WorldWideScience

Sample records for rich hot-work tool

  1. Laser grooving of surface cracks on hot work tool steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Klobčar

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the analysis of laser grooving of 1.2343 tool steel hardened to 46 HRC. The effect of laser power and grooving speed on groove shape (i.e. depth and width, the material removal rate and the purity of produced groove as a measure of groove quality was investigated and analyzed using response surface methodology. Optimal parameters of laser grooving were found, which enables pure grooves suitable for laser welding.

  2. A low temperature aluminizing treatment of hot work tool steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matijevic, B., E-mail: bozidar.matijevic@fsb.hr [University of Zagreb, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture, Zagreb (Croatia)

    2010-07-01

    Conventional aluminizing processes by pack cementation are typically carried out at elevated temperatures. A low temperature powder aluminizing technology was applied to hot tool steel H13. The aluminizing treating temperature was from 550 to 620°C. Effects of temperature and time on the microstructure and phase evolution were investigated. Also, the intermetallic layer thickness was measured in the aluminized layer of a steel substrate. The cross-sectional microstructures, the aluminized layer thickness and the oxide layer were studied. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), glow discharge optical spectroscopy (GDOS) were applied to observe the cross-sections and the distribution of elements. (author)

  3. A LOW TEMPERATURE ALUMINIZING TREATMENT OF HOT WORK TOOL STEEL

    OpenAIRE

    Matijević, Božidar

    2013-01-01

    Conventional aluminizing processes by pack cementation are typically carried out at elevated temperatures. A low temperature powder aluminizing technology was applied to the X40CrMoV5-1 hot tool steel. The aluminizing temperature was from 550 °C to 620 °C. Effects of temperature and time on the microstructure and phase evolution were investigated. Also, the intermetallic layer thickness was measured in the aluminized layer of a steel substrate. The cross-sectional microstructures, the alumini...

  4. A low temperature aluminizing treatment of hot work tool steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matijevic, B.

    2010-01-01

    Conventional aluminizing processes by pack cementation are typically carried out at elevated temperatures. A low temperature powder aluminizing technology was applied to hot tool steel H13. The aluminizing treating temperature was from 550 to 620°C. Effects of temperature and time on the microstructure and phase evolution were investigated. Also, the intermetallic layer thickness was measured in the aluminized layer of a steel substrate. The cross-sectional microstructures, the aluminized layer thickness and the oxide layer were studied. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), glow discharge optical spectroscopy (GDOS) were applied to observe the cross-sections and the distribution of elements. (author)

  5. A temperature dependent cyclic plasticity model for hot work tool steel including particle coarsening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jilg, Andreas; Seifert, Thomas

    2018-05-01

    Hot work tools are subjected to complex thermal and mechanical loads during hot forming processes. Locally, the stresses can exceed the material's yield strength in highly loaded areas as e.g. in small radii in die cavities. To sustain the high loads, the hot forming tools are typically made of martensitic hot work steels. While temperatures for annealing of the tool steels usually lie in the range between 400 and 600 °C, the steels may experience even higher temperatures during hot forming, resulting in softening of the material due to coarsening of strengthening particles. In this paper, a temperature dependent cyclic plasticity model for the martensitic hot work tool steel 1.2367 (X38CrMoV5-3) is presented that includes softening due to particle coarsening and that can be applied in finite-element calculations to assess the effect of softening on the thermomechanical fatigue life of hot work tools. To this end, a kinetic model for the evolution of the mean size of secondary carbides based on Ostwald ripening is coupled with a cyclic plasticity model with kinematic hardening. Mechanism-based relations are developed to describe the dependency of the mechanical properties on carbide size and temperature. The material properties of the mechanical and kinetic model are determined on the basis of tempering hardness curves as well as monotonic and cyclic tests.

  6. Heat Treatment Optimization and Properties Correlation for H11-Type Hot-Work Tool Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podgornik, B.; Puš, G.; Žužek, B.; Leskovšek, V.; Godec, M.

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this research was to determine the effect of vacuum-heat-treatment process parameters on the material properties and their correlations for low-Si-content AISI H11-type hot-work tool steel using a single Circumferentially Notched and fatigue Pre-cracked Tensile Bar (CNPTB) test specimen. The work was also focused on the potential of the proposed approach for designing advanced tempering diagrams and optimizing the vacuum heat treatment and design of forming tools. The results show that the CNPTB specimen allows a simultaneous determination and correlation of multiple properties for hot-work tool steels, with the compression and bending strength both increasing with hardness, and the strain-hardening exponent and bending strain increasing with the fracture toughness. On the other hand, the best machinability and surface quality of the hardened hot-work tool steel are obtained for hardness values between 46 and 50 HRC and a fracture toughness below 60 MPa√m.

  7. Investigation of Microstructure and Mechanical Properties in Hot-work Tool Steels

    OpenAIRE

    Rey, Tomas

    2017-01-01

    Hot-work tool steels make up an important group of steels that are able to perform with good strength and toughness properties at elevated temperatures and stresses. They are able to gain this behavior through their alloy composition and heat treatment, which relies on the precipitation of alloy carbides to counter the loss in strength as the tempered material becomes more ductile. As demand grows for materials that are suitable for even harsher applications and that show improved mechanical ...

  8. Evaluation of the mechanical properties of Niobium modified cast AISI H 13 hot work tool steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noorian, A.; Kheirandish, Sh.; Saghafian, H.

    2010-01-01

    In this research, the effects of partially replacing of vanadium and molybdenum with niobium on the mechanical properties of AISIH 13 hot-work tool steel have been studied. Cast samples made of the modified new steel were homogenized and austenitized at different conditions, followed by tempering at the specified temperature ranges. Hardness, red hardness, three point bending test and Charpy impact test were carried out to evaluate the mechanical properties together with characterizing the microstructure of the modified steel using scanning electron microscope. The results show that niobium addition modifies the cast structure of Nb-alloyed steel, and increases its maximum hardness. It was found that bending strength; bending strain, impact strength, and red hardness of the modified cast steel are also higher than those of the cast H13 steel, and lower than those of the wrought H13 steel.

  9. The effects of annealing temperature and cooling rate on carbide precipitation behavior in H13 hot-work tool steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Minwoo; Park, Gyujin; Jung, Jae-Gil; Kim, Byung-Hoon; Lee, Young-Kook

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Unexpected Mo carbides formed during slow cooling from low annealing temperatures. • Mo carbides formed during the migration of Mo for a transition of Cr-rich carbide. • Mo carbides were precipitated at the boundaries of M 7 C 3 carbides and ferrite grains. • Annealing conditions for the precipitation of Mo carbides were discussed. - Abstract: The precipitation behavior of H13 hot-work tool steel was investigated as a function of both annealing temperature and cooling rate through thermodynamic calculations and microstructural analyses using transmission and scanning electron microscope and a dilatometer. The V-rich MC carbide and Cr-rich M 7 C 3 and M 23 C 6 carbides were observed in all annealed specimens regardless of annealing and cooling conditions, as expected from an equilibrium phase diagram of the steel used. However, Mo-rich M 2 C and M 6 C carbides were unexpectedly precipitated at a temperature between 675 °C and 700 °C during slow cooling at a rate of below 0.01 °C/s from the annealing temperatures of 830 °C and below. The solubility of Mo in both M 7 C 3 and ferrite reduces with decreasing temperature during cooling. Mo atoms diffuse out of both M 7 C 3 and ferrite, and accumulate locally at the interface between M 7 C 3 and ferrite. Mo carbides were form at the interface of M 7 C 3 carbides during the transition of Cr-rich M 7 C 3 to stable M 23 C 6

  10. Investigations of Surface Topography of Hot Working Tool Steel Manufactured with the Use of 3D Print

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grobelny Pawel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the possibilities of 3D printing of chosen hot working tool steel for manufacturing ready made parts. Results of examination of the surface topography of material manufactured by the technology Laser CUSING®B (Laser melting with metals on the machine, Concept Laser M1 3D printing of metal parts has the potential to revolutionize the market of manufacturing and supplying parts. It makes it possible to dissipate manufacturing and to produce parts on request at lower cost and less energy consumption. The parameters of the surface topography of the hot working tool steel directly after printing can differ depending on the distance from the base plate. The differences of surface roughness values can amount from 32% to 85% for Ra and from 59% to 85% for Rz in comparison of the sample bottom to its top.

  11. Effect of biomimetic non-smooth unit morphology on thermal fatigue behavior of H13 hot-work tool steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Chao; Zhou, Hong; Cong, Dalong; Wang, Chuanwei; Zhang, Peng; Zhang, Zhihui; Ren, Luquan

    2012-06-01

    The thermal fatigue behavior of hot-work tool steel processed by a biomimetic coupled laser remelting process gets a remarkable improvement compared to untreated sample. The 'dowel pin effect', the 'dam effect' and the 'fence effect' of non-smooth units are the main reason of the conspicuous improvement of the thermal fatigue behavior. In order to get a further enhancement of the 'dowel pin effect', the 'dam effect' and the 'fence effect', this study investigated the effect of different unit morphologies (including 'prolate', 'U' and 'V' morphology) and the same unit morphology in different sizes on the thermal fatigue behavior of H13 hot-work tool steel. The results showed that the 'U' morphology unit had the optimum thermal fatigue behavior, then the 'V' morphology which was better than the 'prolate' morphology unit; when the unit morphology was identical, the thermal fatigue behavior of the sample with large unit sizes was better than that of the small sizes.

  12. Microstructural study and densification analysis of hot work tool steel matrix composites reinforced with TiB{sub 2} particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedrizzi, A., E-mail: anna.fedrizzi@ing.unitn.it [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Trento, Via Mesiano 77, 38123 Trento (Italy); Pellizzari, M. [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Trento, Via Mesiano 77, 38123 Trento (Italy); Zadra, M. [K4Sint, Start-up of the University of Trento, Viale Dante 300, 38057 Pergine Valsugana (Italy); Marin, E. [Department of Chemistry, Physics and Environment, University of Udine, Via Cotonificio 108, 33100 Udine (Italy)

    2013-12-15

    Hot work tool steels are characterized by good toughness and high hot hardness but are less wear resistant than other tooling materials, such as high speed steel. Metal matrix composites show improved tribological behavior, but not much work has been done in the field of hot work tool steels. In this paper TiB{sub 2}-reinforced hot work tool steel matrix composites were produced by spark plasma sintering (SPS). Mechanical alloying (MA) was proposed as a suited process to improve the composite microstructure. Density measurements and microstructure confirmed that MA promotes sintering and produces a fine and homogeneous dispersion of reinforcing particles. X-ray diffraction patterns of the sintered composites highlighted the formation of equilibrium Fe{sub 2}B and TiC, as predicted by thermodynamic calculations using Thermo-Calc® software. Scanning electron microscopy as well as scanning Kelvin probe force microscopy highlighted the reaction of the steel matrix with TiB{sub 2} particles, showing the formation of a reaction layer at the TiB{sub 2}-steel interface. Phase investigations pointed out that TiB{sub 2} is not chemically stable in steel matrix because of the presence of carbon even during short time SPS. - Highlights: • TiB{sub 2} reinforced steel matrix composites were produced by spark plasma sintering. • TiB{sub 2} was successfully dispersed in the steel matrix by mechanical alloying. • Steel and TiB{sub 2} react during sintering forming equilibrium Fe{sub 2}B and TiC. • The new phases were investigated by means of AFM, Volta potential and XRD analyses.

  13. Laser Cladding of CPM Tool Steels on Hardened H13 Hot-Work Steel for Low-Cost High-Performance Automotive Tooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J.; Xue, L.

    2012-06-01

    This paper summarizes our research on laser cladding of high-vanadium CPM® tool steels (3V, 9V, and 15V) onto the surfaces of low-cost hardened H13 hot-work tool steel to substantially enhance resistance against abrasive wear. The results provide great potential for fabricating high-performance automotive tooling (including molds and dies) at affordable cost. The microstructure and hardness development of the laser-clad tool steels so obtained are presented as well.

  14. Effect of cryogenic treatment on microstructure, mechanical and wear behaviors of AISI H13 hot work tool steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koneshlou, Mahdi; Meshinchi Asl, Kaveh; Khomamizadeh, Farzad

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on the effects of low temperature (subzero) treatments on microstructure and mechanical properties of H13 hot work tool steel. Cryogenic treatment at -72 °C and deep cryogenic treatment at -196 °C were applied and it was found that by applying the subzero treatments, the retained austenite was transformed to martensite. As the temperature was decreased more retained austenite was transformed to martensite and it also led to smaller and more uniform martensite laths distributed in the microstructure. The deep cryogenic treatment also resulted in precipitation of more uniform and very fine carbide particles. The microstructural modification resulted in a significant improvement on the mechanical properties of the H13 tool steel.

  15. PM-materials for hot working tools; PM-Werkstoffe fuer warmgehende Werkzeuge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berns, H.; Broeckmann, C.; Theisen, W. [Bochum Univ. (Germany). Fakultaet fuer Maschinenbau; Wewers, B.

    2001-05-01

    Tools and wear parts for compacting tools are subjected to high abrasive wear and mechanical loading at elevated temperatures. MMC's based in iron- or nickel with hard particles are developed and investigated. The materials were manufactured from powders by hot isostatic pressing (HIP) and subsequently heat treated. Diffusion between hard phases and metal matrix brings about certain micro structures which were tested with respect to the resistance against sliding abrasion at room and elevated temperatures. Three-point bending tests and thermal cycling of the material was utilized to characterise the mechanical behaviour. Based on this results a toolkit for a roller press for briquetting was produced and brought into application. (orig.) [German] Werkzeuge und Verschleissteile fuer die Verarbeitung von mineralischen Guetern bei erhoehter Temperatur unterliegen sowohl hohem abrasivem Verschleiss als auch hohen mechanischen Lasten. Es werden hartphasenhaltige Verbundwerkstoffe auf Eisen- und Nickelbasis entwickelt und untersucht. Die Fertigung dieser MMC's erfolgt durch heiss isostatisches Pressen (HIP) und anschliessende Waermebehandlung. Durch Diffusion zwischen Hartphasen und Metallmatrix entstehen Gefuege, die bezueglich ihres Widerstandes gegen Abrasivverschleiss bei Raumtemperatur und gegen Korngleitverschliess bei erhoehter Temperatur geprueft werden. Zur Charakterisierung der mechanischen Eigeschaften werden Dreipunktbiegeversuche und thermsiche Ermuedungsversuche durchgefuehrt. Die gewonnenen Erkenntnisse werden genutzt, um einen Werkzeugsatz fuer eine Brikettierpresse herzustellen und in Einsatz zu bringen. (orig.)

  16. An investigation into the effects of conventional heat treatments on mechanical characteristics of new hot working tool steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fares, M. L.; Athmani, M.; Khelfaoui, Y.; Khettache, A.

    2012-02-01

    The effects of conventional heat treatments, i.e. quenching and tempering, on the mechanical characteristics of non standard hot work tool steel, close to either AISI-H11/H13 are investigated. The major elemental composition differences are in carbon, silicon and vanadium. The objective of the carried heat treatments is to obtain an efficient tool performance in terms of hardness, wear resistance and mechanical strength. Experimental results allow an explanation of the surface properties depending mainly on both chemical composition and optimised preheating parameters. After austenitizing at 1050 °C for 15 min, the as-quenched steel in oil bath exhibited the fully martensitic structure (without bainite) connected to a small fraction of retained austenite and complex carbides mainly of M23C6 type. Twice tempering at 500 °C and 600 °C resulted in initiating the precipitation processes and the secondary hardness effect. As a result, carbide content amounted to 3% while the retained austenite content decreased to 0%. Accordingly, the required mechanical properties in terms of hardness and wear are fulfilled and are adequately favourable in handling both shocks and pressures for the expected tool life. Induced microstructures are revealed using optical and scanning electron microscopes. Phase compositions are assessed by means of X-ray diffraction technique while mechanical characteristics are investigated based on hardness and abrasive wear standard tests.

  17. Influence of different temperatures on the thermal fatigue behavior and thermal stability of hot-work tool steel processed by a biomimetic couple laser technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Chao; Zhou, Hong; Zhou, Ying; Gao, Ming; Tong, Xin; Cong, Dalong; Wang, Chuanwei; Chang, Fang; Ren, Luquan

    2014-04-01

    Three kinds of biomimetic non-smooth shapes (spot-shape, striation-shape and reticulation-shape) were fabricated on the surface of H13 hot-work tool steel by laser. We investigated the thermal fatigue behavior of biomimetic non-smooth samples with three kinds of shapes at different thermal cycle temperature. Moreover, the evolution of microstructure, as well as the variations of hardness of laser affected area and matrix were studied and compared. The results showed that biomimetic non-smooth samples had better thermal fatigue behavior compared to the untreated samples at different thermal cycle temperatures. For a given maximal temperature, the biomimetic non-smooth sample with reticulation-shape had the optimum thermal fatigue behavior, than with striation-shape which was better than that with the spot-shape. The microstructure observations indicated that at different thermal cycle temperatures the coarsening degrees of microstructures of laser affected area were different and the microstructures of laser affected area were still finer than that of the untreated samples. Although the resistance to thermal cycling softening of laser affected area was lower than that of the untreated sample, laser affected area had higher microhardness than the untreated sample at different thermal cycle temperature.

  18. Estimation of the Thickness and the Material Combination of the Thermal Stress Control Layer (TSCL) for the Stellite21 Hardfaced STD61 Hot Working Tool Steel Using Three-Dimensional Finite Element Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Na-Ra; Ahn, Dong-Gyu; Oh, Jin-Woo

    2014-01-01

    The research on a thermal stress control layer (TSCL) begins to undertake to reduce residual stress and strain in the vicinity of the joined region between the hardfacing layer and the base part. The goal of this paper is to estimate the material combination and the thickness of TSCL for the Stellite21 hardfaced STD61 hot working tool steel via three-dimensional finite element analysis (FEA). TSCL is created by the combination of Stellite21 and STD61. The thickness of TSCL ranges from 0.5 mm to 1.5 mm. The influence of the material combination and the thickness of TSCL on temperature, thermal stress and thermal strain distributions of the hardfaced part have been investigated. The results of the investigation have been revealed that a proper material combination of TSCL is Stellite21 of 50 % and STD61 of 50 %, and its appropriate thickness is 1.0 mm

  19. Effects of Deep Cryogenic Treatment on the Wear Resistance and Mechanical Properties of AISI H13 Hot-Work Tool Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çiçek, Adem; Kara, Fuat; Kıvak, Turgay; Ekici, Ergün; Uygur, İlyas

    2015-11-01

    In this study, a number of wear and tensile tests were performed to elucidate the effects of deep cryogenic treatment on the wear behavior and mechanical properties (hardness and tensile strength) of AISI H13 tool steel. In accordance with this purpose, three different heat treatments (conventional heat treatment (CHT), deep cryogenic treatment (DCT), and deep cryogenic treatment and tempering (DCTT)) were applied to tool steel samples. DCT and DCTT samples were held in nitrogen gas at -145 °C for 24 h. Wear tests were conducted on a dry pin-on-disk device using two loads of 60 and 80 N, two sliding velocities of 0.8 and 1 m/s, and a wear distance of 1000 m. All test results showed that DCT improved the adhesive wear resistance and mechanical properties of AISI H13 steel. The formation of small-sized and uniformly distributed carbide particles and the transformation of retained austenite to martensite played an important role in the improvements in the wear resistance and mechanical properties. After cleavage fracture, the surfaces of all samples were characterized by the cracking of primary carbides, while the DCT and DCTT samples displayed microvoid formation by decohesion of the fine carbides precipitated during the cryo-tempering process.

  20. 40 CFR 68.85 - Hot work permit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Program 3 Prevention Program § 68.85 Hot work permit. (a) The owner or operator shall issue a hot work permit for hot work operations conducted on or near a covered process. (b...

  1. Hot working alkali halides for laser window applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koepke, B.G.; Anderson, R.H.; Stokes, R.J.

    1975-01-01

    The techniques used to hot work alkali halide crystals into laser window blanks are reviewed. From the point of view of high power laser window applications one of the materials with a high figure of merit is KCl. Thus the materials examined are KCl and alloys of KCl-KBr containing 5 mole percent KBr. The fabrication techniques include conventional and constrained press forging, isostatic press forging and hot rolling. Optical properties are paramount to the ultimate usefulness of these materials. Results on the optical properties of the hot worked material are included together with mechanical properties and microstructural data

  2. Control of microstructure during hot working of zirconium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakravartty, J.K.; Banerjee, S.

    2005-01-01

    Hot working is considered to be the most important step involved in the fabrication of zirconium alloys for nuclear reactor applications for two reasons: i) the scale of the microstructure and texture of the final product is decided at this stage and ii) the hot deformed microstructure provides a suitable starting microstructure for the subsequent fabrication steps. The resultant microstructure in turn controls the properties of the final product. In order to obtain final product with a suitable microstructure and with specified mechanical properties on a repeatable basis the control of microstructure during hot working is of paramount importance. This is usually done by studying the constitutive behaviour of the material under hot working conditions and by constructing processing maps. In the latter method, strain rate sensitivity is mapped as a function of temperature and strain rate to delineate domains within the bounds of which a specific deformation mechanism dominates. Detail microstructural analysis is then carried out on the samples deformed within the domains. Using this methodology, processing maps have been constructed for various zirconium alloys. These maps have been found to be very useful for optimizing the hot workability and control of microstructure of zirconium alloys. (author)

  3. 46 CFR 176.710 - Inspection and testing prior to hot work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inspection and testing prior to hot work. 176.710... testing prior to hot work. (a) An inspection for flammable or combustible gases must be conducted by a... operations involving riveting, welding, burning, or other fire producing actions may be made aboard a vessel...

  4. 46 CFR 115.710 - Inspection and testing prior to hot work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inspection and testing prior to hot work. 115.710... AND CERTIFICATION Repairs and Alterations § 115.710 Inspection and testing prior to hot work. (a) An... involving riveting, welding, burning, or other fire producing actions may be made aboard a vessel: (1...

  5. Hot-working behavior of cast Pr-Fe-B magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimoda, T.; Akioka, K.; Kobayashi, O.; Yamagami, T.; Ohki, T.; Miyagawa, M.; Yuri, T.

    1989-01-01

    The hot-working behavior of cast Pr-Fe-B magnets is investigated. The hot-working is done both at a low strain rate (hot-pressing) and a high strain rate (hot-rolling). Magnetic alignment induced by the hot-working is found to be closely related to the macrostructure of the cast ingots and the direction of principal stress. The appropriate structure is a columnar structure. The c-axis of the Pr2Fe14B phase is lying in the plane perpendicular to the growth direction of the dendrites. The principal stress during working should be given perpendicular to the growth direction

  6. New tube fitting range can slash assembly time, reduce tube material costs and eliminate hot work

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2008-09-15

    Parker Instrumentation has developed a permanent tube connection technology known as Phastite for use in high pressure applications such as in the offshore oil and gas sector. The Phastite push-fit connector offers major savings over traditional permanent and higher pressure connection techniques such as welded or cone-and-thread tube fittings. It also reduces assembly times by 20-fold or more and eliminates the need for hot work permits. The fittings are designed to withstand working pressures up to 1,379 bar. Phastite tube fittings can be used on offshore platforms, as well as on support vessels,, subsea equipment and ROVs such as hydraulic systems for wellhead control, emergency shut down, chemical injection, pumping packages, gas booster systems and test equipment. The connectors offer considerable savings in material cost and weight because they do not need to be used with more expensive tubing with extra thickness to accommodate a thread. Phastite is also resistant to vibration and does not need any anti-vibration accessories. A joint can be made in a matter of seconds with a simple handheld hydraulic tool that makes the push-fit connection. A sealing mechanism based on a series of defined internal ridges creates a secure seal by radial compression. The ridges grip in a way that retains all of the tubing's strength. An additional characteristic is the maintenance free nature of the Phastite connection. 1 fig.

  7. The hot working characteristics of a boron bearing and a conventional low carbon steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stumpf, Waldo; Banks, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    Constitutive hot working constants were determined for an 11 ppm boron low carbon strip steel and compared from 875 to 1140 deg. C and strain rates of 0.001-2.5 s -1 to a high nitrogen low carbon strip steel. The boron steel showed a different hot working behaviour than the conventional steel with the steady state flow stress about 50-60% higher, the peak strain more than 50% higher and the eventual ferrite grain size about 40% smaller, if compared at the same temperature compensated strain rates or Z values. This difference persisted where the soaking temperature before compression was varied between 1140 and 1250 deg. C, proving that undissolved AlN in the boron-bearing steel was not responsible. With systematically varied linear cooling rates after hot working, the final ferrite grain size in the boron steel is finer and is independent of the two Z values applied during hot working. Retarded softening by dynamic recrystallisation during hot working in the boron containing steel is probably caused by boron solute drag of moving grain boundaries

  8. Chapter 2. Experimental testing methods of materials under hot working conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossard, C.

    1976-01-01

    The deformation under hot working conditions is defined and the purpose of laboratory tests is explained: strength, structure, hot-workability. The concepts of generalized stress strain and strain rate are introduced. These concepts find an interesting application in the equivalence principle. The different testing methods (tension, compression, torsion) and their possibilities are reviewed. The softening mechanisms are recalled: dynamic recovery and recrystallization, static and post-dynamic recrystallization. To explain the possibilities of simulation tests in hot working conditions, some examples are given: the evaluation of the stress-strain relationship (effect of the mechanical and thermal history); the determination of structural behavior (quenching, controled cooling law, decomposition kinetics) [fr

  9. Hot working effect on austenite transformations in structural steel in continuous cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zajmovskij, V.A.; Kisteh, N.V.; Samedov, O.V.

    1979-01-01

    Austenite transformations in 40, 40Kh, 40KhN and 40KhNMA steels under hot working at 900 deg C with 20% reduction degree and continuous cooling with 1,7-16 0 /s are investigated. Changing of cooling rate in various ways affects the temperature range of austenite transformation in pearlite and bainite regions. Regulating the cooling rate after hot working one can essentially change the impact strength and steel ductility as a result of high temperature thermomechanical treatment effect

  10. Platelet-rich Preparation may serve as a Powerful Tool for Therapeutic Dental Pulp Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Hua Sun

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Regeneration of dental pulp tissues presents one of the most challenging issues in regenerative dentistry due to their extremely poor intrinsic ability for self-healing and re-growth.The hypothesis: We hypothes-ize that patient-derived platelet-rich preparation can be used in clinical endodontic regenerative procedure, serving as a powerful tool for therapeutic dental pulp regeneration.Evaluation of the hypothesis: The cell transplantation does not always obtain the good result because of the low survival rate of transplanted cells. In addition, the use of ex vivo manipulated cell products faces many translational hurdles in treating non-vital disease. Recently, the body cells are focused as a potential source for therapeutics. Some researchers have demonstrated that endogenous stem cells may be recruited to a desired anatomic site pharma-cologically. This is spurring interest in developing new generation of biomaterials that incorporate and release selected powerful extracellular influences in a near-physiological fashion, and subsequently capture endogenous stem cells and influence their fates for regene-ration. The use of patient-derived products such as platelet-rich preparations that contain a multitude of endogenous growth factors and proteins is a clinically translatable biotechnology for this proposes. These simple and cost efficient procedures may have a potential impact in reducing the economic costs for standard medical treatments in regenerative endodontics.

  11. State-of-the-art laser additive manufacturing for hot-work tool steels

    OpenAIRE

    Klocke, Fritz; Arntz, Kristian; Teli, Mahesh; Winands, Kai; Wegener, Maximilian; Oliari, Stella

    2017-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) processes are based on the controlled selective deposition of material by which a part is manufactured or remanufactured (repaired), layer by layer. Research in AM is drastically on the increase in the last several years owing to the benefits that AM provides over conventional manufacturing i.e. reduction in material usage, time-to-market reduction, improved functionality, increased ability to customize and near-net shape manufacturing. There has been a number of A...

  12. New phenomenological and differential model for hot working of metallic polycrystalline materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castellanos, J.; Munoz, J.; Gutierrez, V.; Rieiro, I.; Ruano, O. A.; Carsi, M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a new phenomenological and differential model (that use differential equations) to predict the flow stress of a metallic polycrystalline material under hot working. The model, called MCC, depends on six parameters and uses two internal variables to consider the strain hardening, dynamic recovery and dynamic recrystallization processes that occur under hot working. The experimental validation of the MCC model has been carried out by means of stress-strain curves from torsion tests at high temperature (900 degree centigrade a 1200 degree centigrade) and moderate high strain rate (0.005 s-1 to 5 s-1) in a high nitrogen steel. The results reveal the very good agreement between experimental and predicted stresses. Furthermore, the Garofalo a-parameter and the strain to reach 50 % of recrystallized volume fraction have been employed as a control check being a first step to the physical interpretation of variables and parameters of the MCC model. (Author) 26 refs.

  13. A Unified Physical Model for Creep and Hot Working of Al-Mg Solid Solution Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Spigarelli

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The description of the dependence of steady-state creep rate on applied stress and temperature is almost invariably based on the Norton equation or on derived power-law relationships. In hot working, the Norton equation does not work, and is therefore usually replaced with the Garofalo (sinh equation. Both of these equations are phenomenological in nature and can be seldom unambiguously related to microstructural parameters, such as dislocation density, although early efforts in this sense led to the introduction of the “natural power law” with exponent 3. In an attempt to overcome this deficiency, a recent model with sound physical basis has been successfully used to describe the creep response of fcc metals, such as copper. The main advantage of this model is that it does not require any data fitting to predict the strain rate dependence on applied stress and temperature, which is a particularly attractive peculiarity when studying the hot workability of metals. Thus, the model, properly modified to take into account solid solution strengthening effects, has been here applied to the study of the creep and hot-working of simple Al-Mg single phase alloys. The model demonstrated an excellent accuracy in describing both creep and hot working regimes, still maintaining its most important feature, that is, it does not require any fitting of the experimental data.

  14. Criteria for prediction of plastic instabilities for hot working processes. (Part I: Theoretical review)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Omar, A.; Prado, J. M.

    2010-01-01

    Hot working processes often induce high levels of deformation at high strain rates, and impose very complex multiaxial modes of solicitation. These processes are essentially limited by apparition and development of plastic instabilities. These may be the direct cause of rapid crack propagation, which lead to a possible final rupture. The complexity of deformation modes and the simultaneous intervention of several parameters have led many researchers to develop various criteria, with different approaches, to predict the occurrence of defects and to optimize process control parameters. The aim of the present paper is to summarize the general characteristics of some instability criteria, widely used in the literature, for the prediction of plastic instabilities during hot working. It was considered appropriate to divide the work into two parts: part I presents the phenomenological criteria for the prediction of plastic instabilities, based on descriptive observation of microscopic phenomena of the deformation (strain hardening and strain rate sensitivity), and discusses the continuum criteria based on the principle of maximum rate of entropy production of irreversible thermodynamics applied to continuum mechanics of large plastic flow. Also, this part provides a bibliographical discussion among several authors with regard to the physical foundations of dynamic materials model. In part II, of the work, a comparative study has been carried out to characterize the flow instability during a hot working process of a medium carbon microalloyed using phenomenological and continuum criteria. (Author) 83 refs.

  15. Application of processing maps in the optimization of the parameters of a hot working process. Part 1. Theoretical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Omar, A.; Prado, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    The hot working processes constitute an important step in the manufacture of components for engineering applications. In the past, the mechanical processing have been used to impart a shape to the engineering materials. More recently, however, the hot working processes are used not only to achieve the required shape but also to impart desirable mechanical and microstructural characteristics by an adequate design of the thermomechanical process. The aim of the present paper is to summarize the general characteristics of the Dynamic Materials Model. In this model, the work piece material under hot working conditions is considered to be a dissipator of power. Also, the extreme principles of irreversible thermodynamics applied to large plastic flow are described to develop a continuum criterion capable to predict the metallurgical instabilities in a hot worked material. (Author) 22 refs

  16. Cast iron as structural material for hot-working reactor vessels (PCIV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostendorf, H.; Schmidt, G.; Pittack, W.

    1977-01-01

    Cast iron with lamellar graphite is best suited for prestressed structures, because its compressive strength is nearly 4 times its tensile strength. In comparison to room temperature, cast iron with lamellar graphite shows essentially no loss of strength up to temperatures of 400 0 C. Under the particular aspect to use cast iron for hot-working prestressed reactor pressure vessels (PCIV) (Prestressed cast iron vessel=PCIV) a materials testing program is carried out, which meets the strict certification requirements for materials in the construction of reactor pressure vessels and which completes the presently available knowledge of cast iron. Especially in the following fields an extension and supplement of the present level of knowledge is necessary: mechanical properties under compressive stresses; material properties at elevated temperatures; influence of irradiation on mechanical and physical properties; production standards and quality control. The state of the research and the available data of the material testing program are reported

  17. Cast iron as structural material for hot-working reactor vessels (PCIV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostendorf, H.; Schmidt, G.; Pittack, W.

    1977-01-01

    Cast iron with lamellar graphite is best suited for prestressed structures, because its compressive strength is nearly 4 times its tensile strength. In comparison to room temperature, cast iron with lamellar graphite shows essentially no loss of strength up to temperatures of 400 0 C. Under the particular aspect to use cast iron for hot-working prestressed reactor pressure vessels (PCIV) (Prestressed cast iron vessel=PCIV) a materials testing program is carried out, which meets the strict certification requirements for materials in the construction of reactor pressure vessels and which completes the presently available knowledge of cast iron. Especially in the following fields an extension and supplement of the present level of knowledge is necessary. - Mechanical properties under compressive stresses. - Material properties at elevated temperatures. - Influence of irradiation on mechanical and physical properties. - Production standards and quality control. The state of the research and the available data of the material testing program are reported. (Auth.)

  18. The Effect of Hot Working on Structure and Strength of a Precipitation Strengthened Austenitic Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mataya, M. C.; Carr, M. J.; Krauss, G.

    1984-02-01

    The development of microstructure and strength during forging in a γ' strengthened austenitic stainless steel, JBK-75, was investigated by means of forward extrusion of cylindrical specimens. The specimens were deformed in a strain range of 0.16 to 1.0, from 800°C to 1080°C, and at approximate strain rates of 2 (press forging) and 2 × 103 s-1 (high energy rate forging), and structures examined by light and transmission microscopy. Mechanical properties were determined by tensile testing as-forged and forged and aged specimens. The alloy exhibited an extremely wide variety of structures and properties within the range of forging pzrameters studied. Deformation at the higher strain rate via high energy rate forging resulted in unrecovered substructures and high strengths at low forging temperatures, and static recrystallization and low strengths at high temperatures. In contrast, however, deformation at the lower strain rate via press forging resulted in retention of the well developed subgrain structure and associated high strength produced at high forging temperatures and strains. At lower temperatures and strains during press forging a subgrain structure formed preferentially at high angle grain boundaries, apparently by a creep-type deformation mechanism. Dynamic recrystallization was not an important restoration mechanism for any of the forging conditions. The results are interpreted on the basis of stacking fault energy and the accumulation of strain energy during hot working. The significance of observed microstructural differences for equivalent deformation conditions (iso-Z, where Z is the Zener-Holloman parameter) is discussed in relation to the utilization of Z for predicting hot work structures and strengths. Aging showed that the γ' precipitation process is not affected by substructure and that the strengthening contributions, from substructure and precipitation, were independent and additive. Applications for these findings are discussed in terms

  19. The effect of hot working on structure and strength of a precipitation strengthened austenitic stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mataya, M.C.; Carr, M.J.; Krauss, G.

    1984-01-01

    The development of microstructure and strength during forging a γ' strengthened austenitic stainless steel, JBK-75, was investigated. The specimens were deformed in a strain range of 0.16 to 1.0, from 800 0 C to 1080 0 C at approximate strain rates of 2 (press forging) and 2 X 10 3 S -1 (high energy rate forging). Mechanical properties were determined by tensile testing as-forged and forged and aged specimens. The alloy exhibited a wide variety of structures and properties within the range of forging parameters studied. Deformation at the higher strain rate via high energy rate forging resulted in unrecovered substructures and high strengths at low forging temperatures, and static recrystallization and low strengths at high temperatures. In contrast, however, deformation at the lower strain rate via press forging resulted in retention of the well developed subgrain structure and associated high strength produced at high forging temperatures and strains. At lower temperatures and strains during press forging a subgrain structure formed preferentially at high angle grain boundaries, apparently by a creep-type deformation mechanism. Dynamic recrystallization was not an important restoration mechanism for any of the forging conditions. The results are interpreted on the basis of stacking fault energy and the accumulation of strain energy during hot working. The significance of microstructural differences for equivalent deformation conditions (iso-Z, where Z is the Zener-Holloman parameter) is discussed in relation to the utilization of Z for predicting hot work structures and strengths. Aging showed that γ' precipitation is not affected by substructure and that the strengthening contributions were independent and additive. Applications for these findings are discussed in terms of process design criteria

  20. Mind tools contributing to an ICT-rich learning environment for technology education en primary schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lou A.M.P. Slangen; Peter B. Sloep

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines how the learning environment in primary education can be enhanced by stimulating the use of innovative ICT applications. In particular, this discussion focuses on mind tools as a means of leveraging ICT for the development of cognitive skills. The stimulating effect of mind tools

  1. Cluster-transfer reactions with radioactive beams: a spectroscopic tool for neutron-rich nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2086156; Raabe, Riccardo; Bracco, Angela

    In this thesis work, an exploratory experiment to investigate cluster-transfer reactions with radioactive beams in inverse kinematics is presented. The aim of the experiment was to test the potential of cluster-transfer reactions at the Coulomb barrier, as a possible mean to perform $\\gamma$ spectroscopy studies of exotic neutron-rich nuclei at medium-high energies and spins. The experiment was performed at ISOLDE (CERN), employing the heavy-ion reaction $^{98}$Rb + $^{7}$Li at 2.85 MeV/A. Cluster-transfer reaction channels were studied through particle-$\\gamma$ coincidence measurements, using the MINIBALL Ge array coupled to the charged particle Si detectors T-REX. Sr, Y and Zr neutron-rich nuclei with A $\\approx$ 100 were populated by either triton- or $\\alpha$ transfer from $^{7}$Li to the beam nuclei and the emitted complementary charged fragment was detected in coincidence with the $\\gamma$ cascade of the residues, after few neutrons evaporation. The measured $\\gamma$ spectra were studied in detail and t...

  2. Formation of microstructure and properties on hot working and heat treatment of high strength modular cast iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trajno, A.I.; Yusupov, V.S.; Kugushin, A.A.

    1999-01-01

    The possibility of plastic deformation of high strength modular cast iron (HSNCI) is under study. The microstructure and mechanical properties of hot worked and heat treated cast iron are investigated for the composition, %: Fe - 2.9 C - 2.4 Si - 0.7 Ni - 0.05 Mg - 0.04 Ce. It is stated that HSNCI can withstand various types of hot working without fracturing. Graphite inclusions lose their modular shape irreversibly during plastic deformation. Subsequent heat treatment affects the metal matrix only. The heating in oxidizing environment is noted to result in cast iron surface decarbonization [ru

  3. Micro-arc oxidation as a tool to develop multifunctional calcium-rich surfaces for dental implant applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, A.R., E-mail: arribeiro@inmetro.gov.br [Department of Periodontology, Araraquara Dental School, University Estadual Paulista, Rua Humaitá 1680, 14801-903 Araraquara, São Paulo (Brazil); Directory of Metrology Applied to Life Science, National Institute of Metrology Quality and Technology, Av. N. S. das Graças 50, Xerém, Duque de Caxias, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Brazilian Branch of Institute of Biomaterials, Tribocorrosion and Nanomedicine (IBTN/Br) (Brazil); Oliveira, F., E-mail: fernando@dem.uminho.pt [Brazilian Branch of Institute of Biomaterials, Tribocorrosion and Nanomedicine (IBTN/Br) (Brazil); Centre for Mechanical and Materials Technologies, University of Minho, Campus de Azurém, 4800-058 Guimarães (Portugal); Boldrini, L.C., E-mail: lcboldrini@inmetro.gov.br [Directory of Metrology Applied to Life Science, National Institute of Metrology Quality and Technology, Av. N. S. das Graças 50, Xerém, Duque de Caxias, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Leite, P.E., E-mail: leitepec@gmail.com [Directory of Metrology Applied to Life Science, National Institute of Metrology Quality and Technology, Av. N. S. das Graças 50, Xerém, Duque de Caxias, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Falagan-Lotsch, P., E-mail: prifalagan@gmail.com [Directory of Metrology Applied to Life Science, National Institute of Metrology Quality and Technology, Av. N. S. das Graças 50, Xerém, Duque de Caxias, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Linhares, A.B.R., E-mail: adrianalinhares@hotmail.com [Clinical Research Unit, Antonio Pedro Hospital, Fluminense Federal University, Niterói (Brazil); and others

    2015-09-01

    Titanium (Ti) is commonly used in dental implant applications. Surface modification strategies are being followed in last years in order to build Ti oxide-based surfaces that can fulfill, simultaneously, the following requirements: induced cell attachment and adhesion, while providing a superior corrosion and tribocorrosion performance. In this work micro-arc oxidation (MAO) was used as a tool for the growth of a nanostructured bioactive titanium oxide layer aimed to enhance cell attachment and adhesion for dental implant applications. Characterization of the surfaces was performed, in terms of morphology, topography, chemical composition and crystalline structure. Primary human osteoblast adhesion on the developed surfaces was investigated in detail by electronic and atomic force microscopy as well as immunocytochemistry. Also an investigation on the early cytokine production was performed. Results show that a relatively thick hybrid and graded oxide layer was produced on the Ti surface, being constituted by a mixture of anatase, rutile and amorphous phases where calcium (Ca) and phosphorous (P) were incorporated. An outermost nanometric-thick amorphous oxide layer rich in Ca was present in the film. This amorphous layer, rich in Ca, improved fibroblast viability and metabolic activity as well as osteoblast adhesion. High-resolution techniques allowed to understand that osteoblasts adhered less in the crystalline-rich regions while they preferentially adhere and spread over in the Ca-rich amorphous oxide layer. Also, these surfaces induce higher amounts of IFN-γ cytokine secretion, which is known to regulate inflammatory responses, bone microarchitecture as well as cytoskeleton reorganization and cellular spreading. These surfaces are promising in the context of dental implants, since they might lead to faster osseointegration. - Highlights: • A nanometric-structured calcium-rich amorphous layer with improved bioactivity was produced on titanium surfaces.

  4. Micro-arc oxidation as a tool to develop multifunctional calcium-rich surfaces for dental implant applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, A.R.; Oliveira, F.; Boldrini, L.C.; Leite, P.E.; Falagan-Lotsch, P.; Linhares, A.B.R.

    2015-01-01

    Titanium (Ti) is commonly used in dental implant applications. Surface modification strategies are being followed in last years in order to build Ti oxide-based surfaces that can fulfill, simultaneously, the following requirements: induced cell attachment and adhesion, while providing a superior corrosion and tribocorrosion performance. In this work micro-arc oxidation (MAO) was used as a tool for the growth of a nanostructured bioactive titanium oxide layer aimed to enhance cell attachment and adhesion for dental implant applications. Characterization of the surfaces was performed, in terms of morphology, topography, chemical composition and crystalline structure. Primary human osteoblast adhesion on the developed surfaces was investigated in detail by electronic and atomic force microscopy as well as immunocytochemistry. Also an investigation on the early cytokine production was performed. Results show that a relatively thick hybrid and graded oxide layer was produced on the Ti surface, being constituted by a mixture of anatase, rutile and amorphous phases where calcium (Ca) and phosphorous (P) were incorporated. An outermost nanometric-thick amorphous oxide layer rich in Ca was present in the film. This amorphous layer, rich in Ca, improved fibroblast viability and metabolic activity as well as osteoblast adhesion. High-resolution techniques allowed to understand that osteoblasts adhered less in the crystalline-rich regions while they preferentially adhere and spread over in the Ca-rich amorphous oxide layer. Also, these surfaces induce higher amounts of IFN-γ cytokine secretion, which is known to regulate inflammatory responses, bone microarchitecture as well as cytoskeleton reorganization and cellular spreading. These surfaces are promising in the context of dental implants, since they might lead to faster osseointegration. - Highlights: • A nanometric-structured calcium-rich amorphous layer with improved bioactivity was produced on titanium surfaces.

  5. Micro-arc oxidation as a tool to develop multifunctional calcium-rich surfaces for dental implant applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, A R; Oliveira, F; Boldrini, L C; Leite, P E; Falagan-Lotsch, P; Linhares, A B R; Zambuzzi, W F; Fragneaud, B; Campos, A P C; Gouvêa, C P; Archanjo, B S; Achete, C A; Marcantonio, E; Rocha, L A; Granjeiro, J M

    2015-09-01

    Titanium (Ti) is commonly used in dental implant applications. Surface modification strategies are being followed in last years in order to build Ti oxide-based surfaces that can fulfill, simultaneously, the following requirements: induced cell attachment and adhesion, while providing a superior corrosion and tribocorrosion performance. In this work micro-arc oxidation (MAO) was used as a tool for the growth of a nanostructured bioactive titanium oxide layer aimed to enhance cell attachment and adhesion for dental implant applications. Characterization of the surfaces was performed, in terms of morphology, topography, chemical composition and crystalline structure. Primary human osteoblast adhesion on the developed surfaces was investigated in detail by electronic and atomic force microscopy as well as immunocytochemistry. Also an investigation on the early cytokine production was performed. Results show that a relatively thick hybrid and graded oxide layer was produced on the Ti surface, being constituted by a mixture of anatase, rutile and amorphous phases where calcium (Ca) and phosphorous (P) were incorporated. An outermost nanometric-thick amorphous oxide layer rich in Ca was present in the film. This amorphous layer, rich in Ca, improved fibroblast viability and metabolic activity as well as osteoblast adhesion. High-resolution techniques allowed to understand that osteoblasts adhered less in the crystalline-rich regions while they preferentially adhere and spread over in the Ca-rich amorphous oxide layer. Also, these surfaces induce higher amounts of IFN-γ cytokine secretion, which is known to regulate inflammatory responses, bone microarchitecture as well as cytoskeleton reorganization and cellular spreading. These surfaces are promising in the context of dental implants, since they might lead to faster osseointegration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Precipitation Behavior of Carbides in H13 Hot Work Die Steel and Its Strengthening during Tempering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angang Ning

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The properties of carbides, such as morphology, size, and type, in H13 hot work die steel were studied with optical microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, electron diffraction, and energy dispersive X-ray analysis; their size distribution and quantity after tempering, at different positions within the ingot, were analyzed using Image-Pro Plus software. Thermodynamic calculations were also performed for these carbides. The microstructures near the ingot surface were homogeneous and had slender martensite laths. Two kinds of carbide precipitates have been detected in H13: (1 MC and M6C, generally smaller than 200 nm; and (2 M23C6, usually larger than 200 nm. MC and M6C play the key role in precipitation hardening. These are the most frequent carbides precipitating at the halfway point from the center of the ingot, and the least frequent at the surface. From the center of the ingot to its surface, the size and volume fraction of the carbides decrease, and the toughness improves, while the contribution of the carbides to the yield strength increases.

  7. Study of the microstructure evolution of ferritic stainless ODS steels during hot working

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karch, Abdellatif

    2014-01-01

    The production of ODS steels involves a powder consolidation step usually using the hot extrusion (HE) process. The anisotropic properties of extruded materials, especially in the ODS ferritic grades (≥wt%12Cr), need a better understanding of the metallurgical phenomena which may occur during HE and lead to the observed microstructure. The hot working behavior of these materials is of particular interest. The methodology of this work includes the microstructure analysis after interrupted hot extrusion, hot torsion and hot compression (1000-1200 C) tests of ferritic steels with 14%Cr and different amounts in Ti and Y 2 O 3 . The microstructure evolution during hot extrusion process is associated with continuous dynamic recrystallization (CDRX). It leads to the creation of new grains by the formation of low angle boundaries, and then the increase of their misorientation under plastic deformation. The investigations highlight also the role of precipitation on the kinetics of this mechanism; it remains incomplete in the presence of fine and dense nano-precipitates. After hot deformation in torsion and compression, it is noticed that both precipitates and temperature deformation have a significant impact on the deformation mechanisms and microstructure evolution. Indeed, the CDRX is dominant when temperature and amount of reinforcement are limited. However, when they are increased, limited microstructure evolution is observed. In this case, the results are interpreted through a mechanism of strain accommodation at grain boundaries, with low dislocation activity in the bulk of the grains. (author) [fr

  8. Platelet-rich plasma in androgenic alopecia: Myth or an effective tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapna S Khatu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Platelet-rich plasma (PRP has become a newer method for the treatment of various types of alopecia. In this prospective study, safety, efficacy and feasibility of PRP injections in treating androgenic alopecia were assessed. Eleven patients suffering from hair loss due to androgenic alopecia and not responding to 6 months treatment with minoxidil and finasteride were included in this study. The hair pull test was performed before every treatment session. A total volume of 2-3 cc PRP was injected in the scalp by using an insulin syringe. The treatment was repeated every two weeks, for a total of four times. The outcome was assessed after 3 months by clinical examination, macroscopic photos, hair pull test and patient′s overall satisfaction. Results: A significant reduction in hair loss was observed between first and fourth injection. Hair count increased from average number of 71 hair follicular units to 93 hair follicular units. Therefore, average mean gain is 22.09 follicular units per cm 2. After the fourth session, the pull test was negative in 9 patients. Conclusion: PRP injection is a simple, cost effective and feasible treatment option for androgenic alopecia, with high overall patient satisfaction.

  9. Hot working behavior of selective laser melted and laser metal deposited Inconel 718

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bambach, Markus; Sizova, Irina

    2018-05-01

    The production of Nickel-based high-temperature components is of great importance for the transport and energy sector. Forging of high-temperature alloys often requires expensive dies, multiple forming steps and leads to forged parts with tolerances that require machining to create the final shape and a large amount of scrap. Additive manufacturing offers the possibility to print the desired shapes directly as net-shape components, requiring only little additional effort in machining. Especially for high-temperature alloys carrying a large amount of energy per unit mass, additive manufacturing could be more energy-efficient than forging if the energy contained in the machining scrap exceeds the energy needed for powder production and laser processing. However, the microstructure and performance of 3d-printed parts will not reach the level of forged material unless further expensive processes such as hot-isostatic pressing are used. Using the design freedom and possibilities to locally engineer material, additive manufacturing could be combined with forging operations to novel process chains, offering the possibility to reduce the number of forging steps and to create near-net shape forgings with desired local properties. Some innovative process chains combining additive manufacturing and forging have been patented recently, but almost no scientific knowledge on the workability of 3D printed preforms exists. The present study investigates the flow stress and microstructure evolution during hot working of pre-forms produced by laser powder deposition and selective laser melting (Figure 1) and puts forward a model for the flow stress.

  10. Development of opto-mechanical tools and procedures for the new generation of RICH-detectors at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Laub, M; Ullaland, O

    2001-01-01

    This thesis is focused on development of opto-mechanical tools and procedures, which would contribute to the achievement of the best possible performance of new Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) detectors. On the base of requirements, given by the physics objective of the LHCb detector, and an analysis of the detector opto-mechanical system, specifications of individual opto-mechanical components were determined. Spherical mirrors, planar mirrors and mirror adjustable mounts were the components of interest. Next, their parameters to be characterised were defined. Possible measurement methods were studied and relevant set ups based on suitable methods were developed. Meanwhile, available modern metrology technologies, like laser operated instruments or digital image processing, were applied with an attempt to innovate them and to increase their achievable performance limits. When applicable, the set ups were automated in order to make the measurements fast and reliable. An optical laboratory, devoted to the charac...

  11. 29 CFR 1917.152 - Welding, cutting and heating (hot work) 12 (See also § 1917.2, definition of Hazardous cargo...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Welding, cutting and heating (hot work) 12 (See also Â..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) MARINE TERMINALS Related Terminal Operations and Equipment § 1917.152 Welding... Captain of the Port if welding or other hot work is to be carried out at a facility where dangerous...

  12. Non-Metallic Inclusions and Hot-Working Behaviour of Advanced High-Strength Medium-Mn Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grajcar A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The work addresses the production of medium-Mn steels with an increased Al content. The special attention is focused on the identification of non-metallic inclusions and their modification using rare earth elements. The conditions of the thermomechanical treatment using the metallurgical Gleeble simulator and the semi-industrial hot rolling line were designed for steels containing 3 and 5% Mn. Hot-working conditions and controlled cooling strategies with the isothermal holding of steel at 400°C were selected. The effect of Mn content on the hot-working behaviour and microstructure of steel was addressed. The force-energetic parameters of hot rolling were determined. The identification of structural constituents was performed using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy methods. The addition of rare earth elements led to the total modification of non-metallic inclusions, i.e., they replaced Mn and Al forming complex oxysulphides. The Mn content in a range between 3 and 5% does not affect the inclusion type and the hot-working behaviour. In contrast, it was found that Mn has a significant effect on a microstructure.

  13. Influence of Hot-Working Conditions on High-Temperature Properties of a Heat-Resistant Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, John F; Freeman, J W

    1957-01-01

    The relationships between conditions of hot-working and properties at high temperatures and the influence of the hot-working on response to heat treatment were investigated for an alloy containing nominally 20 percent molybdenum, 2 percent tungsten, and 1 percent columbium. Commercially produced bar stock was solution-treated at 2,200 degrees F. to minimize prior-history effects and then rolled at temperatures of 2,200 degrees, 2,100 degrees, 2,000 degrees, 1,800 degrees, and 1,600 degrees F. Working was carried out at constant temperature and with incremental decreases in temperature simulating a falling temperature during hot-working. In addition, a few special repeated cyclic conditions involving a small reduction at high temperature followed by a small reduction at a low temperature were used to study the possibility of inducing very low strengths by the extensive precipitation accompanying such properties. Most of the rolling was done in open passes with a few check tests being made with closed passes. Heat treatments at both 2,050 degrees and 2,200 degrees F. subsequent to working were used to study the influence on response to heat treatment.

