Sample records for rich inclusion cai

  1. Calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions with fractionation and unknown nuclear effects (FUN CAIs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krot, Alexander N.; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Wasserburg, Gerald J.


    We present a detailed characterization of the mineralogy, petrology, and oxygen isotopic compositions of twelve FUN CAIs, including C1 and EK1-4-1 from Allende (CV), that were previously shown to have large isotopic fractionation patterns for magnesium and oxygen, and large isotopic anomalies...

  2. Calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions with fractionation and unidentified nuclear effects (FUN CAIs): II. Heterogeneities of magnesium isotopes and 26Al in the early Solar System inferred from in situ high-precision magnesium-isotope measurements (United States)

    Park, Changkun; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Krot, Alexander N.; Huss, Gary R.; Davis, Andrew M.; Bizzarro, Martin


    Calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions with isotopic mass fractionation effects and unidentified nuclear isotopic anomalies (FUN CAIs) have been studied for more than 40 years, but their origins remain enigmatic. Here we report in situ high precision measurements of aluminum-magnesium isotope systematics of FUN CAIs by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). Individual minerals were analyzed in six FUN CAIs from the oxidized CV3 carbonaceous chondrites Axtell (compact Type A CAI Axtell 2271) and Allende (Type B CAIs C1 and EK1-4-1, and forsterite-bearing Type B CAIs BG82DH8, CG-14, and TE). Most of these CAIs show evidence for excess 26Mg due to the decay of 26Al. The inferred initial 26Al/27Al ratios [(26Al/27Al)0] and the initial magnesium isotopic compositions (δ26Mg0) calculated using an exponential law with an exponent β of 0.5128 are (3.1 ± 1.6) × 10-6 and 0.60 ± 0.10‰ (Axtell 2271), (3.7 ± 1.5) × 10-6 and -0.20 ± 0.05‰ (BG82DH8), (2.2 ± 1.1) × 10-6 and -0.18 ± 0.05‰ (C1), (2.3 ± 2.4) × 10-5 and -2.23 ± 0.37‰ (EK1-4-1), (1.5 ± 1.1) × 10-5 and -0.42 ± 0.08‰ (CG-14), and (5.3 ± 0.9) × 10-5 and -0.05 ± 0.08‰ (TE) with 2σ uncertainties. We infer that FUN CAIs recorded heterogeneities of magnesium isotopes and 26Al in the CAI-forming region(s). Comparison of 26Al-26Mg systematics, stable isotope (oxygen, magnesium, calcium, and titanium) and trace element studies of FUN and non-FUN igneous CAIs indicates that there is a continuum among these CAI types. Based on these observations and evaporation experiments on CAI-like melts, we propose a generic scenario for the origin of igneous (FUN and non-FUN) CAIs: (i) condensation of isotopically normal solids in an 16O-rich gas of approximately solar composition; (ii) formation of CAI precursors by aggregation of these solids together with variable abundances of isotopically anomalous grains-possible carriers of unidentified nuclear (UN) effects; and (iii) melt evaporation of these precursors

  3. Multiple Nebular Gas Reservoirs Recorded by Oxygen Isotope Variation in a Spinel-rich CAI in CO3 MIL 090019 (United States)

    Simon, J. I.; Simon, S. B.; Nguyen, A. N.; Ross, D. K.; Messenger, S.


    We conducted NanoSIMS O-isotopic imaging of a primitive spinel-rich CAI spherule (27-2) from the MIL 090019 CO3 chondrite. Inclusions such as 27-2 are proposed to record inner nebula processes during an epoch of rapid solar nebula evolution. Mineralogical and textural analyses suggest that this CAI formed by high temperature reactions, partial melting, and condensation. This CAI exhibits radial O-isotopic heterogeneity among multiple occurrences of the same mineral, reflecting interactions with distinct nebular O-isotopic reservoirs.

  4. Northwest Africa 10758: A New CV3 Chondrite Bearing a Giant CAI with Hibonite-Rich Wark-Lovering Rim (United States)

    Ross, D. K.; Simon, J. I.; Zolensky, M.


    Northwest Africa (NWA) 10758 is a newly identified carbonaceous chondrite that is a Bali-like oxidized CV3. The large Ca-Al rich inclusion (CAI) in this sample is approx. 2.4 x 1.4 cm. The CAI is transitional in composition between type A and type B, with interior mineralogy dominated by melilite, plus less abundant spinel and Al-Ti rich diopside, and only very minor anorthite (Fig. 1A). This CAI is largely free of secondary alteration in the exposed section we examined, with almost no nepheline, sodalite or Ca-Fe silicates. The Wark-Lovering (WL) rim on this CAI is dominated by hibonite, with lower abundances of spinel and perovskite, and with hibonite locally overlain by melilite plus perovskite (as in Fig. 1B). Note that the example shown in 1B is exceptional. Around most of the CAI, hibonite + spinel + perovskite form the WL rim, without overlying melilite. The WL rim can be unusually thick, ranging from approx.20 microns up to approx. 150 microns. A well-developed, stratified accretionary rim infills embayments of the CAI, and thins over protuberances in the convoluted CAI surface.

  5. NWA10758: A New CV3 Chondrite Bearing a Giant CAI with Hibonite-Rich Wark-Lovering Rim (United States)

    Ross, D. K.; Simon, J. I.; Zolensky, M.


    Northwest Africa (NWA) 10758 is a newly identified carbonaceous chondrite that is a Bali-like oxidized CV3. The large Ca-Al rich inclusion (CAI) in this sample is approx. 2.4 x 1.4 cm. The CAI is transitional in composition between type A and type B, with interior mineralogy dominated by melilite, plus less abundant spinel and Al-Ti rich diopside, and only very minor anorthite (Fig. 1A). This CAI is largely free of secondary alteration in the exposed section we examined, with almost no nepheline, sodalite or Ca-Fe silicates. The Wark-Lovering (WL) rim on this CAI is dominated by hibonite, with lower abundances of spinel and perovskite, and with hibonite locally overlain by melilite plus perovskite (as in Fig. 1B). Note that the example shown in 1B is exceptional. Around most of the CAI, hibonite + spinel + perovskite form the WL rim, without overlying melilite. The WL rim can be unusually thick, ranging from approx. 20 microns up to approx. 150 microns. A well-developed, stratified accretionary rim infills embayments of the CAI, and thins over protuberances in the convoluted CAI surface.

  6. Oxygen isotopic abundances in calcium- aluminum-rich inclusions from ordinary chondrites: implications for nebular heterogeneity. (United States)

    McKeegan, K D; Leshin, L A; Russell, S S; MacPherson, G J


    The oxygen isotopic compositions of two calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) from the unequilibrated ordinary chondrite meteorites Quinyambie and Semarkona are enriched in 16O by an amount similar to that in CAIs from carbonaceous chondrites. This may indicate that most CAIs formed in a restricted region of the solar nebula and were then unevenly distributed throughout the various chondrite accretion regions. The Semarkona CAI is isotopically homogeneous and contains highly 16O-enriched melilite, supporting the hypothesis that all CAI minerals were originally 16O-rich, but that in most carbonaceous chondrite inclusions some minerals exchanged oxygen isotopes with an external reservoir following crystallization.

  7. A New Type of Foreign Clast in A Polymict Ureilite: A CAI or AL-Rich Chondrule (United States)

    Goodrich, C. A.; Ross, D. K.; Treiman, A. H.


    inclusions in chondrites [21,24-31]. However, the clast 8 pyroxene matches only the most Al-Ca-rich of these, e.g., pyroxenes in type B CAIs in CV3 chondrites [25,30,31], a pyroxene-hibonite spherule and a pyroxene-anorthitespinel fragment from unique CC Acfer 094 [29], and one Al-rich chondrule from Chainpur (LL3.4) [21]. The mineralogy of clast 8 is not consistent with the mineral assemblages of any of these objects (since it lacks hibonite, spinel and/or anorthite), which suggests that it is unrepresentatively sectioned or is a fragment of a more mineralogically diverse object. Its bulk composition (Table 1; Fig. 3) is similar to bulk compositions of some Al-rich chondrules, as well as those of Type C CAIs (which plot in the sp+An+L field in Fig. 3), although it is enriched in silica relative to type C CAIs [e.g., 31]. This suggests a more likely affinity to Al-rich chondrules, although most Al-rich chondrules have less Al-Ca-rich pyroxene [21,26,27]. These bulk compositional comparisons may not be definitive, however, if the clast is unrepresentatively sampled. One of eleven Al-rich chondrules from UOCs described by [21] has textural and compositional characteristics that make it a possible progenitor type for clast 8. This chondrule (Chainpur 1251-14-2) is anorthiteporphyritic, with an interstitial dendritic intergrowth of pyroxene (similar in composition to that in clast 8) and plagioclase [21]. Clast 8 is conceivably a fragment from the interstitial area of such an object. The occurrence of glassy mesostasis (in clast 8) rather than plagioclase may not be a significant difference; it could result from a difference only in cooling rate. Al-rich chondrules with glassy mesostasis are rare, and known occurrences are Ca-poor [26], unlike clast 8. Polymict ureilites are known to contain xenoliths of various chondrites (including OC, R and CC) as well as individual ferromagnesian and silica-pyroxene chondrules probably derived from OC or RC [6,9,15,16,18]. This is the first

  8. Multiple Nebular Gas Reservoirs Recorded by Oxygen Isotope Variation in a Spinel-Rich CAI in CO3 MIL 090019 (United States)

    Simon, J. I.; Simon, S. B.; Nguyen, A. N.; Ross, D. K.; Messenger, S.


    We conducted NanoSIMS ion imaging studies of a primitive spinel-rich CAI from the MIL 090019 CO3 chondrite. It records radial O-isotopic heterogeneity among multiple occurrences of the same mineral, reflecting distinct nebular O-isotopic reservoirs.

  9. Rhenium-osmium systematics of calcium-aluminium-rich inclusions in carbonaceous chondrites (United States)

    Becker, H.; Morgan, J.W.; Walker, R.J.; MacPherson, G.J.; Grossman, J.N.


    The Re-Os isotopic systematics of calcium-aluminium-rich inclusions (CAIs) in chondrites were investigated in order to shed light on the behavior of the Re-Os system in bulk chondrites, and to constrain the timing of chemical fractionation in primitive chondrites. CAIs with relatively unfractionated rare earth element (REE) patterns (groups I, III, V, VI) define a narrow range of 187Re/188Os (0.3764-0.4443) and 187Os/188Os (0.12599-0.12717), and high but variable Re and Os abundances (3209-41,820 ppb Os). In contrast, CAIs that show depletions in highly refractory elements and strongly fractionated REE patterns (group II) also show a much larger range in 187Re/188Os (0.409-0.535) and 187Os/188Os (0.12695-0.13770), and greater than an order of magnitude lower Re and Os abundances than other groups (e.g., 75.7-680.2 ppb Os). Sixteen bulk CAIs and CAI splits plot within analytical uncertainty of a 4558 Ga reference isochron, as is expected for materials of this antiquity. Eight samples, however, plot off the isochron. Several possible reasons for these deviations are discussed. Data for multiple splits of one CAI indicate that the nonisochronous behavior for at least this CAI is the result of Re-Os reequilibration at approximately 1.6 Ga. Thus, the most likely explanation for the deviations of most of the nonisochronous CAIs is late-stage open-system behavior of Re and Os in the asteroidal environment. The 187Os/188Os-Os systematics of CAIs are consistent with previous models that indicate group II CAIs are mixtures of components that lost the bulk of their highly refractory elements in a previous condensation event and a minor second component that provided refractory elements at chondritic relative proportions. The high Re/Os of group II CAIs relative to other CAIs and chondrite bulk rocks may have been caused by variable mobilization of Re and Os during medium- to low-temperature parent body alteration ??4.5 Ga ago. This model is favored over nebular models, which

  10. The Origin and Evolution of Nucleosynthetic Sr Isotope Variability in Calcium and Aluminum-rich Refractory Inclusions (United States)

    Myojo, Kunihiro; Yokoyama, Tetsuya; Okabayashi, Satoki; Wakaki, Shigeyuki; Sugiura, Naoji; Iwamori, Hikaru


    Nucleosynthetic isotope anomalies in meteorites are useful for investigating the origin of materials in the protoplanetary disk and dynamical processes of planetary formation. In particular, calcium and aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) found in chondrites are key minerals for decoding the initial conditions of the solar system before the accretion of small planetary bodies. In this study, we report isotopic analyses for three Allende CAIs, fluffy type A (FTA), type B, and fine-grained spinel rich (FS) inclusions, with a specific emphasis on the measurements of 84Sr/86Sr ratios. It was found that the average μ 84Sr values (106 relative deviations from a standard material) were 175, 129, and 56 ppm for the samples of FTA, type B, and FS inclusions, respectively. Additionally, the FTA samples exhibited heterogeneous μ 84Sr values, while those for the type B and FS inclusions were homogeneous within individual inclusions. The elevated μ 84Sr values were most likely explained by the relative enrichment of r-process nuclides in the CAI formation region. The variation of μ 84Sr values between the FTA and type B inclusions, as well as within the FTA inclusion, suggests the presence of multiple CAI source reservoirs with distinct isotopic compositions, which is either inherited from isotopic heterogeneity in the molecular cloud or caused by the selective destruction of r-process-enriched supernova grains via nebular thermal processing. On the other hand, the reaction between a refractory precursor of the FS inclusion and a gaseous reservoir enriched in Mg, Si, and 16O resulted in the lowest μ 84Sr values for the FS inclusion.

  11. CAIs in Semarkona (LL3.0) (United States)

    Mishra, R. K.; Simon, J. I.; Ross, D. K.; Marhas, K. K.


    Calcium, Aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) are the first forming solids of the Solar system. Their observed abundance, mean size, and mineralogy vary quite significantly between different groups of chondrites. These differences may reflect the dynamics and distinct cosmochemical conditions present in the region(s) of the protoplanetary disk from which each type likely accreted. Only about 11 such objects have been found in L and LL type while another 57 have been found in H type ordinary chondrites, compared to thousands in carbonaceous chondrites. At issue is whether the rare CAIs contained in ordinary chondrites truly reflect a distinct population from the inclusions commonly found in other chondrite types. Semarkona (LL3.00) (fall, 691 g) is the most pristine chondrite available in our meteorite collection. Here we report petrography and mineralogy of 3 CAIs from Semarkona

  12. Oxygen isotope variations at the margin of a CAI records circulation within the solar nebula. (United States)

    Simon, Justin I; Hutcheon, Ian D; Simon, Steven B; Matzel, Jennifer E P; Ramon, Erick C; Weber, Peter K; Grossman, Lawrence; DePaolo, Donald J


    Micrometer-scale analyses of a calcium-, aluminum-rich inclusion (CAI) and the characteristic mineral bands mantling the CAI reveal that the outer parts of this primitive object have a large range of oxygen isotope compositions. The variations are systematic; the relative abundance of (16)O first decreases toward the CAI margin, approaching a planetary-like isotopic composition, then shifts to extremely (16)O-rich compositions through the surrounding rim. The variability implies that CAIs probably formed from several oxygen reservoirs. The observations support early and short-lived fluctuations of the environment in which CAIs formed, either because of transport of the CAIs themselves to distinct regions of the solar nebula or because of varying gas composition near the proto-Sun.

  13. Stable Magnesium Isotope Variation in Melilite Mantle of Allende Type B1 CAI EK 459-5-1 (United States)

    Kerekgyarto, A. G.; Jeffcoat, C. R.; Lapen, T. J.; Andreasen, R.; Righter, M.; Ross, D. K.


    Ca-Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) are the earliest formed crystalline material in our solar system and they record early Solar System processes. Here we present petrographic and delta Mg-25 data of melilite mantles in a Type B1 CAI that records early solar nebular processes.

  14. INAA of CAIs from the Maralinga CK4 chondrite: Effects of parent body thermal metamorphism (United States)

    Lindstrom, D. J.; Keller, L. P.; Martinez, R. R.


    Maralinga is an anomalous CK4 carbonaceous chondrite which contains numerous Ca-, Al-rich inclusions (CAI's) unlike the other members of the CK group. These CAI's are characterized by abundant green hercynitic spinel intergrown with plagioclase and high-Ca clinopyroxene, and a total lack of melilite. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) was used to further characterize the meteorite, with special focus on the CAI's. High sensitivity INAA was done on eight sample disks about 100-150 microns in diameter obtained from a normal 30 micron thin section with a diamond microcoring device. The CAI's are enriched by 60-70X bulk meteorite values in Zn, suggesting that the substantial exchange of Fe for Mg that made the spinel in the CAI's hercynitic also allowed efficient scavenging of Zn from the rest of the meteorite during parent body thermal metamorphism. Less mobile elements appear to have maintained their initial heterogeneity.

  15. A multielement isotopic study of refractory FUN and F CAIs: Mass-dependent and mass-independent isotope effects (United States)

    Kööp, Levke; Nakashima, Daisuke; Heck, Philipp R.; Kita, Noriko T.; Tenner, Travis J.; Krot, Alexander N.; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Park, Changkun; Davis, Andrew M.


    Calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) are the oldest dated objects that formed inside the Solar System. Among these are rare, enigmatic objects with large mass-dependent fractionation effects (F CAIs), which sometimes also have large nucleosynthetic anomalies and a low initial abundance of the short-lived radionuclide 26Al (FUN CAIs). We have studied seven refractory hibonite-rich CAIs and one grossite-rich CAI from the Murchison (CM2) meteorite for their oxygen, calcium, and titanium isotopic compositions. The 26Al-26Mg system was also studied in seven of these CAIs. We found mass-dependent heavy isotope enrichment in all measured elements, but never simultaneously in the same CAI. The data are hard to reconcile with a single-stage melt evaporation origin and may require reintroduction or reequilibration for magnesium, oxygen and titanium after evaporation for some of the studied CAIs. The initial 26Al/27Al ratios inferred from model isochrons span a range from <1 × 10-6 to canonical (∼5 × 10-5). The CAIs show a mutual exclusivity relationship between inferred incorporation of live 26Al and the presence of resolvable anomalies in 48Ca and 50Ti. Furthermore, a relationship exists between 26Al incorporation and Δ17O in the hibonite-rich CAIs (i.e., 26Al-free CAIs have resolved variations in Δ17O, while CAIs with resolved 26Mg excesses have Δ17O values close to -23‰). Only the grossite-rich CAI has a relatively enhanced Δ17O value (∼-17‰) in spite of a near-canonical 26Al/27Al. We interpret these data as indicating that fractionated hibonite-rich CAIs formed over an extended time period and sampled multiple stages in the isotopic evolution of the solar nebula, including: (1) an 26Al-poor nebula with large positive and negative anomalies in 48Ca and 50Ti and variable Δ17O; (2) a stage of 26Al-admixture, during which anomalies in 48Ca and 50Ti had been largely diluted and a Δ17O value of ∼-23‰ had been achieved in the CAI formation region; and (3

  16. Coordinated Oxygen Isotopic and Petrologic Studies of CAIS Record Varying Composition of Protosolar (United States)

    Simon, Justin I.; Matzel, J. E. P.; Simon, S. B.; Weber, P. K.; Grossman, L.; Ross, D. K.; Hutcheon, I. D.


    Ca-, Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) record the O-isotope composition of Solar nebular gas from which they grew [1]. High spatial resolution O-isotope measurements afforded by ion microprobe analysis across the rims and margin of CAIs reveal systematic variations in (Delta)O-17 and suggest formation from a diversity of nebular environments [2-4]. This heterogeneity has been explained by isotopic mixing between the O-16-rich Solar reservoir [6] and a second O-16-poor reservoir (probably nebular gas) with a "planetary-like" isotopic composition [e.g., 1, 6-7], but the mechanism and location(s) where these events occur within the protoplanetary disk remain uncertain. The orientation of large and systematic variations in (Delta)O-17 reported by [3] for a compact Type A CAI from the Efremovka reduced CV3 chondrite differs dramatically from reports by [4] of a similar CAI, A37 from the Allende oxidized CV3 chondrite. Both studies conclude that CAIs were exposed to distinct, nebular O-isotope reservoirs, implying the transfer of CAIs among different settings within the protoplanetary disk [4]. To test this hypothesis further and the extent of intra-CAI O-isotopic variation, a pristine compact Type A CAI, Ef-1 from Efremovka, and a Type B2 CAI, TS4 from Allende were studied. Our new results are equally intriguing because, collectively, O-isotopic zoning patterns in the CAIs indicate a progressive and cyclic record. The results imply that CAIs were commonly exposed to multiple environments of distinct gas during their formation. Numerical models help constrain conditions and duration of these events.

  17. Effect of carbo-nitride-rich and oxide-rich inclusions on the pitting susceptibility of depleted uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pu, Zhen; Chen, Xianglin; Meng, Xiandong; Wu, Yanping; Shen, Liang; Wang, Qingfu; Liu, Tianwei; Shuai, Maobing


    Highlights: •The Volta potential differences relative to the matrix are positive for both types of inclusions. •Both types of inclusions are cathodic in the “inclusion/matrix” microgalvanic couples. •The oxide-rich inclusions show a larger Volta potential value of about 115 mV than the carbo-nitride-rich inclusions. •The oxide-rich inclusions give stronger local galvanic coupling with the matrix. •The oxide-rich inclusions are more predisposed to initiate pitting corrosion. -- Abstract: The effects of carbo-nitride-rich and oxide-rich inclusions on the pitting susceptibility of depleted uranium were investigated by electrochemical corrosion measurements, optical microscopy, scanning Kelvin probe force microscopy (SKPFM), and SEM. The results of the potentiodynamic polarization tests suggest that oxide-rich inclusions are more likely to induce pitting corrosion than carbo-nitride-rich inclusions. This enhanced corrosion may be explained by the strong local galvanic coupling between the oxide-rich inclusion and the surrounding matrix, which, from the sight of SKPFM analysis, exhibits a 115 V higher Volta potential than the coupling between the carbo-nitride-rich inclusions and the matrix, respectively.

  18. Calcium and Titanium Isotope Fractionation in CAIS: Tracers of Condensation and Inheritance in the Early Solar Protoplanetary Disk (United States)

    Simon, J. I.; Jordan, M. K.; Tappa, M. J.; Kohl, I. E.; Young, E. D.


    The chemical and isotopic compositions of calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) can be used to understand the conditions present in the protoplantary disk where they formed. The isotopic compositions of these early-formed nebular materials are largely controlled by chemical volatility. The isotopic effects of evaporation/sublimation, which are well explained by both theory and experimental work, lead to enrichments of the heavy isotopes that are often exhibited by the moderately refractory elements Mg and Si. Less well understood are the isotopic effects of condensation, which limits our ability to determine whether a CAI is a primary condensate and/or retains any evidence of its primordial formation history.

  19. An ion microprobe study of CAIs from CO3 meteorites. [Abstract only (United States)

    Russell, S. S.; Greenwood, R. C.; Fahey, A. J.; Huss, G. R.; Wasserburg, G. J.


    When attempting to interpret the history of Ca, Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) it is often difficult to distinguish between primary features inherited from the nebula and those produced during secondary processing on the parent body. We have undertaken a systematic study of CAIs from 10 CO chondrites, believed to represent a metamorphic sequence with the goal of distinguishing primary and secondary features. ALHA 77307 (3.0), Colony (3.0), Kainsaz (3.1), Felix (3.2), ALH 82101 (3.3), Ornans (3.3), Lance (3.4), ALHA 77003 (3.5), Warrenton (3.6), and Isna (3.7) were examined by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and optical microscopy. We have identified 141 CAIs within these samples, and studied in detail the petrology of 34 inclusions. The primary phases in the lower petrologic types are spinel, melilite, and hibonite. Perovskite, FeS, ilmenite, anorthite, kirschsteinite, and metallic Fe are present as minor phases. Melilite becomes less abundant in higher petrologic types and was not detected in chondrites of type 3.5 and above, confirming previous reports that this mineral easily breaks down during heating. Iron, an element that would not be expected to condense at high temperatures, has a lower abundance in spinel from low-petrologic-type meteorites than those of higher grade, and CaTiO3 is replaced by FeTiO3 in meteorites of higher petrologic type. The abundance of CAIs is similar in each meteorite. Eight inclusions have been analyzed by ion probe. The results are summarized. The results obtained to date show that CAIs in CO meteorites, like those from other meteorite classes, contain Mg* and that Mg in some inclusions has been redistributed.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krot, A N; Chaussidon, M; Yurimoto, H; Sakamoto, N; Nagashima, K; Hutcheon, I D; MacPherson, G J


    Based on the mineralogy and petrography, coarse-grained, igneous, anorthite-rich (Type C) calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) in the CV3 carbonaceous chondrite Allende have been recently divided into three groups: (i) CAIs with melilite and Al,Ti-diopside of massive and lacy textures (coarse grains with numerous rounded inclusions of anorthite) in a fine-grained anorthite groundmass (6-1-72, 100, 160), (ii) CAI CG5 with massive melilite, Al,Ti-diopside and anorthite, and (iii) CAIs associated with chondrule material: either containing chondrule fragments in their peripheries (ABC, TS26) or surrounded by chondrule-like, igneous rims (93) (Krot et al., 2007a,b). Here, we report in situ oxygen isotopic measurements of primary (melilite, spinel, Al,Ti-diopside, anorthite) and secondary (grossular, monticellite, forsterite) minerals in these CAIs. Spinel ({Delta}{sup 17}O = -25{per_thousand} to -20{per_thousand}), massive and lacy Al,Ti-diopside ({Delta}{sup 17}O = -20{per_thousand} to -5{per_thousand}) and fine-grained anorthite ({Delta}{sup 17}O = -15{per_thousand} to -2{per_thousand}) in 100, 160 and 6-1-72 are {sup 16}O-enriched relative spinel and coarse-grained Al,Ti-diopside and anorthite in ABC, 93 and TS26 ({Delta}{sup 17}O ranges from -20{per_thousand} to -15{per_thousand}, from -15{per_thousand} to -5{per_thousand}, and from -5{per_thousand} to 0{per_thousand}, respectively). In 6-1-72, massive and lacy Al,Ti-diopside grains are {sup 16}O-depleted ({Delta}{sup 17}O {approx} -13{per_thousand}) relative to spinel ({Delta}{sup 17}O = -23{per_thousand}). Melilite is the most {sup 16}O-depleted mineral in all Allende Type C CAIs. In CAI 100, melilite and secondary grossular, monticellite and forsterite (minerals replacing melilite) are similarly {sup 16}O-depleted, whereas grossular in CAI 160 is {sup 16}O-enriched ({Delta}{sup 17}O = -10{per_thousand} to -6{per_thousand}) relative to melilite ({Delta}{sup 17}O = -5{per_thousand} to -3{per_thousand}). We infer

  1. Trace Element Abundances in an Unusual Hibonite-Perovskite Refractory Inclusion from Allende (United States)

    Mane, Prajkta; Wadhwa, M.; Keller, L. P.


    Calcium-aluminum-rich refractory inclusions (CAIs) are thought to be the first-formed solids in the Solar protoplanetary disk and can provide information about the earliest Solar System processes (e.g., [1]). A hibonite-perovskitebearing CAI from the Allende CV3 chondrite (SHAL, [2]) contains a single of 500 micrometers hibonite grain and coarse-grained perovskite. The mineralogy and oxygen isotopic composition of this CAI shows similarities with FUN inclusions, especially HAL [2]. Here we present trace element abundances in SHAL.

  2. CAI: Overcoming Attitude Barriers. (United States)

    Netusil, Anton J.; Kockler, Lois H.

    During each of two school quarters, approximately 60 college students enrolled in a mathematics course were randomly assigned to an experimental group or a control group. The control group received instruction by the lecture method only; the experimental group received the same instruction, except that six computer-assisted instruction (CAI) units…

  3. Mineralogy and Oxygen Isotope Compositions of an Unusual Hibonite-Perovskite Refractory Inclusion from Allende (United States)

    Keller, L. P.; Snead, C.; Rahman, Z.; McKeegan, K. D.


    Hibonite-rich Ca- and Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) are among the earliest formed solids that condensed in the early nebula. We discovered an unusual refractory inclusion from the Allende CV3 chondrite (SHAL) containing an approx 500 micron long single crystal of hibonite and co-existing coarse-grained perovskite. The mineralogy and petrography of SHAL show strong similarities to some FUN inclusions, especially HAL. Here we report on the mineralogy, petrography, mineral chemistry and oxygen isotopic compositions in SHAL.

  4. Calcium and titanium isotopes in refractory inclusions from CM, CO, and CR chondrites (United States)

    Kööp, Levke; Davis, Andrew M.; Krot, Alexander N.; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Simon, Steven B.


    Previous studies have shown that CV and CM chondrites incorporated Ca, Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) with different isotopic characteristics, which may represent different snapshots in the isotopic evolution of the early Solar System. To better understand how the isotopic characteristics of CAIs vary between different chondrite groups, we have studied calcium and titanium isotopes in CAIs from CM, CO, and CR chondrites. We show that all three chondrite groups contain CAIs with large anomalies in 48Ca and/or 50Ti (10s of ‰ or 100s of ε-units) as well as CAIs with no anomalies resolved beyond measurement uncertainties. Isotopically, the anomalous CO and CR chondrite CAIs resemble the platy hibonite crystals (PLACs) from CM chondrites, but they are more mineralogically complex. The new data are consistent with the well-established mutual exclusivity relationship between incorporation of 26Al and the presence of large anomalies in 48Ca and 50Ti. The two highly anomalous CO chondrite CAIs have correlated anomalies in 46Ti and 50Ti, while most other highly anomalous CAIs do not. This result could indicate that the reservoir with coupled 46Ti and 50Ti that was sampled by bulk meteorites and CV chondrite CAIs already existed before arrival and/or homogeneous distribution of 26Al in the protoplanetary disk. Among the studied CM chondrite CAIs are ten spinel-hibonite inclusions (SHIBs) with known oxygen isotopic compositions. Our results show that these objects sampled a reservoir that was well-mixed in oxygen, calcium, and titanium isotopes. We further show that SHIBs tend to be slightly enriched in the heavy calcium isotopes, suggesting that their formation history was different from CV chondrite CAIs.

  5. 182Hf-182W age dating of a 26Al-poor inclusion and implications for the origin of short-lived radioisotopes in the early Solar System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Jesper Christian; Olsen, Mia Bjørg Stolberg; Paton, Chad


    provide a unique window into the earliest Solar System, including the origin of short-lived radioisotopes. However, their chronology is unknown. Using the 182Hf–182W chronometer, we show that a FUN CAI recording a condensation origin from a solar gas formed coevally with canonical CAIs, but with 26Al/27Al......Refractory inclusions [calcium–aluminum-rich inclusions, (CAIs)] represent the oldest Solar System solids and provide information regarding the formation of the Sun and its protoplanetary disk. CAIs contain evidence of now extinct short-lived radioisotopes (e.g., 26Al, 41Ca, and 182Hf) synthesized...... in one or multiple stars and added to the protosolar molecular cloud before or during its collapse. Understanding how and when short-lived radioisotopes were added to the Solar System is necessary to assess their validity as chronometers and constrain the birthplace of the Sun. Whereas most CAIs formed...

  6. Oxygen isotope exchange between refractory inclusion in allende and solar nebula Gas (United States)

    Yurimoto; Ito; Nagasawa


    A calcium-aluminum-rich inclusion (CAI) from the Allende meteorite was analyzed and found to contain melilite crystals with extreme oxygen-isotope compositions ( approximately 5 percent oxygen-16 enrichment relative to terrestrial oxygen-16). Some of the melilite is also anomalously enriched in oxygen-16 compared with oxygen isotopes measured in other CAIs. The oxygen isotopic variation measured among the minerals (melilite, spinel, and fassaite) indicates that crystallization of the CAI started from oxygen-16-rich materials that were probably liquid droplets in the solar nebula, and oxygen isotope exchange with the surrounding oxygen-16-poor nebular gas progressed through the crystallization of the CAI. Additional oxygen isotope exchange also occurred during subsequent reheating events in the solar nebula.

  7. Isotopic coherence of refractory inclusions from CV and CK meteorites: Evidence from multiple isotope systems (United States)

    Shollenberger, Quinn R.; Borg, Lars E.; Render, Jan; Ebert, Samuel; Bischoff, Addi; Russell, Sara S.; Brennecka, Gregory A.


    Calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) are the oldest dated materials in the Solar System and numerous previous studies have revealed nucleosynthetic anomalies relative to terrestrial rock standards in many isotopic systems. However, most of the isotopic data from CAIs has been limited to the Allende meteorite and a handful of other CV3 chondrites. To better constrain the isotopic composition of the CAI-forming region, we report the first Sr, Mo, Ba, Nd, and Sm isotopic compositions of two CAIs hosted in the CK3 desert meteorites NWA 4964 and NWA 6254 along with two CAIs from the CV3 desert meteorites NWA 6619 and NWA 6991. After consideration of neutron capture processes and the effects of hot-desert weathering, the Sr, Mo, Ba, Nd, and Sm stable isotopic compositions of the samples show clearly resolvable nucleosynthetic anomalies that are in agreement with previous results from Allende and other CV meteorites. The extent of neutron capture, as manifested by shifts in the observed 149Sm-150Sm isotopic composition of the CAIs is used to estimate the neutron fluence experienced by some of these samples and ranges from 8.40 × 1013 to 2.11 × 1015 n/cm2. Overall, regardless of CAI type or host meteorite, CAIs from CV and CK chondrites have similar nucleosynthetic anomalies within analytical uncertainty. We suggest the region that CV and CK CAIs formed was largely uniform with respect to Sr, Mo, Ba, Nd, and Sm isotopes when CAIs condensed and that CAIs hosted in CV and CK meteorites are derived from the same isotopic reservoir.

  8. Existence of an 16O-rich gaseous reservoir in the solar nebula. (United States)

    Krot, Alexander N; McKeegan, Kevin D; Leshin, Laurie A; MacPherson, Glenn J; Scott, Edward R D


    Carbonaceous chondrite condensate olivine grains from two distinct petrographic settings, calcium-aluminum-rich inclusion (CAI) accretionary rims and amoeboid olivine aggregates (AOAs), are oxygen-16 (16O) enriched at the level previously observed inside CAIs. This requires that the gas in the nebular region where these grains condensed was 16O-rich. This contrasts with an 16O-poor gas present during the formation of chondrules, suggesting that CAIs and AOAs formed in a spatially restricted region of the solar nebula containing 16O-rich gas. The 16O-rich gas composition may have resulted either from mass-independent isotopic chemistry or from evaporation of regions with enhanced dust/gas ratios, possibly in an X-wind environment near the young Sun.

  9. Molybdenite in calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions in the Allende meteorite (United States)

    Fuchs, L. H.; Blander, M.


    The first observations of molybdenite in a meteorite have been made in two Ca-Al-rich inclusions in the Allende chondrite. The mineral occurs as single individuals completely enclosed in high Ni metal (62-64.5 wt. % Ni). The association with refractories is consistent with thermodynamic calculations which predict that Mo is a high temperature condensate even when nucleation constraints are imposed on the formation of a metal phase. Kinetic factors (including nucleation constraints) appear to have played an important role in the formation of molybdenite and the associated sulfides, magnetite and high nickel metal.

  10. Water- and Boron-Rich Melt Inclusions in Quartz from the Malkhan Pegmatite, Transbaikalia, Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Badanina


    Full Text Available In this paper we show that the pegmatite-forming processes responsible for the formation of the Malkhan pegmatites started at magmatic temperatures around 720 °C. The primary melts or supercritical fluids were very water- and boron-rich (maximum values of about 10% (g/g B2O3 and over the temperature interval from 720 to 600 °C formed a pseudobinary solvus, indicated by the coexistence of two types of primary melt inclusions (type-A and type-B representing a pair of conjugate melts. Due to the high water and boron concentration the pegmatite-forming melts are metastable and can be characterized either as genuine melts or silicate-rich fluids. This statement is underscored by Raman spectroscopic studies. This study suggested that the gel state proposed by some authors cannot represent the main stage of the pegmatite-forming processes in the Malkhan pegmatites, and probably in all others. However there are points in the evolution of the pegmatites where the gel- or gel-like state has left traces in form of real gel inclusions in some mineral in the Malkhan pegmatite, however only in a late, fluid dominated stage.

  11. Structural, mechanical and corrosion studies of Cr-rich inclusions in 152 cladding of dissimilar metal weld joint (United States)

    Li, Yifeng; Wang, Jianqiu; Han, En-Hou; Yang, Chengdong


    Cr-rich inclusions were discovered in 152 cladding at the inner wall of domestic dissimilar metal weld joint, and their morphologies, microstructures, mechanical properties and corrosion behaviors were systematically characterized by SEM, TEM, nanoindentation and FIB. The results indicate that the Cr-rich inclusions originate from large-size Cr particles in 152 welding electrode flux, and they are 50-150 μm in size in most cases, and there is a continuous transition zone of 2-5 μm in width between the Cr inclusion core and 152 cladding matrix, and the transition zone consists of Ni & Fe-rich dendritic austenite and Cr23C6 and Cr matrix. The transition zone has the highest nanoindentation hardness (7.66 GPa), which is much harder than the inclusion core (5.14 GPa) and 152 cladding (3.71 GPa). In-situ microscopic tensile tests show that cracks initialize preferentially in transition zone, and then propagate into the inclusion core, and creep further into 152 cladding after penetrating the core area. The inclusion core and its transition zone both share similar oxide film structure with nickel-base 152 cladding matrix in simulated primary water, while those two parts present better general corrosion resistance than 152 cladding matrix due to higher Cr concentration.

  12. 182Hf-182W age dating of a 26Al-poor inclusion and implications for the origin of short-lived radioisotopes in the early Solar System. (United States)

    Holst, Jesper C; Olsen, Mia B; Paton, Chad; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Schiller, Martin; Wielandt, Daniel; Larsen, Kirsten K; Connelly, James N; Jørgensen, Jes K; Krot, Alexander N; Nordlund, Ake; Bizzarro, Martin


    Refractory inclusions [calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions, (CAIs)] represent the oldest Solar System solids and provide information regarding the formation of the Sun and its protoplanetary disk. CAIs contain evidence of now extinct short-lived radioisotopes (e.g., (26)Al, (41)Ca, and (182)Hf) synthesized in one or multiple stars and added to the protosolar molecular cloud before or during its collapse. Understanding how and when short-lived radioisotopes were added to the Solar System is necessary to assess their validity as chronometers and constrain the birthplace of the Sun. Whereas most CAIs formed with the canonical abundance of (26)Al corresponding to (26)Al/(27)Al of ∼5 × 10(-5), rare CAIs with fractionation and unidentified nuclear isotope effects (FUN CAIs) record nucleosynthetic isotopic heterogeneity and (26)Al/(27)Al of Solar System, including the origin of short-lived radioisotopes. However, their chronology is unknown. Using the (182)Hf-(182)W chronometer, we show that a FUN CAI recording a condensation origin from a solar gas formed coevally with canonical CAIs, but with (26)Al/(27)Al of ∼3 × 10(-6). The decoupling between (182)Hf and (26)Al requires distinct stellar origins: steady-state galactic stellar nucleosynthesis for (182)Hf and late-stage contamination of the protosolar molecular cloud by a massive star(s) for (26)Al. Admixing of stellar-derived (26)Al to the protoplanetary disk occurred during the epoch of CAI formation and, therefore, the (26)Al-(26)Mg systematics of CAIs cannot be used to define their formation interval. In contrast, our results support (182)Hf homogeneity and chronological significance of the (182)Hf-(182)W clock.

  13. Exploring Chondrule and CAI Rims Using Micro- and Nano-Scale Petrological and Compositional Analysis (United States)

    Cartwright, J. A.; Perez-Huerta, A.; Leitner, J.; Vollmer, C.


    As the major components within chondrites, chondrules (mm-sized droplets of quenched silicate melt) and calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAI, refractory) represent the most abundant and the earliest materials that solidified from the solar nebula. However, the exact formation mechanisms of these clasts, and whether these processes are related, remains unconstrained, despite extensive petrological and compositional study. By taking advantage of recent advances in nano-scale tomographical techniques, we have undertaken a combined micro- and nano-scale study of CAI and chondrule rim morphologies, to investigate their formation mechanisms. The target lithologies for this research are Wark-Lovering rims (WLR), and fine-grained rims (FGR) around CAIs and chondrules respectively, present within many chondrites. The FGRs, which are up to 100 µm thick, are of particular interest as recent studies have identified presolar grains within them. These grains predate the formation of our Solar System, suggesting FGR formation under nebular conditions. By contrast, WLRs are 10-20 µm thick, made of different compositional layers, and likely formed by flash-heating shortly after CAI formation, thus recording nebular conditions. A detailed multi-scale study of these respective rims will enable us to better understand their formation histories and determine the potential for commonality between these two phases, despite reports of an observed formation age difference of up to 2-3 Myr. We are using a combination of complimentary techniques on our selected target areas: 1) Micro-scale characterization using standard microscopic and compositional techniques (SEM-EBSD, EMPA); 2) Nano-scale characterization of structures using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and elemental, isotopic and tomographic analysis with NanoSIMS and atom probe tomography (APT). Preliminary nano-scale APT analysis of FGR morphologies within the Allende carbonaceous chondrite has successfully discerned

  14. New Petrology, Mineral Chemistry and Stable MG Isotope Compositions of an Allende CAI: EK-459-7-2 (United States)

    Jeffcoat, C. R.; Kerekgyarto, A. G.; Lapen, T. J.; Righter, M.; Simon, J. I.; Ross, D. K.


    Calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) are the key to understanding physical and chemical conditions in the nascent solar nebula. These inclusions have the oldest radiometric ages of solar system materials and are composed of phases that are predicted to condense early from a gas of solar composition. Thus, their chemistry and textures record conditions and processes in the earliest stages of development of the solar nebula. Type B inclusions are typically larger and more coarse grained than other types with substantial evidence that many of them were at least partially molten. Type B inclusions are further subdivided into Type B1 (possess thick melilite mantle) and Type B2 (lack melilite mantle). Despite being extensively studied, the origin of the melilite mantles of Type B1 inclusions remains uncertain. We present petrologic and chemical data for a Type B inclusion, EK-459-7-2, that bears features found in both Type B1 and B2 inclusions and likely represents an intermediate between the two types. Detailed studies of more of these intermediate objects may help to constrain models for Type B1 rim formation.

  15. Corundum-Hibonite Inclusions and the Environments of High Temperature Processing in the Early Solar System (United States)

    Needham, A. W.; Messenger, S.


    Calcium, Aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) are composed of the suite of minerals predicted to be the first to condense from a cooling gas of solar composition [1]. Yet, the first phase to condense, corundum, is rare in CAIs, having mostly reacted to form hibonite followed by other phases at lower temperatures. Many CAIs show evidence of complex post-formational histories, including condensation, evaporation, and melting [e.g. 2, 3]. However, the nature of these thermal events and the nebular environments in which they took place are poorly constrained. Some corundum and corundum-hibonite grains appear to have survived or avoided these complex CAI reprocessing events. Such ultra-refractory CAIs may provide a clearer record of the O isotopic composition of the Sun and the evolution of the O isotopic composition of the planet-forming region [4-6]. Here we present in situ O and Mg isotopic analyses of two corundum/hibonite inclusions that record differing formation histories.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Hsin-Wei; Lee, Typhoon; Lee, Der-Chuen; Chen, Jiang-Chang


    Precise determinations of 48 Ca anomalies in Allende calcium–aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) are reported in this work. There are endemic positive 48 Ca/ 44 Ca anomalies in all analyzed CAIs after normalization to 42 Ca/ 44 Ca, and it is clearly shown that there is no simple correlation between 48 Ca/ 44 Ca and 50 Ti/ 48 Ti anomalies, in agreement with Jungck et al. Compared to the 48 Ca/ 44 Ca versus 50 Ti/ 48 Ti correlation line defined by differentiated meteorites, reported by Chen et al., the CAIs plot to elevated 50 Ti/ 48 Ti. Assuming the 48 Ca/ 44 Ca anomalies of both CAIs and differentiated meteorites came from the same source, excess 50 Ti anomalies in CAIs can be calculated by subtracting the part associated with 48 Ca/ 44 Ca. These excesses show a linear correlation with 138 La anomalies, a neutrino-process nuclide. According to current stellar nucleosynthetic models, we therefore suggest that the solar system 48 Ca, 50 Ti, and 138 La isotopic variations are made of mixtures between grains condensed from ejecta of neutron-rich accretion-induced SNe Ia and the O/Ne–O/C zone of core-collapse SNe II

  17. Computers for Your Classroom: CAI and CMI. (United States)

    Thomas, David B.; Bozeman, William C.


    The availability of compact, low-cost computer systems provides a means of assisting classroom teachers in the performance of their duties. Computer-assisted instruction (CAI) and computer-managed instruction (CMI) are two applications of computer technology with which school administrators should become familiar. CAI is a teaching medium in which…

  18. A risk management approach to CAIS development (United States)

    Hart, Hal; Kerner, Judy; Alden, Tony; Belz, Frank; Tadman, Frank


    The proposed DoD standard Common APSE Interface Set (CAIS) was developed as a framework set of interfaces that will support the transportability and interoperability of tools in the support environments of the future. While the current CAIS version is a promising start toward fulfilling those goals and current prototypes provide adequate testbeds for investigations in support of completing specifications for a full CAIS, there are many reasons why the proposed CAIS might fail to become a usable product and the foundation of next-generation (1990'S) project support environments such as NASA's Space Station software support environment. The most critical threats to the viability and acceptance of the CAIS include performance issues (especially in piggybacked implementations), transportability, and security requirements. To make the situation worse, the solution to some of these threats appears to be at conflict with the solutions to others.

  19. Metal-rich fluid inclusions provide new insights into unconformity-related U deposits (Athabasca Basin and Basement, Canada) (United States)

    Richard, Antonin; Cathelineau, Michel; Boiron, Marie-Christine; Mercadier, Julien; Banks, David A.; Cuney, Michel


    The Paleoproterozoic Athabasca Basin (Canada) hosts numerous giant unconformity-related uranium deposits. The scope of this study is to establish the pressure, temperature, and composition (P-T-X conditions) of the brines that circulated at the base of the Athabasca Basin and in its crystalline basement before, during and after UO2 deposition. These brines are commonly sampled as fluid inclusions in quartz- and dolomite-cementing veins and breccias associated with alteration and U mineralization. Microthermometry and laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) data from five deposits (Rabbit Lake, P-Patch, Eagle Point, Millennium, and Shea Creek) complement previously published data for the McArthur River deposit. In all of the deposits investigated, fluid inclusion salinity is between 25 and 40 wt.% NaCl equiv., with compositions displaying a continuum between a "NaCl-rich brine" end-member (Cl > Na > Ca > Mg > K) and a "CaCl2-rich brine" end-member (Cl > Ca ≈ Mg > Na > K). The CaCl2-rich brine has the highest salinity and shows evidence for halite saturation at the time of trapping. The continuum of compositions between the NaCl-rich brine and the CaCl2-rich brine end-members combined with P-T reconstructions suggest anisothermal mixing of the two brines (NaCl-rich brine, 180 ± 30 °C and 800 ± 400 bars; CaCl2-rich brine, 120 ± 30 °C and 600 ± 300 bars) that occurred under fluctuating pressure conditions (hydrostatic to supra-hydrostatic). However, because the two brines were U bearing and therefore oxidized, brine mixing was probably not the driving force for UO2 deposition. Several scenarios are put forward to account for the Cl-Na-Ca-Mg-K composition of the brines, involving combinations of seawater evaporation, halite dissolution, mixing with a halite-dissolution brine, Mg/Ca exchange by dolomitization, Na/Ca exchange by albitization of plagioclase, Na/K exchange by albitization of K-feldspar, and Mg loss by Mg-rich

  20. Platelet-rich preparations to improve healing. Part II: platelet activation and enrichment, leukocyte inclusion, and other selection criteria. (United States)

    Davis, Vicki L; Abukabda, Alaeddin B; Radio, Nicholas M; Witt-Enderby, Paula A; Clafshenkel, William P; Cairone, J Vito; Rutkowski, James L


    Multiple platelet-rich preparations have been reported to improve wound and bone healing, such as platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and platelet rich fibrin (PRF). The different methods employed during their preparation are important, as they influence the quality of the product applied to a wound or surgical site. Besides the general protocol for preparing the platelet-rich product (discussed in Part 1 of this review), multiple choices need to be considered during its preparation. For example, activation of the platelets is required for the release and enmeshment of growth factors, but the method of activation may influence the resulting matrix, growth factor availability, and healing. Additionally, some methods enrich leukocytes as well as platelets, but others are designed to be leukocyte-poor. Leukocytes have many important roles in healing and their inclusion in PRP results in increased platelet concentrations. Platelet and growth factor enrichment reported for the different types of platelet-rich preparations are also compared. Generally, TGF-β1 and PDGF levels were higher in preparations that contain leukocytes compared to leukocyte-poor PRP. However, platelet concentration may be the most reliable criterion for comparing different preparations. These and other criteria are described to help guide dental and medical professionals, in large and small practices, in selecting the best procedures for their patients. The healing benefits of platelet-rich preparations along with the low risk and availability of simple preparation procedures should encourage more clinicians to incorporate platelet-rich products in their practice to accelerate healing, reduce adverse events, and improve patient outcomes.

  1. Ca-Fe and Alkali-Halide Alteration of an Allende Type B CAI: Aqueous Alteration in Nebular or Asteroidal Settings (United States)

    Ross, D. K.; Simon, J. I.; Simon, S. B.; Grossman, L.


    Ca-Fe and alkali-halide alteration of CAIs is often attributed to aqueous alteration by fluids circulating on asteroidal parent bodies after the various chondritic components have been assembled, although debate continues about the roles of asteroidal vs. nebular modification processes [1-7]. Here we report de-tailed observations of alteration products in a large Type B2 CAI, TS4 from Allende, one of the oxidized subgroup of CV3s, and propose a speculative model for aqueous alteration of CAIs in a nebular setting. Ca-Fe alteration in this CAI consists predominantly of end-member hedenbergite, end-member andradite, and compositionally variable, magnesian high-Ca pyroxene. These phases are strongly concentrated in an unusual "nodule" enclosed within the interior of the CAI (Fig. 1). The Ca, Fe-rich nodule superficially resembles a clast that pre-dated and was engulfed by the CAI, but closer inspection shows that relic spinel grains are enclosed in the nodule, and corroded CAI primary phases interfinger with the Fe-rich phases at the nodule s margins. This CAI also contains abundant sodalite and nepheline (alkali-halide) alteration that occurs around the rims of the CAI, but also penetrates more deeply into the CAI. The two types of alteration (Ca-Fe and alkali-halide) are adjacent, and very fine-grained Fe-rich phases are associated with sodalite-rich regions. Both types of alteration appear to be replacive; if that is true, it would require substantial introduction of Fe, and transport of elements (Ti, Al and Mg) out of the nodule, and introduction of Na and Cl into alkali-halide rich zones. Parts of the CAI have been extensively metasomatized.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Hsin-Wei; Lee, Typhoon; Lee, Der-Chuen; Chen, Jiang-Chang, E-mail: [Institute of Earth Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China)


    Precise determinations of {sup 48}Ca anomalies in Allende calcium–aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) are reported in this work. There are endemic positive {sup 48}Ca/{sup 44}Ca anomalies in all analyzed CAIs after normalization to {sup 42}Ca/{sup 44}Ca, and it is clearly shown that there is no simple correlation between {sup 48}Ca/{sup 44}Ca and {sup 50}Ti/{sup 48}Ti anomalies, in agreement with Jungck et al. Compared to the {sup 48}Ca/{sup 44}Ca versus {sup 50}Ti/{sup 48}Ti correlation line defined by differentiated meteorites, reported by Chen et al., the CAIs plot to elevated {sup 50}Ti/{sup 48}Ti. Assuming the {sup 48}Ca/{sup 44}Ca anomalies of both CAIs and differentiated meteorites came from the same source, excess {sup 50}Ti anomalies in CAIs can be calculated by subtracting the part associated with {sup 48}Ca/{sup 44}Ca. These excesses show a linear correlation with {sup 138}La anomalies, a neutrino-process nuclide. According to current stellar nucleosynthetic models, we therefore suggest that the solar system {sup 48}Ca, {sup 50}Ti, and {sup 138}La isotopic variations are made of mixtures between grains condensed from ejecta of neutron-rich accretion-induced SNe Ia and the O/Ne–O/C zone of core-collapse SNe II.

