Sample records for rich czech coals

  1. Problems with the quantitative spectroscopic analysis of oxygen rich Czech coals

    Pavlikova, H.; Machovic, V.; Cerny, J. [Inst. of Chemical Technology, Prague (Czechoslovakia); Sebestova, E. [Inst. of Rock Structure and Mechanics, Prague (Czechoslovakia)


    Solid state NMR and FTIR spectroscopies are two main methods used for the structural analysis of coals and their various products. Obtaining quantitative parameters from coals, such as arornaticity (f{sub a}) by the above mentioned methods can be a rather difficult task. Coal samples of various rank were chosen for the quantitative NMR, FTIR and EPR analyses. The aromaticity was obtained by the FTIR, {sup 13}C CP/MAS and SP/MAS NMR experiments. The content of radicals and saturation characteristics of coals were measured by EPR spectroscopy. The following problems have been discussed: 1. The relationship between the amount of free radicals (N{sub g}) and f{sub a} by NMR. 2. The f{sub a} obtained by solid state NMR and FTIR spectroscopies. 3. The differences between the f{sub a} measured by CP and SP/NMR experiments. 4. The relationship between the content of oxygen groups and the saturation responses of coals. The reliability of our results was checked by measuring the structural parameters of Argonne premium coals.

  2. A Curse of Coal? Exploring Unintended Regional Consequences of Coal Energy in The Czech Republic

    Frantál Bohumil


    Full Text Available Focusing on coal energy from a geographical perspective, the unintended regional consequences of coal mining and combustion in the Czech Republic are discussed and analysed in terms of the environmental injustice and resource curse theories. The explorative case study attempts to identify significant associations between the spatially uneven distribution of coal power plants and the environmental and socioeconomic characteristics and development trends of affected areas. The findings indicate that the coal industries have contributed to slightly above average incomes and pensions, and have provided households with some technical services such as district heating. However, these positive effects have come at high environmental and health costs paid by the local populations. Above average rates of unemployment, homelessness and crime indicate that the benefits have been unevenly distributed economically. A higher proportion of uneducated people and ethnic minorities in affected districts suggest that coal energy is environmentally unjust.

  3. The role of coal in the economy of the Czech Republic

    Doruska, J. [Ministry of Industry and Trade of the Czech, Republic, Prague (Czechoslovakia)


    The Czech Republic ranks among the countries with high total reserves of hard coal and lignite. Therefore coal always had and still has a significant role in covering the power demand of the Czech Republic. Transition of the national economy, based on the principles of the market economy and private ownership, affects among others also behavior of the mining companies. A strong emphasis is also aimed at the environmental aspects concerning both the process of coal mining and the process of its utilization. Within these intentions the power policy of the Czech Republic is formulated. The Czech Republic, which has 10 mil. inhabitants, ranks among the countries with a high share of industry in the process of creating the gross national product. This state has its historical roots as on the present territory of the Czech Republic there had been concentrated a majority of industrial and mining capacities of the Hapsburg Empire. The First World War resulted among others in the decline of the Hapsburg Empire. Within this process Czechoslovak Republic was established (apart from other things the center of democracy in the Central Europe). In that republic the industry had an important position. The industrial potential had been expanded even during the occupation of Czechoslovakia by Nazi Germany in the years 1939 - 1945. After the Second World War when Europe was divided into two political spheres Czechoslovakia became a significant industrial base of so called East Bloc. Such a development and the needs of the Eastern Bloc resulted in the intensive development of the heavy industry on the territory of Czechoslovakia.

  4. Possibilities of production of smokeless fuel via carbonization of Czech coals

    Buchtele, J.; Straka, P. [Inst. of Rock Structure and Mechanics, Prague (Czechoslovakia)


    It was consumed 48 -51 % of hard coal (total output 28 - 30 Mt/year) in a long period for the production of coke. It appears to be anomaly in comparison with other coke producers in Europe and in the world, it was predeterminated by {open_quotes}steel conception{close_quotes} of state`s economics. The production of coke reached 10-11 Mt/year in former Czechoslovakia in the period 1970-1990. A considerable quantity 1.2 - 1.7 Mt/year of produced coke was utilized for heating. In comparison, 7-5.4 Mt coke/year was it in Poland for the heating. Al coke production is realized on the basis of Czech hard coals mined in the southern part of Upper Silesian Coal District. The coke production is operated in multi-chamber system with full recovery of chemical products (gas, raw tar, raw benzene, amonium etc.). The future trend of smokeless fuel production in Czech Republic makes for to the non-recovery coke oven, it means to two-product processes (coke + reduction gas, coke + electricity and so on). Jewell--Thompson coke oven (hard coal) and Salem oven (ignites) represent nonrecovery nowadays. The possibility of it`s application in Czech Republic are discussed. Jumbo coking reactor system (European project No. 500 to the Eureka programme) produces primarily metallurgical coke. The strong Clean Air Act suspends the production of smokeless fuel in multi-chamber system also in Czech Republic for the future period 2010-2020.

  5. Structural characterization of vitrinite-rich and inertinite-rich Permian-aged South African bituminous coals

    Van Niekerk, Daniel; Mathews, Jonathan P. [Energy and Mineral Engineering and the EMS Energy Institute, Pennsylvania State University, Hosler Building, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Pugmire, Ronald J. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 (United States); Department of Chemistry, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 (United States); Solum, Mark S. [Department of Chemistry, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 (United States); Painter, Paul C. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, 320 Steidle Building, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)


    Two South African coals of the same rank and age, but different in maceral composition were subjected to extensive structural analyses. Inertinite-rich Highveld coal (dominated by semifusinite) and vitrinite-rich Waterberg coal were studied to determine structural differences and similarities. The two coals had similar carbon content ({proportional_to} 84%, dmmf) and vitrinite reflectance (mean-maximum 0.71% for vitrinite-rich vs. 0.75% for inertinite-rich), but differed in hydrogen content (6.23% for vitrinite-rich and 4.53% for inertinite-rich). The inertinite-rich coal was more aromatic (86% for inertinite-rich and 76% for vitrinite-rich) and more polycondensed (indicated by a higher bridgehead carbon content). The inertinite-rich coal was structurally more ordered, with a higher degree of crystalline stacking. Both coals had similar average aromatic cluster sizes (16 carbons for vitrinite-rich and 18 carbons for inertinite-rich) and number of cluster attachments (6 attachments for vitrinite-rich and 5 attachments for inertinite-rich). Mass spectrometry showed that both coals consist of similar molecular weight distributions; ranging to approximately 1700 m/z with a maximum abundance of {proportional_to} 450 m/z for the vitrinite-rich coal and {proportional_to} 550 m/z for the inertinite-rich coal. Compared to the Argonne Premium coals the South African vitrinite-rich Waterberg coal was comparable to the coals in the high-volatile bituminous range and inertinite-rich Highveld was closer to the medium- to low-volatile bituminous range. Both coals were surprisingly similar in bulk characterization, although inertinite-rich Highveld coal was structurally more ordered, hydrogen deficient, and more aromatic. (author)

  6. Conference on alternatives for pollution control from coal-fired low emission sources, Plzen, Czech Republic. Plzen Proceedings


    The Conference on Alternatives for Pollution Control from Coal-Fired Emission Sources presented cost-effective approaches for pollution control of low emission sources (LES). It also identified policies and strategies for implementation of pollution control measures at the local level. Plzen, Czech Republic, was chosen as the conference site to show participants first hand the LES problems facing Eastern Europe today. Collectively, these Proceedings contain clear reports on: (a) methods for evaluating the cost effectiveness of alternative approaches to control pollution from small coal-fired boilers and furnaces; (b) cost-effective technologies for controlling pollution from coal-fired boilers and furnaces; (c) case studies of assessment of cost effective pollution control measures for selected cities in eastern Europe; and (d) approaches for actually implementing pollution control measures in cities in Eastern Europe. It is intended that the eastern/central European reader will find in these Proceedings useful measures that can be applied to control emissions and clean the air in his city or region. The conference was sponsored by the United States Agency for International Development (AID), the United States Department of Energy (DOE), and the Czech Ministry of Industry and Trade. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  7. Oxygen groups in coals and alginite-rich kerogen revisited

    Petersen, Henrik I.; Rosenberg, Per; Nytoft, Hans P. [Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS), Oester Voldgade 10, DK-1350 Copenhagen K (Denmark)


    Detailed Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), chemical oxidation and reduction, and multivariate regression analysis have been applied to gain insight into the relative proportions and types of oxygen functional groups in coals of varying rank and in alginite-rich organic matter in oil shales and marine shale. FTIR spectra of demineralised and non-demineralised coals with a vitrinite reflectance below {proportional_to} 0.4%R{sub o} revealed that the spectra are significantly different in the carbonyl region, probably due to the configuration of weak conjugated oxygen bonds into a more rigid form during demineralisation. In coals and lignin, the relative FTIR response from oxygen groups occurs in the order hydroxyl {>=} ether > ketone/ester > carboxyl > quinone, where ester groups are related to cutinite and sporinite. A pronounced decrease in oxygen content occurs from {proportional_to} 0.43-0.50%R{sub o}, but the oxygen groups show different evolutionary trends during initial thermal maturation: (i) carboxyl group absorption increases significantly up to lignite/subbituminous C rank, followed by a rapid decrease and disappearance at {proportional_to} 0.45%R{sub o}, (ii) ketone (carbonyl) group absorption is prominent at maturities < 0.45%R{sub o}, but at higher maturities the response declines gradually, (iii) ether group absorption increases to a maximum at {proportional_to} 0.45-0.50%R{sub o}, from where it decreases gradually, (iv) at atomic O/C ratios > 0.2 (approximately < 0.45%R{sub o}) hydroxyl group (principally phenolic) absorption is highly variable, but at increasing thermal maturity significant dehydroxylation occurs. Elimination of oxygen groups in the coaly organic matter thus occurs in the order quinone, carboxyl, ketone/ester, hydroxyl and ether. Both ether and hydroxyl are still present at an O/C ratio of 0.05. Oxygen in the alginite-dominated kerogen of the shales is entirely bound as ether, carbonyl (mainly ester) and hydroxyl. The

  8. Dissolution and transport of coal tar compounds in fractured clay-rich residuum

    Vulava, Vijay M.; McKay, Larry D.; Broholm, Mette Martina


    We investigated the dissolution and transport of organic contaminants from a crude coal tar mixture in a monolith of fractured clay-rich residuum. An electrolyte solution was eluted through the residuum monolith containing a small emplaced source of coal tar under biologically inhibited and mildl...

  9. Groundwater flowing the forefield of the CSA mine (North Bohemian Brown Coal Basin in the Czech Republic)

    Zizka, L.; Halir, J. [Brown Coal Research Inst., Most (Czech Republic)


    The North Bohemian Brown Coal Basin is home to one of the largest active open cast mines in the Czech Republic. Groundwater flow in the quaternary sediments is causing stability problems in the upper overburden at the mine. A 3-D geological model was used to simulate groundwater flow in the area. The lithological characteristics and hydrogeological conditions of the mine were also considered in order to identify areas that may pose risks during the extraction of mineral resources. The simulation focused on the characterization of the quaternary and crystalline aquifer collectors located in the region of the mine. The study showed that groundwater flow is influenced by the configuration of the quaternary floor, as well as by the deposition and character of the basin sediments and crystalline rocks. The donation area corresponds with the mountain slopes. Groundwater flow is influenced by disruptions in the crystalline roof with quaternary sediments. The quaternary aquifer will be dewatered in order to ensure the future safety of the mine. 3 refs., 2 figs.

  10. Vitrinite-rich coal concentrate intrinsic reactivity index

    Andrés Felipe Rojas González


    Full Text Available This work defines a new reactivity coal combustion parameter called intrinsic reactivity index (IRI, combining reactive maceral fraction (vitrinite/liptinite, non-reactive maceral fraction (inertinite/intrinsic mineral matter and vitirinite reflectance averages. Coal samples from La Yolanda and Guachinte (Valle del Cauca collieries were used to evaluate the IRI; samples consisted of original and vitrinite concentrated fractions obtained from froth flotation column. This new parameter was compared to three conventional parameters: weighted mean activation energy (WMAE, peak temperature (PT and final temperature (FT. Results revealed that vitrinite concentrated fractions had higher IRI figures than original coal. This meant that vitrinite concentrated fractions presented higher reactivity to combustion than original coal. Results also showed that EAMP, TP and TF decreased with an increase in IRI, suggesting that coal combustion reactivity becomes improved when vitirinite concentration in coal is increased.

  11. Stability of Roadway in Upper Seam of Deep Multiple Rich Gas Coal Seams through Ascending Stress-relief Mining


    The first mining of a protective coal seam through ascending stress-relief mining is one of the most effective techniques for eliminating the risk of coal and gas outburst during the exploitation of multiple coal seams containing high rich gas. However, the difficulty of controlling roadway stability in the upper protected coal seam above the goaf increases greatly after ascending mining. Based on the geological conditions in Guqiao Coal Mine in China, a numerical simulation model is establis...

  12. Dry processing of power plant coal rich in inerts

    Gross, J.; Ditzler, H.


    A system for pneumatic classifying was constructed in order to examine the effects of quality and composition of coal as well as the machine-related factors, such as the sieve shaking frequency, sieve hole size, air distribution, position of the separating weirs, and arrangement of the charging chute. It was determined that the Berry pneumatic table fulfills the requirements for product purity when the supply of material is held constant and the machine related factors are optimized. For a bituminous coal with a mean ash content between 40% and 50%, the best separation results were obtained. At a purity rate of inerts of over 97%, it was possible to reduce the ash content of the coal by 20%. Due to its compactness, the system can be put in operation at different sites. It is economic to operate, and can be adapted to any required capacity as a result of its modular design. During the tests a high degree of wear was noted on the fan and fan housing. The fan housing was protected to a great extent by synthetic plates.

  13. Constitution of Drop-Tube-Generated Coal Chars from Vitrinite- and Inertinite-Rich South African Coals

    Louw, Enette B.; Mitchell, Gareth D.; Wang, Juan; Winans, Randall E.; Mathews, Jonathan P.


    The structural transformations of coal and the resultant char morphologies are strongly dependent on the initial structure and degree of thermoplasticity achieved during coal-to-char transition. These are a function of petrographic composition, rank, particle size, and heating rate and strongly affect combustion behavior. This study compares the devolatilization and subsequent combustion behavior of an inertinite-rich (87.7% dmmf) and a vitrinite-rich (91.8% dmmf) South African coal, wet-screened to a narrow particle size distribution of 200 x 400 mesh. Pyrolysis chars were generated under rapid-heating conditions (104-105 °C/s) in a drop-tube reactor to closely resemble chars generated in pulverized combustion conditions. The inertinite-rich coal took ~ 400 ms to devolatilize in the drop-tube, compared to only ~ 240 ms for the vitrinite-rich sample. The chemical and physical structure (the constitution) of the chars were investigated through a range of chemical, physical, and optical characteristics including the maceral differences, and high ash yields. To evaluate the combustion reactivity non-isothermal burn-out profiles were obtained through thermogravimetrical analyses (TGA) in air. The vitrinite-rich char had on average 20% higher reaction rates than the inertinite-rich char under the various combustion conditions. The char samples were de-ashed with HCl and HF acid which resulted in an increase in combustion reactivity. The maximum reaction rate of the high-ash (36% ash yield) inertinite-rich char increased with 80% after de-ashing. While the vitrinite-rich char with an ash yield of 15%, had a 20% increase in reactivity after de-ashing. The ash acted as a barrier, and the removal of ash most likely increased the access to reactive surface area. The chemical and physical structures of the chars were characterized through a range of different analytical techniques to quantify the factors contributing to reactivity differences. The morphologies of the chars

  14. Coal home heating and environmental tobacco smoke in relation to lower respiratory illness in Czech children, from birth to 3 years of age

    Baker, R.J.; Hert-Picciotto, I.; Dostal, M.; Keller, J.A.; Nozicka, J.; Kotesovec, F.; Dejmek, J.; Loomis, D.; Sram, R.J. [University of California Davis, Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Public Health Science


    The objective of this study was to evaluate how indoor pollution from tobacco and home heating may adversely affect respiratory health in young children. A total of 452 children born 1994-1996 in two districts in the Czech Republic participated. Lower respiratory illness (LRI) diagnoses occurred more frequently in children from homes heated by coal (vs. other energy sources or distant furnaces; rate ratio (RR) = 1.45; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.07-1.97). Maternal prenatal smoking and other adult smokers also increased LRI rates (respectively: RR = 1.48; 95% CI, 1.10-2.01; and RR = 1.29; 95% CI, 1.01-1.65). Cooking fuels (primarily electricity, natural gas, or propane) were not associated with LRI incidence. For children never breast-fed, coal home heating and mother's smoking conferred substantially greater risks: RR = 2.77 (95% CI, 1.45-5.27) and RR = 2.52 (95% CI, 1.31-4.85), respectively. This maternal smoking and coal home heating increased risk for LRI in the first 3 years of life, particularly in children not breast-fed.

  15. Characteristics of mercury-rich and extreme mercury-rich coals in the Donbas Region of Ukraine and Guizhou Province, China

    Allan Kolker; Harvey E. Belkin [U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States). Eastern Energy Resources Team


    Metal-enriched coals are present in the Donets Basin (Donbas), Ukraine, and in Guizhou Province, China, due to interaction, in the geologic past, of mineralizing fluids with coal-bearing sequences. Locally, this has resulted in extreme metal enrichment that poses a potential heath hazard where these coals are collected by local residents and used for domestic purposes. In the Donbas, coals with subppm to ppm mercury contents are produced commercially, whereas coals with tens of ppm mercury were formerly produced as a byproduct of a large-scale mercury extraction operation that remains publicly accessible. In Guizhou Province, small scale non-commercial mines have been worked for coals with extreme concentrations of mercury and arsenic. Commercial coals in Guizhou Province have much lower mercury contents, with average values not appreciably greater than in USA commercial coals. Samples from active Donbas coal mines show a good correlation between mercury content and pyritic sulfur, indicating that mercury occurs primarily as a trace constituent in iron sulfides. In extreme mercury-rich coals, mercury contents are higher than can be accounted for by substitution in iron sulfides, indicating that discrete mercury minerals such as cinnabar, tiemannite, and native mercury, are present. 13 refs., 3 figs.


    Lung Tumor KRAS and TP53 Mutations in Nonsmokers Reflect Exposure to PAH-Rich Coal Combustion Emissions Use of smoky coal in unvented homes in Xuan Wei County, Yunnan Province, China, is associated with lung cancer among nonsmoking females. Such women have the highest...

  17. Measurements of Gasification Characteristics of Coal and Char in CO2-Rich Gas Flow by TG-DTA

    Zhigang Li


    Full Text Available Pyrolysis, combustion, and gasification properties of pulverized coal and char in CO2-rich gas flow were investigated by using gravimetric-differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA with changing O2%, heating temperature gradient, and flow rate of CO2-rich gases provided. Together with TG-DTA, flue gas generated from the heated coal, such as CO, CO2, and hydrocarbons (HCs, was analyzed simultaneously on the heating process. The optimum O2% in CO2-rich gas for combustion and gasification of coal or char was discussed by analyzing flue gas with changing O2 from 0 to 5%. The experimental results indicate that O2% has an especially large effect on carbon oxidation at temperature less than 1100°C, and lower O2 concentration promotes gasification reaction by producing CO gas over 1100°C in temperature. The TG-DTA results with gas analyses have presented basic reference data that show the effects of O2 concentration and heating rate on coal physical and chemical behaviors for the expected technologies on coal gasification in CO2-rich gas and oxygen combustion and underground coal gasification.

  18. The spatial distribution of the lignite qualitative parameters and variant estimates of coal reserves: the Czech Part of the Vienna Basin

    Jelínek, Jan; Staněk, František; Vebr, Lukáš; Honěk, Josef


    The aim of this article is to inform about the spatial distribution of the lignite qualitative parameters and total lignite reserves in the Czech Part of the Vienna Basin—The South Moravian Lignite Coalfield (SMLC). The total reserves were estimated on the basis of several composed variant digital models of individual seams in four partial area of SMLC. Calculations of the reserves resulted from the identified spatial distribution of chemical-technological parameters obtained from the thousands analysis of samples taken from more than 4,000 exploration works. The basic model of the deposit was so-called geological model characterising genetic evolution of the deposit and defines the spatial positions of the coal seams. Subsequently developed variant economical models spatially define the selected areas by the quality of lignite expressed by the limits of ash yield. Based on the created models, it was found that in the past just 3-7 % (depending on the variant model) of the total lignite reserves SMLC had been extracted. The presented geological reserves are currently using the existing mining technologies only partially mineable.

  19. Experience of use of specific organizational structure in mines Nastup, Tusimice of the North Czech Coal Basin concern. [Czechoslovakia

    Grunbaum, E.; Stanek, L.


    The generalized characteristics of the modern system of management of production, goals and tasks of management and their characteristics for mining enterprises are cited. Tables list the basic technical-economic indicators of coal mining, volume of recovery, stripping, overhead, material and energy consumption, level of profits, tec. on the whole for the enterprise and in a conversion to l ton of mined coal. A diagram of the organizational structure of the concern is shown. A characteristic of the structure is division of the concern into four managerially separate enterprises divided in turn into production segments. One of the enterprises, Merkur, (Brezno) specializes in stripping and one, together with mining, carries out mining work, repair of equipment, organization of transport and power supply on a centralized basis. Technical-economic indicators of operation of individual enterprises and their organizational structure are cited. Planning and management of capital construction, economic and financial activity, material and technical supply and traffic control are centralized. The new organizational structure was introduced in the period in which the shafts were not performing scheduled tasks; results achieved in recent years have shown its viability.

  20. Properties and Developments of Combustion and Gasification of Coal and Char in a CO2-Rich and Recycled Flue Gases Atmosphere by Rapid Heating

    Zhigang Li


    Full Text Available Combustion and gasification properties of pulverized coal and char have been investigated experimentally under the conditions of high temperature gradient of order 200°C·s−1 by a CO2 gas laser beam and CO2-rich atmospheres with 5% and 10% O2. The laser heating makes a more ideal experimental condition compared with previous studies with a TG-DTA, because it is able to minimize effects of coal oxidation and combustion by rapid heating process like radiative heat transfer condition. The experimental results indicated that coal weight reduction ratio to gases followed the Arrhenius equation with increasing coal temperature; further which were increased around 5% with adding H2O in CO2-rich atmosphere. In addition, coal-water mixtures with different water/coal mass ratio were used in order to investigate roles of water vapor in the process of coal gasification and combustion. Furthermore, char-water mixtures with different water/char mass ratio were also measured in order to discuss the generation ratio of CO/CO2, and specified that the source of Hydrocarbons is volatile matter from coal. Moreover, it was confirmed that generations of CO and Hydrocarbons gases are mainly dependent on coal temperature and O2 concentration, and they are stimulated at temperature over 1000°C in the CO2-rich atmosphere.

  1. The lack of microbial degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from coal-rich soils

    Achten, C.; Cheng, S.B.; Straub, K.L.; Hofmann, T. [University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria)


    Analytical techniques used to assess the environmental risk of contamination from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) typically consider only abiotic sample parameters. Supercritical fluid extraction and sorption enthalpy experiments previously suggested slow desorption rates for PAH compounds in two coal-contaminated floodplain soils. In this study, the actual PAH availability for aerobic soil microorganisms was tested in two series of soil-slurry experiments. The experimental conditions supported microbial degradation of phenanthrene if it was weakly sorbed onto silica gel. Native coals and coal-derived particles in two soils effectively acted as very strong sorbents and prevented microbial PAH degradation. The long history of PAH exposure and degree of coal contamination apparently had no influence on the capability of the microbial soil community to overcome constraints of PAH availability. Within the context of the experimental conditions and the compounds chosen, our results confirm that coal-bound PAHs are not bioavailable and hence of low environmental concern.

  2. Lung tumor KRAS and TP53 mutations in nonsmokers reflect exposure to PAH-rich coal combustion emissions

    De Marini, D.M.; Landi, S.; Tian, D.F.; Hanley, N.M.; Li, X.M.; Hu, F.D.; Roop, B.C.; Mass, M.J.; Keohavong, P.; Gao, W.M.; Olivier, M.; Hainaut, P.; Mumford, J.L. [US EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States). Environmental Carcinogenesis Division


    The TP53 and codon 12 KRAS mutations in lung tumors from 24 nonsmokers whose tumors were associated with exposure to smoky coal were determined. Among any tumors studied previously, these showed the highest percentage of mutations that (a) were G to T transversions at either KRAS (86%) or TP53 (76%), (b) clustered at the G-rich codons 153-158 of TP53 (33%), and (c) had 100% of the guanines of the G to T transversions on the nontranscribed strand. This mutation spectrum is consistent with an exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, which are the primary component of the smoky coal emissions. These results show that mutations in the TP53 and KRAS genes can reflect a specific environmental exposure.

  3. Mystification in Czech cinematography and Czech culture



    Full Text Available The article concerns the issue of mystification and hoax in Czech culture. It demonstrates historical aspects of this phenomenon and, basing on the example of various cultural texts, shows that the mystification as a means of artistic expression is deeply rooted in Czech culture. Surrealistic and illogical themes that are characteristic for Czech humour are used by artists, especially filmmakers, in creating successive mystifications. The article examines films such as Oil Gobblers (1988, Year of Devil (2002, Czech Dream (2004, Jara Cimrman Lying, Sleeping (1983, in order to analyse the role of this phenomenon in both films that speak of mystification and the ones that are mystifications themselves.

  4. Petrography, geochemistry and depositional setting of the San Pedro and Santo Tomas coal zones: anomalous algae-rich coals in the middle part of the Claiborne Group (Eocene) of Webb County, Texas

    Warwick, P.D.; Hook, R.W. [US Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States)


    Two coal zones, the San Pedro and the overlying Santo Tomas, are present for nearly 35 km along the strike of the middle part of the Claiborne Group (Eocene) in Webb County, Texas. A sandstone-dominated interval of 25 to 35 m separates the two coal zones, which range up to 3 m in thickness. Each coal zone contains carbonaceous shales, thin ({lt}0.75 m) impure coal beds, and thin ({lt}0.85 m) but commercially significant nonbanded coal beds. The coal-bearing portion of the middle Claiborne Group in the Rio Grande area represents a fining-upward transition from sandstone-dominated, marine-influenced, lower delta plain depositional environments to more inland, mudstone-rich, predominantly freshwater deltaic settings. Discontinuities within the San Pedro coal zone are attributed mainly to the influence of contemporaneous deposition of distributary mouth-bar sand bodies. The less variable nature of the Santo Tomas coal zone reflects its origin in the upper part of an interlobe basin that received only minor clastic influx. Petrographic attributes of the nonbanded coals indicate that they formed subaqueously in fresh to possibly brackish waters. A highly degraded groundmass composed of eugelinite is the main petrographic component (approximately 71%, mineral-matter-free basis). An enriched liptinite fraction (approximately 23%) probably accounts for unusually high calorific values. There is negligible inertinite. Petrographic study of polished blocks indicates that approximately 10% of the nonbanded coal from both coal zones is composed of green algae fructifications, which also occur in clastic rocks of the coal-bearing intervals. Such algal material cannot be identified or quantified by conventional coal petrographic techniques that utilize particle pellets or by palynological analyses that include acid preparation. 63 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. The lack of microbial degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from coal-rich soils.

    Achten, Christine; Cheng, Shubo; Straub, Kristina L; Hofmann, Thilo


    Analytical techniques used to assess the environmental risk of contamination from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) typically consider only abiotic sample parameters. Supercritical fluid extraction and sorption enthalpy experiments previously suggested slow desorption rates for PAH compounds in two coal-contaminated floodplain soils. In this study, the actual PAH availability for aerobic soil microorganisms was tested in two series of soil-slurry experiments. The experimental conditions supported microbial degradation of phenanthrene if it was weakly sorbed onto silica gel. Native coals and coal-derived particles in two soils effectively acted as very strong sorbents and prevented microbial PAH degradation. The long history of PAH exposure and degree of coal contamination apparently had no influence on the capability of the microbial soil community to overcome constraints of PAH availability. Within the context of the experimental conditions and the compounds chosen, our results confirm that coal-bound PAHs are not bioavailable and hence of low environmental concern. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Advanced power assessment for Czech lignite. Task 3.6, Volume 1

    Sondreal, E.A.; Mann, M.D.; Weber, G.W.; Young, B.C.


    The US has invested heavily in research, development, and demonstration of efficient and environmentally acceptable technologies for the use of coal. The US has the opportunity to use its leadership position to market a range of advanced coal-based technologies internationally. For example, coal mining output in the Czech Republic has been decreasing. This decrease in demand can be attributed mainly to the changing structure of the Czech economy and to environmental constraints. The continued production of energy from indigenous brown coals is a major concern for the Czech Republic. The strong desire to continue to use this resource is a challenge. The Energy and Environmental Research Center undertook two major efforts recently. One effort involved an assessment of opportunities for commercialization of US coal technologies in the Czech Republic. This report is the result of that effort. The technology assessment focused on the utilization of Czech brown coals. These coals are high in ash and sulfur, and the information presented in this report focuses on the utilization of these brown coals in an economically and environmentally friendly manner. Sections 3--5 present options for utilizing the as-mined coal, while Sections 6 and 7 present options for upgrading and generating alternative uses for the lignite. Contents include Czech Republic national energy perspectives; powering; emissions control; advanced power generation systems; assessment of lignite-upgrading technologies; and alternative markets for lignite.

  7. Pyrite Formation in Organic-rich Clay, Calcitic and Coal-Forming Environments

    Gordana DEVI(C); Petar PFENDT; Branimir JOVAN(C)I(C)EVI(C); Zoran POPOVIC


    The early diagenetic characteristics of pyrite formation processes in a Miocene freshwater sequence of mixed sediments (coal fragments in clays, sandstones or shales) alternating with continuous brown coal layers was investigated. Based on abundant minerals, the following main sedimentary environments were distinguished: the illite-montmorillonitic (I-M), calcitic (Ct) and coal-forming environment (CL). For these hydrogeochemically differing environments the effects of limiting factors on the pyrite formation process (availability of sulphate and Fe, amount of organic matter and participation of organic sulphur) were assessed by correlation analysis. Significant differences in the effects of these limiting factors in the particular environments were observed. These differences were explained taking in account the different oxidative activity, Fe-complex and surface complex forming properties of hnmic substances in dependence of pH of environment and the abundance of sorptionally active clay minerals. In environments having a relatively low pH and containing clay minerals (I-Mand CL-environments) the oxidative activity of humic substances (Hs) on pyrite precursors was greatly prevented however pyrite formation depended on reactive Fe availability as the consequence of complex formation. On the contrary, in environments with a relatively high pH, as it was the calcitic,the oxidative activity of Hs was greatly enhanced, thus oxidizing the sulfur precursors of pyrite. The oxidation degree of organic matter was probably also a consequence of the differing activity of the humic electron-acceptors.

  8. Petrography, geochemistry, and depositional setting of the San Pedro and Santo Tomas coal zones: anomalous algae-rich coals in the middle part of the Claiborne Group (Eocene) of Webb County, Texas

    Warwick, P.D.; Hook, R.W.


    Two coal zones, the San Pedro and the overlying Santo Tomas, are presented for nearly 35 km in outcrop, surface and underground mines, and shallow drill holes along the strike of the middle part of the Claiborne Group (Eocene) in Webb County, Texas. A sandstone-dominated interval of 25 to 35 m separates the two coal zones, which range up to 3 m in thickness. The coal-bearing portion of the middle Claiborne Group in the Rio Grande area represents a fining-upward transition from sandstone-dominated, marine-influenced, lower delta plain depositional environments to more inland, mudstone-rich, predominantly freshwater deltaic settings. The less variable nature of the Santo Tomas coal zone reflects its origin in the upper part of an interlobe basin that received only minor clastic influx. Petrographic attributes of the nonbanded coals indicate that they formed subaqueously in fresh to possibly brackish waters. Petrographic study of polished blocks indicates that approximately 10% of the nonbanded coal from both coal zones is composed of green algae fructifications. -from Authors

  9. Formation and fate of PAH during the pyrolysis and fuel-rich combustion of coal primary tar

    Ledesma, E.B.; Kalish, M.A.; Nelson, P.F.; Wornat, M.J.; Mackie, J.C. [CSIRO, North Ryde, NSW (Australia). Division of Energy Technology


    The formation and fate of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) during the pyrolysis and fuel-rich combustion of primary tar generated under rapid heating conditions have been studied. Experiments were performed using a quartz two-stage reactor consisting of a fluidized-bed reactor coupled to a tubular-flow reactor. Primary tar was produced in the fluidized-bed reactor by rapid coal pyrolysis at 600{degree}C. The freshly generated tar was subsequently reacted in the tubular-flow reactor at 1000{degree}C under varying oxygen concentrations covering the range from pyrolysis to stoichiometric oxidation. PAH species present in the tars recovered from the tubular-flow reactor were analysed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Twenty-seven PAH species varying from 2-ring to 9-ring structures, were identified, including benzenoid PAH, fluoranthene benzologues and indene benzologues. The majority of PAH species identified from pyrolysis were also identified in the samples collected from oxidation experiments. However, three products, 9-fluorenone, cyclopenta(def)phenanthrene and indeno (1,2,3-cd) fluoranthene, were produced only during oxidizing conditions. The addition of a small amount of oxygen brought about measurable increases in the yields of the indene benzologues and 9-fluorenone, but the yields of all PAH products decreased at high oxygen concentrations, in accordance with their destruction by oxidation. Possible formation and destruction mechanisms of PAH under fuel-rich conditions have been discussed. 46 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. The Czech Locative Chameleon

    Tarald Taraldsen


    Full Text Available We show that under certain circumstances, the Czech locative prepositions (LOC show up as directional prepositions (DIR and vice versa, (under different circumstances the Czech DIR PPs show up as LOC. We argue that such a chameleon life of the PPs is structurally dependent.

  11. The Czech Locative Chameleon

    Tarald Taraldsen; Lucie Medová


    We show that under certain circumstances, the Czech locative prepositions (LOC) show up as directional prepositions (DIR) and vice versa, (under different circumstances) the Czech DIR PPs show up as LOC. We argue that such a chameleon life of the PPs is structurally dependent.

  12. Historiography of Czech psychology.

    Hoskovcová, Simona; Hoskovec, Jirí; Plháková, Alena; Sebek, Michael; Svancara, Josef; Voboril, Dalibor


    The paper is aimed at presenting the development of the Czech historiography of psychology, which was strongly influenced by the political changes in Central and Eastern Europe. The authors deal with the historiography of psychology at the three universities offering an undergraduate program in psychology, located in Prague, Brno, and Olomouc, and at the Institute of Psychology of the Czech Academy of Sciences. Recent research, teaching, textbooks, and journal articles published in Czech and in foreign languages are showcased. The historiography of Czech psychotherapy is mentioned as a special thematic development. Contemporary problems and perspectives in the field of the history of psychology in the Czech Republic are discussed, sources of information are given.

  13. Green tea consumption, genetic susceptibility, PAH-rich smoky coal, and the risk of lung cancer.

    Bonner, Matthew R; Rothman, Nathaniel; Mumford, Judy L; He, Xingzhou; Shen, Min; Welch, Robert; Yeager, Meredith; Chanock, Stephen; Caporaso, Neil; Lan, Qing


    Experimental evidence suggests that green tea (Camellia sinesis) may reduce the risk of lung cancer through several hypothesized mechanisms including scavenging oxidative radicals, inhibition of tumor initiation, and modulation of detoxification enzymes. However, epidemiologic results have not been consistent as to the relationship between green tea consumption and lung caner prevention. We employed a population-based case-control study of 122 cases and 122 controls to investigate the effect that green tea consumption may have on the risk of lung cancer and whether polymorphisms in 8-oxoguanine-DNA glycosylase (OGG1), glutathione-S-transferase M1 (GSTM1), and aldo-keto reductase 1C3 (AKR1C3) modify such an association. Daily green tea consumption was associated with a non-significant reduction in lung cancer risk. However, the effect of smoky coal exposure was higher for non-drinkers (odds ratio (OR)=4.93; 95% confidence interval (95% CI)=1.27-19.13) than for drinkers (OR=1.88; 95% CI=1.01-3.48). Further, among individuals with the OGG1 Cys(326) allele, daily consumption was associated with a 72% reduction (95% CI=0.09-0.94). Among GSTM1 null homozygotes, those who consumed green tea daily had a non-significant reduction in risk compared with non-consumers. Green tea consumption had no effect among OGG1 Ser(326) homozygotes or GSTM1 carriers. In addition, AKR1C3 genotype did not modulate the effect of green tea consumption. The chemopreventive effects of green tea in this population may be restricted to individuals who are particularly susceptible to oxidative stress and oxidative DNA damage.

  14. Plant Species Richness After Revegetation on The Reclaimed Coal Mine Land of PT Adaro Indonesia, South Kalimantan

    Mochamad Arief Soendjoto


    Full Text Available The focus of monitoring was the plant purposely cultivated because after re-vegetation, there were a very few of other plants growing naturally on reclimed coal mining area which were recorded, whereas these plants had important values. The research aimed to record all plants and to identify predominant plants over the reclaimed land of PT Adaro Indonesia. There were four sampling locations with 13 squares of 50 × 20 m2 on each location established and on each square there were 5 plots of 2 × 2 m2 plotse made. Both plant species and its individual number of woodyplantsaplings were recorded on each square, so in each plot, there were small species and its individual number of either woody-plant seedlings or non-woody plants (herbs/shrubs, grasses, ferns. The relative density and the relative frequency of woody or non-woody plants were summed to obtain the important value index (IVI of each successional stage. There were 107 plant species consisting of 32, 43, 27, and 5 species of saplings,seedlings/herbs/shrubs, grasses, and ferns respectively. From those species, 16 species of woody plants and 2 species of herbs were planted purposely,other species grew naturally and even some of them were dominants. Either the number of plants or the dominating plant is varied according to the sampling location and the growing stage.Keywords: plant, revegetation, richness, sapling, seedling

  15. Observation of cyclopenta-fused and ethynyl-substituted PAH during the fuel-rich combustion of primary tar from a bituminous coal

    Ledesma, E.B.; Kalish, M.A.; Wornat, M.J.; Nelson, P.F.; Mackie, J.C. [Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (USA). Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering


    High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with ultraviolet-visible (UV) diode-array detection was used to analyze the condensed-phase products from the fuel-rich combustion, at 1000{degree}C, of bituminous coal primary tar. Experiments were performed using a quartz two-stage reactor consisting of a fluidized-bed reactor coupled to a tubular-flow reactor. Eight cyclopenta-fused polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (CP-PAH) were identified, four of which have never before been observed as products of a bituminous coal and have also never been observed from the fuel-rich combustion of any coal: cyclopent(hi)acephenanthrylene, cyclopenta(cd)fluoranthene, dicyclopenta(cd, jk) pyrene, cylopenta(bc)coronene. In addition to these CP-PAH, two ethynyl-substituted PAH, 2-ethynylnaphthalene and 1-ethynylacenaphthylene, were identified for the first time as bituminous coal products. Yields of individual CP-PAH spanned a range of 4 orders of magnitude. Out of the eight CP-PAH identified, acenaphthylene was found to be the most abundant under all conditions investigated. CP-PAH of higher ring number were present in successively lower amounts, consistent with CP-PAH formation via hydrocarbon growth reactions. CP-PAH yields decreased with increasing oxygen concentration, indicating that rates of CP-PAH oxidation exceeded those of CP-PAH formation under the conditions investigated. Possible mechanisms of CP-PAH formation are discussed, but the complexity of the starting fuel precludes definitive delineation of the reaction pathways leading to CP-PAH and ethynyl-substituted PAH during the fuel-rich combustion of tar. 31 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Czech phycology : bulletin of the Phycological Section, Czech Botanical Society


    Czech Phycological Society is a scientific organization that is dedicated to the development of phycology in the area of the Czech Republic and Central Europe, and the distribution of phycological information. The Society organizes the Annual Meetings and Conferences and publishes the Bulletin Czech Phycology.

  17. Alternatives sources of energy in the Czech energy mix

    Martin, Lisy; Marek, Balas; Zdenek, Skala


    The paper features a basic outline of the situation in the energy sector of the Czech Republic. It brings information about the current state of the country's energy mix and indicative targets of the State Energy Policy. Though coal and nuclear energy will remain the country's energy staples, great stress is also put on the growth of share of renewable and alternative energy sources. Out of these, the greatest potential in the Czech Republic is that of biomass and waste. To make the use of these sources cost-effective, it is necessary to put stress on heat and power cogeneration.

  18. System Study of Rich Catalytic/Lean burn (RCL) Catalytic Combustion for Natural Gas and Coal-Derived Syngas Combustion Turbines

    Shahrokh Etemad; Lance Smith; Kevin Burns


    Rich Catalytic/Lean burn (RCL{reg_sign}) technology has been successfully developed to provide improvement in Dry Low Emission gas turbine technology for coal derived syngas and natural gas delivering near zero NOx emissions, improved efficiency, extending component lifetime and the ability to have fuel flexibility. The present report shows substantial net cost saving using RCL{reg_sign} technology as compared to other technologies both for new and retrofit applications, thus eliminating the need for Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) in combined or simple cycle for Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) and natural gas fired combustion turbines.


    Abstract We determined the TP53 and codon 12 KRAS mutations in lung tumors from 24 nonsmokers whose tumors were associated with exposure to smoky coal. Among any tumors studied previously, these showed the highest percentage of mutations that (a) were G -+ T transver...

  20. A Systematic Analysis of Coal Accumulation Process

    CHENG Aiguo


    Formation of coal seam and coal-rich zone is an integrated result of a series of factors in coal accumulation process. The coal accumulation system is an architectural aggregation of coal accumulation factors. It can be classified into 4 levels: the global coal accumulation super-system, the coal accumulation domain mega.system, the coal accumulation basin system, and the coal seam or coal seam set sub-system. The coal accumulation process is an open, dynamic, and grey system, and is meanwhile a system with such natures as aggregation, relevance, entirety, purpose-orientated, hierarchy, and environment adaptability. In this paper, we take coal accumulation process as a system to study origin of coal seam and coal-rich zone; and we will discuss a methodology of the systematic analysis of coal accumulation process. As an example, the Ordos coal basin was investigated to elucidate the application of the method of the coal accumulation system analysis.

  1. Cestina pro Pokrocile (Intermediate Czech).

    Kabat, Grazyna; And Others

    The textbook in intermediate Czech is designed for second-year students of the language and those who already have a basic knowledge of Czech grammar and vocabulary. It is appropriate for use in a traditional college language classroom, the business community, or a government language school. It can be covered in a year-long conventional…

  2. Specificity of Czech Economic Transformation

    Haberle, Ondřej


    The aim of this thesis is to describe the economic transformation in Czech Republic in 1990-1997 with accent on difference between transformation process in Czech Republic and other transition countries. Theoretical part is based on the description of the model of centrally planned economy and transformation theory. Practical part discuss macroeconomy a microeconomy measures of economic transformation.

  3. Czech Republic : Accounting and Auditing

    World Bank


    Financial reporting and auditing requirements in the Czech Republic are currently in transition from complying with national standards to complying with International Accounting Standards (IAS), International Standards on Auditing (ISA), and the European Union (EU) Directives. By law, the Czech Republic seeks to attain maximum compliance with the EU Fourth and Seventh Directives and the E...

  4. Natural radionuclides in plants, soils and sediments affected by U-rich coal mining activities in Brazil.

    Galhardi, Juliana Aparecida; García-Tenorio, Rafael; Bonotto, Daniel Marcos; Díaz Francés, Inmaculada; Motta, João Gabriel


    Mining activities can increase the mobility of metals by accelerating the dissolution and leaching of minerals from the rocks and tailing piles to the environment and, consequently, their availability for plants and subsequent transfer to the food chain. The weathering of minerals and the disposal of coal waste in tailing piles can accelerate the generation of acid mine drainage (AMD), which is responsible for the higher dissolution of metals in mining areas. In this context, the behavior of U, Th and K in soils and sediment, and the transfer factor (TF) of (238)U, (234)U and (210)Po for soybean, wheat, pine and eucalyptus cultivated around a coal mine in southern Brazil was evaluated. Alpha and gamma spectrometry were used for the measurements of the activity concentration of the radioelements. (210)Po was the radionuclide that is most accumulated in the plants, especially in the leaves. When comparing the plant species, pine showed the highest TF values for (234)U (0.311 ± 0.420) for leaves, while eucalyptus showed the highest TF for (238)U (0.344 ± 0.414) for leaves. In general, TF were higher for the leaves of soybean and wheat when compared to the grains, and grains of wheat showed higher TF for (210)Po and (238)U than grains of soybean. Deviations from the natural U isotopic ratio were recorded at all investigated areas, indicating possible industrial and mining sources of U for the vegetables. A safety assessment of transport routes and accumulation of radionuclides in soils with a potential for cultivation is important, mainly in tropical areas contaminated with solid waste and effluents from mines and industry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Czech children's literature reception in Slovenia

    Starc, Barbara


    This master’s degree thesis introduces the historical background of the Czech nation and the cultural contacts between Slovenes and Czechs. It outlines the development of the Czech young adult literature. In the thesis is qualitatively and quantitatively researched the reception of the Czech young adult literature. With a qualitative research it has been discovered how many young adult books have been translated from Czech into Slovene language, how many in different periods and which lit...

  6. Solid-State Metalized Reduction of Magnesium-Rich Low-Nickel Oxide Ores Using Coal as the Reductant Based on Thermodynamic Analysis

    Ma, Baozhong; Xing, Peng; Yang, Weijiao; Wang, Chengyan; Chen, Yongqiang; Wang, Hua


    The solid-state metalized reduction of magnesium-rich low-nickel oxide ore using coal as a reductant was studied based on thermodynamic analysis. The major constituent minerals of the ore were silicates and goethite. The former was the main nickel-bearing mineral, and the latter was the main iron-bearing mineral. Single factor tests were conducted to investigate the effects of reduction temperature, duration, and coal dosage on the beneficiation of nickel and iron such that optimal conditions were achieved. Considering the low recoveries of nickel and iron (Ni, 13.9 pct; Fe, 30.3 pct) under the obtained optimal conditions, an improved process, adding CaF2 before the reaction, was proposed to modify the solid-state metalized process. The results showed that the recoveries of nickel and iron reached to 96.5 and 73.4 pct, respectively, and that the grades of nickel and iron in the concentrate increased from 2.5 and 62.6 wt pct to 6.9 and 71.4 wt pct, respectively. Nickel and iron in the absence of CaF2 were metalized; nevertheless, the size of ferronickel particles was only 1 μm. Furthermore, alloys in the presence of CaF2 aggregated and exhibited bands with a length greater than 200 µm. These observations suggested that CaF2 could effectively reduce the surface tension of the newly generated alloy interface and promote the migration and polymerization of the alloy particles, which improves the beneficiation of nickel and iron by magnetic separation.

  7. Removal of As(III) and As(V) using iron-rich sludge produced from coal mine drainage treatment plant.

    Yang, Jung-Seok; Kim, Young-Soo; Park, Sang-Min; Baek, Kitae


    To test the feasibility of the reuse of iron-rich sludge (IRS) produced from a coal mine drainage treatment plant for removing As(III) and As(V) from aqueous solutions, we investigated various parameters, such as contact time, pH, initial As concentration, and competing ions, based on the IRS characterization. The IRS consisted of goethite and calcite, and had large surface area and small particles. According to energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy mapping results, As was mainly removed by adsorption onto iron oxides. The adsorption kinetic studies showed that nearly 70 % adsorption of As was achieved within 1 h, and the pseudo-second-order model well explained As sorption on the IRS. The adsorption isotherm results agreed with the Freundlich isotherm model, and the maximum adsorption capacities for As(III) and As(V) were 66.9 and 21.5 mg/g, respectively, at 293 K. In addition, the adsorption showed the endothermic character. At high pH or in the presence of phosphate, the adsorption of As was decreased. When the desorption experiment was conducted to reuse the IRS, 85 % As was desorbed with 1.0 N NaOH. In the column experiment, adsorbed As in real acid mine drainage was 43 % of the maximum adsorbed amount of As in the batch test. These results suggested that the IRS is an effective adsorbent for As and can be effectively applied for the removal of As in water and wastewater.

  8. Heavy metal contaminations in soil-rice system: source identification in relation to a sulfur-rich coal burning power plant in Northern Guangdong Province, China.

    Wang, Xiangqin; Zeng, Xiaoduo; Chuanping, Liu; Li, Fangbai; Xu, Xianghua; Lv, Yahui


    Heavy metal contents (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in 99 pairs of soil-rice plant samples were evaluated from the downwind directions of a large thermal power plant in Shaoguan City, Guangdong Province, China. Results indicate that there is a substantial buildup of As, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn in the predominant wind direction of the power plant. The significant correlations between S and heavy metals in paddy soil suggest that the power plant represents a source of topsoil heavy metals in Shaoguan City due to sulfur-rich coal burning emissions. Elevated Cd concentrations were also found in rice plant tissues. Average Cd (0.69 mg kg(-1)) and Pb (0.39 mg kg(-1)) contents in rice grain had exceeded their maximum permissible limits (both were 0.2 mg kg(-1)) in foods of China (GB2762-2005). The enrichment of Cd and Pb in rice grain might pose a potential health risk to the local residents.

  9. Two-Stage Separation of V(IV) and Al(III) by Crystallization and Solvent Extraction from Aluminum-Rich Sulfuric Acid Leaching Solution of Stone Coal

    Shi, Qihua; Zhang, Yimin; Liu, Tao; Huang, Jing; Liu, Hong


    To improve separation of V(IV) and Al(III) from aluminum-rich sulfuric acid leaching solution of stone coal, the two-stage separation by crystallization and solvent extraction methods have been developed. A co-extraction coefficient (k) was put forward to evaluate comprehensively co-extraction extent in different solutions. In the crystallization stage, 68.2% of aluminum can be removed from the solution. In the solvent extraction stage, vanadium was selectively extracted using di-2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid/tri-n-butyl phosphate from the crystalline mother solution, followed by H2SO4 stripped efficiently. A V2O5 product with purity of 98.39% and only 0.10% Al was obtained after oxidation, precipitation, and calcination. Compared with vanadium extraction from solution without crystallization, the counter-current extraction stage of vanadium can be decreased from 6 to 3 and co-extraction coefficient (k) decreased from 2.51 to 0.58 with two-stage separation. It is suggested that the aluminum removal by crystallization can evidently weaken the influence of aluminum co-extraction on vanadium extraction and improve the selectivity of solvent extraction for vanadium.

  10. Czech Delegation visiting the LHC magnet string test

    Laurent Guiraud


    List of participants: Czech Technical University, Prague; Charles University, Prague; Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic; Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic and Association of Innovation Enterprising, Czech Republic

  11. Welcome to Czech Art Festival in Beijing!


    @@ A glimpse of exoticism from Czechia in golden Beijing! Czech Embassy will give a panorama of natural environment,history and relics,cultural fruits and industrial development of the Czech Republic to everyone.


    Pavel Zapletal


    Full Text Available The present-day micro-climatic conditions in black coal mines are of such nature that in no mine natural micro-climate conditioning is sufficient any more. The original temperature of rocks grows progressively in dependence on the increasing depth of the extracted seam, or more precisely, on the mining workplace, and this growth is much more significant than previously considered. The temperature of the surrounding rocks, but also high-performance continuous miners and conveyor belt drives heat up airflow, thus worsening microclimatic conditions. This article describes micro-climatic conditions the in Czech Republic and Ukraine and some methods of deep mines air conditioning.

  13. Biogerontology in the Czech Republic.

    Holmerová, Iva; Vanková, Hana; Jurasková, Bozena


    Authors provide results of their review of research in the field of biogerontology. Despite the fact that the term "biogerontology" is not commonly used in Czech scientific practice, there have been many research efforts in this field. Up to present, the Czech research teams have focused on the theoretical and biological models of ageing, its immunological aspects, the risk factors of unsuccessfull human ageing, and also metabolic and nutritional factors. Many research teams are dealing with the mechanisms of the neurodegeneration. The authors conclude that better coordination and systematic funding of research in gerontology is needed because of the actual demographic challenges.