  14. Production of a Powder Metallurgical Hot Work Tool Steel with Harmonic Structure by Mechanical Milling and Spark Plasma Sintering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deirmina, Faraz; Pellizzari, Massimo; Federici, Matteo

    2017-04-01

    Commercial AISI-H13 gas atomized powders (AT) were mechanically milled (MM) to refine both the particle size and the microstructure. Different volume fractions of coarser grained (CG) AT powders were mixed with the ultra-fine grained (UFG) MM and consolidated by spark plasma sintering to obtain bulks showing a harmonic structure ( i.e. a 3D interconnected network of UFG areas surrounding the CG atomized particles). The low sintering temperature, 1373.15 K (1100 °C) and the short sintering time (30 minutes) made it possible to obtain near full density samples while preserving the refined microstructure induced by MM. A combination of high hardness and significantly improved fracture toughness is achieved by the samples containing 50 to 80 vol pct MM, essentially showing harmonic structure. The design allows to easily achieve specific application oriented properties by varying the MM volume fraction in the initial mixture. Hardness is governed by the fine-grained MM matrix and improved toughening is due to (1) deviatory effect of AT particles and (2) energy dissipation as a result of the decohesion in MM regions or AT and MM interface.

  15. Processing map and hot working mechanisms in a P/M TiAl alloy composite with in situ carbide and silicide dispersions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, K.P.; Prasad, Y.V.R.K.

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: Mechanical alloying of Ti and Al with small additions of Si and C was used to synthesize metastable phases, which were incorporated in Ti-Al matrices using powder metallurgy techniques. These metastable phases (or also called as precursors), at higher temperatures, transformed in situ into very fine hard reinforcements that develop coherent interface with the surrounding matrix. Typically, Ti5Si3 and TiC are the end products after the synthesis of composite. In this study, hot working behavior of such composites has been studied using the concepts of processing maps to identify the safe and best processing conditions that should be adopted while forming this composite. Also, kinetic analysis of hot deformation has been performed to identify the dominant deformation mechanism. The results are compared with that of base TiAl matrix. The powder metallurgy route offers the advantage of working the material at much lower temperatures compared to the traditional cast and forge route. - Abstract: A titanium aluminide alloy composite with in situ carbide and silicide dispersions has been synthesized by mixing 90% of matrix with elemental composition of 46Ti-46Al-4Nb-2Cr-2Mn and 10% precursor with composition 55Ti-27Al-12Si-6C prepared by mechanical alloying. The powder mixture was blended for 2 h followed by hot isostatic pressing (HIP) at 1150 deg. C for 4 h under a pressure of 150 MPa. In addition to TiAl alloy matrix, the microstructure of the HIP'ed billet showed a small volume fraction of Nb-rich intermetallic phase along with carbide and silicide dispersions formed in situ during HIP'ing. Cylindrical specimens from the HIP'ed billets were compressed at temperatures and strain rates in the ranges of 800-1050 deg. C and 0.0001-1 s -1 . The flow curves exhibited flow softening leading to a steady-state flow at strain rates lower than 0.01 s -1 while fracture occurred at higher strain rates. The processing map developed on the basis of flow stress at

  16. Regularities in structure formation of magnesium-yttrium alloy of Mg-Y-Mn-Cd system in relation to temperature and hot working rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ovechkin, B.I.; Miklina, N.V.; Blokhin, N.N.; Sorokin, A.F.

    1981-01-01

    Problems of the structure formation of magnesium-yttrium alloy of Mg-G-Mn-Cd system with 7.8 % G in a wide range of temperature-rate parameters of hot working are studied. On the basis of X-ray analysis results ascertained with metallographic and electron microscopic investigations, a diagram of structural states after hot working of Mg-G-Mn-Cd system alloy has been plotted. A change in grain size in relation to temperature-rate conditions of hot working

  17. Tribological properties of anti-wear PVD coatings for elevated temperatures application deposited onto X37CrMoV5-1 type hot work steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobrzanski, L.A.; Polok, M.; Adamiak, M.

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents results of tribological and adhesion investigations of anti-wear PVD coatings TiN, TiN/(Ti,Al)N and CrN types deposited in ion plating PVD process onto X37CrMoV5-1 type hot work tool steel. It was found that damage mechanism during scratch test in all investigated coatings begins with multiple spallings located on the scratch edges followed by cracking and tool coatings delamination. Regarding to the coating types it can be seen different location of such damages and loads typical for them. According to this observations it can be stated that highest adhesion among investigated coating present, CrN monolayer coating and the lowest one multilayers Ti/(Ti,Al)N coating. The wear resistance was investigated by pin-on-disc method performed in room and elevated to 500 o C temperatures. It was found that the lowest wear in to fixed investigation conditions in both room and elevated temperatures shows TiN monolayer coating. Additionally one can see that TiN coatings application improve wear resistance some five times. (author)

  18. Effect of unit size on thermal fatigue behavior of hot work steel repaired by a biomimetic laser remelting process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Dalong; Li, Zhongsheng; He, Qingbing; Chen, Dajun; Chen, Hanbin; Yang, Jiuzhou; Zhang, Peng; Zhou, Hong

    2018-01-01

    AISI H13 hot work steel with fatigue cracks was repaired by a biomimetic laser remelting (BLR) process in the form of lattice units with different sizes. Detailed microstructural studies and microhardness tests were carried out on the units. Studies revealed a mixed microstructure containing martensite, retained austenite and carbide particles with ultrafine grain size in units. BLR samples with defect-free units exhibited superior thermal fatigue resistance due to microstructure strengthening, and mechanisms of crack tip blunting and blocking. In addition, effects of unit size on thermal fatigue resistance of BLR samples were discussed.

  19. Use of niobium to substitute vanadium in the steel for hot work AISI H3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branco, J.R.T.; Jesus, B.G. de

    1984-01-01

    Experimental results on austenitic grain size, quenching hardness and response to tempering measured on a H13 tool steel modified by niobium additions are described. It is shown that the replacement of 25 and 50% percent of the total vanadium by 0,05% of niobium does not change the response to quenching and tempering. (Author) [pt

  20. Lifetime measurements in neutron-rich isotopes close to N = 40 and development of a simulation tool for RDDS spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braunroth, Thomas Christian

    2017-01-01

    interest are the neutron-rich 59,61 Mn isotopes (Z=25), for which level lifetimes of the 7/2 - 1 , 9/2 - 1 and 11/2 - 1 states were determined (in 61 Mn the assignment is only tentative). In addition, level lifetimes in 63 Mn of the tentatively assigned (7/2 - 1 ) and (9/2 - 1 ) states were evaluated. The results are compared to shell-model calculations using the fp interaction KB3G as well as the state-of-the-art interaction LNPS-m. The present data indicates a structural change close to N=36. The experimental data for 61 Mn suggests that the B(M1) value for the 7/2 - 1 → 5/2 - gs is underestimated by the LNPS-m interaction when free g factors are used. In the second part of this thesis, a tool is presented which allows to generate γ-ray spectra of lifetime studies based on the electromagnetic Doppler-shift using empirical parameters. The tool is highly flexible which enables the incorporation of various experimental bounding conditions. It is applied to investigate the influence of velocity distributions on the lifetime analysis and results indicate that systematic deviations are minimized if distance-dependent mean recoil velocities are taken into account.

  1. Lifetime measurements in neutron-rich isotopes close to N = 40 and development of a simulation tool for RDDS spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braunroth, Thomas Christian

    2017-10-10

    degree of quadrupole deformation. Other isotopes that were produced in the experiment were investigated with respect to the identification of γ-ray transitions and level lifetimes. Of particular interest are the neutron-rich {sup 59,61}Mn isotopes (Z=25), for which level lifetimes of the 7/2{sup -}{sub 1}, 9/2{sup -}{sub 1} and 11/2{sup -}{sub 1} states were determined (in {sup 61}Mn the assignment is only tentative). In addition, level lifetimes in {sup 63}Mn of the tentatively assigned (7/2{sup -}{sub 1}) and (9/2{sup -}{sub 1}) states were evaluated. The results are compared to shell-model calculations using the fp interaction KB3G as well as the state-of-the-art interaction LNPS-m. The present data indicates a structural change close to N=36. The experimental data for {sup 61}Mn suggests that the B(M1) value for the 7/2{sup -}{sub 1} → 5/2{sup -}{sub gs} is underestimated by the LNPS-m interaction when free g factors are used. In the second part of this thesis, a tool is presented which allows to generate γ-ray spectra of lifetime studies based on the electromagnetic Doppler-shift using empirical parameters. The tool is highly flexible which enables the incorporation of various experimental bounding conditions. It is applied to investigate the influence of velocity distributions on the lifetime analysis and results indicate that systematic deviations are minimized if distance-dependent mean recoil velocities are taken into account.

  2. Hot-working behavior of an advanced intermetallic multi-phase γ-TiAl based alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwaighofer, Emanuel, E-mail: emanuel.schwaighofer@unileoben.ac.at [Department of Physical Metallurgy and Materials Testing, Montanuniversität Leoben, Roseggerstr. 12, A-8700 Leoben (Austria); Clemens, Helmut [Department of Physical Metallurgy and Materials Testing, Montanuniversität Leoben, Roseggerstr. 12, A-8700 Leoben (Austria); Lindemann, Janny [Chair of Physical Metallurgy and Materials Technology, Brandenburg University of Technology, Konrad-Wachsmann-Allee 17, D-03046 Cottbus (Germany); GfE Fremat GmbH, Lessingstr. 41, D-09599 Freiberg (Germany); Stark, Andreas [Institute of Materials Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Max-Planck-Str. 1, D-21502 Geesthacht (Germany); Mayer, Svea [Department of Physical Metallurgy and Materials Testing, Montanuniversität Leoben, Roseggerstr. 12, A-8700 Leoben (Austria)

    2014-09-22

    New high-performance engine concepts for aerospace and automotive application enforce the development of lightweight intermetallic γ-TiAl based alloys with increased high-temperature capability above 750 °C. Besides an increased creep resistance, the alloy system must exhibit sufficient hot-workability. However, the majority of current high-creep resistant γ-TiAl based alloys suffer from poor workability, whereby grain refinement and microstructure control during hot-working are key factors to ensure a final microstructure with sufficient ductility and tolerance against brittle failure below the brittle-to-ductile transition temperature. Therefore, a new and advanced β-solidifying γ-TiAl based alloy, a so-called TNM alloy with a composition of Ti–43Al–4Nb–1Mo–0.1B (at%) and minor additions of C and Si, is investigated by means of uniaxial compressive hot-deformation tests performed with a Gleeble 3500 simulator within a temperature range of 1150–1300 °C and a strain rate regime of 0.005–0.5 s{sup −1} up to a true deformation of 0.9. The occurring mechanisms during hot-working were decoded by ensuing constitutive modeling of the flow curves by a novel phase field region-specific surface fitting approach via a hyperbolic-sine law as well as by evaluation through processing maps combined with microstructural post-analysis to determine a safe hot-working window of the refined TNM alloy. Complementary, in situ high energy X-ray diffraction experiments in combination with an adapted quenching and deformation dilatometer were conducted for a deeper insight about the deformation behavior of the alloy, i.e. phase fractions and texture evolution as well as temperature uncertainties arising during isothermal and non-isothermal compression. It was found that the presence of β-phase and the contribution of particle stimulated nucleation of ζ-Ti{sub 5}Si{sub 3} silicides and h-type carbides Ti{sub 2}AlC enhance the dynamic recrystallization behavior during

  3. Hot-working behavior of an advanced intermetallic multi-phase γ-TiAl based alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwaighofer, Emanuel; Clemens, Helmut; Lindemann, Janny; Stark, Andreas; Mayer, Svea

    2014-01-01

    New high-performance engine concepts for aerospace and automotive application enforce the development of lightweight intermetallic γ-TiAl based alloys with increased high-temperature capability above 750 °C. Besides an increased creep resistance, the alloy system must exhibit sufficient hot-workability. However, the majority of current high-creep resistant γ-TiAl based alloys suffer from poor workability, whereby grain refinement and microstructure control during hot-working are key factors to ensure a final microstructure with sufficient ductility and tolerance against brittle failure below the brittle-to-ductile transition temperature. Therefore, a new and advanced β-solidifying γ-TiAl based alloy, a so-called TNM alloy with a composition of Ti–43Al–4Nb–1Mo–0.1B (at%) and minor additions of C and Si, is investigated by means of uniaxial compressive hot-deformation tests performed with a Gleeble 3500 simulator within a temperature range of 1150–1300 °C and a strain rate regime of 0.005–0.5 s −1 up to a true deformation of 0.9. The occurring mechanisms during hot-working were decoded by ensuing constitutive modeling of the flow curves by a novel phase field region-specific surface fitting approach via a hyperbolic-sine law as well as by evaluation through processing maps combined with microstructural post-analysis to determine a safe hot-working window of the refined TNM alloy. Complementary, in situ high energy X-ray diffraction experiments in combination with an adapted quenching and deformation dilatometer were conducted for a deeper insight about the deformation behavior of the alloy, i.e. phase fractions and texture evolution as well as temperature uncertainties arising during isothermal and non-isothermal compression. It was found that the presence of β-phase and the contribution of particle stimulated nucleation of ζ-Ti 5 Si 3 silicides and h-type carbides Ti 2 AlC enhance the dynamic recrystallization behavior during deformation within

  4. Hot working mechanisms and texture development in Mg-3Sn-2Ca-0.4Al alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dharmendra, C.; Rao, K.P.; Prasad, Y.V.R.K.; Hort, N.; Kainer, K.U.

    2012-01-01

    Hot deformation mechanisms in Mg-3Sn-2Ca (TX32) alloy containing 0.4% Al are evaluated in the temperature and strain rate ranges of 300–500 °C and 0.0003–10 s −1 using processing map and kinetic analysis. The evolution of microstructure and texture during high temperature compression of the alloy has been studied using an electron back scatter diffraction (EBSD) technique. The processing map for hot working revealed two domains of dynamic recrystallization (DRX) occurring in the temperature and strain rate ranges of: (1) 300–360 °C and 0.0003–0.001 s −1 and (2) 400–500 °C and 0.005–0.7 s −1 , which are the two safe hot workability windows for this alloy. A regime of flow instability occurs at higher strain rates and lower temperatures where adiabatic shear banding and flow localization are the microstructural manifestations. The onset of DRX during compression at lower temperatures and strain rates (Domain 1) resulted in a fine, partially recrystallized and necklaced grain microstructure along with a texture where the basal poles are spread along 30° from the compression direction. Specimens deformed at temperatures higher than 450 °C (Domain 2) resulted in a fully recrystallized microstructure and an almost random crystallographic texture, which was attributed to the significant occurrence of pyramidal slip and associated cross-slip. -- Highlights: ► Processing map revealed two DRX domains for hot working of Mg-3Sn-2Ca-0.4Al alloy. ► The alloy exhibited flow instability at lower temperatures and higher strain rates. ► Activation energy values for deformation are high due to the back stress. ► Basal poles spread around 30° to the compression axis for Domain 1 peak condition. ► Texture got randomized at high temperature and strain rate conditions in Domain 2.

  5. Standardization of a Protocol for Obtaining Platelet Rich Plasma from blood Donors; a Tool for Tissue Regeneration Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Lina Andrea; Escobar, Magally; Peñuela, Oscar

    2015-01-01

    To develop a protocol for obtaining autologous platelet rich plasma in healthy individuals and to determine the concentration of five major growth factors before platelet activation. This protocol could be integrated into the guidelines of good clinical practice and research in regenerative medicine. Platelet rich plasma was isolated by centrifugation from 38 healthy men and 42 women ranging from 18 to 59 years old. The platelet count and quantification of growth factors were analyzed in eighty samples, stratified for age and gender of the donor. Analyses were performed using parametric the t-test or Pearson's analysis for non-parametric distribution. P platelet counts from 1.6 to 4.9 times (mean = 2.8). There was no correlation between platelet concentration and the level of the following growth factors: VEGF-D (r = 0.009, p = 0.4105), VEGF-A (r = 0.0068, p = 0.953), PDGF subunit AA (p = 0.3618; r = 0.1047), PDGF-BB (p = 0.5936; r = 0.6095). In the same way, there was no correlation between donor gender and growth factor concentrations. Only TGF-β concentration was correlated to platelet concentration (r = 0.3163, p = 0.0175). The procedure used allowed us to make preparations rich in platelets, low in leukocytes and red blood cells, and sterile. Our results showed biological variations in content of growth factors in PRP. The factors influencing these results should be further studied.

  6. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and zero resistance ammeters (ZRA) as tools for studying the behaviour of zinc-rich inorganic coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novoa, X.R.; Izquierdo, M.; Merino, P.; Espada, L.

    1989-01-01

    Impedance spectra obtained from zinc-rich inorganic coatings after one year of atmospheric exposure, have been interpreted on the basis of the study of the galvanic couple Zn/Fe, using a potentiostat combined with two ZRA. The area ratio of Zn/Fe is one of the factors conditioning the cathodic protection of iron. When this ratio is locally 1:1 or lower, corrosion spots are detected on iron and the overall impedance spectra shows a 'flattened' shape at low frequencies. The type of atmosphere determines the durability and evolution of the coating's protection mechanism. (author) 9 refs., 13 figs

  7. Hot working mechanisms and texture development in Mg-3Sn-2Ca-0.4Al alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dharmendra, C. [Department of Mechanical and Biomedical Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR (China); Rao, K.P., E-mail: mekprao@cityu.edu.hk [Department of Mechanical and Biomedical Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR (China); Prasad, Y.V.R.K. [Processingmaps.com (formerly at City University of Hong Kong) (Hong Kong); Hort, N.; Kainer, K.U. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Institute of Materials Research, Magnesium Innovation Centre, Max-Planck-Strasse 1, Geesthact 21502 (Germany)

    2012-10-15

    Hot deformation mechanisms in Mg-3Sn-2Ca (TX32) alloy containing 0.4% Al are evaluated in the temperature and strain rate ranges of 300-500 Degree-Sign C and 0.0003-10 s{sup -1} using processing map and kinetic analysis. The evolution of microstructure and texture during high temperature compression of the alloy has been studied using an electron back scatter diffraction (EBSD) technique. The processing map for hot working revealed two domains of dynamic recrystallization (DRX) occurring in the temperature and strain rate ranges of: (1) 300-360 Degree-Sign C and 0.0003-0.001 s{sup -1} and (2) 400-500 Degree-Sign C and 0.005-0.7 s{sup -1}, which are the two safe hot workability windows for this alloy. A regime of flow instability occurs at higher strain rates and lower temperatures where adiabatic shear banding and flow localization are the microstructural manifestations. The onset of DRX during compression at lower temperatures and strain rates (Domain 1) resulted in a fine, partially recrystallized and necklaced grain microstructure along with a texture where the basal poles are spread along 30 Degree-Sign from the compression direction. Specimens deformed at temperatures higher than 450 Degree-Sign C (Domain 2) resulted in a fully recrystallized microstructure and an almost random crystallographic texture, which was attributed to the significant occurrence of pyramidal slip and associated cross-slip. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Processing map revealed two DRX domains for hot working of Mg-3Sn-2Ca-0.4Al alloy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The alloy exhibited flow instability at lower temperatures and higher strain rates. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Activation energy values for deformation are high due to the back stress. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Basal poles spread around 30 Degree-Sign to the compression axis for Domain 1 peak condition. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Texture got randomized at high temperature and strain rate conditions in

  8. Effects of LaB{sub 6} additions on the microstructure and mechanical properties of a sintered and hot worked P/M Ti alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lou, Jia; Gabbitas, Brian, E-mail: briang@waikato.ac.nz; Yang, Fei; Raynova, Stella; Lu, Huiyang

    2016-07-25

    A trace amount of LaB{sub 6} powder was added to P/M Ti and Ti–6Al–4V alloy to improve mechanical properties and refine the microstructure. After sintering, TiB whiskers and La{sub 2}O{sub 3} dispersoids had formed in the microstructure. In a CP Ti alloy, the generation of secondary phases leads to a much refined microstructure, but the alignment of TiB whiskers led to a variation in mechanical properties. Open die forging (ODF) or powder compact extrusion (PCE) was carried out on sintered Ti–6Al–4V alloy to further improve the mechanical properties. This caused severe deformation and re-alignment of the TiB whiskers. Comparing the properties of hot worked Ti–6Al–4V alloy and Ti–6Al–4V alloy with boron additions, an addition of LaB{sub 6} leads to slightly lower strength but gives significant better ductility. - Highlights: • LaB{sub 6} powder was added to sintered and hot worked Ti and Ti–6Al–4V alloy. • TiB whiskers and La{sub 2}O{sub 3} dispersoids formed in the microstructure. • Different alignments of TiB{sub w} led to a variation in mechanical properties. • Hot working caused severe deformation and re-alignment of TiB{sub w}. • An addition of LaB{sub 6} is better than pure boron additions.

  9. A model for construction of efficiency and stability maps of hot working processes in polycrystalline metallic materials using the Garofalo's equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieiro, I.; Fernandez, A.; Martinez, A.; Casi, M.

    1998-01-01

    Has been developed a fast and easy method for to evaluate the efficiency of the process and some or possible stabilities situations in the hot working process for the polycrystalline metallic materials (p.m.m.), by the obtained dates in the Garofalo's equation resolution for the steady state creep and for wide ranges of the work variables, stress, strain rate and temperature. These method use the fitting parameters obtained for the equation mentioned and of their physical meaning. Has been developed the numerical treatment from our previously developed software for the analysis of creep and we can obtained the efficiency energetic maps for the creep and the more generally advises areas for the hot working. Further more has been obtained maps for parameters of great physical significance; f.e. the effective activation energy for different areas of the materials hot working, and in addition has been developed a method for obtained the values of {n P L} for the different ranges of power-law application, when has been obtained the value of { n G } in the Garofalo's equation. (Author) 13 refs

  10. Spark Plasma Co-Sintering of Mechanically Milled Tool Steel and High Speed Steel Powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellizzari, Massimo; Fedrizzi, Anna; Zadra, Mario

    2016-06-16

    Hot work tool steel (AISI H13) and high speed steel (AISI M3:2) powders were successfully co-sintered to produce hybrid tool steels that have properties and microstructures that can be modulated for specific applications. To promote co-sintering, which is made difficult by the various densification kinetics of the two steels, the particle sizes and structures were refined by mechanical milling (MM). Near full density samples (>99.5%) showing very fine and homogeneous microstructure were obtained using spark plasma sintering (SPS). The density of the blends (20, 40, 60, 80 wt % H13) was in agreement with the linear rule of mixtures. Their hardness showed a positive deviation, which could be ascribed to the strengthening effect of the secondary particles altering the stress distribution during indentation. A toughening of the M3:2-rich blends could be explained in view of the crack deviation and crack arrest exerted by the H13 particles.

  11. Promoting Students' Problem Solving Skills and Knowledge of STEM Concepts in a Data-Rich Learning Environment: Using Online Data as a Tool for Teaching about Renewable Energy Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurmond, Brandi

    2011-01-01

    This study sought to compare a data-rich learning (DRL) environment that utilized online data as a tool for teaching about renewable energy technologies (RET) to a lecture-based learning environment to determine the impact of the learning environment on students' knowledge of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) concepts related…

  12. An Incremental Physically-Based Model of P91 Steel Flow Behaviour for the Numerical Analysis of Hot-Working Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Murillo-Marrodán

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper is aimed at modelling the flow behaviour of P91 steel at high temperature and a wide range of strain rates for constant and also variable strain-rate deformation conditions, such as those in real hot-working processes. For this purpose, an incremental physically-based model is proposed for the P91 steel flow behavior. This formulation considers the effects of dynamic recovery (DRV and dynamic recrystallization (DRX on the mechanical properties of the material, using only the flow stress, strain rate and temperature as state variables and not the accumulated strain. Therefore, it reproduces accurately the flow stress, work hardening and work softening not only under constant, but also under transient deformation conditions. To accomplish this study, the material is characterised experimentally by means of uniaxial compression tests, conducted at a temperature range of 900–1270 °C and at strain rates in the range of 0.005–10 s−1. Finally, the proposed model is implemented in commercial finite element (FE software to provide evidence of the performance of the proposed formulation. The experimental compression tests are simulated using the novel model and the well-known Hansel–Spittel formulation. In conclusion, the incremental physically-based model shows accurate results when work softening is present, especially under variable strain-rate deformation conditions. Hence, the present formulation is appropriate for the simulation of the hot-working processes typically conducted at industrial scale.

  13. Tribological and mechanical properties of Ti/TiAlN/TiAlCN nanoscale multilayer PVD coatings deposited on AISI H11 hot work tool steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AL-Bukhaiti, M.A., E-mail: m.albukhaiti@gmail.com [Mechanical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Sana’a University, Sana’a 12544 (Yemen); Al-hatab, K.A. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Sana’a University, Sana’a 12544 (Yemen); Tillmann, W.; Hoffmann, F.; Sprute, T. [Institute of Materials Engineering, Technische Universitat Dortmund, Leonhard-Euler-Str.2, 44227 Dortmund (Germany)

    2014-11-01

    Highlights: • New Ti/TiAlN/TiAlCN multilayer coating was developed. • It showed low wear rates (10{sup −16} m{sup 3}/N m), low friction coefficients (μ ∼ 0.25), and good hardness (17–20 GPa). • Friction coefficients and wear rates decrease and increase, respectively, with the increase in normal load and sliding velocity. • The coating/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} pair showed superior wear resistance and low friction coefficient in comparison to coating/100Cr6 pair. - Abstract: A new [Ti/TiAlN/TiAlCN]{sub 5} multilayer coatings were deposited onto polished substrate AISI H11 (DIN 1.2343) steel by an industrial magnetron sputtering device. The tribological performance of the coated system was investigated by a ball-on-disk tribometer against 100Cr6 steel and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} balls. The friction coefficients and specific wear rates were measured at various normal loads (2, 5, 8, and 10 N) and sliding velocities (0.2, 0.4, and 0.8 m/s) in ambient air and dry conditions. The phase structure, composition, wear tracks morphologies, hardness, and film/substrate adhesion of the coatings were characterized by light-microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), 3D-surface analyzer, nanoindentation, and scratch tests. Results showed that the deposited coatings showed low wear rates in the scale of 10{sup −15} m{sup 3}/N m, low friction coefficients against 100Cr6 and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} balls in the range of 0.25–0.37, and good hardness in the range of 17–20 GPa. Results also revealed that the friction coefficients and disc wear rates decrease and increase, respectively with the increase in normal load and sliding velocity for both coating/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and coating/100Cr6 sliding system. Compared with the uncoated-H11 substrate, the deposited coating exhibited superior tribological and mechanical properties. The dominant wear mechanism was abrasive wear for coating/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} pair, while for coating/100Cr6 pair, a combination of mild adhesive wear, severe adhesive wear, and abrasive wear (extensive plowing) were the dominant wear mechanisms at different applied normal loads.

  14. Investigation of the fabrication process of hot-worked stainless-steel and Mo sheathed PbMo6 S8 wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamasaki, H.; Kimura, Y.

    1988-01-01

    Stainless-steel and Mo sheathed PbMo 6 S 8 wires have been fabricated by hot working from modified PbS, Mo, and MoS 2 mixed powders which were prepared by reacting Pb, Mo, and S at 530 0 C. Critical current densities were investigated for different preparation conditions, and it is revealed that obtaining continuous current path between PbMo 6 S 8 grains is the most important factor to achieve high critical current density. The J/sub c/ value of 2.8 x 10 4 Acm 2 (8 T), 7.8 x 10 3 Acm 2 (15 T), and 1.3 x 10 3 Acm 2 (23 T) was observed for the PbMo 6 S/sub 7.0/ wire heat treated at 700 0 C.copic

  15. Effect of Heat Treatment on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Nitrogen-Alloyed High-Mn Austenitic Hot Work Die Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zhang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In view of the requirements for mechanical properties and service life above 650 °C, a high-Mn austenitic hot work die steel, instead of traditional martensitic hot work die steel such as H13, was developed in the present study. The effect of heat treatment on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the newly developed work die steel was studied. The results show that the microstructure of the high-Mn as-cast electroslag remelting (ESR ingot is composed of γ-Fe, V(C,N, and Mo2C. V(C,N is an irregular multilateral strip or slice shape with severe angles. Most eutectic Mo2C carbides are lamellar fish-skeleton-like, except for a few that are rod-shaped. With increasing solid solution time and temperature, the increased hardness caused by solid solution strengthening exceeds the effect of decreased hardness caused by grain size growth, but this trend is reversed later. As a result, the hardness of specimens after various solid solution heat treatments increases first and then decreases. The optimal combination of hardness and austenitic grain size can be obtained by soaking for 2 h at 1170 °C. The maximum Rockwell hardness (HRC is 47.24 HRC, and the corresponding austenite average grain size is 58.4 μm. When the solid solution time is 3 h at 1230 °C, bimodality presented in the histogram of the austenite grain size as a result of further progress in secondary recrystallization. Compared with the single-stage aging, the maximum impact energy of the specimen after two-stage aging heat treatment was reached at 16.2 J and increased by 29.6%, while the hardness decreased by 1–2 HRC. After two-stage aging heat treatment, the hardness of steel reached the requirements of superior grade H13, and the maximum impact energy was 19.6% higher than that of superior grade H13, as specified in NADCA#207-2003.

  16. Data- and Tool-rich Curriculum on Natural Catastrophes: Case Study of M9+ Earthquakes and Mega-tsunamis in Cascadia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayhew, M.; Hall, M.; Walker, C. S.; Butler, R. F.

    2008-12-01

    We report on one of four undergraduate curriculum units on natural catastrophes that make use of a wide range of geologic and geophysical data sets and data visualization and analysis tools. All units use My World GIS tools, Google Earth, Excel, animations, and video. In the Cascadia case study, students conduct a series of investigations concerning evidence of M9+ earthquakes in the past and evidence of present-day deformation consistent with the likelihood of another such earthquake some time in the future. The unit begins with Native oral traditions that predate European settlement of the region in the mid-18th century that tell of a huge earthquake and accompanying tsunami. The scene shifts to the great M9+ Sumatra earthquake of 2004 as a possible analog. Students analyze GPS and other data related to horizontal and vertical motions accompanying the earthquake. Comparisons of deformation patterns and rupture zone extent among the 2004 M9+ Sumatran, 1960 M9+ Chilean and the 1964 M9+ Alaskan earthquakes are made with a possible Cascadian analog. Students analyze Cascadia GPS data from the Plate Boundary Observatory and investigate strain accumulation patterns consistent with a locked zone at the shallow part of the subduction zone. They then use geologic evidence to evaluate the possibility of great earthquakes in the past. They do this much in the same way that geologists have, noting the distinctive stratigraphic evidence of catastrophic subsidence and tsunami inundation, directly analogous to the effects accompanying the other great earthquakes they have studied. They determine the year, date, and time of the last great earthquake that occurred here, by linking to the Japanese historical record of an "Orphan Tsunami" that devastated Japan in 1700. They note evidence from coastal estuarian stratigraphy and from deep sea cores in the Cascadia Basin of multiple great earthquakes over the last 10,000 years and compute recurrence intervals. They then conduct a

  17. SOFTWARE SUPPORT FOR RICH PICTURES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valente, Andrea; Marchetti, Emanuela

    2010-01-01

    Rich pictures (RP) are common in object-oriented analysis and design courses, but students seem to have problems in integrating them in their projects' workflow. A new software tool is being developed, specific for RP authoring. To better understand students' issues and working practice with RP...

  18. Analysis of the rate of maturogenesis of a traumatized Cvek′s stage 3 anterior tooth treated with platelet-rich fibrin as a regenerative tool using three-dimensional cone-beam computed tomography: An original case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raji Viola Solomon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Regenerative endodontic procedures are biologically based procedures which deal with the regeneration of pulp-like tissue, more idealistically the pulp-dentin complex. The regeneration of this pulp-dentin complex in an infected necrotic tooth with an open apex is possible only when the canal is effectively disinfected. Though there are various procedures for treating open apex ranging from Ca(OH 2 apexification, mineral trioxide aggregate apexification and surgical approach, regeneration of tissues has always taken superior hand over the repair of tissues. The mechanics behind the regenerative endodontic procedures is that despite the tooth being necrotic, some pulp tissue can survive apically which under favorable conditions proliferate to aid in the process of regeneration. In the past 2 decades, an increased understanding of the physiological roles of platelets in wound healing and after tissue injury has led to the idea of using platelets as therapeutic tools in the field regenerative endodontics. In the present case report with an open apex, high sterilization protocol is followed using triple antibiotic paste as intra-canal medicament, followed which platelet rich fibrin is used as the regenerative material of choice. Over an 18-month follow-up period, clinically patient is asymptomatic and radiographically there is complete regression of the periapical lesion and initiation of the root end closure.

  19. Analysis of the rate of maturogenesis of a traumatized Cvek's stage 3 anterior tooth treated with platelet-rich fibrin as a regenerative tool using three-dimensional cone-beam computed tomography: an original case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Raji Viola; Faizuddin, Umrana; Guniganti, Sushma Shravani; Waghray, Shefali

    2015-01-01

    Regenerative endodontic procedures are biologically based procedures which deal with the regeneration of pulp-like tissue, more idealistically the pulp-dentin complex. The regeneration of this pulp-dentin complex in an infected necrotic tooth with an open apex is possible only when the canal is effectively disinfected. Though there are various procedures for treating open apex ranging from Ca(OH) 2 apexification, mineral trioxide aggregate apexification and surgical approach, regeneration of tissues has always taken superior hand over the repair of tissues. The mechanics behind the regenerative endodontic procedures is that despite the tooth being necrotic, some pulp tissue can survive apically which under favorable conditions proliferate to aid in the process of regeneration. In the past 2 decades, an increased understanding of the physiological roles of platelets in wound healing and after tissue injury has led to the idea of using platelets as therapeutic tools in the field regenerative endodontics. In the present case report with an open apex, high sterilization protocol is followed using triple antibiotic paste as intra-canal medicament, followed which platelet rich fibrin is used as the regenerative material of choice. Over an 18-month follow-up period, clinically patient is asymptomatic and radiographically there is complete regression of the periapical lesion and initiation of the root end closure.

  20. Spark Plasma Co-Sintering of Mechanically Milled Tool Steel and High Speed Steel Powders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Pellizzari

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Hot work tool steel (AISI H13 and high speed steel (AISI M3:2 powders were successfully co-sintered to produce hybrid tool steels that have properties and microstructures that can be modulated for specific applications. To promote co-sintering, which is made difficult by the various densification kinetics of the two steels, the particle sizes and structures were refined by mechanical milling (MM. Near full density samples (>99.5% showing very fine and homogeneous microstructure were obtained using spark plasma sintering (SPS. The density of the blends (20, 40, 60, 80 wt % H13 was in agreement with the linear rule of mixtures. Their hardness showed a positive deviation, which could be ascribed to the strengthening effect of the secondary particles altering the stress distribution during indentation. A toughening of the M3:2-rich blends could be explained in view of the crack deviation and crack arrest exerted by the H13 particles.

  1. Determination of the constants of constitutive hot working equations and obtention of ISO-Z {sigma} x {epsilon} curves for Al-Li alloys; Determinacao das constantes de equacoes constitutivas de trabalho a quente e obtencao de curvas {sigma} x {epsilon} ISO-Z para ligas Al-Li

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, Marcelo [Instituto de Pesquisas Tecnologicas (IPT), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Simielli, Eider A [Coordenadoria para Projetos Especiais (COPESP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1993-12-31

    A method for determining the contents of constructive hot working equations are described. The experimental data used were obtained by plane strain compression tests for different conditions of temperature and strain rate, for both alloys 8090 and 8091. The results are very important due to their applicability in the prediction of stress and microstructural features developed during hot working of the alloys studied. (author). 8 refs., 5 figs.

  2. Adaptive Reactive Rich Internet Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Kay-Uwe; Stühmer, Roland; Dörflinger, Jörg; Rahmani, Tirdad; Thomas, Susan; Stojanovic, Ljiljana

    Rich Internet Applications significantly raise the user experience compared with legacy page-based Web applications because of their highly responsive user interfaces. Although this is a tremendous advance, it does not solve the problem of the one-size-fits-all approach1 of current Web applications. So although Rich Internet Applications put the user in a position to interact seamlessly with the Web application, they do not adapt to the context in which the user is currently working. In this paper we address the on-the-fly personalization of Rich Internet Applications. We introduce the concept of ARRIAs: Adaptive Reactive Rich Internet Applications and elaborate on how they are able to adapt to the current working context the user is engaged in. An architecture for the ad hoc adaptation of Rich Internet Applications is presented as well as a holistic framework and tools for the realization of our on-the-fly personalization approach. We divided both the architecture and the framework into two levels: offline/design-time and online/run-time. For design-time we explain how to use ontologies in order to annotate Rich Internet Applications and how to use these annotations for conceptual Web usage mining. Furthermore, we describe how to create client-side executable rules from the semantic data mining results. We present our declarative lightweight rule language tailored to the needs of being executed directly on the client. Because of the event-driven nature of the user interfaces of Rich Internet Applications, we designed a lightweight rule language based on the event-condition-action paradigm.2 At run-time the interactions of a user are tracked directly on the client and in real-time a user model is built up. The user model then acts as input to and is evaluated by our client-side complex event processing and rule engine.

  3. The CAPRICE RICH detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basini, G. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Rome (Italy); Codino, A.; Grimani, C. [Perugia Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Perugia (Italy); De Pascale, M.P. [Rome Univ. `Tor Vergata` (Italy). Dip. di Fisica]|[INFN, Sezione Univ. `Tor Vergata` Rome (Italy); Cafagna, F. [Bari Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Bari (Italy); Golden, R.L. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States). Particle Astrophysics Lab.; Brancaccio, F.; Bocciolini, M. [Florence Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Florence (Italy); Barbiellini, G.; Boezio, M. [Trieste Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Trieste (Italy)

    1995-09-01

    A compact RICH detector has been developed and used for particle identification in a balloon borne spectrometer to measure the flux of antimatter in the cosmic radiation. This is the first RICH detector ever used in space experiments that is capable of detecting unit charged particles, such as antiprotons. The RICH and all other detectors performed well during the 27 hours long flight.

  4. CHARACTERIZATION OF NEW TOOL STEEL FOR ALUMINUM EXTRUSION DIES

    OpenAIRE

    José Britti Bacalhau; Fernanda Moreno Rodrigues; Rafael Agnelli Mesquita

    2014-01-01

    Aluminum extrusion dies are an important segment of application on industrial tools steels, which are manufactured in steels based on AISI H13 steel. The main properties of steels applied to extrusion dies are: wear resistance, impact resistance and tempering resistance. The present work discusses the characteristics of a newly developed hot work steel to be used on aluminum extrusion dies. The effects of Cr and Mo contents with respect to tempering resistance and the Al addition ...

  5. Beta decay and magnetic moments as tools to probe nuclear structure. Study of neutron-rich nuclei around N=40; Decroissance beta et moments magnetiques comme outils pour sonder la structure nucleaire. Etude des noyaux riches en neutrons autour de N=40

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matea, I

    2003-12-01

    The evolution of nuclear structure in nuclei far from the {beta} stability line is one of the 'hot topics' in modern experimental and theoretical nuclear physics. The present thesis is devoted to the study of structure of neutron-rich nuclei around N=40. The evolution of the neutron g9/2 orbital with increasing number of neutrons is one of the key points defining the structure of these nuclei at low excitation energy. We used for this investigation as experimental tools the magnetic dipole moments measurements and the {beta} decay spectroscopy. For the measurement of the gyromagnetic factor of the 9/2{sup +} isomeric state in Fe{sup 61} we have applied the TDPAD method. This method (like most of measurements of nuclear moments) requires an oriented ensemble of nuclei. The orientation of Fe{sup 61m} was achieved via the fragmentation of Ni{sup 64} at 55 MeV/u and the selection of the fragment momentum with the LISE spectrometer at GANIL. The experimental device was specially conceived to preserve the alignment up to the implantation point. The measured value of the g factor was compared with large-scale shell model and Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov model predictions. The nuclei studied via {beta} decay were produced by the fragmentation of Kr{sup 86} at 58 MeV/u. For the selection of reaction products we used for the first time the LISE2000 spectrometer and for the detection of {gamma} rays four EXOGAM clover detectors. We measured 5 new lifetimes and 4 lifetimes with a higher precision. From the prompt {beta}{gamma} coincidences we identified new states in the daughter nuclei, as it is the case of the first 2{sup +} excited states in Fe{sup 68} and Ni{sup 72}. The results were compared with the predictions of the large-scale shell model. Other transitions were observed for the first time in {beta}{gamma} decay of Ti{sup 60}, Fe{sup 70} and Co{sup 71,73}. (author)

  6. Development of multilayer coatings for forming dies and tools of aluminium alloy from liquid state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, E; Ugues, D; Brytan, Z; Perucca, M

    2009-01-01

    In this work, a nanocomposite (Cr,Al) x N 1-x /Si 3 N 4 coating system was deposited on H11 hot work tool steel, using the Lateral Arc Rotating Cathodes (LARC (registered) ) deposition system and modulating the chemical composition of the chromium and aluminium-silicon content. Structural characterizations were performed using scanning electron microscopy, equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy probe, and applying x-ray diffraction, for the evaluation of phase constitution and crystallite size. In addition to the structural features, the coatings' resistance to cyclic immersions in molten aluminium alloy was evaluated. The deposited CrAlSiN coatings exhibited an fcc-Cr 1-x Al x N type structure with different aluminium contents, which directly influence hardness and wear and fatigue resistance in cyclic immersion tests. The main failure modes that occurred on the coatings' surface were soldering and thermal fatigue cracks mainly in the form of heat checks. The aluminium rich coatings were able to withstand about 15 000 cycles, whereas the decrease in the aluminium content in the coatings results in a decrease in the resistance to the immersion in molten aluminium bath. It is worthwhile to note that uncoated H11, subjected to similar testing conditions, withstood at maximum 5000 cycles.

  7. Research: Rags to Rags? Riches to Riches?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracey, Gerald W.

    2004-01-01

    Everyone has read about what might be called the "gold gap"--how the rich in this country are getting richer and controlling an ever-larger share of the nation's wealth. The Century Foundation has started publishing "Reality Check", a series of guides to campaign issues that sometimes finds gaps in these types of cherished delusions. The guides…

  8. Kings Today, Rich Tomorrow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fattoum, Asma

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the King vs. Rich dilemma that founder-CEOs face at IPO. When undertaking IPO, founders face two options. They can either get rich, but then run the risk of losing the control over their firms; or they can remain kings by introducing defensive mechanisms, but this is likel...

  9. Developments on RICH detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besson, P.; Bourgeois, P.

    1996-01-01

    The RICH (ring imaging Cherenkov) detector which is dedicated to Cherenkov radiation detection is described. An improvement made by replacing photo sensible vapor with solid photocathode is studied. A RICH detector prototype with a CsI photocathode has been built in Saclay and used with Saturne. The first results are presented. (A.C.)

  10. Lubrication for hot working of titanium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gotlib, B.M.

    1980-01-01

    The isothermal lubrication of the following composition is suggested, wt. %: aluminium powder 4-6, iron scale 15-25, vitreous enamel up to 100. The lubricant improves forming and decreases the danger of the metal fracture when titanium alloys working. It is advisable to use the suggested lubrication when stamping thin-walled products of titanium alloys at the blank temperature from 700 to 1000 deg C [ru

  11. Rich Language Analysis for Counterterrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidère, Mathieu; Howard, Newton; Argamon, Shlomo

    Accurate and relevant intelligence is critical for effective counterterrorism. Too much irrelevant information is as bad or worse than not enough information. Modern computational tools promise to provide better search and summarization capabilities to help analysts filter and select relevant and key information. However, to do this task effectively, such tools must have access to levels of meaning beyond the literal. Terrorists operating in context-rich cultures like fundamentalist Islam use messages with multiple levels of interpretation, which are easily misunderstood by non-insiders. This chapter discusses several kinds of such “encryption” used by terrorists and insurgents in the Arabic language, and how knowledge of such methods can be used to enhance computational text analysis techniques for use in counterterrorism.

  12. Authoring Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treviranus, Jutta

    Authoring tools that are accessible and that enable authors to produce accessible Web content play a critical role in web accessibility. Widespread use of authoring tools that comply to the W3C Authoring Tool Accessibility Guidelines (ATAG) would ensure that even authors who are neither knowledgeable about nor particularly motivated to produce accessible content do so by default. The principles and techniques of ATAG are discussed. Some examples of accessible authoring tools are described including authoring tool content management components such as TinyMCE. Considerations for creating an accessible collaborative environment are also covered. As part of providing accessible content, the debate between system-based personal optimization and one universally accessible site configuration is presented. The issues and potential solutions to address the accessibility crisis presented by the advent of rich internet applications are outlined. This challenge must be met to ensure that a large segment of the population is able to participate in the move toward the web as a two-way communication mechanism.

  13. The CBM RICH project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamczewski-Musch, J. [GSI Darmstadt (Germany); Becker, K.-H. [University Wuppertal (Germany); Belogurov, S. [ITEP Moscow (Russian Federation); Boldyreva, N. [PNPI Gatchina (Russian Federation); Chernogorov, A. [ITEP Moscow (Russian Federation); Deveaux, C. [University Gießen (Germany); Dobyrn, V. [PNPI Gatchina (Russian Federation); Dürr, M. [University Gießen (Germany); Eom, J. [Pusan National University (Korea, Republic of); Eschke, J. [GSI Darmstadt (Germany); Höhne, C. [University Gießen (Germany); Kampert, K.-H. [University Wuppertal (Germany); Kleipa, V. [GSI Darmstadt (Germany); Kochenda, L. [PNPI Gatchina (Russian Federation); Kolb, B. [GSI Darmstadt (Germany); Kopfer, J. [University Wuppertal (Germany); Kravtsov, P. [PNPI Gatchina (Russian Federation); Lebedev, S.; Lebedeva, E. [University Gießen (Germany); Leonova, E. [PNPI Gatchina (Russian Federation); and others

    2014-12-01

    The Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment will study the properties of super dense nuclear matter by means of heavy ion collisions at the future FAIR facility. An integral detector component is a large Ring Imaging Cherenkov detector with CO{sub 2} gas radiator, which will mainly serve for electron identification and pion suppression necessary to access rare dileptonic probes like e{sup +}e{sup −} decays of light vector mesons or J/Ψ. We describe the design of this future RICH detector and focus on results obtained by building a CBM RICH detector prototype tested at CERN-PS.

  14. Neutron rich nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foucher, R.

    1979-01-01

    If some β - emitters are particularly interesting to study in light, medium, and heavy nuclei, another (and also) difficult problem is to know systematically the properties of these neutron rich nuclei far from the stability line. A review of some of their characteristics is presented. How far is it possible to be objective in the interpretation of data is questioned and implications are discussed

  15. High Thermal Conductivity and High Wear Resistance Tool Steels for cost-effective Hot Stamping Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valls, I.; Hamasaiid, A.; Padré, A.

    2017-09-01

    In hot stamping/press hardening, in addition to its shaping function, the tool controls the cycle time, the quality of the stamped components through determining the cooling rate of the stamped blank, the production costs and the feasibility frontier for stamping a given component. During the stamping, heat is extracted from the stamped blank and transported through the tool to the cooling medium in the cooling lines. Hence, the tools’ thermal properties determine the cooling rate of the blank, the heat transport mechanism, stamping times and temperature distribution. The tool’s surface resistance to adhesive and abrasive wear is also an important cost factor, as it determines the tool durability and maintenance costs. Wear is influenced by many tool material parameters, such as the microstructure, composition, hardness level and distribution of strengthening phases, as well as the tool’s working temperature. A decade ago, Rovalma developed a hot work tool steel for hot stamping that features a thermal conductivity of more than double that of any conventional hot work tool steel. Since that time, many complimentary grades have been developed in order to provide tailored material solutions as a function of the production volume, degree of blank cooling and wear resistance requirements, tool geometries, tool manufacturing method, type and thickness of the blank material, etc. Recently, Rovalma has developed a new generation of high thermal conductivity, high wear resistance tool steel grades that enable the manufacture of cost effective tools for hot stamping to increase process productivity and reduce tool manufacturing costs and lead times. Both of these novel grades feature high wear resistance and high thermal conductivity to enhance tool durability and cut cycle times in the production process of hot stamped components. Furthermore, one of these new grades reduces tool manufacturing costs through low tool material cost and hardening through readily

  16. The CBM RICH project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamczewski-Musch, J. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Akishin, P. [Laboratory of Information Technologies, Joint Institute for Nuclear research (JINR-LIT), Dubna (Russian Federation); Becker, K.-H. [Department of Physics, University of Wuppertal, D-42097 Wuppertal (Germany); Belogurov, S. [SSC RF ITEP, 117218 Moscow (Russian Federation); Bendarouach, J. [Institute of Physics II and Institute of Applied Physics, Justus Liebig University Giessen, D-35392 Giessen (Germany); Boldyreva, N. [National Research Centre “Kurchatov Institute” B.P. Konstantinov Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, 188300 Gatchina (Russian Federation); Chernogorov, A. [SSC RF ITEP, 117218 Moscow (Russian Federation); Deveaux, C. [Institute of Physics II and Institute of Applied Physics, Justus Liebig University Giessen, D-35392 Giessen (Germany); Dobyrn, V. [National Research Centre “Kurchatov Institute” B.P. Konstantinov Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, 188300 Gatchina (Russian Federation); Dürr, M. [Institute of Physics II and Institute of Applied Physics, Justus Liebig University Giessen, D-35392 Giessen (Germany); Eschke, J. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Förtsch, J. [Department of Physics, University of Wuppertal, D-42097 Wuppertal (Germany); Heep, J.; Höhne, C. [Institute of Physics II and Institute of Applied Physics, Justus Liebig University Giessen, D-35392 Giessen (Germany); Kampert, K.-H. [Department of Physics, University of Wuppertal, D-42097 Wuppertal (Germany); and others

    2017-02-11

    The CBM RICH detector is an integral component of the future CBM experiment at FAIR, providing efficient electron identification and pion suppression necessary for the measurement of rare dileptonic probes in heavy ion collisions. The RICH design is based on CO{sub 2} gas as radiator, a segmented spherical glass focussing mirror with Al+MgF{sub 2} reflective coating, and Multianode Photomultipliers for efficient Cherenkov photon detection. Hamamatsu H12700 MAPMTs have recently been selected as photon sensors, following an extensive sensor evaluation, including irradiation tests to ensure sufficient radiation hardness of the MAPMTs. A brief overview of the detector design and concept is given, results on the radiation hardness of the photon sensors are shown, and the development of a FPGA-TDC based readout chain is discussed.

  17. The CLEO RICH detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artuso, M.; Ayad, R.; Bukin, K.; Efimov, A.; Boulahouache, C.; Dambasuren, E.; Kopp, S.; Li, Ji; Majumder, G.; Menaa, N.; Mountain, R.; Schuh, S.; Skwarnicki, T.; Stone, S.; Viehhauser, G.; Wang, J.C.; Coan, T.E.; Fadeyev, V.; Maravin, Y.; Volobouev, I.; Ye, J.; Anderson, S.; Kubota, Y.; Smith, A.

    2005-01-01

    We describe the design, construction and performance of a Ring Imaging Cherenkov Detector (RICH) constructed to identify charged particles in the CLEO experiment. Cherenkov radiation occurs in LiF crystals, both planar and ones with a novel 'sawtooth'-shaped exit surface. Photons in the wavelength interval 135-165nm are detected using multi-wire chambers filled with a mixture of methane gas and triethylamine vapor. Excellent π/K separation is demonstrated

  18. CBM RICH geometry optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahmoud, Tariq; Hoehne, Claudia [II. Physikalisches Institut, Giessen Univ. (Germany); Collaboration: CBM-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment at the future FAIR complex will investigate the phase diagram of strongly interacting matter at high baryon density and moderate temperatures in A+A collisions from 2-11 AGeV (SIS100) beam energy. The main electron identification detector in the CBM experiment will be a RICH detector with a CO{sub 2} gaseous-radiator, focusing spherical glass mirrors, and MAPMT photo-detectors being placed on a PMT-plane. The RICH detector is located directly behind the CBM dipole magnet. As the final magnet geometry is now available, some changes in the RICH geometry become necessary. In order to guarantee a magnetic field of 1 mT at maximum in the PMT plane for effective operation of the MAPMTs, two measures have to be taken: The PMT plane is moved outwards of the stray field by tilting the mirrors by 10 degrees and shielding boxes have been designed. In this contribution the results of the geometry optimization procedure are presented.

  19. Sequential extraction combined with isotope analysis as a tool for the investigation of lead mobilisation in soils: Application to organic-rich soils in an upland catchment in Scotland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacon, Jeffrey R.; Farmer, John G.; Dunn, Sarah M.; Graham, Margaret C.; Vinogradoff, Susan I.