  3. Extreme alkali bicarbonate- and carbonate-rich fluid inclusions in granite pegmatite from the Precambrian Rønne granite, Bornholm Island, Denmark (United States)

    Thomas, Rainer; Davidson, Paul; Schmidt, Christian


    Our study of fluid and melt inclusions in quartz and feldspar from granite pegmatite from the Precambrian Rønne granite, Bornholm Island, Denmark revealed extremely alkali bicarbonate- and carbonate-rich inclusions. The solid phases (daughter crystals) are mainly nahcolite [NaHCO3], zabuyelite [Li2CO3], and in rare cases potash [K2CO3] in addition to the volatile phases CO2 and aqueous carbonate/bicarbonate solution. Rare melt inclusions contain nahcolite, dawsonite [NaAl(CO3)(OH)2], and muscovite. In addition to fluid and melt inclusions, there are primary CO2-rich vapor inclusions, which mostly contain small nahcolite crystals. The identification of potash as a naturally occurring mineral would appear to be the first recorded instance. From the appearance of high concentrations of these carbonates and bicarbonates, we suggest that the mineral-forming media were water- and alkali carbonate-rich silicate melts or highly concentrated fluids. The coexistence of silicate melt inclusions with carbonate-rich fluid and nahcolite-rich vapor inclusions indicates a melt-melt-vapor equilibrium during the crystallization of the pegmatite. These results are supported by the results of hydrothermal diamond anvil cell experiments in the pseudoternary system H2O-NaHCO3-SiO2. Additionally, we show that boundary layer effects were insignificant in the Bornholm pegmatites and are not required for the origin of primary textures in compositionally simple pegmatites at least.

  4. Evolution of Ca-Al-rich bodies in the earliest solar system: growth by incorporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wark, D.A.; Lovering, J.F.


    Many Type B Ca-Al-rich inclusions (CAI's) in the Allende carbonaceous chondrite contain two types of spinel structures, 'framboids' and 'palisades'. Framboids are clumps of spinel grains generally < 100 μm across. Experimental studies show that they probably formed in situ by solid state growth processes. Palisades are texturally different and consist of ovoid shells of spinel grains that appear in thin sections as long arcs or rings with diameters ranging from approx. 50 μm up to 2 cm. No in situ formation process seems able to explain the variety of sizes and morphologies of palisades nor the different compositions and textures of the enclosed and enclosing materials. We therefore suggest that palisades are the spinel rims of smaller, earlier-formed Type B CAI's that were incorporated into other CAI material in various ways - by capture into liquid drops, by solid condensate overgrowths and by the partial melting or welding of agglomerates containing the bodies. As some Type B bodies have been found inside Type A host material it appears that in at least some regions, and probably generally, Type A CAI's formed after Type B. Proposals are made concerning the origin of the CAI material. (author)

  5. A petrologic and ion microprobe study of a Vigarano Type B refractory inclusion - Evolution by multiple stages of alteration and melting (United States)

    Macpherson, Glenn J.; Davis, Andrew M.


    A Type B Ca-, Al-rich 6-m-diam inclusion (CAI) found in the Vigarano C3V chondrite was inspected using optical and scanning electron microscopies and ion microprobe analyses. It was found that the primary constituents of the CAI inclusion are (in percent), melilite (52), fassaite, (20), anorthite (18), spinel (10), and trace Fe-Ni metal. It is noted that, while many of the properties of the inclusion indicate solidification from a melt droplet, the Al-26/Mg-26 isotopic systematics and some textural relationships are incompatible with single-stage closed system crystallization of a homogeneous molten droplet, indicating that the history of this inclusion must have been more complex than melt solidification alone. Moreover, there was unusually high content of Na in melilite, suggesting that the droplet did not form by melting of pristine high-temperature nebular condensates.

  6. Irradiation history of meteoritic inclusions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wielandt, Daniel Kim Peel

    Understanding the formation and earliest evolution of our solar system is a longstanding goal shared by cosmochemistry, astronomy and astrophysics. Meteorites play a key role in this pursuit, providing a ground truth against which all theories must be weighed. Chondritic meteorites are in essence...... extraterrestrial sediments that contain Calcium-Aluminium-rich Inclusions (CAIs) and chondrules that formed as individual objects during the earliest stages of solar system evolution. They later accreted together to form large bodies, after spending up to several million years in individual orbit around the proto...... of presolar and protosolar materials, as well as evidence for the former presence of over 10 extinct shortlived radionuclei of varying stability and provenance that play a key role in deciphering early solar system evolution. Some shortlived radionuclei, such as 60Fe (T½ 2.5 Myr), must have formed...

  7. Dating quartz: Ar/Ar analyses of coexisting muscovite and fluid inclusion - rich quartz from paleocene amorphic aureole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, S.J.; Perez de Arce, C.; Cornejo, P.; Cuitino, L; Klein, J


    We present Ar/Ar total fusion and step-heating data for coexisting muscovite and white quartz from the metamorphic aureole of the Lower Paleocene La Copiapina Pluton, 6 km south of Inca de Oro, III Region, Chile. The pluton intrudes the upper clastic sedimentary member of the Punta del Cobre Group (Upper Jurassic - Lower Cretaceous) and the calcareous sedimentary rocks of the Chanarcillo Group (Neocomian), and comprises fine to coarse grained pyroxene-hornblende-biotite quartz diorites and monzodiorites. Its emplacement was controlled on its north-western side by a subvertical NE-trending fault, along which were developed vertically banded skarns (skarn mylonite), suggesting syntectonic intrusion. Biotite K-Ar ages for the pluton fall in the range 61-63 Ma, relating it to a latest Cretaceous to Lowest Paleocene syn-compressional intrusive belt which is present in the area (Matthews and Cornejo, 2000). A metamorphic / metasomatic aureole is developed within the sandstones of the Punta del Cobre Group, on the extreme northern limit of the pluton. In this area, the sedimentary rocks have been replaced by quartz-sericite and quartz-muscovite assemblages, with minor hematite and tourmaline, and late supergene kaolinite and pyrophyllite. A coarse muscovite-quartz-tourmaline-hematite assemblage is developed in and around older (early Upper Cretaceous) andesitic dykes, in the form of replacement / fracture fill veins and replacement zones. Further from the contact with the pluton, fine-grained quartz-sericite rock with coarser muscovite-rich replacement veins represents the dominant lithology. Quartz in the coarse replacement rock is very rich in fluid inclusions. Primary inclusions are mainly of two coexisting types; bi-phase (liquid and gas bubble) and tri-phase (liquid, gas bubble and halite crystal), indicating that the quartz formed in the presence of a boiling fluid. Some inclusions also contain sylvite and occasional hematite daughter crystals. Secondary inclusions

  8. The Relevance of AI Research to CAI. (United States)

    Kearsley, Greg P.

    This article provides a tutorial introduction to Artificial Intelligence (AI) research for those involved in Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI). The general theme is that much of the current work in AI, particularly in the areas of natural language understanding systems, rule induction, programming languages, and socratic systems, has important…

  9. Spectroscopy and Photometry of CAI-rich asteroids (United States)

    Tanga, P.; Devogele, M.; Bendjoya, Ph.; Cellino, A.; Surdej, J.


    Asteroids with an anomalous amount of primitive elements, formed in ancient times in the solar nebula, exist. Our study confirms their nature and provides hints to the interpretation of the ancient evolution of asteroids.

  10. NALDA (Naval Aviation Logistics Data Analysis) CAI (computer aided instruction)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Handler, B.H. (Oak Ridge K-25 Site, TN (USA)); France, P.A.; Frey, S.C.; Gaubas, N.F.; Hyland, K.J.; Lindsey, A.M.; Manley, D.O. (Oak Ridge Associated Universities, Inc., TN (USA)); Hunnum, W.H. (North Carolina Univ., Chapel Hill, NC (USA)); Smith, D.L. (Memphis State Univ., TN (USA))


    Data Systems Engineering Organization (DSEO) personnel developed a prototype computer aided instruction CAI system for the Naval Aviation Logistics Data Analysis (NALDA) system. The objective of this project was to provide a CAI prototype that could be used as an enhancement to existing NALDA training. The CAI prototype project was performed in phases. The task undertaken in Phase I was to analyze the problem and the alternative solutions and to develop a set of recommendations on how best to proceed. The findings from Phase I are documented in Recommended CAI Approach for the NALDA System (Duncan et al., 1987). In Phase II, a structured design and specifications were developed, and a prototype CAI system was created. A report, NALDA CAI Prototype: Phase II Final Report, was written to record the findings and results of Phase II. NALDA CAI: Recommendations for an Advanced Instructional Model, is comprised of related papers encompassing research on computer aided instruction CAI, newly developing training technologies, instructional systems development, and an Advanced Instructional Model. These topics were selected because of their relevancy to the CAI needs of NALDA. These papers provide general background information on various aspects of CAI and give a broad overview of new technologies and their impact on the future design and development of training programs. The paper within have been index separately elsewhere.

  11. Bird community structure in riparian environments in Cai River, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil


    Jaqueline Brummelhaus; Marcia Suelí Bohn; Maria Virginia Petry


    Urbanization produces changes in riparian environments, causing effects in the structure of bird communities, which present different responses to the impacts. We compare species richness, abundance, and composition of birds in riparian environments with different characteristics in Cai River, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. We carried out observations in woodland, grassland, and urban environments, between September 2007 and August 2008. We listed 130 bird species, 29 species unique to woodland e...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akram, W.; Schönbächler, M. [School of Earth, Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences, The University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Sprung, P. [Institut für Planetologie, Universität Münster, Wilhelm-Klemm-Strasse 10, D-48149 Münster (Germany); Vogel, N. [Institute for Geochemistry and Petrology, ETH, Clausiusstrasse 25, 8092 Zürich (Switzerland)


    Recent work based on analyses of meteorite and terrestrial whole-rock samples showed that the r- and s- process isotopes of Hf were homogeneously distributed throughout the inner solar system. We report new Hf isotope data for Calcium-Aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) of the CV3 carbonaceous chondrite Allende, and novel high-precision Zr isotope data for these CAIs and three carbonaceous chondrites (CM, CO, CK). Our Zr data reveal enrichments in the neutron-rich isotope {sup 96}Zr (≤1ε in {sup 96}Zr/{sup 90}Zr) for bulk chondrites and CAIs (∼2ε). Potential isotope effects due to incomplete sample dissolution, galactic and cosmic ray spallation, and the nuclear field shift are assessed and excluded, leading to the conclusion that the {sup 96}Zr isotope variations are of nucleosynthetic origin. The {sup 96}Zr enrichments are coupled with {sup 50}Ti excesses suggesting that both nuclides were produced in the same astrophysical environment. The same CAIs also exhibit deficits in r-process Hf isotopes, which provides strong evidence for a decoupling between the nucleosynthetic processes that produce the light (A ≤ 130) and heavy (A > 130) neutron-rich isotopes. We propose that the light neutron-capture isotopes largely formed in Type II supernovae (SNeII) with higher mass progenitors than the supernovae that produced the heavy r-process isotopes. In the context of our model, the light isotopes (e.g. {sup 96}Zr) are predominantly synthesized via charged-particle reactions in a high entropy wind environment, in which Hf isotopes are not produced. Collectively, our data indicates that CAIs sampled an excess of materials produced in a normal mass (12-25 M{sub ☉}) SNII.

  13. A new titanium-bearing calcium aluminosilicate phase. 2: Crystallography and crystal chemistry of grains formed in slowly cooled melts with bulk compositions of calcium-aluminium-rich inclusions (United States)

    Barber, David J.; Beckett, John R.; Paque, Julie M.; Stolper, Edward


    The crystallography and crystal chemistry of a new calcium- titanium-aluminosilicate mineral (UNK) observed in synthetic analogs to calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) from carbonaceous chondrites was studied by electron diffraction techniques. The unit cell is primitive hexagonal or trigonal, with a = 0.790 +/- 0.02 nm and c = 0.492 +/- 0.002 nm, similar to the lattice parameters of melilite and consistent with cell dimensions for crystals in a mixer furnace slag described by Barber and Agrell (1994). The phase frequently displays an epitactic relationship in which melilite acts as the host, with (0001)(sub UNK) parallel (001)(sub mel) and zone axis group 1 0 -1 0(sub UNK) parallel zone axis group 1 0 0(sub mel). If one of the two space groups determined by Barber and Agrell (1994) for their sample of UNK is applicable (P3m1 or P31m), then the structure is probably characterized by puckered sheets of octahedra and tetrahedra perpendicular to the c-axis with successive sheets coordinated by planar arrays of Ca. In this likely structure, each unit cell contains three Ca sites located in mirror planes, one octahedrally coordinated cation located along a three-fold axis and five tetrahedrally coordinated cations, three in mirrors and two along triads. The octahedron contains Ti but, because there are 1.3-1.9 cations of Ti/formula unit, some of the Ti must also be in tetrahedral coordination, an unusual but not unprecedented situation for a silicate. Tetrahedral sites in mirror planes would contain mostly Si, with lesser amounts of Al while those along the triads correspondingly contain mostly Al with subordinate Ti. The structural formula, therefore, can be expressed as Ca(sub 3)(sup VIII)(Ti,Al)(sup VI)(Al,Ti,Si)(sub 2)(sup IV)(Si,Al)(sub 3)(sup IV)O14 with Si + Ti = 4. Compositions of meteoritic and synthetic Ti-bearing samples of the phase can be described in terms of a binary solid solution between the end-members Ca3TiAl2Si3O14 and Ca3Ti(AlTi)(AlSi2)O14. A Ti

  14. Volatile-rich komatiitic and picritic melt inclusions in Cr-spinel beach sand from Gorgona Island, Colombia (United States)

    Shimizu, K.; Shimizu, N.; Suzuki, K.; Tatsumi, Y.; Komiya, T.; Maruyama, S.


    Volatile content of komatiite is a key to constrain thermal evolution of the deep Earth. We report volatile contents with major and trace element compositions of melt inclusions (MIs) in chromian spinel (Cr-spinel) from beach sands of Gorgona Island, Colombia. Gorgona Island is ~90 Ma volcanic island, where picrites and the world-youngest komatiites occur. As Cr-spinel is dense and rigid oxide mineral that crystallizes only at early stages of crystallization, it is considered to be a superior container for retaining primitive melt, even including volatiles. Volatile (H2O, CO2, S, F and Cl) and trace element (K2O, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb, Ba, La, Ce, Sm, Dy, Yb) compositions of ~80 MIs were analyzed by SIMS (Cameca-1280 and 3f, respectively) at WHOI. MIs in the Cr-spinel from Gorgona Is. are classified into three types by their host Cr-spinel compositions such as low-Ti (P-type), high-Ti with high-Cr# (BK-type) and high-Ti with low-Cr# (K-type). MIs of P-type, BK-type and K-type are mostly in compositional ranges of picrite, high TiO2 komatiite (some basalt) and low TiO2 komatiite in Gorgona Island, respectively. Water content of P-type MIs is variable, ranging from 0.05 to 0.9 wt%, whereas those of BK and K-type MIs are limited (500 ppm) do not contain (shrinkage) bubbles and many of them are low in K2O. H2O/K2O, CO2/K2O, S/K2O and F/K2O ratios are positively correlated with Y/Sr ratios, indicating degassing trends of melt at crystallization, magma mixing and/or assimilation. Undegassed H2O/K2O, CO2/K2O, S/K2O and F/K2O ratios of komatiitic (picritic) melt are estimated to be ~10 (~40), ~80 (n.d.), ~7(~3) and ~1(~0.5), respectively, which are much higher than those estimated for the depleted source mantle of the MORB [1.6, 0.7, 1.6 and 0.2, respectively; Salters, V. & Stracke, A. (2004), Composition of the depleted mantle. Geochem. Geophys. Geosys. 5 (2003GC000597)]. The results suggest that Gorgona komatiite and picrite magmas were derived from volatile-rich sources. CO2

  15. Raman and micro-thermometric investigation of the fluid inclusions in quartz in a gold-rich formation from Lepaguare mining district (Honduras, Central America). (United States)

    Bersani, D; Salvioli-Mariani, E; Mattioli, M; Menichetti, M; Lottici, P P


    Fluid inclusions in the quartz crystals present in gold-rich veins from central Honduras have been studied by means of micro-thermometry and micro-Raman spectroscopy in order to provide information on the physico-chemical conditions and chemical composition of the mineralizing fluids. The use of a confocal micro-Raman apparatus allowed to obtain information on the fluid composition, in particular on the gas phase, minimizing the contributions of the host matrix to the Raman signal. The samples studied were collected from an area (Lepaguare mining district, Northern-Central Honduras) rich in ore deposits due to the Cenozoic magmatic activity, where the gold and sulphide mineralization is connected with a system of quartz veins (few decimetres thick) occurring in low-grade metamorphic rocks and produced by hydrothermal fluids. The quartz crystals present in the gold-rich veins often contain fluid inclusions. Four types of fluid inclusions have been observed, but their assemblage in the same clusters and fracture systems, as well as their comparable salinity and homogenization data, suggest that they have the same origin. Micro-thermometry and Raman spectroscopy provide a composition of the mineralizing fluids attributable to the system H(2)O-NaCl-KCl-CO(2)-CH(4), with temperature and pressure intervals of 210-413 degrees C and 1050-3850 bar, respectively. These data agree with an epigenetic origin of the gold deposit (depth < 6 km) related to granitoid or granodiorite intrusions associated to orogenic environments.

  16. E-CAI: a novel server to estimate an expected value of Codon Adaptation Index (eCAI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcia-Vallvé Santiago


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Codon Adaptation Index (CAI is a measure of the synonymous codon usage bias for a DNA or RNA sequence. It quantifies the similarity between the synonymous codon usage of a gene and the synonymous codon frequency of a reference set. Extreme values in the nucleotide or in the amino acid composition have a large impact on differential preference for synonymous codons. It is thence essential to define the limits for the expected value of CAI on the basis of sequence composition in order to properly interpret the CAI and provide statistical support to CAI analyses. Though several freely available programs calculate the CAI for a given DNA sequence, none of them corrects for compositional biases or provides confidence intervals for CAI values. Results The E-CAI server, available at, is a web-application that calculates an expected value of CAI for a set of query sequences by generating random sequences with G+C and amino acid content similar to those of the input. An executable file, a tutorial, a Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ section and several examples are also available. To exemplify the use of the E-CAI server, we have analysed the codon adaptation of human mitochondrial genes that codify a subunit of the mitochondrial respiratory chain (excluding those genes that lack a prokaryotic orthologue and are encoded in the nuclear genome. It is assumed that these genes were transferred from the proto-mitochondrial to the nuclear genome and that its codon usage was then ameliorated. Conclusion The E-CAI server provides a direct threshold value for discerning whether the differences in CAI are statistically significant or whether they are merely artifacts that arise from internal biases in the G+C composition and/or amino acid composition of the query sequences.

  17. Thermal and chemical evolution in the early solar system as recorded by FUN CAIs: Part I - Petrology, mineral chemistry, and isotopic composition of Allende FUN CAI CMS-1 (United States)

    Williams, C. D.; Ushikubo, T.; Bullock, E. S.; Janney, P. E.; Hines, R. R.; Kita, N. T.; Hervig, R. L.; MacPherson, G. J.; Mendybaev, R. A.; Richter, F. M.; Wadhwa, M.


    Detailed petrologic, geochemical and isotopic analyses of a new FUN CAI from the Allende CV3 meteorite (designated CMS-1) indicate that it formed by extensive melting and evaporation of primitive precursor material(s). The precursor material(s) condensed in a 16O-rich region (δ17O and δ18O ∼ -49‰) of the inner solar nebula dominated by gas of solar composition at total pressures of ∼10-3-10-6 bar. Subsequent melting of the precursor material(s) was accompanied by evaporative loss of magnesium, silicon and oxygen resulting in large mass-dependent isotope fractionations in these elements (δ25Mg = 30.71-39.26‰, δ29Si = 14.98-16.65‰, and δ18O = -41.57 to -15.50‰). This evaporative loss resulted in a bulk composition similar to that of compact Type A and Type B CAIs, but very distinct from the composition of the original precursor condensate(s). Kinetic fractionation factors and the measured mass-dependent fractionation of silicon and magnesium in CMS-1 suggest that ∼80% of the silicon and ∼85% of the magnesium were lost from its precursor material(s) through evaporative processes. These results suggest that the precursor material(s) of normal and FUN CAIs condensed in similar environments, but subsequently evolved under vastly different conditions such as total gas pressure. The chemical and isotopic differences between normal and FUN CAIs could be explained by sorting of early solar system materials into distinct physical and chemical regimes, in conjunction with discrete heating events, within the protoplanetary disk.

  18. Refractory Inclusion Size Distribution and Fabric Measured in a Large Slab of the Allende CV3 Chondrite (United States)

    Srinivasan, P.; Simon, Justin I.; Cuzzi, J. N.


    Aggregate textures of chondrites reflect accretion of early-formed particles in the solar nebula. Explanations for the size and density variations of particle populations found among chondrites are debated. Differences could have risen out of formation in different locations in the nebula, and/or they could have been caused by a sorting process [1]. Many ideas on the cause of chondrule sorting have been proposed; some including sorting by mass [2,3], by X-winds [4], turbulent concentration [5], and by photophoresis [6]. However, few similar studies have been conducted for Ca-, Al-rich inclusions (CAIs). These particles are known to have formed early, and their distribution could attest to the early stages of Solar System (ESS) history. Unfortunately, CAIs are not as common in chondrites as chondrules are, reducing the usefulness of studies restricted to a few thin sections. Furthermore, the largest sizes of CAIs are generally much larger than chondrules, and therefore rarely present in most studied chondrite thin sections. This study attempts to perform a more representative sampling of the CAI population in the Allende chondrite by investigating a two decimeter-sized slab.

  19. Leukocyte Inclusion within a Platelet Rich Plasma-Derived Fibrin Scaffold Stimulates a More Pro-Inflammatory Environment and Alters Fibrin Properties (United States)

    Anitua, Eduardo; Zalduendo, Mar; Troya, María; Padilla, Sabino; Orive, Gorka


    One of the main differences among platelet-rich plasma (PRP) products is the inclusion of leukocytes that may affect the biological efficacy of these autologous preparations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the addition of leukocytes modified the morphological, biomechanical and biological properties of PRP under normal and inflammatory conditions. The release of pro-inflammatory cytokines from plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF) and leukocyte-platelet rich plasma (L-PRP) scaffolds was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and was significantly increased under an inflammatory condition when leukocytes were included in the PRP. Fibroblasts and osteoblasts treated with L-PRP, under an inflammatory situation, underwent a greater activation of NFĸB pathway, proliferated significantly less and secreted a higher concentration of pro-inflammatory cytokines. These cellular events were assessed through Western blot and fluorimetric and ELISA methods, respectively. Therefore, the inclusion of leukocytes induced significantly higher pro-inflammatory conditions. PMID:25823008

  20. Leukocyte inclusion within a platelet rich plasma-derived fibrin scaffold stimulates a more pro-inflammatory environment and alters fibrin properties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Anitua

    Full Text Available One of the main differences among platelet-rich plasma (PRP products is the inclusion of leukocytes that may affect the biological efficacy of these autologous preparations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the addition of leukocytes modified the morphological, biomechanical and biological properties of PRP under normal and inflammatory conditions. The release of pro-inflammatory cytokines from plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF and leukocyte-platelet rich plasma (L-PRP scaffolds was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and was significantly increased under an inflammatory condition when leukocytes were included in the PRP. Fibroblasts and osteoblasts treated with L-PRP, under an inflammatory situation, underwent a greater activation of NFĸB pathway, proliferated significantly less and secreted a higher concentration of pro-inflammatory cytokines. These cellular events were assessed through Western blot and fluorimetric and ELISA methods, respectively. Therefore, the inclusion of leukocytes induced significantly higher pro-inflammatory conditions.

  1. Mg isotope evidence for contemporaneous formation of chondrules and refractory inclusions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bizzarro, Martin; Baker, J.A.; Haack, Henning


    Primitive or undifferentiated meteorites (chondrites) date back to the origin of the Solar System, and thus preserve a record of the physical and chemical processes that occurred during the earliest evolution of the accretion disk surrounding the young Sun. The oldest Solar System materials present...... within these meteorites are millimetre- to centimetre-sized calcium-aluminium-rich inclusions (CAIs) and ferromagnesian silicate spherules (chondrules), which probably originated by thermal processing of pre-existing nebula solids. Chondrules are currently believed to have formed ~2-3 million years (Myr...

  2. Fluid inclusions in jadeitite and jadeite-rich rock from serpentinite mélanges in northern Hispaniola: Trapped ambient fluids in a cold subduction channel (United States)

    Kawamoto, Tatsuhiko; Hertwig, Andreas; Schertl, Hans-Peter; Maresch, Walter V.


    Freezing-point depression was measured in aqueous fluid inclusions to determine salinities in six samples of jadeitite and jadeite-rich rock from the Jagua Clara serpentinite mélange of the Rio San Juan Complex, Dominican Republic. The mélange represents a fossil subduction-zone channel from a cold, mature subduction zone with a geothermal gradient of 6 °C/km. One hundred and twenty-five determinations of salinity in primary inclusions hosted in jadeite, quartz, apatite and lawsonite range between extremes of 1.2 and 8.7, but yield a well-defined mean of 4.5 ± 1.1 wt% (±1 s.d.) NaCl equiv, slightly higher than mean seawater (3.5 wt%). In one sample, eight additional fluid inclusions in quartz aligned along grain boundaries yield slightly lower values of 2.7 ± 1.3 wt% NaCl equiv. Homogenization temperatures were also measured for 47 fluid inclusions in two samples, but primary entrapment densities are not preserved. It is significant that the suite includes two types of samples: those precipitated directly from an aqueous fluid as well as examples of metasomatic replacement of a pre-existing magmatic rock. Nevertheless, the results indicate identical salinity for both types and suggest a much stronger genetic link between the two types of jadeitite and jadeite-rich rock than has previously been assumed. Based on the results of conductivity measurements in modern subduction zones, we envision a pervasive fluid in the subduction channel that evolved from salinity levels lower than those in sea-water up to the measured values due to on-going but largely completed serpentinization in the subduction channel. The present data represent a reference marker for the subduction channel of the Rio San Juan intra-oceanic subduction zone at 30-50 km depth and after 50-60 Myr of operation.

  3. CO 2-rich komatiitic melt inclusions in Cr-spinels within beach sand from Gorgona Island, Colombia (United States)

    Shimizu, Kenji; Shimizu, Nobumichi; Komiya, Tsuyoshi; Suzuki, Katsuhiko; Maruyama, Shigenori; Tatsumi, Yoshiyuki


    The volatile content of komatiite is a key to constrain the thermal and chemical evolution of the deep Earth. We report the volatile contents with major and trace element compositions of ~ 80 melt inclusions in chromian spinels (Cr-spinels) from beach sands on Gorgona Island, Colombia. Gorgona Island is a ~ 90 Ma volcanic island, where picrites and the youngest komatiites known on the Earth are present. Melt inclusions are classified into three types on the basis of their host Cr-spinel compositions: low Ti (P type), high Ti with high Cr # (K1 type) and high Ti with low Cr # (K2 type). Chemical variations of melt inclusions in the Cr-spinels cover all of the island's lava types. P-type inclusions mainly occur in the picrites, K1-type in high-TiO 2 komatiites (some enriched basalts: E-basalts) and K2-type in low-TiO 2 komatiites. The H 2O and CO 2 contents of melt inclusions within Cr-spinels from the beach sand are highly variable (H 2O: 0.03-0.9 wt.%; CO 2: 40-4000 ppm). Evaluation of volatile content is not entirely successful because of compositional alterations of the original melt by degassing, seawater/brine assimilation and post-entrapment modification of certain elements and volatiles. However, the occurrence of many melt inclusions with low H 2O/K 2O ratios indicates that H 2O/K 2O of Gorgona komatiite is not much different from that of modern mid-oceanic ridge basalt (MORB) or oceanic island basalt. Trend of CO 2/Nb and Zr/Y ratios, accounted for by two-component mixing between the least degassed primary komatiite and low-CO 2/Nb evolved basalt, allow us to estimate a primary CO 2/Nb ratio of 4000 ± 2200 or a CO 2 content of 0.16 ± 0.09 wt.%. The determined CO 2/Nb ratio is unusually high, compared to that of MORB (530). Although the presence of CO 2 in the Gorgona komatiite does not affect the magma generation temperature, CO 2 degassing may have contributed to the eruption of high-density magmas. High CO 2/Nb and the relatively anhydrous nature of

  4. Homogenization Experiments of Crystal-Rich Inclusions in Spodumene from Jiajika Lithium Deposit, China, under Elevated External Pressures in a Hydrothermal Diamond-Anvil Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiankang Li


    Full Text Available Extensive studies of the crystal-rich inclusions (CIs hosted in minerals in pegmatite have resulted in substantially different models for the formation mechanism of the pegmatite. In order to evaluate these previously proposed formation mechanisms, the total homogenization processes of CIs hosted in spodumene from the Jiajika pegmatite deposit in Sichuan, China, were observed in situ under external H2O pressures in a new type of hydrothermal diamond-anvil cell (HDAC. The CIs in a spodumene chip were loaded in the sample chamber of HDAC with water, such that the CIs were under preset external H2O pressures during heating to avoid possible decrepitation. Our in situ observations showed that the crystals within the CIs were dissolved in carbonic-rich aqueous fluid during heating and that cristobalite was usually the first mineral being dissolved, followed by zabuyelite and silicate minerals until their total dissolution at temperatures between 500 and 720°C. These observations indicated that the minerals within the CIs were daughter minerals crystallized from an entrapped carbonate- and silica-rich aqueous solution and therefore provided useful information for evaluating the formation models of granitic pegmatites.

  5. Changes in flavour and microbial diversity during natural fermentation of suan-cai, a traditional food made in Northeast China. (United States)

    Wu, Rina; Yu, Meiling; Liu, Xiaoyu; Meng, Lingshuai; Wang, Qianqian; Xue, Yating; Wu, Junrui; Yue, Xiqing


    We measured changes in the main physical and chemical properties, flavour compounds and microbial diversity in suan-cai during natural fermentation. The results showed that the pH and concentration of soluble protein initially decreased but were then maintained at a stable level; the concentration of nitrite increased in the initial fermentation stage and after reaching a peak it decreased significantly to a low level by the end of fermentation. Suan-cai was rich in 17 free amino acids. All of the free amino acids increased in concentration to different degrees, except histidine. Total free amino acids reached their highest levels in the mid-fermentation stage. The 17 volatile flavour components identified at the start of fermentation increased to 57 by the mid-fermentation stage; esters and aldehydes were in the greatest diversity and abundance, contributing most to the aroma of suan-cai. Bacteria were more abundant and diverse than fungi in suan-cai; 14 bacterial species were identified from the genera Leuconostoc, Bacillus, Pseudomonas and Lactobacillus. The predominant fungal species identified were Debaryomyces hansenii, Candida tropicalis and Penicillium expansum. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Carbon isotope composition of CO2-rich inclusions in cumulate-forming mantle minerals from Stromboli volcano (Italy) (United States)

    Gennaro, Mimma Emanuela; Grassa, Fausto; Martelli, Mauro; Renzulli, Alberto; Rizzo, Andrea Luca


    We report on measurements of concentration and carbon isotope composition (δ13CCO2) of CO2 trapped in fluid inclusions of olivine and clinopyroxene crystals separated from San Bartolo ultramafic cumulate Xenoliths (SBX) formed at mantle depth (i.e., beneath a shallow Moho supposed to be at 14.8 km). These cumulates, erupted about 2 ka ago at Stromboli volcano (Italy), have been already investigated by Martelli et al. (2014) mainly for Sr-Nd isotopes and for their noble gases geochemistry. The concentration of CO2 varies of one order of magnitude from 3.8·10- 8 mol g- 1 to 4.8·10- 7 mol g- 1, with δ13C values between - 2.8‰ and - 1.5‰ vs V-PDB. These values overlap the range of measurements performed in the crater gases emitted at Stromboli (- 2.5‰ residence within the volcano plumbing system. Such δ13C values are higher than those commonly reported for MORB-like upper mantle (- 8 ÷ - 4‰) and likely reflect the source contamination of the local mantle wedge by CO2 coming from the decarbonation of the sediments carried by the subducting Ionian slab with a contribution of organic carbon up to 7%.

  7. Numerical simulation and validation of SI-CAI hybrid combustion in a CAI/HCCI gasoline engine (United States)

    Wang, Xinyan; Xie, Hui; Xie, Liyan; Zhang, Lianfang; Li, Le; Chen, Tao; Zhao, Hua


    SI-CAI hybrid combustion, also known as spark-assisted compression ignition (SACI), is a promising concept to extend the operating range of CAI (Controlled Auto-Ignition) and achieve the smooth transition between spark ignition (SI) and CAI in the gasoline engine. In this study, a SI-CAI hybrid combustion model (HCM) has been constructed on the basis of the 3-Zones Extended Coherent Flame Model (ECFM3Z). An ignition model is included to initiate the ECFM3Z calculation and induce the flame propagation. In order to precisely depict the subsequent auto-ignition process of the unburned fuel and air mixture independently after the initiation of flame propagation, the tabulated chemistry concept is adopted to describe the auto-ignition chemistry. The methodology for extracting tabulated parameters from the chemical kinetics calculations is developed so that both cool flame reactions and main auto-ignition combustion can be well captured under a wider range of thermodynamic conditions. The SI-CAI hybrid combustion model (HCM) is then applied in the three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (3-D CFD) engine simulation. The simulation results are compared with the experimental data obtained from a single cylinder VVA engine. The detailed analysis of the simulations demonstrates that the SI-CAI hybrid combustion process is characterised with the early flame propagation and subsequent multi-site auto-ignition around the main flame front, which is consistent with the optical results reported by other researchers. Besides, the systematic study of the in-cylinder condition reveals the influence mechanism of the early flame propagation on the subsequent auto-ignition.

  8. Interaction of peridotite with Ca-rich carbonatite melt at 3.1 and 6.5 GPa: Implication for merwinite formation in upper mantle, and for the metasomatic origin of sublithospheric diamonds with Ca-rich suite of inclusions (United States)

    Sharygin, Igor S.; Shatskiy, Anton; Litasov, Konstantin D.; Golovin, Alexander V.; Ohtani, Eiji; Pokhilenko, Nikolay P.


    We performed an experimental study, designed to reproduce the formation of an unusual merwinite + olivine-bearing mantle assemblage recently described as a part of a Ca-rich suite of inclusions in sublithospheric diamonds, through the interaction of peridotite with an alkali-rich Ca-carbonatite melt, derived from deeply subducted oceanic crust. In the first set of experiments, we studied the reaction between powdered Mg-silicates, olivine and orthopyroxene, and a model Ca-carbonate melt (molar Na:K:Ca = 1:1:2), in a homogeneous mixture, at 3.1 and 6.5 GPa. In these equilibration experiments, we observed the formation of a merwinite + olivine-bearing assemblage at 3.1 GPa and 1200 °C and at 6.5 GPa and 1300-1400 °C. The melts coexisting with this assemblage have a low Si and high Ca content (Ca# = molar 100 × Ca/(Ca + Mg) > 0.57). In the second set of experiments, we investigated reaction rims produced by interaction of the same Ca-carbonate melt (molar Na:K:Ca = 1:1:2) with Mg-silicate, olivine and orthopyroxene, single crystals at 3.1 GPa and 1300 °C and at 6.5 GPa and 1400 °C. The interaction of the Ca-carbonate melt with olivine leads to merwinite formation through the expected reaction: 2Mg2SiO4 (olivine) + 6CaCO3 (liquid) = Ca3MgSi2O8 (merwinite) + 3CaMg(CO3)2 (liquid). Thus, our experiments confirm the idea that merwinite in the upper mantle may originate via interaction of peridotite with Ca-rich carbonatite melt, and that diamonds hosting merwinite may have a metasomatic origin. It is remarkable that the interaction of the Ca-carbonate melt with orthopyroxene crystals does not produce merwinite both at 3.1 and 6.5 GPa. This indicates that olivine grain boundaries are preferable for merwinite formation in the upper mantle.

  9. Particulated articular cartilage: CAIS and DeNovo NT. (United States)

    Farr, Jack; Cole, Brian J; Sherman, Seth; Karas, Vasili


    Cartilage Autograft Implantation System (CAIS; DePuy/Mitek, Raynham, MA) and DeNovo Natural Tissue (NT; ISTO, St. Louis, MO) are novel treatment options for focal articular cartilage defects in the knee. These methods involve the implantation of particulated articular cartilage from either autograft or juvenile allograft donor, respectively. In the laboratory and in animal models, both CAIS and DeNovo NT have demonstrated the ability of the transplanted cartilage cells to "escape" from the extracellular matrix, migrate, multiply, and form a new hyaline-like cartilage tissue matrix that integrates with the surrounding host tissue. In clinical practice, the technique for both CAIS and DeNovo NT is straightforward, requiring only a single surgery to affect cartilage repair. Clinical experience is limited, with short-term studies demonstrating both procedures to be safe, feasible, and effective, with improvements in subjective patient scores, and with magnetic resonance imaging evidence of good defect fill. While these treatment options appear promising, prospective randomized controlled studies are necessary to refine the indications and contraindications for both CAIS and DeNovo NT.

  10. Melt inclusion: methods, applications and problem: Silica-rich melts in quartz xenoliths from Vulcano islands and their bearing on processes of crustal melting and crust-magma interaction in the Aeolian Arc, Italy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frezzotti, M.L.; Zavon, V.; Peccerillo, A.; Nikogosian, I.


    Silica-rich melts in quartz xenoliths from Vulcano islands and their bearing on processes of crustal melting and crust-magma interaction in the Aeolian Arc, Italy Proceedings of workshop Melt inclusion: methods, applications and problem. Napoli, Italy, September 2002, p. 71-73

  11. The Instructional Use of CAI in the Education of the Mentally Retarded. (United States)

    Winters, John J., Jr.; And Others

    Computer assisted instruction (CAI) studies with the mentally retarded in the United States and Canada reveal that the retarded benefit from CAI in academic and social skills. Their learning is enhanced to the same extent as that of the nonretarded. CAI can be cost-effective, especially with the reduced costs of mini and micro-computers; however,…

  12. UV-fs-LA-ICP-MS Analysis of CO2-Rich Fluid Inclusions in a Frozen State: Example from the Dahu Au-Mo Deposit, Xiaoqinling Region, Central China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Jian


    Full Text Available The recently developed technique of ultraviolet femtosecond laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (UV-fs-LA-ICP-MS combined with a freezing cell is expected to improve the analysis of CO2-rich fluid inclusions by decreasing their internal pressure and avoiding the common problem of uncontrolled explosive fluid release on ablation. Here, we report the application of this technique through the case study of CO2-rich fluid inclusions from the quartz vein-style Au-Mo deposit of Dahu in the Xiaoqinling region of central China. The concentrations of Li, B, Na, Al, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr, Mo, Ag, Te, Cs, Ba, Au, Pb, and Bi were analyzed in 124 (not all for Al and Ca fluid inclusions, which have low to moderate salinity and multiphase composition (liquid H2O + liquid CO2  ± vapor CO2  ± solids. The Dahu fluids are dominated by Na and K. The concentrations of Mo are always below the detection limit from 0.005 to 2 ppm (excluding values obtained from fluid inclusions with accidentally trapped solids. The Dahu ore fluids differ from metamorphic fluids in compositions and most likely represent two separate pulses of spent fluids evolved from an unexposed and oxidized magmatic system. The UV-fs-LA-ICP-MS analysis of fluid inclusions in a frozen state improves the overpressure problem of CO2-rich fluid inclusions during laser ablation. The transformation of gaseous and liquid CO2 into the solid state leads to a significant decline in the internal pressure of the fluid inclusions, while femtosecond laser pulses generate a minimal heat input in the sample and thus maintain the frozen state during ablation. Transient signals of CO2-rich fluid inclusions obtained in this study typically had one or multiple peaks lasting for more than 15 seconds, without an initial short signal spike as obtained by ns-LA-ICP-MS analysis of CO2-rich fluid inclusions at room temperature.

  13. Effect of the inclusion of quebracho tannins in a diet rich in linoleic acid on milk fatty acid composition in dairy ewes. (United States)

    Toral, P G; Hervás, G; Belenguer, A; Bichi, E; Frutos, P


    Despite controversy surrounding the ability of tannins to modulate the fatty acid (FA) profile of ruminant-derived products, reports on this issue are still very limited for dairy sheep. This study was conducted to examine the effect of the inclusion of quebracho tannins in a diet rich in linoleic acid on ewe performance and milk FA composition. Thirty-six lactating ewes were distributed into 6 lots and allocated to 2 treatments (3 lots/treatment): control or quebracho. All sheep received a total mixed ration based on alfalfa hay and a concentrate (forage:concentrate ratio of 40:60) supplemented with 20 g of sunflower oil/kg of dry matter plus 0 (control diet) or 20 g of an extract of quebracho tannins/kg of dry matter (QUE diet). Milk production and composition were analyzed on d 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21, 24, and 27 on treatments, and milk FA profile on d 0, 3, 6, 12, 18, and 27. On d 27, samples of rumen fluid were collected for pH, and lactate, ammonia, and volatile FA concentration analysis. Feeding the QUE diet had no apparent effect on animal performance and hardly modified ruminal fermentation characteristics, except for a reduction in the molar proportions of minor volatile FA. Dietary tannins increased the milk concentration of several 18:1 and 18:2 isomers and decreased that of branched-chain FA. Some of these changes were relatively constant throughout the experiment (e.g., cis-12 18:1 and trans-9,cis-12 18:2), whereas others varied over time (e.g., trans-10 18:1, which increased gradually with the QUE diet). Significant differences between treatments in trans-11 18:1 and cis-9,trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid were only observed on d 3. Overall, addition of quebracho tannins to a diet rich in linoleic acid did not prove useful to beneficially modify milk FA composition, especially over the long term. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Changes of Benthic Macroinvertebrates in Thi Vai River and Cai Mep Estuaries Under Polluted Conditions with Industrial Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huong Nguyen Thi Thanh


    Full Text Available The pollution on the Thi Vai River has been spreading out rapidly over the two lasted decades caused by the wastewater from the industrial parks in the left bank of Thi Vai River and Cai Mep Estuaries. The evaluation of the benthic macroinvertebrate changes was very necessary to identify the consequences of the industrial wastewater on water quality and aquatic ecosystem of Thi Vai River and Cai Mep Estuaries. In this study, the variables of benthic macroinvertebrates and water quality were investigated in Thi Vai River and Cai Mep Estuaries, Southern Vietnam. The monitoring data of benthic macroinvertebrates and water quality parameters covered the period from 1989 to 2015 at 6 sampling sites in Thi Vai River and Cai Mep Estuaries. The basic water quality parameters were also tested including pH, dissolved oxygen (DO, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus. The biodiversity indices of benthic macroinvertebrates were applied for water quality assessment. The results showed that pH ranged from 6.4 – 7.6 during the monitoring. The DO concentrations were in between 0.20 - 6.70 mg/L. The concentrations of total nitrogen and total phosphorous ranged from 0.03 - 5.70 mg/L 0.024 - 1.380 mg/L respectively. Macroinvertebrate community in the study area consisted of 36 species of polychaeta, gastropoda, bivalvia, and crustacea, of which, species of polychaeta were dominant in species number. The benthic macroinvertebartes density ranged from 0 - 2.746 individuals/m−1 with the main dominant species of Neanthes caudata, Prionospio malmgreni, Paraprionospio pinnata, Trichochaeta carica, Maldane sarsi, Capitella capitata, Terebellides stroemi, Euditylia polymorpha, Grandidierella lignorum, Apseudes vietnamensis. The biodiversity index values during the monitoring characterized for aquatic environmental conditions of mesotrophic to polytrophic. Besides, species richness positively correlated with DO, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus. The results

  15. Thermal and chemical evolution in the early Solar System as recorded by FUN CAIs: Part II - Laboratory evaporation of potential CMS-1 precursor material (United States)

    Mendybaev, Ruslan A.; Williams, Curtis D.; Spicuzza, Michael J.; Richter, Frank M.; Valley, John W.; Fedkin, Alexei V.; Wadhwa, Meenakshi


    We present the results of laboratory experiments in which a forsterite-rich melt estimated to be a potential precursor of Allende CMS-1 FUN CAI was evaporated into vacuum for different lengths of time at 1900 °C. The evaporation of this melt resulted in residues that define trajectories in chemical as well as magnesium, silicon and oxygen isotopic composition space and come very close to the measured properties of CMS-1. The isotopic composition of the evaporation residues was also used to determine the kinetic isotopic fractionation factors [α2,1 (vapor-melt) defined as the ratio of isotopes 2 and 1 of a given element in the evaporating gas divided by their ratio in the evaporating source] for evaporation of magnesium (α25,24 for 25Mg/24Mg), silicon (α29,28 for 29Si/28Si) and oxygen (α18,16 for 18O/16O) from the forsterite-rich melt at 1900 °C. The values of α25,24 = 0.98383 ± 0.00033 and α29,28 = 0.99010 ± 0.00038 are essentially independent of change in the melt composition as evaporation proceeds. In contrast, α18,16 changes from 0.9815 ± 0.0016 to ∼0.9911 when the residual melt composition changes from forsteritic to melilitic. Using the determined values of α25,24 and α29,28 and present-day bulk chemical composition of the CMS-1, the composition of the precursor of the inclusion was estimated to be close to the clinopyroxene + spinel + forsterite assemblage condensed from a solar composition gas. The correspondence between the chemical composition and isotopic fractionation of experimental evaporation residues and the present-day bulk chemical and isotopic compositions of CMS-1 is evidence that evaporation played a major role in the chemical evolution of CMS-1.

  16. Perancangan Perangkat Lunak Media Pembelajaran Menggunakan Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI untuk Pembelajaran Ilmu Tajwid Berbasis Web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenny Purwani


    Full Text Available Strategi penggunaan Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI sebagai media pembelajaran dibutuhkan untuk mengatasi permasalahan yang muncul dalam proses pembelajaran. Pembelajaran yang dikemas dengan baik memberikan dampak yang positif dalam memajukan potensi pada diri manusia. CAI sebagai media pembelajaran berbasis computer dibangun sebagai pelengkap dan pendukung metode pembelajaran yang selama ini hanya menggunakan metode ceramah, diskusi informasi dan demonstrasi. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah merancang dan membangun media pembelajaran CAI yang interaktif dengan berbasis Web. Kemudian hasilnya berupa rancangan CAI dengan model tutorial, serta dilengkapi dengan latihan soal-soal dari materi yang diberikan. Perancangan CAI ini kemudian digunakan untuk media pembelajaran ilmu Tajwid dengan komputer. Strategic use of Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI as a learning media needed to overcome the problems that appeared in the learning process. Learning that was packaged well gave a positive impact in advancing the potential in human beings. CAI as a computer-based learning media was built to complement and support the learning method which as long as only used the speech, discussions, information and demonstrations method. The purpose of this study was to design and build learning media of CAI which was interactive with Web-based. Then the result was a design of CAI with tutorial model and completed with practicing questions from the material provided. This CAI design was then used for learning media of Tajwid with computer.

  17. The Impact of Different Support Vectors on GOSAT-2 CAI-2 L2 Cloud Discrimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Oishi


    Full Text Available Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite-2 (GOSAT-2 will be launched in fiscal year 2018. GOSAT-2 will be equipped with two sensors: the Thermal and Near-infrared Sensor for Carbon Observation (TANSO-Fourier Transform Spectrometer 2 (FTS-2 and the TANSO-Cloud and Aerosol Imager 2 (CAI-2. CAI-2 is a push-broom imaging sensor that has forward- and backward-looking bands to observe the optical properties of aerosols and clouds and to monitor the status of urban air pollution and transboundary air pollution over oceans, such as PM2.5 (particles less than 2.5 micrometers in diameter. CAI-2 has important applications for cloud discrimination in each direction. The Cloud and Aerosol Unbiased Decision Intellectual Algorithm (CLAUDIA1, which applies sequential threshold tests to features is used for GOSAT CAI L2 cloud flag processing. If CLAUDIA1 is used with CAI-2, it is necessary to optimize the thresholds in accordance with CAI-2. However, CLAUDIA3 with support vector machines (SVM, a supervised pattern recognition method, was developed, and then we applied CLAUDIA3 for GOSAT-2 CAI-2 L2 cloud discrimination processing. Thus, CLAUDIA3 can automatically find the optimized boundary between clear and cloudy areas. Improvements in CLAUDIA3 using CAI (CLAUDIA3-CAI continue to be made. In this study, we examined the impact of various support vectors (SV on GOSAT-2 CAI-2 L2 cloud discrimination by analyzing (1 the impact of the choice of different time periods for the training data and (2 the impact of different generation procedures for SV on the cloud discrimination efficiency. To generate SV for CLAUDIA3-CAI from MODIS data, there are two times at which features are extracted, corresponding to CAI bands. One procedure is equivalent to generating SV using CAI data. Another procedure generates SV for MODIS cloud discrimination at the beginning, and then extracts decision function, thresholds, and SV corresponding to CAI bands. Our results indicated the following

  18. The Vibrio cholerae quorum-sensing autoinducer CAI-1: analysis of the biosynthetic enzyme CqsA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, R.; Bolitho, M; Higgins, D; Lu, W; Ng, W; Jeffrey, P; Rabinowitz, J; Semmelhack, M; Hughson, F; Bassler, B


    Vibrio cholerae, the bacterium that causes the disease cholera, controls virulence factor production and biofilm development in response to two extracellular quorum-sensing molecules, called autoinducers. The strongest autoinducer, called CAI-1 (for cholera autoinducer-1), was previously identified as (S)-3-hydroxytridecan-4-one. Biosynthesis of CAI-1 requires the enzyme CqsA. Here, we determine the CqsA reaction mechanism, identify the CqsA substrates as (S)-2-aminobutyrate and decanoyl coenzyme A, and demonstrate that the product of the reaction is 3-aminotridecan-4-one, dubbed amino-CAI-1. CqsA produces amino-CAI-1 by a pyridoxal phosphate-dependent acyl-CoA transferase reaction. Amino-CAI-1 is converted to CAI-1 in a subsequent step via a CqsA-independent mechanism. Consistent with this, we find cells release {ge}100 times more CAI-1 than amino-CAI-1. Nonetheless, V. cholerae responds to amino-CAI-1 as well as CAI-1, whereas other CAI-1 variants do not elicit a quorum-sensing response. Thus, both CAI-1 and amino-CAI-1 have potential as lead molecules in the development of an anticholera treatment.