  14. Methods for determining the CO2 sorption capacity of coal: Experimental and theoretical high pressure isotherms

    Weishauptová, Zuzana; Přibyl, Oldřich


    One way to reduce CO2 emissions discharged into the atmosphere is by trapping it and storing it in suitable repositories, including coal-bearing strata. The history of coal mining in the Czech Republic is very rich but most of the mines have been closed down in recent years. However, the unmined coal seams are interesting for the purposes of CO2 storage, especially due the opportunities they offer for recovering coal-bed methane. Mine structures of this kind can be found in large parts of the Upper Silesian Basin, where the total storage capacity has been estimated at about 380 Mt CO2. This is an interesting storage potential. In order to identify a suitable high-capacity locality for CO2 storage within a coal seam, it is necessary to study not only the geological conditions within the seam, but also the textural properties of the coal, which control the mechanism and the extent of the storage. The major storage mechanism is by sorption processes that take place in the coal porous system (adsorption in micropores and on the surface of meso/macropores, and absorption in the macromolecular structure). The CO2 sorption capacity is generally indirectly determined in a laboratory by measuring the amount of carbon dioxide captured in a coal sample at a pressure and temperature corresponding to the in situ conditions, using high pressure sorption techniques. The low pressure sorption technique can be used, by setting the partial volumes of CO2 according to its binding and storage mode. The sorption capacity is determined by extrapolation to the saturation pressure as the sum of the individual partially sorbed volumes. The aim of the study was to determine the partial volumes of CO2 bound by different mechanisms in the individual parts of the porous system of the coal, and to compare the sum with the results obtained by the high pressure isotherm. The study was carried out with 3 samples from a borehole survey in the Czech part of the Upper Silesian Basin. A high pressure

  15. Genealogies of Czech Literary History

    Pavlína Rychterová


    Full Text Available The article analyses the most important and most influential narratives of the history of Czech medieval literature that were produced from the beginnings of modern historiography and literary history in the 19th century onwards. The question is how the character of individual narratives and their socio-historical contexts influenced the questions, topics and areas of interest in research on the history of medieval literatures in Bohemia. For Czech literature, such analysis is especially important, because it shows that the problems the history of Czech literature has had to fight from its modern beginnings are also the problems of any new approach that literary historiography may pursue in future, from whatever point of departure. The narratives on which the article focuses are built on an amalgamation of the history of society, language and literature, which a makes it difficult to supersede them and b makes any detailed research on transmitted texts look less important. Here lies one of the challenges for future research: the relation of language, text and social and political history has to be analysed in detail, because it is only via their conflation that a coherent narrative of the history of Czech literature has been maintained in the past.

  16. Czech Children's Drawing of Nature

    Yilmaz, Zuhal; Kubiatko, Milan; Topal, Hatice


    Do world children draw nature pictures in a certain way? Range of mountains in the background, a sun, couple clouds, a river rising from mountains. Is this type of drawing universal in the way these nature items are organized on a drawing paper? The sample size from Czech Republic included 33 participants from two kindergartens. They were 5 and 6…

  17. Czech Student Attitudes towards Geography

    Kubiatko, Milan; Janko, Tomas; Mrazkova, Katerina


    This study investigates 540 Czech lower secondary students' attitudes towards geography. It examined the general influence of gender and grade level on attitudes towards geography with an emphasis on four specific areas in particular: geography as a school subject; geography and the environment; the importance of geography; and the relevance of…

  18. Application of response surface methodology to assess the combined effect of operating variables on high-pressure coal gasification for H2-rich gas production

    Fermoso Domínguez, Javier; Gil Matellanes, María Victoria; Arias Rozada, Borja; González Plaza, Marta; Pevida García, Covadonga; Pis Martínez, José Juan; Rubiera González, Fernando


    Coal gasification was performed by means of a high-pressure fixed bed gasifier fitted with a solids feeding system in continuous mode, using oxygen and steam as gasifying agents. The main aim of the paper was to assess the combined effects of the operating variables (temperature, oxygen and steam concentrations) on high-pressure coal gasification. To this end a face centered central composite design (FCCCD) based on response surface methodology (RSM) was used. The response variables studied w...

  19. Recent advances in coal geologyoutcome of the 10th Coal Geology Conference

    JiriPesek; StanislavOplustil


    The 10th Coal Geology Conference, jointly organized by the Faculty of Science of the Charles University in Prague, the Czech Geological Survey and the Institute of Geology of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, took place in June 7-11, 2004, at the Faculty of Science. The coal geology conferences have been held at the faculty every three or four years since 1972. They were preceded by coal geology seminars which began even earlier, in January 1968.These seminars and conferences provided an excellent opportunity to exchange knowledge and new information on coal geology and related fields and, above all, to bring together people from various fields starting with science and ending up with a wide spectrum of interests.

  20. Implementing INSPIRE for the Czech

    Jiří Poláček


    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to the topic of the implementation of INSPIRE directive within the Information System of the Czech Cadastre of Real Estates. The procedure of implementation of the INSPIRE directive for cadastral related themes, which started in 2008, is followed. Currently running view and download services as well as experience with its operational run are described. Finally an overview of the implementation problems and scheduled follow-up activities are outlined.

  1. Czech medical faculties and smoking.

    Králíková, E; Kozák, J; Rames, J; Zámecník, L; Wallenfels, I


    At the 1st Medical Faculty of Charles University in Prague the prevalence of smoking was investigated among the faculty, staff, students and among health professionals in the country. We found 38.1% smokers (current and occasional) among malephysicians (N = 625), 25.6% smokers among women physicians (N = 394), 48.7% smoking nurses (N = 729) and 42.3% smokers among paramedical staff (N = 298). We have also followed up smoking habits among our students since 1989 (N = 1235). The number of smokers among them rose from 7% in 1989 to 18% in 1994. Students were also asked about their opinion on smoking as a risk factor for coronary heart disease which has a rising trend. Trying to coordinate the anti-smoking activity at all seven medical faculties in the Czech Republic, in collaboration with the Faculty of Medicine of Masaryk University in Brno, the National Centre for Health Promotion and the Czech Commission of EMASH, present the main points of the anti-smoking strategy at Czech medical faculties.

  2. Czech art history and Marxism

    Milena Bartlová


    Full Text Available Czech art history in the 20th century has been strongly informed by the tradition of the Vienna School. After the Communist takeover of power in 1948, Marxism – or more precisely Marxism-Leninism – became a compulsory philosophical approach. After a brief Stalinist phase, an ‘iconologic turn’ was construed by Jaromír Neumann before 1960: iconology was reframed in terms of Dvořák´s ‘spiritual history’ and the result was labelled Marxist, as it enabled to provide a direct access to the ideology of the past without having to pay attention to class and social relations. Frederick Antal´s or Arnold Hauser´s social history of art was rejected, the main focus was on the noetic qualities of artworks and the main topic the debate of realism. As a result, Czech art history was pursued as an elitist discipline in the humanist tradition, but it did not need to participate in the search for ‘humanist Marxism’ or revisionism which was typical for the East-Central Europe in the 1960. Dvořák-type iconology combined with formalist approach and belief in a validity of the laws of develompent remained attractive for Czech art history up to the 1990s.

  3. Beneficiated coals' char morphology

    Diana Vargas


    Full Text Available This work evaluated the char morphology of beneficiated and original coal (without beneficiation from four Colombian coalmines: Cerrejón (La Guajira, La Jagua (Cesar, Guachinte (Valle del Cauca and Nechí (Antioquia. Column flotation was used to obtain beneficiated coal, whereas a drop tube reactor at 1,000°C, 104 °C/s heating rate and 100 ms residence time was used to obtain char. The chars were analysed by image analysis which determined their shape, size, porosity and wall thickness. It was found that char morphology depended on coal rank and maceral composition. Morphological characteristics like high porosity, thinner walls and network-like morphology which are beneficial in improving combustion were present in vitrinite- and liptinite-rich lowest-ranking coals. Beneficiated coals showed that their chars had better performance regarding their morphological characteristics than their original coal chars.

  4. Arthropod cuticles in coal

    Bartram, K.M.; Jeram, A.J.; Selden, P.A.


    An abundance of scorpion cuticles from Westphalian (Upper Carboniferous) coals of Yorkshire is described, and other records of arthropod cuticles in coals are reviewed. The absence of cuticles assignable to arthropod groups other than scorpions is thought to be due to preferential preservation of the unique exocuticle of scorpions; it alone is preserved and appears to retain an organic nature. The cuticle is recovered from all the lithotypes of humic bituminous coals although it is most common in coals rich in inertinite macerals. From the present study it is uncertain whether the scorpions were aquatic or terrestrial. The recognition of arthropod cuticle as a coal maceral could aid environmental interpretations. The abundance of arthropod cuticle in the coals studied indicates its potential use in correlation and in determining the thermal maturity of sediments. 37 refs., 1 fig.

  5. Potential Unconventional Gas Plays in the Mature Basin of the Czech Republic

    Bujok Petr


    Full Text Available The presence of unconventional resources has been proven in deeper parts of mature oil and gas provinces and coal basins of the world. In this context, it is worth to focus also on the prospects of unconventional gas production from within hydrocarbon provinces of the Moravian part of the Vienna basin. The estimation of hydrocarbon generation potential of Jurasic marls from the Mikulov Formation of the Czech part of the Vienna Basin was performed based on the Rock Eval pyrolysis.

  6. Phonetic Alphabet for Speech Recognition of Czech

    J. Uhlir


    Full Text Available In the paper we introduce and discuss an alphabet that has been proposed for phonemicly oriented automatic speech recognition. The alphabet, denoted as a PAC (Phonetic Alphabet for Czech consists of 48 basic symbols that allow for distinguishing all major events occurring in spoken Czech language. The symbols can be used both for phonetic transcription of Czech texts as well as for labeling recorded speech signals. From practical reasons, the alphabet occurs in two versions; one utilizes Czech native characters and the other employs symbols similar to those used for English in the DARPA and NIST alphabets.

  7. Petrochemistry of coal ash slags. I. Formation of melilite and a high temperature glass from a calcium-rich, silica-deficient slag

    Schobert, H.H.; Barbie, D.L.; Christensen, O.D.; Kerner, F.R.


    Pilot plant studies are being conducted of a fixed-bed slagging coal gasification process. Lignite from the Indianhead mine is reacted with steam and oxygen in a gasifier at hearth zone temperatures over 1650/sup 0/C. Slag samples were subjected to chemical and petrographic analysis. Layers of layered slag modules were analyzed; the inner layers contain abundant melilite while the outer core is a glass. Results show that the characteristics of the coal ash slag can be affected by temperature fluctuations in the gasifier hearth, and that chemical, flow, and heat transfer behavior are all susceptible to change as a result. 8 figs., 3 tables. (DLC)

  8. Grey Literature in the Czech Republic

    Pejšová, Petra; Pfeiferová, Martina


    Contribution summarizes activities concerning grey literature in the Czech Republic. Contribution describes relationships between systems/projects collecting grey literature and position grey literature in the Czech Digital Library. Contribution is especially focused on a project “The Digital Library for Grey Literature –Functional Model and Pilot Implementation”, which solves the State Technical Library.

  9. Czech Comparative Education in the Bipolar World

    Walterova, Eliska


    This article considers the influence of official government policy on Czech comparative education, by tracing changes in its ideological and geopolitical orientation, as well as attempts by the Czech education community to sustain a balance in international orientation toward notions of democracy and human progress. The period of the cold war…

  10. Clean coal - a national urgency

    Gupta, S.M.; Sahai, R. [Indian Bureau of Mines, Nagpur (India). Technical Consultancy Division


    India is the third largest producer and consumer of coal in the world. Coal generally has a high ash content, thereby requiring that it be cleaned for proper use. Technological advances now make it possible to reduce pollution considerably, even as energy use increases. However, to reduce environmental impacts, technologies for cleaning coal before combustion need to be developed. The paper focuses on the need for clean coal production and the benefits associated with it. Although the country is rich in coal reserves, the generally inferior quality of coal will lead to its depletion if it is not used cleanly. Increasing the proportion of prepared coal from the current level of less than 5% (i.e. 10-11 million tonnes per annum) of all coal consumed will lead to a massive saving. This can be achieved if new washeries are set up, preferably near the coalfields. 2 figs.

  11. Business Model for Czech Agribusiness

    Poláková Jana


    Full Text Available Business modelling facilitates the understanding of value creation logic in organizations in general. Identifying the components of business models based on different criteria helps understanding the fundamentals of business and the position of entrepreneurs and managers in companies. The present research is focused on the definition of a specific business model for the Czech agribusiness sector. Based on the theoretical background and evaluation of selected business models, the aim is to create a new business model, using components which take into account the specifics of this particular industry.


    Vlastimil Hudeček


    Full Text Available In the article, degasification methods to drain the gas from the underground parts of coal mines in the Czech Republic are described. The authors are concerned with the possibilities of and new trends in ensuring safety by means of drilling operations. Examples of applications of degasification in mine plants in the Czech Republic, above all in a hard coal deposit in the Ostrava-Karviná Coalfield in the Upper Silesian Basin are presented.

  13. Isotopic composition of salt efflorescence from the sandstone castellated rocks of the Bohemian Cretaceous Basin (Czech Republic)

    Schweigstillová, Jana; Přikryl, Richard; Novotná, Miroslava


    The origin of sulphates in sulphate-rich efflorescences on quartz sandstones with a clay matrix, exposed in rural areas of the Czech Republic is interpreted, based upon an isotopic study of S and O. Sulphates such as gypsum and/or alums exhibit δ34S ranging from +1.3 to +6.1‰ and δ18O from +5.3 to +8.8‰. The low variability of S and O isotopes indicates a common source of the sulphur and a similar mode of sulphate formation. Atmospheric sulphates with a similar isotopic signature occur in the area, due to the combustion of sulphurous coal in power plants, located a few tens of kilometres from the sampling points. The sulphates crystallize from supersaturated pore waters that represent atmospheric precipitation, rich in sulphates, having percolated through the porous sandstone system. The previously proposed model of efflorescence growth (that it is due to the oxidation of pyrite) can be excluded, due to both the rare occurrence of pyrite and also to its different isotopic signature (δ34S about -22‰). Although gypsum prevails in the central and eastern part of the studied area, the north and north-west of the Bohemian Cretaceous Basin (the most polluted region) exhibits a significant presence of alums (NH4 + or K+-NH4 +-rich). Formation of alums can be explained by the partial dissolution of clay minerals or feldspars present in the sandstone matrix. Release of alumina from these phases is facilitated by the low pH of the precipitation (pH 4-4.5) and also locally by organic acids, traces of which were found in the studied efflorescences by the use of infrared spectroscopy.

  14. European and Czech principles of contract law

    Balážová, Júlia


    8 Summary European and Czech Principles of Contract Law This thesis is focused on principles of contract law. In the first instance, it explains the theoretical conception of principles of law and adverts to their status in the Czech legal system. The second Chapter of the thesis dissertates about basic principles of the Czech private law starting with the principle of freedom of contract, ends with the principles of good faith and fair dealing. The main part of the thesis deals with the Euro...

  15. [Two anniversaries in Czech forensic medicine].

    Nečas, P; Hejna, P


    The authors commemorate the 100th anniversary of the publication of Slavíks textbook Forensic Pathology for Medical and Legal Students and the 125th anniversary of the 1st Czech forensic autopsy. They introduce professor V. Slavík and describe his personal qualities and expertise. The content of the textbook is described. The topicality of Slavíks explanations and the tradition of Czech forensic pathology are discussed. Key words: forensic pathology - history of Czech forensic pathology - textbooks of forensic pathology.

  16. Grey Literature in the Czech Republic

    Pejsova, Petra (NTK); Pfeiferova, Martina (NTK); GreyNet, Grey Literature Network Service


    Our contribution summarizes and describes activities concerning grey literature in the Czech Republic. The managing organisation of the activity is the State Technical Library (henceforth the STL); in the past, it was the STL, who was collecting, publishing and submitting grey literature into the SIGLE system. Moreover, the STL was the representative of the Czech Republic in the EAGLE. Now, EAGLE being extinct, there is no coordinated collection of grey literature on the national level since ...

  17. The Skinhead Subculture in the Czech Republic

    Smolík, Josef


    This article briefly describes the skinhead subculture, its history, components, characteristics, values, attitudes and norms. It also presents the various currents of the subculture, with an emphasis on the current apolitical trend within this subculture. The article discusses not only the skinhead subculture in England (its roots, development, etc.), but also the situation in the Czech Republic. The skinhead scene in the Czech Republic is characterised by disunity, caused by political...

  18. Approaches to Czech Passenger Railway Market Liberalisation

    Tomeš Zdeněk; Jandová Monika


    Competition on the Czech railway passenger market has been developing recently. It is possible to distinguish two types of competition – unregulated competition (competition on the market) and regulated competition (competition for the market). Competition on the market is present on the Prague–Ostrava route and competition for the market has been applied in a few public tenders for subsidised services. However, the substantial part of the Czech railway passenger market has remained closed an...

  19. Liquidity of Czech and Slovak commercial banks

    Pavla Vodová


    Full Text Available As liquidity problems of some banks during global financial crisis re-emphasized, liquidity is very important for functioning of financial markets and the banking sector. The aim of this paper is therefore to evaluate comprehensively the liquidity positions of Czech and Slovak commercial banks via different liquidity ratios in the period of 2001–2010 and to find out whether the strategy for liquidity management differs by the size of the bank. We used unconsolidated balance sheet data over the period from 2001 to 2010 which were obtained from annual reports of Czech and Slovak banks. The sample includes significant part of Czech and Slovak banking sector (not only by the number of banks, but also by their share on total banking assets. We have calculated five different liquidity ratios for each bank in the sample. The results showed that liquidity of Czech banks has declined during last ten years. On the contrary, liquidity of Slovak banks fluctuated only slightly during the period 2001–2008. Bank liquidity has fallen due to the financial crisis in both countries; the impact is worse for Slovak banks. Both Czech and Slovak banks have become less liquid also as a result of increase in lending activity. Czech and Slovak banks have the same strategies how to insure against liquidity crises: big banks rely on the interbank market or on a liquidity assistance of the Lender of Last Resort, small and medium sized banks hold buffer of liquid assets.

  20. Market Power in the Czech Banking Sector

    Řepková Iveta


    Full Text Available This paper estimates the market power in the Czech banking sector during the period 2000 2010. In order to measure the degree of market power in the Czech banking sector, the authors used the Lerner index, the Herfindahl-Hirschman index and the concentration ratio. The Lerner index is applied to data from 15 banks, which covers about 90% of the Czech banking market. The paper describes the theoretical framework of the competition, especially the Lerner index and measures of concentration. Authors also compute separate Lerner index for the Czech credit market and the Czech deposit market. The estimations of the Lerner index do not confirm either monopoly or perfect competition structure in the Czech banking sector over the period analyzed. The competition decreased in the period 2000-2005 which was affected by the decrease in the price of funds and capital. However, the competition increased in the period 2005-2010, and it was influenced by the increase in the price of funds and capital. From the value obtained from the Lerner index, it was found that the lowest competition was in the deposit market.

  1. Oxidative damage-related genes AKR1C3 and OGG1 modulate risks for lung cancer due to exposure to PAH-rich coal combustion emissions

    Lan, Q.; Mumford, J.L.; Shen, M.; DeMarini, D.M.; Bonner, M.R.; He, X.Z.; Yeager, M.; Welch, R.; Chanock, S.; Tian, L.W.; Chapman, R.S.; Zheng, T.Z.; Keohavong, P.; Caporaso, N.; Rothman, N. [NCI, Bethesda, MD (US). Division of Epidemiology and Genetics


    Lung cancer rates among men and particularly among women, almost all of whom are non-smokers, in Xuan Wei County, China are among the highest in China and have been causally associated with exposure to indoor smoky coal emissions that contain very high levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). As such, this population provides a unique opportunity to study the pathogenesis of PAH-induced lung cancer that is not substantially influenced by the large number of other carcinogenic constituents of tobacco smoke. Aldo-keto reductases (AKRs) activate PAH dihydrodiols to yield their corresponding reactive and redox-active o-quinones, which can then generate reactive oxygen species that cause oxidative DNA damage. We therefore examined the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in four genes (AKR1C3-Gln5His, NQO1-Pro187Ser, MnSOD-Val16Ala and OGG1-Ser326Cys) that play a role in the generation, prevention or repair of oxidative damage and lung cancer risk in a population-based, case-control study of 119 cases and 113 controls in Xuan Wei, China. The AKR1C3-Gln/Gln genotype was associated with a 1.84-fold increased risk and the combined OGG1-Cys/Cys and Ser/Cys genotypes were associated with a 1.93-fold increased risk of lung cancer. Subgroup analysis revealed that the effects were particularly elevated among women who had relatively high cumulative exposure to smoky coal. SNPs in MnSOD and NQO1 were not associated with lung cancer risk. These results suggest that SNPs in the oxidative stress related-genes AKR1C3 and OGG1 may play a role in the pathogenesis of lung cancer in this population, particularly among heavily exposed women.

  2. Total Petroleum Systems of the North Carpathian Province of Poland, Ukraine, Czech Republic, and Austria

    Pawlewicz, Mark


    Three total petroleum systems were identified in the North Carpathian Province (4047) that includes parts of Poland, Ukraine, Austria, and the Czech Republic. They are the Isotopically Light Gas Total Petroleum System, the Mesozoic-Paleogene Composite Total Petroleum System, and the Paleozoic Composite Total Petroleum System. The Foreland Basin Assessment Unit of the Isotopically Light Gas Total Petroleum System is wholly contained within the shallow sedimentary rocks of Neogene molasse in the Carpathian foredeep. The biogenic gas is generated locally as the result of bacterial activity on dispersed organic matter. Migration is also believed to be local, and gas is believed to be trapped in shallow stratigraphic traps. The Mesozoic-Paleogene Composite Total Petroleum System, which includes the Deformed Belt Assessment Unit, is structurally complex, and source rocks, reservoirs, and seals are juxtaposed in such a way that a single stratigraphic section is insufficient to describe the geology. The Menilite Shale, an organic-rich rock widespread throughout the Carpathian region, is the main hydrocarbon source rock. Other Jurassic to Cretaceous formations also contribute to oil and gas in the overthrust zone in Poland and Ukraine but in smaller amounts, because those formations are more localized than the Menilite Shale. The Paleozoic Composite Total Petroleum System is defined on the basis of the suspected source rock for two oil or gas fields in western Poland. The Paleozoic Reservoirs Assessment Unit encompasses Devonian organic-rich shale believed to be a source of deep gas within the total petroleum system. East of this field is a Paleozoic oil accumulation whose source is uncertain; however, it possesses geochemical similarities to oil generated by Upper Carboniferous coals. The undiscovered resources in the North Carpathian Province are, at the mean, 4.61 trillion cubic feet of gas and 359 million barrels of oil. Many favorable parts of the province have been

  3. Organic food market in the Czech Republic

    Iva Živělová


    Full Text Available The contribution provides partial results of the research focused on organic food, a product from organic farming. The total area of ecologically farmed areas in the Czech Republic permanently increases, however the offer of organic food is insufficient, in particular in view of their structure. Deficiency in organic food is being solved by imports. Distributors play an important role in the organic food market. In the Czech Republic the largest share from them is occupied by retail chains. Their share continues to grow to the detriment of other sales channels. One of the main factors affecting consumers’ interest in organic food is its price. The comparison of organic food prices and prices of conventional food in the selected retail chains, Globus Czech Republic, limited partnership, SPAR Czech business company Pte., Tesco Stores CZ JSC, AHOLD Czech Republic JSC, BILLA Pte., and in organic food and healthy nutrition stores showed significantly higher prices. The smallest difference in prices can be monitored in the milk and milk products. On the contrary, the largest difference is in fruits, vegetables, eggs and jams. However, the consumers’ awareness of organic food quality is at the same time increasing and the consumers are willing to pay for them a higher price.

  4. Open Access Week 2011 in the Czech Republic (Report

    Pavla Rygelová


    Full Text Available The awareness of open access is slowly rising in the Czech academic environment. Both green open access and gold open access have broken through thanks to Open Access Week, which has for the second time been organized by twelve Czech university libraries, the National Technical Library, and the Library of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, under the auspices of the Association of Libraries of Czech Universities.

  5. Family Enterprise in Czech Civil Code

    Janku Martin


    Full Text Available For more than two decades the family business enterprises of the first generation (generation of founders are more and more dominating in the category of today’s small and medium–sized enterprises in the Czech Republic. The necessary legal background defining the legal relationships and rights of all participating persons was, however, limited to general provisions in the Commercial Code that has not solved many of the problems associated thereto. Only in 2012 the new Czech Civil Code, Act. No 89/2012 Coll., introduced the institute of family enterprise as completely new term in the Czech Civil law. The presented paper aims to analyse the key rules of this new legal regulation, focusing on significant aspects of the institute in the context of commercial law and family law, as well as, to highlight the potential weaknesses and gaps existing in the regulation.

  6. Transfer pricing and the Czech tax policy

    Veronika Solilová


    Full Text Available The Czech Republic as a small open economy with an extensive network of the international tax treaties for the avoidance of the double taxation prevents from shifting the tax base of the associated enterprises to countries with preferential tax regime through transfer pricing rules. Transfer pricing as one of the important areas of international taxes determines how the profits of the multinational enterprises are split between the jurisdictions in which they operate and which countries get to tax those profits. This situation may affect the global budget of the multinational enterprises and the tax reve­nues of the jurisdictions. This paper is focused on the transfer pricing rules used in the Czech Republic and makes recommendations for the Czech tax policy in this area based on the analysis of the transfer pricing rules in the EU Member States.

  7. A Simple Czech and English Probabilistic Tagger: A Comparison.

    Hladka, Barbora; Hajic, Jan

    An experiment compared the tagging of two languages: Czech, a highly inflected language with a high degree of ambiguity, and English. For Czech, the corpus was one gathered in the 1970s at the Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences; for English, it was the Wall Street Journal corpus. Results indicate 81.53 percent accuracy for Czech and 96.83 percent…

  8. Breeding habitat of sparrowhawks, Accipiter nisus on spoil heaps after coal mining

    Šálek, Miroslav; Hendrychová, Markéta; Řehoř, Michal


    Natural succession of spoil heaps after brown coal mining leads to the development of rich plant and invertebrate communities and therefore has been considered a proper alternative to conventional reclamation practice. Little is known, however, about the effects of these alternative approaches on vertebrate predators. This study analyses nest-site choice of the sparrowhawk, Accipiter nisus on afforested spoil heaps in the brown coal basin of north-west Bohemia, Czech Republic. Nest places of sparrowhawks, numbers of their main prey (small birds) and habitat attributes were investigated in 2007 and 2008 on 28 individual spoil heaps that were either reclaimed by silviculture or spontaneously afforested. Our results revealed preferences of breeding sparrowhawks for spontaneously developed birch growths with diverse mosaics of tree clumps, open patches and edge structures, all providing for opportunities to hunt. In addition, the proximity of large forests positively influenced nest-site choice of sparrowhawks. Although small birds were more abundant on Successions than Reclamations, our results did not suggest that numbers of this main prey were of higher importance for the sparrowhawks than habitat components of prey availability. These results highlight the importance of spontaneous succession as a rehabilitation alternative in post-mining landscapes.

  9. Foreign Controlled Companies in the Czech Economy

    Drahomíra Dubská


    Full Text Available The article analyzes infl ux of foreign direct investment into the Czech Republic from the territorial point of view and partly from the perspective of receiving branches. However, it is primarily focused on impacts of this infl ux, i.e. creation of an institutional sub-sector of foreign controlled companies. They operate mainlyin the sector of non-fi nancial corporations and dominate in sector of fi nancial institutions in the Czech Republic. This analysis is concentrated on the weight of foreign controlled companies on the performance and income characteristics of these two sectors and Czech economy as a whole, as well. Development of output, intermediate consumption and gross value added is used for non-financial foreign controlled companies as the performance characteristics and then profi ts and paid-out wages as the income characteristics. Problem oftaxes paid by these companies to the state budget is mentioned and development of their investment in fixed assets, as well. Financial foreign controlled companies are viewed in terms of their proportion of total assets, loans and deposits, capital and reserves and capital adequacy ratio. Finally, impact of foreign direct investment on employment and gross value added in branches of economy is analyzed and double-tracking in industry is identified. Conclusion summarizes benefits and negative effects of the foreign controlled companies in the Czech Republic within their existing presence in 1995–2009.

  10. Little Czech Mole,Deep Affection From

    Yang Wei; Guo Yan


    @@ Do you remember the little animated character in The Mole? The famous mole has lived for over 86 years in this animation movie which was made by Studio Bratri vtriku,Czech.When I was still a child,I was a crazy fan of this kind-hearted but a little silly mole.

  11. Czech, Slovak science ten years after split


    Ten years after the split of Czechoslovakia Czech and Slovak science are facing the same difficulties: shortage of money for research, poor salaries, obsolete equipment and brain drain, especially of the young, according to a feature in the Daily Lidove Noviny (1 page).

  12. [Hypertension and hypercholesterolemia in the Czech population].

    Wohlfahrt, Peter; Krajčoviechová, Alena; Bruthans, Jan; Cífková, Renata

    Hypertension and hypercholesterolemia are inter-related ad mutually potentiating cardiovascular risk factors, which, when occurring together, strongly accelerate atherosclerosis and significantly increase cardiovascular risk.The aim of our study was to assess the prevalence and control of both risk factors in the Czech population. A 1 % population random sample aged 40-64 years was examined within the Czech post-MONICA in 2006-2009. Hypertension was defined as systolic blood pressure 140 mm Hg and/or diastolic BP 90 mm Hg or use of antihypertensive medication. Hypercholesterolemia was defined according to cardiovascular risk and LDL-cholesterol levels or use of lipid-lowering drugs. In a group of 2 508 persons (51 % of females), hypertension was found in 52 % and hypercholesterolemia in 40 % of examined individuals. Both risk factors occurred together in 30 % of subjects. While lipid-lowering drugs were used by 39 % of individuals with hypertension and hypercholesterolemia, target LDL-cholesterol were achieved by only 42 % of treated individuals. Only a total of 10 % individuals with both hypertension and hypercholesterolemia achieved target levels for both risk factors. Treatment and control of hypercholesterolemia in patients with hypertension remains unsatisfactory in the Czech Republic. Taking into account the high prevalence of hypercholesterolemia and the substantial increase in cardiovascular risk, lipid-lowering drugs should be considered in each patient with hypertension.Key words: antihypertensive drugs - Czech post-MONICA - lipid-lowering drugs - SCORE - target values - total cardiovascular risk.

  13. Business judgement rule in Czech Corporations Act

    Jaromír KOŽIAK


    Full Text Available Czech private law is currently undergoing a thorough transformation. This inclundes adoption of a brand new Corporations Act, which is to supersede the current Commercial Code. The new legislation introduces several new rules governing liability of company executive officers. One of these is business judgment rule. It should provide company executive officers with a certain level of protection against litigantion – if specific terms are met, it is presumed, that they carried out their responsibilities with proper care. I intend to demonstrate, that the czech business judgment rule is flawed, despite the fact that it draws from foreign examples and that this regulation, although seemingly groundbreaking, in fact changes nothing in examination of the decisions of the company executive officers in Czech Republic. The main goal of this article is therefore to analyze and criticize the business judgment rule in the new Czech legislation and to compare it to notable foreign legal systems. The methods used are inductive and deductive reasoning, author‘s own analysis of legal text, comparative method and compilation of available resources relating to the topic of the article.

  14. Grids and clouds in the Czech NGI

    Kundrát, Jan; Adam, Martin; Adamová, Dagmar; Chudoba, Jiří; Kouba, Tomáš; Lokajíček, Miloš; Mikula, Alexandr; Říkal, Václav; Švec, Jan; Vohnout, Rudolf


    There are several infrastructure operators within the Czech Republic NGI (National Grid Initiative) which provide users with access to high-performance computing facilities over a grid and cloud interface. This article focuses on those where the primary author has personal first-hand experience. We cover some operational issues as well as the history of these facilities.

  15. Doing Business Economy Profile 2015 : Czech Republic


    This economy profile for Doing Business 2015 presents the 11 Doing Business indicators for the Czech Republic. To allow for useful comparison, the profile also provides data for other selected economies (comparator economies) for each indicator. Doing Business 2015 is the 12th edition in a series of annual reports measuring the regulations that enhance business activity and those that cons...

  16. The patent activity of the Czech R

    Kučera Zdeněk


    Full Text Available An effective knowledge transfer between research institutions and industry is a significant bottleneck in the national innovation system. CR adopted in recent years a series of systemic measures aimed to stimulate the orientation of the R&D organizations towards the generation of knowledge directly applicable in the innovation process and more generally to improve the collaboration of the R&D establishment with the industry. In the majority of programs supporting the applied research patents and industrial designs and utility models are among the anticipated results. The Methodology of the evaluation of R&D organizations implemented in the second half of the last decade brought financial bonuses for the creation of the results in the category of industrial property. Despite of this stimulus CR lags behind the technologically advanced EU countries in the patent activities. The topic of this article is a comparison of the protection of the industrial property rights in the Czech higher education institutions and governmental R&D institutions with selected EU countries. We make use of a couple of quantitative indicators to assess the quality and the technological and the commercial potential of the produced industrial property. Despite a dynamic growth of the patent applications in the CR the number of patent applications relative to the country size is far below the EU-15 average. The Czech research organizations contribute to a higher extent to the number of patent applications then do the analogous institutions in EU-15 countries where the majority of patent applications come from the industrial sphere. The Czech research organizations mainly limit the patent rights to the Czech Republic whereas in the EU-15 countries the opposite is preponderant and only a small fraction of patent applications remains limited to the national environment. Thus the majority of the Czech patents created by research organizations cannot be commercialized on the

  17. Advanced power assessment for Czech lignite task 3.6. Topical report

    Sondreal, E.A.; Mann, M.D.; Weber, G.W.; Young, B.C.


    Major reforms in the Czech energy sector have been initiated to reverse 40 years of central planning, subsidized energy pricing, unchecked pollution from coal-fired plants, concerns over nuclear safety and fuel cycle management, and dependence on the former U.S.S.R. for oil, gas, and nuclear fuel processing. Prices for electricity, heat, and natural gas paid by industry are close to western levels, but subsidized prices for households are as much as 40% lower and below economic cost. State control of major energy enterprises is being reduced by moving toward government-regulated, investor-owned companies to raise needed capital, but with a strategic stake retained by the state. Foreign firms will participate in privatization, but they are not expected to acquire a controlling interest in Czech energy companies. Economic conditions in the Czech Republic are now improving after the disruptions caused by restructuring since 1989 and separation of the former Czech and Slovak Federal Republics in January 1993. The downturn in the economy after 1989 was concentrated in energy-intensive heavy industry, and recovery is paced by consumer trade, services, light industry and construction. Energy use in relation to gross domestic product (GDP) has declined, but it is still significantly higher than in OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) countries. The GDP increased by 2% in 1994 after dropping 22% between 1989 and 1993. A positive balance of payments has been achieved, with foreign investment offsetting a small trade deficit. The government`s external debt is only 4% of GDP. This report studies the application of lignite resources within the newly formulated energy policies of the republic, in light of a move toward privatization and stronger air pollution regulations. Lignite has represented the major energy source for the country.

  18. Short description of the Peruvian coal basins

    Carrascal-Miranda, Eitel R. [UNI, Lima (Peru); Suarez-Ruiz, Isabel [Instituto Nacional del Carbon (CSIC), Ap. Co., 73, 33080 Oviedo (Spain)


    This work synthesizes the main general characteristics of the Peruvian Coal Basins in relation to age, coal facies and coal rank. Peruvian coals are located in a series of coal basins from the Paleozoic to the Cenozoic age. Paleozoic coal seams are mainly of Mississippian age (Carboniferous). They are of continental origin and their reduced thickness and ash content are their main characteristics. Mesozoic coal seams (Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous) are located in the so-called Peruvian Western Basin and in the depressions close to the 'Maranon Geoanticline'. They were originated in deltaic facies under the influence of brackish and fresh waters. Some of these coal basins (those distributed in the central and northern parts of Peru) are relatively well known because they are of economic importance. Finally, Cenozoic coal seams (Tertiary) are found in both paralic and limnic basins and their reserves are limited. All the Peruvian coals are of humic character and are vitrinite-rich. Their rank is highly variable and normally related with the different orogenic events which strongly affected this region. Thus, Paleozoic and Mesozoic coals are of bituminous to anthracite/meta-anthracite coal rank while peats, lignite and subbituminous coals are found in Cenozoic basins.

  19. Primary and secondary prevention of colorectal cancer in the Czech Republic.

    Azeem, Kateřina; Ševčíková, Jarmila; Kyselý, Zdeněk; Horáková, Dagmar; Vlčková, Jana; Kollárová, Helena


    Colorectal cancer is one of the most frequent malignancies in the Czech Republic and worldwide. Also, a high prevalence of overweight and obesity, a high proportion of smokers in the population, and one of the highest per capita alcohol consumption rates are typical for the Czech population. The role of general practitioners in the prevention of colorectal cancer is crucial. In primary prevention, the doctor should emphasise the importance of a healthy lifestyle - a balanced diet rich in fruits and vegetables, maintaining a normal body weight, adequate physical activity, and non-smoking. In secondary prevention, patients should be informed about the possibilities of colorectal cancer screening and the benefits of early detection of the disease. Participation rates of the target population for colorectal cancer screening are low. Steps leading to increased participation in colorectal cancer screening (including postal invitations) play an important role in influencing the mortality of colorectal cancer.

  20. Electricity industry development trends and the environmental programs in the Czech Republic

    Karas, P. [CEZ, Prague (Czechoslovakia)


    The process of industrialization in the Czech Republic, which is more intensive than in other parts of central Europe, has been under way since the mid-nineteenth century. Over the last 40 years, large-scale industrial activity was based on extensive use of domestic primary energy sources, especially brown-coal/lignite. The escalation of this usage inflicted heavy devastation to large portions of industrial zones and, as a result, worsened living conditions through atmospheric pollution and other environmental impacts in large regions of central Europe. The Czech electricity industry and CEZ, a.s. (the nation`s principal electricity generator, responsible for meeting eighty percent of national electricity demand, and operator of the nationwide EHV transmission system) has been challenged to cope with all environmental issues by the end of 1997, in compliance with the strict limits set by the Clean Air Act of 1991, which are comparable to standard implemented in advanced industrial countries. A review of the critical environmental issues is presented and the role of the individual and of the State is analyzed. The approach of CEZ, a.s., towards a better natural environment and its response to legal environment provisions have been incorporated into the company`s development program. It comprises decommissioning the most obsolete fossil-fuel fired power stations; rehabilitation of thermal power plants; supplementing the coal/lignite-fired units selected for future operation with FGD systems and retrofitting them with DENOX equipment; a larger share of nuclear electricity generation after the completion of the Temelin NPP (2 units of 1000MW each) and, last but not least, initiating DSM (demand-side management) programs of energy-electricity savings in the Czech Republic.

  1. Characterization of Some Nigerian Coals for Power Generation

    M. Chukwu


    Full Text Available Five coal samples from Odagbo (Kogi State, Owukpa (Benue State, Ezimo (Enugu State, Amansiodo (Enugu State, and Inyi (Enugu State of Nigerian coal deposits were subjected to proximate analysis, ultimate analysis, calorific value determination, and petrographic and thermogravimetric analysis to determine their suitability for power generation. Based on results of tests carried out, Amansiodo coal is a bituminous, low sulphur, and medium ash coal, while Owukpa coal is a subbituminous A, low sulphur, low ash coal rich in huminites, Odagbo coal is a subbituminous B, medium sulphur, low ash coal rich in huminites, Ezimo coal is a subbituminous C, low sulphur, high ash coal, and Inyi coal is a subbituminous C, low sulphur, high ash coal. Between Odagbo and Owukpa subbituminous coals, Owukpa has a lower ignition temperature (283.63°C due to its higher volatile matter content (39.1%. However, Ezimo subbituminous coal, which has a lower volatile matter (31.1%, unexpectedly has the same ignition temperature as Owukpa (283.63°C due to its higher liptinite content (7.2% when compared with that of Owukpa (2.9%. The ease of combustion of the coal samples in decreasing order is Odagbo < Owukpa < Inyi < Ezimo < Amansiodo.


    The report gives results a study of the use of precombustors for the simultaneous control of S02, NOx, and ash emissions from coal combustion. In Phase 1, exploratory testing was conducted on a small pilot scale--293 kW (million Btu/hr)-pulverized-coal-fired precombustor to ident...

  3. Approaches to Czech Passenger Railway Market Liberalisation

    Tomeš Zdeněk


    Full Text Available Competition on the Czech railway passenger market has been developing recently. It is possible to distinguish two types of competition – unregulated competition (competition on the market and regulated competition (competition for the market. Competition on the market is present on the Prague–Ostrava route and competition for the market has been applied in a few public tenders for subsidised services. However, the substantial part of the Czech railway passenger market has remained closed and there is a question how to proceed with the competition development – whether to promote competition on the market or competition for the market. Based on European and modelling experience, there is an argument for more competition for the market.

  4. Customer Loyalty Measurement at Czech Organizations

    David Vykydal


    Full Text Available All organizations certified against the ISO 9001 requirements must also measure customer satisfaction. But customer loyalty represents quality management system maturity on higher level of objectivity. An purpose of the article is bring set of information on current state analysis of customer loyalty measurement at Czech companies. Principal methodology of this analysis was special field survey and our research too. Results of special research performed through focus groups, based on risk analysis in the field of quality management principles implementation, are presented there as a part of findings. The another important findings show that customer loyalty measurement is mostly underestimated or ignored at Czech organizations. Main reasons of such state are also described. As well as: the first proposal of original methodology how to measure three fundamental types of customer loyalty - advocasy, purchasing and retention loyalty is also included to this article.

  5. Controlling in the Conditions of Czech Republic



    Full Text Available The paper deals with the issue of controlling the Agriculture of the Czech Republic, using methods of activitybased costing. The basic premise of knowledge is based on a given topic, especially the nature of the method ABC (Activity Based Costing. The paper described the application of the ABC design method in Microsoft Excel applicable in the agricultural sector of the Czech Republic. The proposed application of the ABC method, using Microsoft Excel, is an alternative to using expensive costing ABC special software. Created ABC method application also demonstrates that if somebody wants to improve approach in the overheads management, so it can be used by using quite common user knowledge of Microsoft Excel.

  6. Rate of Failure of Czech Family Firms

    Ondřej Machek


    Full Text Available Family business is becoming a promising area of research in post-socialist countries, including the Czech Republic. Stability belongs to frequently cited properties of family firms. The goal of this article is to test the hypothesis whether family firms tend to have a lower rate of failure than their non-family counterparts. Using a sample of 1148 family and 5972 non-family firms in the Czech Republic, we find that there is no significant relationship between family involvement and rate of failure. A possible greater stability of family businesses is not necessarily linked with a lower rate of bankruptcy. We also discuss possible reasons and policy implications.


    Hana Vostrá Vydrová


    Full Text Available Population studies were carried out analysis Czech Hucul breed based on pedigree information of animals registered in the Studbook. Pedigree records collected from the year 1834 to 2013 comprised information on 9455 animals used in the analyses. The pedigree depth of the analysed individuals was up to 19 generations. The mean value of inbreeding coefficient was 5.35% (with maximum value 30%. The proportion of inbreed animals was high (98%. The average rate of inbreeding in the reference population was lower than 1%, and the respective estimates of effective population sizes were 54. The presented paper is indicating that genetic diversity in the Czech Hucul breeds is still relatively high and conservation programs should be continued.

  8. Innovation in Small and Medium Enterprises in the Czech Republic

    Petra Koudelková


    Full Text Available The success of small and medium enterprises (SMEs is crucial for the development of the Czech economy. Czech SMEs contribute to innovation and economic growth; they provide employment opportunities and stimulate economic growth. The aim of this research is to determine the key elements of growth and innovation in Czech SMEs. A questionnaire survey of innovation in SMEs in the Czech Republic was used; the research was held in the second quarter of 2013. The research results show that innovation has a positive impact on the growth of Czech SMEs and hence it should become a top priority for the Government strategies and policies that aim to promote economic growth and business development in the Czech Republic.

  9. Approach of Czech regulatory body to LBB

    Tendera, P.


    At present there are two NPPs equipped with PWR units in Czech Republic. The Dukovany, NPP is about ten years in operation (four units 440 MW - WWBFL model 213) and Tomelin NPP is under construction (two units 1000 MW - WWER model 320). Both NPPs were built to Soviet design and according to Soviet regulations and standards but most of equipment for primary circuits was supplied by home manufacturers. The objective of the Czech LBB program is to prove the LBB status of the primary piping systems of there NPPs and the LBB concept is a part of strategy to meet western style safety standards. The reason for the Czech LBB project is a lack of some standard safety Facilities too. For both Dukovany and Tomelin NPPs a full LBB analysis should be carried out. The application of LBB to the piping system should be also a cost effective means to avoid installations of pipe whip restraints and jet shields. The Czech regulatory body issued non-mandatory requirement, {open_quotes}Leak Before Break{close_quotes} which is in compliance with national legal documents and which is based on the US NRC Regulatory Procedures and US standards (ASMF CODE, ANSI). The requirement has been published in the document {open_quotes}Safety of Nuclear Facilities{close_quotes} No 1/1991 as {open_quotes}Requirements on the Content and Format of Safety Reports and their Supplements{close_quote} and consist of two parts (1) procedure for obtaining proof of evidence {open_quotes}Leak Before Break{close_quotes} (2) leak detection systems for the pressurized reactor primary circuit. At present some changes concerning both parts of the above document will be introduced. The reasons for this modifications will be presented.

  10. [History of the Czech gerontology and geriatrics].

    Pacovský, V


    Development of Czech gerontology and geriatrics can be associated with the Prague gerontology, namely with the First Faculty of Medicine (formally the Faculty of General Medicine). Prague school of gerontology was established. The decisive events related to the subject are described. Paper is based on the already published information on the history of the specialization and on the personal memorials of personal observers in the last fifty years. Reflections on the origin and establishment of a new medical specialization conclude the paper.

  11. Approach for Czech regulatory body to LBB

    Tendera, P. [State Office for Nuclear Safety (SONS), Prague (Czech Republic)


    At present there are two NPPs equipped with PWR units in Czech Republic. The Dukovany NPP is about ten years in operation (four units 440 MW - WWER model 213) and Temelin NPP is under construction (two units 1000 MW-WWER model 320). Both NPPs were built to Soviet design and according to Soviet regulations and standards but most of equipment for primary circuits was supplied by home manufactures. The objective for the Czech LBB programme is to prove the LBB status of the primary piping systems of these NPPs and the LBB concept is a part of strategy to meet western style safety standards. The reason for the Czech LBB project is a lack of some standard safety facilities, too. For both Dukovany and Temolin NPPs a full LBB analysis should be carried out. The application of LBB to the piping system should be also a cost effective means to avoid installations of pipe whip restraints and jet shields. The Czech regulatory body issued non-mandatory requirement {open_quotes}Leak Before Break{close_quotes} which is in compliance with national legal documents and which is based on the US NRC Regulatory Procedures and US standards (ASME, CODE, ANSI). The requirement has been published in the document {open_quotes}Safety of Nuclear Facilities{close_quotes} No. 1/1991 as {open_quotes}Requirements on the Content and Format of Safety Reports and their Supplements{close_quotes} and consists of two parts (1) procedure for obtaining proof of evidence {open_quotes}Leak Before Break{close_quotes} (2) leak detection systems for the pressurized reactor primary circuit. At present some changes concerning both parts of the above document will be introduced. The reasons for this modifications will be presented.

  12. Insurance fraud on the Czech insurance market

    Jastremská, Kateřina


    The thesis deals with insurance fraud on the Czech insurance market. The introductory section describes the actual state of the insurance market. Insurance fraud is presented in terms of legislation, their species and the general alarming indicators. The next section deals with internal fraud and depictures a brief profile of the typical internal fraudster, indicators of their suspicious behavior and ways of prevention. The following chapter describes the external fraud in the life and non-li...

  13. Spectator care in czech and slovak football

    Petráš, Miroslav


    Main goal of this thesis is to analyze the environment of Czech and Slovak football in the area of spectators care. The theory part is focused on theories, which refer to this problem. These are: specifics of the football market, economics of football clubs, theory of marketing mix and fan definition. At the beginning of practice part, the thesis analyzes and compares attendance rate in top leagues of both countries. Next chapter deals with factors, which effect the attendance rate. Its goal ...

  14. Islamic Extremism in the Czech Republic


    the larger world religion , which works in concord with the principles, values and interests of democratic countries. This is typical for Islamic...follows: Czech (9.6 million); Slovak (193,000); Roma 6 (200,000); Silesian (11,000); Polish (52,000); German (39,000); Ukrainian (22,000); and...followers cannot be determined accurately because the numbers are constantly fluctuating and Islam is designated by the category “other religions ” in the

  15. OECD environmental performance reviews: Czech Republic



    This book presents the results of a peer review of the Czech Republic's environmental policies and programmes. It systematically covers air, water, and waste management; nature and biodiversity management; the environmental/economic interface; the environmental/social interface; and international co-operation. It includes extensive statistical information as well as specific recommendations in each of the topics covered. 7 refs., 34 figs., 34 tabs.

  16. Logistics Service Providers in the Czech Republic

    HRNEČKOVÁ, Kateřina


    The main purpose of the thesis is to analyze the developement of providing logistics services in the Czech Republic and analyze the current situation and expected trends in the near future. The thesis presents the implementation process of logistics outsourcing and follows up the influence of the outsourcing at the level of logistics costs. Manufacturing companies see in logistics the potential tool to improve the efficiency in their operations and they include the logistics in their strategi...

  17. CAR2 - Czech Database of Car Speech

    P. Sovka


    Full Text Available This paper presents new Czech language two-channel (stereo speech database recorded in car environment. The created database was designed for experiments with speech enhancement for communication purposes and for the study and the design of a robust speech recognition systems. Tools for automated phoneme labelling based on Baum-Welch re-estimation were realised. The noise analysis of the car background environment was done.

  18. Performance factors of Czech brewing industry companies

    Gabriela Chmelíková


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to identify and subsequently quantify the intensity of relation between selected value drivers of Czech brewing industry companies and thus answer the question of what the significance level of partial indicators influencing the economic value added in the Czech brewing industry is. The aim was achieved by construction and application of multifactorial model for value generators explanation, which represents a synthesis of the INFA model and performance system Balanced Scorecard. The features typical for the first part of the model are algorithmized relations and financial character of the elements, while in the second with non-financial elements the ability of algorithmization is lost and the connection are defined solely on the basis of causality. This inconsistency also implied the difference in the character of analysis results. The proposed model made it possible to identify the most significant generators of value in the Czech brewing industry and it thus became an important guideline for brewery management. The results of the analysis offer a comprehensive overview of the most important value generators and thus enable the company managers to attain the goals of the owners more effectively.

  19. Age Management Principles in Czech Agrarian Sector

    H. Urbancová


    Full Text Available Within the frame of the entire economy, the modern conception of Age Management enables each and every employee to use their full potential without being put at a disadvantage for age reasons. Despite the fact that this area is important in terms of current demographic development, there are organisations that do not implement its measures. The article therefore concentrates on the identification and evaluation of Age Management application by Czech agricultural businesses. The data analysed was obtained based on a quantitative survey in which data was collected by means of a questionnaire survey (total companies: n=315, agricultural businesses: na=60. The outcomes show that Czech agricultural businesses are not quite familiar with the application of Age Management measures. One of the conclusions of the article is that from the social point of view Age Management measures may help improve the situation on the labour market, labour productivity, encourage young people to work in the agricultural sector and, last but not least, build, on the organisational level, an employer’s brand. Application of Age Management causes on the employees performance but also on the costs reduce and profit increase. This contribution is a follow-up to the project of University – wide internal grant agency (CIGA, number 20141002 - Human resource branding using of the new strategic trends in organisations in the Czech Republic.

  20. Health tourism in a Czech health spa.

    Speier, Amy R


    This paper is about the changing shape of health tourism in a Czech spa town. The research focuses on balneotherapy as a traditional Czech healing technique, which involves complex drinking and bathing therapies, as it is increasingly being incorporated into the development of a Czech health tourism industry. Today, the health tourism industry in Mariánske Lázne is attempting to 'harmoniously' combine three elements--balneology, travel and business activities. One detects subtle shifts and consequent incongruities as doctors struggle for control over the medical portion of spa hotels. At the same time, marketing groups are creating new packages for a general clientele, and the implementation of these new packages de-medicalizes balneotherapy. Related to the issue of the doctor's authority in the spa, the changes occurring with the privatization of tourism entails the entrance of 'tourists' to Mariánske Lázne who are not necessarily seeking spa treatment but who are still staying at spa hotels. There is a general consensus among spa doctors and employees that balneotherapy has become commodified. Thus, while balneotherapy remains a traditional form of therapy, the commercial context in which it exists has created a new form of health tourism.

  1. Energy policy of the Czech Republic

    Cerny, M. [Ministry of Industry and Trade, Prague (Czechoslovakia)


    On February 16, 1992, the Government of the Czech Republic sanctioned, by its Decree No. 112/82, its first Energy Policy. Since that time, a number of conditions have changed: first of all, there was the partition of the former Federal Czechoslovak Republic, then the privatization of most of energy producing corporations, the deregulation of a significant proportion of power and energy commodities, the decision to bring to an end the construction of the Temelin nuclear power station, the creation of conditions for the construction of the Ingoldstadt oil pipeline, etc. These steps, on which the final decisions have been made, have brought about the necessity of updating the existing general Energy Policy. The updated Energy Policy is based on the Programme Statement by the Government of the Czech Republic of July 1992, as well as on other materials associated with energy and power generation, either approved or negotiated by the Government, in particular the State Environmental Policy the Rules of the State Raw Materials Policy, the European Association Agreement, the European Energy Charter, the results of the Uruguayan Round of GATT, the Convention on Climate Changes, the Ecological Action Programme for central and East-European countries, and other international documents that have either been, or are likely to be sanctioned by the Czech Government (especially the European Energy Charter Treaty, and the protocol on Trans-boundary Air Pollution and on Further Reduction of Sulphur Oxide Emissions).


    Jiří Čeněk


    Full Text Available This article relates to the process of adaptation of Czech citizens to Turkish culture. The article explores the perception of Turkish culture by Czech citizens, problems they encounter in the Turkish society and the ways of their adjustment to the host culture. The empirical research on 10 Czech citizens was conducted using the method of semi-structured interviews. The article addresses the most important issues connected with the process of cultural adaptation.