    2006-01-01

    Sequential extraction (modified BCR procedure) combined with isotope analysis has been investigated as a tool for assessing mobilisation of lead into streams at an upland catchment in NE Scotland. The maximum lead concentrations (up to 110 mg kg -1 in air-dried soil) occurred not at the surface but at about 10 cm depth. The lowest 206 Pb/ 207 Pb ratios in any profile occurred, with one exception, at 2.5-5 cm depth. In the one exception, closest to the only road in the area, significantly lower 206 Pb/ 207 Pb ratios in the surface soil together with much increased chloride concentrations (in comparison to other surface waters) indicated the possible mobilisation of roadside lead and transfer to the stream. The 206 Pb/ 207 Pb ratios in extractable fractions tended at depth towards the ratio measured in the residual phase but the ratios in the oxidizable fraction increased to a value higher than that of the residual phase. - Sequential extraction combined with isotope analysis was used as a tool to assess mobilisation of lead into streams

  20. HTML5 Designing Rich Internet Applications

    CERN Document Server

    David, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    Implement the powerful new multimedia and interactive capabilities offered by HTML5, including style control tools, illustration tools, video, audio, and rich media solutions. Understand how HTML5 is changing the Web development game with this full-color, project-based treatment that shows you-not just tells you-what HTML5 can do for your Web sites. Reinforce your practical understanding of the new standard with demo applications and tutorials, so that execution is one short step away. The companion website, visualizetheweb.com, is packed full of extra information, online code libraries, and

  1. The challenge of electronic health records (EHRs) design and implementation: responses of health workers to drawing a 'big and rich picture' of a future EHR programme using animated tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkings, K Neil; Wilson, Robert G

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the use of animation tools to aid visualisation of problems for discussion within focus groups, in the context of healthcare workers discussing electronic health records (EHRs). Ten healthcare staff focus groups, held in a range of organisational contexts. Each focus group was in four stages: baseline discussion, animator presentation, post-animator discussion and questionnaire. Audio recordings of the focus groups were transcribed and coded and the emergent analytic themes analysed for issues relating to EHR design and implementation. The data allowed a comparison of baseline and post-animator discussion. The animator facilitated discussion about EHR issues and these were thematically coded as: Workload; Sharing Information; Access to Information; Record Content; Confidentiality; Patient Consent; and Implementation. We illustrate that use of the animator in focus groups is one means to raise understanding about a proposed EHR development. The animator provided a visual 'probe' to support a more proactive and discursive localised approach to end-user concerns, which could be part of an effective stakeholder engagement and communication strategy crucial in any EHR or health informatics implementation programme. The results of the focus groups were to raise salient issues and concerns, many of which anticipated those that have emerged in the current NHS Connecting for Health Care Records programme in England. Potentially, animator-type technologies may facilitate the user ownership which other forms of dissemination appear to be failing to achieve.

  2. LHCB RICH gas system proposal

    CERN Document Server

    Bosteels, Michel; Haider, S

    2001-01-01

    Both LHCb RICH will be operated with fluorocarbon as gas radiator. RICH 1 will be filled with 4m^3 of C4F10 and RICH 2 with 100m^3 of CF4. The gas systems will run as a closed loop circulation and a gas recovery system within the closed loop is planned for RICH 1, where the recovery of the CF4 will only be realised during filling and emptying of the detector. Inline gas purification is foreseen for the gas systems in order to limit water and oxygen impurities.

  3. Qualification of laser based additive production for manufacturing of forging Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junker Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mass customization leads to very short product life cycles, so the costs of a tool have to be amortized with a low number of workpieces. Especially for highly loaded tools, like those for forging, that leads to expensive products. Therefore more economical production processes for tool manufacturing have to be investigated. As laser additive manufacturing is already used for the production of moulds for injection moulding, this technology maybe could also improve the forging tool production. Within this paper laser metal deposition, which is industrially used for tool repair, will be investigated for the use in tool manufacturing. Therefore a mechanical characterization of parts built with different laser process parameters out of the hot work tool steel 1.2709 is made by upsetting tests and hardness measurements. So the influence of the additive manufacturing process on the hardness distribution is analysed.

  4. Information rich display design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welch, Robin; Braseth, Alf Ove; Veland, Oeystein

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the concept Information Rich Displays. The purpose of Information Rich Displays (IRDs) is to condensate prevailing information in process displays in such a way that each display format (picture) contains more relevant information for the user. Compared to traditional process control displays, this new concept allows the operator to attain key information at a glance and at the same time allows for improved monitoring of larger portions of the process. This again allows for reduced navigation between both process and trend displays and ease the cognitive demand on the operator. This concept has been created while working on designing display prototypes for the offshore petroleum production facilities of tomorrow. Offshore installations basically consist of wells, separation trains (where oil, gas and water are separated from each other), an oil tax measurement system (where oil quality is measured and the pressure increased to allow for export), gas compression (compression of gas for export) and utility systems (water treatment, chemical systems etc.). This means that an offshore control room operator has to deal with a complex process that comprises several functionally different systems. The need for a new approach to offshore display format design is in particular based on shortcomings in today's designs related to the keyhole effect, where the display format only reveals a fraction of the whole process. Furthermore, the upcoming introduction of larger off- and on-shore operation centres will increase the size and complexity of the operators' work domain. In the light of the increased demands on the operator, the proposed IRDs aim to counter the negative effects this may have on the workload. In this work we have attempted to classify the wide range of different roles an operator can have in different situations. The information content and amount being presented to the operator in a display should be viewed in context of the roles the

  5. Xpos’re: A Tool for Rich Internet Publications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breure, L.; Hoogerwerf, M.L.; van Horik, M.P.M.

    2014-01-01

    Internet technologies are gradually reshaping the function of traditional scholarly publications. There is a growing tendency in some disciplines to publish a digital paper together with supplements such as images, videos, 3D-models and underlying data. More information requires a better usability

  6. An Improved Cluster Richness Estimator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozo, Eduardo; /Ohio State U.; Rykoff, Eli S.; /UC, Santa Barbara; Koester, Benjamin P.; /Chicago U. /KICP, Chicago; McKay, Timothy; /Michigan U.; Hao, Jiangang; /Michigan U.; Evrard, August; /Michigan U.; Wechsler, Risa H.; /SLAC; Hansen, Sarah; /Chicago U. /KICP, Chicago; Sheldon, Erin; /New York U.; Johnston, David; /Houston U.; Becker, Matthew R.; /Chicago U. /KICP, Chicago; Annis, James T.; /Fermilab; Bleem, Lindsey; /Chicago U.; Scranton, Ryan; /Pittsburgh U.

    2009-08-03

    Minimizing the scatter between cluster mass and accessible observables is an important goal for cluster cosmology. In this work, we introduce a new matched filter richness estimator, and test its performance using the maxBCG cluster catalog. Our new estimator significantly reduces the variance in the L{sub X}-richness relation, from {sigma}{sub lnL{sub X}}{sup 2} = (0.86 {+-} 0.02){sup 2} to {sigma}{sub lnL{sub X}}{sup 2} = (0.69 {+-} 0.02){sup 2}. Relative to the maxBCG richness estimate, it also removes the strong redshift dependence of the richness scaling relations, and is significantly more robust to photometric and redshift errors. These improvements are largely due to our more sophisticated treatment of galaxy color data. We also demonstrate the scatter in the L{sub X}-richness relation depends on the aperture used to estimate cluster richness, and introduce a novel approach for optimizing said aperture which can be easily generalized to other mass tracers.

  7. Testing the Relationships between Diversification, Species Richness, and Trait Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozak, Kenneth H; Wiens, John J

    2016-11-01

    Understanding which traits drive species diversification is essential for macroevolutionary studies and to understand patterns of species richness among clades. An important tool for testing if traits influence diversification is to estimate rates of net diversification for each clade, and then test for a relationship between traits and diversification rates among clades. However, this general approach has become very controversial. Numerous papers have now stated that it is inappropriate to analyze net diversification rates in groups in which clade richness is not positively correlated with clade age. Similarly, some have stated that variation in net diversification rates does not explain variation in species richness patterns among clades across the Tree of Life. Some authors have also suggested that strong correlations between richness and diversification rates are a statistical artifact and effectively inevitable. If this latter point is true, then correlations between richness and diversification rates would be uninformative (or even misleading) for identifying how much variation in species richness among clades is explained by variation in net diversification rates. Here, we use simulations (based on empirical data for plethodontid salamanders) to address three main questions. First, how is variation in net diversification rates among clades related to the relationship between clade age and species richness? Second, how accurate are these net diversification rate estimators, and does the age-richness relationship have any relevance to their accuracy? Third, is a relationship between species richness and diversification rates an inevitable, statistical artifact? Our simulations show that strong, positive age-richness relationships arise when diversification rates are invariant among clades, whereas realistic variation in diversification rates among clades frequently disrupts this relationship. Thus, a significant age-richness relationship should not be a

  8. Geomorphic controls on elevational gradients of species richness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertuzzo, Enrico; Carrara, Francesco; Mari, Lorenzo; Altermatt, Florian; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio; Rinaldo, Andrea

    2016-02-16

    Elevational gradients of biodiversity have been widely investigated, and yet a clear interpretation of the biotic and abiotic factors that determine how species richness varies with elevation is still elusive. In mountainous landscapes, habitats at different elevations are characterized by different areal extent and connectivity properties, key drivers of biodiversity, as predicted by metacommunity theory. However, most previous studies directly correlated species richness to elevational gradients of potential drivers, thus neglecting the interplay between such gradients and the environmental matrix. Here, we investigate the role of geomorphology in shaping patterns of species richness. We develop a spatially explicit zero-sum metacommunity model where species have an elevation-dependent fitness and otherwise neutral traits. Results show that ecological dynamics over complex terrains lead to the null expectation of a hump-shaped elevational gradient of species richness, a pattern widely observed empirically. Local species richness is found to be related to the landscape elevational connectivity, as quantified by a newly proposed metric that applies tools of complex network theory to measure the closeness of a site to others with similar habitat. Our theoretical results suggest clear geomorphic controls on elevational gradients of species richness and support the use of the landscape elevational connectivity as a null model for the analysis of the distribution of biodiversity.

  9. Short-Term Summer Inundation as a Measure to Counteract Acidification in Rich Fens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mettrop, I.S.; Cusell, C.; Kooijman, A.M.; Lamers, L.P.M.

    2015-01-01

    In regions with intensive agriculture, water level fluctuation in wetlands has generally become constricted within narrow limits. Water authorities are, however, considering the re-establishment of fluctuating water levels as a management tool in biodiverse, base-rich fens (‘rich fens’). This

  10. Characterization of Leukocyte-platelet Rich Fibrin, A Novel Biomaterial

    OpenAIRE

    Madurantakam, Parthasarathy; Yoganarasimha, Suyog; Hasan, Fadi K.

    2015-01-01

    Autologous platelet concentrates represent promising innovative tools in the field of regenerative medicine and have been extensively used in oral surgery. Unlike platelet rich plasma (PRP) that is a gel or a suspension, Leukocyte-Platelet Rich Fibrin (L-PRF) is a solid 3D fibrin membrane generated chair-side from whole blood containing no anti-coagulant. The membrane has a dense three dimensional fibrin matrix with enriched platelets and abundant growth factors. L-PRF is a popular adjunct in...

  11. Sports medicine applications of platelet rich plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Allan; Harmon, Kimberly; Woodall, James; Vieira, Amy

    2012-06-01

    Platelet rich plasma (PRP) is a powerful new biologic tool in sports medicine. PRP is a fraction of autologous whole blood containing and increased number of platelets and a wide variety of cytokines such as platelet derived growth factor (PDGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-B1), fibroblast growth factor (FGF), Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) among many others. Worldwide interest in this biologic technology has recently risen sharply. Basic science and preclinical data support the use of PRP for a variety of sports related injuries and disorders. The published, peer reviewed, human data on PRP is limited. Although the scientific evaluation of clinical efficacy is in the early stages, elite and recreational athletes already use PRP in the treatment of sports related injuries. Many questions remain to be answered regarding the use of PRP including optimal formulation, including of leukocytes, dosage and rehabilitation protocols. In this review, a classification for platelet rich plasma is proposed and the in-vitro, preclinical and human investigations of PRP applications in sports medicine will be reviewed as well as a discussion of rehabilitation after a PRP procedure. The regulation of PRP by the World Anti-Doping Agency will also be discussed. PRP is a promising technology in sports medicine; however, it will require more vigorous study in order to better understand how to apply it most effectively.

  12. Media preparation and bacteriological tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbing, Karen; Brent, Roger

    2002-08-01

    Recipes are provided in this unit for minimal liquid media, rich liquid media, solid media, top agar, and stab agar. Also included are descriptions and useful information about tools used with growth media such as inoculating loops, sterile toothpicks and spreaders.

  13. The STAR-RICH Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Lasiuk, B; Braem, André; Cozza, D; Davenport, M; De Cataldo, G; Dell'Olio, L; Di Bari, D; Di Mauro, A; Dunlop, J C; Finch, E; Fraissard, Daniel; Franco, A; Gans, J; Ghidini, B; Harris, J W; Horsley, M; Kunde, G J; Lasiuk, B; Lesenechal, Y; Majka, R D; Martinengo, P; Morsch, Andreas; Nappi, E; Paic, G; Piuz, François; Posa, F; Raynaud, J; Salur, S; Sandweiss, J; Santiard, Jean-Claude; Satinover, J; Schyns, E M; Smirnov, N; Van Beelen, J; Williams, T D; Xu, Z

    2002-01-01

    The STAR-RICH detector extends the particle idenfication capabilities of the STAR spectrometer for charged hadrons at mid-rapidity. It allows identification of pions and kaons up to ~3 GeV/c and protons up to ~5 GeV/c. The characteristics and performance of the device in the inaugural RHIC run are described.

  14. Reducing tool wear by partial cladding of critical zones in hot form tool by laser metal deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, Robert; Sommitsch, Christof

    2017-10-01

    This paper points out a production method to reduce tool wear in hot stamping applications. Usually tool wear can be observed at locally strongly stressed areas superimposed with gliding movement between blank and tool surface. The shown solution is based on a partial laser cladding of the tool surface with a wear resistant coating to increase the lifespan of tool inserts. Preliminary studies showed good results applying a material combination of tungsten carbide particles embedded in a metallic matrix. Different Nickel based alloys welded on hot work tool steel (1.2343) were tested mechanically in the interface zone. The material with the best bonding characteristic is chosen and reinforced with spherical tungsten carbide particles in a second laser welding step. Since the machining of tungsten carbides is very elaborate a special manufacturing strategy is developed to reduce the milling effort as much as possible. On special test specimens milling tests are carried out to proof the machinability. As outlook a tool insert of a b-pillar is coated to perform real hot forming tests.

  15. CHARACTERIZATION OF NEW TOOL STEEL FOR ALUMINUM EXTRUSION DIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Britti Bacalhau

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum extrusion dies are an important segment of application on industrial tools steels, which are manufactured in steels based on AISI H13 steel. The main properties of steels applied to extrusion dies are: wear resistance, impact resistance and tempering resistance. The present work discusses the characteristics of a newly developed hot work steel to be used on aluminum extrusion dies. The effects of Cr and Mo contents with respect to tempering resistance and the Al addition on the nitriding response have been evaluated. From forged steel bars, Charpy impact test and characterization via EPMA have been conducted. The proposed contents of Cr, Mo, and Al have attributed to the new VEX grade a much better tempering resistance than H13, as well as a deeper and harder nitrided layer. Due to the unique characteristics, this new steel provides an interesting alternative to the aluminum extrusion companies to increase their competitiveness.

  16. Simulation tools

    CERN Document Server

    Jenni, F

    2006-01-01

    In the last two decades, simulation tools made a significant contribution to the great progress in development of power electronics. Time to market was shortened and development costs were reduced drastically. Falling costs, as well as improved speed and precision, opened new fields of application. Today, continuous and switched circuits can be mixed. A comfortable number of powerful simulation tools is available. The users have to choose the best suitable for their application. Here a simple rule applies: The best available simulation tool is the tool the user is already used to (provided, it can solve the task). Abilities, speed, user friendliness and other features are continuously being improved—even though they are already powerful and comfortable. This paper aims at giving the reader an insight into the simulation of power electronics. Starting with a short description of the fundamentals of a simulation tool as well as properties of tools, several tools are presented. Starting with simplified models ...

  17. 29 CFR 1915.503 - Precautions for hot work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... disconnected at the supply manifold at the end of each shift; (iv) All disconnected fuel gas and oxygen hose lines are rolled back to the supply manifold or to open air to disconnect the torch; or extended fuel... positive means of identification when they were first connected and the lines are tested using a drop test...

  18. Tribological evaluation of surface modified H13 tool steel in warm forming of Ti–6Al–4V titanium alloy sheet

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Dan; Li, Heng; Yang, He; Ma, Jun; Li, Guangjun

    2014-01-01

    The H13 hot-working tool steel is widely used as die material in the warm forming of Ti–6Al–4V titanium alloy sheet. However, under the heating condition, severe friction and lubricating conditions between the H13 tools and Ti–6Al–4V titanium alloy sheet would cause difficulty in guaranteeing forming quality. Surface modification may be used to control the level of friction force, reduce the friction wear and extend the service life of dies. In this paper, four surface modification methods (c...

  19. Predicting the Abrasion Resistance of Tool Steels by Means of Neurofuzzy Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragutin Lisjak

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This work considers use neurofuzzy set theory for estimate abrasion wear resistance of steels based on chemical composition, heat treatment (austenitising temperature, quenchant and tempering temperature, hardness after hardening and different tempering temperature and volume loss of materials according to ASTM G 65-94. Testing of volume loss for the following group of materials as fuzzy data set was taken: carbon tool steels, cold work tool steels, hot work tools steels, high-speed steels. Modelled adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system (ANFIS is compared to statistical model of multivariable non-linear regression (MNLR. From the results it could be concluded that it is possible well estimate abrasion wear resistance for steel whose volume loss is unknown and thus eliminate unnecessary testing.

  20. HTML5 rich media foundation

    CERN Document Server

    David, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    Learn about the new ways in which video and audio can be easily embedded into your HTML5 Web pages. Discover how you can create new Web media content and how JavaScript, CSS, and SVG can be integrated to create a compelling, rich media foundation for your work. HTML 5, is the first major update to the core language of the Web in over a decade The focus of this book is on innovations that most directly effect Web site design and multimedia integration The companion Web site features working demonstrations and tutorial media for hands-on pract

  1. Conservation and Biodiversity of Rich Fens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Dagmar Kappel

    2014-01-01

    Rich fen is a habitat type dependent on a constant supply of nutrient poor, calcium rich groundwater. A high, stable groundwater table, relatively high pH combined with nutrient poor conditions support a special and very species rich vegetation including many rare and threatened plant species. In...

  2. The leucine-rich repeat structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bella, J; Hindle, K L; McEwan, P A; Lovell, S C

    2008-08-01

    The leucine-rich repeat is a widespread structural motif of 20-30 amino acids with a characteristic repetitive sequence pattern rich in leucines. Leucine-rich repeat domains are built from tandems of two or more repeats and form curved solenoid structures that are particularly suitable for protein-protein interactions. Thousands of protein sequences containing leucine-rich repeats have been identified by automatic annotation methods. Three-dimensional structures of leucine-rich repeat domains determined to date reveal a degree of structural variability that translates into the considerable functional versatility of this protein superfamily. As the essential structural principles become well established, the leucine-rich repeat architecture is emerging as an attractive framework for structural prediction and protein engineering. This review presents an update of the current understanding of leucine-rich repeat structure at the primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary levels and discusses specific examples from recently determined three-dimensional structures.

  3. Performative Tools and Collaborative Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minder, Bettina; Lassen, Astrid Heidemann

    of performative tools used in transdisciplinary events for collaborative learning. The results of this single case study add to extant knowledge- and learning literature by providing the reader with a rich description of characteristics and learning functions of performative tools in transdisciplinary events......The use of performative tools can support collaborative learning across knowledge domains (i.e. science and practice), because they create new spaces for dialog. However, so far innovation literature provides little answers to the important discussion of how to describe the effects and requirements...... and a description of how they interrelate with the specific setting of such an event. Furthermore, they complement previous findings by relating performative tools to collaborative learning for knowledge intensive ideas....

  4. Robust Optical Richness Estimation with Reduced Scatter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rykoff, E.S.; /LBL, Berkeley; Koester, B.P.; /Chicago U. /Chicago U., KICP; Rozo, E.; /Chicago U. /Chicago U., KICP; Annis, J.; /Fermilab; Evrard, A.E.; /Michigan U. /Michigan U., MCTP; Hansen, S.M.; /Lick Observ.; Hao, J.; /Fermilab; Johnston, D.E.; /Fermilab; McKay, T.A.; /Michigan U. /Michigan U., MCTP; Wechsler, R.H.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC

    2012-06-07

    Reducing the scatter between cluster mass and optical richness is a key goal for cluster cosmology from photometric catalogs. We consider various modifications to the red-sequence matched filter richness estimator of Rozo et al. (2009b), and evaluate their impact on the scatter in X-ray luminosity at fixed richness. Most significantly, we find that deeper luminosity cuts can reduce the recovered scatter, finding that {sigma}{sub ln L{sub X}|{lambda}} = 0.63 {+-} 0.02 for clusters with M{sub 500c} {approx}> 1.6 x 10{sup 14} h{sub 70}{sup -1} M{sub {circle_dot}}. The corresponding scatter in mass at fixed richness is {sigma}{sub ln M|{lambda}} {approx} 0.2-0.3 depending on the richness, comparable to that for total X-ray luminosity. We find that including blue galaxies in the richness estimate increases the scatter, as does weighting galaxies by their optical luminosity. We further demonstrate that our richness estimator is very robust. Specifically, the filter employed when estimating richness can be calibrated directly from the data, without requiring a-priori calibrations of the red-sequence. We also demonstrate that the recovered richness is robust to up to 50% uncertainties in the galaxy background, as well as to the choice of photometric filter employed, so long as the filters span the 4000 {angstrom} break of red-sequence galaxies. Consequently, our richness estimator can be used to compare richness estimates of different clusters, even if they do not share the same photometric data. Appendix A includes 'easy-bake' instructions for implementing our optimal richness estimator, and we are releasing an implementation of the code that works with SDSS data, as well as an augmented maxBCG catalog with the {lambda} richness measured for each cluster.

  5. GC-rich DNA elements enable replication origin activity in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liachko, Ivan; Youngblood, Rachel A; Tsui, Kyle; Bubb, Kerry L; Queitsch, Christine; Raghuraman, M K; Nislow, Corey; Brewer, Bonita J; Dunham, Maitreya J

    2014-03-01

    The well-studied DNA replication origins of the model budding and fission yeasts are A/T-rich elements. However, unlike their yeast counterparts, both plant and metazoan origins are G/C-rich and are associated with transcription start sites. Here we show that an industrially important methylotrophic budding yeast, Pichia pastoris, simultaneously employs at least two types of replication origins--a G/C-rich type associated with transcription start sites and an A/T-rich type more reminiscent of typical budding and fission yeast origins. We used a suite of massively parallel sequencing tools to map and dissect P. pastoris origins comprehensively, to measure their replication dynamics, and to assay the global positioning of nucleosomes across the genome. Our results suggest that some functional overlap exists between promoter sequences and G/C-rich replication origins in P. pastoris and imply an evolutionary bifurcation of the modes of replication initiation.

  6. GC-rich DNA elements enable replication origin activity in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Liachko

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The well-studied DNA replication origins of the model budding and fission yeasts are A/T-rich elements. However, unlike their yeast counterparts, both plant and metazoan origins are G/C-rich and are associated with transcription start sites. Here we show that an industrially important methylotrophic budding yeast, Pichia pastoris, simultaneously employs at least two types of replication origins--a G/C-rich type associated with transcription start sites and an A/T-rich type more reminiscent of typical budding and fission yeast origins. We used a suite of massively parallel sequencing tools to map and dissect P. pastoris origins comprehensively, to measure their replication dynamics, and to assay the global positioning of nucleosomes across the genome. Our results suggest that some functional overlap exists between promoter sequences and G/C-rich replication origins in P. pastoris and imply an evolutionary bifurcation of the modes of replication initiation.

  7. On social inequality: Analyzing the rich-poor disparity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliazar, Iddo; Cohen, Morrel H.

    2014-05-01

    From the Old Testament to the Communist Manifesto, and from the French Revolution to the Occupy Wall Street protests, social inequality has always been at the focal point of public debate, as well as a major driver of political change. Although being of prime interest since Biblical times, the scientific investigation of the distributions of wealth and income in human societies began only at the close of the nineteenth century, and was pioneered by Pareto, Lorenz, Gini, and Pietra. The methodologies introduced by these trailblazing scholars form the bedrock of the contemporary science of social inequality. Based on this bedrock we present a new quantitative approach to the analysis of wealth and income distributions, which sets its spotlight on the most heated facet of the current global debate on social inequality-the rich-poor disparity. Our approach offers researchers highly applicable quantitative tools to empirically track and statistically analyze the growing gap between the rich and the poor.

  8. Characterization of Leukocyte-platelet Rich Fibrin, A Novel Biomaterial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madurantakam, Parthasarathy; Yoganarasimha, Suyog; Hasan, Fadi K

    2015-09-29

    Autologous platelet concentrates represent promising innovative tools in the field of regenerative medicine and have been extensively used in oral surgery. Unlike platelet rich plasma (PRP) that is a gel or a suspension, Leukocyte-Platelet Rich Fibrin (L-PRF) is a solid 3D fibrin membrane generated chair-side from whole blood containing no anti-coagulant. The membrane has a dense three dimensional fibrin matrix with enriched platelets and abundant growth factors. L-PRF is a popular adjunct in surgeries because of its superior handling characteristics as well as its suturability to the wound bed. The goal of the study is to demonstrate generation as well as provide detailed characterization of relevant properties of L-PRF that underlie its clinical success.

  9. Tool steels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højerslev, C.

    2001-01-01

    On designing a tool steel, its composition and heat treatment parameters are chosen to provide a hardened and tempered martensitic matrix in which carbides are evenly distributed. In this condition the matrix has an optimum combination of hardness andtoughness, the primary carbides provide...... resistance against abrasive wear and secondary carbides (if any) increase the resistance against plastic deformation. Tool steels are alloyed with carbide forming elements (Typically: vanadium, tungsten, molybdenumand chromium) furthermore some steel types contains cobalt. Addition of alloying elements...... serves primarily two purpose (i) to improve the hardenabillity and (ii) to provide harder and thermally more stable carbides than cementite. Assuming proper heattreatment, the properties of a tool steel depends on the which alloying elements are added and their respective concentrations....

  10. Proton-rich nuclear statistical equilibrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seitenzahl, I.R.; Timmes, F.X.; Marin-Lafleche, A.; Brown, E.; Magkotsios, G.; Truran, J.

    2008-01-01

    Proton-rich material in a state of nuclear statistical equilibrium (NSE) is one of the least studied regimes of nucleosynthesis. One reason for this is that after hydrogen burning, stellar evolution proceeds at conditions of an equal number of neutrons and protons or at a slight degree of neutron-richness. Proton-rich nucleosynthesis in stars tends to occur only when hydrogen-rich material that accretes onto a white dwarf or a neutron star explodes, or when neutrino interactions in the winds from a nascent proto-neutron star or collapsar disk drive the matter proton-rich prior to or during the nucleosynthesis. In this Letter we solve the NSE equations for a range of proton-rich thermodynamic conditions. We show that cold proton-rich NSE is qualitatively different from neutron-rich NSE. Instead of being dominated by the Fe-peak nuclei with the largest binding energy per nucleon that have a proton-to-nucleon ratio close to the prescribed electron fraction, NSE for proton-rich material near freezeout temperature is mainly composed of 56Ni and free protons. Previous results of nuclear reaction network calculations rely on this nonintuitive high-proton abundance, which this Letter explains. We show how the differences and especially the large fraction of free protons arises from the minimization of the free energy as a result of a delicate competition between the entropy and nuclear binding energy.

  11. Structural elucidation, molecular representation and solvent interactions of vitrinite-rich and inertinite-rich South African coals

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Niekerk, Daniel

    the kinetic parameters and it was found that the swelling was governed by relaxation of the coal structure (super-Case II swelling). X-ray computed tomography was conducted confirming anisotropic swelling. The petrographic transitions (maceral-group composition and reflectance) with solvent swelling and extraction were quantified. No changes in the maceral compositions were found, but changes in some coal particles were observed. Random reflectance analysis showed that, for both vitrinite and inertinite, there is a decrease in reflectance values with solvent treatment. Vitrinite reflectograms showed a shift from the dominant reflecting V-types to lower V-types. The inertinite reflectograms exhibited an increase in number of I-types (broadening of reflectrograms). Molecular simulation and visualization approaches to solvent swelling and extraction were performed on the proposed molecular models of vitrinite-rich and inertinite-rich coals. A theoretical extraction yield was determined using solubility parameters and showed agreement with experimental extraction yield trends. Statistical Associating Fluid Theory (SAFT) modeling was explored to test whether this method could predict swelling extent. The predicted swelling trends of SAFT were comparable to that of the experimental swelling results. SAFT was found to be a promising tool for solvent-coal interaction predictions. Partially solvent swollen structures were constructed by the addition of solvent molecules to the original coal molecules using a amorphous building approach. This method showed that coal-coal non-bonding interaction changed with the introduction of solvent. A disruption in the van der Waals interaction energies and a change in hydrogen bond distributions were observed in the swollen coal models and quantified. It was concluded that small changes in coal structure translates to significant changes in solvent interaction behavior. These changes were successfully visualized and simulated using

  12. Management Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    Manugistics, Inc. (formerly AVYX, Inc.) has introduced a new programming language for IBM and IBM compatible computers called TREES-pls. It is a resource management tool originating from the space shuttle, that can be used in such applications as scheduling, resource allocation project control, information management, and artificial intelligence. Manugistics, Inc. was looking for a flexible tool that can be applied to many problems with minimal adaptation. Among the non-government markets are aerospace, other manufacturing, transportation, health care, food and beverage and professional services.

  13. In vitro propagation: A biotechnological tool capable of solving the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South Africa has a very rich plant biodiversity, many of which are medicinally useful. The rich resource is decreasing at an alarming rate as a result of over- exploitation. Plant in vitro regeneration is a biotechnological tool that offers a potential solution to this problem as it provides a means of putting the plants onto the ...

  14. Design tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton TenWolde; Mark T. Bomberg

    2009-01-01

    Overall, despite the lack of exact input data, the use of design tools, including models, is much superior to the simple following of rules of thumbs, and a moisture analysis should be standard procedure for any building envelope design. Exceptions can only be made for buildings in the same climate, similar occupancy, and similar envelope construction. This chapter...

  15. LHCb RICH1 Engineering Design Review Report

    CERN Document Server

    Brook, N; Metlica, F; Muir, A; Phillips, A; Buckley, A; Gibson, V; Harrison, K; Jones, C R; Katvars, S G; Lazzeroni, C; Storey, J; Ward, CP; Wotton, S; Alemi, M; Arnabaldi, C; Bellunato, T F; Calvi, M; Matteuzzi, C; Musy, M; Negri, P; Perego, D L; Pessina, G; Chamonal, R; Eisenhardt, S; Lawrence, J; McCarron, J; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Walker, A; Cuneo, S; Fontanelli, F; Gracco, Valerio; Mini, G; Musico, P; Petrolini, A; Sannino, M; Bates, A; MacGregor, A; O'Shea, V; Parkes, C; Paterson, S; Petrie, D; Pickford, A; Rahman, M; Soler, F; Allebone, L; Barber, J H; Cameron, W; Clark, D; Dornan, Peter John; Duane, A; Egede, U; Hallam, R; Howard, A; Plackett, R; Price, D; Savidge, T; Vidal-Sitjes, G; Websdale, D M; Adinolfi, M; Bibby, J H; Cioffi, C; Gligorov, Vladimir V; Harnew, N; Harris, F; McArthur, I A; Newby, C; Ottewell, B; Rademacker, J; Senanayake, R; Somerville, L P; Soroko, A; Smale, N J; Topp-Jørgensen, S; Wilkinson, G; Yang, S; Benayoun, M; Khmelnikov, V A; Obraztsov, V F; Densham, C J; Easo, S; Franek, B; Kuznetsov, G; Loveridge, P W; Morrow, D; Morris, JV; Papanestis, A; Patrick, G N; Woodward, M L; Aglieri-Rinella, G; Albrecht, A; Braem, André; Campbell, M; D'Ambrosio, C; Forty, R W; Frei, C; Gys, Thierry; Jamet, O; Kanaya, N; Losasso, M; Moritz, M; Patel, M; Piedigrossi, D; Snoeys, W; Ullaland, O; Van Lysebetten, A; Wyllie, K

    2005-01-01

    This document describes the concepts of the engineering design to be adopted for the upstream Ring Imaging Cherenkov detector (RICH1) of the reoptimized LHCb detector. Our aim is to ensure that coherent solutions for the engineering design and integration for all components of RICH1 are available, before proceeding with the detailed design of these components.

  16. Island Species Richness Increases with Habitat Diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hortal, J.; Triantis, K.A.; Meiri, S.; Thebault, E.M.C.; Sfenthourakis, S.

    2009-01-01

    Species richness is commonly thought to increase with habitat diversity. However, a recent theoretical model aiming to unify niche and island biogeography theories predicted a hump-shaped relationship between richness and habitat diversity. Given the contradiction between model results and previous

  17. Investigation and demonstration of a rich combustor cold-start device for alcohol-fueled engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodgson, J W; Irick, D K [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1998-04-01

    The authors have completed a study in which they investigated the use of a rich combustor to aid in cold starting spark-ignition engines fueled with either neat ethanol or neat methanol. The rich combustor burns the alcohol fuel outside the engine under fuel-rich conditions to produce a combustible product stream that is fed to the engine for cold starting. The rich combustor approach significantly extends the cold starting capability of alcohol-fueled engines. A design tool was developed that simulates the operation of the combustor and couples it to an engine/vehicle model. This tool allows the user to determine the fuel requirements of the rich combustor as the vehicle executes a given driving mission. The design tool was used to design and fabricate a rich combustor for use on a 2.8 L automotive engine. The system was tested using a unique cold room that allows the engine to be coupled to an electric dynamometer. The engine was fitted with an aftermarket engine control system that permitted the fuel flow to the rich combustor to be programmed as a function of engine speed and intake manifold pressure. Testing indicated that reliable cold starts were achieved on both neat methanol and neat ethanol at temperatures as low as {minus}20 C. Although starts were experienced at temperatures as low as {minus}30 C, these were erratic. They believe that an important factor at the very low temperatures is the balance between the high mechanical friction of the engine and the low energy density of the combustible mixture fed to the engine from the rich combustor.

  18. Platelet-rich plasma in otolaryngology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavrakas, M; Karkos, P D; Markou, K; Grigoriadis, N

    2016-12-01

    Platelet-rich plasma is a novel material that is being used more frequently in many surgical specialties. A literature review on the current and potential uses of platelet-rich plasma in otolaryngology was performed. There is limited evidence on the use of platelet-rich plasma in otolaryngology compared with other specialties: only 11 studies on various subspecialties (otology, rhinology and laryngology) were included in the final review. Based on the limited number of studies, we cannot draw safe conclusions about the value of platelet-rich plasma in otolaryngology. Nevertheless, the available literature suggests that platelet-rich plasma holds promise for future research and may have a number of clinical applications.

  19. Neutron rich nuclei around 132Sn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, Sarmishtha

    2016-01-01

    The neutron rich nuclei with few particles or holes in 132 Sn have various experimental and theoretical interest to understand the evolution of nuclear structure around the doubly magic shell closure Z=50 and N=82. Some of the exotic neutron rich nuclei in this mass region are situated near waiting points in the r-process path and are of special astrophysical interest. Neutron rich nuclei near 132 Sn have been studied using fission fragment spectroscopy. The lifetime of low lying isomeric states have been precisely measured and the beta decay from the ground and isomeric states have been characterized using gamma-ray spectroscopy

  20. Firm size diversity, functional richness, and resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garmestani, A.S.; Allen, Craig R.; Mittelstaedt, J.D.; Stow, C.A.; Ward, W.A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper applies recent advances in ecology to our understanding of firm development, sustainability, and economic development. The ecological literature indicates that the greater the functional richness of species in a system, the greater its resilience - that is, its ability to persist in the face of substantial changes in the environment. This paper focuses on the effects of functional richness across firm size on the ability of industries to survive in the face of economic change. Our results indicate that industries with a richness of industrial functions are more resilient to employment volatility. ?? 2006 Cambridge University Press.

  1. High-Temperature Nucleosynthesis Processes on the Proton-Rich Side of Stability: the Alpha-Rich Freezeout and the rp^2-Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Bradley S.

    2001-10-01

    Nucleosynthesis on the proton-rich side of stability has at least two intriguing aspects. First, the most abundant of the stable iron-group isotopes, such as ^48Ti, ^52Cr, and ^56,57Fe, are synthesized as proton-rich, radioactive parents in alpha-rich freezeouts from equilibrium. The production of these radioactive progenitors depends in large measure on reactions on the proton-rich side of stability. The second intriguing aspect is that explosive nucleosynthesis in a hydrogen-rich environment (namely, the rp-process) may be associated with exotic astrophysical settings, such as x-ray bursts, and may be responsible for production of some of the light p-process nuclei (for example, ^92,94Mo and ^96,98Ru). We have developed web-based tools to help nuclear physicists determine which nuclear reactions on the proton-rich side of stability govern the nucleosynthesis in these processes. For the alpha-rich freezeout, one may determine the effect of any one of 2,140 reactions on the yield of any isotope in the nuclear reaction network with the web calculator. As a relevant example, I will discuss the governing role of ^57Ni (n,p)^57Co in the synthesis of the important astronomical observable ^57Co. As for explosive, proton-rich burning, I will discuss the synthesis of p-process nuclei in the repetitive rp-process (the rp^2-process). movies/rp.html>Movies of the rp^2-process illustrate its important features and give some indications of the important nuclear reactions.

  2. Thermodynamics of neutron-rich nuclear matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    López, Jorge A., E-mail: jorgelopez@utep.edu [Department of Physics, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, Texas 79968, U.S.A (United States); Porras, Sergio Terrazas, E-mail: sterraza@uacj.mx; Gutiérrez, Araceli Rodríguez, E-mail: al104010@alumnos.uacj.mx [Universidad Autónoma de Ciudad Juárez, Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, México (Mexico)

    2016-07-07

    This manuscript presents methods to obtain properties of neutron-rich nuclear matter from classical molecular dynamics. Some of these are bulk properties of infinite nuclear matter, phase information, the Maxwell construction, spinodal lines and symmetry energy.

  3. Leveraging data rich environments using marketing analytics

    OpenAIRE

    Holtrop, Niels

    2017-01-01

    With the onset of what is popularly known as “big data”, increased attention is being paid to creating value from these data rich environments. Within the field of marketing, the analysis of customer and market data supported by models is known as marketing analytics. The goal of these analyses is to enhance managerial decision making regarding marketing problems. However, before these data rich environments can be used to guide managerial decision making, firms need to grasp the process of d...

  4. LITHIUM-RICH GIANTS IN GLOBULAR CLUSTERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirby, Evan N.; Cohen, Judith G. [California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Boulevard, MC 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Guhathakurta, Puragra [UCO/Lick Observatory and Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Zhang, Andrew J. [The Harker School, 500 Saratoga Avenue, San Jose, CA 95129 (United States); Hong, Jerry [Palo Alto High School, 50 Embarcadero Road, Palo Alto, CA, 94301 (United States); Guo, Michelle [Stanford University, 450 Serra Mall, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Guo, Rachel [Irvington High School, 41800 Blacow Road, Fremont, CA 94538 (United States); Cunha, Katia [Observatório Nacional, São Cristóvão Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2016-03-10

    Although red giants deplete lithium on their surfaces, some giants are Li-rich. Intermediate-mass asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars can generate Li through the Cameron–Fowler conveyor, but the existence of Li-rich, low-mass red giant branch (RGB) stars is puzzling. Globular clusters are the best sites to examine this phenomenon because it is straightforward to determine membership in the cluster and to identify the evolutionary state of each star. In 72 hours of Keck/DEIMOS exposures in 25 clusters, we found four Li-rich RGB and two Li-rich AGB stars. There were 1696 RGB and 125 AGB stars with measurements or upper limits consistent with normal abundances of Li. Hence, the frequency of Li-richness in globular clusters is (0.2 ± 0.1)% for the RGB, (1.6 ± 1.1)% for the AGB, and (0.3 ± 0.1)% for all giants. Because the Li-rich RGB stars are on the lower RGB, Li self-generation mechanisms proposed to occur at the luminosity function bump or He core flash cannot explain these four lower RGB stars. We propose the following origin for Li enrichment: (1) All luminous giants experience a brief phase of Li enrichment at the He core flash. (2) All post-RGB stars with binary companions on the lower RGB will engage in mass transfer. This scenario predicts that 0.1% of lower RGB stars will appear Li-rich due to mass transfer from a recently Li-enhanced companion. This frequency is at the lower end of our confidence interval.

  5. Modeling Aquatic Macroinvertebrate Richness Using Landscape Attributes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia S. Meixler

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We used a rapid, repeatable, and inexpensive geographic information system (GIS approach to predict aquatic macroinvertebrate family richness using the landscape attributes stream gradient, riparian forest cover, and water quality. Stream segments in the Allegheny River basin were classified into eight habitat classes using these three landscape attributes. Biological databases linking macroinvertebrate families with habitat classes were developed using life habits, feeding guilds, and water quality preferences and tolerances for each family. The biological databases provided a link between fauna and habitat enabling estimation of family composition in each habitat class and hence richness predictions for each stream segment. No difference was detected between field collected and modeled predictions of macroinvertebrate families in a paired t-test. Further, predicted stream gradient, riparian forest cover, and total phosphorus, total nitrogen, and suspended sediment classifications matched observed classifications much more often than by chance alone. High gradient streams with forested riparian zones and good water quality were predicted to have the greatest macroinvertebrate family richness and changes in water quality were predicted to have the greatest impact on richness. Our findings indicate that our model can provide meaningful landscape scale macroinvertebrate family richness predictions from widely available data for use in focusing conservation planning efforts.

  6. Species richness, area and climate correlates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nogues, David Bravo; Bastos Araujo, Miguel

    2006-01-01

    affects: (1) the selection of climate variables entering a species richness model; and (2) the accuracy of models in predicting species richness in unsampled grid cells. Location Western Europe. Methods Models are developed for European plant, breeding bird, mammal and herptile species richness using...... seven climate variables. Generalized additive models are used to relate species richness, climate and area. Results We found that variation in the grid cell area was large (50 × 50 km: 8-3311 km2; 220 × 220: 193-55,100 km2), but this did not affect the selection of variables in the models. Similarly...... support the assumption that variation in near-equal area cells may be of second-order importance for models explaining or predicting species richness in relation to climate, although there is a possibility that drops in accuracy might increase with grid cell size. The results are, however, contingent...

  7. Facilitating Rich Acoustical Environments in Virtual Worlds

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hoag, Kenneth

    1998-01-01

    .... Furthermore, graphical programming tools have not addressed sound in a satisfactory manner. As proof of concept, a modeling tool was developed to allow a user to build both the visual and the auditory environment simultaneously...

  8. Structure of Light Neutron-rich Nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dlouhy, Zdenek

    2007-01-01

    In this contribution we searched for irregularities in various separation energies in the frame of mass measurement of neutron-rich nuclei at GANIL. On this basis we can summarize that the new doubly magic nuclei are 8 He, 22 O and 24 O. They are characterized by extra stability and, except 24 O, they cannot accept and bind additional neutrons. However, if we add to these nuclei a proton we obtain 9 Li and 25 F which are the core for two-neutron halo nucleus 11 Li and enables that fluorine can bound even 6 more neutrons, respectively. In that aspect the doubly magic nuclei in the neutron-rich region can form the basis either for neutron halo or very neutron-rich nuclei. (Author)

  9. Origin of the latitudinal richness gradient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engemann, Kristine; Sandel, Brody Steven; Enquist, Brian J.

    2015-01-01

    Spatial variation in richness patterns must be due to variation in rates of speciation, extinction, immigration and emigration. Hotspots of diversity can occur either because they are hotspots of speciation (cradles) or cold spots of extinction (museums) – two major hypotheses that make contrasting...... predictions for the phylogenetic structure of communities. We test these hypotheses by comparing centers of species richness and phylogenetic clustering for vascular plants in the New World. Range maps for 88,417 plant species were extracted from the Botanical Information and Ecology Network (BIEN) database...... and combined with the BIEN mega phylogeny of >80,000 species. We calculated the Phylogenetic Diversity Index (PDI) and Net Relatedness Index (NRI) for each cell in a 100×100 km grid using a new computationally efficient algorithm. Species richness patterns were compared to patterns of PDI and NRI. We found...

  10. Platelet-Rich Plasma Increases Pigmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uysal, Cagri A; Ertas, Nilgun Markal

    2017-11-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is an autologous solution of plasma containing 4 to 7 times the baseline concentration of human platelets. Platelet-rich plasma has been widely popular in facial rejuvenation to attenuate wrinkles and has been practically used. The authors have been encountering various patients of increased hiperpigmentation following PRP applications that were performed to attenuate the postinflammatory hiperpigmentation especially after laser treatment. The authors have been using PRP for facial rejuvenation in selected patients and in 1 patient the authors have encountered increased pigmentation over the pigmented skin lesions that were present before the application. The authors recommend that the PRP might increase pigmentation especially in the face region and precautions might be taken before and after the application. Platelet-rich plasma should not be used for the treatment of post inflammatory hiperpigmentation.

  11. A Software Tool for Legal Drafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Gorín

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Although many attempts at automated aids for legal drafting have been made, they were based on the construction of a new tool, completely from scratch. This is at least curious, considering that a strong parallelism can be established between a normative document and a software specification: both describe what an entity should or should not do, can or cannot do. In this article we compare normative documents and software specifications to find out their similarities and differences. The comparison shows that there are distinctive particularities, but they are restricted to a very specific subclass of normative propositions. The rest, we postulate, can be dealt with software tools. For such an enterprise the FormaLex tool set was devised: an LTL-based language and companion tools that utilize model checking to find out normative incoherences in regulations, contracts and other legal documents. A feature-rich case study is analyzed with the presented tools.

  12. Fast Photon Detection for COMPASS RICH1

    CERN Document Server

    Abbon, P; Angerer, H; Apollonio, M; Birsa, R; Bordalo, P; Bradamante, F; Bressan, A; Busso, L; Chiosso, M; Ciliberti, P; Colantoni, M L; Costa, S; Dibiase, N; Dafni, T; Dalla Torre, S; Diaz, V; Duic, v; Delagnes, E; Deschamps, H; Eyrich, W; Faso, D; Ferrero, A; Finger, M; Finger, M Jr; Fischer, H; Gerassimov, S; Giorgi, M; Gobbo, B; Hagemann, R; Von Harrach, D; Heinsius, F H; Joosten, R; Ketzer, B; Königsmann, K; Kolosov, V N; Konorov, I; Kramer, D; Kunne, F; Levorato, S; Maggiora, A; Magnon, A; Mann, A; Martin, A; Menon, G; Mutter, A; Nähle, O; Neyret, D; Nerling, F; Pagano, P; Paul, S; Panebianco, S; Panzieri, D; Pesaro, G; Pizzolotto, C; Polak, J; Rebourgeard, P; Rocco, E; Robinet, F; Schiavon, P; Schill, C; Schoenmeier, P; Silva, L; Slunecka, M; Steiger, L; Sozzi, F; Sulc, M; Svec, M; Tessarotto, F; Teufel, A; Wollny, H

    2006-01-01

    The new photon detection system for COMPASS RICH-1 has been designed to cope with the demanding requests of operation at high beam intensity and at high trigger rates. The detection technique in the central region of RICH-1 has been changed with a system based on multianode photomultipliers coupled to individual fused silica lens telescopes and to a fast, almost dead time free readout system based on the MAD-4 amplifier-discriminator and the F1 TDC-chip. The new photon detection system design and construction are described, as well as its first response in the experiment.

  13. Hamman-Rich syndrome in a goldsmith

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchner, J.; Stein, A.; Jacobi, V.; Viel, K.

    1997-01-01

    We report the case of a 54-year-old goldsmith admitted because of dyspnea on exertion, persistent cough, and weakness under the suspicion of exogenous allergic alveolitis. He rapidly developed progressive lung fibrosis with exitus letalis 7 weeks after admission. Radiological examination (chest X-ray and HRCT) first showed ground glass opacities, and later rapid development of severe interstitial pattern with architectural distraction. The findings were similar to idiopathic lung fibrosis; however, the rare Hamman-Rich syndrome was confirmed by progressive course of the disease. Correlations between Hamann-Rich syndrome and idiopathic lung fibrosis are discussed. (orig.) [de

  14. Nuclear transition moment measurements of neutron rich nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starosta, Krzysztof

    2009-10-01

    The Recoil Distance Method (RDM) and related Doppler Shift Attenuation Method (DSAM) are well-established tools for lifetime measurements following nuclear reactions near the Coulomb barrier. Recently, the RDM was implemented at National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL) at Michigan State University using NSCL/K"oln plunger device and a unique combination of the state-of-the-art instruments available there. Doppler-shift lifetime measurements following Coulomb excitation, knock-out, and fragmentation at intermediate energies of ˜100 MeV/u hold the promise of providing lifetime information for excited states in a wide range of unstable nuclei. So far, the method was used to investigate the collectivity of the neutron-rich ^16,18,20C, ^62,64,66Fe, ^70,72Ni, ^110,114Pd isotopes and also of the neutron-deficient N=Z ^64Ge. A significant fraction of these experiments was performed using NSCL's Segmented Germanium Array instrumented with the Digital Data Acquisition System which enables gamma-ray tracking. The impact of GRETINA and gamma-ray tracking on RDM and DSAM studies of neutron-rich nuclei will be discussed.

  15. Neutron rich matter, neutron stars, and their crusts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horowitz, C J

    2011-01-01

    Neutron rich matter is at the heart of many fundamental questions in Nuclear Physics and Astrophysics. What are the high density phases of QCD? Where did the chemical elements come from? What is the structure of many compact and energetic objects in the heavens, and what determines their electromagnetic, neutrino, and gravitational-wave radiations? Moreover, neutron rich matter is being studied with an extraordinary variety of new tools such as Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB) and the Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory (LIGO). We describe the Lead Radius Experiment (PREX) that is using parity violation to measure the neutron radius in 208Pb. This has important implications for neutron stars and their crusts. Using large scale molecular dynamics, we model the formation of solids in both white dwarfs and neutron stars. We find neutron star crust to be the strongest material known, some 10 billion times stronger than steel. It can support mountains on rotating neutron stars large enough to generate detectable gravitational waves. Finally, we describe a new equation of state for supernova and neutron star merger simulations based on the Virial expansion at low densities, and large scale relativistic mean field calculations.

  16. Adrienne Rich Şiirinde Sesin Önemi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynep Koçoğlu

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This article describes how poetry can be a used as a pedagogical tool in teachingEnglish and provides a rationale for an integrated approach to teaching literature in thelanguage classroom by stylistically analyzing Adrienne Rich’s voice in her poetry. Inthe twentieth century, women poets use the act of "writing" to gain "voice" as movingfrom silence to way of speaking out. This voicing experience becomes one way forwomen poets to search for truth. I try to apply this concept of voice to the poetry of acontemporary American woman poet, Adrienne Rich. By creating a theory of voice, Iwant to show why and how voice becomes the central issue in women's poetry, and howthis theory of voice can be integrated into a foreign language classroom.

  17. Experiments with neutron-rich isomeric beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rykaczewski, K.; Lewitowicz, M.; Pfuetzner, M.

    1998-01-01

    A review of experimental results obtained on microsecond-isomeric states in neutron-rich nuclei produced in fragmentation reactions and studied with SISSI-Alpha-LISE3 spectrometer system at GANIL Caen is given. The perspectives of experiments based on secondary reactions with isomeric beams are presented

  18. Development of a Rich Picture editor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valente, Andrea; Marchetti, Emanuela

    2010-01-01

    rich picture practice into software proved difficult, therefore, we decided to follow a user-centered approach: design and implement a prototype with basic functionalities, then run a usability test with a few students and professionals. The feedback collected in the test validated our hypothesis circa...

  19. Leveraging data rich environments using marketing analytics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holtrop, Niels

    2017-01-01

    With the onset of what is popularly known as “big data”, increased attention is being paid to creating value from these data rich environments. Within the field of marketing, the analysis of customer and market data supported by models is known as marketing analytics. The goal of these analyses is

  20. Proximity focusing RICH with TOF capabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korpar, S.; Adachi, I.; Fujita, K.; Fukushima, T.; Gorisek, A.; Hayashi, D.; Iijima, T.; Ikado, T.; Ishikawa, T.; Kawai, H.; Kozakai, Y.; Krizan, P.; Kuratani, A.; Mazuka, Y.; Nakagawa, T.; Nishida, S.; Ogawa, S.; Pestotnik, R.; Seki, T.; Sumiyoshi, T.; Tabata, M.; Unno, Y.

    2007-01-01

    A proximity focusing RICH counter with a multi-channel micro-channel plate (MCP) PMT was tested as a time-of-flight counter. Cherenkov photons emitted in the radiator medium as well as in the entrance window of the PMT were used for the time-of-flight measurement, and an excellent performance of the counter could be demonstrated

  1. Probing luminescence centers in Na rich feldspar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prasad, Amit Kumar; Lapp, Torben; Kook, Myung Ho

    2016-01-01

    our understanding of the luminescence mechanisms and recombination sites, in a sample of Na rich plagioclase feldspar (oligoclase). Both the UV and violet–blue emissions show resonant excitations arising from a distribution of energy levels. We propose, contrary to the general understanding...