  19. Structural basis of Na+-independent and cooperative substrate/product antiport in CaiT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schulze, Sabrina; Köster, Stefan; Geldmacher, Ulrike; Terwisscha van Scheltinga, Anke C.; Kühlbrandt, Werner


    Transport of solutes across biological membranes is performed by specialized secondary transport proteins in the lipid bilayer, and is essential for life. Here we report the structures of the sodium-independent carnitine/butyrobetaine antiporter CaiT from Proteus mirabilis (PmCaiT) at 2.3-Å and from

  20. An Object-Oriented Architecture for a Web-Based CAI System. (United States)

    Nakabayashi, Kiyoshi; Hoshide, Takahide; Seshimo, Hitoshi; Fukuhara, Yoshimi

    This paper describes the design and implementation of an object-oriented World Wide Web-based CAI (Computer-Assisted Instruction) system. The goal of the design is to provide a flexible CAI/ITS (Intelligent Tutoring System) framework with full extendibility and reusability, as well as to exploit Web-based software technologies such as JAVA, ASP (a…

  1. Generative Computer Assisted Instruction: An Application of Artificial Intelligence to CAI. (United States)

    Koffman, Elliot B.

    Frame-oriented computer-assisted instruction (CAI) systems dominate the field, but these mechanized programed texts utilize the computational power of the computer to a minimal degree and are difficult to modify. Newer, generative CAI systems which are supplied with a knowledge of subject matter can generate their own problems and solutions, can…

  2. Bicarbonate-rich fluid inclusions and hydrogen diffusion in quartz from the Libčice orogenic gold deposit, Bohemian Massif

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrstka, Tomáš; Dubessy, J.; Zachariáš, J.


    Roč. 281, 3-4 (2011), s. 317-332 ISSN 0009-2541 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : bicarbonate * fluid inclusions * hydrogen diffusion * orogenic gold deposits * raman spectroscopy Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 3.518, year: 2011

  3. TIMS analysis of Sr and Nd isotopes in melt inclusions from Italian potassium-rich lavas using prototype 1013Ω amplifiers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koornneef, Janne M.; Nikogosian, Igor; van Bergen, Manfred J.; Smeets, Richard; Bouman, Claudia; Davies, Gareth R.


    Sr and Nd isotopes were determined using new thermal ionisation mass spectrometry (TIMS) techniques for a suite of 21 olivine-hosted (85-92mol% Fo) melt inclusions selected from potassic and ultra-potassic lavas from the Italian peninsula. Sr isotopes were measured using default 1011Ω resistors,

  4. Bird community structure in riparian environments in Cai River, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Brummelhaus


    Full Text Available Urbanization produces changes in riparian environments, causing effects in the structure of bird communities, which present different responses to the impacts. We compare species richness, abundance, and composition of birds in riparian environments with different characteristics in Cai River, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. We carried out observations in woodland, grassland, and urban environments, between September 2007 and August 2008. We listed 130 bird species, 29 species unique to woodland environment, and an endangeredspecies: Triclaria malachitacea. Bird abundance differed from woodland (n = 426 individuals to urban environments (n = 939 individuals (F2,6 = 7.315; P = 0.025. Species composition and feeding guilds differed significantly in the bird community structures among these three riparian environments. In the grassland and urban environments there were more generalist insectivorous species, while in the woodland environments we find more leaf and trunk insectivorous species and frugivorous species, sensitive to human impacts. Bird species can be biological quality indicators and they contribute to ecosystems performing relevant functions. With the knowledge on bird community structure and their needs, it is possible to implement management practices for restoration of degraded riparian environments.

  5. CAD/CAM/CAI Application for High-Precision Machining of Internal Combustion Engine Pistons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Postnov


    Full Text Available CAD/CAM/CAI application solutions for internal combustion engine pistons machining was analyzed. Low-volume technology of internal combustion engine pistons production was proposed. Fixture for CNC turning center was designed.

  6. CAI System with Multi-Media Text Through Web Browser for NC Lathe Programming (United States)

    Mizugaki, Yoshio; Kikkawa, Koichi; Mizui, Masahiko; Kamijo, Keisuke

    A new Computer Aided Instruction (CAI) system for NC lathe programming has been developed with use of multi-media texts including movies, animations, pictures, sound and texts through Web browser. Although many CAI systems developed previously for NC programming consist of text-based instructions, it is difficult for beginners to learn NC programming with use of them. In the developed CAI system, multi-media texts are adopted for the help of users' understanding, and it is available through Web browser anytime and anywhere. Also the error log is automatically recorded for the future references. According to the NC programming coded by a user, the movement of the NC lathe is animated and shown in the monitor screen in front of the user. If its movement causes the collision between a cutting tool and the lathe, some sound and the caution remark are generated. If the user makes mistakes some times at a certain stage in learning NC, the corresponding suggestion is shown in the form of movies, animations, and so forth. By using the multimedia texts, users' attention is kept concentrated during a training course. In this paper, the configuration of the CAI system is explained and the actual procedures for users to learn the NC programming are also explained too. Some beginners tested this CAI system and their results are illustrated and discussed from the viewpoint of the efficiency and usefulness of this CAI system. A brief conclusion is also mentioned.

  7. The disulfide-rich Metridia luciferase refolded from E. coli inclusion bodies reveals the properties of a native folded enzyme produced in insect cells. (United States)

    Markova, Svetlana V; Larionova, Marina D; Gorbunova, Darya A; Vysotski, Eugene S


    The bioluminescence of a marine copepod Metridia longa is determined by a small secreted coelenterazine-dependent luciferase that uses coelenterazine as a substrate of enzymatic reaction to generate light (λ max =480nm). To date, four different isoforms of the luciferase differing in size, sequences, and properties have been cloned by functional screening. All of them contain ten conserved Cys residues that suggests up to five SS intramolecular bonds per luciferase molecule. Whereas the use of copepod luciferases as bioluminescent reporters in biomedical research in vivo is growing from year to year, their application for in vitro assays is still limited by the difficulty in obtaining significant amounts of luciferase. The most cost-effective host for producing recombinant proteins is Escherichia coli. However, prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells maintain the reductive environment in cytoplasm that hinders the disulfide bond formation and consequently the proper folding of luciferase. Here we report the expression of the MLuc7 isoform of M. longa luciferase in E. coli cells and the efficient procedure for refolding from inclusion bodies yielding a high-active monomeric protein. Furthermore, in a set of identical experiments we demonstrate that bioluminescent and structural features of MLuc7 produced in bacterial cells are identical to those of MLuc7 isoform produced from culture medium of insect cells. Although the yield of high-purity protein is only 6mg/L, the application of E. coli cells to produce the luciferase is simpler and more cost-effective than the use of insect cells. We expect that the suggested technology of Metridia luciferase production allows obtaining of sufficient amounts of protein both for the development of novel in vitro analytical assays with the use of MLuc7 as a label and for structural studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The enhancement of students’ mathematical representation in junior high school using cognitive apprenticeship instruction (CAI) (United States)

    Yusepa, B. G. P.; Kusumah, Y. S.; Kartasasmita, B. G.


    This study aims to get an in-depth understanding of the enhancement of students’ mathematical representation. This study is experimental research with pretest-posttest control group design. The subject of this study is the students’ of the eighth grade from junior high schools in Bandung: high-level and middle-level. In each school, two parallel groups were chosen as a control group and an experimental group. The experimental group was given cognitive apprenticeship instruction (CAI) treatment while the control group was given conventional learning. The results show that the enhancement of students’ mathematical representation who obtained CAI treatment was better than the conventional one, viewed which can be observed from the overall, mathematical prior knowledge (MPK), and school level. It can be concluded that CAI can be used as a good alternative learning model to enhance students’ mathematical representation.

  9. Rancangan Perangkat Lunak Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI Untuk Ilmu Tajwid Berbasis Web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenny Purwani


    Full Text Available The development of information technology and science refer to the need of teching-learning concept and mechanism wich are based on information technology, undoubtedly. Regarding the development, it needs qualified human resources and flexible material changing and it should be appropriate with technology and science development. Additionaly, this combines between education based on religious and techology (IMTAK and IPTEK. Internet techology can be used as teaching tool which is known as Computer Assisted Intruction (CAI. CAI software might be one of media or tool in learnig tajwid and it can help people to learn Tajwid easier.

  10. Gender Role, Gender Identity and Sexual Orientation in CAIS ("XY-Women") Compared With Subfertile and Infertile 46,XX Women. (United States)

    Brunner, Franziska; Fliegner, Maike; Krupp, Kerstin; Rall, Katharina; Brucker, Sara; Richter-Appelt, Hertha


    The perception of gender development of individuals with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS) as unambiguously female has recently been challenged in both qualitative data and case reports of male gender identity. The aim of the mixed-method study presented was to examine the self-perception of CAIS individuals regarding different aspects of gender and to identify commonalities and differences in comparison with subfertile and infertile XX-chromosomal women with diagnoses of Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome (MRKHS) and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The study sample comprised 11 participants with CAIS, 49 with MRKHS, and 55 with PCOS. Gender identity was assessed by means of a multidimensional instrument, which showed significant differences between the CAIS group and the XX-chromosomal women. Other-than-female gender roles and neither-female-nor-male sexes/genders were reported only by individuals with CAIS. The percentage with a not exclusively androphile sexual orientation was unexceptionally high in the CAIS group compared to the prevalence in "normative" women and the clinical groups. The findings support the assumption made by Meyer-Bahlburg ( 2010 ) that gender outcome in people with CAIS is more variable than generally stated. Parents and professionals should thus be open to courses of gender development other than typically female in individuals with CAIS.

  11. Cognitive Assessment Interview (CAI): Validity as a co-primary measure of cognition across phases of schizophrenia. (United States)

    Ventura, Joseph; Subotnik, Kenneth L; Ered, Arielle; Hellemann, Gerhard S; Nuechterlein, Keith H


    Progress has been made in developing interview-based measures for the assessment of cognitive functioning, such as the Cognitive Assessment Interview (CAI), as co-primary measures that compliment objective neurocognitive assessments and daily functioning. However, a few questions remain, including whether the relationships with objective cognitive measures and daily functioning are high enough to justify the CAI as an co-primary measure and whether patient-only assessments are valid. Participants were first-episode schizophrenia patients (n=60) and demographically-similar healthy controls (n=35), chronic schizophrenia patients (n=38) and demographically similar healthy controls (n=19). Participants were assessed at baseline with an interview-based measure of cognitive functioning (CAI), a test of objective cognitive functioning, functional capacity, and role functioning at baseline, and in the first episode patients again 6 months later (n=28). CAI ratings were correlated with objective cognitive functioning, functional capacity, and functional outcomes in first-episode schizophrenia patients at similar magnitudes as in chronic patients. Comparisons of first-episode and chronic patients with healthy controls indicated that the CAI sensitively detected deficits in schizophrenia. The relationship of CAI Patient-Only ratings with objective cognitive functioning, functional capacity, and daily functioning were comparable to CAI Rater scores that included informant information. These results confirm in an independent sample the relationship of the CAI ratings with objectively measured cognition, functional capacity, and role functioning. Comparison of schizophrenia patients with healthy controls further validates the CAI as an co-primary measure of cognitive deficits. Also, CAI change scores were strongly related to objective cognitive change indicating sensitivity to change. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Consumption of fa cai Nostoc soup: a potential for BMAA exposure from Nostoc cyanobacteria in China? (United States)

    Roney, Britton R; Renhui, Li; Banack, Sandra Anne; Murch, Susan; Honegger, Rosmarie; Cox, Paul Alan


    Grown in arid regions of western China the cyanobacterium Nostoc flagelliforme--called fa cai in Mandarin and fat choy in Cantonese--is wild-harvested and used to make soup consumed during New Year's celebrations. High prices, up to $125 USD/kg, led to overharvesting in Inner Mongolia, Ningxia, Gansu, Qinghai, and Xinjiang. Degradation of arid ecosystems, desertification, and conflicts between Nostoc harvesters and Mongol herdsmen concerned the Chinese environmental authorities, leading to a government ban of Nostoc commerce. This ban stimulated increased marketing of a substitute made from starch. We analysed samples purchased throughout China as well as in Chinese markets in the United States and the United Kingdom. Some were counterfeits consisting of dyed starch noodles. A few samples from California contained Nostoc flagelliforme but were adulterated with starch noodles. Other samples, including those from the United Kingdom, consisted of pure Nostoc flagelliforme. A recent survey of markets in Cheng Du showed no real Nostoc flagelliforme to be marketed. Real and artificial fa cai differ in the presence of beta-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA). Given its status as a high-priced luxury food, the government ban on collection and marketing, and the replacement of real fa cai with starch substitutes consumed only on special occasions, it is anticipated that dietary exposure to BMAA from fa cai will be reduced in the future in China.

  13. CAIS/ACSI 2001: Beyond the Web: Technologies, Knowledge and People. (United States)

    Canadian Journal of Information and Library Science, 2000


    Presents abstracts of papers presented at the 29th Annual Conference of the Canadian Association for Information Science (CAIS) held in Quebec on May 27-29, 2001. Topics include: professional development; librarian/library roles; information technology uses; virtual libraries; information seeking behavior; literacy; information retrieval;…


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bricker, Glynn E.; Caffee, Marc W.


    We propose a model for the incorporation of 10 Be within calcium-aluminum inclusions (CAIs) in primitive carbonaceous meteorites. In this model, 10 Be is produced by energetic particle reactions in the proto-solar atmosphere of a more active proto-Sun characterized by energetic particle fluxes higher than contemporary particle fluxes. This 10 Be is incorporated into the solar wind that is then implanted into CAI precursor material. This production mechanism is operational in the contemporary solar system implanting 10 Be in lunar materials. The contemporary production rate of 10 Be at the surface of the Sun is ∼0.1 10 Be cm -2 s -1 . Scaling up the contemporary 10 Be production in the proto-Sun by a factor of 10 5 would increase the production rate to 10 410 Be cm -2 s -1 . Using this enhanced production value in conjunction with refractory mass inflow rates at 0.06 AU from the proto-Sun we model 10 Be concentrations in CAI precursors. We calculate the content of solar-wind-implanted 10 Be would have been of the order of 10 1210 Be g -1 in CAIs, consistent with initial 10 Be content found from boron-beryllium isotopic systematics in CAIs.

  15. Inclusive pedagogy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Morten Timmermann; Skov Mortensen, Stig

    This article will present a case for a shift in perspective in inclusive education research towards a continentally inspired approach. Drawing on the age old distinction between continental and Anglo-American educational research the aim is to flesh out what a shift to a continental approach...... will entail, and why it might be beneficial to research in inclusive education...

  16. Social inclusion and inclusive education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marsela Robo


    In line with global debate on social inclusion and exclusion, the author brings the way this debate has now pervaded both the official and development policy discourse in Albania.Social inclusion is considered as one of the priorities of the current government, with poverty reduction as its main focus, which will be ensured not only through economic development. In the end, the article focuses on the role of education as a very important and useful tool for ensuring social inclusion.Social inclusion through education, in particular through vocational education, considered by the author as the only way towards sustainable development of Albanian society.

  17. Ca isotopes in refractory inclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niederer, F.R.; Papanastassiou, D.A.


    We report measurements of the absolute isotope abundance of Ca in Ca-Al-rich inclusions from the Allende and Leoville meteorites. Improved high precision measurements are reported also for 46 Ca. We find that nonlinear isotope effects in Ca are extremely rare in these inclusions. The absence of nonlinear effects in Ca, except for the effects in FUN inclusions, is in sharp contrast to the endemic effects in Ti. One fine-grained inclusion shows an excess of 46 Ca of (7 +- 1) per mille, which is consistent with addition of only 46 Ca or of an exotic (*) component with 46 Ca* approx. 48 Ca*. FUN inclusion EK-1-4-1 shows a small 46 Ca excess of (3.3 +- 1.0) per mille; this confirms that the exotic Ca components in EK-1-4-1 were even more deficient in 46 Ca relative to 48 Ca than is the case for normal Ca. The Ca in the Ca-Al-rich inclusions shows mass dependent isotope fractionation effects which have a range from -3.8 to +6.7 per mille per mass unit difference. This range is a factor of 20 wider than the range previously established for bulk meteorites and for terrestrial and lunar samples. Ca and Mg isotope fractionation effects in the Ca-Al-rich inclusions are common and attributed to kinetic isotope effects. (author)

  18. Development of an intelligent CAI system for a distributed processing environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, M.; Sasaki, K.; Ohi, T.; Itoh, T.


    In order to operate a nuclear power plant optimally in both normal and abnormal situations, the operators are trained using an operator training simulator in addition to classroom instruction. Individual instruction using a CAI (Computer-Assisted Instruction) system has become popular as a method of learning plant information, such as plant dynamics, operational procedures, plant systems, plant facilities, etc. The outline is described of a proposed network-based intelligent CAI system (ICAI) incorporating multi-medial PWR plant dynamics simulation, teaching aids and educational record management using the following environment: existing standard workstations and graphic workstations with a live video processing function, TCP/IP protocol of Unix through Ethernet and X window system. (Z.S.) 3 figs., 2 refs

  19. Tungsten isotopes in bulk meteorites and their inclusions-Implications for processing of presolar components in the solar protoplanetary disk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Jesper Christian; Paton, Chad; Wielandt, Daniel Kim Peel


    We present high precision, low- and high-resolution tungsten isotope measurements of iron meteorites Cape York (IIIAB), Rhine Villa (IIIE), Bendego (IC), and the IVB iron meteorites Tlacotepec, Skookum, and Weaver Mountains, as well as CI chondrite Ivuna, a CV3 chondrite refractory inclusion (CAI...

  20. Inclusion of ensiled cassava KM94 leaves in diets for growing pigs in Vietnam reduces growth rate but increases profitability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, T.H.L.; Ngoan, L.D.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Hendriks, W.H.


    This study was conducted to determine the effect of the inclusion of different levels of ensiled cassava leaves (variety KM94) in the diets on performance and carcass characteristics of growing pigs in Vietnam. A total of 40 crossbreds pigs (Large White${\\\\times}$Mong Cai, 20 males and 20 females)

  1. Numerical investigation of CAI Combustion in the Opposed- Piston Engine with Direct and Indirect Water Injection (United States)

    Pyszczek, R.; Mazuro, P.; Teodorczyk, A.


    This paper is focused on the CAI combustion control in a turbocharged 2-stroke Opposed-Piston (OP) engine. The barrel type OP engine arrangement is of particular interest for the authors because of its robust design, high mechanical efficiency and relatively easy incorporation of a Variable Compression Ratio (VCR). The other advantage of such design is that combustion chamber is formed between two moving pistons - there is no additional cylinder head to be cooled which directly results in an increased thermal efficiency. Furthermore, engine operation in a Controlled Auto-Ignition (CAI) mode at high compression ratios (CR) raises a possibility of reaching even higher efficiencies and very low emissions. In order to control CAI combustion such measures as VCR and water injection were considered for indirect ignition timing control. Numerical simulations of the scavenging and combustion processes were performed with the 3D CFD multipurpose AVL Fire solver. Numerous cases were calculated with different engine compression ratios and different amounts of directly and indirectly injected water. The influence of the VCR and water injection on the ignition timing and engine performance was determined and their application in the real engine was discussed.

  2. Inclusive pedagogy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Morten Timmermann; Mortensen, Stig Skov

    of education. The article explores the relationship between Continental and Anglo-American educational theory, and why they seem to have developed in such distinct directions. Beginning with the Anglo-American perspective it is outlined how pedagogy and the so called educational interest became replaced...... and the politicisation of inclusive education, and a positive aim in the form of an argument for a move towards constructing a pedagogical ideal of inclusion....

  3. The Cognitive Assessment Interview (CAI): development and validation of an empirically derived, brief interview-based measure of cognition. (United States)

    Ventura, Joseph; Reise, Steven P; Keefe, Richard S E; Baade, Lyle E; Gold, James M; Green, Michael F; Kern, Robert S; Mesholam-Gately, Raquelle; Nuechterlein, Keith H; Seidman, Larry J; Bilder, Robert M


    Practical, reliable "real world" measures of cognition are needed to supplement neurocognitive performance data to evaluate possible efficacy of new drugs targeting cognitive deficits associated with schizophrenia. Because interview-based measures of cognition offer one possible approach, data from the MATRICS initiative (n=176) were used to examine the psychometric properties of the Schizophrenia Cognition Rating Scale (SCoRS) and the Clinical Global Impression of Cognition in Schizophrenia (CGI-CogS). We used classical test theory methods and item response theory to derive the 10-item Cognitive Assessment Interview (CAI) from the SCoRS and CGI-CogS ("parent instruments"). Sources of information for CAI ratings included the patient and an informant. Validity analyses examined the relationship between the CAI and objective measures of cognitive functioning, intermediate measures of cognition, and functional outcome. The rater's score from the newly derived CAI (10 items) correlate highly (r=.87) with those from the combined set of the SCoRS and CGI-CogS (41 items). Both the patient (r=.82) and the informant (r=.95) data were highly correlated with the rater's score. The CAI was modestly correlated with objectively measured neurocognition (r=-.32), functional capacity (r=-.44), and functional outcome (r=-.32), which was comparable to the parent instruments. The CAI allows for expert judgment in evaluating a patient's cognitive functioning and was modestly correlated with neurocognitive functioning, functional capacity, and functional outcome. The CAI is a brief, repeatable, and potentially valuable tool for rating cognition in schizophrenia patients who are participating in clinical trials. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. inclusions revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Migórski


    Full Text Available In this paper we confirm the validity of some recent results of Hu, Lakshmikantham, Papageorgiou [4] and Papageorgiou [13] concerning the existence and relaxation for nonlinear evolution inclusions. We fill a gap in the proofs of these results due to the use of incorrect Nagy's compactness embedding theorem.

  5. CAI and training system for the emergency operation procedure in the advanced thermal reactor, FUGEN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozaki, T.; Imanaga, K.; Nakamura, S.; Maeda, K.; Sakurai, N.; Miyamoto, M.


    In the Advanced Thermal Reactor (ATR ) of the JNC, 'FUGEN', a symptom based Emergency Operating Procedure (EOF) was introduced in order to operate Fugen more safely and it became necessary for the plant operators to master the EOF. However it took a lot of time for the instructor to teach the EOP to operators and to train them. Thus, we have developed a Computer Aided Instruction (CAI) and Training System for the EOP, by which the operators can learn the EOP and can be trained. This system has two major functions, i.e., CAI and training. In the CAI function, there are three learning courses, namely, the EOP procedure, the simulation with guidance and Q and A, and the free simulation. In the training function, all of necessary control instruments (indicators, switches, annunciators and so forth) and physics models for the EOP training are simulated so that the trainees can be trained for all of the EOPs. In addition, 50 kinds of malfunction models are installed in order to perform appropriate accident scenarios for the EOP. The training of the EOP covers the range from AOO (Anticipated Operational Occurrence) to Over-DBAs (Design Based Accidents). This system is built in three personal computers that are connected by the computer network. One of the computers is expected to be used for the instructor and the other two are for the trainees. The EOP is composed of eight guidelines, such as 'Reactor Control' and 'Depression and Cooling', and the operation screens which are corresponded to the guidelines are respectively provided. According to the trial, we have estimated that the efficiency of the learning and the training would be improved about 30% for the trainee and about 75% for the instructor in the actual learning and training. (author)

  6. Complete genome sequence of Defluviimonas alba cai42T, a microbial exopolysaccharides producer. (United States)

    Zhao, Jie-Yu; Geng, Shuang; Xu, Lian; Hu, Bing; Sun, Ji-Quan; Nie, Yong; Tang, Yue-Qin; Wu, Xiao-Lei


    Defluviimonas alba cai42 T , isolated from the oil-production water in Xinjiang Oilfield in China, has a strong ability to produce exopolysaccharides (EPS). We hereby present its complete genome sequence information which consists of a circular chromosome and three plasmids. The strain characteristically contains various genes encoding for enzymes involved in EPS biosynthesis, modification, and export. According to the genomic and physiochemical data, it is predicted that the strain has the potential to be utilized in industrial production of microbial EPS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. On native Danish learners' challenges in distinguishing /tai/, /cai/ and /zai/

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloos, Marjoleine; Zhang, Chun


    University participated in an ABX experiment. They were auditorily presented pairs of the critical stimuli tai-cai-zai, te-ce-ze and tuo-cuo-zuo combined with all four tones and alternated with fillers. The subjects indicated for each pair which of the two words matched the pinyin description. The expected...... results show that beginner learners perform on chance level regarding the distinction between t and z and between c and z. The reason is that in Danish, which has an aspiration contrast between plosives (like Chinese) /th/ is variably pronounced as affricated /ts/ and many speakers are unaware...

  8. CAI多媒體教學軟體之開發模式 Using an Instructional Design Model for Developing a Multimedia CAI Courseware

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Yih Shyu


    Full Text Available 無This article outlined a systematic instructional design model for developing a multimedia computer-aided instruction (CAI courseware. The model illustrated roles and tasks as two dimensions necessary in a CAI production teamwork. Four major components (Analysis, Design, Development, and Revise/Evaluation following by totally 25 steps are provided. Eight roles with each competent skills were identified. The model will be useful in serving as a framework for developing a mulrimedia CAI courseware for educators, instructional designers and CAI industry developers.

  9. Translating Inclusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fallov, Mia Arp; Birk, Rasmus


    The purpose of this paper is to explore how practices of translation shape particular paths of inclusion for people living in marginalized residential areas in Denmark. Inclusion, we argue, is not an end-state, but rather something which must be constantly performed. Active citizenship, today......, is not merely a question of participation, but of learning to become active in all spheres of life. The paper draws on empirical examples from a multi-sited field work in 6 different sites of local community work in Denmark, to demonstrate how different dimensions of translation are involved in shaping active...... citizenship. We propose the following different dimensions of translation: translating authority, translating language, translating social problems. The paper takes its theoretical point of departure from assemblage urbanism, arguing that cities are heterogeneous assemblages of socio-material interactions...

  10. An experimental study of fuel injection strategies in CAI gasoline engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunicz, J.; Kordos, P. [Department of Combustion Engines and Transport, Lublin University of Technology, Nadbystrzycka 36, 20-618 Lublin (Poland)


    Combustion of gasoline in a direct injection controlled auto-ignition (CAI) single-cylinder research engine was studied. CAI operation was achieved with the use of the negative valve overlap (NVO) technique and internal exhaust gas re-circulation (EGR). Experiments were performed at single injection and split injection, where some amount of fuel was injected close to top dead centre (TDC) during NVO interval, and the second injection was applied with variable timing. Additionally, combustion at variable fuel-rail pressure was examined. Investigation showed that at fuel injection into recompressed exhaust fuel reforming took place. This process was identified via an analysis of the exhaust-fuel mixture composition after NVO interval. It was found that at single fuel injection in NVO phase, its advance determined the heat release rate and auto-ignition timing, and had a strong influence on NO{sub X} emission. However, a delay of single injection to intake stroke resulted in deterioration of cycle-to-cycle variability. Application of split injection showed benefits of this strategy versus single injection. Examinations of different fuel mass split ratios and variable second injection timing resulted in further optimisation of mixture formation. At equal share of the fuel mass injected in the first injection during NVO and in the second injection at the beginning of compression, the lowest emission level and cyclic variability improvement were observed. (author)

  11. A Braça da Rede, uma Técnica Caiçara de Medir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Chieus Jr.


    Full Text Available Este artigo relata como os caiçaras da cidade de Ubatuba litoral norte paulista medem suas redes de pesca.Mas antes de estar analisando sua técnica de medir estaremos fazendo uma pequena abordagem da cultura caiçara e suas transformações. Em seguida mostraremos alguns momentos históricos da construção do metro. Depois como os caiçaras medem suas redes e o problema ocorrido no Brasil na implantação do sistema métrico decimal e a resistência de determinadas civilizações que se utiliza de outros padrões para realizar suas medidas, ignorando o atual sistema métrico, devidos o seu contexto cultural. Toda esta discussão está enfocada numa perspectiva histórica da Etnomatemática.

  12. Microstructures of Hibonite From an ALH A77307 (CO3.0) CAI: Evidence for Evaporative Loss of Calcium (United States)

    Han, Jangmi; Brearley, Adrian J.; Keller, Lindsay P.


    Hibonite is a comparatively rare, primary phase found in some CAIs from different chondrite groups and is also common in Wark-Lovering rims [1]. Hibonite is predicted to be one of the earliest refractory phases to form by equilibrium condensation from a cooling gas of solar composition [2] and, therefore, can be a potential recorder of very early solar system processes. In this study, we describe the microstructures of hibonite from one CAI in ALH A77307 (CO3.0) using FIB/TEM techniques in order to reconstruct its formational history.

  13. Developing the Coach Analysis and Intervention System (CAIS): establishing validity and reliability of a computerised systematic observation instrument. (United States)

    Cushion, Christopher; Harvey, Stephen; Muir, Bob; Nelson, Lee


    We outline the evolution of a computerised systematic observation tool and describe the process for establishing the validity and reliability of this new instrument. The Coach Analysis and Interventions System (CAIS) has 23 primary behaviours related to physical behaviour, feedback/reinforcement, instruction, verbal/non-verbal, questioning and management. The instrument also analyses secondary coach behaviour related to performance states, recipient, timing, content and questioning/silence. The CAIS is a multi-dimensional and multi-level mechanism able to provide detailed and contextualised data about specific coaching behaviours occurring in complex and nuanced coaching interventions and environments that can be applied to both practice sessions and competition.

  14. Two years since SSAMS: Status of {sup 14}C AMS at CAIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravi Prasad, G.V.; Cherkinsky, Alexander; Culp, Randy A.; Dvoracek, Doug K.


    The NEC 250 kV single stage AMS accelerator (SSAMS) was installed two years ago at the Center for Applied Isotope Studies (CAIS), University of Georgia. The accelerator is primarily being used for radiocarbon measurements to test the authenticity of natural and bio-based samples while all other samples such as geological, atmospheric, marine and archaeological. are run on the 500 kV, NEC 1.5SDH-1 model tandem accelerator, which has been operating since 2001. The data obtained over a six months period for OXI, OXII, ANU sucrose and FIRI-D are discussed. The mean value of ANU sucrose observed to be slightly lower than the consensus value. The processed blanks on SSAMS produce lower apparent age compared to the tandem accelerator as expected.

  15. Hypertext and three-dimensional computer graphics in an all digital PC-based CAI workstation. (United States)

    Schwarz, D. L.; Wind, G. G.


    In the past several years there has been an enormous increase in the number of computer-assisted instructional (CAI) applications. Many medical educators and physicians have recognized the power and utility of hypertext. Some developers have incorporated simple diagrams, scanned monochrome graphics or still frame photographs from a laser disc or CD-ROM into their hypertext applications. These technologies have greatly increased the role of the microcomputer in education and training. There still remain numerous applications for these tools which are yet to be explored. One of these exciting areas involves the use of three-dimensional computer graphics. An all digital platform increases application portability. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:1807767

  16. Hunting and use of terrestrial fauna used by Caiçaras from the Atlantic Forest coast (Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alves Rômulo RN


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Brazilian Atlantic Forest is considered one of the hotspots for conservation, comprising remnants of rain forest along the eastern Brazilian coast. Its native inhabitants in the Southeastern coast include the Caiçaras (descendants from Amerindians and European colonizers, with a deep knowledge on the natural resources used for their livelihood. Methods We studied the use of the terrestrial fauna in three Caiçara communities, through open-ended interviews with 116 native residents. Data were checked through systematic observations and collection of zoological material. Results The dependence on the terrestrial fauna by Caiçaras is especially for food and medicine. The main species used are Didelphis spp., Dasyprocta azarae, Dasypus novemcinctus, and small birds (several species of Turdidae. Contrasting with a high dependency on terrestrial fauna resources by native Amazonians, the Caiçaras do not show a constant dependency on these resources. Nevertheless, the occasional hunting of native animals represents a complimentary source of animal protein. Conclusion Indigenous or local knowledge on native resources is important in order to promote local development in a sustainable way, and can help to conserve biodiversity, particularly if the resource is sporadically used and not commercially exploited.

  17. From Corporate Social Responsibility, through Entrepreneurial Orientation, to Knowledge Sharing: A Study in Cai Luong (Renovated Theatre) Theatre Companies (United States)

    Tuan, Luu Trong


    Purpose: This paper aims to examine the role of antecedents such as corporate social responsibility (CSR) and entrepreneurial orientation in the chain effect to knowledge sharing among members of Cai Luong theatre companies in the Vietnamese context. Knowledge sharing contributes to the depth of the knowledge pool of both the individuals and the…

  18. A Design of Computer Aided Instructions (CAI) for Undirected Graphs in the Discrete Math Tutorial (DMT). Part 1. (United States)


    The objective of this thesis research is to create a tutorial for teaching aspects of undirected graphs in discrete math . It is one of the submodules...of the Discrete Math Tutorial (DMT), which is a Computer Aided Instructional (CAI) tool for teaching discrete math to the Naval Academy and the

  19. A Design of Computer Aided Instructions (CAI) for Undirected Graphs in the Discrete Math Tutorial (DMT). Part 2 (United States)


    The objective of this thesis research is to create a tutorial for teaching aspects of undirected graphs in discrete math . It is one of the submodules...of the Discrete Math Tutorial (DMT), which is a Computer Aided Instructional (CAI) tool for teaching discrete math to the Naval Academy and the

  20. A Model Driven Question-Answering System for a CAI Environment. Final Report (July 1970 to May 1972). (United States)

    Brown, John S.; And Others

    A question answering system which permits a computer-assisted instruction (CAI) student greater initiative in the variety of questions he can ask is described. A method is presented to represent the dynamic processes of a subject matter area by augmented finite state automata, which permits efficient inferencing about dynamic processes and…

  1. Dietary Changes over Time in a Caiçara Community from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila L. MacCord


    Full Text Available Because they are occurring at an accelerated pace, changes in the livelihoods of local coastal communities, including nutritional aspects, have been a subject of interest in human ecology. The aim of this study is to explore the dietary changes, particularly in the consumption of animal protein, that have taken place in Puruba Beach, a rural community of caiçaras on the São Paulo Coast, Brazil, over the 10-yr period from 1992-1993 to 2002-2003. Data were collected during six months in 1992-1993 and during the same months in 2002-2003 using the 24-hr recall method. We found an increasing dependence on external products in the most recent period, along with a reduction in fish consumption and in the number of fish species eaten. These changes, possibly associated with other nonmeasured factors such as overfishing and unplanned tourism, may cause food delocalization and a reduction in the use of natural resources. Although the consequences for conservation efforts in the Atlantic Forest and the survival of the caiçaras must still be evaluated, these local inhabitants may be finding a way to reconcile both the old and the new dietary patterns by keeping their houses in the community while looking for sources of income other than natural resources. The prospect shown here may reveal facets that can influence the maintenance of this and other communities undergoing similar processes by, for example, shedding some light on the ecological and economical processes that may occur within their environment and in turn affect the conservation of the resources upon which the local inhabitants depend.

  2. The Range of Initial 10Be/9Be Ratios in the Early Solar System: A Re-Assessment Based on Analyses of New CAIs and Melilite Composition Glass Standards (United States)

    Dunham, E.; Wadhwa, M.; Liu, M.-C.


    We report a more accurate range of initial 10Be/9Be in CAIs including FUN CAI CMS-1 from Allende (CV3) and a new CAI from NWA 5508 (CV3) using melilite composition glass standards; we suggest 10Be is largely produced by irradiation in the nebula.

  3. Confronting New Demands : Inclusive Growth, Inclusive Trade ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Confronting New Demands : Inclusive Growth, Inclusive Trade. Policymakers, businesspeople and civil society advocates need evidence-based research to react ... understood implications, such as labour standards and intellectual property; ...

  4. Oxygen isotopic composition of relict olivine grains in cosmic spherules: Links to chondrules from carbonaceous chondrites

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rudraswami, N.G.; ShyamPrasad, M.; Nagashima, K.; Jones, R.H.

    aluminium rich inclusions (CAIs), amoeboid olivine aggregates (AOAs), and some porphyritic chondrules from carbonaceous chondrites. These grains appear to have recorded the initial oxygen isotopic composition of the inner solar nebula. Three olivine... to the major components of meteorites such as chondrules and calcium-aluminium-rich inclusions (CAIs). CAIs, the first solar system objects in the solar nebula, are formed by condensation of refractory minerals at high temperatures. They are 16O...

  5. Crystal structures of coordination polymers from CaI2 and proline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Lamberts


    Full Text Available Completing our reports concerning the reaction products from calcium halides and the amino acid proline, two different solids were found for the reaction of l- and dl-proline with CaI2. The enantiopure amino acid yields the one-dimensional coordination polymer catena-poly[[aqua-μ3-l-proline-tetra-μ2-l-proline-dicalcium] tetraiodide 1.7-hydrate], {[Ca2(C5H9NO25(H2O]I4·1.7H2O}n, (1, with two independent Ca2+ cations in characteristic seven- and eightfold coordination. Five symmetry-independent zwitterionic l-proline molecules bridge the metal sites into a cationic polymer. Racemic proline forms with Ca2+ cations heterochiral chains of the one-dimensional polymer catena-poly[[diaquadi-μ2-dl-proline-calcium] diiodide], {[Ca(C5H9NO22(H2O2]I2}n, (2. The centrosymmetric structure is built by one Ca2+ cation that is bridged towards its symmetry equivalents by two zwitterionic proline molecules. In both structures, the iodide ions remain non-coordinating and hydrogen bonds are formed between these counter-anions, the amino groups, coordinating and co-crystallized water molecules. While the overall composition of (1 and (2 is in line with other structures from calcium halides and amino acids, the diversity of the carboxylate coordination geometry is quite surprising.

  6. Numerical Investigation Into Effect of Fuel Injection Timing on CAI/HCCI Combustion in a Four-Stroke GDI Engine (United States)

    Cao, Li; Zhao, Hua; Jiang, Xi; Kalian, Navin


    The Controlled Auto-Ignition (CAI) combustion, also known as Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI), was achieved by trapping residuals with early exhaust valve closure in conjunction with direct injection. Multi-cycle 3D engine simulations have been carried out for parametric study on four different injection timings in order to better understand the effects of injection timings on in-cylinder mixing and CAI combustion. The full engine cycle simulation including complete gas exchange and combustion processes was carried out over several cycles in order to obtain the stable cycle for analysis. The combustion models used in the present study are the Shell auto-ignition model and the characteristic-time combustion model, which were modified to take the high level of EGR into consideration. A liquid sheet breakup spray model was used for the droplet breakup processes. The analyses show that the injection timing plays an important role in affecting the in-cylinder air/fuel mixing and mixture temperature, which in turn affects the CAI combustion and engine performance.

  7. Structure and organization of nanosized-inclusion-containing bilayer membranes (United States)

    Ren, Chun-Lai; Ma, Yu-Qiang


    Based on a considerable amount of experimental evidence for lateral organization of lipid membranes which share astonishingly similar features in the presence of different inclusions, we use a hybrid self-consistent field theory (SCFT)/density-functional theory (DFT) approach to deal with bilayer membranes embedded by nanosized inclusions and explain experimental findings. Here, the hydrophobic inclusions are simple models of hydrophobic drugs or other nanoparticles for biomedical applications. It is found that lipid/inclusion-rich domains are formed at moderate inclusion concentrations and disappear with the increase in the concentration of inclusions. At high inclusion content, chaining of inclusions occurs due to the effective depletion attraction between inclusions mediated by lipids. Meanwhile, the increase in the concentration of inclusions can also cause thickening of the membrane and the distribution of inclusions undergoes a layering transition from one-layer structure located in the bilayer midplane to two-layer structure arranged into the two leaflets of a bilayer. Our theoretical predictions address the complex interactions between membranes and inclusions suggesting a unifying mechanism which reflects the competition between the conformational entropy of lipids favoring the formation of lipid- and inclusion-rich domains in lipids and the steric repulsion of inclusions leading to the uniform dispersion.

  8. Limits to Inclusion (United States)

    Hansen, Janne Hedegaard


    In this article, I will argue that a theoretical identification of the limit to inclusion is needed in the conceptual identification of inclusion. On the one hand, inclusion is formulated as a vision that is, in principle, limitless. On the other hand, there seems to be an agreement that inclusion has a limit in the pedagogical practice. However,…

  9. Abundance, distribution and bioavailability of major and trace elements in surface sediments from the Cai River estuary and Nha Trang Bay (South China Sea, Vietnam) (United States)

    Koukina, S. E.; Lobus, N. V.; Peresypkin, V. I.; Dara, O. M.; Smurov, A. V.


    Major (Si, Al, Fe, Ti, Mg, Ca, Na, K, S, P), minor (Mn) and trace (Li, V, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Sr, Zr, Mo, Cd, Ag, Sn, Sb, Cs, Ba, Hg, Pb, Bi and U) elements, their chemical forms and the mineral composition, organic matter (TOC) and carbonates (TIC) in surface sediments from the Cai River estuary and Nha Trang Bay were first determined along the salinity gradient. The abundance and ratio of major and trace elements in surface sediments are discussed in relation to the mineralogy, grain size, depositional conditions, reference background and SQG values. Most trace-element contents are at natural levels and are derived from the composition of rocks and soils in the watershed. A severe enrichment of Ag is most likely derived from metal-rich detrital heavy minerals such as Ag-sulfosalts. Along the salinity gradient, several zones of metal enrichment occur in surface sediments because of the geochemical fractionation of the riverine material. The parts of actually and potentially bioavailable forms (isolated by four single chemical reagent extractions) are most elevated for Mn and Pb (up to 36% and 32% of total content, respectively). The possible anthropogenic input of Pb in the region requires further study. Overall, the most bioavailable parts of trace elements are associated with easily soluble amorphous Fe and Mn oxyhydroxides. The sediments are primarily enriched with bioavailable metal forms in the riverine part of the estuary. Natural (such as turbidities) and human-generated (such as urban and industrial activities) pressures are shown to influence the abundance and speciation of potential contaminants and therefore change their bioavailability in this estuarine system.

  10. Social imaginaries and inclusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Janne Hedegaard


    that inclusion on the one hand may be seen to be about human rights, solidarity, and democracy, and on the other hand, it is about ensuring the cohesion of neoliberal society by means of every person’s obligation to realize one’s potential through learning, development, and education regardless of one’s needs......, the development of inclusive schools and inclusive learning environments will involve both inclusion and exclusion processes. With this starting point, international educational research knowledge about inclusive schools and inclusive learning environments in general will be related to the fundamental dilemma...

  11. CO-Bridged H-Cluster Intermediates in the Catalytic Mechanism of [FeFe]-Hydrogenase CaI. (United States)

    Ratzloff, Michael W; Artz, Jacob H; Mulder, David W; Collins, Reuben T; Furtak, Thomas E; King, Paul W


    The [FeFe]-hydrogenases ([FeFe] H 2 ases) catalyze reversible H 2 activation at the H-cluster, which is composed of a [4Fe-4S] H subsite linked by a cysteine thiolate to a bridged, organometallic [2Fe-2S] ([2Fe] H ) subsite. Profoundly different geometric models of the H-cluster redox states that orchestrate the electron/proton transfer steps of H 2 bond activation have been proposed. We have examined this question in the [FeFe] H 2 ase I from Clostridium acetobutylicum (CaI) by Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy with temperature annealing and H/D isotope exchange to identify the relevant redox states and define catalytic transitions. One-electron reduction of H ox led to formation of H red H + ([4Fe-4S] H 2+ -Fe I -Fe I ) and H red ' ([4Fe-4S] H 1+ -Fe II -Fe I ), with both states characterized by low frequency μ-CO IR modes consistent with a fully bridged [2Fe] H . Similar μ-CO IR modes were also identified for H red H + of the [FeFe] H 2 ase from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (CrHydA1). The CaI proton-transfer variant C298S showed enrichment of an H/D isotope-sensitive μ-CO mode, a component of the hydride bound H-cluster IR signal, H hyd . Equilibrating CaI with increasing amounts of NaDT, and probed at cryogenic temperatures, showed H red H + was converted to H hyd . Over an increasing temperature range from 10 to 260 K catalytic turnover led to loss of H hyd and appearance of H ox , consistent with enzymatic turnover and H 2 formation. The results show for CaI that the μ-CO of [2Fe] H remains bridging for all of the "H red " states and that H red H + is on pathway to H hyd and H 2 evolution in the catalytic mechanism. These results provide a blueprint for designing small molecule catalytic analogs.

  12. CaI and SrI molecules for iodine determination by high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace molecular absorption spectrometry: Greener molecules for practical application. (United States)

    Zanatta, Melina Borges Teixeira; Nakadi, Flávio Venâncio; da Veiga, Márcia Andreia Mesquita Silva


    A new method to determine iodine in drug samples by high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace molecular absorption spectrometry (HR-CS GF MAS) has been developed. The method measures the molecular absorption of a diatomic molecule, CaI or SrI (less toxic molecule-forming reagents), at 638.904 or 677.692nm, respectively, and uses a mixture containing 5μg of Pd and 0.5μg of Mg as chemical modifier. The method employs pyrolysis temperatures of 1000 and 800°C and vaporization temperatures of 2300 and 2400°C for CaI and SrI, respectively. The optimized amounts of Ca and Sr as molecule-forming reagents are 100 and 150µg, respectively. On the basis of interference studies, even small chlorine concentrations reduce CaI and SrI absorbance significantly. The developed method was used to analyze different commercial drug samples, namely thyroid hormone pills with three different iodine amounts (15.88, 31.77, and 47.66µg) and one liquid drug with 1% m v -1 active iodine in their compositions. The results agreed with the values informed by the manufacturers (95% confidence level) regardless of whether CaI or SrI was determined. Therefore, the developed method is useful for iodine determination on the basis of CaI or SrI molecular absorption. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Roadmap for Inclusive Innovation (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Roadmap for Inclusive Innovation data set shares the status of action items under the Roadmap for Inclusive Innovation. Each action or project has been assigned...

  14. Teachers becoming inclusive practitioners

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , construct their identities in the light of inclusive education, and how they negotiate the tensions and contradictions emerging from the processof becoming inclusive practitioners. Central to this discussion is the understanding that teachers' ...

  15. Topological structure of the solution set for evolution inclusions

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Yong; Peng, Li


    This book systematically presents the topological structure of solution sets and attractability for nonlinear evolution inclusions, together with its relevant applications in control problems and partial differential equations. It provides readers the background material needed to delve deeper into the subject and explore the rich research literature.  In addition, the book addresses many of the basic techniques and results recently developed in connection with this theory, including the structure of solution sets for evolution inclusions with m-dissipative operators; quasi-autonomous and non-autonomous evolution inclusions and control systems;evolution inclusions with the Hille-Yosida operator; functional evolution inclusions; impulsive evolution inclusions; and stochastic evolution inclusions. Several applications of evolution inclusions and control systems are also discussed in detail.  Based on extensive research work conducted by the authors and other experts over the past four years, the information p...

  16. Delimiting Inclusive Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herriott, Richard


    This paper was written as an answer to the question raised by my PhD dissertation on accessibility through user-centred and Inclusive Design (ID) methods: can Inclusive Design be delimited? The literature on Inclusive Design deals almost entrirely with consumer product design and assistive...

  17. Footstep towards Inclusive Education (United States)

    Abbas, Faiza; Zafar, Aneeka; Naz, Tayyaba


    Inclusive education is a rising trend in the world. The first step towards inclusive education is providing the awareness to the general education teachers. This study focused to investigate the general education teachers of primary and secondary level awareness about the special education and inclusive education. This study is descriptive method…

  18. Inclusion: Conceptualization and measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, W.S.; Otten, S.; Van der Zee, K.I.; Jans, L.


    n the present research, we introduced a conceptual framework of inclusion and subsequently used this as a starting point to develop and validate a scale to measure perceptions of inclusion. Departing from existing work on inclusion and complementing this with theoretical insights from optimal

  19. Inclusion : Conceptualization and measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Wiebren S.; Otten, Sabine; van der Zee, Karen I.; Jans, Lise

    In the present research, we introduced a conceptual framework of inclusion and subsequently used this as a starting point to develop and validate a scale to measure perceptions of inclusion. Departing from existing work on inclusion and complementing this with theoretical insights from optimal

  20. Inclusion: Conceptualization and measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansens, Wiebren S.; Otten, Sabine; van der Zee, Karen; Jans, Lise


    In the present research, we introduced a conceptual framework of inclusion and subsequently used this as a starting point to develop and validate a scale to measure perceptions of inclusion. Departing from existing work on inclusion and complementing this with theoretical insights from optimal

  1. Heterogenous Oxygen Isotopic Composition of a Complex Wark-Lovering Rim and the Margin of a Refractory Inclusion from Leoville (United States)

    Simon, J. I.; Matzel, J. E. P.; Simon, S. B.; Weber, P. K.; Grossman, L.; Ross, D. K.; Hutcheon, I. D.


    Wark-Lovering (WL) rims [1] surrounding many refractory inclusions represent marker events in the early evolution of the Solar System in which many inclusions were exposed to changes in pressure [2], temperature [3], and isotopic reservoirs [4-7]. The effects of these events can be complex, not only producing mineralogical variability of WL rims [2], but also leading to mineralogical [8-10] and isotopic [7, 11, 12] changes within inclusion interiors. Extreme oxygen isotopic heterogeneity measured in CAIs has been explained by mixing between distinct oxygen gas reservoirs in the nebula [13]. Some WL rims contain relatively simple mineral layering and/or are isotopically homogeneous [14, 15]. As part of a larger effort to document and understand the modifications observed in some CAIs, an inclusion (L6) with a complex WL rim from Leoville, a member of the reduced CV3 subgroup was studied. Initial study of the textures and mineral chemistry was presented by [16]. Here we present NanoSIMS oxygen isotopic measurements to complement these petrologic observations.

  2. Foresighting for Inclusive Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Allan Dahl; Andersen, Per Dannemand


    of policymaking processes affects the actual process with a focus on inclusion, and we discuss how it affects policy effectiveness and innovation system transformation. Our argument is that processes of policymaking must be inclusive to affect and transform innovation systems because a set of distributed actors...... in foresight cases in two emerging economies: Brazil and South Korea. We conclude that better systemic and innovation oriented foresight is needed to enhance inclusive development....



    Voitkāne, Vita


    European member States implement Inclusive Education policies thus contributing to a sustainable, inclusive society, although each country is at a different stage in this process. Italy, one of the first countries to launch integrative learning, has set an example since the 1970s, although the quality of inclusive education is unpredictable due to many issues. Authors Cantoni and Panetta (2006) emphasize that, although the culture of integration in Italy exists, much needs to be done to impro...