    FISCHER, Jakub


    Full Text Available The Slovak Republic is experiencing a growing brain drain of elite secondary school students. Slovak human capital flows chiefly to Czech Higher Education Institutes (HEIs. The aim of this paper is to analyse who these Slovak students are to create a complete profile of Slovak students at Czech HEIs. We used a unique dataset based on the surveys EUROSTUDENT V and DOKTORANDI 2014 to explore differences between Czech and Slovak students, their financial situation and the functionality of the intergenerational transmission mechanism. We have found that Slovak students at Czech HEIs come from highly educated families and from the middle and higher class families significantly more often than Czech students at Czech HEIs or Slovak students at Slovak HEIs. Approximately 80% of them came from grammar schools. Slovak students also often have better language skills. We have discovered that Slovak students at Czech HEIs enjoy certain social benefits, slightly more often they have higher monthly income compared to Czech students, and they work slightly less often during their studies. Finally, according to our findings, Slovak doctoral students are often reluctant to return back to the Slovak Republic or to stay in the Czech Republic.



    <正>20141574 Chen Hao(Exploration and Development Research Institute,Daqing Oilfield Company,Daqing 163712,China)High-Resolution Sequences and Coal Accumulating Laws in Nantun Formation of Huhe Lake Sag(Petroleum Geology&Oilfield Development in Daqing,ISSN1000-3754,CN23-1286/TQ,32(4),2013,p.15-19,5 illus.,15 refs.)Key words:coal accumulation regularity,coal



    <正>20091159 Gao Yan(No.3 Prospecting Team of Anhui Bureau of Coal Geology,Suzhou 234000,China) Effect of Depositional Environment of Coal-Bearing Stratum on Major Coal Seams in Suntan Coalmine,Anhui Province(Geology of Anhui,ISSN 1005- 6157,CN34-1111/P,18(2),2008,p.114 -117,5 illus.,1 ref.,with English abstract)

  6. Climatic effects and impacts of the 1815 eruption of Mount Tambora in the Czech Lands

    Brázdil, Rudolf; Řezníčková, Ladislava; Valášek, Hubert; Dolák, Lukáš; Kotyza, Oldřich


    The eruption of Mount Tambora in Indonesia in 1815 was one of the most powerful of its kind in recorded history. This contribution addresses climatic responses to it, the post-eruption weather, and its impacts on human life in the Czech Lands. The climatic effects are evaluated in terms of air temperature and precipitation on the basis of long-term homogenised series from the Prague-Klementinum and Brno meteorological stations, and mean Czech series in the short term (1810-1820) and long term (1800-2010). This analysis is complemented by other climatic and environmental data derived from rich documentary evidence. Czech documentary sources make no direct mention of the Tambora eruption, neither do they relate any particular weather phenomena to it, but they record an extremely wet summer for 1815 and an extremely cold summer for 1816 (the "Year Without a Summer") that contributed to bad grain harvests and widespread grain price increases in 1817. Possible reasons for the cold summers in the first decade of the 19th century reflected in the contemporary press included comets, sunspot activity, long-term cooling and finally - as late as 1817 - earthquakes with volcanic eruptions.

  7. The Impact of Czech Domestic Politics on Missile Defense Agreements Between the United States and the Czech Republic


    EU membership, although the outspoken leader of the OSD, Vaclav Klaus was loudly critical of many aspects of the EU.23 The Czech leadership after...the parliamentarians required three elections43 and three rounds of balloting before the compromise appointment of ODS founder Vaclav Klaus as...defense6 and in June 2000 suggested to Czech President Vaclav Havel that the Czech Republic offer to host a US missile defense radar.7 Most

  8. Coal fires in Indonesia

    Whitehouse, Alfred E.; Mulyana, Asep A.S. [Office of Surface Mining/Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources Coal Fire Project, Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources, Agency for Training and Education, Jl. Gatot Subroto, Kav. 49, Jakarta 12950 (Indonesia)


    Indonesia's fire and haze problem is increasingly being ascribed to large-scale forest conversion and land clearing activities making way for pulpwood, rubber and oil palm plantations. Fire is the cheapest tool available to small holders and plantation owners to reduce vegetation cover and prepare and fertilize extremely poor soils. Fires that escaped from agricultural burns have ravaged East Kalimantan forests on the island of Borneo during extreme drought periods in 1982-1983, 1987, 1991, 1994 and 1997-1998. Estimates based on satellite data and ground observations are that more than five million hectares were burned in East Kalimantan during the 1997/1998 dry season. Not only were the economic losses and ecological damage from these surface fires enormous, they ignited coal seams exposed at the ground surface along their outcrops.Coal fires now threaten Indonesia's shrinking ecological resources in Kutai National Park and Sungai Wain Nature Reserve. Sungai Wain has one of the last areas of unburned primary rainforest in the Balikpapan-Samarinda area with an extremely rich biodiversity. Although fires in 1997/1998 damaged nearly 50% of this Reserve and ignited 76 coal fires, it remains the most valuable water catchment area in the region and it has been used as a reintroduction site for the endangered orangutan. The Office of Surface Mining provided Indonesia with the capability to take quick action on coal fires that presented threats to public health and safety, infrastructure or the environment. The US Department of State's Southeast Asia Environmental Protection Initiative through the US Agency for International Development funded the project. Technical assistance and training transferred skills in coal fire management through the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resource's Training Agency to the regional offices; giving the regions the long-term capability to manage coal fires. Funding was also included to extinguish coal fires as

  9. Czech Republic as an Important Producer of Poppy Seed

    L. Smutka


    Full Text Available Poppy seed (Papaver somniferum l. is an important oilseed, whose cultivation has a long tradition in the Czech Republic. Poppy seed grown in the Czech Republic has good quality and, therefore, is preferred to poppy seeds in other parts of the world. The objective of this paper is to characterize the current position of the Czech poppy seed production and foreign trade in the world. Czech Republic is the main world producer of poppy seed and price maker of the European and world prices. With regards to trade, the Czech Republic is also the main producer and seller both in Europe and in the world. The poppy seed crop grown in the Czech Republic is mainly produced for exports, because the domestic consumption consists of only between four and five thousand tons. Major export markets of Czech poppy seed are European countries with a population of Slavic origin or those influenced by Slavic cuisine. Another important markets are overseas countries, that were settled by Slavic immigrants. The paper stresses out the position of the Czech Republic as a major player in the world market with poppy seed. The paper provides analysis of the market position of the Czech production and Czech foreign trade participation. Development of production and trade, as well as some other factors affecting the poppy seed economy, are analyzed such as prices, hectarage, yields, volume of production and volume of trade. This paper is part of a research project carried out by the authors within the grant no. 6046070906, funded by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic.

  10. Progress in Coal Liquefaction Technologies


    Worldwide primary energy consumption is entering an era of pluralism and high quality under the influence of rapid economic development, increasing energy shortage and strict environmental policies. Although renewable energy technology is developing rapidly, fossil fuels (coal, oil and gas) are still the dominant energy sources in the world. As a country rich in coal but short ofoil and gas, China's oil imports have soared in the past few years. Government, research organizations and enterprises in China are paying more and more attention to the processes of converting coal into clean liquid fuels. Direct and indirect coal liquefaction technologies are compared in this paper based on China's current energy status and technological progress not only in China itself but also in the world.



    <正>20131668 Chang Huizhen(Key Laboratory of Coalbed Methane Resources and Reservoir Formation Process,CUMT,Ministry of Edu-cation,School of Resource and Earth Science,China University of Mining and Technology,Xuzhou 221008,China);Qin Yong Differences in of Pore Structure of Coals and Their Impact on the Permeability of Coals from the

  12. Undeclared Work in the Czech Republic and its Implications for the Czech Labor Market



    Full Text Available This paper aims at describing the issue of undeclared work in the Czech Republic and to explain the burdens it represents for the national economy. It also describes what measures can be undertaken in order to tackle undeclared work and uses some real-life examples to illustrate their outcomes. Undeclared work and the so-called “švarc systém” (the employer-employee relations with a person exercising the employer's normal activities not being an employee in legal terms but acting as an independent entrepreneur are among the biggest issues on the Czech labor market nowadays. According to some estimations, the Czech state loses about five billion CZK annually in the form of uncollected taxes, unpaid revenues and health and social insurance payments. New changes to the Czech labor legislation that came into force in 2012 were envisaged to tackle undeclared work, reduce tax evasions, fight shadow practices on the labor market, and to prevent social deprivation and other threats for the society by shifting the competences to conduct random checks, and controls of firms and businesses were transferred to the State Labor Inspection Offices (SLIO. The changes in the legislation facilitated the identification of the undeclared work and penalizing of its bearers, which minimized the losses from the illegal employment.

  13. Determination of optimum particle size in black coal flotation

    Øepka Vlastimil


    Full Text Available The work deals with the preparation of bituminous coal with focus on fine grains. An increasing share of fine grains arises during mechanized mining which needs to be processed. The most widespread separation technology for processing of fine grains around the world is foam floatation. This physicochemical method of separation is used in the Czech Republic for processing coking coal with a high coalification level. Based on the coalification level, it is possible to determine the floatability of coal grains. Generally it can be said that floatability improves with increasing coalification. In this work we have tested two samples of coking coal with various coalification levels. Two mixtures of floatation agents were also used: commercial Flotakol NX and the second floatation agent - a mixture of dodecane as a collector and cyclohexanol as a frother. Both samples were classified into eight grain size groups and they were floated under the equal conditions

  14. The Czech Way of Inclusion through an Experiential Education Framework

    Kudlacek, Martin; Bocarro, Jason; Jirasek, Ivo; Hanus, Radek


    The purpose of this article is to present the development of inclusive experiential education courses in the Czech Republic. The inclusion of people with disabilities (PWD) in recreation, sport, and education has become more prevalent in Czech society. This article describes the conceptual meaning of the term inclusion from both a historical and…

  15. Language Planning for Romani in the Czech Republic

    Eckert, Eva


    In the Czech Republic, Romani language planning has long been a controversial subject. The question informing the current research is whether the European Charter's goal of protecting, maintaining and invigorating Romani is attainable in a culture driven by standard language ideology, Czech society's aversion to multiculturalism and an overall…

  16. GHG emission mitigation measures and technologies in the Czech Republic

    Tichy, M. [Energy Efficiency Center, Prague (Czech Republic)


    The paper presents a short overview of main results in two fields: projection of GHG emission from energy sector in the Czech Republic and assessment of technologies and options for GHG mitigation. The last part presents an overview of measures that were prepared for potential inclusion to the Czech Climate Change Action Plan.

  17. Mammographic dose survey in the Czech Republic

    Novak, Leos [National Radiation Protection Institute, Prague (Czech Republic); Rada, Jiri [National Radiation Protection Institute, Ostrava (Czech Republic)


    At present, it is generally accepted that the average dose to the glandular tissue is the most reasonable dose descriptor in mammography with regard to the risk of breast cancer induced by ionizing radiation. It is advantageous to use the quantity mean glandular dose M.G.D. for setting of diagnostic reference levels (D.R.L.) as well, although the quantity is not directly measurable as it is the case of D.R.L. quantities for other imaging modalities. The reason is that a directly measurable quantity suitable for mammography, incident air kerma Ki, depends a lot on a beam quality. The influence of the beam quality (expressed by tube voltage, half value layer and combination of anode/filter material) is already included in calculation of mean glandular dose. To assess a radiation burden of patients due to mammography at a national level a representative dose survey is needed to carry out. Such a study provides statistically significant dose data for setting of the national diagnostic reference levels. National Radiation Protection Institute is performing the study in the Czech Republic since the year 2005.On a basis of presented data, it could be concluded, that the situation in the Czech Republic with respect to patient doses in mammography is encouraging and that the requirements of European Commission are well fulfilled. However, it is obvious, that the obtained results can not be considered as statistically significant at the moment, because the data were not collected from a representative sample of centers, which should observe a distribution of X-ray unit types, type of a mammographic center (screening/non screening ones) and also a locality of a center. The dose survey still continues to cover the whole Czech Republic with the main task to determine new national diagnostic reference levels and to find out optimized standards for carrying out the examinations with respect to patient doses and image quality. (authors)

  18. Liquidity Risk Sensitivity of Czech Commercial Banks

    Pavla Vodová


    Full Text Available The recent financial crisis has shown that a liquidity risk plays an important role in the current developed financial system. One of the efficient tools of liquidity risk management is stress testing which can show banks their potential vulnerability to liquidity shocks. The aim of this paper is therefore to measure the liquidity risk sensitivity of Czech commercial banks and to find out the most severe scenario and the most vulnerable bank. Our sample included significant part of the Czech banking sector; we used unconsolidated balance sheet data over the period from 2000 to 2011 which were obtained from annual reports of Czech banks. We have evaluated liquidity risk of each bank in the sample via six different liquidity ratios. Then we stressed these baseline values in three stress scenarios: run on a bank (simulated by a 20% withdrawal of deposits, confidence crisis on the interbank market (simulated by a withdrawal of 20% of interbank deposits and use of committed loans by counterparties (simulated by a 5% increase of loans provided to nonbank clients. We measured the impact of all scenarios by relative change of liquidity ratios. The impact of modelled liquidity shocks differs among scenarios. The most serious liquidity problems would be caused by the first scenario – run on a bank. The negative influence of third scenario (use of committed loans is less severe. The confidence crisis on the interbank market would not affect bank liquidity at all. The results also show that the severity of the impact of all scenarios worsens in periods of financial distress. We have also found that large and medium sized banks are most vulnerable to liquidity shocks, mainly to massive deposit withdrawals.

  19. Properties of Silurian shales from the Barrandian Basin, Czech Republic

    Weishauptová, Zuzana; Přibyl, Oldřich; Sýkorová, Ivana


    Although shale gas-bearing deposits have a markedly lower gas content than coal deposits, great attention has recently been paid to shale gas as a new potential source of fossil energy. Shale gas extraction is considered to be quite economical, despite the lower sorption capacity of shales, which is only about 10% of coal sorption capacities The selection of a suitable locality for extracting shale gas requires the sorption capacity of the shale to be determined. The sorption capacity is determined in the laboratory by measuring the amount of methane absorbed in a shale specimen at a pressure and a temperature corresponding to in situ conditions, using high pressure sorption. According to the principles of reversibility of adsorption/desorption, this amount should be roughly related to the amount of gas released by forced degassing. High pressure methane sorption isotherms were measured on seven representative samples of Silurian shales from the Barrandian Basin, Czech Republic. Excess sorption measurements were performed at a temperature of 45oC and at pressures up to 15 MPa on dry samples, using a manometric method. Experimental methane high-pressure isotherms were fitted to a modified Langmuir equation. The maximum measured excess sorption parameter and the Langmuir sorption capacity parameter were used to study the effect of TOC content, organic maturity, inorganic components and porosity on the methane sorption capacity. The studied shale samples with random reflectance of graptolite 0.56 to 1.76% had a very low TOC content and dominant mineral fractions. Illite was the prevailing clay mineral. The sample porosity ranged from 4.6 to 18.8%. In most samples, the micropore volumes were markedly lower than the meso- and macropore volumes. In the Silurian black shales, the occurrence of fractures parallel with the original sedimentary bending was highly significant. A greater proportion of fragments of carbonaceous particles of graptolites and bitumens in the

  20. 76 FR 76384 - U.S. Education Mission to Poland and Czech Republic Warsaw, Poland and Prague, Czech Republic...


    ... and trade media, direct mail, notices by industry trade associations and other multiplier groups, and... International Trade Administration U.S. Education Mission to Poland and Czech Republic Warsaw, Poland and Prague, Czech Republic, April 15-19, 2012 AGENCY: International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce...



    <正>20111053 Chen Jian(School of Earth and Environment,Anhui University of Science and Technology,Huainan 232001,China);Liu Wenzhong Organic Affinity of Trace Elements in Coal from No.10 Coal-Bed at Western Huagou,Guoyang(Coal Geology & Exploration,ISSN1001-1986,CN61-1155/P,38(4),2010,p.16-20,24,3 illus.,3 tables,19 refs.)Key words:coal,minor elements,Anhui Province In order to study the organic affinity of trace elements in coal from No.10 coal-bed at western Huagou,Guoyang,10 borehole samples were collected at exploration area of Huaibei mining area.The contents of 12 kinds of trace elements were determined by the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry(ICP-MS),the total organic carbon(TOC)of coal was determined by LECO carbon and sulfur analyzer,and the organic affinity of trace elements were deduced from the correlations between contents and TOCs.The results showed that the contents of V,Cr,Co,Ni,Mo,Cd,Sb,Pb and Zn were lower than

  2. [Gene therapy in the Czech Republic].

    Vonka, V


    Gene therapy represents one of the most promising applications of molecular biology and genetic engineering in medicine. At present its introduction meets series of problems which are of technical, methodological and ethical nature. Although the research in the field of gene therapy in the Czech Republic is on a good level, there is little hope that its achievements will be tested in clinical trials in the near future. In the Czech Republic a law enabling the use of preparations based on the newest biotechnologies in human medicine is missing. Similarly, a production unit capable of preparing the new gene-based drugs according to the Good Manufactory Praxis is not available and the State Institute for Control of Drugs has not any working group fully qualified for their control. The paper proposes actions aimed at solving the present unfavourable situation. The fact that the interest of clinicians in gene therapy is rapidly growing, and that there are signs of increasing interest of public in its achievements, gives good prospects for the introduction of gene therapy into medical praxis in this country in the not very distant future.

  3. SWOT analysis of the Czech Radon programme.

    Fojtíková, I


    Since the early 1990s, the Czech Republic has been one of the countries that carry out a radon programme on its territory, with the aim of protecting people from unnecessary long-term exposure in their homes. Since that time, many achievements have been registered, and many unexpected difficulties have cropped up. This may be the right moment to take some time out to analyse the state of the programme and to determine the direction for its future development. An extended SWOT analysis can serve as a useful tool for this purpose. Originally, SWOT analyses were used exclusively by for-profit organisations aiming to evaluate their perspectives, develop strategies and make plans in order to achieve their objectives. More recently, it has been used in a wide range of decision-making situations when a desired end-state is to be defined. Here, an extended SWOT analysis is used to formulate possible beneficial strategies for advancing anti-radon policy in the Czech Republic.


    DURIS Z.


    Full Text Available Several cases of epibiosis by macro-invertebrates on Orconectes limosus were recorded during our research on the biology of populations of this invasive crayfish species in the Czech Republic. (1 In 2001, we observed a high infestation of O. limosus by native species of branchiobdellidan worms (Annelida: Branchiobdellidae in the river Elbe at Obríství (Central Bohemia. Four European Branchiobdella species were collected and identified from three crayfish specimens: B. pentodonta (52%, B. balcanica (24%, B. parasita (18% and B. hexodonta (6%. In 2003, only a single crayfish was found bearing branchiobdellidans (5 specimens of B. parasita only in the same locality. No branchiobdellidans on O. limosus have been confirmed since. (2 A flooded sandpit Lhota near Brandýs nad Labem is the only Czech locality where the settlement of Dreissena polymorpha (Mollusca, Bivalvia on an O. limosus body was recorded. The crayfish lost the bivalves by moulting in summer; new mussels had settled by late summer and early autumn. (3 Females of the fish louse Argulus cf. foliaceus (Crustacea: Branchiura lay egg-strings on any hard substrate, including the crayfish exoskeleton. Such egg-masses were found on up to 65% of O. limosus specimens in the above-mentioned sandpit. (4 Bryozoan colonies of Plumatella repens were found twice on crayfish in the rivers Elbe (Labe and Cidlina.

  5. Statistics of Remittances in the Czech Republic

    Martina Šimková


    Full Text Available Remittances represent transfers of earned money of foreigners to home country and they belong to often discussed topics in the connection with migration issues. The reason is the recent increase of the number of migrants and the amount of sent remittances. Since the Czech Republic became the immigration country, remittances have gained the importance. Many foreigners come to the Czech Republic because of work or study. However, many of them send earned money back to their country of origin, to their families and relatives. The information about the foreigners is crucial for describing their behaviour (incomes, consumption expenditures and recording the transactions in national accounts and balance of payments. Permanent lack of data sources causes problems with such statistics. The aim of the paper is the description and interpretation of the issue of remittances. Procedures that are used for these estimates are briefly described with respect to the users’ needs. The description is mainly focused on the estimates of numbers and structures of foreigners, covering the length of stay, economic activity, their behaviour and estimation of sent remittances.

  6. Czech Singles in the Market of Services

    Martin Klepek


    Full Text Available The paper deals with specific characteristics of “Czech singles” with emphasis on services area. First, paper determinates the theoretical concept of services marketing in the first chapter. The major part of paper is devoted to primary marketing research. For purpose of collecting data, the method of questioning (combination of off‑line and on‑line approach was chosen. The questionnaire was given to 390 respondents living in the Czech Republic. The data were analysed by SPSS software. Results showed dissimilarities in leisure time activities based on different level of education and income as well as within the gender and age category and city, where particular single person live. Females spend more leisure time on cultural events, home activities as well as shopping and caring for appearance. They also engage with friends as a form of leisure time activity more than males. Educated singles travel more and attend more cultural events and at the same time, they educate themselves more often and do sports much regularly. We also found no relationship between income and shopping as a leisure time activity. This paper describes only a partial output of the primary marketing research with focus on the leisure time spending for the defined segment.

  7. Family therapy in the Czech Republic.

    Chvala, Vladislav; Trapkova, Ludmila; Novak, Tomas; Lattova, Zuzana


    Political, economic and cultural transformations in the Czech Republic after 1989 were reflected in a number of demographic indicators, including those that characterize family behaviour. The main features of these changes are declining birth and marriage rates, postponement of first marriage and first birth ages, and a growing proportion of children born outside of marriage. These changes are comparable to those that have taken place in western Europe since the 1960s; however, some of them are abrupt and cause rapid shift in the family structure. Over the last two decades, significant changes have also occurred in the organization of family therapy. Earlier less coordinated activities underwent institutionalization, and guidelines for training and supervision were established. Family therapy in the Czech Republic is covered by a national organization, the Society of Family Therapy (SOFT). Standards of training and supervision correspond to European standards. The problem remains the lack of support for family therapy from state institutions, especially in the health service. There are only a few healthcare facilities providing family therapy for the treatment of psychiatric disorders or chronic somatic diseases. The capacity of these centres is substantially inadequate.

  8. Basis of economic analysis of Czech firms

    Gabriela Chmelíková


    Full Text Available When looking for connections between particular business’s activities, theory of financial management uses pyramidal system of indicators. The effectiveness of this tool is based on the appropriate choice of the top indicator. Its decomposition enables to manage firm’s processes from the bottommost organizational levels to the main firm’s mission with respect to the connections between par­ti­cu­lar processes. The aim of this paper was to identify appropriate indicator, which corresponds with creation of firm’s value and design its decomposition. To measure creation of firm’s value it is nowadays very popular to use indicator Economic Value Added (EVA. Though from the theoretical point of view EVA is seen as a superior performance metric, the results of some empirical studies do not support this claim. That is why the information content of EVA was controlled in the concrete conditions of Czech Economy within this article. The results showed eligibility of using EVA in Czech firms and enabled to choose it as the top indicator in the pyramidal system. Ambition of further research is to design a complex of indicators offering a comprehensive economic view on the firm’s per­for­man­ce.

  9. Measuring Inefficiency of the Czech Labour Market

    Němec Daniel


    Full Text Available This paper aims to quantify the performance of the Czech regional labour markets and to reveal the most influential economic factors standing behind its dynamics in the last fifteen years. Investigated labour markets are described using matching function approach. The successful matches are treated as an output of production process, where the unemployed are paired with vacancies. Efficiency of this matching process plays an important role in determining unemployment outflows. Using stochastic frontier model approach, dynamics of quantified efficiency terms is revealed and differences among regions are evaluated. The model specification includes a fixed effect term, where individual effect terms and inefficiency terms are estimated jointly. The stochastic frontier is estimated using monthly and quarterly regional panel data of 77 districts for the period 1999-2014. Matching efficiency of the Czech regional labour markets is negatively influenced people who have been unemployed for a long time and by the unemployed aged over 50 years. Although all districts were able to operate at their stochastic frontiers of matching, an upward trend in the inefficiency has been found within the investigated period. These tendencies are accompanied by rising disparities among the regions. Low levels of estimated matching inefficiency do not necessary mean the low unemployment in the corresponding districts.

  10. Process Segmentation Typology in Czech Companies

    Tucek David


    Full Text Available This article describes process segmentation typology during business process management implementation in Czech companies. Process typology is important for a manager’s overview of process orientation as well as for a manager’s general understanding of business process management. This article provides insight into a process-oriented organizational structure. The first part analyzes process segmentation typology itself as well as some original results of quantitative research evaluating process segmentation typology in the specific context of Czech company strategies. Widespread data collection was carried out in 2006 and 2013. The analysis of this data showed that managers have more options regarding process segmentation and its selection. In terms of practicality and ease of use, the most frequently used method of process segmentation (managerial, main, and supportive stems directly from the requirements of ISO 9001. Because of ISO 9001:2015, managers must now apply risk planning in relation to the selection of processes that are subjected to process management activities. It is for this fundamental reason that this article focuses on process segmentation typology.

  11. Visitors Satisfaction Measurement in Czech Tourism

    Tomáš Sadílek


    Full Text Available The paper deals with describing the method of satisfaction measurement as a one of marketing techniques used for detecting visitors’ satisfaction in tourist regions in the Czech Republic. In the treatise, we try to analyse visitors’ satisfaction with the twenty four partial factors affecting total satisfaction. In the theoretical part of the paper, there are described methodological approaches to satisfaction measurement and presented various methods for satisfaction measurement with focus on the Satisfaction Pyramid method which is also used in the field part. Other presented methods are Customer Satisfaction Index, European Customer Satisfaction Model, Importance-Satisfaction Matrix, SERVQUAL Concept and KANO Model. Data have been collected all over the Czech Republic in years 2010 and 2011 twice every year. In the field part there are presented calculations of data and described total satisfaction, Satisfaction Index and partial satisfactions as well as level of satisfaction by tourist regions and correlations between partial satisfactions and total satisfaction which refers to importance of partial factors. Most important factors affecting total satisfaction are public transport, sport equipment, shopping possibilities, children attractions, orientation signage and free time programs.

  12. The business environment in the Czech Republic

    Helena Chládková


    Full Text Available The paper deals with a comparison of the business environment in 2004 and 2010. The aim of this paper is to compare opinions of managers of small and medium – sized enterprises on opportunities and threats of external environment and on strengths and weaknesses of internal environment after the integration of the Czech Republic into the European Union, in 2004 and now in 2010.The basic sources of information were 70 SWOT analyses of small and medium – sized enterprises which have been made in 2004 by students of combined form of study, who work in management functions on medium or basic managerial levels and 228 SWOT analyses of small and medium – sized enterprises which have been made in 2010. 77 % of managers from analyzed enterprises identified the integration of the Czech Republic into the EU as an opportunity in 2004 and only 33 % of managers from analyzed enterprises in 2010. The competition as the most important threat was reported in both groups of respondents. Namely 64 % of managers in 2004 and even 82 % of managers in 2010.The paper is a part of solution of the research plan of the FBE MUAF in Brno, MSM 6215648904.

  13. British coal

    Forrest, M.


    The paper describes a visit to UK's Daw Mill in north Warwickshire to find out about a planned expansion of the coal mine. Daw Mill, 10 km west of Coventry is the UK's largest underground coal mine. The coal is extracted by an Eckhoff Sl500 coal shearer that traverses the coalface. Overarching the shearer is a series of electro-hydraulically operated powered roof supports (PRS) over the roof and coalface that are advanced forward after each pass of the shearer. The void behind the PRS is then allowed to collapse. The coalface is currently 295 m long, but there are plans to extend the replacement coalface to 357 m. Under the shearer is an armored face conveyor (AFC) that receives and transports the coal along the coalface and deposits it onto the beam stage loader, which sits at 90{sup o} to the AFC. The coal is turned by a deflector plough on the AFC headframe and is transferred to the belt conveyor to begin its journey out of the mine. Last year two significant records were broken at Daw Mill - the fastest million tonnes achieved and the European record for a single face of 3.2 Mt. The 300s area of the mine has already been mapped out and development teams are constructing roadways to facilitate more mining. To maintain annual production in excess of three million tonnes will require at least 5,000 m of roadways to access the coal, and install equipment. These investments are supported by proven reserves. Seismic surveys and borehole drilling has shown approximately 20 Mt of extractable coal in the 300s area which extends over 15 km{sup 2}. These panels will be the next to be mined in a sequence that extends to 2014. 2 photos.

  14. Coal mining: coal in Spain

    Garcia-Arguelles Martinez, A.; Lugue Cabal, V.


    The Survey of Spanish Coal Resources published by the Centre for Energy Studies in 1979 is without doubt the most serious and full study on this subject. The coal boom of the last few years and the important role it will play in the future, as well as the wealth of new information which has come to light in the research carried out in Spanish coalfields by both the public and private sector, prompted the General Mine Management of the Ministry of Industry and Energy to commission IGME to review and update the previous Survey of Spanish Coal Resources of November 1981.

  15. Blended coals for improved coal water slurries

    GU Tian-ye; WU Guo-guang; LI Qi-hui; SUN Zhi-qiang; ZENG Fang; WANG Guang-you; MENG Xian-liang


    Three coal samples of different ranks were used to study the effect of coal blending on the preparation of Coal Water Slurry (CWS). The results show that by taking advantage of two kinds of coal, the coal concentration in slurry made from hard-to-pulp coal can be effectively improved and increased by 3%-5% generally. DLT coal (DaLiuTa coal mine) is very poor in slurryability and the stability and rheology of the resulting slurry are not very good. When the amount of easily slurried coal is more than 30%, all properties of the CWS improve and the CWS meets the requirements for use as fuel. Coalification, porosity, surface oxygenic functional groups, zeta potential and grindability have a great effect on the performance of blended coal CWS. This leads to some differences in performance between the slurry made from a single coal and slurry made from blended coal.

  16. Prospects For Coal And Clean Coal Technologies In Kazakhstan



    The coal sector in Kazakhstan is said to have enough reserves to last over 100 years, but the forecasted reserves are expected to last several hundreds of years. This makes investing in the fuel and energy sector of the country an attractive option for many international and private organisations. The proven on-shore reserves will ensure extraction for over 30 years for oil and 75 years for gas. The future development of the domestic oil sector depends mainly on developing the Kazakh sector of the Caspian Sea. The coal sector, while not a top priority for the Kazakh government, puts the country among the world's top ten coal-rich countries. Kazakhstan contains Central Asia's largest recoverable coal reserves. In future, the development of the raw materials base will be achieved through enriching and improving the quality of the coal and the deep processing of coal to obtain fluid fuel and synthetic substances. Developing shale is also topical. The high concentration of methane in coal layers makes it possible to extract it and utilise it on a large scale. However, today the country's energy sector, which was largely established in the Soviet times, has reached its potential. Kazakhstan has about 18 GW of installed electricity capacity, of which about 80% is coal fired, most of it built before 1990. Being alert to the impending problems, the government is planning to undertake large-scale modernisation of the existing facilities and construct new ones during 2015-30. The project to modernise the national electricity grid aims to upgrade the power substations to ensure energy efficiency and security of operation. The project will result in installation of modern high-voltage equipment, automation and relay protection facilities, a dispatch control system, monitoring and data processing and energy management systems, automated electricity metering system, as well as a digital corporate telecommunication network.

  17. 47{sup th} Annual meeting on nuclear technology (AMNT 2016). About cores, coal and cash

    Podivinsky, Tomas Jan


    Rationality and - especially with regard to reducing emissions - technological neutrality are two commitments for nuclear fission. The Czech Republic, where conditions are not suitable for economical large-scale operation of facilities based on renewables, there is no alternative in environmental or business policy to the reasonable use of nuclear energy. The aim of the updated Czech energy strategy is to increase the proportion of nuclear energy from 35 % to approx. 50 % of power generation and to cover the rest - together with ultra-high efficiency coal fired power plants - with energy from renewable sources and gas fired power plants.

  18. Selected English-Czech False Friends and Their Use in the Works of Some Czech Students

    Daniel Raušer


    Full Text Available This paper serves mainly for practical study purposes and focuses on selected vocabulary taken from various Internet sources and subsequently put into wrong contexts by some Czech students of English at an institute of tertiary education, where the paper’s author is currently employed at the Department of Foreign Languages. When assessing the students’ oral presentations and submitted term papers, he very often encounters expressions the students borrow from English, yet incorrectly interpret as their semantic equivalents in the Czech language. Using these specifically opposing vocabularies, commonly referred to as “false friends”, account for repeatedly occurring mistakes made by the above students, who find some of these words confusing, displeasing and difficult to comprehend. Based on his subjective judgement and experience, the author selected several examples of such words in order to point out their particular discrepancies on applying them to both the English and Czech languages. By doing so, the author believes the students will avoid making mistakes, when searching and/or using their online references.

  19. Significance of coal petrological investigations in coal bed methane exploration - Indian context

    Misra, B.K.; Singh, B.D.; Singh, A. [Birbal Sahni Institute of Paleobotany, Lucknow (India)


    Understanding of sorption and desorption processes of gas by coal is important in coal bed methane (CBM) estimation and determining its producibility. The results of the investigations carried out so far in Australia, on the role of coal type and rank in CBM storage and recovery are found to be inapplicable in the context of Indian coals. This is probably because the Australian Permian coals were considered as a two-component system - vitrinite- and inertinite-rich (liptinite macerals being present in negligible amount), when tested through sorption and desorption experiments. Liptinite maceral group, the third component of almost all high-volatile bituminous Permian coals of India, comprising hydrogen-rich plant parts (mostly the sporinite, spores and pollen), was not acknowledged in the model studies. Likewise, two lithotype bands - bright and dull including bulk coal samples were tested for the preceding experiments, whereas a third lithotype band semi-bright, the common lithotype of Permian coals was not included in such studies. Besides some general and specific comments on observations made, it is suggested to explore the role of liptinite macerals in sorption properties in different lithotypes; and assess coal permeability on three band components.

  20. Application of Thiobacillus ferroxidans to the bacterial desulfurization of coal; Application du Thiobacillus ferroxidans a la desulfuration bacterienne du charbon

    Fecko, P. [Ostrava Universite Technique (Czech Republic); Sedlackova, V. [MUS Republique Tcheque (Czech Republic)


    The applicability of bacterial lixiviation of coal is tested on a sample from the Merkur basin (Northern Bohemia, Czech republic). Clean cultures of Thiobacillus ferroxidans can totally remove the pyrite sulfur after one month of treatment. With this process, the desulfurization can reach 48%. Abstract only. (J.S.)

  1. Material and structural characterization of alkali activated low-calcium brown coal fly ash.

    Skvára, Frantisek; Kopecký, Lubomír; Smilauer, Vít; Bittnar, Zdenek


    The waste low-calcium Czech brown coal fly ash represents a considerable environmental burden due to the quantities produced and the potentially high content of leachable heavy metals. The heterogeneous microstucture of the geopolymer M(n) [-(Si-O)(z)-Al-O](n).wH(2)O, that forms during the alkaline activation, was examined by means of microcalorimetry, XRD, TGA, DSC, MIP, FTIR, NMR MAS ((29)Si, (27)Al, (23)Na), ESEM, EDS, and EBSD. The leaching of heavy metals and the evolution of compressive strength were also monitored. The analysis of raw fly ash identified a number of different morphologies, unequal distribution of elements, Fe-rich rim, high internal porosity, and minor crystalline phases of mullite and quartz. Microcalorimetry revealed exothermic reactions with dependence on the activator alkalinity. The activation energy of the geopolymerization process was determined as 86.2kJ/mol. The X-ray diffraction analysis revealed no additional crystalline phases associated with geopolymer formation. Over several weeks, the (29)Si NMR spectrum testified a high degree of polymerization and Al penetration into the SiO(4) tetrahedra. The (23)Na NMR MAS spectrum hypothesized that sodium is bound in the form of Na(H(2)O)(n) rather than Na(+), thus causing efflorescence in a moisture-gradient environment. As and Cr(6+) are weakly bonded in the geopolymer matrix, while excellent immobilization of Zn(2+), Cu(2+), Cd(2+), and Cr(3+) are reported.

  2. Coal seam methane distribution and its significance in Pingdingshan mining area

    郭德勇; 周心权; 沈少川; 张晓萍


    A study aimed at the coal seam group E and F in Pingdingshan mining area has been completed. This study is on the relationship of the coal-seam methane reserve to coal thickness, coal rank, coal seam depth, surrounding rock and geological structure and other factors. The study indicates that different geological factor plays different role in controlling the law of coal-seam methane reserve. The coal-seam methane rich area, which was formed because of various factors and comprehensive effect, is the coal and methane outburst-prone area, and also the key area for coal-bed methane recovery. Among all factors, coal seam depth and geological structure is more important factor in affecting coal-seam methane content in Pingdingshan mining area.

  3. The prevalence of wasting in Czech infants: a comparison of the WHO child growth standards and the Czech growth references.

    Vignerová, Jana; Paulová, Markéta; Shriver, Lenka H; Riedlová, Jitka; Schneidrová, Dagmar; Kudlová, Eva; Lhotská, Lída


    The objective of this descriptive study was to evaluate the performance of the international World Health Organization (WHO) child growth standards in the Czech Republic and determine the prevalence of wasting among children using the 1991 Czech growth reference and the WHO growth standards. The study utilized the 2006 WHO Child Growth Standards and the 1991 Czech growth references. The WHO standards were based on a longitudinal study of 882 children aged 0-24 months and on cross-sectional studies of 6669 children aged 18-71 months. The 1991 Czech growth references were based on a cross-sectional survey including 90 910 children aged 0-18 years (34 164 were children aged < 5 years). The prevalence of wasting was significantly higher among Czech children when using the WHO growth standards compared with the Czech references. The prevalence of wasting among 0-5-month-old children was 15.5% among boys and 12.9% among girls compared with the expected 2.3% of the WHO standards. In the length category of 50 cm, 9.0% of boys and 9.9% of girls fell under the WHO wasting cut-off compared with the 3% from the Czech growth reference. The application of the WHO growth standards may results in a significant increase of Czech children classified in the category of wasting, especially among infants aged 0-5 months. The performance and potential impacts of the WHO growth standards should be evaluated further before their adoption in the Czech Republic and other countries with local growth references.

  4. Desulphurisation of waste gases in Czech Republic

    Svrèek Peter


    Full Text Available The paper deals with the problem of the decreasing sulphur dioxide emission in the Czech Republic. In 1991 a new Cean Air Act has been accepted. Emission limit values based on the best available technology not entailing cost. All sources of pollution will have to comply the emission limit values up to December 31, 1998 at the latest. At the present time the last units in the power plants and heating plants are under construction, many of them are on the scale. The prevailing system is the wet limestone technology producing gypsum. Differences in the installed systems, in particular power plants, are described. In a lesser extent the wet dry lime technology will be used. Old boilers are replaced by the atmospheric fluidized bed combustion. At the end of the paper the proposal of the amendment to the Europe Union Directive 608/87 EEC, is discussed. Differences in the systems in the particular power plants are described.

  5. Risk Premia in the Czech Money Market

    Martin Pohl


    Full Text Available We estimate risk premia in the Czech money market and we pay special attention to the 2008-2009 crisis period. Our results imply a rising forward premium and we argue that the error correction model is the most appropriate method, but median may be used as a first guess estimator. We estimated the term premium between the policy rate and various money market interest rates. In this context, ARCH models proved to be useful in reflection of non-stationarity observed in the data. The financial crisis caused a structural break in our data sample, but the impact on the forward premium was only brief and forward premia normalized quickly. The widening of the term premium proved to be much more persistent, although it declined significantly since the peak of the crisis.


    VNOUČKOVÁ, Lucie


    Full Text Available Education, development, knowledge management, career development and talent management are currently often discussed themes regarding strategic management of organisations. Those concepts are strategically important. Therefore the aim of the article is to evaluate possibilities of employee education and development and identify main approaches to employee development in Czech organizations. The results are based on a quantitative survey by questionnaire data collection. The results shows that 70% of respondents have possibility of development; 86% uses their skills and abilities and 63% stated that their employer support their development. On the contrary, 27% do not feel any possibility to grow and that may lead to disaffection, loss of production or even to employee turnover. Based on the results of the analysis, employees, who miss adequate level of development are usually key and knowledge employees; it is necessary to support their career plans and development to retain them in organisation.

  7. Effects of torpedo blasting on rockburst prevention during deep coal seam mining in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin

    Ł. Wojtecki


    Full Text Available In the Upper Silesian Coal Basin (USCB, coal seams are exploited under progressively more difficult geological and mining conditions (greater depth, higher horizontal stress, more frequent occurrence of competent rock layers, etc.. Mining depth, dislocations and mining remnants in coal seams are the most important factors responsible for the occurrence of rockburst hazards. Longwall mining next to the mining edges of neighbouring coal seams is particularly disadvantageous. The levels of rockburst hazards are minimised via the use of rockburst prevention methods. One active prevention method is torpedo blasting in roof rocks. Torpedo blastings are performed in order to decrease local stress concentrations in rock masses and to fracture the roof rocks to prevent or minimise the impact of high-energy tremors on excavations. The estimation of the effectiveness of torpedo blasting is particularly important when mining is under difficult geological and mining conditions. Torpedo blasting is the main form of active rockburst prevention in the assigned colliery in the Polish part of the USCB. The effectiveness of blasting can be estimated using the seismic effect method, in which the seismic monitoring data and the mass of explosives are taken into consideration. The seismic effect method was developed in the Czech Republic and is always being used in collieries in the Czech part of the coal basin. Now, this method has been widely adopted for our selected colliery in the Polish part of the coal basin. The effectiveness of torpedo blastings in the faces and galleries of the assigned longwall in coal seam 506 has been estimated. The results show that the effectiveness of torpedo blastings for this longwall was significant in light of the seismic effect method, which corresponds to the in situ observations. The seismic effect method is regularly applied to estimating the blasting effectiveness in the selected colliery.

  8. Threat Prioritization Process for the Czech Security Strategy Making

    Milos Balaban; Oldrich Krulik; Vladimir Krulik; Jan Ludvik; Ludek Moravec; Antonin Rasek; Libor Stejskal


    This article offers systematic view of a process of identification of security threats and, subsequently, their use in the making of strategic documents, notably the Security Strategy of the Czech Republic...

  9. Analysis of Online Marketing Management in Czech Republic

    Zdenek Smutny


    ...) questionnaire survey among 161 Czech companies which do business via the Internet. Results: There is a large gap that currently exist between the use of social media and its connection to marketing...

  10. Body conformation comparison of Czech and Polish Hucul horses

    Zita Matoušová Malbohanová


    Full Text Available Measurements of 17 body measures and 11 indices of body conformation on 209 breeding individuals of the Hucul horse were used to analyse the effect of country of origin (Poland and the Czech Republic, sex (stallions and mares, age (5 classes and sire line (Gurgul, Goral, Oušor, Hroby, Polan, Pietrosu, Prislop. All horses were measured by one person. Measures and indexes were analysed by the GLM procedure. The main effect was the country of origin. Highly significant differences were found between both Polish and Czech horses in two thirds of measurements and in more than half of indices. The Czech Hucul horses are significantly higher, longer, wider in pelvis and have longer head than Polish horses. On the contrary to the Czech horses are Polish horses more compact, massive and have deeper chest. Their cannon bone in relation to height of wither is wider.

  11. Compilation of Non-Financial Balances in the Czech Republic

    Vítězslav Ondruš


    Full Text Available The System of National Accounts in the Czech Republic consists of three main parts — institutional sector accounts, input-output tables and balances of non-financial assets. All three parts are compiled interactively by common time schedule. The article deals with balances of non-financial assets and their relation to core institutional sector accounts and explains why the third parallel part of SNA in the Czech Republic was build, describes its weaknesses and future development.

  12. Variable Star and Exoplanet Section of the Czech Astronomical Society

    Brát, L.; Zejda, M.


    We present activities of Czech variable star observers organized in the Variable Star and Exoplanet Section of the Czech Astronomical Society. We work in four observing projects: B.R.N.O. - eclipsing binaries, MEDUZA - intrinsic variable stars, TRESCA - transiting exoplanets and candidates, HERO - objects of high energy astrophysics. Detailed information together with O-C gate (database of eclipsing binaries minima timings) and OEJV (Open European Journal on Variable stars) are available on our internet portal



    <正>20091749 Cai Hou’an(College of Energy Geology,China University of Geosciences,Beijing 100083,China);Xu Debin SHRIMP U-Pb Isotope Age of Volcanic Rocks Distributed in the Badaohao Area,Liaoning Province and Its Significance(Coal Geology & Exploration,ISSN1001-1986,CN61-1155/P,36(4),2008,p.17-20,2 illus.,1 table,16 refs.)Key words:coal measures,volcanic rocks,U-Pb dating,LiaoningA set of andesite volcanic rocks distributes in the Badaohao area in Heishan County,Liaoning Province.It’s geological age and stratigraphy sequence relationship between the Lower Cretaceous Badaohao Formation and the volcanic rocks can not make sure till now and is influencing the further prospect for coals.Zircon

  14. Mercury in coal. A review. Part 1

    Yudovich, Ya. E.; Ketris, M.P. [Institute of Geology, Komi Scientific Center, Ural Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Morozova St., 100, ap. 49, 167023 Syktyvkar (Russian Federation)


    coal. Until the recent discovery of syngenetic volcanic Hg accumulations in Canadian coals, such Hg accumulations in coal were unknown. The most important type of Hg enrichment in coals is an epigenetic, low-temperature hydrothermal process; the Nikitovka (Ukraine), Warrior (USA), and Guizhou (China) basins are good examples. In the two latter coal basins, the paragenetic association Hg-As-Au-Tl is similar to Carlin-type Au deposits. The most notably Hg-rich basin is the Donbas-Donetsk coal basin situated in the Ukraine and Russia. Numerous coalfields in the Donbas are enriched in Hg by one order of magnitude above the coal Clarke level. The Hg in the Donbas was due to hydrothermal mineralization passing through sheared zones. The extraction and use of Hg-bearing Donbas coals have created very difficult environmental problems for the Ukrainian people.

  15. Energy and environmental research emphasizing low-rank coal. Semi-annual report, January--June 1994



    Summaries of progress on the following tasks are presented: Mixed waste treatment; Hot water extraction of nonpolar organic pollutant from soils; Aqueous phase thermal oxidation wastewater treatment; Review of results from comprehensive characterization of air toxic emissions from coal-fired power plants; Air toxic fine particulate control; Effectiveness of sorbents for trace elements; Catalyst for utilization of methane in selective catalytic reduction of NOx; Fuel utilization properties; Hot gas cleaning; PFBC; catalytic tar cracking; sulfur forms in coal; resid and bitumen desulfurization; biodesulfurization; diesel fuel desulfurization; stability issues; Sorbent carbon development; Evaluation of carbon products; Stable and supercritical chars; Briquette binders; Carbon molecular sieves; Coal char fuel evaporation canister sorbent; Development of a coal by-product classification protocol for utilization; Use of coal ash in recycled plastics and composite materials; Corrosion of advanced structural materials; Joining of advanced structural materials; Resource data evaluation; and the Usti and Labem (Czech Republic) coal-upgrading program.

  16. Coal industry annual 1997



    Coal Industry Annual 1997 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. US Coal production for 1997 and previous years is based on the annual survey EIA-7A, Coal Production Report. This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report includes a national total coal consumption for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. 14 figs., 145 tabs.

  17. Coal Industry Annual 1995



    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 21 million short tons for 1995.

  18. Coal industry annual 1996



    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States.This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 24 million short tons for 1996. 14 figs., 145 tabs.

  19. Influencing youth entrepreneuship in the Czech Republic

    Monika Fantová


    Full Text Available Entrepreneurship is one of the possible solutions to the pan-European problem of youth unemployment. The objective of the research was to identify differences between male and female entrepreneurs in their opinions of entrepreneurship of young people. We wanted to find out whether male and female entrepreneurs would recommend young people to do business and what factors in their opinion can influence the fact whether young people start business. To collect data, we used a questionnaire sent to entrepreneurs from the whole Czech Republic. The most important barrier identified by entrepreneurs was frequently amended legislation, complexity of administration, poor enforceability of law and a lack of funds. The most important incentives of young people according to entrepreneurs is particularly the vision of opportunities in business. Another important incentive is becoming more independent. Statistically significant differences in the responses of men and women were found in the barrier related to the personal knowledge of an unsuccessful entrepreneur and in the incentive of the necessity to start business due to the lack of a job. Sufficient funding and possessing business premises were factors in which statistically significant differences in the responses of men and women were found, too. This research emphasises factors which women and men can find important in making a decision on starting business or being employed.

  20. [Human prion diseases in the Czech Republic].

    Rohan, Z; Rusina, R; Marešová, M; Matěj, R


    Human prion diseases are a group of very rare diseases with a unique pathogenesis and, due to an inauspicious prognosis and unavailability of therapy, with fatal consequences. The etiopathogenetic background is the presence of pathologically misfolded prion protein, highly resistant to denaturation, the aggregation and presence of which in the brain tissue causes irreversible neuronal damage. The most frequent prion disease in humans is Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) which occurs in sporadic, hereditary/familial, or acquired/infectious/iatrogenic forms. A new form of CJD, variant CJD, is considered to be linked to dietary exposure to beef products from cattle infected with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) and to infection via blood transfusion. The clinical picture of these diseases is characterized by a rapidly progressing dementia, cerebellar and extrapyramidal symptoms, and rather specific MRI, EEG, and CSF findings. Clinically, the diagnosis is described as possible or probable prion disease and needs to be confirmed by neuropathological or immunological investigation of the brain tissue. Epidemiological data from the Czech Republic spanning the last decade are presented.

  1. Human biomonitoring system in the Czech Republic.

    Cerná, Milena; Spĕvácková, Vĕra; Batáriová, Andrea; Smíd, Jirí; Cejchanová, Mája; Ocadlíková, Dana; Bavorová, Hana; Benes, Bohuslav; Kubínová, Růzena


    The human biomonitoring (HBM) is an integral part of Environmental Health Monitoring System in the Czech Republic since 1994. Selected biomarkers of the internal dose (heavy metals, PCBs) and cytogenetic analysis of peripheral lymphocytes as a biomarker of the exposure/effect to/of environmental genotoxic factors are systematically followed up in the blood and urine of adults (blood donors), in children aged 8 to 10 years, and in the breast milk of nursing mothers. Selected outputs documented the declining trend of blood lead levels, with the recent reference value of 80 mg/l for men, and the rising trend of blood selenium levels in adults, but not in children. PCBs and chlorinated pesticides in human milk show a long-term downward trend, but still higher than in neighbouring countries. The frequency of aberrant cells revealed a downward trend, but the increase obtained in the last monitored period needs to be explained. Further HBM activities are required to demonstrate the corresponding trends and to reduce human exposure and health risks.

  2. Advanced coal-fueled gas turbine systems

    Wenglarz, R.A.


    Several technology advances since the early coal-fueled turbine programs that address technical issues of coal as a turbine fuel have been developed in the early 1980s: Coal-water suspensions as fuel form, improved methods for removing ash and contaminants from coal, staged combustion for reducing NO{sub x} emissions from fuel-bound nitrogen, and greater understanding of deposition/erosion/corrosion and their control. Several Advanced Coal-Fueled Gas Turbine Systems programs were awarded to gas turbine manufacturers for for components development and proof of concept tests; one of these was Allison. Tests were conducted in a subscale coal combustion facility and a full-scale facility operating a coal combustor sized to the Allison Model 501-K industrial turbine. A rich-quench-lean (RQL), low nitrogen oxide combustor design incorporating hot gas cleanup was developed for coal fuels; this should also be applicable to biomass, etc. The combustor tests showed NO{sub x} and CO emissions {le} levels for turbines operating with natural gas. Water washing of vanes from the turbine removed the deposits. Systems and economic evaluations identified two possible applications for RQL turbines: Cogeneration plants based on Allison 501-K turbine (output 3.7 MW(e), 23,000 lbs/hr steam) and combined cycle power plants based on 50 MW or larger gas turbines. Coal-fueled cogeneration plant configurations were defined and evaluated for site specific factors. A coal-fueled turbine combined cycle plant design was identified which is simple, compact, and results in lower capital cost, with comparable efficiency and low emissions relative to other coal technologies (gasification, advanced PFBC).

  3. Relationship of reverse logistics and marketing communication in Czech Republic

    František Milichovský


    Full Text Available Purpose of the article: The paper deals with question if the final customers are interested in reverse logistics in marketing campaigns, acceptable in the market of Czech Republic. Methodology/methods: Paper is based on primary research, on which participated final consumers in Czech Republic through the questionnaire survey. Results of the paper are based on testing of dependence between individual variables by Pearson chi-square test. Scientific aim: The aim of the article is to show relationship of marketing communication and reverse logistics, and their correlation. Findings: Main result of research provide relationship between marketing communication tools and reverse activity. The research was aimed at random chosen group of 585 people in the Czech Republic. The result of the research can be used for the companies that operate in the Czech or Central European market. Conclusions: The primary research provides possible approaches for companies in communication green services to final consumers. Limitation for this research because of the chosen sample. Own data for primary research was gained only in Czech Republic.