  2. Technology-Rich Schools Up Close

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Barbara B.; Schrum, Lynne

    2013-01-01

    This article observes that schools that use technology well have key commonalities, including a project-based curriculum and supportive, distributed leadership. The authors' research into tech-rich schools revealed that schools used three strategies to integrate technology successfully. They did so by establishing the vision and culture,…

  3. Platelet-rich fibrin: the benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Yuvika Raj; Mohanty, Sujata; Verma, Mahesh; Kaur, Raunaq Reet; Bhatia, Priyanka; Kumar, Varun Raj; Chaudhary, Zainab

    2016-01-01

    Current published data presents confusing results about the effects of platelet-rich fibrin on bone, and there is a need for studies that throw light on its effect. Our main objective therefore was to evaluate (by fractal analysis) osseous regeneration in extraction sockets with and without platelet-rich fibrin in a study with a substantial sample and a reliable technique to calibrate its effects on bone cells. We also assessed the soft tissue response. Thirty-four patients had their bilaterally impacted third molars (68 surgical sites) extracted in this split-mouth study, following which platelet-rich fibrin was placed in one of the sockets. Patients were followed up clinically and radiographically, and a pain score and fractal analysis were used to evaluate healing of soft tissue and bone, respectively. We conclude that platelet-rich fibrin improves healing of both soft and hard tissues. Although osseous healing did not differ significantly between the groups, healing of soft tissue as judged by the pain score was significantly better in the experimental group. Copyright © 2015 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Power Divider for Waveforms Rich in Harmonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, William Herbert, III

    2005-01-01

    A method for dividing the power of an electronic signal rich in harmonics involves the use of an improved divider topology. A divider designed with this topology could be used, for example, to propagate a square-wave signal in an amplifier designed with a push-pull configuration to enable the generation of more power than could be generated in another configuration.

  5. Tool path in torus tool CNC machining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XU Ying

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper is about tool path in torus tool CNC machining.The mathematical model of torus tool is established.The tool path planning algorithm is determined through calculation of the cutter location,boundary discretization,calculation of adjacent tool path and so on,according to the conversion formula,the cutter contact point will be converted to the cutter location point and then these points fit a toolpath.Lastly,the path planning algorithm is implemented by using Matlab programming.The cutter location points for torus tool are calculated by Matlab,and then fit these points to a toolpath.While using UG software,another tool path of free surface is simulated of the same data.It is drew compared the two tool paths that using torus tool is more efficient.

  6. Surface metallurgy of cemented carbide tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chopra, K.L.; Kashyap, S.C.; Rao, T.V.; Rajagopalan, S.; Srivastava, P.K.

    1983-01-01

    Transition metal carbides, owing to their high melting point, hardness and wear resistance, are potential candidates for specific application in rockets, nuclear engineering equipment and cutting tools. Tungsten carbide sintered with a binder (either cobalt metal or a mixture of Co + TiC and/or TaC(NbC)) is used for cutting tools. The surface metallurgy of several commercially available cemented carbide tools was studied by Auger electron spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy techniques. The tool surfaces were contaminated by adsorbed oxygen up to a depth of nearly 0.3 μm causing deterioration of the mechanical properties of the tools. Studies of fractured samples indicated that the tool surfaces were prone to oxygen adsorption. The fracture path passes through the cobalt-rich regions. The ineffectiveness of a worn cutting tool is attributed to the presence of excessive iron from the steel workpiece and carbon and oxygen in the surface layers of the tool. The use of appropriate hard coatings on cemented carbide tools is suggested. (Auth.)

  7. Dissecting the polysaccharide-rich grape cell wall matrix using recombinant pectinases during winemaking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Yu; Fangel, Jonatan Ulrik; Willats, William George Tycho

    2016-01-01

    different combinations of purified recombinant pectinases with cell wall profiling tools to follow the deconstruction process during winemaking. Multivariate data analysis of the glycan microarray (CoMPP) and gas chromatography (GC) results revealed that pectin lyase performed almost as effectively in de......The effectiveness of enzyme-mediated-maceration in red winemaking relies on the use of an optimum combination of specific enzymes. A lack of information on the relevant enzyme activities and the corresponding polysaccharide-rich berry cell wall structure is a major limitation. This study used......-pectination as certain commercial enzyme mixtures. Surprisingly the combination of endo-polygalacturonase and pectin-methyl-esterase only unraveled the cell walls without de-pectination. Datasets from the various combinations used confirmed pectin-rich and xyloglucan-rich layers within the grape pomace. These data...

  8. Useful design tools?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Ole

    2005-01-01

    vague and contested concept of sustainability into concrete concepts and building projects. It describes a typology of tools: process tools, impact assessment tools, multi-criteria tools and tools for monitoring. It includes a Danish paradigmatic case study of stakeholder participation in the planning...... of a new sustainable settlement. The use of design tools is discussed in relation to innovation and stakeholder participation, and it is stressed that the usefulness of design tools is context dependent....

  9. The HADES-RICH upgrade using Hamamatsu H12700 MAPMTs with DiRICH FEE + Readout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, V.; Traxler, M.

    2018-03-01

    The High Acceptance Di-Electron Spectrometer (HADES) is operational since the year 2000 and uses a hadron blind RICH detector for electron identification. The RICH photon detector is currently replaced by Hamamatsu H12700 MAPMTs with a readout system based on the DiRICH front-end module. The electronic readout chain is being developed as a joint effort of the HADES-, CBM- and PANDA collaborations and will also be used in the photon detectors for the upcoming Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) and PANDA experiments at FAIR . This article gives a brief overview on the photomultipliers and their quality assurance test measurements, as well as first measurements of the new DiRICH front-end module in final configurations.

  10. CoC GIS Tools (GIS Tool)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — This tool provides a no-cost downloadable software tool that allows users to interact with professional quality GIS maps. Users access pre-compiled projects through...

  11. RICH Detector for Jefferson Labs CLAS12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotta, Richard; Torisky, Ben; Benmokhtar, Fatiha

    2015-10-01

    Jefferson Lab (Jlab) is performing a large-scale upgrade to its Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) up to 12GeV beams. The Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS12) in Hall B is being upgraded and a new hybrid Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) detector is being developed to provide better kaon - pion separation throughout the 3 to 8 GeV/c momentum range. This detector will be used for a variety of Semi-Inclusive Deep Inelastic Scattering experiments. Cherenkov light can be accurately detected by a large array of sophisticated Multi-Anode Photomultiplier Tubes (MA-PMT) and heavier particles, like kaons, will span the inner radii. We are presenting our work on the creation of the RICH's geometry within the CLAS12 java framework. This development is crucial for future calibration, reconstructions and analysis of the detector.

  12. Ring recognition in the CBM RICH detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebedev, S.; Ososkov, G.; Hoehne, C.

    2007-01-01

    Two algorithms of ring recognition, a standalone ring finder (using only RICH information) and an algorithm based on the information from vertex tracks are described. The fake ring problem and its solution using a set of two-dimensional cuts or an artificial neural network are discussed. Results of a comparative study are given. All developed algorithms were tested on large statistics of simulated events and were then included into the CBM framework for common use

  13. Proton radioactivity from proton-rich nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzman, F.; Goncalves, M.; Tavares, O.A.P.; Duarte, S.B.; Garcia, F.; Rodriguez, O.

    1999-03-01

    Half-lives for proton emission from proton-rich nuclei have been calculated by using the effective liquid drop model of heavy-particle decay of nuclei. It is shown that this model is able to offer results or spontaneous proton-emission half-life-values in excellent agreement with the existing experimental data. Predictions of half-life-values for other possible proton-emission cases are present for null orbital angular momentum. (author)

  14. Can temporal and spatial NDVI predict regional bird-species richness?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastián Nieto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the distribution of the species and its controls over biogeographic scales is still a major challenge in ecology. National Park Networks provide an opportunity to assess the relationship between ecosystem functioning and biodiversity in areas with low human impacts. We tested the productivity–biodiversity hypothesis which states that the number of species increases with the available energy, and the ​variability–biodiversity hypothesis which states that the number of species increases with the diversity of habitats. The available energy and habitat heterogeneity estimated by the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI was shown as a good predictor of bird-species richness for a diverse set of biomes in previously published studies. However, there is not a universal relationship between NDVI and bird-species richness. Here we tested if the NDVI can predict bird species richness in areas with low human impact in Argentina. Using a dataset from the National Park Network of Argentina we found that the best predictor of bird species richness was the minimum value of NDVI per year which explained 75% of total variability. The inclusion of the spatial heterogeneity of NDVI improved the explanation power to 80%. Minimum NDVI was highly correlated with precipitation and winter temperature. Our analysis provides a tool for assessing bird-species richness at scales on which land-use planning practitioners make their decisions for Southern South America.

  15. Rich Language Learning Environment and Young Learners' Literacy Skills in English

    OpenAIRE

    Artini, Luh Putu

    2017-01-01

    This research aimed at developing rich language learning environment to help elementary school students develop their literacy skills in English. Shortage of professional English teachers in primary school, limited time allocation, as well as the lack of tools and facilities that support English language teaching and learning for young learners had resulted in students’low literacy skills in English. It was tried out in six primary schools across Bali involving 12 teachers and 520 students. T...

  16. The power tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HAYFIELD, J.P.

    1999-01-01

    POWER Tool--Planning, Optimization, Waste Estimating and Resourcing tool, a hand-held field estimating unit and relational database software tool for optimizing disassembly and final waste form of contaminated systems and equipment

  17. The neutron porosity tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oelgaard, P.L.

    1988-01-01

    The report contains a review of available information on neutron porosity tools with the emphasis on dual thermal-neutron-detector porosity tools and epithermal-neutron-detector porosity tools. The general principle of such tools is discussed and theoretical models are very briefly reviewed. Available data on tool designs are summarized with special regard to the source-detector distance. Tool operational data, porosity determination and correction of measurements are briefly discussed. (author) 15 refs

  18. Preset pivotal tool holder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmanes, Charles

    1979-01-01

    A tool fixture is provided for precise pre-alignment of a radiused edge cutting tool in a tool holder relative to a fixed reference pivot point established on said holder about which the tool holder may be selectively pivoted relative to the fixture base member to change the contact point of the tool cutting edge with a workpiece while maintaining the precise same tool cutting radius relative to the reference pivot point.

  19. A recently developed bifacial platelet-rich fibrin matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Lucarelli

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Platelet-rich plasma (PRP is used clinically in liquid or gel form to promote tissue repair. Because of the poor mechanical properties, conventional PRP is often difficult to handle when used in clinical settings and requires secure implantation in a specific site, otherwise when released growth factors could be washed out during an operation. In this study, we analyzed the end product of a recently developed commercially available system (FIBRINET®, which is a dense pliable, platelet-rich fibrin matrix (PRFM. We characterized the mechanical properties of PRFM and tested whether PRFM releases growth factors and whether released factors induce the proliferation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC. Mechanical properties as well as platelet distribution were evaluated in PRFM. PRFM demonstrated robust mechanical properties, with a tear elastic modulus of 937.3 + 314.6 kPa, stress at a break of 1476.0 + 526.3 kPa, and an elongation at break of 146.3 + 33.8 %. PRFM maintained its mechanical properties throughout the testing process. Microscopic observations showed that the platelets were localized on one side of the matrix. Elevated levels of PDGF-AA, PDGF-AB, EGF, VEGF, bFGF and TGF-β1 were measured in the day 1-conditioned media (CM of PRFM and growth factor levels decreased thereafter. BMP2 and BMP7 were not detectable. MSC culture media supplemented with 20% PRFM-CM stimulated MSC cell proliferation; at 24 and 48 hours the induction of the proliferation was significantly greater than the induction obtained with media supplemented with 20% foetal bovine serum. The present study shows that the production of a dense, physically robust PRFM made through high-speed centrifugation of intact platelets and fibrin in the absence of exogenous thrombin yields a potential tool for accelerating tissue repair.

  20. Reconstruction and calibration strategies for the LHCb RICH detector

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    - LHCb particle identification - LHCb ring pattern recognition algorithm requirements - RICH pattern recognition - Cherenkov angle reconstruction online - Online PID - Hough transform - Metropolis- Hastings Markov chains - PID online: physics performances - Rich PID Callibration

  1. Bar quenching in gas-rich galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoperskov, S.; Haywood, M.; Di Matteo, P.; Lehnert, M. D.; Combes, F.

    2018-01-01

    Galaxy surveys have suggested that rapid and sustained decrease in the star-formation rate (SFR), "quenching", in massive disk galaxies is frequently related to the presence of a bar. Optical and near-IR observations reveal that nearly 60% of disk galaxies in the local universe are barred, thus it is important to understand the relationship between bars and star formation in disk galaxies. Recent observational results imply that the Milky Way quenched about 9-10 Gyr ago, at the transition between the cessation of the growth of the kinematically hot, old, metal-poor thick disk and the kinematically colder, younger, and more metal-rich thin disk. Although perhaps coincidental, the quenching episode could also be related to the formation of the bar. Indeed the transfer of energy from the large-scale shear induced by the bar to increasing turbulent energy could stabilize the gaseous disk against wide-spread star formation and quench the galaxy. To explore the relation between bar formation and star formation in gas rich galaxies quantitatively, we simulated gas-rich disk isolated galaxies. Our simulations include prescriptions for star formation, stellar feedback, and for regulating the multi-phase interstellar medium. We find that the action of stellar bar efficiently quenches star formation, reducing the star-formation rate by a factor of ten in less than 1 Gyr. Analytical and self-consistent galaxy simulations with bars suggest that the action of the stellar bar increases the gas random motions within the co-rotation radius of the bar. Indeed, we detect an increase in the gas velocity dispersion up to 20-35 km s-1 at the end of the bar formation phase. The star-formation efficiency decreases rapidly, and in all of our models, the bar quenches the star formation in the galaxy. The star-formation efficiency is much lower in simulated barred compared to unbarred galaxies and more rapid bar formation implies more rapid quenching.

  2. COMPASS mirror wall of RICH 1

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2001-01-01

    The COMPASS experiment uses ring imaging Cherenkov (RICH) counters to identify particles produced in high-energy muon collisions, to better understand the spin structure of the nucleon. Charged particles moving faster than the speed of light in the medium through which they are travelling emit a cone of Cherenkov radiation in the direction of their motion. The light in this cone is reflected from these mirrors onto a photo detector so that the size of the cone can be measured, which gives the energy of the particle.

  3. Modeling a neutron rich nuclei source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirea, M.; Bajeat, O.; Clapier, F.; Ibrahim, F.; Mueller, A.C.; Pauwels, N.; Proust, J. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, IN2P3/CNRS, 91 - Orsay (France); Mirea, M. [Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Tandem Lab., Bucharest (Romania)

    2000-07-01

    The deuteron break-up process in a suitable converter gives rise to intense neutron beams. A source of neutron rich nuclei based on the neutron induced fission can be realised using these beams. A theoretical optimization of such a facility as a function of the incident deuteron energy is reported. The model used to determine the fission products takes into account the excitation energy of the target nucleus and the evaporation of prompt neutrons. Results are presented in connection with a converter-target specific geometry. (author000.

  4. How countries become rich and reduce poverty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitfield, Lindsay

    2012-01-01

    For the sake of less developed countries, it is time to adjust the discussion of international development assistance on poverty reduction. This article attempts to do so by reviewing new and old literature explaining why some countries are rich and others are poor. History has repeatedly shown...... that building up capabilities in manufacturing and improving the productivity of agriculture are the keys to wealth creation and long-term sustained poverty reduction. Furthermore, industrialisation and increased agricultural productivity are interdependent processes. Discussion about ending world poverty needs...

  5. Mars: a water-rich planet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, M.H.

    1987-01-01

    Good geomorphic evidence is presented for a planet that was once water rich, and that a lower limit on the amount of water available for a given Martian watershed may be estimated by assuming that the volume of material eroded was equal to the volume of water available. This estimate, coupled with high latitude water estimates of 50 to 100 m gives a global inventory of about 500 m total water in the subsurface. It was emphasized that this is a lower limit as considerable water may be bound in weathered debris and in primary minerals

  6. Modeling a neutron rich nuclei source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirea, M.; Bajeat, O.; Clapier, F.; Ibrahim, F.; Mueller, A.C.; Pauwels, N.; Proust, J.; Mirea, M.

    2000-01-01

    The deuteron break-up process in a suitable converter gives rise to intense neutron beams. A source of neutron rich nuclei based on the neutron induced fission can be realised using these beams. A theoretical optimization of such a facility as a function of the incident deuteron energy is reported. The model used to determine the fission products takes into account the excitation energy of the target nucleus and the evaporation of prompt neutrons. Results are presented in connection with a converter-target specific geometry. (authors)

  7. Structure of neutron-rich nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazarewicz, W.; Oak Ridge National Lab., TN; Warsaw Univ.

    1997-11-01

    One of the frontiers of today's nuclear science is the ''journey to the limits'': of atomic charge and nuclear mass, of neutron-to-proton ratio, and of angular momentum. The new data on exotic nuclei are expected to bring qualitatively new information about the fundamental properties of the nucleonic many-body system, the nature of the nuclear interaction, and nucleonic correlations at various energy-distance scales. In this talk, current developments in nuclear structure of neutron-rich nuclei are discussed from a theoretical perspective

  8. Rapidly involuting congenital hemangioma (RICH): a brief case report

    OpenAIRE

    Scalise, Robert; Bolton, Joanna; Gibbs, Neil F

    2014-01-01

    Congenital hemangiomas (CH) are benign vascular neoplasms that proliferate in utero and have completed development by birth. Two subtypes of CH are recognized: rapidly involuting congenital hemangiomas (RICH) and non-involuting congenital hemangiomas (NICH). Involution of the RICH subtype often begins in the first weeks of life. NICH does not involute, allowing the distinction between RICH and NICH. We report a case of an infant with RICH occurring on the scalp, examined at birth and followed...

  9. Mixed Media Richness and Computer-Mediated Communications

    OpenAIRE

    Atkins, Anthony B.

    2006-01-01

    Mixed richness communications occur when a participant in a conversation receives a different media or combination of media than they transmit. Mixed richness communications occur in the workplace when technical, physiological or practical limitations prevent the use of the same media on both ends of a conversation. Prior research in CMC has focused on same-richness communications, and the design guidelines that are available for same-richness communications may not be applicable to mixed-r...

  10. Antibody reactivities to glutamate-rich peptides of Plasmodium falciparum parasites in humans from areas of different malaria endemicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, P.H.; Theander, T.G.; Hvid, L

    1996-01-01

    Synthetic P. falciparum peptides were evaluated as tools in epidemiological investigations of malaria. Plasma IgM and IgG antibody reactivities against synthetic peptides covering sequences of glutamate-rich protein (GLURP) and acidic-basic repeat antigen (ABRA) were measured by ELISA...

  11. Domain walls collision in Fe-rich and Co-rich glass covered microwires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalez J.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the results of the investigation of domain walls propagation in Fe-rich and Co-rich microwires performed using Sixtus-Tonks and magneto-optical Kerr effect techniques. It was found that under certain experimental conditions we are able to create the regime of the motion of two domain walls moving to opposite directions which terminates by the collision of the domain walls. Also the domain walls collision was visualized using magneto-optical Kerr effect microscope when the surface giant Barkhausen jump induced by circular magnetic field has been observed.

  12. Dutch Risk Assessment tools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venema, A.

    2015-01-01

    The ‘Risico- Inventarisatie- en Evaluatie-instrumenten’ is the name for the Dutch risk assessment (RA) tools. A RA tool can be used to perform a risk assessment including an evaluation of the identified risks. These tools were among the first online risk assessment tools developed in Europe. The

  13. Magnesium-rich Basalts on Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, L. M. V.

    2013-05-01

    X-ray and gamma-ray spectrometers on NASA's MESSENGER spacecraft are making key measurements regarding the composition and properties of the surface of Mercury, allowing researchers to more clearly decipher the planet's formation and geologic history. The origin of the igneous rocks in the crust of Mercury is the focus of recent research by Karen Stockstill-Cahill and Tim McCoy (National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution), along with Larry Nittler and Shoshana Weider (Carnegie Institution of Washington) and Steven Hauck II (Case Western Reserve University). Using the well-known MELTS computer code Stockstill-Cahill and coauthors worked with MESSENGER-derived and rock-analog compositions to constrain petrologic models of the lavas that erupted on the surface of Mercury. Rock analogs included a partial melt of the Indarch meteorite and a range of Mg-rich terrestrial rocks. Their work shows the lavas on Mercury are most similar to terrestrial magnesian basalt (with lowered FeO content). The implications of the modeling are that Mg-rich lavas came from high-temperature sources in Mercury's mantle and erupted at high temperature with exceptionally low viscosity into thinly bedded and laterally extensive flows, concepts open to further evaluation by laboratory experiments and by geologic mapping of Mercury's surface using MESSENGER's imaging system and laser altimeter to document flow features and dimensions.

  14. Habitability constraints on water-rich exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noack, Lena; Höning, Dennis; Rivoldini, Attilio; Heistracher, Clemens; Zimov, Nastasia; Journaux, Baptiste; Lammer, Helmut; Van Hoolst, Tim; Hendrik Bredehöft, Jan

    2016-04-01

    This research addresses the characterization, modelling, thermal evolution and possible habitability of water-rich exoplanets. Water is necessary for the origin and survival of life as we know it. In the search for habitable worlds, water-rich planets therefore seem obvious candidates. The water layer on such planets could be hundreds of kilometers deep. Depending on the temperature profile and the pressure gradient, it is likely that at great depths a significant part of the water layer is solid high pressure ice. Whether the solid ice layer extends to the bottom of the water layer, or if a shallow lower ocean forms above the silicate mantle, depends amongst others on the thermal state of the planet. We therefore model the thermal evolution of water-rich planets with a 1D parameterized model. Depth-dependent profiles for thermodynamic properties as well as pressure and gravity are obtained by solving the Poisson equation for the gravity and the hydrostatic pressure equation for pre-defined mass and composition (in terms of iron, silicates and water) [1]. For density, equations of state are applied. For the simulation of the thermal evolution of water-rich planets, several parameters (as initial temperatures or layer thicknesses) are unknown. We therefore employ a quantitatve study with more than 20'000 simulations, where we investigated which parameters have the largest influence on the appearance of a lower ocean, i.e. the possible melting of high-pressure ice by heat flowing out of the silicate mantle [2]. We find that the surface temperature has the largest influence on the thickness of water layers, for which a lower ocean can still form between the high-pressure ice layer and the silicate mantle. For higher surface temperatures, not only entirely liquid oceans are possible for deeper water shells, also a liquid ocean can form under high-pressure ice layers of hundreds of kilometer thickness (for a 1 Earth-mass planet). Deeper down, the lower ocean can still

  15. New QC 7 tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-03-01

    This book tells of new QC with 7 tools which includes TQC and new QC with 7 tools which is for better propel, what is QC method to think? what is new QC 7 tool ? like KJ law, PDPC law, arrow and diagram law, and matrix diagram law, application of new QC 7 tools such as field to apply, application of new QC 7 tools for policy management the method of new QC 7 tools including related regulations KJ law, matrix and data analysis, PDPC law and education and introduction of new QC 7 tools.

  16. Tributaries as richness source for Oligochaeta assemblage (Annelida of Neotropical dammed river

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FH Ragonha

    Full Text Available Tributaries may serve as richness source for the river main channel and the zoobenthos community is a good tool to verify this kind of pattern. In this study, we aimed to characterize the benthic invertebrate assemblage in three tributaries associated to the Paraná River main channel, focusing in Oligochaeta community. We hypothesized that (i in tributaries, Oligochaeta are richer than the main river (Paraná River and (ii dammed tributary (Paranapanema River is poorly diverse than the others. Samples were conducted in Paranapanema, Baía and Ivinhema tributaries using a modified Petersen grab along three transects (samples conducted inside the tributary, in the mouth of each tributary and inside Paraná River. To analyze (i the difference between the richness and density among the tributaries and the Paraná River and (ii effect of each tributary transect on the Oligochaeta richness we used a nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis test. Changes in environmental variables and in richness and composition of Oligochaeta were summarized by Canonic Correspondence Analysis. It was registered 21 different benthic invertebrates taxa, being Oligochaeta assemblage with the highest density. Within Oligochaeta, Narapa bonettoi was the most abundant species, followed by Haplotaxis aedochaeta and Paranadrilus descolei. In our results we refused both hypotheses, because we did not found significant differences for richness and density between the tributaries and the main river, and also no difference between the three transects of each tributary were found. However, the tributaries less influenced by damming, especially the Baía recorded high richness. This corroborates their importance to diversity in the floodplain and the species of Oligochaeta reflect the peculiar characteristics of habitats within each tributaries.

  17. Is torrefaction of polysaccharides-rich biomass equivalent to carbonization of lignin-rich biomass?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgic, E; Yaman, S; Haykiri-Acma, H; Kucukbayrak, S

    2016-01-01

    Waste biomass species such as lignin-rich hazelnut shell (HS) and polysaccharides-rich sunflower seed shell (SSS) were subjected to torrefaction at 300°C and carbonization at 600°C under nitrogen. The structural variations in torrefied and carbonized biomasses were compared. Also, the burning characteristics under dry air and pure oxygen (oxy-combustion) conditions were investigated. It was concluded that the effects of carbonization on HS are almost comparable with the effects of torrefaction on SSS in terms of devolatilization and deoxygenation potentials and the increases in carbon content and the heating value. Consequently, it can be proposed that torrefaction does not provide efficient devolatilization from the lignin-rich biomass while it is relatively more efficient for polysaccharides-rich biomass. Heat-induced variations in biomass led to significant changes in the burning characteristics under both burning conditions. That is, low temperature reactivity of biomass reduced considerably and the burning shifted to higher temperatures with very high burning rates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Species richness of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi: associations with grassland plant richness and biomass

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hiiesalu, Inga; Pärtel, M.; Davison, J.; Gerhold, P.; Metsis, M.; Moora, M.; Öpik, M.; Vasar, M.; Zobel, M.; Wilson, S. D.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 203, č. 1 (2014), s. 233-244 ISSN 1469-8137 R&D Projects: GA MŠk EE2.3.30.0048 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : belowground plant richness * diversity * productivity Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 6.545, year: 2013

  19. A tangible design tool for sketching materials in products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saakes, D.P.; Stappers, P.J.

    2009-01-01

    Industrial designers make sketches and physical models to start and develop ideas and concept designs. Such representations have advantages that they support fast, intuitive, rich, sensory exploration of solutions. Although existing tools and techniques provide adequate support where the shape of

  20. Platelet Rich Plasma and Knee Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikel Sánchez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In orthopaedic surgery and sports medicine, the knee joint has traditionally been considered the workhorse. The reconstruction of every damaged element in this joint is crucial in achieving the surgeon’s goal to restore the knee function and prevent degeneration towards osteoarthritis. In the last fifteen years, the field of regenerative medicine is witnessing a boost of autologous blood-derived platelet rich plasma products (PRPs application to effectively mimic and accelerate the tissue healing process. The scientific rationale behind PRPs is the delivery of growth factors, cytokines, and adhesive proteins present in platelets and plasma, as well as other biologically active proteins conveyed by the plasma such as fibrinogen, prothrombin, and fibronectin; with this biological engineering approach, new perspectives in knee surgery were opened. This work describes the use of PRP to construct and repair every single anatomical structure involved in knee surgery, detailing the process conducted in ligament, meniscal, and chondral surgery.

  1. The neutrino opacity of neutron rich matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcain, P.N., E-mail: pabloalcain@gmail.com [Departamento de Física, FCEyN, UBA and IFIBA, Conicet, Pabellón 1, Ciudad Universitaria, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); IFIBA-CONICET (Argentina); Dorso, C.O. [Departamento de Física, FCEyN, UBA and IFIBA, Conicet, Pabellón 1, Ciudad Universitaria, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); IFIBA-CONICET (Argentina)

    2017-05-15

    The study of neutron rich matter, present in neutron star, proto-neutron stars and core-collapse supernovae, can lead to further understanding of the behavior of nuclear matter in highly asymmetric nuclei. Heterogeneous structures are expected to exist in these systems, often referred to as nuclear pasta. We have carried out a systematic study of neutrino opacity for different thermodynamic conditions in order to assess the impact that the structure has on it. We studied the dynamics of the neutrino opacity of the heterogeneous matter at different thermodynamic conditions with semiclassical molecular dynamics model already used to study nuclear multifragmentation. For different densities, proton fractions and temperature, we calculate the very long range opacity and the cluster distribution. The neutrino opacity is of crucial importance for the evolution of the core-collapse supernovae and the neutrino scattering.

  2. Phosphorus Chemistry in Oxygen Rich Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal, Jacob; Schmidt, Deborah; Anderson, Julie; Ziurys, Lucy M.

    2017-06-01

    Observations of PO and PN have been carried out at the Arizona Radio Observatory at 1, 2, and 3 mm. Multiple transitions of PO and PN have been detected towards the O-rich AGB stars TX Cam and RCas. Data obtained toward supergiant stars VY Canis Majoris and NML Cyg have also been analyzed. Abundances were obtained for these molecules in all four objects using the radiative transfer code ESCAPADE, which is suitable for symmetric and asymmetric stellar outflows. The abundances of PN and PO were found to be in the range 10^{-8} - 10^{-7} relative to H_{2}. While PN appears to be a parent molecule formed by LTE chemistry near the stellar photosphere, PO appears to be created further out from the star at r > 400 R_*.

  3. RICH High Voltages & PDF Analysis @ LHCb

    CERN Multimedia

    Fanchini, E

    2009-01-01

    In the LHCb experiment an important issue is the identification of the hadrons of the final states of the B mesons decays. Two RICH subdetectors are devoted to this task, and the Hybrid Photon Detectors (HPDs) are the photodetectors used to detect Cherenkov light. In this poster there is a description of how the very high voltage (-18 KV) supply stability used to power the HPDs is monitored. It is also presented the basics of a study which can be done with the first collision data: the analysis of the dimuons from the Drell-Yan process. This process is well known and the acceptance of the LHCb detector in terms of pseudorapidity will be very useful to improve the knowledge of the proton structure functions or, alternatively, try to estimate the luminosity from it.

  4. Plasma rich in growth factors in dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Glavina

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF has wider use in many fields of dentistry due to its endogenous biocompatible regenerative potential i.e., their potential to stimulate and accelerate tissue healing and bone regeneration. Aims This review shows the increasing use of PRGF technology in various fields of dentistry. Methods In the last nine years PubMed has been searched in order to find out published articles upon PRGF in dentistry and 36 papers have been included. Results PRGF technology has many advantages with positive clinical and biological outcomes in tissue healing and bone regeneration. Conclusion In order to determine the most effective therapeutic value for patients, further research is required.

  5. Platelet-rich plasma: applications in dermatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde Montero, E; Fernández Santos, M E; Suárez Fernández, R

    2015-03-01

    In recent years, the use of platelet-rich plasma has increased notably in a range of diseases and settings. Uses of these products now go beyond skin rejuvenation therapy in patients with facial ageing. Good outcomes for other dermatological indications such as skin ulcers and, more recently, alopecia have been reported in case series and controlled studies. However, these indications are not currently included in the labeling given that stronger scientific evidence is required to support their real benefits. With the increased use of these products, dermatologists need to become familiar with the underlying biological principles and able to critically assess the quality and outcomes of the studies of these products in different skin diseases. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  6. [Plant signaling peptides. Cysteine-rich peptides].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrowski, Maciej; Kowalczyk, Stanisław

    2015-01-01

    Recent bioinformatic and genetic analyses of several model plant genomes have revealed the existence of a highly abundant group of signaling peptides that are defined as cysteine-rich peptides (CRPs). CRPs are usually in size between 50 and 90 amino acid residues, they are positively charged, and they contain 4-16 cysteine residues that are important for the correct conformational folding. Despite the structural differences among CRP classes, members from each class have striking similarities in their molecular properties and function. The present review presents the recent progress in research on signaling peptides from several families including: EPF/EPFL, SP11/SCR, PrsS, RALF, LURE, and some other peptides belonging to CRP group. There is convincing evidence indicating multiple roles for these CRPs as signaling molecules during the plant life cycle, ranging from stomata development and patterning, self-incompatibility, pollen tube growth and guidance, reproductive processes, and nodule formation.

  7. Using ecological niche modeling to determine avian richness hotspots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Mirzaei

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Understanding distributions of wildlife species is a key step towards identifying biodiversity hotspots and designing effective conservation strategies. In this paper, the spatial pattern of diversity of birds in Golestan Province, Iran was estimated. Ecological niche modeling was used to determine distributions of 144 bird species across the province using a maximum entropy algorithm. Richness maps across all birds, and separately for rare and threatened species, were prepared as approximations to hotspots. Results showed close similarity between hotspots for all birds and those for rare birds; hotspots were concentrated in the southern and especially the southwestern parts of the province. Hotspots for threatened birds tended more to the central and especially the western parts of the province, which include coastal habitats. Based on three criteria, it is clear that the western part is the most important area of the province in terms of bird Faunas. Despite some shortcomings, hotspot analysis for birds could be applied to guide conservation efforts and provide useful tool towards efficient conservation action.

  8. VOSGES, a long and rich geologic history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominique, Carteaux; Cyrille, Delangle; Sophie, Demangel

    2015-04-01

    The study of geology in scientific classes is often too theoretical and abstract for the pupils. How can teachers make the link between some samples of rocks observed in a practical class and the geologic story of the region? There's nothing better than outdoor education to establish a relationship between the rock observed in macroscopic and microscopic scale in the classroom,with the outcrop scale and the landscape scale in the field: all of them are the result of a fascinating geologic history.Our pupils are lucky enough to live at the heart of a modest mountain massif that has a very rich geologic story: the massif from Vosges situated in the east of France. During two expeditions we show the students all the following tectonic processes: Accretion at the scale of the landscape with the Rhenish Ditch (tectonic and volcanic markers) Obductionis observed due to ophiolites found in the massive of Thalhorn (peridotite, gabbro and sedimentary marine rocks of great depth). Collisionis illuminated with numerous sites like the schists of Steige, the phyllite of Villé, the gneisses of Climont. Subductionis captured bystudying the outcrops of magmatic rocks within the continental crust (andesite, diorite, granodiorite). At each of the stops we have the students, from a hand sample, to findits story in a more global context. So the theory becomes reality. A study of thin slides of rocks observed on the ground finishes these exits and so various scales of understanding are approached. The long and rich geologic history of Vosges maybe reconstituted on hundreds of million years, allowing certainly giving another aspect to the living environment of our pupils.

  9. Nanocomposites for Machining Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria Sidorenko

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Machining tools are used in many areas of production. To a considerable extent, the performance characteristics of the tools determine the quality and cost of obtained products. The main materials used for producing machining tools are steel, cemented carbides, ceramics and superhard materials. A promising way to improve the performance characteristics of these materials is to design new nanocomposites based on them. The application of micromechanical modeling during the elaboration of composite materials for machining tools can reduce the financial and time costs for development of new tools, with enhanced performance. This article reviews the main groups of nanocomposites for machining tools and their performance.

  10. Tool grinding machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dial, Sr., Charles E.

    1980-01-01

    The present invention relates to an improved tool grinding mechanism for grinding single point diamond cutting tools to precise roundness and radius specifications. The present invention utilizes a tool holder which is longitudinally displaced with respect to the remainder of the grinding system due to contact of the tool with the grinding surface with this displacement being monitored so that any variation in the grinding of the cutting surface such as caused by crystal orientation or tool thickness may be compensated for during the grinding operation to assure the attainment of the desired cutting tool face specifications.

  11. Improved tool grinding machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dial, C.E. Sr.

    The present invention relates to an improved tool grinding mechanism for grinding single point diamond cutting tools to precise roundness and radius specifications. The present invention utilizes a tool holder which is longitudinally displaced with respect to the remainder of the grinding system due to contact of the tool with the grinding surface with this displacement being monitored so that any variation in the grinding of the cutting surface such as caused by crystal orientation or tool thicknesses may be compensated for during the grinding operation to assure the attainment of the desired cutting tool face specifications.

  12. A PUFA-rich diet improves fat oxidation following saturated fat-rich meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Jada L; Miller, Mary K; Skillman, Hannah E; Paton, Chad M; Cooper, Jamie A

    2017-08-01

    To determine substrate oxidation responses to saturated fatty acid (SFA)-rich meals before and after a 7-day polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)-rich diet versus control diet. Twenty-six, normal-weight, adults were randomly assigned to either PUFA or control diet. Following a 3-day lead-in diet, participants completed the pre-diet visit where anthropometrics and resting metabolic rate (RMR) were measured, and two SFA-rich HF meals (breakfast and lunch) were consumed. Indirect calorimetry was used to determine fat oxidation (Fox) and energy expenditure (EE) for 4 h after each meal. Participants then consumed a PUFA-rich diet (50 % carbohydrate, 15 % protein, 35 % fat, of which 21 % of total energy was PUFA) or control diet (50 % carbohydrate, 15 % protein, 35 % fat, of which 7 % of total energy was PUFA) for the next 7 days. Following the 7-day diet, participants completed the post-diet visit. From pre- to post-PUFA-rich diet, there was no change in RMR (16.3 ± 0.8 vs. 16.4 ± 0.8 kcal/20 min) or in incremental area under the curve for EE (118.9 ± 20.6-126.9 ± 14.1 kcal/8h, ns). Fasting respiratory exchange ratio increased from pre- to post-PUFA-rich diet only (0.83 ± 0.1-0.86 ± 0.1, p diet (0.03 ± 0.1-0.23 ± 0.1 g/15 min for cumulative Fox; p diet initiates greater fat oxidation after eating occasional high SFA meals compared to a control diet, an effect achieved in 7 days.

  13. Tools of online Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Hossain, M. S.; Rahman, M. F.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Online marketing is the most crucial issue in the modern marketing era but there was no previous research that could identify the tools of internet marketing before this study and it was the first study on the field of online marketing tools. This research was descriptive in nature and it has attempted to identify the major tools of internet marketing from the concepts of traditional marketing tools. Worldwide network is known as Internet that can exchange information between use...

  14. OOTW COST TOOLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HARTLEY, D.S.III; PACKARD, S.L.

    1998-09-01

    This document reports the results of a study of cost tools to support the analysis of Operations Other Than War (OOTW). It recommends the continued development of the Department of Defense (DoD) Contingency Operational Support Tool (COST) as the basic cost analysis tool for 00TWS. It also recommends modifications to be included in future versions of COST and the development of an 00TW mission planning tool to supply valid input for costing.

  15. Obtention of injectable platelets rich-fibrin (i-PRF) and its polymerization with bone graft: technical note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourão, Carlos Fernando de Almeida Barros; Valiense, Helder; Melo, Elias Rodrigues; Mourão, Natália Belmock Mascarenhas Freitas; Maia, Mônica Diuana-Calasans

    2015-01-01

    The use of autologous platelet concentrates, represent a promising and innovator tools in the medicine and dentistry today. The goal is to accelerate hard and soft tissue healing. Among them, the platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is the main alternative for use in liquid form (injectable). These injectable form of platelet concentrates are often used in regenerative procedures and demonstrate good results. The aim of this study is to present an alternative to these platelet concentrates using the platelet-rich fibrin in liquid form (injectable) and its use with particulated bone graft materials in the polymerized form.

  16. Obtention of injectable platelets rich-fibrin (i-PRF and its polymerization with bone graft: technical note

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Fernando de Almeida Barros Mourão

    Full Text Available The use of autologous platelet concentrates, represent a promising and innovator tools in the medicine and dentistry today. The goal is to accelerate hard and soft tissue healing. Among them, the platelet-rich plasma (PRP is the main alternative for use in liquid form (injectable. These injectable form ofplatelet concentrates are often used in regenerative procedures and demonstrate good results. The aim of this study is to present an alternative to these platelet concentrates using the platelet-rich fibrin in liquid form (injectable and its use with particulated bone graft materials in the polymerized form.

  17. Pro Tools HD

    CERN Document Server

    Camou, Edouard

    2013-01-01

    An easy-to-follow guide for using Pro Tools HD 11 effectively.This book is ideal for anyone who already uses ProTools and wants to learn more, or is new to Pro Tools HD and wants to use it effectively in their own audio workstations.

  18. Nanocomposites for Machining Tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sidorenko, Daria; Loginov, Pavel; Mishnaevsky, Leon

    2017-01-01

    Machining tools are used in many areas of production. To a considerable extent, the performance characteristics of the tools determine the quality and cost of obtained products. The main materials used for producing machining tools are steel, cemented carbides, ceramics and superhard materials...

  19. arXiv The Future of RICH Detectors through the Light of the LHCb RICH

    CERN Document Server

    D'Ambrosio, C.; Easo, S.; Petrolini, A.; Ullaland, O.

    2017-12-21

    The limitations in performance of the present RICH system in the LHCb experiment are given by the natural chromatic dispersion of the gaseous Cherenkov radiator, the aberrations of the optical system and the pixel size of the photon detectors. Moreover, the overall PID performance can be affected by high detector occupancy as the pattern recognition becomes more difficult with high particle multiplicities. This paper shows a way to improve performance by systematically addressing each of the previously mentioned limitations. These ideas are applied in the present and future upgrade phases of the LHCb experiment. Although applied to specific circumstances, they are used as a paradigm on what is achievable in the development and realisation of high precision RICH detectors.

  20. Platelet-rich fibrin or platelet-rich plasma – which one is better? an opinion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shweta Bansal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The healing of hard and soft tissue in mediated by a wide range of intracellular and extracellular events that are regulated by signaling proteins. Platelets can play a crucial role in periodontal regeneration as they are the reservoirs of growth factors and cytokines which are the key factors for regeneration of bone and maturation of soft tissue. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP is first generation platelet concentrate. However, the short duration of cytokine release and its poor mechanical properties have resulted in search of new material. Platelet-rich fibrin (PRF is a natural fibrin-based biomaterial prepared from an anticoagulant-free blood harvest without any artificial biochemical modification (no bovine thrombin is required that allows obtaining fibrin membranes enriched with platelets and growth factors. The slow polymerization during centrifugation, fibrin-based structure, ease of preparation, minimal expense makes PRF somewhat superior in some aspect to PRP.

  1. Goodness of isospin in neutron rich systems from the fission fragment distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Swati; Jain, Ashok Kumar

    2017-09-01

    We present the results of our calculations for the relative yields of neutron-rich fission fragments emitted in 208Pb (18O, fission) reaction by using the concept of the conservation of isospin and compare with the experimental data. We take into account a range of isospin values allowed by the isospin algebra and assume that the fission fragments are formed in isobaric analog states. We also take into account the neutron multiplicity data for various neutron-emission channels in each partition, and use them to obtain the weight factors in calculating the yields. We then calculate the relative yields of the fission fragments. Our calculated results are able to reproduce the experimental trends reasonably well. This is the first direct evidence of the isospin conservation in neutron-rich systems and may prove a very useful tool in their studies.

  2. Attitudes, Perceptions, and Behavioral Intentions of Engineering Workers toward Web 2.0 Tools in the Workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Jaclyn A.

    2010-01-01

    As Web 2.0 tools and technologies increase in popularity in consumer markets, enterprises are seeking ways to take advantage of the rich social knowledge exchanges that these tools offer. The problem this study addresses is that it remains unknown whether employees perceive that these tools offer value to the organization and therefore will be…

  3. IMPROVEMENT OF THE RICHNESS ESTIMATES OF maxBCG CLUSTERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozo, Eduardo; Rykoff, Eli S.; Koester, Benjamin P.; Hansen, Sarah; Becker, Matthew; Bleem, Lindsey; McKay, Timothy; Hao Jiangang; Evrard, August; Wechsler, Risa H.; Sheldon, Erin; Johnston, David; Annis, James; Scranton, Ryan

    2009-01-01

    Minimizing the scatter between cluster mass and accessible observables is an important goal for cluster cosmology. In this work, we introduce a new matched filter richness estimator, and test its performance using the maxBCG cluster catalog. Our new estimator significantly reduces the variance in the L X -richness relation, from σ lnLx 2 = (0.86±0.02) 2 to σ lnLx 2 = (0.69±0.02) 2 . Relative to the maxBCG richness estimate, it also removes the strong redshift dependence of the L X -richness scaling relations, and is significantly more robust to photometric and redshift errors. These improvements are largely due to the better treatment of galaxy color data. We also demonstrate the scatter in the L X -richness relation depends on the aperture used to estimate cluster richness, and introduce a novel approach for optimizing said aperture which can easily be generalized to other mass tracers.

  4. Effect of carbo-nitride-rich and oxide-rich inclusions on the pitting susceptibility of depleted uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pu, Zhen; Chen, Xianglin; Meng, Xiandong; Wu, Yanping; Shen, Liang; Wang, Qingfu; Liu, Tianwei; Shuai, Maobing

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •The Volta potential differences relative to the matrix are positive for both types of inclusions. •Both types of inclusions are cathodic in the “inclusion/matrix” microgalvanic couples. •The oxide-rich inclusions show a larger Volta potential value of about 115 mV than the carbo-nitride-rich inclusions. •The oxide-rich inclusions give stronger local galvanic coupling with the matrix. •The oxide-rich inclusions are more predisposed to initiate pitting corrosion. -- Abstract: The effects of carbo-nitride-rich and oxide-rich inclusions on the pitting susceptibility of depleted uranium were investigated by electrochemical corrosion measurements, optical microscopy, scanning Kelvin probe force microscopy (SKPFM), and SEM. The results of the potentiodynamic polarization tests suggest that oxide-rich inclusions are more likely to induce pitting corrosion than carbo-nitride-rich inclusions. This enhanced corrosion may be explained by the strong local galvanic coupling between the oxide-rich inclusion and the surrounding matrix, which, from the sight of SKPFM analysis, exhibits a 115 V higher Volta potential than the coupling between the carbo-nitride-rich inclusions and the matrix, respectively.

  5. Student Engagement in a Computer Rich Science Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Jeffrey C.

    The purpose of this study was to examine the student lived experience when using computers in a rural science classroom. The overarching question the project sought to examine was: How do rural students relate to computers as a learning tool in comparison to a traditional science classroom? Participant data were collected using a pre-study survey, Experience Sampling during class and post-study interviews. Students want to use computers in their classrooms. Students shared that they overwhelmingly (75%) preferred a computer rich classroom to a traditional classroom (25%). Students reported a higher level of engagement in classes that use technology/computers (83%) versus those that do not use computers (17%). A computer rich classroom increased student control and motivation as reflected by a participant who shared; "by using computers I was more motivated to get the work done" (Maggie, April 25, 2014, survey). The researcher explored a rural school environment. Rural populations represent a large number of students and appear to be underrepresented in current research. The participants, tenth grade Biology students, were sampled in a traditional teacher led class without computers for one week followed by a week using computers daily. Data supported that there is a new gap that separates students, a device divide. This divide separates those who have access to devices that are robust enough to do high level class work from those who do not. Although cellular phones have reduced the number of students who cannot access the Internet, they may have created a false feeling that access to a computer is no longer necessary at home. As this study shows, although most students have Internet access, fewer have access to a device that enables them to complete rigorous class work at home. Participants received little or no training at school in proper, safe use of a computer and the Internet. It is clear that the majorities of students are self-taught or receive guidance

  6. History of optics: a modern teaching tool

    OpenAIRE

    Vázquez Moliní, Daniel; González Cano, Agustín; Díaz Herrera, Natalia; Llombart, N.; Alda, Javier

    2012-01-01

    The history of optics is a very rich field of science and it is possible to find many simple and significant examples of the application and success of the experimental method and therefore is a very good tool to transmit to the student the way science proceeds and to introduce the right spirit of critical analysis, building and testing of models, etc. Optical phenomena are specially well suited for this because in fact optical observations and experiments have made science advance in a cruci...

  7. Does plant species richness guarantee the resilience of local medical systems? A perspective from utilitarian redundancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Rosa Santoro

    Full Text Available Resilience is related to the ability of a system to adjust to disturbances. The Utilitarian Redundancy Model has emerged as a tool for investigating the resilience of local medical systems. The model determines the use of species richness for the same therapeutic function as a facilitator of the maintenance of these systems. However, predictions generated from this model have not yet been tested, and a lack of variables exists for deeper analyses of resilience. This study aims to address gaps in the Utilitarian Redundancy Model and to investigate the resilience of two medical systems in the Brazilian semi-arid zone. As a local illness is not always perceived in the same way that biomedicine recognizes, the term "therapeutic targets" is used for perceived illnesses. Semi-structured interviews with local experts were conducted using the free-listing technique to collect data on known medicinal plants, usage preferences, use of redundant species, characteristics of therapeutic targets, and the perceived severity for each target. Additionally, participatory workshops were conducted to determine the frequency of targets. The medical systems showed high species richness but low levels of species redundancy. However, if redundancy was present, it was the primary factor responsible for the maintenance of system functions. Species richness was positively associated with therapeutic target frequencies and negatively related to target severity. Moreover, information about redundant species seems to be largely idiosyncratic; this finding raises questions about the importance of redundancy for resilience. We stress the Utilitarian Redundancy Model as an interesting tool to be used in studies of resilience, but we emphasize that it must consider the distribution of redundancy in terms of the treatment of important illnesses and the sharing of information. This study has identified aspects of the higher and lower vulnerabilities of medical systems, adding

  8. Vertebrate richness and biogeography in the Big Thicket of Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael H MacRoberts; Barbara R. MacRoberts; D. Craig Rudolph

    2010-01-01

    The Big Thicket of Texas has been described as rich in species and a “crossroads:” a place where organisms from many different regions meet. We examine the species richness and regional affiliations of Big Thicket vertebrates. We found that the Big Thicket is neither exceptionally rich in vertebrates nor is it a crossroads for vertebrates. Its vertebrate fauna is...

  9. Synthesis and study of neutron-rich nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Yixiao

    1995-01-01

    During the past few years our understanding of the decay properties and nuclear structure has been extended in a systematic fashion for the neutron-rich nuclei. This review will first sketch the production and identification of the neutron-rich nuclei throughout the whole mass region, and will then discuss the impressive progress in the studies of the exotic decay properties and nuclear structure of neutron-rich nuclei. Their astrophysical implications will also be outlined

  10. Pickering tool management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, E.H.; Green, A.H.

    1997-01-01

    Tools were being deployed in the station with no process in effect to ensure that they are maintained in good repair so as to effectively support the performance of Maintenance activities. Today's legal requirements require that all employers have a process in place to ensure that tools are maintained in a safe condition. This is specified in the Ontario Health and Safety Act. The Pickering Tool Management System has been chosen as the process at Pickering N.D to manage tools. Tools are identified by number etching and bar codes. The system is a Windows application installed on several file servers

  11. Machine tool structures

    CERN Document Server

    Koenigsberger, F

    1970-01-01

    Machine Tool Structures, Volume 1 deals with fundamental theories and calculation methods for machine tool structures. Experimental investigations into stiffness are discussed, along with the application of the results to the design of machine tool structures. Topics covered range from static and dynamic stiffness to chatter in metal cutting, stability in machine tools, and deformations of machine tool structures. This volume is divided into three sections and opens with a discussion on stiffness specifications and the effect of stiffness on the behavior of the machine under forced vibration c

  12. Plasma rico en plaquetas Platelet -rich plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. González Lagunas

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available El Plasma Rico en Plaquetas es una suspensión concentrada de la sangre centrifugada que contiene elevadas concentraciones de trombocitos. Durante los últimos años, este producto ha aparecido de forma repetida en publicaciones científicas y en medios de comunicación generales como un producto que por sus características induce la curación y regeneración de los tejidos. La premisa de su uso es que las elevadas concentraciones de plaquetas en el PRP, liberan cantidades significativas de factores de crecimiento. En este artículo se van a recoger las evidencias científicas que se han presentado en la literatura médica con respecto al PRP y a la curación ósea, así como las diferentes aplicaciones clínicas que se han sugerido.Platelet-rich plasma is a by-product of centrifuged whole blood that contains high levels of thrombocytes. In the last decade, scientific and media interest has been generated by this product that apparently has the capacity of inducing and promoting tissue healing and regeneration. The premise of its use is that the large number of platelets in PRP release significant amounts of growth factors. In this paper, a critical review of the medical literature regarding PRP and bone healing will be presented. Also, the suggested clinical applications of the product will be addressed.

  13. The AQUA-RICH atmospheric neutrino experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Antonioli, P; Bellagamba, L; Chesi, Enrico Guido; Cindolo, F; De Pasquale, S; Ekelöf, T J C; Garbini, M; Giusti, P; Grossheim, A; Pesci, A; Learned, J G; Margotti, A; Pinfold, James L; Sartorelli, G; Séguinot, Jacques; Tarantino, A; Weilhammer, Peter; Ypsilantis, Thomas; Zichichi, A; Zuber, K

    1999-01-01

    We describe a 125 m diameter spherical detector containing 1 Mt of water, capable of high rate observation of atmospheric neutrino events (30000/y). The ring imaging Cherenkov (RICH) technique is used to measure velocity, momentum and direction of particles produced by neutrinos interacting in water. The detector will be sited outdoors (under a 50 m water shield) in a natural (further excavated) pit, probably in Sicily. Spherical reflecting mirrors focus Cherenkov light produced by secondaries from interacting neutrinos. Photons are detected by 5310 hybrid photodiodes (HPDs) of 1 m diameter each with 396 pads of 45*45 mm/sup 2/ on the photocathode surface, demagnified to 9*9 mm/sup 2/ on the silicon sensor. For most tracks the ring width will be dominated by multiple scattering which should allow momentum to be determined. Hadrons of momentum p

  14. A Metadata-Rich File System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ames, S; Gokhale, M B; Maltzahn, C

    2009-01-07

    Despite continual improvements in the performance and reliability of large scale file systems, the management of file system metadata has changed little in the past decade. The mismatch between the size and complexity of large scale data stores and their ability to organize and query their metadata has led to a de facto standard in which raw data is stored in traditional file systems, while related, application-specific metadata is stored in relational databases. This separation of data and metadata requires considerable effort to maintain consistency and can result in complex, slow, and inflexible system operation. To address these problems, we have developed the Quasar File System (QFS), a metadata-rich file system in which files, metadata, and file relationships are all first class objects. In contrast to hierarchical file systems and relational databases, QFS defines a graph data model composed of files and their relationships. QFS includes Quasar, an XPATH-extended query language for searching the file system. Results from our QFS prototype show the effectiveness of this approach. Compared to the defacto standard, the QFS prototype shows superior ingest performance and comparable query performance on user metadata-intensive operations and superior performance on normal file metadata operations.