    Belma Čičkušić; Ševala Tulumović; Selma Bakić; Salem Bakić


    In order for inclusive class to be successful, associates are of great help to teachers. Besides associates, teachers' specialization can be accomplished through educational seminars on the inclusion topic. However, information about inclusion, working with children with special needs, can also be found in scientific journals that offer more information on methods of working with children with special needs, didactic materials customized according to abilities of children. Aim of ...

  5. Perceptions on hospitality when visiting secluded communities of guaranis, caiçaras e quilombolas in Paraty region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Alberto Beares


    Full Text Available Tourism in secluded communities puts different cultures in contact with each other and must be handled carefully not to cause environmental damage as well as cultural loss which might jeopardize the local development and create hostile relationships. The proposal of in sito tourism, considering the local memory and patrimony as a hospitality potential, was observed during technical visitations to three communities located in the Paraty region and surroundings: Guarani, Caiçara (fishermen and Quilombola(African slaves descendants. Through field work involving visitations to communities and interviews with locals, information regarding cultural differences and the importance of the land occupation in the history of each of the communities was assessed. The common link in the history of these peoples is the struggle for the right of land possession. During visits when people shared their territory various forms of hospitality in each community were verified, issued from different cultures and cultural values.

  6. The CAPRICE RICH detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basini, G. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Rome (Italy); Codino, A.; Grimani, C. [Perugia Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Perugia (Italy); De Pascale, M.P. [Rome Univ. `Tor Vergata` (Italy). Dip. di Fisica]|[INFN, Sezione Univ. `Tor Vergata` Rome (Italy); Cafagna, F. [Bari Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Bari (Italy); Golden, R.L. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States). Particle Astrophysics Lab.; Brancaccio, F.; Bocciolini, M. [Florence Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Florence (Italy); Barbiellini, G.; Boezio, M. [Trieste Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Trieste (Italy)


    A compact RICH detector has been developed and used for particle identification in a balloon borne spectrometer to measure the flux of antimatter in the cosmic radiation. This is the first RICH detector ever used in space experiments that is capable of detecting unit charged particles, such as antiprotons. The RICH and all other detectors performed well during the 27 hours long flight.

  7. An Evaluation of the Cognitive and Affective Performance of an Integrated Set of CAI Materials in the Principles of Macroeconomics. Studies in Economic Education, No. 4. (United States)

    Daellenbach, Lawrence A.; And Others

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of computer assisted instruction (CAI) on the cognitive and affective development of college students enrolled in a principles of macroeconomics course. The hypotheses of the experiment were stated as follows: In relation to the traditional principles course, the experimental treatment will…

  8. 《采薇》的叙事伦理分析%Narrative Ethics of Cai Wei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The controversial dilemma of how to understand Boyi, Shuqi in Luxun’ s novel Cai Wei, it is not a realistic ethical problem, which should be based on the novel's narrative ethics to answer. Narrative ethics refers to various forms of arrangement of ethical dimension revealed. Novel manifests sympathy ethics to Boyi, Shu Qi through the narrative angle choice and narrative distance controlling. Also, by the counterpoint to character, event and ironic expression in structure, novel conveys the ethics excluding to all sorts of characters from emperor Zhouwu to A Jin. Compared to other “Generational change” theme novels of Luxun, the complication of narrative ethics of Cai Wei not only is the projection of reality, but also reflects the further conscious to narrative art of Luxun.%《采薇》中颇有争议的“如何理解伯夷、叔齐”这一难点,并不是一个现实伦理问题,而应依据小说的叙事伦理来解答。叙事伦理即各种形式安排透露出的伦理维度。小说通过叙事角度的选择与叙事距离的控制体现出对伯夷、叔齐的伦理同情,而由结构上的人物对位与事件对位及反讽表达的是对自周武王至阿金诸色人物的伦理拒斥。与前期同是“易代”主题的小说相比,《采薇》叙事伦理的复杂化既是现实的投射,也体现了鲁迅对于小说叙事艺术的进一步自觉。

  9. Inclusive Services Innovation Configuration (United States)

    Holdheide, Lynn R.; Reschly, Daniel J.


    Teacher preparation to deliver inclusive services to students with disabilities is increasingly important because of changes in law and policy emphasizing student access to, and achievement in, the general education curriculum. This innovation configuration identifies the components of inclusive services that should be incorporated in teacher…

  10. Testing and Inclusive Schooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morin, Anne; Hamre, Bjørn; Ydesen, Christian

    Testing and Inclusive Schooling provides a comparative on seemingly incompatible global agendas and efforts to include all children in the general school system, Thus reducing exclusion. With an examination of the international testing culture and the politics of inclusion currently permeating...

  11. Understanding Inclusion in Cyprus (United States)

    Mamas, Christoforos


    This paper provides a framework for understanding inclusion in Cyprus. The evidence base is the result of a six-month qualitative research study in five Cypriot mainstream primary schools. Despite the rhetoric in favour of inclusion, it seems that the Cypriot educational system is still highly segregating in its philosophy and does not fully…

  12. Jet inclusive cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Duca, V.


    Minijet production in jet inclusive cross sections at hadron colliders, with large rapidity intervals between the tagged jets, is evaluated by using the BFKL pomeron. We describe the jet inclusive cross section for an arbitrary number of tagged jets, and show that it behaves like a system of coupled pomerons

  13. Inclusion in Elementary Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Allan Galis


    Full Text Available This study of reform policy focused on inclusive education in the 1990s in the state of Georgia, United States of America. Program modifications including, individualizing instructional methods, adapting the instructional environment, and lowering maximum class size emerged as significant issues. We found that policies related to these areas were compounded by the less experienced educators not readily accepting change strategies for serving students. Apparently younger educators are engrossed in surviving daily routine and have difficulty coping with the complex demands of change. Regular education teachers have difficulty with the idea of inclusion. Legal aspects dealing inclusion need clarification, especially for regular education teachers.

  14. Assessment of inclusive education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Tanja


    The focus of this paper is on the way teachers, in teams can work with assessing the inclusive practice in their own classes. In 2012 a joint effort between CEPRA, teachers and school administrators from the municipality of Hjørring developed a dialog based model for continually assessing...... the quality of the learning environment in regard to inclusion – this model draws heavily on the logic and mindset of ECERS (Early child environment program). This article will relate the rationale of the assessment model called “Dialoger om Kvalitet” (dialogues on quality) to LSP’s definition of inclusion...

  15. Fluid inclusion geothermometry (United States)

    Cunningham, C.G.


    Fluid inclusions trapped within crystals either during growth or at a later time provide many clues to the histories of rocks and ores. Estimates of fluid-inclusion homogenization temperature and density can be obtained using a petrographic microscope with thin sections, and they can be refined using heating and freezing stages. Fluid inclusion studies, used in conjunction with paragenetic studies, can provide direct data on the time and space variations of parameters such as temperature, pressure, density, and composition of fluids in geologic environments. Changes in these parameters directly affect the fugacity, composition, and pH of fluids, thus directly influencing localization of ore metals. ?? 1977 Ferdinand Enke Verlag Stuttgart.

  16. Can we build inclusion?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, Inge Mette; Grangaard, Sidse


    of some children with special needs. Hence the title – can we build inclusion? In the literature of Universal Design, accommodation and design features seldom reflect the less visible disabilities. The paper is based on a research project initiated to investigate how more or less space influences daily......Inclusion of children with special needs in kindergartens and preschools may be approached from different angles. This paper raises the question of whether the physical framework of kindergartens makes any difference for daily life at the kindergarten at all, and whether it can support inclusion...... on the answers in the interviews, we found support for answering the question in the title in the affirmative; we can build inclusion! This is because the teachers' experience indicated that, if there was sufficient space per child, there were fewer conflicts and the children managed to stay in the same activity...

  17. Evidence on Inclusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyssegaard, Camilla Brørup; Larsen, Michael Søgaard

    The purpose of this publication is to examine existing research on inclusion to identify strategies of inclusion that have generated positive effects. To do so it is necessary to understand the effect of the applied strategies. One approach, which is being discussed, is to use evidence to determine...... which methods have proven more effective than others. The desire to gain insight into research on inclusion forms the basis of the current systematic review. The task was to determine which strategies primary research has found to be most effective for inclusion purposes. We have solved this task...... by addressing the existing research with the following question: What is the effect of including children with special needs in mainstream teaching in basic school, and which of the applied educational methods have proved to have a positive effect?...

  18. Melt inclusions: Chapter 6 (United States)

    ,; Lowenstern, J. B.


    Melt inclusions are small droplets of silicate melt that are trapped in minerals during their growth in a magma. Once formed, they commonly retain much of their initial composition (with some exceptions) unless they are re-opened at some later stage. Melt inclusions thus offer several key advantages over whole rock samples: (i) they record pristine concentrations of volatiles and metals that are usually lost during magma solidification and degassing, (ii) they are snapshots in time whereas whole rocks are the time-integrated end products, thus allowing a more detailed, time-resolved view into magmatic processes (iii) they are largely unaffected by subsolidus alteration. Due to these characteristics, melt inclusions are an ideal tool to study the evolution of mineralized magma systems. This chapter first discusses general aspects of melt inclusions formation and methods for their investigation, before reviewing studies performed on mineralized magma systems.



    M. R. Husnutdinova


    Introduction. Inclusion is a new and unfamiliar phenomenon for most of the Russians which is treated as ensuring equal access to education for all students taking into account a variety of their special educational needs and individual capabilities. Inclusive educational model began to take root in Russia without a broad public debate and today’s parents and teachers were not ready to the cardinal changes caused by transition to the new model of education. In this regard, the studying of dire...

  20. Research: Rags to Rags? Riches to Riches? (United States)

    Bracey, Gerald W.


    Everyone has read about what might be called the "gold gap"--how the rich in this country are getting richer and controlling an ever-larger share of the nation's wealth. The Century Foundation has started publishing "Reality Check", a series of guides to campaign issues that sometimes finds gaps in these types of cherished delusions. The guides…

  1. Limitations of inclusive fitness. (United States)

    Allen, Benjamin; Nowak, Martin A; Wilson, Edward O


    Until recently, inclusive fitness has been widely accepted as a general method to explain the evolution of social behavior. Affirming and expanding earlier criticism, we demonstrate that inclusive fitness is instead a limited concept, which exists only for a small subset of evolutionary processes. Inclusive fitness assumes that personal fitness is the sum of additive components caused by individual actions. This assumption does not hold for the majority of evolutionary processes or scenarios. To sidestep this limitation, inclusive fitness theorists have proposed a method using linear regression. On the basis of this method, it is claimed that inclusive fitness theory (i) predicts the direction of allele frequency changes, (ii) reveals the reasons for these changes, (iii) is as general as natural selection, and (iv) provides a universal design principle for evolution. In this paper we evaluate these claims, and show that all of them are unfounded. If the objective is to analyze whether mutations that modify social behavior are favored or opposed by natural selection, then no aspect of inclusive fitness theory is needed.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Husnutdinova


    Full Text Available Introduction. Inclusion is a new and unfamiliar phenomenon for most of the Russians which is treated as ensuring equal access to education for all students taking into account a variety of their special educational needs and individual capabilities. Inclusive educational model began to take root in Russia without a broad public debate and today’s parents and teachers were not ready to the cardinal changes caused by transition to the new model of education. In this regard, the studying of directly educational process by consequences of inclusive training and education is urgent now.The aims of the research are the following: to identify the major risks that characterize the current stage of the implementation process of inclusion in the Russian educational organizations; to consider the main causes that lead to their occurrence; to present a comparative analysis of the views of respondents in comprehensive, inclusive and correctional schools. Methodology and research methods. The Sector Monitoring Studies of Moscow State University of Psychology & Education in 2010 and 2014 implemented a sociological study on the process of introduction of inclusion in the Russian schools. 200 teachers and 244 parents were interviewed in 2010; in 2014, in addition, 178 teachers and 386 parents were interviewed; 47 senior students including those with disabilities were interviewed too.Results. According to the results, the main concerns of the parents of students of comprehensive, inclusive and correctional schools are reduced to a few basic risks: lack of individual approach while teaching children with different educational needs, increased emotional pressure on the child, and child’s perception of the complexity of disability as an equal. These risks arise primarily because of the acute shortage of especially prepared-governmental teachers and socio-cultural, psychological unpreparedness of most contemporary children with disabilities to the perception of

  3. Kings Today, Rich Tomorrow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fattoum, Asma


    This study investigates the King vs. Rich dilemma that founder-CEOs face at IPO. When undertaking IPO, founders face two options. They can either get rich, but then run the risk of losing the control over their firms; or they can remain kings by introducing defensive mechanisms, but this is likel...

  4. Developments on RICH detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besson, P.; Bourgeois, P.


    The RICH (ring imaging Cherenkov) detector which is dedicated to Cherenkov radiation detection is described. An improvement made by replacing photo sensible vapor with solid photocathode is studied. A RICH detector prototype with a CsI photocathode has been built in Saclay and used with Saturne. The first results are presented. (A.C.)

  5. Multilingualism and Social Inclusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    This is a thematic issue on the relation between multilingualism and social inclusion. Due to globalization, Europeanization, supranational and transnational regulations linguistic diversity and multilingualism are on the rise. Migration and old and new forms of mobility play an important role...... in these processes. As a consequence, English as the only global language is spreading around the world, including Europe and the European Union. Social and linguistic inclusion was accounted for in the pre-globalization age by the nation-state ideology implementing the ‘one nation-one people-one language’ doctrine...... in governance and daily life protected by a legal framework. This does not mean that there is full equality of languages. This carries over to the fair and just social inclusion of the speakers of these weaker, dominated languages as well. There is always a power question related to multilingualism. The ten...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía López Menéndez


    Full Text Available Nowadays schools have to direct all efforts towards the comprehensive development of all students whatever their individual characteristics and their environment; they have to give a quality educational attention a qualified educational attention to the diversity in all their schools. This article presents an approach on the possibilities of developing a self-assessment using the Guide: "Index for Inclusion": “Index for Inclusion” published in the United kingdom by Centre for Studies on Inclusive Education (CSIE Tony Booth - Mel Ainscow (2002. This guide is a simple tool intended for schools to evaluate their reality in relation to important aspects of school organization and teaching-learning from the perspective of inclusion. From this self-assessment they can design specific programs to guide their educacional practice.

  7. The absolute chronology and thermal processing of solids in the solar protoplanetary disk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connelly, James; Bizzarro, Martin; Krot, Alexander N.


    Transient heating events that formed calcium-aluminum - rich inclusions (CAIs) and chondrules are fundamental processes in the evolution of the solar protoplanetary disk, but their chronology is not understood. Using U-corrected Pb-Pb dating, we determined absolute ages of individual CAIs and cho...

  8. Inclusive Education in Israel


    O. V. Mayzel


    To get acquainted with the practice of inclusive education in mainstream schools, with professionals who work with special children, to visit the specialist centers to share experiences - all of this was part of an internship program «Early Childhood Education for Children with Special Needs», held in Israel (April 8 -02 May 2013) this year. The country has been selected for an internship, because the practice of inclusive education has been used for over 20 years in Israel. Moreover, a lot ...

  9. Creative activity and inclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shemanov A.Yu.


    Full Text Available The aim of the article was to analyze the inclusion potential of art creative activity, namely of theatre performance, in people with disabilities. The article provides examples of disagreements in understanding the significance of these art activities for exercising the rights of people with disabilities to contribute to culture and art and some problems arising here. The conclusion is made that theatre art performed by people with disabilities is gradually changing its function: from being a means of self-affirmation to the determination of its specific place in overall theatre process. These changes confirm the inclusion potential of theatre art activity.

  10. Lead inclusions in aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, E.; Johansen, A.; Sarholt-Kristensen, L.; Andersen, H.H.; Grabaek, L.; Bohr, J.


    Ion implantation at room temperature of lead into aluminum leads to spontaneous phase separation and formation of lead precipitates growing topotactically with the matrix. Unlike the highly pressurized (∼ 1-5 GPa) solid inclusions formed after noble gas implantations, the pressure in the lead precipitates is found to be less than 0.12 GPa. Recently the authors have observed the result that the lead inclusions in aluminum exhibit both superheating and supercooling. In this paper they review and elaborate on these results. Small implantation-induced lead precipitates embedded in an aluminum matrix were studied by x-ray diffraction

  11. Inclusão digital: sistema de engrenagens | Digital inclusion: systems of gears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Cubillos


    Palavras-chave inclusão digital; economia política; política de informação Abstract The notion of digital inclusion, present in the scientific field as well as in social life, a way in field scientific, how much in the practical life, it has generated studies on the question however as combat the battling social inequality in the comprehension of mechanisms of differentiation between rich and poor, to understand the different mechanisms between rich and poor, however and served as an economic instrument based on the knowledge and technological advance progress. The results are relevant insofar as accomplishment of this reflection is excellent, a time that the technological advancement have has stimulated transformations in the local and global political economy and in the new world order: frantic and unquestioned consumption and without questioning. The digital inclusion is here compared to a system of gears. These parts that if they interconnect for the functioning of a system are seen here in this context here treat, as information policies inserted of in the criminal public actions. These actions establish a connection with the tools of information and communication technologies (TICs that in their turn it is are connected with the social actors, who, for diverse reasons, find themselves excluded from of chances opportunities, goods and hopes for the future visions. Keywords digital inclusion; political economy; informational policies

  12. Developing a financial inclusion index and inclusive growth in India


    Susanta Kumar SETHY


    Financial inclusion is one of the systems through which Inclusive Growth can be achieved in developing countries like India where large sections are unable or hopeless to contribute in the financial system. An inclusive financial system mobilizes more resources for productive purposes leading to higher economic growth, better opportunities and reduction of poverty. This study, proposed an Index of financial inclusion – a multidimensional measure. The Financial Inclusion Index c...

  13. Major and trace element geochemistry of S-type cosmic spherules

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rudraswami, N.G.; ShyamPrasad, M.; Babu, E.V.S.S.K.; VijayaKumar, T.

    that pass through the Earth’s atmosphere undergo changes in their chemical compositions thereby making it difficult to understand if they are sourced from the matrix, chondrules or calcium aluminium rich inclusions (CAIs). These components have..., the nature of their precursors, their thermal history while they were a part of parent bodies, and their relation to the chondrites or components such as calcium aluminium rich inclusions (CAIs), chondrules and matrix is masked by ambiguity. There is ample...

  14. Linguistic Diversity and Social Inclusion (United States)

    Piller, Ingrid; Takahashi, Kimie


    This introduction provides the framework for the special issue by describing the social inclusion agenda of neoliberal market democracies. While the social inclusion agenda has been widely adopted, social inclusion policies are often blind to the ways in which language proficiency and language ideologies mediate social inclusion in linguistically…

  15. Homogenisation of sulphide inclusions within diamonds: A new approach to diamond inclusion geochemistry (United States)

    McDonald, Iain; Hughes, Hannah S. R.; Butler, Ian B.; Harris, Jeffrey W.; Muir, Duncan


    Base metal sulphide (BMS) inclusions in diamonds provide a unique insight into the chalcophile and highly siderophile element composition of the mantle. Entombed within their diamond hosts, these provide a more robust (closed system) sample, from which to determine the trace element, Re-Os and S-isotopic compositions of the mantle than mantle xenoliths or orogenic peridotites, as they are shielded from alteration during ascent to the Earth's crust and subsequent surface weathering. However, at temperatures below 1100 °C some BMS inclusions undergo subsolidus re-equilibration from an original monosulphide solid solution (Mss) and this causes fractionation of the major and trace elements within the inclusions. Thus to study the subjects noted above, current techniques require the entire BMS inclusion to be extracted for analyses. Unfortunately, 'flaking' of inclusions during break-out is a frequent occurrence and hence the risk of accidentally under-sampling a portion of the BMS inclusion is inherent in current practices. This loss may have significant implications for Re-Os isotope analyses where incomplete sampling of a Re-rich phase, such as chalcopyrite that typically occurs at the outer margins of BMS inclusions, may induce significant bias in the Re-Os and 187Os/188Os measurements and resulting model and isochron ages. We have developed a method for the homogenisation of BMS inclusions in diamond prior to their break-out from the host stone. Diamonds are heated to 1100 °C and then quenched to chemically homogenise any sulphide inclusions for both major and trace elements. Using X-ray Computed Microtomography (μCT) we determine the shape and spatial setting of multiple inclusions within a host stone and crucially show that the volume of a BMS inclusion is the same both before and after homogenisation. We show that the homogenisation process significantly reduces the inherent variability of in situ analysis when compared with unhomogenised BMS, thereby

  16. Relationships in Inclusive Classrooms (United States)

    Santos, Graça Duarte; Sardinha, Susana; Reis, Silvia


    Climate in the classroom is one of the determining factors in the development of practices in Inclusive Education. Many factors contribute to the climate in the classroom. However, there are predominance on affective-relational factors, with impact on action, norms and values, social interactions and learning processes. In this paper, the authors…

  17. Inclusion on the Bookshelf (United States)

    Jackson, Camille


    Three decades have passed since federal law mandated inclusion--ending, officially at least, a system that segregated students with disabilities from the rest of the student population. The publishing world has yet to catch up. In children's books, characters with disabilities often inhabit their own separate world, where disability is the only…

  18. Mathematics Teaching and Inclusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This volume contains the proceedings of the 3rd Nordic Research Conference on Special Needs Education in Mathematics, which took place in Rebild organised by Aalborg University in November 23-25, 2005. The theme of the conference was Mathematics Education and Inclusion. The conference theme...

  19. Multilingualism and social inclusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marácz, L.; Adamo, S.


    This is a thematic issue on the relation between multilingualism and social inclusion. Due to globalization, Europeanization, supranational and transnational regulations linguistic diversity and multilingualism are on the rise. Migration and old and new forms of mobility play an important role in

  20. Inclusion's Confusion in Alberta (United States)

    Gilham, Chris; Williamson, W. John


    This hermeneutic paper interprets a recent series of reforms to inclusive education policy undertaken by the ministry of education in the province of Alberta, Canada. A 2007 Alberta Education review of the 16,000 student files in the province that school boards had claimed met the criteria for severe disability codification status -- the level of…

  1. Promoting Inclusion, Social Connections, and Learning through Peer Support Arrangements (United States)

    Carter, Erik W.; Moss, Colleen K.; Asmus, Jennifer; Fesperman, Ethan; Cooney, Molly; Brock, Matthew E.; Lyons, Gregory; Huber, Heartley B.; Vincent, Lori B.


    Ensuring students with severe disabilities access the rich relationship and learning opportunities available within general education classrooms is an important--but challenging--endeavor. Although one-to-one paraprofessionals often accompany students in inclusive classrooms and provide extensive assistance, the constant presence of an adult can…

  2. Elements of Eoarchean life trapped in mineral inclusions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassenkam, T.; Andersson, M. P.; Dalby, K. N.


    with carbon-rich sedimentary beds in the host rock, where carbon is fully graphitized. Previous studies have not been able to document other elements of life (mainly hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and phosphorus) structurally bound to this carbonaceous material. Here we study carbonaceous inclusions armoured...... residues within sedimentary material corroborates earlier claims for the biogenic origins of carbon in Isua metasediments....

  3. Inclusive Physical Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Charlotte; Rostbøll, Solveig Fogh


    EN317 - Inclusive Physical Education - with a focus on active and successful participation Charlotte Østergaard, Solveig Fogh Rostbøll, Department of School and Learning, Metropolitan University College (DK) The Danish School Reform 2014 intends to raise the amount and intensity...... and is often a bad experience for students who do not have the required skills or the necessary competitive mentality. The purpose of the study is to generate increased knowledge of how to work with inclusive education in PE in schools. The aims of the study are to identify groups of “outsiders” and to find...... and ability to participate in PE must be understood in specific socio-cultural and socio-economic conditions. The hypothesis of the study is that the experience of being acknowledged for your efforts in physical education by significant others can form the basis for the construction of physical capital. EN323...

  4. Inclusive differentiated instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerković Ljiljana S.


    Full Text Available Inclusive differentiated instruction is a new model of didactic instruction, theoretically described and established in this paper for the first time, after being experimentally verified through teaching of the mother tongue (instruction in reading and literature. Inclusive individually planned instruction is based on a phenomenological and constructivist didactic instructional paradigm. This type of teaching is essentially developmental and person-oriented. The key stages of inclusive differentiated instruction of literature are: 1 recognition of individual students' potential and educational needs regarding reading and work on literary texts; 2 planning and preparation of inclusive individually planned instruction in reading and literature; 3 actual class teaching of lessons thus prepared; and 4 evaluation of the student achievement following inclusive differentiated instruction in reading and literature. A highly important element of the planning and preparation of inclusive differentiated instruction is the creation of student profiles and inclusive individualized syllabi. Individualized syllabi specify the following: 1. a brief student profile; 2. the student position on the continuum of the learning outcomes of instruction in the Serbian language; 3. reverse-engineered macro-plan stages of instruction in the Serbian language (3.1. identifying expected outcomes and fundamental qualities of learners' work, 3.2. defining acceptable proofs of their realisation, 3.3. planning learning and teaching experiences, and 3.4. providing material and technical requisites for teaching; 4 the contents and procedure of individualized lessons targeting the student; 5 a plan of syllabus implementation monitoring and evaluation. The continuum of the learning outcomes of inclusive differentiated instruction in literature exists at three main levels, A, B and C. The three levels are: A reading techniques and learning about the main literary theory concepts; B

  5. Inclusive Flavour Tagging Algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Likhomanenko, Tatiana; Derkach, Denis; Rogozhnikov, Alex


    Identifying the flavour of neutral B mesons production is one of the most important components needed in the study of time-dependent CP violation. The harsh environment of the Large Hadron Collider makes it particularly hard to succeed in this task. We present an inclusive flavour-tagging algorithm as an upgrade of the algorithms currently used by the LHCb experiment. Specifically, a probabilistic model which efficiently combines information from reconstructed vertices and tracks using machine learning is proposed. The algorithm does not use information about underlying physics process. It reduces the dependence on the performance of lower level identification capacities and thus increases the overall performance. The proposed inclusive flavour-tagging algorithm is applicable to tag the flavour of B mesons in any proton-proton experiment. (paper)

  6. Can We Build Inclusion? (United States)

    Kirkeby, Inge Mette; Grangaard, Sidse


    Inclusion of children with special needs in kindergartens and preschools may be approached from different angles. This paper raises the question of whether the physical framework of kindergartens makes any difference for daily life at the kindergarten at all, and whether it can support inclusion of some children with special needs. Hence the title - can we build inclusion? In the literature of Universal Design, accommodation and design features seldom reflect the less visible disabilities. The paper is based on a research project initiated to investigate how more or less space influences daily pedagogical practice in general. Twelve interviews were conducted with experienced teachers from twelve different kindergartens with different amounts of space, varying from a ratio of 2.1 m2 play area per child to 5.5 m2. The results indicated that, for a group of children with special needs in particular, the amount of space is crucial. This group consisted of children who were socially very extrovert, and who maybe were noisy, easily provoked, and quick to get involved in arguments with other children. Alternatively, children in the group were very restrained and withdrawn in social interaction. Based on the answers in the interviews, we found support for answering the question in the title in the affirmative; we can build inclusion! This is because the teachers' experience indicated that, if there was sufficient space per child, there were fewer conflicts and the children managed to stay in the same activity for a much longer period. Sufficient space made it possible to divide the children into smaller groups, and use any secluded space. Therefore, it was much easier for other children to include some children with special needs. Accordingly, we can say that, sufficient space per child and an adequate layout and furnishing of the kindergarten is an advantage for all children. This is a clear example of Universal Design in which architectural solutions that are good for

  7. Foresighting for Inclusive Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl Andersen, Allan; Andersen, Per Dannemand

    and transform innovation systems because a set of distributed actors, rather than ministries and innovation agencies, is the gatekeepers of change. From this perspective, inclusion is a precondition rather than an obstacle for transformation. We develop a conceptual framework and use it to study design...... and processes in two foresight cases in two emerging economies - Brazil and South Korea. Although the research is exploratory and the results tentative, the empirical studies support our main propositions....

  8. Inclusion body myositis.


    Garlepp, M J; Mastaglia, F L


    The idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM) are a heterogenous group of rare disorders that share many similarities. In addition to sporadic inclusion body myositis (IBM), these include dematomyositis (DM), polymyositis (PM), and autoimmune necrotizing myopathy (NM). For discussion of later three disorders, the reader is referred to the IIM review in this issue. IBM is the most common IIM after age 50. It typically presents with chronic insidious proximal leg and/or distal arm asymmetric mus...

  9. Inclusion bodies of aggregated hemosiderins in liver macrophages. (United States)

    Hayashi, Hisao; Tatsumi, Yasuaki; Wakusawa, Shinya; Shigemasa, Ryota; Koide, Ryoji; Tsuchida, Ken-Ichi; Morotomi, Natsuko; Yamashita, Tetsuji; Kumagai, Kotaro; Ono, Yukiya; Hayashi, Kazuhiko; Ishigami, Masatoshi; Goto, Hidemi; Kato, Ayako; Kato, Koichi


    Hemosiderin formation is a structural indication of iron overload. We investigated further adaptations of the liver to excess iron. Five patients with livers showing iron-rich inclusions larger than 2 µm were selected from our database. The clinical features of patients and structures of the inclusions were compared with those of 2 controls with mild iron overload. All patients had severe iron overload with more than 5000 ng/mL of serum ferritin. Etiologies were variable, from hemochromatosis to iatrogenic iron overload. Their histological stages were either portal fibrosis or cirrhosis. Inclusion bodies were ultra-structurally visualized as aggregated hemosiderins in the periportal macrophages. X-ray analysis always identified, in addition to a large amount of iron complexes including oxygen and phosphorus, a small amount of copper and sulfur in the mosaic matrixes of inclusions. There were no inclusions in the control livers. Inclusion bodies, when the liver is loaded with excess iron, may appear in the macrophages as isolated organella of aggregated hemosiderins. Trace amounts of copper-sulfur complexes were always identified in the mosaic matrices of the inclusions, suggesting cuproprotein induction against excess iron. In conclusion, inclusion formation in macrophages may be an adaptation of the liver loaded with excess iron.

  10. The CBM RICH project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamczewski-Musch, J. [GSI Darmstadt (Germany); Becker, K.-H. [University Wuppertal (Germany); Belogurov, S. [ITEP Moscow (Russian Federation); Boldyreva, N. [PNPI Gatchina (Russian Federation); Chernogorov, A. [ITEP Moscow (Russian Federation); Deveaux, C. [University Gießen (Germany); Dobyrn, V. [PNPI Gatchina (Russian Federation); Dürr, M. [University Gießen (Germany); Eom, J. [Pusan National University (Korea, Republic of); Eschke, J. [GSI Darmstadt (Germany); Höhne, C. [University Gießen (Germany); Kampert, K.-H. [University Wuppertal (Germany); Kleipa, V. [GSI Darmstadt (Germany); Kochenda, L. [PNPI Gatchina (Russian Federation); Kolb, B. [GSI Darmstadt (Germany); Kopfer, J. [University Wuppertal (Germany); Kravtsov, P. [PNPI Gatchina (Russian Federation); Lebedev, S.; Lebedeva, E. [University Gießen (Germany); Leonova, E. [PNPI Gatchina (Russian Federation); and others


    The Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment will study the properties of super dense nuclear matter by means of heavy ion collisions at the future FAIR facility. An integral detector component is a large Ring Imaging Cherenkov detector with CO{sub 2} gas radiator, which will mainly serve for electron identification and pion suppression necessary to access rare dileptonic probes like e{sup +}e{sup −} decays of light vector mesons or J/Ψ. We describe the design of this future RICH detector and focus on results obtained by building a CBM RICH detector prototype tested at CERN-PS.

  11. RICH Detector for Jefferson Labs CLAS12 (United States)

    Trotta, Richard; Torisky, Ben; Benmokhtar, Fatiha


    Jefferson Lab (Jlab) is performing a large-scale upgrade to its Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) up to 12GeV beams. The Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS12) in Hall B is being upgraded and a new hybrid Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) detector is being developed to provide better kaon - pion separation throughout the 3 to 8 GeV/c momentum range. This detector will be used for a variety of Semi-Inclusive Deep Inelastic Scattering experiments. Cherenkov light can be accurately detected by a large array of sophisticated Multi-Anode Photomultiplier Tubes (MA-PMT) and heavier particles, like kaons, will span the inner radii. We are presenting our work on the creation of the RICH's geometry within the CLAS12 java framework. This development is crucial for future calibration, reconstructions and analysis of the detector.

  12. Inclusive Education in Italy: Description and Reflections on Full Inclusion (United States)

    Anastasiou, Dimitris; Kauffman, James M.; Di Nuovo, Santo


    Inclusion of students with disabilities when appropriate is an important goal of special education for students with special needs. Full inclusion, meaning no education for any child in a separate setting, is held to be desirable by some, and Italy is likely the nation with an education system most closely approximating full inclusion on the…

  13. Inclusion-Body Myositis: Diagnosis (United States)

    ... for MDA Blog Donate Search Close Inclusion-Body Myositis (IBM) Diagnosis As with other muscle diseases, a doctor diagnoses inclusion-body myositis (IBM) by considering the individual’s personal ...

  14. Financial inclusion: Policies and practices


    Thankom Arun; Rajalaxmi Kamath


    As a key enabler for development, financial inclusion is firmly placed on the agenda of most governments as a key policy priority. Against this background, this round table provides a global and regional perspective on the policies and practices of financial inclusion. Using macro data, the collection reveals the diversity in the efforts towards achieving financial inclusion and the need for a progressive approach in financial inclusion. Further to this, the round table provides the regional ...

  15. Removal of inclusions from silicon (United States)

    Ciftja, Arjan; Engh, Thorvald Abel; Tangstad, Merete; Kvithyld, Anne; Øvrelid, Eivind Johannes


    The removal of inclusions from molten silicon is necessary to satisfy the purity requirements for solar grade silicon. This paper summarizes two methods that are investigated: (i) settling of the inclusions followed by subsequent directional solidification and (infiltration by ceramic foam filters. Settling of inclusions followed by directional solidification is of industrial importance for production of low-cost solar grade silicon. Filtration is reported as the most efficient method for removal of inclusions from the top-cut silicon scrap.

  16. Supporting Teachers in Inclusive Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alekhina S.V.


    Full Text Available The article regards the issues of support provision to teachers involved in inclusive education as the main requirement for successful realization of inclusion. The methodological framework used in the study is a resource approach. The article describes the ways of extending the means of supporting teachers. The article also arguments for consolidating all the educators of inclusive schools into inclusive teams equally interested in joint work of administration and educators of intervention programs.

  17. Neutron rich nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foucher, R.


    If some β - emitters are particularly interesting to study in light, medium, and heavy nuclei, another (and also) difficult problem is to know systematically the properties of these neutron rich nuclei far from the stability line. A review of some of their characteristics is presented. How far is it possible to be objective in the interpretation of data is questioned and implications are discussed

  18. Singing and social inclusion (United States)

    Welch, Graham F.; Himonides, Evangelos; Saunders, Jo; Papageorgi, Ioulia; Sarazin, Marc


    There is a growing body of neurological, cognitive, and social psychological research to suggest the possibility of positive transfer effects from structured musical engagement. In particular, there is evidence to suggest that engagement in musical activities may impact on social inclusion (sense of self and of being socially integrated). Tackling social exclusion and promoting social inclusion are common concerns internationally, such as in the UK and the EC, and there are many diverse Government ministries and agencies globally that see the arts in general and music in particular as a key means by which social needs can be addressed. As part of a wider evaluation of a national, Government-sponsored music education initiative for Primary-aged children in England (“Sing Up”), opportunity was taken by the authors, at the request of the funders, to assess any possible relationship between (a) children's developing singing behavior and development and (b) their social inclusion (sense of self and of being socially integrated). Subsequently, it was possible to match data from n = 6087 participants, drawn from the final 3 years of data collection (2008–2011), in terms of each child's individually assessed singing ability (based on their singing behavior of two well-known songs to create a “normalized singing score”) and their written responses to a specially-designed questionnaire that included a set of statements related to children's sense of being socially included to which the children indicated their level of agreement on a seven-point Likert scale. Data analyses suggested that the higher the normalized singing development rating, the more positive the child's self-concept and sense of being socially included, irrespective of singer age, sex and ethnicity. PMID:25120514

  19. Singing and social inclusion. (United States)

    Welch, Graham F; Himonides, Evangelos; Saunders, Jo; Papageorgi, Ioulia; Sarazin, Marc


    There is a growing body of neurological, cognitive, and social psychological research to suggest the possibility of positive transfer effects from structured musical engagement. In particular, there is evidence to suggest that engagement in musical activities may impact on social inclusion (sense of self and of being socially integrated). Tackling social exclusion and promoting social inclusion are common concerns internationally, such as in the UK and the EC, and there are many diverse Government ministries and agencies globally that see the arts in general and music in particular as a key means by which social needs can be addressed. As part of a wider evaluation of a national, Government-sponsored music education initiative for Primary-aged children in England ("Sing Up"), opportunity was taken by the authors, at the request of the funders, to assess any possible relationship between (a) children's developing singing behavior and development and (b) their social inclusion (sense of self and of being socially integrated). Subsequently, it was possible to match data from n = 6087 participants, drawn from the final 3 years of data collection (2008-2011), in terms of each child's individually assessed singing ability (based on their singing behavior of two well-known songs to create a "normalized singing score") and their written responses to a specially-designed questionnaire that included a set of statements related to children's sense of being socially included to which the children indicated their level of agreement on a seven-point Likert scale. Data analyses suggested that the higher the normalized singing development rating, the more positive the child's self-concept and sense of being socially included, irrespective of singer age, sex and ethnicity.

  20. Singing and social inclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Frederick Welch


    Full Text Available There is a growing body of neurological, cognitive and social psychological research to suggest the possibility of positive transfer effects from structured musical engagement. In particular, there is evidence to suggest that engagement in musical activities may impact on social inclusion (sense of self and of being socially integrated. Tackling social exclusion and promoting social inclusion are common concerns internationally, such as in the UK and the EC, and there are many diverse Government ministries and agencies globally that see the arts in general and music in particular as a key means by which social needs can be addressed. As part of a wider evaluation of a national, Government-sponsored music education initiative for Primary-aged children in England (‘Sing Up’, opportunity was taken by the authors, at the request of the funders, to assess any possible relationship between (a children’s developing singing behaviour and development and (b their social inclusion (sense of self and of being socially integrated. Subsequently, it was possible to match data from n=6087 participants, drawn from the final three years of data collection (2008-2011, in terms of each child’s individually assessed singing ability (based on their singing behaviour of two well-known songs to create a 'normalised singing score' and their written responses to a specially-designed questionnaire that included a set of statements related to children’s sense of being socially included to which the children indicated their level of agreement on a seven-point Likert scale. Data analyses suggested that the higher the normalized singing development rating, the more positive the child’s self-concept and sense of being socially included, irrespective of singer age, sex and ethnicity.

  1. Inclusion polymerization of vinyl chloride monomer in deoxycholic acid host via γ-ray irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chirachanchai, S.; Kumkrong, A.; Ishida, Hatsuo


    Inclusion polymerization of vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) was studied in the system of 3α, 12α -dihydroxy-5β-cholan-24-oic acid (deoxycholic acid, DCA). DCA-VCM inclusion compound system was originally prepared by guest intercalation technique in DCA guest free crystal. The inclusion polymerization of DCA-VCM by γ-irradiation at total dose 2 Mrad, gives a syndiotactic rich polyvinyl chloride (PVC) as can be confirmed by FT-IR and FT-NMR. (author)

  2. Inclusion polymerization of vinyl chloride monomer in deoxycholic acid host via {gamma}-ray irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chirachanchai, S.; Kumkrong, A. [The Petroleum and Petrochemical College, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok (Thailand); Ishida, Hatsuo [Department of Macromolecular Science, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH (United States)


    Inclusion polymerization of vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) was studied in the system of 3{alpha}, 12{alpha} -dihydroxy-5{beta}-cholan-24-oic acid (deoxycholic acid, DCA). DCA-VCM inclusion compound system was originally prepared by guest intercalation technique in DCA guest free crystal. The inclusion polymerization of DCA-VCM by {gamma}-irradiation at total dose 2 Mrad, gives a syndiotactic rich polyvinyl chloride (PVC) as can be confirmed by FT-IR and FT-NMR. (author)

  3. Designing Inclusive Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colfelt, Solvej


    CWUAAT -6.TH CAMBRIDGE WORKSHOP – 2012 Designing inclusive systems for real-world applications Abstracht: Denmark has planned huge investments in development in healthcare systems. Nearly 50 billion danish krones has been set aside on the stately budget for this purpose to be spent over the next 10...... hospital complexes ? The article will explore the fundament of wayshowing on the basis of prior research as well as on the basis of the results of a case study in a large existing danish hospital complex. The result points to signage being an inevitable factor but also that it is a factor that is not very...

  4. Inclusion body myositis. (United States)

    Dimachkie, Mazen M; Barohn, Richard J


    The idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIMs) are a heterogeneous group of rare disorders that share many similarities. In addition to sporadic inclusion body myositis (IBM), these include dermatomyositis, polymyositis, and autoimmune necrotizing myopathy. IBM is the most common IIM after age 50 years. Muscle histopathology shows endomysial inflammatory exudates surrounding and invading nonnecrotic muscle fibers often accompanied by rimmed vacuoles and protein deposits. It is likely that IBM is has a prominent degenerative component. This article reviews the evolution of knowledge in IBM, with emphasis on recent developments in the field, and discusses ongoing clinical trials. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Designing Inclusive Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colfelt, Solvej


    CWUAAT -6.TH CAMBRIDGE WORKSHOP – 2012 Designing inclusive systems for real-world applications Abstracht: Denmark has planned huge investments in development in healthcare systems. Nearly 50 billion danish krones has been set aside on the stately budget for this purpose to be spent over the next 10...... in existing hospital complexes only half the size of these new ones is already recognized as a big problem: How can we avoid the wayfinding-problem of the new complexes to grow to the double with the doubling of the complex size ? What kind of design application can improve the accessibility of future...

  6. Inclusive Education in South Korea (United States)

    Kim, Yong-Wook


    The purpose of this paper is to examine the current implementation of inclusive education in South Korea and discuss its challenges. The history of special education is first described followed by an introduction to policies relevant to special and inclusive education. Next, a critical discussion of the state of inclusive education follows built…

  7. Inclusive Education under Collectivistic Culture (United States)

    Futaba, Yasuko


    This paper addresses how inclusive education under collective culture is possible. Inclusive education, which more-or-less involves changing the current schools, has been denied, doubted or distorted by both policy-makers and practitioners of general and special education in Japan. Main reason for the setback in inclusive education can be…

  8. Sexual life and sexual wellness in individuals with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS) and Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser Syndrome (MRKHS). (United States)

    Fliegner, Maike; Krupp, Kerstin; Brunner, Franziska; Rall, Katharina; Brucker, Sara Y; Briken, Peer; Richter-Appelt, Hertha


    Sexual wellness depends on a person's physical and psychological constitution. Complete Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome (CAIS) and Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser Syndrome (MRKHS) can compromise sexual well-being. To compare sexual well-being in CAIS and MRKHS using multiple measures: To assess sexual problems and perceived distress. To gain insight into participants' feelings of inadequacy in social and sexual situations, level of self-esteem and depression. To determine how these psychological factors relate to sexual (dys)function. To uncover what participants see as the source of their sexual problems. Data were collected using a paper-and-pencil questionnaire. Eleven individuals with CAIS and 49 with MRKHS with/without neovagina treatment were included. Rates of sexual dysfunctions, overall sexual function, feelings of inadequacy in social and sexual situations, self-esteem and depression scores were calculated. Categorizations were used to identify critical cases. Correlations between psychological variables and sexual function were computed. Sexually active subjects were compared with sexually not active participants. A qualitative content analysis was carried out to explore causes of sexual problems. An extended list of sexual problems based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed., text revision, by the American Psychiatric Association and related distress. Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI), German Questionnaire on Feelings of Inadequacy in Social and Sexual Situations (FUSS social scale, FUSS sexual scale), Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSE), Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) subscale depression. Open question on alleged causes of sexual problems. The results point to a far-reaching lack of sexual confidence and sexual satisfaction in CAIS. In MRKHS apprehension in sexual situations is a source of distress, but sexual problems seem to be more focused on issues of vaginal functioning. MRKHS women report being satisfied with their

  9. Adaptation of an aerosol retrieval algorithm using multi-wavelength and multi-pixel information of satellites (MWPM) to GOSAT/TANSO-CAI (United States)

    Hashimoto, M.; Takenaka, H.; Higurashi, A.; Nakajima, T.


    Aerosol in the atmosphere is an important constituent for determining the earth's radiation budget, so the accurate aerosol retrievals from satellite is useful. We have developed a satellite remote sensing algorithm to retrieve the aerosol optical properties using multi-wavelength and multi-pixel information of satellite imagers (MWPM). The method simultaneously derives aerosol optical properties, such as aerosol optical thickness (AOT), single scattering albedo (SSA) and aerosol size information, by using spatial difference of wavelegths (multi-wavelength) and surface reflectances (multi-pixel). The method is useful for aerosol retrieval over spatially heterogeneous surface like an urban region. In this algorithm, the inversion method is a combination of an optimal method and smoothing constraint for the state vector. Furthermore, this method has been combined with the direct radiation transfer calculation (RTM) numerically solved by each iteration step of the non-linear inverse problem, without using look up table (LUT) with several constraints. However, it takes too much computation time. To accelerate the calculation time, we replaced the RTM with an accelerated RTM solver learned by neural network-based method, EXAM (Takenaka et al., 2011), using Rster code. And then, the calculation time was shorternd to about one thouthandth. We applyed MWPM combined with EXAM to GOSAT/TANSO-CAI (Cloud and Aerosol Imager). CAI is a supplement sensor of TANSO-FTS, dedicated to measure cloud and aerosol properties. CAI has four bands, 380, 674, 870 and 1600 nm, and observes in 500 meters resolution for band1, band2 and band3, and 1.5 km for band4. Retrieved parameters are aerosol optical properties, such as aerosol optical thickness (AOT) of fine and coarse mode particles at a wavelenth of 500nm, a volume soot fraction in fine mode particles, and ground surface albedo of each observed wavelength by combining a minimum reflectance method and Fukuda et al. (2013). We will show

  10. Recommendations from Inclusive Astronomy: Position Papers for The Decadal Survey (United States)

    Coble, Kimberly A.; Inclusive Astronomy 2015 organizers


    In June 2015, 160 astronomers, sociologists, policy makers, and community leaders convened the first Inclusive Astronomy meeting at Vanderbilt University. The conference had a theme of intersectionality and was structured around four broad areas: (1) Eliminating Barriers to Access, (2) Creating Inclusive Environments, (3) Establishing a Community of Inclusive Practice, and (4) Policy, Power, and Leadership. From that meeting came the Nashville Recommendations, a road map for equity and inclusion in astronomy. At 41 pages long, the document is rich in topics for position papers relevant to the state of the profession section of the upcoming Decadal Survey. In this talk we will describe plans for position papers based on the recommendations relevant to various stake holders in the astronomical community, including funding agencies, professional societies, academic institutions, and other organizations. Feedback from Society members attending this session is encouraged.

  11. 電腦輔助教學與個別教學結合: 電腦輔助教學課堂應用初探 Computer-Assisted Instruction Under the Management of Individualized Instruction: A Classroom Management Approach of CAI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunny S. J. Lin


    Full Text Available 無First reviews the development of Computer. Assisted Instruction (CAI in Taiwan. This study describes the training of teachers from different levels of schools to design CAI coursewares, and the planning of CAI courseware bank possesses 2,000 supplemental coursewares. Some CAI's c1assroom application system should be carefully established to prevent the easy abuse of a CAI courseware as an instructional plan. The study also claims to steer CAI in our elemantary and secondary education could rely on the mastery learning as the instructional plan. In this case, CAI must limit its role as the formative test and remedial material only. In the higher education , the Keller's Personalized System of Instruction could be an effective c1assroom management system. Therefore, CAI will offer study guide and formative test only. Using these 2 instructional system may enhance student's achievement , and speed up the learning rate at the same time. Combining with individualized instruction and CAI will be one of the most workable approach in current c1assroom . The author sets up an experiment 10 varify their effectiveness and efficiency in the near future.

  12. Ar-39/Ar-40 systematics of Allende inclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herzog, G.F.; Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ); Bence, A.E.


    A laser microprobe was used to measure the Ar isotopic contents of individual mineral grains in four neutron-irradiated Allende samples: two coarse-grained Ca-Al-rich inclusions, one fine-grained Ca-Al-rich inclusion, and one sample with matrix and miscellaneous chondrules. The following K-Ar ages (G.y.) were obtained after degassing low Ar retentive sites by preheating the samples for one hour at 675 C: matrix, 3.5 + or - 0.2 three miscellaneous chondrules, 4.4 + or - 0.1, 4.0 + or - 0.1, and 4.4 + or - 0.1 and the fine-grained inclusion, 4.5 + or - 0.2. The minerals in the coarse-grained Ca-Al-rich inclusions have ubiquitous chlorine, less than 10 ppm K and apparent ages ranging upwards from 4.6 G.y. to well over 10 G.y. Possible explanations for these apparent ages are atmospheric contamination, the decay of K-40 prior to the formation of the solar system, and the trapping of radiogenic Ar-40 lost by the matrix

  13. Financial inclusion: Policies and practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thankom Arun


    Full Text Available As a key enabler for development, financial inclusion is firmly placed on the agenda of most governments as a key policy priority. Against this background, this round table provides a global and regional perspective on the policies and practices of financial inclusion. Using macro data, the collection reveals the diversity in the efforts towards achieving financial inclusion and the need for a progressive approach in financial inclusion. Further to this, the round table provides the regional perspectives on the policies and practices of financial inclusion in India, South Africa, and Australia.

  14. The CBM RICH project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamczewski-Musch, J. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Akishin, P. [Laboratory of Information Technologies, Joint Institute for Nuclear research (JINR-LIT), Dubna (Russian Federation); Becker, K.-H. [Department of Physics, University of Wuppertal, D-42097 Wuppertal (Germany); Belogurov, S. [SSC RF ITEP, 117218 Moscow (Russian Federation); Bendarouach, J. [Institute of Physics II and Institute of Applied Physics, Justus Liebig University Giessen, D-35392 Giessen (Germany); Boldyreva, N. [National Research Centre “Kurchatov Institute” B.P. Konstantinov Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, 188300 Gatchina (Russian Federation); Chernogorov, A. [SSC RF ITEP, 117218 Moscow (Russian Federation); Deveaux, C. [Institute of Physics II and Institute of Applied Physics, Justus Liebig University Giessen, D-35392 Giessen (Germany); Dobyrn, V. [National Research Centre “Kurchatov Institute” B.P. Konstantinov Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, 188300 Gatchina (Russian Federation); Dürr, M. [Institute of Physics II and Institute of Applied Physics, Justus Liebig University Giessen, D-35392 Giessen (Germany); Eschke, J. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Förtsch, J. [Department of Physics, University of Wuppertal, D-42097 Wuppertal (Germany); Heep, J.; Höhne, C. [Institute of Physics II and Institute of Applied Physics, Justus Liebig University Giessen, D-35392 Giessen (Germany); Kampert, K.-H. [Department of Physics, University of Wuppertal, D-42097 Wuppertal (Germany); and others


    The CBM RICH detector is an integral component of the future CBM experiment at FAIR, providing efficient electron identification and pion suppression necessary for the measurement of rare dileptonic probes in heavy ion collisions. The RICH design is based on CO{sub 2} gas as radiator, a segmented spherical glass focussing mirror with Al+MgF{sub 2} reflective coating, and Multianode Photomultipliers for efficient Cherenkov photon detection. Hamamatsu H12700 MAPMTs have recently been selected as photon sensors, following an extensive sensor evaluation, including irradiation tests to ensure sufficient radiation hardness of the MAPMTs. A brief overview of the detector design and concept is given, results on the radiation hardness of the photon sensors are shown, and the development of a FPGA-TDC based readout chain is discussed.