  4. Determinants of Regional Entrepreneurial Activity in the Czech Republic

    Ondřej Dvouletý


    Full Text Available The following study is focused on analysis of registered businesses in the 14 regions of the Czech Republic during the period of years 1995-2013. The aim of the study was to quantify factors that affect entrepreneurial activity expressed as rate of registered businesses per capita. Based on the previous empirical studies, the determinants were selected and hypothesis stated. Formed hypothesis investigated positive impact of GDP per capita, unemployment rate and R&D institutions on rate of registered business activity. To evaluate them, data were obtained from the Czech Statistical Office and formed into dataset. Firstly, panel regressions estimated with fixed effects method were employed and secondly, Granger causality tests to evaluate the relationship between entrepreneurial activity and GDP per capita were used. Regression estimates proved positive relationship between entrepreneurial activity in Czech regions and GDP per capita, unemployment rate and support activities of R&D institutions. Positive impact was also confirmed for population density, average age, share of tertiary educated population and real R&D expenditures. Testing Granger causality proved dual causality between entrepreneurial activity and GDP per capita confirming that GDP per capita as good predictor of economic development of Czech regions. Finally, economic growth motivates Czech individuals to enter entrepreneurial activity.

  5. Droughts in the Czech Lands: Past, Present and Future

    Brázdil, Rudolf; Trnka, Miroslav


    The presentation highlights main results of the InterDrought project (2013-2015), which includes several Czech universities and research institutes, and also shows overview of multidisciplinary scientific monograph on drought. The basic data sources consisting of instrumental, documentary, tree-ring and satellite data are presented. Selected drought indices (SPI, SPEI, Z-index and PDSI) calculated from homogenised Czech temperature and precipitation series are used to describe spatial and temporal variability of droughts in the Czech Lands for the 1804-2010 period including selection of drought extreme episodes and their detail description with respect to meteorological and synoptic patterns and impacts as well. Analysis of droughts prior 1804 is based on documentary data and oak tree-ring widths used for compilation of 500-year Czech drought chronology. The occurrence of extreme droughts is further analysed with respect to sea-level pressure patterns in the Atlantic-European area, climate forcings and changes in land-use. Examples of agricultural and hydrological droughts are mentioned. High resolution soil moisture models are used to estimate drought trends in last five decades as well as estimate future development of droughts in the Czech Republic. Overview represented by this paper will be complemented by several individual detail studies of other InterDrought Team members.

  6. Key Sustainability Performance Indicator Analysis for Czech Breweries

    Edward Kasem


    Full Text Available Sustainability performance can be said to be an ability of an organization to remain productive over time and hold on to its potential for maintaining long-term profitability. Since the brewery sector is one of the most important and leading markets in the foodstuff industry of the Czech Republic, this study depicts the Czech breweries’ formal entry into sustainability reporting and performance. The purpose of this paper is to provide an efficiency level evaluation which would represent the level of corporate performance of Czech breweries. For this reason, Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA is introduced. In order to apply it, we utilize a set of key performance indicators (KPIs based on two international standard frameworks: the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI and its GRI 4 guidelines, and the guideline KPIs for ESG 3.0, which was published by the DVFA Society. Four sustainability dimensions (economic, environmental, social and governance are covered, making it thus possible to adequately evaluate sustainability performance in Czech breweries. The main output is not only the efficiency score of the company but also the input weights. These weights are used to determine the contribution of particular criteria to the breweries’ achieved score. According to the achieved efficiency results for Czech breweries, the percentage of women supervising the company does not affect the sustainability performance.

  7. Coal industry annual 1993


    Coal Industry Annual 1993 replaces the publication Coal Production (DOE/FIA-0125). This report presents additional tables and expanded versions of tables previously presented in Coal Production, including production, number of mines, Productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. This report also presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for a wide audience including the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In addition, Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility Power Producers who are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. This consumption is estimated to be 5 million short tons in 1993.

  8. Coal - proximate analysis



    This Standard establishes a practice for the proximate analysis of coal, that is, the coal is analysed for the content of moisture, ash and volatile matter; fixed carbon is calculated. The standard provides a basis for the comparison of coals.

  9. Influence of granularity on coal pyrolysis in Ar/H{sub 2} plasma

    Lu, Y.; Tian, Y.; Wang, D.; Xie, K.; Zhu, S. [Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan (China). State Key Lab of C1 Chemistry and Technology, Shanxi key Lab of Coal Science and Technology


    Coal pyrolysis in arc plasma is very complex. These are many factors affecting this process, such as coal particle size, type of coal, proportion of working gases (Ar/H{sub 2}) and input powders. Coal pyrolysis in H{sub 2}-rich Ar plasma jet reactor was performed. The effect of granularity on coal conversion, acetylene yield, acetylene molar ratio in product gas and coke formation at the wall of reactor was studied. According to the coke formation mechanism in which the granularity is the key factor, the new way of coal feeding with double apex distribution granularity was put forward to eliminate the coke formation. 10 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  10. Mercury accumulation in peatbogs at Czech sites with contrasting pollution histories.

    Zuna, M; Ettler, V; Šebek, O; Mihaljevič, M


    Mercury (Hg) concentrations and accumulation patterns were studied in (210)Pb-dated peat cores from three ombrotrophic sites in the Czech Republic with contrasting emission histories (Novodomské rašeliniště, ND, and Bílá Smědá, BS, in the polluted northern parts of the country, and Jezerní slať, JS, in a relatively pristine southern part of the Czech Republic). The Hg concentration varied significantly between sites. Whereas the sites in the northern part of the Czech Republic yielded a range of higher Hg concentrations (50-750 μg kg(-1) for ND and 30-600 μg kg(-1) for BS), a Hg concentration range of 40-220 μg kg(-1) was reported at JS. At the northern localities, the highest Hg concentrations were detected at depths of 5-10 cm, corresponding to the period between the early 1960s until the late 1980s. In contrast, the highest Hg values at JS were observed at a depth of 10-15 cm, corresponding to the period between the early 1950s and the early 1970s. The maximum Hg accumulation rates were approximately 2× higher at the northern localities (ND: 106 μg m(-2)yr(-1), BS: 90 μg m(-2)yr(-1), JS: 43 μg m(-2)yr(-1)). Although a decrease in the Hg concentration can be observed in the youngest segments of all the peat cores, a slight increase in Hg accumulation rates in the most recent peat segments (living Sphagnum moss) has been reported for all three sites (40-44 μg m(-2)yr(-1)), which is approximately 2× higher than in peat bogs in western and northern Europe. This observation may either be related to a real recent increase in Hg emissions in Central Europe (active coal mining and burning and limited Hg pollution control in thermal power plants) or could indicate a preferential Hg binding mechanism in the living moss at the surface of the peat.

  11. Araneofauna of the Křéby National Nature Monument (Eastern Moravia, Czech Republic with some notes to conservation management of the locality

    Ondřej Košulič


    Full Text Available This paper makes a faunistic contribution to knowledge of spider composition in the xerothermic habitats of the Křéby National Nature Monument which is located in Kroměříž district, eastern Moravia. Spiders were collected by four different methods during 25 April–28 October 2013: pitfall traps, sweeping of herb vegetation, individual collecting and beating the branches of shrubs and trees. In total, 1070 individuals (865 adult spiders were collected and identified as 114 species of 19 families. The species diversity in the Křéby area is rather high, representing approximately 13% of Czech araneofauna. Of the identified species, five are listed in the Red List of Threatened Species in the Czech Republic. These included critically endangered Dysdera hungarica Kulczynski 1897, endangered Alopecosa solitaria (Herman, 1879, Cheiracanthium montanum (C. L. Koch, 1877 and vulnerable Lathys stigmatisata (Menge, 1869 and Haplodrassus dalmatensis (L. Koch, 1866. The findings of Alopecosa solitaria and Dysdera hungarica belong to the northernmost occurrence of these rare species in the Czech Republic. In general, the great richness of spider fauna and the occurrence of rare and threatened species for Czech region confirm the high biotic value of the investigated area. In addition, the author discussed management methods of the locality and suggest management conservation system for slowing down the succession rate on overgrown places.

  12. Marketingová komunikace agentury CzechTourism - internetový marketing DCR

    SOUKUPOVÁ, Tereza


    The theoretical part includes the basic rules of marketing, set in the context of tourism through marketing the competitive destination, and internet marketing. The following chapters focus on the role of the CzechTourism in the field of tourism in the Czech Republic. Describe CzechTourism's marketing plans, including marketing campaign to promote domestic tourism. In the end the work focuses on the internet marketing through a basic analysis of the Czech domestic tourism website's homepage (...

  13. Effects of the Financial Crisis on Stock Market of the Czech Republic and Spain

    Titizov, Toško


    The paper analyzes effects of the financial crisis on stock market of the Czech Republic and Spain. We employ BEKK-GARCH model in order to study volatility spillovers and transmissions from the US stock market to stock markets of the Czech Republic and Spain. The multivariate GARCH models results show statistically significant, but relatively small, almost irrelevant volatility spillovers from the US stock market to stock markets of the Czech Republic and Spain. The Czech stock market exhibit...

  14. The evaluation of properties of coal mass from the viewpoint of environment

    Foniok, R.; Lukes, M. [Research Mining Inst., Ostrava-Radvanice (Czechoslovakia)


    This paper deals with the evaluation of several various coal kinds from the Czech coalfields from the viewpoint of the development of thermal processes in coal mass due to their tendency towards self- ignition during storing. In such a case that no self-ignition during storing occurs, gaseous products are liberated into air, the quantity and composition of which depend upon fuel type and its temperature as well. From the environmental viewpoint, substances washed from stored coal are of a certain interest, too. In accordance with this fact, the importance of measures against self-heating of stored coal mass and the importance of a detailed observation of coal quality are concluded. The tables, which compare various coal kinds from the viewpoint of their behavior at self-ignition processes, are the integral part of this presented paper. Our greatest attention is paid to both the quantity and composition of gases being liberated in dependence upon the temperature of coal mass, and at its crushing with regard to selected methods and means of milling circuits before and explosion. Oxygen sorption by means of coal mass is also observed, being of a great importance for self-inertization of closed tanks. All the above-mentioned processes are demonstrated in form of graphic plots. Qualitative signs of coal mass are the basic means for its assessment from the viewpoint of emissions at burning/combustion, and the evaluation of explosive properties. A great attention is paid to explosion-proof means being produced in the Czech Republic. These means can be used for protection of milling circuits of power plants and heating plants or for safety systems of combustion chamber by means of insulation to secondary air main. Explosion-proof quci-acting valves, a special type of safety membrane and device for explosion suppression nip in the bud do represent the latest explosion-proof means.

  15. Coal/oil mixture pipeline: a viable alternative coal transportation system

    Harkness, J. B.L.; Petrovic, L. J.


    Slurry pipeline systems have been promoted as minimizing the environmental and socio-economic impacts of rail transportation and as increasing competition in interstate coal transportation. However, the scarce water resources of the coal rich western states may limit the number and/or capacity of these systems. Furthermore, these systems are not without their own operating and environmental problems. In this paper, a coal transportation system which utilizes coal/oil mixture technology is compared to the coal/water system and to another alternative, coal/methanol system. The primary considerations addressed are the system design considerations and trade-offs, the resource requirements (including capital) and the cost of delivered energy. Considerations such as the system environmental impacts, the status of the technologies, oil quality and supply, and the potential system flexibilities are discussed qualitatively. This qualitative comparison shows that the coal/oil slurry pipeline is an attractive economic, environmental, and technical alternative for transporting coal PROVIDED that oil is available in the region. Coal/water pipelines are a second choice based on economics and, furthermore, are limited by their demands on western water resources. The third choice is coal/oil slurry pipelines using oil generated onsite. The main attraction is the saving of about 1/2 the water requirements. However, the capital costs will be high. Coal/methanol slurry pipelines do not appear to have any economic or environmental advantages. Further secondary considerations must be addressed before a technically and economically viable coal/oil surry pipeline could be implemented.

  16. [About Cryptophthalmos (2nd Czech Study)].

    Krásný, J; Čakrtová, M; Kletenský, J; Novák, V; Šach, J

    To get acquainted with the 2nd Czech study about cryptophthamos and with self-surgical methods. The boy with unilateral complete cryptophthalmos of left eye was treated from 2 to 20 years. The girls was treated from 4 month to 5 year yet for right abortive cryptophthalmos with microblepharon and left complete type still waiting for solutions.Surgical methods and results: Authors present a surgical procedures for correction of the upper and lower eyelids and ocular anomalies both patients studied. Successful reconstruction of palpebral fissure took place in several stages at the boy. The surgical procedure gradually contained: the insertion of gradually increased convex concave circular-shaped implant (silicone ruber) due a modeling of palpebral fissure, an enucleation of rudimentary eye, a reconstruction of bottom palpebral fissure by retro-auricular skin graf and a releasing of the lower transitory fold by the cul-de-sac method. An adequate depth of palpebral fissure to allow perfect position of an aesthetic protesis. Enucleated eye was atypically shaped, remiding partly sand-glass clock. The cornea was replaced by thick fibrous membrane, the iris and the lens were not revealed. Gliomatic retina was detached nearly totaly and the optic nerv was rudimental. The repairing the upper lid coloboma of girl by a lid rotation flap reconstruction using the inferior eyelid was performed at the age 17 month. Corneal dermoid simultaneously removed (histologically verified). Upper conjunctival fornix was formed using the spherical covering foil (silicone rubber) before and after the reconstruction of the lid. Plastic reconstructions required the need for patient access without trying immediate effect. An important role played silicone rubber implants (elastomer medical grade) which used temporarily. cryptophthalmos, microblepharon, relief surgery, silicon ruber implants.

  17. Clean coal technology promotion and dissemination

    Minchener, A.J.; McMullan, J.T.; Kubica, K. (and others) [IEA Coal Research Ltd, London (United Kingdom)


    This project has provided a means to valorise the technical achievements of the CCT power generation RD&D activities arising from the ECSC and RFCS coal utilisation programmes. The focus has been on promotion and dissemination of such results to major coal-using Member States that have recently joined the European Union, namely Poland, the Czech Republic and Romania. A comprehensive review of the scope and achievements of the ECSC and RFCS projects on coal-fired power generation RD&D has been prepared and posted on the IEACCC website. This document has been translated by the partners in the three designated States and disseminated to their respective national stakeholders. Workshops have been held successfully in each country to promote the findings of the review and to determine their respective primary interests in future RD&D. The attendees have included representatives of major power plant operators, equipment manufacturers and developers, research institutes and universities. Very positive feedback was received from those stakeholders. The project has been completed with the circulation of the report and associated information to comparable stakeholders in the EU-15 countries and other newer members of the European Union via various networks and associations. 2 tabs., 3 apps.

  18. Religion, Culture, and Tax Evasion: Evidence from the Czech Republic

    Wadim Strielkowski


    Full Text Available Our paper analyzes the impact of culture and religion on tax evasions in the Czech Republic, which represents one of the most atheistic countries in Europe, and a very interesting example of attitudes to the church and religion, as well as the influence of religion on the social and economic aspects of everyday life. Our results suggest that, in the Czech Republic, religion plays the role of tax compliance, but only through a positive effect of visiting the church. National pride supports tax morality while trust in government institutions and attitudes towards government are not associated with tax compliance. These results suggest that the Czech Republic is no different from other countries regarding the relationship between religion and tax compliance. Moreover, the role of government as the authority for improving tax compliance is different from what is observed in other countries.

  19. Production and Logistics Performance of Czech and Slovak Companies

    Polakova Veronika


    Full Text Available This contribution deals with the issues of production and logistics performance of Czech and Slovak companies. The goal of the research was to analyze logistic processes, methods of industrial engineering, methods and evaluation of manufacturing, software tools utilized for measurement and management of performance, which are currently applied in manufacturing companies in the Czech and Slovak Republic. This analysis was done with the utilization of qualitativeresearch conducted in 80 selected manufacturing companies in 2009. The results are compared in the continuity with the conclusions from previous researches on manufacturing and logistic factors of the competitiveness of Czech industrial manufacturers carried out during the period 2000-2001 in the framework of the research project of the Faculty of Economics and Management completed in 2004.

  20. Human Resource Diversity Management in Selected Czech Agricultural Companies

    H. Urbancová


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to evaluate human resource Diversity Management in agricultural companies in the Czech Republic and to prepare a set of recommendations for the companies in this area. The primary data for the study was obtained by the use of questionnaires designed for quantitative analysis (n = 549, n agriculture = 108. The results indicate that the use of Diversity Management on Czech companies is relatively low (36.1%; n a = 108. But in view of the employment situation in the agricultural sector, as well as the characteristics of the workforce engaged in agriculture, it would appear that Diversity Management will become an important feature of company management in the not so distant future. This contribution is a follow-up to the project of University – wide internal grant agency (CIGA, number 20141002 - Human resource branding using of the new strategic trends in organizations in the Czech Republic.

  1. Sensitivity of Czech Commercial Banks to a Run on Banks

    Klepková Vodová Pavla


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to thoroughly evaluate the sensitivity of Czech commercial banks to a run on banks. Our sample includes a significant part of the Czech banking sector in the period 2006-2013. We use three liquidity ratios that we stress via a stress scenario simulating a run on banks accompanied by a 20% withdrawal rate of deposits.We measure the impact of the scenario by the relative changes of these ratios. The results show that, in spite of a decrease in liquidity, most Czech banks would be able to finance such a scenario. The financial crisis influenced bank sensitivity to a run, but with a significant time lag. The severity of the impact of the bank run increases with the size of the bank; large banks are the most vulnerable. The resilience of banks is also determined by their strategy for liquidity risk management.


    Vladislav PAVLAT


    Full Text Available The aim of the Paper is to characterise and analyse the biggest Czech banks Annual reports (ARs. Since 2004, the behaviour of Czech banks has been changing, as can be seen – inter alia - from the big banks´ financial statements and annual reports. During the period of 2007 – 2013 the implementation of IFRS continued and its impact on the institutional structure of banking is visible. From the point of view of banks, annual reports present not only the financial results, but they serve as an important instrument of competition and marketing as well. Comparative analysis of the three Czech leading banks gives a picture of their specific features as reflected in their annual statements.

  3. Determinants of the Profitability in the Czech Banking Industry

    Iveta Palečková


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to estimate the banking profitability determinants of the Czech commercial banks during the period 2004-2014. For estimation of banking profitability we used three common measures, namely the Return on Assets, Return on Equity and Net Interest Margin. We estimated twelve determinants of banking performance. The effect of the determinants of banking profitability is estimated using panel data analysis. The data set is consists of seventeen commercial banks in the Czech Republic. The results show that the profitability was positively influenced by the bank’s size, capitalization, credit risk, level of concentration, ownership structure and bank’s market share. Number of branches of the bank had the negative impact on ROA and ROE. on the other hand, the variables Gross Domestic Product, interest rate, liquidity risk, riskiness of bank’s portfolio and affiliation with financial conglomerate have not got the significant influence on profitability of the Czech commercial banks.

  4. Intraday and intraweek trade anomalies on the Czech stock market

    Oleg Deev


    Full Text Available The paper examines intraday and intraweek market returns on the Czech stock market for the search of time and seasonal anomalies in its activities during the last ten years. Existence or absence of anomalies indicates the efficiency of the market. A group of regression models and GARCH (1,1 model is used for the analysis of daily and high frequency data of the PX index. Time varying nature of market seasonalities is revealed with the Czech equity market having implications for changing efficiency over the studied period, when the Czech Republic’s accession to the EU implied the increase in efficiency and the global financial crisis led to opposite results and regularities, which are not yet fully overcomed. Additionally, significant hour-of-the-day effect (open jump effect in the index returns is established.

  5. Training of academic writing: improving competitiveness of Czech universities

    Tomáš Foltýnek


    Full Text Available Project “Impact of Policies for Plagiarism in Higher Education across Europe” has reached its final phase. We have collected lots of data reflecting facts and opinions about plagiarism and related areas. Training of academic writing is one of important means for plagiarism prevention.The paper compares levels of training of academic writing between the Czech republic and the rest of Europe. The answers in a questionnaire survey dealing with plagiarism and training of academic writing will be compared and analysed. According to these answers, best practices in European higher education institutions will be identified, and gaps in the Czech institutions will be described. Removing gaps than poses a step to improve the competitiveness of the Czech higher education institutions.

  6. Migration Behaviour of Strontium in Czech Bentonite Clay

    Lucie Baborova


    Full Text Available The study deals with sorption and diffusion behaviour of strontium in Czech bentonite B75. The study is a part of a research on reactive transport of radioactive contaminants in barrier materials of a deep geological repository of radioactive waste in the Czech Republic. Series of sorption and diffusion experiments with Sr and non-activated Ca bentonite B75 produced in the Czech Republic were performed in two background solutions (CaCl2 and NaCl. On the basis of sorption batch experiments the kinetics of strontium sorption on bentonite was assessed and the sorption isotherms for various experimental conditions were obtained. As a result of performed diffusion experiments the parameters of diffusion (i.e. effective diffusion coefficient De and apparent diffusion coefficient Da were determined. The observed discrepancies between sorption characteristics obtained from the sorption and diffusion experiments are discussed.

  7. Warning against the dangers of wildfires in the Czech Republic

    Mozny, M.; Bares, D.; Virag, M.; Stalmacher, J.


    Many fire risk models have been developed for various temporal and spatial scales and application purposes. The integrated warning service in the Czech Republic is used for wildfire risk assessment model of FDI (Fire Danger Index). The FDI model is being developed in the Doksany observatory based on evaluation of weather conditions. FDI model describes danger of wildfire for vegetation covered countryside. There are five levels of danger: 1 - very low risk, 2 - low risk, 3 - moderate risk, 4 - high risk, 5 - very high risk. Simply say higher index value, reflects to higher risk of wildfire. As input data, the model uses measured values from the Czech Hydrometeorological Institute stations network as well as ALADIN's model predicted conditions. The modelling process computes upper soil profile moisture, surface moistening and the spreading speed of fire. Early warning system for wildfires prevention in the Czech Republic is used since 2006.

  8. Exile, Return and Restitution in the Czech Republic

    Katharine A Vadura


    Full Text Available The exile and return experiences in the Czech lands since 1918 have been various and have had significant implications for the people who live and once lived in that territory. The focus of this paper is on the Sudeten Germans a former minority of the Czech lands. The exile experience of this group has resulted in significant debate as to whether this form of exile as legislated banishment was expulsion or displacement, and whether they should have the right to return. In addition the question of guilt as a mechanism for invoking the forced transfer of a population has also raised the issue of recompense or restitution. Conceptual issues like nationalism, identity, belonging and the right to a homeland have played an important part in the attempts at the development of a stable state and also more recently reconciliation processes between the Czechs and Sudeten Germans.

  9. Family formation in the Czech and Slovak Republics.

    Rychtarikova, J


    The author analyzes family formation trends in the Czech and Slovak Republics. Information is included on first marriage rates, divorce, remarriage, and fertility. "Procreative behaviour in each of the birth-cohorts in the Czech Republic (starting with the birth-cohort 1930) is at the level of simple reproduction. In Slovakia, the completed fertility rate continued declining so that today the two parts of the former federation show very similar levels of reproduction. Marriage is a very wide-spread institution in Czechoslovakia and it is situated in the younger age groups.... The popularity of legal unions in the Czech and Slovak Republics and the relatively higher fertility rate in the European context can be ascribed to the young age at which those events occur." (SUMMARY IN CZE)

  10. High quality coal extraction and environmental remediation of fine coal refuse ponds using advanced cleaning technologies

    Honaker, R.Q.; Mohanty, M.K.; Patwardhan, A. [Department of Mining Engineering, Southern Illinois University-Carbondale, Carbondale, Illinois (United States)


    A vast number of coal refuse ponds represent a significant economical resource base that are also considered to be environmentally harmful. Significant amounts of cleanable fine coal generally exist in the refuse ponds due to the inability of conventional technologies to effectively separate the fine coal from the associated gangue particles. In addition, acid generation, generally a result of pyrite oxidation, has potential to adversely affect the surrounding environment. An integrated processing strategy of simultaneously recovering high quality coal and pyrite-rich products from the treatment of a coal refuse pond slurry has been successfully evaluated using an advanced physical cleaning circuit. A clean coal product having ash and pyritic sulfur contents of 10.1% and 0.41% was recovered with a mass yield of nearly 49%. In addition, a pyrite-rich product containing nearly 83% of the coal pyrite particles present in the refuse pond material was generated for neutralization purposes for the environmental remediation of the slurry pond. 4 refs.

  11. Organic wastes and the industrial technologies of their coprocessing with coal

    Jaroslav Buchtele


    Full Text Available The production of solid waste in the Czech Republic was a round 40 Mt in 2000 – 2002 yearly. The organic compounds in the municipal waste (plastics, polymers, paper, wood, textile and in the agricultural and forest waste (biomass are mainly burned and partially landfilled. New industrial waste processes and their heat conversion in mixtures with coal allow an economical and energetically a more efficient utilization. They also open the way to the production of liquid fuels and chemicals.

  12. Algae and cyanobacteria colonizing toxic soils on coal-mining dumps

    HRČKOVÁ, Kristýna


    Species composition of soil algal and cyanobacterial communities was investigated in thirteen sites of different toxicity of spoil material on dumps in the Sokolov mining area (Czech Republic). The adaptation ability of various algal and cyanobacterial species to live in toxic environment and the effect of different amendments (wooden coal, organic matter, dolomitic limestone) of toxic soils were tested both in laboratory and field experiments. According to results, species composition corres...

  13. Verification of the radiometric map of the Czech Republic.

    Matolín, Milan


    The radiometric map of the Czech Republic is based on uniform regional airborne radiometric total count measurements (1957-1959) which covered 100% of the country. The airborne radiometric instrument was calibrated to a (226)Ra point source. The calibration facility for field gamma-ray spectrometers, established in the Czech Republic in 1975, significantly contributed to the subsequent radiometric data standardization. In the 1990's, the original analogue airborne radiometric data were digitized and using the method of back-calibration (IAEA, 2003) converted to dose rate. The map of terrestrial gamma radiation expressed in dose rate (nGy/h) was published on the scale 1:500,000 in 1995. Terrestrial radiation in the Czech Republic, formed by magmatic, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks of Proterozoic to Quaternary age, ranges mostly from 6 to 245 nGy/h, with a mean of 65.6 ± 19.0 nGy/h. The elevated terrestrial radiation in the Czech Republic, in comparison to the global dose rate average of 54 nGy/h, reflects an enhanced content of natural radioactive elements in the rocks. The 1995 published radiometric map of the Czech Republic was successively studied and verified by additional ground gamma-ray spectrometric measurements and by comparison to radiometric maps of Germany, Poland and Slovakia in border zones. A ground dose rate intercomparison measurement under participation of foreign and domestic professional institutions revealed mutual dose rate deviations about 20 nGy/h and more due to differing technical parameters of applied radiometric instruments. Studies and verification of the radiometric map of the Czech Republic illustrate the magnitude of current deviations in dose rate data. This gained experience can assist in harmonization of dose rate data on the European scale.

  14. Local energy policies in Poland and the Czech Republic



    Both the Czech Republic and Poland as former Communist countries, are transforming their economies from central planning to a free market. This applies equally to energy planning and because they are starting from the same point, they have come up with very comparable solutions despite strong cultural differences, so that the parallels are striking. This study analyzes the energy management in local authorities in Poland and the Czech Republic with the objective of better: identifying the current situation, identifying the opportunities for action both now and in an extended European Union, identifying the constraints that may hinder full integration of East European municipalities in European Union programmes, improve the integration of municipalities in the countries concerned in pan-European networks of municipalities interested in energy issues. The study reviews the powers and responsibilities of local authorities in the energy field and the institutional framework within which local authorities work. There are now 16 directly elected regional authorities in Poland and the local authorities have been restructured into two levels, the Powiad and the Gmina. Similarly, in the Czech Republic 14 elected regional authorities have been established. This document brings together 2 reports: the final report and the study report about the energy policies in Poland and in the Czech republic: structure of local government, general and institutional aspects, national political organisation, national administrative organisation, municipal role in production and distribution, regulation and planning, energy issues, energy management policies, specific aspects at local level etc... The conclusions from two review seminars (Jablonec nad Nison (Czech republic), 25-26 January 2001, and Bielsko Biala (Poland), 22-23 February 2001) and some fact files on 4 large Czech towns and 4 large Polish towns complete the study. (J.S.)

  15. Closed detention in the Czech Republic: on what grounds?

    Beáta Szakácsová


    Full Text Available People who arrive by air in the Czech Republic claiming asylum are transferred to a ‘reception centre’ at Prague’s Vaclav Havel Airport. Although they are deprived of their liberty, have limited access to fresh air and to the internet, and are only allowed to use a payphone, asylum seekers at the centre are not treated as criminals and detainees report that conditions in the reception centre are moderately good. However, there are some significant problems in the Czech Republic’s current practice of detaining applicants for international protection.

  16. [Salmonellosis outbreaks in the Czech Republic in 2012].

    Myšková, Petra; Karpíšková, Renáta; Dědičová, Daniela


    In 2012, the Brno laboratory of the National Institute of Public Health investigated 143 human and 10 food-borne Salmonella strains. All strains were linked to salmonellosis outbreaks in various areas or represented rare serotypes that had emerged more often in some periods. These strains were matched to 22 outbreaks reported in the Czech Republic. Phenotyping and genotyping revealed that the cause of most outbreaks (82%) was the serotype Enteritidis, but other serotypes that are rare in the Czech Republic (S. Mikawasima, S. 9,12:l,v:-, S. Indiana, or S. Stanley) were also involved in some outbreaks.

  17. Changes in Wage Inequality in the Czech Republic

    Eriksson, Tor Viking; Pytlikova, Mariola; Warzynski, Frederic

    In this paper, we examine the evolution of the changes in the wage structure in the Czech Republic using a linked employer-employee dataset covering a large fraction of the Czech labor market over the period 1998-2006. We find evidence of slightly diminishing gender inequality and increasing...... returns to human capital. Moreover, exploiting the firm panel character of the data set, we document changes in within-firm wage dispersion and between firm dispersion. We investigate various hypotheses: increased domestic and international competition, an increasingly decentralized wage bargaining...

  18. Change in Wage Inequality in the Czech Republic

    Eriksson, Tor Viking; Pytlikova, Mariola; Warzynski, Frederic

    In this paper, we look at the evolution of the Czech labor market, and its wage structure in particular, using a linked employer-employee dataset covering a large fraction of the Czech labor market over the period 1998-2006. Estimating conventional earnings equations we find evidence of diminishing...... investigate various hypotheses related to transition towards a market economy, increased domestic and international competition and an increasingly decentralized wage bargaining to explain these patterns. We find some support for that the three mechanisms - increased international competition, further...

  19. Temporal gait characteristics in the Czech adult population

    Korvas, Pavel; Hellebrandt, Vladimír


    A descriptive comparative research study of gait of the Czech population has been carried out. Its aim was to assess temporal characteristics of a stance in the Czech population in relation to the BMI and age. To obtain basic data the Pedar Mobile System (Novel GER) with capacitative insoles was used. 170 men and women aged 18-60 divided by gender and age into three natural biological groups (18-30, 31-45, 46-60 years of age) were measured (Kovář 1997, Riegrová 1998, Pavlík 2007). Basic tempo...

  20. Unique Relaxation with Contrast——Czech Tourism


    @@ At present nobody doubts the fact that the Czech Republic ranges among the popular and well-established tourist destinations. The interest of tourists in spending holiday in this country has grown significantly, especially after 2004, when the country joined the European Union. Behind this increase in the number of tourists travelling to the country and spending more days in the tourist regions lies also a new promotion concept for the Czech Republic and a broadening of the network of representatives abroad in Europe and further afield.

  1. The poverty of the Czech elderly--myth or reality?

    Rabusic, L


    "Poverty among the Czech elderly is considered from two perspectives: objective and subjective. Various indicators of objective poverty are analysed, such as the relation of average monthly income to average old-age pension, pension inequalities, the structure of household expenditures, and the structure of consumer durables ownership, as are representative survey data measuring subjective poverty. It is concluded that from the objective point of view the Czech elderly are as a whole well above subsistence poverty. However, their subjective poverty seems quite far-reaching, affecting between 30 and 50 percent."

  2. Increased Sorting and Wage Inequality in the Czech Republic

    Eriksson, Tor Viking; Pytlikova, Mariola; Warzynski, Frederic

    In this paper, we look at the evolution of firms' wage structures using a linked employer-employee dataset, which has longitudinal information for firms and covers a large fraction of the Czech labor market during the period 1998-2006. We first look at the evolution of individual wage determination......, an increasingly decentralized wage bargaining, skill biased technological change and a changing educational composition of the workforce. We find some support for that all these factors have contributed to the changes in the Czech wage structure, and that increased sorting is strongly associated with the observed...

  3. Queensland coal inventory



    Australia's black coal resources rank in the top five globally, around 50% of which are located in the sedimentary basins of Queensland. The Bowen Basin is the most prolific coal repository, hosting over 60% of the currently established resource inventory. Large volumes of thermal coal are present in the Surat and Galilee basins as well as small extensional and pull apart basins such as Blair Athol and Tarong. The article examines Queensland's coal industry from a government perspective. It first discusses the current coal market, then introduces the concept of inventory coal and explains the Australia Joint Ore Reserves Committee (JORC) code - a resource evaluation system. The stratigraphy of each of Queensland's coal basins is then discussed in sections headed Permian coals, Triassic coals, Jurassic and Cretaceous coals, and Tertiary coals. 3 figs.

  4. Supercritical-Multiple-Solvent Extraction From Coal

    Corcoran, W.; Fong, W.; Pichaichanarong, P.; Chan, P.; Lawson, D.


    Large and small molecules dissolve different constituents. Experimental apparatus used to test supercritical extraction of hydrogen rich compounds from coal in various organic solvents. In decreasing order of importance, relevant process parameters were found to be temperature, solvent type, pressure, and residence time.

  5. [The origins of the Czech Society of Cardiology and of Czech cardiology].

    Widimský, J


    The paper presents the origins of the Czech Society of Cardiology on the one hand, and the origins of Czech cardiology on the other. The Czech Society of Cardiology is the third oldest in the world (after the American and German Societies). It was founded in 1929 by Prof. Libenský. As early as in 1933, the Society organised the first international congress of cardiologists in Prague, which was attended by 200 doctors, out of which 50 were from abroad. The most participants came from France and Poland. Other participants came from England, Argentina, Belgium, the Netherlands, Italy, Romania, Spain and Switzerland. The worldwide importance of this congress is apparent from the fact that both the World Society of Cardiology and the European Society of Cardiology (EKS) were founded after World War II in the years 1950 and 1952, i.e. almost 20 years after the first international congress of cardiology in Prague. In 1964, the Fourth Congress of European Society of Cardiology was held in Prague with the participation of 1,500 specialists from 31 countries and chaired by Prof. Pavel Lukl, the later president of EKS (1964- 1968). The paper also presents the work of our specialists in WHO and the history of the international journal Cor et Vasa issued by the Avicenum publishing house in Prague in English and Russian in the years 1958- 1992. An important role in the development of our cardiology was played by certain departments and clinics. In 1951, the Institute for Cardiovascular Research (ÚCHOK) was founded in PrahaKrč, thanks to the initiative of MU Dr. František Kriegl, the Deputy Minister of Health. Its first director was Klement Weber, who published, as early as in 1929, a monograph on arrhythmias -  50 years earlier than arrhythmias started to be at the centre of attention of cardiologists. Klement Weber was one of the doctors of President T. G. Masaryk during his serious disease towards the end of his life. Jan Brod was the deputy of Klement Weber in the

  6. Lead isotope ratios in tree bark pockets: An indicator of past air pollution in the Czech Republic

    Conkova, M. [Charles University, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Benatska 8, Prague 1 (Czech Republic)], E-mail:; Kubiznakova, J. [Czech Hydrometeorogical Institute, Na Sabatce 17, Prague 4 (Czech Republic)], E-mail:


    Tree bark pockets were collected at four sites in the Czech Republic with differing levels of lead (Pb) pollution. The samples, spanning 1923-2005, were separated from beech (Fagus sylvatica) and spruce (Picea abies). Elevated Pb content (0.1-42.4 {mu}g g{sup -1}) reflected air pollution in the city of Prague. The lowest Pb content (0.3-2.6 {mu}g g{sup -1}) was found at the Kosetice EMEP 'background pollution' site. Changes in {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb and {sup 208}Pb/{sup 206}Pb isotope ratios were in agreement with operation times of the Czech main anthropogenic Pb sources. Shortly after the Second World War, the {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb isotope ratio in bark pockets decreased from 1.17 to 1.14 and the {sup 208}Pb/{sup 206}Pb isotope ratio increased from 2.12 to 2.16. Two dominant emission sources responsible for these changes, lignite and leaded petrol combustion, contributed to the shifts in Pb isotope ratios. Low-radiogenic petrol Pb ({sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb of 1.11) lead to lower {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb in bark pockets over time. High-radiogenic lignite-derived Pb ({sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb of 1.18 to 1.19) was detected in areas affected by coal combustion rather than by traffic.

  7. [Tuberculosis in the Czech Republic in 1999].

    Trnka, L; Danková, D; Krejbich, F; Svandová, E


    Report is given on the tuberculosis (TB) prevalence and the new diseases monitoring in Czech Republic (CR) in 1999 using the register of notifiable TB diseases. 1631 new TB cases and relapse were notified (15.9/100,000 citizens). Majority TB cases, 1369 (13.3/100,000 citizens) were of the respiratory system and 262 TB cases were in other locations. 63% of the respiratory system diseases were bacteriologically verified. In comparison with the year 1998, the number of newly notified TB patients was 9.6% lower, number of TB cases of the respiratory system which were bacteriologically verified was 12.3% lower, cases of microscopically positive TB were 17.4% less frequent. Among the notified TB patients there were 91 foreigners. TB relapse was identified in 61 patients. Among the notified TB cases, 987 (60.5%) were males and 644 (39.5%) were females. In both sexes patients over 65 predominated. Prevalence of TB cases higher than the average for the whole state was found in Prague, northern and western Bohemia. Groups with TB prevalence higher than 50/100,000 citizens were identified (the risk groups). They include homeless people, drug addicts, asylum applicants, and prisoners. Due to subjective troubles of patients TB was diagnosed in 70.2% cases, by active investigation in 13.9% patients. Late TB diagnosis at autopsy came in 6.8% cases. Decease due to TB was notified in 79 patients. In 77 of them TB had not been diagnosed premortally. 106 new cases and relapses of non-TB mycobacterial disease were notified in 1999. The case of tuberculosis in CR was in 1999 restrainable. In comparison with 1998 significant decrease of TB prevalence in individual subgroups of TB disease was described (10 to 17%). Also the decrease of the long-term trend (10 years) of newly notified TB patients and TB of the respiratory system was depicted. It is necessary to maintain the quality and extend of the TB control program in order to prevent the new outbreak of TB disease.

  8. Linking chemical elements in forest floor humus (Oh-horizon) in the Czech Republic to contamination sources.

    Sucharova, Julie; Suchara, Ivan; Hola, Marie; Reimann, Clemens; Boyd, Rognvald; Filzmoser, Peter; Englmaier, Peter


    While terrestrial moss and other plants are frequently used for environmental mapping and monitoring projects, data on the regional geochemistry of humus are scarce. Humus, however, has a much larger life span than any plant material. It can be seen as the "environmental memory" of an area for at least the last 60-100 years. Here concentrations of 39 elements determined by ICP-MS and ICP AES, pH and ash content are presented for 259 samples of forest floor humus collected at an average sample density of 1 site/300 km2 in the Czech Republic. The scale of anomalies linked to known contamination sources (e.g., lignite mining and burning, metallurgical industry, coal fired power plants, metal smelters) is documented and discussed versus natural processes influencing humus quality. Most maps indicate a local impact from individual contamination sources: often more detailed sampling than used here would be needed to differentiate between likely sources.

  9. Applied coal petrology: the role of petrology in coal utilization

    Isabel Suarez-Ruiz; John Crelling [Instituto Nacional del Carbon (INCAR-CSIC), Oviedo (Spain)


    This book is an integrated approach towards the applications of coal (organic) petrology and discusses the role of this science in the field of coal and coal-related topics. Contents are: Introduction 2. Basic factors controlling coal quality and technological behaviour of coal 3. Mining and benefication 4. Coal combustion 5. Coal gasification 6. Coal liquefaction 7. Coal carbonisation 8. Coal-derived carbons 9. Coal as a Petroleum source rock and reservoir rock 10. Environmental and health aspects 11. Other applications of coal petrology.

  10. Suitability of selected bioindicators of atmospheric pollution in the industrialised region of Ostrava, Upper Silesia, Czech Republic.

    Francová, Anna; Chrastný, Vladislav; Šillerová, Hana; Kocourková, Jana; Komárek, Michael


    This study is a continuation of our preceding research identifying suitable environmental samples for the tracing of atmospheric pollution in industrial areas. Three additional types of environmental samples were used to characterise contamination sources in the industrial area of Ostrava city, Czech Republic. The region is known for its extensive metallurgical and mining activities. Fingerprinting of stable Pb isotopes was applied to distinguish individual sources of anthropogenic Pb. A wide range of (206)Pb/(207)Pb ratios was observed in the investigated samples: (206)Pb/(207)Pb = 1.168-1.198 in mosses; (206)Pb/(207)Pb = 1.167-1.215 in soils and (206)Pb/(207)Pb = 1.158-1.184 in tree cores. Black and brown coal combustion, as well as metallurgical activities, is the two main sources of pollution in the area. Fossil fuel burning in industry and households seems to be a stronger source of Pb emissions than from the metallurgical industry. Concentration analyses of tree rings showed that a significant increase in As concentrations occurred between 1999 and 2016 (from 0.38 mg kg(-1) to 13.8 mg kg(-1)). This shift corresponds to the use of brown coal from Bílina, Czech Republic, with an increased As concentration. The burning of low-quality fuels in households remains a problem in the area, as small ground sources have a greater influence on the air quality than do industrial sources.

  11. GLOBE in the Czech Republic: A Program Evaluation

    Cincera, Jan; Maskova, Veronika


    The article presents results of the evaluation of the GLOBE program (Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment) in the Czech Republic. The evaluation explores the implementation of the program in schools and its impact on research skills. Four hundred and sixty six pupils, aged 13, from 28 different schools participated in the…

  12. Nuclear medicine training and practice in the Czech Republic

    Kaminek, Milan; Koranda, Pavel [University Hospital Olomouc, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Olomouc (Czech Republic)


    Nuclear medicine in the Czech Republic is a full specialty with an exclusive practice. Since the training program was organized and structured in recent years, residents have had access to the specialty of nuclear medicine, starting with a two-year general internship (in internal medicine or radiology). At present, nuclear medicine services are provided in 45 departments. In total, 119 nuclear medicine specialists are currently registered. In order to obtain the title of Nuclear Medicine Specialist, five years of training are necessary; the first two years consist of a general internship in internal medicine or radiology. The remaining three years consist of training in the nuclear medicine specialty itself, but includes three months of practice in radiology. Twenty-one physicians are currently in nuclear medicine training and a mean of three specialists pass the final exam per year. The syllabus is very similar to that of the European Union of Medical Specialists (UEMS), namely concerning the minimum recommended numbers for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. In principle, the Czech law requires continuous medical education for all practicing doctors. The Czech Medical Chamber has provided a continuing medical education (CME) system. Other national CMEs are not accepted in Czech Republic. (orig.)

  13. Listening to Authentic Czech. Authentic Listening Proficiency-Based Methods.

    Privorotsky-Kabat, Grazyna

    The set of materials for development of listening skills in Czech is designed for students with advanced language proficiency and is intended to be used with cassette tapes (not included here) to supplement other instructional materials. It consists of 20 units grouped into 2 levels (advanced and advanced plus). At each level there are 10 units,…

  14. Evidence in Czech Research Evaluation Policy: Measured and Contested

    Sima, Karel


    The Czech research evaluation policy was rooted in an instrumental paradigm of policy process and evidence embodied in metrics-based cost-benefit logic. But this framework disintegrated when confronted with actual institutional interests. Based on the ethnography of university departments, this study shows how academics challenged the notion of…

  15. Contrastive Studies--Czech-English. Specialised Bibliography C16.

    British Council, London (England). English-Teaching Information Centre.

    This selective bibliography lists 10 books and articles dealing with Czech-English contrastive studies and 2 articles on general Slavic studies. The entries range in date from 1959 to 1972 with the majority published since 1965. The books cited are European or American publications, and the articles appeared in well-known European or American…

  16. Thematic tourism vs. mass tourism in the Czech Republic

    Červinka Michal


    Full Text Available The article titled Thematic Tourism vs. Mass Tourism in the Czech Republic is concerned with the relationship between thematic tourism, mass tourism and presuppositions of the tourism development. The authors aim is to compare the turnout of thematic tourism attractions and sights focused on mass tourism paying attention to presuppositions of the tourism development and barriers for the turnout of thematic monuments. Comparisons will be based on presuppositions of tourism development and will be based especially on the specifics of thematic tourism - as a marginal field within the tourism industry. The application part will focus on the comparison of sights with massive turnout in the Czech Republic and thematic landmarks as the subject of thematic tourism. Special attention will be paid to the comparison of the two most visited monuments in the Czech Republic as for mass tourism - the Charles Bridge, and the most visited monument as for thematic tourism - the hydro-power plant Dlouhé Stráně, a technical representative of thematic tourism. Both monuments were elected by general public on the list of Seven Wonders of the Czech Republic in 2013. The aim is to confirm / refute the hypothesis that quality preconditions of tourism development are essential for the development of tourism and visiting tourist attractions. The article will use secondary data analysis methods and author's own field research.

  17. Feedback in Educational Communication in Czech Secondary Schools

    Sedova, Klara; Svaricek, Roman


    This paper introduces an empirical study that examines how teachers evaluate pupils' responses. The study draws on research undertaken at four secondary schools in the Czech Republic. It transpires that feedback has a stable position in the structure of communication; however, it is used only to verify pupils' responses and not to elaborate them.…

  18. Educational Expansion and Inequality in Taiwan and the Czech Republic

    Smith, Michael; Tsai, Shu-Ling; Mateju, Petr; Huang, Min-Hsiung


    This article presents a comparative analysis of educational inequality by family background and gender in Taiwan and the Czech Republic, which have both experienced substantial educational expansion in the last half-century under different educational systems. We highlight the specific institutional histories of both countries and examine the role…

  19. The economic results of farms in the Czech Republic

    Jaroslav Svoboda


    Full Text Available Czech agrarian sector has undergone significant changes during last ten years. Since the Czech Republic has entered the European Union in 2004, agrarian sector has had to adapt to conditions of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP. This policy is taken as a crucial within the EU policies as it includes orientation of food production as well as a broader sense of sustainable development and employment. The paper assesses profit/loss and its efficiency of a sample of farms in the Czech Republic (about 830 farms in 2004 2010. This analysis employed methods of financial analysis both traditional ratios and systems of bankruptcy and value models. Time series is long enough to monitor results after establishing the UE and the CAP principles in the Czech Republic. The paper shows that although since 2004, revenue per employee has been increasing, the value added per worker has been static without any major changes. However, farms on average were profitable with the exception of 2009. It was verified by bankruptcy and value models that an average farm is in a relatively good financial situation (without any problems or debt and sufficiently liquid.

  20. Ownership Principle in the Foreign Trade Statistics: Czech Approach

    Marek Rojíček


    Full Text Available The Czech Republic is a small open economy, which is vitally dependent on its export performance. In the period after EU accession the intensity of international cooperation grew rapidly in all the Central European countries, which is mostly the result of the huge FDI inflow at the beginning of the decade. In this context onesignificant problem for the Czech Republic and some other countries of the region appeared: the valuation of the trade flows based on the cross-border measuring overestimates the country’s trade balance in comparison with its value added created. This is the case of trade declared by non-resident units, which is more and more common within the European Union. This phenomenon is even enhanced by strategic geographical location of the Czech Republic, which is an important factor explaining why a lot of this “quasi-transit” trade is beingoperated. The revision of the foreign trade data, which aim is to follow more consistently the ownership approach, significantly changes the picture of the Czech economy, specifically the role of external demand to the economic growth.

  1. Comparative Advertising in the Czech Republic: An Empirical Study

    Petr Kral


    Full Text Available Comparative advertising had been traditionally banned in most EU countries and was allowed by the European law just relatively recently. That is why in the EU this form of advertising is relatively new, as opposed to the situation in the US, where comparative advertising has been widely used and well accepted by consumers for decades. The literature has been silent on the topic of the effectiveness of comparative advertising in the Czech Republic, as well as in other Central and Eastern European countries. The goal of this paper is to investigate the effectiveness of comparative advertising campaigns in the Czech Republic. Using an online survey with 160 Czech respondents, we found that the attitude towards comparative advertising is rather positive in the Czech Republic. We also identified that the gender of the recipient influences the general perception of comparative advertising. On the other hand, the age of the recipient does not seem to be a moderator of the attitude towards comparative advertising, in general. The results also do not signal any impact of the gender and the age of the recipient on the change of the perception of any of the brands involved in the campaign. Managerial implications target mainly marketing and advertising managers responsible for Central European markets.

  2. Text comprehension in Czech fourth-grade children with dyslexia

    Špačková Klára


    Full Text Available In the Czech Republic, the concept of dyslexia is used as a global term for various developmental deficiencies relating to reading skills. The criteria used for dyslexia are not clear and intervention is solely focused on word reading training. Not much is known about the pattern and level of reading comprehension abilities among Czech readers. The study examines reading comprehension and its component skills (decoding and listening comprehension abilities in 32 Czech fourth-grade children with a formal diagnosis of dyslexia and their classmates (N=126. In decoding tests, the children with dyslexia surprisingly lagged behind most significantly in a task concerning speed and accuracy in context reading. Contrary to expectations, the children with dyslexia also showed inferiority in a listening comprehension task. In reading comprehension measures, in comparison to the typically developing readers, the children with dyslexia achieved the best results in a oral reading comprehension task. The results are discussed with respect to Czech counselling and educational practice and the need for changes in the current support system and terminology is stressed.

  3. Pupils' Attitudes toward Chemistry in Two Types of Czech Schools

    Kubiatko, Milan; Balatova, Kristyna; Fancovicova, Jana; Prokop, Pavol


    Chemistry is a school subject that is not viewed favorably among pupils. Before we can improve pupils' attitudes toward chemistry, it is important to find out the problem as to why the attitudes are relatively negative. The research was focused on Czech lower secondary and secondary grammar school pupils' attitudes to the subject of chemistry.…

  4. Reducing environmental impact of dairy cattle: A Czech case study

    Havlikova, M.; Kroeze, C.


    We analyze options to reduce the future environmental impact of dairy cattle production, using an optimization model (DAIRY) applied to the Czech Republic. The DAIRY model can be used to calculate the overall environmental impact (OEI). We show that aquatic eutrophication and global warming are the

  5. Reducing environmental impact of dairy cattle: A Czech case study

    Havlikova, M.; Kroeze, C.


    We analyze options to reduce the future environmental impact of dairy cattle production, using an optimization model (DAIRY) applied to the Czech Republic. The DAIRY model can be used to calculate the overall environmental impact (OEI). We show that aquatic eutrophication and global warming are the

  6. Innovation and Education Policy in SMEs: A Czech Perspective.

    Lloyd-Reason, Lester; Muller, Karel; Wall, Stuart


    In the late 1990s, the Czech government implemented policies to enhance the role of small/medium-sized enterprises in innovation, including grants, subsidies, and tax credits. Education and training have focused on information/communications technologies. Future policy developments must be guided by trends in the global knowledge-based economy as…

  7. Towards a Czech Road Safety Information System : a feasibility study.

    Craen, S. de & Wegman, F.


    The Czech Republic aims at improving its road safety and in the last years it achieved significant successes in reducing the number of road traffic casualties. Increasingly, road safety measures have to be taken in an effor to lower the number of accidents. A Road Safety Information System (RSIS), w

  8. A concise history of forensic medicine in Czech Republic.

    Hirt, Miroslav; Strejc, Premysl; Krajsa, Jan; Hejna, Petr; Cisarova, Olga; Dvorak, Miroslav; Hladik, Jiri; Sokol, Milos; Klir, Premysl; Beran, Michal; Fialka, Jiri; Kubista, Pavel; Vorel, Frantisek; Dvoracek, Igor; Machacek, Rudolf; Toupalik, Pavel


    This paper presents the most important historical facts about all forensic medicine workplaces in the Czech Republic since the beginning till present day, including a perspective on how to establish a new one. Each of the University Forensic Medicine Institutes or district Departments is covered by at least one author. The oldest institute is in Prague and in Brno, the youngest is in Pardubice.

  9. Current states and perspectives of Czech educational research

    Tomáš Janík


    Full Text Available The aim of the review study is to evaluate the current state of Czech educationalresearch and to offer possibilities of its further development. The paper has threeparts. In the first part, the author presents the context of the topic: the current changesin the financing of research and development in the Czech Republic; the avoiding ofthe term (social science is discussed along with the issue of institutional financing ofresearch and the various presently up-to-date methodologies of quality assessment inresearch. In the second part, the author analyses the current state of Czech educationalresearch – previous analyses of J. Pr°ucha, J. Mareš and E. Walterová and those carriedout by the Educational Research Centre are briefly summarised. In the third part, possibilitiesof further development of Czech educational research are offered. Developinga knowledge base of educational sciences is used as an example. First the nature andsubject of knowledge that is produced by research is analysed, then the difference betweenpedagogical research and research in education is discussed. Towards the end,relevant approaches are discussed along with research areas and types of knowledgeacquired by research.