  15. Luminescence characterization of a sodium rich feldspar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correcher, V.; Sanchez M, L.; Garcia G, J.; Rivera, T.

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports on the radioluminescence (RL) and thermoluminescence (TL) properties of a sodium rich feldspar ((Na,K)[AlSi 3 O 8 ]) with a mean molecular composition of orthoclase (Or) and albite (Ab) of Or 1 Ab 99 . Despite the complexity of the luminescence signals of the sample, it is possible to determine six different emission bands at about 300, 380, 420, 460, 550 and 680 nm. The 300 nm emission can be associated to structural defects related to the recombination process in which the Na + ion diffusion-limited is involved. The UV-blue emission band at (i) 380 nm is characteristic of mineral phases containing SiO 4 tetrahedral and could be related to intrinsic defects in the lattice, (ii) the 420 nm band could be associated to the presence of Cu (II) ions placed next to the hole traps or the recombination on a centre formed from a hole-oxygen atom adjacent to two Al atoms (Al-O-Al) and (iii) the 460 nm waveband could be due to the presence of Ti 4+ . The green and red emissions are respectively associated to the presence of Mn 2+ and Fe 3+ ions. The ratio between the relative intensities, peaked at 290 (the more intense waveband) and 550 nm is about 10:1 in both TL and RL; this fact indicates that the efficiency of recombination centres does no changes regardless on the type of the process. (Author)

  16. Investigating equality: The poverty and riches indices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eliazar, Iddo

    2016-01-01

    As noise is omnipresent, real-world quantities measured by scientists and engineers are commonly obtained in the form of statistical distributions. In turn, perhaps the most compact representation of a given statistical distribution is via the mean-variance approach: the mean manifesting the distribution’s ‘typical’ value, and the variance manifesting the magnitude of the distribution’s fluctuations about its mean. The mean-variance approach is based on an underlying Euclidean-geometry perspective. So very often real-world quantities of interest are non-negative sizes, and their measurements yield statistical size distributions. In this paper, and in the context of size distributions, we present an alternative to the Euclidean-based mean-variance approach: a mean-equality approach that is based on an underlying socioeconomic perspective. We establish two equality indices that score, on a unit-interval scale, the intrinsic ‘egalitarianism’ of size distributions: (i) the poverty equality index which is particularly sensitive to the existence of very small “poor” sizes; (ii) the riches equality index which is particularly sensitive to the existence of very large “rich” sizes. These equality indices, their properties, their computation, their application, and their connections to the mean-variance approach – are explored and described comprehensively.

  17. Coal pyrolysis under hydrogen-rich gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, H.; Sun, C.; Li, B.; Liu, Z. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Taiyuan (China). State Key Laboratory of Coal Conversion, Institute of Coal Chemistry

    1998-04-01

    To improve the economy of the pyrolysis process by reducing the hydrogen cost, it is suggested to use cheaper hydrogen-rich gases such as coke-oven gas (COG) or synthesis gas (SG) instead of pure hydrogen. The pyrolysis of Chinese Xianfeng lignite which was carried out with real COG and SG at 3-5 MPa, a final temperature of 650{degree}C and a heating rate of 5{degree}C/min in a 10g fixed-bed reactor is compared with coal pyrolysis with pure hydrogen and nitrogen under the same conditions. The results indicate that compared with hydropyrolysis at the same total pressure, the total conversion and tar yields from coal pyrolysis with COG and SG decreases while the unwanted water increases. However, at the same H{sub 2} partial pressure, the tar yields and yields of BBTX, PCX and naphthalene from the pyrolysis of coal with COG and SG are all significantly higher than those of hydropyrolysis. Therefore, it is possible to use COG and SG instead of pure hydrogen. 8 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

  18. Platelet rich fibrin in jaw defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nica, Diana; Ianes, Emilia; Pricop, Marius

    2016-03-01

    Platelet rich fibrin (PRF) is a tissue product of autologous origin abundant in growth factors, widely used in regenerative procedures. Aim of the study: Evaluation of the regenerative effect of PRF added in the bony defects (after tooth removal or after cystectomy) Material and methods: The comparative nonrandomized study included 22 patients divided into 2 groups. The first group (the test group) included 10 patients where the bony defects were treated without any harvesting material. The second group included 12 patients where the bony defects were filled with PRF. The bony defect design was not critical, with one to two walls missing. After the surgeries, a close clinically monitoring was carried out. The selected cases were investigated using both cone beam computer tomography (CBCT) and radiographic techniques after 10 weeks postoperatively. Results: Faster bone regeneration was observed in the bony defects filled with PRF comparing with the not grafted bony defects. Conclusions: PRF added in the bony defects accelerates the bone regeneration. This simplifies the surgical procedures and decreases the economic costs.

  19. The HERMES dual-radiator RICH detector

    CERN Document Server

    Jackson, H E

    2003-01-01

    The HERMES experiment emphasizes measurements of semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering. Most of the hadrons produced lie between 2 and 10 GeV, a region in which it had not previously been feasible to separate pions, kaons, and protons with standard particle identification (PID) techniques. The recent development of new clear, large, homogeneous and hydrophobic silica aerogel material with a low index of refraction offered the means to apply RICH PID techniques to this difficult momentum region. The HERMES instrument uses two radiators, C sub 4 F sub 1 sub 0 , a heavy fluorocarbon gas, and a wall of silica aerogel tiles. A lightweight spherical mirror constructed using a newly perfected technique to make resin-coated carbon-fiber surfaces of optical quality provides optical focusing on a photon detector consisting of 1934 photomultiplier tubes (PMT) for each detector half. The PMT array is held in a soft steel matrix to provide shielding against the residual field of the main spectrometer magnet. Ring recon...

  20. Structure of neutron-rich nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazarewicz, W.

    2000-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. The uncharted regions of the (N,Z) plane contain information that can answer many questions of fundamental importance for science: How many protons and neutrons can be clustered together by the strong interaction to form a bound nucleus? What are the proton and neutron magic numbers of the exotic nuclei? What are the properties of very short-lived exotic nuclei with extreme neutron-to-proton ratios? What is the effective nucleon-nucleon interaction in a nucleus that has a very large neutron excess? Nuclear life far from stability is different from that around the stability line; the promised access to completely new combinations of proton and neutron numbers offers prospects for new structural phenomena. The main objective of this talk is to discuss some of the challenges and opportunities of research with exotic nuclei. The covered topics will include: Theoretical challenges; Skins and halos in heavy nuclei; Shape coexistence in exotic nuclei; Beta-decays of neutron-rich nuclei. (author)

  1. Photoconduction in silicon rich oxide films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luna-Lopez, J A; Carrillo-Lopez, J; Flores-Gracia, F J; Garcia-Salgado, G [CIDS-ICUAP, Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla. Ed. 103 D and C, col. San Manuel, Puebla, Pue. Mexico 72570 (Mexico); Aceves-Mijares, M; Morales-Sanchez, A, E-mail: jluna@buap.siu.m, E-mail: jluna@inaoep.m [INAOE, Luis Enrique Erro No. 1, Apdo. 51, Tonantzintla, Puebla, Mexico 72000 (Mexico)

    2009-05-01

    Photoconduction of silicon rich oxide (SRO) thin films were studied by current-voltage (I-V) measurements, where ultraviolet (UV) and white (Vis) light illumination were applied. SRO thin films were deposited by low pressure chemical vapour deposition (LPCVD) technique, using SiH{sub 4} (silane) and N{sub 2}O (nitrous oxide) as reactive gases at 700 {sup 0}. The gas flow ratio, Ro = [N{sub 2}O]/[SiH{sub 4}] was used to control the silicon excess. The thickness and refractive index of the SRO films were 72.0 nm, 75.5 nm, 59.1 nm, 73.4 nm and 1.7, 1.5, 1.46, 1.45, corresponding to R{sub o} = 10, 20, 30 and 50, respectively. These results were obtained by null ellipsometry. Si nanoparticles (Si-nps) and defects within SRO films permit to obtain interesting photoelectric properties as a high photocurrent and photoconduction. These effects strongly depend on the silicon excess, thickness and structure type. Two different structures (Al/SRO/Si and Al/SRO/SRO/Si metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS)-like structures) were fabricated and used as devices. The photocurrent in these structures is dominated by the generation of carriers due to the incident photon energies ({approx}3.0-1.6 eV and 5 eV). These structures showed large photoconductive response at room temperature. Therefore, these structures have potential applications in optoelectronics devices.

  2. The source rock characters of U-rich granite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mingyue, Feng; Debao, He [CNNC Key Laboratory of Uranium Resources Exploration and Evaluation Technology, Beijing Research Institute of Uranium Geology (China)

    2012-03-15

    This paper discusses the stratum composition, lithological association, uranium content of crust and the activation, migration, concentration of uranium at each tectonic cycle in South China. The authors point out that the source rock of U-rich granite is U-rich continental crust which is rich in Si, Al and K. The lithological association is mainly composed of terrestrial clastic rocks formation of mudstone and sandstone, mingled with intermediate-acidic, mafic pyroclastic rocks and carbonate rocks formation. During tectonic movements, the rocks had undergone regional metamorphism, migmatitization, granitization, and formed U-rich granites finally. (authors)

  3. The source rock characters of U-rich granite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Mingyue; He Debao

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the stratum composition, lithological association, uranium content of crust and the activation, migration, concentration of uranium at each tectonic cycle in South China. The authors point out that the source rock of U-rich granite is U-rich continental crust which is rich in Si, Al and K. The lithological association is mainly composed of terrestrial clastic rocks formation of mudstone and sandstone, mingled with intermediate-acidic, mafic pyroclastic rocks and carbonate rocks formation. During tectonic movements, the rocks had undergone regional metamorphism, migmatitization, granitization, and formed U-rich granites finally. (authors)

  4. Nuclear reactions of neutron-rich Sn isotopes investigated at relativistic energies at R{sup 3}B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schindler, Fabia; Aumann, Thomas; Horvat, Andrea [TU Darmstadt (Germany); Boretzky, Konstanze [GSI Helmholtzzentrum (Germany); Schrock, Philipp [CNS, University of Tokyo (Japan); Johansen, Jacob [Aarhus University (Denmark); Collaboration: R3B-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    Nuclei with a large neutron excess are expected to form a neutron-rich surface layer which is often referred to as the neutron skin. The investigation of this phenomenon is of great interest in nuclear-structure physics and offers a possibility to constrain the equation-of-state of neutron-rich matter. Assuming a geometrical description of reaction processes as in the eikonal approximation, nuclear-induced reactions are a good tool to probe the neutron skin. Measured reaction cross sections can be used to constrain the density distributions of protons and neutrons in the nucleus and therefore the neutron-skin thickness. For this purpose, reactions of neutron-rich tin isotopes in the A=124-134 mass range have been measured on a carbon target at the R{sup 3}B-setup at GSI in inverse kinematics in a kinematically complete manner. Preliminary results for the reaction cross sections of {sup 124}Sn are presented.

  5. The use of Rich and Suter diagrams to explain the electron configurations of transition elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orofino, Hugo; Machado, Sergio P.; Faria, Roberto B., E-mail: faria@iq.ufrj.br [Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-09-01

    Rich and Suter diagrams are a very useful tool to explain the electron configurations of all transition elements, and in particular, the s{sup 1} and s{sup 0} configurations of the elements Cr, Cu, Nb, Mo, Ru, Rh, Pd, Ag, and Pt. The application of these diagrams to the inner transition elements also explains the electron configurations of lanthanoids and actinoids, except for Ce, Pa, U, Np, and Cm, whose electron configurations are indeed very special because they are a mixture of several configurations. (author)

  6. Flex 4 Cookbook Real-world recipes for developing Rich Internet Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Noble, Joshua; Braithwaite, Garth; Casario, Marco; Tretola, Rich

    2010-01-01

    With this collection of proven recipes, you have the ideal problem-solving guide for developing interactive Rich Internet Applications on the Adobe Flash Platform. You'll find answers to hundreds of common problems you may encounter when using Adobe Flex, Flex 4 Framework, or Flash Builder, Adobe's GUI-based development tool. Flex 4 Cookbook has hands-on recipes for everything from Flex basics to solutions for working with visual components and data access, as well as tips on application development, unit testing, and Adobe AIR. Each recipe provides an explanation of how and why it works, an

  7. The use of Rich and Suter diagrams to explain the electron configurations of transition elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Orofino

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rich and Suter diagrams are a very useful tool to explain the electron configurations of all transition elements, and in particular, the s¹ and s0 configurations of the elements Cr, Cu, Nb, Mo, Ru, Rh, Pd, Ag, and Pt. The application of these diagrams to the inner transition elements also explains the electron configurations of lanthanoids and actinoids, except for Ce, Pa, U, Np, and Cm, whose electron configurations are indeed very special because they are a mixture of several configurations.

  8. Open Health Tools: Tooling for Interoperable Healthcare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skip McGaughey

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The Open Health Tools initiative is creating an ecosystem focused on the production of software tooling that promotes the exchange of medical information across political, geographic, cultural, product, and technology lines. At its core, OHT believes that the availability of high-quality tooling that interoperates will propel the industry forward, enabling organizations and vendors to build products and systems that effectively work together. This will ?raise the interoperability bar? as a result of having tools that just work. To achieve these lofty goals, careful consideration must be made to the constituencies that will be most affected by an OHT-influenced world. This document outlines a vision of OHT?s impact to these stakeholders. It does not explain the OHT process itself or how the OHT community operates. Instead, we place emphasis on the impact of that process within the health industry. The catchphrase ?code is king? underpins this document, meaning that the manifestation of any open source community lies in the products and technology it produces.

  9. Rich client data exploration and research prototyping for NOAA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossberg, Michael; Gladkova, Irina; Guch, Ingrid; Alabi, Paul; Shahriar, Fazlul; Bonev, George; Aizenman, Hannah

    2009-08-01

    Data from satellites and model simulations is increasing exponentially as observations and model computing power improve rapidly. Not only is technology producing more data, but it often comes from sources all over the world. Researchers and scientists who must collaborate are also located globally. This work presents a software design and technologies which will make it possible for groups of researchers to explore large data sets visually together without the need to download these data sets locally. The design will also make it possible to exploit high performance computing remotely and transparently to analyze and explore large data sets. Computer power, high quality sensing, and data storage capacity have improved at a rate that outstrips our ability to develop software applications that exploit these resources. It is impractical for NOAA scientists to download all of the satellite and model data that may be relevant to a given problem and the computing environments available to a given researcher range from supercomputers to only a web browser. The size and volume of satellite and model data are increasing exponentially. There are at least 50 multisensor satellite platforms collecting Earth science data. On the ground and in the sea there are sensor networks, as well as networks of ground based radar stations, producing a rich real-time stream of data. This new wealth of data would have limited use were it not for the arrival of large-scale high-performance computation provided by parallel computers, clusters, grids, and clouds. With these computational resources and vast archives available, it is now possible to analyze subtle relationships which are global, multi-modal and cut across many data sources. Researchers, educators, and even the general public, need tools to access, discover, and use vast data center archives and high performance computing through a simple yet flexible interface.

  10. Small leucine-rich proteoglycans in the aging skeleton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Young, M F; Bi, Y; Ameye, L

    2006-01-01

    Small Leucine-Rich Proteoglyans (SLRPs) are major skeletal extracellular matrix (ECM) components that comprise a family of 13 members containing repeats of a leucine-rich motif. To examine SLRP function, we generated mice deficient in one or more member and analyzed them at the tissue, cell...

  11. Knowledge and Consumption pattern of Vitamin A rich-foods ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Due to lack of knowledge, some of the household subject some foods rich in vitamin A to traditional medicine use rather than using them to enrich their meals. Conclusion: Knowledge of the technologies for storage and preservation of vitamin A rich foods is very important in stabilizing price and making the foods available ...

  12. Estimating tree species richness from forest inventory plot data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald E. McRoberts; Dacia M. Meneguzzo

    2007-01-01

    Montreal Process Criterion 1, Conservation of Biological Diversity, expresses species diversity in terms of number of forest dependent species. Species richness, defined as the total number of species present, is a common metric for analyzing species diversity. A crucial difficulty in estimating species richness from sample data obtained from sources such as inventory...

  13. Synthesis and study of neutron-rich nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Y.X.

    1995-01-01

    During the past few years our understanding of the decay properties and nuclear structure has been extended in a systematic fashion for the neutron-rich nuclei. This review will discuss the impressive progress in the studies of the exotic decay properties and nuclear structure of n-rich nuclei. Their astrophysical implications will also be outlined. ((orig.))

  14. Platelet rich plasma in dermatology and aesthetic medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Neerja Puri

    2015-01-01

    Platelet rich plasma is a promising therapy in dermatology and aesthetic medicine. In this article we will discuss the pros and cons of platelet rich plasma (PRP) and the usage of PRP in aesthetics. PRP is especially used for conditions like facial and neck rejuvenation, fine lines and wrinkles, abdominal striae and facial scarring.

  15. Platelet rich plasma in dermatology and aesthetic medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neerja Puri

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Platelet rich plasma is a promising therapy in dermatology and aesthetic medicine. In this article we will discuss the pros and cons of platelet rich plasma (PRP and the usage of PRP in aesthetics. PRP is especially used for conditions like facial and neck rejuvenation, fine lines and wrinkles, abdominal striae and facial scarring.

  16. Species richness inside and outside long-term exclosures

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. A. Laycock; D. L. Bartos; K. D. Klement

    2004-01-01

    Recent environmental literature contains claims that livestock grazing has caused reduction in species diversity on Western rangelands. Data of species richness (number of species) is presented from inside and outside 24 long-term exclosures in Montana, Utah, and Wyoming. For the average of all exclosures there was no difference between species richness inside and...

  17. Patterns of coral species richness and reef connectivity in Malaysia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waheed, Z.

    2016-01-01

    Much remains to be discovered about the biodiversity of coral reefs in Malaysia, making this area a priority for coral reef research. This thesis aims to provide insights into the patterns of reef coral species richness and the degree of reef connectivity across Malaysia. For the species richness

  18. Productivity is a poor predictor of plant species richness

    Science.gov (United States)

    P.B. Adler; E.T. Borer; H. Hillebrand; Y. Hautier; A. Hector; S. Harpole; L.R. O’Halloran; J.B. Grace; M. Anderson; J.D. Bakker; L.A. Biederman; C.S. Brown; Y.M. Buckley; L.B. Calabrese; C.-J. Chu; E.E. Cleland; S.L. Collins; K.L. Cottingham; M.J. Crawley; E.I. Damschen; K.W. Davies; N.M. DeCrappeo; P.A. Fay; J. Firn; P. Frater; E.I. Gasarch; D.S. Gruner; N. Hagenah; J. Hille. Ris Lambers

    2011-01-01

    For more than 30 years, the relationship between net primary productivity and species richness has generated intense debate in ecology about the processes regulating local diversity. The original view, which is still widely accepted, holds that the relationship is hump-shaped, with richness first rising and then declining with increasing productivity. Although recent...

  19. Rich Man, Poor Man: Developmental Differences in Attributions and Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigelman, Carol K.

    2012-01-01

    In an examination guided by cognitive developmental and attribution theory of how explanations of wealth and poverty and perceptions of rich and poor people change with age and are interrelated, 6-, 10-, and 14-year-olds (N = 88) were asked for their causal attributions and trait judgments concerning a rich man and a poor man. First graders, like…

  20. Geographic range size and determinants of avian species richness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jetz, Walter; Rahbek, Carsten

    2002-01-01

    Geographic patterns in species richness are mainly based on wide-ranging species because their larger number of distribution records has a disproportionate contribution to the species richness counts. Here we demonstrate how this effect strongly influences our understanding of what determines spe...

  1. Lexical richness and collocational competence in second-language writing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vedder, I.; Benigno, V.

    2016-01-01

    In this article we report on an experiment set up to investigate lexical richness and collocational competence in the written production of 39 low-intermediate and intermediate learners of Italian L2. Lexical richness was assessed by means of a lexical profiling method inspired by Laufer and Nation

  2. Scheme Program Documentation Tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørmark, Kurt

    2004-01-01

    are separate and intended for different documentation purposes they are related to each other in several ways. Both tools are based on XML languages for tool setup and for documentation authoring. In addition, both tools rely on the LAML framework which---in a systematic way---makes an XML language available...... as named functions in Scheme. Finally, the Scheme Elucidator is able to integrate SchemeDoc resources as part of an internal documentation resource....

  3. Agreement Workflow Tool (AWT)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Agreement Workflow Tool (AWT) is a role-based Intranet application used for processing SSA's Reimbursable Agreements according to SSA's standards. AWT provides...

  4. Instant Spring Tool Suite

    CERN Document Server

    Chiang, Geoff

    2013-01-01

    Filled with practical, step-by-step instructions and clear explanations for the most important and useful tasks. A tutorial guide that walks you through how to use the features of Spring Tool Suite using well defined sections for the different parts of Spring.Instant Spring Tool Suite is for novice to intermediate Java developers looking to get a head-start in enterprise application development using Spring Tool Suite and the Spring framework. If you are looking for a guide for effective application development using Spring Tool Suite, then this book is for you.

  5. Chimera Grid Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, William M.; Rogers, Stuart E.; Nash, Steven M.; Buning, Pieter G.; Meakin, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Chimera Grid Tools (CGT) is a software package for performing computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis utilizing the Chimera-overset-grid method. For modeling flows with viscosity about geometrically complex bodies in relative motion, the Chimera-overset-grid method is among the most computationally cost-effective methods for obtaining accurate aerodynamic results. CGT contains a large collection of tools for generating overset grids, preparing inputs for computer programs that solve equations of flow on the grids, and post-processing of flow-solution data. The tools in CGT include grid editing tools, surface-grid-generation tools, volume-grid-generation tools, utility scripts, configuration scripts, and tools for post-processing (including generation of animated images of flows and calculating forces and moments exerted on affected bodies). One of the tools, denoted OVERGRID, is a graphical user interface (GUI) that serves to visualize the grids and flow solutions and provides central access to many other tools. The GUI facilitates the generation of grids for a new flow-field configuration. Scripts that follow the grid generation process can then be constructed to mostly automate grid generation for similar configurations. CGT is designed for use in conjunction with a computer-aided-design program that provides the geometry description of the bodies, and a flow-solver program.

  6. Easy QC 7 tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-04-01

    This book explains method of QC 7 tools, mind for using QC 7 tools, effect of QC 7 tools application, giving descriptions of graph, pareto's diagram like application writing way and using method of pareto's diagram, characteristic diagram, check sheet such as purpose and subject of check, goals and types of check sheet, and using point of check sheet, histogram like application and using method, and stratification, scatterplot, control chart, promotion method and improvement and cases of practice of QC tools.

  7. Java Power Tools

    CERN Document Server

    Smart, John

    2008-01-01

    All true craftsmen need the best tools to do their finest work, and programmers are no different. Java Power Tools delivers 30 open source tools designed to improve the development practices of Java developers in any size team or organization. Each chapter includes a series of short articles about one particular tool -- whether it's for build systems, version control, or other aspects of the development process -- giving you the equivalent of 30 short reference books in one package. No matter which development method your team chooses, whether it's Agile, RUP, XP, SCRUM, or one of many other

  8. Easy QC 7 tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1981-04-15

    This book explains method of QC 7 tools, mind for using QC 7 tools, effect of QC 7 tools application, giving descriptions of graph, pareto's diagram like application writing way and using method of pareto's diagram, characteristic diagram, check sheet such as purpose and subject of check, goals and types of check sheet, and using point of check sheet, histogram like application and using method, and stratification, scatterplot, control chart, promotion method and improvement and cases of practice of QC tools.

  9. Qlikview Audit Tool (QLIKVIEW) -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — This tool supports the cyclical financial audit process. Qlikview supports large volumes of financial transaction data that can be mined, summarized and presented to...

  10. Differences in species richness patterns between unicellular and multicellular organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillebrand, Helmut; Watermann, Frank; Karez, Rolf; Berninger, Ulrike-G

    2001-01-01

    For unicellular organisms, a lack of effects of local species richness on ecosystem function has been proposed due to their locally high species richness and their ubiquitous distribution. High dispersal ability and high individual numbers may enable unicellular taxa to occur everywhere. Using our own and published data sets on uni- and multicellular organisms, we conducted thorough statistical analyses to test whether (1) unicellular taxa show higher relative local species richness compared to multicellular taxa, (2) unicellular taxa show lower slopes of the species:area relationships and species:individuals relationships, and (3) the species composition of unicellular taxa is less influenced by geographic distance compared to multicellular taxa. We found higher local species richness compared to the global species pool for unicellular organisms than for metazoan taxa. The difference was significant if global species richness was conservatively estimated but not if extrapolated, and therefore higher richness estimates were used. Both microalgae and protozoans showed lower slopes between species richness and sample size (area or individuals) compared to macrozoobenthos, also indicating higher local species richness for unicellular taxa. The similarity of species composition of both benthic diatoms and ciliates decreased with increasing geographic distance. This indicated restricted dispersal ability of protists and the absence of ubiquity. However, a steeper slope between similarity and distance was found for polychaetes and corals, suggesting a stronger effect of distance on the dispersal of metazoans compared to unicellular taxa. In conclusion, we found partly different species richness patterns among uni- and multicellular eukaryotes, but no strict ubiquity of unicellular taxa. Therefore, the effect of local unicellular species richness on ecosystem function has to be reanalyzed. Macroecological patterns suggested for multicellular organisms may differ in

  11. Forecasting production in Liquid Rich Shale plays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikfarman, Hanieh

    Production from Liquid Rich Shale (LRS) reservoirs is taking center stage in the exploration and production of unconventional reservoirs. Production from the low and ultra-low permeability LRS plays is possible only through multi-fractured horizontal wells (MFHW's). There is no existing workflow that is applicable to forecasting multi-phase production from MFHW's in LRS plays. This project presents a practical and rigorous workflow for forecasting multiphase production from MFHW's in LRS reservoirs. There has been much effort in developing workflows and methodology for forecasting in tight/shale plays in recent years. The existing workflows, however, are applicable only to single phase flow, and are primarily used in shale gas plays. These methodologies do not apply to the multi-phase flow that is inevitable in LRS plays. To account for complexities of multiphase flow in MFHW's the only available technique is dynamic modeling in compositional numerical simulators. These are time consuming and not practical when it comes to forecasting production and estimating reserves for a large number of producers. A workflow was developed, and validated by compositional numerical simulation. The workflow honors physics of flow, and is sufficiently accurate while practical so that an analyst can readily apply it to forecast production and estimate reserves in a large number of producers in a short period of time. To simplify the complex multiphase flow in MFHW, the workflow divides production periods into an initial period where large production and pressure declines are expected, and the subsequent period where production decline may converge into a common trend for a number of producers across an area of interest in the field. Initial period assumes the production is dominated by single-phase flow of oil and uses the tri-linear flow model of Erdal Ozkan to estimate the production history. Commercial software readily available can simulate flow and forecast production in this

  12. Revascularization of Immature Necrotic Teeth: Platelet rich Fibrin an Edge over Platelet rich Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelam Mittal

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Revascularization is one such entity that has found its clinical application in the field of endodontics for the manage-ment of immature permanent necrotic teeth. The protocols for revascularization of such teeth focus especially on delivery of stem cells and scaffolds in a nonsurgical manner rather than concentrated growth micro molecules.The hypothesis: This article proposes the role of platelet concentrates such as platelet rich fibrin (PRF and platelet rich plasma (PRP in accelerating the regenerative process in such teeth. PRF unlike PRP is associated with slow, continuous and substantial re-lease of morphogens. It is hypothesized further if PRF instead of PRP when placed through immature apices in an orthograde manner can open newer gates for fast and controlled growth in young, ne-crotic, non-infected teeth.Evaluation of the hypothesis: Enhancement of the healing kinetics can be evaluated by change in size of periapical radiolucency, thickness of the dentinal walls, root elongation and apical closure compared between preoperative and postoperative standardized two dimensional/three dimensional radiographs taken on regular follow ups.

  13. Antimicrobial effect of platelet-rich plasma and platelet-rich fibrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badade, Pallavi S; Mahale, Swapna A; Panjwani, Alisha A; Vaidya, Prutha D; Warang, Ayushya D

    2016-01-01

    Platelet concentrates have been extensively used in a variety of medical fields to promote soft- and hard-tissue regeneration. The significance behind their use lies in the abundance of growth factors (GFs) in platelets α-granules that promote wound healing. Other than releasing a pool of GFs upon activation, platelets also have many features that indicate their role in the anti-infective host defense. The aim of this study is to evaluate the antimicrobial activities of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) against periodontal disease-associated bacteria. Blood samples were obtained from ten adult male patients. PRP and PRF were procured using centrifugation. The antimicrobial activity of PRP and PRF was evaluated by microbial culturing using bacterial strains of Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans. P. gingivalis and A. actinomycetemcomitans were inhibited by PRP but not by PRF. PRP is a potentially useful substance in the fight against periodontal pathogens. This might represent a valuable property in adjunct to the enhancement of tissue regeneration.

  14. Dissecting the polysaccharide-rich grape cell wall matrix using recombinant pectinases during winemaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yu; Fangel, Jonatan U; Willats, William G T; Vivier, Melané A; Moore, John P

    2016-11-05

    The effectiveness of enzyme-mediated-maceration in red winemaking relies on the use of an optimum combination of specific enzymes. A lack of information on the relevant enzyme activities and the corresponding polysaccharide-rich berry cell wall structure is a major limitation. This study used different combinations of purified recombinant pectinases with cell wall profiling tools to follow the deconstruction process during winemaking. Multivariate data analysis of the glycan microarray (CoMPP) and gas chromatography (GC) results revealed that pectin lyase performed almost as effectively in de-pectination as certain commercial enzyme mixtures. Surprisingly the combination of endo-polygalacturonase and pectin-methyl-esterase only unraveled the cell walls without de-pectination. Datasets from the various combinations used confirmed pectin-rich and xyloglucan-rich layers within the grape pomace. These data support a proposed grape cell wall model which can serve as a foundation to evaluate testable hypotheses in future studies aimed at developing tailor-made enzymes for winemaking scenarios. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. EPR design tools. Integrated data processing tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kern, R.

    1997-01-01

    In all technical areas, planning and design have been supported by electronic data processing for many years. New data processing tools had to be developed for the European Pressurized Water Reactor (EPR). The work to be performed was split between KWU and Framatome and laid down in the Basic Design contract. The entire plant was reduced to a logical data structure; the circuit diagrams and flowsheets of the systems were drafted, the central data pool was established, the outlines of building structures were defined, the layout of plant components was planned, and the electrical systems were documented. Also building construction engineering was supported by data processing. The tasks laid down in the Basic Design were completed as so-called milestones. Additional data processing tools also based on the central data pool are required for the phases following after the Basic Design phase, i.e Basic Design Optimization; Detailed Design; Management; Construction, and Commissioning. (orig.) [de

  16. Data Tools and Apps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Employment and Payroll Survey of Business Owners Work from Home Our statistics highlight trends in household statistics from multiple surveys. Data Tools & Apps Main American FactFinder Census Business Builder My ). Business Dynamics Statistics This tool shows tabulations on establishments, firms, and employment with

  17. Evaluating meeting support tools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, W.M.; Huis in 't Veld, M. M.A.; Boogaard, S.A.A. van den

    2007-01-01

    Many attempts are underway for developing meeting support tools, but less attention is paid to the evaluation of meetingware. This article describes the development and testing of an instrument for evaluating meeting tools. First, we specified the object of evaluation -meetings- by means of a set of

  18. Maailma suurim tool

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2000-01-01

    AS Tartu näitused, Tartu Kunstikool ja ajakiri 'Diivan' korraldavad 9.-11. III Tartu messikeskuse I paviljonis näituse 'Tool 2000'. Eksponeeritakse 2000 tooli, mille hulgast valitakse TOP 12. Messikeskuse territooriumile on kavas püstitada maailma suurim tool. Samal ajal II paviljonis kaksikmess 'Sisustus 2000' ja 'Büroo 2000'.

  19. Design mentoring tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    In 2004 a design engineer on-line mentoring tool was developed and implemented The purpose of the tool was to assist senior engineers : mentoring new engineers to the INDOT design process and improve their technical competency. This approach saves se...

  20. Evaluating meeting support tools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, W.M.; Huis in't Veld, M.A.A.; Boogaard, S.A.A. van den

    2008-01-01

    Many attempts are underway for developing meeting support tools, but less attention is paid to the evaluation of meetingware. This article describes the development and testing of an instrument for evaluating meeting tools. First, we specified the object of evaluation - meetings - by means of a set

  1. Tool Storage Problem Solved!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klenke, Andrew M.; Dell, Tim W.

    2007-01-01

    Graduates of the automotive technology program at Pittsburg State University (PSU) generally enter the workforce in some type of automotive management role. As a result, the program does not require students to purchase their own tools, and it does not have room for all 280 majors to roll around a personal tool chest. Each instructor must maintain…

  2. Benchmarking Tool Kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canadian Health Libraries Association.

    Nine Canadian health libraries participated in a pilot test of the Benchmarking Tool Kit between January and April, 1998. Although the Tool Kit was designed specifically for health libraries, the content and approach are useful to other types of libraries as well. Used to its full potential, benchmarking can provide a common measuring stick to…

  3. Expert tool use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorndahl, Kathrine Liedtke; Ravn, Susanne

    2017-01-01

    on a case study of elite rope skipping, we argue that the phenomenological concept of incorporation does not suffice to adequately describe how expert tool users feel when interacting with their tools. By analyzing a combination of insights gained from participant observation of 11 elite rope skippers......According to some phenomenologists, a tool can be experienced as incorporated when, as a result of habitual use or deliberate practice, someone is able to manipulate it without conscious effort. In this article, we specifically focus on the experience of expertise tool use in elite sport. Based...... and autoethnographic material from one former elite skipper, we take some initial steps toward the development of a more nuanced understanding of the concept of incorporation; one that is able to accommodate the experiences of expert tool users. In sum, our analyses indicate that the possibility for experiencing...

  4. Language Management Tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanden, Guro Refsum

    This paper offers a review of existing literature on the topic of language management tools – the means by which language is managed – in multilingual organisations. By drawing on a combination of sociolinguistics and international business and management studies, a new taxonomy of language...... management tools is proposed, differentiating between three categories of tools. Firstly, corporate policies are the deliberate control of issues pertaining to language and communication developed at the managerial level of a firm. Secondly, corporate measures are the planned activities the firm’s leadership...... may deploy in order to address the language needs of the organisation. Finally, front-line practices refer to the use of informal, emergent language management tools available to staff members. The language management tools taxonomy provides a framework for operationalising the management of language...

  5. OOTW Force Design Tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, R.E.; Hartley, D.S.III; Packard, S.L.

    1999-05-01

    This report documents refined requirements for tools to aid the process of force design in Operations Other Than War (OOTWs). It recommends actions for the creation of one tool and work on other tools relating to mission planning. It also identifies the governmental agencies and commands with interests in each tool, from whom should come the user advisory groups overseeing the respective tool development activities. The understanding of OOTWs and their analytical support requirements has matured to the point where action can be taken in three areas: force design, collaborative analysis, and impact analysis. While the nature of the action and the length of time before complete results can be expected depends on the area, in each case the action should begin immediately. Force design for OOTWs is not a technically difficult process. Like force design for combat operations, it is a process of matching the capabilities of forces against the specified and implied tasks of the operation, considering the constraints of logistics, transport and force availabilities. However, there is a critical difference that restricts the usefulness of combat force design tools for OOTWs: the combat tools are built to infer non-combat capability requirements from combat capability requirements and cannot reverse the direction of the inference, as is required for OOTWs. Recently, OOTWs have played a larger role in force assessment, system effectiveness and tradeoff analysis, and concept and doctrine development and analysis. In the first Quadrennial Defense Review (QDR), each of the Services created its own OOTW force design tool. Unfortunately, the tools address different parts of the problem and do not coordinate the use of competing capabilities. These tools satisfied the immediate requirements of the QDR, but do not provide a long-term cost-effective solution.

  6. Diversification rates and species richness across the Tree of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholl, Joshua P; Wiens, John J

    2016-09-14

    Species richness varies dramatically among clades across the Tree of Life, by over a million-fold in some cases (e.g. placozoans versus arthropods). Two major explanations for differences in richness among clades are the clade-age hypothesis (i.e. species-rich clades are older) and the diversification-rate hypothesis (i.e. species-rich clades diversify more rapidly, where diversification rate is the net balance of speciation and extinction over time). Here, we examine patterns of variation in diversification rates across the Tree of Life. We address how rates vary across higher taxa, whether rates within higher taxa are related to the subclades within them, and how diversification rates of clades are related to their species richness. We find substantial variation in diversification rates, with rates in plants nearly twice as high as in animals, and rates in some eukaryotes approximately 10-fold faster than prokaryotes. Rates for each kingdom-level clade are then significantly related to the subclades within them. Although caution is needed when interpreting relationships between diversification rates and richness, a positive relationship between the two is not inevitable. We find that variation in diversification rates seems to explain most variation in richness among clades across the Tree of Life, in contrast to the conclusions of previous studies. © 2016 The Author(s).

  7. Disturbance alters local-regional richness relationships in appalachian forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belote, R.T.; Sanders, N.J.; Jones, R.H.

    2009-01-01

    Whether biological diversity within communities is limited by local interactions or regional species pools remains an important question in ecology. In this paper, we investigate how an experimentally applied tree-harvesting disturbance gradient influenced local-regional richness relationships. Plant species richness was measured at three spatial scales (2 ha = regional; 576 m2 and 1 m2 = local) on three occasions (one year pre-disturbance, one year post-disturbance, and 10 years post-disturbance) across five disturbance treatments (uncut control through clearcut) replicated throughout the southern Appalachian Mountains, USA. We investigated whether species richness in 576-m2 plots and 1-m2 subplots depended on species richness in 2-ha experimental units and whether this relationship changed through time before and after canopy disturbance. We found that, before disturbance, the relationship between local and regional richness was weak or nonexistent. One year after disturbance local richness was a positive function of regional richness, because local sites were colonized from the regional species pool. Ten years after disturbance, the positive relationship persisted, but the slope had decreased by half. These results suggest that disturbance can set the stage for strong influences of regional species pools on local community assembly in temperate forests. However, as time since disturbance increases, local controls on community assembly decouple the relationships between regional and local diversity. ?? 2009 by the Ecological Society of America.

  8. Species richness alone does not predict cultural ecosystem service value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Rose A.; Pearson, Scott M.; Turner, Monica G.

    2017-01-01

    Many biodiversity-ecosystem services studies omit cultural ecosystem services (CES) or use species richness as a proxy and assume that more species confer greater CES value. We studied wildflower viewing, a key biodiversity-based CES in amenity-based landscapes, in Southern Appalachian Mountain forests and asked (i) How do aesthetic preferences for wildflower communities vary with components of biodiversity, including species richness?; (ii) How do aesthetic preferences for wildflower communities vary across psychographic groups?; and (iii) How well does species richness perform as an indicator of CES value compared with revealed social preferences for wildflower communities? Public forest visitors (n = 293) were surveyed during the summer of 2015 and asked to choose among images of wildflower communities in which flower species richness, flower abundance, species evenness, color diversity, and presence of charismatic species had been digitally manipulated. Aesthetic preferences among images were unrelated to species richness but increased with more abundant flowers, greater species evenness, and greater color diversity. Aesthetic preferences were consistent across psychographic groups and unaffected by knowledge of local flora or value placed on wildflower viewing. When actual wildflower communities (n = 54) were ranked based on empirically measured flower species richness or wildflower viewing utility based on multinomial logit models of revealed preferences, rankings were broadly similar. However, designation of hotspots (CES values above the median) based on species richness alone missed 27% of wildflower viewing utility hotspots. Thus, conservation priorities for sustaining CES should incorporate social preferences and consider multiple dimensions of biodiversity that underpin CES supply. PMID:28320953

  9. Influence of the ion nitriding temperature in the wear resistance of AISI H13 tool steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heck, Stenio Cristaldo; Fernandes, Frederico Augusto Pires; Pereira, Ricardo Gomes; Casteletti, Luiz Carlos; Totten, George Edward

    2010-01-01

    The AISI H13 tool steel for hot work is the most used in its category. This steel was developed for injection molds and extrusion of hot metals as well as for conformation in hot presses and hammers. Plasma nitriding can improve significantly the surface properties of these steels, but the treatments conditions, such as temperature, must be optimized. In this work the influence of nitriding treatment temperature on the wear behavior of this steel is investigated. Samples of AISI H13 steel were quenched and tempered and then ion nitrided in the temperatures of 450, 550 and 650 deg C, at 4mbar pressure, during 5 hours. Samples of the treated material were characterized by optical microscopy, Vickers microhardness, x-ray analysis and wear tests. Plasma nitriding formed hard diffusion zones in all the treated samples. White layers were formed in samples treated at 550 deg C and 650 deg C. The treatment temperature of 450 deg C produced the highest hardness. Treatment temperature showed great influence in the diffusion layer thickness. X-ray analysis indicated the formation of the Fe_3N, Fe_4N and CrN phases for all temperatures, but with different concentrations. Nitriding increased significantly the AISI H13 wear resistance. (author)

  10. Two-proton knockout on neutron-rich nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazin, D.; Brown, B.A.; Campbell, C.M.; Church, J.A.; Dinca, D.C.; Enders, J.; Gade, A.; Glasmacher, T.; Hansen, P.G.; Mueller, W.F.; Olliver, H.; Perry, B.C.; Sherrill, B.M.; Terry, J.R.; Tostevin, J.A.

    2004-01-01

    Two-proton knockout reactions on neutron-rich nuclei [Phys. Rev. Lett. 91 (2003) 012501] have been studied in inverse kinematics at intermediate energy. Strong evidence that the two-proton removal from a neutron-rich system proceeds as a direct reaction is presented, together with a preliminary theoretical discussion of the partial cross sections based on eikonal reaction theory and the many-body shell model. They show that this reaction can be used to characterize the wave functions of the projectiles and holds great promise for the study of neutron-rich nuclei

  11. Relativistic mean field calculations in neutron-rich nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gangopadhyay, G.; Bhattacharya, Madhubrata [Department of Physics, University of Calcutta, 92 Acharya Prafulla Chandra Road, Kolkata 700 009 (India); Roy, Subinit [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Block AF, Sector 1, Kolkata- 700 064 (India)

    2014-08-14

    Relativistic mean field calculations have been employed to study neutron rich nuclei. The Lagrange's equations have been solved in the co-ordinate space. The effect of the continuum has been effectively taken into account through the method of resonant continuum. It is found that BCS approximation performs as well as a more involved Relativistic Continuum Hartree Bogoliubov approach. Calculations reveal the possibility of modification of magic numbers in neutron rich nuclei. Calculation for low energy proton scattering cross sections shows that the present approach reproduces the density in very light neutron rich nuclei.

  12. Fusion enhancement in the reactions of neutron-rich nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bian Baoan; Zhang Fengshou; Zhou Hongyu

    2009-01-01

    The neutron-rich fusion reactions are investigated systematically using the improved isospin dependent quantum molecular dynamics model. By studying the systematic dependence of fusion barrier on neuron excess, we find the enhancement of the fusion cross sections for neutron-rich nuclear reactions that give the lowered static Coulomb barriers. The calculated fusion cross sections agree quantitatively with the experimental data. We further discuss the mechanism of the fusion enhancement of the cross sections for neutron-rich nuclear reactions by analyzing the dynamical lowering of the Coulomb barrier that is attributed to the enhancement of the N/Z ratio at the neck region.

  13. Electricity of machine tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gijeon media editorial department

    1977-10-01

    This book is divided into three parts. The first part deals with electricity machine, which can taints from generator to motor, motor a power source of machine tool, electricity machine for machine tool such as switch in main circuit, automatic machine, a knife switch and pushing button, snap switch, protection device, timer, solenoid, and rectifier. The second part handles wiring diagram. This concludes basic electricity circuit of machine tool, electricity wiring diagram in your machine like milling machine, planer and grinding machine. The third part introduces fault diagnosis of machine, which gives the practical solution according to fault diagnosis and the diagnostic method with voltage and resistance measurement by tester.

  14. Machine tool evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lunsford, B.E.

    1976-01-01

    Continued improvement in numerical control (NC) units and the mechanical components used in the construction of today's machine tools, necessitate the use of more precise instrumentation to calibrate and determine the capabilities of these systems. It is now necessary to calibrate most tape-control lathes to a tool-path positioning accuracy of +-300 microinches in the full slide travel and, on some special turning and boring machines, a capability of +-100 microinches must be achieved. The use of a laser interferometer to determine tool-path capabilities is described

  15. Machine Tool Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    A NASA-developed software package has played a part in technical education of students who major in Mechanical Engineering Technology at William Rainey Harper College. Professor Hack has been using (APT) Automatically Programmed Tool Software since 1969 in his CAD/CAM Computer Aided Design and Manufacturing curriculum. Professor Hack teaches the use of APT programming languages for control of metal cutting machines. Machine tool instructions are geometry definitions written in APT Language to constitute a "part program." The part program is processed by the machine tool. CAD/CAM students go from writing a program to cutting steel in the course of a semester.

  16. EBSD study of purity effects during hot working in austenitic stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Wahabi, M.; Gavard, L.; Cabrera, J.M.; Prado, J.M.; Montheillet, F.

    2005-01-01

    The technique of electron back scattering diffraction (EBSD) is considered as a powerful instrument for the study of the microstructural changes during hot forming processes and gives the possibility to present the information in different ways (OIM, misorientation diagram and pole figures). The present work is focused on the observation by EBSD of the microstructure evolution during deformation at high temperature of three austenitic stainless steels: AISI-304H, AISI-304L and a high purity steel HP. The difference between the three steels is the content carbon and the presence of residual elements. To this aim compression tests were carried out at a constant strain rate of 0.001 s -1 and different temperatures. The study showed an increase of twin boundary fractions and a diminution of substructure (low angle densities boundaries) at increasing temperatures. On the other hand, increasing carbon content promotes lower twin boundary fractions and larger amounts of low angle boundaries. This effect can be explained by the reduction of grain boundary mobility caused by increasing carbon contents, which in turn reduces the migration rate and consequently the probability of twin boundary generation. Moreover, the increment of low angle boundaries with carbon content accelerates the twin character loss. It was also found that the dynamically recrystallized grain size decreased at increasing carbon content due to a typical drag effect. No important features on textures were found during DDRX

  17. Textural states of a hot-worked MA2-1 magnesium alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serebryany, V. N.; Kochubei, A. Ya.; Kurtasov, S. F.; Mel'Nikov, K. E.

    2007-02-01

    Quantitative texture analysis is used to study texture formation in an MA2-1 magnesium alloy subjected to axisymmetric upsetting at temperatures of 250-450°C and strain rates of 10-4-100 -1. The deformed structure is examined by optical microscopy, and the results obtained are used to plot the structural-state diagram of the alloy after 50% upsetting. The experimental textures are compared with the textures calculated in terms of a thermoactivation model.

  18. Hot deformation behavior and hot working characteristic of Nickel-base electron beam weldments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ning, Yongquan, E-mail: ningke521@163.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072 (China); Yao, Zekun; Guo, Hongzhen [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072 (China); Fu, M.W. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)

    2014-01-25

    Highlights: • The Hot deformation behavior of electron beam (EB) Nickel-base weldments was investigated. • The constitutive equation represented by temperature, strain rate and true strain was developed. • Processing map approach was adopted to optimize the hot forging process of EB weldments. • True strain has a great effect on the efficiency of power dissipation (η). -- Abstract: The electron beam welding (EBW) of Nickel-base superalloys was conducted, and the cylindrical compression specimens were machined from the central part of the electron beam (EB) weldments. The hot deformation behavior of EB weldments was investigated at the temperature of 960–1140 °C and the strain rate of 0.001–1.0 s{sup −1}. The apparent activation energy of deformation was calculated to be 400 kJ/mol, and the constitutive equation that describes the flow stress as a function of strain rate and deformation temperature was proposed for modeling of the hot deformation process of EB weldments. The processing map approach was adopted to investigate the deformation mechanisms during the hot plastic deformation and to optimize the processing parameters of EB weldments. It is found that the true strain has a significant effect on the efficiency of power dissipation (η). The η value in the safe processing domain (1140 °C, 1.0 s{sup −1}) increases from 0.32 to 0.55. In the unsafe processing domain (1080 °C, 0.001 s{sup −1}), however, the η value greatly decreases with the increase of strain. When the strain is 0.40, the efficiency of power dissipation becomes negative. The flow instability is predicted to occur since the instability parameter ξ(ε) becomes negative. The hot deformation of EB weldments can be carried out safely in the domain with the strain rate range of 0.1–1.0 s{sup −1} and the temperature range of 960–1140 °C. When the height reduction is about 50%, the optimum processing condition is (T{sub opi}: 1140 °C, ε{sub opi}: 1.0 s{sup −1}) with the peak efficiency of 0.55 for the processing of EB weldments.

  19. Hot deformation behavior and hot working characteristic of Nickel-base electron beam weldments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ning, Yongquan; Yao, Zekun; Guo, Hongzhen; Fu, M.W.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The Hot deformation behavior of electron beam (EB) Nickel-base weldments was investigated. • The constitutive equation represented by temperature, strain rate and true strain was developed. • Processing map approach was adopted to optimize the hot forging process of EB weldments. • True strain has a great effect on the efficiency of power dissipation (η). -- Abstract: The electron beam welding (EBW) of Nickel-base superalloys was conducted, and the cylindrical compression specimens were machined from the central part of the electron beam (EB) weldments. The hot deformation behavior of EB weldments was investigated at the temperature of 960–1140 °C and the strain rate of 0.001–1.0 s −1 . The apparent activation energy of deformation was calculated to be 400 kJ/mol, and the constitutive equation that describes the flow stress as a function of strain rate and deformation temperature was proposed for modeling of the hot deformation process of EB weldments. The processing map approach was adopted to investigate the deformation mechanisms during the hot plastic deformation and to optimize the processing parameters of EB weldments. It is found that the true strain has a significant effect on the efficiency of power dissipation (η). The η value in the safe processing domain (1140 °C, 1.0 s −1 ) increases from 0.32 to 0.55. In the unsafe processing domain (1080 °C, 0.001 s −1 ), however, the η value greatly decreases with the increase of strain. When the strain is 0.40, the efficiency of power dissipation becomes negative. The flow instability is predicted to occur since the instability parameter ξ(ε) becomes negative. The hot deformation of EB weldments can be carried out safely in the domain with the strain rate range of 0.1–1.0 s −1 and the temperature range of 960–1140 °C. When the height reduction is about 50%, the optimum processing condition is (T opi : 1140 °C, ε opi : 1.0 s −1 ) with the peak efficiency of 0.55 for the processing of EB weldments

  20. Microstructural characterization by electron backscatter diffraction of a hot worked Al-Cu-Mg alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cepeda-Jimenez, C.M., E-mail: cm.cepeda@cenim.csic.es [Department of Physical Metallurgy, CENIM, CSIC, Av. Gregorio del Amo 8, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Hidalgo, P.; Carsi, M.; Ruano, O.A.; Carreno, F. [Department of Physical Metallurgy, CENIM, CSIC, Av. Gregorio del Amo 8, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2011-03-25

    Research highlights: {yields} The most favourable conditions for hot workability have been determined. {yields} EBSD was employed to characterize the obtained microtexture and microstructure. {yields} The Al 2024 alloy torsion tested at 408 deg. C and 2.1 s{sup -1} showed maximum ductility. {yields} Solid solution and fine precipitates favour a fine microstructure at 408 deg. C. {yields} The increase in test temperature to 467 deg. C produces a sharp decrease in ductility. - Abstract: Hot torsion tests to fracture to simulate thermomechanical processing were carried out on a solution-treated Al-Cu-Mg alloy (Al 2024-T351) at constant temperature. Torsion tests were conducted in the range 278-467 deg. C, and at two strain rates, 2.1 and 4.5 s{sup -1}. Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) was employed to characterize the microtexture and microstructure before and after testing. The microstructural evolution during torsion deformation at different temperatures and strain rate conditions determines the mechanical properties at room temperature of the Al 2024 alloy since grain refining, dynamic precipitation and precipitate coalescence occur during the torsion test. These mechanical properties were measured by Vickers microhardness tests. At 408 deg. C and 2.1 s{sup -1} the optimum combination of solid solution and incipient precipitation gives rise to maximum ductility and large fraction of fine and misoriented grains (f{sub HAB} = 54%). In contrast, the increase in test temperature to 467 deg. C produces a sharp decrease in ductility, attributed to the high proportion of alloying elements in solid solution. Both the stress-strain flow curves obtained by torsion tests and the final microstructures are a consequence of recovery phenomena and the dynamic nature of the precipitation process taking place during deformation.

  1. Mathematical Modelling of Carbonitride Precipitation during Hot Working in Nb Microalloyed Steels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Based on thermodynamics and kinetics, precipitation behavior of microalloyed steels was analyzed. Deformation greatly promotes isothermal carbonitride precipitation and makes C-curve shift leftwards. The position and shape of C-curve also depend on the content of Nb and N. C-curve shifts leftwards a little when N content increases and the nose temperature is raised with increasing Nb content. Deformation shortened precipitation start time during continuous cooling, raised precipitation start temperature, accelerated precipitation kinetics of carbonitrides. With decreasing the finishing temperature and coiling temperature, the precipitates volume fraction increases and strength increment is raised during hot rolling. The simulated results are in agreementwith experiment results.