  15. The CLEO RICH detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artuso, M.; Ayad, R.; Bukin, K.; Efimov, A.; Boulahouache, C.; Dambasuren, E.; Kopp, S.; Li, Ji; Majumder, G.; Menaa, N.; Mountain, R.; Schuh, S.; Skwarnicki, T.; Stone, S.; Viehhauser, G.; Wang, J.C.; Coan, T.E.; Fadeyev, V.; Maravin, Y.; Volobouev, I.; Ye, J.; Anderson, S.; Kubota, Y.; Smith, A.


    We describe the design, construction and performance of a Ring Imaging Cherenkov Detector (RICH) constructed to identify charged particles in the CLEO experiment. Cherenkov radiation occurs in LiF crystals, both planar and ones with a novel 'sawtooth'-shaped exit surface. Photons in the wavelength interval 135-165nm are detected using multi-wire chambers filled with a mixture of methane gas and triethylamine vapor. Excellent π/K separation is demonstrated

  16. Using Ce to modify inclusion in spring steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Q.


    Full Text Available The effect of rare earth metals addition on the Al2O3 inclusions in spring steel used in fastener of high speed railway was investigated by metallographic examination, SEM-EDS and composition analysis. To deform those harmful inclusions to improve material performance,the evolution process of Al2O3 inclusions was investigated through the surface and line scanning. Ce metal modifying Al2O3 is a stepwise reduction process based on a formation of ring shape Ce-riched band around the Al2O3 inclusions during reaction process. Through experiment and thermodynamic calculation, an evolvement rule about Al2O3 inclusions change after Ce addition is obtained, i.e. Al2O3→Ce2O3-Al2O3→Ce2O2S. Changing the inclusions from Al2O3 to rare earth inclusions could improve the resistance to pitting corrosion based on potentiodynamic anodic polarization test.

  17. CBM RICH geometry optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahmoud, Tariq; Hoehne, Claudia [II. Physikalisches Institut, Giessen Univ. (Germany); Collaboration: CBM-Collaboration


    The Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment at the future FAIR complex will investigate the phase diagram of strongly interacting matter at high baryon density and moderate temperatures in A+A collisions from 2-11 AGeV (SIS100) beam energy. The main electron identification detector in the CBM experiment will be a RICH detector with a CO{sub 2} gaseous-radiator, focusing spherical glass mirrors, and MAPMT photo-detectors being placed on a PMT-plane. The RICH detector is located directly behind the CBM dipole magnet. As the final magnet geometry is now available, some changes in the RICH geometry become necessary. In order to guarantee a magnetic field of 1 mT at maximum in the PMT plane for effective operation of the MAPMTs, two measures have to be taken: The PMT plane is moved outwards of the stray field by tilting the mirrors by 10 degrees and shielding boxes have been designed. In this contribution the results of the geometry optimization procedure are presented.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luh Yeni Laksmini


    Full Text Available Inclusion body myositis (IBM merupakan penyakit inflamasi pada otot yang bersifat progresif dengan penyebab yang tidak diketahui dan tidak menunjukkan respon yang baik terhadap berbagai terapi. Gambaran histopatologi IBM ditandai dengan infiltrat sel-sel limfosit diantara ruangan endomisial, di dalam otot dan di sekitar otot dengan fokus-fokus inklusi di dalam miosit (rimmed vacuole serta beberapa serat otot terlihat atrofi dan nekrosis. Dilaporkan wanita, usia 46 tahun dengan IBM. Keluhan utama pasien berupa kelemahan pada kedua tangan, kaki kanan terasa berat jika diangkat sehingga susah berjalan. Pemeriksaan saraf sensorik ekstremitas dekstra dan sinistra dalam batas normal. Pemeriksaan enzim cretinine kinase meningkat secara dramatik. Pemeriksaan histopatologi dari biospi otot gastrocnemius menunjukkan gambaran yang sesuai untuk IBM dan telah dilakukan penanganan dengan pemberian oral methilprednisolon 3x32 mg dan mecobalmin 1x500ìg intravena, namun tidak menunjukkan respon yang baik terhadap terapi dan akhirnya pasien meninggal. [MEDICINA 2013;44:118-123].

  19. IPads in Inclusive Classrooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Bente Tobiesen


    This paper builds on data from a research project where iPads were used in a lower secondary school in Denmark to support school development and inclusive learning environments. The paper explores how iPads enter into and work as part of an ecology of learning resources in five classes in lower...... secondary school. I conceptualize the systems of related technologies observed in this school as ecologies of learning resources as they present themselves as carefully balanced systems in which educational resources circulate in different ways that make sense for learners’ needs. Inspired by Actor...... in by pupils the paper argues that we should disengage approaches to the iPad in education from ideas of what the properties of these technologies are, and see the device as a more relational and situated actor, avoiding the definition of properties of technologies outside the contexts specific to their use....

  20. Between psychopathology and inclusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard-Sørensen, Lotte; Hamre, Bjørn Frithiof


    and social pedagogy. We thus enquire into how the rise of diagnostics and medicalisation affects our understanding of children’s difficulties. We discuss a paradox that is present in Denmark and other countries. As educational policies emphasise inclusion, the field of schooling experiences a huge rise......This article reports on a Danish study on interprofessional collaboration between child psychiatrists and educational psychologists concerning children who are categorised as being at risk. Methodologically, the analysis is grounded in qualitative interviews with psychologists. A Foucauldian...... approach is applied to narratives and experiences that occur within these interviews concerning external collaboration with child psychiatrists. The article is informed by the research tradition that has problematised the significance of psychiatry and diagnoses in the field of special needs education...

  1. Patterns of inclusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Alex Young; Nørgård, Rikke Toft; Köppe, Christian


    Reconsidering the concept of digital citizenship and the essential component of education the authors propose that the concept of Hybrid Education may serve both as a guideline for the utilization of digital technologies in education and as a methodology for fostering new forms of participation......, inclusion and engagement in society. Following T.H. Marshall’s conception of citizenship the authors suggest that becoming, belonging and the capabilities to do so is essential to digital citizenship in a culturally diverse and digitally mediated world. The paper presents a theory-based, value driven...... for Hybrid Education that are directly applicable in relation to the concept of digital citizenship. The process introduces a value-based and vision-driven design pattern approach to innovation in education by framing and aligning values and visions of the participants. This work resulted in approximately 85...

  2. Autonomy, Independence, Inclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Angelucci


    Full Text Available The living environment must not only meet the primary needs of living, but also the expectations of improvement of life and social relations and people’s work. The need for a living environment that responds to the needs of users with their different abilities, outside of standardizations, is increasingly felt as autonomy, independence and well-being are the result of real usability and adaptability of the spaces. The project to improve the inclusivity of living space and to promote the rehabilitation of fragile users need to be characterized as an interdisciplinary process in which the integration of specialized contributions leads to adaptive customization of space solutions and technological that evolve with the changing needs, functional capacities and abilities of individuals.

  3. The possibility of controlled auto-ignition (CAI) in gasoline engine and gas to liquid (GTL) as a fuel of diesel engine in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, D. [Korea Inst. of Machinery and Materials, Daejou (Korea)


    A significant challenge grows from the ever-increasing demands for the optimization of performance, emissions, fuel economy and drivability. The most powerful technologies in the near future to improve these factors are believed Controlled Auto-Ignition (CAI) in gasoline engine and Gas to Liquid (GTL) as a fuel of Diesel engine. In recent years there has been an increasing trend to use more complex valvetrain designs from traditional camshaft driven mechanical systems to camless electromagnetic or electrohydraulic solutions. Comparing to fixed valve actuation systems, variable valve actuation (VVA) should be powerful to optimize the engine cycle. The matching of valve events to the engine performance and to emission requirements at a given engine or vehicle operating condition can be further optimized to the Controlled Auto-Ignition (CAI) in gasoline engine, which has benefits in NOx emission, fuel consumption, combustion stability and intake throttle load. In case of Diesel engine, the increasing demands for NOx and soot emission reduction have introduced aftertreatment technologies recently, but been in need of basic solution for the future, such as a super clean fuel like Gas to Liquid (GTL), which has benefits in comparability to diesel fuel, independency from crude oil and reduction of CO, THC and soot emissions. Korea looks to the future with these kinds of technologies, and tries to find the possibility for reaching the future targets in the internal combustion engine. (orig.)

  4. Crystal Growth and Scintillation Properties of Eu2+ doped Cs4CaI6 and Cs4SrI6 (United States)

    Stand, L.; Zhuravleva, M.; Chakoumakos, B.; Johnson, J.; Loyd, M.; Wu, Y.; Koschan, M.; Melcher, C. L.


    In this work we present the crystal growth and scintillation properties of two new ternarymetal halide scintillators activated with divalent europium, Cs4CaI6 and Cs4SrI6. Single crystals of each compound were grown in evacuated quartz ampoules via the vertical Bridgman technique using a two-zone transparent furnace. Single crystal X-ray diffraction experiments showed that both crystals have a trigonal (R-3c) structure, with a density of 3.99 g/cm3 and 4.03 g/cm3. The radioluminescence and photoluminescence measurements showed typical luminescence properties due to the 5d-4f radiative transitions in Eu2+. At this early stage of development Cs4SrI6:Eu and Cs4CaI6:Eu have shown very promising scintillation properties, with light yields and energy resolutions of 62,300 ph/MeV and 3.3%, and 51,800 photons/MeV and 3.6% at 662 keV, respectively.

  5. Approaching Inclusion as Social Practice: Processes of Inclusion and Exclusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molbæk, Mette; Hansen, Janne Hedegaard; Lassen, Mikkel


    The article presents the results of a review of international research investigating mechanisms and processes of inclusion and exclusion as an ongoing part of social practice in a school context. The review forms part of a research project investigating the social practices of inclusive education...... in primary and lower-secondary education (age 6–16) in public schools as constituted by processes of inclusion and exclusion. The project aims to shift the scientific focus of research in inclusive education from the development of pedagogical and didactic practice to the importance of community construction...... through inclusion and exclusion processes. The project arises in context of Danish education policy, while the review looked for international research findings on the limits between inclusion and exclusion: how they are drawn, by whom, for what reasons, and for whose benefit? On the background...

  6. Inclusive Business - What It Is All About? Managing Inclusive Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tea Golja


    Full Text Available Following the challenges we face today, the inclusive business models are future business models through which the Millennium Development Goals can be fostered and strengthen. These are the models which, through their strategic orientation on inclusivity, include low income communities in their value chain. This can be done through combining variety of strategies which all have two common points – recognition of stakeholders and adjustment of the product to the target market. The paper presents the analysis of inclusive markets. Hence, the research results show the dispersion of inclusive businesses worldwide, type of the organization, sector coverage, and contribution to MDGs as well as the particular way of inclusion of low income communities in their value chain. The aim is to present how inclusive business benefits not only the low income societies, but the companies that operate in this way as well.

  7. Sustainable development in an N-rich/n-poor world. (United States)

    Perrings, Charles; Kinzig, Ann; Halkos, George


    Sustainable development requires that per capita inclusive wealth-produced, human, and natural capital-does not decline over time. We investigate the impact of changes in nitrogen on inclusive wealth. There are two sides to the nitrogen problem. Excess use of nitrogen in some places gives rise to N-pollution, which can cause environmental damage. Insufficient replacement of nitrogen in other places gives rise to N-depletion, or loss of nutrient stocks. Neither is explicitly accounted for in current wealth measures, but both affect wealth. We calculate an index of net N-replacement, and investigate its relationship to wealth. In countries with low levels of relative N-loss, we find that the uncompensated loss of soil nitrogen in poorer countries is associated with declining rates of growth of inclusive per capita wealth. What is less intuitive is that increasing fertilizer application in both rich and poor countries can increase per capita inclusive wealth.

  8. Conhecimento e uso de plantas em uma comunidade caiçara do litoral sul do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Knowledge and use of plants in a Caiçara community located on the southern coast of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Borges


    Full Text Available A Área de Proteção Ambiental de Cairuçu (APA localiza-se no município de Paraty, RJ. É uma unidade de conservação de uso sustentável e dispõe-se a proteger o ambiente natural e as comunidades caiçaras da região. O objetivo deste estudo foi realizar um inventário etnobotânico das plantas conhecidas e utilizadas pela comunidade caiçara que habita a praia de Martim de Sá. Moram no local 30 pessoas das quais 10 foram entrevistadas. As informações etnobotânicas foram obtidas através da observação participante e entrevistas semi-estruturadas. O material botânico coletado foi depositado no Herbário do Instituto de Pesquisas Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro (RB. Foram identificadas 76 espécies pertencentes a 59 gêneros e 30 famílias botânicas consideradas úteis pelos caiçaras. As três espécies mais citadas foram: Sloanea obtusifolia (Sapopema, Scherolobium denudatum (Ingá-ferro e Balizia pedicelaris (Timbuíba. Utilizou-se o Índice de Shannon (H' = 1,81 - base 10 para a análise da diversidade de espécies. O registro sobre o uso dos recursos vegetais na comunidade estudada fornece informações que podem ser utilizadas para programas de conservação baseados no conhecimento local do ambiente.The Cairuçu Environmental Protection Area (APA was created to help assure the protection of the natural environment and its sustainable use by the caiçara communities in the region. This work presents an ethnobotanical inventory of the plants known and used by the caiçara community living on Martim de Sá beach in Paraty municipality, RJ. Thirty people live in the locality and ten of them were interviewed. Ethnobotanical information was obtained through participatory observations and semi-structured interviews with the local residents. All botanical material collected was deposited in the herbarium of the Instituto de Pesquisas Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro (RB. A total of 76 species belonging to 59 genera and 30

  9. Inclusion in a Polarised World


    Freeman, Alan


    This paper on inclusion was presented to the at the 2005 summer school of DEEEP (Development Education Exchange in Europe Project), Härnösand - Sweden, 5 - 12 June 2005. It addresses the significance of the concept of world civilisation. It assesses how meaning may be attached to the concept of inclusion in an economically polarised world. It develops a critique of the conception of economic inclusion, by means of an exploration of linguistic inclusion and the notion of ‘disability’. ‘...

  10. Accessibility and inclusion informational

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Sena de Souza


    Full Text Available Introduction: Discusses the role of information professionals in meeting the informational demands of people with disabilities in the information society. The librarian is crucial for the effectiveness and success in the informational inclusion of people with disabilities, considering also continuing education for their professional qualification.Objective: To provide reflections on the role of the librarian in serving users with disabilities, highlighting the need for improvement in information units, identified in the scientific literature with regard to accessibility.Methodology: Literature search, based on a review of literature in books and scientific papers, highlighting the main authors: Adams (2000, Mazzoni (2001 and Sassaki (1997, 2002, 2005.Results: The lack of informational access for people with disabilities hampers their social and political participation, hence, reduces its condition of citizenship.Conclusion: The librarian responsible for seeking continuing education, greater involvement in the events of the area and the constant search for job training, which will reflect on the best service the information needs of users with disabilities.

  11. Inclusion in the East: Chinese Students' Attitudes towards Inclusive Education (United States)

    Malinen, Olli-Pekka; Savolainen, Hannu


    A sample of 523 Chinese university students was given a questionnaire on their attitudes towards the inclusion of children with disabilities into regular classrooms. Factor analysis, analysis of variance, t-test and correlations were used to assess the respondents' general attitude towards inclusion, the factor structure of the attitudes, the…

  12. Designing Inclusive Systems Designing Inclusion for Real-world Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Clarkson, John; Robinson, Peter; Lazar, Jonathan; Heylighen, Ann


    The Cambridge Workshops on Universal Access and Assistive Technology (CWUAAT) are a series of workshops held at a Cambridge University College every two years. The workshop theme: “Designing inclusion for real-world applications” refers to the emerging potential and relevance of the latest generations of inclusive design thinking, tools, techniques, and data, to mainstream project applications such as healthcare and the design of working environments. Inclusive Design Research involves developing tools and guidance enabling product designers to design for the widest possible population, for a given range of capabilities. There are five main themes: •Designing for the Real-World •Measuring Demand And Capabilities •Designing Cognitive Interaction with Emerging Technologies •Design for Inclusion •Designing Inclusive Architecture In the tradition of CWUAAT, we have solicited and accepted contributions over a wide range of topics, both within individual themes and also across the workshop’s scope. ...

  13. Trace Element Abundances in Refractory Inclusions from Antarctic Micrometeorites (United States)

    Greshake, A.; Hoppe, P.; Bischoff, A.


    Refractory inclusions are charcteristic components in carbonaceous chondrites. Therefore, refractory inclusions found in micrometeorites can give important hints about the relationship between micrometeorites and carbonaceous chondrites. So far, only a few inclusions were found in micrometeorites [1-4]. In this study we report the first trace element analysis of perovskite and fassaite found in micrometeorites. We studied two Antarctic micrometeorites by ASEM, EMP, and SIMS. The first particle is 120 micrometers in size mainly consisting of a fine-grained matrix of dehydrated former phyllosilikates that enclose a 5 micrometers sized perovskite [5]. The perovskite is surrounded by a 1 micrometers thick rim of ilmenite and contains up to 1.3 wt% FeO as determined by EMP. The trace element abundances were determined by SIMS following the procedure described by [6]. The REE pattern of the perovskite is shown in Fig. 1. The pattern is closely related to the Group II pattern with its typical depletion of the more refractory REEs [7]. It is also very similar to the REE abundances of perovskite from Murchison (CM) [8] and CH-chondrites [9]. This may indicate a relationship between this micrometeorite and components in carbonaceous chondrites. The second micrometeorite is 100 micrometers in size consisting of a fine-grained (20 micrometers across) and a coarse-grained (80 micrometers across) area. Both areas contain fassaite with different chemical compositions. The particle was previously analyzed by Lindstrom and Kloeck [1] without knowing the mineralogy. We carried out SIMS analysis of each area of the micrometeorite separately. The TEE patterns of these two areas are similar and show in general a Group III pattern (20-30x CI) in which the more refractory REEs are not fractionated. The negative Eu anomaly is much more apparent in the coarse-grained area and no Yb anomaly is apparent in one of the areas. This is the first CAI of a micrometeorite showing a Group III REE

  14. Croissance, inclusion et autonomisation économique des femmes ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Les femmes plus riches se sont enrichies, en partie parce qu'il est facile pour elles de prendre à leur service des femmes de la classe ouvrière pour prendre soin de leurs enfants et effectuer les tâches ménagères. ... Outputs. Reports. Economic growth, inclusion and empowerment of women in Brazil : final technical report ...

  15. Parents perceptions of social inclusion for children with Williams Syndrome


    Gulliver, Katherine


    This thesis explores parents’ perceptions of social inclusion for children with Williams Syndrome; a rare intellectual disability with a distinct social cognitive profile. 5 interviews with parents give rich understanding to what parents’ value for their child’s education, and how this is achieved. Thematic analysis highlights key similarities and differences in experiences between parents of children attending mainstream schools and one special school. Severity of disability affects how pare...

  16. Teacher preparedness for inclusive education

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Department of Information Systems, Faculty of Economic & Management ... paredness of teachers for this new policy of inclusion. ... of inclusive classrooms, if viewed in global perspective (Dyson & .... teachers experience stress when including learners with special needs. ..... Stress areas and coping skills of South African.

  17. The Inclusive Classroom. Professional's Guide. (United States)

    Grenot-Scheyer, Marquita; And Others

    Inclusive education reflects the changing culture of contemporary schools with emphasis on active learning, authentic assessment practices, applied curriculum, multi-level instructional approaches, and increased attention to diverse student needs and individualization. This guide is intended to help teachers implement inclusive educational…

  18. Measuring Attitudes toward Inclusive Education. (United States)

    Wilczenski, Felicia L.


    Developed scale to measure attitudes toward inclusive education, in which disabled students are responsibility of regular teacher supported by specialists. Administered scale to 301 elementary and secondary teachers and to 144 undergraduate elementary education majors. Analysis yielded four discrete dimensions of inclusive education with…

  19. IDEA and Early Childhood Inclusion. (United States)

    Smith, Barbara J.; Rapport, Mary Jane K.

    This paper discusses 1997 amendments to the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) that promote the inclusion of children with disabilities in general early childhood education settings. The evolution of inclusion policy is explored and changes in disability terminology are described. Amended provisions are then explained and include:…

  20. The Evolution of Secondary Inclusion. (United States)

    Thousand, Jacqueline; Rosenberg, Richard L.; Bishop, Kathryn D.; Villa, Richard A.


    Offers an alternative "Circle of Courage" model of education, derived from Native American culture, for creating inclusive high schools that welcome, value, support, and facilitate the learning of adolescents with differing abilities. Best practices related to curriculum, instruction, assessment, and campus life for effective inclusion are…

  1. Inclusion in Malaysian Integrated Preschools (United States)

    Sukumaran, Sailajah; Loveridge, Judith; Green, Vanessa A.


    Inclusive education has been introduced through a number of policy developments in Malaysia over the last 10 years but there is little research investigating the extent and nature of inclusive education for preschoolers with special educational needs (SEN). This study surveyed both regular and special education teachers in Malaysian integrated…

  2. Early Childhood Inclusion in Turkey (United States)

    Diken, Ibrahim H.; Rakap, Salih; Diken, Ozlem; Tomris, Gozde; Celik, Secil


    Inclusion of young children with disabilities into regular preschool classrooms is a common practice that has been implemented for several decades in industrialized nations around the world, and many developing countries including Turkey have been developing and implementing laws, regulation, and services to support inclusion and teaching in…

  3. Early Childhood Inclusion in Spain (United States)

    Giné, Climent; Balcells-Balcells, Anna; Cañadas, Margarita; Paniagua, Gema


    This article describes early childhood inclusion in educational settings in Spain. First, we address the legislative framework of preschool education in Spain and offer a brief analysis of some relevant issues, including the current situation of early childhood education and inclusion at this stage. Second, current policies and practices relating…

  4. Social Inclusion and Metrolingual Practices (United States)

    Otsuji, Emi; Pennycook, Alastair


    In this paper, we explore the implications of metrolingual language practices for how we understand social inclusion. A vision of social inclusion that includes bi- and multilingual capacities may comprise an appreciation of a diversity of languages other than English, and the skills and capabilities of multilingual language users, yet it is all…

  5. Stiffening solids with liquid inclusions (United States)

    Style, Robert W.; Boltyanskiy, Rostislav; Allen, Benjamin; Jensen, Katharine E.; Foote, Henry P.; Wettlaufer, John S.; Dufresne, Eric R.


    From bone and wood to concrete and carbon fibre, composites are ubiquitous natural and synthetic materials. Eshelby’s inclusion theory describes how macroscopic stress fields couple to isolated microscopic inclusions, allowing prediction of a composite’s bulk mechanical properties from a knowledge of its microstructure. It has been extended to describe a wide variety of phenomena from solid fracture to cell adhesion. Here, we show experimentally and theoretically that Eshelby’s theory breaks down for small liquid inclusions in a soft solid. In this limit, an isolated droplet’s deformation is strongly size-dependent, with the smallest droplets mimicking the behaviour of solid inclusions. Furthermore, in opposition to the predictions of conventional composite theory, we find that finite concentrations of small liquid inclusions enhance the stiffness of soft solids. A straightforward extension of Eshelby’s theory, accounting for the surface tension of the solid-liquid interface, explains our experimental observations. The counterintuitive stiffening of solids by fluid inclusions is expected whenever inclusion radii are smaller than an elastocapillary length, given by the ratio of the surface tension to Young’s modulus of the solid matrix. These results suggest that surface tension can be a simple and effective mechanism to cloak the far-field elastic signature of inclusions.

  6. Politics of Inclusion and Empowerment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, John; Siim, Birte


    identities. Politics of empowerment has to do with the agency and mobilisation dimension of social and political change. The title of the book "Politics of Inclusion and Empowerment" address the leitmotiv: namely to discuss plussumgame between politics of inclusion and politics of empowerment......The objective of the book is to analyse different politics of inclusion and empowerment and the different paradigms of inclusion/exclusion in order to underline the close link between politics of scoial equality and politics of recognition of ciultural difference. Politics of inclusion is thus...... theproductive/innovative linkage of politics of redistributuin and politics og resognition, whnich over a longer time span creates sustainable paths of democratic and social development, which increases the capacity to handle both conflicts about economic resources and life-chances and conflicts about...


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wielandt, Daniel; Krot, Alexander N.; Bizzarro, Martin; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Huss, Gary R.; Ivanova, Marina A.


    Beryllium-10 is a short-lived radionuclide (t 1/2 = 1.4 Myr) uniquely synthesized by spallation reactions and inferred to have been present when the solar system's oldest solids (calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions, CAIs) formed. Yet, the astrophysical site of 10 Be nucleosynthesis is uncertain. We report Li-Be-B isotope measurements of CAIs from CV chondrites, including CAIs that formed with the canonical 26 Al/ 27 Al ratio of ∼5 × 10 –5 (canonical CAIs) and CAIs with Fractionation and Unidentified Nuclear isotope effects (FUN-CAIs) characterized by 26 Al/ 27 Al ratios much lower than the canonical value. Our measurements demonstrate the presence of four distinct fossil 10 Be/ 9 Be isochrons, lower in the FUN-CAIs than in the canonical CAIs, and variable within these classes. Given that FUN-CAI precursors escaped evaporation-recondensation prior to evaporative melting, we suggest that the 10 Be/ 9 Be ratio recorded by FUN-CAIs represents a baseline level present in presolar material inherited from the protosolar molecular cloud, generated via enhanced trapping of galactic cosmic rays. The higher and possibly variable apparent 10 Be/ 9 Be ratios of canonical CAIs reflect additional spallogenesis, either in the gaseous CAI-forming reservoir, or in the inclusions themselves: this indicates at least two nucleosynthetic sources of 10 Be in the early solar system. The most promising locale for 10 Be synthesis is close to the proto-Sun during its early mass-accreting stages, as these are thought to coincide with periods of intense particle irradiation occurring on timescales significantly shorter than the formation interval of canonical CAIs.

  8. Dietary exposure to aflatoxin B-1, ochratoxin A and fuminisins of adults in Lao Cai province, Viet Nam: A total dietary study approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bui, Huong Mai; Le Danh Tuyen; Do Huu Tuan


    Aflatoxins, fumonisins and ochratoxin A that contaminate various agricultural commodities are considered of significant toxicity and potent human carcinogens. This study took a total dietary study approach and estimated the dietary exposure of these mycotoxins for adults living in Lao Cai province...... higher than recommended provisional tolerable daily intake (PTDI) values mainly due to contaminated cereals and meat. The exposure to total fumonisins (1400 ng/kg bw/day) was typically lower than the PTDI value (2000 ng/kg bw/day). The estimated risk of liver cancer associated with exposure to aflatoxin...... B1 was 2.7 cases/100,000 person/year. Margin of exposure (MOE) of renal cancer linked to ochratoxin A and liver cancer associated with fumonisins were 1124 and 1954, respectively indicating risk levels of public health concern. Further studies are needed to evaluate the efficiency of technical...

  9. Inclusive education and social exclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luisa Bissoto


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is critically examining assumptions underlying the Inclusive Education concept, arguing that this can only be effectively considered when understood in a broader context of social inclusion and exclusion. Methodologically, this article relies on international documents and bibliographic references about Inclusive Education, that have been chosen by systematize and characterize different social and educational inclusive practices, encouraging the elaboration of a general overview on this topic. The results of this analysis conclude that it is essential for Inclusive Education that educational institutions review their goals and reasons of social existence. In the concluding remarks it is argued that education is better understood as the act of encouraging and welcoming the efforts of individuals in their attempts to engage in social networking, which sustains life. This includes the acceptance of other reality interpretations and understanding that educational action cannot be restricted by the walls of institutions. It requires the participation of the whole community. Action perspectives likely to promote social inclusion and inclusive education are suggested.

  10. Inclusive education: Ideas vs reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović-Popadić Ana M.


    Full Text Available This paper discusses some of the key factors significant for the process of implementation of inclusive education in Serbia. After a brief review of the legal provisions regulating inclusive education in our country, the results of the research of attitudes towards inclusive education of teachers from six primary schools and one school for students with disabilities, as well as their experience, competencies, working conditions and opinions on consequences of inclusive education and education of children with developmental disabilities in specialized educational institutions are shown. Research was conducted in Krusevac, on a random sample of 60 teachers (51 teachers from primary schools and 9 special education teachers from schools for students with disabilities. We used two forms of questionnaires with twenty questions, and the results show predominantly negative attitudes towards inclusion in the majority of teachers in the sample. A significant percentage of respondents in both sub-samples considered that education of children with developmental disorders in specialized institutions (schools may give better results, primarily due to a lack of systematic support to teachers of primary schools in the process of implementing educational inclusion. The conclusion provides a critical overview of the current situation and presents the potential solutions to the problems that were identified during the research, and refer to the unsustainability of the current practice of inclusive education in Serbia.

  11. How Bureaucracy Promotes Inclusive Organizing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holck, Lotte

    Diversity literature in general and Feminist in particular have long promoted alternatives to bureaucracy on the premise that this form of governance is far from gender- and race-neutral, and that inclusive organizing necessitate a flatter, decentralized and more ‘organic’ set-up (Ferguson 1984...... and opportunities conducive to their inclusion. Guided by Ashcraft (2001) concept of organized dissonance, this paper explores how the combination of apparent incongruent elements of stability/flexibility and formality/informality might offer a passage for inclusive organizing....

  12. LHCB RICH gas system proposal

    CERN Document Server

    Bosteels, Michel; Haider, S


    Both LHCb RICH will be operated with fluorocarbon as gas radiator. RICH 1 will be filled with 4m^3 of C4F10 and RICH 2 with 100m^3 of CF4. The gas systems will run as a closed loop circulation and a gas recovery system within the closed loop is planned for RICH 1, where the recovery of the CF4 will only be realised during filling and emptying of the detector. Inline gas purification is foreseen for the gas systems in order to limit water and oxygen impurities.

  13. Inclusions and inhomogeneities under stress

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nabarro, FRN


    Full Text Available Some general theorems, new and old, concerning the behaviour of elastic inclusions and inhomogeneities in bodies without or with external stress, are assembled. The principal new result is that arbitrary external tractions cannot influence the shape...

  14. Inclusive approach to particle production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bialas, A.


    The problems are reviewed of inclusive spectra. The data show strong disagreement with short-range order picture which is fundamental for most of the existing descriptions of inclusive spectra. There are two physical effects which should be taken into account and which give hopes to restore the agreement with data: compositeness of hadrons and unitarity correlations. The data on diffraction dissociation and cross section rise seem to indicate that hadrons are made of well-separated objects of rather small dimensions

  15. Forum, Dedicated to Inclusive Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vachkov I.V.


    Full Text Available 26 – 27 of February 2015 in Kazan, in the University of Management “TISBI” been held National (All-Russian forum of promotion of ideas and principles of inclusive education (with international participants “Study and live together: open space of inclusion”. During the work of Forum the most topical questions of inclusive education implement in Russian Federation been discussed.

  16. Information rich display design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welch, Robin; Braseth, Alf Ove; Veland, Oeystein


    This paper presents the concept Information Rich Displays. The purpose of Information Rich Displays (IRDs) is to condensate prevailing information in process displays in such a way that each display format (picture) contains more relevant information for the user. Compared to traditional process control displays, this new concept allows the operator to attain key information at a glance and at the same time allows for improved monitoring of larger portions of the process. This again allows for reduced navigation between both process and trend displays and ease the cognitive demand on the operator. This concept has been created while working on designing display prototypes for the offshore petroleum production facilities of tomorrow. Offshore installations basically consist of wells, separation trains (where oil, gas and water are separated from each other), an oil tax measurement system (where oil quality is measured and the pressure increased to allow for export), gas compression (compression of gas for export) and utility systems (water treatment, chemical systems etc.). This means that an offshore control room operator has to deal with a complex process that comprises several functionally different systems. The need for a new approach to offshore display format design is in particular based on shortcomings in today's designs related to the keyhole effect, where the display format only reveals a fraction of the whole process. Furthermore, the upcoming introduction of larger off- and on-shore operation centres will increase the size and complexity of the operators' work domain. In the light of the increased demands on the operator, the proposed IRDs aim to counter the negative effects this may have on the workload. In this work we have attempted to classify the wide range of different roles an operator can have in different situations. The information content and amount being presented to the operator in a display should be viewed in context of the roles the

  17. Chemical 3D-imaging of glass inclusions from allende (CV3) olivine via SIMS: A new insight on chondrule formation conditions (United States)

    Florentin, L.; Deloule, E.; Faure, F.; Mangin, D.


    Natural glass inclusions - hosted in Mg-rich olivines from Allende (CV3) type I chondrules - and synthetic melt inclusions - trapped in forsterite crystallized from CMAS (CaO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2) melts - were mapped by Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) for CMAS major oxides. The first ever 3D chemical images of extra-terrestrial glass inclusions were obtained, along with chemical depth profiles for each oxide. Results show similar patterns for both synthetic glass inclusions (trapped in olivine formed by slow crystallization in a magmatic liquid) and natural inclusions from Allende's olivines. No incompatible-rich boundary layer or diffusion pattern was observed in either case. The absence of an incompatible-rich boundary layer suggests that the olivine overgrowth surrounding glass inclusions in Allende's olivines was formed during slow cooling of the host olivine and likely the surrounding chondrule. This provides new constraints on the cooling rates of type I chondrules.

  18. Fluid inclusion study of the Witwatersrand gold-uranium ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shepherd, T.J.


    Fluid inclusions, preserved in quartz pebbles of the uraniferous and auriferous Precambrian oligomictic conglomerates of the Witwatersrand Basin, provide a unique insight into the genesis of the ores. Using differences in inclusion characteristics in conjunction with intra- and inter-deformational textures for adjacent pebbles, a distinction is made between pre- and post-depositional inclusions. Excluding those related to subsequent brittle fracture, the former comprise five principal types; two of which are distinguished by the development of liquid carbon dioxide. Collectively they indicate a moderate to high pressure-temperature environment of vein quartz formation. Systematic variation in the relative abundance of these inclusion assemblages for different sections of the orefield demonstrates the importance of well-defined provenance areas or multiple entry points into the basins. A marked sympathetic relationship between uraniferous banket ores and the presence of vein quartz rich in liquid carbon dioxide inclusions, together with a corresponding antipathetic relationship for gold, strongly suggests separate sources for the metals. The temporal and spatial aspects of the association 'U-CO 2 ' also imply a uranium influx into the basin from discrete areas of the hinterland contemporaneous with the sediments. Post-depositional inclusions are subordinate and offer no support for the alternative epigenetic model and show only a later interaction of relatively cool circulating groundwaters. A discussion is given of the probable nature and origin of uranium in the source rocks and its mode of transportation. In conclusion, a proposal is made for the use of applied fluid inclusion research in the evaluation of and exploration for similar deposits. (author)

  19. Becoming Inclusive: A Code of Conduct for Inclusion and Diversity. (United States)

    Schmidt, Bonnie J; MacWilliams, Brent R; Neal-Boylan, Leslie

    There are increasing concerns about exclusionary behaviors and lack of diversity in the nursing profession. Exclusionary behaviors, which may include incivility, bullying, and workplace violence, discriminate and isolate individuals and groups who are different, whereas inclusive behaviors encourage diversity. To address inclusion and diversity in nursing, this article offers a code of conduct. This code of conduct builds on existing nursing codes of ethics and applies to nursing students and nurses in both educational and practice settings. Inclusive behaviors that are demonstrated in nurses' relationships with patients, colleagues, the profession, and society are described. This code of conduct provides a basis for measureable change, empowerment, and unification of the profession. Recommendations, implications, and a pledge to action are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Demands from the school inclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Norberto Matos


    Full Text Available From the implementation of public policies on school inclusion, mainly those directed to the target audience of special education, the number of students with special educational needs in common classes has increased. This fact has helped to compose the picture in schools where the limitations and contradictions of the Brazilian educational system have appeared. Educational actors and authors are challenged to build knowledge able of responding to demands of daily school, concerning living and learning in diversity. Whereas this inclusive process is new in the schools, the study aimed to analyze the demands of teachers from the school inclusion. The research was qualitative and exploratory, and six teachers, their students with special educational needs and three professionals in the Nucleus of Inclusive Education from the Municipal Department of Education took in it. Technique of participant observation, field diary, semi-structured interview and questionnaire were used for data collection, while analysis of content was used for discussion of the data. The results indicate that there are achievements and contradictions in the reality of schools that themselves propose inclusive; advances and limitations resulting from the municipal politics; that the model of performance of the group of special education, in the context analyzed, may be revised or expanded; and that the teachers has demands with regard to public policy, training, and the psychologist.

  1. Social inclusion and mental health. (United States)

    Cobigo, Virginie; Stuart, Heather


    Recent research on approaches to improving social inclusion for people with mental disabilities is reviewed. We describe four approaches (or tools) that can be used to improve social inclusion for people with mental disabilities: legislation, community-based supports and services, antistigma/antidiscrimination initiatives, and system monitoring and evaluation. While legislative solutions are the most prevalent, and provide an important framework to support social inclusion, research shows that their full implementation remains problematic. Community-based supports and services that are person-centered and recovery-oriented hold considerable promise, but they are not widely available nor have they been widely evaluated. Antistigma and antidiscrimination strategies are gaining in popularity and offer important avenues for eliminating social barriers and promoting adequate and equitable access to care. Finally, in the context of the current human rights and evidence-based health paradigms, systematic evidence will be needed to support efforts to promote social inclusion for people with mental disabilities, highlight social inequities, and develop best practice approaches. Tools that promote social inclusion of persons with mental disabilities are available, though not yet implemented in a way to fully realize the goals of current disability discourse.

  2. Inclusive production at LHC energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merino, C.; Pajares, C.; Shabelski, Yu.M.


    We consider the first LHC data for pp collisions in the framework of Regge theory. The integral cross sections and inclusive densities of secondaries are determined by the Pomeron exchange, and we present the corresponding predictions for them. The first measurements of inclusive densities in the midrapidity region are in agreement with these predictions. The contribution of the baryon-number transfer due to String Junction diffusion in the rapidity space is at the origin of the differences in the inclusive spectra of particle and antiparticle in the central region, and this effect could be significant at LHC energies. We discuss the first data of ALICE and LHCb collaborations on the baryon/antibaryon asymmetry at LHC. (orig.)

  3. Doing Research Inclusively: Bridges to Multiple Possibilities in Inclusive Research (United States)

    Nind, Melanie; Vinha, Hilra


    This article reports on a study of how people do research that matters to people with learning disabilities and that involves them and their views and experiences. The study was an attempt to bring together people doing inclusive research so that, collectively, we could take stock of our practices. This would add to the individual reports and…

  4. The Inclusion of Music/the Music of Inclusion (United States)

    Lubet, Alex


    The intention of this paper is to situate music within inclusive education. Intersections of music--widely regarded as a "talent" or hyperability--and disability provide unique perspectives on social organisation in general and human valuation in particular. Music is a ubiquitous and an essential component of learning beginning in infancy.…

  5. Hydrogen study in melt inclusions trapped in quartz with nuclear microprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosbah, M.; Tirira, J.; Gosset, J.; Massiot, P.


    Elastic recoil spectrometry induced by 3 MeV helium-4 microbeam has been used to determine hydrogen distribution within melt inclusions trapped in quartz. These minerals were selected from different geological environments: Guadeloupe (West Indies), Pantelleria Island (South Sicily - Italy) and San Pietro (South Sardinia - Italy). Bulk hydrogen contents are calculated (H assumed to be in H 2 O form). The knowledge of hydrogen distribution assists both in a better understanding and in the establishment of volcanic dynamism hypotheses. Finally, fluid hydrogen rich inclusions are evidenced and H concentration profile is simulated and reported for the first time in glass inclusion

  6. Inclusiveness program - a SWOT analysis (United States)

    Dósa, M.; Szegő, K.


    The Inclusiveness Program was created with the aim to integrate currently under-represented countries into the mainstream of European planetary research. Main stages of the working plan include setting up a database containing all the research institutes and universities where astronomical or geophysical research is carried out. It is necessary to identify their problems and needs. Challenging part of the project is to find exact means that help their work in a sustainable way. Strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of the program were identified based on feedback from the inclusiveness community. Our conclusions, further suggestions are presented.

  7. The mineral chemistry and origin of inclusion matrix and meteorite matrix in the Allende CV3 chondrite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kornacki, A.S.; Wood, J.A.; Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA


    The two textural varieties of olivine-rich Allende inclusions consist primarily of a porous, fine-grained mafic constituent that differs from the opaque meteorite matrix of CV3 chondrites by being relatively depleted in sulfides, metal grains, and carbonaceous material. Olivine is the most abundant mineral in Allende inclusion matrix; clinopyroxene, nepheline, sodalite, and Ti-Al-pyroxene occur in lesser amounts. Olivine in unrimmed olivine aggregates is ferrous and has a narrow compositional range. Olivine in rimmed olivine aggregates is, on average, more magnesian, with a wider compositional range. Olivine grains in the granular rims of Type 1B inclusions are zoned, with magnesian cores and ferrous rinds. Ferrous olivines in both varieties of inclusions commonly contain significant amounts of Al 2 O 3 , CaO and TiO 2 , refractory elements that probably occur in submicroscopic inclusions of Ca, Al, Ti-rich glass. Defocussed beam analyses of Allende matrix materials are discussed. (author)

  8. Dietary exposure to aflatoxin B1, ochratoxin A and fuminisins of adults in Lao Cai province, Viet Nam: A total dietary study approach. (United States)

    Huong, Bui Thi Mai; Tuyen, Le Danh; Tuan, Do Huu; Brimer, Leon; Dalsgaard, Anders


    Aflatoxins, fumonisins and ochratoxin A that contaminate various agricultural commodities are considered of significant toxicity and potent human carcinogens. This study took a total dietary study approach and estimated the dietary exposure of these mycotoxins for adults living in Lao Cai province, Vietnam. A total of 42 composite food samples representing 1134 individual food samples were prepared according to normal household practices and analysed for the three mycotoxins. Results showed that the dietary exposure to aflatoxin B1 (39.4 ng/kg bw/day) and ochratoxin A (18.7 ng/kg bw/day) were much higher than recommended provisional tolerable daily intake (PTDI) values mainly due to contaminated cereals and meat. The exposure to total fumonisins (1400 ng/kg bw/day) was typically lower than the PTDI value (2000 ng/kg bw/day). The estimated risk of liver cancer associated with exposure to aflatoxin B1 was 2.7 cases/100,000 person/year. Margin of exposure (MOE) of renal cancer linked to ochratoxin A and liver cancer associated with fumonisins were 1124 and 1954, respectively indicating risk levels of public health concern. Further studies are needed to evaluate the efficiency of technical solutions which could reduce mycotoxin contamination as well as to determine the health effects of the co-exposure to different types of mycotoxins. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Diverse Perspectives on Inclusive School Communities (United States)

    Tsokova, Diana; Tarr, Jane


    What is an inclusive school community? How do stakeholders perceive their roles and responsibilities towards inclusive school communities? How can school communities become more inclusive through engagement with individual perspectives? "Diverse Perspectives on Inclusive School Communities" captures and presents the voices of a wide…

  10. Inclusion in the Workplace - Text Version | NREL (United States)

    Careers » Inclusion in the Workplace - Text Version Inclusion in the Workplace - Text Version This is the text version for the Inclusion: Leading by Example video. I'm Martin Keller. I'm the NREL of the laboratory. Another very important element in inclusion is diversity. Because if we have a

  11. Difference, inclusion, and mathematics education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Figueiras, Lourdes; Healy, Lulu; Skovsmose, Ole


    The round-table discussion on Difference, Inclusion and Mathematics Education was in included in the scientific programme of VI SIPEM in recognition and celebration of the emerging body of research into the challenges of building a culture of mathematics education which values and respects the di...

  12. Early Childhood Inclusion in Croatia (United States)

    Ljubešic, Marta; Šimleša, Sanja


    This article explains early childhood inclusion in Croatia from its beginnings up to challenges in current policy and practice. The first preschool education for children with disabilities dates back to the 1980s and was provided in special institutions. In the last 10 years, mainstream kindergartens have been enrolling children with disabilities…

  13. Inclusion body myositis. Clinical aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cox, Fieke Maria Elisabeth


    Sporadische inclusion body myositis (IBM) is een van de meest voor voorkomende verworven spierziekte die ontstaat na het 50e levensjaar. In dit proefschrift worden de klinische aspecten van sporadische IBM beschreven. Uit de studie met betrekking tot het natuurlijk beloop blijkt dat de ziekte niet

  14. Inclusive Education and the Arts (United States)

    Allan, Julie


    This paper addresses the troubled, problematic and contested field of inclusive education, characterised by antagonisms between so-called inclusionists and special educationists; frustration, particularly among disability activists caused by the abstraction of the social model of disability and the expansion of the special educational needs…

  15. Inclusive Education: Lessons from History (United States)

    Boroson, Barbara


    How has education evolved from exclusion to inclusion, from judgment to acceptance, and from disability to difference? This is the question that frames Barbara Boroson's article in the theme issue, "Differences, Not Disabilities." Boroson begins by taking a historical view of how schools have treated those who were perceived to be…

  16. Nonlocal quasilinear damped differential inclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mouffak Benchohra


    Full Text Available In this paper we investigate the existence of mild solutions to second order initial value problems for a class of damped differential inclusions with nonlocal conditions. By using suitable fixed point theorems, we study the case when the multivalued map has convex and nonconvex values.

  17. Evolution: From Isolation to Inclusion. (United States)

    Kehoe, Sharon M.


    Today, school district leaders must comply with multiple federal statutes (Individuals with Disabilities Act, Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act, and Americans with Disabilities Act). The trend is toward full inclusion, despite judicial overrulings, clarifications of "least restrictive environment," and emergence of opposing groups.…

  18. Tracing Inclusion: Determining Teacher Attitudes (United States)

    Logan, Brenda E.; Wimer, Gregory


    Though there appears to be an onslaught of No Child Left Behind, there is still more emphasis on testing than ever before. With the new implementation of national common-core standards, many school districts have moved towards full inclusive classrooms. However, it is rare that teachers have any input on whether such major decisions are apropos…

  19. Early Childhood Inclusion in Israel (United States)

    Al-Yagon, Michal; Aram, Dorit; Margalit, Malka


    This article describes conceptual aspects, current policies and practices, and research representing the Israeli perspective regarding early childhood inclusion (ECI) at preschool ages (3-6 years). We review legislative, historical, attitudinal, philosophical, practical, empirical, and cultural issues regarding ECI in Israel. Finally, we focus on…

  20. Early Childhood Inclusion in Australia (United States)

    Kemp, Coral R.


    From the introduction of early intervention services in Australian in the mid-1970s, the families of children with intellectual and multiple disabilities have been encouraged to enroll their children in local preschools and childcare centers. Children with disabilities have also accessed a range of alternatives to full inclusion, such as reverse…

  1. Inclusive fitness theory and eusociality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbot, P.; Wrangham, R.; Abe, J.


    Arising from M. A. Nowak, C. E. Tarnita & E. O. Wilson 466, 1057-1062 (2010); Nowak et al. reply. Nowak et al. argue that inclusive fitness theory has been of little value in explaining the natural world, and that it has led to negligible progress in explaining the evolution of eusociality. However...

  2. An Improved Cluster Richness Estimator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozo, Eduardo; /Ohio State U.; Rykoff, Eli S.; /UC, Santa Barbara; Koester, Benjamin P.; /Chicago U. /KICP, Chicago; McKay, Timothy; /Michigan U.; Hao, Jiangang; /Michigan U.; Evrard, August; /Michigan U.; Wechsler, Risa H.; /SLAC; Hansen, Sarah; /Chicago U. /KICP, Chicago; Sheldon, Erin; /New York U.; Johnston, David; /Houston U.; Becker, Matthew R.; /Chicago U. /KICP, Chicago; Annis, James T.; /Fermilab; Bleem, Lindsey; /Chicago U.; Scranton, Ryan; /Pittsburgh U.


    Minimizing the scatter between cluster mass and accessible observables is an important goal for cluster cosmology. In this work, we introduce a new matched filter richness estimator, and test its performance using the maxBCG cluster catalog. Our new estimator significantly reduces the variance in the L{sub X}-richness relation, from {sigma}{sub lnL{sub X}}{sup 2} = (0.86 {+-} 0.02){sup 2} to {sigma}{sub lnL{sub X}}{sup 2} = (0.69 {+-} 0.02){sup 2}. Relative to the maxBCG richness estimate, it also removes the strong redshift dependence of the richness scaling relations, and is significantly more robust to photometric and redshift errors. These improvements are largely due to our more sophisticated treatment of galaxy color data. We also demonstrate the scatter in the L{sub X}-richness relation depends on the aperture used to estimate cluster richness, and introduce a novel approach for optimizing said aperture which can be easily generalized to other mass tracers.

  3. First Ti-XANES analyses of refractory inclusions from Murchison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, S.B.; Sutton, S.R.; Grossman, L.


    Ti valence in refractory phases is an important recorder of redox conditions in the early solar nebula. We report the valence of Ti in pyroxene, spinel and hibonite in spinel-hibonite and spinel-pyroxene inclusions and in a coarse hibonite grain. A system of solar composition is so reducing that Ti 3+ and Ti 4+ can coexist, making the valence of Ti a valuable indicator of f O2 conditions during formation of nebular materials. The Ti 3+ /Ti 4+ ratios observed in the Ti-rich phases fassaite and rhoenite in coarse-grained refractory inclusions from CV3 chondrites have been shown to be quantitatively consistent with formation in a gas of solar composition (log f O2 = IW-6.8), but these are the only objects in chondrites for which this is the case. Here, we report the valence of Ti in various phases in refractory inclusions from the Murchison CM2 chondrite. The second-highest temperature, major-element-bearing phase predicted to condense from a gas of solar composition, hibonite (ideally CaAl 12 O 19 ), can contain significant amounts of Ti, but the hibonite structure can have oxygen vacancies, so calculation of Ti valence from stoichiometry of electron probe analyses is not recommended for hibonite. To date, the only reported measurement of Ti valence in meteoritic hibonite was done by electron spin resonance, on coarse crystals from a Murchison hibonite-perovskite-melilite inclusion. Spinel and most of the pyroxene in CM inclusions contain too little Ti for derivation of Ti 3+ /Ti 4+ ratios from electron probe analyses. X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES), however, allows determination of Ti valence in relatively Ti-poor phases. In the present work, we apply synchrotron microXANES to a large hibonite grain from Murchison and to spinel-hibonite (sp-hib) and spinel-pyroxene (sp-pyx) inclusions from Murchison, refractory materials whose Ti 3+ /Ti 4+ ratios have not been previously measured. Analysis of these samples allows comparison of Ti valence of (1

  4. Inclusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Stine Kaplan


    Paperet sætter fokus på inklusion i en dans sammenhæng, med særligt fokus på mobning. Der tages udgangspunkt i et fællesskabsorienteret mobbesyn, der udpeger særlige opmærksomhedspunkter til såvel forebyggelse som intervention....


