and isotopic composition of solid phase iron sulfides indicate the removal of reduced sulfur within the RAPS, with significant amounts of elemental sulfur indicating reoxidation steps. However, only 0 to 9% of solid phase iron occurs as Fe sulfides, with approximately 70% of the removed iron occurs as Fe(III) (hydr)oxides. Some of the (hydr)oxide is supplied to the wetland as solids and is simply filtered by the wetland substrate, playing no role in alkalinity generation or proton removal. However, the majority of iron is supplied as dissolved Fe(II), indicating that acid generating oxidation and hydrolysis reactions dominate iron removal. The overall contribution of BSR to the sulfur geochemistry in the RAPS is limited and sulfate retention is dominated by sulfate precipitation, comparable to aerobic treatment systems, and show that the proton acidity resulting from iron oxidation and hydrolysis must be subsequently neutralised by calcite dissolution and/or BSR deeper in the RAPS sediments. BSR is not as important as previously thought for metal removal in RAPS. The results have practical consequences for the design, treatment performance and long

  20. Electrolytic separation factors for oxygen isotopes in light and heavy water solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulens, J.; Olmstead, W.J.; Longhurst, T.H.; Gale, K.L.; Rolston, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    The electrolytic separation factor, α, has been measured for /sup 17/O and /sup 18/O at Pt and Ni anodes in both light and heavy water solutions of 6M KOH as a function of current density. For oxygen-17, isotopic separation effects were not observed, within the experimental uncertainty of +-2%, under all conditions studied. For oxygen-18, there is a small difference of 2% in α values between Pt and Ni in both light and heavy water solutions, but there is no significant difference in α values between light and heavy water solutions. In light waters solutions, the separation factor at Pt is small, α(/sup 18/O) ≤ 1.02 for i ≥ 0.1 A/cm/sub 2/. This value agrees reasonably well with theoretical estimates

  1. Nuclear reactions of neutron-rich Sn isotopes investigated at relativistic energies at R{sup 3}B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schindler, Fabia; Aumann, Thomas; Horvat, Andrea [TU Darmstadt (Germany); Boretzky, Konstanze [GSI Helmholtzzentrum (Germany); Schrock, Philipp [CNS, University of Tokyo (Japan); Johansen, Jacob [Aarhus University (Denmark); Collaboration: R3B-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    Nuclei with a large neutron excess are expected to form a neutron-rich surface layer which is often referred to as the neutron skin. The investigation of this phenomenon is of great interest in nuclear-structure physics and offers a possibility to constrain the equation-of-state of neutron-rich matter. Assuming a geometrical description of reaction processes as in the eikonal approximation, nuclear-induced reactions are a good tool to probe the neutron skin. Measured reaction cross sections can be used to constrain the density distributions of protons and neutrons in the nucleus and therefore the neutron-skin thickness. For this purpose, reactions of neutron-rich tin isotopes in the A=124-134 mass range have been measured on a carbon target at the R{sup 3}B-setup at GSI in inverse kinematics in a kinematically complete manner. Preliminary results for the reaction cross sections of {sup 124}Sn are presented.

  2. Formation of chondrules in a moderately high dust enriched disk: Evidence from oxygen isotopes of chondrules from the Kaba CV3 chondrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertwig, Andreas T.; Defouilloy, Céline; Kita, Noriko T.

    2018-03-01

    Oxygen three-isotope analysis by secondary ion mass spectrometry of chondrule olivine and pyroxene in combination with electron microprobe analysis were carried out to investigate 24 FeO-poor (type I) and 2 FeO-rich (type II) chondrules from the Kaba (CV) chondrite. The Mg#'s of olivine and pyroxene in individual chondrules are uniform, which confirms that Kaba is one of the least thermally metamorphosed CV3 chondrites. The majority of chondrules in Kaba contain olivine and pyroxene that show indistinguishable Δ17O values (= δ17O - 0.52 × δ18O) within analytical uncertainties, as revealed by multiple spot analyses of individual chondrules. One third of chondrules contain olivine relict grains that are either 16O-rich or 16O-poor relative to other indistinguishable olivine and/or pyroxene analyses in the same chondrules. Excluding those isotopically recognized relicts, the mean oxygen isotope ratios (δ18O, δ17O, and Δ17O) of individual chondrules are calculated, which are interpreted to represent those of the final chondrule melt. Most of these isotope ratios plot on or slightly below the primitive chondrule mineral (PCM) line on the oxygen three-isotope diagram, except for the pyroxene-rich type II chondrule that plots above the PCM and on the terrestrial fractionation line. The Δ17O values of type I chondrules range from ∼-8‰ to ∼-4‰; the pyroxene-rich type II chondrule yields ∼0‰, the olivine-rich type II chondrule ∼-2‰. In contrast to the ungrouped carbonaceous chondrite Acfer 094, the Yamato 81020 CO3, and the Allende CV3 chondrite, type I chondrules in Kaba only possess Δ17O values below -3‰ and a pronounced bimodal distribution of Δ17O values, as evident for those other chondrites, was not observed for Kaba. Investigation of the Mg#-Δ17O relationship revealed that Δ17O values tend to increase with decreasing Mg#'s, similar to those observed for CR chondrites though data from Kaba cluster at the high Mg# (>98) and the low Δ17O

  3. Molecular Abundances in the Circumstellar Envelope of Oxygen-Rich Supergiant VY Canis Majoris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Jessica L.; Ziurys, Lucy

    2014-06-01

    A complete set of molecular abundances have been established for the Oxygen-rich circumstellar envelope (CSE) surrounding the supergiant star VY Canis Majoris (VY CMa). These data were obtained from The Arizona Radio Observatory (ARO) 1-mm spectral line survey of this object using the ARO Sub-millimeter Telescope (SMT), as well as complimentary transitions taken with the ARO 12-meter. The non-LTE radiative transfer code ESCAPADE has been used to obtain the molecular abundances and distributions in VY CMa, including modeling of the various asymmetric outflow geometries in this source. For example, SO and SO2 were determined to arise from five distinct outflows, four of which are asymmetric with respect to the central star. Abundances of these two sulfur-bearing molecules range from 3 x 10-8 - 2.5 x 10-7 for the various outflows. Similar results will be presented for molecules like CS, SiS, HCN, and SiO, as well as more exotic species like NS, PO, AlO, and AlOH. The molecular abundances between the various outflows will be compared and implications for supergiant chemistry will be discussed.

  4. Dual temperature effects on oxygen isotopic ratio of shallow-water coral skeleton: Consequences on seasonal and interannual records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juillet-Leclerc, A.; Reynaud, S.

    2009-04-01

    Oxygen isotopic ratio from coral skeleton is regarded for a long time as promising climate archives at seasonal scale. Although in isotopic disequilibrium relative to seawater, it is supposed to obey to the isotope thermometer. Indeed, coral oxygen isotopic records are strongly temperature dependent, but d18O-temperature calibrations derived from different corals are highly variable. The isotope thermometer assumption does not take into account vital effects due to biogenic origin of the mineral. Corals are animals living in symbiosis with algae (zooxanthellae). Interactions between symbiont photosynthesis and coral skeleton carbonation have been abundantly observed but they remain poorly understood and the effects of photosynthesis on coral growth and skeleton oxygen ratio are ignored. Coral cultured under two light conditions enabled to relate metabolic parameters and oxygen isotopic variability with photosynthetic activity. By examining responses provided by each colony they revealed that photosynthesis significantly affected d18O, by an opposite sense compared with the sole temperature influence. Since temperature and light changes are associated during seasonal variations, this complicates the interpretation of seasonal record. Additionally, this complexity is amplified because photosynthetic activity is also directly impacted by temperature variability. Thus, the annual isotopic amplitude due to the "physical" temperature influence is partly compensated through photosynthesis. Similar opposite effect is also shown by extension rate of the cultured colonies. First, we will examine and quantify consequences of photosynthesis on growth rate and oxygen isotopic signature, from cultured corals. Second, we will consider the consequences of this vital effect on data series, at seasonal and interannual time scales.

  5. Growth of the European abalone ( Haliotis tuberculata L.) in situ: Seasonality and ageing using stable oxygen isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roussel, Sabine; Huchette, Sylvain; Clavier, Jacques; Chauvaud, Laurent

    2011-02-01

    The ormer, Haliotis tuberculata is the only European abalone species commercially exploited. The determination of growth and age in the wild is an important tool for fisheries and aquaculture management. However, the ageing technique used in the past in the field is unreliable. The stable oxygen isotope composition ( 18O/ 16O) of the shell depends on the temperature and oxygen isotope composition of the ambient sea water. The stable oxygen isotope technique, developed to study paleoclimatological changes in shellfish, was applied to three H. tuberculata specimens collected in north-west Brittany. For the specimens collected, the oxygen isotope ratios of the shell reflected the seasonal cycle in the temperature. From winter-to-winter cycles, estimates of the age and the annual growth increment, ranging from 13 to 55 mm per year were obtained. This study shows that stable oxygen isotopes can be a reliable tool for ageing and growth studies of this abalone species in the wild, and for validating other estimates.

  6. Deuterium isotope fractionation between ortho-alkyl substituted phenols and t-butylthiol in oxygen bases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wawer, A.; Jelenska-Kazimierczuk, M.; Szydlowski, J.

    1998-01-01

    Equilibrium isotope effect in the exchange reaction of deuterium between phenol(P), 2-isopropyl phenol (IPP), 2,6-diisopropyl phenol (DIPP), 2,6-diterbutyl phenol (DTBP) and tertbutylthiol (TBT) has been studied in 296 K. The fractionation factors (α) have been measured in cyclohexane and carbon tetrachloride solutions and in a few oxygen bases: acetone, 1,4-dioxane, ethyl formate, ethyl ether, tetrahydrofurane, N,N-dimethylformamide, dimethylsulfoxide and hexamethylphosphoramide. Using chemical shifts of phenol OH protons, the thermodynamic parameters of complex formation with the oxygen bases have been determined. The experimental data show that lnα correlates with the formation enthalpy of the phenol-oxygen base complex in DIPP-TBT-base system but there is no simple correlation in IPP-TBT-base system. Furthermore, it was found that in DTBT-TBT-base system lnα depends linearly on the basicity of the solvent (DN parameters). On the other hand, lnα correlates with acidic parameters of the solvents (AN) in IPP-TBT-base and P-TBT-base systems. All above correlations are explained by taking into account two competition processes: self association of phenol molecules and their solvation by oxygen bases. (author)

  7. Devonian climate and reef evolution: Insights from oxygen isotopes in apatite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joachimski, M. M.; Breisig, S.; Buggisch, W.; Talent, J. A.; Mawson, R.; Gereke, M.; Morrow, J. R.; Day, J.; Weddige, K.

    2009-07-01

    Conodonts, microfossils composed of carbonate-fluor apatite, are abundant in Palaeozoic-Triassic sediments and have a high potential to preserve primary oxygen isotope signals. In order to reconstruct the palaeotemperature history of the Devonian, the oxygen isotope composition of apatite phosphate was measured on 639 conodont samples from sequences in Europe, North America and Australia. The Early Devonian (Lochkovian; 416-411 Myr) was characterized by warm tropical temperatures of around 30 °C. A cooling trend started in the Pragian (410 Myr) with intermediate temperatures around 23 to 25 °C reconstructed for the Middle Devonian (397-385 Myr). During the Frasnian (383-375 Myr), temperatures increased again with temperatures to 30 °C calculated for the Frasnian-Famennian transition (375 Myr). During the Famennian (375-359 Myr), surface water temperatures slightly decreased. Reconstructed Devonian palaeotemperatures do not support earlier views suggesting the Middle Devonian was a supergreenhouse interval, an interpretation based partly on the development of extensive tropical coral-stromatoporoid communities during the Middle Devonian. Instead, the Devonian palaeotemperature record suggests that Middle Devonian coral-stromatoporoid reefs flourished during cooler time intervals whereas microbial reefs dominated during the warm to very warm Early and Late Devonian.

  8. Temperature measurements of Transdanubian Mesozoic rocks by the oxygen isotope method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornides, I.; Csaszar, G.; Haas, J.; Jochane Edelenyi, E.

    1979-01-01

    Subjected to paleotemperature measurements with the use of oxygen and carbon isotopes were Upper Triassic, Jurassic and Cretaceous sedimentary rocks and their fossils from the Transdanubian Central Mountains, the Mecsek and the Villany Mts. In determining formation temperature, an important parameter of the environment of formation, the authors relied on the fact that the oxygen isotope composition of calcium carbonate precipitating from its aqueous solution deviates, in dependence on the temperature of the solution concerned, from that of the water. Consequently, the temperature of the water of the one-time seas must have been recorded by the 18 O/ 16 O ratio in the calcite of fossils or sediments. The results reported indicate smaller changes in temperature as compared to international results. In the Jurassic the values of temperature remain consistently below those quoted for Swiss and French territories, being around the values reported from/sroe/thern Germany. These u curves have their maxima in the Toarcian, Aalenian, sediments for which unfortunately no Hungarian results are available. The few results of Cretaceous belemnites are values higher than their international counterparts. The high temperature value obtained for the Albian correlates very well with the formation of rocks known from this stratigraphic stage (red clays, bauxites). (A.L.)

  9. Carbon 13 and oxygen 18 isotope record of the early eocene nammal formation, salt range, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghazi, S.; Sajid, Z.

    2014-01-01

    The Nammal Formation is the lowermost unit of the Early Eocene succession in the Salt Range, Pakistan. It is well exposed throughout the Salt Range. The Nammal Formation having 30 to 35 meters thickness is predominantly composed of nodular limestone interbedded with marl and shale. The present study was focussed on stable carbon 13 and oxygen 18 isotopic analysis based on data from two stratigraphically important sections. The samples from the Nilawahan section provided with the delta 13C values varied between 1.34 to -1.56 (VPDB) and values of delta 18O fluctuated between -4.47 to -6.59 (VPDB). Likewise the sample analysis of BadshahPur section exhibited that the delta 13C values changes from 1.09 to -1.65 (VPDB) and delta 18O values range from -4.17 to -6.85 (VPDB). The isotopic records of carbon 13 and oxygen 18 indicated the shallow marine deposition of the Nammal Formation under tropical conditions. It highlighted the palaeo climatic and diagenetic conditions of the Nammal Formation at the time of deposition in the Salt Range region. (author)

  10. Hydrogen and oxygen isotope constraints on hydrothermal alteration of the Trinity peridotite, Klamath Mountains, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liakhovitch, V.; Quick, J.E.; Gregory, R.T.

    2005-01-01

    The Trinity peridotite represents a rare opportunity to examine a relatively fertile plagioclase peridotite that was exhumed and later subjected to intrusive events in a seafloor environment, followed by its emplacement and incorporation into a continent. Over 250 stable isotopic determinations on whole rocks and minerals elucidate the hydrothermal evolution of the Trinity complex. All three serpentine polymorphs are present in the Trinity peridotite; these separate on the basis of their ??D values: antigorite, -46 serpentinization, or overprinting of earlier low-temperature seafloor serpentinization. Regionally, contours of ??D values exhibit bull's-eye patterns associated with the gabbroic plutons, with ??D maxima coinciding with the blackwall alteration at the margins on the plutons. In contrast to the hydrogen isotope behavior, oxygen isotope values of the three polymorphs are indistinguishable, spanning the range 5.3 history: (1) lithospheric emplacement and cooling of the peridotite in an oceanic environment ??? 472 Ma; (2) intrusion of gabbroic plutons into cold peridotite in an arc environment between 435 and 404 Ma; and finally (3) intrusion of felsic plutons between 171 and 127 Ma, long after the peridotite was incorporated into the continental crust. Copyright ?? 2005 by V. H. Winston & Son, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Characterizing the oxygen isotopic composition of phosphate sources to aquatic ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, M.B.; McLaughlin, K.; Kendall, C.; Stringfellow, W.; Rollog, M.; Elsbury, K.; Donald, E.; Paytan, A.

    2009-01-01

    The oxygen isotopic composition of dissolved inorganic phosphate (δ18Op) in many aquatic ecosystems is not in isotopic equilibrium with ambient water and, therefore, may reflect the source δ18Op. Identification of phosphate sources to water bodies is critical for designing best management practices for phosphate load reduction to control eutrophication. In order for δ18O p to be a useful tool for source tracking, the δ18Op of phosphate sources must be distinguishable from one another; however, the δ18Op of potential sources has not been well characterized. We measured the δ18O p of a variety of known phosphate sources, including fertilizers, semiprocessed phosphorite ore, particulate aerosols, detergents, leachates of vegetation, soil, animal feces, and wastewater treatment plant effluent. We found a considerable range of δ18Op values (from +8.4 to +24.9‰) for the various sources, and statistically significant differences were found between several of the source types. δ18Op measured in three different fresh water systems was generally not in equilibrium with ambient water. Although there is overlap in δ18Op values among the groups of samples, our results indicate that some sources are isotopically distinct and δ18Op can be used for identifying phosphate sources to aquatic systems.

  12. Separation of isotopes of nitrogen and oxygen by low temperature distillation of nitrogen oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isomura, Shohei; Tonooka, Yasuhiko; Kaetsu, Hayato

    1987-02-01

    In general, the distillation parameters, such as the number of theoretical plate (NTP) and the height equivalent to a theoretical plate (HETP), can be obtained from the operation at the steady state. However, it is time-consuming to achieve the steady state especially in the case of isotope separation. In this paper, with the purpose of simultaneous separation of isotopes of nitrogen and oxygen by NO distillation, we tried to determine the distillation parameters by an analytical method through the transient-state operation. It was confirmed that the results from the analysis were in good agreement with those observed for the operation at the steady state. Enrichment of the isotopes was carried out using a distillation column with a height of 1 m and inside diameter of 12 mm. The dependence of HETP on liquid flow rate was measured by the proposed method. The obtained HETP values were from 2 to 4 cm. The operation time of about 5 h was found to be long enough to determine the distillation parameters.

  13. Separation of isotopes of nitrogen and oxygen by low temperature distillation of nitrogen oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isomura, Shohei; Tonooka, Yasuhiko; Kaetsu, Hayato

    1987-01-01

    In general, the distillation parameters, such as the number of theoretical plate (NTP) and the height equivalent to a theoretical plate (HETP), can be obtained from the operation at the steady state. However, it is time-consuming to achieve the steady state especially in the case of isotope separation. In this paper, with the purpose of simultaneous separation of isotopes of nitrogen and oxygen by NO distillation, we tried to determine the distillation parameters by an analytical method through the transient-state operation. It was confirmed that the results from the analysis were in good agreement with those observed for the operation at the steady state. Enrichment of the isotopes was carried out using a distillation column with a height of 1 m and inside diameter of 12 mm. The dependence of HETP on liquid flow rate was measured by the proposed method. The obtained HETP values were from 2 to 4 cm. The operation time of about 5 h was found to be long enough to determine the distillation parameters. (author)

  14. Do oxygen stable isotopes track precipitation moisture source in vascular plant dominated peatlands?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charman, D.; Amesbury, M. J.; Newnham, R.; Loader, N.; Goodrich, J. P.; Gallego-Sala, A. V.; Royles, J.; Keller, E. D.; Baisden, W. T.

    2014-12-01

    Variations in the isotopic composition of precipitation are determined by fractionation processes which occur during temperature and humidity dependent phase changes associated with evaporation and condensation. Oxygen stable isotope ratios have therefore been frequently used as a source of palaeoclimate data from a variety of proxy archives. Exploitation of this record from ombrotrophic peatlands, where the source water used in cellulose synthesis is derived solely from precipitation, has been mostly limited to Northern Hemisphere Sphagnum-dominated bogs, with limited application in the Southern Hemisphere (SH) or in peatlands dominated by vascular plants. Throughout New Zealand (NZ), the preserved root matrix of the restionaceous wire rush (Empodisma spp.) forms deep peat deposits. NZ provides an ideal location to undertake empirical research into oxygen isotope fractionation in vascular peatlands because sites are ideally suited to single taxon analysis, preserve potentially high resolution full Holocene palaeoclimate records and are situated in the climatically sensitive SH mid-latitudes. Crucially, large gradients exist in the mean isotopic composition of precipitation across NZ, caused primarily by the relative influence of different climate modes. We test the capacity for δ18O analysis of Empodisma alpha cellulose from ombrotrophic restiad peatlands in NZ to provide a methodology for developing palaeoclimate records. We took surface plant, water and precipitation samples over spatial (six sites spanning >10° latitude) and temporal (monthly measurements over one year) gradients. We found a strong link between the isotopic compositions of surface root water, the most likely source water for plant growth, and precipitation in both datasets. Back-trajectory modelling of precipitation moisture source for rain days prior to sampling showed clear seasonality in the temporal data that was reflected in surface root water. The link between source water and plant

  15. Simulated oxygen isotopes in cave drip water and speleothem calcite in European caves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Wackerbarth

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Interpreting stable oxygen isotope18O records from stalagmites is still one of the complex tasks in speleothem research. Here, we present a novel model-based approach, where we force a model describing the processes and modifications of δ18O from rain water to speleothem calcite (Oxygen isotope Drip water and Stalagmite Model – ODSM with the results of a state-of-the-art atmospheric general circulation model enhanced by explicit isotope diagnostics (ECHAM5-wiso. The approach is neither climate nor cave-specific and allows an integrated assessment of the influence of different varying climate variables, e.g. temperature and precipitation amount, on the isotopic composition of drip water and speleothem calcite.

    First, we apply and evaluate this new approach under present-day climate conditions using observational data from seven caves from different geographical regions in Europe. Each of these caves provides measured δ18O values of drip water and speleothem calcite to which we compare our simulated isotope values. For six of the seven caves modeled δ18O values of drip water and speleothem calcite are in good agreement with observed values. The mismatch of the remaining caves might be caused by the complexity of the cave system, beyond the parameterizations included in our cave model.

    We then examine the response of the cave system to mid-Holocene (6000 yr before present, 6 ka climate conditions by forcing the ODSM with ECHAM5-wiso results from 6 ka simulations. For a set of twelve European caves, we compare the modeled mid-Holocene-to-modern difference in speleothem calcite δ18O to available measurements. We show that the general European changes are simulated well. However, local discrepancies are found, and might be explained either by a too low model resolution, complex local soil-atmosphere interactions affecting evapotranspiration or by cave specific factors

  16. Oxygen isotope analysis of phosphate: improved precision using TC/EA CF-IRMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPorte, D F; Holmden, C; Patterson, W P; Prokopiuk, T; Eglington, B M

    2009-06-01

    Oxygen isotope values of biogenic apatite have long demonstrated considerable promise for paleothermometry potential because of the abundance of material in the fossil record and greater resistance of apatite to diagenesis compared to carbonate. Unfortunately, this promise has not been fully realized because of relatively poor precision of isotopic measurements, and exceedingly small size of some substrates for analysis. Building on previous work, we demonstrate that it is possible to improve precision of delta18O(PO4) measurements using a 'reverse-plumbed' thermal conversion elemental analyzer (TC/EA) coupled to a continuous flow isotope ratio mass spectrometer (CF-IRMS) via a helium stream [Correction made here after initial online publication]. This modification to the flow of helium through the TC/EA, and careful location of the packing of glassy carbon fragments relative to the hot spot in the reactor, leads to narrower, more symmetrically distributed CO elution peaks with diminished tailing. In addition, we describe our apatite purification chemistry that uses nitric acid and cation exchange resin. Purification chemistry is optimized for processing small samples, minimizing isotopic fractionation of PO4(-3) and permitting Ca, Sr and Nd to be eluted and purified further for the measurement of delta44Ca and 87Sr/86Sr in modern biogenic apatite and 143Nd/144Nd in fossil apatite. Our methodology yields an external precision of +/- 0.15 per thousand (1sigma) for delta18O(PO4). The uncertainty is related to the preparation of the Ag3PO4 salt, conversion to CO gas in a reversed-plumbed TC/EA, analysis of oxygen isotopes using a CF-IRMS, and uncertainty in constructing calibration lines that convert raw delta18O data to the VSMOW scale. Matrix matching of samples and standards for the purpose of calibration to the VSMOW scale was determined to be unnecessary. Our method requires only slightly modified equipment that is widely available. This fact, and the

  17. Correlating carbon and oxygen isotope events in early to middle Miocene shallow marine carbonates in the Mediterranean region using orbitally tuned chemostratigraphy and lithostratigraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auer, Gerald; Piller, Werner E.; Reuter, Markus; Harzhauser, Mathias

    2015-04-01

    During the Miocene prominent oxygen isotope events (Mi-events) reflect major changes in glaciation, while carbonate isotope maxima (CM-events) reflect changes in organic carbon burial, particularly during the Monterey carbon isotope excursion. However, despite their importance to the global climate history they have never been recorded in shallow marine carbonate successions. The Decontra section on the Maiella Platform (central Apennines, Italy), however, allows to resolve them for the first time in such a setting during the early to middle Miocene. The present study improves the stratigraphic resolution of parts of the Decontra section via orbital tuning of high-resolution gamma ray (GR) and magnetic susceptibility data to the 405 kyr eccentricity metronome. The tuning allows, within the established biostratigraphic, sequence stratigraphic, and isotope stratigraphic frameworks, a precise correlation of the Decontra section with pelagic records of the Mediterranean region, as well as the global paleoclimatic record and the global sea level curve. Spectral series analyses of GR data further indicate that the 405 kyr orbital cycle is particularly well preserved during the Monterey Event. Since GR is a direct proxy for authigenic uranium precipitation during increased burial of organic carbon in the Decontra section, it follows the same long-term orbital pacing as observed in the carbon isotope records. The 405 kyr GR beat is thus correlated with the carbon isotope maxima observed during the Monterey Event. Finally, the Mi-events can now be recognized in the δ18O record and coincide with plankton-rich, siliceous, or phosphatic horizons in the lithology of the section.

  18. Isotopic evidence for the formation of unusually humus-rich soils in the Baltic region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leinweber, Peter; Acksel, Andre; Kühn, Peter

    2017-04-01

    Arable mineral soils in the Pleistocene landscape of Northern Germany usually contain about 4 to 8 kg of organic C (Corg) per m2, most of which is visually recognizable concentrated in the tilled topsoil horizon. Some unusually humus-rich (10 to 20 kg Corg m-2), and deeply (> 70 cm) dark-colored soils in coastal regions with mollic properties have been classified as Chernozems. Their location far away from the middle German and Central European Chernozem regions, absence of steppe vegetation and semi-arid climate conditions make classical pedogenetic theories doubtful. However, non-targeted mass spectrometric analyses of soil organic matter (SOM) composition revealed great similarities with typical Chernozems worldwide (Thiele-Bruhn et al., 2014) and made alternative (e.g. waterlogged) pathways of SOM accumulation unlikely. Subsequent detailed multi-method SOM analyses down the soil profiles revealed relative enrichments in cyclic ("black carbon") and heterocyclic organic compounds in the deeper, bioturbated horizons. These were plausibly explained by the input of combustion residues, likely originating from anthropogenic activities because spots of these soils coincided with archeological artifacts of early settlements (Acksel et al., 2016). However, these finding could not completely explain the genesis of Chernozems in the Baltic region. Therefore, we actually explored isotope analyses (12/13C, 13/14C, 14/15N, 32/34S) to find out the origin of these unusual SOM enrichments and the time period in which it occurred. The results will be compiled to a consistent hypothesis on the formation of these soils in the Baltic and other Northern European regions. References Acksel, A., W. Amelung, P. Kühn, E. Gehrt, T. Regier, P. Leinweber. 2016. Soil organic matter characteristics as indicator of Chernozem genesis in the Baltic Sea region. Geoderma Regional 7, 187-200. Thiele-Bruhn, S., Leinweber P., Eckhardt K.-U., Siem H.K., Blume H.-P. 2014. Identifying Chernozem

  19. Environmental isotopes in New Zealand hydrology ; 4. Oxygen isotope variations in subsurface waters of the Waimea Plains, Nelson

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, M.K.; Dicker, M.J.I.; Johnston, M.R.

    1981-01-01

    Oxygen isotope measurements of ground and surface waters of the Waimea Plains, Nelson, have been used to identify sources of water in aquifers beneath the plains. Major rivers flowing onto the plains are from higher-altitude catchments (maximum altitude 2000 m) and have delta O 18 approximately equal to -7.2%, whereas rainfall on the plains and adjacent low-altitude catchment streams have delta O 18 approximately equal to -6.2%. The delta O 18 measurements indicate that the 3 major aquifer units, the ''Lower Confined Aquifers'' and the ''Upper Confined Aquifers'' in the Hope Gravel (Late Pleistocene) and the ''Unconfined Aquifers'' in the Appleby Gravel (Holocene) are recharged from different sources. The ''Lower Confined Aquifers'' probably receive slow recharge in the south near Brightwater. The ''Upper Confined Aquifers'' are recharged, in the south, from the Wairoa River and locally in the north are connected with the unconfined aquifers. The ''Unconfined Aquifers'' are recharged from the Waimea River and, away from the river, from rainfall. Intermixing of water, via multiple screened wells, between the various aquifers is also indicated. (author). 5 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  20. ENSO variability reflected in precipitation oxygen isotopes across the Asian Summer Monsoon region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Zhongyin; Tian, Lide; Bowen, Gabriel J.

    2017-10-01

    Oxygen isotope signals (δ18O) from paleo-archives are important proxies for past Asian Summer Monsoon (ASM) climate reconstruction. However, causes of interannual variation in the δ18O values of modern precipitation across the ASM region remain in argument. We report interannual δ18O variation in southern Tibetan Plateau precipitation based on long-term observations at Lhasa. These data, together with precipitation δ18O records from five Global Network of Isotopes in Precipitation (GNIP) stations and two ice core δ18O records, were used to define a regional metric of ASM precipitation δ18O (ASMOI). Back-trajectory analyses for rainy season precipitation events indicate that moisture sources vary little between years with relatively high and low δ18O values, a result that is consistent for the south (Lhasa), southeast (Bangkok), and east ASM regions (Hong Kong). In contrast, δ18O values at these three locations are significantly correlated with convection in the estimated source regions and along transport paths. These results suggest that upstream convection, rather than moisture source change, causes interannual variation in ASM precipitation δ18O values. Contrasting values of the ASMOI in El Niño and La Niña years reveal a positive isotope-El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) response (e.g., high values corresponding to warm phases), which we interpret as a response to changes in regional convection. We show that the isotope-ENSO response is amplified at high elevation sites and during La Niña years. These findings should improve interpretations of paleo-δ18O data as a proxy for past ASM variation and provide new opportunities to use data from this region to study paleo-ENSO activity.