  2. A Proposal of a Constitutive Description for Aluminium Alloys in Both Cold and Hot Working

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier León

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The most important difficulties when the behaviour of a part that is subjected to external mechanical forces is simulated deal with the determination of both the material thermo-mechanical properties and its boundary conditions. The accuracy of the results obtained from the simulation is directly related to the knowledge of the flow stress curve. Therefore, the determination of a material flow rule which is valid for both a wide temperature range and different initial deformation conditions in the starting material presents a great deal of interest when simulation results close to the experimental values are required to be obtained. In this present study, a novel flow stress curve is proposed that is able to accurately predict the behaviour of both materials with no previous accumulated strain and materials that have been previously subjected to severe plastic deformation processes. Moreover, it is possible to use it both for hot and cold working. The results are analysed in a wide test temperature range, which varies from room temperature to 300 °C, and from material previously processed by angular channel extrusion or with no previous strain accumulated. It is shown that the flow rule proposed is effective to model the material behaviour in a wide temperature range and it makes it possible to take the recrystallization phenomena that appear in previously deformed materials into account. In addition, the results obtained are compared with those predicted by other flow rules that exist in the prior literature. Furthermore, the study is complemented with finite element simulations and with a comparison between simulation and experimental results.

  3. Formation of recrystallization textures after hot working of AA2014 and AA6063

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geertruyden, W.H. van; Misiolek, W.Z. [Inst. for Metal Forming, Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (United States); Goncalves, M.; Szilagyi, G. [IPT-Dimet, Cidade Universitara, Sao Paulo-SP (Brazil); Nowell, M. [TSL/EDAX, Draper, UT (United States)

    2002-07-01

    This paper involves the investigation of the material response of two commercial aluminum alloys, 2014 and 6063, to thermo-mechanical processing parameters and the subsequent effects on the recrystallization behavior. Samples of the 2014 and 6063 alloys were hot rolled at 350, 400, 480, and 500 C to reductions of 50% and 75%. The samples were subsequently solutionized at 500 C (2014) and 525 C (6063) for 1 hour. Light optical microscopy (LOM) was performed which showed increased recrystallization kinetics in the 6063 alloy relative to the 2014 alloy. The solutionized samples of the 2014 alloy showed a banded microstructure indicating recrystallization was inhibited in the normal direction. The microtexture of the samples was characterized using electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). Orientation distribution functions (ODF) and pole figures showed that the 6063 alloy displayed a copper rolling texture {l_brace}112{r_brace} left angle 111 right angle and an increasing cube recrystallization texture {l_brace}001{r_brace} left angle 100 right angle as the deformation temperature was increased. At low deformation temperatures, the 2014 alloy had a mixed Goss {l_brace}110{r_brace} left angle 001 right angle and Brass {l_brace}011{r_brace} left angle 211 right angle texture, while at higher temperatures and reductions the Brass component was very strong. The 2014 recrystallized texture was predominantly a cube texture rotated 45 degrees about the normal direction. (orig.)

  4. Microstructural characterization by electron backscatter diffraction of a hot worked Al-Cu-Mg alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cepeda-Jimenez, C.M.; Hidalgo, P.; Carsi, M.; Ruano, O.A.; Carreno, F.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → The most favourable conditions for hot workability have been determined. → EBSD was employed to characterize the obtained microtexture and microstructure. → The Al 2024 alloy torsion tested at 408 deg. C and 2.1 s -1 showed maximum ductility. → Solid solution and fine precipitates favour a fine microstructure at 408 deg. C. → The increase in test temperature to 467 deg. C produces a sharp decrease in ductility. - Abstract: Hot torsion tests to fracture to simulate thermomechanical processing were carried out on a solution-treated Al-Cu-Mg alloy (Al 2024-T351) at constant temperature. Torsion tests were conducted in the range 278-467 deg. C, and at two strain rates, 2.1 and 4.5 s -1 . Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) was employed to characterize the microtexture and microstructure before and after testing. The microstructural evolution during torsion deformation at different temperatures and strain rate conditions determines the mechanical properties at room temperature of the Al 2024 alloy since grain refining, dynamic precipitation and precipitate coalescence occur during the torsion test. These mechanical properties were measured by Vickers microhardness tests. At 408 deg. C and 2.1 s -1 the optimum combination of solid solution and incipient precipitation gives rise to maximum ductility and large fraction of fine and misoriented grains (f HAB = 54%). In contrast, the increase in test temperature to 467 deg. C produces a sharp decrease in ductility, attributed to the high proportion of alloying elements in solid solution. Both the stress-strain flow curves obtained by torsion tests and the final microstructures are a consequence of recovery phenomena and the dynamic nature of the precipitation process taking place during deformation.

  5. How mainstream economics serves the rich, obscures reality

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    12Economics of the 1%: How mainstream economics serves the rich, ... revealing analysis of economic inequality contrasts with the silence of mainstream ... been the coordinating editor of the Journal of Australian Political Economy for the last ...

  6. Structure of proton-rich nuclei of astrophysical interest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roeckl, E [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Darmstadt (Germany)

    1998-06-01

    Recent experimental data concerning proton-rich nuclei between A=20 and A=100 are presented and discussed with respect to their relevance to the astrophysical rp process and to the calibration of solar neutrino detectors. (orig.)

  7. ELeaRNT: Evolutionary Learning of Rich Neural Network Topologies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Matteucci, Matteo

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we present ELeaRNT an evolutionary strategy which evolves rich neural network topologies in order to find an optimal domain specific non linear function approximator with a good generalization performance...

  8. Game development tool essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Berinstein, Paula; Ardolino, Alessandro; Franco, Simon; Herubel, Adrien; McCutchan, John; Nedelcu, Nicusor; Nitschke, Benjamin; Olmstead, Don; Robinet, Fabrice; Ronchi, Christian; Turkowski, Rita; Walter, Robert; Samour, Gustavo

    2014-01-01

    Offers game developers new techniques for streamlining the critical game tools pipeline. Inspires game developers to share their secrets and improve the productivity of the entire industry. Helps game industry practitioners compete in a hyper-competitive environment.

  9. Tool Inventory and Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bear, W. Forrest

    1976-01-01

    Vocational agriculture teachers are encouraged to evaluate curriculum offerings, the new trends in business and industry, and develop a master tool purchase and replacement plan over a 3- to 5-year period. (HD)

  10. ATO Resource Tool -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Cru-X/ART is a shift management tool designed for?use by operational employees in Air Traffic Facilities.? Cru-X/ART is used for shift scheduling, shift sign in/out,...

  11. Water Budget Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    If you're designing a new landscape or rethinking your current one, the WaterSense Water Budget Tool will tell you if you have designed a landscape that will use an appropriate amount of water for your climate.

  12. Neighborhood Mapping Tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — This tool assists the public and Choice Neighborhoods applicants to prepare data to submit with their grant application by allowing applicants to draw the exact...

  13. Sequence History Update Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanampompan, Teerapat; Gladden, Roy; Fisher, Forest; DelGuercio, Chris

    2008-01-01

    The Sequence History Update Tool performs Web-based sequence statistics archiving for Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO). Using a single UNIX command, the software takes advantage of sequencing conventions to automatically extract the needed statistics from multiple files. This information is then used to populate a PHP database, which is then seamlessly formatted into a dynamic Web page. This tool replaces a previous tedious and error-prone process of manually editing HTML code to construct a Web-based table. Because the tool manages all of the statistics gathering and file delivery to and from multiple data sources spread across multiple servers, there is also a considerable time and effort savings. With the use of The Sequence History Update Tool what previously took minutes is now done in less than 30 seconds, and now provides a more accurate archival record of the sequence commanding for MRO.

  14. Microgrid Analysis Tools Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, Antonio [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Haase, Scott G [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mathur, Shivani [Formerly NREL

    2018-03-05

    The over-arching goal of the Alaska Microgrid Partnership is to reduce the use of total imported fuel into communities to secure all energy services by at least 50% in Alaska's remote microgrids without increasing system life cycle costs while also improving overall system reliability, security, and resilience. One goal of the Alaska Microgrid Partnership is to investigate whether a combination of energy efficiency and high-contribution (from renewable energy) power systems can reduce total imported energy usage by 50% while reducing life cycle costs and improving reliability and resiliency. This presentation provides an overview of the following four renewable energy optimization tools. Information is from respective tool websites, tool developers, and author experience. Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM) Microgrid Design Toolkit (MDT) Renewable Energy Optimization (REopt) Tool Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewables (HOMER).

  15. Financing Alternatives Comparison Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    FACT is a financial analysis tool that helps identify the most cost-effective method to fund a wastewater or drinking water management project. It produces a comprehensive analysis that compares various financing options.

  16. Breastfeeding assessment tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bizouerne, Cécile; Kerac, Marko; Macgrath, Marie

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Breastfeeding plays a major role in reducing the global burden of child mortality and under-nutrition. Whilst many programmes aim to support breastfeeding and prevent feeding problems occurring, interventions are also needed once they have developed. In this situation, accurate assessment of a problem is critical to inform prognosis and enables tailored, appropriate treatment. The presentation will present a review, which aims to identify breastfeeding assessment tools/checklists for use in assessing malnourished infants in poor resource settings. The literature review identified 24 breastfeeding assessment tools, and 41 validation studies. Evidence underpinning most of the tools was mainly low quality, and conducted in high-income countries and hospital settings. The presentation will describe the main findings of the literature review and propose recommendations for improving existing tools in order to appropriately assess malnourished infants and enable early, appropriate intervention and treatment of malnutrition. (author)

  17. Personal Wellness Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Personal Stories Peers Celebrating Art Peers Celebrating Music Be Vocal Support Locator DBSA In-Person Support ... With this tool, you can track key health trends related to the following: Overall mood Mood disorder ...

  18. Cash Reconciliation Tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — CART is a cash reconciliation tool that allows users to reconcile Agency cash disbursements with Treasury fund balances; track open unreconciled items; and create an...

  19. Chemical Data Access Tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This tool is intended to aid individuals interested in learning more about chemicals that are manufactured or imported into the United States. Health and safety...

  20. Tools and their uses

    CERN Document Server

    1973-01-01

    Teaches names, general uses, and correct operation of all basic hand and power tools, fasteners, and measuring devices you are likely to need. Also, grinding, metal cutting, soldering, and more. 329 illustrations.

  1. Chatter and machine tools

    CERN Document Server

    Stone, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Focussing on occurrences of unstable vibrations, or Chatter, in machine tools, this book gives important insights into how to eliminate chatter with associated improvements in product quality, surface finish and tool wear. Covering a wide range of machining processes, including turning, drilling, milling and grinding, the author uses his research expertise and practical knowledge of vibration problems to provide solutions supported by experimental evidence of their effectiveness. In addition, this book contains links to supplementary animation programs that help readers to visualise the ideas detailed in the text. Advancing knowledge in chatter avoidance and suggesting areas for new innovations, Chatter and Machine Tools serves as a handbook for those desiring to achieve significant reductions in noise, longer tool and grinding wheel life and improved product finish.

  2. Learning Design Tools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griffiths, David; Blat, Josep; Garcia, Rocío; Vogten, Hubert; Kwong, KL

    2005-01-01

    Griffiths, D., Blat, J., Garcia, R., Vogten, H. & Kwong, KL. (2005). Learning Design Tools. In: Koper, R. & Tattersall, C., Learning Design: A Handbook on Modelling and Delivering Networked Education and Training (pp. 109-136). Berlin-Heidelberg: Springer Verlag.

  3. Clean Energy Finance Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    State and local governments interested in developing a financing program can use this Excel tool to support energy efficiency and clean energy improvements for large numbers of buildings within their jurisdiction.

  4. Mapping Medicare Disparities Tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The CMS Office of Minority Health has designed an interactive map, the Mapping Medicare Disparities Tool, to identify areas of disparities between subgroups of...

  5. Recovery Action Mapping Tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Recovery Action Mapping Tool is a web map that allows users to visually interact with and query actions that were developed to recover species listed under the...

  6. Friction stir welding tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolle,; Charles R. , Clark; Denis E. , Barnes; Timothy, A [Ammon, ID

    2008-04-15

    A friction stir welding tool is described and which includes a shank portion; a shoulder portion which is releasably engageable with the shank portion; and a pin which is releasably engageable with the shoulder portion.

  7. Observed degradation stages of ring-mold craters (RMC): Geomorphic evidence for modification of ice-rich deposits in the transitions zone between Elysium and Utopia Basin, Mars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Gro Birkefeldt Møller

    Deposits with pits, depressions and RMCs observed north of Elysium rise are interpreted as degraded mixtures of ice and clastic material (CCF, LVF and LDA). Degradation stages of RMCs are an important tool for mapping dusty, deflated ice-rich units....

  8. EVALUATION AGRONOMIQUE DES VARIETES DE MAÏS RICHES ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrateur

    Cinq variétés de maïs riches en protéines de qualité (MRP) ont été expérimentées en station puis en milieu ..... sionnent bord champ. ... Tableau 1 : Carrés moyens des variables étudiées en station, pour les variétés de maïs précoces riche en.

  9. ACTH radioimmunocytochemistry (RICH) on rat anterior pituitary cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rappay, G.; Karteszi, M.; Makara, G.B.

    1979-01-01

    Radioimmunocytochemistry (RICH) was applied to detect corticotrophs in adult rat pituitaries and 8-day-old anterior pituitary monolayers by incubating sections and cultures with 125 I-ACTH-anti ACTH immune complexes. After incubations autoradiography was made. In comparison, 'conventional' immunostaining was carried out on adjacent sections and parallel cultures. It has been established that RICH is suitable for detection of corticotrophs. (orig.) [de

  10. Uranium rich granite and uranium productive granite in south China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mingyue, Feng; Debao, He [CNNC Key Laboratory of Uranium Resource Exploration and Evaluation Technology, Beijing Research Institute of Uranium Geology (China)

    2012-07-15

    The paper briefly introduces the differences between uranium rich granite and uranium productive granite in the 5 provinces of South China, and discusses their main characteristics in 4 aspects, the uranium productive granite is highly developed in fracture, very strong in alteration, often occurred as two-mica granite and regularly developed with intermediate-basic and acid dikes. The above characteristics distinguish the uranium productive granite from the uranium rich granite. (authors)

  11. Uranium rich granite and uranium productive granite in south China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Mingyue; He Debao

    2012-01-01

    The paper briefly introduces the differences between uranium rich granite and uranium productive granite in the 5 provinces of South China, and discusses their main characteristics in 4 aspects, the uranium productive granite is highly developed in fracture, very strong in alteration, often occurred as two-mica granite and regularly developed with intermediate-basic and acid dikes. The above characteristics distinguish the uranium productive granite from the uranium rich granite. (authors)

  12. Platelet Rich Plasma- mechanism of action and clinical applications

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina N. Cozma; Laura Raducu; Cristian R. Jecan

    2016-01-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is a blood-derived fraction containing high level of platelets, a high concentration of leukocytes and growth factors. PRP therapy has been growing as a viable treatment alternative for a number of clinical applications and has a potential benefit for use in wound healing. Nowadays platelet rich plasma is used in stimulating wound healing in skin and soft tissue ulcerations, accelerating wound healing in diabetic patients and facilitating bone proliferation in ortho...

  13. Partitioning sources of variation in vertebrate species richness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, R.B.; Krohn, W.B.

    2000-01-01

    Aim: To explore biogeographic patterns of terrestrial vertebrates in Maine, USA using techniques that would describe local and spatial correlations with the environment. Location: Maine, USA. Methods: We delineated the ranges within Maine (86,156 km2) of 275 species using literature and expert review. Ranges were combined into species richness maps, and compared to geomorphology, climate, and woody plant distributions. Methods were adapted that compared richness of all vertebrate classes to each environmental correlate, rather than assessing a single explanatory theory. We partitioned variation in species richness into components using tree and multiple linear regression. Methods were used that allowed for useful comparisons between tree and linear regression results. For both methods we partitioned variation into broad-scale (spatially autocorrelated) and fine-scale (spatially uncorrelated) explained and unexplained components. By partitioning variance, and using both tree and linear regression in analyses, we explored the degree of variation in species richness for each vertebrate group that Could be explained by the relative contribution of each environmental variable. Results: In tree regression, climate variation explained richness better (92% of mean deviance explained for all species) than woody plant variation (87%) and geomorphology (86%). Reptiles were highly correlated with environmental variation (93%), followed by mammals, amphibians, and birds (each with 84-82% deviance explained). In multiple linear regression, climate was most closely associated with total vertebrate richness (78%), followed by woody plants (67%) and geomorphology (56%). Again, reptiles were closely correlated with the environment (95%), followed by mammals (73%), amphibians (63%) and birds (57%). Main conclusions: Comparing variation explained using tree and multiple linear regression quantified the importance of nonlinear relationships and local interactions between species

  14. Platelet-rich fibrin matrix for facial plastic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sclafani, Anthony P; Saman, Masoud

    2012-05-01

    Platelets are known primarily for their role in hemostasis, but there is increasing interest in the effect of platelets on wound healing. Platelet isolates such as platelet-rich plasma have been advocated to enhance and accelerate wound healing. This article describes the use of a novel preparation, platelet-rich fibrin matrix (PRFM), for facial plastic surgery applications such as volume augmentation, fat transfer supplementation, and as an adjunct to open surgical procedures. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Four-Wave Mixing in Silicon-Rich Nitride Waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitrovic, Miranda; Guan, Xiaowei; Ji, Hua

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate four-wave mixing wavelength conversion in silicon-rich nitride waveguides which are a promising alternative to silicon for nonlinear applications. The obtained conversion efficiency reaches -13.6 dB while showing no significant nonlinear loss.......We demonstrate four-wave mixing wavelength conversion in silicon-rich nitride waveguides which are a promising alternative to silicon for nonlinear applications. The obtained conversion efficiency reaches -13.6 dB while showing no significant nonlinear loss....

  16. Aspherical Dust Envelopes Around Oxygen-Rich AGB Stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Won Suh

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available We model the aspherical dust envelopes around O-rich AGB stars. We perform the radiative transfer model calculations for axisymmetric dust distributions. We simulate what could be observed from the aspherical dust envelopes around O-rich AGB stars by presenting the model spectral energy distributions and images at various wavelengths for different optical depths and viewing angles. The model results are very different from the ones with spherically symmetric geometry.

  17. Capital Flight and Transfer from Resource-Rich Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Demachi, Kazue

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes the influence of international resource price movements on capital outflows from resource-rich developing countries (RRDCs) by distinguishing capital flight and capital transfers. The volume of capital flight and transfers are calculated and their determinants are analyzed using macro-panel data constituting 21 resource-rich developing countries from 1990 to 2011. Through the regression analysis, the linkage between capital flight and resource revenue as well as that betwe...

  18. CMS offline web tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metson, S; Newbold, D; Belforte, S; Kavka, C; Bockelman, B; Dziedziniewicz, K; Egeland, R; Elmer, P; Eulisse, G; Tuura, L; Evans, D; Fanfani, A; Feichtinger, D; Kuznetsov, V; Lingen, F van; Wakefield, S

    2008-01-01

    We describe a relatively new effort within CMS to converge on a set of web based tools, using state of the art industry techniques, to engage with the CMS offline computing system. CMS collaborators require tools to monitor various components of the computing system and interact with the system itself. The current state of the various CMS web tools is described along side current planned developments. The CMS collaboration comprises of nearly 3000 people from all over the world. As well as its collaborators, its computing resources are spread all over globe and are accessed via the LHC grid to run analysis, large scale production and data transfer tasks. Due to the distributed nature of collaborators effective provision of collaborative tools is essential to maximise physics exploitation of the CMS experiment, especially when the size of the CMS data set is considered. CMS has chosen to provide such tools over the world wide web as a top level service, enabling all members of the collaboration to interact with the various offline computing components. Traditionally web interfaces have been added in HEP experiments as an afterthought. In the CMS offline we have decided to put web interfaces, and the development of a common CMS web framework, on an equal footing with the rest of the offline development. Tools exist within CMS to transfer and catalogue data (PhEDEx and DBS/DLS), run Monte Carlo production (ProdAgent) and submit analysis (CRAB). Effective human interfaces to these systems are required for users with different agendas and practical knowledge of the systems to effectively use the CMS computing system. The CMS web tools project aims to provide a consistent interface to all these tools

  19. Quality management tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Tae Hun

    2011-09-15

    This book introduces basic conception of quality with characteristic, price, cost, and function, basic conception on quality management, introduction and operation of quality management, quality guaranteed and claim like handling of claim of goods, standards, and quality guaranteed method, basic tools of quality management such as Pareto diagram, characteristic diagram, cause-and-effect, fish born diagram check sheet histogram scatter diagram graph and stratification new seven tools of QC, quality deployment function and measurement system.

  20. Quality management tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Tae Hun

    2011-09-01

    This book introduces basic conception of quality with characteristic, price, cost, and function, basic conception on quality management, introduction and operation of quality management, quality guaranteed and claim like handling of claim of goods, standards, and quality guaranteed method, basic tools of quality management such as Pareto diagram, characteristic diagram, cause-and-effect, fish born diagram check sheet histogram scatter diagram graph and stratification new seven tools of QC, quality deployment function and measurement system.

  1. Stochastic tools in turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Lumey, John L

    2012-01-01

    Stochastic Tools in Turbulence discusses the available mathematical tools to describe stochastic vector fields to solve problems related to these fields. The book deals with the needs of turbulence in relation to stochastic vector fields, particularly, on three-dimensional aspects, linear problems, and stochastic model building. The text describes probability distributions and densities, including Lebesgue integration, conditional probabilities, conditional expectations, statistical independence, lack of correlation. The book also explains the significance of the moments, the properties of the

  2. CMS offline web tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metson, S; Newbold, D [H.H. Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Belforte, S; Kavka, C [INFN, Sezione di Trieste (Italy); Bockelman, B [University of Nebraska Lincoln, Lincoln, NE (United States); Dziedziniewicz, K [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Egeland, R [University of Minnesota Twin Cities, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Elmer, P [Princeton (United States); Eulisse, G; Tuura, L [Northeastern University, Boston, MA (United States); Evans, D [Fermilab MS234, Batavia, IL (United States); Fanfani, A [Universita degli Studi di Bologna (Italy); Feichtinger, D [PSI, Villigen (Switzerland); Kuznetsov, V [Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (United States); Lingen, F van [California Institute of Technology, Pasedena, CA (United States); Wakefield, S [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London (United Kingdom)

    2008-07-15

    We describe a relatively new effort within CMS to converge on a set of web based tools, using state of the art industry techniques, to engage with the CMS offline computing system. CMS collaborators require tools to monitor various components of the computing system and interact with the system itself. The current state of the various CMS web tools is described along side current planned developments. The CMS collaboration comprises of nearly 3000 people from all over the world. As well as its collaborators, its computing resources are spread all over globe and are accessed via the LHC grid to run analysis, large scale production and data transfer tasks. Due to the distributed nature of collaborators effective provision of collaborative tools is essential to maximise physics exploitation of the CMS experiment, especially when the size of the CMS data set is considered. CMS has chosen to provide such tools over the world wide web as a top level service, enabling all members of the collaboration to interact with the various offline computing components. Traditionally web interfaces have been added in HEP experiments as an afterthought. In the CMS offline we have decided to put web interfaces, and the development of a common CMS web framework, on an equal footing with the rest of the offline development. Tools exist within CMS to transfer and catalogue data (PhEDEx and DBS/DLS), run Monte Carlo production (ProdAgent) and submit analysis (CRAB). Effective human interfaces to these systems are required for users with different agendas and practical knowledge of the systems to effectively use the CMS computing system. The CMS web tools project aims to provide a consistent interface to all these tools.

  3. Wear and Adhesive Failure of Al2O3 Powder Coating Sprayed onto AISI H13 Tool Steel Substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amanov, Auezhan; Pyun, Young-Sik

    2016-07-01

    In this study, an alumina (Al2O3) ceramic powder was sprayed onto an AISI H13 hot-work tool steel substrate that was subjected to sanding and ultrasonic nanocrystalline surface modification (UNSM) treatment processes. The significance of the UNSM technique on the adhesive failure of the Al2O3 coating and on the hardness of the substrate was investigated. The adhesive failure of the coating sprayed onto sanded and UNSM-treated substrates was investigated by a micro-scratch tester at an incremental load. It was found, based on the obtained results, that the coating sprayed onto the UNSM-treated substrate exhibited a better resistance to adhesive failure in comparison with that of the coating sprayed onto the sanded substrate. Dry friction and wear property of the coatings sprayed onto the sanded and UNSM-treated substrates were assessed by means of a ball-on-disk tribometer against an AISI 52100 steel ball. It was demonstrated that the UNSM technique controllably improved the adhesive failure of the Al2O3 coating, where the critical load was improved by about 31%. Thus, it is expected that the application of the UNSM technique to an AISI H13 tool steel substrate prior to coating may delay the adhesive failure and improve the sticking between the coating and the substrate thanks to the modified and hardened surface.

  4. Environmental heterogeneity–species richness relationships from a global perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anke Stein

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Spatial environmental heterogeneity (EH is considered one of the most important factors promoting species richness, but no general consent about the EH–richness relationship exists so far. This is because research methods and study settings vary widely, and because non-significant and negative associations have also been reported. My thesis provides a comprehensive review of the different measurements and terminologies of EH used in the literature, and presents strong quantitative evidence of a generally positive relationship between biotic and abiotic EH and species richness of terrestrial plants and animals from landscape to global extents. In a meta-analysis and a subsequent case study comparing multiple EH measures and their association with mammal species richness worldwide, I furthermore reveal that the outcome of EH–richness studies depends strongly on study design, including both the EH measure chosen and spatial scale. My research contributes to a better understanding of the EH–richness relationship, while identifying future research needs.

  5. Tools used for hand deburring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillespie, L.K.

    1981-03-01

    This guide is designed to help in quick identification of those tools most commonly used to deburr hand size or smaller parts. Photographs and textual descriptions are used to provide rapid yet detailed information. The data presented include the Bendix Kansas City Division coded tool number, tool description, tool crib in which the tool can be found, the maximum and minimum inventory requirements, the cost of each tool, and the number of the illustration that shows the tool.

  6. Dpaper: An Authoring Tool for Extractable Digital Papers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqiu Le

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To develop a structured, rich media digital paper authoring tool with an objectbased model that enables interactive, playable, and convertible functions. Design/methodology/approach: We propose Dpaper to organize the content (text, data, rich media, etc. of dissertation papers as XML and HTML5 files by means of digital objects and digital templates. Findings: Dpaper provides a structured-paper editorial platform for the authors of PhDs to organize research materials and to generate various digital paper objects that are playable and reusable. The PhD papers are represented as Web pages and structured XML files, which are marked with semantic tags. Research limitations: The proposed tool only provides access to a limited number of digital objects. For instance, the tool cannot create equations and graphs, and typesetting is not yet flexible compared to MS Word. Practical implications: The Dpaper tool is designed to break through the patterns of unstructured content organization of traditional papers, and makes the paper accessible for not only reading but for exploitation as data, where the document can be extractable and reusable. As a result, Dpaper can make the digital publishing of dissertation texts more flexible and efficient, and their data more assessable. Originality/value: The Dpaper tool solves the challenge of making a paper structured and object-based in the stage of authoring, and has practical values for semantic publishing.

  7. Physics analysis tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunz, P.F.

    1991-04-01

    There are many tools used in analysis in High Energy Physics (HEP). They range from low level tools such as a programming language to high level such as a detector simulation package. This paper will discuss some aspects of these tools that are directly associated with the process of analyzing HEP data. Physics analysis tools cover the whole range from the simulation of the interactions of particles to the display and fitting of statistical data. For purposes of this paper, the stages of analysis is broken down to five main stages. The categories are also classified as areas of generation, reconstruction, and analysis. Different detector groups use different terms for these stages thus it is useful to define what is meant by them in this paper. The particle generation stage is a simulation of the initial interaction, the production of particles, and the decay of the short lived particles. The detector simulation stage simulates the behavior of an event in a detector. The track reconstruction stage does pattern recognition on the measured or simulated space points, calorimeter information, etc., and reconstructs track segments of the original event. The event reconstruction stage takes the reconstructed tracks, along with particle identification information and assigns masses to produce 4-vectors. Finally the display and fit stage displays statistical data accumulated in the preceding stages in the form of histograms, scatter plots, etc. The remainder of this paper will consider what analysis tools are available today, and what one might expect in the future. In each stage, the integration of the tools with other stages and the portability of the tool will be analyzed

  8. Impaired rich club and increased local connectivity in children with traumatic brain injury: Local support for the rich?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhelst, Helena; Vander Linden, Catharine; De Pauw, Toon; Vingerhoets, Guy; Caeyenberghs, Karen

    2018-03-12

    Recent evidence has shown the presence of a "rich club" in the brain, which constitutes a core network of highly interconnected and spatially distributed brain regions, important for high-order cognitive processes. This study aimed to map the rich club organization in 17 young patients with moderate to severe TBI (15.71 ± 1.75 years) in the chronic stage of recovery and 17 age- and gender-matched controls. Probabilistic tractography was performed on diffusion weighted imaging data to construct the edges of the structural connectomes using number of streamlines as edge weight. In addition, the whole-brain network was divided into a rich club network, a local network and a feeder network connecting the latter two. Functional outcome was measured with a parent questionnaire for executive functioning. Our results revealed a significantly decreased rich club organization (p values < .05) and impaired executive functioning (p < .001) in young patients with TBI compared with controls. Specifically, we observed reduced density values in all three subnetworks (p values < .005) and a reduced mean strength in the rich club network (p = .013) together with an increased mean strength in the local network (p = .002) in patients with TBI. This study provides new insights into the nature of TBI-induced brain network alterations and supports the hypothesis that the local subnetwork tries to compensate for the biologically costly subnetwork of rich club nodes after TBI. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Your company's history as a leadership tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaman, John T; Smith, George David

    2012-12-01

    When the history of an organization comes up, it's usually in connection with an anniversary--just part of the "balloons and fireworks" (as one business leader characterized his company's bicentennial celebration, knowing that the investment of time and money would have little staying power). A fast-changing world leaves little time for nostalgia and irrelevant details--or, worse, strategies for winning the last war. But the authors, business historians at the Winthrop Group, assert that leaders with no patience for history are missing a vital truth: A sophisticated understanding of the past is one of the most powerful tools they have for shaping the future. The job of leaders, most would agree, is to inspire collective efforts and devise smart strategies for the future. History can be profitably employed on both fronts. As a leader strives to get people working together productively, communicating the history of the enterprise can instill a sense of identity and purpose and suggest the goals that will resonate. In its most familiar form, as a narrative about the past, history is a rich explanatory tool with which executives can make a case for change and motivate people to overcome challenges. Taken to a higher level, it also serves as a potent problem-solving tool, one that offers pragmatic insights, valid generalizations, and meaningful perspectives--a way to cut through management fads and the noise of the moment to what really matters.

  10. Jane: a new tool for the cophylogeny reconstruction problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovadia Yaniv

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper describes the theory and implementation of a new software tool, called Jane, for the study of historical associations. This problem arises in parasitology (associations of hosts and parasites, molecular systematics (associations of orderings and genes, and biogeography (associations of regions and orderings. The underlying problem is that of reconciling pairs of trees subject to biologically plausible events and costs associated with these events. Existing software tools for this problem have strengths and limitations, and the new Jane tool described here provides functionality that complements existing tools. Results The Jane software tool uses a polynomial time dynamic programming algorithm in conjunction with a genetic algorithm to find very good, and often optimal, solutions even for relatively large pairs of trees. The tool allows the user to provide rich timing information on both the host and parasite trees. In addition the user can limit host switch distance and specify multiple host switch costs by specifying regions in the host tree and costs for host switches between pairs of regions. Jane also provides a graphical user interface that allows the user to interactively experiment with modifications to the solutions found by the program. Conclusions Jane is shown to be a useful tool for cophylogenetic reconstruction. Its functionality complements existing tools and it is therefore likely to be of use to researchers in the areas of parasitology, molecular systematics, and biogeography.

  11. Jane: a new tool for the cophylogeny reconstruction problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conow, Chris; Fielder, Daniel; Ovadia, Yaniv; Libeskind-Hadas, Ran

    2010-02-03

    This paper describes the theory and implementation of a new software tool, called Jane, for the study of historical associations. This problem arises in parasitology (associations of hosts and parasites), molecular systematics (associations of orderings and genes), and biogeography (associations of regions and orderings). The underlying problem is that of reconciling pairs of trees subject to biologically plausible events and costs associated with these events. Existing software tools for this problem have strengths and limitations, and the new Jane tool described here provides functionality that complements existing tools. The Jane software tool uses a polynomial time dynamic programming algorithm in conjunction with a genetic algorithm to find very good, and often optimal, solutions even for relatively large pairs of trees. The tool allows the user to provide rich timing information on both the host and parasite trees. In addition the user can limit host switch distance and specify multiple host switch costs by specifying regions in the host tree and costs for host switches between pairs of regions. Jane also provides a graphical user interface that allows the user to interactively experiment with modifications to the solutions found by the program. Jane is shown to be a useful tool for cophylogenetic reconstruction. Its functionality complements existing tools and it is therefore likely to be of use to researchers in the areas of parasitology, molecular systematics, and biogeography.

  12. The Characteristics and Generating Mechanism of Large Precipitates in Ti-Containing H13 Tool Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, You; Cheng, Guoguang; Chen, Lie; Zhang, Yandong; Yan, Qingzhong

    2017-02-01

    The characteristics of large precipitates in H13 tool steel with 0.015wt% Ti were studied. The result shows that three types of phases larger than 1 μm exist in the as-cast ingot, that is, (Ti, V) (C, N) type phase, (V, Mo, Cr)C type phase and sulfide. (Ti, V) (C, N) type phase could be further classified as the homogeneous Ti-rich one and the Ti-V-rich one in which Ti/V ratio gradually changes. (V, Mo, Cr)C type phase contains the V-rich one and the Mo-Cr-rich one. The compositional characteristics in all of them have little relation with the cutting position or cooling rate. The precipitating process could be well described through calculation by Thermo-Calc software. During solidification, the primary phase (Ti, V)(C, N) first starts to precipitate in the form of Ti-rich carbonitride. With the development of solidification, the ratio of Ti decreases and that of V increases. Then the primary phase Ti-V-rich (Ti, V)(C, N) and V-rich (V, Mo, Cr)C appears successively. Mo-Cr-rich (V, Mo, Cr)C phase does not precipitate until the solidification process reaches to the end. Sulfide precipitates before (V, Mo, Cr)C type phase and it could act as the nucleus of (V, Mo, Cr)C.

  13. New Conceptual Design Tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pugnale, Alberto; Holst, Malene Kirstine; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2010-01-01

    hand, the main software houses are trying to introduce powerful and effective user-friendly applications in the world of building designers, that are more and more able to fit their specific requirements; on the other hand, some groups of expert users with a basic programming knowledge seem to deal......This paper aims to discuss recent approaches in using more and more frequently computer tools as supports for the conceptual design phase of the architectural project. The present state-of-the-art about software as conceptual design tool could be summarized in two parallel tendencies. On the one...... with the problem of software as conceptual design tool by means of 'scripting', in other words by self-developing codes able to solve specific and well defined design problems. Starting with a brief historical recall and the discussion of relevant researches and practical experiences, this paper investigates...

  14. Assembly tool design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanamori, Naokazu; Nakahira, Masataka; Ohkawa, Yoshinao; Tada, Eisuke; Seki, Masahiro

    1996-06-01

    The reactor core of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) is assembled with a number of large and asymmetric components within a tight tolerance in order to assure the structural integrity for various loads and to provide the tritium confinement. In addition, the assembly procedure should be compatible with remote operation since the core structures will be activated by 14-MeV neutrons once it starts operation and thus personal access will be prohibited. Accordingly, the assembly procedure and tool design are quite essential and should be designed from the beginning to facilitate remote operation. According to the ITER Design Task Agreement, the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) has performed design study to develop the assembly procedures and associated tool design for the ITER tokamak assembly. This report describes outlines of the assembly tools and the remaining issues obtained in this design study. (author)

  15. RSP Tooling Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2001-11-20

    RSP Tooling{trademark} is a spray forming technology tailored for producing molds and dies. The approach combines rapid solidification processing and net-shape materials processing in a single step. The general concept involves converting a mold design described by a CAD file to a tooling master using a suitable rapid prototyping (RP) technology such as stereolithography. A pattern transfer is made to a castable ceramic, typically alumina or fused silica (Figure 1). This is followed by spray forming a thick deposit of a tooling alloy on the pattern to capture the desired shape, surface texture, and detail. The resultant metal block is cooled to room temperature and separated from the pattern. The deposit's exterior walls are machined square, allowing it to be used as an insert in a standard mold base. The overall turnaround time for tooling is about 3 to 5 days, starting with a master. Molds and dies produced in this way have been used in high volume production runs in plastic injection molding and die casting. A Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and Grupo Vitro has been established to evaluate the feasibility of using RSP Tooling technology for producing molds and dies of interest to Vitro. This report summarizes results from Phase I of this agreement, and describes work scope and budget for Phase I1 activities. The main objective in Phase I was to demonstrate the feasibility of applying the Rapid Solidification Process (RSP) Tooling method to produce molds for the manufacture of glass and other components of interest to Vitro. This objective was successfully achieved.

  16. CMS tracker visualization tools

    CERN Document Server

    Zito, G; Osborne, I; Regano, A

    2005-01-01

    This document will review the design considerations, implementations and performance of the CMS Tracker Visualization tools. In view of the great complexity of this sub-detector (more than 50 millions channels organized in 16540 modules each one of these being a complete detector), the standard CMS visualization tools (IGUANA and IGUANACMS) that provide basic 3D capabilities and integration within CMS framework, respectively, have been complemented with additional 2D graphics objects. Based on the experience acquired using this software to debug and understand both hardware and software during the construction phase, we propose possible future improvements to cope with online monitoring and event analysis during data taking.

  17. CMS tracker visualization tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mennea, M.S. [Dipartimento Interateneo di Fisica ' Michelangelo Merlin' e INFN sezione di Bari, Via Amendola 173 - 70126 Bari (Italy); Osborne, I. [Northeastern University, 360 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Regano, A. [Dipartimento Interateneo di Fisica ' Michelangelo Merlin' e INFN sezione di Bari, Via Amendola 173 - 70126 Bari (Italy); Zito, G. [Dipartimento Interateneo di Fisica ' Michelangelo Merlin' e INFN sezione di Bari, Via Amendola 173 - 70126 Bari (Italy)]. E-mail: giuseppe.zito@ba.infn.it

    2005-08-21

    This document will review the design considerations, implementations and performance of the CMS Tracker Visualization tools. In view of the great complexity of this sub-detector (more than 50 millions channels organized in 16540 modules each one of these being a complete detector), the standard CMS visualization tools (IGUANA and IGUANACMS) that provide basic 3D capabilities and integration within CMS framework, respectively, have been complemented with additional 2D graphics objects. Based on the experience acquired using this software to debug and understand both hardware and software during the construction phase, we propose possible future improvements to cope with online monitoring and event analysis during data taking.

  18. The GNEMRE Dendro Tool.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merchant, Bion John

    2007-10-01

    The GNEMRE Dendro Tool provides a previously unrealized analysis capability in the field of nuclear explosion monitoring. Dendro Tool allows analysts to quickly and easily determine the similarity between seismic events using the waveform time-series for each of the events to compute cross-correlation values. Events can then be categorized into clusters of similar events. This analysis technique can be used to characterize historical archives of seismic events in order to determine many of the unique sources that are present. In addition, the source of any new events can be quickly identified simply by comparing the new event to the historical set.

  19. Authoring Issues beyond Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spierling, Ulrike; Szilas, Nicolas

    Authoring is still considered a bottleneck in successful Interactive Storytelling and Drama. The claim for intuitive authoring tools is high, especially for tools that allow storytellers and artists to define dynamic content that can be run with an AI-based story engine. We explored two concrete authoring processes in depth, using various Interactive Storytelling prototypes, and have provided feedback from the practical steps. The result is a presentation of general issues in authoring Interactive Storytelling, rather than of particular problems with a specific system that could be overcome by 'simply' designing the right interface. Priorities for future developments are also outlined.

  20. CMS tracker visualization tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mennea, M.S.; Osborne, I.; Regano, A.; Zito, G.

    2005-01-01

    This document will review the design considerations, implementations and performance of the CMS Tracker Visualization tools. In view of the great complexity of this sub-detector (more than 50 millions channels organized in 16540 modules each one of these being a complete detector), the standard CMS visualization tools (IGUANA and IGUANACMS) that provide basic 3D capabilities and integration within CMS framework, respectively, have been complemented with additional 2D graphics objects. Based on the experience acquired using this software to debug and understand both hardware and software during the construction phase, we propose possible future improvements to cope with online monitoring and event analysis during data taking

  1. Coach assessment tool

    OpenAIRE

    Härkönen, Niko; Klicznik, Roman

    2014-01-01

    The Coach Assessment Tool was created to assist coaches of all sports for their own development. The starting point to develop the tool is the fact that coaching clinics solely focus on the technical and tactial skills of the sport. The education for coaches is lacking to teach the importance of the coach´s behavior towards their athletes. The question is how to teach properly the task in hand to increase the athlete´s performance considering the coach´s behavior. Nevertheless,...

  2. The RICH detector of the NA62 experiment at CERN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aisa, D.; Anzivino, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Geologia dell' Università di Perugia (Italy); INFN – Sezione di Perugia (Italy); Bizzetti, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia (Italy); INFN – Sezione di Firenze (Italy); Bucci, F. [INFN – Sezione di Firenze (Italy); Campeggi, C. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Geologia dell' Università di Perugia (Italy); INFN – Sezione di Perugia (Italy); Carassiti, V. [INFN – Sezione di Ferrara (Italy); Cassese, A. [INFN – Sezione di Firenze (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Università di Firenze (Italy); Cenci, P. [INFN – Sezione di Perugia (Italy); Ciaranfi, R. [INFN – Sezione di Firenze (Italy); Duk, V.; Farnesini, L. [INFN – Sezione di Perugia (Italy); Fry, J.R. [University of Liverpool (Italy); CERN (Italy); Iacopini, E. [INFN – Sezione di Firenze (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Università di Firenze (Italy); Lami, S. [INFN – Sezione di Pisa (Italy); Lenti, M.; Maletta, F. [INFN – Sezione di Firenze (Italy); Pepe, M. [INFN – Sezione di Perugia (Italy); Piandani, R. [INFN – Sezione di Pisa (Italy); Piccini, M. [INFN – Sezione di Perugia (Italy); Piluso, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Geologia dell' Università di Perugia (Italy); INFN – Sezione di Perugia (Italy); and others

    2014-12-01

    The NA62 experiment at CERN aims to measure the branching ratio of the ultra-rare charged kaon decay K{sup +}→π{sup +}νν{sup ¯} with a 10% accuracy and with a background contamination at the 10% level. Since the branching ratio of this decay is O(10{sup −10}), to fulfill such request one of the main backgrounds, the decay K{sup +}→μ{sup +}ν (BR∼63%), must be suppressed by a rejection factor of 4×10{sup −13} (assuming 10% signal acceptance). This can be partially accomplished using a combination of kinematical cuts (8×10{sup −6}) and the different power of penetration through matter of pions and muons (10{sup −5}). A further 5×10{sup −3} suppression factor will be provided by a RICH detector, in a momentum range between 15 and 35 GeV/c. The details of the RICH project as well as the results from test runs performed on a RICH prototype of the same length of the final detector will be presented. The current status of the construction and the description of the final readout and trigger electronics will also be reviewed. - Highlights: • The RICH of the NA62 experiment will separate pions from muons in kaon decays. • Crossing time of charged particles is measured with a resolution better than 100 ps. • RICH will also be fundamental for the low level trigger of the experiment.

  3. Human population, grasshopper and plant species richness in European countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steck, Claude E.; Pautasso, Marco

    2008-11-01

    Surprisingly, several studies over large scales have reported a positive spatial correlation of people and biodiversity. This pattern has important implications for conservation and has been documented for well studied taxa such as plants, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals. However, it is unknown whether the pattern applies also to invertebrates other than butterflies and more work is needed to establish whether the species-people relationship is explained by both variables correlating with other environmental factors. We studied whether grasshopper species richness (Orthoptera, suborder Caelifera) is related to human population size in European countries. As expected, the number of Caelifera species increases significantly with increasing human population size. But this is not the case when controlling for country area, latitude and number of plant species. Variations in Caelifera species richness are primarily associated with variations in plant species richness. Caelifera species richness also increases with decreasing mean annual precipitation, Gross Domestic Product per capita (used as an indicator for economic development) and net fertility rate of the human population. Our analysis confirms the hypothesis that the broad-scale human population-biodiversity correlations can be explained by concurrent variations in factors other than human population size such as plant species richness, environmental productivity, or habitat heterogeneity. Nonetheless, more populated countries in Europe still have more Caelifera species than less populated countries and this poses a particular challenge for conservation.

  4. What Explains Patterns of Diversification and Richness among Animal Phyla?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jezkova, Tereza; Wiens, John J

    2017-03-01

    Animal phyla vary dramatically in species richness (from one species to >1.2 million), but the causes of this variation remain largely unknown. Animals have also evolved striking variation in morphology and ecology, including sessile marine taxa lacking heads, eyes, limbs, and complex organs (e.g., sponges), parasitic worms (e.g., nematodes, platyhelminths), and taxa with eyes, skeletons, limbs, and complex organs that dominate terrestrial ecosystems (arthropods, chordates). Relating this remarkable variation in traits to the diversification and richness of animal phyla is a fundamental yet unresolved problem in biology. Here, we test the impacts of 18 traits (including morphology, ecology, reproduction, and development) on diversification and richness of extant animal phyla. Using phylogenetic multiple regression, the best-fitting model includes five traits that explain ∼74% of the variation in diversification rates (dioecy, parasitism, eyes/photoreceptors, a skeleton, nonmarine habitat). However, a model including just three (skeleton, parasitism, habitat) explains nearly as much variation (∼67%). Diversification rates then largely explain richness patterns. Our results also identify many striking traits that have surprisingly little impact on diversification (e.g., head, limbs, and complex circulatory and digestive systems). Overall, our results reveal the key factors that shape large-scale patterns of diversification and richness across >80% of all extant, described species.

  5. LHCB : The upgraded LHCb RICH detector: status and perspectives

    CERN Multimedia

    Cardinale, Roberta

    2015-01-01

    The LHCb experiment is designed to perform high-precision measurements of CP violation and search for New Physics using the enormous flux of beauty and charmed hadrons produced at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The two RICH detectors installed in LHCb have performed successfully during the 2010-2012 data taking period. The data from these detectors were essential to most of the physics results published by LHCb. In order to extend its potential for discovery and study of new phenomena it is planned to upgrade the LHCb experiment in 2018 with a 40MHz readout and a much more flexible software-based triggering system. This would increase the readout rate and occupancies for the RICH detectors. The RICH detector will require new photon detectors and modifications of the optics of the upstream RICH detector. Tests of the complete opto-electronic chain have been performed during testbeam sessions in autumn 2014. The status and perspectives of the RICH upgrade project will be presented.

  6. Butterfly Species Richness in Selected West Albertine Rift Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrice Kasangaki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The butterfly species richness of 17 forests located in the western arm of the Albertine Rift in Uganda was compared using cluster analysis and principal components analysis (PCA to assess similarities among the forests. The objective was to compare the butterfly species richness of the forests. A total of 630 butterfly species were collected in 5 main families. The different species fell into 7 ecological groupings with the closed forest group having the most species and the swamp/wetland group with the fewest number of species. Three clusters were obtained. The first cluster had forests characterized by relatively high altitude and low species richness despite the big area in the case of Rwenzori and being close to the supposed Pleistocene refugium. The second cluster had forests far away from the supposed refugium except Kisangi and moderate species richness with small areas, whereas the third cluster had those forests that were more disturbed, high species richness, and low altitudinal levels with big areas.

  7. Mapping and predictive variations of soil bacterial richness across France.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Terrat

    Full Text Available Although numerous studies have demonstrated the key role of bacterial diversity in soil functions and ecosystem services, little is known about the variations and determinants of such diversity on a nationwide scale. The overall objectives of this study were i to describe the bacterial taxonomic richness variations across France, ii to identify the ecological processes (i.e. selection by the environment and dispersal limitation influencing this distribution, and iii to develop a statistical predictive model of soil bacterial richness. We used the French Soil Quality Monitoring Network (RMQS, which covers all of France with 2,173 sites. The soil bacterial richness (i.e. OTU number was determined by pyrosequencing 16S rRNA genes and related to the soil characteristics, climatic conditions, geomorphology, land use and space. Mapping of bacterial richness revealed a heterogeneous spatial distribution, structured into patches of about 111km, where the main drivers were the soil physico-chemical properties (18% of explained variance, the spatial descriptors (5.25%, 1.89% and 1.02% for the fine, medium and coarse scales, respectively, and the land use (1.4%. Based on these drivers, a predictive model was developed, which allows a good prediction of the bacterial richness (R2adj of 0.56 and provides a reference value for a given pedoclimatic condition.

  8. Mapping and predictive variations of soil bacterial richness across France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrat, Sébastien; Horrigue, Walid; Dequiedt, Samuel; Saby, Nicolas P A; Lelièvre, Mélanie; Nowak, Virginie; Tripied, Julie; Régnier, Tiffanie; Jolivet, Claudy; Arrouays, Dominique; Wincker, Patrick; Cruaud, Corinne; Karimi, Battle; Bispo, Antonio; Maron, Pierre Alain; Chemidlin Prévost-Bouré, Nicolas; Ranjard, Lionel

    2017-01-01

    Although numerous studies have demonstrated the key role of bacterial diversity in soil functions and ecosystem services, little is known about the variations and determinants of such diversity on a nationwide scale. The overall objectives of this study were i) to describe the bacterial taxonomic richness variations across France, ii) to identify the ecological processes (i.e. selection by the environment and dispersal limitation) influencing this distribution, and iii) to develop a statistical predictive model of soil bacterial richness. We used the French Soil Quality Monitoring Network (RMQS), which covers all of France with 2,173 sites. The soil bacterial richness (i.e. OTU number) was determined by pyrosequencing 16S rRNA genes and related to the soil characteristics, climatic conditions, geomorphology, land use and space. Mapping of bacterial richness revealed a heterogeneous spatial distribution, structured into patches of about 111km, where the main drivers were the soil physico-chemical properties (18% of explained variance), the spatial descriptors (5.25%, 1.89% and 1.02% for the fine, medium and coarse scales, respectively), and the land use (1.4%). Based on these drivers, a predictive model was developed, which allows a good prediction of the bacterial richness (R2adj of 0.56) and provides a reference value for a given pedoclimatic condition.

  9. Production of conjugated linoleic acid-rich potato chips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Vishal P; Proctor, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is found primarily in diary and beef products, but the health benefits of CLA can only be realized if they are consumed at much greater levels than a normal healthy dietary intake. We have recently shown that a CLA-rich soy oil can be produced by simple isomerization of linoleic acid in soy oil by photoirradiation. This oil may allow greatly increased dietary CLA without significantly elevating fat intake. The objective of this study was to prepare CLA-rich potato chips by frying in CLA-rich soy oil. Soy oil was photoisomerized in the presence of iodine catalyst with UV/visible light. The irradiated oil was clay processed to remove the residual iodine and this oil was then used to fry potato chips. Oil was extracted from fried chips and analyzed for its CLA content with gas chromatography. A 1-oz serving of CLA-rich potato chips contained approximately 2.4 g CLA as compared to 0.1 g CLA in 3-oz serving of steak fillet and 0.06 g CLA in 8-oz serving of whole milk. The peroxide value of the oil extracted from potato chips was found to be 1 meq/1000 g sample, which was within the acceptable commercial standards. This study may lead to the commercialization of CLA-rich food products.

  10. The LHCb RICH system; detector description and operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papanestis, A., E-mail: antonis.papanestis@stfc.ac.uk

    2014-12-01

    Two RICH detectors provide positive charged hadron identification in the LHCb experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. RICH 1 covers the full acceptance of the spectrometer and contains two radiators: aerogel and C{sub 4}F{sub 10}. RICH 2 covers half the acceptance and uses CF{sub 4} as a Cherenkov radiator. Photon detection is performed by the Hybrid Photon Detectors (HPDs), with silicon pixel sensors and bump-bonded readout encapsulated in a vacuum tube for efficient, low-noise single photon detection. The LHCb RICH detectors form a complex system of three radiators, 120 mirrors and 484 photon detectors operating in the very challenging environment of the LHC. The high performance of the system in pion and kaon identification in the momentum range of 2–100 GeV/c is reached only after careful calibration of many parameters. Operational efficiency above 99% was achieved by a high level of automatization in the operation of the detectors, from switching-on to error recovery. The challenges of calibrating and operating such a system will be presented. - Highlights: • This paper describes the operation and calibration of the LHCb RICH detectors. • The scintillation of CF{sub 4} was successfully suppressed with CO{sub 2}. • The refractive index of the gas radiators was calibrated with data to an accuracy better than 0.1%. • The Hybrid Photons Detectors were calibrated for operation in a magnetic field without loss of resolution.

  11. Cancer Data and Statistics Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Educational Campaigns Initiatives Stay Informed Cancer Data and Statistics Tools Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Cancer Statistics Tools United States Cancer Statistics: Data Visualizations The ...