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Inclusive education is a rational concept that refers to the overall and long-term transformation of institutional systems in society, especially in education. Along with the transformation, a number of important and unresolved issues still appear in both theory and practice, as the duty of pre-school institutions and schools is to educate every student in the mainstream education system. One of the most important aspects of inclusion is the inclusive culture. Regardless of the good inclusive policy and practice, one cannot talk about successful inclusion without a properly developed inclusive institutional culture.This paper is a contribution to the research considering the development of inclusive culture in three preschool institutions. It is based on the thinking and attitudes of the pre­school staff toward the necessity of developing and nurturing an inclusive culture. Successful inclusion of pupils with special needs in the mainstream school system cannot be conceived without an inclusive culture.

  6. Volatile and light lithophile elements in high-anorthite plagioclase-hosted melt inclusions from Iceland (United States)

    Neave, David A.; Hartley, Margaret E.; Maclennan, John; Edmonds, Marie; Thordarson, Thorvaldur


    Melt inclusions formed during the early stages of magmatic evolution trap primitive melt compositions and enable the volatile contents of primary melts and the mantle to be estimated. However, the syn- and post-entrapment behaviour of volatiles in primitive high-anorthite plagioclase-hosted melt inclusions from oceanic basalts remains poorly constrained. To address this deficit, we present volatile and light lithophile element analyses from a well-characterised suite of nine matrix glasses and 102 melt inclusions from the 10 ka Grímsvötn tephra series (i.e., Saksunarvatn ash) of Iceland's Eastern Volcanic Zone (EVZ). High matrix glass H2O and S contents indicate that eruption-related exsolution was arrested by quenching in a phreatomagmatic setting; Li, B, F and Cl did not exsolve during eruption. The almost uniformly low CO2 content of plagioclase-hosted melt inclusions cannot be explained by either shallow entrapment or the sequestration of CO2 into shrinkage bubbles, suggesting that inclusion CO2 contents were controlled by decrepitation instead. High H2O/Ce values in primitive plagioclase-hosted inclusions (182-823) generally exceed values expected for EVZ primary melts (∼ 180), and can be accounted for by diffusive H2O gain following the entrainment of primitive macrocrysts into evolved and H2O-rich melts a few days before eruption. A strong positive correlation between H2O and Li in plagioclase-hosted inclusions suggests that diffusive Li gain may also have occurred. Extreme F enrichments in primitive plagioclase-hosted inclusions (F/Nd = 51-216 versus ∼15 in matrix glasses) possibly reflect the entrapment of inclusions from high-Al/(Al + Si) melt pools formed by dissolution-crystallisation processes (as indicated by HFSE depletions in some inclusions), and into which F was concentrated by uphill diffusion since F is highly soluble in Al-rich melts. The high S/Dy of primitive inclusions (∼300) indicates that primary melts were S-rich in comparison

  7. Inclusion control in high-performance steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holappa, L.E.K.; Helle, A.S.


    Progress of clean steel production, fundamentals of oxide and sulphide inclusions as well as inclusion morphology in normal and calcium treated steels are described. Effects of cleanliness and inclusion control on steel properties are discussed. In many damaging constructional and engineering applications the nonmetallic inclusions have a quite decisive role in steel performance. An example of combination of good mechanical properties and superior machinability by applying inclusion control is presented. (author)

  8. An Inclusive Psychoanalyst: Sidney Blatt's Contribution In Perspective. (United States)

    Berman, Emanuel


    Sidney Blatt personified in many ways the striving toward an inclusive, broad-minded, nonsectarian, and nondogmatic psychoanalysis. Intrigued and inspired by many trends in psychoanalytic thought and neighboring disciplines, he believed deeply in the coexistence and mutual contributions of a psychoanalytic clinical practice and of systematic empirical research on development and its disruptions, evolving personality traits, and the ways psychoanalytic treatment becomes effective. Carl Rogers, David Rapaport, and John Bowlby were among the figures who played a significant role in the development of his rich and complex thinking and productive work.

  9. Fluid inclusion investigations in Nagra's boreholes of Northern Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullis, J.


    Fluid inclusions studied in quartz and calcite from 6 Nagra-boreholes and the oil exploration well Pfaffnau in northern Switzerland were used to evaluate the evolution of fluid composition and trapping conditions. The studied boreholes covered representative sections of the Tertiary, Mesozoic and Permo-Carboniferous sedimentary rocks in addition to the underlying crystalline basement. Two fluid groups were identified, one containing salt-poor NaCl-(KCl) fluids of Upper Carboniferous age, and a second group containing salt-rich to salt-poor CaCl 2 -NaCl-(MgCl 2 ) fluids trapped between Permian and Tertiary times. The inclusions of the first group were trapped at relatively high temperatures (100 degrees to 350 degrees C, rarely up to 400 degrees C) and low pressures (probably below 1 kbar). Their widespread occurrence along healed fractures in rock forming minerals of the crystalline basement and in detrital quartz grains of the Permo-Carboniferous and Triassic sandstones imply a tectonic/thermic event on a regional scale during late Variscan orogeny. The second group of fluids comprises early salt-rich and late salt-poor inclusions. The inclusions were trapped between 30 degrees and 140 degrees C and are detected preferentially in fissure minerals and porefilling cements. The widespread occurrence of the salt-poor fluids along healed fractures inside the host minerals imply major tectonic events especially during Tertiary times. These tectonic events are probably responsible for increased fluid migration and possibly also for brine dilution. The two fluid groups display a considerable similarity with the high-temperature/low-saliniferous Variscan fluid system of the Black Forest and Oberpfalz. (author) 44 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  10. Adaptive Reactive Rich Internet Applications (United States)

    Schmidt, Kay-Uwe; Stühmer, Roland; Dörflinger, Jörg; Rahmani, Tirdad; Thomas, Susan; Stojanovic, Ljiljana

    Rich Internet Applications significantly raise the user experience compared with legacy page-based Web applications because of their highly responsive user interfaces. Although this is a tremendous advance, it does not solve the problem of the one-size-fits-all approach1 of current Web applications. So although Rich Internet Applications put the user in a position to interact seamlessly with the Web application, they do not adapt to the context in which the user is currently working. In this paper we address the on-the-fly personalization of Rich Internet Applications. We introduce the concept of ARRIAs: Adaptive Reactive Rich Internet Applications and elaborate on how they are able to adapt to the current working context the user is engaged in. An architecture for the ad hoc adaptation of Rich Internet Applications is presented as well as a holistic framework and tools for the realization of our on-the-fly personalization approach. We divided both the architecture and the framework into two levels: offline/design-time and online/run-time. For design-time we explain how to use ontologies in order to annotate Rich Internet Applications and how to use these annotations for conceptual Web usage mining. Furthermore, we describe how to create client-side executable rules from the semantic data mining results. We present our declarative lightweight rule language tailored to the needs of being executed directly on the client. Because of the event-driven nature of the user interfaces of Rich Internet Applications, we designed a lightweight rule language based on the event-condition-action paradigm.2 At run-time the interactions of a user are tracked directly on the client and in real-time a user model is built up. The user model then acts as input to and is evaluated by our client-side complex event processing and rule engine.

  11. Discovery of dmisteinbergite (hexagonal CaAl2Si2O8) in the Allende meteorite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Chi; Krot, Alexander N.; Bizzarro, Martin


    Dmisteinbergite, CaAlSiO with P63/mcm structure, was identified in a rounded coarse-grained igneous Type B2 Ca-,Al-rich inclusion (CAI) STP-1 from the Allende CV3 carbonaceous chondrite. STP-1 belongs to a very rare type of refractory inclusions, Fractionation and Unknown Nuclear effects (FUN) CA...

  12. Friendship in inclusive physical education. (United States)

    Seymour, Helena; Reid, Greg; Bloom, Gordon A


    Social interaction and development of friendships between children with and without a disability are often proposed as potential outcomes of inclusive education. Physical activity specialists assert that exercise and sport environments may be conducive to social and friendship outcomes. This study investigated friendship in inclusive physical education from the perspective of students with (n = 8) and without (n = 8) physical disabilities. All participants attended a reversely integrated school and were interviewed using a semistructured, open-ended format. An adapted version of Weiss, Smith, and Theeboom's (1996) interview guide exploring perceptions of peer relationships in the sport domain was used. Four conceptual categories emerged from the analysis: development of friendship, best friend, preferred physical activities and outcomes, and dealing with disability. The results demonstrated the key characteristics of best friends and the influential role they play.

  13. EDPS 265: The Inclusive Classroom


    Begeske, Jasmine


    EDPS 265: The Inclusive Classroom is a foundational, large enrollment lecture course and is taught in a lecture hall with a stadium style seating arraignment. This configuration results in a course that is not student-centered, promotes one-way communication and hinders cooperative learning. Education courses should be structured so that the course in itself is instructive. This course teaches interventions for reaching all students, using techniques that engage students in the learning proce...

  14. Student' responses to inclusive design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herriott, Richard; Geert Jensen, Birgitte


    interact with our environment and technology. Specifically this involved welfare technology, equipment and tools that can help with daily activities. This technology is designed help to citizens to be 'master of his or her own life' while off-setting capability changes due to declining physical ability...... was originally written for the DRTS 2012 conference "Articulating Design Thinking" and proposed for inclusion in a special edition of Design Issues....

  15. Student Engagement In Inclusive Classrooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rangvid, Beatrice Schindler

    There is general agreement that to thrive and learn at their best, students must be engaged. However, schools face a particular challenge to provide a suitable and engaging learning environment for SEN (special educational needs) students who are educated in general education classes. Using data......-students as for other students. This highlights the need for better inclusion initiatives aimed at strengthening engagement of SEN-students in regular classrooms....

  16. Methodologies for Reservoir Characterization Using Fluid Inclusion Gas Chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dilley, Lorie M. [Hattenburg Dilley & Linnell, LLC, Anchorage, AL (United States)


    The purpose of this project was to: 1) evaluate the relationship between geothermal fluid processes and the compositions of the fluid inclusion gases trapped in the reservoir rocks; and 2) develop methodologies for interpreting fluid inclusion gas data in terms of the chemical, thermal and hydrological properties of geothermal reservoirs. Phase 1 of this project was designed to conduct the following: 1) model the effects of boiling, condensation, conductive cooling and mixing on selected gaseous species; using fluid compositions obtained from geothermal wells, 2) evaluate, using quantitative analyses provided by New Mexico Tech (NMT), how these processes are recorded by fluid inclusions trapped in individual crystals; and 3) determine if the results obtained on individual crystals can be applied to the bulk fluid inclusion analyses determined by Fluid Inclusion Technology (FIT). Our initial studies however, suggested that numerical modeling of the data would be premature. We observed that the gas compositions, determined on bulk and individual samples were not the same as those discharged by the geothermal wells. Gases discharged from geothermal wells are CO2-rich and contain low concentrations of light gases (i.e. H2, He, N, Ar, CH4). In contrast many of our samples displayed enrichments in these light gases. Efforts were initiated to evaluate the reasons for the observed gas distributions. As a first step, we examined the potential importance of different reservoir processes using a variety of commonly employed gas ratios (e.g. Giggenbach plots). The second technical target was the development of interpretational methodologies. We have develop methodologies for the interpretation of fluid inclusion gas data, based on the results of Phase 1, geologic interpretation of fluid inclusion data, and integration of the data. These methodologies can be used in conjunction with the relevant geological and hydrological information on the system to

  17. The HERMES dual-radiator RICH detector

    CERN Document Server

    Jackson, H E


    The HERMES experiment emphasizes measurements of semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering. Most of the hadrons produced lie between 2 and 10 GeV, a region in which it had not previously been feasible to separate pions, kaons, and protons with standard particle identification (PID) techniques. The recent development of new clear, large, homogeneous and hydrophobic silica aerogel material with a low index of refraction offered the means to apply RICH PID techniques to this difficult momentum region. The HERMES instrument uses two radiators, C sub 4 F sub 1 sub 0 , a heavy fluorocarbon gas, and a wall of silica aerogel tiles. A lightweight spherical mirror constructed using a newly perfected technique to make resin-coated carbon-fiber surfaces of optical quality provides optical focusing on a photon detector consisting of 1934 photomultiplier tubes (PMT) for each detector half. The PMT array is held in a soft steel matrix to provide shielding against the residual field of the main spectrometer magnet. Ring recon...

  18. Intraplate mantle oxidation by volatile-rich silicic magmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Audrey M.; Médard, Etienne; Righter, Kevin; Lanzirotti, Antonio


    The upper subcontinental lithospheric mantle below the French Massif Central is more oxidized than the average continental lithosphere, although the origin of this anomaly remains unknown. Using iron oxidation analysis in clinopyroxene, oxybarometry, and melt inclusions in mantle xenoliths, we show that widespread infiltration of volatile (HCSO)-rich silicic melts played a major role in this oxidation. We propose the first comprehensive model of magmatism and mantle oxidation at an intraplate setting. Two oxidizing events occurred: (1) a 365–286 Ma old magmatic episode that produced alkaline vaugnerites, potassic lamprophyres, and K-rich calc-alkaline granitoids, related to the N–S Rhenohercynian subduction, and (2) < 30 Ma old magmatism related to W–E extension, producing carbonatites and hydrous potassic trachytes. These melts were capable of locally increasing the subcontinental lithospheric mantle fO2 to FMQ + 2.4. Both events originate from the melting of a metasomatized lithosphere containing carbonate + phlogopite ± amphibole. The persistence of this volatile-rich lithospheric source implies the potential for new episodes of volatile-rich magmatism. Similarities with worldwide magmatism also show that the importance of volatiles and the oxidation of the mantle in intraplate regions is underestimated.

  19. The STAR-RICH Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Lasiuk, B; Braem, André; Cozza, D; Davenport, M; De Cataldo, G; Dell'Olio, L; Di Bari, D; Di Mauro, A; Dunlop, J C; Finch, E; Fraissard, Daniel; Franco, A; Gans, J; Ghidini, B; Harris, J W; Horsley, M; Kunde, G J; Lasiuk, B; Lesenechal, Y; Majka, R D; Martinengo, P; Morsch, Andreas; Nappi, E; Paic, G; Piuz, François; Posa, F; Raynaud, J; Salur, S; Sandweiss, J; Santiard, Jean-Claude; Satinover, J; Schyns, E M; Smirnov, N; Van Beelen, J; Williams, T D; Xu, Z


    The STAR-RICH detector extends the particle idenfication capabilities of the STAR spectrometer for charged hadrons at mid-rapidity. It allows identification of pions and kaons up to ~3 GeV/c and protons up to ~5 GeV/c. The characteristics and performance of the device in the inaugural RHIC run are described.


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valente, Andrea; Marchetti, Emanuela


    Rich pictures (RP) are common in object-oriented analysis and design courses, but students seem to have problems in integrating them in their projects' workflow. A new software tool is being developed, specific for RP authoring. To better understand students' issues and working practice with RP...

  1. Nonlinear elastic inclusions in isotropic solids

    KAUST Repository

    Yavari, A.; Goriely, A.


    We introduce a geometric framework to calculate the residual stress fields and deformations of nonlinear solids with inclusions and eigenstrains. Inclusions are regions in a body with different reference configurations from the body itself and can

  2. Inclusive outreach practices in Palaeontology: Inclusive-Coworking (United States)

    García-Frank, Alejandra; Gomez-Heras, Miguel; Fesharaki, Omid


    Previous experiences with people with both physical and intellectual functional diversity around palaeontological issues have demonstrated the important value of science outreach directed to people with disabilities. The aforementioned practices act twofold: as a learning tool and also improving the quality of life of the participants and thus, their self-image. All these pioneer experiences were the first step in a process of developing new attitudes contributing the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development of United Nations, where among the 17 goals proposed an effective social inclusion of people with disabilities is required. For this, real inclusive practices in geological outreach are imperious. A close cooperation with all the parts (researchers and participants), in a kind of coworking attitude is needed. This Inclusive-Coworking is considered in the sense of social gathering in order to share equal values and look for the synergy that this different outlook implies. And what is more important: the change of role of the previously learners into an active part of the scientific outreach, providing the adequate methodology for that. The offer of non-formal learning activities normally includes the participation of university professors and researchers in Science Week editions. During the 2016 session in Madrid, four adults with intellectual disability who were participants in the previous edition, contributed in the palaeontological workshop. They were in charge of four of the eight modules explaining the origin of fossils and how to collect them, the evolution of equids' limbs, and the main dentition types in vertebrates to the twenty 16 year old secondary students who attended the workshop. During the development of the experience all the students were pleased with the inclusive approach, and the interaction of all participants was fruitful. Although the explanations took a bit more time when made by our functional diverse fellows, all the abstracts concepts

  3. On Lipschitzian quantum stochastic differential inclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekhaguere, G.O.S.


    Quantum stochastic differential inclusions are introduced and studied within the framework of the Hudson-Parthasarathy formulation of quantum stochastic calculus. Results concerning the existence of solutions of a Lipschitzian quantum stochastic differential inclusion and the relationship between the solutions of such an inclusion and those of its convexification are presented. These generalize the Filippov existence theorem and the Filippov-Wazewski Relaxation Theorem for classical differential inclusions to the present noncommutative setting. (author). 9 refs

  4. Regge cuts in inclusive reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paige, F.E.; Trueman, T.L.


    The contribution of Regge cuts to single-particle inclusive processes is analyzed using the techniques of Gribov. The dependence of these contributions on the polarization state of the target is emphasized. A general formula is obtained and certain contributions to it are calculated. It is not possible, however, to reduce this to a simple, powerful formula expressing the total cut contribution in terms of other measurable quantities, as can be done for the cut contribution to the total cross section. The reasons for this are discussed in detail. The single-particle intermediate states, analogous to the absorption model for elastic scattering, are explicitly calculated as an illustration

  5. Teaching Competences and Inclusive Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José María Fernández Batanero


    Full Text Available This paper focuses on teaching competencies that are conducive to good educational practices in relation to inclusion, from the perspective of teachers. The methodology employed in the study is descriptive/comprehensive, and of an exploratory nature. By means of four case studies, the perceptions of teachers from two secondary schools—characterized by the Spanish Educational Administration as having “good practices”— are examined. The techniques used for information collection in this study include documentary analysis, in-depth interviews and focus groups. The findings emphasize the importance of strategic skills, combined with innovation and creativity, among others.

  6. Theory of inclusive pionic reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oset, E.; Salcedo, L.L.; Strottman, D.


    A theory is developed for all the inclusive pion nuclear reactions, quasielastic, single charge exchange, double charge exchange and absorption, around the resonance region. The theory is based on the isobar hole model and makes an expansion in the number of particle-hole excitations. Up to 3p3h for pion absorption and 2p2h for quasielastic or charge exchange, where good convergence is found, are considered. The results obtained with this theory agree remarkably well with experiment for the different reactions and different nuclei in a wide region of energies around resonance

  7. Detecting Anisotropic Inclusions Through EIT (United States)

    Cristina, Jan; Päivärinta, Lassi


    We study the evolution equation {partialtu=-Λtu} where {Λt} is the Dirichlet-Neumann operator of a decreasing family of Riemannian manifolds with boundary {Σt}. We derive a lower bound for the solution of such an equation, and apply it to a quantitative density estimate for the restriction of harmonic functions on M}=Σ_{0 to the boundaries of {partialΣt}. Consequently we are able to derive a lower bound for the difference of the Dirichlet-Neumann maps in terms of the difference of a background metrics g and an inclusion metric {g+χ_{Σ}(h-g)} on a manifold M.

  8. Forging Inclusive Solutions: Experiential Earth Charter Education (United States)

    Hill, Linda D.


    Forging Inclusive Solutions describes the aims, methodology and outcomes of Inclusive Leadership Adventures, an experiential education curriculum for exploring the Earth Charter. Experiential education builds meaningful relationships, skills, awareness and an inclusive community based on the Earth Charter principles. When we meet people where they…

  9. Measuring Inclusive Education Outcomes in Alberta, Canada (United States)

    Loreman, Tim


    This study details the results of a review of the academic and public sector literature on measuring inclusive education in large systems. It highlights some outcomes drawn from the international literature on inclusion that might be indicative of the presence and quality of inclusive education in an effort to develop a set of outcomes for…

  10. 75 FR 81395 - Minority and Women Inclusion (United States)


    ... 2590-AA28 Minority and Women Inclusion AGENCIES: Federal Housing Finance Board; Federal Housing Finance... and the inclusion of women and minorities in all activities. The final rule implements the provisions.... It also requires each regulated entity to establish an Office of Minority and Women Inclusion, or...

  11. Diversity, Equity, & Inclusion at Berkeley Lab (United States)

    Berkeley Lab A-Z Index Directory Search Diversity, Equity, & Inclusion at Berkeley Lab Home Diversity & Inclusion Council Women Scientists & Engineers Council Employee Resource Groups -and culture of inclusion are key to attracting and engaging the brightest minds and furthering our

  12. 75 FR 10446 - Minority and Women Inclusion (United States)


    ... 2590-AA28 Minority and Women Inclusion AGENCIES: Federal Housing Finance Board; Federal Housing Finance... minority and women inclusion. Section 1116 of the Housing and Economic Recovery Act of 2008 amended section... Loan Banks to promote diversity and the inclusion of women and minorities in all activities...

  13. Fluid inclusion from drill hole DW-5, Hohi geothermal area, Japan: Evidence of boiling and procedure for estimating CO2 content (United States)

    Sasada, M.; Roedder, E.; Belkin, H.E.


    Fluid inclusion studies have been used to derive a model for fluid evolution in the Hohi geothermal area, Japan. Six types of fluid inclusions are found in quartz obtained from the drill core of DW-5 hole. They are: (I) primary liquid-rich with evidence of boiling; (II) primary liquid-rich without evidence of boiling; (III) primary vapor-rich (assumed to have been formed by boiling); (IV) secondary liquid-rich with evidence of boiling; (V) secondary liquid-rich without evidence of boiling; (VI) secondary vapor-rich (assumed to have been formed by boiling). Homogenization temperatures (Th) range between 196 and 347??C and the final melting point of ice (Tm) between -0.2 and -4.3??C. The CO2 content was estimated semiquantitatively to be between 0 and 0.39 wt. % based on the bubble behavior on crushing. NaCl equivalent solid solute salinity of fluid inclusions was determined as being between 0 and 6.8 wt. % after minor correction for CO2 content. Fluid inclusions in quartz provide a record of geothermal activity of early boiling and later cooling. The CO2 contents and homogenization temperatures of fluid inclusions with evidence of boiling generally increase with depth; these changes, and NaCl equivalent solid solute salinity of the fluid can be explained by an adiabatic boiling model for a CO2-bearing low-salinity fluid. Some high-salinity inclusions without CO2 are presumed to have formed by a local boiling process due to a temperature increase or a pressure decrease. The liquid-rich primary and secondary inclusions without evidence of boiling formed during the cooling process. The salinity and CO2 content of these inclusions are lower than those in the boiling fluid at the early stage, probably as a result of admixture with groundwater. ?? 1986.

  14. A note on fluid inclusion study of quartz from uraniferous migmatites from Sirsoti area, Sonbhadra district, Uttar Pradesh, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramana Murthy, K.V.; Shobhita, K.; Gorikhan, R.A.; Bhattacharya, A.K.


    Fluid inclusion study has been carried out on quartz from uraniferous migmatitic rocks of Sirsoti area of Sonbhadra District, Uttar Pradesh. The fluid inclusions in quartz are of two types viz. (i) H 2 O liquid + vapour and (ii) H 2 O liquid + CO 2 liquid + CO 2 gas. Homogenization temperatures of H 2 O liquid + vapour type inclusions indicate that the temperature of formation varied between 150-350degC. Ice melting temperatures indicate that the hydrothermal solutions were CO 2 -bearing with a salinity of 6-8% NaCl. A common range of homogenization temperature for both liquid-rich as well as vapour-rich inclusions provides evidence for the boiling of the ore fluids. (author). 5 refs., 7 figs

  15. Transport Policy and Social Inclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Ricci


    Full Text Available ‘Transport-related Social inclusion’ is a specific naming of the complex set of interrelationships within which accessibility plays an important role in whether a citizen achieves the level of participation in socioeconomic life that he or she seeks. It has its origins in the United Kingdom of the early 2000s, but the diversity of theoretical perspectives, research methods and practical focus shown by the contributions to the present issue on this theme bears witness to the evolution and translation this concept and term has undergone over more than a decade. Nine papers are presented, concerning applications of the concept in three continents, and including some of the poorest and richest per capita income countries on the globe. As well as developing and applying the multi-faceted theories of the processes of exclusion and techniques for the quantitative identification of inclusion, they consider important topics such as the treatment of the less abled and more frail members of society when on the move and the potential for new technological design methods and practical solutions either to enhance inclusion or deepen inequality in our societies. Collectively their conclusions reinforce the message that social exclusion remains multi-dimensional, relational and dynamic, located both in the circumstances of the excluded individual as well as in the processes, institutions and structures that permeate wider society.

  16. Effect of rigid inclusions on sintering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahaman, M.N.; De Jonghe, L.C.


    The predictions of recent theoretical studies on the effect of inert, rigid inclusions on the sintering of ceramic powder matrices are examined and compared with experimental data. The densification of glass matrix composites with inclusion volume fractions of ≤0.15 can be adequately explained by Scherer's theory for viscous sintering with rigid inclusions. Inclusions cause a vast reduction in the densification rates of polycrystalline matrix composites even at low inclusion volume fractions. Models put forward to explain the sintering of polycrystalline matrix composites are discussed

  17. The Politics of Inclusion and Empowerment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, John; Siim, Birte

    The objective of the book is to analyse different politics of inclusion and empowerment and the different paradigms of inclusion/exclusion in order to underline the close link between politics of scoial equality and politics of recognition of ciultural difference. Politics of inclusion is thus...... identities. Politics of empowerment has to do with the agency and mobilisation dimension of social and political change. The title of the book "Politics of Inclusion and Empowerment" address the leitmotiv: namely to discuss plussumgame between politics of inclusion and politics of empowerment...

  18. Inclusion-initiated fracture model for ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, J.; Nicholson, P.S.


    The fracture of ceramics initiating from a typical inclusion is analyzed. The inclusion is considered to have a thermal expansion coefficient and fracture toughness lower than those of the matrix and a Young's modulus higher than that of the matrix. Inclusion-initiated fracture is modeled for a spherical inclusion using a weight function method to compute the residual stress intensity factor for a part-through elliptical crack. The results are applied to an α-Al 2 O 3 inclusion embedded in a tetragonal ZrO 2 ceramic. The strength predictions agree well with experimental data

  19. Axonal inclusions in the crab Hemigrapsus nudus. (United States)

    Smith, R S


    Light microscopic examination of living giant axons from the walking legs of Hemigrapsus nudus revealed intra-axonal inclusions which were usually several tens of micrometers long and about 5 micron wide. The inclusions were filled with small light-scattering particles. The inclusions were shown, by thin section electron microscopy, to be composed largely 68% by volume) of mitochondria. Each inclusion was surrounded by membrane bounded spaces which are presumed to represent a part of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum. Similar inclusions were not found in the leg axons of a variety of other decapod crustaceans.

  20. The First Expert CAI System (United States)

    Feurzeig, Wallace


    The first expert instructional system, the Socratic System, was developed in 1964. One of the earliest applications of this system was in the area of differential diagnosis in clinical medicine. The power of the underlying instructional paradigm was demonstrated and the potential of the approach for valuably supplementing medical instruction was recognized. Twenty years later, despite further educationally significant advances in expert systems technology and enormous reductions in the cost of computers, expert instructional methods have found very little application in medical schools.

  1. An Arendtian perspective on inclusive education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Morten Timmermann


    Inclusive education currently appears to be undergoing a crisis and re- examination. This paper presents a new approach to thinking about inclusiveness in the school context. Many positions within inclusive education seem to take political, social and ethical perspectives as a starting point, which...... has allowed inclusive movements and initiatives around the world to succumb to neo-liberal policy-making and has neglected the development of an educational vocabulary that is theoretically and conceptually appropriate for confronting teachers’ central concerns regarding inclusive practices....... The concepts of suspension, bearing with strangers and enlarged thought inspired by Hannah Arendt provide a basis for a re-imagining of inclusive education and for outlining a future school in which inclusiveness is embedded in the very way we think and position ourselves as teachers and pupils...

  2. Effect of Fibre Level and Fibre Source on Gut Morphology and Micro-environment in Local (Mong Cai and Exotic (Landrace×Yorkshire Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. T. B. Ngoc


    Full Text Available The effect of genotype, fibre level and fibre source on gut morphology, environment and microflora was studied using 18 Mong Cai (MC and 18 Landrace×Yorkshire (LY pigs, aged around 60 d. The diets were based on maize, rice bran, soybean meal, fish meal and soybean oil, and cassava residue (CR or brewer’s grain (BG as fibrous ingredient sources in the high-fibre diets (HF. A low-fibre diet (LF, containing around 200 g NDF/kg dry matter (DM, was formulated without CR and BG as feed ingredients. The HF diets (HF-CR and HF-BG were formulated to contain around 270 g NDF/kg DM. The experiment was arranged according to a 2×3 factorial completely randomized design with six replications, and lasted 30 d. Crypt density in ileum was lowest (p<0.05 and villus height in jejunum and ileum were the greatest (p<0.05 in pigs fed diet HF-BG. Villus width in ileum was greatest in pigs fed diets HF-CR and HF-BG (p<0.05. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB counts in stomach were greatest (p<0.05 and E. coli counts in ileum and colon were lowest (p<0.05 in pigs fed diet HF-CR. The concentration of total organic acids in ileum, caecum and colon were greatest (p<0.05, and pH in ileum and colon were lowest (p<0.05 in pigs fed diet HF-CR. Crypt density in ileum was lowest, and villus height in ileum and villus width in jejunum and ileum was greatest in LY pigs (p<0.05. LAB counts in stomach and ileum were greatest, and E. coli counts in ileum were lowest in MC pigs (p<0.05. The concentration of total organic acids in ileum, caecum and colon were greatest (p<0.05 and pH lowest (p<0.05 in MC pigs.

  3. Angrites: A Volatile-rich Variety of Asteroidal Basalt (Except for Alkalis and Gallium!) (United States)

    Warren, P. H.; Kallemeyn, G. W.


    Angrites are commonly viewed as extremely volatile-depleted, and a related notion is that they formed by differentiation of a very CAI-rich material [e.g., 1]. Partial melting experiments reportedly reproduce the bulk compositions (although not fassaite-rich mineralogy) of angrites with Allende as starting material [2], but highly CAI-rich parent materials are difficult to reconcile with isotopic and REE data [3,4]. Mittlefehldt and Lindstrom [5] inferred from the low Na/Al ratios of angrites that outgassing, and thus primordial magmatism, was more intense on their parent body than on the eucrite parent asteroid. Of seven elements that (a) have been adequately determined in angrites, and (b) are far more volatile (solar-nebula 50% condensation T [6] = 690-430 K) than the alkalis (1000-910 K), four are enriched, and none is significantly depleted, in average angrite compared to average eucrite or low-Ti mare basalt (Figure). Gallium, which is of intermediate volatility (830 K), is depleted to roughly the same extent as Na and K. Results for A881371 [3] are incomplete (Zn, 6 micrograms/g, is near INAA detection limit), but even based only on AdoR and the two LEW angrites, this pattern seems firmly established. Apparent gas cavities in A881371 [7] also suggest that volatiles are far from uniformly depleted. The only elements known to be depleted, as volatiles, by clearly significant factors in angrites versus eucrites or lunar basalts, are alkalis plus gallium. Besides being moderately volatile, a noteworthy characteristic shared among Ga and alkalis (and not shared with elements such as Br, Se, and Zn) is that these elements probably tend to partition into crustal feldspar during gross differentiation of small (low-pressure) bodies. If gallium + alkalis were depleted by a single process starting from "normal" chondritic material, that process would seem to require selective exposure of a feldspar-enriched region (i.e., crust) to extremely high temperature. Igneous

  4. A review of social inclusion measures. (United States)

    Coombs, Tim; Nicholas, Angela; Pirkis, Jane


    Social inclusion is crucial to mental health and well-being and is emphasised in Australia's Fourth National Mental Health Plan. There is a recognition that a measure of social inclusion would complement the suite of outcome measures that is currently used in public sector mental health services. This paper is an initial scope of candidate measures of social inclusion and considers their suitability for this purpose. We identified potential measures through searches of PsycINFO and Medline and a more general Internet search. We extracted descriptive and evaluative information on each measure identified and compared this information with a set of eight criteria. The criteria related to the measure's inclusion of four domains of social inclusion outlined in Australia's Fourth National Mental Health Plan, its usability within the public mental health sector and its psychometric properties. We identified 10 candidate measures of social inclusion: the Activity and Participation Questionnaire (APQ-6); the Australian Community Participation Questionnaire (ACPQ); the Composite Measure of Social Inclusion (CMSI); the EMILIA Project Questionnaire (EPQ); the Evaluating Social Inclusion Questionnaire (ESIQ); the Inclusion Web (IW); the Social and Community Opportunities Profile (SCOPE); the Social Inclusion Measure (SIM); the Social Inclusion Questionnaire (SIQ); and the Staff Survey of Social Inclusion (SSSI). After comparison with the eight review criteria, we determined that the APQ-6 and the SCOPE-short form show the most potential for further testing. Social inclusion is too important not to measure. This discussion of individual-level measures of social inclusion provides a springboard for selecting an appropriate measure for use in public sector mental health services. It suggests that there are two primary candidates, but neither of these is quite fit-for-purpose in their current form. Further exploration will reveal whether one of these is suitable, whether another

  5. 40Ar/39Ar laser-probe dating of diamond inclusions from the Premier kimberlite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, D.; Onstott, T.C.; Harris, J.W.; Strathclyde Univ., Glasgow


    Inclusions encapsulated by diamonds at the time of their formation provide a means for determining diamond crystallization ages and the chemistry of the surrounding upper mantle at that time. Sm-Nd studies of peridotitic inclusions, from Cretaceous-age kimberlites in southern Africa, suggest that the diamonds formed 3.3 Gyr ago. By contrast, eclogite-suite inclusions generally yield younger ages, sometimes approaching the time of kimberlite eruption. Here we report the results of 40 Ar/ 39 Ar laser-probe analyses of individual eclogitic clinopyroxene inclusions from Premier diamonds, which yield a mean age of 1,198±14 Myr. This age agrees well with Sm-Nd and 40 Ar/ 39 Ar analyses on similar Premier inclusions, and is indistinguishable from the inferred time of emplacement of the host kimberlite (1,150-1,230 Myr), which implies that diamond formation was essentially synchronous with kimberlite generation. The extrapolated non-radiogenic 40 Ar/ 36 Ar ratio of 334±102 is similar to the present-day atmospheric composition. This value is inconsistent with Sr and Nd isotopic signatures from Premier eclogite inclusions, which suggest a depleted mantle source ( 40 Ar/ 36 Ar>20,000). Pre-entrapment equilibration of the inclusions with an 36 Ar-rich fluid is the most probable explanation for the low non-radiogenic ( 40 Ar/ 36 Ar) composition. (author)

  6. Silicate Inclusions in IAB Irons: Correlations Between Metal Composition and Inclusion Properties, and Inferences for Their Origin (United States)

    Benedix, G. K.; McCoy, T. J.; Keil, K.


    do exist. Inclusion mineralogy progresses from graphite-troilite nodules in low Ni IAB's, to silicate-dominated inclusions in high Ni IAB's. With increasing Ni abundance in the metal, systematic variations are found in several properties. Two groups are delineated on a Ni vs Fa content plot and both are positively correlated with Ni content. Graphite abundance noticeably decreases with increasing Ni content [7]. Graphite location also varies with Ni: graphite is primarily found interstitial to the silicates in low Ni IAB's, but is located at metal-silicate boundaries in those with higher Ni abundances. With increasing Ni, daubreelite disappears. Inclusion shape also varies [7]: more angular inclusions are associated with low Ni, while more rounded inclusions exist at high Ni contents. These systematic changes suggest interaction between the silicate inclusions and an evolving metallic magma. Troilite and graphite abundances may be related to early nucleation on silicates, hence their depletion in high Ni (later crystallizing) irons. The presence of abundant graphite creates reducing conditions which would result in the formation of daubreelite. Conditions become more oxidizing with loss of graphite, evidenced by lack of daubreelite and more FeO-rich silicates in high Ni irons. Although an overall trend exists, the story is complicated by heterogeneities. Significant variations are found between paired samples (e.g., Toluca and Tacubaya), as well as within individual inclusions (daubreelite and chromite in same inclusion). Local oxidation conditions may be controlled by graphite abundance. Heterogeneities within specific meteorites need documentation. Most of the inclusions exhibit similar textural (metamorphic) features, but a few show evidence of partial melting and melt migration, further complicating the parent body history. While a variety of processes (oxidation-reduction, metamorphism, partial melting) affected the inclusions during formation, systematic

  7. Inclusion, children's groups, music therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holck, Ulla; Jacobsen, Stine Lindahl


    portrayal of the qualities of musical interplay that promotes well-being in group settings and, thus, the inclusion of vulnerable students. Therefore, we open the chapter with a focus on musicality and on the importance of applying a musical approach in relation to the children.......Music has a rare ability to affect us directly. Pulse and rhythms make us move, and notes and harmonies inspire and express our inner emotions in a direct and immediate way that goes beyond what words or even other art forms can rarely achieve (Panksepp & Trevarthen, 2009). Music creates...... a delightful build-up of tension or soothes us, and its narrative character gives rise to mental imagery or memories. Music brings people together and helps build communities across languages and common divides. And – not least – music captures children’s immediate attention, so when the music starts, so do...

  8. Interprofessional development in inclusive schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Britt Blaabjerg; Højholdt, Andy; Arndal, Lars Stubbe

    educators, both initiatives of which support the subject-oriented education at school. These changes have challenged the way [education/school] professionals work and how they see their own and each other's roles in the school system (EVA 2013). The changes have also increased the need for collaborative...... in the classroom.4. Changing teaching methods: Students with weak school affiliation or special needs would benefit from a change in teaching methods that takes some of the competencies possessed by child and youth educators and uses them in the classroom. As a further step, it is relevant to open up students......Recent political reforms in the Danish school system have lengthened the school day and integrated child and youth educators into aspects of the teaching programme as part of a common European strategy of inclusion. The school day now contains homework cafes and lessons with child and youth...

  9. Inclusive Design for Assistive Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herriott, Richard


    Objectives/focus/background: Design for Assistive Technology (AT) requires a special focus on user-requirements during product development. Inclusive Design theory and methodology thus has been relevant to AT design processes. Research in AT design has both drawn from and added to the ID knowledge...... the question of whether AT design processes fit neatly into a model created for a different context . Semi-structured interviews were carried out with eight/nine designers of assistive technology. This provided raw data concerning the processes used by the designers in a range of products including...... a wheelchair for children, a washbasin system, a rollator and breathing apparatus for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder. The interviews conducted showed that there was required a different emphasis in the means by which users´ requirements were incorporated into the design process...

  10. Difference, inclusion, and mathematics education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Figueiras, Lourdes; Healy, Lulu; Skovsmose, Ole


    The round-table discussion on Difference, Inclusion and Mathematics Education was in included in the scientific programme of VI SIPEM in recognition and celebration of the emerging body of research into the challenges of building a culture of mathematics education which values and respects...... the diversity of learners in different educational contexts – in Brazil and beyond. This paper presents the contributions to the discussion, which focus on the problematisation of the term “inclusion”, explorations of how the practices of previously marginalized students can bring new resources to the teaching...... and learning of mathematics and reflections upon the potentially discriminatory nature of the structures which currently mould school mathematics. The paper aims to serve as material for the developing research agenda of the thirteenth working group of the Brazilian Society of Mathematics Education, which met...


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herriott, Richard; Geert Jensen, Birgitte


    raw data on how students broke down the design problem into a variety of tasks: problem solving, data gathering and ideation among others. The work thus provides insight into how the problem is resolved into design solutions. The results provide some quantitative insight into how time is allocated......This paper looks at how students’ design process responds to the requirements of inclusive design. The background to the students´ brief was the concept of welfare technology. People wish to retain their customary life-style even as ageing brings with it a reduction in physical capability: loss...... of muscle strength and manual dexterity or deterioration of eyesight and hearing. They wish to remain in their familiar home and to be able to equip it with such necessary enhancements that help them cope with the minimum of outside support. At the Aarhus School of Architecture, Institute of Design...

  12. Strange quark distribution and parton charge symmetry violation in a semi-inclusive process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitagawa, Hisashi; Sakemi, Yasuhiro


    It is possible to observe a semi-inclusive reaction with tagged charged kaons using the RICH detector at DESY-HERA. Using the semi-inclusive process we study two kinds of parton properties in the nucleon. We study relations between cross sections and strange quark distributions, which are expected to be measured more precisely in such a process than in the process in which pions are tagged. We also investigate charge symmetry violation (CSV) in the nucleon, which appears in the region x ≤ 0.1. (author)

  13. Noble Metal Arsenides and Gold Inclusions in Northwest Africa 8186 (United States)

    Srinivasan, P.; McCubbin, F. M.; Rahman, Z.; Keller, L. P.; Agee, C. B.


    CK carbonaceous chondrites are a highly thermally altered group of carbonaceous chondrites, experiencing temperatures ranging between approximately 576-867 degrees Centigrade. Additionally, the mineralogy of the CK chondrites record the highest overall oxygen fugacity of all chondrites, above the fayalite-magnetite-quartz (FMQ) buffer. Me-tallic Fe-Ni is extremely rare in CK chondrites, but magnetite and Fe,Ni sulfides are commonly observed. Noble metal-rich inclusions have previously been found in some magnetite and sulfide grains. These arsenides, tellurides, and sulfides, which contain varying amounts of Pt, Ru, Os, Te, As, Ir, and S, are thought to form either by condensation from a solar gas, or by exsolution during metamorphism on the chondritic parent body. Northwest Africa (NWA) 8186 is a highly metamorphosed CK chondrite. This meteorite is predominately composed of NiO-rich forsteritic olivine (Fo65), with lesser amounts of plagioclase (An52), augite (Fs11Wo49), magnetite (with exsolved titanomagnetite, hercynite, and titanohematite), monosulfide solid solution (with exsolved pentlandite), and the phosphate minerals Cl-apatite and merrillite. This meteorite contains coarse-grained, homogeneous silicates, and has 120-degree triple junctions between mineral phases, which indicates a high degree of thermal metamorphism. The presence of NiO-rich olivine, oxides phases all bearing Fe3 plus, and the absence of metal, are consistent with an oxygen fugacity above the FMQ buffer. We also observed noble metal-rich phases within sulfide grains in NWA 8186, which are the primary focus of the present study.

  14. HTML5 rich media foundation

    CERN Document Server

    David, Matthew


    Learn about the new ways in which video and audio can be easily embedded into your HTML5 Web pages. Discover how you can create new Web media content and how JavaScript, CSS, and SVG can be integrated to create a compelling, rich media foundation for your work. HTML 5, is the first major update to the core language of the Web in over a decade The focus of this book is on innovations that most directly effect Web site design and multimedia integration The companion Web site features working demonstrations and tutorial media for hands-on pract

  15. Indonesian teachers' epistemological beliefs and inclusive education. (United States)

    Sheehy, Kieron; Budiyanto; Kaye, Helen; Rofiah, Khofidotur


    A growing number of children with intellectual disabilities attend inclusive schools in Indonesia. Previous research has suggested that teachers' type of school and experience influences their beliefs about inclusive education. This research collected questionnaire data from 267 Indonesian teachers and compared the responses from those working in inclusive, special and regular schools regarding their epistemological and pedagogical beliefs. The results showed that teachers in inclusive schools expressed stronger social constructivist beliefs than those in other schools. However, it was teachers' epistemological beliefs, rather than their type of school or experience, which were the significant predictor of their beliefs about inclusive education. The findings suggest that international epistemological research needs to have a more nuanced view of constructivist models of learning to better understand and inform how inclusive pedagogy is being enacted in different contexts.

  16. Fluid Inclusion Study of Quartz Xenocrysts in Mafic Dykes from Kawant Area, Chhota Udaipur District, Gujarat, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randive Kirtikumar


    Full Text Available Unusual mafic dykes occur in the proximity of the Ambadongar Carbonatite Complex, Lower Narmada Valley, Gujarat, India. The dykes contain dense population of quartz xenocrysts within the basaltic matrix metasomatised by carbonate-rich fluids. Plagioclase feldspars, relict pyroxenes, chlorite, barite, rutile, magnetite, Fe-Ti oxides and glass were identified in the basaltic matrix. Quartz xenocrysts occur in various shapes and sizes and form an intricate growth pattern with carbonates. The xenocrysts are fractured and contain several types of primary and secondary, single phase and two-phase fluid inclusions. The two-phase inclusions are dominated by aqueous liquid, whereas the monophase inclusions are composed of carbonic gas and the aqueous inclusions homogenize to liquid between 226°C and 361°C. Majority of the inclusions are secondary in origin and are therefore unrelated to the crystallization of quartz. Moreover, the inclusions have mixed carbonic-aqueous compositions that inhibit their direct correlation with the crustal or mantle fluids. The composition of dilute CO2-rich fluids observed in the quartz xenocrysts appear similar to those exsolved during the final stages of evolution of the Amba Dongar carbonatites. However, the carbonates are devoid of fluid inclusions and therefore their genetic relation with the quartz xenocrysts cannot be established.



    Dharini Raje Sisodia; Akanksha Kapoor


    India creating a high expectation for the world to become economic leader. From quite a while Indian took Financial Inclusion as serious course of Business as a development tool and encouraging result are been observed. In order to have strong financial inclusion serious action are required. In this era of technology with largest youth population in India, this is the best time to strike the chords of modern financial inclusion. This paper will take up the issues related to demonetization and...

  18. Inclusive Fitness Maximization:An Axiomatic Approach


    Okasha, Samir; Weymark, John; Bossert, Walter


    Kin selection theorists argue that evolution in social contexts will lead organisms to behave as if maximizing their inclusive, as opposed to personal, fitness. The inclusive fitness concept allows biologists to treat organisms as akin to rational agents seeking to maximize a utility function. Here we develop this idea and place it on a firm footing by employing a standard decision-theoretic methodology. We show how the principle of inclusive fitness maximization and a related principle of qu...

  19. Examining inclusive practices in Nicaraguan schools


    Delkamiller, Julie; Swain, Kristine; Leader-Janssen, Elizabeth M.; Ritzman, Mitzi J.


    Inkliuzinis praktikos nagrinėjimas Nikaragvos mokyklose. The purpose of this study was to examine Nicaraguan teachers’ efficacy for inclusive practices and current teaching practices in Nicaraguan schools as the first step in developing a special education training program. Sixty-one teachers in 15 schools completed the Teacher Efficacy of Inclusive Practice (TEIP) survey to determine their confidence in inclusive practices, collaboration and dealing with disruptive behaviors. Classroom ob...

  20. Inclusive central region in perturbative Reggeon calculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pajares, C.; Pascual, R.


    The single-particle inclusive cross section and the correlation function are studied in the perturbative approach to Gribov's Reggeon calculus; the leading contributions to both functions are evaluated. The large energy rise of the inclusive cross section appears as a consequence of the Pomerons having an intercept larger than 1. The same set of parameters which describes correctly the cross-section data and the triple-Regge region also describes the inclusive data in the central region

  1. The problems of Russian inclusive education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurmyshova O.A.


    Full Text Available the article is devoted to problems of Russian inclusive education. Based on the results of theoretical analysis the author raises some questions and their solutions may help to increase the effectiveness of the activity of inclusive educational organizations, provide harmonization of relations of inclusive education members and that will guarantee a successful integration of children with disabilities and special needs in the society.

  2. Is Urban Economic Growth Inclusive in India?


    Tripathi, Sabyasachi


    This paper measures the overall inclusive growth of a city by considering changing trends in the key economic variables based on ‘Borda ranking’ and establishes a relationship between city economic growth and overall city inclusive growth. By using data of 52 large cities in India, this paper finds that higher urban economic growth is associated with an increase in urban inequality, a reduction in urban poverty, and a lower level of overall inclusive growth of a city.

  3. Conservation and Biodiversity of Rich Fens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Dagmar Kappel


    Rich fen is a habitat type dependent on a constant supply of nutrient poor, calcium rich groundwater. A high, stable groundwater table, relatively high pH combined with nutrient poor conditions support a special and very species rich vegetation including many rare and threatened plant species. In...

  4. Diversity at work the practice of inclusion

    CERN Document Server

    Deane, Barbara R


    This book outlines the key issues involved in framing, designing, and implementing inclusion initiatives for organizations and groups. It offers ideas for helping individuals develop competencies for inclusion. It shows how to apply the practices of inclusion and provides a unified model by employing diverse voices to address a range of related topics in multiple contexts. It also contains examples of how diversity and inclusion has worked in a variety of settings. The book is includes information from topic experts, including internal and external change agents and academics.

  5. Inclusive education foreign experience and Russian realities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya V. Borodina


    Full Text Available The article analyses social processes, effecting inclusive education development in countries with liberal welfare model and problems of integrated education development in Russia.

  6. Towards a More Inclusive Democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Emerson


    Full Text Available For reasons both historical and psychological, many have come to believe that ‘democracy is based upon a decision taken by the majority’. This basic principle has been subject to considerable abuse, as many politicians have interpreted it to turn what should have been pluralist debates into simple dichotomies: in 1804 France, for example, any sane and sober adult could have been a candidate for the post of Emperor, but the question was only ‘Napoleon, yes or no?’. Some of the other methodologies by which “the will of the people” can be determined are regarded by many social choice scientists as being more accurate, especially those multi-option preferential procedures in which all preferences cast by all voters are taken into account. After a brief historical note, this article offers a critique of majoritarianism before outlining that which could be the three-pronged basis of a more consensual polity, namely: multi-option preference voting in decision-making; multi-candidate preference voting in elections; and, as the basic system of inclusive governance, an elected all-party coalition government.

  7. Refractory metal particles in refractory inclusions in the Allende meteorite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, L.H.; Blander, M.