  1. Oxygen isotope fractionations across individual leaf carbohydrates in grass and tree species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Marco M; Gamarra, Bruno; Kahmen, Ansgar; Siegwolf, Rolf T W; Saurer, Matthias

    2017-08-01

    Almost no δ 18 O data are available for leaf carbohydrates, leaving a gap in the understanding of the δ 18 O relationship between leaf water and cellulose. We measured δ 18 O values of bulk leaf water (δ 18 O LW ) and individual leaf carbohydrates (e.g. fructose, glucose and sucrose) in grass and tree species and δ 18 O of leaf cellulose in grasses. The grasses were grown under two relative humidity (rH) conditions. Sucrose was generally 18 O-enriched compared with hexoses across all species with an apparent biosynthetic fractionation factor (ε bio ) of more than 27‰ relative to δ 18 O LW , which might be explained by isotopic leaf water and sucrose synthesis gradients. δ 18 O LW and δ 18 O values of carbohydrates and cellulose in grasses were strongly related, indicating that the leaf water signal in carbohydrates was transferred to cellulose (ε bio  = 25.1‰). Interestingly, damping factor p ex p x , which reflects oxygen isotope exchange with less enriched water during cellulose synthesis, responded to rH conditions if modelled from δ 18 O LW but not if modelled directly from δ 18 O of individual carbohydrates. We conclude that δ 18 O LW is not always a good substitute for δ 18 O of synthesis water due to isotopic leaf water gradients. Thus, compound-specific δ 18 O analyses of individual carbohydrates are helpful to better constrain (post-)photosynthetic isotope fractionation processes in plants. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Preliminary study on the characteristics of carbon and oxygen isotopes in the Shiziping geothermal field groundwater in Emei Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Xiujing; Jia Shuyuan

    2000-01-01

    Emei Mountain is a well-known scenic tourism spot in China. In order to promote the development of tourist trade, the authors have explored the hydrothermal water in Emei Mountain. At the beginning of 1998, the hydrothermal water was successfully drilled from the Shiziping geothermal field. In the process of prospecting the hydrothermal water, the authors adopted the geochemical method such as carbon and oxygen isotopes. The result indicates that the groundwater of different genetic types has different constitution characteristics of carbon and oxygen isotopes. This provides the important basis for finding out the forming conditions of underground hydrothermal water. So, it is prospective to study the growth characteristics of hydrothermal water with the carbon and oxygen isotopes of HCO 3 in groundwater

  3. Seasonal Variations in Stable Isotope Ratios of Oxygen and Hydrogen in Two Tundra Rivers in NE European Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huitu, E.; Arvola, L. [Lammi Biological Station, University of Helsinki (Finland); Sonninen, E. [Radiocarbon Dating Laboratory, University of Helsinki (Finland)

    2013-07-15

    The variability in stable isotope ratios of oxygen and hydrogen ({delta} {sup 18}O and {delta}{sup 2}H values) in river waters in northeast European Russia was studied for the period from July 2007 to october 2008. Exceptional isotope composition in precipitation obtained during the sampling period was clearly traced in the composition of river waters. Water from permafrost thawing did not make a great contribution to river flow. (author)

  4. Phosphorus cycling in forest ecosystems: insights from oxygen isotopes in phosphate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pistocchi, Chiara; Tamburini, Federica; Bünemann, Else; Frossard, Emmanuel

    2015-04-01

    The current view on the phosphorus (P) cycle in forest ecosystems relies mostly on measurements and correlations of pools, and to a lower extent on measurement of fluxes. We have no direct insight into the processes phosphate goes through at the ecosystem level, and into the relative importance of organic and mineral pools in sustaining P nutrition of trees. The analysis of oxygen isotopes associated to P (18Op) is expected to bring this type of information. The German Priority Program SPP 1685 aims to test the overall hypothesis that the P-depletion of soils drives forest ecosystems from P acquiring systems (efficient mobilization of P from the mineral phase) to P recycling systems (highly efficient cycling of P). Our contribution to this project will consist in studying the relative importance of biological and geochemical processes in controlling the P cycle in temperate beech forest ecosystems in Germany along a gradient of decreasing soil P availability. We will follow the fate of phosphate from litter fall to the uptake of P by plants via P release by decomposition of organic matter or after release from P-containing minerals, by using a multi-isotope approach (O in water and phosphate plus 33P). To address our research question we will rely on measurements in experimental forest sites and on laboratory incubations of the organic layer or the mineral soil. We present here the first results issued from the 2014 sampling on three study sites, where we characterized the P pools in surface soil horizons by a sequential extraction (modified after Tiessen and Moir, 2007) and we analysed the 18Op of the resin extractable- and microbial-P fractions. Contrary to what was previously found (e.g. Tamburini et al. 2012) the isotopic composition of these fractions in most of the samples does not reflect the equilibrium value (as the result of the dominance of the pyrophosphatase activity on the other enzymatic processes, Blake et al. 2005). Depending on the P availability

  5. Production of neutron-rich isotopes by cold fragmentation in the reaction 197Au + Be at 950 A MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benlliure, J.; Pereira, J.; Schmidt, K.H.; Cortina-Gil, D.; Enqvist, T.; Heinz, A.; Junghans, A.R.; Farget, F.; Taieb, J.

    1999-09-01

    The production cross sections and longitudinal-momentum distributions of very neutron-rich isotopes have been investigated in the fragmentation of a 950 A MeV 179 Au beam in a beryllium target. Seven new isotopes ( 193 Re, 194 Re, 191 W, 192 W, 189 Ta, 187 Hf and 188 Hf) and the five-proton-removal channel were observed for the first time. The reaction mechanism leading to the formation of these very neutron-rich isotopes is explained in terms of the cold-fragmentation process. An analytical model describing this reaction mechanism is presented. (orig.)

  6. β decay half-live measurement of 22 very neutron-rich isotopes in the Ti-Ni region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czajkowski, S.; Ameil, F.; Armbruster, P.; Donzaud, C.; Geissel, H.; Kozhuharov, C.; Schwab, W.; Bernas, M.; Dessagne, P.; Miehe, C.; Grewe, A.; Hanelt, E.; Heinz, A.; Jong, M. de; Steinhaeuser, S.; Janas, Z.

    1997-01-01

    Very neutron-rich Ti to Ni isotopes were produced in fragmentation of a 500 MeV/u 86 Kr primary beam on a Be target, separated using the Fragment Separator at GSI, and implanted in a set of PIN-diodes where β-decay particles were detected. From time-correlations analysis the unknown β-decay half-life of 22 isotopes were determined. Their values are within 10 -1 s. The β decay spectrum of 70 Co is presented as resulting from an analysis of the first β particle detected after ion implantation in the same detector. Also are presented the example of 3 β decay chains for 65 Mn and 66 Mn. The identification of such chains was instrumental in reducing the influence of background noise in the time correlation analysis while it allows life-time determinations of high confidence

  7. Study of yrast bands and electromagnetic properties in neutron-rich 114-128Cd isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Ritu; Pandit, Rakesh K.; Devi, Rani; Khosa, S. K.

    2018-02-01

    The projected shell model framework has been employed to carry out a systematic study on the deformation systematics of E (21+) and E (41+) / E (21+) values, BCS subshell occupation numbers, yrast spectra, backbending phenomena and electromagnetic quantities in 114-128Cd isotopes. Present calculations reproduce the observed systematics of the E (21+), R42 and B (E 2 ;2+ →0+) values for 114-128Cd isotopic mass chain and give the evidence that deformation increases as one moves from 114Cd to 118Cd, thereafter it decreases up to 126Cd. This in turn confirms 118Cd to be the most deformed nucleus in this set of isotopic mass chain. The emergence of backbending, decrease in B (E 2) values and change in g-factors in all these isotopes are intimately related to the crossing of g-band by 2-qp bands.

  8. Cryogenic separation of an oxygen-argon mixture in natural air samples for the determination of isotope and molecular ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keedakkadan, Habeeb Rahman; Abe, Osamu

    2015-04-30

    The separation and purification of oxygen-argon mixtures are critical in the high-precision analysis of Δ(17) O and δ(O2 /Ar) for geochemical applications. At present, chromatographic methods are used for the separation and purification of oxygen-argon mixtures or pure oxygen, but these methods require the use of high-purity helium as a carrier gas. Considerable interest has been expressed in the development of a helium-free cryogenic separation of oxygen-argon mixtures in natural air samples. The precise and simplified cryogenic separation of oxygen-argon mixtures from natural air samples presented here was made possible using a single 5A (30/60 mesh) molecular sieve column. The method involves the trapping of eluted gases using molecular sieves at liquid nitrogen temperature, which is associated with isotopic fractionation. We tested the proposed method for the determination of isotopic fractionations during the gas exchange between water and atmospheric air at equilibrium. The dependency of fractionation was studied at different water temperatures and for different methods of equilibration (bubbling and stirring). Isotopic and molecular fractionations during gas desorption from molecular sieves were studied for different amounts and types of molecular sieves. Repeated measurements of atmospheric air yielded a reproducibility (±SD) of 0.021 ‰, 0.044 ‰, 15 per meg and 1.9 ‰ for δ(17) O, δ(18) O, Δ(17) O and δ(O2 /Ar) values, respectively. We applied the method to determine equilibrium isotope fractionation during gas exchange between air and water. Consistent δ(18) O and Δ(17) O results were obtained with the latest two studies, whereas there was a significant difference in δ(18) O values between seawater and deionized water. We have revised a helium-free, cryogenic separation of oxygen-argon mixtures in natural air samples for isotopic and molecular ratio analysis. The use of a single 13X (1/8" pellet) molecular sieve yielded the smallest isotopic

  9. Identification of short-lived neutron-rich ruthenium and rhodium isotopes in fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franz, G.; Herrmann, G.

    1975-01-01

    Short-lived ruthenium and rhodium isotopes ( 107 Ru, 108 Ru, 108 Rh, 109 Ru, 109 Rh, 110 Ru, 110 Rh, 111 Ru, 111 Rh, 112 Ru, 112 Rh, 113 Ru) have been separated from fission products by a rapid chemical procedure and identified by means of γ-ray spectroscopy. Nuclides with half-lives down to 3 sec were accessible. Ruthenium isotopes up to mass number 113 have been identified. (author)

  10. The Origin and Evolution of Nucleosynthetic Sr Isotope Variability in Calcium and Aluminum-rich Refractory Inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myojo, Kunihiro; Yokoyama, Tetsuya; Okabayashi, Satoki; Wakaki, Shigeyuki; Sugiura, Naoji; Iwamori, Hikaru

    2018-01-01

    Nucleosynthetic isotope anomalies in meteorites are useful for investigating the origin of materials in the protoplanetary disk and dynamical processes of planetary formation. In particular, calcium and aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) found in chondrites are key minerals for decoding the initial conditions of the solar system before the accretion of small planetary bodies. In this study, we report isotopic analyses for three Allende CAIs, fluffy type A (FTA), type B, and fine-grained spinel rich (FS) inclusions, with a specific emphasis on the measurements of 84Sr/86Sr ratios. It was found that the average μ 84Sr values (106 relative deviations from a standard material) were 175, 129, and 56 ppm for the samples of FTA, type B, and FS inclusions, respectively. Additionally, the FTA samples exhibited heterogeneous μ 84Sr values, while those for the type B and FS inclusions were homogeneous within individual inclusions. The elevated μ 84Sr values were most likely explained by the relative enrichment of r-process nuclides in the CAI formation region. The variation of μ 84Sr values between the FTA and type B inclusions, as well as within the FTA inclusion, suggests the presence of multiple CAI source reservoirs with distinct isotopic compositions, which is either inherited from isotopic heterogeneity in the molecular cloud or caused by the selective destruction of r-process-enriched supernova grains via nebular thermal processing. On the other hand, the reaction between a refractory precursor of the FS inclusion and a gaseous reservoir enriched in Mg, Si, and 16O resulted in the lowest μ 84Sr values for the FS inclusion.

  11. Laser Spectroscopy Study on the Neutron-Rich and Neutron-Deficient Te Isotopes

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    We propose to perform laser spectroscopy measurements on the Te isotopes. This will give access to fundamental properties of the ground and rather long-lived isomeric states such as the change in the mean square charge radius ($\\delta\\langle$r$^2_c\\rangle$) and the nuclear moments. For these medium-mass isotopes, at this moment the optical resolution obtained with RILIS is not high enough to perform isotope shift measurements. Thus we will use the COMPLIS experimental setup which allows Resonant Ionization Spectroscopy (RIS) on laser desorbed atoms. The 5p$^{4}$ $^{3}$P$_{2} \\rightarrow$ 5p$^{3}$ 6s $^{3}$S$_{1}$ and 5p$^{4}$ $^{3}$P$_{2} \\rightarrow$ 5p$^{3}$ 6s $^{5}$S$_{2}$ optical transitions have been used to perform, on the stable Te isotopes, the tests required by the INTC committee. For this purpose stable-ion sources have been built and Te isotopes have been delivered as stable beams by the injector coupled to the COMPLIS setup. ISOLDE offers the opportunity for studying the Te isotope series over a ...

  12. Validation of chlorine and oxygen isotope ratio analysis to differentiate perchlorate sources and to document perchlorate biodegradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul B. Hatzinger,; Böhlke, John Karl; Sturchio, Neil C.; Gu, Baohua

    2013-01-01

    Increased health concerns about perchlorate (ClO4-) during the past decade and subsequent regulatory considerations have generated appreciable interest in source identification. The key objective of the isotopic techniques described in this guidance manual is to provide evidence concerning the origin of ClO4- in soils and groundwater and, more specifically, whether that ClO4- is synthetic or natural. Chlorine and oxygen isotopic analyses of ClO4- provide the primary direct approach whereby different sources of ClO4- can be distinguished from each other. These techniques measure the relative abundances of the stable isotopes of chlorine (37Cl and 35Cl) and oxygen (18O, 17O, and 16O) in ClO4- using isotope-ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS). In addition, the relative abundance of the radioactive chlorine isotope 36Cl is measured using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). Taken together, these measurements provide four independent quantities that can be used to distinguish natural and synthetic ClO4- sources, to discriminate different types of natural ClO4-, and to detect ClO4- biodegradation in the environment. Other isotopic, chemical, and geochemical techniques that can be applied in conjunction with isotopic analyses of ClO4- to provide supporting data in forensic studies are also described.

  13. Clumped-isotope geochemistry of carbonates: A new tool for the reconstruction of temperature and oxygen isotope composition of seawater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernasconi, Stefano M., E-mail: Stefano.bernasconi@erdw.ethz.ch [Geological Institute, ETH Zuerich, Sonneggstrasse 5, 8092 Zuerich (Switzerland); Schmid, Thomas W.; Grauel, Anna-Lena [Geological Institute, ETH Zuerich, Sonneggstrasse 5, 8092 Zuerich (Switzerland); Mutterlose, Joerg [Institut fuer Geologie, Mineralogie und Geophysik, Ruhr Universitaet Bochum, Universitaetsstr. 150, 44801 Bochum (Germany)

    2011-06-15

    Highlights: > Clumped-isotope thermometry of carbonates is discussed. > Clumped isotopes of Belemnites show higher sea surface temperatures than commonly assumed for the lower Cretaceous. > The potential of clumped-isotope measurement on foraminifera is discussed. - Abstract: Clumped-isotope geochemistry deals with State of ordering of rare isotopes in molecules, in particular with their tendency to form bonds with other rare isotopes rather than with the most abundant ones. Among its possible applications, carbonate clumped-isotope thermometry is the one that has gained most attention because of the wide potential of applications in many disciplines of the earth sciences. In particular, it allows reconstructing the temperature of formation of carbonate minerals without knowledge of the isotopic composition of the water from which they were formed. In addition, the O isotope composition of the waters from which they were formed can be calculated using the {delta}{sup 18}O of the same carbonate sample. This feature offers new approaches in paleoclimatology for reconstructing past global geochemical cycles. In this contribution two applications of this method are presented. First the potential of a new analytical method of measurement of clumped isotopes on small samples of foraminifera, for high-resolution SST and seawater {delta}{sup 18}O reconstructions from marine sediments is shown. Furthermore the potential of clumped isotope analysis of belemnites, for reconstructing seawater {delta}{sup 18}O and temperatures in the Cretaceous is shown.

  14. Neutron-rich isotopes around the r-process 'waiting-point' nuclei 2979Cu50 and 3080Zn50

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kratz, K.L.; Gabelmann, H.; Pfeiffer, B.; Woehr, A.

    1991-01-01

    Beta-decay half-lives (T 1/2 ) and delayed-neutron emission probabilities (P n ) of very neutron-rich Cu to As nuclei have been measured, among them the new isotopes 77 Cu 48 , 79 Cu 50 , 81 Zn 51 and 84 Ga 53 . With the T 1/2 and P n -values of now four N≅50 'waiting-point' nuclei known, our hypothesis that the r-process has attained a local β-flow equilibrium around A≅80 is further strengthened. (orig.)

  15. Deposition of talc - kerolite-smectite - smectite at seafloor hydrothermal vent fields: Evidence from mineralogical, geochemical and oxygen isotope studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekov, V.M.; Cuadros, J.; Shanks, Wayne C.; Koski, R.A.

    2008-01-01

    Talc, kerolite-smectite, smectite, chlorite-smectite and chlorite samples from sediments, chimneys and massive sulfides from six seafloor hydrothermal areas have been analyzed for mineralogy, chemistry and oxygen isotopes. Samples are from both peridotite- and basalt-hosted hydrothermal systems, and basaltic systems include sediment-free and sediment-covered sites. Mg-phyllosilicates at seafloor hydrothermal sites have previously been described as talc, stevensite or saponite. In contrast, new data show tri-octahedral Mg-phyllosilicates ranging from pure talc and Fe-rich talc, through kerolite-rich kerolite-smectite to smectite-rich kerolite-smectite and tri-octahedral smectite. The most common occurrence is mixed-layer kerolite-smectite, which shows an almost complete interstratification series with 5 to 85% smectitic layers. The smectite interstratified with kerolite is mostly tri-octahedral. The degree of crystal perfection of the clay sequence decreases generally from talc to kerolite-smectite with lower crystalline perfection as the proportion of smectite layers in kerolite-smectite increases. Our studies do not support any dependence of the precipitated minerals on the type/subtype of hydrothermal system. Oxygen isotope geothermometry demonstrates that talc and kerolite-smectite precipitated in chimneys, massive sulfide mounds, at the sediment surface and in open cracks in the sediment near seafloor are high-temperature (> 250????C) phases that are most probably the result of focused fluid discharge. The other end-member of this tri-octahedral Mg-phyllosilicate sequence, smectite, is a moderate-temperature (200-250????C) phase forming deep within the sediment (??? 0.8??m). Chlorite and chlorite-smectite, which constitute the alteration sediment matrix around the hydrothermal mounds, are lower-temperature (150-200????C) phases produced by diffuse fluid discharge through the sediment around the hydrothermal conduits. In addition to temperature, other two

  16. Precision mass measurements on neutron-rich Zn isotopes and their consequences on the astrophysical r-process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baruah, Sudarshan

    2008-07-15

    The rapid neutron-capture or the r-process is responsible for the origin of about half of the neutron-rich atomic nuclei in the universe heavier than iron. For the calculation of the abundances of those nuclei, atomic masses are required as one of the input parameters with very high precision. In the present work, the masses of the neutron rich Zn isotopes (A=71 to 81) lying in the r-process path have been measured in the ISOLTRAP experiment at ISOLDE/CERN. The mass of {sup 81}Zn has been measured directly for the rst time. The half-lives of the nuclides ranged from 46.5 h ({sup 72}Zn) down to 290 ms ({sup 81}Zn). In case of all the nuclides, the relative mass uncertainty ({delta}m=m) achieved was in the order of 10{sup -8} corresponding to a 100-fold improvement in precision over previous measurements. (orig.)

  17. Precision mass measurements on neutron-rich Zn isotopes and their consequences on the astrophysical r-process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baruah, Sudarshan

    2008-07-01

    The rapid neutron-capture or the r-process is responsible for the origin of about half of the neutron-rich atomic nuclei in the universe heavier than iron. For the calculation of the abundances of those nuclei, atomic masses are required as one of the input parameters with very high precision. In the present work, the masses of the neutron rich Zn isotopes (A=71 to 81) lying in the r-process path have been measured in the ISOLTRAP experiment at ISOLDE/CERN. The mass of 81 Zn has been measured directly for the rst time. The half-lives of the nuclides ranged from 46.5 h ( 72 Zn) down to 290 ms ( 81 Zn). In case of all the nuclides, the relative mass uncertainty (Δm=m) achieved was in the order of 10 -8 corresponding to a 100-fold improvement in precision over previous measurements. (orig.)

  18. New neutron-rich isotopes in the scandium-to-nickel region, produced by fragmentation of a 500 MeV/u 86Kr beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, M.; Geissel, H.; Keller, H.; Magel, A.; Muenzenberg, G.; Nickel, F.; Pfuetzner, M.; Piechaczek, A.; Roeckl, E.; Rykaczewski, K.; Schall, I.; Suemmerer, K.; Donzaud, C.; Guillemaud-Mueller, D.; Mueller, A.C.; Stephan, C.; Tassan-Got, L.; Dufour, J.P.; Pravikoff, M.; Grewe, A.; Voss, B.; Vieira, D.J.

    1991-10-01

    We have measured production cross-sections of the new neutron-rich isotopes 58 Ti, 61 V, 63 Cr, 66 Mn, 69 Fe, 71 Co and neighbouring isotopes that have been identified as projectile fragments from reactions between a 500 MeV/u 86 Kr beam and a beryllium target. The isotope identification was performed with the zero-degree magnetic spectrometer FRS at GSI, using in addition time-of-flight and energy-loss mesurements. The experimental production cross-sections for the new nuclides and neighbouring isotopes are compared with an empirical parameterization. The resulting prospects for reaching even more neutron-rich isotopes, such as the doubly-magic nuclide 78 Ni, are discussed. (orig.)

  19. Charge state distribution studies of pure and oxygen mixed krypton ECR plasma - signature of isotope anomaly and gas mixing effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pravin; Mal, Kedar; Rodrigues, G

    2016-11-01

    We report the charge state distributions of the pure, 25% and 50% oxygen mixed krypton plasma to shed more light on the understanding of the gas mixing and the isotope anomaly [A. G. Drentje, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63 (1992) 2875 and Y Kawai, D Meyer, A Nadzeyka, U Wolters and K Wiesemann, Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 10 (2001) 451] in the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasmas. The krypton plasma was produced using a 10 GHz all-permanent-magnet ECR ion source. The intensities of the highly abundant four isotopes, viz. 82 Kr (~11.58%), 83 Kr (~11.49%), 84 Kr (~57%) and 86 Kr (17.3%) up to ~ +14 charge state have been measured by extracting the ions from the plasma and analysing them in the mass and the energy using a large acceptance analyzer-cum-switching dipole magnet. The influence of the oxygen gas mixing on the isotopic krypton ion intensities is clearly evidenced beyond +9 charge state. With and without oxygen mixing, the charge state distribution of the krypton ECR plasma shows the isotope anomaly with unusual trends. The anomaly in the intensities of the isotopes having quite closer natural abundance, viz. 82 Kr, 86 Kr and 83 Kr, 86 Kr is prominent, whereas the intensity ratio of 86 Kr to 84 Kr shows a weak signature of it. The isotope anomaly tends to disappear with increasing oxygen mixing in the plasma. The observed trends in the intensities of the krypton isotopes do not follow the prediction of linear Landau wave damping in the plasma. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Tracing the oxygen triple isotopic composition of tropospheric molecular oxygen in biogenic apatite - a new tool for palaeoclimatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pack, A.; Süssenberger, A.; Gehler, A.; Wotzlaw, J.

    2009-04-01

    It has been demonstrated that tropospheric molecular oxygen posses a significant isotope anomaly [1, 2 and refs. therein]. Relative to the rocks- and minerals-defined terrestrial fractionation line (TFL), tropospheric O2 has an anomaly of -0.35‰ [2]. Because almost all oxygen on Earth is contained in rocks, we suggest that the rocks- and minerals-defined TFL [3] should be used as reference when reporting isotope anomalies with ∆17O = δ'17OSMOW - βTFL δ'18OSMOW. We have developed a new technique for the determination of δ17O and δ18O of silicates by means of laser fluorination GC-CF-irmMS. We have determined βTFL to 0.5247 (N > 100), which is identical to the value reported by other laboratories and techniques [2, 3]. The uncertainty in ∆17O is ±0.03 (1σ) for a single analysis. It was suggested that ∆17O of tropospheric O2 can be used as proxy for the global bioactivity rate [GBR, 1] as well as for past atmospheric CO2 concentrations [4]. Past ∆17O of tropospheric O2 can be determined by analyzing O2 trapped in ice [1, 5] or by analyzing sulfates from terrestrial sulphide oxidation [4]. Disadvantage of ice core data is the limitation in time back mammals of different body mass (Mb) from Northern Germany (except Indian Elephant). The ∆17O of apatite varies between -0.16‰ for a wood mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus) and +0.04‰ for a wild boar (Sus scrofa). Samples were analyzed between 5 and 7 times in order to reduce the analytical uncertainty to ±0.012-0.025‰. Our data confirm the prediction from mass balance that animals inherit a ∆17O signature from anomalous air O2. We have developed a detailed mass balance for mammals with respect to ∆17O. The mass balance considers the oxygen fluxes (drinking and food water, respired O2, metabolic water, excrements, evaporated water and exhaled CO2). The fractionation in δ18O and ∆17O (from associated β-value) was considered for each of the fluxes. The result is an allometric scaling model for ∆17

  1. Nitrogen and Triple Oxygen Isotopic Analyses of Atmospheric Particulate Nitrate over the Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamezaki, Kazuki; Hattori, Shohei; Iwamoto, Yoko; Ishino, Sakiko; Furutani, Hiroshi; Miki, Yusuke; Miura, Kazuhiko; Uematsu, Mitsuo; Yoshida, Naohiro

    2017-04-01

    Nitrate plays a significant role in the biogeochemical cycle. Atmospheric nitrate (NO3- and HNO3) are produced by reaction precursor as NOx (NO and NO2) emitted by combustion, biomass burning, lightning, and soil emission, with atmospheric oxidants like ozone (O3), hydroxyl radical (OH), peroxy radical and halogen oxides. Recently, industrial activity lead to increases in the concentrations of nitrogen species (NOx and NHy) throughout the environment. Because of the increase of the amount of atmospheric nitrogen deposition, the oceanic biogeochemical cycle are changed (Galloway et al., 2004; Kim et al., 2011). However, the sources and formation pathways of atmospheric nitrate are still uncertain over the Pacific Ocean because the long-term observation is limited. Stable isotope analysis is useful tool to gain information of sources, sinks and formation pathways. The nitrogen stable isotopic composition (δ15N) of atmospheric particulate NO3- can be used to posses information of its nitrogen sources (Elliott et al., 2007). Triple oxygen isotopic compositions (Δ17O = δ17O - 0.52 ×δ18O) of atmospheric particulate NO3- can be used as tracer of the relative importance of mass-independent oxygen bearing species (e.g. O3, BrO; Δ17O ≠ 0 ‰) and mass-dependent oxygen bearing species (e.g. OH radical; Δ17O ≈ 0 ‰) through the formation processes from NOx to NO3- in the atmosphere (Michalski et al., 2003; Thiemens, 2006). Here, we present the isotopic compositions of atmospheric particulate NO3- samples collected over the Pacific Ocean from 40˚ S to 68˚ N. We observed significantly low δ15N values for atmospheric particulate NO3- on equatorial Pacific Ocean during both cruises. Although the data is limited, combination analysis of δ15N and Δ17O values for atmospheric particulate NO3- showed the possibility of the main nitrogen source of atmospheric particulate NO3- on equatorial Pacific Ocean is ammonia oxidation in troposphere. Furthermore, the Δ17O values

  2. Studies of rotational structures in the neutron-rich niobium isotopes 101-103

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paffrath, U.

    1989-08-01

    The aim of this thesis was to study rotational structures in the low-lying levels of the niobium isotopes 101, 102, and 103. This was performed at the recoil separator JOSEF of the Nuclear Research Facility Juelich by studies of the β-decays of the zirconium isotopes 101-103 into their niobium daughters. By γ-γ respectively X-γ coincidence measurements the already existing term schemes of the niobium isotopes should be verified respectively extended and by γ-γ angular-correlation measurements the rotational structures should be studied. The term schemes of the niobium isotopes 101 and 102 could be confirmed in the framework of the performed experiments while the level scheme of the 103 Nb could be essentially extended. From the X-γ coincidence measurement for a plurality of γ transitions the conversion coefficients and by this the dominant multipolarities could be determined. With these conversion coefficients then also the mixing parameters were calculated. These data together with the results from the γ-γ angular-correlation experiments led to a fixing concerning the spins and parities at a series of levels in all three niobium isotopes. (orig./HSI) [de

  3. Microwave assisted synthesis of camellia oleifera shell-derived porous carbon with rich oxygen functionalities and superior supercapacitor performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jiyuan; Qu, Tingting; Kun, Xiang; Zhang, Yu; Chen, Shanyong; Cao, Yuan-Cheng; Xie, Mingjiang; Guo, Xuefeng

    2018-04-01

    Biomass-derived carbon (BDCs) materials are receiving extensive attention as electrode materials for energy storage because of the considerable economic value offering possibility for practical applications, but the electrochemical capacitance of BDCs are usually relatively low resulted from limited electric double layer capacitance. Herein, an oxygen-rich porous carbon (KMAC) was fabricated through a rapid and convenient microwave assisted carbonization and KOH activation of camellia oleifera shell. The obtained KMAC possesses three-dimensional porous architecture, large surface area (1229 m2/g) and rich oxygen functionalities (C/O ratio of 1.66). As the electrode materials for supercapacitor, KMAC exhibits superior supercapacitive performances as compared to the activated carbon (KAC) derived from direct carbonization/KOH activation method in 2.0 M H2SO4 (315 F/g vs. 202 F/g) and 6.0 M KOH (251 F/g vs. 214 F/g) electrolyte due to the rich oxygen-containing functional groups on the surface of porous carbon resulted from the developed microwave-assisted carbonization/activation approach.

  4. Oxygen isotope analysis of shark teeth phosphates from Bartonian (Eocene) deposits in Mangyshlak peninsula, Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelc, Andrzej; Hałas, Stanisław; Niedźwiedzki, Robert

    2011-01-01

    We report the results of high-precision (±0.05‰) oxygen isotope analysis of phosphates in 6 teeth of fossil sharks from the Mangyshlak peninsula. This precision was achieved by the offline preparation of CO2 which was then analyzed on a dual-inlet and triple-collector IRMS. The teeth samples were separated from Middle- and Late Bartonian sediments cropping out in two locations, Usak and Kuilus. Seawater temperatures calculated from the δ18O data vary from 23-41°C. However, these temperatures are probably overestimated due to freshwater inflow. The data point at higher temperature in the Late Bartonian than in the Middle Bartonian and suggest differences in the depth habitats of the shark species studied.

  5. An oxygen isotope study on hydrothermal sources of granite-type uranium deposits in South China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yongfei, Z.

    1987-01-01

    The usefulness of oxygen isotope measurements in solving problems of hydrothermal sources has been demonstrated in a number of detailed studies of the granite type uranium deposits in this paper. Remarkly the granite-type uranium deposits in Southr China have been shown to have formed from magmatic water, meteoric water, of mixtures of both the above, and origin of waters in the ore-forming fluid may be different for differing uranium deposits ore differing stages of the mineralization. Consequences obtained in this study for typical uranium deposits of different age and geologic sitting agree well with that obtained by other geologic-geochemical investigation. Furthermore, not only meteoric water is of importance to origin and evolution of the ore-forming fluid, but also mixing of waters from different sources is considered to be one of the most characteristic features of many hydrothermal uranium deposits related to granitoids or volcanics. (C.D.G.) [pt

  6. Spatiotemporal variability of oxygen isotope compositions in three contrasting glacier river catchments in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, N. Tvis; Yde, J.C.; Steffensen, J.P.