  10. A Comparative Analysis of Polish and Czech International New Ventures

    Lidia Danik


    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to compare the characteristics of Polish and Czech companies which follow the Born Global internationalization model. More concretely, the analysis aims to discover the differences or similarities in terms of the internationalization paths of Polish and Czech SMEs in the characteristics of their managers in terms of the so-called “international vision” and in their innovativeness level. The introductory part of article provides a description of this internationalization model and the International New Ventures traits (INV and summarizes the recent studies on this topic conducted in Poland and Czech Republic. In the empirical part, the International New Ventures from the two countries are compared. The Polish sample includes 105 companies which were surveyed with use of computer assisted telephone interviews in autumn 2014. For the Czech Republic, the sample consists of 54 small and medium-sized companies, which were surveyed using the computer assisted web interviews from November 2013 till January 2014. The surveyed companies in both countries fulfilled the definition of Born Globals. Descriptive statistics, cross-tabulation analysis and non-parametric tests are applied to accomplish the goals of the paper.

  11. Nuclear medicine training and practice in the Czech Republic.

    Kamínek, Milan; Koranda, Pavel


    Nuclear medicine in the Czech Republic is a full specialty with an exclusive practice. Since the training program was organized and structured in recent years, residents have had access to the specialty of nuclear medicine, starting with a two-year general internship (in internal medicine or radiology). At present, nuclear medicine services are provided in 45 departments. In total, 119 nuclear medicine specialists are currently registered. In order to obtain the title of Nuclear Medicine Specialist, five years of training are necessary; the first two years consist of a general internship in internal medicine or radiology. The remaining three years consist of training in the nuclear medicine specialty itself, but includes three months of practice in radiology. Twenty-one physicians are currently in nuclear medicine training and a mean of three specialists pass the final exam per year. The syllabus is very similar to that of the European Union of Medical Specialists (UEMS), namely concerning the minimum recommended numbers for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. In principle, the Czech law requires continuous medical education for all practicing doctors. The Czech Medical Chamber has provided a continuing medical education (CME) system. Other national CMEs are not accepted in Czech Republic.

  12. Family Business in the Czech Republic: Actual Situation

    Anastasia PETLINA


    Full Text Available Purpose of the article. The purpose of this paper is to define the actual situation of family business on the market, particularly focused on qualities of family business and its strengths or weaknesses. The object of research is the family business as an economical phenomenon. The study includes two subjects: firstly, to find out a specification of the family business, to analyze family ties within the business in accordance with the laws of the Czech Republic or to find out the current economic situation in family business and, secondly, to identify the features of family business as well as the difficulties faced thereby, lying in a base of two main components, namely the family system and the same of entrepreneurship. Methodology/methods: The article was prepared on the basis of general theoretical scientific methods, particularly on those of analysis, synthesis, analogy, comparison, generalization and deduction, or the method of expert estimates. For the analysis of the actual situation in big Czech family business enterprises, it was decided to use the secondary data of a top research-journal for this area, namely the In accordance with one of the paper goals, a SWOT analysis was applied to find out the basic strengths and weaknesses of family business. It was decided to verify the received information by interviewing several representatives of the family business in the Czech Republic. Scientific aim: The aim of scientific research is to improve the understanding of family business from the perspective of difficulties faced by family business and its economic perspectives. Findings: The results of this study have allowed the finding of a definition for the family business based on family ties and the laws of the Czech Republic. Another finding is that family business as a motor of the Czech economy has a real potencial for its development and it is able to enhance the Czech economy competitiveness on the world market. In

  13. Assessing coal burnout

    Lowe, A. [Pacific Power, Sydney, NSW (Australia)


    Recent research has allowed a quantitative description of the basic process of burnout for pulverized coals to be made. The Cooperative Research Centre for Black Coal Utilization has built on this work to develop a coal combustion model which will allow plant engineers and coal company representatives to assess their coals for combustion performance. The paper describes the model and its validation and outlines how it is run. 2 figs.

  14. Colombian coal focus

    Warden-Fernandez, J.; Rodriguez, L.E. [University of Dundee, Dundee (United Kingdom)


    The paper reviews the development of Colombia's coal industry over recent years. Colombia has recently modernised its mining code, Law 685 of 2001 concerning mineral rights and including the concept of sustainable development. The article discusses the legislation, analyses trends in Columbia's income from the coal and mineral industries (nickel, gold, emerald), and briefly discusses coal reserves, mining projects, coal exports and markets for Colombian coal. 7 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. Coal markets in transition

    Romer, R.


    Describes Colorado's coal industry, and the implementation of a nine point mining plan announced in 1988. This plan includes an environmental regulatory review, coal royalty reform, production and marketing incentives, clean coal and clean air issues, and promotion of the coal industry. Other issues to be addressed are abandoned mine reclamation, abandoned mine safety and land reclamation after surface mining. International markets for Colorado coal are also discussed.

  16. Coal combustion products

    Kalyoncu, R.S.; Olson, D.W.


    Coal-burning powerplants, which supply more than half of U.S. electricity, also generate coal combustion products, which can be both a resource and a disposal problem. The U.S. Geological Survey collaborates with the American Coal Ash Association in preparing its annual report on coal combustion products. This Fact Sheet answers questions about present and potential uses of coal combustion products.

  17. Study on the structure and gasification characteristics of selected South African bituminous coals in fluidised bed gasification

    Oboirien, BO


    Full Text Available The gasification characteristics of three South African bituminous coals were investigated in a bubbling fluidised bed reactor. The three coals are similar in rank, but two are inertinite-rich coals and the third has a high vitrinite content...

  18. Biological upgrading of coal liquids. Final report



    A large number of bacterial enrichments have been developed for their ability to utilize nitrogen and sulfur in coal liquids and the model compound naphtha. These bacteria include the original aerobic bacteria isolated from natural sources which utilize heteroatom compounds in the presence of rich media, aerobic nitrogen-utilizing bacteria and denitrifying bacteria. The most promising isolates include Mix M, a mixture of aerobic bacteria; ER15, a pyridine-utilizing isolate; ERI6, an aniline-utilizing isolate and a sewage sludge isolate. Culture optimization experiments have led to these bacteria being able to remove up to 40 percent of the sulfur and nitrogen in naphtha and coal liquids in batch culture. Continuous culture experiments showed that the coal liquid is too toxic to the bacteria to be fed without dilution or extraction. Thus either semi-batch operation must be employed with continuous gas sparging into a batch of liquid, or acid extracted coal liquid must be employed in continuous reactor studies with continuous liquid flow. Isolate EN-1, a chemical waste isolate, removed 27 percent of the sulfur and 19 percent of the nitrogen in fed batch experiments. Isolate ERI5 removed 28 percent of the nitrogen in coal liquid in 10 days in fed batch culture. The sewage sludge isolate removed 22.5 percent of the sulfur and 6.5 percent of the nitrogen from extracted coal liquid in continuous culture, and Mix M removed 17.5 percent of the nitrogen from medium containing extracted coal liquid. An economic evaluation has been prepared for the removal of nitrogen heteroatom compounds from Wilsonville coal liquid using acid extraction followed by fermentation. Similar technology can be developed for sulfur removal. The evaluation indicates that the nitrogen heteroatom compounds can be removed for $0.09/lb of coal liquid treated.

  19. Drought events in the Czech Republic: past, present, future

    Brázdil, Rudolf; Trnka, Miroslav; Mikšovský, Jiří; Tolasz, Radim; Dobrovolný, Petr; Řezníčková, Ladislava; Dolák, Lukáš


    Droughts are, together with floods, the most important natural extremes in the Czech Republic. In the last c. 20 years even some irregular alternations of years with severe droughts on the one hand (2000, 2003, 2007, 2011-2012, 2014-2015) and severe floods on the other (1997, 1998, 2002, 2005, 2009, 2010, 2013), reflecting greater variability of the water cycle, can be observed. Great attention devoted to the study of past, present and future of droughts in the Czech Republic in a few last years allowed to obtain basic knowledge related to long-term spatial-temporal variability of droughts, combining dendrochronological, documentary and instrumental data, synoptic causes and climate forcings of droughts, case studies of important drought anomalies with significant social-economic consequences (like drought of 1947), impacts of droughts in agriculture, forestry or water management, and future droughts according to model estimates. Basic results obtained are summarised and documented by several typical examples. Such level of drought knowledge became a basis for formulation of the new research project, trying to analyse the climate forcings and triggers involved in the occurrence, course and severity of drought events in the Czech Republic in the context of Central Europe and explanations of their physical mechanisms, based on a 515-year series of drought indices reconstructed from documentary and instrumental data. Presentation of this new project for 2017-2019 is included in the second part of the paper. (This work was supported by Czech Science Foundation, project no. 17-10026S "Drought events in the Czech Republic and their causes".)

  20. Coal data: A reference


    This report, Coal Data: A Reference, summarizes basic information on the mining and use of coal, an important source of energy in the US. This report is written for a general audience. The goal is to cover basic material and strike a reasonable compromise between overly generalized statements and detailed analyses. The section ``Supplemental Figures and Tables`` contains statistics, graphs, maps, and other illustrations that show trends, patterns, geographic locations, and similar coal-related information. The section ``Coal Terminology and Related Information`` provides additional information about terms mentioned in the text and introduces some new terms. The last edition of Coal Data: A Reference was published in 1991. The present edition contains updated data as well as expanded reviews and additional information. Added to the text are discussions of coal quality, coal prices, unions, and strikes. The appendix has been expanded to provide statistics on a variety of additional topics, such as: trends in coal production and royalties from Federal and Indian coal leases, hours worked and earnings for coal mine employment, railroad coal shipments and revenues, waterborne coal traffic, coal export loading terminals, utility coal combustion byproducts, and trace elements in coal. The information in this report has been gleaned mainly from the sources in the bibliography. The reader interested in going beyond the scope of this report should consult these sources. The statistics are largely from reports published by the Energy Information Administration.

  1. Lead fluxes and 206Pb/207Pb isotope ratios in rime and snow collected at remote mountain-top locations (Czech Republic, Central Europe): Patterns and sources

    Cimova, Nikoleta; Novak, Martin; Chrastny, Vladislav; Curik, Jan; Veselovsky, Frantisek; Blaha, Vladimir; Prechova, Eva; Pasava, Jan; Houskova, Marie; Bohdalkova, Leona; Stepanova, Marketa; Mikova, Jitka; Krachler, Michael; Komarek, Arnost


    During three winter seasons (2009-2011), Pb concentrations were measured in precipitation at 10 high-elevation sites in the Czech Republic, close to the borders with Austria, Germany, Poland, and Slovakia. Soluble and insoluble Pb forms were quantified in snow (vertical deposition), and rime (horizontal deposition). The objective was to compare Pb input fluxes into ecosystems via vertical and horizontal deposition, and to identify the residual Pb pollution sources in an era of rapidly decreasing industrial pollution. Lead soluble in diluted HNO3 made up 96% of total Pb deposition, with the remaining 4% Pb bound mainly in silicates. Three times higher concentrations of soluble Pb in rime than in snow, and 2.5 times higher concentrations of insoluble Pb in rime than in snow were associated with slightly different Pb isotope ratios. On average, the 206Pb/207Pb ratios in rime were higher than those in snow. Higher mean 206Pb/207Pb ratios of insoluble Pb (1.175) than in soluble Pb (1.165) may indicate an increasing role of geogenic Pb in recent atmospheric deposition. A distinct reversal to more radiogenic 206Pb/207Pb ratios in snow and rime in 2010, compared to literature data from rain-fed Sphagnum peatlands (1800-2000 A.D.), documented a recent decrease in anthropogenic Pb in the atmosphere of Central Europe. Since the early 1980s, Pb concentrations in snow decreased 18 times in the rural south of the Czech Republic, but only twice in the industrial north of the Czech Republic. Isotope signatures indicated that Pb in today's atmospheric deposition is mainly derived from Mesozoic ores mined/processed in Poland and coal combustion in the Czech Republic and Poland.

  2. Mechanical behavior investigation for floor rock stratum in the water-rich coal seam%含水煤层底板岩层力学性质分析:以小纪汗煤矿为例

    李海龙; 白海波; 钱宏伟; 马丹; 许静


    在陕北榆林小纪汗煤矿实际建井开采过程中发现了煤层为矿井主充水含水层这种特殊的水文地质现象,为对这种特殊现象下底板岩层的力学性质进行分析,对现场底板岩样进行岩石矿物成分测试、岩石膨胀性测试及水作用下岩石强度弱化规律测试等一系列试验研究。研究发现:1)小纪汗煤矿煤层为裂隙含水层,且为矿井主充水含水层,底板岩层长时间受水侵蚀,岩体易于软化、变形,易造成岩层裂隙扩展及其稳定性破坏;2)底板岩样中含蒙脱石、伊利石等膨胀性矿物是底板岩层膨胀变形的微观影响因素;3)底板岩样浸水膨胀变形经过急速膨胀—变形缓慢—变形结束3个阶段,岩样浸水2 h 内的膨胀变形已占总变形量73.3%,浸水2~12 h,变形量占总变形量的24.7%,浸水12 h 后,试样基本不变形;4)岩样与水作用后其单轴抗压强度、弹性模量、劈裂抗拉强度随饱水时间的延长、含水率的增大而不断降低,总体呈指数关系递减;5)岩样浸水12 h后,岩石单轴抗压强度、弹性模量及抗拉强度降低值占总衰减值分别为71.6%,72.3%和65.4%,煤层裂隙水对底板岩层的侵蚀软化作用明显。%One special hydrogeologic phenomenon was found when building well drilling for Xiaoji-han mine located in Yulin city, north of Shaanxi province. The coal seam is a main aquifer to the geo-logic structure of the nearby area. Different tests including rock mineral composition test for floor rock samples, rock expansion test and the rock strength test under water pressure have been applied to find out the mechanical properties of the floor rock stratum under this special hydrogeologic phenomenon. The following conclusions have been drawn: 1) The coal seam of Xiaojihan mine is found out to be a fracture aquifer as well as a main aquifer. The floor rock has been exposed to water erosion for a long time, which

  3. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations in soils in the Region of Valasske Mezirici, the Czech Republic

    Rümmeli Mark H


    Full Text Available Abstract The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH contamination of urban, agricultural and forest soil samples was investigated from samples obtained in the surroundings of Valasske Mezirici. Valasske Mezirici is a town located in the north-east mountainous part of the Czech Republic, where a coal tar refinery is situated. 16 PAHs listed in the US EPA were investigated. Organic oxidizable carbon was also observed in the forest soils. The PAH concentrations ranged from 0.86-10.84 (with one anomalous value of 35.14 and 7.66-79.39 mg/kg dm in the urban/agricultural and forest soils, respectively. While the PAH levels in the urban/agricultural soils are within the range typically found in industrialized areas, the forest soils showed elevated PAH concentrations compared to other forest soils in Western and Northern Europe. The PAH concentrations and their molecular distribution ratios were studied as functions of the sample location and the meteorological history. The soils from localities at higher altitudes above sea level have the highest PAH concentrations, and the PAH concentrations decrease with increasing distance from the town.

  4. Promotion of European coal to liquids R&D activities



    The IEA Clean Coal Centre, with its partners Fuel Consult GmbH (Germany), Glowny Instytut Gornictwa (Poland), Tallinn University of Technology (Estonia) and Stredisko Pro Efektivni Vyuzivani Energie O.P.S. (Czech Republic) is undertaking a promotion and dissemination project. This is supported with a financial grant from the Research Programme of the Research Fund for Coal and Steel under contract number RFC2-CT-2008-00006. The aim is to undertake an overall assessment of the competitiveness and environmental performance of coal to liquids technology from a European perspective. The major deliverable is this report, which comprises a review of CTL activities, worldwide and a consideration of possible future CTL R, D & D needs for Europe, building both on the global state of the art arising from work undertaken previously and the current worldwide activities including the planned and ongoing demonstration programmes in the USA and China respectively. This is complemented with comment on the capabilities and expertise in EU universities as well as EU industry should there be a need to implement larger-scale development and demonstration programmes and ultimately to build large CTL plant. Finally the benefits of seeking international cooperation on CTL R, D & D with stakeholders outside of Europe rather than limiting activities to EU member states is discussed. The information is being promoted and disseminated to all European stakeholders, in particular to those major coal- and oil shale-using member states, Poland, the Czech Republic and Estonia, in which there is significant potential for an uptake of CTL technology and where industry is now starting to reconsider the development of CTL processes.

  5. Solidification Reaction Sequence of Co-Rich Nb-Al-Co Alloys

    Feitosa, L. M.; D'Souza, N.; West, G. D.; Dong, H. B.


    The freezing reaction sequence of Co-rich Nb-Al-Co ternary alloys with emphasis on the formation of Laves and Heusler phases has been examined. For Co-rich alloys, the solidification reaction sequence is observed as primary freezing of α-Co and CoAl phases, subsequent [Co + C36] and [CoAl + C36] eutectics, and the final ternary eutectic reaction [L → α-Co + C36 + CoAl]. The compositions of solidified α-Co and C36 phases agree with the corresponding vertices of the tie-triangle at the solidus temperatures. When the Nb concentration is over 20 at. pct in Co-rich alloys, the quasi-peritectic reaction [L + Co2AlNb → C36 + CoAl] does not occur as equilibrium prediction. The formation of C36 and CoAl phases occurs through solid precipitation and must be distinguished from a solidification reaction.

  6. Advanced reclamation of coal refuse ponds

    Honaker, R.Q.; Chugh, Y.P.; Patwardhan, A. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States). Dept. of Mining and Mineral Resources Engineering


    A vast number of coal refuse ponds represent a significant economical resource base that may also be considered to be environmentally harmful. The fine coal fraction in a preparation plant consists of the purest particles in the entire preparation plant and, thus, if recovered, could enhance the quality of the plant product. However, until recently, the ability to effectively recover fine coal has been limited due to the lack of efficient fine particle separation technologies. As a result, a large portion of the fine coal produced in the US during this century has been disposed into refuse pond along with the acid producing components of the associated gangue material. Research conducted by Southern Illinois University scientists has found that advanced fine coal cleaning technologies can be used to recover high quality coal from refuse ponds while also utilizing a novel technique for neutralizing the acid generation potential of the pyrite-rich reject stream. Various circuitry arrangements will be discussed and metallurgical results presented in this publication.

  7. Coal char fragmentation during pulverized coal combustion

    Baxter, L.L.


    A series of investigations of coal and char fragmentation during pulverized coal combustion is reported for a suite of coals ranging in rank from lignite to low-volatile (lv) bituminous coal under combustion conditions similar to those found in commercial-scale boilers. Experimental measurements are described that utilize identical particle sizing characteristics to determine initial and final size distributions. Mechanistic interpretation of the data suggest that coal fragmentation is an insignificant event and that char fragmentation is controlled by char structure. Chars forming cenospheres fragment more extensively than solid chars. Among the chars that fragment, large particles produce more fine material than small particles. In all cases, coal and char fragmentation are seen to be sufficiently minor as to be relatively insignificant factors influencing fly ash size distribution, particle loading, and char burnout.

  8. Upgraded Coal Interest Group

    Evan Hughes


    The Upgraded Coal Interest Group (UCIG) is an EPRI 'users group' that focuses on clean, low-cost options for coal-based power generation. The UCIG covers topics that involve (1) pre-combustion processes, (2) co-firing systems and fuels, and (3) reburn using coal-derived or biomass-derived fuels. The UCIG mission is to preserve and expand the economic use of coal for energy. By reducing the fuel costs and environmental impacts of coal-fired power generation, existing units become more cost effective and thus new units utilizing advanced combustion technologies are more likely to be coal-fired.

  9. Nitrogen Injection To Flush Coal Seam Gas Out Of Coal: An Experimental Study

    Zhang, Lei; Aziz, Naj; Ren, Ting; Nemcik, Jan; Tu, Shihao


    Several mines operating in the Bulli seam of the Sydney Basin in NSW, Australia are experiencing difficulties in reducing gas content within the available drainage lead time in various sections of the coal deposit. Increased density of drainage boreholes has proven to be ineffective, particularly in sections of the coal seam rich in CO2. Plus with the increasing worldwide concern on green house gas reduction and clean energy utilisation, significant attention is paid to develop a more practical and economical method of enhancing the gas recovery from coal seams. A technology based on N2 injection was proposed to flush the Coal Seam Gas (CSG) out of coal and enhance the gas drainage process. In this study, laboratory tests on CO2 and CH4 gas recovery from coal by N2 injection are described and results show that N2 flushing has a significant impact on the CO2 and CH4 desorption and removal from coal. During the flushing stage, it was found that N2 flushing plays a more effective role in reducing adsorbed CH4 than CO2. Comparatively, during the desorption stage, the study shows gas desorption after N2 flushing plays a more effective role in reducing adsorbed CO2 than CH4.

  10. International perspectives on coal preparation



    The report consists of the vugraphs from the presentations which covered the following topics: Summaries of the US Department of Energy`s coal preparation research programs; Preparation trends in Russia; South African coal preparation developments; Trends in hard coal preparation in Germany; Application of coal preparation technology to oil sands extraction; Developments in coal preparation in China; and Coal preparation in Australia.

  11. Coal Combustion Science

    Hardesty, D.R. (ed.); Fletcher, T.H.; Hurt, R.H.; Baxter, L.L. (Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States))


    The objective of this activity is to support the Office of Fossil Energy in executing research on coal combustion science. This activity consists of basic research on coal combustion that supports both the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center Direct Utilization Advanced Research and Technology Development Program, and the International Energy Agency Coal Combustion Science Project. Specific tasks for this activity include: (1) coal devolatilization - the objective of this risk is to characterize the physical and chemical processes that constitute the early devolatilization phase of coal combustion as a function of coal type, heating rate, particle size and temperature, and gas phase temperature and oxidizer concentration; (2) coal char combustion -the objective of this task is to characterize the physical and chemical processes involved during coal char combustion as a function of coal type, particle size and temperature, and gas phase temperature and oxygen concentration; (3) fate of mineral matter during coal combustion - the objective of this task is to establish a quantitative understanding of the mechanisms and rates of transformation, fragmentation, and deposition of mineral matter in coal combustion environments as a function of coal type, particle size and temperature, the initial forms and distribution of mineral species in the unreacted coal, and the local gas temperature and composition.

  12. Maturation, constitution and depositional environment of the coals from Makardhokada area, Nagpur District, Maharashtra

    Sarate, O.S. [Birbal Sahni Institute of Paleobotany, Lucknow (India)


    Recent sub-surface investigations have proved the existence of coal deposits in Makardhokada area of Nagpur District, Maharashtra. Structurally, Makardhokada area represents the western extension of Umrer coalfield. As far as the economic potentialities of these coal deposits are concerned, out of the six seams intersected, only four viz. Seam I, II, IV and V have attained workable thickness of more than a metre. The maceral constitution and rank estimations have been considered as the parameters to interpret the depositional environment and economic importance of these coal deposits. The maceral study suggests that the coal of seam I contains a mixture of all the three coal types i.e. vitric (Vitrinite rich), fusic (Inertinite rich) and mixed (Vitrinite + Inertinite rich). However, the seams II and IV are constituted by fusic and mixed coal types. Seam V contains both the vitric and mixed coal types. The maturation (reflectance) studies have indicated low vitrinite reflectivity (R{sub 0} max %) of 0.42-0.53%, which suggests that the coals have attained sub-bituminous C to high volatile bituminous C stage of the rank. The coal constitution suggests frequent floods at the depositional site and alternate dry oxidizing and cold climatic seasonal changes caused the formation of vitric and fusic coal types.

  13. Current Trends in Local Policing Provision in the Czech Republic

    Oldřich Krulík


    Full Text Available The paper examines the current trends of national police forces as they increasingly often pull back from their positions, and the consequences which many municipal councils in the Czech Republic are now facing. In the last couple of years, some municipalities chose relatively unconventional ways to deal with increased levels of crime and other forms of antisocial behaviour on their territories. This created space – for example – for signing public agreements with other municipalities, hiring private security companies to perform the role of municipal police or various forms of sponsoring the Police of the Czech Republic.

  14. Viticulture in The Czech Republic: Some Spatio-Temporal Trends

    Svobodová Ilona


    Full Text Available From a global perspective, the growing of grapevines in the Czech Republic is of peripheral importance. For a group of grape-growing villages in southern Moravia, however, the making of wine is bound up with local history, traditions and cultural life, and contributes significantly to the local economy. This paper describes the current status of viticulture in Bohemia and Moravia, addressing changes in the number and structure of wine producers and pointing out some qualitative changes that the business is undergoing. Changing consumer tastes have brought a demand for quality wines of local origin, which cannot be met without high quality care of vineyards throughout the lifetime of the vines. Special attention is given to two alternative ways of tending vineyards - the development of integrated production, and organic viticulture - that are developing rapidly in the Czech Republic even when compared to Austria and Germany


    Gevorgyan Kristine


    Full Text Available This thesis deals with the issue of price bubbles on the Czech real estate market. The theoretical part explains the price bubble in terms of behavioural finance, and describes the relationship between monetary policy and asset prices from the perspective of the Austrian school and representatives of traditional economics. In the empirical part, it presents ways of identifying bubbles on the property market using relative indicators and econometric models. By means of econometric methods, this thesis analyses specific factors that influence housing prices in the Czech Republic. It puts a particular emphasis on the impact of interest rates on asset prices, because low inflation and expansionary monetary policy can create conditions for the formation of price bubbles.


    Tobias Cramer


    Full Text Available Companies are very often confronted with external and internal cultural diversity to which they have to respond adequately. We need a deeper understanding of whether national cultures remain divergent in countries such as Japan and the Czech Republic following the pressures of globalization. One can argue that as cultures evolve they should constantly be assessed e.g., with respect to each of Hofstede‟s dimensions. By collecting data from one Eastern-European culture, the Czech Republic, and one Eastern culture, Japan, this study has re-examined Hofstede‟s (1984; 2001 cultural dimensions in these two cultures. Results suggest interesting changes have occurred in these cultures; a trend towards convergence may be derived. Explanations as well as implications are discussed.

  17. Comparison of particular logistic models' adoption in the Czech Republic

    Vrbová, Petra; Cempírek, Václav


    Managing inventory is considered as one of the most challenging tasks facing supply chain managers and specialists. Decisions related to inventory locations along with level of inventory kept throughout the supply chain have a fundamental impact on the response time, service level, delivery lead-time and the total cost of the supply chain. The main objective of this paper is to identify and analyse the share of a particular logistic model adopted in the Czech Republic (Consignment stock, Buffer stock, Safety stock) and also compare their usage and adoption according to different industries. This paper also aims to specify possible reasons of particular logistic model preferences in comparison to the others. The analysis is based on quantitative survey held in the Czech Republic.

  18. Does Decentralized Leadership Influence the Performance of Czech Museums?

    Plaček Michal


    Full Text Available This study tests whether decentralized leadership influences the efficiency of running selected cultural institutions, specifically museums in the Czech Republic. For the analysis, data from 2015 from 187 museums spread around the whole Czech Republic are used. The method for the evaluation of efficiency is data envelope analysis, and for identifying the influence of decentralized leadership, a regression analysis is used. Museums established by municipalities reach higher efficiency than museums established by regions and central government. The causes may be found in the ability to better estimate the local demand as well as in the rational behavior of municipalities that prefer a cost-minimization strategy. The benefits of decentralization cannot be seen only in the field of finance but also in reinforcing local traditions, trust and the effects of social capital that is generated by a strong regional cultural identity.

  19. Should Czech Republic and Slovakia Have Rail Baltica Strategy?

    Olli-Pekka Hilmola


    Full Text Available Export led economies of Slovakia and Czech Republic have shown impressive performance on activity regarding to Rail Baltica corridor countries (trade vol. incr. by 200-300 % in decade time. However, long-term plans in transportation logistics are tied upon corridors (road and rail ending to Polish sea port, Gdansk. Road transport is also favoured in large-scale in both countries in export activity. However, new environmental demands (sign. lower emissions and scarcity of oil are on the way of changing the current modus operandi. As trade of Rail Baltica countries accounts for one third of these two countries, and is constantly growing with surplus (except for Russia, Slovakia and Czech Republic are clearly in need of developing own strategy for Rail Baltica.

  20. Insect ectoparasites from wild passerine birds in the Czech Republic

    Sychra O.


    Full Text Available Wild passerine birds (Passeriformes from northeastern part of the Czech Republic were examined for ectoparasites. Three species of louse-flies of the genus Ornithomya (Diptera: Hippoboscidae, two species of fleas of the genera Ceratophyllus and Dasypsyllus (Siphonaptera: Ceratophyllidae, and 15 species of chewing lice belonging to the genera Myrsidea, Menacanthus (Phthiraptera: Menoponidae, Brueelia, Penenirmus, Philopterus (Phthiraptera: Philopteridae were found on 82 birds of 23 species. New chewing louse-host records are Hippolais icterina for Menacanthus currucae; Motacilla cinerea for Menacanthus pusillus; Turdus philomelos and Motacilla cinerea for Brueelia merulensis; and Sylvia atricapilla for Menacanthus eurysternus. Brueelia neoatricapillae is cited for the first time for the Czech Republic. Parasitological parameters such as prevalence, intensity and abundance are also discussed.

  1. Principles of the Proposed Czech Postal Sector Price Control Model

    Libor Švadlenka


    Full Text Available The paper deals with the postal sector control. It resultsfrom the control theory and proves the justifiability of control inthe postal sector. Within the price control it results from E U Directive97!67/EC requirements on this control and states individualtypes of price control focusing on ineffective price controlcurrently used in the Czech postal sector (especially withindomestic services and proposes a more effective method ofprice control. The paper also discusses the principles of the proposedmethod of price control of the Czech postal sector. It describesconcrete fulfilment of the price control model resultingfrom the price-cap and tariff formula RP I-X and concentrateson its quantitative expression. The application of the proposedmodel is carried out for a hypothetical period in the past (in orderto compare it with the current control system for letteritems tariff basket.

  2. President of Czech Republic visits ESO's Paranal Observatory


    On 6 April 2011, the ESO Paranal Observatory was honoured with a visit from the President of the Czech Republic, Václav Klaus, and his wife Livia Klausová, who also took the opportunity to admire Cerro Armazones, the future site of the planned E-ELT. The distinguished visitor was shown the technical installations at the observatory, and was present when the dome of one of the four 8.2-metre Unit Telescopes of ESO's Very Large Telescope opened for a night's observing at Cerro Paranal, the world's most advanced visible-light observatory. "I'm delighted to welcome President Klaus to the Paranal Observatory and to show him first-hand the world-leading astronomical facility that ESO has designed, has built, and operates for European astronomy," said ESO's Director General, Tim de Zeeuw. President Klaus replied, "I am very impressed by the remarkable technology that ESO has built here in the heart of the desert. Czech astronomers are already making good use of these facilities and we look forward to having Czech industry and its scientific community contribute to the future E-ELT." From the VLT platform, the President had the opportunity to admire Cerro Armazones as well as other spectacular views of Chile's Atacama Desert surrounding Paranal. Adjacent to Cerro Paranal, Armazones has been chosen as the site for the future E-ELT (see eso1018). ESO is seeking approval from its governing bodies by the end of 2011 for the go-ahead for the 1-billion euro E-ELT. Construction is expected to begin in 2012 and the start of operations is planned for early in the next decade. President Klaus was accompanied by the Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Czech Republic, Karel Schwarzenberg, the Czech Ambassador in Chile, Zdenek Kubánek, dignitaries of the government, and a Czech industrial delegation. The group was hosted at Paranal by the ESO Director General, Tim de Zeeuw, the ESO Representative in Chile, Massimo Tarenghi, the Director of Operations, Andreas Kaufer, and Jan Palous

  3. Comparison Shopping Agents and Czech Online Customers’ Shopping Behaviour

    Pilik Michal


    Full Text Available The internet has changed the lifestyles and shopping behaviours of customers. Online purchasing enables people to obtain information about products and services provided more effectively and easily, with the result that home shopping has become ordinary and usual. This paper presents part of a research focusing on online shopping customers’ behaviour in the Czech Republic. The article pertains to comparison shopping agents (CPAs, a tool which provides information to customers and helps find the best offer. The research was conducted on the basis of an online questionnaire available on an internet web page. The main results confirmed a dependency between online purchasing and the use of shopping agents, which are very popular in the Czech Republic. Almost two-thirds of online shoppers use CPAs when they engage in internet shopping. The final part of the paper addresses references and customers’ reviews as an important factor for the selection of online retailer.

  4. Perception of Small and Medium Entrepreneurship in the Czech Republic

    Smekalova Lenka


    Full Text Available This paper deals with small and medium enterprises in relation to the attitudes perceived by business owners in their immediate neighbourhood, society, in relation to banks and the government. The key question is the difference between entrepreneurs who started their businesses voluntarily and those who entered the business out of necessity. The majority of governmental policies, including Czech policies, focus more on the questions of financial support, however the support of entrepreneurs can be broader and may include the efforts to influence perception of an individual and the society so that they have a more positive attitude towards entrepreneurial activities. The attitudes in the Czech Republic are so far rather negative and such a change may be positively reflected in the level of the entrepreneurial activity which strongly affects economic development.

  5. Differences in the Value Orientation of Czech and Slovak Pupils

    Vomáčková Helena


    Full Text Available This contribution brings a selection from the results of a research carried out during the years 2013 and 2014 among Czech and Slovak pupils of middle school age (i.e. 4th to 6th forms of primary schools. This study focused on monitoring and evaluating the differences and similarities in the value-oriented responses of pupils, according to the criteria of their nationality and sex. The pupils were expressing their opinions by means of a questionnaire survey with respect to selected situations on a four-degree scale and they further stated their vision of the world and their position in it. This contribution analyses statistically significant deviations which were found out among the positions held by Czech and Slovak boys and girls. The contribution also gives rise to a number of questions concerning the shift in values among the population of pupils of the formerly unified state.

  6. Geographical Perspectives on Agritourism in The Czech Republic

    Konečný Ondřej


    Full Text Available Besides more traditional tourist enterprises, tourists in Western Europe and North America regularly seek out even more specific forms of tourist opportunities, such as products of rural tourism. Within rural tourism, agritourism has been developed in these countries as a particular subset, and its significant enhancement in post-socialist European countries was widely anticipated (especially after their integration into the European Union. While considerable and focused attention was devoted to the implementation of agritourism strategies and the characterization of agritourist space with respect to particular countries (e.g. Poland and Slovenia, in Czech geographical literature it has remained a noticeably absent topic. In this paper, central attention is paid to selected characteristics of agritourist space in the Czech Republic, analyzed on the basis of a compiled database of farms diversified into tourism at the municipality level.

  7. Business cycle development in Czech and Slovak economies

    Poměnková, J.


    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the business cycle development of Czech and Slovak economies. The main objective is to compare several methodological approaches to identify business cycles with the main theoretical sources of the economic activity movements in the analyzed periods. As both economies are of transition type, the growth business cycle concept will be considered. In this respect, deterministic as well as stochastic methods for obtaining cyclical fluctuations are applied. Czech and Slovak economies fall into the group of transition economies where the problems of insufficient number of observations and structural changes in empirical time series analysis occur. Even if there are many similarities in the institutions of both economies, the authors identified different regular periodicities of the waves. The used frequency analysis is a slightly unique approach of business cycle modeling. The analysis of business cycle movements has significant potential to improve economic policy efficiency.

  8. Risks of Mortgage Loans in the Czech Republic

    Jaroslav Tichý


    Full Text Available Indebtedness through mortgage loans is dominant of household debt in the Czech Republic. The gradual increase in the household debt level may also entail increasing credit risk assumed by banks in connection with their credit exposure to this sector. The objective of the paper is to verify the risk and identify factors that affect the credit risk development in the Czech Republic. We look for correlation between the risk development and the interest rate development. Furthermore, we verify links between the risk and the development of real estate collateral value. The paper does confirm that there are real risks associated with the potential increase in interest rates. No significant risks have been confirmed with regard to the current development of the residential property value. The paper also strives to provide an identification and verification of risks stemming from individual banks’ internal processes. It features a detailed analysis of the internal factors (aspects comprising revenue, competition, as well as distribution.

  9. The Main Reasons for Implementing BPM in Czech Companies

    Tucek David


    Full Text Available This article focuses on describing the main aspects and reasons for implementing Business Process Management in Czech companies, and was based on original results of the quantitative research evaluating aspects of process management in the context of company strategies in Czech enterprises which was carried out in 2006 with regard to the extension of its further utilization. Following the interest of professionals in practice, the research continued and was re-implemented in 2012, having the interviews completed in 2013. I have described an evaluation of a process segmentation typology in this article too. The analysis showed that managers have more options regarding process segmentation to choose from. In terms of practicality and ease of use, the method of process segmentation most frequently used (managerial, main and supportive comes directly from the requirements of ISO 9001.

  10. X-ray fluorescence in research on Czech cultural monuments

    Cechak, T.; Gerndt, J.; Kopecka, I.; Musilek, L. E-mail:


    Radionuclide X-ray fluorescence analysis (RXRFA), as a non-destructive method, relatively simple and allowing measurements to be carried out in situ, is an excellent tool in research on various objects of art. A range of artefacts have been investigated by our laboratory, in part for the purposes of history of art and in part as a basis for restoration works - medieval frescoes in some Czech castles and churches, metal sculptures and objects of applied art, paints and inks of old manuscripts, paintings. Some of these are among the most valuable monuments in the Czech cultural heritage. The contribution of the results of the tests to the investigation of their 'life story' and, in some cases, to their conservation, is not negligible. Later additions and repairs can be recognised, and materials and technologies that are close to their historic counterparts can be used in restoration work.

  11. Increased Sorting and Wage Inequality in the Czech Republic

    Eriksson, Tor; Pytlikova, Mariola; Warzynski, Frederic Michel Patrick


    This paper makes use of a linked employer–employee dataset to examine the evolution of wage inequality in the Czech Republic during 1998–2006. We find evidence of slightly increasing returns to human capital and diminishing gender inequality and document sharp increases in both within-firm and be......This paper makes use of a linked employer–employee dataset to examine the evolution of wage inequality in the Czech Republic during 1998–2006. We find evidence of slightly increasing returns to human capital and diminishing gender inequality and document sharp increases in both within......-firm and between-firm inequality. We investigate several hypotheses to explain these patterns: increased domestic and international competition, decentralized wage bargaining, skill-biased technological change and a changing educational composition of the workforce. Domestic competition is found to lower within...

  12. Coal fires in China

    CHE Yao(车遥); HUANG Wen-hui(黄文辉); ZHANG Ai-yun(张爱云)


    Coal fires have a very long history in China; the oldest coal fires have being burning for many million years. Up to now more than 56 coal fires spots were distinguished. They mainly locate in West-North of China, North of China and East-North of China. About millions of tons of coal have been burned in fires every year. Xinjiang Autonomy is the most serious region in coal fires as it has 38 coal fires spots and about 6.85 million tons of coal was burned every year. Coal fires in China ignited by wildfires, spontaneous combustion and human being during mining activities. These fires have released about 0.9 million tons of gasses (including CO, CO2, SO2, NO2 CH4, CO2, H2S etc.) into the atmosphere every year, most of which are brought to the east by wind and resulting more heavier air pollution in northern China.

  13. Continuous coal processing method

    Ryason, P. R.


    A coal pump is provided in which solid coal is heated in the barrel of an extruder under pressure to a temperature at which the coal assumes plastic properties. The coal is continuously extruded, without static zones, using, for example, screw extrusion preferably without venting through a reduced diameter die to form a dispersed spray. As a result, the dispersed coal may be continuously injected into vessels or combustors at any pressure up to the maximum pressure developed in the extrusion device. The coal may be premixed with other materials such as desulfurization aids or reducible metal ores so that reactions occur, during or after conversion to its plastic state. Alternatively, the coal may be processed and caused to react after extrusion, through the die, with, for example, liquid oxidizers, whereby a coal reactor is provided.

  14. Nitrogen in Chinese coals

    Wu, D.; Lei, J.; Zheng, B.; Tang, X.; Wang, M.; Hu, Jiawen; Li, S.; Wang, B.; Finkelman, R.B.


    Three hundred and six coal samples were taken from main coal mines of twenty-six provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities in China, according to the resource distribution and coal-forming periods as well as the coal ranks and coal yields. Nitrogen was determined by using the Kjeldahl method at U. S. Geological Survey (USGS), which exhibit a normal frequency distribution. The nitrogen contents of over 90% Chinese coal vary from 0.52% to 1.41% and the average nitrogen content is recommended to be 0.98%. Nitrogen in coal exists primarily in organic form. There is a slight positive relationship between nitrogen content and coal ranking. ?? 2011 Science Press, Institute of Geochemistry, CAS and Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

  15. Coal worker's pneumoconiosis

    ... this page: // Coal worker's pneumoconiosis To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Coal worker's pneumoconiosis is a lung disease that results ...

  16. Fluidized coal combustion

    Moynihan, P. I.; Young, D. L.


    Fluidized-bed coal combustion process, in which pulverized coal and limestone are burned in presence of forced air, may lead to efficient, reliable boilers with low sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide emissions.

  17. TENORM: Coal Combustion Residuals

    Burning coal in boilers to create steam for power generation and industrial applications produces a number of combustion residuals. Naturally radioactive materials that were in the coal mostly end up in fly ash, bottom ash and boiler slag.

  18. Chemicals from coal

    Harold A. Wittcoff; Bryan G. Reuben; Jeffrey S. Plotkin


    This chapter contains sections titled: Chemicals from Coke Oven Distillate; The Fischer-Tropsch Reaction; Coal Hydrogenation; Substitute Natural Gas (SNG); Synthesis Gas Technology; Calcium Carbide; Coal and the Environment; and Notes and References

  19. Strategies of Domestic and Multinational Firms in the Czech Republic

    Talpová Žáková Sylva


    Full Text Available The strategic behavior of companies in the globalizing and changing markets may be characterized by the extent to which a company’s strategy is adapted to its environment. The goal of this paper is to compare the strategies used by multinational and domestic companies in the Czech Republic in reacting to the environment and to ascertain which of the strategies is the most advantageous. Consequently, this study provides essential information for strategic decisions for both domestic and multinational companies.

  20. Institutionalization of Marketing in Hospitals in the Czech Republic

    Stankova Pavla


    This paper deals with the specifics of marketing management in hospitals and the role of marketing in hospitals in the Czech Republic. Its goal is to present marketing as a tool enabling hospitals to compete in an open market. Nowadays, hospitals increasingly realise that there is a need for marketing management in health care services. The importance of marketing management is then represented by the institutionalization of marketing by means of establishing marketing departments or appointi...

  1. Offer of outgoing volunteer tourism in the Czech Republic

    Bryndová, Karolína


    Bachelor thesis describes outgoing volunteer tourism in the Czech Republic through volunteer organizations that offer projects mainly for young people as a meaning leisure activity, but also organizations that are involved in rescue operations during various natural disasters and other emergencies. It then also describes types of projects as well as positive and negative impacts, benefits, and problems of international volunteering. Final survey identifies a profile of participants of these p...

  2. Manually Classified Errors in Czech-Slovak Translation

    Galuščáková, Petra; Bojar, Ondřej


    Outputs of five Czech-Slovak machine translation systems (Česílko, Česílko 2, Google Translate and Moses with different settings) for first 50 sentences of WMT 2010 testing set. The translations were manually processed and the errors were marked and classified according to the scheme by Vilar et al. (David Vilar, Jia Xu, Luis Fernando D’Haro, Hermann Ney: Error Analysis of Statistical Machine Translation Output, Proceedings of LREC-2006, 2006)

  3. Ethical and moral aspects of business in Czech Republic

    Protivová, Eva


    The thesis deals with theme of morality and ethics, especially in business area. Theoretical part describes methods and instruments of integration of ethics into business. Practical part consists of three parts. First part is focused on evaluation of Czech business environment from ethical point of view. In second part author describes results of her survey, which examines primarily ethics code issues. Final part is concentrated on description of small company's business practices and on stak...

  4. How Young People Communicate-A Czech Perspective

    Eddie Fisher; Pavl¨ªna Rupov¨¢; Dominika Bittnerov¨¢


    There appears to be a relationship between the latest communications technology and how effectively young people communicate. It is a world-wide phenomenon. This research investigates how young people in the Czech Republic communicate today in an era of increased use of social media and mobile technology. The research was limited to the city of Olomouc. Results suggest that face to face communications by and amongst young people are diminishing fast at the expense of social media such as Face...

  5. Comparison Shopping Agents and Czech Online Customers’ Shopping Behaviour

    Pilik Michal; Klimek Petr; Jurickova Eva; Palka Premysl


    The internet has changed the lifestyles and shopping behaviours of customers. Online purchasing enables people to obtain information about products and services provided more effectively and easily, with the result that home shopping has become ordinary and usual. This paper presents part of a research focusing on online shopping customers’ behaviour in the Czech Republic. The article pertains to comparison shopping agents (CPAs), a tool which provides information to customers and helps find ...

  6. Preparedness of Czech Primary School Teachers for Inclusive Primary Education

    Kaleja, Martin; Zezulková, Eva


    Preparedness of teachers to work with pupils with a need of supportive measures and especially with pupils who live and grow up in socially excluded localities, is very low. Quantitatively oriented research investigation8, carried out in 13 regions of the Czech Republic with the sample size of 2005 respondents, offers results that raise doubts towards the inclusively oriented primary education. The teachers are not ready for the phenomenon. This paper focuses on attitudinal constructs of the ...

  7. Boron concentration measurement system for the Czech BNCT project

    Honzátko, J.; Tomandl, I.


    In the framework of the Czech Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) project a Prompt Gamma Ray Analysis (PGRA) facility for the determination of the boron concentration in biological samples was built at light-water reactor at Řež. The facility utilizes the beam of thermal neutrons from a neutron guide. The pure beam of thermal neutrons and background conditions enables the determination of 1 ppm with the reasonable statistical error 5% within 15 minutes.

  8. Family Business in the Czech Republic: Actual Situation

    Anastasia PETLINA


    Purpose of the article. The purpose of this paper is to define the actual situation of family business on the market, particularly focused on qualities of family business and its strengths or weaknesses. The object of research is the family business as an economical phenomenon. The study includes two subjects: firstly, to find out a specification of the family business, to analyze family ties within the business in accordance with the laws of the Czech Republic or to find out the current econ...


    Jiřina Bošková


    The subject of insurance companies is to provide insurance protection based on commercial principles. All changes in the society are directly reflected in the insurance activity. New risks apperar and therfore new insurance products appear as well. The insurance business intervenes into all areas of the economic and social life in the Czech Republic. Insurance companies cannot be treated only as companies offering insurance protection, but also as important investors who, as a result of their...

  10. The Effect of Parenthood on Wages in the Czech Republic

    Žofková, Martina


    Using cross-sectional and longitudinal data from EU-SILC for the Czech Republic this thesis shows that mothers suffer wage penalty, whereas fathers gain wage premium. These results are in accordance with literature abroad. This thesis also shows that parenthood has greater impact on individuals with higher education, that motherhood penalty is lower for single mothers, whereas fatherhood premium is higher for single fathers, and that there is stronger self-selection of mothers into specific j...

  11. The Czech Equity Market - Its Effectiveness and Macroeconomic Consequences

    Helena Horská


    This paper examines features of the Czech stock market’s development from 1997 to 2003 and attempts to unveil the macroeconomic consequences of stock-price development. The analysis of the stock market’s behavior supports a cautionary stance on the hypothesis of the efficient-market theory, even in its weak form. Another finding, as regards the macroeconomic consequences of stock-price development, undermined the assumption of the positive wealth effect of rising stocks. In relation to GDP gr...

  12. Shadow Prices of Selected Agricultural Commodities – The Czech Case

    Patrik Sieber; Karina Pohlová; Ondřej Chaloupka


    The main objective of the paper is to contribute to practical applicability of the CBA in the agricultural sector by exploring the chances to estimate Czech social values of selected agricultural commodities using available statistical data. More specifically, we try to analyse for which commodities secondary data sets are available from which we may deduce the estimates of shadow price ratios, then to estimate SPRs for selected agricultural commodities and to analyse and discuss the ap...

  13. Management implementation of the Czech Karate Federation JKA

    Válková, Zuzana


    Title: Management Implementation of the Czech Karate Federation JKA Goals: The general aim is to give suggestions for management improvement of sports non-profit organization. The suggestions will be based on an analysis of sequential managerial functions - planning, organizing, selecting and deploying staff, leadership and control and some continuous functions. Methods: Descriptive analysis, Unstructured interview, SWOT analysis Results: The results of the bachelor thesis are proposed change...

  14. SMEs growth in the Czech Republic: Some macroeconomic perspectives

    Osakwe, Christian Nedu; Verter, Nahanga; Bečvářová, Věra; Chovancová, Miloslava


    Small and medium enterprises (SMEs) are seen as a vehicle for employment generation, wealth creation, economic growth and development in countries that have a sound investment climate. SMEs, account for approximately one-third of GDP, over 50% of the value added, 99% of the share of total registered enterprises, and represent 60% of total employment in the Czech Republic. In the light of this background, the paper explores the influence of some macroeconomic variables on SMEs growth in the Cz...

  15. Metallurgy in the Czech Republic: a spatio-temporal view

    J. Suchacek


    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to introduce the stochastic input-output model of the impact of metallurgy sector on the Czech economy. Contrary to original input-output model, which is of deterministic nature, we reckon with interval estimates of the development of metallurgy sector. They help us to surpass deterministic impediments when analyzing and forecasting the possible developmental tendencies of metallurgy sector in various economies.

  16. Rivalry of Advocacy Coalitions in the Czech Pension Reform

    Potůček Martin


    Full Text Available The Czech Republic, as many other countries of Central and Eastern Europe, faced and is still facing a pension-reform challenge. The diversification of pension pillars led to the massive displacements of participant contributions from the public PAYG pension pillars to the newly constructed private, defined-contribution, fully-funded pillars. In the Czech Republic, the adoption of the relevant law was preceded by serious political conflict between supporters and opponents of this step (both among different political actors and among professionals. In an analysis of the conflict we critically apply the Advocacy Coalition Framework. We work mainly with the analysis of policy documents, public statements of the individual actors and an analysis of voting on the relevant law in both chambers of the Czech Parliament towards the identification of the crystallization process of two clear-cut coalitions between actors from both sides of the spectrum. The Advocacy Coalition Framework in exploring the dynamics of the public-policy process proved to be able to explain situations where there is sharp political conflict. Through the lens of the devil-shift of both camps (advocacy coalitions with different beliefs, each fell into extreme positions within the coalition to affirm the correctness of their arguments and positions.

  17. Comparing Czech and Slovak Council Newspapers’ Policy and Regulation Development

    Lenka Waschkova Cisarova


    Full Text Available Council newspapers form an integral part of European media systems and, as such, have been analysed for their important contribution to the development of local politics. However, despite a recognition of the media’s important democratic function in the transition countries of Central and Eastern Europe (CEE after the fall of socialism, the consideration of council newspapers’ political role in the Czech Republic and Slovakia have been largely absent in debates surrounding the development of regulatory frameworks until recently. Interestingly, debates regarding local government transparency emerged recently (2011 in the United Kingdom, resulting in the Code of recommended practice on local authority publicity, underscoring the importance of this issue. However, developments in the aforementioned situations demonstrate divergent outcomes in such considerations: the British addressed the causes, the Czechs addressed the symptoms, and the Slovaks have yet to make any headway. This article utilizes qualitative analysis of policy and regulation documents to compare the trajectories of media policy and regulation of council publicity in the Czech Republic and Slovakia, ultimately contrasting it with developments in the UK, suggesting possible future trajectories for the development of this type of regulation in the CEE countries.

  18. CAS Introduction to Accelerator Physics in the Czech Republic

    CERN Accelerator School


    The CERN Accelerator School (CAS) and the Czech Technical University in Prague jointly organised the Introduction to Accelerator Physics course in Prague, Czech Republic from 31 August to 12 September 2014.   The course was held in the Hotel Don Giovanni on the outskirts of the city, and was attended by 111 participants of 29 nationalities, from countries as far away as Armenia, Argentina, Canada, Iceland, Thailand and Russia. The intensive programme comprised 41 lectures, 3 seminars, 4 tutorials and 6 hours of guided and private study. A poster session and a 1-minute/1-slide session were also included in the programme, where the students were able to present their work. Feedback from the students was very positive, praising the expertise of the lecturers, as well as the high standard and quality of their lectures. During the second week, the afternoon lectures were held in the Czech Technical University in Prague. In addition to the academic programme, the students had the opportunity to vis...

  19. Identification of factors affecting birth rate in Czech Republic

    Zámková, Martina; Blašková, Veronika


    This article is concerned with identifying economic factors primarily that affect birth rates in Czech Republic. To find the relationship between the magnitudes, we used the multivariate regression analysis and for modeling, we used a time series of annual values (1994-2011) both economic indicators and indicators related to demographics. Due to potential problems with apparent dependence we first cleansed all series obtained from the Czech Statistical Office using first differences. It is clear from the final model that meets all assumptions that there is a positive correlation between birth rates and the financial situation of households. We described the financial situation of households by GDP per capita, gross wages and consumer price index. As expected a positive correlation was proved for GDP per capita and gross wages and negative dependence was proved for the consumer price index. In addition to these economic variables in the model there were used also demographic characteristics of the workforce and the number of employed people. It can be stated that if the Czech Republic wants to support an increase in the birth rate, it is necessary to consider the financial support for households with small children.

  20. Statistical Results of Activities Categorization in Czech Agricultural Companies

    Svobodová J.