    An examination of refractory metal particles in five calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions in the Allende meteorite indicates a complex variety of compositions and large departures from equilibrium. These particles appear to have been primordial condensates which were isolated from the nebula and from each other at different times by cocondensing oxides. Selective diffusion and/or oxidation of the more oxidizable metals (Mo, W, Fe and Ni), phase segregations into different alloy phases (fcc, bcc, hcp and perhaps ordered phases) and the formation of metastable condensates appears to have been involved in the modification of these materials to their present state. Only a small fraction of our observations cannot be reconciled with this picture because of a lack of knowledge of some of the phase equilibria which might have bee involved

  8. The leucine-rich repeat structure. (United States)

    Bella, J; Hindle, K L; McEwan, P A; Lovell, S C


    The leucine-rich repeat is a widespread structural motif of 20-30 amino acids with a characteristic repetitive sequence pattern rich in leucines. Leucine-rich repeat domains are built from tandems of two or more repeats and form curved solenoid structures that are particularly suitable for protein-protein interactions. Thousands of protein sequences containing leucine-rich repeats have been identified by automatic annotation methods. Three-dimensional structures of leucine-rich repeat domains determined to date reveal a degree of structural variability that translates into the considerable functional versatility of this protein superfamily. As the essential structural principles become well established, the leucine-rich repeat architecture is emerging as an attractive framework for structural prediction and protein engineering. This review presents an update of the current understanding of leucine-rich repeat structure at the primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary levels and discusses specific examples from recently determined three-dimensional structures.

  9. Nuclear forensics. Searching for nuclear device debris in trinitite-hosted inclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellucci, J.J.; Antonio Simonetti


    This study documents the 3D morphology of trinitite-hosted metallic inclusions and the first observations of alloys consisting primarily of Pb, Ta, Ga, and W. Scanning electron and backscatter electron imaging, as well as energy dispersive X-ray spectra chemical composition data are reported for heavy metal inclusions in 14 different samples of trinitite. Inclusions consisting of Fe-Ti-Si are the most abundant and presumably derived predominantly from the explosion tower. Grains of Cu, Pb, Ta + Ga + W were also observed and are likely derivatives of the trinitite device wiring, tamper, and tamper and core, respectively. Additionally, a Ba-rich grain and multiple zircons (ZrSiO 4 ) were observed in a large majority of samples. The spherical morphology and the ubiquitous positioning of the heavy metal inclusions on the crater walls of the glassy trinitite surfaces indicate a two-step formation. Stage one involves formation of the glassy trinitite, while the second stage involved the precipitation of the inclusions that were incorporated onto the surface of the trinitite. Furthermore, the precarious positioning of these inclusions further emphasizes the need for analysis using non-destructive techniques prior to methods employing a bulk sample digestion approach. (author)

  10. Determination of neutral current couplings from neutrino-induced semi-inclusive pion and inclusive reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hung, P.Q.


    It is shown that by looking at data from neutrino-induced semi-inclusive pion and inclusive reactions on isoscalar targets along, one can determine completely the neutral current couplings. Predictions for various models are also presented. (Auth.)

  11. Evidence for Widespread 26Al in the Solar Nebula and Constraints for Nebula Time Scales (United States)

    Russell; Srinivasan; Huss; Wasserburg; MacPherson


    A search was made for 26Mg (26Mg*) from the decay of 26Al (half-life = 0.73 million years) in Al-rich objects from unequilibrated ordinary chondrites. Two Ca-Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) and two Al-rich chondrules (not CAIs) were found that contained 26Al when they formed. Internal isochrons for the CAIs yielded an initial 26Al/27Al ratio [(26Al/27Al)0] of 5 x 10(-5), indistinguishable from most CAIs in carbonaceous chondrites. This result shows that CAIs with this level of 26Al are present throughout the classes of chondrites and strengthens the notion that 26Al was widespread in the early solar system. The two Al-rich chondrules have lower 26Mg*, corresponding to a (26Al/27Al)0 ratio of approximately 9 x 10(-6). Five other Al-rich chondrules contain no resolvable 26Mg*. If chondrules and CAIs formed from an isotopically homogeneous reservoir, then the chondrules with 26Al must have formed or been last altered approximately2 million years after CAIs formed; the 26Mg*-free chondrules formed >1 to 3 million years later still. Because 26Mg*-containing and 26Mg*-free chondrules are both found in Chainpur, which was not heated to more than approximately400°C, it follows that parent body metamorphism cannot explain the absence of 26Mg* in some of these chondrules. Rather, its absence indicates that the lifetime of the solar nebula over which CAIs and chondrules formed extended over approximately5 million years.

  12. Guided Reading in Inclusive Middle Years Classrooms (United States)

    Lyons, Wanda; Thompson, Scott Anthony


    Teachers in inclusive classrooms are challenged to provide reading instruction for students with a wide range of instructional levels. This article reports on the implementation of guided reading in four middle years inclusive classrooms, the impact on student engagement and reading progress, and teacher perspectives on the guided reading…

  13. Students' Perspectives on LGBTQ-Inclusive Curriculum (United States)

    Snapp, Shannon D.; Burdge, Hilary; Licona, Adela C.; Moody, Raymond L.; Russell, Stephen T.


    Implementing curriculum that is inclusive of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, and questioning (LGBTQ) people has the potential to create an equitable learning environment. In order to learn more about students' experiences of LGBTQ-inclusive curriculum, 26 high school students with diverse racial/ethnic, sexual, and gender identities…

  14. Towards an Elaborated Theory of Inclusive Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gupta, J.; Pouw, N.R.M.; Ros-Tonen, M.A.F.


    Sustainable development often leads to strong trade-offs, mostly in favour of economic growth. Inclusive development responds by focusing mainly on the social and environmental aspects of development and on current generations. While the literature covers inclusive growth in some detail, few authors

  15. Beyond Prejudice: Inclusive Learning in Practice (United States)

    Smith, Vikki; Armstrong, Anne


    Promoting an inclusive learning environment that caters for all learners and their individual needs and meeting challenging targets set in this area is a huge under taking for providers across the learning and skills sector. This booklet provides an overview that illustrates the breadth and variety that the broad banner of inclusive learning…

  16. Design, development and implementation of inclusive education.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooij, Ton; Smeets, Ed


    In inclusive education different pupils, including pupils with special educational needs and high ability pupils, can be stimulated to learn according to their capacities and potentials. The research question concentrates on the design features of inclusive education that will optimally promote the

  17. Inclusion: Something More Than Sitting Together (United States)

    Bulbul, Mustafa Sahin


    Awareness about students with learning difficulty brought us to inclusive learning environments. The acceptance was to build collaborative atmospheres in the class. Unfortunately, when teachers are not enthusiastic and adequate to develop the interaction, the inclusive learning environment never occurs. This conclusion bases on this studies…

  18. Effective Leadership Makes Schools Truly Inclusive (United States)

    McLeskey, James; Waldron, Nancy L.


    There's been much commitment and extensive legislation intended to make schools inclusive for all students but not much real progress in improving student outcomes. The authors review and assess several schools that have succeeded at making schools inclusive and effective for all students, including those with disabilities and draw some inferences…

  19. Diversity ? Inclusion: Promoting Integration in Higher Education (United States)

    Tienda, Marta


    I argue that enrollment of a diverse student body is but a pragmatic first step toward the broader social goal of inclusion and ask whether motives for campus diversification are aligned with pedagogic goals. I address this question by focusing on inclusion, namely, organizational strategies and practices that promote meaningful social and…

  20. Inclusive Education: Teacher Perspectives from Malaysia (United States)

    Bailey, Lucy; Nomanbhoy, Alefiya; Tubpun, Tida


    This paper reports on a survey of views of inclusive education expressed by nearly 300 Malaysian primary school teachers involved in remedial literacy and numeracy education under the country's Literacy and Numeracy Strategy. Overall, the views expressed were positive towards the principle of inclusion. However, despite common professional…

  1. Leading under Pressure: Leadership for Social Inclusion (United States)

    Muijs, Daniel; Ainscow, Mel; Dyson, Alan; Raffo, Carlo; Goldrick, Sue; Kerr, Kirstin; Lennie, Clare; Miles, Susie


    In this study we undertook to look at leadership issues specifically in relation to social inclusion, through a series of six case studies in three districts showing high levels of disadvantage. Findings indicated that schools' views on social inclusion could be typified as leaning towards three main orientations: (1) improving achievement and…

  2. On Graph Refutation for Relational Inclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo A. S. Veloso


    Full Text Available We introduce a graphical refutation calculus for relational inclusions: it reduces establishing a relational inclusion to establishing that a graph constructed from it has empty extension. This sound and complete calculus is conceptually simpler and easier to use than the usual ones.

  3. Inclusive Partnership: Enhancing Student Engagement in Geography (United States)

    Moore-Cherry, Niamh; Healey, Ruth; Nicholson, Dawn T.; Andrews, Will


    Partnership is currently the focus of much work within higher education and advocated as an important process to address a range of higher education goals. In this paper, we propose the term "inclusive partnership" to conceptualise a non-selective staff-student relationship. While recognising the challenges of inclusive partnership…

  4. State Early Childhood Inclusion Self-Assessment (United States)

    Whaley, Kathy T.; Cate, Debbie; Dell, Penny; Vinh, Megan; Neitzel, Jen


    This self-assessment tool provides a framework for examining key aspects of a State infrastructure that are useful for promoting high quality inclusive practices, programs and policies. The sections of the self-assessment are organized by the nine state recommendations of the "Policy Statement on Inclusion of Children with Disabilities in…

  5. Teachers' Misunderstanding: The Concept of Inclusive Education (United States)

    Sanagi, Tomomi


    Teachers' misunderstanding the concept of inclusive education will not lead to good practices, rather make an exclusive environment for pupils with special educational needs in mainstream schools. This study clarified teachers' attitudes towards the image of inclusive education with conjoint analysis and cluster analysis. The participants for this…

  6. Moving Forward in Inclusive Education Research (United States)

    Erten, Ozlem; Savage, Robert Samuel


    This paper aims to address conceptual and methodological challenges of doing research in the field of inclusive education and revisit school effectiveness research literature to inform future research. First, we present the rationale for inclusive education and briefly review the evolution of special needs education. Then, we discuss limitations…

  7. Instructional Strategies for the Inclusive Music Classroom (United States)

    Darrow, Alice-Ann; Adamek, Mary


    While inclusive education is an admirable ideal, it is often difficult to implement. Successful educators have found that employing certain instructional strategies can help meet the needs of students with varying abilities. Inclusive teaching strategies refer to any number of teaching approaches that address the needs of students with a variety…

  8. Inclusive Education in Thailand: Practices and Challenges (United States)

    Vorapanya, Sermsap; Dunlap, Diane


    In 2008, Thailand passed legislation on the educational provisions for students with disabilities to mandate the implementation of inclusive education. This article provides a historical overview of special education in Thailand and the emergence of inclusive education as it moves from policy to practice. To further identify the challenges faced…

  9. Implementing inclusive educational practices through partnerships ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study reports on work in progress of a partnership between the University of Stellenbosch and three rural schools in a disadvantaged community, focused on the development of inclusive educational practices such as teaching, assessment and support in inclusive education. Recognizing the changing needs of the ...

  10. International Teachers' Attitudes towards Inclusion in Turkey (United States)

    Pursley, Lisa


    The inclusion of students with disabilities in the general education classroom has become a universally debated topic in education. More schools all over the world are seeking to use inclusion as their main service delivery model for students with disabilities. Much research has been conducted globally to gain insights into general education…

  11. Secondary General Education Teachers' Attitudes toward Inclusion (United States)

    Wilson, Valerie A.


    Since the inception of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act, educators have struggled with including students with disabilities in the general education classroom with their nondisabled peers. The inclusion educational model was utilized in this study to explore secondary teachers' attitudes toward inclusive educational…

  12. Irish Mathematics Teachers' Attitudes towards Inclusion (United States)

    Whitty, Elaine; Clarke, Marie


    This paper through the theoretical framework of constructive attitude theory explores mathematics teachers' attitudes and pedagogical strategies with reference to inclusive practice. The authors argue that though teachers may have formed positive inclusive attitudes, the translation of these into practice does not always occur and poses…

  13. Attitudes of German Student Teachers on Inclusion (United States)

    Baar, Robert


    The contribution discusses attitudes of German Teacher Training Students on Inclusion based on an empirical analysis containing three elements: Evaluation of students' written exams, results of a survey with closed as open questions and the interpretation of group discussions among students about inclusion. One can see that, though the found-out…

  14. Social Justice Leadership and Inclusion: A Genealogy (United States)

    Lewis, Katherine


    The purpose of this article is to engage in an historical analysis of research about two concepts: social justice leadership and leadership for inclusion. Recent experiences have caused me to wonder about our interpretations of justice, equity, and inclusion. Analysis of the relevant literature revealed a lack of consensus among scholars as to a…

  15. Early Childhood Inclusion in the United Kingdom (United States)

    Blackburn, Carolyn


    A policy-to-practice paper is presented of early childhood inclusion in England. The article aims to report the benefits of early intervention services and early childhood inclusion for children with special educational needs and disabilities (SEND), document the chronology of policy development, and discuss research evidence about…

  16. Pointlike Inclusion Interactions in Tubular Membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vahid Belarghou, A.; Idema, T.


    Membrane tubes and tubular networks are ubiquitous in living cells. Inclusions like proteins are vital for both the stability and the dynamics of such networks. These inclusions interact via the curvature deformations they impose on the membrane. We analytically study the resulting membrane

  17. Problem of detecting inclusions by topological optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Faye


    Full Text Available In this paper we propose a new method to detect inclusions. The proposed method is based on shape and topological optimization tools. In fact after presenting the problem, we use topologication optimization tools to detect inclusions in the domain. Numerical results are presented.

  18. Erasmus Mundus SEN: The Inclusive Scholarship Programme? (United States)

    Grinbergs, Christopher J.; Jones, Hilary


    The Erasmus Mundus MA/Mgr in Special Education Needs (EM SEN) was created as a Masters Course funded by the European Commission's Erasmus Mundus Programme (EMP) to challenge and educate students in inclusive policy and practice in education. Yet, it is debatable the extent to which this programme embodies the values of an inclusive approach,…

  19. Older Women's Career Development and Social Inclusion (United States)

    McMahon, Mary; Bimrose, Jenny; Watson, Mark


    This paper considers women's career development and the potential contribution of career development theory, research, practice and policy in advancing a social inclusion agenda. In particular, the paper focuses on older women in the contexts of an ageing population, labour market shortages and Australia's social inclusion agenda. Supporting young…

  20. Rich Language Analysis for Counterterrorism (United States)

    Guidère, Mathieu; Howard, Newton; Argamon, Shlomo

    Accurate and relevant intelligence is critical for effective counterterrorism. Too much irrelevant information is as bad or worse than not enough information. Modern computational tools promise to provide better search and summarization capabilities to help analysts filter and select relevant and key information. However, to do this task effectively, such tools must have access to levels of meaning beyond the literal. Terrorists operating in context-rich cultures like fundamentalist Islam use messages with multiple levels of interpretation, which are easily misunderstood by non-insiders. This chapter discusses several kinds of such “encryption” used by terrorists and insurgents in the Arabic language, and how knowledge of such methods can be used to enhance computational text analysis techniques for use in counterterrorism.

  1. Thermal gradient brine inclusion migration in salt study: gas-liquid inclusions, preliminary model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olander, D.R.; Machiels, A.J.


    Natural salt deposits contain small cubical inclusions of brine distributed through the salt. Temperature gradients, resulting from storing heat-generating wastes in the salt, can cause the inclusions to move through the salt. Prediction of the rate and amount of brine-inclusion migration is necessary for the evaluation of bedded or domed salts as possible media for waste repositories. Inclusions filled exclusively with liquid migrate up the temperature gradient towards the heat source. The solubility of salt in the brine inclusion increases with temperature. Consequently, salt dissolves into the inclusion across the hot surface and crystallizes out at the cold surface. Diffusion of salt within the liquid phase from the hot to the cold faces causes the inclusions to move in the opposite direction. In so doing, they change shape and eventually become rectangular parallelipipeds with a width (dimension perpendicular to the thermal gradient) much larger than the thickness (dimension in the direction of the thermal gradient). The inclusions may also contain a gas phase predominantly consisting of water vapor. These entities are termed two-phase or gas-liquid inclusions. The two-phase inclusions usually migrate down the temperature gradient away from the heat source remaining more-or-less cubical. A two-phase inclusion also forms when an all-liquid inclusion reaches the waste package; upon opening up at the salt-package interface, the brine partially evaporates and the inclusion reseals with some insoluble gas trapped inside. These gas-liquid inclusions proceed to move down the temperature gradient, in the opposite sense of the all-liquid inclusions. The gas-liquid inclusions phenomenon provides a pathway by which radionuclides leached from the wasteform by the brine can be transported away from the waste package and thus might have greater access to the biosphere

  2. Diffusion of nanosized sodium inclusions in platinum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poulsen, J.R.; Horsewell, A.; Eldrup, M.; Johnson, E.; Johansen, A.


    Na inclusions with diameters in the range from 2 nm to 15 nm have been made by ion implantation of Na into 70 nm thick single-crystalline Pt foils followed by annealing. The structure of solid inclusions and the diffusion of molten inclusions have been studied by transmission electron microscopy. At room temperature the inclusions are faceted and crystalline with a BCC structure and they are aligned topotactically with the Pt (FCC) matrix. The diffusion of inclusions in the liquid state was investigated by annealing at temperatures of 1227 K, 1432 K and 1534 K. The results are used to propose a method to produce sources for positron annihilation spectroscopy at high temperatures. (author)

  3. Inclusive fitness maximization: An axiomatic approach. (United States)

    Okasha, Samir; Weymark, John A; Bossert, Walter


    Kin selection theorists argue that evolution in social contexts will lead organisms to behave as if maximizing their inclusive, as opposed to personal, fitness. The inclusive fitness concept allows biologists to treat organisms as akin to rational agents seeking to maximize a utility function. Here we develop this idea and place it on a firm footing by employing a standard decision-theoretic methodology. We show how the principle of inclusive fitness maximization and a related principle of quasi-inclusive fitness maximization can be derived from axioms on an individual׳s 'as if preferences' (binary choices) for the case in which phenotypic effects are additive. Our results help integrate evolutionary theory and rational choice theory, help draw out the behavioural implications of inclusive fitness maximization, and point to a possible way in which evolution could lead organisms to implement it. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Creating Inclusive Youth Programs for LGBTQ+ Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine E. Soule


    Full Text Available It is vital for youth to experience inclusive programming that is welcoming. Extension has a responsibility and an obligation to provide youth with programs and spaces that are inclusive of all sexes, gender identities, gender expressions, and sexual orientations. This article provides an overview of appropriate terminology, as well as steps for creating inclusive Extension spaces and programs for youth who identify as members of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, or queer/questioning (LGBTQ+ communities. With a focus on urban Extension audiences, this article uses accessible language, self-reflective prompts, and supporting visual aids to share lessons learned from ongoing inclusivity trainings with Extension personnel across the nation, as well as from research activities and inclusive programming.

  5. Inclusive practices in teacher training in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasthi Jocabed Flores Barrera


    Full Text Available Inclusive practices include diversity as a resource that favors teaching-learning processes in the classroom, although they focus on the most vulnerable people by offering them higher-quality education. This descriptive study sought to identify the inclusive practices of teachers who train teachers in an Escuela Normal (teachers’ college in Mexico. Eight teachers and 247 students participated in the study; the Guidelines for the Evaluation of Inclusive Practices in the Classroom (observation formats and students, the Learning Strategies Questionnaire, and semi-structured interviews were used. The results suggest that, although the general perception is that participating teachers have high inclusive practices, they need greater support in the physical conditions of the classroom, methodology and teacher-student relationship. It was also identified the need for a refresher program for teachers to conceptually enrich the teaching staff and encourage the implementation of inclusive education within the Escuela Normal.

  6. Hamiltonian inclusive fitness: a fitter fitness concept. (United States)

    Costa, James T


    In 1963-1964 W. D. Hamilton introduced the concept of inclusive fitness, the only significant elaboration of Darwinian fitness since the nineteenth century. I discuss the origin of the modern fitness concept, providing context for Hamilton's discovery of inclusive fitness in relation to the puzzle of altruism. While fitness conceptually originates with Darwin, the term itself stems from Spencer and crystallized quantitatively in the early twentieth century. Hamiltonian inclusive fitness, with Price's reformulation, provided the solution to Darwin's 'special difficulty'-the evolution of caste polymorphism and sterility in social insects. Hamilton further explored the roles of inclusive fitness and reciprocation to tackle Darwin's other difficulty, the evolution of human altruism. The heuristically powerful inclusive fitness concept ramified over the past 50 years: the number and diversity of 'offspring ideas' that it has engendered render it a fitter fitness concept, one that Darwin would have appreciated.

  7. Supporting Students with Severe Disabilities in Inclusive Schools: A Descriptive Account From Schools Implementing Inclusive Practices (United States)

    Kurth, Jennifer A.; Lyon, Kristin J.; Shogren, Karrie A.


    The purpose of the present study was to investigate practices that support the inclusion of students with severe disabilities in the learning and social activities of inclusive K-8 schools to inform inclusive school reform research and practice. Eighteen K-8 students with severe disabilities in six schools recognized for their implementation of…

  8. More Policies, Greater Inclusion? Exploring the Contradictions of New Labour Inclusive Education Policy (United States)

    Roulstone, Alan; Prideaux, Simon


    The era of New Labour government has witnessed unprecedented growth in inclusive education policies. There is, however, limited evidence that policies have increased disabled children's inclusion. This article explores reasons for this contradiction. Drawing on sociological insights, it is argued that New Labour policies on inclusive education…

  9. Volatile elements in Allende inclusions. [Mn, Na and Cl relation to meteorite evolution (United States)

    Grossman, L.; Ganapathy, R.


    New data are presented on the relatively volatile elements (Mn, Na, and Cl) in coarse- and fine-grained Ca/Al-rich inclusions of different textures and mineralogy in the Allende meteorite. It is shown that the coarse-grained inclusions condensed from the solar nebula at high temperature and contained vanishingly small quantities of volatile elements at that time. Later, volatiles were added to these during the metamorphism of the Allende parent body. The fine-grained inclusions were also affected by the addition of volatiles during this metamorphism but, unlike the coarse-grained ones, they incorporated large amounts of volatiles when they condensed from the solar nebula, accounting for their higher volatile element contents.

  10. Social Inclusion and Local Practices of Belonging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob Garbutt


    Full Text Available Social inclusion has been conceptualised as having two key aspects: distributional aspects relating to access to resources including employment, and relational aspects which concern the connections between people and the wider society. While both are important, the emphasis in Australian social inclusion policy has been on distributional aspects. This paper focuses on the relational aspects of social inclusion, and argues that it is critically important to include relational considerations in social inclusion policy. Central to the relational aspects of social inclusion is achieving a sense of belonging, particularly at the everyday, local level. Belonging in this everyday sense can be thought of as an ongoing project achieved through everyday practices, rather than solely in terms of membership of a group. While many such practices, for example regularly engaging in team sports, are accepted ways of establishing and maintaining belonging, for others in a community practices of belonging may necessitate disrupting or at least broadening the established norms of how one belongs. To ground this discussion of inclusion and belonging, this paper draws on practices of belonging in a regional community. Established norms of belonging are examined through the idea of ‘being a local’, a way of belonging that appears to be based on membership. The paper then turns to two local projects which disrupt the exclusive bounds of local membership and establish new and inclusive practices of belonging. To conclude, parallels are drawn between the boundaries which define ‘the social’ in social inclusion and ‘the local community’ in being a local, to argue for the importance of including relational aspects of social inclusion within social inclusion policy debates and program formulation.

  11. Nuclear Glycogen Inclusions in Canine Parietal Cells. (United States)

    Silvestri, S; Lepri, E; Dall'Aglio, C; Marchesi, M C; Vitellozzi, G


    Nuclear glycogen inclusions occur infrequently in pathologic conditions but also in normal human and animal tissues. Their function or significance is unclear. To the best of the authors' knowledge, no reports of nuclear glycogen inclusions in canine parietal cells exist. After initial observations of nuclear inclusions/pseudoinclusions during routine histopathology, the authors retrospectively examined samples of gastric mucosa from dogs presenting with gastrointestinal signs for the presence of intranuclear inclusions/pseudoinclusions and determined their composition using histologic and electron-microscopic methods. In 24 of 108 cases (22%), the authors observed various numbers of intranuclear inclusions/pseudoinclusions within scattered parietal cells. Nuclei were characterized by marked karyomegaly and chromatin margination around a central optically empty or slightly eosinophilic area. The intranuclear inclusions/pseudoinclusions stained positive with periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) and were diastase sensitive, consistent with glycogen. Several PAS-positive/diastase-sensitive sections were further examined by transmission electron microscopy, also using periodic acid-thiocarbohydrazide-silver proteinate (PA-TCH-SP) staining to identify polysaccharides. Ultrastructurally, the nuclear inclusions were composed of electron-dense particles that were not membrane bound, without evidence of nuclear membrane invaginations or cytoplasmic organelles in the nuclei, and positive staining with PA-TCH-SP, confirming a glycogen composition. No cytoplasmic glycogen deposits were observed, suggesting that the intranuclear glycogen inclusions were probably synthesized in loco. Nuclear glycogen inclusions were not associated with gastritis or colonization by Helicobacter-like organisms ( P > .05). Our findings suggest that nuclear glycogen inclusions in canine parietal cells could be an incidental finding. Nevertheless, since nuclear glycogen is present in several pathologic

  12. Iron Isotopic Compositions of Troilite (FeS) Inclusions from Iron Meteorites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, David L.; Schönbächler, Maria, E-mail: [Institut für Geochemie und Petrologie, ETH Zürich, Clausiusstrasse 25, 8092 Zürich (Switzerland)


    We report non-mass-dependent Fe isotopic data for troilite (FeS) inclusions from 10 iron meteorites, representing both non-magmatic (IAB) and magmatic groups (IIAB, IIIAB, IVA). No resolvable variations are present in the most neutron-rich isotope ({sup 58}Fe), but small deficits (≈−0.1 ε ) in {sup 56}Fe were observed in several inclusions. With the exception of several Ca–Al-rich inclusions in primitive meteorites, these are the first reported non-mass-dependent variations in Fe isotopes for material formed in the early solar system. Nucleosynthetic variations in Ni isotopes were previously reported in these same samples. The effects in Fe isotopes are not correlated with those in Ni, which suggests that the origins of the isotopic variations are decoupled from one another. The {sup 56}Fe deficits may represent incomplete mixing of the precursor dust in the protoplanetary disk. Alternatively, a parent body process (e.g., irradiation by galactic cosmic rays) may have modified the Fe isotopic compositions of some inclusions, which initially had homogeneous Fe isotopic compositions.

  13. Evidence of yttrium silicate inclusions in YSZ-porcelain veneers. (United States)

    Stoner, Brian R; Griggs, Jason A; Neidigh, John; Piascik, Jeffrey R


    This report introduces the discovery of crystalline defects that can form in the porcelain veneering layer when in contact with yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ). The focus was on dental prostheses and understanding the defects that form in the YSZ/porcelain system; however the data reported herein may have broader implications toward the use and stability of YSZ-based ceramics in general. Specimens were cut from fully sintered YSZ plates and veneering porcelain was applied (X-ray (EDAX) was used for microstructural and elemental analysis. EDAX, for chemical analysis and transmission electron diffraction (TED) for structural analysis were both performed in the transmission electron microscope (TEM). Additionally, in order to spatially resolve Y-rich precipitates, micro-CT scans were conducted at varying depths within the porcelain veneer. Local EDAX (SEM) was performed in the regions of visible inclusions and showed significant increases in yttrium concentration. TEM specimens also showed apparent inclusions in the porcelain and selected area electron diffraction was performed on these regions and found the inclusions to be crystalline and identified as either yttrium-silicate (Y2 SiO5 ) or yttrium-disilicate (Y2 Si2 O7 ). Micro-CT data showed that yttrium-silicate precipitates were distributed throughout the thickness of the porcelain veneer. Future studies are needed to determine whether many of the premature failures associated with this materials system may be the result of crystalline flaws that form as a result of high temperature yttrium diffusion near the surfaces of YSZ. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Robust Optical Richness Estimation with Reduced Scatter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rykoff, E.S.; /LBL, Berkeley; Koester, B.P.; /Chicago U. /Chicago U., KICP; Rozo, E.; /Chicago U. /Chicago U., KICP; Annis, J.; /Fermilab; Evrard, A.E.; /Michigan U. /Michigan U., MCTP; Hansen, S.M.; /Lick Observ.; Hao, J.; /Fermilab; Johnston, D.E.; /Fermilab; McKay, T.A.; /Michigan U. /Michigan U., MCTP; Wechsler, R.H.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC


    Reducing the scatter between cluster mass and optical richness is a key goal for cluster cosmology from photometric catalogs. We consider various modifications to the red-sequence matched filter richness estimator of Rozo et al. (2009b), and evaluate their impact on the scatter in X-ray luminosity at fixed richness. Most significantly, we find that deeper luminosity cuts can reduce the recovered scatter, finding that {sigma}{sub ln L{sub X}|{lambda}} = 0.63 {+-} 0.02 for clusters with M{sub 500c} {approx}> 1.6 x 10{sup 14} h{sub 70}{sup -1} M{sub {circle_dot}}. The corresponding scatter in mass at fixed richness is {sigma}{sub ln M|{lambda}} {approx} 0.2-0.3 depending on the richness, comparable to that for total X-ray luminosity. We find that including blue galaxies in the richness estimate increases the scatter, as does weighting galaxies by their optical luminosity. We further demonstrate that our richness estimator is very robust. Specifically, the filter employed when estimating richness can be calibrated directly from the data, without requiring a-priori calibrations of the red-sequence. We also demonstrate that the recovered richness is robust to up to 50% uncertainties in the galaxy background, as well as to the choice of photometric filter employed, so long as the filters span the 4000 {angstrom} break of red-sequence galaxies. Consequently, our richness estimator can be used to compare richness estimates of different clusters, even if they do not share the same photometric data. Appendix A includes 'easy-bake' instructions for implementing our optimal richness estimator, and we are releasing an implementation of the code that works with SDSS data, as well as an augmented maxBCG catalog with the {lambda} richness measured for each cluster.

  15. Ice-VII inclusions in diamonds: Evidence for aqueous fluid in Earth’s deep mantle (United States)

    Tschauner, O.; Huang, S.; Greenberg, E.; Prakapenka, V. B.; Ma, C.; Rossman, G. R.; Shen, A. H.; Zhang, D.; Newville, M.; Lanzirotti, A.; Tait, K.


    Water-rich regions in Earth’s deeper mantle are suspected to play a key role in the global water budget and the mobility of heat-generating elements. We show that ice-VII occurs as inclusions in natural diamond and serves as an indicator for such water-rich regions. Ice-VII, the residue of aqueous fluid present during growth of diamond, crystallizes upon ascent of the host diamonds but remains at pressures as high as 24 gigapascals; it is now recognized as a mineral by the International Mineralogical Association. In particular, ice-VII in diamonds points toward fluid-rich locations in the upper transition zone and around the 660-kilometer boundary.

  16. Social inclusion policy: Producing justice or retribution?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kym Macfarlane


    Full Text Available The notion of social inclusion has currently gained extraordinary credence in Australia. Policy incorporating social inclusion abounds across all discipline areas with the federal government for the first time instituting a government portfolio for this area, headed by the Deputy Prime Minister. Such a move indicates the importance of managing aspects of inclusion across all sectors, in a country where diversity abounds. However, this focus on inclusion can prove highly problematic, when it becomes such an integral part of policy formulation and of the assumptions, omissions and contradictions that policy produces. This paper examines how policy discourse produces ways of thinking about inclusion/exclusion. Using three vignettes, the author applies the theories of Michel Foucault to argue that the discursive production of such inclusive policy works to simultaneously exclude by categorising particular types of individuals and families as “proper” participants in society. The author contends that understandings of propriety relating to the inclusion/exclusion binary reinscribe each other, in ways that situate particular citizens outside of possibilities for “success” in social and systemic participation. Such understanding is highlighted by a conceptual examination of the ways in which discursively produced notions of propriety become normalised. Keywords: bricolage, discourse, authorised knowledge, imperative discourse, regimes of truth

  17. Deploying and implementing Inclusive Physical Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Lúcia Ferreira


    Full Text Available Physical Education, as a curricular component of basic education, is not indifferent to the movement of Inclusive physical education. Differentiated bodies are conquering new social spaces. Our aim through this investigation is to identify the main historical practices regarding Brazilian Policy of Inclusive Education and to point out proposals to implement inclusive Physical education. Our methodology consists of a descriptive study based on two main axes. The first axis is related to a historical discussion whose source was national documents of reference about Inclusive Physical Education. The second axis is related to the experience of 2000 teachers; we have the occasion to analyze their practices on the subject of Inclusive physical education. As a result, this investigation also develops a proposal to inclusive physical education; this proposal is established in another dimension and understanding of work and movement. Concerning the final considerations we suggest a disruption with already crystallized bodily practices and we suggest actions respecting individual differences. Moreover, we point out the fact that Inclusive Physical Education has advocated another meaning for the body, in favor of a more collective physical education and searching for activities in which individuality prevails.

  18. Phenotypic variability within the inclusion body spectrum of basophilic inclusion body disease and neuronal intermediate filament inclusion disease in frontotemporal lobar degenerations with FUS-positive inclusions. (United States)

    Gelpi, Ellen; Lladó, Albert; Clarimón, Jordi; Rey, Maria Jesús; Rivera, Rosa Maria; Ezquerra, Mario; Antonell, Anna; Navarro-Otano, Judith; Ribalta, Teresa; Piñol-Ripoll, Gerard; Pérez, Anna; Valldeoriola, Francesc; Ferrer, Isidre


    Basophilic inclusion body disease and neuronal intermediate filament inclusion disease (NIFID) are rare diseases included among frontotemporal lobar degenerations with FUS-positive inclusions (FTLD-FUS). We report clinical and pathologic features of 2 new patients and reevaluate neuropathologic characteristics of 2 previously described cases, including an early-onset case of basophilic inclusion body disease (aged 38 years) with a 5-year disease course and abundant FUS-positive inclusion bodies and 3 NIFID cases. One NIFID case (aged 37 years) presented with early-onset psychiatric disturbances and rapidly progressive cognitive decline. Two NIFID cases had later onset (aged 64 years and 70 years) and complex neurologic deficits. Postmortem neuropathologic studies in late-onset NIFID cases disclosed α-internexin-positive "hyaline conglomerate"-type inclusions that were positive with 1 commercial anti-FUS antibody directed to residues 200 and 250, but these were negative to amino acids 90 and 220 of human FUS. Early-onset NIFID had similar inclusions that were positive with both commercial anti-FUS antibodies. Genetic testing performed on all cases revealed no FUS gene mutations. These findings indicate that phenotypic variability in NIFID, including clinical manifestations and particular neuropathologic findings, may be related to the age at onset and individual differences in the evolution of lesions.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Social inclusion, a dynamic process of stringent topicality, manifested in the community space, is constituted in a subject with multiple reverberations on contemporary society. From this perspective, the growing interest of the Member States in social inclusion is due to the widening of existing inequalities in terms of people's living standards due to the deterioration of economic well-being. A growing number of studies on social cohesion at the level of the countries of the European Union tried to identify the similarities and disparities between Member States in the process of social inclusion. The paper evaluated and compared the existing disparities between the 28 EU countries, based on a set of social indicators that provide an insight into social inclusion. The methodology used implied a cluster analysis based on the method of k-means, which allowed me to form a grouping of Member States based on indicators of social inclusion. The results of the analysis reveal significant differences between the countries of the European Union regarding social inclusion due to factors of a political, economic and social nature. Understanding the mechanism of manifestation and correction of the level of social inclusion can provide, in this sense, explanations and solutions in capitalizing the economic potential by developing specific policies to the existing social imbalances.

  20. Inclusive weak decays of charmed mesons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, C.G.


    Inclusive analysis provide a different insight into the understanding of weak decay physics. This thesis experimentally determines inclusive decay predictions of charmed D mesons. Exclusive decay predictions are also used from a variety of theoretical models to make predictions about inclusive properties. Both experimental and theoretical realms benefit from the new techniques presented in this thesis. Inclusive properties derived are the multiplicity distributions, average multiplicities and inclusive branching ratios of charged particles, charged and neutral kaons, and charged pions. The center-of-mass momentum spectra of charged and neutral kaons are also obtained. Additionally, in the theoretical realm only, the inclusive properties of neutral pions, and the center-of-mass momentum spectra of charged and neutral pions are determined. The experimental analysis, which uses data from the mark II experiment at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, employs an unfold technique utilizing fold matrices to obtain the charged particle and kaon properties. A new enhanced unfold technique involving fold tensors obtains the first-ever results for the inclusive charged pion properties. The average strange quark contents and the average charged lepton multiplicities of the D + , D 0 and D + 8 are also presented. In the theoretical analysis, the exclusive decay mode predictions from the factorization model for Bauer, Stech and Wirbel; the quark diagram scheme of Chau and Cheng; and the QCD sum rules model of Block and Shifman are processed to determine inclusive predictions will lead to a better understanding of the model. The thesis also derives inclusive predictions from the D meson exclusive branching ratios compiled by the Particle Data Group

  1. Migration of brine inclusions in salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pigford, T.H.


    Theories of the migration of brine inclusions in salt are interpreted as simple physical processes, and theories by Russian and U.S. workers are shown to yield the same results. The migration theory is used to predict threshold temperature gradients below which migration of brine inclusions should not occur. The predicted threshold gradients are compared with the temperature gradients expected at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico. The theory of a threshold gradient helps explain the existence of brine inclusions in natural salt deposits

  2. Inclusive discourses in early childhood education?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warming, Hanne


    This article explores the discursive formation of inclusion in early childhood education and after-school (recreation) centres in a Danish municipality. While inclusion has been a central educational issue in research and practice for well over quarter of a century, with continuing emphasis...... worldwide on 'initiatives by governments', this interest has centred on the school environment and institutions of higher education. Thus, despite increasing recognition of the significance of preschool and after-school-care, inclusion in these environments remains peripheral to the main debate....

  3. The determinants of financial inclusion in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Zins


    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to examine the determinants of financial inclusion in Africa. We use the World Bank's Global Findex database on 37 African countries to perform probit estimations. We find that being a man, richer, more educated and older favor financial inclusion with a higher influence of education and income. Mobile banking is driven by the same determinants than traditional banking. We observe that the determinants of informal finance differ from those of formal finance. Our work therefore contains findings to design policies to foster financial inclusion in African countries.

  4. Proton-rich nuclear statistical equilibrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seitenzahl, I.R.; Timmes, F.X.; Marin-Lafleche, A.; Brown, E.; Magkotsios, G.; Truran, J.


    Proton-rich material in a state of nuclear statistical equilibrium (NSE) is one of the least studied regimes of nucleosynthesis. One reason for this is that after hydrogen burning, stellar evolution proceeds at conditions of an equal number of neutrons and protons or at a slight degree of neutron-richness. Proton-rich nucleosynthesis in stars tends to occur only when hydrogen-rich material that accretes onto a white dwarf or a neutron star explodes, or when neutrino interactions in the winds from a nascent proto-neutron star or collapsar disk drive the matter proton-rich prior to or during the nucleosynthesis. In this Letter we solve the NSE equations for a range of proton-rich thermodynamic conditions. We show that cold proton-rich NSE is qualitatively different from neutron-rich NSE. Instead of being dominated by the Fe-peak nuclei with the largest binding energy per nucleon that have a proton-to-nucleon ratio close to the prescribed electron fraction, NSE for proton-rich material near freezeout temperature is mainly composed of 56Ni and free protons. Previous results of nuclear reaction network calculations rely on this nonintuitive high-proton abundance, which this Letter explains. We show how the differences and especially the large fraction of free protons arises from the minimization of the free energy as a result of a delicate competition between the entropy and nuclear binding energy.

  5. Evidence for supernova injection into the solar nebula and the decoupling of r-process nucleosynthesis. (United States)

    Brennecka, Gregory A; Borg, Lars E; Wadhwa, Meenakshi


    The isotopic composition of our Solar System reflects the blending of materials derived from numerous past nucleosynthetic events, each characterized by a distinct isotopic signature. We show that the isotopic compositions of elements spanning a large mass range in the earliest formed solids in our Solar System, calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs), are uniform, and yet distinct from the average Solar System composition. Relative to younger objects in the Solar System, CAIs contain positive r-process anomalies in isotopes A 140. This fundamental difference in the isotopic character of CAIs around mass 140 necessitates (i) the existence of multiple sources for r-process nucleosynthesis and (ii) the injection of supernova material into a reservoir untapped by CAIs. A scenario of late supernova injection into the protoplanetary disk is consistent with formation of our Solar System in an active star-forming region of the galaxy.

  6. Origin of opaque assemblages in C3V meteorites - Implications for nebular and planetary processes (United States)

    Blum, Joel D.; Wasserburg, G. J.; Hutcheon, I. D.; Beckett, J. R.; Stolper, E. M.


    The results of analyses of meteoritic opaque assemblages (OAs) are presented and used in conjunction with literature data on phase equilibria and diffusion to further develop the hypothesis of Blum et al. (1989) for the origin of OAs in Ca,Al-rich inclusions (CAIs). Based on the results of the analyses, it is suggested that OAs formed after the crystallization of host CAIs by exsolution, sulfidation, and oxidation of precursor alloys at low temperatures (about 770 K) and higher than solar gas sulfur and oxygen fugacities. This model contrasts with previous models that call upon the formation of CAI OAs by aggregation of previously formed phases in the solar nebula prior to the crystallization of CAIs.

  7. Physicochemical Characterization of Inclusion Complex of Catechin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    with catechin, and characterize the physicochemical properties of the inclusion complex of catechin and ... microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). ... complexes with bioactive compounds.

  8. Scattering of elastic waves by thin inclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simons, D.A.


    A solution is derived for the elastic waves scattered by a thin inclusion. The solution is asymptotically valid as inclusion thickness tends to zero with the other dimensions and the frequency fixed. The method entails first approximating the total field in the inclusion in terms of the incident wave by enforcing the appropriate continuity conditions on traction and displacement across the interface, then using these displacements and strains in the volume integral that gives the scattered field. Expressions are derived for the far-field angular distributions of P and S waves due to an incident plane P wave, and plots are given for normalized differential cross sections of an oblate spheroidal tungsten carbide inclusion in a titanium matrix

  9. Ecological aspects influencing the implementation of inclusive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Assessment and Support Strategy, barriers to learning, ecological model, identification, inclusive ..... impedes the management of these learners in the mainstream schools. ..... An ecological systems theory perspective on youth.

  10. Is inclusive education a human right? (United States)

    Gordon, John-Stewart


    In this article, I question the general idea that inclusive education--i.e., to teach all students in one class--is a moral human right. The following discussion shows that the widespread view in disability studies that there is a moral human right to inclusive education can be reasonably called into question by virtue of the proposed counter arguments, but without denying that inclusive education is of utmost importance. Practically speaking, the legal human right to inclusive education is of great practical value for impaired students, and for their basic right to be free from discrimination in education, since their concern thereby gains great legal and moral force. But, theoretically speaking, this particular human right lacks an attainable consensus concerning proper moral justification. © 2013 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  11. Voices: An Inclusive Choir in Dortmund, Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irmgard Merkt


    Full Text Available The article describes the concept and work with an inclusive choir, in which students of the Faculty of Rehabilitation Sciences at TU Dortmund University sing together with adult mentally challengedpeople. The choir ‘Voices’ was founded in 2010, as a part of the project Dortmunder Modell: Musik (DOMO: Musik. The choir and project are committed to realising the United Nations’ Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, particularly in developing models of cultural participation, relevant both for people with and without disabilities. After describing the DOMO: Musik project and its principles, newly developed ideas for inclusive choir work are presented, together with imminent difficulties and positive results. Special attention is drawn to the selection of the pieces under the aspect of artistic variety. Five pieces of the artistic interdisciplinary repertoire are presented. Finally, the student choirmembers reflect on their experiences in the inclusive choir and make clear the importance of joint activities leading to an inclusive society.

  12. The Evolution of Inclusive Education in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engsig, Thomas Thyrring

    The notion of inclusive education in the public school system is highly debated in Denmark, and internationally. Teachers and school leaders in Denmark are struggling with identifying good inclusive practices, and there seems to be discrepancies between multiple national educational policies, which...... inform teachers and stakeholders in their understanding of inclusive education.The Danish government passed and initiated a large reform of the Danish public school system in the beginning of 2014. Among other key aspects, the reform involves a more goal-oriented school with quantifiable national goals...... that 97% of the country’s students are to receive their education in the public school’s general education by 2020. Furthermore, the so-called ‘Inclusion law’, as it is commonly called, was passed in the Danish parliament in April 2012 (Law no. 379). The main purpose of this law was to redefine the notion...

  13. Pathways to Inclusive Development through Innovation, Technology ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Technology and innovation can drive economic growth, help solve social and ... capacities within developing countries to create inclusive growth and poverty ... science, population and public health, and health systems research relevant to the ...

  14. Advanced functional evolution equations and inclusions

    CERN Document Server

    Benchohra, Mouffak


    This book presents up-to-date results on abstract evolution equations and differential inclusions in infinite dimensional spaces. It covers equations with time delay and with impulses, and complements the existing literature in functional differential equations and inclusions. The exposition is devoted to both local and global mild solutions for some classes of functional differential evolution equations and inclusions, and other densely and non-densely defined functional differential equations and inclusions in separable Banach spaces or in Fréchet spaces. The tools used include classical fixed points theorems and the measure-of non-compactness, and each chapter concludes with a section devoted to notes and bibliographical remarks. This monograph is particularly useful for researchers and graduate students studying pure and applied mathematics, engineering, biology and all other applied sciences.

  15. Understanding "Inclusive Growth": Advancing the global agenda ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)


    Mar 27, 2013 ... Increasingly, the concept of "inclusive growth," where the benefits of economic growth are ... Growth is less likely to be sustainable with high and/or growing inequalities, and ... A global vision for small business in Egypt.

  16. Soft soils reinforced by rigid vertical inclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulia-Victoria NEAGOE


    Full Text Available Reinforcement of soft soils by rigid vertical inclusions is an increasingly used technique over the last few years. The system consists of rigid or semi-rigid vertical inclusions and a granular platform for the loads transfer from the structure to the inclusions. This technique aims to reduce the differential settlements both at ground level as below the structure. Reinforcement by rigid inclusions is mainly used for foundation works for large commercial and industrial platforms, storage tanks, wastewater treatment plants, wind farms, bridges, roads, railway embankments. The subject is one of interest as it proves the recently concerns at international level in research and design; however, most studies deal more with the static behavior and less with the dynamic one.

  17. Enhancing inclusive sports participation through volunteer coaches ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In total, 106 youths with and without intellectual disabilities participated in the ... teaching motor skills to an inclusive group of learners with and without disability. ... noted in motor performance for both participants with and without disabilities.

  18. Fostering inclusive growth | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)


    May 12, 2017 ... In 12 years, the country's poverty rate decreased from 55% to 21%, and ... Peru has achieved astonishing poverty reduction results over the past decade. ... demonstrated success, but broader questions about what inclusive ...

  19. Innovation and Financial Inclusion in Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Omanga, Josphat; Dreyer, Johannes Kabderian


    This chapter analyzes the role of financial innovation and mobile phone technologies to financial inclusion in Kenya. In order to do so, a case study on M-PESA is conducted, the leading mobile service of money transfers in Africa, which is offered by Safaricom. M-PESA services are cheap and easy...... suggests that M-PESA services can be considered a type of disruptive innovation that promotes financial inclusion and wealth growth in Kenya....

  20. Deep inelastic inclusive weak and electromagnetic interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, S.L.


    The theory of deep inelastic inclusive interactions is reviewed, emphasizing applications to electromagnetic and weak charged current processes. The following reactions are considered: e + N → e + X, ν + N → μ - + X, anti ν + N → μ + + X where X denotes a summation over all final state hadrons and the ν's are muon neutrinos. After a discussion of scaling, the quark-parton model is invoked to explain the principle experimental features of deep inelastic inclusive reactions

  1. Correlated O and Mg isotopic anomalies in Allende inclusions: II. Magnesium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wasserburg, G.J.; Lee, T.; Papanastassiou, D.A.


    Mg in two Allende Ca-Al rich inclusions shows large isotopic, mass-dependent fractionation which enriched the heavier isotopes. After normalization, Mg in these inclusions shows negative delta 26 Mg which appears to require the presence of nuclear effects in Mg distinct from 26 Al decay. The Mg mass fractionation is correlated with distinct but smaller fractionation effects for O reported by Clayton and Mayeda for the same inclusions (see companion paper). The observation of distinctive but uniform Mg isotopic composition in different phases within single Allende inclusions indicates that nuclear effects in O and Mg are not due to the entrapment of interstellar carrier grains as discrete entities, which are preserved as remnants, but are instead due to a homogenized mixture of components of extraordinary isotopic composition mixed with a component of ordinary solar system material and subjected to isotopic fractionation. The distinct O isotopic composition of different phases within a single inclusion is believed to be due to incomplete back-reaction of the higher temperature condensates with a cooler solar nebula of ''normal '' composition. The processes responsible for the O and Mg nuclear effects and the astrophysical site of their occurrence remain undefined

  2. Patterns of Freshwater Species Richness, Endemism, and Vulnerability in California.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanette K Howard

    Full Text Available The ranges and abundances of species that depend on freshwater habitats are declining worldwide. Efforts to counteract those trends are often hampered by a lack of information about species distribution and conservation status and are often strongly biased toward a few well-studied groups. We identified the 3,906 vascular plants, macroinvertebrates, and vertebrates native to California, USA, that depend on fresh water for at least one stage of their life history. We evaluated the conservation status for these taxa using existing government and non-governmental organization assessments (e.g., endangered species act, NatureServe, created a spatial database of locality observations or distribution information from ~400 data sources, and mapped patterns of richness, endemism, and vulnerability. Although nearly half of all taxa with conservation status (n = 1,939 are vulnerable to extinction, only 114 (6% of those vulnerable taxa have a legal mandate for protection in the form of formal inclusion on a state or federal endangered species list. Endemic taxa are at greater risk than non-endemics, with 90% of the 927 endemic taxa vulnerable to extinction. Records with spatial data were available for a total of 2,276 species (61%. The patterns of species richness differ depending on the taxonomic group analyzed, but are similar across taxonomic level. No particular taxonomic group represents an umbrella for all species, but hotspots of high richness for listed species cover 40% of the hotspots for all other species and 58% of the hotspots for vulnerable freshwater species. By mapping freshwater species hotspots we show locations that represent the top priority for conservation action in the state. This study identifies opportunities to fill gaps in the evaluation of conservation status for freshwater taxa in California, to address the lack of occurrence information for nearly 40% of freshwater taxa and nearly 40% of watersheds in the state, and to

  3. LHCb RICH1 Engineering Design Review Report

    CERN Document Server

    Brook, N; Metlica, F; Muir, A; Phillips, A; Buckley, A; Gibson, V; Harrison, K; Jones, C R; Katvars, S G; Lazzeroni, C; Storey, J; Ward, CP; Wotton, S; Alemi, M; Arnabaldi, C; Bellunato, T F; Calvi, M; Matteuzzi, C; Musy, M; Negri, P; Perego, D L; Pessina, G; Chamonal, R; Eisenhardt, S; Lawrence, J; McCarron, J; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Walker, A; Cuneo, S; Fontanelli, F; Gracco, Valerio; Mini, G; Musico, P; Petrolini, A; Sannino, M; Bates, A; MacGregor, A; O'Shea, V; Parkes, C; Paterson, S; Petrie, D; Pickford, A; Rahman, M; Soler, F; Allebone, L; Barber, J H; Cameron, W; Clark, D; Dornan, Peter John; Duane, A; Egede, U; Hallam, R; Howard, A; Plackett, R; Price, D; Savidge, T; Vidal-Sitjes, G; Websdale, D M; Adinolfi, M; Bibby, J H; Cioffi, C; Gligorov, Vladimir V; Harnew, N; Harris, F; McArthur, I A; Newby, C; Ottewell, B; Rademacker, J; Senanayake, R; Somerville, L P; Soroko, A; Smale, N J; Topp-Jørgensen, S; Wilkinson, G; Yang, S; Benayoun, M; Khmelnikov, V A; Obraztsov, V F; Densham, C J; Easo, S; Franek, B; Kuznetsov, G; Loveridge, P W; Morrow, D; Morris, JV; Papanestis, A; Patrick, G N; Woodward, M L; Aglieri-Rinella, G; Albrecht, A; Braem, André; Campbell, M; D'Ambrosio, C; Forty, R W; Frei, C; Gys, Thierry; Jamet, O; Kanaya, N; Losasso, M; Moritz, M; Patel, M; Piedigrossi, D; Snoeys, W; Ullaland, O; Van Lysebetten, A; Wyllie, K


    This document describes the concepts of the engineering design to be adopted for the upstream Ring Imaging Cherenkov detector (RICH1) of the reoptimized LHCb detector. Our aim is to ensure that coherent solutions for the engineering design and integration for all components of RICH1 are available, before proceeding with the detailed design of these components.