    2015-01-01

    composition is controlled by the proportion between snowmelt and ice melt with episodic inputs of rainwater and occasional storage and release of a specific water component due to changes in the subglacial drainage system. At Kuannersuit Glacier River on the island Qeqertarsuaq, the δ18O characteristics were......Analysis of stable oxygen isotope (δ18O) characteristics is a useful tool to investigate water provenance in glacier river systems. In order to attain knowledge on the diversity of spatio-temporal δ18O variations in glacier rivers, we have examined three glacierized catchments in Greenland...... of diurnal oscillations, and in 2003 there were large diurnal fluctuations in δ18O. At Watson River, a large catchment at the western margin of the Greenland Ice Sheet, the spatial distribution of δ18O in the river system was applied to fingerprint the relative runoff contributions from sub-catchments. Spot...

  7. Precipitation regime influence on oxygen triple-isotope distributions in Antarctic precipitation and ice cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Martin F.

    2018-01-01

    The relative abundance of 17O in meteoric precipitation is usually reported in terms of the 17O-excess parameter. Variations of 17O-excess in Antarctic precipitation and ice cores have hitherto been attributed to normalised relative humidity changes at the moisture source region, or to the influence of a temperature-dependent supersaturation-controlled kinetic isotope effect during in-cloud ice formation below -20 °C. Neither mechanism, however, satisfactorily explains the large range of 17O-excess values reported from measurements. A different approach, based on the regression characteristics of 103 ln (1 +δ17 O) versus 103 ln (1 +δ18 O), is applied here to previously published isotopic data sets. The analysis indicates that clear-sky precipitation ('diamond dust'), which occurs widely in inland Antarctica, is characterised by an unusual relative abundance of 17O, distinct from that associated with cloud-derived, synoptic snowfall. Furthermore, this distinction appears to be largely preserved in the ice core record. The respective mass contributions to snowfall accumulation - on both temporal and spatial scales - provides the basis of a simple, first-order explanation for the observed oxygen triple-isotope ratio variations in Antarctic precipitation, surface snow and ice cores. Using this approach, it is shown that precipitation during the last major deglaciation, both in western Antarctica at the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) Divide and at Vostok on the eastern Antarctic plateau, consisted essentially of diamond dust only, despite a large temperature differential (and thus different water vapour supersaturation conditions) at the two locations. In contrast, synoptic snowfall events dominate the accumulation record throughout the Holocene at both sites.

  8. Stable oxygen isotope variability in two contrasting glacier river catchments in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yde, Jacob C.; Knudsen, Niels T.; Steffensen, Jørgen P.

    2016-01-01

    the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS). At the Mittivakkat Gletscher river, a small river draining a local temperate glacier in southeast Greenland, diurnal oscillations in δ18O occurred with a 3 h time lag to the diurnal oscillations in run-off. The mean annual δ18O was -14.68±0.18‰ during the peak flow period...... event. Overall, a comparison of the δ18O compositions from glacial river water in Greenland shows distinct differences between water draining local glaciers and ice caps (between -23.0 and -13.7 ‰) and the GrIS (between -29.9 and -23.2 ‰). This study demonstrates that water isotope analyses can be used......Analysis of stable oxygen isotope (δ18O) characteristics is a useful tool to investigate water provenance in glacier river systems. In order to attain knowledge on the diversity of δ18O variations in Greenlandic rivers, we examined two contrasting glacierised catchments disconnected from...

  9. Study of the carbon and oxygen isotopic compositions in marine shells of Salvador-Bahia, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitas, J.C.B. de.

    1977-01-01

    The carbon and oxygen isotopic composition of 68 samples of marine shells from the region of Salvador was determined. These samples are from points on the open coast and in the interior of the Todos os Santos Bay and they are composed in part by recent specimens and in part by old specimens taken from Quaternary sediments. The results for δ 18 O are in the range of -2,83per mille to + 1,21per mille (PDB) and for δ 13 C in the range of -3,10per mille to +2,63per mille (PDB). The reults for the recent shells from the interior of the Todos os Santos Bay show variations in the δ 13 C values associated to the dominance of organic matter in some regions. For the old samoles, gathered in te variations in the δ 13 C values was associated to the existence in points of that region of deposits of fluvio-lagunar sediments, originated during the last marine transgression. It was identified, for a few species with the same age and location, the effect of biological fractionations. Nevertheless, the observed dominant factor on the isotopic differentiation was the environmental fractionation. (Author) [pt

  10. Cross-continental triple oxygen isotope analysis of tropospheric CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, M. C.; Rangarajan, R.; Newman, S.; Laskar, A. H.

    2016-12-01

    The abundance variations of near surface atmospheric CO2 isotopologues (primarily 16O12C16O, 16O13C16O, 17O12C16O, and 18O12C16O) represent an integrated signal from anthropogenic/biogeochemical processes, including fossil fuel burning, biospheric photosynthesis and respiration, hydrospheric isotope exchange with water, and stratospheric photochemistry. Oxygen isotopes, in particular, are affected by the carbon and water cycles. Being a useful tracer that directly probes governing processes in CO2 biogeochemical cycles, D17O (= ln(1+d17O) - 0.516´ln(1+d18O)) provides an alternative constraint on the strengths of the associated cycles involving CO2. Here, we report more than one year of data obtained from Taiwan (Taipei), South China Sea, and USA (Pasadena, CA and Palos Verdes, CA). On average, the D17O values from these locations are similar and show no significant influence from the 2014-2016 El Nino event, in contrast to what has been reported for the 1997-1998 El Nino from the CO2 data collected from La Jolla, CA. Implications for utilizing the new tracer D17O for carbon cycling studies will be made.

  11. Letter Report: Stable Hydrogen and Oxygen Isotope Analysis of B-Complex Perched Water Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Brady D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Moran, James J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Nims, Megan K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Saunders, Danielle L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-04-13

    Fine-grained sediments associated with the Cold Creek Unit at Hanford have caused the formation of a perched water aquifer in the deep vadose zone at the B Complex area, which includes waste sites in the 200-DV-1 Operable Unit and the single-shell tank farms in Waste Management Area B-BX-BY. High levels of contaminants, such as uranium, technetium-99, and nitrate, make this aquifer a continuing source of contamination for the groundwater located a few meters below the perched zone. Analysis of deuterium (2H) and 18-oxygen (18O) of nine perched water samples from three different wells was performed. Samples represent time points from hydraulic tests performed on the perched aquifer using the three wells. The isotope analyses showed that the perched water had δ2H and δ18O ratios consistent with the regional meteoric water line, indicating that local precipitation events at the Hanford site likely account for recharge of the perched water aquifer. Data from the isotope analysis can be used along with pumping and recovery data to help understand the perched water dynamics related to aquifer size and hydraulic control of the aquifer in the future.

  12. β Decay processes of neutron-rich isotopes of sodium and magnesium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillemaud, D.

    1982-01-01

    The γ and n activities from the β decay of Na isotopes up to 34 Na, which are formed in high-energy fragmentation and analysed through mass-spectrometry techniques, are observed as well as those from their Mg descendants. Their intensities Isub(γ) and Isub(β) are measured; some radioactive half lives are determined. Delayed-neutron branching ratios Pn are measured. The existence of 35 Na is for the first time indicated. The position of the first excited 2 + level is taken as an indication of a stronger deformation for that isotope [fr

  13. Heterogenous Oxygen Isotopic Composition of a Complex Wark-Lovering Rim and the Margin of a Refractory Inclusion from Leoville

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, J. I.; Matzel, J. E. P.; Simon, S. B.; Weber, P. K.; Grossman, L.; Ross, D. K.; Hutcheon, I. D.

    2014-01-01

    Wark-Lovering (WL) rims [1] surrounding many refractory inclusions represent marker events in the early evolution of the Solar System in which many inclusions were exposed to changes in pressure [2], temperature [3], and isotopic reservoirs [4-7]. The effects of these events can be complex, not only producing mineralogical variability of WL rims [2], but also leading to mineralogical [8-10] and isotopic [7, 11, 12] changes within inclusion interiors. Extreme oxygen isotopic heterogeneity measured in CAIs has been explained by mixing between distinct oxygen gas reservoirs in the nebula [13]. Some WL rims contain relatively simple mineral layering and/or are isotopically homogeneous [14, 15]. As part of a larger effort to document and understand the modifications observed in some CAIs, an inclusion (L6) with a complex WL rim from Leoville, a member of the reduced CV3 subgroup was studied. Initial study of the textures and mineral chemistry was presented by [16]. Here we present NanoSIMS oxygen isotopic measurements to complement these petrologic observations.

  14. Direct dating of the oxygen-isotope record of the last deglaciation by 14C accelerator mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duplessy, J.C.; Arnold, Maurice; Maurice, Pierre; Bard, Edouard; Duprat, Josette; Moyes, Jean

    1986-01-01

    The authors have measured 14 C for various species of foraminifera to produce a reliable timescale for the oxygen-isotope record. The results show that, at the end of the last ice age, continental ice sheets began to melt more than 4,000 yr before the Northern Hemisphere maximum of summer calorific radiation. (author)

  15. Oxygen stable isotopes during the Last Glacial Maximum climate: perspectives from data-model (iLOVECLIM) comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caley, T.; Roche, D.M.V.A.P.; Waelbroeck, C.; Michel, E.

    2014-01-01

    We use the fully coupled atmosphere-ocean three-dimensional model of intermediate complexity iLOVECLIM to simulate the climate and oxygen stable isotopic signal during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, 21 000 years). By using a model that is able to explicitly simulate the sensor (Î18O), results can be

  16. High-frequency climate linkages between the North Atlantic and the Mediterranean during marine oxygen isotope stage 100 (MIS100)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becker, Julia; Lourens, L.J.; Raymo, M.E.

    2006-01-01

    High-resolution records of Mediterranean and North Atlantic deep-sea sediments indicate that rapid changes in hydrology and climate occurred during marine oxygen isotope stage 100 (MIS100) (at ~2.52 Ma), which exhibits characteristics similar to late Pleistocene Dansgaard-Oeschger, Bond cycles and

  17. Past 20,000-year history of Himalayan aridity: Evidence from oxygen isotope records in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chauhan, O.S.

    Late Quaternary climate history of the Himalayas is inferred from sea surface salinity (SSS) changes determined from the oxygen isotope in planktonic foraminifers, in a turbidity-free, 14C-dated core from the Bay of Bengal. The heaviest d18O...

  18. Oxygen-isotope wiggle maching as a tol for synchronising ice-cor and terrestrial records over Termination !

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek, W.Z.; Bohncke, S.J.P.

    2001-01-01

    In NW Europe, the large number of terrestrial records that are now available from Termination 1 (15-10kcal yr BP) form the basis for a highly detailed picture of Lateglacial environmental change. Nevertheless, the Greenland oxygen-isotope records (GRIP/GISP2) are still regarded as the best

  19. Palaeotemperature reconstructions of the European permafrost zone during Oxygen Isotope Stage 3 compared with climate model results.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Huissteden, J.; Vandenberghe, J.; Pollard, D.

    2003-01-01

    A palaeotemperature reconstruction based on periglacial phenomena in Europe north of approximately 51 °N, is compared with high-resolution regional climate model simulations of the marine oxygen isotope Stage 3 (Stage 3) palaeoclimate. The experiments represent Stage 3 warm (interstadial), Stage 3

  20. Reactions of neutron-rich Sn isotopes investigated at relativistic energies at R{sup 3}B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schindler, Fabia; Aumann, Thomas; Johansen, Jacob; Schrock, Philipp [IKP, TU Darmstadt (Germany); Boretzky, Konstanze [GSI Helmholtzzentrum (Germany); Collaboration: R3B-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    Reactions of neutron-rich tin isotopes in a mass range of A=124 to A=134 have been measured at the R{sup 3}B setup at GSI in inverse kinematics. Due to the neutron excess, which results in a weaker binding of the valence neutrons such isotopes are expected to form a neutron skin. The investigation of this phenomenon is an important goal in nuclear-structure physics. Reactions of the tin isotopes with different targets have been performed kinematically complete. The taken data set therefore allows for the extraction of the neutron-skin thickness from two independent reaction channels. These are dipole excitations on the one hand and nuclear-induced reactions on the other hand. This contribution focuses on the latter mechanism. The analysis techniques which are used to extract the total charge-changing as well as the total neutron-removal cross section are presented using the example of {sup 124}Sn. The total neutron-removal cross section is of particular interest because of its high sensitivity to the neutron-skin thickness.

  1. Beta decay of twelve light neutron-rich isotopes from 17C to 40S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufour, J.P.; Del Moral, R.; Fleury, A.; Hubert, F.; Jean, D.; Pravikoff, M.S.; Geissel, H.; Schmidt, K.H.

    1986-07-01

    The results reported here have been obtained with an 40 Argon beam on a Be target. The separated nuclei were implanted in a catcher foil placed in between a thin scintillator detecting the betas and a high volume Ge detector; only gammas in coincidence with betas were recorded. Results for the gamma energies and the half-lives of the observed isotopes are given

  2. Beta-transition properties for neutron-rich Sn and Te isotopes by ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    bour odd–odd nuclei and the β decay log(ft) values have been calculated within the framework of RPA. These calculations have been done for. 128,130,132. Sb and. 132,134,136. I isotopes. Since there is no study based on other models for the investi- gated nuclei in literature the calculations based on schematic model in ...

  3. Isomeric structures in neutron-rich odd-odd Pm (Z = 61) isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sood, P.C.; Singh, B.; Jain, A.K.

    2008-01-01

    Each of the heavier odd-odd isotopes, namely, 152 Pm, 154 Pm and 156 Pm, have multiple low-lying isomers, almost all of them with undefined configuration and also undefined energy placement. Present investigations attempt credible characterization of the isomers using a simplified two-quasiparticle rotor model which has been widely employed for description of odd-odd deformed nuclei

  4. Exploring the potential of clumped isotope thermometry on coccolith-rich sediments as a sea surface temperature proxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, Anna Joy; John, Cédric M.

    2016-10-01

    Understanding past changes in sea surface temperatures (SSTs) is crucial; however, existing proxies for reconstructing past SSTs are hindered by unknown ancient seawater composition (foraminiferal Mg/Ca and δ18O) or reflect subsurface temperatures (TEX86) or have a limited applicable temperature range (U37k'). We examine clumped isotope (Δ47) thermometry to fossil coccolith-rich material as an SST proxy, as clumped isotopes are independent of original seawater composition and applicable to a wide temperature range and coccolithophores are widespread and dissolution resistant. The Δ47-derived temperatures from 63 μm fraction removes most nonmixed layer components; however, the Δ47-derived temperatures display an unexpected slight decreasing trend with decreasing size fraction. This unexpected trend could partly arise because larger coccoliths (5-12 μm) are removed during the size fraction separation process. The c1 and <63 μm c2 Δ47-derived temperatures are comparable to concurrent U37k' SSTs. The <20, <10, and 2-5 μm c2 Δ47-derived temperatures are consistently cooler than expected. The Δ47-U37k' temperature offset is probably caused by abiotic/diagenetic calcite present in the c2 2-5 μm fraction (˜53% by area), which potentially precipitated at bottom water temperatures of ˜6°C. Our results indicate that clumped isotopes on coccolith-rich sediment fractions have potential as an SST proxy, particularly in tropical regions, providing that careful investigation of the appropriate size fraction for the region and time scale is undertaken.

  5. Groundwater oxygen isotope anomaly before the M6.6 Tottori earthquake in Southwest Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onda, Satoki; Sano, Yuji; Takahata, Naoto; Kagoshima, Takanori; Miyajima, Toshihiro; Shibata, Tomo; Pinti, Daniele L; Lan, Tefang; Kim, Nak Kyu; Kusakabe, Minoru; Nishio, Yoshiro

    2018-03-19

    Geochemical monitoring of groundwater in seismically-active regions has been carried out since 1970s. Precursors were well documented, but often criticized for anecdotal or fragmentary signals, and for lacking a clear physico-chemical explanation for these anomalies. Here we report - as potential seismic precursor - oxygen isotopic ratio anomalies of +0.24‰ relative to the local background measured in groundwater, a few months before the Tottori earthquake (M 6.6) in Southwest Japan. Samples were deep groundwater located 5 km west of the epicenter, packed in bottles and distributed as drinking water between September 2015 and July 2017, a time frame which covers the pre- and post-event. Small but substantial increase of 0.07‰ was observed soon after the earthquake. Laboratory crushing experiments of aquifer rock aimed to simulating rock deformation under strain and tensile stresses were carried out. Measured helium degassing from the rock and 18 O-shift suggest that the co-seismic oxygen anomalies are directly related to volumetric strain changes. The findings provide a plausible physico-chemical basis to explain geochemical anomalies in water and may be useful in future earthquake prediction research.

  6. Stable isotopic investigations of early development in extant and fossil chambered cephalopods I. Oxygen isotopic composition of eggwater and carbon isotopic composition of siphuncle organic matter in Nautilus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocker, Kimberley C.; DeNiro, Michael J.; Ward, Peter D.

    1985-12-01

    Eggwaters from the chambered cephalopod Nautilus are depleted in both 18O and deuterium relative to ambient seawater. Eggwaters from six other species, including the related chambered cephalopod Sepia, do not show such depletion. These observations indicate that the previously observed step towards more positive δ 18O values in calcium carbonate laid down after Nautilus hatches, relative to carbonate precipitated prior to hatching, can be explained by equilibration of the carbonate with water in the egg before hatching and with seawater after hatching. The presence of an oxygen isotope difference between eggwater and seawater for Nautilus and its absence for Sepia suggest that hatching will be recorded in the δ 18O values of shell carbonates for some but not all extinct and extant chambered cephalopods. The δ 13C values of the organic fraction of the siphuncle in Nautilus do not show any consistent pattern with regard to the time of formation before or after hatching. This observation suggests that the minimum in δ 13C values previously observed for calcium carbonate precipitated after Nautilus hatches is not caused by a change in food sources once the animal becomes free-swimming, as has been suggested.

  7. Removal method of fluorescent dyes as pretreatment for measurement of major ion concentrations and hydrogen and oxygen isotopic ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakata, Kotaro; Hasegawa, Takuma; Kashiwaya, Koki; Kodama, Hiroki; Miyajima, Tohru

    2011-01-01

    The major ion concentration and isotope ratio of hydrogen and oxygen can provide important information for migration of groundwater. Sometimes, quantitative estimation of these chemical and isotopic characteristics of solution is necessary for groundwater containing fluorescent dyes, which are used in drilling borehole and tracer experiments. However, sometimes correct estimation is disturbed by dyes and they become a cause of troubles for measurement equipments. Thus development of method to remove dyes is required so that the characteristics of groundwater can be estimated without the negative effect of dyes on measurement or equipments. In this study, removal of four representative dyes (Uranin, Eosin, Naphthalenesulfonic acid sodium(NAP) and Amino G acid potassium salt (AG)) was investigated. Uranin and Eosin were found to be removed by non-ionic synthetic resin: HP2MG. 99.99% of the dyes were removed from initial solutions containing dyes with 10 mg/L after contact with resin, while the contact had little effect on ion concentrations and oxygen and hydrogen isotope ratios. Thus the chemical and isotopic characteristics of groundwater samples containing Uranin and Eosin can be obtained by using the HP2MG resin. On the other hand, the NAP and AG were found to be difficult to remove by the HP2MG resin but they were able to be removed by anion exchange resin (Dowex 1x8). Though contact of solution with Dowex 1x8 did not affect cation concentrations and hydrogen and oxygen isotope ratios, anion concentrations were changed by the contact. Therefore the Dowex 1x8 is only applicable to estimation of the cation concentrations and isotope ratio of hydrogen and oxygen. When both anion and cation concentrations from the samples were necessary, Uranin or Eosin were recommended as a tracer in drilling or tracer experiments. (author)

  8. Paleoclimatic reconstruction in the Bolivian Andes from oxygen isotope analysis of lake sediment cellulose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfe, B.B.; Aravena, R.; Gibson, J.J.; Abbott, M.B.; Seltzer, G.O.

    2002-01-01

    Cellulose-inferred lake water δ 18 O (δ 18 O lw ) records from Lago Potosi, a seasonally-closed lake in a watershed that is not currently glaciated, and Lago Taypi Chaka Kkota, an overflowing lake in a glaciated watershed, provide the basis for late Pleistocene and Holocene paleoclimatic reconstruction in the Bolivian Andes. Deconvolution of the histories of changing evaporative isotopic enrichment from source water δ 18 O in the lake sediment records is constrained by comparison to the Sajama ice core oxygen isotope profile. At Lago Potosi, the δ 18 O lw record appears to be dominantly controlled by evaporative 18 O-enrichment, reflecting shifts in local effective moisture. Using an isotope-mass balance model, a preliminary quantitative reconstruction of summer relative humidity spanning the past 11,500 cal yr is derived from the Lago Potosi Π 18 O lw record. Results indicate that the late Pleistocene was moist with summer relative humidity values estimated at 10-20% greater than present. Increasing aridity developed in the early Holocene with maximum prolonged dryness spanning 7500 to 6000 cal yr BP at Lago Potosi, an interval characterized by summer relative humidity values that may have been 20% lower than present. Highly variable but dominantly arid conditions persist in the mid- to late Holocene, with average summer relative humidity values estimated at 15% below present, which then increase to about 10-20% greater than present by 2000 cal yr BP. Slightly more arid conditions characterize the last millennium with summer relative humidity values ranging from 5-10% lower than present. Similar long-term variations are evident in the Lago Taypi Chaka Kkota δ 18 O lw profile, except during the early Holocene when lake water evaporative 18 Oenrichment in response to low relative humidity appears to have been offset by enhanced inflow from 18 O-depleted snowmelt or groundwater from the large catchment. Close correspondence occurs between the isotope

  9. Biological Apatite Formed from Polyphosphate and Alkaline Phosphatase May Exchange Oxygen Isotopes from Water through Carbonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omelon, S. J.; Stanley, S. Y.; Gorelikov, I.; Matsuura, N.

    2011-12-01

    The oxygen isotopic composition in bone mineral phosphate is known to reflect the local water composition, environmental humidity, and diet1. Once ingested, biochemical processes presumably equilibrate PO43- with "body water" by the many biochemical reactions involving PO43- 2. Blake et al. demonstrated that enzymatic release of PO43- from organophosphorus compounds, and microbial metabolism of dissolved orthophosphate, significantly exchange the oxygen in precipitated apatite within environmental water3,4, which otherwise does not exchange with water at low temperatures. One of the enzymes that can cleave phosphates from organic substrates is alkaline phosphastase5, the enzyme also associated with bone mineralization. The literature often states that the mineral in bone in hydroxylapatite, however the mineral in bone is carbonated apatite that also contains some fluoride6. Deprotonation of HPO32- occurs at pH 12, which is impossibly high for biological system, and the predominate carbonate species in solution at neutral pH is HCO3-. To produce an apatite mineral without a significant hydroxyl content, it is possible that apatite biomineralization occurs through a polyphosphate pathway, where the oxygen atom required to transform polyphosphate into individual phosphate ions is from carbonate: [PO3-]n + CO32- -> [PO3-]n-1 + PO43- + CO2. Alkaline phosphatase can depolymerise polyphosphate into orthophosphate5. If alkaline phosphatase cleaves an oxygen atom from a calcium-carbonate complex, then there is no requirement for removing a hydrogen atom from the HCO3- or HPO43- ions of body water to form bioapatite. A mix of 1 mL of 1 M calcium polyphosphate hydogel, or nano-particles of calcium polyphosphate, and amorphous calcium carbonate were reacted with alkaline phosphatase, and maintained at neutral to basic pH. After two weeks, carbonated apatite and other calcium phosphate minerals were identified by powder x-ray diffraction. Orthophosphate and unreacted

  10. Sulfur Isotope Trends in Archean Microbialite Facies Record Early Oxygen Production and Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerkle, A.; Meyer, N.; Izon, G.; Poulton, S.; Farquhar, J.; Claire, M.

    2014-12-01

    The major and minor sulfur isotope composition (δ34S and Δ33S) of pyrites preserved in ~2.65-2.5 billion-year-old (Ga) microbialites record localized oxygen production and consumption near the mat surface. These trends are preserved in two separate drill cores (GKF01 and BH1-Sacha) transecting the Campbellrand-Malmani carbonate platform (Ghaap Group, Transvaal Supergroup, South Africa; Zerkle et al., 2012; Izon et al., in review). Microbialite pyrites possess positive Δ33S values, plotting parallel to typical Archean trends (with a Δ33S/δ34S slope of ~0.9) but enriched in 34S by ~3 to 7‰. We propose that these 34S-enriched pyrites were formed from a residual pool of sulfide that was partially oxidized via molecular oxygen produced by surface mat-dwelling cyanobacteria. Sulfide, carrying the range of Archean Δ33S values, could have been produced deeper within the microbial mat by the reduction of sulfate and elemental sulfur, then fractionated upon reaction with O2 produced by oxygenic photosynthesis. Preservation of this positive 34S offset requires that: 1) sulfide was only partially (50­­-80%) consumed by oxidation, meaning H2S was locally more abundant (or more rapidly produced) than O2, and 2) the majority of the sulfate produced via oxidation was not immediately reduced to sulfide, implying either that the sulfate pool was much larger than the sulfide pool, or that the sulfate formed near the mat surface was transported and reduced in another part of the system. Contrastingly, older microbialite facies (> 2.7 Ga; Thomazo et al., 2013) appear to lack these observed 34S enrichments. Consequently, the onset of 34S enrichments could mark a shift in mat ecology, from communities dominated by anoxygenic photosynthesizers to cyanobacteria. Here, we test these hypotheses with new spatially resolved mm-scale trends in sulfur isotope measurements from pyritized stromatolites of the Vryburg Formation, sampled in the lower part of the BH1-Sacha core. Millimeter

  11. A discussion for the evolution model of Pb isotope of the upper mantle in western Yunnan and its interpretation to the lead isotopic compositions of the regional alkali-rich porphyries and their related rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Kaixing; Hu Ruizhong; Bi Xianwu; Zhang Qian; Peng Jiantang

    2003-01-01

    Thirty Pb isotope data of the upper mantle in the area of western Yunnan have the similar trends with the Stacey-Kramers' two stage model growth curves but apparently deviate from it on the lead isotope composition programs, which may suggest Pb isotope of the upper mantle in the area of western Yunnan might have two stage evolution history though not fit very well to the Stacey-Kramers' two stage model growth curves. In this paper, a two-stage growth curves which can better fit the Pb isotope data was constructed based on the lead isotope data of the upper mantle in western Yunnan and the principle that Stacey and Kramers constructed the two-stage model and a reasonable interpretation was given to the lead isotopic compositions of the regional alkali-rich porphyries and their related rocks using the model. (authors)

  12. Hot-Fire Test Results of Liquid Oxygen/RP-2 Multi-Element Oxidizer-Rich Preburners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protz, C. S.; Garcia, C. P.; Casiano, M. J.; Parton, J. A.; Hulka, J. R.

    2016-01-01

    As part of the Combustion Stability Tool Development project funded by the Air Force Space and Missile Systems Center, the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center was contracted to assemble and hot-fire test a multi-element integrated test article demonstrating combustion characteristics of an oxygen/hydrocarbon propellant oxidizer-rich staged-combustion engine thrust chamber. Such a test article simulates flow through the main injectors of oxygen/kerosene oxidizer-rich staged combustion engines such as the Russian RD-180 or NK-33 engines, or future U.S.-built engine systems such as the Aerojet-Rocketdyne AR-1 engine or the Hydrocarbon Boost program demonstration engine. To supply the oxidizer-rich combustion products to the main injector of the integrated test article, existing subscale preburner injectors from a previous NASA-funded oxidizer-rich staged combustion engine development program were utilized. For the integrated test article, existing and newly designed and fabricated inter-connecting hot gas duct hardware were used to supply the oxidizer-rich combustion products to the oxidizer circuit of the main injector of the thrust chamber. However, before one of the preburners was used in the integrated test article, it was first hot-fire tested at length to prove it could provide the hot exhaust gas mean temperature, thermal uniformity and combustion stability necessary to perform in the integrated test article experiment. This paper presents results from hot-fire testing of several preburner injectors in a representative combustion chamber with a sonic throat. Hydraulic, combustion performance, exhaust gas thermal uniformity, and combustion stability data are presented. Results from combustion stability modeling of these test results are described in a companion paper at this JANNAF conference, while hot-fire test results of the preburner injector in the integrated test article are described in another companion paper.

  13. Oxygen isotopes in tree rings record variation in precipitation δ18O and amount effects in the south of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brienen, Roel J W; Hietz, Peter; Wanek, Wolfgang; Gloor, Manuel

    2013-12-01

    [1] Natural archives of oxygen isotopes in precipitation may be used to study changes in the hydrological cycle in the tropics, but their interpretation is not straightforward. We studied to which degree tree rings of Mimosa acantholoba from southern Mexico record variation in isotopic composition of precipitation and which climatic processes influence oxygen isotopes in tree rings ( δ 18 O tr ). Interannual variation in δ 18 O tr was highly synchronized between trees and closely related to isotopic composition of rain measured at San Salvador, 710 km to the southwest. Correlations with δ 13 C, growth, or local climate variables (temperature, cloud cover, vapor pressure deficit (VPD)) were relatively low, indicating weak plant physiological influences. Interannual variation in δ 18 O tr correlated negatively with local rainfall amount and intensity. Correlations with the amount of precipitation extended along a 1000 km long stretch of the Pacific Central American coast, probably as a result of organized storm systems uniformly affecting rainfall in the region and its isotope signal; episodic heavy precipitation events, of which some are related to cyclones, deposit strongly 18 O-depleted rain in the region and seem to have affected the δ 18 O tr signal. Large-scale controls on the isotope signature include variation in sea surface temperatures of tropical north Atlantic and Pacific Ocean. In conclusion, we show that δ 18 O tr of M . acantholoba can be used as a proxy for source water δ 18 O and that interannual variation in δ 18 O prec is caused by a regional amount effect. This contrasts with δ 18 O signatures at continental sites where cumulative rainout processes dominate and thus provide a proxy for precipitation integrated over a much larger scale. Our results confirm that processes influencing climate-isotope relations differ between sites located, e.g., in the western Amazon versus coastal Mexico, and that tree ring isotope records can help in

  14. Stable isotope analysis of Dacryoconarid carbonate microfossils: a new tool for Devonian oxygen and carbon isotope stratigraphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frappier, Amy Benoit; Lindemann, Richard H; Frappier, Brian R

    2015-04-30

    Dacryoconarids are extinct marine zooplankton known from abundant, globally distributed calcite microfossils in the Devonian, but their shell stable isotope composition has not been previously explored. Devonian stable isotope stratigraphy is currently limited to less common invertebrates or bulk rock analyses of uncertain provenance. As with Cenozoic planktonic foraminifera, isotopic analysis of dacryoconarid shells could facilitate higher-resolution, geographically widespread stable isotope records of paleoenvironmental change, including marine hypoxia events, climate changes, and biocrises. We explored the use of Dacryoconarid isotope stratigraphy as a viable method in interpreting paleoenvironments. We applied an established method for determining stable isotope ratios (δ(13) C, δ(18) O values) of small carbonate microfossils to very well-preserved dacryoconarid shells. We analyzed individual calcite shells representing five common genera using a Kiel carbonate device coupled to a MAT 253 isotope ratio mass spectrometer. Calcite shell δ(13) C and δ(18) O values were compared by taxonomic group, rock unit, and locality. Single dacryoconarid calcite shells are suitable for stable isotope analysis using a Kiel-IRMS setup. The dacryoconarid shell δ(13) C values (-4.7 to 2.3‰) and δ(18) O values (-10.3 to -4.8‰) were consistent across taxa, independent of shell size or part, but varied systematically through time. Lower fossil δ(18) O values were associated with warmer water temperature and more variable δ(13) C values were associated with major bioevents. Dacryoconarid δ(13) C and δ(18) O values differed from bulk rock carbonate values. Dacryoconarid individual microfossil δ(13) C and δ(18) O values are highly sensitive to paleoenvironmental changes, thus providing a promising avenue for stable isotope chemostratigraphy to better resolve regional to global paleoceanographic changes throughout the upper Silurian to the upper Devonian. Our results

  15. Isotopic evidence for primordial molecular cloud material in metal-rich carbonaceous chondrites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Kooten, Elishevah M. M. E.; Wielandt, Daniel Kim Peel; Schiller, Martin

    2016-01-01

    product of (26)Al. This correlation is interpreted as reflecting progressive thermal processing of in-falling (26)Al-rich molecular cloud material in the inner Solar System. The thermally unprocessed molecular cloud matter reflecting the nucleosynthetic makeup of the molecular cloud before the last......)Mg*-depleted and (54)Cr-enriched component. This composition is consistent with that expected for thermally unprocessed primordial molecular cloud material before its pollution by stellar-derived (26)Al. The (26)Mg* and (54)Cr compositions of bulk metal-rich chondrites require significant amounts (25......-50%) of primordial molecular cloud matter in their precursor material. Given that such high fractions of primordial molecular cloud material are expected to survive only in the outer Solar System, we infer that, similarly to cometary bodies, metal-rich carbonaceous chondrites are samples of planetesimals...