    Full Text Available In today’s competitive environment, to identify and correctly adjust the individual components of the business model is an important strategic device for every entrepreneur. This paper (preliminary study deals with different types of business models applied to the sector of small and medium-size farms in the Czech Republic. The main objective was to identify and categorize activities undertaken by Czech farmers into homogeneous clusters and offer recommendations on possible business model modification. The research was based on data from the Farm Accountancy Data Network (hereafter FADN. The principal component analysis and cluster analysis were carried out as part of the assessment, under which farms are categorized into homogeneous groups. The results showed that the farms surveyed can be categorized according to similar economic characteristics, production plans, and implementation processes into three basic clusters. The first business model is elaborated for the classic field production and various kinds of vegetable or livestock production, the second model for the special crop and livestock production, and the third one for the animal production. The use of FADN data and the fact that most Czech agricultural companies are of small- and medium-size should be taken into account as limiting factors of the study.

  1. Construction of corporate social performance indicators for Czech manufacturing industry

    Marie Dočekalová


    Full Text Available This article aims to map out the level of social performance measurement of Czech companies, i.e. what social performance indicators companies monitor and what information they provide to their stakeholders and to construct alternative corporate social performance indicators. Based on an analysis of 24 corporate voluntary reports and results of an empirical research performed among 79 large companies operating in the manufacturing industry, it was found that companies partially monitor their social performance, but from the perspective of international standards (e.g. Global Reporting Initiative, International Federation of Accountants it is still insufficient. Czech companies usually provide only absolute numbers which disguise real trends and do not allow year on year comparison or comparison with other companies. Czech companies should provide a comprehensive picture of their overall performance, they should not focus only on financial indicators based on accounting data, since it is known that the performance measurement based only on financial and economic performance does not lead to long-term success and sustainability of organizations. Companies should monitor more their impact on society within which they operate. Proposed corporate social performance indicators in a measurable and thus manageable way express social issues.

  2. Digital archiving of specific scientific information in the Czech Republic

    P Slavik


    Full Text Available This paper deals with a description of activities in the Czech Republic related to digital archiving. First of all the general situation in the field is described in order to give insight in the state of art in the field in the Czech Republic. The key part of this paper deals with a description of the design and implementation of a pilot system that should serve for digital archiving of scientific information of certain kind – MSc and PhD theses at Czech Technical University in Prague. One of the reasons for archiving of this type of information was the fact that these theses contain information about scientific and technological developments in a given period of time. Such information might be widely appreciated in future by historians who will investigate the history of science and technology of a certain period of time. The research is oriented towards robust archiving systems that can be used in small-scale applications. These small systems do not offer universal solutions in the field of digital archiving – they solve problems that become urgent in various applications: to save current digital documents in the form that could be transferable to general archiving systems developed later. The described implementation is a pilot practical solution to this problem. The approach described in the paper will allow the user to archive also documents that contain non-textual information.

  3. Development of the agricultural insurance market in the Czech Republic

    Eva Vávrová


    Full Text Available Proactive approach to risk management of agriculture companies is the way to ensure the efficiency of agricultural production even affected by natural disasters, to ensure the continuity of agricultural business and ultimately affect the level of development of rural regions. The instrument that solves the problem of reduction and elimination of risks associated with agricultural production is a systemic approach to the insurance of agricultural production, both crop insurance and livestock insurance, linked to a support program for SME in agriculture.This presented paper aims to identify and discuss the possibility of eliminating risks possibly threate­ning the agricultural production and to analyze forms of covering risks associated with agricultural production on the commercial insurance market in the Czech Republic. The paper analyzes the current situation and current development of the agricultural insurance on the insurance market in the Czech Republic.This paper was written as a part of the research project MSM 6215648904, carried out by the Faculty of Business and Economics, under the title „The Czech economics in the processes of integration and globalization, and the development of the agriculture and service sector in the new conditions of the integrated European market“, following the goals and methodology of the research project.

  4. Intensity of rivalry in Czech furniture production industry

    Lucie Špačková


    Full Text Available The paper focuses on furniture production industry in the Czech Republic and evaluates the influence of competition forces within this industry. These forces have a direct impact on success of competitive strategies of the firms. Furniture production industry is a typical branch occupied by numerous small and medium-sized firms. Small firms aim on satisfying domestic (or rather local demand, medium-sized and big firms are much more aiming on exports. The methodical sources for evaluation of rivalry represent particular influences defined by Porter in his model of five competitive forces. Main influences identified by Porter, which are increasing the intensity of competition in the furniture production industry in the Czech Republic include low industry concentration, relatively low diversity of competitors, decline in sales, low (or none switching costs, and existing excessive capacity within the industry. Further development will be most significantly influenced by a growing concentration of the bigger Czech producers on domestic market and overall economic development.

  5. Certification of Corporate Social Responsibility in the Czech Republic

    Eva Abramuszkinová Pavlíková


    Full Text Available Corporate social responsibility is in the focus of many companies in recent years. It becomes a way of sustainability for many companies on the market. It expresses a voluntary commitment of companies to behave responsibly to their surroundings within three pillars: economic, social and environmental one. The issue of social responsibility is developing in many European countries and European Commission is aiming at support for national CSR strategies. There are countries with highly developed CSR, on the other hand there are countries, such as the Czech Republic, where a public policy is being reformed, including discussions about CSR. This paper supports the idea that states should encourage social responsibility, as it allows businesses to become sustainable which leads to the stability of the economy. CSR activities can be focused on philanthropy, the care of the employees, the environment and transparency of economic activities. The process of CSR certification is important in the development of CSR in the Czech Republic. It allows companies to demonstrate their activities and visible achievements in this field. This paper describes the most popular types of certifications that are used in the Czech Republic and standards that do not have certification purposes, but they are very important. These are standards SA 8000, ISO 26000, ISO 9001, ISO 9004, ISO 9000, ISO 14001, ISO 14004, OHSAS 18001, IQNet SR 10 and the National Quality Policy.

  6. Characteristics of Morphological Parameters of Donkeys in the Czech Republic

    Martina Kosťuková


    Full Text Available The donkey population in Central Europe and Czech Republic is very variation, which is a consequence of the donkeys originating from various areas of Europe. This has been proved to affect their body conformation. In this work, we are focusing on the population of donkeys in the Czech Republic and its analysis.The main aim of our work was to determine the values morphological parameters in the donkey population in the Czech Republic. Altogether, 23 body dimensions were taken and further processed to calculate 6 hippo metric indexes. The sample group we analyzed consisted by a total of 70 individuals, out of there were 23 stallions and 47 mares. The results were then processed using the methods of general linear model (GLM and multiple comparisons.We managed to prove a statistically significant influence of the sex factor for the following body measurements: shin length of the front limbs, chest width, withers height measured by tape, shin circumference on both front and pelvic limbs and also for weight index. Also, we have found a statistically significant difference in the scapula length when considering the age factor.

  7. Coal Extraction - Environmental Prediction

    Cecil, C. Blaine; Tewalt, Susan J.


    Coal from the Appalachian region has supplied energy to the Nation for more than 200 years. Appalachian coal fueled America through a civil war and helped win two world wars. Appalachian coal has also provided fuel for keeping America warm in the winter and cool in the summer and has served as the basis for the steel, automobile, organic chemicals, chlorine, and aluminum industries. These benefits have not come without environmental costs, however. Coal extraction and utilization have had significant environmental impacts.

  8. Mr. Eduard Zeman, Minister of Education, Youth and Sport, Czech Republic

    Patrice Loïez


    Mr Eduard Zeman (third from left), Minister of Education, Youth and Sport, Czech Republic, visiting CERN's permanent exhibition, Microcosm, with (from left to right) Dr Rupert Leitner, ATLAS Tile Calorimetry Project Leader; Mr P. Cink, Ministry of Education, Youth and Sport; Dr Ivan Lehraus, Committee for Collaboration of the Czech Republic with CERN; and H.E. Mr Milan Hovorka, Ambassador, permanent representative of the Czech Republic to the United Nations in Geneva.

  9. Mercury in stream water at five Czech catchments across a Hg and S deposition gradient

    Navrátil, Tomáš; Shanley, James B.; Rohovec, Jan; Oulehle, Filip; Krám, Pavel; Matoušková, Šárka; Tesař, Miroslav; Hojdová, Maria


    The Czech Republic was heavily industrialized in the second half of the 20th century but the associated emissions of Hg and S from coal burning were significantly reduced since the 1990s. We studied dissolved (filtered) stream water mercury (Hg) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations at five catchments with contrasting Hg and S deposition histories in the Bohemian part of the Czech Republic. The median filtered Hg concentrations of stream water samples collected in hydrological years 2012 and 2013 from the five sites varied by an order of magnitude from 1.3 to 18.0 ng L− 1. The Hg concentrations at individual catchments were strongly correlated with DOC concentrations r from 0.64 to 0.93 and with discharge r from 0.48 to 0.75. Annual export fluxes of filtered Hg from individual catchments ranged from 0.11 to 13.3 μg m− 2 yr− 1 and were highest at sites with the highest DOC export fluxes. However, the amount of Hg exported per unit DOC varied widely; the mean Hg/DOC ratio in stream water at the individual sites ranged from 0.28 to 0.90 ng mg− 1. The highest stream Hg/DOC ratios occurred at sites Pluhův Bor and Jezeří which both are in the heavily polluted Black Triangle area. Stream Hg/DOC was inversely related to mineral and total soil pool Hg/C across the five sites. We explain this pattern by greater soil Hg retention due to inhibition of soil organic matter decomposition at the sites with low stream Hg/DOC and/or by precipitation of a metacinnabar (HgS) phase. Thus mobilization of Hg into streams from forest soils likely depends on combined effects of organic matter decomposition dynamics and HgS-like phase precipitation, which were both affected by Hg and S deposition histories.

  10. Zinc isotopic composition of particulate matter generated during the combustion of coal and coal + tire-derived fuels.

    Borrok, David M; Gieré, Reto; Ren, Minghua; Landa, Edward R


    Atmospheric Zn emissions from the burning of coal and tire-derived fuel (TDF) for power generation can be considerable. In an effort to lay the foundation for tracking these contributions, we evaluated the Zn isotopes of coal, a mixture of 95 wt % coal + 5 wt % TDF, and the particulate matter (PM) derived from their combustion in a power-generating plant. The average Zn concentrations and δ(66)Zn were 36 mg/kg and 183 mg/kg and +0.24‰ and +0.13‰ for the coal and coal + TDF, respectively. The δ(66)Zn of the PM sequestered in the cyclone-type mechanical separator was the lightest measured, -0.48‰ for coal and -0.81‰ for coal+TDF. The δ(66)Zn of the PM from the electrostatic precipitator showed a slight enrichment in the heavier Zn isotopes relative to the starting material. PM collected from the stack had the heaviest δ(66)Zn in the system, +0.63‰ and +0.50‰ for the coal and coal + TDF, respectively. Initial fractionation during the generation of a Zn-rich vapor is followed by temperature-dependent fractionation as Zn condenses onto the PM. The isotopic changes of the two fuel types are similar, suggesting that their inherent chemical differences have only a secondary impact on the isotopic fractionation process.

  11. Considerations on coal gasification

    Franzen, J. E.


    Commercial processes for the gasification of coal with oxygen are discussed. The Koppers-Totzek process for the gasification of coal dust entrained in a stream of gasifying agents is described in particular detail. The outlook for future applications of coal gasification is presented.

  12. Prediction of coal hydrophobicity

    Labuschagne, B.C.J. [Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Pretoria (South Africa). Div. of Energy Technology; Wheelock, T.D.; Guo, R.K.; David, H.T. [Iowa State Univ. of Science and Technology, Ames, IA (United States); Markuszewski, R. [Ames Lab., IA (United States)


    Many coals exhibit a certain degree of native hydrophobicity. The more hydrophobic coals (the higher-rank coals) are easily beneficiated by froth flotation or oil agglomeration, while the more hydrophilic coals (the lower-rank coals) are floated or agglomerated with difficulty. Coals of different ranks and often even of the same rank sometimes differ greatly in hydrophobicity as measured by contact angle or natural floatability. Although the degree of hydrophobicity of a coal is related to its rank and has been correlated with other surface properties of the coal , the known information is still not sufficient to allow a good estimation to be made of the hydrophobicity of a given coal and does not explain the variation of coal hydrophobicity as a function of rank. A statistical analysis of previously published data, as well as newly acquired data, shows that coal hydrophobicity correlates better with moisture content than with carbon content, and better with the moisture/carbon molar ratio than with the hydrogen/carbon or oxygen/carbon atomic ratios. These findings indicate that there is a strong association between hydrophobicity and coal moisture content.

  13. Coal production 1989


    Coal Production 1989 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, the number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, reserves, and stocks to a wide audience including Congress, federal and state agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. 7 figs., 43 tabs.

  14. The Paradox of Czech Crusaders: Will They Ever Learn the Corruption Lesson? (Corruption and Anticorruption in the Czech Republic)

    Lubomir Lizal; Evzen Kocenda


    Corruption has a negative impact on society and economy. The transition process in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) uncovered dormant possibilities for corruption and necessity for appropriate steps to be taken. We document the state of corruption in the Czech Republic and the measures introduced to fight it. We cover sectors of society and economy according to their importance of a consequential corruption hazard. We also described the government's program of anticorruption and its achieveme...

  15. Conceptions of Landscape-Ecological Relevance Emerged in the Czech Botany during the Second Half of Twentieth Century

    Kovář Pavel


    Full Text Available This paper summarizes those substantial theoretical concepts or methods for applications within interdisciplinary or practical uses published by Czech autors (geobotanists = ecological botanists, plant ecologists and ecophysiologists during the second half of the 20th century, that were internationally cited. All selected thematical clusters are of landscape-ecological relevance through various contexts. Examples include the concepts of (potential reconstructed vegetation in maps (R. Neuhäusl, Z. Neuhäuslová, linear vegetation features (corridors in landscape and deductive classification of vegetation (K. Kopecký, analysis of soil seed bank (Z. Kropáč, dependency of macrophyte plant stands on ecodynamics (S. Hejný, dynamic periodicity in segetal vegetation (Z. Kropáč, E. Hadač, S. Hejný, anemo-orographic system explaining species richness in mountain regions (J. Jeník, productivity in grassland ecosystems (M. Rychnovská, J. Květ, elementary landscape units based on homogenity and potential vegetation (E. Hadač, landscape dispensation phenomena (V. Ložek, afforestation of coastal sandy dunes – the Netherlands, and polluted areas - the Czech Republic (J. Fanta, invasive plants and invasions into landscapes (M. Rejmánek.

  16. Characterization of Santa Catarina (Brazil) coal with respect to human health and environmental concerns

    Silva, L.; Oliveira, M.; da Boit, K.M.; Finkelman, R.B. [University of Santiago de Compostela, Santiago De Compostela (Spain)


    The current paper presents the concentration, distribution, and modes of occurrence of trace elements of 13 coals from south Brazil. The samples were collected in the state of Santa Catarina. Chemical analyses and the high ash yields indicate that all studied coals are rich in mineral matter, with SiO{sub 2} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} dominating as determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). Quartz is the main mineral species and is associated with minor levels of feldspars, kaolinite, hematite, and iron-rich carbonates. The contents of trace elements, including As, Pb, Cd, Ni, Cr, Mn, Be, V, U, Zn, Li, Cu, Tl, and Ni, in coals were determined. A comparison of ranges and means of elemental concentrations in Santa Catarina, Brazil, and world coals shows that the ranges of most elements in Santa Catarina coal are very close to the usual worldwide concentration ranges in coal.

  17. Comparison of drought occurrence in selected Slovak and Czech catchments

    Fendekova, Miriam; Fendek, Marian; Porubska, Diana; Hanel, Martin; Horacek, Stanislav; Martinkova, Marta; Vizina, Adam


    The presented study is focused on the analysis and comparison of hydrological drought occurrence, development and duration in six small to middle sized catchments in the Czech Republic (CZ) and Slovakia. The main questions to be answered are: (1) are there correlations between the physical conditions in the catchments and drought occurrence, and (2) does the spatial trend of drought occurrence exist. The Žitava catchment is located in the central western part of Slovakia having runoff dominated by rainfall with the contribution of snow melting during the spring period. The Belá River catchment is located on the contact of Západné and Vysoké Tatry Mts. in the north of Slovakia. The runoff is snow to snow-rain combined type. The Ľupčianka catchment is located on the northern slopes of the Nízke Tatry Mts. in the northern part of the central Slovakia. The runoff regime is snow-rain combined in the upper part of the catchment, and of rain-snow type in the rest of catchment. The Rakovnický potok brook (CZ) has its spring in Rakovnická pahorkatina hilly land. Runoff is dominated by rainfall, quite heavily influenced by water uptakes in the catchment. The Teplá River (CZ) originates in peat meadows in the western part of the Czech Republic. Runoff is dominated by rainfall. The Metuje catchment (CZ) is formed by Adršsbach-Teplické stěny Upland. The headwater part is typical by deeply incest valleys, table mountains and pseudokarst caves. The discharge is fed dominantly by groundwater. The streamflow drought was characterized using discharge data, the groundwater drought using the base flow values. The local minimum method was used for base flow separation. The threshold level method (Q80, BF80) and the sequent peak algorithm were used for calculation of drought duration in discharge and base flow time series. The data of the same three decades of the common period (1971 - 1980, 1981 - 1990 and 1991 - 2000) were used. The resulting base flow values along with

  18. Forecast and Prevention of Coal and Gas Outbursts in the Case of Application of a New Mining Method - Drilling of a Coal Pillar

    Vlastimil Hudeček


    Full Text Available Coal and gas outbursts are one of risk factors accompanying the mining of coal in low seams in the Ostrava-Karviná Coalfield.At the use of the method of longwall mining, all coal reserves have not been mined out owing to tectonic faults. For mining outthe residual reserves, the application of a new mining method - drilling of a coal pillar was proposed.The method of mining of a coal seam utilizing long large diameter boreholes is verified in the Paskov Mine (company OKD, JSC –Czech Republic under conditions of rock mass with hazard of rock and gas outbursts in localities of residual pillars left in seams afterfinishing the mining operations performed with using the classical method of longwall working along the strike. [5]Forecast and preventive measures applied to the verification of the new method were based on previous experience withthe mining of seams with hazard of coal and gas outbursts. They accepted fully valid legislation, i.e. Ordinance of Ostrava RegionalMining Authority No. 3895/2002 and supplementary materials (Instructions and Guidelines. The proposed measures respectedthe character of the method being verified. [4]For all areas being mined, projects containing also chapters specifying the problems of ensuring the safety of mining worksand operation under conditions of hazard of coal and gas outbursts were prepared.In the contributions, basic proposals for the principles of coal and gas outburst forecast and prevention when applying the newmining method – drilling of a coal pillar are presented

  19. The economics of coal


    Global aspects of the production, consumption and trade in coal are described. World reserves and resources, production (both by region and country), international trade (exporters and importers), coal consumption (by region and sector), and the demand for primary energy (1960-1979). Each of the producing and consuming countries are discussed individually. The electricity sector and its future demand for coal, and the future demand for coking coal are covered. Prices for metallurgical and steam coal are also given. Statistics are presented in tables.

  20. Radionuclides in US coals

    Bisselle, C. A.; Brown, R. D.


    The current state of knowledge with respect to radionuclide concentrations in US coals is discussed. Emphasis is placed on the levels of uranium in coal (and lignite) which are considered to represent a concern resulting from coal combustion; areas of the US where such levels have been found; and possible origins of high radionuclide levels in coal. The report reviews relevant studies and presents new data derived from a computerized search of radionuclide content in about 4000 coal samples collected throughout the coterminous US. 103 references, 5 figures, 5 tables.

  1. The coal-bearing Cenozoic As Pontes Basin (northwestern Spain): geological influence on coal characteristics

    Cabrera, L.; Hagemann, H.W.; Pickel, W.; Saez, A. [Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain). Dept. de Geologia Dinamica, Geofisica i Paleontologia


    Lignite deposits in the Cenozoic As Pontes strike-slip basin (northwestern Spain) were formed as a function of specific paleoclimatic conditions and tectonic evolution of the basin. During the early evolutionary stages, the presence of active normal faults and thrusts inside the basin resulted in two subbasins with distinct differences in sedimentary records, with respect to lignite seam occurrence, thickness, areal extent and lithotype development. In contrast, during the late evolutionary stages the basin was not split and a more homogeneous sedimentary record in terms of coal seam occurrence and lithotype characteristics developed. A total of 26 lignite samples, distributed along the basin infill, were analyzed by organic petrography and geochemistry. All are lignite B (ASTM). The lignites deposited during lower basin infill sedimentation (unit 1 and 2) are dark, matrix-rich, mainly huminitic brown coals, with minor bright, liptinitic-rich coal lithotypes. The dark huminitic coals in these units show sedimentological and paleontological evidence of lacustrine influence. Lignites in the upper basin infill (Unit 4) are almost exclusively matrix-rich, huminitic brown coals. The overall coal petrological data trend recorded from the lower to the upper basin infill units agrees with the stratigraphic and sedimentological data, which show a trend of increasingly drier conditions. Development of bright, liptinite-enriched lignite layers was widespread during the early basin evolutionary stages and was influenced by punctuated water-table oscillations. Sedimentological, petrological and organic geochemical data suggest that, although the paleoenvironments where peat deposition took place did not undergo dramatic changes, they were affected by distinguishable variations, linked mostly to the evolution of basin morphology and basin water balance. 52 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. 13C high resolution solid state NMR spectra of Chinese coals

    陈德玉; 胡建治; 叶朝辉


    Several typical exinites in China including alginite, cultinite, suberinite and bituminite are analysed by means of 13C high solution solid state CP MAS TOSS NMR spectra to determine their chemical structures and hydrocarbon potential. Thermal simulation solid products (TSSP) of hydrogen-rich coals arc studied to discuss the generation and expulsion mechanism of coal-generating hydrocarbon. The preliminary results are quite encouraging, containing useful information about genesis of coal-generating oil and gases.

  3. 29th November 2011 - Czech Parliament Members of the Social Committee of the Lower Chamber visiting CERN permanent exhibition Microcosm and ATLAS visitor centre with Senior Czech Physicist and ILO I. Lehraus.

    Jean-Claude Gadmer


    29th November 2011 - Czech Parliament Members of the Social Committee of the Lower Chamber visiting CERN permanent exhibition Microcosm and ATLAS visitor centre with Senior Czech Physicist and ILO I. Lehraus.

  4. Coal; Le charbon

    Teissie, J.; Bourgogne, D. de; Bautin, F. [TotalFinaElf, La Defense, 92 - Courbevoie (France)


    Coal world production represents 3.5 billions of tons, plus 900 millions of tons of lignite. 50% of coal is used for power generation, 16% by steel making industry, 5% by cement plants, and 29% for space heating and by other industries like carbo-chemistry. Coal reserves are enormous, about 1000 billions of tons (i.e. 250 years of consumption with the present day rate) but their exploitation will be in competition with less costly and less polluting energy sources. This documents treats of all aspects of coal: origin, composition, calorific value, classification, resources, reserves, production, international trade, sectoral consumption, cost, retail price, safety aspects of coal mining, environmental impacts (solid and gaseous effluents), different technologies of coal-fired power plants and their relative efficiency, alternative solutions for the recovery of coal energy (fuel cells, liquefaction). (J.S.)

  5. The CIS coal summit



    The presentations (overhead/viewgraphs) include: the impacts of EU environmental legislation on Russian coal market (A. Sankovski); how Caterpillar and Cat dealers create value in the global mining industry (D. Mohr); new coal preparation technology and application in the Russian coal market (D. Morris); UK demand outlook and import growth (G. Parker); new technologies in blasting operations and services (J. Petzold and others); a global bank's view of the coal sector (M. Seleznev); ELGA coal deposit, Republic of Sakha (Yakutia), Russia (M. Tsikanov); Russia's economic outlook (P. Forrest); Renaissance Capital (investment bank) (R. Edwards); Russian coal for Korean gencos (S. Kim); and coking coal in Ukraine (V. Khilko).

  6. Numerical simulation and damage analysis of fissure field evolution law in a single coal seam mining

    Feng; Gao; Xingguang; Liu; Chaofeng; Ge; Hongmei; Cheng


    Based on the different deformation and failure laws of coal and rock materials under tensile or compressive loads,the damage variable was defined to divide three phases from the damage and rupture point of view in order to reveal the fissured field evolution characteristics and spatial distribution of coal and rock in the single coal seam mining with low permeability and rich methane.According to the corresponding damage constitutive equations,the secondary development of the finite element program was completed.The fissures field evolution law of a coal mine with single coal seam mining was calculated and analyzed by this new program and the distribution areas and failure degree of the surrounding coal and rock structures with damage,fissure or rupture are given on the condition of mining.This paper provides a scientific basis for quantitative research and evaluation of the safe simultaneous production of coal and gas.

  7. Correlation between coal characteristics and methane adsorption on China's coals

    YU Hong-guan; YUAN Jian; SONG Ji-yong; LENG Shu-wei


    It is highly important to investigate relationship between coal characteristics and methane adsorption on coal in the fields of coalbed methane recovery. Based on data examination of coal quality indexes collected from the literatures, regression equations for Langmuir adsorption constants, VL or VL/PL, and coal quality indexes for selected coal samples were developed with multiple linear regression of SPSS software according to the degree of coal metamorphosis. The regression equations built were tested with data collected from some literatures, and the influences of coal quality indexes on CH4 adsorption on coals were studied with investigation of regression equations, and the reasons of low accuracy to Langmuir constants calculated with regression equation for a few coal samples were investigated. The results show that the regression equations can be employed to predict Langmuir constants for methane adsorption isotherms on coals obtained using volumetric gas adsorption experiments, which are conducted at 30 ℃ on a wet or dried coal samples with less than 30% ash content in coal. The influence of same coal quality index with various coal rank or influence of various coal quality indexes for same coal rank on CH4 adsorption is not consistent. The regression equations have different accuracy to different coal rank, in which the VL equations supply better prediction accuracy for anthracite and higher prediction error for lower metamorphosis coal, and the PL prediction error with VL and VL/PL equations is lower to bituminous coal and higher to anthracite.

  8. GPR use and activities in the Czech Republic

    Stryk, Josef; Matula, Radek


    In the field of civil engineering applications in the Czech Republic, Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) is used particularly for the diagnostics of roads and bridges. There is no producer of GPR in the Czech Republic, sets of different producers are used, particularly Geophysical Survey Systems, Inc. (USA) and MALÅ GeoScience (Sweden). The measurement results are mostly processed by software Radan, Road Doctor Pro, ReflexW and RadEx. The only technical specification in the Czech Republic is TP 233 issued by the Ministry of Transport, which describes the diagnostics of roads by GPR. Apart from a basic description of the method and a measurement system, it mentions possible applications. The only application where accuracy is mentioned is the locating of dowels and tie bars in concrete road pavements, which states that if calibration is performed, the expected depth accuracy is up to 1.0 cm. The following R&D project is currently in progress: New diagnostics methods as a supporting decision tool for maintenance and repair of road pavements - their contribution and ways of their usage (2012-2014) The project aims to test possible non-destructive methods (particularly GPR and laser scanning), make recommendations when and how to use specific methods for individual applications and for changes in technical specifications. The following R&D projects have been recently completed: Position of dowels and tie bars in rigid pavements and importance of their correct placement to pavement performance and service life (2012-2013) The project included an analysis of individual NDT methods used for the location of dowels and tie bars and for testing of their accuracy - GPR, MIT-scan and GPR in combination with a metal detector. Multichannel ground penetrating radar as a tool for monitoring of road and bridge structures (2009-2011) The project included detection of hollow spaces under non-reinforced concrete pavements, detection of excessive amount of water in road construction

  9. Shortfall of Strategic Governance and Strategic Management in the Czech Republic

    Ochrana František


    Full Text Available The article analyses the problems of strategic governance and strategic management of the Czechoslovak Government, as well as the Government of the Czech Republic in the years 1989-2016. It seeks the causes and factors that have caused the low levels of strategic governance and strategic management at the level of the ministries of the Czech Republic. It examines the problem from genetic and historical perspective, and from the organizational and human capacity to exercise strategic governance. The study is based on two pieces of empirical research within the ministries of the Czech Republic. It identifies the main cause of failure of strategic governance and strategic management at the level of the central government of the Czech Republic. These include, in particular, the persistent distrust of the ideas of strategic governance and strategic management held by the right-wing governments and the generally low capacity of governments of the Czech Republic to engage in strategic governance. The organizational structure of the central state administration lacks the strategic units that generate ideas for supporting strategic governance. The empirical research of the ministries of the Czech Republic also revealed that policy workers in Czech ministries dedicate a large proportion of their work time to operational and administrative activities at the expense of analytical and strategic activities. The changes require implementation of reforms within the public administration, which (among other things will eliminate the existing causes and inhibiting factors regarding the lack of strategic governance in the Czech Republic.

  10. Danish-Czech wind resource know-how transfer project. Interim report 2002

    Rathmann, O.; Nørgård, Per Bromand; Frandsen, Sten Tronæs


    The progress of the Danish-Czech Wind Resource Know-how Transfer Project is reported. The know-how transfer component of the project has consisted in performing a wind resource training workshop for about 13 individuals from the Czech Republic, rangingfrom scientists to wind farm project develope...

  11. Developing Inclusive Educational Practices for Refugee Children in the Czech Republic

    Bacakova, Marketa


    All children in the Czech Republic have the legal right to primary education, regardless of nationality and legal status. This article is based on a study of refugee children and their educational situation. The study reveals that refugee students in the Czech Republic are not benefiting fully from this fundamental right and that their educational…

  12. Developing Inclusive Educational Practices for Refugee Children in the Czech Republic

    Bacakova, Marketa


    All children in the Czech Republic have the legal right to primary education, regardless of nationality and legal status. This article is based on a study of refugee children and their educational situation. The study reveals that refugee students in the Czech Republic are not benefiting fully from this fundamental right and that their educational…

  13. Demographic shifts in the Czech Republic after 1989 : A second demographic transition view

    Sobotka, T.; Zeman, K.; Kantorova, V.


    A dramatic change in fertility, family formation and living arrangements took place in the Czech Republic over the 1990s. The establishment of democracy, profound social transformation and transition to the market economy affected the values and demographic behaviour of the young Czech generation.

  14. Specifics of Cyberbullying of Teachers in Czech Schools--A National Research

    Kopecký, Kamil; Szotkowski, René


    This paper focuses on the results of the national research of cyberbullying of Czech teachers, which was realized in year 2016 in the entire Czech Republic. The research focused on the prevalence of cyberbullying of teachers, the impact of cyberbullying on teachers, strategies of coping with cyberbullying and methods of solving the incidents. The…

  15. Legends as a mirror to cultural identity and quality practice in the Czech Republic

    Dahlgaard, Jens Jørn; Mansfield, George; Edgeman, Rick L.


    business, economic, and environmental challenges that must be overcome if it is to successfully compete with its more prosperous Western European neighbors and globally. Historic Czech pragmatism and resourcefulness, wed with quality improvement efforts offer a partial solution to the Czech dilemma....

  16. Study of the Readiness of Czech Companies to the Industry 4.0

    Jakub Kopp


    Full Text Available The article deals with the results of the questionnaire survey that analyzes the readiness of Czech companies on the trend of the Industry 4.0. It means mainly whether Czech companies are interested in the fourth industrial revolution and whether they are ready for this trend. The readiness is expressed in defined levels.

  17. How old maps are used to investigate modern environmental issues in the Czech Republic

    Cernajsek, T.; Hauser, C.; Posmourny, K.


    The Austrian Geological Survey and Czech geological organizations have in their archives source materials that can be used for the landscape restoration. At many places in the Czech Republic, considerable changes of the environment took place due to building and other industrial activities, especial

  18. Benchmarking in Czech Higher Education: The Case of Schools of Economics

    Placek, Michal; Ochrana, František; Pucek, Milan


    This article describes the use of benchmarking in universities in the Czech Republic and academics' experiences with it. It is based on research conducted among academics from economics schools in Czech public and private universities. The results identified several issues regarding the utilisation and understanding of benchmarking in the Czech…

  19. Linaria pelisseriana (L. Mill. – a new alien species in the Czech Republic

    Kocián Petr


    Full Text Available The paper reports on a find of the Mediterranean species Linaria pelisseriana at the cargo terminal of Kopřivnice freight station (NE Moravia, Czech Republic, which is the first record of this species in the Czech Republic.

  20. Imported resources - oil crude oil processing in the Czech Republic and its prospectives

    Soucek, I.; Ottis, I. [Kaucuk, Kralupy nad Vitavou (Czechoslovakia)


    This paper examines the availability of various crude oils, addressing specifically crude oil pipelines to the Czech Republic, both existing and under construction. Secondly, the economic status of two main Czech refineries is examined in comparison to international trends, technical configurations, and product supply and demand.

  1. Do Japanese Companies in the Czech Republic Perform Better than Others?

    Blahova, Michaela; Pálka, Přemysl; Edgeman, Rick

    Purpose: This paper explores performance of Japanese companies located in the Czech Republic that focus on manufacturing of transportation machinery parts (due to their largest share in manufacturing industry) and compares their results with other companies in the same industry in the Czech Repub...

  2. Active transport among Czech school-aged children

    Jan Pavelka


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Active transport is a very important factor for increasing the level of physical activity in children, which is significant for both their health and positive physical behaviour in adult age. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to establish the proportion of Czech children aged 11 to 15 who select active transport to and from school and, at the same time, describe socio-economic and socio-demographic factors influencing active transport to and from school among children. METHODS: To establish the socio-demographic factors affecting active transport, data of a national representative sample of 11 to 15 year-old elementary school children in the Czech Republic (n = 4,425. Research data collection was performed within an international research study called Health Behaviour in School Aged Children in June 2010. Statistical processing of the results was made using a logistic regression analysis in the statistical programme IBM SPSS v 20. RESULTS: Active transport to and from school is opted for in the Czech Republic by approximately 2/3 of children aged 11 to 15. Differences between genders are not statistically significant; most children opting for active transport are aged 11 (69%. An important factor increasing the probability of active transport as much as 16 times is whether a child's place of residence is in the same municipality as the school. Other factors influencing this choice include BMI, time spent using a computer or a privateroom in a family. A significant factor determining active transport by children is safety; safe road crossing, opportunity to leave a bicycle safely at school, no fear of being assaulted on the way or provision of school lockers where children can leave their items. CONCLUSIONS: Active transport plays an important role in increasing the overall level of physical activity in children. Promotion of active transport should focus on children who spend more time using a computer; attention should also be

  3. Structural seismic upgrading of NPPs in Czech and Slovak republics

    David, M. [DAVID Consulting, Engineering and Design Office, Prague (Czech Republic)


    Several Nuclear Power Plants of the VVER type has been constructed during the past years in former Czechoslovak Republic. Some of them has been already put in operation and some of them are under construction. Nuclear Power Plants V1(2 units of VVER 440/230), V2(2 units of VVER 440/213) in Slovak and NPP Dukovany (4 units of VVER 440/213) in Czech republic are in operation. NPP Mochovce (4 units of VVER 440/213) in Slovak and NPP Temelin (4 units reduced now to 2 units VVER 1000) have been already almost completed, but still under construction. All above cited NPPs have not been either explicitly designed against earthquake or the design against earthquake or its input data must be upgraded to be compatible with present requirements. The upgrading of seismic input as well the seismic upgrading of all structures and technological equipments for so many NPPs has involved a lot of comprehensive work in Czech as well as in Slovak republics. The upgrading cannot be completed in a short time and as a rule the seismic upgrading has been usually performed in several steps, beginning with the most important arrangements against seismic hazard. The basic principles and requirements for seismic upgrading has been defined in accordance with the international and particularly with the IAEA recommendations. About the requirements for seismic upgrading of NPPs in Czech and Slovak republics will be reported in other contribution. This contribution is dealing with the problems of seismic upgrading of NNPs civil engineering structures. The aim of this contribution is to point out some specific problems connected firstly with very complicated concept of Versa structures and secondly with the difficult task to increase the structural capacity to the required seismic level. (J.P.N.)

  4. Effectiveness of Marketing Activities in Engineering in Czech Republic

    František Milichovský


    Full Text Available Purpose of the article is to present the selected data obtained from primary research, which concerns the marketing activities use in the Czech companies in view of their industry. Nowadays, high competitive environment influence permanent pressure on companies which are in turn force to monitor and adapt them in order to retain their expected market position. In article there were gained data by primary research, using a structure questionnaire survey and processing by statistical software IBM SPSS Statistics 22. The research sample consists 147 companies in 2013. All companies were operating in the Czech environment and they were chosen in random way from chosen CZ-NACE groups. The main scientific aim is to analyse the condition for realisation of marketing activities and determine whether there is a relationship between measurement of marketing effectiveness and industry field in the Czech business environment. Findings of the article point to differences in the use of individual marketing activities in view of engineering field. It was found that companies have to respect corporate goals to fill stakeholders᾿ requirements, with a small improving because of the engineering industry field. Through realisation marketing activities there are many ways how to impact target audience. Also, it was found there is only average dependency between tracking of marketing performance and engineering field. The result of the article is describing relevant approach to prove efficiency of realisation of marketing activities in relation with engineering companies. The companies know the importance of relationship with their customers. Marketing management and realisation of marketing activities has become realm where is possible to find opportunities to increase own competitiveness in view of the growing competitive environment.

  5. Drought multiproxy reconstruction in the Czech Lands from AD 1500

    Dobrovolný, Petr; Brázdil, Rudolf; Možný, Martin; Trnka, Miroslav; Rybníček, Michal; Kolář, Tomáš


    Whereas the air temperature variability in the past and recent climate is well understood, our knowledge on hydroclimate (drought/precipitation) from various proxy archives and instrumental measurements are sketchy and sometimes even contradictory. This is related to huge spatial and temporal hydroclimate variability that underlines the importance of detailed local/regional studies on long-term hydroclimate variability. We present main results of summer drought reconstruction for the territory of the Czech Republic (CR) spanning the last 500 years. Drought is represented by the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI). Summer (JJA) SPEI values calculated from various instrumental measurements from the CR and covering most of the 19th and 20th centuries represent the target data. Three different proxy archives were used for SPEI reconstruction: a) Central European monthly temperature and Czech seasonal precipitation index series derived from documentary evidence (1500-1854); b) grape harvest dates for the Czech Lands (1499-2012); c) oak (Quercus spp.) ring width chronologies from Bohemia (western part of the CR, 1500-2012). Linear regression with subsequent variance scaling were used for calibration in different time intervals covering mostly second part of the 19th and the first part of the 20th centuries. Response functions were further verified on independent proxy and target data. The strongest hydroclimate signal was found for grape harvest dates (more that 70% of explained variance) while oak ring width series show relatively weak reconstruction skill (30% of common variance between proxy and target data). The three SPEI reconstructions show several common features in their long-term variability. Distinctly dry periods cover the first half of the 16th century, which included an extremely dry 1540, and the years since the late 1970s. Higher humidity was characteristic for the second part of the 16th century and also for the turn of the 19th

  6. Geochemistry of ultra-fine and nano-compounds in coal gasification ashes: a synoptic view.

    Kronbauer, Marcio A; Izquierdo, Maria; Dai, Shifeng; Waanders, Frans B; Wagner, Nicola J; Mastalerz, Maria; Hower, James C; Oliveira, Marcos L S; Taffarel, Silvio R; Bizani, Delmar; Silva, Luis F O


    The nano-mineralogy, petrology, and chemistry of coal gasification products have not been studied as extensively as the products of the more widely used pulverized-coal combustion. The solid residues from the gasification of a low- to medium-sulfur, inertinite-rich, volatile A bituminous coal, and a high sulfur, vitrinite-rich, volatile C bituminous coal were investigated. Multifaceted chemical characterization by XRD, Raman spectroscopy, petrology, FE-SEM/EDS, and HR-TEM/SEAD/FFT/EDS provided an in-depth understanding of coal gasification ash-forming processes. The petrology of the residues generally reflected the rank and maceral composition of the feed coals, with the higher rank, high-inertinite coal having anisotropic carbons and inertinite in the residue, and the lower rank coal-derived residue containing isotropic carbons. The feed coal chemistry determines the mineralogy of the non-glass, non-carbon portions of the residues, with the proportions of CaCO₃ versus Al₂O₃ determining the tendency towards the neoformation of anorthite versus mullite, respectively. Electron beam studies showed the presence of a number of potentially hazardous elements in nanoparticles. Some of the neoformed ultra-fine/nano-minerals found in the coal ashes are the same as those commonly associated with oxidation/transformation of sulfides and sulfates.

  7. 75 FR 69046 - Notice of Determination of the High Pathogenic Avian Influenza Subtype H5N1 Status of Czech...


    ... Pathogenic Avian Influenza Subtype H5N1 Status of Czech Republic and Sweden AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health... the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) subtype H5N1 status of the Czech Republic and Sweden... status of the Czech Republic and Sweden relative to highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) subtype...

  8. New technologies of waste disposal in Czech Republic, evoked by new laws

    Peleska, L. [Czech Power Co., Prague (Czechoslovakia)


    Of the utmost importance for the conception of waste disposal in any country is the fact how rich the respective country is and how realistic its legislators are. The apparently ideal approach to solving this problem is that chosen by more affluent European countries where wastes are recycled, are charged with taxes and duties, and where wastes that necessitate to be disposed are handled similarly as the nuclear wastes. The benefits are evident. The amounts of wastes to be deposited are minimalized. The waste repositories can be sealed by using layers of clay, foil and clay, and during a period of 50 to 100 years, any communication of the repository with the ambient environments can be eliminated. The disadvantage of such waste repositories, if applied to most of wastes, are the high costs associated with their depositioning. The prices of products, which the costs of waste disposal are being reflected in, are thus increasing, and, for this reason, many of products are becoming unmarketable, even on the domestic market. These financial means are often spent for nothing because the service life of some protective elements being at present used for construction of waste repositories is limited in time (for example, the service life of isolating foil is 50 to 1 00 years). Waste disposal in the Czech Republic, particulary from power plants, is discussed.

  9. Maps of Annual Velocities of Vertical Movements At The Territory of The Czech Republic

    Vyskocil, P.

    In addition to the Austro-Hungarian levelling of second half of 19. century {a}, the following precise levellings were performed at the territory of Czech Republic, in the periods:1920-1938 {b}; 1939-1954{c}; 1960-1973{d}; 1974- 1989{e}; and addition- ally after 1990 especially along the border with Germany {Bavaria} and Austria. All these {repeated} levellings were capable for studies of vertical movements. But qual- itatively better benchmarks were introduced to the levellings performed after 1960 {drilled benchmarks, rod benchmarks} which improved the quality the determination of vertical movements. The first estimations of vertical movements were performed by comparison of adjusted altitudes of levelling {a} and {b}, and {b} and {c} by KRUIS in 1954- 1960. Nevertheless, the disadvantage of these studies was the fact that levellings {a} and {b} followed the railways, the levelling {c} followed usual roads. Moreover the results of direct measurements by levellings {a} and {b} were not complete available.. Then the first levelling of higher quality was the levelling {c} which was used as initial epoch for construction of the maps from levelling {c} and {d} in 1971 and later on from levelling {c} and {e}in 1985. The benchmarks of higher quality, introduced after 1960 were used only in special networks in mining areas of Upper Silesian basin and Sokolov, Most and Kladno coal areas. The vertical move- ments {annual velocities in mm per annum} were determined by adjustment of annual heigh changes between junction benchmarks, reduced cosequently by the actual time interval of measurements along actual levelling line. Finally, the map for levellings {d} and {e} in 2001, using the new benchmarks, was constructed. The properties of the maps 1971, 1985 and 2001 as well as the map of annual velocities of vertical move- ments at the territory of a part of Central Europe are discussed in the paper, using the corresponding maps available.

  10. A quarter century of biomonitoring atmospheric pollution in the Czech Republic.

    Suchara, Ivan; Sucharová, Julie; Holá, Marie


    The Czech Republic (CZ) had extremely high emissions and atmospheric deposition of pollutants in the second half of the 1980s. Since the beginning of the 1990s, moss, spruce bark and forest floor humus have been used as bioindicators of air quality. In the first half of the 1990s, seven larger areas were found to be affected by high atmospheric deposition loads. Six of these "hot spots" were caused by industrial pollution sources, mainly situated in coal basins in the NW and NE part of the country, and one large area in the SE was affected by increased deposition loads of eroded soil particles. After restructuring of industry in CZ, these hot spots were substantially reduced or even disappeared between 1995 and 2000. Since 2000, only two larger areas with slightly increased levels of industrial pollutant deposition and a larger area affected by soil dust have repeatedly been identified by biomonitoring. The distribution of lead isotope ratios in moss showed the main deposition zones around important emission sources. Very high SO2 emissions led to extreme acidity of spruce bark extracts (pH of about 2.3) at the end of the 1980s. The rate of increasing bark pH was strikingly similar to the rate of recovery of acid wet deposition measured at forest stations in CZ. By about 2005, when the median pH value in bark increased to about 3.2, the re-colonisation of trees by several epiphyte lichen species was observed throughout CZ. An increase in the accumulation of Chernobyl-derived (137)Cs in bark was detected at about ten sites affected by precipitation during the time when radioactive plumes crossed CZ (1986). Accumulated deposition loads in forest floor humus corresponded to the position of the moss and bark hot spots.

  11. [Prenatal diagnostics of chromosomal aberrations Czech Republic: 1994-2007].

    Gregor, V; Sípek, A; Sípek, A; Horácek, J '; Langhammer, P; Petrzílková, L; Calda, P


    An analysis of prenatal diagnostics efficiency of selected types of chromosomal aberrations in the Czech Republic in 2007. Update of 1994-2007 data according to particular selected diagnoses. Retrospective epidemiological analysis of pre- and postnatal chromosomal aberrations diagnostics and its efficiency. Data on pre- and postnatally diagnosed birth defects in the Czech Republic during 1994-2007 were used. Data on prenatally diagnosed birth defects (and for terminated pregnancies) were collected from particular departments of prenatal diagnostics, medical genetics and ultrasound diagnostics in the Czech Republic, data on birth defects in births from the National Birth Defects Register (Institute for Health Information and Statistics). Total numbers over the period under the study, mean incidences of selected types of chromosomal aberrations and mean prenatal diagnostics efficiencies were analyzed. Following chromosomal aberrations were studied: Down, Edwards, Patau, Turner and Klinefelter syndromes and syndromes 47,XXX and 47,XYY. A relative proportion of Down, Edwards and Patau syndromes as well as other autosomal and gonosomal aberration is presented in figures. Recently, trisomies 13, 18 and 21 present around 70% of all chromosomal aberrations in selectively aborted fetuses, in other pregnancies, "other chromosomal aberrations" category (mostly balanced reciprocal translocations and inversions) present more than 2/3 of all diagnoses. During the period under the study, following total numbers, mean relative incidences (per 10,000 live births, in brackets) and mean prenatal diagnostics efficiency (in %) were found in following chromosomal syndromes: Down syndrome 2,244 (16.58) and 63.37%, Edwards syndrome 521 (3.85) and 79.93%, Patau syndrome 201 (1.49) and 68.87%, Turner syndrome 380 (2.81) and 79.89%, 47,XXX syndrome 61 (0.45) and 59.74%, Klinefelter syndrome 163 (1.20) and 73.65% and 47,XYY syndrome 22 (0.16) and 54.76%. The study gives updated results of

  12. Forecasting Future Salaries in the Czech Republic Using Stochastic Modelling

    Ondřej Šimpach; Jitka Langhamrová


    Background: In spite of the course of the economic crisis of 2008, there have not been changes dramatic to the extent that they would strongly alter the behaviour of the trend in the Average Gross Monthly Wages and the Monthly Wage Medians in the Czech Republic. In order to support public and monetary planning, reliable forecasts of future salaries are indispensable. Objectives: The aim is to provide an outline of the behaviour of the average gross wages and the gross wage medians of the Czec...

  13. Changes in Wage Inequality in the Czech republic

    Eriksson, Tor Viking; Pytlikova, Mariola; Warzynski, Frederic

    In this paper, we look at the evolution of the change in the wage structure using a linked employer-employee dataset covering a large fraction of the Czech labor market over the period 1998-2006. We find evidence of slightly diminishing gender inequality and increasing returns to human capital....... Moreover, exploiting the linked employer-employee character of the data set, we document changes in within-firm wage dispersion and between-firm dispersion. We investigate various hypotheses related to transition towards a market economy, increased domestic and international competition, an increasingly...

  14. Change in Wage Inequality in the Czech Republic

    Eriksson, Tor Viking; Pytlikova, Mariola; Warzynski, Frederic

      In this paper, we look at the evolution of the change in the wage structure using a linked employer-employee dataset covering a large fraction of the Czech labor market over the period 1998-2006. We find evidence of slightly diminishing gender inequality and increasing returns to human capital....... Moreover, exploiting the linked employer-employee character of the data set, we document changes in within-firm wage dispersion and between-firm dispersion. We investigate various hypotheses related to transition towards a market economy, increased domestic and international competition, an increasingly...

  15. Marketing Strategy of YouTube in the Czech Republic

    Hurychová, Andrea


    The goals of the thesis are to present YouTube in the Czech Republic, to discuss its entire business model, analyze the main local competitors and mostly to suggest marketing strategy that will strengthen the position of YouTube as an online medium. The current trends in the internet society are introduced as well as the role of social media in order to understand how these factors are related to the position of YouTube in marketing. From general YouTube introduction the situation of this pla...


    Jiřina Bošková


    Full Text Available The subject of insurance companies is to provide insurance protection based on commercial principles. All changes in the society are directly reflected in the insurance activity. New risks apperar and therfore new insurance products appear as well. The insurance business intervenes into all areas of the economic and social life in the Czech Republic. Insurance companies cannot be treated only as companies offering insurance protection, but also as important investors who, as a result of their activity, dispose with temporary available resources of their customers. As situations and existance of time discordance between provision creation and their usage are occasional, insurance companies carry business with these provisions resources.

  17. The Czech version of Emotional Empathy Scale (EES-R

    Seitl, Martin


    Full Text Available The main goal of the study is to introduce the Czech version of Emotional Empathy Scale (EES-R and its psychometric characteristics. The scale, developed from the Emotional Empathy Scale (EES by Caruso and Mayer (1998, is devoted to self-report assessment in the frame of multidimensional emotional empathy construct. Partial objectives of this study focus on the factor structure, reliability and validity of the scale with regard to verification of application possibilities. One of the objectives is aimed at a description of the subscales of EES-R, especially for the research use. The data were obtained on the sample of 317 respondents aged from 19 to 62 years, namely 44.2 % men and 55.8 % women. Besides the Czech translation of EES and the Czech version of the scale (EES-R, 3 subscales from the Business-focused Inventory of Personality (BIP were used for the verification of the parallel validity. The exploratory factor analysis led to the three-factor solution. Three resulted subscales of the scale, labelled as Compassion – solidarity, Emotional feeling and Positive sharing, represented individual factors and showed an adequate prop in both data and theory. The confirmatory factor analysis conducted with EES-R confirmed a corresponding match between the model and data. The internal consistency of subscales items showed a reliability ranging from 0.72 to 0.87, with the value of 0.89 for the whole scale. Satisfactory values of test-retest reliability were obtained for the subscales (0.69 to 0.83 and the whole scale (.79 after three months. Results of the parallel validity for the emotional empathy construct measured by EES-R correspond with previous research findings. In case of growing emotional empathy also sensitivity and sociability were slightly growing. On the contrary, the emotional stability was slightly decreasing. The characteristics of EES-R were described on our sample with respect to gender and age. This method demonstrated good

  18. Czech Republic; Staff Report for the 2004 Article IV Consultation


    This 2004 Article IV Consultation highlights that the Czech Republic’s GDP expanded by 3.1 percent in 2003 and the first quarter of 2004, mainly supported by household consumption. Investment was also strong in 2003—driven by spending on public infrastructure—and swelled in early 2004 owing to one-off influences associated with European Union accession. The fiscal deficit continued to drift upward in 2003. The general government deficit widened relative to GDP by about 1 percentage poin...

  19. Danish-Czech wind resource know-how transfer project. Interim report 2002

    Rathmann, O.; Noergaerd, P.; Frandsen, S.


    The progress of the Danish-Czech Wind Resource Know-how Transfer Project is reported. The know-how transfer component of the project has consisted in performing a wind resource training workshop for about 13 individuals from the Czech Republic, ranging from scientists to wind farm project developers, and in donating modern software for evaluating wind resources. The project has also included a review of a Czech overview-study of wind speeds inside the country as well as a study of the electricity tariffs and their impact on wind energy utilization in the Czech Republic. A problematic existing Czech wind farm project, locked up in a no-production situation, was also addressed. However, this situation turned out to be related to problems with economy and owner-ship to a higher degree than to low wind resources and technical problems, and it was not possible for the project to point out a way out of this situation. (au)

  20. Student's Work: Social Capital in the Czech Republic and Public Policy Implications

    Michal Vodrážka


    Full Text Available Social capital in Eastern Europe has received a fair amount of scholarly attention in recent years, including in the Czech Republic. This paper examines the stock of macro-level social capital in the Czech Republic in comparative European perspective. The notions of “missing” social capital and corruption as negative social capital are explored. The corruption situation in the Czech Republic and the progress in curbing it that was made in the last decade are evaluated. Regressions run with data from the World Value Survey and the Corruption Perception Index show that economic growth does not translate into correspondingly lower levels of corruption in the Czech case. State bureaucracy is identified as a possible reason for the failure to curb corruption successfully. Public policy recommendations and their usefulness for the Czech Republic are debated and a civil service reform is proposed as the most appropriate policy for addressing the situation.