  12. Tribological and Wear Performance of Nanocomposite PVD Hard Coatings Deposited on Aluminum Die Casting Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Mario Paiva

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In the aluminum die casting process, erosion, corrosion, soldering, and die sticking have a significant influence on tool life and product quality. A number of coatings such as TiN, CrN, and (Cr,AlN deposited by physical vapor deposition (PVD have been employed to act as protective coatings due to their high hardness and chemical stability. In this study, the wear performance of two nanocomposite AlTiN and AlCrN coatings with different structures were evaluated. These coatings were deposited on aluminum die casting mold tool substrates (AISI H13 hot work steel by PVD using pulsed cathodic arc evaporation, equipped with three lateral arc-rotating cathodes (LARC and one central rotating cathode (CERC. The research was performed in two stages: in the first stage, the outlined coatings were characterized regarding their chemical composition, morphology, and structure using glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy (GDOES, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and X-ray diffraction (XRD, respectively. Surface morphology and mechanical properties were evaluated by atomic force microscopy (AFM and nanoindentation. The coating adhesion was studied using Mersedes test and scratch testing. During the second stage, industrial tests were carried out for coated die casting molds. In parallel, tribological tests were also performed in order to determine if a correlation between laboratory and industrial tests can be drawn. All of the results were compared with a benchmark monolayer AlCrN coating. The data obtained show that the best performance was achieved for the AlCrN/Si3N4 nanocomposite coating that displays an optimum combination of hardness, adhesion, soldering behavior, oxidation resistance, and stress state. These characteristics are essential for improving the die mold service life. Therefore, this coating emerges as a novelty to be used to protect aluminum die casting molds.

  13. Tribological and Wear Performance of Nanocomposite PVD Hard Coatings Deposited on Aluminum Die Casting Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, Jose Mario; Fox-Rabinovich, German; Locks Junior, Edinei; Stolf, Pietro; Seid Ahmed, Yassmin; Matos Martins, Marcelo; Bork, Carlos; Veldhuis, Stephen

    2018-02-28

    In the aluminum die casting process, erosion, corrosion, soldering, and die sticking have a significant influence on tool life and product quality. A number of coatings such as TiN, CrN, and (Cr,Al)N deposited by physical vapor deposition (PVD) have been employed to act as protective coatings due to their high hardness and chemical stability. In this study, the wear performance of two nanocomposite AlTiN and AlCrN coatings with different structures were evaluated. These coatings were deposited on aluminum die casting mold tool substrates (AISI H13 hot work steel) by PVD using pulsed cathodic arc evaporation, equipped with three lateral arc-rotating cathodes (LARC) and one central rotating cathode (CERC). The research was performed in two stages: in the first stage, the outlined coatings were characterized regarding their chemical composition, morphology, and structure using glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy (GDOES), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD), respectively. Surface morphology and mechanical properties were evaluated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and nanoindentation. The coating adhesion was studied using Mersedes test and scratch testing. During the second stage, industrial tests were carried out for coated die casting molds. In parallel, tribological tests were also performed in order to determine if a correlation between laboratory and industrial tests can be drawn. All of the results were compared with a benchmark monolayer AlCrN coating. The data obtained show that the best performance was achieved for the AlCrN/Si₃N₄ nanocomposite coating that displays an optimum combination of hardness, adhesion, soldering behavior, oxidation resistance, and stress state. These characteristics are essential for improving the die mold service life. Therefore, this coating emerges as a novelty to be used to protect aluminum die casting molds.

  14. Incident Information Management Tool

    CERN Document Server

    Pejovic, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Flaws of\tcurrent incident information management at CMS and CERN\tare discussed. A new data\tmodel for future incident database is\tproposed and briefly described. Recently developed draft version of GIS-­‐based tool for incident tracking is presented.

  15. Hypercard Another Computer Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geske, Joel

    1991-01-01

    Describes "Hypercard," a computer application package usable in all three modes of instructional computing: tutor, tool, and tutee. Suggests using Hypercard in scholastic journalism programs to teach such topics as news, headlines, design, photography, and advertising. Argues that the ability to access, organize, manipulate, and comprehend…

  16. Organisational skills and tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicker, Paul

    2009-04-01

    While this article mainly applies to practitioners who have responsibilities for leading teams or supervising practitioners, many of the skills and tools described here may also apply to students or junior practitioners. The purpose of this article is to highlight some of the main points about organisation, some of the organisational skills and tools that are available, and some examples of how these skills and tools can be used to make practitioners more effective at organising their workload. It is important to realise that organising work and doing work are two completely different things and shouldn't be mixed up. For example, it would be very difficult to start organising work in the middle of a busy operating list: the organisation of the work must come before the work starts and therefore preparation is often an important first step in organising work. As such, some of the tools and skills described in this article may need to be used hours or even days prior to the actual work taking place.

  17. Tools for Authentication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, G.

    2008-01-01

    Many recent Non-proliferation and Arms Control software projects include a software authentication component. In this context, 'authentication' is defined as determining that a software package performs only its intended purpose and performs that purpose correctly and reliably over many years. In addition to visual inspection by knowledgeable computer scientists, automated tools are needed to highlight suspicious code constructs both to aid the visual inspection and to guide program development. While many commercial tools are available for portions of the authentication task, they are proprietary, and have limited extensibility. An open-source, extensible tool can be customized to the unique needs of each project (projects can have both common and custom rules to detect flaws and security holes). Any such extensible tool must be based on a complete language compiler infrastructure, that is, one that can parse and digest the full language through its standard grammar. ROSE is precisely such a compiler infrastructure developed within DOE. ROSE is a robust source-to-source analysis and optimization infrastructure currently addressing large, million-line DOE applications in C, C++, and FORTRAN. This year, it has been extended to support the automated analysis of binaries. We continue to extend ROSE to address a number of security-specific requirements and apply it to software authentication for Non-proliferation and Arms Control projects. We will give an update on the status of our work

  18. Methodologies, languages and tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amako, Katsuya

    1994-01-01

    This is a summary of the open-quotes Methodologies, Languages and Toolsclose quotes session in the CHEP'94 conference. All the contributions to methodologies and languages are relevant to the object-oriented approach. Other topics presented are related to various software tools in the down-sized computing environment

  19. Tools for Authentication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, G

    2008-07-09

    Many recent Non-proliferation and Arms Control software projects include a software authentication component. In this context, 'authentication' is defined as determining that a software package performs only its intended purpose and performs that purpose correctly and reliably over many years. In addition to visual inspection by knowledgeable computer scientists, automated tools are needed to highlight suspicious code constructs both to aid the visual inspection and to guide program development. While many commercial tools are available for portions of the authentication task, they are proprietary, and have limited extensibility. An open-source, extensible tool can be customized to the unique needs of each project (projects can have both common and custom rules to detect flaws and security holes). Any such extensible tool must be based on a complete language compiler infrastructure, that is, one that can parse and digest the full language through its standard grammar. ROSE is precisely such a compiler infrastructure developed within DOE. ROSE is a robust source-to-source analysis and optimization infrastructure currently addressing large, million-line DOE applications in C, C++, and FORTRAN. This year, it has been extended to support the automated analysis of binaries. We continue to extend ROSE to address a number of security-specific requirements and apply it to software authentication for Non-proliferation and Arms Control projects. We will give an update on the status of our work.

  20. [Tools for assisting diagnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, Magali; Asset, Sonya; Medjebar, Samir

    2017-11-01

    Connected objects are revolutionising practices, fulfil patients' needs for autonomy and the need to deploy healthcare provision beyond healthcare facilities. This article illustrates how these tools can be used in the case of epilepsy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Requirements for enrichment tools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, A.; Winkels, R.; Trompper, M.

    2016-01-01

    This report gives a high level overview of requirements for Enrichment tools in the Openlaws.eu project. Openlaws.eu aims to initiate a platform and develop a vision for Big Open Legal Data (BOLD): an open framework for legislation, case law, and legal literature from across Europe.

  2. C-TOOL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taghizadeh-Toosi, Arezoo; Christensen, Bent Tolstrup; Hutchings, Nicholas John

    2014-01-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) is a significant component of the global carbon (C) cycle. Changes in SOC storage affect atmospheric CO2 concentrations on decadal to centennial timescales. The C-TOOL model was developed to simulate farm- and regional-scale effects of management on medium- to long...

  3. Tools for Climate Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, H. C.

    2007-05-01

    Full realization of socio-economic benefits of from public investments in climate services remains incomplete because decision makers have difficulty: 1) interpreting individual products, 2) appropriately judging information credibility, and 3) linking different types of information, both conceptually and practically. Addressing these barriers is as important as improving the science leading to improved information. The challenge is creating flexible climate information products and tools that can accommodate unique user needs; the goal is a systemic change in the nature of information delivery and use. The underlying assumption is not that climate information is good and useful, and simply needs to be communicated effectively. Rather, a number of conditions must be met before decision makers can make informed choices about whether to use particular information in a specific situation. Several case studies, of varying success, illustrate user-centric strategies for developing decision support tools: a forecast evaluation tool, a climate information management system, and a hydrologic alert system. However, tools alone will not bridge the barriers in climate services, with training and other capacity- building activities remaining important activities.

  4. Sight Application Analysis Tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronevetsky, G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-09-17

    The scale and complexity of scientific applications makes it very difficult to optimize, debug and extend them to support new capabilities. We have developed a tool that supports developers’ efforts to understand the logical flow of their applications and interactions between application components and hardware in a way that scales with application complexity and parallelism.

  5. Tool voor verdeling rivierwater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellegers, P.J.G.J.

    2011-01-01

    In het stroomgebied van de Inkomati-rivier in zuidelijk Afrika, maken partijen uit drie landen aanspraak op het rivierwater. LEI, Alterra en adviesbureau WaterWatch ontwikkelden met lokale partners een tool die betrokkenen laat zien wat ander landgebruik betekent voor de beschikbaarheid van dat

  6. The science writing tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuhart, Arthur L.

    This is a two-part dissertation. The primary part is the text of a science-based composition rhetoric and reader called The Science Writing Tool. This textbook has seven chapters dealing with topics in Science Rhetoric. Each chapter includes a variety of examples of science writing, discussion questions, writing assignments, and instructional resources. The purpose of this text is to introduce lower-division college science majors to the role that rhetoric and communication plays in the conduct of Science, and how these skills contribute to a successful career in Science. The text is designed as a "tool kit," for use by an instructor constructing a science-based composition course or a writing-intensive Science course. The second part of this part of this dissertation reports on student reactions to draft portions of The Science Writing Tool text. In this report, students of English Composition II at Northern Virginia Community College-Annandale were surveyed about their attitudes toward course materials and topics included. The findings were used to revise and expand The Science Writing Tool.

  7. Big Data Visualization Tools

    OpenAIRE

    Bikakis, Nikos

    2018-01-01

    Data visualization is the presentation of data in a pictorial or graphical format, and a data visualization tool is the software that generates this presentation. Data visualization provides users with intuitive means to interactively explore and analyze data, enabling them to effectively identify interesting patterns, infer correlations and causalities, and supports sense-making activities.

  8. Rapid Tooling via Stereolithography

    OpenAIRE

    Montgomery, Eva

    2006-01-01

    Approximately three years ago, composite stereolithography (SL) resins were introduced to the marketplace, offering performance features beyond what traditional SL resins could offer. In particular, the high heat deflection temperatures and high stiffness of these highly filled resins have opened the door to several new rapid prototyping (RP) applications, including wind tunnel test modelling and, more recently, rapid tooling.

  9. Tools of the Trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porterfield, Kitty; Carnes, Meg

    2010-01-01

    People have known principals who are intellectual giants on issues of instruction and who have a great love of children but who stumble in leadership roles because they either do not or cannot communicate what they know. Good communication skills are among the most important tools a leader carries in his or her toolbox. Not only does good…

  10. Verification of Simulation Tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richard, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    Before qualifying a simulation tool, the requirements shall first be clearly identified, i.e.: - What type of study needs to be carried out? - What phenomena need to be modeled? This phase involves writing a precise technical specification. Once the requirements are defined, the most adapted product shall be selected from the various software options available on the market. Before using a particular version of a simulation tool to support the demonstration of nuclear safety studies, the following requirements shall be met. - An auditable quality assurance process complying with development international standards shall be developed and maintained, - A process of verification and validation (V and V) shall be implemented. This approach requires: writing a report and/or executive summary of the V and V activities, defining a validated domain (domain in which the difference between the results of the tools and those of another qualified reference is considered satisfactory for its intended use). - Sufficient documentation shall be available, - A detailed and formal description of the product (software version number, user configuration, other settings and parameters) in the targeted computing environment shall be available. - Source codes corresponding to the software shall be archived appropriately. When these requirements are fulfilled, the version of the simulation tool shall be considered qualified for a defined domain of validity, in a given computing environment. The functional verification shall ensure that: - the computer architecture of the tool does not include errors, - the numerical solver correctly represents the physical mathematical model, - equations are solved correctly. The functional verification can be demonstrated through certification or report of Quality Assurance. The functional validation shall allow the user to ensure that the equations correctly represent the physical phenomena in the perimeter of intended use. The functional validation can

  11. Sexual selection predicts species richness across the animal kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janicke, Tim; Ritchie, Michael G; Morrow, Edward H; Marie-Orleach, Lucas

    2018-05-16

    Our improving knowledge of the animal tree of life consistently demonstrates that some taxa diversify more rapidly than others, but what contributes to this variation remains poorly understood. An influential hypothesis proposes that selection arising from competition for mating partners plays a key role in promoting speciation. However, empirical evidence showing a link between proxies of this sexual selection and species richness is equivocal. Here, we collected standardized metrics of sexual selection for a broad range of animal taxa, and found that taxonomic families characterized by stronger sexual selection on males show relatively higher species richness. Thus, our data support the hypothesis that sexual selection elevates species richness. This could occur either by promoting speciation and/or by protecting species against extinction. © 2018 The Author(s).

  12. Global variation in woodpecker species richness shaped by tree availability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ilsoe, Sigrid Kistrup; Kissling, W. Daniel; Fjeldsa, Jon

    2017-01-01

    . Location: Global. Methods: We used spatial and non-spatial regressions to test for relationships between broad-scale woodpecker species richness and predictor variables describing current and deep-time availability of trees, current climate, Quaternary climate change, human impact, topographical...... a negative indirect effect on woodpecker species richness. Main conclusions: Global species richness of woodpeckers is primarily shaped by current tree cover and precipitation, reflecting a strong biotic association between woodpeckers and trees. Human influence can have a negative effect on woodpecker....... As an example, woodpeckers (Picidae) are closely associated with trees and woody habitats because of multiple morphological and ecological specializations. In this study, we test whether this strong biotic association causes woodpecker diversity to be closely linked to tree availability at a global scale...

  13. Plant species richness and ecosystem multifunctionality in global drylands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maestre, Fernando T.; Quero, Jose L.; Gotelli, Nicholas J.; Escudero, Adrian; Ochoa, Victoria; Delgado-Baquerizo, Manuel; Garcia-Gomez, Miguel; Bowker, Matthew A.; Soliveres, Santiago; Escolar, Cristina; Garcia-Palacios, Pablo; Berdugo, Miguel; Valencia, Enrique; Gozalo, Beatriz; Gallardo, Antonio; Aguilera, Lorgio; Arredondo, Tulio; Blones, Julio; Boeken, Bertrand; Bran, Donaldo; Conceicao, Abel A.; Cabrera, Omar; Chaieb, Mohamed; Derak, Mchich; Eldridge, David J.; Espinosa, Carlos I.; Florentino, Adriana; Gaitan, Juan; Gatica, M. Gabriel; Ghiloufi, Wahida; Gomez-Gonzalez, Susana; Gutie, Julio R.; Hernandez, Rosa M.; Huang, Xuewen; Huber-Sannwald, Elisabeth; Jankju, Mohammad; Miriti, Maria; Monerris, Jorge; Mau, Rebecca L.; Morici, Ernesto; Naseri, Kamal; Ospina, Abelardo; Polo, Vicente; Prina, Anibal; Pucheta, Eduardo; Ramirez-Collantes, David A.; Romao, Roberto; Tighe, Matthew; Torres-Diaz, Cristian; Val, James; Veiga, Jose P.; Wang, Deli; Zaady, Eli

    2012-01-01

    Experiments suggest that biodiversity enhances the ability of ecosystems to maintain multiple functions, such as carbon storage, productivity, and the buildup of nutrient pools (multifunctionality). However, the relationship between biodiversity and multifunctionality has never been assessed globally in natural ecosystems. We report here on a global empirical study relating plant species richness and abiotic factors to multifunctionality in drylands, which collectively cover 41% of Earth's land surface and support over 38% of the human population. Multifunctionality was positively and significantly related to species richness. The best-fitting models accounted for over 55% of the variation in multifunctionality and always included species richness as a predictor variable. Our results suggest that the preservation of plant biodiversity is crucial to buffer negative effects of climate change and desertification in drylands.

  14. Multiscale assessment of patterns of avian species richness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahbek, C; Graves, G R

    2001-01-01

    at continental scales. We used a database of the geographic ranges of 2,869 species of birds breeding in South America (nearly a third of the world's living avian species) to explore the influence of climate, quadrat area, ecosystem diversity, and topography on species richness gradients at 10 spatial scales...... (quadrat area, approximately 12,300 to approximately 1,225,000 km(2)). Topography, precipitation, topography x latitude, ecosystem diversity, and cloud cover emerged as the most important predictors of regional variability of species richness in regression models incorporating 16 independent variables...... the hypothesis that terrestrial species richness from the equator to the poles is ultimately governed by a synergism between climate and coarse-scale topographic heterogeneity....

  15. CERN-built prototype RICH detector back from the USA

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2002-01-01

    In summer 1999, a ring-imaging Cherenkov detector (RICH) developed, constructed and tested at CERN was dismantled and sent to the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) where it was used to extend the particle identification range of the STAR detector at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The RICH was a prototype of part of the ALICE-HMPID detector. Here we see members of the STAR-RICH team from ALICE-HMPID group with the detector, still in its shipping crates, back from BNL. L. to r.: A.Braem, E. Schyns, D. Fraissard, C. David, A. Di Mauro, J. van Beelen, G. Paic, Y. Lesenechal, F. Piuz, P. Martinengo, D. Di Bari, G. De Cataldo, Y. Andres, M. Davenport, V. Barozier, E. Nappi, T. D. Williams.

  16. How rich is consciousness? The partial awareness hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouider, Sid; de Gardelle, Vincent; Sackur, Jérôme; Dupoux, Emmanuel

    2010-07-01

    Current theories of consciousness posit a dissociation between 'phenomenal' consciousness (rich) and 'access' consciousness (limited). Here, we argue that the empirical evidence for phenomenal consciousness without access is equivocal, resulting either from a confusion between phenomenal and unconscious contents, or from an impression of phenomenally rich experiences arising from illusory contents. We propose a refined account of access that relies on a hierarchy of representational levels and on the notion of partial awareness, whereby lower and higher levels are accessed independently. Reframing of the issue of dissociable forms of consciousness into dissociable levels of access provides a more parsimonious account of the existing evidence. In addition, the rich phenomenology illusion can be studied and described in terms of testable cognitive mechanisms. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Ilmenite-rich pyroclastic deposits - An ideal lunar resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawke, B. R.; Clark, B.; Coombs, C. R.

    1990-01-01

    With a view of investigating possible economic benefits that a permanent lunar settlement might provide to the near-earth space infrastructures, consideration was given to the ilmenite-rich pyroclastic deposits as sources of oxygen (for use as a propellant) and He-3 (for nuclear fusion fuel). This paper demonstrates that ilmenite-rich pyroclastic deposits would be excellent sources of a wide variety of valuable elements besides O and He-3, including Fe, Ti, H2, N, C, S, Cu, Zn, Cd, Bi, and Pb. It is shown that several ilmenite-rich pyroclastic deposits of regional extent exist on the lunar surface. The suitability of regional pyroclastic deposits for lunar mining operations, construction activities, and the establishment of permanent lunar settlements is examined.

  18. Productivity is a poor predictor of plant species richness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Peter B.; Seabloom, Eric W.; Borer, Elizabeth T.; Hillebrand, Helmut; Hautier, Yann; Hector, Andy; Harpole, W. Stanley; O'Halloran, Lydia R.; Grace, James B.; Anderson, T. Michael; Bakker, Jonathan D.; Biederman, Lori A.; Brown, Cynthia S.; Buckley, Yvonne M.; Calabrese, Laura B.; Chu, Cheng-Jin; Cleland, Elsa E.; Collins, Scott L.; Cottingham, Kathryn L.; Crawley, Michael J.; Damschen, Ellen Ingman; Davies, Kendi F.; DeCrappeo, Nicole M.; Fay, Philip A.; Firn, Jennifer; Frater, Paul; Gasarch, Eve I.; Gruner, Daneil S.; Hagenah, Nicole; Lambers, Janneke Hille Ris; Humphries, Hope; Jin, Virginia L.; Kay, Adam D.; Kirkman, Kevin P.; Klein, Julia A.; Knops, Johannes M.H.; La Pierre, Kimberly J.; Lambrinos, John G.; Li, Wei; MacDougall, Andrew S.; McCulley, Rebecca L.; Melbourne, Brett A.; Mitchell, Charles E.; Moore, Joslin L.; Morgan, John W.; Mortensen, Brent; Orrock, John L.; Prober, Suzanne M.; Pyke, David A.; Risch, Anita C.; Schuetz, Martin; Smith, Melinda D.; Stevens, Carly J.; Sullivan, Lauren L.; Wang, Gang; Wragg, Peter D.; Wright, Justin P.; Yang, Louie H.

    2011-01-01

    For more than 30 years, the relationship between net primary productivity and species richness has generated intense debate in ecology about the processes regulating local diversity. The original view, which is still widely accepted, holds that the relationship is hump-shaped, with richness first rising and then declining with increasing productivity. Although recent meta-analyses questioned the generality of hump-shaped patterns, these syntheses have been criticized for failing to account for methodological differences among studies. We addressed such concerns by conducting standardized sampling in 48 herbaceous-dominated plant communities on five continents. We found no clear relationship between productivity and fine-scale (meters-2) richness within sites, within regions, or across the globe. Ecologists should focus on fresh, mechanistic approaches to understanding the multivariate links between productivity an

  19. Novel methodology to isolate microplastics from vegetal-rich samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Alicia; Garrido-Amador, Paloma; Martínez, Ico; Samper, María Dolores; López-Martínez, Juan; Gómez, May; Packard, Theodore T

    2018-04-01

    Microplastics are small plastic particles, globally distributed throughout the oceans. To properly study them, all the methodologies for their sampling, extraction, and measurement should be standardized. For heterogeneous samples containing sediments, animal tissues and zooplankton, several procedures have been described. However, definitive methodologies for samples, rich in algae and plant material, have not yet been developed. The aim of this study was to find the best extraction protocol for vegetal-rich samples by comparing the efficacies of five previously described digestion methods, and a novel density separation method. A protocol using 96% ethanol for density separation was better than the five digestion methods tested, even better than using H 2 O 2 digestion. As it was the most efficient, simple, safe and inexpensive method for isolating microplastics from vegetal rich samples, we recommend it as a standard separation method. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. NESmapper: accurate prediction of leucine-rich nuclear export signals using activity-based profiles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunichi Kosugi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The nuclear export of proteins is regulated largely through the exportin/CRM1 pathway, which involves the specific recognition of leucine-rich nuclear export signals (NESs in the cargo proteins, and modulates nuclear-cytoplasmic protein shuttling by antagonizing the nuclear import activity mediated by importins and the nuclear import signal (NLS. Although the prediction of NESs can help to define proteins that undergo regulated nuclear export, current methods of predicting NESs, including computational tools and consensus-sequence-based searches, have limited accuracy, especially in terms of their specificity. We found that each residue within an NES largely contributes independently and additively to the entire nuclear export activity. We created activity-based profiles of all classes of NESs with a comprehensive mutational analysis in mammalian cells. The profiles highlight a number of specific activity-affecting residues not only at the conserved hydrophobic positions but also in the linker and flanking regions. We then developed a computational tool, NESmapper, to predict NESs by using profiles that had been further optimized by training and combining the amino acid properties of the NES-flanking regions. This tool successfully reduced the considerable number of false positives, and the overall prediction accuracy was higher than that of other methods, including NESsential and Wregex. This profile-based prediction strategy is a reliable way to identify functional protein motifs. NESmapper is available at http://sourceforge.net/projects/nesmapper.

  1. Extended Testability Analysis Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melcher, Kevin; Maul, William A.; Fulton, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    The Extended Testability Analysis (ETA) Tool is a software application that supports fault management (FM) by performing testability analyses on the fault propagation model of a given system. Fault management includes the prevention of faults through robust design margins and quality assurance methods, or the mitigation of system failures. Fault management requires an understanding of the system design and operation, potential failure mechanisms within the system, and the propagation of those potential failures through the system. The purpose of the ETA Tool software is to process the testability analysis results from a commercial software program called TEAMS Designer in order to provide a detailed set of diagnostic assessment reports. The ETA Tool is a command-line process with several user-selectable report output options. The ETA Tool also extends the COTS testability analysis and enables variation studies with sensor sensitivity impacts on system diagnostics and component isolation using a single testability output. The ETA Tool can also provide extended analyses from a single set of testability output files. The following analysis reports are available to the user: (1) the Detectability Report provides a breakdown of how each tested failure mode was detected, (2) the Test Utilization Report identifies all the failure modes that each test detects, (3) the Failure Mode Isolation Report demonstrates the system s ability to discriminate between failure modes, (4) the Component Isolation Report demonstrates the system s ability to discriminate between failure modes relative to the components containing the failure modes, (5) the Sensor Sensor Sensitivity Analysis Report shows the diagnostic impact due to loss of sensor information, and (6) the Effect Mapping Report identifies failure modes that result in specified system-level effects.

  2. Spray-formed tooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, K. M.; Key, J. F.

    The United States Council for Automotive Research (USCAR) has formed a partnership with the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to develop a process for the rapid production of low-cost tooling based on spray forming technology developed at the INEL. Phase 1 of the program will involve bench-scale system development, materials characterization, and process optimization. In Phase 2, prototype systems will be designed, constructed, evaluated, and optimized. Process control and other issues that influence commercialization will be addressed during this phase of the project. Technology transfer to USCAR, or a tooling vendor selected by USCAR, will be accomplished during Phase 3. The approach INEL is using to produce tooling, such as plastic injection molds and stamping dies, combines rapid solidification processing and net-shape materials processing into a single step. A bulk liquid metal is pressure-fed into a de Laval spray nozzle transporting a high velocity, high temperature inert gas. The gas jet disintegrates the metal into fine droplets and deposits them onto a tool pattern made from materials such as plastic, wax, clay, ceramics, and metals. The approach is compatible with solid freeform fabrication techniques such as stereolithography, selective laser sintering, and laminated object manufacturing. Heat is extracted rapidly, in-flight, by convection as the spray jet entrains cool inert gas to produce undercooled and semi-solid droplets. At the pattern, the droplets weld together while replicating the shape and surface features of the pattern. Tool formation is rapid; deposition rates in excess of 1 ton/h have been demonstrated for bench-scale nozzles.

  3. Functional richness: Overview of indices and underlying concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legras, G.; Loiseau, N.; Gaertner, J.-C.

    2018-02-01

    Functional richness, currently defined as the amount of niche space occupied by the species within a community, is one of the three major components of functional diversity. Different indices have been developed in order to quantify this component. However, the range of indices available for assessing functional richness, often mathematically complex and based on different rationales, can cause confusion for field ecologists and lead to misinterpretation of the results obtained. In this context, we have provided the first study exclusively focused on the comparison of the definitions, advantages and drawbacks of a large set of functional richness indices. The first part of this work is focused on four indices (FDP&G, FRic, TOP and N-hypervolumes indices) that are currently the most commonly used for assessing functional richness. We have completed our study by including recently developed indices that enable us to take into account the intraspecific trait variability (i.e. FRim index and TDP framework), because there is currently a growing scientific consensus regarding the necessity of including this aspect in the assessment of the functional diversity of communities. We demonstrate that although authors have argued that their index describes the functional richness, each of them describes only part of it, and this part may strongly differ from one index to another. Rather than advocating the general use of a single index and/or systematically avoiding others, our study highlights the need for selecting indices in close relation with the context, the available data and the aims of each study. Such a strategy is an essential preliminary step for preventing misunderstanding and artefactual controversies. Along these lines, we propose some guidelines to help users in selecting the most appropriate indices according both to the facet of functional richness on which they wish to focus and to the characteristics of the available data.

  4. Acoustic richness modulates the neural networks supporting intelligible speech processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yune-Sang; Min, Nam Eun; Wingfield, Arthur; Grossman, Murray; Peelle, Jonathan E

    2016-03-01

    The information contained in a sensory signal plays a critical role in determining what neural processes are engaged. Here we used interleaved silent steady-state (ISSS) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to explore how human listeners cope with different degrees of acoustic richness during auditory sentence comprehension. Twenty-six healthy young adults underwent scanning while hearing sentences that varied in acoustic richness (high vs. low spectral detail) and syntactic complexity (subject-relative vs. object-relative center-embedded clause structures). We manipulated acoustic richness by presenting the stimuli as unprocessed full-spectrum speech, or noise-vocoded with 24 channels. Importantly, although the vocoded sentences were spectrally impoverished, all sentences were highly intelligible. These manipulations allowed us to test how intelligible speech processing was affected by orthogonal linguistic and acoustic demands. Acoustically rich speech showed stronger activation than acoustically less-detailed speech in a bilateral temporoparietal network with more pronounced activity in the right hemisphere. By contrast, listening to sentences with greater syntactic complexity resulted in increased activation of a left-lateralized network including left posterior lateral temporal cortex, left inferior frontal gyrus, and left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Significant interactions between acoustic richness and syntactic complexity occurred in left supramarginal gyrus, right superior temporal gyrus, and right inferior frontal gyrus, indicating that the regions recruited for syntactic challenge differed as a function of acoustic properties of the speech. Our findings suggest that the neural systems involved in speech perception are finely tuned to the type of information available, and that reducing the richness of the acoustic signal dramatically alters the brain's response to spoken language, even when intelligibility is high. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier

  5. Abnormal rich club organization and functional brain dynamics in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Heuvel, Martijn P; Sporns, Olaf; Collin, Guusje; Scheewe, Thomas; Mandl, René C W; Cahn, Wiepke; Goñi, Joaquín; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E; Kahn, René S

    2013-08-01

    The human brain forms a large-scale structural network of regions and interregional pathways. Recent studies have reported the existence of a selective set of highly central and interconnected hub regions that may play a crucial role in the brain's integrative processes, together forming a central backbone for global brain communication. Abnormal brain connectivity may have a key role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. To examine the structure of the rich club in schizophrenia and its role in global functional brain dynamics. Structural diffusion tensor imaging and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging were performed in patients with schizophrenia and matched healthy controls. Department of Psychiatry, Rudolf Magnus Institute of Neuroscience, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, the Netherlands. Forty-eight patients and 45 healthy controls participated in the study. An independent replication data set of 41 patients and 51 healthy controls was included to replicate and validate significant findings. MAIN OUTCOME(S) AND MEASURES: Measures of rich club organization, connectivity density of rich club connections and connections linking peripheral regions to brain hubs, measures of global brain network efficiency, and measures of coupling between brain structure and functional dynamics. Rich club organization between high-degree hub nodes was significantly affected in patients, together with a reduced density of rich club connections predominantly comprising the white matter pathways that link the midline frontal, parietal, and insular hub regions. This reduction in rich club density was found to be associated with lower levels of global communication capacity, a relationship that was absent for other white matter pathways. In addition, patients had an increase in the strength of structural connectivity-functional connectivity coupling. Our findings provide novel biological evidence that schizophrenia is characterized by a selective

  6. Neutron-rich isotopes of the lightest elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oganesyan, Yu.Ts.; Penionzhkevich, Yu.Eh.; Kalpakchieva, R.

    1989-01-01

    A review is presented of the experimental investigations on the stability of very neutron-rich light nuclei carried out at the JINR Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions. Results on mass excess measurements are reported for 4 H, 5 H, 6 H, 7 H and for the superheavy helium isotope 9 He. Some results from the joint JINR-Ganil experiment on the search for and study of new neutron-rich light nuclei are also given. Analyzed are new possibilities for the investigation of multineutron decay of light nuclei. 14 refs.; 10 figs

  7. Proscene: A feature-rich framework for interactive environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Pierre Charalambos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce Proscene, a feature-rich, open-source framework for interactive environments. The design of Proscene comprises a three-layered onion-like software architecture, promoting different possible development scenarios. The framework innermost layer decouples user gesture parsing from user-defined actions. The in-between layer implements a feature-rich set of widely-used motion actions allowing the selection and manipulation of objects, including the scene viewpoint. The outermost layer exposes those features as a Processing library. The results have shown the feasibility of our approach together with the simplicity and flexibility of the Proscene framework API.

  8. The Omega RICH in the CERN hyperon beam experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, U; Beusch, W; Boss, M; Engelfried, J; Gerassimov, S G; Klempt, W; Lennert, P; Martens, K; Newbold, D; Rieseberg, H; Siebert, H -W; Smith, V J; Thilmann, O; Waelder, G

    1999-08-21

    The Omega RICH, a large-aperture detector for identification of secondary pions, kaons, and (anti) protons was in operation at the CERN Omega spectrometer facility between 1984 and 1994. Cherenkov photons from a 5 m long radiator were detected in drift chambers with quartz windows, using TMAE-loaded counting gases. The RICH was used by experiments WA69 and WA82, until 1988. It was then equipped with new drift chambers and mirrors and was in use since 1990 in experiments WA89 and WA94. The setup in the WA89 hyperon beam experiment is described in more detail and efficiencies, resolutions, and physics results are discussed.

  9. SOI MESFETs on high-resistivity, trap-rich substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehr, Payam; Zhang, Xiong; Lepkowski, William; Li, Chaojiang; Thornton, Trevor J.

    2018-04-01

    The DC and RF characteristics of metal-semiconductor field-effect-transistors (MESFETs) on conventional CMOS silicon-on-insulator (SOI) substrates are compared to nominally identical devices on high-resistivity, trap-rich SOI substrates. While the DC transfer characteristics are statistically identical on either substrate, the maximum available gain at GHz frequencies is enhanced by ∼2 dB when using the trap-rich substrates, with maximum operating frequencies, fmax, that are approximately 5-10% higher. The increased fmax is explained by the reduced substrate conduction at GHz frequencies using a lumped-element, small-signal model.

  10. Calculation of the radii of neutron rich light exotic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charagi, S.K.; Gupta, S.K.

    1991-01-01

    The interaction cross section of a few unstable neutron rich nuclei have been measured using exotic isotope beams produced through the projectile fragmentation process in high energy heavy-ion collisions. Interaction cross section of He, Li, Be and B isotope projectiles with Be, C and Al targets have thus been measured at 790 MeV/nucleon. We have made a comprehensive analysis of the data on the interaction cross section, to extract the radii of these neutron rich light nuclei. 7 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  11. Very proton-rich nuclei with N asymptotically equals 82

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolte, E.

    1984-01-01

    The proton-rich nuclei with N asymptotically equals 82 show beautifully properties, which are perfectly described by the nuclear shell model. Some of these properties are the occurrence of seniority isomerism in the proton-rich N=82 isotones and the perfect description of the corresponding life times by the seniority scheme as well as the observation of favoured Gamow-Teller β transitions in this nuclear region and the dependence of the corresponding ft values on the number of the envolved nucleons. (author)

  12. Performance of the LHCb RICH detector at the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adinolfi, M.; Brook, N.H.; Coombes, M.; Hampson, T.; Rademacker, J.H.; Solomin, A.; Voong, D. [University of Bristol, H.H. Wills Physics Laboratory, Bristol (United Kingdom); Aglieri Rinella, G.; Albrecht, E.; D' Ambrosio, C.; Forty, R.; Frei, C.; Gys, T.; Kanaya, N.; Koblitz, S.; Mollen, A.; Morant, J.; Piedigrossi, D.; Storaci, B.; Ullaland, O.; Vervink, K.; Wyllie, K. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Bellunato, T.; Calvi, M.; Fanchini, E.; Giachero, A.; Gotti, C.; Kucharczyk, M.; Maino, M.; Matteuzzi, C.; Perego, D.L.; Pessina, G. [Sezione INFN di Milano Bicocca, Milano (Italy); Benson, S.; Eisenhardt, S.; Fitzpatrick, C.; Kim, Y.M.; Lambert, D.; Main, A.; Muheim, F.; Playfer, S.; Sparkes, A.; Young, R. [University of Edinburgh, School of Physics and Astronomy, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Blake, T. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom); Blanks, C.; Cameron, B.; Carson, L.; Egede, U.; Owen, P.; Patel, M.; Plackett, R.; Savidge, T.; Sepp, I.; Soomro, F.; Websdale, D. [Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom); Brisbane, S.; Contu, A.; Gandini, P.; Gao, R.; Harnew, N.; Hill, D.; Hunt, P.; John, M.; Johnson, D.; Malde, S.; Muresan, R.; Powell, A.; Thomas, C.; Topp-Joergensen, S.; Torr, N.; Wilkinson, G.; Xing, F. [University of Oxford, Department of Physics, Oxford (United Kingdom); Cardinale, R.; Fontanelli, F.; Mini' , G.; Petrolini, A.; Sannino, M. [Sezione INFN di Genova, Genova (Italy); Easo, S. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot (United Kingdom); Garra Tico, J.; Gibson, V.; Gregson, S.; Haines, S.C.; Jones, C.R.; Katvars, S.; Kerzel, U.; Mangiafave, N.; Rogers, G.J.; Sigurdsson, S.; Wotton, S.A. [University of Cambridge, Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Mountain, R. [Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY (United States); Morris, J.V.; Nardulli, J.; Papanestis, A.; Patrick, G.N.; Ricciardi, S. [STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot (United Kingdom); Sail, P.; Soler, F.J.P.; Spradlin, P. [University of Glasgow, School of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Collaboration: The LHCb RICH Collaboration

    2013-05-15

    The LHCb experiment has been taking data at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN since the end of 2009. One of its key detector components is the Ring-Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) system. This provides charged particle identification over a wide momentum range, from 2-100 GeV/c. The operation and control, software, and online monitoring of the RICH system are described. The particle identification performance is presented, as measured using data from the LHC. Excellent separation of hadronic particle types ({pi}, K, p) is achieved. (orig.)

  13. Properties of neutron-rich hafnium high-spin isomers

    CERN Multimedia

    Tungate, G; Walker, P M; Neyens, G; Billowes, J; Flanagan, K; Koester, U H; Litvinov, Y

    It is proposed to study highly-excited multi-quasiparticle isomers in neutron-rich hafnium (Z=72) isotopes. Long half-lives have already been measured for such isomers in the storage ring at GSI, ensuring their accessibility with ISOL production. The present proposal focuses on:\\\\ (i) an on-line experiment to measure isomer properties in $^{183}$Hf and $^{184}$Hf, and\\\\ (ii) an off-line molecular breakup test using REXTRAP, to provide Hf$^{+}$ beams for future laser spectroscopy and greater sensitivity for the future study of more neutron-rich isotopes.

  14. LHCb Upgraded RICH 2 Engineering Design Review Report

    CERN Document Server

    Garsed, Philip John; Cardinale, Roberta; Petrolini, Alessandro; Benettoni, Massimo; Simi, Gabriele; Zago, M; Easo, Sajan; D'Ambrosio, Carmelo; Frei, Christoph; He, Jibo; Piedigrossi, Didier

    2016-01-01

    During the Long Shutdown 2 of the LHC, the LHCb experiment and, specifically, its two Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) detectors will undergo a major upgrade. RICH 2 will be refurbished with new photon detectors and their associated electronics, with the capability of up to 40 MHz sustained acquisition rate. A new support and cooling system has been developed for the two photodetector arrays, retaining the vessel, gas and optical systems unchanged. This document describes their new mechanical arrangement, its engineering design, installation and alignment. A summary of the project schedule and Institute responsibilities is provided.

  15. Powered mobility intervention: understanding the position of tool use learning as part of implementing the ALP tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Lisbeth; Durkin, Josephine

    2017-10-01

    To explore the knowledge necessary for adoption and implementation of the Assessment of Learning Powered mobility use (ALP) tool in different practice settings for both adults and children. To consult with a diverse population of professionals working with adults and children, in different countries and various settings; who were learning about or using the ALP tool, as part of exploring and implementing research findings. Classical grounded theory with a rigorous comparative analysis of data from informants together with reflections on our own rich experiences of powered mobility practice and comparisons with the literature. A core category learning tool use and a new theory of cognizing tool use, with its interdependent properties: motivation, confidence, permissiveness, attentiveness and co-construction has emerged which explains in greater depth what enables the application of the ALP tool. The scientific knowledge base on tool use learning and the new theory conveys the information necessary for practitioner's cognizing how to apply the learning approach of the ALP tool in order to enable tool use learning through powered mobility practice as a therapeutic intervention in its own right. This opens up the possibility for more children and adults to have access to learning through powered mobility practice. Implications for rehabilitation Tool use learning through powered mobility practice is a therapeutic intervention in its own right. Powered mobility practice can be used as a rehabilitation tool with individuals who may not need to become powered wheelchair users. Motivation, confidence, permissiveness, attentiveness and co-construction are key properties for enabling the application of the learning approach of the ALP tool. Labelling and the use of language, together with honing observational skills through viewing video footage, are key to developing successful learning partnerships.

  16. Terminology tools: state of the art and practical lessons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimino, J J

    2001-01-01

    As controlled medical terminologies evolve from simple code-name-hierarchy arrangements, into rich, knowledge-based ontologies of medical concepts, increased demands are placed on both the developers and users of the terminologies. In response, researchers have begun developing tools to address their needs. The aims of this article are to review previous work done to develop these tools and then to describe work done at Columbia University and New York Presbyterian Hospital (NYPH). Researchers working with the Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine (SNOMED), the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS), and NYPH's Medical Entities Dictionary (MED) have created a wide variety of terminology browsers, editors and servers to facilitate creation, maintenance and use of these terminologies. Although much work has been done, no generally available tools have yet emerged. Consensus on requirement for tool functions, especially terminology servers is emerging. Tools at NYPH have been used successfully to support the integration of clinical applications and the merger of health care institutions. Significant advancement has occurred over the past fifteen years in the development of sophisticated controlled terminologies and the tools to support them. The tool set at NYPH provides a case study to demonstrate one feasible architecture.

  17. Plant DNA barcodes can accurately estimate species richness in poorly known floras.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig Costion

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Widespread uptake of DNA barcoding technology for vascular plants has been slow due to the relatively poor resolution of species discrimination (∼70% and low sequencing and amplification success of one of the two official barcoding loci, matK. Studies to date have mostly focused on finding a solution to these intrinsic limitations of the markers, rather than posing questions that can maximize the utility of DNA barcodes for plants with the current technology. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we test the ability of plant DNA barcodes using the two official barcoding loci, rbcLa and matK, plus an alternative barcoding locus, trnH-psbA, to estimate the species diversity of trees in a tropical rainforest plot. Species discrimination accuracy was similar to findings from previous studies but species richness estimation accuracy proved higher, up to 89%. All combinations which included the trnH-psbA locus performed better at both species discrimination and richness estimation than matK, which showed little enhanced species discriminatory power when concatenated with rbcLa. The utility of the trnH-psbA locus is limited however, by the occurrence of intraspecific variation observed in some angiosperm families to occur as an inversion that obscures the monophyly of species. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We demonstrate for the first time, using a case study, the potential of plant DNA barcodes for the rapid estimation of species richness in taxonomically poorly known areas or cryptic populations revealing a powerful new tool for rapid biodiversity assessment. The combination of the rbcLa and trnH-psbA loci performed better for this purpose than any two-locus combination that included matK. We show that although DNA barcodes fail to discriminate all species of plants, new perspectives and methods on biodiversity value and quantification may overshadow some of these shortcomings by applying barcode data in new ways.

  18. Plant DNA barcodes can accurately estimate species richness in poorly known floras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costion, Craig; Ford, Andrew; Cross, Hugh; Crayn, Darren; Harrington, Mark; Lowe, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Widespread uptake of DNA barcoding technology for vascular plants has been slow due to the relatively poor resolution of species discrimination (∼70%) and low sequencing and amplification success of one of the two official barcoding loci, matK. Studies to date have mostly focused on finding a solution to these intrinsic limitations of the markers, rather than posing questions that can maximize the utility of DNA barcodes for plants with the current technology. Here we test the ability of plant DNA barcodes using the two official barcoding loci, rbcLa and matK, plus an alternative barcoding locus, trnH-psbA, to estimate the species diversity of trees in a tropical rainforest plot. Species discrimination accuracy was similar to findings from previous studies but species richness estimation accuracy proved higher, up to 89%. All combinations which included the trnH-psbA locus performed better at both species discrimination and richness estimation than matK, which showed little enhanced species discriminatory power when concatenated with rbcLa. The utility of the trnH-psbA locus is limited however, by the occurrence of intraspecific variation observed in some angiosperm families to occur as an inversion that obscures the monophyly of species. We demonstrate for the first time, using a case study, the potential of plant DNA barcodes for the rapid estimation of species richness in taxonomically poorly known areas or cryptic populations revealing a powerful new tool for rapid biodiversity assessment. The combination of the rbcLa and trnH-psbA loci performed better for this purpose than any two-locus combination that included matK. We show that although DNA barcodes fail to discriminate all species of plants, new perspectives and methods on biodiversity value and quantification may overshadow some of these shortcomings by applying barcode data in new ways.

  19. Clot formation and lysis in platelet rich plasma of healthy donors and patients with resistant hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Patalakh

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Hemostatic balance in blood is affected by numerous factors, including coagulation and fibrinolytic proteins, the wide spectrum of their inhibitors, and blood cells. Since platelets can participate in contradictory processes, they significantly complicate the whole picture. Therefore, nowadays the development of global assays of hemostasis, which can reflect the physiological process of hemostasis and can be used for point-of-care diagnosis of thrombosis, is crucial. This paper outlines a new approach we used to analyze the capabilities of clot waveform analysis tools to distinguish the response of platelet-rich plasma from healthy donors and patients with arterial hypertension caused by stimulation of coagulation and lysis (with exogenous thrombin and recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator, respectively. In donor plasma, when the clot degradation was accompanied by 40 IU/ml of recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator, platelets potentiated fibrinolysis more than coagulation, which ultimately shifts the overall balance to a profibrinolytic state. At the same time, for patients with hypertension, platelets, embedded in clot obtained from platelet-rich plasma, showed a weaker ability to stimulate fibrinolysis. The obtained data gives the evidence that platelets can act not only as procoagulants but also as profibrinolytics. By simultaneously amplifying coagulation and fibrinolysis, making their rates comparable, platelets would control plasma procoagulant activity, thereby regulating local hemostatic balance, the size and lifetime of the clot. Moreover, clot waveform analysis may be used to distinguish the effects of platelet-rich plasma on clotting or lysis of fibrin clots in healthy donors and patients with essential hypertension.

  20. Tree size predicts vascular epiphytic richness of traditional cultivated tea plantations in Southwestern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Wang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Species–area relationship has been widely addressed on many plant communities, but very few have conducted on epiphytic communities. Epiphytic plants are plentiful on ancient tea trees (Camelia sinensis var. assamica in the well-known Jingmai tea plantation area, Langcang region of Yunnan Province, SW China, and add to the plant community biodiversity. We investigated 343 tea trees with various ground diameter, canopy area, under branch height, and tree height. A total of 146 vascular epiphytic plants, belonging to 19 species in seven families were recorded from the trunk or branches of 93 (27.11% investigated trees. We examined in situ abundance, richness, and diversity (Shannon–Weiner index of the recorded vascular epiphytes, and their relationships to tree variables. Our results showed that the distribution (abundance, richness, and diversity of epiphytic plants are significantly related to the canopy area (p<0.05 and basal diameter (p<0.0001 of tea trees, supporting their use as key factors and good predictor for the epiphyte’s appearance in this type of agro-ecosystems. We also concluded that the species–area relationship is a useful epiphytic species community research tool.

  1. Nanoscale protein arrays of rich morphologies via self-assembly on chemically treated diblock copolymer surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Sheng; Milchak, Marissa; Zhou Hebing; Lee, Thomas; Hanscom, Mark; Hahm, Jong-in

    2013-01-01

    Well-controlled assembly of proteins on supramolecular templates of block copolymers can be extremely useful for high-throughput biodetection. We report the adsorption and assembly characteristics of a model antibody protein to various polystyrene-block-poly(4-vinylpyridine) templates whose distinctive nanoscale structures are obtained through time-regulated exposure to chloroform vapor. The strong adsorption preference of the protein to the polystyrene segment in the diblock copolymer templates leads to an easily predictable, controllable, rich set of nanoscale protein morphologies through self-assembly. We also demonstrate that the chemical identities of various subareas within individual nanostructures can be readily elucidated by investigating the corresponding protein adsorption behavior on each chemically distinct area of the template. In our approach, a rich set of intricate nanoscale morphologies of protein arrays that cannot be easily attained through other means can be generated straightforwardly via self-assembly of proteins on chemically treated diblock copolymer surfaces, without the use of clean-room-based fabrication tools. Our approach provides much-needed flexibility and versatility for the use of block copolymer-based protein arrays in biodetection. The ease of fabrication in producing well-defined and self-assembled templates can contribute to a high degree of versatility and simplicity in acquiring an intricate nanoscale geometry and spatial distribution of proteins in arrays. These advantages can be extremely beneficial both for fundamental research and biomedical detection, especially in the areas of solid-state-based, high-throughput protein sensing. (paper)

  2. Photodetectors and front-end electronics for the LHCb RICH upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassina, L.; LHCb RICH

    2017-12-01

    The RICH detectors of the LHCb experiment provide identification of hadrons produced in high energy proton-proton collisions in the LHC at CERN over a wide momentum range (2-100 GeV/c). Cherenkov light is collected on photon detector planes sensitive to single photons. The RICH will be upgraded (in 2019) to read out every bunch crossing, at a rate of 40 MHz. The current hybrid photon detectors (HPD) will be replaced with multi-anode photomultiplier tubes (customisations of the Hamamatsu R11265 and the H12699 MaPMTs). These 8×8 pixel devices meet the experimental requirements thanks to their small pixel size, high gain, negligible dark count rate (∼50 Hz/cm2) and moderate cross-talk. The measured performance of several tubes is reported, together with their long-term stability. A new 8-channel front-end chip, named CLARO, has been designed in 0.35 μm CMOS AMS technology for the MaPMT readout. The CLARO chip operates in binary mode and combines low power consumption (∼1 mW/Ch), wide bandwidth (baseline restored in ⩽ 25 ns) and radiation hardness. A 12-bit digital register permits the optimisation of the dynamic range and the threshold level for each channel and provides tools for the on-site calibration. The design choices and the characterization of the electronics are presented.

  3. Evaluation of NDVI to assess avian abundance and richness along the upper San Pedro River

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, T.M.; van Riper, Charles; Johnson, G.E.

    2012-01-01

    Remote-sensing models have become increasingly popular for identifying, characterizing, monitoring, and predicting avian habitat but have largely focused on single bird species. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) has been shown to positively correlate with avian abundance and richness and has been successfully applied to southwestern riparian systems which are uniquely composed of narrow bands of vegetation in an otherwise dry landscape. Desert riparian ecosystems are important breeding and stopover sites for many bird species but have been degraded due to altered hydrology and land management practices. Here we investigated the use of NDVI, coupled with vegetation, to model the avian community structure along the San Pedro River, Arizona. We also investigated how vegetation and physical features measured locally compared to those data that can be gathered through remote-sensing. We found that NDVI has statistically significant relationships with both avian abundance and species richness, although is better applied at the individual species level. However, the amount of variation explained by even our best models was quite low, suggesting that NDVI habitat models may not presently be an accurate tool for extensive modeling of avian communities. We suggest additional studies in other watersheds to increase our understanding of these bird/NDVI relationships.

  4. THE REACH AND RICHNESS OF WIKINOMICS: IS THE FREE WEB-BASED ENCYCLOPEDIA WIKIPEDIA ONLY FOR RICH COUNTRIES?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rask, Morten

    2007-01-01

    In this article, a model of the patterns of correlation in Wikipedia, reach and richness, lays the foundation for studying whether the free Web-based encyclopedia Wikipedia is only for developed countries. Based on data from 12 different Wikipedia language editions, the author finds that the cent......In this article, a model of the patterns of correlation in Wikipedia, reach and richness, lays the foundation for studying whether the free Web-based encyclopedia Wikipedia is only for developed countries. Based on data from 12 different Wikipedia language editions, the author finds...... that the central structural effect is on the level of human development in the current country. In other words, Wikipedia is in general more for rich countries than for less developed countries. It is suggested that policy makers make investments in increasing the general level of literacy, education, and standard...

  5. Web Tools: The Second Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascopella, Angela

    2008-01-01

    Web 2.0 tools and technologies, or second generation tools, help districts to save time and money, and eliminate the need to transfer or move files back and forth across computers. Many Web 2.0 tools help students think critically and solve problems, which falls under the 21st-century skills. The second-generation tools are growing in popularity…

  6. General Mission Analysis Tool Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — OverviewGMAT is a feature rich system containing high fidelity space system models, optimization and targeting,built in scripting and programming infrastructure, and...

  7. Autologous Platelet-Rich Plasma for the Treatment of Pattern Hair Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Babu; Goldberg, Lynne J

    2016-08-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is a solution derived from whole blood that is enriched in the platelet fraction. Platelets serve as a reservoir of growth factors and cytokines. When platelets are activated in vivo, signaling molecules are released into the immediate microenvironment and activate receptors for various pathways. Historically, PRP has been applied to wound beds to promote healing of complex wounds. Over the last decade, it has served as a valuable therapeutic tool in various specialties such as maxillofacial surgery, plastic surgery, orthopedics and sports medicine. Only recently has PRP been utilized for dermatologic purposes, more specifically, for the treatment of male and female pattern hair loss. In this review, we discuss molecular and cellular pathways upregulated by PRP important in hair folliculogenesis, and examine clinical evidence from all previously published studies involving the use of PRP for pattern hair loss.