  16. Phenomenological study of nuclear structure of neutron-rich 88Rb isotope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Surbhi; Gupta, Anuradha; Bharti, Arun

    2018-05-01

    A theoretical study of the nuclear structure of odd-odd 88Rb nucleus in the A ˜100 mass region is carried out by using the angular-momentum-projection technique implemented in the Projected Shell Model (PSM). The influence of the high-j orbitals, h11/2 for neutrons and g9/2 for protons on the structure of 88Rb isotope is investigated in the present case by assuming an axial symmetry in the deformed basis. For this isotope, PSM calculations are performed to obtain the yrast line and also the description of the formation of the yrast level structure from multi-quasi-particle configurations. The back-bending in moment of inertia and transition energies have also been calculated and compared with the experimental data.

  17. Radiochemical search for neutron-rich isotopes of nielsbohrium in the (16)O + (254)Es reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaedel, M.; Jaeger, E.; Bruechle, W.; Suemmerer, K.; Hulet, E.K.; Wild, J.F.; Lougheed, R.W.; Dougan, R.J.; Moody, K.J.

    1994-09-01

    We have used on-line gas chromatography to search for new isotopes of element 107 near the deformed sub-shell at N = 162 and Z = 108. Enhanced nuclear stability is predicted for this region. 254g Es was irradiated with 16 O at barrier energies to minimize the fusion hindrance in the entrance channel and to reduce the excitation energy of the compound nucleus to a minimum value. For half-lives between roughly two seconds and two minutes no signal for a positive identification of a new isotope of element 107 was detected. Consequently, only an upper cross-section limit of a few nanobarns was obtained. While this cross-section limit was too high to probe the influence of the predicted enhanced nuclear ground-state stability on the survival probability in the fission/evaporation competition, a very large cross-section enhancement would have been detectable. (orig.)

  18. IOP Shape coexistence in neutron-rich strontium isotopes at N = 60

    CERN Document Server

    Clément, Emmanuel

    2017-01-01

    The structure of neutron-rich $^{96,98}$ Sr nuclei was investigated by low-energy Coulomb excitation of radioactive beams at the REX-ISOLDE facility, CERN, with the MINIBALL spectrometer. A rich set of transitional and diagonal E2 matrix elements has been extracted from the differential Coulomb-excitation cross sections. The results support the scenario of a shape transition at N=60, giving rise to the coexistence of a highly deformed prolate and a spherical configuration in $^{98}$ Sr with low configuration mixing.

  19. Precision mass measurements of neutron-rich Co isotopes beyond N =40

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izzo, C.; Bollen, G.; Brodeur, M.; Eibach, M.; Gulyuz, K.; Holt, J. D.; Kelly, J. M.; Redshaw, M.; Ringle, R.; Sandler, R.; Schwarz, S.; Stroberg, S. R.; Sumithrarachchi, C. S.; Valverde, A. A.; Villari, A. C. C.

    2018-01-01

    The region near Z =28 and N =40 is a subject of great interest for nuclear structure studies due to spectroscopic signatures in 68Ni suggesting a subshell closure at N =40 . Trends in nuclear masses and their derivatives provide a complementary approach to shell structure investigations via separation energies. Penning trap mass spectrometry has provided precise measurements for a number of nuclei in this region; however, a complete picture of the mass surfaces has so far been limited by the large uncertainty remaining for nuclei with N >40 along the iron (Z =26 ) and cobalt (Z =27 ) chains because these species are not available from traditional isotope separator online rare isotope facilities. The Low-Energy Beam and Ion Trap Facility at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory is the first and only Penning trap mass spectrometer coupled to a fragmentation facility and therefore presents the unique opportunity to perform precise mass measurements of these elusive isotopes. Here we present the first Penning trap measurements of Co,6968, carried out at this facility. Some ambiguity remains as to whether the measured values are ground-state or isomeric-state masses. A detailed discussion is presented to evaluate this question and to motivate future work. In addition, we perform ab initio calculations of ground-state and two-neutron separation energies of cobalt isotopes with the valence-space in-medium similarity renormalization group approach based on a particular set of two- and three-nucleon forces that predict saturation in infinite matter. We discuss the importance of these measurements and calculations for understanding the evolution of nuclear structure near 68Ni.

  20. Saturation of Deformation and Identical Bands in Very-Neutron Rich Sr Isotopes

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The present proposal aims at establishing nuclear properties in an isotopic chain showing unique features. These features include the saturation of ground state deformation at its onset and the existence of ground state identical bands in neighbouring nuclei with the same deformation. The measurements should help to elucidate the role played by the proton-neutron residual interaction between orbitals with large spatial overlap, i.e. $\\pi g _{9/2} \

  1. Exotic Metal Molecules in Oxygen-rich Envelopes: Detection of AlOH (X1Σ+) in VY Canis Majoris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenenbaum, E. D.; Ziurys, L. M.

    2010-03-01

    A new interstellar molecule, AlOH, has been detected toward the envelope of VY Canis Majoris (VY CMa), an oxygen-rich red supergiant. Three rotational transitions of AlOH were observed using the facilities of the Arizona Radio Observatory (ARO). The J = 9 → 8 and J = 7 → 6 lines at 1 mm were measured with the ARO Submillimeter Telescope, while the J = 5 → 4 transition at 2 mm was observed with the ARO 12 m antenna on Kitt Peak. The AlOH spectra exhibit quite narrow line widths of 16-23 km s-1, as found for NaCl in this source, indicating that the emission arises from within the dust acceleration zone of the central circumstellar outflow. From a radiative transfer analysis, the abundance of AlOH relative to H2 was found to be ~1 × 10-7 for a source size of 0.26'' or 22 R* . In contrast, AlCl was not detected with f VY CMa is ~17. Therefore, AlOH appears to be the dominant gas-phase molecular carrier of aluminum in this oxygen-rich shell. Local thermodynamic equilibrium calculations predict that the monohydroxides should be the major carriers of Al, Ca, and Mg in O-rich envelopes, as opposed to the oxides or halides. The apparent predominance of aluminum-bearing molecules in VY CMa may reflect proton addition processes in H-shell burning.

  2. COMPARATIVE SPECTRA OF OXYGEN-RICH VERSUS CARBON-RICH CIRCUMSTELLAR SHELLS: VY CANIS MAJORIS AND IRC +10216 AT 215-285 GHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tenenbaum, E. D.; Dodd, J. L.; Woolf, N. J.; Ziurys, L. M.; Milam, S. N.

    2010-01-01

    A sensitive (1σ rms at 1 MHz resolution ∼3 mK) 1 mm spectral line survey (214.5-285.5 GHz) of VY Canis Majoris (VY CMa) and IRC +10216 has been conducted to compare the chemistries of oxygen- and carbon-rich circumstellar envelopes. This study was carried out using the Submillimeter Telescope of the Arizona Radio Observatory with a new Atacama Large Millimeter Array type receiver. This survey is the first to chemically characterize an O-rich circumstellar shell at millimeter wavelengths. In VY CMa, 128 emission features were detected arising from 18 different molecules; and in IRC +10216, 720 lines were observed, assigned to 32 different species. The 1 mm spectrum of VY CMa is dominated by SO 2 and SiS; in IRC +10216, C 4 H and SiC 2 are the most recurrent species. Ten molecules were common to both sources: CO, SiS, SiO, CS, CN, HCN, HNC, NaCl, PN, and HCO + . Sulfur plays an important role in VY CMa, but saturated/unsaturated carbon dominates the molecular content of IRC +10216, producing CH 2 NH, for example. Although the molecular complexity of IRC +10216 is greater, VY CMa supports a unique 'inorganic' chemistry leading to the oxides PO, AlO, and AlOH. Only diatomic and triatomic compounds were observed in VY CMa, while species with four or more atoms are common in IRC +10216, reflecting carbon's ability to form multiple strong bonds, unlike oxygen. In VY CMa, a new water maser (v 2 = 2) has been found, as well as vibrationally excited NaCl. Toward IRC +10216, vibrationally excited CCH was detected for the first time.

  3. Comparative Spectra of Oxygen-rich Versus Carbon-rich Circumstellar Shells: VY Canis Majoris and IRC +10216 at 215-285 GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenenbaum, E. D.; Dodd, J. L.; Milam, S. N.; Woolf, N. J.; Ziurys, L. M.

    2010-09-01

    A sensitive (1σ rms at 1 MHz resolution ~3 mK) 1 mm spectral line survey (214.5-285.5 GHz) of VY Canis Majoris (VY CMa) and IRC +10216 has been conducted to compare the chemistries of oxygen- and carbon-rich circumstellar envelopes. This study was carried out using the Submillimeter Telescope of the Arizona Radio Observatory with a new Atacama Large Millimeter Array type receiver. This survey is the first to chemically characterize an O-rich circumstellar shell at millimeter wavelengths. In VY CMa, 128 emission features were detected arising from 18 different molecules; and in IRC +10216, 720 lines were observed, assigned to 32 different species. The 1 mm spectrum of VY CMa is dominated by SO2 and SiS; in IRC +10216, C4H and SiC2 are the most recurrent species. Ten molecules were common to both sources: CO, SiS, SiO, CS, CN, HCN, HNC, NaCl, PN, and HCO+. Sulfur plays an important role in VY CMa, but saturated/unsaturated carbon dominates the molecular content of IRC +10216, producing CH2NH, for example. Although the molecular complexity of IRC +10216 is greater, VY CMa supports a unique "inorganic" chemistry leading to the oxides PO, AlO, and AlOH. Only diatomic and triatomic compounds were observed in VY CMa, while species with four or more atoms are common in IRC +10216, reflecting carbon's ability to form multiple strong bonds, unlike oxygen. In VY CMa, a new water maser (v 2 = 2) has been found, as well as vibrationally excited NaCl. Toward IRC +10216, vibrationally excited CCH was detected for the first time.

  4. Comparative Spectra of Oxygen-Rich Versus Carbon-Rich Circumstellar Shells: VY Canis Majoris and IRC(plus)10216 at 215-285 GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenebaum, E. D.; Dodd, J. L.; Milam, S. N.; Woolf, N. J.; Ziurys, L. M.

    2010-01-01

    A sensitive (1sigma rms at 1 MHz resolution approx.3 mK) 1 mm spectral line survey (214.5-285.5 GHz) of VY Canis Majoris (VY CMa) and IRC +10216 has been conducted to compare the chemistries of oxygen- and carbon-rich circumstellar envelopes. This study was carried out using the Submillimeter Telescope of the Arizona Radio Observatory with a new Atacama Large Millimeter Array type receiver. This survey is the first to chemically characterize an O-rich circumstellar shell at millimeter wavelengths. In VY CMa, 128 emission features were detected arising from 18 different molecules; and in IRC +10216, 720 lines were observed, assigned to 32 different species. The 1 mm spectrum of VY CMa is dominated by SO, and SiS; in IRC +10216, C4H and SiC2 are the most recurrent species. Ten molecules were common to both sources: CO, SiS, SiO, CS, CN, HCN, HNC, NaCl, PN, and HCO(+). Sulfur plays an important role in VY CMa, but saturated/ unsaturated carbon dominates the molecular content of IRC +102.16, producing CH2NH, for example. Although the molecular complexity of IRC +10216 is greater, VY CMa supports a unique "inorganic" chemistry leading to the oxides PO, AlO, and AlOH. Only diatomic and triatomic compounds were observed in VY CMa, while species with four or more atoms are common in IRC +10216, reflecting carbon's ability to form multiple strong bonds, unlike oxygen. In VY CMa, a new water maser (v2 = 2) has been found, as well as vibrationally excited NaCl. Toward IRC +10216, vibrationally excited CCH was detected for the first time.

  5. Oxygen-Rich Lithium Oxide Phases Formed at High Pressure for Potential Lithium-Air Battery Electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wenge; Kim, Duck Young; Yang, Liuxiang; Li, Nana; Tang, Lingyun; Amine, Khalil; Mao, Ho-Kwang

    2017-09-01

    The lithium-air battery has great potential of achieving specific energy density comparable to that of gasoline. Several lithium oxide phases involved in the charge-discharge process greatly affect the overall performance of lithium-air batteries. One of the key issues is linked to the environmental oxygen-rich conditions during battery cycling. Here, the theoretical prediction and experimental confirmation of new stable oxygen-rich lithium oxides under high pressure conditions are reported. Three new high pressure oxide phases that form at high temperature and pressure are identified: Li 2 O 3 , LiO 2 , and LiO 4 . The LiO 2 and LiO 4 consist of a lithium layer sandwiched by an oxygen ring structure inherited from high pressure ε-O 8 phase, while Li 2 O 3 inherits the local arrangements from ambient LiO 2 and Li 2 O 2 phases. These novel lithium oxides beyond the ambient Li 2 O, Li 2 O 2 , and LiO 2 phases show great potential in improving battery design and performance in large battery applications under extreme conditions.

  6. Examination of different strengths of octupole correlations in neutron-rich Pr and Pm isotopes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Thiamova, G.; Alexa, P.; Hons, Zdeněk; Simpson, G.S.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 86, č. 4 (2012), 044334/1-044334/5 ISSN 0556-2813 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP203/10/0310 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : neutron rich nuclei * octupole correlations Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 3.715, year: 2012

  7. Structural and isotopic analysis of kerogens in sediments rich in free sulfurised Botryococcus braunii biomarkers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Grice, K.; Schouten, S.; Blokker, P.; Derenne, S.; Largeau, C.; Nissenbaum, A.

    2003-01-01

    Type I kerogens of two relatively immature, unusual hypersaline sediments [with extracts rich in sulfurised Botryococcus braunii (B. braunii) biomarkers] of Miocene/Pliocene age from the Sdom Formation (Dead Sea, Israel), have been investigated using a variety of organic geochemical techniques. Py

  8. Accurate and precise measurement of oxygen isotopic fractions and diffusion profiles by selective attenuation of secondary ions (SASI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Téllez, Helena; Druce, John; Hong, Jong-Eun; Ishihara, Tatsumi; Kilner, John A

    2015-03-03

    The accuracy and precision of isotopic analysis in Time-of-Flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) relies on the appropriate reduction of the dead-time and detector saturation effects, especially when analyzing species with high ion yields or present in high concentrations. Conventional approaches to avoid these problems are based on Poisson dead-time correction and/or an overall decrease of the total secondary ion intensity by reducing the target current. This ultimately leads to poor detection limits for the minor isotopes and high uncertainties of the measured isotopic ratios. An alternative strategy consists of the attenuation of those specific secondary ions that saturate the detector, providing an effective extension of the linear dynamic range. In this work, the selective attenuation of secondary ion signals (SASI) approach is applied to the study of oxygen transport properties in electroceramic materials by isotopic labeling with stable (18)O tracer and ToF-SIMS depth profiling. The better analytical performance in terms of accuracy and precision allowed a more reliable determination of the oxygen surface exchange and diffusion coefficients while maintaining good mass resolution and limits of detection for other minor secondary ion species. This improvement is especially relevant to understand the ionic transport mechanisms and properties of solid materials, such as the parallel diffusion pathways (e.g., oxygen diffusion through bulk, grain boundary, or dislocations) in electroceramic materials with relevant applications in energy storage and conversion devices.

  9. Assessing Pyrite-Derived Sulfate in the Mississippi River with Four Years of Sulfur and Triple-Oxygen Isotope Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killingsworth, Bryan A; Bao, Huiming; Kohl, Issaku E

    2018-05-17

    Riverine dissolved sulfate (SO 4 2- ) sulfur and oxygen isotope variations reflect their controls such as SO 4 2- reduction and reoxidation, and source mixing. However, unconstrained temporal variability of riverine SO 4 2- isotope compositions due to short sampling durations may lead to mischaracterization of SO 4 2- sources, particularly for the pyrite-derived sulfate load. We measured the sulfur and triple-oxygen isotopes (δ 34 S, δ 18 O, and Δ' 17 O) of Mississippi River SO 4 2- with biweekly sampling between 2009 and 2013 to test isotopic variability and constrain sources. Sulfate δ 34 S and δ 18 O ranged from -6.3‰ to -0.2‰ and -3.6‰ to +8.8‰, respectively. Our sampling period captured the most severe flooding and drought in the Mississippi River basin since 1927 and 1956, respectively, and a first year of sampling that was unrepresentative of long-term average SO 4 2- . The δ 34 S SO4 data indicate pyrite-derived SO 4 2- sources are 74 ± 10% of the Mississippi River sulfate budget. Furthermore, pyrite oxidation is implicated as the dominant process supplying SO 4 2- to the Mississippi River, whereas the Δ' 17 O SO4 data shows 18 ± 9% of oxygen in this sulfate is sourced from air O 2 .

  10. Carbon, nitrogen and oxygen isotope fractionation during food cooking: Implications for the interpretation of the fossil human record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royer, Aurélien; Daux, Valérie; Fourel, François; Lécuyer, Christophe

    2017-08-01

    Stable isotope data provide insight into the reconstruction of ancient human diet. However, cooking may alter the original stable isotope compositions of food due to losses and modifications of biochemical and water components. To address this issue, carbon, nitrogen and oxygen isotope ratios were measured on meat aliquots sampled from various animals such as pork, beef, duck and chicken, and also from the flesh of fishes such as salmon, European seabass, European pilchard, sole, gilt-head bream, and tuna. For each specimen, three pieces were cooked according to the three most commonly-known cooking practices: boiling, frying and roasting on a barbecue. Our data show that cooking produced isotopic shifts up to 1.8‰, 3.5‰, and 5.2‰ for δ 13 C, δ 15 N, and δ 18 O values, respectively. Such variations between raw and cooked food are much greater than previously estimated in the literature; they are more sensitive to the type of food rather than to the cooking process itself, except in the case of boiling. Reconstructions of paleodietary may thus suffer slight bias in cases of populations with undiversified diets that are restrained toward a specific raw or cooked product, or using a specific cooking mode. In cases of oxygen isotope compositions from skeletal remains (bones, teeth), they not only constitute a valuable proxy for reconstructing past climatic conditions, but they could also be used to improve our knowledge of past human diet. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Carbon and oxygen isotope signatures in conifers from the Swiss National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churakova (Sidorova), Olga; Saurer, Matthias; Siegwolf, Rolf; Bryukhanova, Marina; Bigler, Christof

    2015-04-01

    Our study investigates the physiological response and plasticity of trees under climatic changes for larch (Larix decidua) and mountain pine (Pinus mugo var. uncinata) in the Swiss National Park.This research was done in the context of investigation tree mortality and their potential to survive under the harsh mountainous conditions. For the stable isotope analysis we selected four mountain pine and four larch trees from each a south- and north-facing slope. Oxygen isotope ratios can give insight into water sources and evaporative processes. To understand the differential response of mountain pine and larch to short-term climatic changes we measured 18O/16O in water extracted from twigs and needles as well as soil samples for each species at both sites. The seasonal variabilities in 18O/16O needles and twigs of mountain pine and larch trees as well as soil samples were related to changes in climate conditions from end of May until middle of October. To reveal the main climatic factors driving tree growth of pine and larch trees in the long-term, tree-ring width chronologies were built and bulk 18O/16O, 13C/12C wood chronologies were analyzed and correlated with climatic parameters over the last 100 years. The results indicate a strong influence of spring and summer temperatures for larch trees, while variation of spring and summer precipitations is more relevant for mountain pine trees. This work is supported by the Swiss National Science Foundation, Marie-Heim Vögtlin Program PMPDP-2 145507

  12. Oxygen Isotope Compositions of Meteoric Water Across an Elevation Gradient in Southern Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, D. R.; White, E.; Cassel, E. J.; Lynch, B.; Yanites, B.; Breecker, D.

    2017-12-01

    The Central Andes is a prime example of elevated topography generated by oceanic plate subduction. Whereas previous stable isotope studies have investigated the paleoelevation of the Andean Eastern Cordillera, little is known about the paleoelevation of the Western Cordillera, where arc volcanism now occurs. As a first step towards studying the paleoelevation of this region, we investigated the change in δ18O values of modern soil waters across an elevation gradient from sea level to about 4725 meters in southern Peru. We sampled soil profiles from 5 to 80 cm in 15-20cm increments, and we sampled water from flowing natural streams at various elevations. We used cryogenic vacuum extraction to quantitatively remove non-structural water from soil samples. The δ18O values of water extracted from soil samples varies with the depth in the soil due to the diminishing effect of seasonality and evaporation. Every high elevation (>3500m) soil profile we measured had nearly constant δ18O values below 5cm and a total range of δ18O values between -12.8‰ and -17.1‰, apart from the Cusco profile. In the Cusco profile, the δ18O values ranged from -7.2 ‰ at 5 cm to -21.8 ‰ at 60 cm, defining a strong monotonic decrease not seen in other soil profiles. The δ18O trend in the Cusco profile may be different due to the impact of evaporation, soil hydrology, and/or seasonality in the δ18O values of precipitation. Further spatial analysis must be conducted to pinpoint a specific cause. Considering only the samples collected below 40cm, which are likely the best estimate of mean annual precipitation, the δ18O values decrease with increasing elevation at a rate higher than the global mean, suggesting that oxygen isotope paleoaltimetry can work in this study region.

  13. Precision mass measurements for studies of nucleosynthesis via the rapid neutron-capture process. Penning-trap mass measurements of neutron-rich cadmium and caesium isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atanasov, Dinko

    2016-07-06

    Although the theory for the rapid neutron-capture process (r-process) was developed more than 55 years ago, the astrophysical site is still under a debate. Theoretical studies predict that the r-process path proceeds through very neutron-rich nuclei with very asymmetric proton-to-neutron ratios. Knowledge about the properties of neutron-rich isotopes found in similar regions of the nuclear chart and furthermore suitable for r-process studies is still little or even not existing. The basic nuclear properties such as binding energies, half-lives, neutron-induced or neutron-capture reaction cross-sections, play an important role in theoretical simulations and can vary or even drastically alternate results of these studies. Therefore, a considerable effort was put forward to access neutron-rich isotopes at radioactive ion-beam facilities like ISOLDE at CERN. The goal of this PhD thesis is to describe the experimental work done for the precision mass measurements of neutron-rich cadmium ({sup 129-131}Cd) and caesium ({sup 132,146-148}Cs) isotopes. Measurements were done at the on-line radioactive ion-beam facility ISOLDE by using the four-trap mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP. The cadmium isotopes are key nuclides for the synthesis of stable isotopes around the mass peak A = 130 in the Solar System abundance.

  14. Oxygen isotope geochemistry of Laurentide ice-sheet meltwater across Termination I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, Lael; Spero, Howard J.; Eggins, Stephen M.; Williams, Carlie; Flower, Benjamin P.

    2017-12-01

    We present a new method that quantifies the oxygen isotope geochemistry of Laurentide ice-sheet (LIS) meltwater across the last deglaciation, and reconstruct decadal-scale variations in the δ18O of LIS meltwater entering the Gulf of Mexico between ∼18 and 11 ka. We employ a technique that combines laser ablation ICP-MS (LA-ICP-MS) and oxygen isotope analyses on individual shells of the planktic foraminifer Orbulina universa to quantify the instantaneous δ18Owater value of Mississippi River outflow, which was dominated by meltwater from the LIS. For each individual O. universa shell, we measure Mg/Ca (a proxy for temperature) and Ba/Ca (a proxy for salinity) with LA-ICP-MS, and then analyze the same O. universa for δ18O using the remaining material from the shell. From these proxies, we obtain δ18Owater and salinity estimates for each individual foraminifer. Regressions through data obtained from discrete core intervals yield δ18Ow vs. salinity relationships with a y-intercept that corresponds to the δ18Owater composition of the freshwater end-member. Our data suggest that from 15.5 through 14.6 ka, estimated δ18Ow values of Mississippi River discharge from discrete core intervals range from -11‰ to -21‰ VSMOW, which is consistent with δ18O values from both regional precipitation and the low-elevation, southern margin of the LIS. During the Bølling and Allerød (14.0 through 13.3 ka), estimated δ18Ow values of Mississippi River discharge from discrete core intervals range from -22‰ to -38‰ VSMOW. These values suggest a dynamic melting history of different parts of the LIS, with potential contributions to Mississippi River outflow from both the low-elevation, southern margin of the LIS and high-elevation, high-latitude domes in the LIS interior that were transported to the ablation zone. Prior to ∼15.5 ka, the δ18Owater value of the Mississippi River was similar to that of regional precipitation or low-latitude LIS meltwater, but the Ba

  15. Rapid Quadrupole-Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry Method Quantifies Oxygen-Rich Lignin Compound in Complex Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boes, Kelsey S.; Roberts, Michael S.; Vinueza, Nelson R.

    2018-03-01

    Complex mixture analysis is a costly and time-consuming task facing researchers with foci as varied as food science and fuel analysis. When faced with the task of quantifying oxygen-rich bio-oil molecules in a complex diesel mixture, we asked whether complex mixtures could be qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed on a single mass spectrometer with mid-range resolving power without the use of lengthy separations. To answer this question, we developed and evaluated a quantitation method that eliminated chromatography steps and expanded the use of quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry from primarily qualitative to quantitative as well. To account for mixture complexity, the method employed an ionization dopant, targeted tandem mass spectrometry, and an internal standard. This combination of three techniques achieved reliable quantitation of oxygen-rich eugenol in diesel from 300 to 2500 ng/mL with sufficient linearity (R2 = 0.97 ± 0.01) and excellent accuracy (percent error = 0% ± 5). To understand the limitations of the method, it was compared to quantitation attained on a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer, the gold standard for quantitation. The triple quadrupole quantified eugenol from 50 to 2500 ng/mL with stronger linearity (R2 = 0.996 ± 0.003) than the quadrupole-time-of-flight and comparable accuracy (percent error = 4% ± 5). This demonstrates that a quadrupole-time-of-flight can be used for not only qualitative analysis but also targeted quantitation of oxygen-rich lignin molecules in complex mixtures without extensive sample preparation. The rapid and cost-effective method presented here offers new possibilities for bio-oil research, including: (1) allowing for bio-oil studies that demand repetitive analysis as process parameters are changed and (2) making this research accessible to more laboratories. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  16. Detection of HCN and C2H2 in ISO Spectra of Oxygen-Rich AGB Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbon, Duane F.; Chiar, Jean; Goorvitch, David; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Cool oxygen-rich AGB stars were not expected to have organic molecules like HCN in either their photospheres or circumstellar envelopes (CSEs). The discovery of HCN and CS microwave emission from the shallowest CSE layers of these stars was a considerable surprise and much theoretical effort has been expended in explaining the presence of such organics. To further explore this problem, we have undertaken a systematic search of oxygen-rich AGB stellar spectra in the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) data archive. Our purposes are to find evidence regarding critical molecular species that could be of value in choosing among the proposed theoretical models, to locate spectral features which might give clues to conditions deeper in the CSEs, and to lay the groundwork for future SIRTF (Space Infrared Telescope Facility) and SOFIA (Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy) observations. Using carefully reduced observations, we have detected weak absorption features arising from HCN and possibly C2H2 in a small number of oxygen-rich AGB stars. The most compelling case is NML Cyg which shows both HCN (14 microns) and CO2 (15 microns). VY CMa, a similar star, shows evidence for HCN, but not CO2. Two S-type stars show evidence for the C-H bending transitions: W Aql at 14 microns (HCN) and both W Aql and S Cas at 13.7 microns (C2H2). Both W Aql and S Cas as well as S Lyr, a SC-type star, show 3 micron absorption which may arise from the C-H stretch of HCN and C2H2. In the case of NML Cyg, we show that the HCN and CO2 spectral features are formed in the CSE at temperatures well above those of the outermost CSE layers and derive approximate column densities. In the case of the S-stars, we discuss the evidence for the organic features and their photospheric origin.

  17. Evaluation of the performance of high temperature conversion reactors for compound-specific oxygen stable isotope analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitzfeld, Kristina L; Gehre, Matthias; Richnow, Hans-Hermann

    2017-05-01

    In this study conversion conditions for oxygen gas chromatography high temperature conversion (HTC) isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) are characterised using qualitative mass spectrometry (IonTrap). It is shown that physical and chemical properties of a given reactor design impact HTC and thus the ability to accurately measure oxygen isotope ratios. Commercially available and custom-built tube-in-tube reactors were used to elucidate (i) by-product formation (carbon dioxide, water, small organic molecules), (ii) 2nd sources of oxygen (leakage, metal oxides, ceramic material), and (iii) required reactor conditions (conditioning, reduction, stability). The suitability of the available HTC approach for compound-specific isotope analysis of oxygen in volatile organic molecules like methyl tert-butyl ether is assessed. Main problems impeding accurate analysis are non-quantitative HTC and significant carbon dioxide by-product formation. An evaluation strategy combining mass spectrometric analysis of HTC products and IRMS 18 O/ 16 O monitoring for future method development is proposed.