    Full Text Available The study results show that there is a significant difference between the needs of learners. Learners from related linguistic areas reach the threshold level of language skills very quickly, whereas children with a very different language (in our case, children from Asia reach the threshold level of receptive skills quickly, but have big difficulties with productive skills. It is therefore necessary to focus on these areas and pay attention to this in Czech-language instruction. The study also shows that children who were born to foreigners in the Czech Republic or who moved to the country at a very young age do not usually have language problems that complicate their integration into the Czech school system, while children born outside the Czech Republic who move to the country at a later age face problems fulfilling the requirements of the school curricula, which are connected with their insufficient acquisition of the Czech language.

  2. Danish-Czech wind resource know-how transfer project. Final report

    Rathmann, O.; Nørgård, Per Bromand; Frandsen, S.


    The course of the Danish-Czech Wind Resource Know-how Transfer Project is reported. The know-how transfer component of the project has consisted in performing a wind resource training workshop for about 13 individuals from the Czech Republic, ranging fromscientists to wind farm project developers......, and in donating modern software for evaluating wind resources. The project has also included a review of a Czech overview-study of wind speeds inside the country as well as an investigation of the electricitytariffs and their impact on wind energy utilization in the Czech Republic. A problematic existing Czech...... wind farm project, locked up in a no-production situation, was also addressed. Not until the purchase by a new owner-company, which initiated thenecessary repair and maintenance, the wind farm resumed normal operation. As its last task, the present project assisted in consolidating future operation...

  3. The performance of the Czech labour market after the 2004 EU enlargement

    Strielkowski Wadim


    Full Text Available This paper examines whether there has been a significant change in the performance of the Czech labour market after the Czech Republic’s EU Accession in May 2004. We analyse methodological changes of measuring unemployment caused by inevitable legislative adjustments and follow the development of the Czech labour market and the inflows of foreign workers to the Czech Republic over the past two decades. Our results show that the EU Accession resulted in simplifying foreigners’ access to the Czech labour market and did not cause a significant change in its performance. Our findings might be of some relevance for the countries seeking EU Membership in the near future (e.g., Serbia or Montenegro.

  4. Coal, culture and community



    16 papers are presented with the following titles: the miners; municipalisation and the millenium - Bolton-upon-Dearne Urban District Council 1899-1914; the traditional working class community revisited; the cultural capital of coal mining communities; activities, strike-breakers and coal communities; the limits of protest - media coverage of the Orgreave picket during the miners` strike; in defence of home and hearth? Families, friendships and feminism in mining communities; young people`s attitudes to the police in mining communities; the determinants of productivity growth in the British coal mining industry, 1976-1989; strategic responses to flexibility - a case study in coal; no coal turned in Yorkshire?; the North-South divide in the Central Coalfields; the psychological effects of redundancy and worklessness - a case study from the coalfields; the Dearne Valley initiative; the future under labour: and coal, culture and the community.

  5. Coal tar in dermatology

    Roelofzen, J.H.J.; Aben, K.K.H.; Van Der Valk, P.G.M.; Van Houtum, J.L.M.; Van De Kerkhof, P.C.M.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M. [Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Nijmegen (Netherlands). Dept. of Dermatology


    Coal tar is one of the oldest treatments for psoriasis and eczema. It has anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antipruritic and antimitotic effects. The short-term side effects are folliculitis, irritation and contact allergy. Coal tar contains carcinogens. The carcinogenicity of coal tar has been shown in animal studies and studies in occupational settings. There is no clear evidence of an increased risk of skin tumors or internal tumors. Until now, most studies have been fairly small and they did not investigate the risk of coal tar alone, but the risk of coal tar combined with other therapies. New, well-designed, epidemiological studies are necessary to assess the risk of skin tumors and other malignancies after dermatological use of coal tar.

  6. Coal: ditching the dirt

    Russell, E.


    At the time when the British government is considering building new nuclear power plants, this article gives an overview of how the coal industry has been developing technologies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and increase combustion efficiency which make coal a more attractive power source that should not be overlooked. Technologies mentioned include integrated gasification combined cycle, fluidized bed combustion, low NOx burners, and combustion control. Research is under way on capturing greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuels. Use of fly ash in cement manufacture help reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. Clean coal technologies in the UK are supported by the IEA Clean Coal Centre, the World Coal Institute and the Coal Research Forum. 3 photos. 3 figs.

  7. Cooperative research program in coal liquefaction

    Huffman, G.P. (ed.)


    This Quarterly Report on coal liquefaction research includes discussion in the areas of (1) Iron Based Catalysts for Coal Liquefaction; (2) Exploratory Research on Coal Conversion; (3) Novel Coal Liquefaction Concepts; (4) Novel Catalysts for Coal Liquefaction. (VC)

  8. Cooperative research program in coal liquefaction

    Huffman, G.P. (ed.)


    Research continues on coal liquefaction in the following areas: (1) Iron Based Catalysts for Coal Liquefaction; (2) Exploratory Research on Coal Conversion; (3) Novel Coal Liquefaction Concepts; (4) Novel Catalysts for Coal Liquefaction. (VC)

  9. Cooperative research program in coal liquefaction

    Huffman, G.P. (ed.)


    This Quarterly Report on coal liquefaction research includes discussion in the areas of (1) Iron Based Catalysts for Coal Liquefaction; (2) Exploratory Research on Coal Conversion; (3) Novel Coal Liquefaction Concepts; (4) Novel Catalysts for Coal Liquefaction. (VC)




    Full Text Available With the ever-increasing demand for coal, particularly in the developing world, the use of low emission coal technologies becomes increasingly important if international targets on climate change are to be achieved. The two principal avenues for reducing carbon emissions from coal-fired power generation are through use of high efficiency, low emission power plantsand carbon capture, use and storage.

  11. Supercritical solvent coal extraction

    Compton, L. E. (Inventor)


    Yields of soluble organic extract are increased up to about 50% by the supercritical extraction of particulate coal at a temperature below the polymerization temperature for coal extract fragments (450 C.) and a pressure from 500 psig to 5,000 psig by the conjoint use of a solvent mixture containing a low volatility, high critical temperature coal dissolution catalyst such as phenanthrene and a high volatility, low critical temperature solvent such as toluene.

  12. Pyrolysis of Coal

    Rađenović, A.


    Full Text Available The paper presents a review of relevant literature on coal pyrolysis.Pyrolysis, as a process technology, has received considerable attention from many researchers because it is an important intermediate stage in coal conversion.Reactions parameters as the temperature, pressure, coal particle size, heating rate, soak time, type of reactor, etc. determine the total carbon conversion and the transport of volatiles and therebythe product distribution. Part of the possible environmental pollutants could be removed by optimising the pyrolysis conditions. Therefore, this process will be subsequently interesting for coal utilization in the future

  13. Petrographers fingerprint coals

    Pearson, D.E. [Pearson and Associates Ltd. (USA)


    A new system of coal fingerprinting called Digipet generates reflectance profiles by using an automated digital imaging system in which tens of millions of individual reflectance measurements are obtained. Images are conditioned to generate a detailed smooth histogram which convey information on the coal sample's provenance and history. Expert interpretation can reveal further information. The article gives details of the instrument and shows sample reflectance profiles. It discusses some applications in sampling coal charged to coke ovens of the Indiana Harbor Coke Co, and at a Midwest generating plant where it detected the presence of rogue high volatile coal. 3 figs.

  14. The CAPRICE RICH detector

    Basini, G. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Rome (Italy); Codino, A.; Grimani, C. [Perugia Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Perugia (Italy); De Pascale, M.P. [Rome Univ. `Tor Vergata` (Italy). Dip. di Fisica]|[INFN, Sezione Univ. `Tor Vergata` Rome (Italy); Cafagna, F. [Bari Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Bari (Italy); Golden, R.L. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States). Particle Astrophysics Lab.; Brancaccio, F.; Bocciolini, M. [Florence Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Florence (Italy); Barbiellini, G.; Boezio, M. [Trieste Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Trieste (Italy)


    A compact RICH detector has been developed and used for particle identification in a balloon borne spectrometer to measure the flux of antimatter in the cosmic radiation. This is the first RICH detector ever used in space experiments that is capable of detecting unit charged particles, such as antiprotons. The RICH and all other detectors performed well during the 27 hours long flight.

  15. Combustion char morphology related to combustion temperature and coal petrography

    Rosenberg, P.; Petersen, H.I.; Thomsen, E. [Geological Survey of Denmark, Copenhagen (Denmark)


    Chars produced from different reactors were found to lack consistency of morphological charactersitics. Therefore, the morphology of chars sampled from various laboratory-scale reactors operating at temperatures from 800 to {gt} 1400{degree}C, together with chars collected directly in the flame zone in a full-scale pulverised fuel combustion experiment, was examined. A coal and coal blend dominated by vitrinite-rich microlithotypes together with four coals dominated by inertinite-rich microlithotypes were used to produce the combustion chars. Char samples produced at temperatures above {approximately} 1300{degree}C have a morphotype composition very similar to the composition of the full-scale char samples, whereas the morphotype compositions of those produced at {approximately} 1550{degree}C or lower are significantly different. Correlation between coal petrography and char morphology and determination of char reactivity should thus be attempted only using chars produced at temperatures comparable with those for the intended use of the coal. A clear distinction between the high-temperature char samples (burnout 50-60wt% daf) emerges which is related mainly to the parent coal petrography and probably secondarily to the rank. Vitrite, clarite and vitrinertie V may be correlated with the porous tenuisphere and crassisphere morphotypes, whereas inertite, durite, vitrinertite I, duroclarite and charodurite may be correlated with the crassinetwork-mixed-network-mixed morphotype group. 29 refs., 7 figs., 7 tabs.

  16. Reverse logistics in the Czech Republic: Barriers to development

    Radoslav Škapa


    Full Text Available The article presents empirical survey results concerning two objectives. The first objective was to describe barriers of reverse logistics (RL development in Czech companies. The other one was to research whether there are different views of these barriers between company experts and top managers. The analyses are based on data obtained through a questionnaire survey of 102 representatives of companies operating in the Czech Republic. The study applied basic statistical methods used in quantitative research.Based on answer frequencies of respondents, the main internal barrier of RL development is its little importance in comparison with other activities, followed by the lack of systematic management, and unskilled workforce. On the other hand, customers are regarded as the most significant external barrier due to their careless handling with products and packaging as well as their pressure on the sale price. The obtained data also speak volumes about the differences in the view of the RL importance (in the second part of the article. Employees whose work is directly connected with reverse flows report the insignificance of RL as a barrier less frequently than top managers, who quoted this opinion in 50% cases.

  17. The new on-line Czech Food Composition Database.

    Machackova, Marie; Holasova, Marie; Maskova, Eva


    The new on-line Czech Food Composition Database (FCDB) was launched on in December 2010 as a main freely available channel for dissemination of Czech food composition data. The application is based on a complied FCDB documented according to the EuroFIR standardised procedure for full value documentation and indexing of foods by the LanguaL™ Thesaurus. A content management system was implemented for administration of the website and performing data export (comma-separated values or EuroFIR XML transport package formats) by a compiler. Reference/s are provided for each published value with linking to available freely accessible on-line sources of data (e.g. full texts, EuroFIR Document Repository, on-line national FCDBs). LanguaL™ codes are displayed within each food record as searchable keywords of the database. A photo (or a photo gallery) is used as a visual descriptor of a food item. The application is searchable on foods, components, food groups, alphabet and a multi-field advanced search. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Analysis of innovation activity of Slovak and Czech enterprises

    Emília Spišáková


    Full Text Available European innovation scoreboard is used to monitor and compare the innovation performance of European countries, according to which was the Slovak Republic, together with two other V4 countries, i.e. Hungary and Poland, at the time of last available data from this area, classified into the last, fourth group of countries named “catching-up countries”. These countries were characterized by the lack of innovation activity, which was well below the EU 27 average. From the V4 countries, Czech Republic achieved the best results, belongs to “moderate innovators” and is the most close to the European average. At a present time all four countries are included in a group of moderate innovators. The innovation performance of whole country is particularly influenced by innovation activities of enterprises operating in this country. For this reason, the article deals with the detailed analysis of innovative activity of enterprises by their size and sector of their operation in Czech and Slovak Republic, and also deals with the cooperation of enterprises in these activities in terms of the type of partner and the countries of their interaction.

  19. Gender wage differences in the selected Czech public sector company

    Veronika Hedija


    Full Text Available The issue of wage disparity between men and women belongs to the current and widely discussed topics. The attention given to this subject also reflects the fact that the issue of the equality between women and men and non-discrimination by gender is incorporated in the law of the European Union. A number of studies are devoted to the gender wage disparities and the root cause of wage differences in the Czech Republic, however, only few of these deal with the gender wage differentials in the public sector. It is exactly this issue, which is discussed in this article, its aim being to identify the extent of the gender pay gap in the selected Czech public sector company. The article concentrates on finding the main causes for the existence of wage differences between men and women and determining whether the company inclines to wage discrimination against women. The Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition is used to define, which part of the gender pay gap can be attributed to the different characteristics of men and women and which part stays unexplained. It is this unexplained part that can be the result of wage discrimination against women.

  20. The Key Issues of Labor Migration in the Czech Republic



    Full Text Available This paper aims to highlight some often occurring failures that need to be eliminated when attempting to develop an integral and efficient policy on labor migration. As an example, a brief overview of the development of immigration policies and its critical shortcomings in the Czech Republic is provided. Following this, the paper analyzes two aspects: the protection of migrant workers and the trafficking in human beings. In particular, the paper deals with three crucial issues of labor migration which are: (1 the inconsistent aims of immigration policies, (2 the client system, and (3 the dependence on middlemen. The paper also focuses on the role of state, police, and NGO’s in the trafficking in human beings and forced labor or labor exploitation in the Czech Republic. In addition, the legislation on forced labor and the possibilities of assistance to trafficked person are analyzed.By comparing various aspects of immigration policy, this paper covers some, but certainly not all, of the key issues concerning the process of immigrant integration. Several suggestions are made that could improve the situation of labor migrants in a significant way.

  1. Climate forcings of past droughts in the Czech Lands

    Mikšovský, Jiří; Trnka, Miroslav; Brázdil, Rudolf


    Frequency and intensity of local droughts is governed by a complex interaction of diverse processes, originating from internal dynamics of the climate system as well as its responses to external forcings. Separating and quantifying the effects of individual drought-inducing agents is a nontrivial task, often approached via statistical methods. In this presentation, we employ multiple linear regression to identify components attributable to various forcing factors, both external (solar irradiance, volcanic activity, anthropogenic greenhouse gases and aerosols) and internal (NAO, ENSO, AMO), in the monthly series of selected drought indices (PDSI, Z-index, SPI, SPEI) calculated for the territory of the recent Czech Republic during the 1883-2010 period. Moving block bootstrap is used for evaluation of the statistical significance of the results. Our analysis, carried out for drought index series characterizing a country-wide average as well as ten individual locations, suggests presence of a distinct component correlated with anthropogenic forcing (driven largely by the increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases) in the temperature-sensitive drought indices (PDSI, Z-index, SPEI). There are also indications of an influence of major volcanic eruptions in some of the Czech drought series, whereas variations of solar activity do not seem to leave a significant imprint. Of the major oscillatory modes in the climate system, North Atlantic Oscillation can be linked to a relatively strong component in most of the drought characteristics. Effects of ENSO, while generally weaker and scattered, are also detectable. No significant relation to Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation phase was found.

  2. Remuneration and Employee Benefits in Organizations in the Czech Republic

    Hana Urbancová


    Full Text Available In today’s highly competitive environment, the goal of organizations is to recruit, retain and sufficiently stimulate employees to give high quality performance, which may actually be achieved by a well‑developed system of remuneration and a wide range of suitably selected employee benefits. The article aims to identify and evaluate important factors influencing the area of employee remuneration and benefits offered in organizations in the Czech Republic. The research was carried out through a questionnaire survey that involved selected organizations in the Czech Republic (n = 402. The obtained primary data were processed using descriptive and multidimensional statistics. The factors examined in relation to the employee remuneration and benefits include: industries and sectors of organizations; markets in which they operate; the size of organizations by the headcount; the existence or absence of the Human Resource Department. The results confirm that the organizations that want to maintain a good position in the labour market pay attention to their personnel marketing, which is also helped by the right (suitable system of employee remuneration and fringe benefits thanks to which they retain their employees and can increase employee satisfaction and loyalty. Employee benefits are exactly what may distinguish the organizations from their competitors in the labour market.

  3. Efficiency of the building societies in the Czech Republic

    Lukáš Leksovský


    Full Text Available This paper is the first attempt to analyze efficiency of building societies in the Czech Republic. We apply non-parametric method Data Envelopment Analysis on data from all building societies in the sector over the period 2002–2008. Having deposits received and administrative expenses as inputs and volume of loans disbursed as output we estimate efficiency scores of all individual building societies as well as calculate the average efficiency in the industry. For this purpose we use two alternative models that allows for constant and variable returns of scale respectively. The results suggest that there is no significant improvement in efficiency of building societies during the estimation period. Furthermore, most of the building societies have not been operating at appropriate size. We also found that Českomoravská stavební spořitelna, a. s. was the most efficient building society in the Czech Republic according to the both models applied. In order to increase efficiency, we suggest reduction in the number of external employees and agents or increase of their productivity, more sophisticated products that can outperform the standard services and effective response to changes in the legislature.

  4. Behaviour of Czech customers when buying food products

    Halina Starzyczná


    Full Text Available This paper presents partial results of the primary research conducted through a questionnaire survey focused on the behaviour of Czech consumers when buying food, with regard to the behaviour of men and women. Specific objectives included are a brief outline of the theoretical issues examined and secondary research on the buying behaviour of consumers when buying food, based on available statistical data and information. After 1989, the quality of the market has changed, sales space has increased as well as the level of sales conditions. Offer in stores has widened. Recently the results of inspections of supervisory authorities show a lot of negative information, mainly relating to foreign chains. The supply of poor quality food is more common. Some food is offered even though it’s expired. The proposed premises are based on the current situation in the Czech retail market. Despite increased consumer awareness about the quality of food, the majority of respondents buy food in large commercial units (supermarket, hypermarket, discounts. The majority of respondents do not follow information on the packaging of food products, but follow the expiration date. Sales of food with expired shelf life or expiration date re-taped is usually notified by the supervisory authorities, therefore, is noticed by consumers. Buying behaviour of men and women shows some differences. Our results, however, have not proved any significant ones, although a small difference has emerged.

  5. Analysis of foreign direct investment in the Czech Republic

    Marcela Domesová


    Full Text Available The foreign direct investments are joined with the process of world globalisation. Foreign direct investments are carried out especially by multinational companies. The basic forms of the foreign direct investments are “greenfield” investments and “brownfield“ investments in the form of the privatization. The Czech Republic has shown mass inflow of foreign direct investments since 1998. The aim of the paper is to evaluate the inflow of foreign direct investments in the context of the balance of payments and the evaluation their impact on the outside economic equilibrium and gross value added in the Czech Republic. The subject of the analysis is the identification of the most important factors of foreign direct investments inflow and the classification of foreign direct investments inflow from the point of view of branches and technological intensity of production as well. The aim is fulfilled by analysis of selected indicators of the balance of payments, analysis of gross value added and international comparison of foreign direct investments inflow in countries of Visegrad Group. The results show the part of privatization in foreign capital inflow, increasing import intensity and export efficiency linked with foreign direct investments. The results are subject of research focused on the process of world globalisation and regional development.

  6. Seroprevalence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in horses in the Czech Republic.

    Praskova, Ivana; Bezdekova, Barbora; Zeman, Petr; Jahn, Petr


    Anaplasma phagocytophilum is the aetiological agent of equine granulocytic anaplasmosis (EGA). The aim of this survey was to assess the prevalence of anti-A. phagocytophilum antibodies in the horse population of the Czech Republic (CZ) and to investigate possible links between seropositivity and the geographic origin, age, and/or sex of the tested horses. Antibodies against A. phagocytophilum were screened using an indirect fluorescent antibody method (IFA). Serum samples from 96 healthy horses from 8 localities (7 within the CZ and one control upland/tick-free locality in Ukraine) were examined. While the controls tested negative, the seroprevalence in the Czech localities was estimated at 73%, which suggests that subclinical EGA is common among horses in the CZ. Significant differences between seropositivity rates in individual stables were demonstrated (explicable by the different environment and/or management styles of the horses stabled therein). Horses in stables from which previous manifest cases had been reported tended to have higher average titres. Mares displayed a somewhat higher seropositivity rate than did stallions; age had no demonstrable effect upon the serological status of the examined horses. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Dementia Still Diagnosed Too Late - Data from the Czech Republic.

    Jan Luzny


    Full Text Available The goal of the study is to evaluate the sensitivity of Czech physicians to the early diagnosis of dementia in patients with memory impairment.A retrospective observational study was designed. We have reviewed the electronic medical records of patients who have been hospitalized for the first time due to dementia of any type at the Kromeriz Mental hospital from January 1, 2012 to December 31, 2013 (24-month period. Pluralistic methods combining the qualitative and quantitative approach were used in this study.Dementia of any type was diagnosed in 125 patients in the monitored period. The mean time between patient memory complaints and his / her admission to our facility for their first hospitalization due to dementia was 7.1 years (+- 3.7 years. Most patients with dementia had no prior outpatient treatment of their memory impairment (56.2%; a minority of patients (43.8% had treatment of their memory impairment by an outpatient physician.The sensitivity of Czech physicians to the early diagnosis of dementia is very low. Any delay in starting the treatment of dementia means a worsened effectiveness of this treatment, a worsened quality of life of patients with dementia and their caregivers. Our recommendations for both the early diagnosis and treatment of dementia should be involved in guidelines and should become a part of the pregraduate and postgraduate education of all physicians.

  8. Work-Related Attitudes of Czech Generation Z: International Comparison

    Jaroslava Kubátová,


    Full Text Available The goal of this article is to present work-related attitudes of a sample of Czech Generation Z and their comparison to the results of an international research study. Currently, there are three important trends influencing the labor market: (1 the origin and development of a ubiquitous working environment, (2 the thriving of coworking centers, and (3 Generation Z's entering the labor market. Instead of traditional jobs, the bearers of human capital tend to choose independent work in an online environment, and often work in coworking centers. Using self-determination theory, we substantiate why they thrive better this way. Based on the results of an international research project focused on work attitudes among Generation Z and the results of a replication study we carried out in the Czech Republic, we attest that members of Generation Z may prefer independent virtual work in coworking centers, too. The total amount of available human capital, the lack of which is pointed out by companies, may grow thanks to new ways of working. Companies, which can use human capital of independent workers, gain a competitive advantage.

  9. Clean coal technologies market potential

    Drazga, B. (ed.)


    Looking at the growing popularity of these technologies and of this industry, the report presents an in-depth analysis of all the various technologies involved in cleaning coal and protecting the environment. It analyzes upcoming and present day technologies such as gasification, combustion, and others. It looks at the various technological aspects, economic aspects, and the various programs involved in promoting these emerging green technologies. Contents: Industry background; What is coal?; Historical background of coal; Composition of coal; Types of coal; Environmental effects of coal; Managing wastes from coal; Introduction to clean coal; What is clean coal?; Byproducts of clean coal; Uses of clean coal; Support and opposition; Price of clean coal; Examining clean coal technologies; Coal washing; Advanced pollution control systems; Advanced power generating systems; Pulverized coal combustion (PCC); Carbon capture and storage; Capture and separation of carbon dioxide; Storage and sequestration of carbon dioxide; Economics and research and development; Industry initiatives; Clean Coal Power Initiative; Clean Coal Technology Program; Coal21; Outlook; Case Studies.

  10. The August 2002 flood in the Czech Republic

    Sercl, P.; Stehlik, J.


    The floods in August 2002 in the Czech Republic were caused by very intensive and large-scale rainfall that hit mainly the southern and western part of the country. There were two following rainfall events, the first on the {6th} and {7th} August and the second on the {11th} and {12th} August. The total sum of areal rainfall was 150 to 200 mm; in mountain areas more than 250 mm and in some localities even more than 300 mm. Such large-scale rainfall amounts are extraordinary for Czech conditions. The first wave of rainfall caused floods in the majority of rivers. There were 10 to 20 year floods, exceptionally 100-year (and more) floods on rivers in the southern and western part of the country. When the second wave of rainfall followed the first one, rivers were already full of water and soils were saturated: therefore the runoff response was rapid and massive. Water levels in all rivers rose very quickly again and they reached their historical maxima in many places. Peak discharges in most streams reached or exceeded a 100-year flood and in some rivers a 1000-year flood. The capital of the Czech Republic, Prague, is situated at the confluence of two rivers, the Moldau and the Berounka (left hand tributary of the Moldau). The flow in the Moldau River can be partly controlled by operation of many reservoirs in the upstream reaches of the river (the Moldau cascade), the flow in Berounka is not influenced. During the first flood event the major part of the wave was retained by the reservoirs and the discharge in Prague was reduced. During the second event the inflow into the reservoir system was so high that reservoirs were filled before the peak occurred. The peak flow from the Berounka River coincided with the maximum outflow from the Moldau. As a consequence, on 14th August the peak discharge in Prague was about 5200 {m3/s} (the long-term mean discharge is 150 {m3/s}) and is preliminarily judged to be a 500-year flood. The influence of the Moldau cascade on the

  11. Beginnings of rocket development in the czech lands (Czechoslovakia)

    Plavec, Michal


    Although the first references are from the 15th Century when both Hussites and crusaders are said to have used rockets during the Hussite Wars (also known as the Bohemian Wars) there is no strong evidence that rockets were actually used at that time. It is worth noting that Konrad Kyeser, who described several rockets in his Bellifortis manuscript written 1402-1405, served as advisor to Bohemian King Wenceslas IV. Rockets were in fact used as fireworks from the 16th century in noble circles. Some of these were built by Vavřinec Křička z Bitý\\vsky, who also published a book on fireworks, in which he described how to build rockets for firework displays. Czech soldiers were also involved in the creation of a rocket regiment in the Austrian (Austro-Hungarian) army in the first half of the 19th century. The pioneering era of modern rocket development began in the Czech lands during the 1920s. The first rockets were succesfully launched by Ludvík Očenášek in 1930 with one of them possibly reaching an altitude of 2000 metres. Vladimír Mandl, lawyer and author of the first book on the subject of space law, patented his project for a stage rocket (vysokostoupající raketa) in 1932, but this project never came to fruition. There were several factories during the so-called Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia in 1939-1945, when the Czech lands were occupied by Nazi Germany, where parts for German Mark A-4/V-2 rockets were produced, but none of the Czech technicians or constructors were able to build an entire rocket. The main goal of the Czech aircraft industry after WW2 was to revive the stagnant aircraft industry. There was no place to create a rocket industry. Concerns about a rocket industry appeared at the end of the 1950s. The Political Board of the Central Committee of the Czechoslovak Communist Party started to study the possibilities of creating a rocket industry after the first flight into space and particularly after US nuclear weapons were based in Italy

  12. Medical decision support and medical informatics education: roots, methods and applications in czechoslovakia and the czech republic.

    Zvárová, Jana


    The paper describes the history of medical informatics in Czechoslovakia and the Czech Republic. It focuses on the topics of medical informatics education and decision support methods and systems. Several conferences held in Czechoslovakia and in the Czech Republic organized in cooperation with IMIA or EFMI are described. Support of European Union and Czech agencies in several European and national projects focused on medical informatics topics highly contributed to medical informatics development in Czechoslovakia and the Czech Republic and to the establishment of the European Center for Medical Informatics, Statistics and Epidemiology as the joint workplace of Charles University in Prague and Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic in 1994.

  13. Underground coal gasification: An overview of groundwater contamination hazards and mitigation strategies

    Camp, David W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); White, Joshua A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)


    Underground coal gasification is the in situ conversion of coal into an energy-rich product gas. It takes place deep underground, using chemical reactions to consume the coal and grow a cavity. Gas wells, drilled into the coal seam, inject reactant air, oxygen, and/or steam to sustain the reactions. Production wells then extract the product gas. Careful analysis and understanding of likely failure modes will help prevent and minimize impacts. This document provides a general description of the relevant processes, potential failure modes, and practical mitigation strategies. It can guide critical review of project design and operations.

  14. Fuel Cells in the Coal Energy Industry

    Kolat Peter


    Full Text Available In march 1998 at the conference „Coal Utilization & Fuel Systems“ in Clearwater, USA representatives of U.S. Department of Energy presented the vision 21 focused on the electricity generation from coal for 21st century. The goal is a powerplant with the ability to produce the electricity from coal with the efficiency approaching 60% (higher heating value and emission levels of one-tenth of today´s technologies, The CO2 capture and permanent sequestration at the cost of $15/ton of CO2, and a cost of electricity of 3 cents per kilowatt-hour. The goal is believed to be achievable by the first quarter of the next century. The vision 21 is presented with several possible concepts. One of them is based on coal gasification with following hydrogen separation. The obtained hydrogen is used as a fuel for the cogeneration unit with fuel cells. The remaining gas can be liquefied and utilised as a fuel in the automotive industry or further chemically processed. The concept has several important features. Firstly, a very clean low cost electricity production. Secondly, it is comprised of fuel processing section and power processing section. The two sections need not to be co-located. In the world of the deregulated electricity generation this offers a major advantage. The technologies of fuel processing section – coal gasification and hydrogen separation have been successfully developed in the last two decades. A specificity of the fuel processing section of this concept is to obtain hydrogen rich gas with very low concentrations of substances, as CO, which cause a poisoning of electrodes of fuel cells leading to the decreasing fuel cells efficiency. Fuel cells, specially highly efficient coal-gas SOFC and MCFC, are expected to be commercially available by 2020. The natural-gas MCFC and SOFC plants should enter the commercial marketplace by the year 2002.

  15. Effect of accelerated weathering and leaching on the chemistry and phytotoxicity of coal-mine overburden

    Jan Frouz


    Full Text Available Overburden weathering may influence its effects on soil development and plant growth. Here, an accelerated-weathering experiment was used to determine how weathering affects the chemistry and toxicity of coal-mine overburden. Seven samples of overburden were collected; two samples were from a heap of partly weathered material, and five from mining pits. In both cases, the most weathered top 10 cm was removed. Samples included coal-rich clays (with > 1% coal and coal-free clays. The samples were artificially weathered by subjecting them to 20 cycles of drying-rewetting-freezing-thawing. Coal-rich clays that have not been weathered were acidic and toxic to Sinapis alba seedlings, but weathering increased their pH, reduced their conductivity and tended to reduce their phytotoxicity. In contrast, weathering tended to reduce the pH of coal-free alkaline clays. S. alba grew poorly in weathered coal-free clay, but when grown in coal-rich clays it grew better in some substrates whereas others were phytotoxic due to their high As content. Weathering decreased Al, As and Na contents and decreased substrate mass by 1–37%. Overall, these results indicate that weathering changes the properties of overburden in ways that are important for soil development and plant growth but the nature and extent of the changes depend on the initial composition of the substrate.

  16. Advanced Coal Conversion Process Demonstration Project. Technical progress report, January 1, 1993--December 31, 1993



    This report describes the technical progress made on the Advanced Coal Conversion Process (ACCP) Demonstration Project from January 1, 1993, through December 31, 1993. This project demonstrates an advanced, thermal, coal drying process, coupled with physical cleaning techniques, that is designed to upgrade high-moisture, low- rank coals to a high-quality, low-sulfur fuel, registered as the SynCoal{reg_sign} process. The coal is processed through three stages (two heating stages followed by an inert cooling stage) of vibrating fluidized bed reactors that remove chemically bound water, carboxyl groups, and volatile sulfur compounds. After thermal processing, the coal is put through a deep-bed stratifier cleaning process to separate the pyrite-rich ash from the coal. Rosebud SynCoal Partnership`s ACCP Demonstration Facility entered Phase III, Demonstration Operation, in April 1992 and operated in an extended startup mode through August 10, 1993, when the facility became commercial. Rosebud SynCoal Partnership instituted an aggressive program to overcome startup obstacles and now focuses on supplying product coal to customers. Significant accomplishments in the history of the SynCoal{reg_sign} process development are shown in Appendix A.

  17. Geochemistry of ultra-fine and nano-compounds in coal gasification ashes: A synoptic view

    Kronbauer, Marcio A. [Centro Universitário La Salle, Mestrado em Avaliação de Impactos Ambientais em Mineração, Victor Barreto, 2288 Centro, 92010-000 Canoas, RS (Brazil); Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Escola de Engenharia, Departamento de Metalurgia, Centro de Tecnologia, Av. Bento Gonçalves, 9500, Bairro Agronomia, CEP: 91501-970, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Izquierdo, Maria [School of Applied Sciences, Cranfield University, Bedfordshire MK43 0AL (United Kingdom); Dai, Shifeng [State Key Laboratory of Coal Resources and Safe Mining, China University of Mining and Technology, Beijing 100083 (China); Waanders, Frans B. [School of Chemical and Minerals Engineering, North West University (Potchefstroom campus), Potchefstroom 2531 (South Africa); Wagner, Nicola J. [School of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa); Mastalerz, Maria [Indiana Geological Survey, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405-2208 (United States); Hower, James C. [University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research, 2540 Research Park Drive, Lexington, KY 40511 (United States); Oliveira, Marcos L.S. [Environmental Science and Nanotechnology Department, Catarinense Institute of Environmental Research and Human Development, IPADHC, Capivari de Baixo, Santa Catarina (Brazil); Taffarel, Silvio R.; Bizani, Delmar [Centro Universitário La Salle, Mestrado em Avaliação de Impactos Ambientais em Mineração, Victor Barreto, 2288 Centro, 92010-000 Canoas, RS (Brazil); and others


    The nano-mineralogy, petrology, and chemistry of coal gasification products have not been studied as extensively as the products of the more widely used pulverized-coal combustion. The solid residues from the gasification of a low- to medium-sulfur, inertinite-rich, volatile A bituminous coal, and a high sulfur, vitrinite-rich, volatile C bituminous coal were investigated. Multifaceted chemical characterization by XRD, Raman spectroscopy, petrology, FE-SEM/EDS, and HR-TEM/SEAD/FFT/EDS provided an in-depth understanding of coal gasification ash-forming processes. The petrology of the residues generally reflected the rank and maceral composition of the feed coals, with the higher rank, high-inertinite coal having anisotropic carbons and inertinite in the residue, and the lower rank coal-derived residue containing isotropic carbons. The feed coal chemistry determines the mineralogy of the non-glass, non-carbon portions of the residues, with the proportions of CaCO{sub 3} versus Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} determining the tendency towards the neoformation of anorthite versus mullite, respectively. Electron beam studies showed the presence of a number of potentially hazardous elements in nanoparticles. Some of the neoformed ultra-fine/nano-minerals found in the coal ashes are the same as those commonly associated with oxidation/transformation of sulfides and sulfates. - Highlights: • Coal waste geochemisty can provide increased environmental information in coal-mining areas. • Oxidation is the major process for mineral transformation in coal ashes. • The electron bean methodology has been applied to investigate neoformed minerals.

  18. Coal pyrolysis and char burnout under conventional and oxy-fuel conditions

    Al-Makhadmeh, L.; Maier, J.; Scheffknecht, G. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Institut fuer Verfahrenstechnik und Dampfkesselwesen


    Coal utilization processes such as combustion or gasification generally involve several steps i.e., the devolatilization of organic materials, homogeneous reactions of volatile matter with the reactant gases, and heterogeneous reactions of the solid (char) with the reactant gases. Most of the reported work about coal pyrolysis and char burnout were performed at low temperatures under environmental conditions related to the air firing process with single particle tests. In this work, coal combustion under oxy-fuel conditions is investigated by studying coal pyrolysis and char combustion separately in practical scales, with the emphasis on improving the understanding of the effect of a CO{sub 2}-rich gas environment on coal pyrolysis and char burnout. Two coals, Klein Kopje a medium volatile bituminous coal and a low-rank coal, Lausitz coal were used. Coal pyrolysis in CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2} environments were performed for both coals at different temperatures in an entrained flow reactor. Overall mass release, pyrolysis gas concentrations, and char characterization were performed. For char characterization ultimate analysis, particle size, and BET surface area were measured. Chars for both coals were collected at 1150 C in both CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2} environments. Char combustion was performed in a once-through 20 kW test facility in O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} and O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} atmospheres. Besides coal quality, oxygen partial pressure was chosen as a variable to study the effect of the gas environment on char burnout. In general, it is found that the CO{sub 2} environment and coal rank have a significant effect on coal pyrolysis and char burnout. (orig.)

  19. Carbonization of blends of L'vovsk-Volynsk and karaganda coals

    Panchenko, N.I.; Maksimenko, I.I.; Glushchenko, I.M.; Mel' nichuk, A.Yu.; Pustovoit, M.I.; Pivnyak, V.I.


    The present investigation was carried out to examine the interactions between Donbas, Karaganda and L'vovsk-Volynsk coals in carbonization blends, with a view to easing the coal supply situation at the Dneprodzerzhinsk C and CW. Am improvement takes place when the vitrinite from non-caking coals is carbonized in the presence of leptinite-rich coals. L'vovsk-Volynsk coals come under this category; the organic substance includes 10% of leptinite. Karaganda and L'vovsk-Volynsk coals thus have opposite effects on carbonization behavior, and when both are included in the blend it is possible to produce a coke of the same physicomechanical characteristics and mechanical strength as coke made entirely from Donbas coals. Metallurgical coke of satisfactory quality can be produced from blends containing Donbas, Karaganda and L'vovsk-Volynsk coals simultaneously. In view of the growing shortage of Donbas coals and the availability of new reserves in the Karaganda and L'vovsk-Volynsk coalfields, the supply situation in the Ukrainian coking plants should be improved by devising blends with up to 20% each of these coals for the production of metallurgical coke. The caking base still consists of Donbas coals, but the reserves of grade Zh, K and OS coals are approaching exhaustion and the newly prospected regions contain a major proportion of grade G coals (up to 60%). L'vovsk-Volynsk coals provide an attractive source of additional supplies, and can be mined under more favorable conditions. They have hitherto been used as boiler fuel, but trials have shown that they can be blended with coals from Eastern coalfields to produce metallurgical coke of satisfactory quality at considerably lower cost.

  20. Could there be a luxury brand originating from the Czech Republic? The case of the Czech watchmaker Prim

    Petr Král


    Full Text Available Central Europe, due to its history, is not perceived as a region from which a luxury brand could originate while luxury is traditionally connected to Western European countries (such as France, Italy or Switzerland. Country of origin (COO plays an important role in perception of any brand but for luxury brands the COO is usually even more important than for mainstream brands because it is an important part of the brand´s heritage. But despite their unfavorable origin we could observe in the last years that brands which originate from CEE region position themselves on the luxury market. The goal of this article is to investigate the COO effect for luxury brand originating in the Czech Republic- namely the watchmaker Prim- and its impact on the marketing strategy of this brand. The main research method used in this article is the case study method which combines the findings of in- depth interviewing and observations together with findings of the secondary research. The managerial implications mainly target brand managers of luxury or premium market brands originating from the Czech Republic and other countries in Central Europe.

  1. Archaeological Map of the Czech Republic. Current state and future visions of virtual research tools in the Czech Republic

    Martin Kuna


    Full Text Available The Archaeological Map of the Czech Republic (AMCR project will soon be finished and one chapter of building digital infrastructures in the Czech Republic will be closed. It is a natural occasion to evaluate national state-of-the-art in dealing with Digital Culture Heritage, particularly archaeological data. It is a also good time to summarise our knowledge about using digital tools and to outline prospects of development for the coming years. What are the key points? The AMCR represents both an administrative system of field archaeology management and a kind of 'sites and monuments records' for the territory of the CR. Its fundamental underlying principles are interoperability, standardisation, data re-use, crowdsourcing and networking. However, a reasonable question should also concern the theoretical background to the process of digitisation of the archaeological world. Infrastructures should every time stay on the level of service for the community of researchers and every digital tool has to fulfil real needs in the fields of both archaeological theory and practice. On the other hand, the application of this virtual research environment is inseparable from archaeological legislation and institutional management.

  2. Combustion of coal gas fuels in a staged combustor

    Rosfjord, T. J.; Mcvey, J. B.; Sederquist, R. A.; Schultz, D. F.


    Gaseous fuels produced from coal resources generally have heating values much lower than natural gas; the low heating value could result in unstable or inefficient combustion. Coal gas fuels may contain ammonia which if oxidized in an uncontrolled manner could result in unacceptable nitrogen oxide exhaust emission levels. Previous investigations indicate that staged, rich-lean combustion represents a desirable approach to achieve stable, efficient, low nitrogen oxide emission operation for coal-derived liquid fuels contaning up to 0.8-wt pct nitrogen. An experimental program was conducted to determine whether this fuel tolerance can be extended to include coal-derived gaseous fuels. The results of tests with three nitrogen-free fuels having heating values of 100, 250, and 350 Btu/scf and a 250 Btu/scf heating value doped to contain 0.7 pct ammonia are presented.

  3. State coal profiles, January 1994


    The purpose of State Coal Profiles is to provide basic information about the deposits, production, and use of coal in each of the 27 States with coal production in 1992. Although considerable information on coal has been published on a national level, there is a lack of a uniform overview for the individual States. This report is intended to help fill that gap and also to serve as a framework for more detailed studies. While focusing on coal output, State Coal Profiles shows that the coal-producing States are major users of coal, together accounting for about three-fourths of total US coal consumption in 1992. Each coal-producing State is profiled with a description of its coal deposits and a discussion of the development of its coal industry. Estimates of coal reserves in 1992 are categorized by mining method and sulfur content. Trends, patterns, and other information concerning production, number of mines, miners, productivity, mine price of coal, disposition, and consumption of coal are detailed in statistical tables for selected years from 1980 through 1992. In addition, coal`s contribution to the State`s estimated total energy consumption is given for 1991, the latest year for which data are available. A US summary of all data is provided for comparing individual States with the Nation as a whole. Sources of information are given at the end of the tables.

  4. Splint coals of the Central Appalachians: Petrographic and geochemical facies of the Peach Orchard No. 3 split coal bed, southern Magoffin County, Kentucky

    Hower, J.C.; Ruppert, L.F.


    The Bolsovian (Middle Pennsylvanian) Peach Orchard coal bed is one of the splint coals of the Central Appalachians. Splint coal is a name for the dull, inertinite-rich lithologies typical of coals of the region. The No. 3 Split was sampled at five locations in Magoffin County, Kentucky and analyzed for petrography and major and minor elements. The No. 3 Split coals contain semifusinite-rich lithologies, up to 48% (mineral-free basis) in one case. The nature of the semifusinite varies with position in the coal bed, containing more mineral matter of detrital origin in the uppermost durain. The maceral assemblage of these terminal durains is dominated by detrital fusinite and semifusinite, suggesting reworking of the maceral assemblage coincident with the deposition of the detrital minerals. However, a durain in the middle of the coal bed, while lithologically similar to the uppermost durains, has a degraded, macrinite-rich, texture. The inertinite macerals in the middle durain have less distinct edges than semifusinites in the uppermost terminal durains, suggesting degradation as a possible path to inertinite formation. The uppermost durain has higher ash and semifusinite contents at the eastern sites than at the western sites. The difference in the microscopic petrology indicates that megascopic petrology alone can be a deceptive indicator of depositional environments and that close attention must be paid to the individual macerals and their implications for the depositional setting, especially within the inertinite group. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.


    The world's coal reserves have been estimated to be about one exagram accessible with current extraction technology. The energy content has been valued at 290 zettajourles. Using a value of 15 terawatt as the current global energy consumption, the coal supply could global needs f...

  6. Coal Industry Burns Hot



    After a rapid boom last year, China's coal industry has continued to grow in 2003. The country has produced 177.27 million tons of coal in the first two months of the year, a year-on-year rise of 17.7 percent.

  7. Improving coal handling effectiveness

    Walker, S.


    Appropriate coal handling systems are essential for successful coal utilisation. The paper looks at some of the options available, including crushers and hammer mills, wear-resistant liners for chutes and wagons, and dewatering systems. These are individual components within larger systems such as stockyard stacking and reclaiming installations. 5 photos.

  8. Development of coal resources



    It is an important issue to expand stable coal supply areas for Japan, especially to assure stable supply of overseas coals. The investigations on geological structures in foreign countries perform surveys on geological structures in overseas coal producing countries and basic feasibility studies. The investigations select areas with greater business risks in coal producing countries and among private business entities. The geological structure investigations were carried out on China, Indonesia and Malaysia and the basic feasibility studies on Indonesia during fiscal 1994. The basic coal resource development investigations refer to the results of previous physical explorations and drilling tests to develop practical exploration technologies for coal resources in foreign countries. The development feasibility studies on overseas coals conduct technological consultation, surface surveys, physical explorations, and trial drilling operations, and provide fund assistance to activities related thereto. Fiscal 1994 has provided fund assistance to two projects in Indonesia and America. Fund loans are provided on investigations for development and import of overseas coals and other related activities. Liability guarantee for development fund is also described.

  9. Secured electrical supply at least cost: Coal, gas, nuclear, hydro

    Gavor, J. [ENA Ltd., Prague (Czechoslovakia); Stary, O.; Vasicek, J. [Czech Technical Univ., Prague (Czechoslovakia)


    Electric power sector in East Central European countries finds in a difficult period. In the situation of demand stagnation, enormous investments must be realized in a very short time. Today`s decisions in the development strategy will influence the long term future of the industry. The optimal structure of the sources is one of the most important problem to be solved. Paper describes the current structure of the sources in electric power sector in the Czech Republic. The importance of coal, oil and gas, nuclear and hydro in electric power generation is compared. Taking into account the different position in the load coverage, economy of individual sources is evaluated and basic results of discounted cash flow calculations are presented. Information on specific investment programs and projects are included and further trends are estimated.

  10. Rate of coal devolatilization in iron and steelmaking processes

    Sampaio, R.S.; Rio Doce, C.V. do; Fruehan, R.J.; Ozturk, B. (Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Center for Iron and Steel Making Research)


    The devolatilization of coal particles under ironmaking and steelmaking conditions was studied. A new experimental technique was developed to measure the rates of devolatilization. A unique method was used to prepare coal particles based on thick coal bands rich in a given maceral group. Experiments with these single particles gave good reproducibility. The rates of devolatilization for all coal types from low to high rank coals were measured in the gaseous atmosphere and within the slag phase. Real time x-ray images were taken for high volatile, low volatile and anthracite coals devolatilizing in a molten smelting slag. The rate in terms of percentage devolatilization were relatively independent of coal type and a small function of furnace temperature at high heating rates and temperatures studied. The rates depended on particle size and heating rates. The results were consistent with internal transport controlled processes primarily heat transfer. Furthermore the rates were the same in the gas and slag phase which is consistent with heat transfer control.

  11. Apparatus and method for feeding coal into a coal gasifier

    Bissett, Larry A.; Friggens, Gary R.; McGee, James P.


    This invention is directed to a system for feeding coal into a gasifier operating at high pressures. A coal-water slurry is pumped to the desired pressure and then the coal is "dried" prior to feeding the coal into the gasifier by contacting the slurry with superheated steam in an entrained bed dryer for vaporizing the water in the slurry.

  12. Underground Coal Thermal Treatment

    Smith, P. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Deo, M. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Eddings, E. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Sarofim, A. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Gueishen, K. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Hradisky, M. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Kelly, K. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Mandalaparty, P. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Zhang, H. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)


    The long-term objective of this work is to develop a transformational energy production technology by insitu thermal treatment of a coal seam for the production of substitute natural gas (SNG) while leaving much of the coal's carbon in the ground. This process converts coal to a high-efficiency, low-GHG emitting gas fuel. It holds the potential of providing environmentally acceptable access to previously unusable coal resources. This topical report discusses the development of experimental capabilities, the collection of available data, and the development of simulation tools to obtain process thermo-chemical and geo-thermal parameters in preparation for the eventual demonstration in a coal seam. It also includes experimental and modeling studies of CO2 sequestration.

  13. (Coal utilization in India)

    Krishnan, R.P.


    Under the Phase II, Alternative Energy Resources Development (AERD) project of the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) and the Government of India (GOI), five collaborative coal projects have been initiated in the areas of: (1) NO{sub x}/SO{sub x} control from coal-fired power plants, (2) slagging combustor development for high-ash Indian coals, (3) characterization of Indian coals for combustion and gasification, (4) diagnostic studies for prediction of power plant life expectancy, and (5) environmental and natural resource analysis of coal cycle. The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) has the implementation responsibility for these projects. The Indian collaborative institutions identified for these projects are the Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd. (BHEL), Trichy, (Projects 1--4), and the Tata Energy Research Institute (TERI) for Project 5. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is providing cross-cut technical coordination and support for these five projects.

  14. Enzymatic desulfurization of coal

    Boyer, Y.N.; Crooker, S.C.; Kitchell, J.P.; Nochur, S.V.


    The overall objective of this program was to investigate the feasibility of an enzymatic desulfurization process specifically intended for organic sulfur removal from coal. Toward that end, a series of specific objectives were defined: (1) establish the feasibility of (bio)oxidative pretreatment followed by biochemical sulfate cleavage for representative sulfur-containing model compounds and coals using commercially-available enzymes; (2) investigate the potential for the isolation and selective use of enzyme preparations from coal-utilizing microbial systems for desulfurization of sulfur-containing model compounds and coals; and (3) develop a conceptual design and economic analysis of a process for enzymatic removal of organic sulfur from coal. Within the scope of this program, it was proposed to carry out a portion of each of these efforts concurrently. (VC)

  15. Pyrolysis of Indonesian coal

    Rachimoellah; Endah [Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopemba, Surabaya (Indonesia). Department of Chemical Engineering; Karaman, N.; Kusuma, S.A. [UPN Surabaya, (Indonesia). Department of Chemical Engineering


    It has been estimated that there is 36 billion tons of coal resource potential in Indonesia. Over 21.4 billion tons is classified as low rank (lignitic) coal. The coal deposits are located mainly in Sumatra and Kalimantan. As an energy source, low rank coals are not widely used, because of their high moisture content, low calorific value and variable ash content. One of the key questions for utilizing low rank coal is whether lignite can be upgraded into another form which is more economically viable. In this study tests were carried out in a pilot plant fixed bed pyrolysis reactor unit provided with hopper, electric heater, coolers and product receivers. The yield of char, tar and gases was found to depend on temperature which also affected the composition of gas produced. Results also indicated the temperature and particle size giving maximum tar yield, gas concentration, and the atmosphere of inert nitrogen. 1 tab., 2 figs., 10 refs.

  16. Industrial coal utilization



    The effects of the National Energy Act on the use of coal in US industrial and utility power plants are considered. Innovative methods of using coal in an environmentally acceptable way are discussed: furnace types, fluidized-bed combustion, coal-oil-mixtures, coal firing in kilns and combustion of synthetic gas and liquid fuels. Fuel use in various industries is discussed with trends brought about by uncertain availability and price of natural gas and fuel oils: steel, chemical, cement, pulp and paper, glass and bricks. The symposium on Industrial Coal Utilization was sponsored by the US DOE, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, April 3 to 4, 1979. Twenty-one papers have been entered individually into the EDB. (LTN)

  17. Industrial coal utilization



    The effects of the National Energy Act on the use of coal in US industrial and utility power plants are considered. Innovative methods of using coal in an environmentally acceptable way are discussed: furnace types, fluidized-bed combustion, coal-oil-mixtures, coal firing in kilns and combustion of synthetic gas and liquid fuels. Fuel use in various industries is discussed with trends brought about by uncertain availability and price of natural gas and fuel oils: steel, chemical, cement, pulp and paper, glass and bricks. The symposium on Industrial Coal Utilization was sponsored by the US DOE, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, April 3 to 4, 1979. Twenty-one papers have been entered individually into the EDB. (LTN)

  18. Vstup české firmy na zahraniční trh ve spolupráci s agenturou CzechTrade


    The topic of the master thesis Entry of Czech companies to foreign markets in cooperation with the agency CzechTrade is the company expansion to foreign markets and possible benefits from the cooperation with the state export-promoting agency CzechTrade. The main objective is the evaluation of conditions on the Mexican market for the entry of Czech companies. The secondary objective is to evaluate the possibilities of cooperation between the Czech firms which are seeking overseas expansion, a...