  4. Island Species Richness Increases with Habitat Diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hortal, J.; Triantis, K.A.; Meiri, S.; Thebault, E.M.C.; Sfenthourakis, S.


    Species richness is commonly thought to increase with habitat diversity. However, a recent theoretical model aiming to unify niche and island biogeography theories predicted a hump-shaped relationship between richness and habitat diversity. Given the contradiction between model results and previous

  5. Platelet-rich plasma in otolaryngology. (United States)

    Stavrakas, M; Karkos, P D; Markou, K; Grigoriadis, N


    Platelet-rich plasma is a novel material that is being used more frequently in many surgical specialties. A literature review on the current and potential uses of platelet-rich plasma in otolaryngology was performed. There is limited evidence on the use of platelet-rich plasma in otolaryngology compared with other specialties: only 11 studies on various subspecialties (otology, rhinology and laryngology) were included in the final review. Based on the limited number of studies, we cannot draw safe conclusions about the value of platelet-rich plasma in otolaryngology. Nevertheless, the available literature suggests that platelet-rich plasma holds promise for future research and may have a number of clinical applications.

  6. Enacting understanding of inclusion in complex contexts: classroom ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Aug 14, 2015 ... Dan Tlale. Department of Inclusive Education, College of Education, University of South Africa, Pretoria, South Africa ..... challenges and teachers' understanding of inclusive .....

  7. Endomorphisms on half-sided modular inclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svegstrup, Rolf Dyre


    In algebraic quantum field theory we consider nets of von Neumann algebras indexed over regions of the space time. Wiesbrock [''Conformal quantum field theory and half-sided modular inclusions of von Neumann algebras,'' Commun. Math. Phys. 158, 537-543 (1993)] has shown that strongly additive nets of von Neumann algebras on the circle are in correspondence with standard half-sided modular inclusions. We show that a finite index endomorphism on a half-sided modular inclusion extends to a finite index endomorphism on the corresponding net of von Neumann algebras on the circle. Moreover, we present another approach to encoding endomorphisms on nets of von Neumann algebras on the circle into half-sided modular inclusions. There is a natural way to associate a weight to a Moebius covariant endomorphism. The properties of this weight have been studied by Bertozzini et al. [''Covariant sectors with infinite dimension and positivity of the energy,'' Commun. Math. Phys. 193, 471-492 (1998)]. In this paper we show the converse, namely, how to associate a Moebius covariant endomorphism to a given weight under certain assumptions, thus obtaining a correspondence between a class of weights on a half-sided modular inclusion and a subclass of the Moebius covariant endomorphisms on the associated net of von Neumann algebras. This allows us to treat Moebius covariant endomorphisms in terms of weights on half-sided modular inclusions. As our aim is to provide a framework for treating endomorphisms on nets of von Neumann algebras in terms of the apparently simpler objects of weights on half-sided modular inclusions, we lastly give some basic results for manipulations with such weights

  8. Epidermal Inclusion Cysts of The Breast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir R. Motabar


    Full Text Available Epidermal inclusion cysts are uncommon in the breast, but the consequences can besevere when these cysts occur in the breast parenchyma. Here,we report two suchcases. The patient in case 1 was an 37-year-old woman with a 3-cm palpable mass inthe right breast. Mammography revealed a round and smoothly outlined mass, whichindicated a benign tumor, and sonography showed an irregularly shaped and heterogeneoushypoechoic mass, fibroadenoma was suspected on the basis of clinical andimage findings, but excisional biopsy revealed an epidermal inclusion cyst. The patientin case 2 was a 50-year-old woman with a 2.5-cm lesion in the left breast. Mammographyrevealed a round, dense, smoothly outlined mass, and sonography showeda well-defined, central hyperechoic mass. . Breast cancer was suspected on the basisof the sonographic findings and the age of the patient, but the resected specimen revealedan epidermal inclusion cyst. Although epidermal inclusion cysts are benign,occasionally they may play a role in the origin of squamous carcinoma of the breast. .Mammographic and sonographic features of an epidermal cyst may mimic a malignantlesion. Malignant change appears to occur more frequently in epidermal inclusioncysts in the mammary gland, compared to common epidermal inclusion cysts,and this may be associated with origination of mammary epidermal inclusion cystsfrom squamous metaplasia of the mammary duct epithelium.Epidermmoid inclusion cyst of the breast is potentially serious, although such cystsare rare, and differentiation from a malignant or benign breast tumor is required. Excisionis probably the most appropriate treatment, and can eliminate the possible riskof malignant transformation.

  9. Evolution mechanisms of MgO·Al2O3 inclusions by cerium in spring steel used in fasteners of high-speed railway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Lijun; Wang Qi; Chou Kuochih; Liu Yanqiang


    The effect of rare earth metal addition on the non-metallic inclusions in spring steel used in fastener of high speed railway was investigated by metallographic examination; SEM-EDS and component analysis, aiming at deform those harmful inclusions to improve service life of spring steel. MgO·Al 2 O 3 inclusions were found in present experimental steel, which is also confirmed by the stability diagram of MgO/MgO·Al 2 O 3 /Al 2 O 3 from thermodynamic consideration. After Ce addition, the evolution process of Al 2 O 3 ·MgO inclusions was determined through the surface and line scanning. The effects of time and Ce content on the evolution of Al 2 O 3 ·MgO inclusions were examined. It was indicated that Al 2 O 3 ·MgO inclusions were wrapped by rare earth inclusions to form a ring like shape Ce-riched band around the inclusion, which would be useful to improve fatigue and corrosion resistance of spring steel. It was found that diffusion of Ce 3+ , Al 3+ and Mg 2+ in inclusions core and intermediate layer would be the limited step during evolutions of inclusions. (author)

  10. Inclusive Institutions for Sustainable Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakšić Miomir


    Full Text Available In recent two decades, due to contributions of political macroeconomics, the focus of macroeconomics turned away from a narrow perspective based on market and privatisation (market fundamentalism towards a broader perspective based on institutions and values (institutionalism. Within the institutional paradigm, the emphasis nowadays is put on inclusive institutions. The main thesis of one of leading proponents of political macroeconomics, D. Acemoglu, is: “growth is much more likely under inclusive (economic and political institutions than extractive institutions.” Good institutions are characterized by three attributes: 1 they establish and protect property rights; 2 they restrict social elites which strive to expropriate income and property of others members of society; 3 they provide equal chances for employment, social security and civil rights to all individuals. Good institutions contribute to political stability, successful macroeconomic policy, and enhance initiatives. The key role of institutions is to secure stability and continuity. Extractive institutions can negatively affect entrepreneurship and entire economic development in two ways: a by increasing the opportunity cost, resulting in upward movement of the opportunity cost curve; and b by affecting return to entrepreneurship resulting in leftward movement of the return to entrepreneurship curve. Apart from independence and accountability of institutions what is needed is sufficient level of inclusion. Inclusion should encompass three dimensions: personal, financial, and political. The introduction of principles of independence, accountability, and inclusion is essential for emergence and performance of all institutions.

  11. Inclusive Education for Students with Disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imaniah Ikhfi


    Full Text Available This paper identifies and discusses major issues and trends in special education in Indonesia, including implications of trends for the future developments. Trends are discussed for the following areas: (1 inclusion and integration, issues will remain unresolved in the near future; (2 early childhood and postsecondary education with disability students, special education will be viewed as lifespan schooling; (3 transitions and life skills, these will receive greater emphasis; and (4 consultation and collaboration, more emphasis but problems remain. Moreover, the participant of the study in this paper was an autism student of twelve years old who lived at Maguwoharjo, Yogyakarta. This study was qualitative with case study as an approach of the research. The researchers conclude the autism that has good academic, communication and emotional skill are able to go to integrated school accompanied by guidance teacher. But in practice, inclusive education in Indonesia is inseparable from stakeholders ranging from government and institutions such as schools, educators, school environment, community and parents to support the goal of inclusive education itself. Adequate infrastructure also needs to be given to the school that organizes inclusive education for an efficient and effective students understanding learning-oriented of inclusive education. In short, every child has the same opportunity in education, yet for special education which is aimed at student with special educational needs.

  12. Inclusive education in Islamic kindergarten, why not?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Agung Hidayatulloh


    Full Text Available This work shows the implementation of inclusive education in Islamic Kindergarten Taruna al-Qur’an (IKTQ, the assessment of child development in inclusive class, and supporting and restriction of the implementation of inclusive education in IKTQ. This qualitative descriptive research used observation, interview, and documentation as the technique of collecting data. The results are only the ABK with less in terms of social skills that were included in the non-ABK class. IKTQ pointed the special guides that monitored the development of ABK. The development of the child was assessed through observations and notes. These notes were documented as reports of child development communicated to the parents. The assessment did not touch the ABKs who joined in learning with other children. The development of ABK was assessed when they were in a special place of ABK therapy. The factors supported the implementation of inclusive education in IKTQ were: (1 the communication between teachers and ABK guides, (2 a good relationship through weekly meeting for all teachers, and (3 the communication between IKTQ and parents either verbally or through a liaison document. Regarding the restriction, the teachers explicitly express that there were no obstacles in the implementation of inclusive education in IKTQ.

  13. The Specialized school in time of inclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roseli Albino dos Santos


    Full Text Available This study has the objective to investigate the meanings about school inclusion and disability, produced by a group of professionals engaged in a specialized school located in a city in the state of São Paulo. The metodology used was semi-structured and structured interviews with the director of the institution, two pedagogical coordinators and five teachers. Data were subjected to a descriptive-interpretative analysis. The results indicated that professionals attribute the responsibility for self development, only to students with intellectual disabilities . The emphasis of the speeches falls on the inability of the student and the immutability of disability. It is observed that the narratives do not reveal critical positioning of professional educational processes involving this population. The professionals who work in specialized institution still have a conception of disability based on the inability of the student and, despite defending the right of these students to school inclusion, these professionals still manifest fear of what they will find outside the walls of the institution, revealing attitudes and overprotection ignorance of the role of specialized institution in times of inclusion. We conclude that the conceptions about intellectual disability and inclusive education presented by professionals can contribute much more to the reiteration of school exclusion, historically focused on this population than for its actual inclusion in the school system of education.

  14. An Inclusive Secondary School in Bratislava

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajdošová Eva


    Full Text Available The study presents a characterization of an inclusive secondary school in Bratislava and provides information about the forms and methods used in the work of the teachers, school psychologists, special teachers with regard to students with special needs (students with Attention and Hyperactivity Disorder, i.e. ADHD, with learning difficulties, with emotional and behaviour difficulties, etc., who are educated together with mainstream students. It also provides information on the first results of the measurements of the socio-emotional health of the students in the inclusive school, both as to its overall level (covitality index and as to the level of the four psychological dimensions of mental health. The pilot project of the inclusive school confirms that inclusive secondary schools and inclusive education operating within the intentions of positive psychology help the students to develop their cognitive and socio-emotional competences, to create favourable attitudes to diversity, to form the students’ scale of positive values and to encourage positive interpersonal relationships, social cohesion and social classroom climate.

  15. Small lead and indium inclusions in aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, E.; Hjemsted, K.; Schmidt, B.; Bourdelle, K.K.; Johansen, A.; Andersen, H.H.; Sarholt-Kristensen, L.


    This paper reports implantation of lead or indium into aluminum results in spontaneous phase separation and formation of lead or indium precipitates. The precipitates grow in topotactical alignment with the matrix, giving TEM images characterized by moire fringes. The size and density of the precipitates increase with increasing fluence until coalescence begins to occur. Implantation at elevated temperatures lead to formation of large precipitates with well developed facets. This is particularly significant for implantation above the bulk melting point of the implanted species. Melting and solidification have been followed by in-situ TEM heating and cooling experiments. Superheating up to ∼50 K above the bulk melting point has been observed, and the largest inclusions melt first. Melting is associated with only partial loss of facetting of the largest inclusion. Initial growth of the inclusions occurs by trapping of atoms retained in supersaturated solution. Further growth occurs by coalescence of neighboring inclusion in the liquid phase. Solidification is accompanied by a strong undercooling ∼30 K below the bulk melting point, where the smallest inclusions solidify first. Solidification is characterized by spontaneous restoration of the facets and the topotactical alignment

  16. Mantle-derived trace element variability in olivines and their melt inclusions (United States)

    Neave, David A.; Shorttle, Oliver; Oeser, Martin; Weyer, Stefan; Kobayashi, Katsura


    inclusion suites, and confirm that the Stapafell eruption was fed by lower degree melts from greater depths within the melting region than the Háleyjabunga eruption. Although olivine macrocrysts from Stapafell are slightly richer in Ni than those from Háleyjabunga, their overall CTE systematics (e.g., Ni/(Mg/Fe), Fe/Mn and Zn/Fe) are inconsistent with being derived from olivine-free pyroxenites. However, the major element systematics of Icelandic basalts require lithological heterogeneity in their mantle source in the form of Fe-rich and hence fusible domains. We thus conclude that enriched heterogeneities in the Icelandic mantle are composed of modally enriched, yet nonetheless olivine-bearing, lithologies and that olivine CTE contents provide an incomplete record of lithological heterogeneity in the mantle. Modally enriched peridotites may therefore play a more important role in oceanic magma genesis than previously inferred.

  17. The melt inclusion record from the rhyolitic Kos Plateau Tuff (Aegean Arc) (United States)

    Bachmann, Olivier; Wallace, Paul J.; Bourquin, Julie


    The >60 km3 rhyolitic Kos Plateau Tuff provides an exceptional probe into the behavior of volatile components in highly evolved arc magmas: it is crystal-rich (30-40 vol% crystals), was rapidly quenched by the explosive eruptive process, and contains abundant homogeneous melt inclusions in large quartz crystals. Several methods for measuring major, trace and volatile element concentrations (SIMS, FTIR, Raman spectroscopy, electron microprobe, LA-ICPMS) were applied to these melt inclusions. We found a ~2 wt% range of H2O contents (4.5-6.5 wt% H2O, measured independently by SIMS, FTIR, and Raman spectroscopy) and relatively low CO2 concentrations (15-140 ppm measured by FTIR, with most analyses <100 ppm). No obvious correlations between H2O, CO2, major and trace elements are observed. These observations require a complex, protracted magma evolution in the upper crust that included: (1) vapor-saturated crystallization in a chamber located between 1.5 and 2.5 kb pressure, (2) closed-system degassing (with up to 10 vol% exsolved gas) as melts percolated upwards through a vertically extensive mush zone (2-4 km thick), and (3) periodic gas fluxing from subjacent, more mafic and more CO2-rich magma, which is preserved as andesite bands in pumices. These processes can account for the range of observed H2O and CO2 values and the lack of correlation between volatiles and trace elements in the melt inclusions.

  18. Neutron rich nuclei around 132Sn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, Sarmishtha


    The neutron rich nuclei with few particles or holes in 132 Sn have various experimental and theoretical interest to understand the evolution of nuclear structure around the doubly magic shell closure Z=50 and N=82. Some of the exotic neutron rich nuclei in this mass region are situated near waiting points in the r-process path and are of special astrophysical interest. Neutron rich nuclei near 132 Sn have been studied using fission fragment spectroscopy. The lifetime of low lying isomeric states have been precisely measured and the beta decay from the ground and isomeric states have been characterized using gamma-ray spectroscopy

  19. Firm size diversity, functional richness, and resilience (United States)

    Garmestani, A.S.; Allen, Craig R.; Mittelstaedt, J.D.; Stow, C.A.; Ward, W.A.


    This paper applies recent advances in ecology to our understanding of firm development, sustainability, and economic development. The ecological literature indicates that the greater the functional richness of species in a system, the greater its resilience - that is, its ability to persist in the face of substantial changes in the environment. This paper focuses on the effects of functional richness across firm size on the ability of industries to survive in the face of economic change. Our results indicate that industries with a richness of industrial functions are more resilient to employment volatility. ?? 2006 Cambridge University Press.

  20. Inclusive vector meson production and hadron structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeckmann, K.


    It is shown that J/PSI production in hadronic interactions is dominated by central production from sea quarks even at beam momenta as low as 40 GeV/c. All known experimental data on inclusive vector meson production support the hypothesis that cross sections obtained from meson-nucleon and nucleon-nucleon interactions have to be compared in the quark C.M. system. With the distinction of sea quark and valence quark interactions in the additive quark model a consistent description of inclusive rho, K*, PHI and J/PSI production in hadronic interactions. A natural connection of inclusive rho 0 production cross sections in anti pp, pp and πp interactions is obtained. (orig.) [de

  1. Inclusive Education for Students with Intellectual Disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaki Balakrishnan


    Full Text Available This paper traces briefly the evolution of Inclusive Education for students with special education needs (SEN and discusses some significant challenges in its implementation. While the aim of Inclusive Education is to include all children with SEN in mainstream schools, there are many challenges that have to be overcome for their education to be meaningful. This paper focuses primarily on the inclusion of students with intellectual disability, since they are likely to be the largest number with special education needs in ‘inclusive’ schools. It offers the outline of a curriculum that may be derived from the mainstream one in use, and suggests a model that emphasises the replacement of age / grade placement, as is the present practice, with experience and maturity underpinning learning in persons with intellectual disability. The proposed model needs, of course, to be field-tested.doi 10.5463/DCID.v23i2.111

  2. Inclusive cultural empathy for successful global leadership. (United States)

    Pedersen, Paul B; Pope, Mark


    Empathy is reported in the research literature as a necessary factor in counseling and psychotherapy, but psychologists have historically interpreted empathy through an exclusively individual focus. Most of the research on empathy has been predicated on a definition of empathy as occurring when one person vicariously experiences the feelings, perceptions, and thoughts of another. In Western cultures, the study of empathy focuses exclusively on the individual, whereas in traditional non-Western cultures, empathy more typically involves an inclusive perspective focusing on the individual and significant others in the societal context. This article explores the reframing of "empathy," based on an individualistic perspective, into "inclusive cultural empathy," based on a more relationship-centered perspective, as an alternative interpretation of the empathic process. Psychologists are both the problem and the solution to this dilemma, and the authors call upon the field to take leadership in applying this "inclusive cultural empathy" model. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.




    Randall, Charles C. (University of Mississippi School of Medicine, Jackson), Lanelle G. Gafford, Robert W. Darlington, and James M. Hyde. Composition of fowlpox virus and inclusion matrix. J. Bacteriol. 87:939-944. 1964.-Inclusion bodies of fowlpox virus infection are especially favorable starting material for the isolation of virus and inclusion matrix. Electron micrographs of viral particles and matrix indicated a high degree of purification. Density-gradient centrifugation of virus in cesium chloride and potassium tartrate was unsatisfactory because of inactivation, and clumping or disintegration. Chemical analyses of virus and matrix revealed significant amounts of lipid, protein, and deoxyribonucleic acid, but no ribonucleic acid or carbohydrate. Approximately 47% of the weight of the virus and 83% of the matrix were extractable in chloroform-methanol. The lipid partitions of the petroleum ether extracts were similar, except that the phospholipid content of the matrix was 2.2 times that of the virus. Viral particles were sensitive to diethyl ether and chloroform.

  4. Designing the robot inclusive space challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Elara Mohan


    Full Text Available A novel robotic challenge, namely the robot inclusive spaces (RIS challenge, is proposed in this paper, which is a cross disciplinary and design focused initiative. It aims to foster the roboticists, architects, and designers towards realizing robot friendly social spaces. Contrary to conventional robotics competitions focusing on designing robots and its component technologies, robot inclusive spaces challenge adopts an interdisciplinary “design for robots” strategy to overcome the traditional research problem in real world deployments of social robots. In order to realize the RIS, various architectural elements must be adapted including: design principles for inclusive spaces, lighting schemes, furniture choices and arrangement, wall and floor surfaces, pathways among others. This paper introduces the format and design principles of RIS challenge, presents a first run of the challenge, and gives the corresponding analysis.

  5. Exploring the Landscape of Inclusion: Profiles of Inclusive versus Segregated School Districts in the United States (United States)

    Marks, Susan Unok; Kurth, Jennifer A.; Bartz, Jody Marie


    Although inclusive education has been increasing in frequency for students with disabilities in the United States, for many students, the opportunity to be educated with their peers without disabilities continues to be out of reach despite decades of efforts by those promoting the vision of inclusion. This exploratory case study used interviews…

  6. The Inclusion of Inclusive Education in International Development: Lessons from Papua New Guinea (United States)

    Le Fanu, Guy


    A new "inclusive" curriculum has been introduced in Papua New Guinea, with significant levels of support from a bilateral development agency. The curriculum is inclusive in the sense that it is designed to meet the diverse, complex, and ever-changing needs of students. Research indicates the curriculum has been shaped by various…

  7. Inclusive innovation: a research project on the inclusion of social responsibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhof, A.H.J.; Fisscher, O.A.M.; de Bakker, F.G.A.


    The research project 'Inclusive Innovation' aims at stimulating dialogue about inclusion of social responsibility based on universal human rights in the conduct of business. This dialogue concerns both the communication within the organisation and between the organisation and interested parties in

  8. Supporting the Transition to Inclusive Education: Teachers' Attitudes to Inclusion in the Seychelles (United States)

    Main, Susan; Chambers, Dianne J.; Sarah, Paulette


    The inclusion of children with disability in regular classroom settings has been identified worldwide as crucial to the provision of effective education for all children and to the creation of more inclusive societies. To this end there has been significant focus on pre-service and in-service teacher education to ensure that teachers are…

  9. When Inclusion Is Innovation: An Examination of Administrator Perspectives on Inclusion in China (United States)

    Hu, Bi Ying; Roberts, Sherron Killingsworth


    This article examines administrator perspectives of innovative services for the inclusion of young children with disabilities in regular preschool classrooms in China. Twelve directors from 12 pilot inclusion preschools in Beijing participated in this study. Qualitative interview results revealed the following subthemes: definition, advocacy,…

  10. Characteristics of Inclusive Faith Communities: A Preliminary Survey of Inclusive Practices in the United States (United States)

    Griffin, Megan M.; Kane, Lydia W.; Taylor, Courtney; Francis, Susan H.; Hodapp, Robert M.


    Background: Although participation in faith communities is important to many individuals with disabilities, few studies have examined differences between communities that are more (versus less) inclusive. This study investigated characteristics of faith communities in the United States related to greater inclusion. Methods: Participants were 160…

  11. Inclusion "All Present and Correct?" A Critical Analysis of New Labour's Inclusive Education Policy in England (United States)

    Hodkinson, Alan


    Drawing on Derrida this paper considers how inclusive education in England was defined and operationalised within New Labour's educational policy and by those teachers who reconstructed this policy within the confines of schools and individual classrooms. The paper has two critical ambitions. First it argues that the epistemology of inclusion was…

  12. Can temporal and spatial NDVI predict regional bird-species richness?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastián Nieto


    Full Text Available Understanding the distribution of the species and its controls over biogeographic scales is still a major challenge in ecology. National Park Networks provide an opportunity to assess the relationship between ecosystem functioning and biodiversity in areas with low human impacts. We tested the productivity–biodiversity hypothesis which states that the number of species increases with the available energy, and the ​variability–biodiversity hypothesis which states that the number of species increases with the diversity of habitats. The available energy and habitat heterogeneity estimated by the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI was shown as a good predictor of bird-species richness for a diverse set of biomes in previously published studies. However, there is not a universal relationship between NDVI and bird-species richness. Here we tested if the NDVI can predict bird species richness in areas with low human impact in Argentina. Using a dataset from the National Park Network of Argentina we found that the best predictor of bird species richness was the minimum value of NDVI per year which explained 75% of total variability. The inclusion of the spatial heterogeneity of NDVI improved the explanation power to 80%. Minimum NDVI was highly correlated with precipitation and winter temperature. Our analysis provides a tool for assessing bird-species richness at scales on which land-use planning practitioners make their decisions for Southern South America.

  13. Social Exclusion/Inclusion: Foucault's Analytics of Exclusion, the Political Ecology of Social Inclusion and the Legitimation of Inclusive Education (United States)

    Peters, Michael A.; Besley, Tina A. C.


    This article offers a broad philosophical and historical background to the dyad of social exclusion/inclusion by examining the analytics and politics of exclusion first by reference to Michel Foucault who studies the modern history of exclusion and makes it central to his approach in understanding the development of modern institutions of emerging…

  14. Social Inclusion and Residential Child Care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartz, Ida

    to an inclusion perspective, the focal point of this presentation will be on how professionals – with focus on relations and networks – work with the expansion of social opportunities of participation for children and young people in out-of-home care. This paper is based on a Danish practice-research project Børn...... in relation to social inclusion in out-of-home care. How can we conceptualise the cooperative development of professional practices in order to establish flexible alignments of actions relative to problems within complex issues?...

  15. Inclusive education: a challenge or a utopia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Patricia Alvarado Crespo


    Full Text Available This paper addresses the educational inclusion as a topical issue, framed in diversity. Our society and especially our schools, have been conducive to highlight the contrast of heterogeneity, reflecting concern indices of social inequality spaces, but it is clear that today we find greater accessibility in educational and workplace, for people in vulnerable, that thanks to the intervention of the Ministry of Education and Social Inclusion. However, the real challenge is to change the secreting structures, both in educational institutions and in society in general.

  16. Perturbative description of inclusive energy spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lupia, S. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany). Werner-Heisenberg-Institut


    The recent LEP-1.5 data of charged particle inclusive energy spectra are analyzed within the analytical QCD approach based on modified leading log approximation plus local parton hadron duality. The shape, the position of the maximum and the cumulant moments of the inclusive energy spectrum are well described within this model. The sensitivity of the results to the running of the coupling is pointed out. A scaling law for the one-particle invariant density E dn/d{sup 3}p at small momenta is observed, consistently with the predictions of colour coherence in soft gluon bremsstrahlung. (orig.).

  17. Perturbative description of inclusive energy spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lupia, S.


    The recent LEP-1.5 data of charged particle inclusive energy spectra are analyzed within the analytical QCD approach based on modified leading log approximation plus local parton hadron duality. The shape, the position of the maximum and the cumulant moments of the inclusive energy spectrum are well described within this model. The sensitivity of the results to the running of the coupling is pointed out. A scaling law for the one-particle invariant density E dn/d 3 p at small momenta is observed, consistently with the predictions of colour coherence in soft gluon bremsstrahlung. (orig.)

  18. The inclusive school: its assumptions and movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Lúcia Messias Fialho Capellini


    Full Text Available The study develops a theoretical analysis of the inclusive school, making a parallel with the education and human development. Provides a discussion on current and relevant issues, including the values and paradigms that have guided the Brazilian education intended for students, with emphasis on those that presenting special educational needs. Emphasizes the importance of coexistence and respect for diversity, showing the need for flexibility, adaptation and modification of the school environment to offer everyone opportunities and conditions for full development in an inclusive culture perspective.

  19. Many diversity for an inclusive perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Canevaro


    Full Text Available Andrea Canevaro’s paper to the congress: Alunni con disabilità, figli di migranti. Approcci culturali, questioni educative, prospettive inclusive. (Students with disabilities, children of migrants: Cultural approaches, educational questions, inclusive perspectives Bologna, 29 ottober 2010, Cappella Farnese, Comune di Bologna. The congress is part of a study and research project “Alunni con disabilità, figli di migranti” (Students with disabilities, children of migrants run by Bologna City Council , Education Department, and the University of Bologna, Education Faculty. Coordinator: Roberta Caldin.

  20. Recent developments on models and inclusion criteria for chronic ankle instability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Songning; Zhang


    <正>In the most recent report of injury data on 15 sports from the U.S.National Collegiate Athletic Association(NCAA) Injury Surveillance System over a span of 16 years (1988-2004),ankle ligament sprains were the most common injury.Residual symptoms such as recurrent sprains,pain, instability,and giving way are common after an initial,acute ligament sprain.Chronic ankle instability(CAI) is one of these common problems,and has enjoyed increased interest in the recent literature.However,CAI remains a poorly-defined and understood condition.

  1. Thermodynamics of neutron-rich nuclear matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    López, Jorge A., E-mail: [Department of Physics, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, Texas 79968, U.S.A (United States); Porras, Sergio Terrazas, E-mail:; Gutiérrez, Araceli Rodríguez, E-mail: [Universidad Autónoma de Ciudad Juárez, Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, México (Mexico)


    This manuscript presents methods to obtain properties of neutron-rich nuclear matter from classical molecular dynamics. Some of these are bulk properties of infinite nuclear matter, phase information, the Maxwell construction, spinodal lines and symmetry energy.

  2. Leveraging data rich environments using marketing analytics


    Holtrop, Niels


    With the onset of what is popularly known as “big data”, increased attention is being paid to creating value from these data rich environments. Within the field of marketing, the analysis of customer and market data supported by models is known as marketing analytics. The goal of these analyses is to enhance managerial decision making regarding marketing problems. However, before these data rich environments can be used to guide managerial decision making, firms need to grasp the process of d...

  3. The Appropriateness of Canine-Assisted Interventions (CAIs) on the Health and Social Care of Older People Residing in Long Term Care: A Systematic Review. (United States)

    Stern, Cindy; Pearson, Alan; Chur-Hansen, Anna


    Background: Canine-assisted interventions are used frequently in long term care settings, even though their effectiveness has not been definitively proven. One concern commonly described in the literature is the risk of zoonotic infection or animal-related injury/allergy associated with this type of interaction. To date, no systematic review has been undertaken to determine the appropriateness of canine-assisted interventions in relation to these issues. The aim of the review was to synthesise the best available evidence on the appropriateness of canine-assisted interventions on the health and social care of the older population residing in long term care with regards to zoonotic infection or animal-related injury/allergy. A comprehensive search was undertaken on 32 electronic databases and two reputable websites from their inception to 2009. The search was restricted to English language and both published and unpublished studies and papers were considered. The review took an inclusive approach and considered quantitative and qualitative studies that focussed on zoonotic risk/exposure/infection or animal-related injury/allergy from canine-assisted interventions used in long term care settings. In the absence of research studies, text and opinion were also considered. Critical appraisal of papers was to be undertaken using the appropriate Joanna Briggs Institute critical appraisal instrument and data extraction was to be via the Joanna Briggs Institute data extraction forms, dependant on design. There were no studies located the met the inclusion requirements of this review. There were also no text and opinion pieces that were specific to long term care, older people and canines. There is currently no evidence available to determine the appropriateness of canine-assisted interventions used for older people in long term care in regards to zoonotic risk/exposure/infection or animal-related injuries/allergies. There is a small body of literature available that focuses

  4. An Arendtian Perspective on Inclusive Education: Towards a Reimagined Vocabulary (United States)

    Korsgaard, Morten Timmermann


    Inclusive education currently appears to be undergoing a crisis and re-examination. This paper presents a new approach to thinking about inclusiveness in the school context. Many positions within inclusive education seem to take political, social and ethical perspectives as a starting point, which has allowed inclusive movements and initiatives…

  5. Inclusive Education in Georgia: Current Trends and Challenges (United States)

    Tchintcharauli, Tinatin; Javakhishvili, Nino


    This article presents the first comprehensive study of the Georgian inclusive education system launched nationwide in 2006. An internationally recognised tool, the "Pathway to Inclusion--Barometer of Inclusive Education", was applied within the country to highlight the current position of inclusive education in Georgia. The collected…

  6. 26 CFR 26.2642-5 - Finality of inclusion ratio. (United States)


    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Finality of inclusion ratio. 26.2642-5 Section...-5 Finality of inclusion ratio. (a) Direct skips. The inclusion ratio applicable to a direct skip...) Other GSTs. With respect to taxable distributions and taxable terminations, the inclusion ratio for a...

  7. Language and Social Inclusion: Unexplored Aspects of Intercultural Communication (United States)

    Musgrave, Simon; Bradshaw, Julie


    Social inclusion policy in Australia has largely ignored key issues of communication for linguistic minorities, across communities and with the mainstream community. In the (now disbanded) Social Inclusion Board's reports (e.g., Social Inclusion Unit, 2009), the emphasis is on the economic aspects of inclusion, while little attention has been paid…

  8. Present Status of Inclusive Rare $B$ Decays

    CERN Document Server

    Hurth, Tobias


    We give a status report on inclusive rare B decays, highlighting recent developments and open problems. We focus on the decay modes $B \\to X_{s,d} \\gamma$, $ B \\to X_s \\ell^+\\ell^-$ and $B \\to X_s \

  9. Inclusive Educational Practice in Europe: Psychological Perspectives (United States)

    Arnold, Christopher, Ed.; Horan, Jacqueline, Ed.


    The inclusion of all children in the educational system still poses challenges, and psychologists have long been researching and facilitating effective practice with children who don't adjust readily to school. This book collates the findings and practice of psychologists working in schools and educational settings in 13 European states, and will…

  10. Advances in Schoolwide Inclusive School Reform (United States)

    Sailor, Wayne


    This article highlights three significant advances in schoolwide inclusive school reform and suggests three next steps to improve educational outcomes for "all" students, particularly for students for whom typical instruction is not effective. Significant advances are as follows: (a) a multi-tiered system of support (MTSS) with embedded…

  11. Effective Inclusive Schools: Designing Successful Schoolwide Programs (United States)

    Hehir, Thomas; Katzman, Lauren I.


    This book presents lessons learned from in-depth case studies of some of our most effective inclusive public schools. The authors conclusively demonstrate that schools can educate students with mild and severe disabilities in general education classrooms by providing special education services that link to and bolster general education…

  12. Oxygen isotopic anomalies in Allende inclusion HAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, T.; Mayeda, T.K.; Clayton, R.N.


    The oxygen isotopic composition has been measured on the constituent phases of Allende inclusion HAL, which has unusual mineralogical, chemical, and calcium isotopic compositions. The oxygen in HAL is heterogeneous, with the rim showing more ''normal'' composition and the hibonite core showing large deviation from both the terrestrial material and the usual inclusions. The observed pattern indicates that HAL is a bona fide and more devious member of the rare ''FUN'' family, whose isotopic composition is characterized by correlated nuclear effects and extreme mass fractionation. The data imply that HAL has suffered a large oxygen mass fractionation of 25% 0 per mass unit, followed by exchange with oxygen in a second reservoir. The present experiment supports the identification of two distinct reservoirs from which all refractory inclusions in carbonaceous meteorites derived their oxygen. The required fractionation process seems to operate according to the volatility of various elements and could have been caused by evaporation during a heating event. Nuclear anomalies can be produced in the same heating event if the progenitors of the refractory inclusions were macroscopic aggregates of tiny pre-solar interstellar dust grains and if these grains were destroyed differentially during the evaporation

  13. Inclusion and Participation: Working with the Tensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gideon Calder


    Full Text Available Democracy is crucially about inclusion: a theory of democracy must account for who is to be included in the democratic process, how, and on what terms. Inclusion, if conceived democratically, is fraught with tensions. This article identifies three such tensions, arising respectively in: (i the inauguration of the democratic public; (ii enabling equal participation; and (iii the relationship between instrumental and non-instrumental accounts of democracy’s value. In each case, I argue, rather than seeking somehow to dissolve or avoid such tensions, theories of democracy should allow us to live with their implications reflexively: to work with them. Such tensions are counter-democratic to the extent that they derail what Nancy Fraser calls “participatory parity,” under which citizens count as “full partners in social interaction.” But the extent to which they do this is not itself dependent on points of paradox in the very idea of inclusion. Such parity relies on complex factors, social and economic, which democratic institutions and procedures will not by themselves address. To achieve full democratic inclusion we must already have addressed such factors; no account of democracy itself, however finely-tuned, will do this.

  14. Effects of rye inclusion in broilers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schokker, D.; Krimpen, van M.M.; Vastenhouw, S.A.


    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary inclusion of rye, a model ingredient to increase gut viscosity, between 14 and 28 days of age on immune competence related parameters and performance of broiler. A total number of 960 one-day-old male Ross 308 chicks were weighed and

  15. [International aspects of inclusion in schools]. (United States)

    Häßler, Frank; Burgert, Michael; Fegert, Jörg Michael; Chodan, Wencke


    The term inclusion (=admittance, involvement) is used almost synonymously for the concept of the joint schooling of children with and without intellectual disabilities, language disabilities, physical handicaps, or mental disorders. This article addresses the current state of inclusion in Germany as well as the international situation, such as the Salamanca Declaration of the UNESCO, the «Individuals with Disabilities Act» (IDEA) in the United States as well as European developments, particularly in Great Britain, Austria, and Russia. Even though, from a political perspective, the decision in favor of inclusion seems irreversible, there appears to be a lack an agreement on the modality and timeframe. Thus, the average percentage of students with special education needs in Germany amounts to only 28.2%. The reasons behind this situation are presently being analyzed and discussed. A question of key importance concerns the benefit for the persons concerned, since that should be the measure of the success of inclusion. This question will most likely be validly answered only for individual subgroups of disabilities. This field still requires extensive research.

  16. Inclusive growth: Buzzword or innovation? | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)


    May 3, 2017 ... Many countries seek to reduce inequality by redistributing the gains of economic growth. ... For instance, Peru's former Minister of Development and Social Inclusion Carolina Trivelli told the Ottawa audience how poverty had more than ... foreign capital, and promoted Canada as a hub for top global talent.

  17. On Being Musical: Education towards Inclusion (United States)

    Ruddock, Eve


    This article questions educational practices that undermine 'being' musical. Where Western misconceptions about the nature of human musicality distance many individuals from meaningful engagement with an intrinsic part of their humanity, I challenge the status quo to argue for an inclusive educational practice which gives everyone an opportunity…

  18. Business and Technology Educators: Practices for Inclusion (United States)

    Donne, Vicki; Hansen, Mary A.


    Business educators face the challenge of operationalizing the global converging initiatives of technology integration and inclusion of students with a disability in K-12 education. A survey of business educators was conducted to ascertain how they were implementing these initiatives in the United States. Results indicated that business educators…

  19. Preschool Inclusion: Navigating through Alphabet Soup (United States)

    Lytle, Rebecca; Bordin, Judith


    The number of preschool-aged children with disabilities who spend some part of their day in an inclusive school or child care setting has grown tremendously in the past ten years. Meeting the needs of these children is always challenging. However, Public Law 105-17 the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA'97) mandates that children…

  20. "Shakespeare with Heart": An Inclusive Drama Project (United States)

    Wilkins, Ilene E.


    This article features Shakespeare with Heart, a two week inclusive summer program for middle and high school students with and without disabilities. The program runs each morning until noon, culminating with a workshop performance of a Shakespeare play with full costume and set with a live audience of parents, friends, and community members. The…

  1. Inclusive education in schools in rural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Antonio Callado Moreno


    Full Text Available Since Spain decided to embark on the development of inclusive schooling, studies have taken place to see if the inclusive principle is being developed satisfactorily. Inclusive schooling implies that all students, regardless of their particular characteristics, may be taught in ordinary schools, and in the majority of cases receive help in the classroom in which they have been integrated in order to cover any special educational needs. Our research aims to find out if schools situated in rural areas follow this principle and, once it has been put into practice, what strategies are being used. To this end, we designed a questionnaire addressed to Infant and Primary school teachers in the Sierra Sur area in the province of Jaén, in an agricultural context where most of the population live on olive picking and the cultivation of olive groves. Given the extension of the area, our research concentrated on schools situated in urban nuclei with a population of less than one thousand five hundred inhabitants. The results obtained demonstrate that rural areas do not take full advantage of the context they are in to favour inclusion processes and continue to develop proposals that are merely integrative.

  2. Inclusion complexation of tetrabutylammonium iodide by cyclodextrins

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Biswajit Datta

    Host-guest inclusion complex of an ionic solid (tetrabutyl ammonium iodide) with α- and β- cyclodextrin has been ... tions.2 CDs are cyclic oligomer of α-D-glucose having numerous of ... of locating at the interface of two phases (liquid–liquid.

  3. Inclusive single muon production in D0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maciel, A.K.A.


    Preliminary cross section measurements from the D0 experiment at Fermilab for the inclusive production of single muons in proton- antiproton collisions at √s = 1.8 TeV are presented. It is found that the experimental results are consistent with those obtained from a Monte Carlo simulation using N.L.O. calculations from ISAJET

  4. Attitudes to Normalisation and Inclusive Education (United States)

    Sanagi, Tomomi


    The purpose of this paper was to clarify the features of teachers' image on normalisation and inclusive education. The participants of the study were both mainstream teachers and special teachers. One hundred and thirty-eight questionnaires were analysed. (1) Teachers completed the questionnaire of SD (semantic differential) images on…

  5. Understanding Teachers' Concerns about Inclusive Education (United States)

    Yadav, Monika; Das, Ajay; Sharma, Sushama; Tiwari, Ashwini


    This study examined the concerns of regular elementary school teachers in Gurgaon, India, in order to work with students with disabilities in inclusive education settings. A total of 175 teachers responded to a two-part questionnaire. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The data indicated that the teachers in Gurgaon,…

  6. Wicked Problems in Special and Inclusive Education (United States)

    Armstrong, David


    This special paper provides a critical overview of wicked problems in special and inclusive education. Practically, this paper provides a strategic framework for future special issues in the "Journal of Special Educational Needs". Critical attention is also given to the concept of a wicked problem when applied to research in special and…

  7. Inclusive design: Bridging theory and practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremers, A.H.M.; Neerincx, M.A.; Jong, J.G.M. de


    Large groups in society lack the necessary skills to be sufficiently self-reliant and are in need of personal assistance. These groups could be supported by information and information technology (ICT), but only if this technology is designed to fit their (cognitive) abilities. Inclusive design

  8. Student Behaviour Self-Monitoring Enabling Inclusion (United States)

    Jull, Stephen K.


    Disruptive, antisocial behaviour remains an ongoing issue for all schools, and particularly those identified as inclusive. Children who exhibit elevated levels of antisocial behaviour have an increased risk of numerous negative life consequences, including impaired social relationships, escalating aggressive behaviours, substance abuse, and school…

  9. Sustainable development goals and inclusive development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gupta, J.; Vegelin, C.

    Achieving sustainable development has been hampered by trade-offs in favour of economic growth over social well-being and ecological viability, which may also affect the sustainable development goals (SDGs) adopted by the member states of the United Nations. In contrast, the concept of inclusive

  10. BV solutions of rate independent differential inclusions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krejčí, Pavel; Recupero, V.


    Roč. 139, č. 4 (2014), s. 607-619 ISSN 0862-7959 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP201/10/2315 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : differential inclusion * stop operator * rate independence * convex set Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  11. Educators' experiences of inclusive learning contexts: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Our purpose in the research was to explore the experiences of educators in ordinary schools regarding the challenges experienced in inclusive learning contexts and to identify the competencies they used to deal with some of these challenges. A qualitative research design was chosen, using a case study. The study was ...

  12. Nonlinear elastic inclusions in isotropic solids

    KAUST Repository

    Yavari, A.


    We introduce a geometric framework to calculate the residual stress fields and deformations of nonlinear solids with inclusions and eigenstrains. Inclusions are regions in a body with different reference configurations from the body itself and can be described by distributed eigenstrains. Geometrically, the eigenstrains define a Riemannian 3-manifold in which the body is stress-free by construction. The problem of residual stress calculation is then reduced to finding a mapping from the Riemannian material manifold to the ambient Euclidean space. Using this construction, we find the residual stress fields of three model systems with spherical and cylindrical symmetries in both incompressible and compressible isotropic elastic solids. In particular, we consider a finite spherical ball with a spherical inclusion with uniform pure dilatational eigenstrain and we show that the stress in the inclusion is uniform and hydrostatic. We also show how singularities in the stress distribution emerge as a consequence of a mismatch between radial and circumferential eigenstrains at the centre of a sphere or the axis of a cylinder.

  13. Public Policies that Help Foster Social Inclusion (United States)

    Cheung, Chau-kiu


    Public policies can be effective in raising people's social inclusion as intended only reasonably through their implementation. With respect to the implementation perspective, this study examines the effectiveness of eight policies as perceived to implement in Hong Kong, China. The study employs data collected from 1,109 Chinese adults randomly…

  14. On the Dirt Road to Inclusion (United States)

    Wiazowski, Jaroslaw


    Inclusive education in the Republic of South Africa has been codified and written down in the form of White Papers. From the legislative point of view, the situation is clear. The reality however shows that the implementation of the law is still at its infancy. Students with visual impairments are practically confined to being educated in…

  15. Understanding "Inclusive Growth": Advancing the global agenda ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    27 mars 2013 ... Increasingly, the concept of "inclusive growth," where the benefits of economic growth are enjoyed across societies, is being recognized and advanced by many countries. Growth is less likely to be sustainable with high and/or growing inequalities, and inequality can hamper growth.

  16. Expressive Arts--Embodying Inclusive Teachers (United States)

    Santos, Graça Duarte; Lima-Rodrigues, Luzia Mara


    The Declaration of Salamanca proposes a deep reformulation of educational praxis which has as a main goal to create an environment where all students can enjoy learning, improve and grow in confidence, in a perspective of Inclusive Education. In this sense, it is necessary that teachers acquire scientific and educational skills but, also,…

  17. Multicomponent Diffusion in Experimentally Cooled Melt Inclusions (United States)

    Saper, L.; Stolper, E.


    Glassy olivine-hosted melt inclusions are compositionally zoned, characterized by a boundary layer depleted in olivine-compatible components that extends into the melt inclusion from its wall. The boundary layer forms in response to crystallization of olivine and relaxes with time due to diffusive exchange with the interior of the inclusion. At magmatic temperatures, the time scale for homogenization of inclusions is minutes to hours. Preservation of compositional gradients in natural inclusions results from rapid cooling upon eruption. A model of MgO concentration profiles that couples crystal growth and diffusive relaxation of a boundary layer can be used to solve for eruptive cooling rates [1]. Controlled cooling-rate experiments were conducted to test the accuracy of the model. Mauna Loa olivine containing >80 µm melt inclusions were equilibrated at 1225°C in a 1-atm furnace for 24 hours, followed by linear cooling at rates of 102 - 105 °C/hr. High-resolution concentration profiles of 40 inclusions were obtained using an electron microprobe. The model of [1] fits the experimental data with low residuals and the best-fit cooling rates are within 30% of experimental values. The initial temperature of 1225 °C is underestimated by 65°C. The model was modified using (i) MELTS to calculate the interface melt composition as a function of temperature, and (ii) a concentration-dependent MgO diffusion coefficient using the functional form of [2]. With this calibration the best-fit starting temperatures are within 5°C of the experimental values and the best-fit cooling rates are within 20% of experimental rates. The evolution of the CaO profile during cooling is evidence for strong diffusive coupling between melt components. Because CaO is incompatible in olivine, CaO concentrations are expected to be elevated in the boundary layer adjacent to the growing olivine. Although this is observed at short time scales, as the profile evolves the CaO concentration near the

  18. Inclusion in an age of mobility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Traxler


    Full Text Available Learning with mobiles in UK universities is not new and is not novel. It is, in fact, at least 10 years old, well-documented and comparable to activity in universities elsewhere in Western Europe, America and Asia Pacific. Continued and dramatic changes in the ownership, access and expectations of mobiles amongst university students and equally across UK society have suddenly propelled learning with mobiles to centre-stage as a feasible proposition but, it is now argued, only if students can bring-your-own-device. This has already catalysed discussion about authority, agency and control within university settings but the equally significant and profound implications for the inclusion agenda have not been articulated. This paper begins that process. A theoretical framework for social inclusion in this context is considered, identified and discussed. The paper reviews the progress and problems of the substantial and unique programme of mobile learning across UK higher education since 2000 in relation to its stance on inclusion, where this is apparent. These are all well-documented in academic and official sources; the paper does however also draw on the author's involvement in many of the events and initiatives. The paper raises however significant questions about this programme's meaning and direction in a world where now there is more, better, cheaper, faster, newer but different digital technology in the hands of students, potential students and everyone else than there is routinely in the educational institutions themselves. This digital technology, mobile technology, now allows learners to create, own, transform, discuss, discard, share, store and broadcast ideas, opinions, images and information, and to create and transform identities and communities. The paper argues that this epistemological revolution may mean that universities and colleges are no longer credible and authoritative gatekeepers to knowledge and its technologies and so the

  19. Integration of β-glucan fibre rich fractions from barley and mushrooms to form healthy extruded snacks. (United States)

    Brennan, Margaret A; Derbyshire, Emma; Tiwari, Brijesh K; Brennan, Charles S


    β-glucan is a commonly researched plant cell wall component that when incorporated into food products has been associated with cholesterol and glycaemic response reductions. This study focusses on β-glucan rich fractions from barley and mushroom used in the production of extruded ready to eat snacks. Inclusion of barley β-glucan rich fractions and mushroom β-glucan fractions at 10 % levels increased the total dietary fibre content of extrudates compared to the control (P extruded snack products.

  20. Effect of inclusions' distribution on microwave absorbing properties of composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, Siliang; Wang, Qingguo; Qu, Zhaoming


    Effect of inclusions' spatial distributions on the permeability and permittivity of composites is studied using the generalized Maxwell-Garnett equations. The result indicates that inclusions' orientation distribution can increase the longitudinal electromagnetic parameters. For inclusions' random and orientation distribution, single and three-layer absorbers are designed and optimized using genetic algorithm. The result shows that under a given absorbing requirement, absorber with inclusions' orientation distribution is lighter and thinner than absorber with inclusions' random distribution.