  18. Microscopic multiphonon approach to spectroscopy in the neutron-rich oxygen region

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    De Gregorio, G.; Knapp, F.; Lo Iudice, N.; Veselý, Petr

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 97, č. 3 (2018), č. článku 034311. ISSN 2469-9985 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA16-16772S Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : partity states * isotopes * model Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics OBOR OECD: Atomic, molecular and chemical physics (physics of atoms and molecules including collision, interaction with radiation, magnetic resonances, Mössbauer effect) Impact factor: 3.820, year: 2016

  19. Digesting the data - Effects of predator ingestion on the oxygen isotopic signature of micro-mammal teeth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barham, Milo; Blyth, Alison J.; Wallwork, Melinda D.; Joachimski, Michael M.; Martin, Laure; Evans, Noreen J.; Laming, Belinda; McDonald, Bradley J.

    2017-11-01

    Biogenic minerals such as dental apatite have become commonly analysed archives preserving geochemical indicators of past environmental conditions and palaeoecologies. However, post-mortem, biogenic minerals are modified due to the alteration/replacement of labile components, and recent moves to utilise micro-mammal tooth δ18O signatures for refined Cenozoic terrestrial palaeoclimate reconstructions has lacked consideration of the chemical effects of predator digestion. Here, the physical and chemical condition of laboratory-raised mouse (Mus musculus) teeth have been investigated in conjunction with their bulk phosphate and tissue-specific δ18O values prior, and subsequent, to ingestion and excretion by various predator species (owls, mammals and a reptile). Substantial variability (up to 2‰) in the δ18O values of both undigested teeth and those ingested by specific predators suggests significant natural heterogeneity of individual prey δ18O. Statistically distinct, lower δ18O values (∼0.7‰) are apparent in teeth ingested by barn owls compared to undigested controls as a result of the chemically and enzymatically active digestive and waste-pellet environments. Overall, dentine tissues preserve lower δ18O values than enamel, while the greatest modification of oxygen isotope signals is exhibited in the basal enamel of ingested teeth as a result of its incompletely mineralised state. However, recognition of 18O-depletion in chemically purified phosphate analyses demonstrates that modification of original δ18O values is not restricted to labile oxygen-bearing carbonate and organic phases. The style and magnitude of digestive-alteration varies with predator species and no correlation was identified between specific physical or minor/trace-element (patterns or concentrations) modification of ingested teeth and disruption of their primary oxygen isotope values. Therefore, there is a current lack of any screening tool for oxygen isotope disruption as a result

  20. The oxygen isotope composition of phosphate released from phytic acid by the activity of wheat and Aspergillus niger phytase

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Sperber, C.; Tamburini, F.; Brunner, B.; Bernasconi, S. M.; Frossard, E.

    2015-07-01

    Phosphorus (P) is an essential nutrient for living organisms. Under P-limiting conditions plants and microorganisms can exude extracellular phosphatases that release inorganic phosphate (Pi) from organic phosphorus compounds (Porg). Phytic acid (myo-inositol hexakisphosphate, IP6) is an important form of Porg in many soils. The enzymatic hydrolysis of IP6 by phytase yields available Pi and less phosphorylated inositol derivates as products. The hydrolysis of organic P compounds by phosphatases leaves an isotopic imprint on the oxygen isotope composition (δ18O) of released Pi, which might be used to trace P in the environment. This study aims at determining the effect of phytase on the oxygen isotope composition of released Pi. For this purpose, enzymatic assays with histidine acid phytases from wheat and Aspergillus niger were prepared using IP6, adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) and glycerophosphate (GPO4) as substrates. For a comparison to the δ18O of Pi released by other extracellular enzymes, enzymatic assays with acid phosphatases from potato and wheat germ with IP6 as a substrate were prepared. During the hydrolysis of IP6 by phytase, four of the six Pi were released, and one oxygen atom from water was incorporated into each Pi. This incorporation of oxygen from water into Pi was subject to an apparent inverse isotopic fractionation (ϵ ~ 6 to 10 ‰), which was similar to that imparted by acid phosphatase from potato during the hydrolysis of IP6 (ϵ ~ 7 ‰), where less than three Pi were released. The incorporation of oxygen from water into Pi during the hydrolysis of AMP and GPO4 by phytase yielded a normal isotopic fractionation (ϵ ~ -12 ‰), similar to values reported for acid phosphatases from potato and wheat germ. We attribute this similarity in ϵ to the same amino acid sequence motif (RHGXRXP) at the active site of these enzymes, which leads to similar reaction mechanisms. We suggest that the striking

  1. Discovery and cross-section measurement of neutron-rich isotopes in the element range from neodymium to platinum with the FRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurcewicz, J.; Farinon, F.; Geissel, H.; Pietri, S.; Nociforo, C.; Prochazka, A.; Weick, H.; Winfield, J.S.; Estradé, A.; Allegro, P.R.P.; Bail, A.; Bélier, G.; Benlliure, J.; Benzoni, G.; Bunce, M.; Bowry, M.; Caballero-Folch, R.

    2012-01-01

    Using the high-resolution performance of the fragment separator FRS at GSI we have discovered 60 new neutron-rich isotopes in the atomic number range of 60⩽Z⩽78. The new isotopes were unambiguously identified in reactions with a 238 U beam impinging on a Be target at 1 GeV/nucleon. The production cross-section for the new isotopes have been measured down to the pico-barn level and compared with predictions of different model calculations. For elements above hafnium fragmentation is the dominant reaction mechanism which creates the new isotopes, whereas fission plays a dominant role for the production of the new isotopes up to thulium.

  2. Discovery and cross-section measurement of neutron-rich isotopes in the element range from neodymium to platinum with the FRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurcewicz, J., E-mail: j.kurcewicz@gsi.de [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Farinon, F.; Geissel, H. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Justus-Liebig-Universitaet Giessen, 35392 Giessen (Germany); Pietri, S.; Nociforo, C. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Prochazka, A. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Justus-Liebig-Universitaet Giessen, 35392 Giessen (Germany); Weick, H.; Winfield, J.S. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Estrade, A. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Astronomy and Physics Department, Saint Mary' s University, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 3C3 (Canada); Allegro, P.R.P. [Institute of Physics, Universidade de Sao Paulo, CEP 05508-090 Cidade Universitaria, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Bail, A.; Belier, G. [CEA DAM DiF, 91290 Arpajon Cedex (France); Benlliure, J. [Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, E-15706 Santiago de Compostella (Spain); Benzoni, G. [INFN sezione di Milano, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Bunce, M.; Bowry, M. [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey, GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Caballero-Folch, R. [Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); and others

    2012-10-31

    Using the high-resolution performance of the fragment separator FRS at GSI we have discovered 60 new neutron-rich isotopes in the atomic number range of 60 Less-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To Z Less-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To 78. The new isotopes were unambiguously identified in reactions with a {sup 238}U beam impinging on a Be target at 1 GeV/nucleon. The production cross-section for the new isotopes have been measured down to the pico-barn level and compared with predictions of different model calculations. For elements above hafnium fragmentation is the dominant reaction mechanism which creates the new isotopes, whereas fission plays a dominant role for the production of the new isotopes up to thulium.

  3. Origin of the brines near WIPP from the drill holes ERDA-6 and WIPP-12 based on stable isotope concentrations of hydrogen and oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiegler, P.; Updegraff, D.

    1983-03-01

    Pathways which might alter the isotopic compositions of deuterium and oxygen-18 meteoric water, seawaters, and in hydration waters in gypsum to the isotopic compositions of brines encountered at ERDA-6 and WIPP-12 are discussed. Present geologic conditions do not favor the alteration of the isotopic compositions of waters that exist near the WIPP site to those of the brines by these pathways. It is concluded that the brines encountered at ERDA-6 and WIPP-12 are probably derived from ancient ocean waters that have been isotopically enriched in oxygen-18 by exchange interaction with rock. The dehydration of gypsum as a process of origin of these brines cannot be ruled out

  4. Measurement of beta decay periods for Fe-Ni neutrons rich isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czajkowski, S.

    1992-01-01

    Thermal fission of 239 Pu was used to produce 68,69 Co and 68 Fe isotopes, the lightest ones ever observed in thermal fission, at the ILL high-flux reactor, in Grenoble. Separated with the Lohengrin recoil spectrometer, then identified by means of a Δ E-E ionization chamber, fragments were implanted in a set of Si-detectors, where β-particles were detected too. The fission yields were determined, and the beta-decay half-lives were extracted from delayed coincidence analysis between ion implantation and the subsequent beta detection: They were found to be 0.27±0.05s, 0.18±0.10s, and 0.10±0.06s respectively for 69 Co, 68 Co, and 68 Fe. This method was adapted to a new experimental configuration: 65 Fe isotopes were produced from 86 Kr projectile fragmentation at 500 MeV/u on a Be target. Selected ions were separated with the fragment separator FRS at GSI (Darmstadt), tuned in the monoenergetic mode. Fragments were identified by ΔE-ToF, slowed down, and then implanted in two rows of PIN-diodes that provided an additional range selection. The half-life were determined from the analysis of the decay chain Fe-Co-Ni: it was found 0.4±0.2s. Production rates obtained with the two methods are compared at the end of this work

  5. Phosphorus dynamics in soils irrigated with reclaimed waste water or fresh water - A study using oxygen isotopic composition of phosphate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohar, I.; Shaviv, A.; Young, M.; Kendall, C.; Silva, S.; Paytan, A.

    2010-01-01

    Transformations of phosphate (Pi) in different soil fractions were tracked using the stable isotopic composition of oxygen in phosphate (??18Op) and Pi concentrations. Clay soil from Israel was treated with either reclaimed waste water (secondary, low grade) or with fresh water amended with a chemical fertilizer of a known isotopic signature. Changes of ??18Op and Pi within different soil fractions, during a month of incubation, elucidate biogeochemical processes in the soil, revealing the biological and the chemical transformation impacting the various P pools. P in the soil solution is affected primarily by enzymatic activity that yields isotopic equilibrium with the water molecules in the soil solution. The dissolved P interacts rapidly with the loosely bound P (extracted by bicarbonate). The oxides and mineral P fractions (extracted by NaOH and HCl, respectively), which are considered as relatively stable pools of P, also exhibited isotopic alterations in the first two weeks after P application, likely related to the activity of microbial populations associated with soil surfaces. Specifically, isotopic depletion which could result from organic P mineralization was followed by isotopic enrichment which could result from preferential biological uptake of depleted P from the mineralized pool. Similar transformations were observed in both soils although transformations related to biological activity were more pronounced in the soil treated with reclaimed waste water compared to the fertilizer treated soil. ?? 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  6. An oxygen-rich dust disk surrounding an evolved star in the Red Rectangle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waters, LBFM; Waelkens, C; van Winckel, H; Molster, FJ; Tielens, AGGM; van Loon, JT; Morris, PW; Cami, J; Bouwman, J; de Koter, A; de Jong, T; de Graauw, T

    1998-01-01

    The Red Rectangle(1) is the prototype of a class of carbon-rich reflection nebulae surrounding low-mass stars in the final stages of evolution. The central star of this nebula has ejected most of its layers (during the red-giant phase), which now form the surrounding cloud, and is rapidly evolving

  7. Study of the production of neutron-rich isotope beams issuing from fissions induced by fast neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lau, Ch.

    2000-01-01

    This work is a contribution to the PARRNe project (production of radioactive neutron-rich isotopes). This project is based on the fission fragments coming from the fission of 238-uranium induced by fast neutrons. The fast neutron flux is produced by the collisions of deutons in a converter. Thick targets of uranium carbide and liquid uranium targets have been designed in order to allow a quick release of fission fragments. A device, able to trap on a cryogenic thimble rare gas released by the target, has allowed the production of radioactive nuclei whose half-life is about 1 second. This installation has been settled to different deuton accelerators in the framework of the European collaboration SPIRAL-2. A calibration experiment has proved the feasibility of fixing an ISOL-type isotope separator to a 15 MV tandem accelerator, this installation can provide 500 nA deutons beams whose energy is 26 MeV and be a valuable tool for studying fast-neutron induced fission. Zinc, krypton, rubidium, cadmium, iodine, xenon and cesium beams have been produced in this installation. The most intense beams reach 10000 nuclei by micro-coulomb for 26 MeV deutons. An extra gain of 2 magnitude orders can be obtained by using a more specific ion source and by increasing the thickness of the target. Another extra gain of 2 magnitude orders involves 100 MeV deutons

  8. Strontium and oxygen isotopic variations in mesozoic and tertiary plutons of central Idaho

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleck, R.J.; Criss, R.E.

    1985-01-01

    Regional variations in initial 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios (rsub(i)) of Mesozoic plutons in central Idaho locate the edge of Precambrian continental crust at the boundary between the late Paleozoic-Mesozoic accreted terranes and Precambrian sialic crust in western Idaho. The rsub(i) values increase abruptly but continuously from less than 0.704 in the accreted terranes to greater than 0.708 across a narrow, 5 to 15 km zone, characterized by elongate, lens-shaped, highly deformed plutons and schistose metasedimentary and metavolcanic units. The chemical and petrologic character of the plutons changes concomitantly from ocean-arc-type units to a weakly peraluminous, calcit to calcalkalic suite. Plutons in both suites yield Late Cretaceous ages, but Permian through Early Cretaceous bodies are confined to the accreted terranes and early Tertiary intrusions are restricted to areas underlain by Precambrian crust. The two major terranes were juxtaposed between 75 and 130 m.y. ago, probably between 80 and 95 m.y. Oxygen and strontium isotopic ratios and Rb and Sr concentrations of the plutonic rocks document a significant upper-crustal contribution to the magmas that intrude Precambrian crust. Magmas intruding the arc terranes were derived from the upper mantle/subducted oceanic lithosphere and may have been modified by anatexis of earlier island-arc volcanic and sedimentary units. (orig./PW)

  9. Oxygen isotopes of marine mollusc shells record Eocene elevation change in the Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huyghe, Damien; Mouthereau, Frédéric; Emmanuel, Laurent

    2012-09-01

    Constraining paleoaltimetry of collisional orogens is critical to understand the dynamics of topographic evolution and climate/tectonics retroactions. Here, we use oxygen stable-isotope record on oyster shells, preserved in marine foreland deposits, to examine the past elevation of the Pyrenees during the Eocene. Our approach is based on the comparison with the Paris basin, an intracratonic basin not influenced by orogenic growth. The finding of a shift of 1.5‰ between 49 and 41 Ma, indicating more negative δ18Oc in the south Pyrenean foreland, is interpreted to reflect the inflow of river water sourced from higher elevation in the Pyrenees. To test this and provide paleoelevation estimate, we adopt a morphologic-hydrological model accounting for the hypsometry of drainage basin. Our best fitting model shows that the Pyrenees rose up to 2000 m. This indicates that the Pyrenees reached high elevation in the Eocene, thus providing new critical constraints on their long-term orogenic development. δ18O of marine mollusc shells are proved potentially attractive for paleoelevation studies, especially for mountain belts where elevated continental surfaces have not been preserved.

  10. The use of Sphagnum cellulose oxygen isotope ratios in ombrotrophic peatlands as a proxy for paleoclimate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, M.; Pendall, E.; Jackson, S.; Booth, R. K.; Nichols, J. E.; Huang, Y.

    2006-12-01

    Developing proxies for discerning paleoclimate that are independent of the pollen record can provide insight into various aspects of climate variability and improve confidence in the interpretation of climate-vegetation interactions. To date, proxies including plant macrofossils, humification indices, testate amoebae, and ratios of n-alkane abundances have been used to infer past climate variability from temperate ombrotrophic peatlands in upper Midwestern North America. These proxies are used to infer past changes in surface-moisture conditions, which in ombrotrophic peatlands is primarily a function of precipitation and temperature. This study investigates the potential uses of stable oxygen isotopes to complement hydrologic proxies. δ18O of surface water and Sphagnum moss cellulose from bogs throughout North America indicates a correlation between average growing season temperatures and δ18O-values. The existence of a modern temperature signal in moss cellulose suggests that δ18O-derived records will not only complement paleohydrological records, but also help assess relative changes in precipitation and temperature. Humification and testate amoebae data from two cores taken from Minden and Irwin Smith Bogs in central and northeastern Michigan have recorded several extreme drought events during the Holocene, including one at 1000 YBP. Comparison of δ18O-values of picked Sphagnum remains to down-core humification and testate amoebae data suggest good temporal correspondence, with the δ18O-values around 1000 YBP indicating a warmer growing season.

  11. Oxygen isotopes from biogenic apatites suggest widespread endothermy in Cretaceous dinosaurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiot, Romain; Lécuyer, Christophe; Buffetaut, Eric; Escarguel, Gilles; Fluteau, Frédéric; Martineau, François

    2006-06-01

    The much debated question of dinosaur thermophysiology has not yet been conclusively solved despite numerous attempts. We used the temperature-dependent oxygen isotope fractionation between vertebrate body water (δ 18O body water) and phosphatic tissues (δ 18O p) to compare the thermophysiology of dinosaurs with that of non-dinosaurian ectothermic reptiles. Present-day δ 18O p values of vertebrate apatites show that ectotherms have higher δ 18O p values than endotherms at high latitudes due to their lower body temperature, and conversely lower δ 18O p values than endotherms at low latitudes. Using a data set of 80 new and 49 published δ 18O p values, we observed similar and systematic differences in δ 18O p values (Δ 18O) between four groups of Cretaceous dinosaurs (theropods, sauropods, ornithopods and ceratopsians) and associated fresh water crocodiles and turtles. Expressed in terms of body temperatures ( Tb), these Δ 18O values indicate that dinosaurs maintained rather constant Tb in the range of endotherms whatever ambient temperatures were. This implies that high metabolic rates were widespread among Cretaceous dinosaurs belonging to widely different taxonomic groups and suggest that endothermy may be a synapomorphy of dinosaurs, or may have been acquired convergently in the studied taxa.

  12. Meridional distribution and seasonal variation of stable oxygen isotope ratio of precipitation in the Southern Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayo Nakamura

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The stable oxygen isotope ratio(δ^O in precipitation is known to have important meridional and seasonal variations, but there are almost no measurements of δ^O in precipitation over polar oceans. The present research took advantage of 4 opportunities for in situ observations in summer and winter at high latitudes in the Southern Ocean. In addition, we analyzed samples of precipitation at Syowa Station in 2008 to obtain year-round data. Based on these data, we consider the meridional and seasonal variations of δ^O in precipitation over the Southern Ocean. In general, δ^O decreases with increasing latitude, and is lower in winter than in summer. The latitude gradient is stronger in winter. At 60°S, δ^O is -5.4‰ and -11.3‰ in summer and winter, respectively, while the corresponding figures at 66°S are -10.5‰ and -20.8‰. These results will help us understand the mechanisms of the salinity distribution and its variation in the Antarctic Ocean.

  13. Oxygen isotope fine structure and fluid throughput of the Tongonan geothermal field, Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, G.L.; Blattner, P.; Department of Scientific and Industrial Research, Lower Hutt

    1986-01-01

    Oxygen isotope ratios for 40 reservoir rocks from the plutonic basement and overlying andesitic rocks, and 14 separated geothermal quartz samples from the volcanics, range from 2.5 to 9.9 per mil. The lowest δ 18 O values (average 2.9 per mil) in diorite cores from wells 401, 407 and 410 are located in the most productive northwest (Mahiao) sector of the field. In the Malitbog sector, the average δ 18 O values for basement rocks are higher (c. 4.6 per mil). Plutonic rock samples from the Mamban (well MN1) sector, located outside the present-day field margin, are only slightly altered (6 per mil) except possibly near the contact zone between the basement and overlying volcanics. The highest cumulative fluid/rock ratios are calculated for the Mahiao sector, whereas Malitbog is possibly a relatively recent extension of the field. Relatively shallow (Bao Formation) quartz has δ 18 O values suggesting past tectonic uplift

  14. Oxygen isotope variations in phosphate of biogenic apatites. Pt. 2. Phosphorite rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolodny, Y; Luz, B; Shemesh, A [Hebrew Univ., Jerusalem (Israel). Dept. of Geology

    1983-09-01

    Phosphorites from sedimentary sequences ranging in age from Archaen to Recent were analysed for delta/sup 18/O in both the PO/sub 4/ (delta/sup 18/Osub(p)) and CO/sub 3/ (delta/sup 18/Osub(c)) in the apatite lattice. The oxygen isotope record is considerably better preserved in phosphates than in either carbonates or cherts. The use of the Longinelli and Nuti temperature equation yields temperatures for Recent phosphorites that are in good agreement with those measured in the field. The delta/sup 18/Osub(p) values of ancient phosphorites decrease with increasing age. These changes with time are not likely to be due to post-depositional exchange. Changes in delta/sup 18/O values of seawater and variations of temperatures with time can account for the delta/sup 18/Osub(p) time trend, but the latter explanation is preferred. In Ancient phosphorites delta/sup 18/Osub(c) in structurally bound carbonate in apatite is not a reliable geochemical indicator.

  15. Oxygen isotopic exchange occurring during dry thermal oxidation of 6H SiC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vickridge, I.C. E-mail: vickridge@gps.jussieu.fr; Tromson, D.; Trimaille, I.; Ganem, J.-J.; Szilagyi, E.; Battistig, G

    2002-05-01

    SiC is a large band gap semiconductor, promising for high power and high frequency devices. The thermal oxide is SiO{sub 2} however the growth rates of thermal oxide on SiC are substantially slower than on Si, and different along the polar directions (<0 0 0 1-bar> and <0 0 0 1> in the hexagonal polytypes). Thorough understanding of the oxide growth mechanisms may give us new insights into the nature of the SiO{sub 2}/SiC interface, crucial for device applications. We have determined growth kinetics for ultra-dry thermal oxidation of 6H SiC at 1100 deg. C for pressures from 3 to 200 mbar. At 3 mbar, the lowest pressure studied, the oxide growth rates along the two polar directions are virtually the same. At higher pressures growth is faster on the carbon-terminated (0 0 0 1-bar) face. After consecutive oxidations at 1100 deg. C and 100 mbar in {sup 18}O{sub 2} and {sup 16}O{sub 2} gases, {sup 18}O depth profiles show significant isotopic exchange and oxygen movement within the oxide during oxidation.

  16. Raman spectral, elemental, crystallinity, and oxygen-isotope variations in conodont apatite during diagenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Cao, Ling; Zhao, Laishi; Algeo, Thomas J.; Chen, Zhong-Qiang; Li, Zhihong; Lv, Zhengyi; Wang, Xiangdong

    2017-08-01

    crystallinity and Raman spectral or elemental parameters. Oxygen isotopes show substantial variation within the conodont study specimens. Albid crown is on average 0.28-0.32‰ more depleted in 18O (equivalent to 1.2-1.4 °C higher temperatures) than hyaline crown and basal body, and the interiors of conodont elements are 1.08 ± 0.37‰ more depleted in 18O (equivalent to 3.0-6.4 °C higher temperatures) relative to their outer layers. Although albid crown is widely regarded as better preserved than other conodont tissue types, its 18O-depleted composition and greater development of secondary crystallinity suggest that, in fact, it may be the most strongly altered tissue type. We conclude that Raman spectral, LA elemental, and HXRD microstructural data can provide useful information about the extent of diagenetic alteration of conodont elements, and that such information should be taken into consideration in using conodont elemental and oxygen-isotope data in paleoenvironmental studies.

  17. Treatment of iron(II)-rich acid mine water with limestone and oxygen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohajane, G B; Maree, J P; Panichev, N

    2014-01-01

    The main components of acid mine water are free acid, sulphate, and Fe²⁺. Limestone is the most cost-effective alkali that can be used for neutralization. The purpose of this investigation was to identify conditions where Fe²⁺ is removed with limestone and simultaneously oxidized with oxygen to Fe³⁺, in a polyvinyl chloride pipe under pressure. Gypsum scaling is prevented by passing rubber balls through the pipe of the so-called Oxygen-Pipe-Neutralization (OPeN) process pilot plant. Two synthetic waters were treated: (A) acid mine water containing 123 mg L⁻¹ Fe²⁺ representing gold mine water, and (B) acid mine water containing 6,032 mg L⁻¹ Fe²⁺ representing coal mine water. Batch studies were carried out in a pipe reactor and showed that the rate of Fe²⁺ oxidation depended on the Fe²⁺ concentration, oxygen pressure, amount of recycled sludge, limestone dosage and the mixing rate. Continuous studies in an OPeN process pilot plant resulted in 100% removal of total acidity from synthetic coal mine water and a 98% removal from synthetic gold mine water. Fe²⁺ was removed completely as precipitated Fe(OH)₃ from both synthetic coal and gold mine water at around pH 7 at 200 and 100 kPa oxygen pressure, respectively.

  18. Mass measurements of neutron rich isotopes in the Fe region and electron capture processes in neutron star crusts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estrade, Alfredo; Matos, M.; Schatz, Hendrik; Amthor, A.M.; Beard, Mary; Brown, Edward; Bazin, D.; Becerril, A.; Elliot, T.; Gade, A.; Galaviz, D.; Gupta, Sanjib; Hix, William Raphael; Lau, Rita; Moeller, Peter; Pereira, J.; Portillo, M.; Rogers, A.M.; Shapira, Dan; Smith, E.; Stolz, A.; Wallace, M.; Wiescher, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Experimental knowledge of nuclear masses of exotic nuclei is important for understanding nuclear structure far from the valley of stability, and as a direct input into astrophysical models. Electron capture processes in the crust of accreting neutron stars have been proposed as a heat source that can affect the thermal structure of the star. Nuclear masses of very neutron-rich nuclides are necessary inputs to model the electron capture process. The time-of-flight (TOF) mass measurement technique allows measurements on very short-lived nuclei. It has been effectively applied using the fast fragment beams produced at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Lab (NSCL) to reach masses very far from stability. Measurements were performed for neutron-rich isotopes in the region of the N=32 and N=40 subshells, which coincides with the mass range of carbon superburst ashes. We discuss reaction network calculations performed to investigate the impact of our new measurements and to compare the effect of using different global mass models in the calculations. It is observed that the process is sensitive to the differences in the odd-even mass staggering predicted by the mass models, and our new result for 66Mn has a significant impact on the distribution of heat sources in the crust.

  19. High resolution collinear resonance ionization spectroscopy of neutron-rich $^{76,77,78}$Cu isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2083035

    In this work, nuclear magnetic dipole moments, electric quadrupole moments, nuclear spins and changes in the mean-squared charge radii of radioactive copper isotopes are presented. Reaching up to $^{78}$Cu ($Z=29$, $N=49$), produced at rates of only 10 particles per second, these measurements represent the most exotic laser spectroscopic investigations near the doubly-magic and very exotic $^{78}$Ni ($Z=28$,$N=50$) to date. This thesis outlines the technical developments and investigations of laser-atom interactions that were performed during this thesis. These developments were crucial for establishing a high-resolution, high sensitivity collinear resonance ionization spectroscopy experiment at ISOLDE, CERN. This thesis furthermore provides a detailed description of the analysis tools that were implemented and applied to extract the nuclear observables from the experimental data. The results were compared to several large-scale shell model calculations, and provide deep insight into the structure of $^{78}$N...

  20. Oxygen isotope ratios in the shell of Mytilus edulis: archives of glacier meltwater in Greenland?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Versteegh, E. A. A.; Blicher, Martin E.; Mortensen, J.

    2012-01-01

    Melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) is accelerating and will contribute significantly to global sea level rise during the 21st century. Instrumental data on GrIS melting only cover the last few decades, and proxy data extending our knowledge into the past are vital for validating models...... predicting the influence of ongoing climate change. We investigated a potential meltwater proxy in Godthåbsfjord (West Greenland), where glacier meltwater causes seasonal excursions with lower oxygen isotope water (δ18Ow) values and salinity. The blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) potentially records...... its potential as a palaeo-meltwater proxy. First, we confirmed that M. edulis shell calcite oxygen isotope (δ18Oc) values are in equilibrium with ambient water and generally reflect meltwater conditions. Subsequently we investigated if this species recorded the full range of δ18Ow values occurring...

  1. Quasifree (p , 2 p ) Reactions on Oxygen Isotopes: Observation of Isospin Independence of the Reduced Single-Particle Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atar, L.; Paschalis, S.; Barbieri, C.; Bertulani, C. A.; Díaz Fernández, P.; Holl, M.; Najafi, M. A.; Panin, V.; Alvarez-Pol, H.; Aumann, T.; Avdeichikov, V.; Beceiro-Novo, S.; Bemmerer, D.; Benlliure, J.; Boillos, J. M.; Boretzky, K.; Borge, M. J. G.; Caamaño, M.; Caesar, C.; Casarejos, E.; Catford, W.; Cederkall, J.; Chartier, M.; Chulkov, L.; Cortina-Gil, D.; Cravo, E.; Crespo, R.; Dillmann, I.; Elekes, Z.; Enders, J.; Ershova, O.; Estrade, A.; Farinon, F.; Fraile, L. M.; Freer, M.; Galaviz Redondo, D.; Geissel, H.; Gernhäuser, R.; Golubev, P.; Göbel, K.; Hagdahl, J.; Heftrich, T.; Heil, M.; Heine, M.; Heinz, A.; Henriques, A.; Hufnagel, A.; Ignatov, A.; Johansson, H. T.; Jonson, B.; Kahlbow, J.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kanungo, R.; Kelic-Heil, A.; Knyazev, A.; Kröll, T.; Kurz, N.; Labiche, M.; Langer, C.; Le Bleis, T.; Lemmon, R.; Lindberg, S.; Machado, J.; Marganiec-Gałązka, J.; Movsesyan, A.; Nacher, E.; Nikolskii, E. Y.; Nilsson, T.; Nociforo, C.; Perea, A.; Petri, M.; Pietri, S.; Plag, R.; Reifarth, R.; Ribeiro, G.; Rigollet, C.; Rossi, D. M.; Röder, M.; Savran, D.; Scheit, H.; Simon, H.; Sorlin, O.; Syndikus, I.; Taylor, J. T.; Tengblad, O.; Thies, R.; Togano, Y.; Vandebrouck, M.; Velho, P.; Volkov, V.; Wagner, A.; Wamers, F.; Weick, H.; Wheldon, C.; Wilson, G. L.; Winfield, J. S.; Woods, P.; Yakorev, D.; Zhukov, M.; Zilges, A.; Zuber, K.; R3B Collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Quasifree one-proton knockout reactions have been employed in inverse kinematics for a systematic study of the structure of stable and exotic oxygen isotopes at the R3B /LAND setup with incident beam energies in the range of 300 - 450 MeV /u . The oxygen isotopic chain offers a large variation of separation energies that allows for a quantitative understanding of single-particle strength with changing isospin asymmetry. Quasifree knockout reactions provide a complementary approach to intermediate-energy one-nucleon removal reactions. Inclusive cross sections for quasifree knockout reactions of the type O A (p ,2 p )N-1A have been determined and compared to calculations based on the eikonal reaction theory. The reduction factors for the single-particle strength with respect to the independent-particle model were obtained and compared to state-of-the-art ab initio predictions. The results do not show any significant dependence on proton-neutron asymmetry.

  2. Millimeter Detection Of AlO (X2Σ+) In The Oxygen-rich Envelope Of VY Canis Majoris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenenbaum, Emily D.; Ziurys, L. M.