  19. Droughts in the Czech Lands, 1090–2012 AD

    R. Brázdil


    Full Text Available This paper addresses droughts in the Czech Lands in the 1090–2012 AD period, basing its findings on documentary evidence and instrumental records. Various documentary sources were employed for the selection of drought events, which were then interpreted at a monthly level. While the data on droughts before 1500 AD are scarce, the analysis concentrated mainly on droughts after this time. A dry year in 1501–1804 period (i.e. pre-instrumental times was defined as a calendar year in the course of which dry patterns occurred on at least two consecutive months. Using this definition, 129 dry years were identified (an average of one drought per 2.4 yr. From the 16th to the 18th centuries these figures become 41, 36 and 49 yr, respectively, with the prevailing occurrence of dry months from April to September (73.7%. Drought indices – SPEI-1, Z-index and PDSI – calculated for the Czech Lands for April–September describe drought patterns between 1805 and 2012 (the instrumental period. N year recurrence intervals were calculated for each of the three indices. Using N ≥ 5 yr, SPEI-1 indicates 40 drought years, Z-index 39 yr and PDSI 47 yr. SPEI-1 and Z-index recorded 100 yr drought in 1834, 1842, 1868, 1947 and 2003 (50 yr drought in 1992. PDSI as an indicator of long-term drought disclosed two important drought periods: 1863–1874 and 2004–2012. The first period was related to a lack of precipitation, the other may be attributed to recent temperature increases without significant changes in precipitation. Droughts from the pre-instrumental and instrumental period were used to compile a long-term chronology for the Czech Lands. The number of years with drought has fluctuated between 26 in 1951–2000 and 16 in 1651–1700. Only nine drought years were recorded between 1641 and 1680, while between 1981 and 2012 the figure was 22 yr. A number of past severe droughts are described in detail: in 1540, 1590, 1616, 1718 and 1719. A discussion of

  20. Droughts in the Czech Lands, 1090–2012 AD

    R. Brázdil


    Full Text Available This paper addresses droughts in the Czech Lands in the 1090–2012 AD period, basing its findings on documentary evidence and instrumental records. Various documentary sources were employed for the selection of drought events, which were then interpreted at a monthly level. While the data on droughts before 1500 AD are scarce, the analysis concentrated mainly on droughts after this time. A dry year in 1501–1804 period (i.e. pre-instrumental times was defined as a calendar year in the course of which dry patterns occurred on at least two consecutive months. Using this definition, 129 dry years were identified (an average of one drought per 2.4 yr. From the 16th to the 18th centuries these figures become 41, 36 and 49 yr respectively, with the prevailing occurrence of dry months from April to September (73.7%. Drought indices – SPEI-1, Z-index and PDSI – calculated for the Czech Lands for April–September describe drought patterns between 1805 and 2012 (the instrumental period. N-year recurrence intervals were calculated for each of the three indices. Using N ≥ 5 yr, SPEI-1 indicates 40 drought years, Z-index 39 yr and PDSI 47 yr. SPEI-1 and Z-index recorded 100 yr drought in 1834, 1842, 1868, 1947 and 2003 (50 yr drought in 1992. PDSI as an indicator of long-term drought disclosed two important drought periods: 1863–1874 and 2004–2012. The first period was related to a lack of precipitation, the other may be attributed to recent temperature increases without significant changes in precipitation. Droughts from the pre-instrumental and instrumental period were used to compile a long-term chronology for the Czech Lands. The number of years with drought has fluctuated between 26 in 1951–2000 and 16 in 1651–1700. Only nine drought years were recorded between 1641 and 1680, while between 1981 and 2012 the figure was 22 yr. A number of past severe droughts are described in detail: in 1540, 1590, 1616, 1718 and 1719. A discussion of the

  1. Corporate governance in Czech hospitals after the transformation.

    Pirozek, Petr; Komarkova, Lenka; Leseticky, Ondrej; Hajdikova, Tatana


    This contribution is a response to the current issue of corporate governance in hospitals in the Czech Republic, which draw a significant portion of funds from public health insurance. This not only has a significant impact on the economic efficiency of hospitals, but ultimately affects the whole system of healthcare provision in the Czech Republic. Therefore, the effectiveness of the corporate governance of hospitals might affect the fiscal stability of the health system and, indirectly, health policy for the whole country. The main objective of this paper is to evaluate the success of the transformation in connection with the performance of corporate governance in hospitals in the Czech Republic. Specifically, there was an examination of the management differences in various types of hospitals, which differed in their ownership structure and legal form. A sample of 100 hospitals was investigated in 2009, i.e., immediately after the transformation had been completed, and then three years later in 2012. With regard to the different public support of individual hospitals, the operating subsidies were removed from the economic results of the corporations in the sample. The adjusted economic results were first of all examined in relationship to the type of hospital (according to owner and legal form), and then in relation to its size, the size of the supervisory board and the education level of the senior hospital manager. A multiple median regression was used for the evaluation. One of the basic findings was the fact that the hospital's legal form had no influence on economic results. Successful management in the form of adjusted economic results is only associated with the private type of facility ownership. From the perspective of our concept of corporate governance other factors were under observation: the size of the hospital, the size of the supervisory board and the medical qualifications of the senior manager had no statistically verifiable influence on the

  2. The changing character of household waste in the Czech Republic between 1999 and 2009 as a function of home heating methods.

    Doležalová, Markéta; Benešová, Libuše; Závodská, Anita


    The authors of this paper report on the changing character of household waste, in the Czech Republic between 1999 and 2009 in households differentiated by their heating methods. The data presented are the result of two projects, financed by the Czech Ministry of Environment, which were undertaken during this time period with the aim of focusing on the waste characterisation and complete analysis of the physicochemical properties of the household waste. In the Czech Republic, the composition of household waste varies significantly between different types of households based on the methods of home heating employed. For the purposes of these studies, the types of homes were divided into three categories - urban, mixed and rural. Some of the biggest differences were found in the quantities of certain subsample categories, especially fine residue (matter smaller than 20 mm), between urban households with central heating and rural households that primarily employ solid fuel such coal or wood. The use of these solid fuels increases the fraction of the finer categories because of the higher presence of ash. Heating values of the residual household waste from the three categories varied very significantly, ranging from 6.8 MJ/kg to 14.2 MJ/kg in 1999 and from 6.8 MJ/kg to 10.5 MJ/kg in 2009 depending on the type of household and season. The same factors affect moisture of residual household waste which varied from 23.2% to 33.3%. The chemical parameters also varied significantly, especially in the quantities of Tl, As, Cr, Zn, Fe and Mn, which were higher in rural households. Because knowledge about the properties of household waste, as well as its physicochemical characteristics, is very important not only for future waste management, but also for the prediction of the behaviour and influence of the waste on the environment as the country continues to streamline its legislation to the European Union's solid waste mandates, the results of these studies were employed by the

  3. Geochemistry of arsenic and selenium in a Ge-poor coal from the Wulantuga coal-hosted Ge ore deposit, Inner Mongolia, North China

    Panpan Xie; Qingqian Li; Jingjing Liu; Hongjian Song; Jianpeng Wei


    This paper reports new data for arsenic (As) and selenium (Se) in a total of twelve bench samples of Ge-rich and Ge-poor coals in the No. 6 coal seam from the Wulantuga ore deposit, Inner Mongolia, Northeastern China. The Ge-poor coals are characterized by low-ash (with a weighted average ash yield 10.59%). The coal samples were digested using an UltraClave microwave high pressure reactor (milestone) and trace elements were detected by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry—collision/reaction cell technology, a reliable method for As and Se determination in coal samples. The contents of As and Se in the Ge-poor (with a weighted average content of 9.14 and 0.30μg/g, respectively) and Ge-rich coal samples in the present study (varies from 16.88 to 17,776μg/g and from 0.26 to 14.39μg/g, respectively) are in a sharp contrast. The As in the Ge-poor coals is of both organic- and pyrite-associations, and its enrichment is attributed to the sediment source, and to a lesser extent, to hydrothermal fluids. Se is predominantly connected with organic matter in the Wulantuga Ge-poor coals.

  4. Methodological Aspects of Trend Studies and Development of the HBSC Study in the Czech Republic.

    Sigmund, Erik; Baďura, Petr; Sigmundová, Dagmar; Csémy, Ladislav; Kalman, Michal


    The aim of the study is to present the theoretical background of trend studies in general, to characterize the international Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study and to describe its methodology and changes of the Czech HBSC study between 1994 and 2014. The first part describes various types of trend research studies including their advantages and disadvantages. The second part summarizes the history of the HBSC study in an international context and particularly in the Czech Republic. The final part presents the basic methodological data from six surveys conducted in the Czech Republic between 1994 and 2014. Copyright© by the National Institute of Public Health, Prague 2017.

  5. Private Rate of Return on Human Capital Investment in the Czech Republic: Differences by Study Fields

    Savina Finardi


    Full Text Available The paper is focused on approaches to the measurement of the returns of private investments on human capital in the Czech Republic. In the last ten years, there is observed a significant increase in number ofstudents at Higher Education Institutions (HEIs and an increasing number of HEIs graduates is also expected in the Czech Republic in forthcoming years. Using data from the research project “REFLEX”, fromthe Czech Statistical Office and from EUROSTUDENT IV survey, the paper provides the methodology and the experimental computations of the rates of return on private investment in the tertiary education broken down by study fields.

  6. e-Learning trends in Central Europe: The case of the Czech Republic

    Ludvík Eger; Dana Egerová


    The paper deals with expert predictions on the development of e-learning in the Czech Republic, a country in Central Europe. The first part of the paper describes the development of e-learning with specific feature in the Czech Republic in relation to the implementation of Information and communication technologies (ICT) to schools and the business sector. The second part of the paper presents a survey with selected experts, conducted in the years 2012 and 2013 in the Czech Republic, aiming a...

  7. Reel Socialism: Making sense of history in Czech and German cinema since 1989

    Bechmann Pedersen, Sune

    This thesis is a comparative study of the communist past as depicted in Czech and German feature films since 1989, or "reel socialism". It is the first detailed study of post-1989 Czech history films and the first comparative study of German post-reunification cinema. It demonstrates that cinema...... has been a vehicle of similar sense-making processes in the two history cultures. Much of the research on cinema in Germany has treated the subject in isolation, blind to the commonalities it shares with other post-communist countries, while Czech post-communist history culture and cinema has been...

  8. New Records of Lilypad Whiteface Leucorrhinia Caudalis (Odonata: Libellulidae in the Czech Republic

    Dolný Aleš


    Full Text Available Leucorrhinia caudalis is listed on the European Red List as near threatened. The species had been thought to be extinct in the Czech Republic for the last fifty years, until an accidental discovery of adult males in 2012. In 2014, larvae of Leucorrhinia caudalis were recorded from water reservoirs in the Česká Lípa region, northern Bohemia, for the first time. Thus, it is the first breeding site of L. caudalis in the Czech Republic. A male Leucorrhinia caudalis was also repeatedly recorded in Havířov-Dolní Suchá in the north-eastern Czech Republic.

  9. Water pollution abatement programme. The Czech Republic. Project 4.2. Assessing critical loads of acidity to surface waters in The Czech Republic. Critical loads of acidity to surface waters, Northern Moravia and Silesia, The Czech Republic

    Lien, L.; Raclavsky, K.; Henriksen, A.; Raclavska, H.; Matysek, D.


    The governments of Norway and Czech and Slovak Federal Republic have signed a bilateral environmental protection agreement. This report describes Project 4.2 of the agreement: Assessing critical loads of acidity to surface waters in The Czech Republic. Critical load of acidity to surface waters and exceedance of critical load were estimated by using standard methods modified for the sampling area. Water samples were mainly taken from small forest streams, which were the only available surface waters with negligible pollution from local sources. High critical loads were calculated, averaging 20 times higher than the corresponding value for southern Norway. The deposition of acidifying components in the region was high, but did not exceed the critical load and so there is a reserve for additional acid deposition. Scattered water analyses from several other parts of The Czech Republic indicate both low critical loads and exceedance of critical load in various regions (e.g. Bohemia). 21 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Economic Limit of Coal Mining Closedown in Restructuring Coal Industry


    One of the key points in restructuring the coal industry is to close some deficient coal mines which haveneither economic result nor social benefit. Based on the relationship among production, cost, and profit, differenteconomic limits for closing coal mines in different cases were put forward. The relationship between the profit andclosedown cost of deficient coal mines was analyzed and an overall economic limit for closing a deficient coal minewas also proposed.

  11. Coal Activities for Secondary Students.

    American Coal Foundation, Washington, DC.

    This collection of lesson plans designed for teachers of 4th- through 12th-grade students utilizes an assortment of teaching strategies for topics related to coal and the coal industry. Activities cover the following topics: coal formation; coal identification; "the geologist's dilemma" (a supply and demand activity); geologic time and the…

  12. Transportation of coal by pipeline

    Round, G.F.


    Discusses Canada's coal resources, technology of long distance coal slurry pipelines, existing and planned coal slurry pipelines, their economics, liquid carbon dioxide, methanol and crude oil instead of water as carrier fluid, and coal slurry research in Canada.

  13. Linking chemical elements in forest floor humus (O{sub h}-horizon) in the Czech Republic to contamination sources

    Sucharova, Julie; Suchara, Ivan; Hola, Marie [Silva Tarouca Research Institute for Landscape and Ornamental Gardening, Kvetnove namesti 391, 252 43 Pruhonice (Czech Republic); Reimann, Clemens, E-mail: [Geological Survey of Norway, P.O. Box 6315 Sluppen, 7491 Trondheim (Norway); Boyd, Rognvald [Geological Survey of Norway, P.O. Box 6315 Sluppen, 7491 Trondheim (Norway); Filzmoser, Peter [Institute for Statistics and Probability Theory, Vienna University of Technology, Wiedner Hauptstrasse 8-10, 1040 Wien (Austria); Englmaier, Peter [Faculty of Life Science, University of Vienna, Althanstr. 14, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)


    While terrestrial moss and other plants are frequently used for environmental mapping and monitoring projects, data on the regional geochemistry of humus are scarce. Humus, however, has a much larger life span than any plant material. It can be seen as the 'environmental memory' of an area for at least the last 60-100 years. Here concentrations of 39 elements determined by ICP-MS and ICP AES, pH and ash content are presented for 259 samples of forest floor humus collected at an average sample density of 1 site/300 km{sup 2} in the Czech Republic. The scale of anomalies linked to known contamination sources (e.g., lignite mining and burning, metallurgical industry, coal fired power plants, metal smelters) is documented and discussed versus natural processes influencing humus quality. Most maps indicate a local impact from individual contamination sources: often more detailed sampling than used here would be needed to differentiate between likely sources. - Highlights: > Concentrations of 39 elements in forest floor humus are provided. > The capabilities of humus sampling for bio-monitoring purposes are demonstrated. > Geochemical anomalies are linked to known contamination sources. > The study shows the importance of scale for geochemical mapping projects. > Humus provides a picture of the long term contamination history of a country. - Forest floor humus, the atmosphere-biosphere-pedosphere interface, archives an environmental contamination signal over long time periods.

  14. Linking chemical elements in forest floor humus (O-h-horizon) in the Czech Republic to contamination sources

    Sucharova, J.; Suchara, I.; Hola, M.; Reimann, C.; Boyd, R.; Filzmoser, P.; Englmaier, P. [Geological Survey of Norway, Trondheim (Norway)


    While terrestrial moss and other plants are frequently used for environmental mapping and monitoring projects, data on the regional geochemistry of humus are scarce. Humus, however, has a much larger life span than any plant material. It can be seen as the 'environmental memory' of an area for at least the last 60-100 years. Here concentrations of 39 elements determined by ICP-MS and ICP AES, pH and ash content are presented for 259 samples of forest floor humus collected at an average sample density of 1 site/300 km{sup 2} in the Czech Republic. The scale of anomalies linked to known contamination sources (e.g., lignite mining and burning, metallurgical industry, coal fired power plants, metal smelters) is documented and discussed versus natural processes influencing humus quality. Most maps indicate a local impact from individual contamination sources: often more detailed sampling than used here would be needed to differentiate between likely sources.

  15. [Listeriosis in pregnant women and newborns in Czech Republic].

    Smíšková, Dita; Karpíšková, Renata; Džupová, Olga; Marešová, Vilma


    Listeria monocytogenes is ubiquitous in nature, being commonly present in faecal flora of otherwise healthy human population or animals. Clinical manifestation of listeria infection may vary widely from mild to invasive, life-threatening disease. In an immunocompromised host, a rather serious course should be expected. Due to cell-mediated immune insufficiency associated with pregnancy even a short bacteraemia in pregnant women can result in transplacental infection. Most listeria infections are sporadic but outbreaks may occur. An outbreak of listeriosis in the Czech Republic in the autumn of 2006 and winter of 2007 was associated with an increased incidence of perinatal listeriosis. More information on listeriosis prevention in pregnancy should be given and each febrile episode during pregnancy should be carefully examined. Early treatment of listeriosis reduces the risk of vertical transmission.

  16. Model strategy for village development in the Czech Republic

    Ladislav ROLÍNEK


    Full Text Available The model strategies discussed in this article represent different ways of possible village development in the Czech Republic. We used typologies of strategies from business strategic management for their definition. Twenty municipalities, where structured interviews were carried out with their mayors, were chosen randomly from among 100 villages where a questionnaire survey was conducted in 2012 (Faltová Leitmanová, et al., 2012. Based on the qualitative analysis of the structured interview summaries, eight model strategies were ascertained. These include integration strategy, service differentiation, spending cuts, usage of municipal property, stabilization of village population, business support, fundraising, and identification of the inhabitants with the village (village pride. The most commonly applied model strategy is integration, followed by village population stabilization.

  17. Reading strategies of primary school pupils in the Czech Republic

    Veronika Najvarová


    Full Text Available This article focuses on reading with comprehension – an activity of the readerwhich is seen as an interaction between the author and the recipient. In order tounderstand a text better, a reader may employ various techniques and strategies. Thearticle consists of three parts. In the first part, categories reading strategy and readingskill and the relationship between them are defined. In the second part, classificationsof reading strategies are presented and sorted according to various criteria. The thirdpart summarises the findings of a research project that concentrated on the readingstrategies of primary school pupils in Czech primary schools in the 2005/06 schoolyear. The findings indicate primary school teachers’ preferred procedures of using textsin teaching and pupils’ preferred reading strategies by the end of primary education.

  18. Comparison of HRM practices between Chinese and Czech companies

    Jun Li


    Full Text Available Both China and the Czech Republic have embarked on the transition from centrally planned economy to market-based economy since the early 1990s. Human resource management (HRM played a very important role in the success of companies’ economic transformation, and its role has been increasing since the period of stabilization and development of the market economy in both countries. Authors from both countries have been cooperating on the mutual comparative study on HRM practices in these two countries since the year 2009 until now and found out certain differences that were partially introduced in the doctoral thesis by Jun Li in 2011 after processing data from the first period of data collection. This paper briefly highlights some of the most obvious differences confirmed by the following mutual research. The areas where the HRM practices of both countries were compared more carefully are recruitment and selection process, training and development, performance appraisal and compensation.

  19. Factors influencing contraceptive choice: study focused on Czech men

    Adela Capova


    Methods: Data were collected by interviews with 170 Czech men aged between 25 and 50. Grounded theory approach was used to generate new related theoretical ideas. Results: The present young men leave the decision rather up to women. A number of young men enter a relationship assuming automatically that their partner uses hormonal contraception. Family planning decision-making is influenced by personal values as well as structural factors. Strong social pressure determining the ideal form of material and psycho-social background for offspring confronts current generation with very demanding decision-making on parenthood timing. Conclusions: In men's opinion, the setting of conditions for the beginning of reproduction should be the result of negotiation within the couple. Although men speak of the need to negotiate, the responsibility and practical decision-making is left up mainly to women. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(4.000: 880-886

  20. Czech version of Rey Auditory Verbal Learning test: normative data.

    Bezdicek, Ondrej; Stepankova, Hana; Moták, Ladislav; Axelrod, Bradley N; Woodard, John L; Preiss, Marek; Nikolai, Tomáš; Růžička, Evžen; Poreh, Amir


    The present study provides normative data stratified by age for the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning test Czech version (RAVLT) derived from a sample of 306 cognitively normal subjects (20-85 years). Participants met strict inclusion criteria (absence of any active or past neurological or psychiatric disorder) and performed within normal limits on other neuropsychological measures. Our analyses revealed significant relationships between most RAVLT indices and age and education. Normative data are provided not only for basic RAVLT scores, but for the first time also for a variety of derived (gained/lost access, primacy/recency effect) and error scores. The study confirmed a logarithmic character of the learning slope and is consistent with other studies. It enables the clinician to evaluate more precisely subject's RAVLT memory performance on a vast number of indices and can be viewed as a concrete example of Quantified Process Approach to neuropsychological assessment.

  1. Antiurease activity of plants growing in the Czech Republic.

    Hřibová, Petra; Khazneh, Elian; Žemlička, Milan; Švajdlenka, Emil; Ghoneim, Mohammed M; Elokely, Khaled M; Ross, Samir A


    The antiurease activity of the aqueous extracts of 42 plants growing in the Czech Republic was investigated. A phenol-hypochlorite reaction was used for the determination of ammonia produced by urease. The inhibitory activity of the extracts at a concentration of 0.2 mg/mL varied from 17.8% to 80.0%. Extracts from six Potentilla species expressed inhibitory activity against jack bean urease. They were further investigated for their phenolic constituents and the major compounds were subjected to molecular docking. The results revealed that both jack bean urease and Helicobacter pylori urease were inhibited by quercetin-3-O-β-D-galactopyranoside-6″-gallate (1), myricetin-3-O-β-D-glucuronide (2), tiliroside (3) and B-type procyanidin (4). The antiurease activity of the investigated Potentilla species is probably due to the presence of complex phenolic constituents such as flavonoid glycosides and catechin dimers.

  2. Segmentation of Czech Consumers Based on the Attitudes Towards Money

    Ivan Tomek


    Full Text Available Understanding current and potential customers´ behaviour is one of the key factors of marketing efficiency and it brings competitive advantage. Companies usually classify their customers and create client groups with similar characteristic features. Such grouping activity is called segmentation or typology. There are many possibilities how to obtain data for segmentation process (e.g. data mining, demographical segmentation, analyzing shopping behaviour, media behaviour or their combination. This paper concentrates on financial behaviour of the Czech population and brings a survey based on primary data. It takes into consideration aspects like attitude towards risk and savings and even aspects like money ethic and money role in the society. Seven consumer segments that differ in attitudes towards money were identified and described.

  3. Oil and Gas Emergency Policy: Czech Republic 2010 update



    This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in the Czech Republic for responding to an oil supply crisis. In 2007, the IEA published ''Oil Supply Security: Emergency Response of IEA Countries''. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew this full publication, the IEA will provide updates to the country chapters as these become available following the specific country's review. The aim of series of publications is to provide an overview of the IEA oil emergency response system and a detailed look at the specific systems in each IEA country for responding to an oil supply crisis. The 2007 publication represented the findings of a five year review cycle of the emergency response mechanisms in IEA member countries. Since the 2007 publication, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies.

  4. Higher Education Finance Reform in the Czech Republic

    Matthew S. McMullen


    Full Text Available Throughout Europe and especially the former communist countries of Central and Eastern Europe, universities and governments are evaluating ways to finance higher education other than the current dominant model of almost total government support. With government pressure to use limited funds in other areas (e.g., health care, environment, and the like higher education institutions are being encouraged to become more economically self-sufficient. Some of these reforms have included establishing closer ties with regional businesses and introducing tuition and user fees to offset some of the costs of university operations. The particular focus of this report is on the new methods of financing higher education in the Czech Republic.

  5. Is There a Credit Crunch in the Czech Republic?

    Lucie Režňáková


    Full Text Available We apply a disequilibrium model of credit demand and supply to test the credit crunch hypothesis. We suppose that firms face credit rationing and a realised outstanding loan will be the minimum desired level of commercial bank loans and bank limit for the firm. We adopted the disequilibrium model which consists of credit supply and credit demand equations. We suggest that actual observed credit growth rate at time t lies on the supply curve (excess demand, or on the demand curve (excess supply, or on both (equilibrium. Our model is estimated by the full-information maximum likelihood approach with a numerical maximization of the likelihood function. Our basic findings show that significant decrease in credits after the financial crisis in the year 2007 was caused by low economic and investment activity and reject the hypothesis that there is a credit crunch in the Czech Republic.

  6. Populism in the first European elections in the Czech Republic

    Markéta Pitrová


    Full Text Available The paper seeks to examine the phenomenon of populism in connection with the first EP elections in the Czech Republic (CZ. It aspires to answer the question whether the first EP elections can be described as populist and, if yes, then owing to which parties. It gives a basic overview of the electoral system, the actors involved and the voter turnout. It attempts to define populism and distinguish it from euroscepticism. The paper’s key focal point is then the application of the identified attributes of populism on those political parties that received more than 1 % of the vote. The findings lead to the rejection of the assertion about a populist character of the EP elections in the CZ, and a classification of individual actors is suggested.

  7. Pragmatists, Prohibitionists and Preventionists in Czech Drug Policy

    Martin Nekola


    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of an empirical survey conducted in order to identify Czech drug policy actors’ perspectives on illicit drug use and related problems. Q methodology was used to uncover three independent factors representing three different perspectives in a sample of 24 participants. A perspective that emphasizes pragmatism predominated in the sample of participants. It differs from the other two perspectives in lower perceived importance of the drug problem and a more sceptical view of drugs’ illicit status and related drug enforcement. The other two perspectives are to some extent complementary in that one rather prefers prohibition and the other puts more emphasis on prevention. Nevertheless, both agree on many general as well as specific aspects of drug policy such as the perceived importance of the problem, the active role of the government in addressing it, and the rejection of any form of illicit drug legalization or normalization.

  8. Principles of Workplace Democracy: Cases from The Czech Republic

    Vopalecký Andy


    Full Text Available The article is about the concept of management of democratic companies in the Czech Republic with a focus on the principles of workplace democracy. The analysis is based on four case studies of democratic companies. The case studies have been drawn up on the basis of a questionnaire survey among the workers of companies and interviews with their executives. The research has shown the importance of even a high rate of implementation of the various principles in all surveyed companies. The best rated principle is “dialogue and listening”. In the case of the principle of “reflection and assessment”, it will show certain deficiencies in the provision of feedback. Principles of workplace democracy identified in interviews mostly agree with the principles referred to in the literature. Resulting from the research, it proposes recommendations and suggestions for further research.

  9. National Identity of Young Adolescents of Czech and Bulgarian Origin

    Z. Ganeva


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the structure of national identity among young adolescents of Bulgarian and Czech origin. University students (N=161 completed the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure-Revised (MEIM-R (Phinney & Ong, 2007, four measures of psychological well-being and a measure of salience of ethnicity. Factor analyses of data for the two national groups yielded a two-factor structure that corresponded to two theoretical approaches to ethnic identity, as hypothesised. Similar patterns in magnitude of loadings were observed across groups, indicating that the MEIM-R could be used as a global composite index of national identity. National identity was related positively to measures of psychological well-being such as mastery, self-esteem and optimism, and negatively to measure of loneliness. MEIM-R scores were also moderately correlated with salience (the importance of a person's own national background in his or her life, across national groups.

  10. Job satisfaction and subjective well-being among Czech nurses.

    Gurková, Elena; Haroková, Sylvie; Džuka, Jozef; Žiaková, Katarína


    The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between domains of the job satisfaction and components of subjective well-being in nurses. A convenience sample of hospital nurses was recruited from six hospitals in Czech Republic. Data were collected using a set of questionnaires that included the McCloskey/Mueller Satisfaction Scale, the Positive Affect Scale, the Negative Affect Scale and the Personal Well-being Index. We confirmed low association between job satisfaction and subjective well-being of nurses. Satisfaction with extrinsic rewards, co-workers and family/work balance accounted for only a small percentage of variance in cognitive component of subjective well-being. Positive affect was predicted by interaction opportunities and scheduling. Negative affect was predicted by interaction opportunities and scheduling and intention to leave the actual workplace. Low percentage of the variance suggests that subjective well-being is not strongly influenced by job satisfaction.

  11. Tourism Employment Module (TEM: Case of the Czech Republic

    Zdeněk Lejsek


    Full Text Available Tourism Employment Module (TEM provides information on the significance and contribution of tourism for the national economy in terms of employment. It refers to a system of tables describing the main economic characteristics of tourism (i.e. number of jobs and people employed in tourism by industry, seasonality, working scheme,permanency of job, sex, age groups, level of education or nationality and classifying thereby tourism as one of branches in the system of national accounts. The article describes basic methodological concept and structure of this tool (and approaches to measuring employment in the tourist industry in general, exploited data sources and provides a brief information on the type and form of publishing of the results as well as the data on principalmacroeconomic indicators of tourism-related industries in the Czech Republic in 2003–2009.

  12. [New psychoactive substances and their prevalence in the Czech Republic].

    Mravčík, Viktor; Běláčková, Vendula; Grohmannová, Kateřina; Zábranský, Tomáš


    Recently, there is a global growing concern over the new (mainly synthetic) psychoactive substances, known as legal highs, research chemicals or bath salts. They are represented by various chemical groups imitating "old" illicit drugs with stimulant, euphoric, hallucinogenic or sedative effects. In the Czech Republic, the peak of their use and supply was observed at the beginning of 2011, when new psychoactive substances were available in smart shops known locally as Amsterdam shops - in that time mainly synthetic cathinones and also synthetic cannabinoids were present. After legislative change that placed tens of new substances under the control of criminal law in April 2011, new psychoactive substances are available at Internet and their use is (after short and media driven boom in early 2011) rather limited and decreasing. Though, the use of new synthetic stimulants was recently reported locally among problem (injecting) drug users; new very potent synthetic opioids represent potential threat of further expansion in this users subgroup.

  13. Port Regionalization and Landlocked Hinterland: The Czech Republic

    Jean Paul Rodrigue


    Full Text Available The expansion of the European Union (EU and economic growth have propelled the development of intermodal transportation and logistics activities in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE. Yet, the inland location of most CEE economies requires improved connectivity to port terminals on both the Atlantic/Baltic and Mediterranean/Black Sea ranges. The paper provides a broader research perspective on inland logistics platforms focusing on the CEE region, particularly as it concerns the role of the public sector in port hinterland infrastructure development. The paper identifies the current bottlenecks in logistics activity in regard to the whole range of the national transport chains. A dual regionalization process is taking place between the ports of the Northern and Mediterranean ranges and that the Northern Range is more effective at servicing the CEE region, including the Czech Republic, in spite of the proximity advantage of Mediterranean ports.


    Vlastimil MONI


    Full Text Available The article follows the research of the project number TA01020351 called “The research of possibilities when predicting steam origin and consequent spontaneous ignition of brown coal fuels” which was researched with the support of the Technological Agency in the Czech Republic in 2011-2014 in the connection with a realized technical research. Therefore, it gives a summary information about the evaluation of the risk degree for the origin of spontaneous ignitions of the brown coal. The presented way of evaluation is based on a numeric expression of a value for MHU criteria – the point load of particular indicators is added together with other results gained from this research project. Then, more information is taken from companies running the dumps of brown coal products – both for suppliers (mining companies and big consumers (power engineering. The complex knowledge about prediction of the origin of the spontaneous ignition enables to make an early response to eliminate a threat of mining fire in open pit mines or on the dumps of coal products. Consequently, it reduces the risk of fire and breakdowns of transportation means DPD, heavy machines and preparation plants. The working injuries are reduced as well – burns by coal in fire or inhalation of gas products from imperfect combustion.

  15. Coal-ball floras of the Namurian-Westphalian of Europe

    Galtier, J. [University of Montpellier, Montpellier (France). Paleobotany Lab.


    A review of coal-ball floras from Central and Western Europe ie presented with special attention to recent studies of coal balls from England and Spain. Emphasis is placed on the stratigraphic and geographic distribution of taxa, and on a comparison of twelve floras including those of the Late Carboniferous `Great Coal Ball Horizon`, as well as two of Namurian age from the Czech Republic and Germany, and one new flora from Spain. The three richest floras include those from the Upper Foot and Union seams (Lancashire, UK) and Bouxharmont (Belgium). These differ in taxonomic diversity, relative to the number of species of gymnosperms, lycopsids and ferns. Patterns of occurrences of taxa for each major group of plants are discussed and compared with quantitative data provided recently for some floras by T.L. Phillips and colleagues. The significance of common versus rare taxa is discussed, and a list of species is proposed as most representative of Westphalian European coal-swamp associations. Comparison of the very different temporal ranges of about 40 important genera suggest that, since the Mississippian, there existed a sequential introduction from non-swamp habitats of plants that became abundant/dominant in later Euramerican coal swamps.

  16. [Pharmacoeconomy of diabetes mellitus--trends in the Czech Republic].

    Horák, P


    Since 2002, we found relatively stable number of diabetes mellitus cases among clients of General Health Insurance Company of the Czech Republic. This means, after calculating incidence rate with respect to decline in total numbers of insured during the same period, a 6% increase in real incidence rate. On the doctors side, outpatient, mostly private diabetologists have about the same capacity of their offices, 2.9 physicians (WTE)/100 000 citizens over the last years. Analysis of costs and volume of services provided, clearly demonstrate, that diabetology is medical specialization of a great importance not only from the point of view of number of patients and services provided but also of its influence on the overall health care costs. Data show not only higher average expenses for treatment of patients with diabetes mellitus compared to average expenses incurred for treatments of all other diagnoses, but show also a crucial relationship of costs with presence or absence of diabetes mellitus complications. Money spend by the medical insurance system and also and more importantly health profit to patients can thus be substantially influenced via improvements in organization of care, via higher involvement, compliance of patients to the treatment and to necessary change in their lifestyles and last but not least via increase in quality of care. Cost control can be achieved by strengthening the role of pharmacoeconomics in decisions making processes of health insurance companies, importance of which is demonstrated on the past developments on drug market in the Czech Republic. General Health Insurance Company will target these goals in coming years and in its business plans will also include expected increases of costs for organization of care and for higher renumeration of physicians as well.

  17. Twenty years of minimally invasive surgery in the Czech Republic

    Miloslav Duda


    Full Text Available Aim: To outline the history and evaluate the development and current situation of miniinvasive surgery in the Czech Republic (CR.Material and methods: The authors discuss their experience with the introduction of miniinvasive surgery in CR. Questionnaires used repeatedly in surgical departments in CR provide the data for the evaluation of the development and current status of endoscopic surgery.Results: In the Czech Republic laparoscopic surgery was first performed in 1991, and by 1997 laparoscopic interventions were performed at all surgical departments. The proportion of the laparoscopic approach within overall abdominal surgery increased between 1997 and 2002 from 22% to 37%. The most frequent laparoscopic (L treatment applied today is cholecystectomy (CH, which is a method used at all departments. Nowadays, the proportion of LCH within all cholecystectomies performed is between 71% and 76%. CH is followed by appendectomy (A, which is carried out in 94-97% of surgical departments; the proportion of LA is between 38% and 41%. Laparoscopic herniotomy (H is performed at 85-87% of surgical departments, and its proportion within all herniotomies reached 19%. In 1997-1999 resection of the colon was performed at 9% of surgical departments, in 2004 at 26%, and in 2006 at as many as 58% of surgical departments. Between 2004 and 2006 the proportion of laparoscopic management of resection of colorectal carcinoma increased from 7% to 15%. A smaller number of departments perform highly specialized endoscopic surgery. In 2006 we recorded 365 gastric bandings for the treatment of obesity, 90 resections of the stomach, 139 resections of the liver, 60 splenectomies, and 70 adrenalectomies. Video-assisted thoracoscopic interventions also became routine: in 2006 we recorded 953, in 2007 there were 1214 this procedures performed, and in 2008 the number increased to 1163.Conclusions: The proportion of endoscopic surgery within all forms of surgical management has

  18. Consumer Behavior of College Students in the Czech Republic

    Horakova Monika


    Full Text Available This contribution is a follow-up to the topic of consumer behavior which is analyzed from the economic theory perspective on microeconomic as well as a macroeconomic level. The main objective of the article is to reveal the structure of college students’ consumer basket determined according to disposable income and its changes. In this article, the methodology of a consumer basket was used. The division of it was done by Czech Statistical Office to calculate the inflation rate in the environment of the Czech Republic. In this article, the analysis of college students’ consumer basket was done. The pressure on having a higher qualification in tertiary education is a typical trend across Europe, which is also one of strategic goals of EU Strategy 2020 and its concept. There is clear evidence of a growing segment of college students that represents a significant demand group on the product and service market. The knowledge of their consumer habits is definitely beneficial for companies regarding their competitive advantage and reaching higher incomes from the products offered. The market product consumption is dependent on the total disposable income mainly. That is fundamentally dependent on hours of paid work or other fund contributions. The current disposable income shows the differences regarding consumption expenditures of a consumer basket and its various categories. A lower disposable income is typical for flowing the highest consumer expenditures from class 1 (Food and non-alcoholic beverages to class 4 (Housing, water, electricity, gas and other fuels of a higher disposal income. If the current disposable income of college students increases, there would be higher consumption expenditures regarding classes 9, 3 and 5 (Recreation and culture; Clothing and footwear; Furnishings, household equipment and routine household maintenance. On the contrary, a lower disposable income would mean lower expenditures regarding classes 3, 2 and 9

  19. Corporate social responsibility as a challenge for Czech companies

    Sylvie Gurská


    Full Text Available The term „Corporate social responsibility“ is an umbrella term embracing theories and practises relating to how business manages its relationship with society. In the last decades the development of companies responsible behaviour has been influenced by several facts. One of them is the existence of multinational enterprises. They have an elaborated firm strategy, a value system and bring the CSR concept in partial divisions. CSR enterprises also take the advantage of differentiation from the competitors and want to be successful on unified markets. Generally there is an effort to improve unfavourable situation in the environment and the society (global warming, corruption, insufficient community support, bad working conditions. The corporate responsibility has been supported by many foundation projects in the Czech Republic, e.g. two month’s employment support campaign “JSOU ZDRAVÍ?” for disabled people (NFOZP created by the foundation Nadační fond. Czech firms have a possibility to use several portals like educating portal Boussole CSR, its aim is to approximate the responsible business mostly to small and medium sized enterprises. Currently there exist many publications regarding this topic and the companies have a big chance to get into customers’ awareness as a corporate responsible firm, like the attendance at national/international competitions. However, the firms are using other possibilities too. They participate on project creation (e.g. „Stáže manažerů bez bariér“, they establish a fair-trade stand directly in their companies or try to add an value to their business (cleaning company with a respect to the environment.

  20. Coal Mines Security System

    Ankita Guhe


    Full Text Available Geological circumstances of mine seem to be extremely complicated and there are many hidden troubles. Coal is wrongly lifted by the musclemen from coal stocks, coal washeries, coal transfer and loading points and also in the transport routes by malfunctioning the weighing of trucks. CIL —Coal India Ltd is under the control of mafia and a large number of irregularities can be contributed to coal mafia. An Intelligent Coal Mine Security System using data acquisition method utilizes sensor, automatic detection, communication and microcontroller technologies, to realize the operational parameters of the mining area. The data acquisition terminal take the PIC 16F877A chip integrated circuit as a core for sensing the data, which carries on the communication through the RS232 interface with the main control machine, which has realized the intelligent monitoring. Data management system uses EEPROM chip as a Black box to store data permanently and also use CCTV camera for recording internal situation. The system implements the real-time monitoring and displaying for data undermine, query, deletion and maintenance of history data, graphic statistic, report printing, expert diagnosis and decision-making support. The Research, development and Promote Application will provide the safeguard regarding the mine pit control in accuracy, real-time capacity and has high reliability.

  1. Industrial role of coal chemistry

    Dierk, E.A.; Stadelhofer, J.W.


    The paper is concerned with the production of coal-based chemicals either from the by-products of coal carbonization, or from synthesis gas manufactured from coal. The potential of coal tar as a raw material for chemicals synthesis forms the basis of the paper. Koppers-Totzek and Lurgi gasification processes and Fischer-Tropsch synthesis are considered, and, finally, coal liquefaction processes are briefly mentioned.

  2. Clean coal technology: The new coal era


    The Clean Coal Technology Program is a government and industry cofunded effort to demonstrate a new generation of innovative coal processes in a series of full-scale showcase`` facilities built across the country. Begun in 1986 and expanded in 1987, the program is expected to finance more than $6.8 billion of projects. Nearly two-thirds of the funding will come from the private sector, well above the 50 percent industry co-funding expected when the program began. The original recommendation for a multi-billion dollar clean coal demonstration program came from the US and Canadian Special Envoys on Acid Rain. In January 1986, Special Envoys Lewis and Davis presented their recommendations. Included was the call for a 5-year, $5-billion program in the US to demonstrate, at commercial scale, innovative clean coal technologies that were beginning to emerge from research programs both in the US and elsewhere in the world. As the Envoys said: if the menu of control options was expanded, and if the new options were significantly cheaper, yet highly efficient, it would be easier to formulate an acid rain control plan that would have broader public appeal.

  3. Mr Jaroslav Basta, First Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs, Czech Republic.

    Claudia Marcelloni


    CERN welcomed the first deputy-minister of foreign affairs, Jaroslav Basta, from the Czech Republic, for the first time on 20 June. ATLAS spokesperson, Peter Jenni, along with CERN physicist, Ivan Lehraus, accompanied Basta to the ATLAS underground cavern.

  4. Granger Causalities Between Interest Rate, Price Level, Money Supply and Real Gdp in the Czech Republic

    Tomáš Urbanovský


    ... – interest rate, price level, money supply and real GDP – in the Czech Republic in order to find out definite implications of its interactions and give recommendations to macroeconomic policy authorities...

  5. On-line Shopping on B2C Markets in the Czech Republic

    Pilík Michal


    Full Text Available The paper deals with the e-commerce theory and is aimed primarily at its usage in business-toconsumer markets. On-line purchasing management is increasing not only in the Czech Republic but also in Europe and all over the world. The customers who think rationally use on-line shopping because of money saving, speed delivery and the possibility of product comparison. This paper presents the results of a project financed by the Czech Science Foundation P403/11/ P175: The factors influencing customers’ on-line behaviour in e-commerce environment on B2C and B2B markets in the Czech Republic. 89 % of respondents use e-shops for buying products in the Czech Republic. 32 % of them use the Internet for regular purchases and 57 % of them irregularly. 11 % of respondents have not used e-shops yet.

  6. Is diversification as a Strategic Advantage? The Example of Automotive Components in the Czech Republic

    Lukáš Mohelský


    Full Text Available The automotive industry is the key sector of the Czech national economy. Its share on GDP represents more than 8 % and the Czech Republic is the 14th biggest producer of cars in the world. The goal of this article is to analyze the development of the customers´ portfolio of the automotive suppliers in the Czech Republic from the perspective of their international location. The diversification of portfolio can be measured in many ways. The approach in this article relies both on usual statistical tools (concentration ratio, Lorenz curve, Gini coefficient, Herfindahl-Hirschman index and on specific approaches such as number of partners, geographical diversification and average distance travelled by exported component. Even though the export volume has been dynamically growing, it has remained focused on a limited number of crucial countries, which are mostly located in the close neighborhood of the Czech Republic.

  7. Aspects of Private Labels Development in the Segment of Organic Food in Czech Republic

    Olga Kutnohorska; Marek Botek


    .... It primarily focuses on organic food market in the Czech Republic, but on this market it illustrates the general trends, both in brand building, as well as in the importance of a brand in purchasing decisions...

  8. Aircrew exposure onboard a Czech airlines aircraft, individual monitoring of aircrew

    Ploc, O.; Spurny, F.; Turek, K. [Nuclear Physics Institute AS CR, Dept. of Radiation Dosimetry, Prague (Czech Republic); Ploc, O. [Czech Technical Univ., Dept. of Dosimetry and Application of Ionizing Radiation, Prague (Czech Republic)


    The contribution presents new results related to the aircraft crew exposure onboard aircraft of Czech air companies. First the results of long term monitoring onboard of an aircraft of Czech Airlines are presented. The monitoring has been performed in the period May - December 2005, more than 500 individual flights have been followed. M.D.U.-Liulin Si-diode based spectrometer was used, together with thermoluminescent and track detectors. Total effective dose was about 12 mSv, the results obtained with dosimeters mentioned are analyzed and compared with the results of calculation performed with C.A.R.I. and E.P.C.A.R.D. codes. Individual monitoring of air crew members has been started in the Czech Republic since 1998 year. The results obtained during few last years are presented, general tendencies of aircraft crew onboard exposure of Czech air companies are outlined. (authors)

  9. The Trends in anti-Semitism in the Czech Republic 2004-2014

    Eva Taterová


    Full Text Available This paper aims to introduce the current trends in anti-Semitism in the Czech Republic in 2004-2014. This period maps the changes that appeared since the end of Second Palestinian intifada to the year 2014 which is the last year with available set of data of anti-Semitism in Czech society. The article shall examine whether there is a direct link between the contemporary important events in the Middle East and the changing number of anti-Semitic incidents in the Czech Republic. The attention shall also be given to the issue which groups of Czech society are mostly associated with anti-Semitism and what is their main motivation to participate in the anti-Semitic campaign

  10. Determinants which Affect Liquid Asset Ratio of Czech and Slovak Commercial Banks

    Pavla Vodová


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to find out determinants which affect liquid asset ratio of Czech and Slovak commercial banks. The data cover the period from 2001 to 2010. We consider four bank specific factors and nine macroeconomic factors. Results of panel data regression analysis showed that although Czech Republic and Slovak Republic have a lot in common, different factors determined banks´ liquid assets in individual countries. The liquid asset ratio of Czech banks increases with increase of capital adequacy, with depreciation of Czech koruna and with worsening quality of credit portfolio. Liquidity of Slovak banks decreases with size of the bank, with higher capital adequacy, higher bank liquidity and during periods of financial crisis. Liquidity of Slovak banks is also positively related to economic cycle.

  11. Experiences with preventive procedures application in the process of beer production in Czech Republic

    Kotovicová, Jana; Toman, František; Vaverková, Magdalena

    .... A case study of beer production in Czech Republic has been performed. During the work on the project, there were utilized methodical procedures of Cleaner Production, best available technologies (BAT...

  12. Villa Kratochvíle as an Example of an Italian Garden in the Czech Lands

    Zora Kulhánková


    Full Text Available The paper deals with an example of the Italian garden applied as a type in the Czech lands. Villa Kratochvíle is one of the very few cases of an independently created Renaissance villa in the territory of the Czech Republic. Its author was an Italian builder coming from the area around Como Lake – Baldassare Maggi and he was commissioned by a significant Czech nobleman, William of Rosenberg. Villa Kratochvíle together with the surrounding landscape is compared with the landscape of lakes around Mantua and Palazzo Te, which is typologically similar. Especially the use of large water bodies is what these two places and their surrounding landscape have in common. Italian arts came to the Czech lands directly with Italian artists – one of them was the garden design. However, it was transformed there by the cultural tradition as well as the geographical location.

  13. Monitoring regional competitiveness using the BSC method: A case of the Czech national tourism organisation

    Palatková Monika


    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the adaption of the theoretical models of the regional tourism competitiveness to the conditions of the Czech Republic. The authors of this study analyze a newly emerged theoretical model of regional competitiveness monitoring with respect to the current data availability. The ultimate aim is to specify a proposal for the Czech national tourism organization (CzechTourism in terms of practical usage and monitoring of the competitiveness model. The principal question is how and why to monitor the competitiveness of a tourist destination at the regional and national levels in the Czech Republic. The next step of the project is the conducting of the research, testing of the model and the implementation.

  14. How Far Along is Euro Adoption in the Czech Republic? Benefits for Businesses Still Remain

    Mojmír Helísek


    Full Text Available The objective of the paper is to assess the reasons for the current negative position of the Czech Government towardeuro adoption and to find out whether the expected benefits of euro adoption for Czech companies still remain. Thepostponement of euro adoption in the Czech Republic has mainly been caused by the current problems of the euroarea. The benefits arising from euro adoption are subject to the reduction of the exchange rate volatility and of thetransaction costs, whereas they also depend on the degree of integration with the euro area. These benefits may stillbe expected – neither the financial crisis nor the economic recession has affected them. The integration of the Czecheconomy with the euro area is high and still growing. Therefore, euro adoption will lead to the stimulation of mutual tradeof the Czech Republic and the euro area.

  15. Clean coal initiatives in Indiana

    Bowen, B.H.; Irwin, M.W.; Sparrow, F.T.; Mastalerz, Maria; Yu, Z.; Kramer, R.A.


    Purpose - Indiana is listed among the top ten coal states in the USA and annually mines about 35 million short tons (million tons) of coal from the vast reserves of the US Midwest Illinois Coal Basin. The implementation and commercialization of clean coal technologies is important to the economy of the state and has a significant role in the state's energy plan for increasing the use of the state's natural resources. Coal is a substantial Indiana energy resource and also has stable and relatively low costs, compared with the increasing costs of other major fuels. This indigenous energy source enables the promotion of energy independence. The purpose of this paper is to outline the significance of clean coal projects for achieving this objective. Design/methodology/approach - The paper outlines the clean coal initiatives being taken in Indiana and the research carried out at the Indiana Center for Coal Technology Research. Findings - Clean coal power generation and coal for transportation fuels (coal-to-liquids - CTL) are two major topics being investigated in Indiana. Coking coal, data compilation of the bituminous coal qualities within the Indiana coal beds, reducing dependence on coal imports, and provision of an emissions free environment are important topics to state legislators. Originality/value - Lessons learnt from these projects will be of value to other states and countries.

  16. Conservation Potential of Abandoned Military Areas Matches That of Established Reserves: Plants and Butterflies in the Czech Republic

    Cizek, Oldrich; Vrba, Pavel; Benes, Jiri; Hrazsky, Zaboj; Koptik, Jiri; Kucera, Tomas; Marhoul, Pavel; Zamecnik, Jaroslav; Konvicka, Martin


    Military training generates frequent and irregular disturbance followed by succession, resulting in fine-scaled mosaics of ecological conditions in military training areas (MTAs). The awareness that MTAs may represent important biodiversity sanctuaries is increasing recently. Concurrently, changes in military doctrine are leading to abandonment of many MTAs, which are being brought under civilian administration and opened for development. We surveyed vascular plants in 43 and butterflies in 41 MTAs in the Czech Republic and compared the records with plants and butterfly records from 301 and 125 nature reserves, respectively. After controlling for effects of area, geography, and climate, we found that plant species richness was equal in the two land use categories; butterfly richness was higher in MTAs; reserves hosted more endangered plants and more endangered butterflies. Ordination analyses, again controlled for potential nuisance effects, showed that MTAs and reserves differed also in species composition. While specialist species of nationally rarest habitat types inclined towards the reserves, MTAs hosted a high representation of endangered species depending on either disturbed ground, or successionaly transient conditions. These patterns reflect the history of the national nature reserves network, and the disturbance-succession dynamics within MTAs. The conservation value of formerly army-used lands is increasingly threatened by abandonment, and conservationists should support either alternative uses mimicking army activities, or sustainable management regimes. PMID:23326388

  17. Coal potential of Antartica

    Rose, G.; McElroy, C.T.


    This report attempts to bring together available information on the coal deposits of Antarctica and discuss factors that would be involved if these deposits were to be explored and mined. Most of the reported principal coal deposits in Antarctica lie generally within the Transantarctic Mountains: the majority are of Permian age and are present in the Victoria Group of the Beacon Supergroup. Several other deposits have been recorded in East Antarctica and in the Antarctic Peninsula, including minor occurrences of Mesozoic and Tertiary coal and carbonaceous shale.

  18. Coal-fired generation

    Breeze, Paul


    Coal-Fired Generation is a concise, up-to-date and readable guide providing an introduction to this traditional power generation technology. It includes detailed descriptions of coal fired generation systems, demystifies the coal fired technology functions in practice as well as exploring the economic and environmental risk factors. Engineers, managers, policymakers and those involved in planning and delivering energy resources will find this reference a valuable guide, to help establish a reliable power supply address social and economic objectives. Focuses on the evolution of the traditio

  19. Smoking behaviour of Czech adolescents: results of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey in the Czech Republic, 2002.

    Sovinová, H; Csémy, L


    The Czech Republic Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) is a school-based survey of students in grades 7-9, conducted in 2002. A two-stage cluster sample design was used to produce representative data for all of the Czech Republic. On a large sample of students (N=4,149) from 7-9th grade it reveals that smoking among children has been continually growing. According to the results of this study, over 34% of the respondents smoke. Results of the study help us to understand social and attitudinal factors that affect adolescent smoking habits. Social factors include particularly the convenient availability of cigarettes and the lack of the legal regulation of the retail of cigarettes: over one half of all smokers under 15 years of age regularly purchase cigarettes in regular retail outlets; 72% of them reported never having been restricted in their purchases because of their age. Advertising and media coverage appears to be another important factor that affects smoking in this age group. Over 80% of children under 15 years of age reported that they have been exposed to the tobacco advertising. The study also allows an interesting analysis of the exposure to the environmental tobacco smoke. Compared to non-smokers, this exposure has been significantly higher in the case of smokers--both in their homes and at other locations (58% vs. 25%, and 90% vs. 57% respectively). The analysis of the data also revealed a strong misconception about the health risks related to passive smoking among smokers. The study provides three key findings for health promotion: (1) it is necessary to exert a continuous pressure on the political representation to strictly enforce the regulations of tobacco distribution and availability to minors; (2) school health education as well as community oriented prevention programs need to explicitly communicate non-smoking as a standard; and (3) it is important to increase the attractiveness and availability of smoking cessation programs.

  20. Advanced coal conversion process demonstration. Technical progress report for the period July 1, 1995--September 30, 1995



    This report describes the technical progress made on the Advanced Coal Conversion Process (ACCP) Demonstration Project from July 1, 1995 through September 30, 1995. The ACCP Demonstration Project is a US Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Coal Technology Project. This project demonstrates an advanced, thermal, coal upgrading process, coupled with physical cleaning techniques, that is designed to upgrade high-moisture, low-rank coals to a high-quality, low-sulfur fuel, registered as the SynCoal process. The coal is processed through three stages (two heating stages followed by an inert cooling stage) of vibrating fluidized bed reactors that remove chemically bound water, carboxyl groups, and volatile sulfur compounds. After thermal upgrading, the cola is put through a deep-bed stratifier cleaning process to separate the pyrite-rich ash from the coal.