  8. Rich structure in the correlation matrix spectra in non-equilibrium steady states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Soham; Leyvraz, Francois; Monroy Castillero, Paulino; Seligman, Thomas H

    2017-01-17

    It has been shown that, if a model displays long-range (power-law) spatial correlations, its equal-time correlation matrix will also have a power law tail in the distribution of its high-lying eigenvalues. The purpose of this paper is to show that the converse is generally incorrect: a power-law tail in the high-lying eigenvalues of the correlation matrix may exist even in the absence of equal-time power law correlations in the initial model. We may therefore view the study of the eigenvalue distribution of the correlation matrix as a more powerful tool than the study of spatial Correlations, one which may in fact uncover structure, that would otherwise not be apparent. Specifically, we show that in the Totally Asymmetric Simple Exclusion Process, whereas there are no clearly visible correlations in the steady state, the eigenvalues of its correlation matrix exhibit a rich structure which we describe in detail.

  9. (F)UV Spectral Analysis of Hot, Hydrogen-Rich Central Stars of Planetary Nebulae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, M.; Rauch, T.; Werner, K.; Kruk, J. W.

    2010-11-01

    Metal abundances of CSPNe are not well known although they provide important constraints on AGB nucleosynthesis. We aim to determine metal abundances of two hot, hydrogen-rich CSPNe (namely of A35 and NGC3587, the latter also known as M97 or the Owl Nebula) and to derive Teff and log g precisely from high-resolution, high-S/N (far-) ultraviolet observations obtained with FUSE and HST/STIS. For this purpose, we utilize NLTE model atmospheres calculated with TMAP, the Tübingen Model Atmosphere Package. Due to strong line absorption of the ISM, simultaneous modeling of interstellar features has become a standard tool in our analyses. We present preliminary results, demonstrating the importance of combining stellar and interstellar models, in order to clearly identify and measure the strengths of strategic photospheric lines.

  10. Pneumatic soil removal tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuhaus, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    A soil removal tool is provided for removing radioactive soil, rock and other debris from the bottom of an excavation, while permitting the operator to be located outside of a containment for that excavation. The tool includes a fixed jaw, secured to one end of an elongate pipe, which cooperates with a movable jaw pivotably mounted on the pipe. Movement of the movable jaw is controlled by a pneumatic cylinder mounted on the pipe. The actuator rod of the pneumatic cylinder is connected to a collar which is slidably mounted on the pipe and forms part of the pivotable mounting assembly for the movable jaw. Air is supplied to the pneumatic cylinder through a handle connected to the pipe, under the control of an actuator valve mounted on the handle, to provide movement of the movable jaw. 3 figs

  11. Building energy analysis tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brackney, Larry; Parker, Andrew; Long, Nicholas; Metzger, Ian; Dean, Jesse; Lisell, Lars

    2016-04-12

    A building energy analysis system includes a building component library configured to store a plurality of building components, a modeling tool configured to access the building component library and create a building model of a building under analysis using building spatial data and using selected building components of the plurality of building components stored in the building component library, a building analysis engine configured to operate the building model and generate a baseline energy model of the building under analysis and further configured to apply one or more energy conservation measures to the baseline energy model in order to generate one or more corresponding optimized energy models, and a recommendation tool configured to assess the one or more optimized energy models against the baseline energy model and generate recommendations for substitute building components or modifications.

  12. Remote vehicle survey tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, G.A.; Burks, B.L.; Kress, R.L.; Wagner, D.G.; Ward, C.R.

    1993-01-01

    The Remote Vehicle Survey Tool (RVS7) is a color graphical display tool for viewing remotely acquired scientific data. The RVST displays the data in the form of a color two-dimensional world model map. The world model map allows movement of the remote vehicle to be tracked by the operator and the data from sensors to be graphically depicted in the interface. Linear and logarithmic meters, dual channel oscilloscopes, and directional compasses are used to display sensor information. The RVST is user-configurable by the use of ASCII text files. The operator can configure the RVST to work with any remote data acquisition system and teleoperated or autonomous vehicle. The modular design of the RVST and its ability to be quickly configured for varying system requirements make the RVST ideal for remote scientific data display in all environmental restoration and waste management programs

  13. Pneumatic soil removal tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhaus, John E.

    1992-01-01

    A soil removal tool is provided for removing radioactive soil, rock and other debris from the bottom of an excavation, while permitting the operator to be located outside of a containment for that excavation. The tool includes a fixed jaw, secured to one end of an elongate pipe, which cooperates with a movable jaw pivotably mounted on the pipe. Movement of the movable jaw is controlled by a pneumatic cylinder mounted on the pipe. The actuator rod of the pneumatic cylinder is connected to a collar which is slidably mounted on the pipe and forms part of the pivotable mounting assembly for the movable jaw. Air is supplied to the pneumatic cylinder through a handle connected to the pipe, under the control of an actuator valve mounted on the handle, to provide movement of the movable jaw.

  14. Understanding the Intrinsic Electrochemistry of Ni-Rich Layered Cathodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallis, Shawn

    The demand for energy is continually increasing overtime and the key to meeting future demand in a sustainable way is with energy storage. Li-ion batteries employing layered transition metal oxide cathodes are one of the most technologically important energy storage technologies. However, current Li-ion batteries are unable to access their full theoretical capacity and suffer from performance limiting degradation over time partially originating from the cathode and partially from the interface with the electrolyte. Understanding the fundamental limitations of layered transition metal oxide cathodes requires a complete understanding of the surface and bulk of the materials in their most delithiated state. In this thesis, we employ LiNi0.8Co0.15Al 0.05O2 (NCA) as a model system for Ni-rich layered oxide cathodes. Unlike its parent compound, LiCoO2, NCA is capable of high states of delithiation with minimal structural transitions. Furthermore, commercially available NCA has little to no transition metals in the Li layer. X-ray spectroscopies are an ideal tool for studying cathodes at high states of delithiation due their elemental selectivity, range of probing depths, and sensitivity to both chemical and electronic state information. The oxidation state of the transition metals at the surface can be probed via X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) while both bulk and surface oxidation states as well as changes in metal oxygen bonding can be probed using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). Using X-ray spectroscopy in tandem with electrochemical, transport and microscopy measurements of the same materials, the impedance growth with increasing delithiation was correlated with the formation of a disordered NiO phase on the surface of NCA which was precipitated by the release of oxygen. Furthermore, the surface degradation was strongly impacted by the type of Li salt used in the electrolyte, with the standard commercial salt LiPF6 suffering from exothermic decomposition

  15. Communication tools in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowper, D.

    1995-01-01

    This document deals with the means and tools that are used for communicating with elected representatives. First, messages need to be simple, few in number and accurate. It is also advised to seek a first briefing because there is some information to be given, and not because some help is needed. On top of that, contacts should be made often enough to assure of a continued interest. (TEC)

  16. The GEDI Performance Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, S.; Armston, J.; Tang, H.; Patterson, P. L.; Healey, S. P.; Marselis, S.; Duncanson, L.; Hofton, M. A.; Kellner, J. R.; Luthcke, S. B.; Sun, X.; Blair, J. B.; Dubayah, R.

    2017-12-01

    NASA's Global Ecosystem Dynamics Investigation will mount a multi-track, full-waveform lidar on the International Space Station (ISS) that is optimised for the measurement of forest canopy height and structure. GEDI will use ten laser tracks, two 10 mJ "power beams" and eight 5 mJ "coverage beams" to produce global (51.5oS to 51.5oN) maps of above ground biomass (AGB), canopy height, vegetation structure and other biophysical parameters. The mission has a requirement to generate a 1 km AGB map with 80% of pixels with ≤ 20% standard error or 20 Mg·ha-1, whichever is greater. To assess performance and compare to mission requirements, an end-to-end simulator has been developed. The simulator brings together tools to propagate the effects of measurement and sampling error on GEDI data products. The simulator allows us to evaluate the impact of instrument performance, ISS orbits, processing algorithms and losses of data that may occur due to clouds, snow, leaf-off conditions, and areas with an insufficient signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). By evaluating the consequences of operational decisions on GEDI data products, this tool provides a quantitative framework for decision-making and mission planning. Here we demonstrate the performance tool by using it to evaluate the trade-off between measurement and sampling error on the 1 km AGB data product. Results demonstrate that the use of coverage beams during the day (lowest GEDI SNR case) over very dense forests (>95% canopy cover) will result in some measurement bias. Omitting these low SNR cases increased the sampling error. Through this an SNR threshold for a given expected canopy cover can be set. The other applications of the performance tool are also discussed, such as assessing the impact of decisions made in the AGB modelling and signal processing stages on the accuracy of final data products.

  17. Program Management Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawadiak, Yuri; Wong, Alan; Maluf, David; Bell, David; Gurram, Mohana; Tran, Khai Peter; Hsu, Jennifer; Yagi, Kenji; Patel, Hemil

    2007-01-01

    The Program Management Tool (PMT) is a comprehensive, Web-enabled business intelligence software tool for assisting program and project managers within NASA enterprises in gathering, comprehending, and disseminating information on the progress of their programs and projects. The PMT provides planning and management support for implementing NASA programmatic and project management processes and requirements. It provides an online environment for program and line management to develop, communicate, and manage their programs, projects, and tasks in a comprehensive tool suite. The information managed by use of the PMT can include monthly reports as well as data on goals, deliverables, milestones, business processes, personnel, task plans, monthly reports, and budgetary allocations. The PMT provides an intuitive and enhanced Web interface to automate the tedious process of gathering and sharing monthly progress reports, task plans, financial data, and other information on project resources based on technical, schedule, budget, and management criteria and merits. The PMT is consistent with the latest Web standards and software practices, including the use of Extensible Markup Language (XML) for exchanging data and the WebDAV (Web Distributed Authoring and Versioning) protocol for collaborative management of documents. The PMT provides graphical displays of resource allocations in the form of bar and pie charts using Microsoft Excel Visual Basic for Application (VBA) libraries. The PMT has an extensible architecture that enables integration of PMT with other strategic-information software systems, including, for example, the Erasmus reporting system, now part of the NASA Integrated Enterprise Management Program (IEMP) tool suite, at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The PMT data architecture provides automated and extensive software interfaces and reports to various strategic information systems to eliminate duplicative human entries and minimize data integrity

  18. Social Data Analytics Tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, Abid; Vatrapu, Ravi

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the design, development and demonstrative case studies of the Social Data Analytics Tool, SODATO. Adopting Action Design Framework [1], the objective of SODATO [2] is to collect, store, analyze, and report big social data emanating from the social media engagement of and social...... media conversations about organizations. We report and discuss results from two demonstrative case studies that were conducted using SODATO and conclude with implications and future work....

  19. MICROCONTROLLER PIN CONFIGURATION TOOL

    OpenAIRE

    Bhaskar Joshi; F. Mohammed Rizwan; Dr. Rajashree Shettar

    2012-01-01

    Configuring the micro controller with large number of pins is tedious. Latest Infine on microcontroller contains more than 200 pins and each pin has classes of signals. Therefore the complexity of the microcontroller is growing. It evolves looking into thousands of pages of user manual. For a user it will take days to configure the microcontroller with the peripherals. We need an automated tool to configure the microcontroller so that the user can configure the microcontroller without having ...

  20. The richness and reach of Wikinomics: Is the free web-based encyclopedia Wikipedia only for the rich countries?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rask, Morten

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, a model of the patterns of correlation in Wikipedia, reach and richness, lays the foundation for studying whether or not the free web-based encyclopedia Wikipedia is only for developed countries. Based upon data from 12 different Wikipedia language editions, we find that the central...... structural effect is on the level of human development in the current country. In other words, Wikipedia is in general, more for rich countries than for less developed countries. It is suggested that policy makers make investments in increasing the general level of literacy, education, and standard of living...

  1. Developing Healthcare Data Analytics APPs with Open Data Science Tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Bibo; Sun, Wen; Yu, Yiqin; Xie, Guotong

    2017-01-01

    Recent advances in big data analytics provide more flexible, efficient, and open tools for researchers to gain insight from healthcare data. Whilst many tools require researchers to develop programs with programming languages like Python, R and so on, which is not a skill set grasped by many researchers in the healthcare data analytics area. To make data science more approachable, we explored existing tools and developed a practice that can help data scientists convert existing analytics pipelines to user-friendly analytics APPs with rich interactions and features of real-time analysis. With this practice, data scientists can develop customized analytics pipelines as APPs in Jupyter Notebook and disseminate them to other researchers easily, and researchers can benefit from the shared notebook to perform analysis tasks or reproduce research results much more easily.

  2. Fluid sampling tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, A.R.; Johnston, R.G.; Martinez, R.K.

    1999-05-25

    A fluid sampling tool is described for sampling fluid from a container. The tool has a fluid collecting portion which is drilled into the container wall, thereby affixing it to the wall. The tool may have a fluid extracting section which withdraws fluid collected by the fluid collecting section. The fluid collecting section has a fluted shank with an end configured to drill a hole into a container wall. The shank has a threaded portion for tapping the borehole. The shank is threadably engaged to a cylindrical housing having an inner axial passageway sealed at one end by a septum. A flexible member having a cylindrical portion and a bulbous portion is provided. The housing can be slid into an inner axial passageway in the cylindrical portion and sealed to the flexible member. The bulbous portion has an outer lip defining an opening. The housing is clamped into the chuck of a drill, the lip of the bulbous section is pressed against a container wall until the shank touches the wall, and the user operates the drill. Wall shavings (kerf) are confined in a chamber formed in the bulbous section as it folds when the shank advances inside the container. After sufficient advancement of the shank, an o-ring makes a seal with the container wall. 6 figs.

  3. Frequency Response Analysis Tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Etingov, Pavel V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kosterev, Dmitry [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Dai, T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Frequency response has received a lot of attention in recent years at the national level, which culminated in the development and approval of North American Electricity Reliability Corporation (NERC) BAL-003-1 Frequency Response and Frequency Bias Setting Reliability Standard. This report is prepared to describe the details of the work conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in collaboration with the Bonneville Power Administration and Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) Joint Synchronized Information Subcommittee (JSIS) to develop a frequency response analysis tool (FRAT). The document provides the details on the methodology and main features of the FRAT. The tool manages the database of under-frequency events and calculates the frequency response baseline. Frequency response calculations are consistent with frequency response measure (FRM) in NERC BAL-003-1 for an interconnection and balancing authority. The FRAT can use both phasor measurement unit (PMU) data, where available, and supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) data. The tool is also capable of automatically generating NERC Frequency Response Survey (FRS) forms required by BAL-003-1 Standard.

  4. Dynamic Contingency Analysis Tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-01-14

    The Dynamic Contingency Analysis Tool (DCAT) is an open-platform and publicly available methodology to help develop applications that aim to improve the capabilities of power system planning engineers to assess the impact and likelihood of extreme contingencies and potential cascading events across their systems and interconnections. Outputs from the DCAT will help find mitigation solutions to reduce the risk of cascading outages in technically sound and effective ways. The current prototype DCAT implementation has been developed as a Python code that accesses the simulation functions of the Siemens PSS/E planning tool (PSS/E). It has the following features: It uses a hybrid dynamic and steady-state approach to simulating the cascading outage sequences that includes fast dynamic and slower steady-state events. It integrates dynamic models with protection scheme models for generation, transmission, and load. It models special protection systems (SPSs)/remedial action schemes (RASs) and automatic and manual corrective actions. Overall, the DCAT attempts to bridge multiple gaps in cascading-outage analysis in a single, unique prototype tool capable of automatically simulating and analyzing cascading sequences in real systems using multiprocessor computers.While the DCAT has been implemented using PSS/E in Phase I of the study, other commercial software packages with similar capabilities can be used within the DCAT framework.

  5. Fluid sampling tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Anthony R.; Johnston, Roger G.; Martinez, Ronald K.

    1999-05-25

    A fluid sampling tool for sampling fluid from a container. The tool has a fluid collecting portion which is drilled into the container wall, thereby affixing it to the wall. The tool may have a fluid extracting section which withdraws fluid collected by the fluid collecting section. The fluid collecting section has a fluted shank with an end configured to drill a hole into a container wall. The shank has a threaded portion for tapping the borehole. The shank is threadably engaged to a cylindrical housing having an inner axial passageway sealed at one end by a septum. A flexible member having a cylindrical portion and a bulbous portion is provided. The housing can be slid into an inner axial passageway in the cylindrical portion and sealed to the flexible member. The bulbous portion has an outer lip defining an opening. The housing is clamped into the chuck of a drill, the lip of the bulbous section is pressed against a container wall until the shank touches the wall, and the user operates the drill. Wall shavings (kerf) are confined in a chamber formed in the bulbous section as it folds when the shank advances inside the container. After sufficient advancement of the shank, an o-ring makes a seal with the container wall.

  6. Patterns of species richness in sandy beaches of South America ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The middle shore is primarily occupied by cirolanids and bivalves, and hippid crabs, bivalves and amphipods dominate the lower beach. Generally, species richness increases from upper to lower beach levels. Studies carried out on exposed sandy beaches of south-central Chile (ca. 40°S) show that different beach states ...

  7. Ant species richness of fynbos and forest ecosystems in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ant fauna in fynbos and forest habitats in the southern Cape are compared. There is no significant difference in ant species richness between the two undisturbed habitat types, and the only two species common to both are Acantholepis capensis and Camponotus maculatus. The degree of Hakea sericea infestation in ...

  8. Relationships between Plant Biomass and Species Richness under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted in a montane grassland of Kokosa District, West Arsi Zone of Oromia Region, southern Ethiopia. The objective of the study was to investigate the relationships between aboveground plant biomass and species richness in three farming systems and four grazing management systems. A total of 180 ...

  9. Livestock grazing has minimal effect on the species richness and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Succulent Karoo, one of two arid biodiversity hotspots in the world, is known for its high plant species richness, but little is known about the influence of topography and how it mediates the potentially deleterious effects of grazing. Changes in vegetation species composition, cover and species diversity were examined ...

  10. Language-Rich Early Childhood Classroom: Simple but Powerful Beginnings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Erin Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    This article highlights research exploring the benefits of small-group storytelling as a way to promote rich language in early childhood classrooms. Using the storytelling of children from a preschool classroom serving lower SES children, the author explores the collaborative affordances of story circles. Results show that small-group storytelling…

  11. Plant species richness regulates soil respiration through changes in productivity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tavares Correa Dias, A.; van Ruijven, J.; Berendse, F.

    2010-01-01

    Soil respiration is an important pathway of the C cycle. However, it is still poorly understood how changes in plant community diversity can affect this ecosystem process. Here we used a long-term experiment consisting of a gradient of grassland plant species richness to test for effects of

  12. High-spin structure of neutron-rich Dy isotopes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Neutron-rich Dy isotopes; high-spin states; g-factors; cranked HFB theory. ... for 164Dy marking a clear separation in the behaviour as a function of neutron ... cipal x-axis as the cranking axis) in this mass region we have planned to make a sys-.

  13. Channel perceptions and usage: beyond media richness factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieterson, Willem Jan; Teerling, Marije; Ebbers, Wolfgang E.; Wimmer, Maria A.; Scholl, Hans J.; Ferro, Enrico

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we asses how service channel perceptions affect channel choice and channel usage. Building on communication theories, such as the Media Richness Theory, we explore how different channel characteristics are perceived by citizens in a Dutch governmental service chain. The results of our

  14. Rich Representations with Exposed Semantics for Deep Visual Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    of a relationship between visual recognition, associative processing, and episodic memory and provides important clues into the neural mechanism...provides critical evidence of a relationship between visual recognition, associative processing, and episodic memory and provides important clues into...From - To) ;run.- ~01~ Final!Technical 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Sa. CONTRACT NUMBER Rich Representations with Exposed Semantics for Deep Visual

  15. Plant species richness regulates soil respiration through changes in productivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dias, A.A.; Ruijven, van J.; Berendse, F.

    2010-01-01

    Soil respiration is an important pathway of the C cycle. However, it is still poorly understood how changes in plant community diversity can affect this ecosystem process. Here we used a long-term experiment consisting of a gradient of grassland plant species richness to test for effects of

  16. Ultrascale collaborative visualization using a display-rich global cyberinfrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Byungil; Leigh, Jason; Johnson, Andrew; Renambot, Luc; Brown, Maxine; Jagodic, Ratko; Nam, Sungwon; Hur, Hyejung

    2010-01-01

    The scalable adaptive graphics environment (SAGE) is high-performance graphics middleware for ultrascale collaborative visualization using a display-rich global cyberinfrastructure. Dozens of sites worldwide use this cyberinfrastructure middleware, which connects high-performance-computing resources over high-speed networks to distributed ultraresolution displays.

  17. Designing Interaction Spaces for Rich Internet Applications with UML

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolog, Peter; Stage, Jan

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new method for designing rich internet applications. The design process uses results from an object-oriented analysis and employs interaction spaces as the basic abstraction mechanism. State diagrams are employed as refinements of interaction spaces and task models...

  18. Determining Data Entry Points For Javascript-rich Web applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Maksimovich Noseevich

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted the task of automatic crawling of javascript-rich web applications for data entry points. A new technique is proposed, which combines dynamic and static javascript code analysis. Testing the proposed technique on real world web applications such as Twitter, Youtube and Reddit has confirmed its applicability for analysis of modern web applications.

  19. Species Richness and Diversity Reveal that Human-Modified ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Family diversity and richness showed no significant differences across the sites. The spider species consisted of primarily three functional groups: ground wanderers, web builders and plant wanderers, and showed no within-group differences in abundance between sites. Similarity index between the study sites revealed a ...

  20. Controlling the prion propensity of glutamine/asparagine-rich proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Kacy R; Ross, Eric D

    2015-01-01

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae can harbor a number of distinct prions. Most of the yeast prion proteins contain a glutamine/asparagine (Q/N) rich region that drives prion formation. Prion-like domains, defined as regions with high compositional similarity to yeast prion domains, are common in eukaryotic proteomes, and mutations in various human proteins containing prion-like domains have been linked to degenerative diseases, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Here, we discuss a recent study in which we utilized two strategies to generate prion activity in non-prion Q/N-rich domains. First, we made targeted mutations in four non-prion Q/N-rich domains, replacing predicted prion-inhibiting amino acids with prion-promoting amino acids. All four mutants formed foci when expressed in yeast, and two acquired bona fide prion activity. Prion activity could be generated with as few as two mutations, suggesting that many non-prion Q/N-rich proteins may be just a small number of mutations from acquiring aggregation or prion activity. Second, we created tandem repeats of short prion-prone segments, and observed length-dependent prion activity. These studies demonstrate the considerable progress that has been made in understanding the sequence basis for aggregation of prion and prion-like domains, and suggest possible mechanisms by which new prion domains could evolve.

  1. Winters, summers, and destructive leadership cultures in rich regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Vliert, Evert; Matthiesen, Stig Berge; Gangsøy, Renathe; Landro, Adeline Berntsen; Einarsen, Stale

    Van de Vliert's (2009) climato-economic theory of culture proposes that the impact of climatic demands on culture is influenced by wealth resources. In rich regions, much cold and heat in conjunction with relatively little wealth (undermatching) and little cold and heat in conjunction with

  2. H2O Formation in C-rich AGB Winds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lombaert, R.; Decin, L.; Royer, P.; de Koter, A.; Cox, N.L.J.; De Ridder, J.; Khouri, T.; Agúndez, M.; Blommaert, J.A.D.L.; Gernicharo, J.; González-Alfonso, E.; Groenewegen, M.A.T.; Kerschbaum, F.; Neufeld, D.; Vandenbussche, B.; Waelkens, C.

    2015-01-01

    The Herschel detection of warm H2O vapor emission from C-rich winds of AGB stars challenges the current understanding of circumstellar chemistry. Two mechanisms have been invoked to explain warm H2O formation. In the first, penetration of UV interstellar radiation through a clumpy circumstellar

  3. Pollinator species richness: Are the declines slowing down?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom J. M. Van Dooren

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Changes in pollinator abundances and diversity are of major concern. A recent study inferred that pollinator species richnesses are decreasing more slowly in recent decades in several taxa and European countries. A more careful interpretation of these results reveals that this conclusion cannot be drawn and that we can only infer that declines decelerate for bees (Anthophila in the Netherlands.

  4. Organic richness and gas generation potential of Permian Barren

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The organic geochemistry of shales in terms of its organic richness, hydrocarbon source potential, thermal maturity, depositional environment, etc., are essential stipulations for shale gas resources assessment. In this study, a total of 32 core samples of Permian Barren Measures from four boreholes in Raniganj field of ...

  5. Small-Group Discourse: Establishing a Communication-Rich Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quebec Fuentes, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Establishing a communication-rich classroom can be difficult. This article describes the process and findings of a practitioner action research study addressing the question of how teachers can interact with their students while they are working in groups to encourage and enhance student-to-student communication. Recommended research-based teacher…

  6. Knowledge and attitude of the community towards rich sources of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of rich sources of vitamin A and iron are paramount, but their utilization and application are unknown. This study therefore, is intended to assess knowledge and attitude of the community to curb down the existing traditional misconceptions and to promote integrated prevention of malnutrition. A cross sectional ...

  7. Ammonium transformation in a nitrogen-rich tidal freshwater marsh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gribsholt, B.; Andersson, M.; Boschker, H.T.S.

    2006-01-01

    The fate and transport of watershed-derived ammonium in a tidal freshwater marsh fringing the nutrient rich Scheldt River, Belgium, was quantified in a whole ecosystem 15N labeling experiment. In late summer (September) we added 15N-NH4+ to the flood water entering a 3477 m2 tidal freshwater marsh...

  8. Information richness in construction projects: A critical social theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adriaanse, Adriaan Maria; Voordijk, Johannes T.; Greenwood, David

    2002-01-01

    Two important factors influencing the communication in construction projects are the interests of the people involved and the language spoken by the people involved. The objective of the paper is to analyse these factors by using recent insights in the information richness theory. The critical

  9. Computational studies on energetic properties of nitrogen-rich ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Computational studies on energetic properties of nitrogen-rich energetic materials with ditetrazoles. LI XIAO-HONGa,b,∗ and ZHANG RUI-ZHOUa. aCollege of Physics and Engineering, Henan University of Science and Technology, Luoyang 471 003, China. bLuoyang Key Laboratory of Photoelectric Functional Materials, ...

  10. Trends in the study of light proton rich nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moltz, D.M.; Aysto, J.; Hotchkis, M.A.C.; Cerny, J.

    1985-09-01

    Recent work in light proton-rich nuclei is reviewed. Evidence for the first T/sub z/ = -5/2 nuclide, 35 Ca, is presented. The mechanisms of two-proton emission following beta-decay is investigated. Future directions in this field are discussed. 23 refs., 5 figs

  11. Automatically annotating web pages using Google Rich Snippets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogenboom, F.P.; Frasincar, F.; Vandic, D.; Meer, van der J.; Boon, F.; Kaymak, U.

    2011-01-01

    We propose the Automatic Review Recognition and annO- tation of Web pages (ARROW) framework, a framework for Web page review identification and annotation using RDFa Google Rich Snippets. The ARROW framework consists of four steps: hotspot identification, subjectivity analysis, in- formation

  12. Monitoring of absolute mirror alignment at COMPASS RICH-1 detector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alexeev, M.; Birsa, R.; Bradamante, F.; Bressan, A.; Chiosso, M.; Ciliberti, P.; Dalla Torre, S.; Denisov, O.; Duic, V.; Ferrero, A.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Gayde, J. Ch; Giorgi, M.; Gobbo, B.; Levorato, S.; Maggiora, A.; Martin, A.; Menon, G.; Panzieri, D.; Pesaro, G.; Polak, J.; Rocco, E.; Sbrizzai, G.; Schiavon, P.; Slunecka, M.; Sozzi, F.; Steiger, L.; Sulc, M.; Takekawa, S.; Tessarotto, F.

    2014-01-01

    The gaseous COMPASS RICH-1 detector uses two spherical mirror surfaces, segmented into 116 individual mirrors, to focus the Cherenkov photons onto the detector plane. Any mirror misalignment directly affects the detector resolution. The on-line Continuous Line Alignment and Monitoring (CLAM)

  13. Fission decay properties of ultra neutron-rich uranium isotopes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    in the chain of neutron-rich uranium isotopes is examined here. The neutron ... mean field theory, this nucleus is shown to undergo exotic decay mode of thermal neu- .... For 250U with a fission barrier of 4.3 MeV [5], we obtain the value of.

  14. Preparing Mathematics Teachers for Technology-Rich Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturdivant, Rodney X.; Dunham, Penelope; Jardine, Richard

    2009-01-01

    This article describes key elements for faculty development programs to prepare mathematics teachers for technology-rich environments. We offer practical examples from our experiences in teaching mathematics with technology and in teaching others to incorporate technology-based pedagogies. We address challenges faced by faculty using technology,…

  15. Growth and alteration of uranium-rich microlite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giere, R.; Swope, R. J.; Buck, E. C.; Guggenheim, R.; Mathys, D.; Reusser, E.

    2000-01-01

    Uranium-rich microlite, a pyrochlore-group mineral, occurs in 440 Ma old lithium pegmatites of the Mozambique Belt in East Africa. Microlite exhibits a pronounced growth zoning, with a U-free core surrounded by a U-rich rim (UO 2 up to 17 wt.%). The core exhibits conjugate sets of straight cracks (cleavage planes) which provided pathways for a late-stage U-enriched pegmatitic fluid which interacted with the U-free microlite to produce a distinct U enrichment along the cracks and led to the formation of the U-rich rim. Following the stage of U incorporation into microlite, a second generation of hydrothermal fluids deposited mica along the cleavage planes. Subsequent to these two hydrothermal stages, the host rock was uplifted and subjected to intense low-temperature alteration during which Na, Ca and F were leached from the microlite crystals. This alteration also led to a hydration of microlite, but there is no evidence of U loss. These low-temperature alteration effects were only observed in the U-rich rim which is characterized by a large number of irregular cracks which are most probably the result of metamictization, as indicated by electron diffraction images and powder X-ray patterns. The pyrochlore-group minerals provide excellent natural analogues for pyrochlore-based nuclear waste forms, because samples of variable age and with high actinide contents are available

  16. Evaluation of Antioxidant and Antifungal Activities of Polyphenol-rich ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the antioxidant and antifungal activities of polyphenol-rich extracts of the dried fruit pulp of Garcinia pedunculata (GP) and Garcinia morella (GM) to determine their traditional claims of therapeutic activity against certain diseases. Methods: Analysis of total phenolic (TP) and flavonoid (TF) contents of the ...

  17. Chemical detection of cysteine-rich circular petides in selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cysteine-rich circular peptides (CRCs) comprise a large family of gene encoded and low molecular weight polypeptides that has recently engaged the attention of scientists. This class of peptides exhibit a continuous circular configuration and a cystine knot backbone, which defines their resilient nature-directed structural ...

  18. Recent results on neutron rich tin isotopes by laser spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Roussière, B; Crawford, J E; Essabaa, S; Fedosseev, V; Geithner, W; Genevey, J; Girod, M; Huber, G; Horn, R; Kappertz, S; Lassen, J; Le Blanc, F; Lee, J K P; Le Scornet, G; Lettry, Jacques; Mishin, V I; Neugart, R; Obert, J; Oms, J; Ouchrif, A; Peru, S; Pinard, J; Ravn, H L; Sauvage, J; Verney, D

    2001-01-01

    Laser spectroscopy measurements have been performed on neutron rich tin isotopes using the COMPLIS experimental setup. The nuclear charge radii of the even-even isotopes from A=108 to 132 are compared to the results of macroscopic and microscopic calculations. The improvements and optimizations needed to perform the isotope shift measurement on $^{134}$Sn are presented.

  19. Multiscale perspectives of species richness in East Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Said, M.

    2003-01-01

    This dissertation describes and analyses animal species richness in East Africa from a multi-scale perspective. We studied diversity patterns at sub-continental, national and sub-national level. The study demonstrated that species diversity patterns were scale-dependent. Diversity patterns varied

  20. Intraplate mantle oxidation by volatile-rich silicic magmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Audrey M.; Médard, Etienne; Righter, Kevin; Lanzirotti, Antonio

    2017-11-01

    The upper subcontinental lithospheric mantle below the French Massif Central is more oxidized than the average continental lithosphere, although the origin of this anomaly remains unknown. Using iron oxidation analysis in clinopyroxene, oxybarometry, and melt inclusions in mantle xenoliths, we show that widespread infiltration of volatile (HCSO)-rich silicic melts played a major role in this oxidation. We propose the first comprehensive model of magmatism and mantle oxidation at an intraplate setting. Two oxidizing events occurred: (1) a 365–286 Ma old magmatic episode that produced alkaline vaugnerites, potassic lamprophyres, and K-rich calc-alkaline granitoids, related to the N–S Rhenohercynian subduction, and (2) < 30 Ma old magmatism related to W–E extension, producing carbonatites and hydrous potassic trachytes. These melts were capable of locally increasing the subcontinental lithospheric mantle fO2 to FMQ + 2.4. Both events originate from the melting of a metasomatized lithosphere containing carbonate + phlogopite ± amphibole. The persistence of this volatile-rich lithospheric source implies the potential for new episodes of volatile-rich magmatism. Similarities with worldwide magmatism also show that the importance of volatiles and the oxidation of the mantle in intraplate regions is underestimated.

  1. Farewell to a Big and Rich Nuclear Power Club?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, A.

    2001-01-01

    For the last few decades of the 20th, century, we have seen a large number of big nuclear power plants being built and operated in a few rich countries like the United States, France, Germany, the United Kingdom, and Japan. They have standardized the 1000 MWe-type light water reactors, which have the actual generating capacity of more than 1100 MW. (author)

  2. Integrative modelling reveals mechanisms linking productivity and plant species richness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, James B; Anderson, T Michael; Seabloom, Eric W; Borer, Elizabeth T; Adler, Peter B; Harpole, W Stanley; Hautier, Yann; Hillebrand, Helmut; Lind, Eric M; Pärtel, Meelis; Bakker, Jonathan D; Buckley, Yvonne M; Crawley, Michael J; Damschen, Ellen I; Davies, Kendi F; Fay, Philip A; Firn, Jennifer; Gruner, Daniel S; Hector, Andy; Knops, Johannes M H; MacDougall, Andrew S; Melbourne, Brett A; Morgan, John W; Orrock, John L; Prober, Suzanne M; Smith, Melinda D

    2016-01-21

    How ecosystem productivity and species richness are interrelated is one of the most debated subjects in the history of ecology. Decades of intensive study have yet to discern the actual mechanisms behind observed global patterns. Here, by integrating the predictions from multiple theories into a single model and using data from 1,126 grassland plots spanning five continents, we detect the clear signals of numerous underlying mechanisms linking productivity and richness. We find that an integrative model has substantially higher explanatory power than traditional bivariate analyses. In addition, the specific results unveil several surprising findings that conflict with classical models. These include the isolation of a strong and consistent enhancement of productivity by richness, an effect in striking contrast with superficial data patterns. Also revealed is a consistent importance of competition across the full range of productivity values, in direct conflict with some (but not all) proposed models. The promotion of local richness by macroecological gradients in climatic favourability, generally seen as a competing hypothesis, is also found to be important in our analysis. The results demonstrate that an integrative modelling approach leads to a major advance in our ability to discern the underlying processes operating in ecological systems.

  3. The Impact of Corporate Social Responsibility Information Richness on Trust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafeah Mat Saat

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR is a concept that describes the relationship between company  and society. The way a company portrays corporate ethics and social initiatives can evoke strong positive reactions among consumers. The emergence of Internet creates a new communicating culture and gives an idea for a company to deliver their CSR message. Applying Media Richness Theory (MRT in CSR message is believed could facilitate trust among consumer. Thus, this study aims to examine the impact of different level of CSR information richness with consumers trust towards the company. This study divides trust into three components that are competence, benevolence and integrity. An experimental design consisting of different levels of CSR information is selected (rich CSR information, lean CSR information and no CSR information as a control condition. The finding shows that rich CSR information has impacted on competence and integrity but not on benevolence. Result from this study is believed can assist companies in setting up their CSR communicating strategy in engaging consumers’ trust.

  4. Development of an alignment system for the CBM rich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoehne, Claudia; Mahmoud, Tariq; Bendarouach, Jordan [Justus Liebig University, Giessen (Germany); Collaboration: CBM-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    The Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment at the future FAIR complex will investigate the phase diagram of strongly interacting matter at high baryon density and moderate temperatures in A+A collisions from 4-35 AGeV. One of the key detector components required for the CBM physics program is the RICH detector, which is developed for efficient and clean electron identification and pion suppression. Main detector components are a CO{sub 2} gaseous radiator, MAPMT or MCP photo-detectors and spherical glass mirror tiles, used as focusing elements, with spectral reflectivity down to the UV range. An important aspect to guarantee a stable operation of the RICH detector is the alignment and continuous monitor of the mirrors. CLAM (Continuous Line Alignment Monitoring), an alignment procedure developed by the COMPASS experiment, is planned to be used also for the RICH mirror system. A smaller-scale version has been implemented in the CBM RICH prototype detector and tested at the Cern PS/T9 beamline in November 2014. Using a grid and target dots made of retro-reflective material, it is possible to align the mirrors and monitor their displacements over time by analyzing and applying mathematical calculations on photographic images of the grid and targets reflected on the mirrors. The concept, first data and results of image processing are presented and discussed.

  5. Process for producing uranium oxide rich compositions from uranium hexafluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeHollander, W.R.; Fenimore, C.P.

    1978-01-01

    Conversion of gaseous uranium hexafluoride to a uranium dioxide rich composition in the presence of an active flame in a reactor defining a reaction zone is achieved by separately introducing a first gaseous reactant comprising a mixture of uranium hexafluoride and a reducing carrier gas, and a second gaseous reactant comprising an oxygen-containing gas. The reactants are separated by a shielding gas as they are introduced to the reaction zone. The shielding gas temporarily separates the gaseous reactants and temporarily prevents substantial mixing and reacting of the gaseous reactants. The flame occurring in the reaction zone is maintained away from contact with the inlet introducing the mixture to the reaction zone. After suitable treatment, the uranium dioxide rich composition is capable of being fabricated into bodies of desired configuration for loading into nuclear fuel rods. Alternatively, an oxygen-containing gas as a third gaseous reactant is introduced when the uranium hexafluoride conversion to the uranium dioxide rich composition is substantially complete. This results in oxidizing the uranium dioxide rich composition to a higher oxide of uranium with conversion of any residual reducing gas to its oxidized form

  6. Haloes and clustering in light, neutron-rich nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orr, N.A.

    2001-10-01

    Clustering is a relatively widespread phenomenon which takes on many guises across the nuclear landscape. Selected topics concerning the study of halo systems and clustering in light, neutron-rich nuclei are discussed here through illustrative examples taken from the Be isotopic chain. (author)

  7. Hot-Fire Test Results of Liquid Oxygen/RP-2 Multi-Element Oxidizer-Rich Preburners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protz, C. S.; Garcia, C. P.; Casiano, M. J.; Parton, J. A.; Hulka, J. R.

    2016-01-01

    As part of the Combustion Stability Tool Development project funded by the Air Force Space and Missile Systems Center, the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center was contracted to assemble and hot-fire test a multi-element integrated test article demonstrating combustion characteristics of an oxygen/hydrocarbon propellant oxidizer-rich staged-combustion engine thrust chamber. Such a test article simulates flow through the main injectors of oxygen/kerosene oxidizer-rich staged combustion engines such as the Russian RD-180 or NK-33 engines, or future U.S.-built engine systems such as the Aerojet-Rocketdyne AR-1 engine or the Hydrocarbon Boost program demonstration engine. To supply the oxidizer-rich combustion products to the main injector of the integrated test article, existing subscale preburner injectors from a previous NASA-funded oxidizer-rich staged combustion engine development program were utilized. For the integrated test article, existing and newly designed and fabricated inter-connecting hot gas duct hardware were used to supply the oxidizer-rich combustion products to the oxidizer circuit of the main injector of the thrust chamber. However, before one of the preburners was used in the integrated test article, it was first hot-fire tested at length to prove it could provide the hot exhaust gas mean temperature, thermal uniformity and combustion stability necessary to perform in the integrated test article experiment. This paper presents results from hot-fire testing of several preburner injectors in a representative combustion chamber with a sonic throat. Hydraulic, combustion performance, exhaust gas thermal uniformity, and combustion stability data are presented. Results from combustion stability modeling of these test results are described in a companion paper at this JANNAF conference, while hot-fire test results of the preburner injector in the integrated test article are described in another companion paper.

  8. Pectin-rich biomass as feedstock for fuel ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Meredith C; Doran-Peterson, Joy

    2012-08-01

    The USA has proposed that 30 % of liquid transportation fuel be produced from renewable resources by 2030 (Perlack and Stokes 2011). It will be impossible to reach this goal using corn kernel-based ethanol alone. Pectin-rich biomass, an under-utilized waste product of the sugar and juice industry, can augment US ethanol supplies by capitalizing on this already established feedstock. Currently, pectin-rich biomass is sold (at low value) as animal feed. This review focuses on the three most studied types of pectin-rich biomass: sugar beet pulp, citrus waste and apple pomace. Fermentations of these materials have been conducted with a variety of ethanologens, including yeasts and bacteria. Escherichia coli can ferment a wide range of sugars including galacturonic acid, the primary component of pectin. However, the mixed acid metabolism of E. coli can produce unwanted side products. Saccharomyces cerevisiae cannot naturally ferment galacturonic acid nor pentose sugars but has a homoethanol pathway. Erwinia chrysanthemi is capable of degrading many of the cell wall components of pectin-rich materials, including pectin. Klebsiella oxytoca can metabolize a diverse array of sugars including cellobiose, one degradation product of cellulose. However, both E. chrysanthemi and K. oxytoca produce side products during fermentation, similar to E. coli. Using pectin-rich residues from industrial processes is beneficial because the material is already collected and partially pretreated to facilitate enzymatic deconstruction of the plant cell walls. Using biomass already produced for other purposes is an attractive practice because fewer greenhouse gases (GHG) will be anticipated from land-use changes.

  9. Pectin-rich biomass as feedstock for fuel ethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, Meredith C.; Doran-Peterson, Joy [Georgia Univ., Athens, GA (United States). Dept. of Microbiology

    2012-08-15

    The USA has proposed that 30 % of liquid transportation fuel be produced from renewable resources by 2030 (Perlack and Stokes 2011). It will be impossible to reach this goal using corn kernel-based ethanol alone. Pectin-rich biomass, an under-utilized waste product of the sugar and juice industry, can augment US ethanol supplies by capitalizing on this already established feedstock. Currently, pectin-rich biomass is sold (at low value) as animal feed. This review focuses on the three most studied types of pectin-rich biomass: sugar beet pulp, citrus waste and apple pomace. Fermentations of these materials have been conducted with a variety of ethanologens, including yeasts and bacteria. Escherichia coli can ferment a wide range of sugars including galacturonic acid, the primary component of pectin. However, the mixed acid metabolism of E. coli can produce unwanted side products. Saccharomyces cerevisiae cannot naturally ferment galacturonic acid nor pentose sugars but has a homoethanol pathway. Erwinia chrysanthemi is capable of degrading many of the cell wall components of pectin-rich materials, including pectin. Klebsiella oxytoca can metabolize a diverse array of sugars including cellobiose, one degradation product of cellulose. However, both E. chrysanthemi and K. oxytoca produce side products during fermentation, similar to E. coli. Using pectin-rich residues from industrial processes is beneficial because the material is already collected and partially pretreated to facilitate enzymatic deconstruction of the plant cell walls. Using biomass already produced for other purposes is an attractive practice because fewer greenhouse gases (GHG) will be anticipated from land-use changes. (orig.)

  10. Plant species richness enhances nitrogen retention in green roof plots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Catherine; Schweinhart, Shelbye; Buffam, Ishi

    2016-10-01

    Vegetated (green) roofs have become common in many cities and are projected to continue to increase in coverage, but little is known about the ecological properties of these engineered ecosystems. In this study, we tested the biodiversity-ecosystem function hypothesis using commercially available green roof trays as replicated plots with varying levels of plant species richness (0, 1, 3, or 6 common green roof species per plot, using plants with different functional characteristics). We estimated accumulated plant biomass near the peak of the first full growing season (July 2013) and measured runoff volume after nearly every rain event from September 2012 to September 2013 (33 events) and runoff fluxes of inorganic nutrients ammonium, nitrate, and phosphate from a subset of 10 events. We found that (1) total plant biomass increased with increasing species richness, (2) green roof plots were effective at reducing storm runoff, with vegetation increasing water retention more than soil-like substrate alone, but there was no significant effect of plant species identity or richness on runoff volume, (3) green roof substrate was a significant source of phosphate, regardless of presence/absence of plants, and (4) dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN = nitrate + ammonium) runoff fluxes were different among plant species and decreased significantly with increasing plant species richness. The variation in N retention was positively related to variation in plant biomass. Notably, the increased biomass and N retention with species richness in this engineered ecosystem are similar to patterns observed in published studies from grasslands and other well-studied ecosystems. We suggest that more diverse plantings on vegetated roofs may enhance the retention capacity for reactive nitrogen. This is of importance for the sustained health of vegetated roof ecosystems, which over time often experience nitrogen limitation, and is also relevant for water quality in receiving waters

  11. VISTA - computational tools for comparative genomics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frazer, Kelly A.; Pachter, Lior; Poliakov, Alexander; Rubin,Edward M.; Dubchak, Inna

    2004-01-01

    Comparison of DNA sequences from different species is a fundamental method for identifying functional elements in genomes. Here we describe the VISTA family of tools created to assist biologists in carrying out this task. Our first VISTA server at http://www-gsd.lbl.gov/VISTA/ was launched in the summer of 2000 and was designed to align long genomic sequences and visualize these alignments with associated functional annotations. Currently the VISTA site includes multiple comparative genomics tools and provides users with rich capabilities to browse pre-computed whole-genome alignments of large vertebrate genomes and other groups of organisms with VISTA Browser, submit their own sequences of interest to several VISTA servers for various types of comparative analysis, and obtain detailed comparative analysis results for a set of cardiovascular genes. We illustrate capabilities of the VISTA site by the analysis of a 180 kilobase (kb) interval on human chromosome 5 that encodes for the kinesin family member3A (KIF3A) protein.

  12. TOXCAST, A TOOL FOR CATEGORIZATION AND ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Across several EPA Program Offices (e.g., OPPTS, OW, OAR), there is a clear need to develop strategies and methods to screen large numbers of chemicals for potential toxicity, and to use the resulting information to prioritize the use of testing resources towards those entities and endpoints that present the greatest likelihood of risk to human health and the environment. This need could be addressed using the experience of the pharmaceutical industry in the use of advanced modern molecular biology and computational chemistry tools for the development of new drugs, with appropriate adjustment to the needs and desires of environmental toxicology. A conceptual approach named ToxCast has been developed to address the needs of EPA Program Offices in the area of prioritization and screening. Modern computational chemistry and molecular biology tools bring enabling technologies forward that can provide information about the physical and biological properties of large numbers of chemicals. The essence of the proposal is to conduct a demonstration project based upon a rich toxicological database (e.g., registered pesticides, or the chemicals tested in the NTP bioassay program), select a fairly large number (50-100 or more chemicals) representative of a number of differing structural classes and phenotypic outcomes (e.g., carcinogens, reproductive toxicants, neurotoxicants), and evaluate them across a broad spectrum of information domains that modern technology has pro

  13. FIA BioSum: a tool to evaluate financial costs, opportunities and effectiveness of fuel treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeremy Fried; Glenn. Christensen

    2004-01-01

    FIA BioSum, a tool developed by the USDA Forest Services Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Program, generates reliable cost estimates, identifies opportunities and evaluates the effectiveness of fuel treatments in forested landscapes. BioSum is an analytic framework that integrates a suite of widely used computer models with a foundation of attribute-rich,...

  14. Using Social Media as a Tool for Learning: A Multi-Disciplinary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delello, Julie A.; McWhorter, Rochell R.; Camp, Kerri M.

    2015-01-01

    In order to explore the rich dynamics of using social media as a tool for learning within higher education classrooms, researchers across three disciplines: education, human resource development (HRD), and marketing, joined forces seeking ways to focus on learning through a retrospective analysis. Three concepts--engagement, community building,…

  15. Augmented reality as a tool for linguistic research: Intercepting and manipulating multimodal interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Pitsch, Karola; Neumann, Alexander; Schnier, Christian; Hermann, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    We suggest that an Augmented Reality (AR) system for coupled interaction partners provides a new tool for linguistic research that allows to manipulate the coparticipants’ real-time perception and action. It encompasses novel facilities for recording heterogeneous sensor-rich data sets to be accessed in parallel with qualitative/manual and quantitative/computational methods.

  16. Model uncertainties do not affect observed patterns of species richness in the Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, Lilian Patrícia; Neves, Olívia Viana; De Marco, Paulo

    2017-01-01

    Background Climate change is arguably a major threat to biodiversity conservation and there are several methods to assess its impacts on species potential distribution. Yet the extent to which different approaches on species distribution modeling affect species richness patterns at biogeographical scale is however unaddressed in literature. In this paper, we verified if the expected responses to climate change in biogeographical scale—patterns of species richness and species vulnerability to climate change—are affected by the inputs used to model and project species distribution. Methods We modeled the distribution of 288 vertebrate species (amphibians, birds and mammals), all endemic to the Amazon basin, using different combinations of the following inputs known to affect the outcome of species distribution models (SDMs): 1) biological data type, 2) modeling methods, 3) greenhouse gas emission scenarios and 4) climate forecasts. We calculated uncertainty with a hierarchical ANOVA in which those different inputs were considered factors. Results The greatest source of variation was the modeling method. Model performance interacted with data type and modeling method. Absolute values of variation on suitable climate area were not equal among predictions, but some biological patterns were still consistent. All models predicted losses on the area that is climatically suitable for species, especially for amphibians and primates. All models also indicated a current East-western gradient on endemic species richness, from the Andes foot downstream the Amazon river. Again, all models predicted future movements of species upwards the Andes mountains and overall species richness losses. Conclusions From a methodological perspective, our work highlights that SDMs are a useful tool for assessing impacts of climate change on biodiversity. Uncertainty exists but biological patterns are still evident at large spatial scales. As modeling methods are the greatest source of

  17. An Ecofeminist Approach to Adrienne Rich's Poem "Diving into the Wreck" Adrienne

    OpenAIRE

    ERKAN, Ayça Ülker

    2012-01-01

    This study examines Adrienne Rich\\'s poem “Diving into the Wreck” (1973) through ecofeminist criticism. Rich\\'s ecopoetry questions assumptions about feminine subjectivity and female consciousness, patriarchal abuse, and indifference regarding women. With the androgynous persona in the poem “I”, Rich moves beyond the limits of gender and sexes to give room to form female subjectivity. Persona in the poem starts to explore and express her feminine identity and sexuality by figuratively “diving...

  18. Platelet-rich plasma, plasma rich in growth factors and simvastatin in the regeneration and repair of alveolar bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, César; Monsalve, Francisco; Salas, Juan; Morán, Andrea; Suazo, Iván

    2013-12-01

    Platelet preparations promote bone regeneration by inducing cell migration, proliferation and differentiation in the area of the injury, which are essential processes for regeneration. In addition, several studies have indicated that simvastatin (SIMV), widely used for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia, stimulates osteogenesis. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of treatment with either platelet-rich plasma (PRP) or plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF) in combination with SIMV in the regeneration and repair of alveolar bone. The jaws of Sprague Dawley rats (n=18) were subjected to rotary instrument-induced bone damage (BD). Animals were divided into six groups: BD/H 2 O (n=3), distilled water without the drug and alveolar bone damage; BD/H 2 O/PRP (n=3), BD and PRP; BD/H 2 O/PRGF (n=3), BD and PRGF; BD/SIMV (n=3), BD and water with SIMV; BD/SIMV/PRP (n=3), BD, PRP and SIMV; and BD/SIMV/PRGF (n=3), BD, PRGF and SIMV. Conventional histological analysis (hematoxylin and eosin staining) revealed that the BD/SIMV group showed indicators for mature bone tissue, while the BD/SIMV/PRP and BD/SIMV/PRGF groups showed the coexistence of indicators for mature and immature bone tissue, with no statistical differences between the platelet preparations. Simvastatin did not improve the effect of platelet-rich plasma and plasma rich in growth factors. It was not possible to determine which platelet preparation produced superior effects.

  19. Bryophyte and vascular plant responses to base-richness and water level gradients in Western Carpathian Sphagnum-rich mires

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hájková, Petra; Hájek, Michal

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 4 (2004), s. 335-351 ISSN 1211-9520 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA206/02/0568 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6005908 Keywords : fen * poor-rich gradient * water table Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.968, year: 2004

  20. APT: Aperture Photometry Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laher, Russ

    2012-08-01

    Aperture Photometry Tool (APT) is software for astronomers and students interested in manually exploring the photometric qualities of astronomical images. It has a graphical user interface (GUI) which allows the image data associated with aperture photometry calculations for point and extended sources to be visualized and, therefore, more effectively analyzed. Mouse-clicking on a source in the displayed image draws a circular or elliptical aperture and sky annulus around the source and computes the source intensity and its uncertainty, along with several commonly used measures of the local sky background and its variability. The results are displayed and can be optionally saved to an aperture-photometry-table file and plotted on graphs in various ways using functions available in the software. APT is geared toward processing sources in a small number of images and is not suitable for bulk processing a large number of images, unlike other aperture photometry packages (e.g., SExtractor). However, APT does have a convenient source-list tool that enables calculations for a large number of detections in a given image. The source-list tool can be run either in automatic mode to generate an aperture photometry table quickly or in manual mode to permit inspection and adjustment of the calculation for each individual detection. APT displays a variety of useful graphs, including image histogram, and aperture slices, source scatter plot, sky scatter plot, sky histogram, radial profile, curve of growth, and aperture-photometry-table scatter plots and histograms. APT has functions for customizing calculations, including outlier rejection, pixel “picking” and “zapping,” and a selection of source and sky models. The radial-profile-interpolation source model, accessed via the radial-profile-plot panel, allows recovery of source intensity from pixels with missing data and can be especially beneficial in crowded fields.