    2009-05-01

    A new circumstellar molecule, the radical AlO (X 2Σ+), has been detected toward the envelope of the oxygen-rich supergiant star VY Canis Majoris (VY CMa) via three rotational emission lines. The N = 7 → 6 and 6 → 5 features of AlO were observed at 1 mm using the Arizona Radio Observatory Submillimeter Telescope (ARO SMT) and the N = 4 → 3 line was detected at 2 mm using the ARO 12 m dish. All lines exhibit noticeable hyperfine broadening due to the I = 5/2 spin of the aluminum nucleus. Based on simulations of the line profiles, AlO most likely arises from the dust-acceleration zone in the spherical outflow of VY CMa, with a source size of θs 0.5''. Given this source size, the column density of AlO was found to be Ntot 2 × 1015 cm-2 for Trot 230 K, with a fractional abundance, relative to H2, of 10-8. Gas-phase thermodynamic equilibrium chemistry is the likely formation mechanism for AlO in VY CMa, but shocks may disrupt the condensation process into Al2O3, allowing AlO to survive 20 stellar radii. The detection of AlO in VY CMa is additional evidence of an active gas-phase refractory chemistry in oxygen-rich envelopes, and suggests such objects may be fruitful sources for other new oxide identifications.

  3. The hydro- and multi-isotope geochemistry of iron-rich ground waters emerging at the southern Baltic Sea coast line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipka, Marko; Wu, Zijun; Escher, Peter; Struck, Ulrich; Dellwig, Olaf; Schafmeister, Maria; Böttcher*, Michael E.

    2013-04-01

    Iron-rich groundwater springs emerging at the shore zone of the southern Baltic Sea (BS; Site Meschendorf) were examined on a seasonal base for a period of about two years. Besides major, minor, and trace elements, stable isotopes of water (H-2, O-18), dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC; C-13), and sulfate (S-34) were analyzed. The stream bed sediment was extracted for the geochemistry of the newly formed precipitates and further characterized via SEM-EDAX. Subsequently, the hydrogeochemical results were subjected to a thermodynamic analysis via the PHREEQC speciation model. The springs emerge from small pits (about 60 cm diameter; up to 15cm depth). Surrounding sediments are sandy with gravels found at depth and corresponding high permeabilities. The positions of different springs on the shore zone were stable during the investigation period while the shape of the pits and the stream beds may vary due to wind- and wave-driven forces. Selected measurements of spring yield discharges close to 10 L/min. The H-2 and O-18 contents of the spring waters indicate the ground water to originate from relatively young mixed meteoric waters. The hydrochemistry of the springs was similar and showed some variability in between which indicates that the genetic processes for the ground water before reaching the surface may slightly differ. The springs are characterized by dissolved Ca, Mg, Na, DIC and sulfate, mainly reflecting the interaction with soils and bedrocks in the recharge area that is dominated by marly till. The oxygen-free ground water is rich in Fe, P, and DIC. Iron and dissolved sulfate originate from the oxidation of pyrite, as further confirmed by the 34-S signature of sulfate. The carbon isotope signature of DIC indicates a mixture of biogenic CO2 from the soil zone with some water-rock interaction with carbonate minerals. The streams flow towards the BS and, in contact with the atmosphere, outgas carbon dioxide and takes up oxygen. Upon CO2-degassing, C-12 is

  4. Intermediate and deep water mass distribution in the Pacific during the Last Glacial Maximum inferred from oxygen and carbon stable isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herguera, J. C.; Herbert, T.; Kashgarian, M.; Charles, C.

    2010-05-01

    Intermediate ocean circulation changes during the last Glacial Maximum (LGM) in the North Pacific have been linked with Northern Hemisphere climate through air-sea interactions, although the extent and the source of the variability of the processes forcing these changes are still not well resolved. The ventilated volumes and ages in the upper wind driven layer are related to the wind stress curl and surface buoyancy fluxes at mid to high latitudes in the North Pacific. In contrast, the deeper thermohaline layers are more effectively ventilated by direct atmosphere-sea exchange during convective formation of Subantarctic Mode Waters (SAMW) and Antarctic Intermediate Waters (AAIW) in the Southern Ocean, the precursors of Pacific Intermediate Waters (PIW) in the North Pacific. Results reported here show a fundamental change in the carbon isotopic gradient between intermediate and deep waters during the LGM in the eastern North Pacific indicating a deepening of nutrient and carbon rich waters. These observations suggest changes in the source and nature of intermediate waters of Southern Ocean origin that feed PIW and enhanced ventilation processes in the North Pacific, further affecting paleoproductivity and export patters in this basin. Furthermore, oxygen isotopic results indicate these changes may have been accomplished in part by changes in circulation affecting the intermediate depths during the LGM.

  5. Using Oxygen Isotopic Values in Order to Infer Palaeoclimatic Differences between Northern and Central-Southern Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Dimitra-Ermioni; Dotsika, Elissavet

    2017-12-01

    Even though isotopic analyses have been extensively implemented on human skeletal remains for the purpose of dietary reconstruction, less attention has been given to the ingested water and thus to the investigation of palaeoclimatic conditions. In particular, oxygen isotopic fingerprinting has never been applied on human skeletal remains from Greece for the abovementioned purpose before. The basic aim of the present study is to compare climatic conditions from two ancient populations, deriving from two different ecological locations; Edessa (Greek Macedonia; 2nd-4th c. AD) and Thebes (Sterea Hellas, 13th-14th c. AD). Oxygen values in Edessa are at -7.69 ±1.13 ‰ and -9.18 ±1.88 ‰ for tooth enamel and bone apatite respectively. On the other hand, oxygen signals in Thebes are at -5.8 ±2.16 ‰ and -9.23 ±1.3 % for the enamel and bone apatite respectively. The utility of oxygen isotopic signatures for the purpose of palaeoclimatic investigation lies on the fact that the ratio of 18 to 16O of meteoric precipitation, expressed as δ18O per mill (‰), relative to the international standard (vSMOW) varies geographically by temperature, humidity, evaporation, distance to the sea, altitude and latitude. Therefore, results as expected, point out that Edessa do presents more negative enamel isotopic values in relation to Thebes, however the noted difference is not observed for the bone apatite samples. The lack of bone apatite differentiation between sites could be attributed to cultural diversity (particularly in Thebes), shift in dietary habits due to migration or social status, climatic fluctuations within each site or to possible diagenetic alteration of bone apatite samples.

  6. Oxygen isotope fractionation between bird eggshell calcite and body water: application to fossil eggs from Lanzarote (Canary Islands)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzerini, Nicolas; Lécuyer, Christophe; Amiot, Romain; Angst, Delphine; Buffetaut, Eric; Fourel, François; Daux, Valérie; Betancort, Juan Francisco; Flandrois, Jean-Pierre; Marco, Antonio Sánchez; Lomoschitz, Alejandro

    2016-10-01

    Oxygen and carbon isotope compositions of fossil bird eggshell calcite (δ18Ocalc and δ13Ccalc) are regularly used to reconstruct paleoenvironmental conditions. However, the interpretation of δ18Ocalc values of fossil eggshells has been limited to qualitative variations in local climatic conditions as oxygen isotope fractionations between calcite, body fluids, and drinking water have not been determined yet. For this purpose, eggshell, albumen water, and drinking water of extant birds have been analyzed for their oxygen and carbon isotope compositions. Relative enrichments in 18O relative to 16O between body fluids and drinking water of +1.6 ± 0.9 ‰ for semi-aquatic birds and of +4.4 ± 1.9 ‰ for terrestrial birds are observed. Surprisingly, no significant dependence to body temperature on the oxygen isotope fractionation between eggshell calcite and body fluids is observed, suggesting that bird eggshells precipitate out of equilibrium. Two empirical equations relating the δ18Ocalc value of eggshell calcite to the δ18Ow value of ingested water have been established for terrestrial and semi-aquatic birds. These equations have been applied to fossil eggshells from Lanzarote in order to infer the ecologies of the Pleistocene marine bird Puffinus sp. and of the enigmatic giant birds from the Pliocene. Both δ13Ccalc and δ18Ocalc values of Puffinus eggshells point to a semi-aquatic marine bird ingesting mostly seawater, whereas low δ13Ccalc and high δ18Ocalc values of eggshells from the Pliocene giant bird suggest a terrestrial lifestyle. This set of equations can help to quantitatively estimate the origin of waters ingested by extinct birds as well as to infer either local environmental or climatic conditions.

  7. Palaeotemperature estimation in the Holsteinian Interglacial (MIS 11) based on oxygen isotopes of aquatic gastropods from eastern Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymanek, Marcin

    2017-12-01

    For quantitative estimation of past water temperature of four Holsteinian (MIS 11) palaeolakes from eastern Poland, the oxygen isotope palaeothermometer was applied to shells of the aquatic gastropods Viviparus diluvianus and Valvata piscinalis. The δ18O composition of their shells demonstrated the average growth-season water temperatures during the mesocratic stage of the interglacial (Ortel Królewski Lake), during its climatic optimum - the Carpinus-Abies Zone (Ossówka-Hrud, Roskosz and Szymanowo Lakes), and in the post-optimum (Szymanowo Lake). The calculation was based on δ18OShell values and the δ18OWater assumed for the Holsteinian from the modern oxygen isotope composition of precipitation and the expected amount of evaporative enrichment. The mean oxygen isotope palaeotemperatures of Ortel Królewski lake waters were in the range of 18.1-21.9°C and were uniform for the Taxus and Pinus-Larix zones. Ossówka-Hrud and Roskosz Lakes had mean temperatures of 17.4-21.0°C during the climatic optimum, whereas the temperature of Szymanowo lake waters was estimated at 20.6-21.7°C at that time. These values are concordant with the pollen-inferred July air temperatures noted during the Holsteinian in eastern Poland. Relatively high values of 25°C in the post-optimum noted at Szymanowo were connected with the presence of a shallow and warm isolated bay indicated by pollen and mollusc records.

  8. Constraining Phosphorus Chemistry in Carbon- and Oxygen-Rich Circumstellar Envelopes: Observations of PN, HCP, and CP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milam, S. N.; Halfen, D. T.; Tenenbaum, E. D.; Apponi, A. J.; Woolf, N. J.; Ziurys, L. M.

    2008-09-01

    Millimeter-wave observations of PN, CP, and HCP have been carried out toward circumstellar envelopes of evolved stars using the Arizona Radio Observatory (ARO). HCP and PN have been identified in the carbon-rich source CRL 2688 via observations at 1 mm using the Submillimeter Telescope (SMT) and 2-3 mm with the Kitt Peak 12 m. An identical set of measurements were carried out toward IRC +10216, as well as observations of CP at 1 mm. PN was also observed toward VY Canis Majoris (VY CMa), an oxygen-rich supergiant star. The PN and HCP line profiles in CRL 2688 and IRC +10216 are roughly flat topped, indicating unresolved, optically thin emission; CP, in contrast, has a distinct "U" shape in IRC +10216. Modeling of the line profiles suggests abundances, relative to H2, of f(PN) ~ (3-5) × 10-9 and f(HCP) ~ 2 × 10-7 in CRL 2688, about an order of magnitude higher than in IRC +10216. In VY CMa, f(PN) is ~4 × 10-8. The data in CRL 2688 and IRC +10216 are consistent with LTE formation of HCP and PN in the inner envelope, as predicted by theoretical calculations, with CP a photodissociation product at larger radii. The observed abundance of PN in VY CMa is a factor of 100 higher than LTE predictions. In IRC +10216, the chemistry of HCP/CP mimics that of HCN/CN and suggests an N2 abundance of f ~ 1 × 10-7. The chemistry of phosphorus appears active in both carbon- and oxygen-rich envelopes of evolved stars.

  9. EXOTIC METAL MOLECULES IN OXYGEN-RICH ENVELOPES: DETECTION OF AlOH (X1Σ+) IN VY CANIS MAJORIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tenenbaum, E. D.; Ziurys, L. M.

    2010-01-01

    A new interstellar molecule, AlOH, has been detected toward the envelope of VY Canis Majoris (VY CMa), an oxygen-rich red supergiant. Three rotational transitions of AlOH were observed using the facilities of the Arizona Radio Observatory (ARO). The J = 9 → 8 and J = 7 → 6 lines at 1 mm were measured with the ARO Submillimeter Telescope, while the J = 5 → 4 transition at 2 mm was observed with the ARO 12 m antenna on Kitt Peak. The AlOH spectra exhibit quite narrow line widths of 16-23 km s -1 , as found for NaCl in this source, indicating that the emission arises from within the dust acceleration zone of the central circumstellar outflow. From a radiative transfer analysis, the abundance of AlOH relative to H 2 was found to be ∼1 x 10 -7 for a source size of 0.26'' or 22 R * . In contrast, AlCl was not detected with f ≤ 5 x 10 -8 . AlOH is likely formed just beyond the photosphere via thermodynamic equilibrium chemistry and then disappears due to dust condensation. The AlOH/AlO abundance ratio found in VY CMa is ∼17. Therefore, AlOH appears to be the dominant gas-phase molecular carrier of aluminum in this oxygen-rich shell. Local thermodynamic equilibrium calculations predict that the monohydroxides should be the major carriers of Al, Ca, and Mg in O-rich envelopes, as opposed to the oxides or halides. The apparent predominance of aluminum-bearing molecules in VY CMa may reflect proton addition processes in H-shell burning.

  10. Design and Fabrication of Oxygen/RP-2 Multi-Element Oxidizer-Rich Staged Combustion Thrust Chamber Injectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, C. P.; Medina, C. R.; Protz, C. S.; Kenny, R. J.; Kelly, G. W.; Casiano, M. J.; Hulka, J. R.; Richardson, B. R.

    2016-01-01

    As part of the Combustion Stability Tool Development project funded by the Air Force Space and Missile Systems Center, the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center was contracted to assemble and hot-fire test a multi-element integrated test article demonstrating combustion characteristics of an oxygen/hydrocarbon propellant oxidizer-rich staged-combustion engine thrust chamber. Such a test article simulates flow through the main injectors of oxygen/kerosene oxidizer-rich staged combustion engines such as the Russian RD-180 or NK-33 engines, or future U.S.-built engine systems such as the Aerojet-Rocketdyne AR-1 engine or the Hydrocarbon Boost program demonstration engine. On the current project, several configurations of new main injectors were considered for the thrust chamber assembly of the integrated test article. All the injector elements were of the gas-centered swirl coaxial type, similar to those used on the Russian oxidizer-rich staged-combustion rocket engines. In such elements, oxidizer-rich combustion products from the preburner/turbine exhaust flow through a straight tube, and fuel exiting from the combustion chamber and nozzle regenerative cooling circuits is injected near the exit of the oxidizer tube through tangentially oriented orifices that impart a swirl motion such that the fuel flows along the wall of the oxidizer tube in a thin film. In some elements there is an orifice at the inlet to the oxidizer tube, and in some elements there is a sleeve or "shield" inside the oxidizer tube where the fuel enters. In the current project, several variations of element geometries were created, including element size (i.e., number of elements or pattern density), the distance from the exit of the sleeve to the injector face, the width of the gap between the oxidizer tube inner wall and the outer wall of the sleeve, and excluding the sleeve entirely. This paper discusses the design rationale for each of these element variations, including hydraulic, structural

  11. Chiral three-nucleon forces and the evolution of correlations along the oxygen isotopic chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipollone, A.; Barbieri, C.; Navrátil, P.

    2015-07-01

    Background: Three-nucleon forces (3NFs) have nontrivial implications on the evolution of correlations at extreme proton-neutron asymmetries. Recent ab initio calculations show that leading-order chiral interactions are crucial to obtain the correct binding energies and neutron driplines along the O, N, and F chains [A. Cipollone, C. Barbieri, and P. Navrátil, Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 062501 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.111.062501]. Purpose: Here we discuss the impact of 3NFs along the oxygen chain for other quantities of interest, such has the spectral distribution for attachment and removal of a nucleon, spectroscopic factors, and radii. The objective is to better delineate the general effects of 3NFs on nuclear correlations. Methods: We employ self-consistent Green's function (SCGF) theory which allows a comprehensive calculation of the single-particle spectral function. For the closed subshell isotopes, 14O, 16O, 22O, 24O, and 28O, we perform calculations with the Dyson-ADC(3) method, which is fully nonperturbative and is the state of the art for both nuclear physics and quantum chemistry applications. The remaining open-shell isotopes are studied using the newly developed Gorkov-SCGF formalism up to second order. Results: We produce complete plots for the spectral distributions. The spectroscopic factors for the dominant quasiparticle peaks are found to depend very little on the leading-order (NNLO) chiral 3NFs. The latter have small impact on the calculated matter radii, which, however, are consistently obtained smaller than experiment. Similarly, single-particle spectra tend to be too spread with respect to the experiment. This effect might hinder, to some extent, the onset of correlations and screen the quenching of calculated spectroscopic factors. The most important effect of 3NFs is thus the fine tuning of the energies for the dominant quasiparticle states, which governs the shell evolution and the position of driplines. Conclusions: Although present chiral

  12. Impact of triaxiality on the rotational structure of neutron-rich rhenium isotopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.W. Reed

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of 3-quasiparticle isomers have been found and characterised in the odd-mass, neutron-rich, 187Re, 189Re and 191Re nuclei, the latter being four neutrons beyond stability. The decay of the isomers populates states in the rotational bands built upon the 9/2−[514] Nilsson orbital. These bands exhibit a degree of signature splitting that increases with neutron number. This splitting taken together with measurements of the M1/E2 mixing ratios and with the changes observed in the energy of the gamma-vibrational band coupled to the 9/2−[514] state, suggests an increase in triaxiality, with γ values of 5°, 18° and 25° deduced in the framework of a particle-rotor model.

  13. Evidence for a smooth onset of deformation in the neutron-rich Kr isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Albers, M; Nomura, K; Blazhev, A; Jolie, J; Mucher, D; Bastin, B; Bauer, C; Bernards, C; Bettermann, L; Bildstein, V; Butterworth, J; Cappellazzo, M; Cederkall, J; Cline, D; Darby, I; Das Gupta, S; Daugas, J M; Davinson, T; De Witte, H; Diriken, J; Filipescu, D; Fiori, E; Fransen, C; Gaffney, L P; Georgiev, G; Gernhauser, R; Hackstein, M; Heinze, S; Hess, H; Huyse, M; Jenkins, D; Konki, J; Kowalczyk, M; Kroll, T; Krucken, R; Litzinger, J; Lutter, R; Marginean, N; Mihai, C; Moschner, K; Napiorkowski, P; Nara Singh, B S; Nowak, K; Otsuka, T; Pakarinen, J; Pfeiffer, M; Radeck, D; Reiter, P; Rigby, S; Robledo, L M; Rodriguez-Guzman, R; Rudigier, M; Sarriguren, P; Scheck, M; Seidlitz, M; Siebeck, B; Simpson, G; Thole, P; Thomas, T; Van de Walle, J; Van Duppen, P; Vermeulen, M; Voulot, D; Wadsworth, R; Wenander, F; Wimmer, K; Zell, K O; Zielinska, M

    2012-01-01

    The neutron-rich nuclei $^{94,96}$Kr were studied via projectile Coulomb excitation at the REX-ISOLDE facility at CERN. Level energies of the first excited 2$^{+}$ states and their absolute $E2$ transition strengths to the ground state are determined and discussed in the context of the $E(2^{+}_{1})$ and $B(E2;2^{+}_{1} \\rightarrow 0^{+}_{1})$ systematics of the krypton chain. Contrary to previously published results no sudden onset of deformation is observed. This experimental result is supported by a new proton-neutron interacting boson model calculation based on the constrained Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov approach using the microscopic Gogny-D1M energy density functional.

  14. High spin study and lifetime measurements of neutron rich Co isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regan, P H; Arrison, J W; Huttmeier, U J; Balamuth, D P [Pennsylvania Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1992-08-01

    The neutron rich nuclei {sup 61,63}Co have been studied using the reactions {sup 16}O({sup 48}Ca,p2n){sup 61}Co at 110 MeV and {sup 18}O({sup 48}Ca,p2n){sup 63}Co at 110 MeV respectively. Discrete lines from the channels of interest were investigated using pre-scaled {gamma} singles, charged-particle-{gamma}, neutron-charged-particle-{gamma} and charged particle-{gamma}-{gamma} data. Decay schemes, with level spins deduced from angular distribution data are presented together with preliminary information on the lifetimes of some higher excitation states. These data represent the first study on the medium to high spin states in these nuclei. (author). 9 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs.

  15. $\\beta$-decay study of neutron-rich Tl and Pb isotopes

    CERN Multimedia

    It is proposed to study the structure of neutron-rich nuclei beyond $^{208}$Pb. The one-proton hole $^{211-215}$Tl and the semi magic $^{213}$Pb will be produced and studied via nuclear and atomic spectroscopy searching for long-lived isomers and investigating the $\\beta$-delayed $\\gamma$- emission to build level schemes. Information on the single particle structure in $^{211-215}$Pb, especially the position of the g$_{9/2}$ and i$_{11/2}$ neutron orbitals, will be extracted along with lifetimes. The $\\beta$-decay will be complemented with the higher spin selectivity that can be obtained by resonant laser ionization to single-out the decay properties of long-living isomers in $^{211,213}$Tl and $^{213}$Pb.

  16. The isotopic composition of valves and organic tissue of diatoms grown in steady state cultures under varying conditions of temperature, light and nutrients. Implications for the interpretation of oxygen isotopes from sedimentary biogenic opal as proxies of environmental variations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kowalczyk, K

    2006-05-15

    The oxygen isotopes of diatomaceous silica from marine and freshwater sediments are frequently used as indicators of the palaeotemperature development, particularly in cases where calcareous microfossils are rare or absent. With regard to terrestrial waters it is unknown whether or not palaeotemperature scale can be used in a limnic ecosystem. Due to the fact that the seasonal variations in lakes are larger than in oceans, specific problems arise when working with freshwater sediments. Thus, an understanding of the contribution of the various factors (e.g. temperature, light nutrients, competition) influencing the formation of isotope signals in biogenic opal is a prerequisite for the accurate interpretation of environmental processes. Since it is impossible to examine the influence of a single parameter under natural ecosystem conditions due to permanent changes of the environment, laboratory experiments with single diatom species are needed. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between the oxygen isotope variations in biogenic opal and different environmental parameters using steady state cultures with diatoms. It should be examined whether or not the different diatom species grown under identical conditions show equal oxygen isotope ratios (species relationship), if variations of the water temperature induce variations of the oxygen isotope ratio (relationship with temperature), variable parameters such as light intensity and nitrate concentration influence the isotope ratio, and if vital effects (e.g. growth rate) lead to variations of the oxygen isotope ratio. (orig.)

  17. The isotopic composition of valves and organic tissue of diatoms grown in steady state cultures under varying conditions of temperature, light and nutrients. Implications for the interpretation of oxygen isotopes from sedimentary biogenic opal as proxies of environmental variations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowalczyk, K.

    2006-05-01

    The oxygen isotopes of diatomaceous silica from marine and freshwater sediments are frequently used as indicators of the palaeotemperature development, particularly in cases where calcareous microfossils are rare or absent. With regard to terrestrial waters it is unknown whether or not palaeotemperature scale can be used in a limnic ecosystem. Due to the fact that the seasonal variations in lakes are larger than in oceans, specific problems arise when working with freshwater sediments. Thus, an understanding of the contribution of the various factors (e.g. temperature, light nutrients, competition) influencing the formation of isotope signals in biogenic opal is a prerequisite for the accurate interpretation of environmental processes. Since it is impossible to examine the influence of a single parameter under natural ecosystem conditions due to permanent changes of the environment, laboratory experiments with single diatom species are needed. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between the oxygen isotope variations in biogenic opal and different environmental parameters using steady state cultures with diatoms. It should be examined whether or not the different diatom species grown under identical conditions show equal oxygen isotope ratios (species relationship), if variations of the water temperature induce variations of the oxygen isotope ratio (relationship with temperature), variable parameters such as light intensity and nitrate concentration influence the isotope ratio, and if vital effects (e.g. growth rate) lead to variations of the oxygen isotope ratio. (orig.)

  18. Beta- and gamma-decay studies of neutron-rich chromium, manganese, cobalt and nickel isotopes including the new isotopes 60Cr and 60gMn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosch, U.; Schmidt-Ott, W.D.; Runte, E.; Tidemand-Petersson, P.; Koschel, P.; Meissner, F.; Kirchner, R.; Klepper, O.; Roeckl, E.; Rykaczewski, K.; Schardt, D.

    1987-10-01

    A 36 mg/cm 2 thick nat W target was irradiated with 11.5 MeV/u 76 Ge of 15 to 20 particle + nA beam intensity. On-line mass-separated samples of projectile-like neutron-rich products from multi-nucleon transfer-reactions were investigated in the region of mass 58-69 by β- and γ-ray spectroscopy. The new isotope 60 Cr was identified with a half-life of 0.57(6) s and for the 60 Mn ground-state a half-life value of 51(6) s was obtained. Decay schemes were constructed for 58 Cr, 58 Mn (t 1/2 = 3 s), 65,66,67 Co and 69 Ni. One new γ-ray was found in the decay of 59 Cr. The Q β -value of 66 Co was measured yielding 9.7(5) MeV. The comparison of the measured new β-half-life of 60 Cr with the most recent predictions gave again an enhancement of the experimental value. (orig.)

  19. Coulomb excitation of $^{94,96}$Kr beam Deformation in the neutron-rich krypton isotopes

    CERN Multimedia

    Hass, M; Cederkall, J A; Di julio, D D; Zamfir, N - V; Srebrny, J; Wadsworth, R; Siem, S; Marginean, R; Iwanicki, J S

    Recently the energy of the 2$_{1}^{+}$ state in the N=60 $^{96}$Kr nucleus was determinated to be 241 keV. This was the first experimental observation of an excited state in this highly exotic nucleus. The 2$_{1}^{+}$ state in $^{94}$Kr is located at 665.5 keV, i.e. E(2$_{1}^{+}$) drops by more than 400 keV at N=60. This lowering of the 2$_{1}^{+}$ energy indicates a sharp shape transition behavior which is somewhat similar to that discovered in the Sr and Zr isotopic chains at N=60. The deformation expected for the 2$_{1}^{+}$ state of $^{96}$Kr, as resulting from the E(2$_{1}^{+}$) energy based on the semi-empirical relation of Raman et al. is $\\beta_{2}$ = 0.31, which is, however, considerably smaller than that for Sr and Zr ($\\geq$0.40). The sudden decrease of E(2$_{1}^{+}$) from N=50 to N=60 does not fully agree with the more gradual change of deformation deduced from laser spectroscopy measurements of mean square charge radii, although for $^{96}$Kr, in particular, these are consistent with a $\\beta_{2}...

  20. Triaxial shapes in the ground states of even-even neutron-rich Ru isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, I.; Lister, C.J.; Morss, L.R. [and others

    1995-08-01

    Partial level schemes for {sup 108,110,112}Ru, and {sup 114}Ru about which nothing was previously known, were determined from the measurement of prompt, triple-gamma coincidences in {sup 248}Cm fission fragments. A 5-mg {sup 249}Cm source, mixed with 65-mg KCl and pressed in the form of a 7-mm diameter pellet, was used for the experiment. Prompt {gamma} rays emitted from the fission fragments were detected with the Eurogam array at Daresbury, which at that time consisted of 45 Compton suppressed Ge detectors and 5 LEPS spectrometers. Transitions in Ru were identified by gating on {gamma} rays in the complementary Te fragments. Figure I-25 shows the technique used to identify the previously unknown transitions in {sup 114}Ru and its partial level scheme. High spin states up to spin 10 h were observed and the {gamma}-ray branching ratios were determined. The ratios of electric quadrupole transition probabilities deduced from the experimental branching ratios were found to be in good agreement with the predictions of a simple model of rigid triaxial rotor. Our analysis shows that gamma deformation in Ru isotopes is increasing with the neutron number and the gamma value for {sup 112}Ru and {sup 114}Ru is {approximately} 25 degrees. This is one of the highest gamma values encountered in nuclei, suggesting soft triaxial shapes for {sup 112}Ru and {sup 114}Ru. The results of this investigation were published.

  1. Oxygen isotopic composition of sulphates from some mineral waters and mine waters in western Bohemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smejkal, V.

    1979-01-01

    Two main genetic types of sulphate can be distinguished according to the delta 18 O(SO 4 2- ) measurements in sulphate-rich mineral and mine waters of western Bohemia - sulphates in descending mine waters and in weathered outcrops of graphitic pyrite slates from areas outside Tertiary basins, which originated in recent time by the oxidation of sulphides in the presence of atmospheric oxygen, have delta 18 O values from -2.1 to -6.1 per mille SMOW; and sulphates from springs of mineral waters of the renowned spas of Karlovy Vary, Frantiskovy Lazne and Marianske Lazne show distinctly heavier delta 18 O values - from +4.0 to +6.4 per mille, with maximum of values between +5.0 and +6.0 per mille. Similar delta 18 O values have been established in thenardites and in gypsum in Miocene claystones and in sulphates of some mine waters in the nearby Tertiary Cheb and Sokolov Basins. The presented results indicate that sulphates in mineral waters of the Karlovy Vary type originate mainly by leaching of Miocene sulphates and not by present-day oxidation of sulphidic sulphur. (author)

  2. Forward Modeling of Carbonate Proxy Data from Planktonic Foraminifera using Oxygen Isotope Tracers in a Global Ocean Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Gavin A.

    1999-01-01

    The distribution and variation of oxygen isotopes in seawater are calculated using the Goddard Institute for Space Studies global ocean model. Simple ecological models are used to estimate the planktonic foraminiferal abundance as a function of depth, column temperature, season, light intensity, and density stratification. These models are combined to forward model isotopic signals recorded in calcareous ocean sediment. The sensitivity of the results to the changes in foraminiferal ecology, secondary calcification, and dissolution are also examined. Simulated present-day isotopic values for ecology relevant for multiple species compare well with core-top data. Hindcasts of sea surface temperature and salinity are made from time series of the modeled carbonate isotope values as the model climate changes. Paleoclimatic inferences from these carbonate isotope records are strongly affected by erroneous assumptions concerning the covariations of temperature, salinity, and delta (sup 18)O(sub w). Habitat-imposed biases are less important, although errors due to temperature-dependent abundances can be significant.

  3. The impact of moisture sources on the oxygen isotope composition of precipitation at a continental site in central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krklec, Kristina; Domínguez-Villar, David; Lojen, Sonja

    2018-06-01

    The stable isotope composition of precipitation records processes taking place within the hydrological cycle. Potentially, moisture sources are important controls on the stable isotope composition of precipitation, but studies focused on this topic are still scarce. We studied the moisture sources contributing to precipitation at Postojna (Slovenia) from 2009 to 2013. Back trajectory analyses were computed for the days with precipitation at Postojna. The moisture uptake locations were identified along these trajectories using standard hydrometeorological formulation. The moisture uptake locations were integrated in eight source regions to facilitate its comparison to the monthly oxygen isotope composition (δ18O values) of precipitation. Nearly half of the precipitation originated from continental sources (recycled moisture), and >40% was from central and western Mediterranean. Results show that moisture sources do not have a significant impact on the oxygen isotope composition at this site. We suggest that the large proportion of recycled moisture originated from transpiration rather than evaporation, which produced water vapour with less negative δ18O values. Thus the difference between the oceanic and local vapour source was reduced, which prevented the distinction of the moisture sources based on their oxygen isotope signature. Nevertheless, δ18O values of precipitation are partially controlled by climate parameters, which is of major importance for paleoclimate studies. We found that the main climate control on Postojna δ18O values of precipitation is the surface temperature. Amount effect was not recorded at this site, and the winter North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) does not impact the δ18O values of precipitation. The Western Mediterranean Oscillation (WeMO) was correlated to oxygen stable isotope composition, although this atmospheric pattern was not a control. Instead we found that the link to δ18O values results from synoptic scenarios affecting We

  4. Ocean circulation and shelf processes in the Arctic, Mediterranean traced by radiogenic neodymium isotopes, rare earth elements and stable oxygen isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laukert, Georgi

    2017-02-20

    Disentangling the sources, distribution and mixing of water masses involved in the transport and transfer of heat and freshwater in the Arctic Mediterranean (i.e. the Arctic Ocean and the Nordic Seas, AM) is critical for the understanding of present and future hydrological changes in the high-latitude regions. This study refines the knowledge of water mass circulation in the AM and provides new insights into the processes occurring on the Arctic shelves and in high-latitude estuaries. A multi-proxy approach is used combining dissolved radiogenic Nd isotopes (ε{sub Nd}), rare earth elements (REEs) and stable oxygen isotopes (δ{sup 18}O) together with standard hydrographic tracers. The sources, distribution and mixing of water masses that circulate in the AM and pass the Fram Strait are assessed through evaluation of dissolved ε{sub Nd} and REE, and δ{sup 18}O data obtained from samples recovered in 2012, 2014 and 2015, and through a compilation and reassessment of literature Nd isotope and concentration data previously reported for other sites within the AM. The Nd isotope and REE distribution in the central Fram Strait and the open AM is shown to primarily reflect the lateral advection of water masses and their mixing, whereas seawater-particle interactions exert important control only above the shelf regions. New insights into the processes occurring in high latitude estuaries are provided by dissolved Nd isotope and REE compositions together with δ{sup 18}O data for the Laptev Sea based on filtered samples recovered in 2012, 2013 and 2014. A combination of REE removal through coagulation of nanoparticles and colloids and REE redistribution within the water column through formation and melting of sea ice and river ice is suggested to account for the distribution of all REEs, while no REE release from particles is observed. The ice-related processes contribute to the redistribution of other elements and ultimately may also affect primary productivity in high

  5. Chemical and oxygen isotopic properties of ordinary chondrites (H5, L6) from Oman: Signs of isotopic equilibrium during thermal metamorphism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Arshad; Nasir, Sobhi J.; Jabeen, Iffat; Al Rawas, Ahmed; Banerjee, Neil R.; Osinski, Gordon R.

    2017-10-01

    Mean bulk chemical data of recently found H5 and L6 ordinary chondrites from the deserts of Oman generally reflect isochemical features which are consistent with the progressive thermal metamorphism of a common, unequilibrated starting material. Relative differences in abundances range from 0.5-10% in REE (Eu = 14%), 6-13% in siderophile elements (Co = 48%), and >10% in lithophile elements (exceptions are Ba, Sr, Zr, Hf, U = >30%) between H5 and L6 groups. These differences may have accounted for variable temperature conditions during metamorphism on their parent bodies. The CI/Mg-normalized mean abundances of refractory lithophile elements (Al, Ca, Sm, Yb, Lu, V) show no resolvable differences between H5 and L6 suggesting that both groups have experienced the same fractionation. The REE diagram shows subtle enrichment in LREE with a flat HREE pattern. Furthermore, overall mean REE abundances are 0.6 × CI with enriched La abundance ( 0.9 × CI) in both groups. Precise oxygen isotope compositions demonstrate the attainment of isotopic equilibrium by progressive thermal metamorphism following a mass-dependent isotope fractionation trend. Both groups show a slope-1/2 line on a three-isotope plot with subtle negative deviation in Δ17O associated with δ18O enrichment relative to δ17O. These deviations are interpreted as the result of liberation of water from phyllosilicates and evaporation of a fraction of the water during thermal metamorphism. The resultant isotope fractionations caused by the water loss are analogous to those occurring between silicate melt and gas phase during CAI and chondrule formation in chondrites and are controlled by cooling rates and exchange efficiency.

  6. Non-destructive estimates of soil carbonic anhydrase activity and associated soil water oxygen isotope composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sam P.; Ogée, Jérôme; Sauze, Joana; Wohl, Steven; Saavedra, Noelia; Fernández-Prado, Noelia; Maire, Juliette; Launois, Thomas; Bosc, Alexandre; Wingate, Lisa

    2017-12-01

    The contribution of photosynthesis and soil respiration to net land-atmosphere carbon dioxide (CO2) exchange can be estimated based on the differential influence of leaves and soils on budgets of the oxygen isotope composition (δ18O) of atmospheric CO2. To do so, the activity of carbonic anhydrases (CAs), a group of enzymes that catalyse the hydration of CO2 in soils and plants, needs to be understood. Measurements of soil CA activity typically involve the inversion of models describing the δ18O of CO2 fluxes to solve for the apparent, potentially catalysed, rate of CO2 hydration. This requires information about the δ18O of CO2 in isotopic equilibrium with soil water, typically obtained from destructive, depth-resolved sampling and extraction of soil water. In doing so, an assumption is made about the soil water pool that CO2 interacts with, which may bias estimates of CA activity if incorrect. Furthermore, this can represent a significant challenge in data collection given the potential for spatial and temporal variability in the δ18O of soil water and limited a priori information with respect to the appropriate sampling resolution and depth. We investigated whether we could circumvent this requirement by inferring the rate of CO2 hydration and the δ18O of soil water from the relationship between the δ18O of CO2 fluxes and the δ18O of CO2 at the soil surface measured at different ambient CO2 conditions. This approach was tested through laboratory incubations of air-dried soils that were re-wetted with three waters of different δ18O. Gas exchange measurements were made on these soils to estimate the rate of hydration and the δ18O of soil water, followed by soil water extraction to allow for comparison. Estimated rates of CO2 hydration were 6.8-14.6 times greater than the theoretical uncatalysed rate of hydration, indicating that CA were active in these soils. Importantly, these estimates were not significantly different among water treatments, suggesting

  7. Early-Middle Pleistocene benthic turnover and oxygen isotope stratigraphy from the Central Mediterranean (Valle di Manche, Crotone Basin, Italy): Data and trends

    OpenAIRE

    Michele Azzarone; Patrizia Ferretti; Veronica Rossi; Daniele Scarponi; Luca Capraro; Patrizia Macrì; John W. Huntley; Costanza Faranda

    2018-01-01

    Ostracod faunal turnover and oxygen isotope data (foraminifera) along the Valle di Manche (VdM) section are herein compiled. Specifically, the material reported in this work includes quantitative palaeoecological data and patterns of ostracod fauna framed within a high-resolution oxygen isotope stratigraphy (δ18O) from Uvigerina peregrina. In addition, the multivariate ostracod faunal stratigraphic trend (nMDS axis-1 sample score) is calibrated using bathymetric distributions of extant mollus...

  8. Poster 9: Isotopic Ratios of Carbon and Oxygen in Titan's CO using ALMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serigano, Joseph; Nixion, Conor A.; Cordiner, Martin A.; Irwin, Patrick G. J.; Teanby, Nick A.; Charnley, Steven B.; Lindberg, Johan E.

    2016-06-01

    The advent of the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA) has provided a new and powerful facility for probing the atmospheres of solar system targets at long wavelengths (84-720 GHz) where the rotational lines of small, polar molecules are prominent. In the complex atmosphere of Titan, photochemical processes dissociate and ionize molecular nitrogen and methane in the upper atmosphere, creating a complex inventory of trace hydrocarbons and nitriles. Additionally, the existence of oxygen on Titan facilitates the synthesis of molecules of potential astrobiological importance. Utilization of ground-based submillimeter observations of Titan has proven to be a powerful tool to complement results from spacecraft observations. ALMA provides the ability to probe this region in greater detail with unprecedented spectral and spatial resolution at high sensitivity, allowing for the derivation of vertical mixing profiles, molecular detections, and observations of latitudinal and seasonal variations. Recent ALMA studies of Titan have presented spectrally and spatially-resolved maps of HNC and HC3N emission (Cordiner et al. 2014), as well as the first spectroscopic detection of ethyl cyanide (C2H5CN) in Titan's atmosphere (Cordiner et al. 2015). This poster will focus on ALMA observations of carbon monoxide (CO) and its isotopologues 13CO, C18O, and C 17O in Titan's atmosphere. Molecular abundances and the vertical atmospheric temperature profile were derived by modeling the observed emission line profiles using NEMESIS, a line-by-line radiative transfer code (Irwin et al. 2008). This study reports the first spectroscopic detection of 17O in the outer solar system with C17O detected at >8σ confidence. The abundances of these molecules and isotopic ratios of 12C/13C, 16O/18O, and 16O/17O will be presented. General implications for the history of Titan from these measurements will be discussed.

  9. Isotopic strontium, carbon and oxygen study on neoproterozoic marbles from Sierra de Umango, Andean Foreland, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varela, R; Valencio, S.; Ramos, A; Sato, K; Gonzalez, P; Panarello, H; Roverano, D

    2001-01-01

    The Umango Hill (La Rioja Province, 29 o 00'S-68 o 40'W) is one of the mountain blocks of Sierras Pampeanas Occidentales (Caminos, 1979), bounded by thrust faults and surrounded by Upper Devonian to Tertiary marine and continental sedimentites. The exposed crystalline basement is composed of basic igneous rocks and a siliciclastic-limestone sequence, both affected by amphibolite facies metamorphic peak. In the southern area (Juchi creek), the metamorphic complex carries relics of granitic orthogneisses, with Rb/Sr and U/Pb dates of ∼1000 Ma (Varela et al., 1996). These ancient inliers were asigned to a Mesoproterozoic Grenville Orogenic Cycle. Granitic bodies, intrusives at different ages in the Metamorphic Complex, have also been distinguished. The most ancient is El Penon Granite, with 469±9 Ma Rb/Sr age (Varela et al., 2000) and 523±26 Ma U/Pb zircon age (unpublished data). In this way it is possible to point out broadly that the siliciclastic-limestone sequence belongs to the Neoproterozoic-Early Palaeozoic times. It was a platform cover over grenvillian cratonic basement. The metamorphism and deformation, we understand, took place in the Early Palaeozoic, related to the Pampean-Famatinian Orogenic Cycle. In this work, compositional and isotopic data of Strontium ( 87 Sr/ 86 Sr), Carbon (δ 13 Cv PDB ) and Oxygen (δ 18 Ov PDB ) of the marbles derived from the siliciclastic-limestone sequence are presented. The results are interpreted and correlated with the temporal variation curves of 87 Sr/ 86 Sr and δ 13 C from Neoproterozoic marine carbonates (Jacobsen and Kaufman, 1999) (au)

  10. High-resolution conodont oxygen isotope record of Ordovician climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J.; Chen, Z.; Algeo, T. J.

    2013-12-01

    The Ordovician Period was characterized by several major events, including a prolonged 'super greenhouse' during the Early Ordovician, the 'Great Ordovician Biodiversification Event (GOBE)' of the Middle and early Late Ordovician, and the Hirnantian ice age and mass extinction of the latest Ordovician (Webby et al., 2004, The Great Ordovician Biodiversification Event, Columbia University Press). The cause of the rapid diversification of marine invertebrates during the GOBE is not clear, however, and several scenarios have been proposed including widespread development of shallow cratonic seas, strong magmatic and tectonic activity, and climate moderation. In order to investigate relationships between climate change and marine ecosystem evolution during the Ordovician, we measured the oxygen isotopic composition of single coniform conodonts using a Cameca secondary ion mass spectrometer. Our δ18O profile shows a shift at the Early/Middle Ordovician transition that is indicative of a rapid 6 to 8 °C cooling. This cooling event marks the termination of the Early Ordovician 'super greenhouse' and may have established cooler tropical seawater temperatures that were more favorable for invertebrate animals, setting the stage for the GOBE. Additional cooling episodes occurred during the early Sandbian, early Katian, and Hirnantian, the last culminating in a short-lived (extinction. Our results differ from those of Trotter et al. (2008, 'Did cooling oceans trigger Ordovician biodiversification? Evidence from conodont thermometry,' Science 321:550-554). Instead of a slow, protracted cooling through the Early and Middle Ordovician, our high-resolution record shows that cooling occurred in several discrete steps, with the largest step being at the Early/Middle Ordovician transition.

  11. Paleomagnetic and oxygen isotopic evidence for long term diagenesis in radiolarian chert, Pindos Mountains, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltuck, Miriam

    1987-02-01

    Paleomagnetics was used in an attempt to improve chronostratigraphy in the Middle and Upper Jurassic radiolarian chert and siliceous mudstone of the Pindos Zone, Greece. Remanent magnetism studies showed strong magnetic intensity but scattered orientation. Orientation of some pressure solution features in the radiolarities indicates their formation under horizontal pressure, a condition which in Pindos geologic history would only have occurred during early Cretaceous or Cenozoic tectonics, indicating very late diagenesis in these parts of the section. From time of deposition to later time at which diagenesis can be documented, the Earth's magnetic field would have reversed many times. Remagnetization during solution-precipitation steps of silica diagenesis could complicate the rock magnetics. Oxygen isotopic and major element analyses of radiolarite lithologies show a systematic variation of rate of silica diagenesis in different host lithologies, thus solution-precipitation would occur at widely differing times throughout the section lithologies. If the dissolution of the silica cement were physically to free magnetic material from an earlier orientation, the result could be a partial shift toward alignment with the ambient magnetic field. Alternatively, complete reorientation of particles could have occurred at varying times in different parts of the section as a function of host lithology. During the northward movement and clockwise rotation of the Apulian subplate (including Pindos) these different lithologies could completely reorient during different stages of silica diagenesis, locking the orientation of iron magnetic moments into alignment with the ambient magnetic field at time of precipitation to result in a strong intensity but scattered orientation of Pindos rock magnetics.

  12. Oxygen isotopic ratios in quartz as an indicator of provenance of dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, M.L.

    1977-01-01

    Quartz was isolated in the long range aerosol size range (fine silt, 1-10 μm in diameter) from atmospheric aerosols, wind-erosive soils, soil silts, shales, and Pacific pelagic sediments of the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, to trace their provenance or origin, as part of a study of dust mineral sequestering of 137 Cs and other products of nuclear fission. The oxygen isotopic ratio ( 18 O/ 16 O) was determined by mass spectrometry. The provenance has been established for this fine silt fraction which reflects the relative proportion of two classes of quartz source: (a) weathering of igneous and metamorphic rocks (high temperature origin and low 18 O/ 16 O ratio) and (b) of quartz crystallized in cherts and overgrowths (low temperature origin and high 18 O/ 16 O ratio). This quartz mixing ratio is a basic model or paradigm. Analyses of present day atmospheric aerosols and eolian-derived soils, Pacific pelagic sediments, and now-raised Phanerozoic marine sediments show that the Northern and Southern Hemispheres have separate large-scale reservoirs of the fine grain sizes that contribute to aerosol dusts. These can be identified by distinctive values of 18 O/ 16 O ratios of the quartz therein. The difference in quartz delta 18 O value in parts per thousand per ml ( 0 / 00 of about 12 +- 2 0 / 00 in Southern Hemisphere mixed detrital sediments and about 19 +- 2 0 / 00 in those of the Northern Hemisphere (for constant size, the 1-10 μm size fraction) results from the presence of a considerably larger proportion of quartz having low-temperature origin and higher delta 18 O values (chert, silica overgrowths, etc.) in the Northern Hemisphere reservoirs. The early paleoclimatic and paleogeochemical differences remain the control of the North-South Hemisphere difference in delta 18 O values in long-range aerosol sized quartz

  13. Oxygen isotope evidence for sorption of molecular oxygen to pyrite surface sites and incorporation into sulfate in oxidation experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tichomirowa, Marion; Junghans, Manuela

    2009-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to investigate (i) the rate of O-isotope exchange between SO 4 and water molecules at low pH and surface temperatures typical for conditions of acid mine drainage (AMD) and (ii) the O- and S-isotope composition of sulfates produced by pyrite oxidation under closed and open conditions (limited and free access of atmospheric O 2 ) to identify the O source/s in sulfide oxidation (water or atmospheric molecular O 2 ) and to better understand the pyrite oxidation pathway. An O-isotope exchange between SO 4 and water was observed over a pH range of 0-2 only at 50 deg. C, whereas no exchange occurred at lower temperatures over a period of 8 a. The calculated half-time of the exchange rate for 50 deg. C (pH = 0 and 1) is in good agreement with former experimental data for higher and lower temperatures and excludes the possibility of isotope exchange for typical AMD conditions (T ≤ 25 deg. C, pH ≥ 3) for decades. Pyrite oxidation experiments revealed two dependencies of the O-isotope composition of dissolved sulfates: O-isotope values decreased with longer duration of experiments and increasing grain size of pyrite. Both changes are interpreted as evidence for chemisorption of molecular O 2 to pyrite surface sites. The sorption of molecular O 2 is important at initial oxidation stages and more abundant in finer grained pyrite fractions and leads to its incorporation in the produced SO 4 . The calculated bulk contribution of atmospheric O 2 in the dissolved SO 4 reached up to 50% during initial oxidation stages (first 5 days, pH 2, fine-grained pyrite fraction) and decreased to less than 20% after about 100 days. Based on the direct incorporation of molecular O 2 in the early-formed sulfates, chemisorption and electron transfer of molecular O 2 on S sites of the pyrite surface are proposed, in addition to chemisorption on Fe sites. After about 10 days, the O of all newly-formed sulfates originates only from water, indicating direct interaction

  14. Ab initio R1 mechanism of photostimulated oxygen isotope exchange reaction on a defect TiO{sub 2} surface: The case of terminal oxygen atom exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevorkyants, Ruslan, E-mail: ruslan.kevorkyants@gmail.com; Sboev, Mikhail N.; Chizhov, Yuri V.

    2017-05-01

    Highlights: • DFT R1 mechanism of photostimulated oxygen isotope exchange between {sup 16}O{sup 18}O and terminal oxygen atom of a defect surface of nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2} is proposed. • The mechanism involves four adsorption intermediates and five transition states. • Activation energy of the reaction is 0.24 eV. • G-tensors of O{sub 3}{sup −} intermediates match EPR data on O{sub 2} adsorbed on UV-irradiated TiO{sub 2} surface. - Abstract: Based on density functional theory we propose R1 mechanism of photostimulated oxygen isotope exchange (POIEx) reaction between {sup 16}O{sup 18}O and terminal oxygen atom of a defect TiO{sub 2} surface, which is modeled by amorphous Ti{sub 8}O{sub 16} nanocluster in excited S{sup 1} electronic state. The proposed mechanism involves four adsorption intermediates and five transition states. The computed activation energy of the POIEx equals 0.24 eV. The computed g-tensors of the predicted ozonide O{sub 3}{sup −} chemisorption species match well EPR data on O{sub 2} adsorption on UV-irradiated nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2}. This match serves a mean of justification of the proposed R1 mechanism of the POIEx reaction. In addition, it is found that the proposed R1 POIEx reaction’s mechanism differs from R1 mechanism of thermo-assisted OIEx reaction on a surface of supported vanadium oxide catalyst VO{sub x}/TiO{sub 2} reported earlier.

  15. The subcontinental mantle beneath southern New Zealand, characterised by helium isotopes in intraplate basalts and gas-rich springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoke, L.; Poreda, R.; Reay, A.; Weaver, S. D.

    2000-07-01

    New helium isotope data measured in Cenozoic intraplate basalts and their mantle xenoliths are compared with present-day mantle helium emission on a regional scale from thermal and nonthermal gas discharges on the South Island of New Zealand and the offshore Chatham Islands. Cenozoic intraplate basaltic volcanism in southern New Zealand has ocean island basalt affinities but is restricted to continental areas and absent from adjacent Pacific oceanic crust. Its distribution is diffuse and widespread, it is of intermittent timing and characterised by low magma volumes. Most of the 3He/ 4He ratios measured in fluid inclusions in mantle xenocrysts and basalt phenocrysts such as olivine, garnet, and amphibole fall within the narrow range of 8.5 ± 1.5 Ra (Ra is the atmospheric 3He/ 4He ratio) with a maximum value of 11.5 Ra. This range is characteristic of the relatively homogeneous and degassed upper MORB-mantle helium reservoir. No helium isotope ratios typical of the lower less degassed mantle (>12 Ra), such as exemplified by the modern hot-spot region of Hawaii (with up to 32 Ra) were measured. Helium isotope ratios of less than 8 Ra are interpreted in terms of dilution of upper mantle helium with a radiogenic component, due to either age of crystallisation or small-scale mantle heterogeneities caused by mixing of crustal material into the upper mantle. The crude correlation between age of samples and helium isotopes with generally lower R/Ra values in mantle xenoliths compared with host rock phenocrysts and the in general depleted Nd and Sr isotope ratios and the light rare earth element enrichment of the basalts supports derivation of melts as small melt fractions from a depleted upper mantle, with posteruptive ingrowth of radiogenic helium as a function of lithospheric age. In comparison, the regional helium isotope survey of thermal and nonthermal gas discharges of the South Island of New Zealand shows that mantle 3He anomalies in general do not show an obvious

  16. Amplification and scintillation properties of oxygen-rich gas mixtures for optical-TPC applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weissman, L; Gai, M; Breskin, A; Chechik, R; Dangendorf, V; Tittelmeier, K; Weller, H R

    2006-01-01

    We studied electron amplification and light emission from avalanches in oxygen-containing gas mixtures. The mixtures investigated in this work included, among others, CO 2 and N 2 O mixed with Triethylamine (TEA) or N 2 . Double-Step Parallel Gap (DSPG) multipliers and THick Gas Electron Multipliers (THGEM) were investigated. High light yields were measured from CO 2 + N 2 and CO 2 + TEA, though with different emission spectra. We observed the characteristic wave-length emission of N 2 and of TEA and used a polymer wave-length shifter to convert TEA UV-light into the visible spectrum. The results of these measurements indicate the applicability of optical recording of ionizing tracks in a TPC target-detector designed to study the cross-sections of the 16 O(γ, α) 12 C reaction, a central problem in nuclear astrophysics

  17. Oxygen-rich hierarchical porous carbon derived from artemia cyst shells with superior electrochemical performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yufeng; Ran, Wei; He, Jing; Song, Yanfang; Zhang, Chunming; Xiong, Ding-Bang; Gao, Faming; Wu, Jinsong; Xia, Yongyao

    2015-01-21

    In this study, three-dimensional (3D) hierarchical porous carbon with abundant functional groups is produced through a very simple low-cost carbonization of Artemia cyst shells. The unique hierarchical porous structure of this material, combining large numbers of micropores and macropores, as well as reasonable amount of mesopores, is proven favorable to capacitive behavior. The abundant oxygen functional groups from the natural carbon precursor contribute stable pseudocapacitance. As-prepared sample exhibits high specific capacitance (369 F g(-1) in 1 M H2SO4 and 349 F g(-1) in 6 M KOH), excellent cycling stability with capacitance retention of 100% over 10 000 cycles, and promising rate performance. This work not only describes a simple way to produce high-performance carbon electrode materials for practical application, but also inspires an idea for future structure design of porous carbon.

  18. Down-conversion luminescence from (Ce, Yb) co-doped oxygen-rich silicon oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heng, C. L.; Wang, T.; Su, W. Y.; Wu, H. C.; Yin, P. G.; Finstad, T. G.

    2016-01-01

    We have studied down-conversion photoluminescence (PL) from (Ce, Yb) co-doped “oxygen rich” silicon oxide films prepared by sputtering and annealing. The Ce"3"+ ∼510 nm PL is sensitive to the Ce concentration of the films and is much stronger for 3 at. % Ce than for 2 at. % Ce after annealing at 1200 °C. The PL emission and excitation spectroscopy results indicate that the excitation of Yb"3"+ is mainly through an energy transfer from Ce"3"+ to Yb"3"+, oxide defects also play a role in the excitation of Yb"3"+ after lower temperature (∼800 °C) annealing. The Ce"3"+ 510 nm photon excites mostly only one Yb"3"+ 980 nm photon. Temperature-dependent PL measurements suggest that the energy transfer from Ce"3"+ to Yb"3"+ is partly thermally activated.

  19. Carbon and oxygen stable isotope and trace element studies in speleothems and across the J-K boundary, Central Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudielka, G.

    2001-07-01

    Carbon and Oxygen stable isotope ratios of carbonates decisively depend on fractionation during physicochemical processes. Therefore, they represent a powerful tool to derive information on past conditions under which the carbonates formed. Isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) offers a large range of applications. This thesis presents two projects based upon investigation of carbon and oxygen stable isotope ratios combined with trace element abundances (determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis, INAA) in carbonates. (1) Palaeoclimatic investigation on speleothems from central Italy. Four speleothems from Grotta Grande del Vento, central Italy, were analyzed for stable isotope ratios and trace element abundances, and age dated to obtain a chronologically reliable stable isotope profile. The speleothems were sampled by means of a dental drill to gain a stable isotope profile with a 0.5 mm resolution, trace element abundances have been performed by INAA every 0.5 cm, and the samples for age dating were picked according to remarkable features in the stable isotope trends and analyzed by TIMS. The record covers the period from 93 ka until the early holocene with a hiatus lasting from 75 ka until 65.0 ka. Speleothem growth during the last glacial indicates moderate conditions in the Frasassi region back then. Comparison with speleothems from Ireland, France and northern Italy reveal a north-south slope in d18O, indicating, that the rain over central Italy mainly originates from the North Atlantic. Depletion of moisture in d18O during its continental trajectory is due to rainout, which primarily extracts the heavy isotopes. The stable isotope record is in good agreement with the high-resolution speleothem record from Soreq Cave, Israel. Distinct isotopic events coincide between 85 ka and 80 ka, between ∼ 60 ka and 50 ka and from the last glacial to the early holocene. An offset has been existing between the two records at any time. The speleothems of

  20. Effects of Water Vapor on the Data Quality of the Stable Oxygen Isotopic Ratio of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, C. U.; White, J. W.; Vaughn, B.; Tans, P. P.; Pardo, L.

    2007-12-01

    The stable oxygen isotopic ratio of carbon dioxide can potentially track fundamental indicators of environmental change such as the balance between photosynthesis and respiration on regional to global scales. The Stable Isotope Laboratory (SIL) at the Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research (INSTAAR), University of Colorado at Boulder, has measured the stable isotopes of atmospheric carbon dioxide from more than 60 NOAA/Earth System Research Laboratory (ESRL) air flask-sampling sites since the early 1990s. If air is sampled without drying, oxygen can exchange between carbon dioxide and water in the flasks, entirely masking the desired signal. An attempt to investigate how water vapor is affecting the δ18O signal is accomplished by comparing the SIL measurements with specific humidity, calculated from the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) global integrated surface hourly temperature and dew point database, at the time of sampling. Analysis of sites where samples have been collected initially without drying, and subsequently with a drying kit, in conjunction with the humidity data, has led to several conclusions. Samples that initially appear isotopically unaltered, in that their δ18O values are within the expected range, are being subtly influenced by the water vapor in the air. At Bermuda and other tropical to semi-tropical sites, the 'wet' sampling values have a seasonal cycle that is strongly anti-correlated to the specific humidity, while the 'dry' values have a seasonal cycle that is shifted earlier than the specific humidity cycle by 1-2 months. The latter phasing is expected given the seasonal phasing between climate over the ocean and land, while the former is consistent with a small, but measurable isotope exchange in the flasks. In addition, we note that there is a strong (r > 0.96) correlation between the average specific humidity and the percent of rejected samples for 'wet' sampling. This presents an opportunity for determining a threshold of

  1. Oxygen and Hydrogen Isotopes of Precipitation in a Rocky Mountainous Area of Beijing to Distinguish and Estimate Spring Recharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziqiang Liu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen were used to estimate seasonal contributions of precipitation to natural spring recharge in Beijing’s mountainous area. Isotopic compositions were shown to be more positive in the dry season and more negative in the wet season, due to the seasonal patterns in the amount of precipitation. The local meteoric water line (LMWL was δ2H = 7.0 δ18O − 2.3 for the dry season and δ2H = 5.9 δ18O − 10.4 for the wet season. LMWL in the two seasons had a lower slope and intercept than the Global Meteoric Water Line (p < 0.01. The slope and intercept of the LMWL in the wet season were lower than that in the dry season because of the effect of precipitation amount during the wet season (p < 0.01. The mean precipitation effects of −15‰ and −2‰ per 100 mm change in the amount of precipitation for δ2H and δ18O, respectively, were obtained from the monthly total precipitation and its average isotopic value. The isotopic composition of precipitation decreased when precipitation duration increased. Little changes in the isotopic composition of the natural spring were found. By employing isotope conservation of mass, it could be derived that, on average, approximately 7.2% of the natural spring came from the dry season precipitation and the rest of 92.8% came from the wet season precipitation.

  2. A First Look at Oxygen and Silicon Isotope Variations in Diatom Silica from a Pliocene Antarctic Marine Sediment Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, T.; Dodd, J. P.; Hackett, H.; Scherer, R. P.

    2016-02-01

    Coupled oxygen (δ18O) and silicon (δ30Si) isotope variations in diatom silica (opal-A) are increasingly used as a proxy to reconstruct paleoenvironmental conditions (water temperatures, water mass mixing, nutrient cycling) in marine environments. Diatom silica is a particularly significant paleoenvironmental proxy in high latitude environments, such as the Southern Ocean, where diatom blooms are abundant and diatom frustules are well preserved in the sediment. The Andrill-1B (AND-1B) sediment core from the Ross Sea (Antarctica) preserves several Pliocene ( 4.5 Ma) age diatomite units. Here we present preliminary δ18O and δ30Si values for a diatomite subunit in the AND-1B sediment core. Initial isotope values for the AND-1B diatoms silica record relatively high variability (range δ18O: 36.3‰ to 39.9‰) that could be interpreted as large-scale changes in the water temperature and/or freshwater mixing in the Ross Sea; however, a significant concern with marine sediment of this age is isotope fractionation during diagenesis and the potential formation of opal-CT lepispheres. The effects of clay contamination on the diatom silica δ18O values have been addressed through sample purification and quantified through chemical and physical analyses of the diatom silica. The isotopic effects of opal-CT are not as clearly understood and more difficult to physically separate from the primary diatom silica. In order to better understand the isotope variations in the AND-1B diatoms, we also evaluated silicon and oxygen isotope fractionation during the transition from opal-A to opal-CT in a controlled laboratory experiment. Opal-A from cultured marine diatoms (Thalassiosira weissflogii) was subjected to elevated temperatures (150°C) in acid digestion vessels for 4 weeks to initiate opal-CT precipitation. Quantifying the effects of opal-CT formation on δ18O and δ30Si variations in biogenic silica improves our understanding of the use of diatom silica isotope values a

  3. Infrared Spectroscopic Studies of the Properties of Dust in the Ejecta of Galactic Oxygen-Rich Asymptotic Giant Branch Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, Benjamin A.; Srinivasan, Sundar; Kastner, Joel; Meixner, Margaret; Riley, Allyssa

    2018-06-01

    We are conducting a series of infrared studies of large samples of mass-losing asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars to explore the relationship between the composition of evolved star ejecta and host galaxy metallicity. Our previous studies focused on mass loss from evolved stars in the relatively low-metallicity Large and Small Magellanic Clouds. In our present study, we analyze dust in the mass-losing envelopes of AGB stars in the Galaxy, with special focus on the ejecta of oxygen-rich (O-rich) AGB stars. We have constructed detailed dust opacity models of AGB stars in the Galaxy for which we have infrared spectra from, e.g., the Spitzer Space Telescope Infrared Spectrograph (IRS). This detailed modeling of dust features in IRS spectra informs our choice of dust properties to use in radiative transfer modeling of the broadband SEDs of Bulge AGB stars. We investigate the effects of dust grain composition, size, shape, etc. on the AGB stars' infrared spectra, studying both the silicate dust and the opacity source(s) commonly attributed to alumina (Al2O3). BAS acknowledges funding from NASA ADAP grant 80NSSC17K0057.

  4. Can Electron-Rich Oxygen (O2-) Withdraw Electrons from Metal Centers? A DFT Study on Oxoanion-Caged Polyoxometalates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takazaki, Aki; Eda, Kazuo; Osakai, Toshiyuki; Nakajima, Takahito

    2017-10-12

    The answer to the question "Can electron-rich oxygen (O 2- ) withdraw electrons from metal centers?" is seemingly simple, but how the electron population on the M atom behaves when the O-M distance changes is a matter of controversy. A case study has been conducted for Keggin-type polyoxometalate (POM) complexes, and the first-principles electronic structure calculations were carried out not only for real POM species but also for "hypothetical" ones whose heteroatom was replaced with a point charge. From the results of natural population analysis, it was proven that even an electron-rich O 2- , owing to its larger electronegativity as a neutral atom, withdraws electrons when electron redistribution occurs by the change of the bond length. In the case where O 2- coexists with a cation having a large positive charge (e.g., P 5+ (O 2- ) 4 = [PO 4 ] 3- ), the gross electron population (GEP) on the M atom seemingly increases as the O atom comes closer, but this increment in GEP is not due to the role of the O atom but due to a Coulombic effect of the positive charge located on the cation. Furthermore, it was suggested that not GEP but net electron population (NEP) should be responsible for the redox properties.

  5. Exotic Metal Molecules in Oxygen-Rich Envelopes: Detection of AlOH (X1Σ^+) in VY Canis Majoris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenenbaum, E. D.; Ziurys, L. M.

    2010-06-01

    A new interstellar molecule, AlOH, has been detected toward the envelope of VY Canis Majoris, an oxygen-rich red supergiant. Three rotational transitions of AlOH were observed using the facilities of the Arizona Radio Observatory (ARO). The J = 9 → 8 and J = 7 → 6 lines at 1 mm were measured with the ARO Submillimeter Telescope (SMT), while the J = 5 → 4 transition at 2 mm was observed with the ARO 12 m antenna on Kitt Peak. The AlOH spectra exhibit quite narrow line widths, indicating that the emission arises from within the dust acceleration zone of the central circumstellar outflow. From a radiative transfer analysis, the abundance of AlOH relative to H_2 was found to be 1x10-7 for a source size of 0.26'' or 22 R_*. AlOH is likely formed just beyond the photosphere via thermodynamic equilibrium chemistry, and then disappears due to dust condensation. The AlOH/AlO abundance ratio found in VY CMa is ˜17. LTE calculations predict the monohydroxides should be the major carriers of Al, Ca, and Mg in O-rich envelopes, as opposed to the oxides or halides.

  6. The source of phosphate in the oxidation zone of ore deposits: Evidence from oxygen isotope compositions of pyromorphite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burmann, Fabian; Keim, Maximilian F.; Oelmann, Yvonne; Teiber, Holger; Marks, Michael A. W.; Markl, Gregor

    2013-12-01

    Pyromorphite (Pb5[PO4]3Cl) is an abundant mineral in oxidized zones of lead-bearing ore deposits and due to its very low solubility product effectively binds Pb during supergene alteration of galena (PbS). The capacity of a soil or near-surface fluid to immobilize dissolved Pb depends critically on the availability of phosphate in this soil or fluid. Potential phosphorus sources in soil include (i) release during biological processes, i.e. leaching from litter/lysis of microbial cells (after intracellular enzyme activity) in soil and hydrolysis from soil organic matter by extracellular enzymes and (ii) inorganic phosphate from the dissolution of apatite in the adjacent basement rocks. Intracellular enzyme activity in plants/microorganisms associated with kinetic fractionation produces an oxygen isotope composition distinctly different from inorganic processes in soil. This study presents the first oxygen isotope data for phosphate (δ18OP) in pyromorphite and a comprehensive data set for apatite from crystalline rocks. We investigated 38 pyromorphites from 26 localities in the Schwarzwald (Southwest Germany) and five samples from localities outside the Schwarzwald in addition to 12 apatite separates from gneissic and granitic host rocks. Pyromorphites had δ18OP values between +10‰ and +19‰, comparable to literature data on δ18OP in the readily available P fraction in soil (resin-extractable P) from which minerals potentially precipitate in soils. δ18OP values below the range of equilibrium isotope fractionation can be attributed either to apatites that formed geochemically (δ18OP of apatites:+6‰ to +9‰) or less likely to biological processes (extracellular enzyme activity). However, for most of our samples isotopic equilibrium with ambient water was indicated, which suggests biological activity. Therefore, we conclude that the majority of pyromorphites in oxidized zones of ore bodies formed from biologically cycled phosphate. This study highlights that

  7. Water vapour source impacts on oxygen isotope variability in tropical precipitation during Heinrich events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. C. Lewis

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Water isotope records such as speleothems provide extensive evidence of past tropical hydrological changes. During Heinrich events, isotopic changes in monsoon regions have been interpreted as implying a widespread drying through the Northern Hemisphere tropics and an anti-phased precipitation response in the south. Here, we examine the sources of this variability using a water isotope-enabled general circulation model, Goddard Institute for Space Studies ModelE. We incorporate a new suite of vapour source distribution tracers to help constrain the impact of precipitation source region changes on the isotopic composition of precipitation and to identify nonlocal amount effects. We simulate a collapse of the North Atlantic meridional overturning circulation with a large freshwater input to the region as an idealised analogue to iceberg discharge during Heinrich events. An increase in monsoon intensity, defined by vertical wind shear, is modelled over the South American domain, with small decreases simulated over Asia. Simulated isotopic anomalies agree well with proxy climate records, with lighter isotopic values simulated over South America and enriched values across East Asia. For this particular abrupt climate event, we identify which climatic change is most likely linked to water isotope change – changes in local precipitation amount, monsoon intensity, water vapour source distributions or precipitation seasonality. We categorise individual sites according to the climate variability that water isotope changes are most closely associated with, and find that the dominant isotopic controls are not consistent across the tropics – simple local explanations, in particular, fall short of explaining water isotope variability at all sites. Instead, the best interpretations appear to be site specific and often regional in scale.

  8. Problems with the quantitative spectroscopic analysis of oxygen rich Czech coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlikova, H.; Machovic, V.; Cerny, J. [Inst. of Chemical Technology, Prague (Czechoslovakia); Sebestova, E. [Inst. of Rock Structure and Mechanics, Prague (Czechoslovakia)

    1995-12-01

    Solid state NMR and FTIR spectroscopies are two main methods used for the structural analysis of coals and their various products. Obtaining quantitative parameters from coals, such as arornaticity (f{sub a}) by the above mentioned methods can be a rather difficult task. Coal samples of various rank were chosen for the quantitative NMR, FTIR and EPR analyses. The aromaticity was obtained by the FTIR, {sup 13}C CP/MAS and SP/MAS NMR experiments. The content of radicals and saturation characteristics of coals were measured by EPR spectroscopy. The following problems have been discussed: 1. The relationship between the amount of free radicals (N{sub g}) and f{sub a} by NMR. 2. The f{sub a} obtained by solid state NMR and FTIR spectroscopies. 3. The differences between the f{sub a} measured by CP and SP/NMR experiments. 4. The relationship between the content of oxygen groups and the saturation responses of coals. The reliability of our results was checked by measuring the structural parameters of Argonne premium coals.

  9. Oxygen isotope mapping and evaluation of paleo-hydrothermal systems associated with synvolcanic intrusion and VMS deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, B.E

    2001-01-01

    Whole-rock oxygen isotope mapping provides a useful method for the delineation and quantitative evaluation of paleo-hydrothermal systems associated with syn-volcanic intrusions and volcanic-associated massive sulfide (VMS) deposits. During the course of a four-year study of regional alteration systems associated with VMS Deposits, four syn-volcanic intrusive complexes in Canada were mapped using stable isotope techniques. The complexes included Noranda, Quebec; Clifford-Ben Nevis, Ontario; Snow Lake, Manitoba, and Sturgeon Lake, Ontario. This study was regional in extent, involving large areas and large numbers of whole-rock samples: Noranda (625 km 2 ;≥600 samples, plus others (total = 1198); Sturgeon Lake (525 km 2 ; 452 samples); Clifford-Ben Nevis (160 km 2 ; 251 samples); and Snow Lake (84 km 2 ; 575 samples). Isotopic data on whole-rock carbonates and hydrous minerals were also collected. The regional isotopic studies were carried out in concert with other studies on mineral assemblages and mineral composition, and on associated intrusive and extrusive rocks. The Clifford-Ben Nevis area was selected as a control area, in as much as it contains no known VMS deposits; all other areas are well-known, productive VMS districts. Oxygen isotope maps are, in a sense, thermal maps, illustrating the paleo-distribution of heat and fluids, and offering a potential aid to exploration. The isotopic data may be contoured to reveal zones of 18 O depletion and enrichment, relative to unaltered rocks. Zones of δ 18 O≤60% comprise rocks that have reacted with seawater at high (e.g., 300+ o C) temperatures. The volume of foot-wall rocks isotopically-depleted by water/rock interaction during the life of one or more episodes of submarine hydrothermal activity is proportional to the amount of heat available from the syn-volcanic intrusive center. These altered rocks comprise the reaction zone often inferred to have supplied metals and other constituents for the VMS deposits

  10. The oxygen isotope composition of baddeleyite and a test of crystal orientation effects during SIMS analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibanez-Mejia, M.; DesOrmeau, J. W.; Eddy, M. P.; Kitajima, K.; Valley, J. W.

    2017-12-01

    Baddeleyite, the monoclinic polymorph of ZrO2, is a relatively common accessory phase in undersaturated and alkaline igneous rocks that is rapidly developing into a widely-used tool for studying the age and initial 176Hf/177Hf composition of many terrestrial and planetary rocks that typically lack zircon. The prospect of combining U-Pb-Hf data from baddeleyite with δ18O information, as regularly done with zircon, could prove a very powerful addition to the `analytical toolbox' of the igneous petrologist and for studies of crust and mantle evolution. However, the oxygen isotope systematics of this mineral remain poorly explored, as are the potential analytical hurdles involved in obtaining accurate spatially-resolved δ18O data by SIMS. Here, we report laser fluorination δ18O measurements from two baddeleyite megacrysts from Kovdor (δ18O = 0.24 ± 0.11 ‰) and Phalaborwa (4.58 ± 0.11 ‰), which were subsequently analyzed by SIMS to explore their compositional homogeneity and potential as reference materials for correcting instrumental mass fractionation (IMF). Randomly oriented grain fragments analyzed by SIMS were subsequently mapped using high-resolution EBSD, such that the incidence angle of the Cs+ primary ion beam relative to the baddeleyite crystallographic axes could be determined for each spot. We found that: a) δ18O values for both crystals reproduce fairly well, but several apparent outliers (ca. 10% of all data) were measured with no evident correlation to orientation, cracks or inclusions, suggesting these might not be ideal standards; b) there is a systematic difference in mean measured IMFs of ca. 0.6 ‰ between the two baddeleyite crystals; c) mean 16OH/16O values for Phalaborwa (2.5x10-4) are significantly higher than those of Kovdor (2.9x10-6), suggesting that different degrees of radiation damage affect IMF; and d) there is no statistically significant correlation in our dataset (n= 96 spot analyses) between IMF and crystallographic

  11. Stable carbon and oxygen isotope signatures in molluscan shells under ocean acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, K.; Hayashi, M.; Suzuki, A.; Sato, M.; Nojiri, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Stable carbon and oxygen isotope compositions (δ13C, δ18O) of biogenic carbonate have been widely used for many paleoclimate, paleoecological, and biomineralization studies. δ13C of molluscan shells reflects the mixing of δ13C of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) of seawater and respiratory carbon. Previous studies reported physiological effects on molluscs by ocean acidification, and thus the metabolic changes could potentially appear in shell δ13C as changes in a fraction of two carbon sources. In addition, shell δ18O, a commonly used proxy of seawater temperature and seawater δ18O, is also affected by seawater carbonate chemistry. As changes in the marine carbonate system, such as pH and pCO2, have occurred in the past 300 million years, to estimate pH effect on paleotemperature reconstruction is important. Here, we experimentally examined acidification effects on shell δ13C and δ18O of two species of clams for understanding of environmental and physiological proxies. Juvenile specimens of bloody clam Scapharca broughtonii and Japanese surf clam Pseudocardium sachalinense were cultured at five (400, 600, 800, 1000, and 1200 µatm, P. sachalinense) or six (280, 400, 600, 800, 1000, and 1200 µatm, S. broughtonii) different pCO2 levels using CO2 control system of the Demonstration Laboratory, MERI, Japan. Significant negative correlations between shell δ13C and pH appeared in S. broughtonii, which showed non-significant pH effects on calcification, and the slope of the relationship of shell carbonate was lower than that of seawater DIC. On the other hand, in P. sachalinense which showed a decrease in calcification at low-pH treatment, the slopes of the relationship between shell δ13C and pH was roughly the same as that of seawater DIC. Thus, the extrapallial fluid of P. sachalinense might more strongly affected by acidified seawater than S. broughtonii. The results of two species might be attributable to differences in physiological responses to

  12. Doubly labeled water method: in vivo oxygen and hydrogen isotope fractionation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoeller, D.A.; Leitch, C.A.; Brown, C.

    1986-01-01

    The accuracy and precision of the doubly labeled water method for measuring energy expenditure are influenced by isotope fractionation during evaporative water loss and CO 2 excretion. To characterize in vivo isotope fractionation, we collected and isotopically analyzed physiological fluids and gases. Breath and transcutaneous water vapor were isotopically fractionated. The degree of fractionation indicated that the former was fractionated under equilibrium control at 37 0 C, and the latter was kinetically fractionated. Sweat and urine were unfractionated. By use of isotopic balance models, the fraction of water lost via fractionating routes was estimated from the isotopic abundances of body water, local drinking water, and dietary solids. Fractionated water loss averaged 23% (SD = 10%) of water turnover, which agreed with our previous estimates based on metabolic rate, but there was a systematic difference between the results based on O 2 and hydrogen. Corrections for isotopic fractionation of water lost in breath and (nonsweat) transcutaneous loss should be made when using labeled water to measure water turnover or CO 2 production

  13. Unexpected variations in the triple oxygen isotope composition of stratospheric carbon dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegel, Aaron A.; Cole, Amanda S.; Hoag, Katherine J.; Atlas, Elliot L.; Schauffler, Sue M.; Boering, Kristie A.

    2013-10-01

    We report observations of stratospheric CO2 that reveal surprisingly large anomalous enrichments in 17O that vary systematically with latitude, altitude, and season. The triple isotope slopes reached 1.95 ± 0.05(1σ) in the middle stratosphere and 2.22 ± 0.07 in the Arctic vortex versus 1.71 ± 0.03 from previous observations and a remarkable factor of 4 larger than the mass-dependent value of 0.52. Kinetics modeling of laboratory measurements of photochemical ozone-CO2 isotope exchange demonstrates that non-mass-dependent isotope effects in ozone formation alone quantitatively account for the 17O anomaly in CO2 in the laboratory, resolving long-standing discrepancies between models and laboratory measurements. Model sensitivities to hypothetical mass-dependent isotope effects in reactions involving O3, O(1D), or CO2 and to an empirically derived temperature dependence of the anomalous kinetic isotope effects in ozone formation then provide a conceptual framework for understanding the differences in the isotopic composition and the triple isotope slopes between the laboratory and the stratosphere and between different regions of the stratosphere. This understanding in turn provides a firmer foundation for the diverse biogeochemical and paleoclimate applications of 17O anomalies in tropospheric CO2, O2, mineral sulfates, and fossil bones and teeth, which all derive from stratospheric CO2.

  14. Oxygen isotope fluctuations in a modern North Sea oyster (Crassostrea gigas) compared with annual variations in seawater temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ullmann, Clemens Vinzenz; Wiechert, Uwe; Korte, Christoph

    2010-01-01

    A total of 181 oxygen isotope values from sequential samples of the left shell of a modern Pacific Oyster (Crassostrea gigas) that lived on a sub-tidal oyster bank in the List Basin (North Sea, Germany) shows periodically varying values between + 1.3‰ and -2.5‰. In order to test whether these d18O...... fluctuations reflect seawater temperature changes, the isotope values of the shell were compared to actual seawater temperature variations from the region. C. gigas serves as an excellent proxy for temperature of palaeoseawater and the results show that the examined oyster precipitated its shell in d18O...... equilibrium with the ambient seawater. A cessation of the oyster shell calcification starts at water temperatures below 6 °C, at lower temperatures than previously thought for Crassostrea. For palaeoclimate investigations the termination of shell production is important because the lowest temperatures might...

  15. Meteoric water in normal fault systems: Oxygen and hydrogen isotopic measurements on authigenic phases in brittle fault rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, S. H.; Anderson, R.; Mulch, A.; Solum, J. G.; Valley, J. W.; van der Pluijm, B. A.

    2009-12-01

    The nature of fluid circulation systems in normal fault systems is fundamental to understanding the nature of fluid movement within the upper crust, and has important implications for the on-going controversy about the strength of faults. Authigenic phases in clay gouges and fault breccias record the isotopic signature of the fluids they formed in equilibrium with, and can be used to understand the ‘plumbing system’ of brittle fault environments. We obtained paired oxygen and hydrogen isotopic measurements on authigenic illite and/or smectite in clay gouge from normal faults in two geologic environments, 1.) low-angle normal faults (Ruby Mountains detachment, NV; Badwater Turtleback, CA; Panamint range-front detachment; CA; Amargosa detachment; CA; Waterman Hills detachment, CA), and 2.) An intracratonic high-angle normal fault (Moab Fault, UT). All authigenic phases in these clay gouges are moderately light isotopically with respect to oxygen (illite δ18O -2.0 - + 11.5 ‰ SMOW, smectite δ18O +3.6 and 17.9 ‰) and very light isotopically with respect to hydrogen (illite δD -148 to -98 ‰ SMOW, smectite δD -147 to -92 ‰). Fluid compositions calculated from the authigenic clays at temperatures of 50 - 130 ○C (as indicated by clay mineralogy) indicate that both illite and smectite in normal fault clay gouge formed in the presence of near-pristine to moderately-evolved meteoric fluids and that igneous or metamorphic fluids are not involved in clay gouge formation in these normal fault settings. We also obtained paired oxygen and hydrogen isotopic measurements on chlorites derived from footwall chlorite breccias in 4 low-angle normal fault detachment systems (Badwater and Mormon Point Turtlebacks, CA, the Chemehuevi detachment, CA, and the Buckskin-Rawhide detachment, AZ). All chlorites are isotopically light to moderately light with respect to oxygen (δ18O +0.29 to +8.1 ‰ SMOW) and very light with respect to hydrogen (δD -97 to -113 ‰) and indicate

  16. Zircon (Hf, O isotopes) as melt indicator: Melt infiltration and abundant new zircon growth within melt rich layers of granulite-facies lenses versus solid-state recrystallization in hosting amphibolite-facies gneisses (central Erzgebirge, Bohemian Massif)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tichomirowa, Marion; Whitehouse, Martin; Gerdes, Axel; Schulz, Bernhard

    2018-03-01

    In the central Erzgebirge within the Bohemian Massif, lenses of high pressure and ultrahigh pressure felsic granulites occur within meta-sedimentary and meta-igneous amphibolite-facies felsic rocks. In the felsic granulite, melt rich parts and restite form alternating layers, and were identified by petrology and bulk rock geochemistry. Mineral assemblages representing the peak P-T conditions were best preserved in melanocratic restite layers. In contrast, in the melt rich leucocratic layers, garnet and related HP minerals as kyanite are almost completely resorbed. Both layers display differences in accessory minerals: melanosomes have frequent and large monazite and Fe-Ti-minerals but lack xenotime and apatite; leucosomes have abundant apatite and xenotime while monazite is rare. Here we present a detailed petrographic study of zircon grains (abundance, size, morphology, inclusions) in granulite-facies and amphibolite-facies felsic gneisses, along with their oxygen and hafnium isotope compositions. Our data complement earlier Usbnd Pb ages and trace element data (REE, Y, Hf, U) on zircons from the same rocks (Tichomirowa et al., 2005). Our results show that the degree of melting determines the behaviour of zircon in different layers of the granulites and associated amphibolite-facies rocks. In restite layers of the granulite lenses, small, inherited, and resorbed zircon grains are preserved and new zircon formation is very limited. In contrast, new zircons abundantly grew in the melt rich leucocratic layers. In these layers, the new zircons (Usbnd Pb age, trace elements, Hf, O isotopes) best preserve the information on peak metamorphic conditions due to intense corrosion of other metamorphic minerals. The new zircons often contain inherited cores. Compared to cores, the new zircons and rims show similar or slightly lower Hf isotope values, slightly higher Hf model ages, and decreased oxygen isotope ratios. The isotope compositions (Hf, O) of new zircons indicate

  17. Could a secular increase in organic burial explain the rise of oxygen? Insights from a geological carbon cycle model constrained by the carbon isotope record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krissansen-Totton, J.; Kipp, M.; Catling, D. C.

    2017-12-01

    The stable isotopes of carbon in marine sedimentary rock provide a window into the evolution of the Earth system. Conventionally, a relatively constant carbon isotope ratio in marine sedimentary rocks has been interpreted as implying constant organic carbon burial relative to total carbon burial. Because organic carbon burial corresponds to net oxygen production from photosynthesis, it follows that secular changes in the oxygen source flux cannot explain the dramatic rise of oxygen over Earth history. Instead, secular declines in oxygen sink fluxes are often invoked as causes for the rise of oxygen. However, constant fractional organic burial is difficult to reconcile with tentative evidence for low phosphate concentrations in the Archean ocean, which would imply lower marine productivity and—all else being equal—less organic carbon burial than today. The conventional interpretation of the carbon isotope record rests on the untested assumption that the isotopic ratio of carbon inputs into the ocean reflect mantle isotopic values throughout Earth history. In practice, differing rates of carbonate and organic weathering will allow for changes in isotopic inputs, as suggested by [1] and [2]. However, these inputs can not vary freely because large changes in isotopic inputs would induce secular trends in carbon reservoirs, which are not observed in the isotope record. We apply a geological carbon cycle model to all Earth history, tracking carbon isotopes in crustal, mantle, and ocean reservoirs. Our model is constrained by the carbon isotope record such that we can determine the extent to which large changes in organic burial are permitted. We find both constant organic burial and 3-5 fold increases in organic burial since 4.0 Ga can be reconciled with the carbon isotope record. Changes in the oxygen source flux thus need to be reconsidered as a possible contributor to Earth's oxygenation. [1] L. A. Derry, Organic carbon cycling and the lithosphere, in Treatise on

  18. The parent body controls on cosmic spherule texture: Evidence from the oxygen isotopic compositions of large micrometeorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ginneken, M.; Gattacceca, J.; Rochette, P.; Sonzogni, C.; Alexandre, A.; Vidal, V.; Genge, M. J.

    2017-09-01

    High-precision oxygen isotopic compositions of eighteen large cosmic spherules (>500 μm diameter) from the Atacama Desert, Chile, were determined using IR-laser fluorination - Isotope Ratio Mass spectrometry. The four discrete isotopic groups defined in a previous study on cosmic spherules from the Transantarctic Mountains (Suavet et al., 2010) were identified, confirming their global distribution. Approximately 50% of the studied cosmic spherules are related to carbonaceous chondrites, 38% to ordinary chondrites and 12% to unknown parent bodies. Approximately 90% of barred olivine (BO) cosmic spherules show oxygen isotopic compositions suggesting they are related to carbonaceous chondrites. Similarly, ∼90% porphyritic olivine (Po) cosmic spherules are related to ordinary chondrites and none can be unambiguously related to carbonaceous chondrites. Other textures are related to all potential parent bodies. The data suggests that the textures of cosmic spherules are mainly controlled by the nature of the precursor rather than by the atmospheric entry parameters. We propose that the Po texture may essentially be formed from a coarse-grained precursor having an ordinary chondritic mineralogy and chemistry. Coarse-grained precursors related to carbonaceous chondrites (i.e. chondrules) are likely to either survive atmospheric entry heating or form V-type cosmic spherules. Due to the limited number of submicron nucleation sites after total melting, ordinary chondrite-related coarse-grained precursors that suffer higher peak temperatures will preferentially form cryptocrystalline (Cc) textures instead of BO textures. Conversely, the BO textures would be mostly related to the fine-grained matrices of carbonaceous chondrites due to the wide range of melting temperatures of their constituent mineral phases, allowing the preservation of submicron nucleation sites. Independently of the nature of the precursors, increasing peak temperatures form glassy textures.

  19. Spontaneous Oxygen Isotope Exchange between Carbon Dioxide and Oxygen-Containing Minerals: Do the Minerals "breathe" CO2?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Civiš, Svatopluk; Bouša, Milan; Zukal, Arnošt; Knížek, Antonín; Kubelík, Petr; Rojík, P.; Nováková, Jana; Ferus, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 120, č. 1 (2016), s. 508-516 ISSN 1932-7447 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LD14115; GA MŠk(CZ) LD13060; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-12010S Grant - others:COST(XE) CM1104 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : Absorption spectroscopy * Infrared spectrometers * Oxygen Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 4.536, year: 2016

  20. Sulfur and Oxygen Isotopic Composition of Sulfate in the Fresh Water, King Sejong Station, King George Island, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, M.; Lee, I.; Lee, J.; Park, B.; Mayer, B.; Kaufman, A. J.; Park, S.; Kim, G.; Lee, K.

    2008-12-01

    Isotopic compositions of sulfur (δ34S) and oxygen (δ18O) were measured for the sulfate of the fresh water near the King Sejong Station, King George Island, Antarctica. Sejong station is located in the Barton peninsular of the King George Island. The geology around King Sejong station mainly composed of basalt-andesite, quart monzodiorite, and granodiorite. Lapilli tuff, conglomerate, sandstone, and siltstone occur along the southern and eastern shore of the Barton peninsula. Lapilli tuff also occurs on the highland located on southeastern part of the Barton peninsula. The δ34S values of sulfate extracted from fresh water samples at King Sejong Station range from 13.7 to 16.3 per mil excluding 1 sample. These sulfur values are very narrow in their range compared with those from anthropogenic sources. These sulfur values are 5 to 7 per mil lower than those of typical present seawater. Considering the rocks occurring near the King Sejong station, these sulfur isotopic values do not seem to be related to any evaporites of certain age. In Antarctic region the natural source of sulfate dissolved in water could be originated from marine biogenic source (DMS), sea-salt, volcanic source, or other continental sources. Most of the δ34S values of sulfate at King Sejong station seems to indicate the dominance of marine biogenic origin for the source of sulfur. The δ18O values of sulfate extracted from fresh water samples at King Sejong Station range from 1.9 to 6.4 per mil excluding 1 sample. These oxygen isotope values are lower than those of the sulfate in the present seawater by 6 per mil. However, both sulfur and oxygen isotope values strongly represent the influence of the seawater sulfate. One sample have 2.6 and -1.1 per mil in its δ34S and δ18O values, respectively, that are quite different from the isotopic values of other samples. This sample was collected in the highland far from the King Sejong station. Therefore this sample might reflect the composition of

  1. Carbon and oxygen isotopes in carbonatites from Puna, Jujuy and Salta, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zappettini, Eduardo O.; Rubiolo, Daniel

    1998-01-01

    δ 13 and δ 18 O data from carbonatites indicate that bodies formed by crystallization of carbonate magma with subsequent formation of metasomatic and hydrothermal carbonatitic veins. The isotopic data are consistent with the available geochemical and petrologic information. (author)

  2. Study of the tensor correlation in oxygen isotopes using mean-field-type and shell model methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimoto, Satoru

    2007-01-01

    The tensor force plays important roles in nuclear structure. Recently, we have developed a mean-field-type model which can treat the two-particle-two-hole correlation induced by the tensor force. We applied the model to sub-closed-shell oxygen isotopes and found that an sizable attractive energy comes from the tensor force. We also studied the tensor correlation in 16O using a shell model including two-particle-two-hole configurations. In this case, quite a large attractive energy is obtained for the correlation energy from the tensor force

  3. Oxygen isotope records of Globigerina bulloides across a north-south transect in the south-western Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Khare, N.; Chaturvedi, S.K.; Saraswat, R

    , Washington, D.C). Lutjeharms, J.R.E., N.M. Walters and B.R. Allanson. 1985. Oceanic frontal systems and biologicalenhancement. p.11-21. In: Antarctic Nutrient Cycles and Food Webs. ed. by W.R. Siegfried et al., Springer-Verlag, NewYork. Matsumoto, K., J...: Ocean Sci. J.: 44(2); 2009; 117-123 OXYGEN ISOTOPE RECORDS OF GLOBIGERINA BULLOIDES ACROSS A NORTH-SOUTH TRANSECT IN THE SOUTH-WESTERN INDIAN OCEAN N. Khare 1* , S. K. Chaturvedi 2 and R. Saraswat 3 1. Ministry of Earth Sciences, Block...

  4. Chromatographic determination of the relative retention of isotopic species of oxygen in methanol and methan-d3-ol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pauls, R.E.; Mahle, N.H.; Shepard, A.T.; Gaw, J.C.; Rogers, L.B.

    1976-08-01

    A high-precision gas chromatograph was used in conjunction with a quadrupole mass filter and an on-line computer to study the fractionation of oxygen isotopes by Porapak T and glycerol in CH 3 OH and CD 3 OH as a function of temperature. Values of relative retention on the order of 1.002 compared favorably with results for the vapor pressure ratio obtained by classical means. Differences from unity were much smaller for the activity-coefficient ratio than for the vapor-pressure ratio. Differential thermodynamic data were also reported

  5. Oxygen isotope partitioning between rhyolitic glass/melt and CO2: An experimental study at 550-950 degrees C and 1 bar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palin, J.M.; Epstein, S.; Stolper, E.M.

    1996-01-01