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Sample records for rice wines

  1. Defined fungal starter granules for purple glutinous rice wine

    OpenAIRE

    Ngo Thi Phuong Dung, N.T.P.

    2004-01-01

    The Mekong Delta region ofSouth Vietnamis particularly known as a production area of purple glutinous rice wine ( RuouNepThan ). The latter differs from regular rice wine for its sherry-like taste and flavour and its attractive brown-red colour. Wine is made from purple glutinous rice at home or by small cottage industries, by washing, soaking, steam-cooking, cooling and inoculation of the cooled rice with powdered rice-wine starter ( Men ). The fermentation takes place in two stages, i.e. an...

  2. Effect of Temperature on Chinese Rice Wine Brewing with High Concentration Presteamed Whole Sticky Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dengfeng Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Production of high quality Chinese rice wine largely depends on fermentation temperature. However, there is no report on the ethanol, sugars, and acids kinetics in the fermentation mash of Chinese rice wine treated at various temperatures. The effects of fermentation temperatures on Chinese rice wine quality were investigated. The compositions and concentrations of ethanol, sugars, glycerol, and organic acids in the mash of Chinese rice wine samples were determined by HPLC method. The highest ethanol concentration and the highest glycerol concentration both were attained at the fermentation mash treated at 23°C. The highest peak value of maltose (90 g/L was obtained at 18°C. Lactic acid and acetic acid both achieved maximum values at 33°C. The experimental results indicated that temperature contributed significantly to the ethanol production, acid flavor contents, and sugar contents in the fermentation broth of the Chinese rice wines.

  3. Effect of Temperature on Chinese Rice Wine Brewing with High Concentration Presteamed Whole Sticky Rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong-Tao; Xiong, Weili; Hu, Jianhua; Xu, Baoguo; Lin, Chi-Chung; Xu, Ling; Jiang, Lihua

    2014-01-01

    Production of high quality Chinese rice wine largely depends on fermentation temperature. However, there is no report on the ethanol, sugars, and acids kinetics in the fermentation mash of Chinese rice wine treated at various temperatures. The effects of fermentation temperatures on Chinese rice wine quality were investigated. The compositions and concentrations of ethanol, sugars, glycerol, and organic acids in the mash of Chinese rice wine samples were determined by HPLC method. The highest ethanol concentration and the highest glycerol concentration both were attained at the fermentation mash treated at 23°C. The highest peak value of maltose (90 g/L) was obtained at 18°C. Lactic acid and acetic acid both achieved maximum values at 33°C. The experimental results indicated that temperature contributed significantly to the ethanol production, acid flavor contents, and sugar contents in the fermentation broth of the Chinese rice wines. PMID:24672788

  4. Secretome of Aspergillus oryzae in Shaoxing rice wine koji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Guan, Zheng-Bing; Cao, Yu; Xie, Guang-Fa; Lu, Jian

    2012-04-16

    Shaoxing rice wine is the most famous and representative Chinese rice wine. Aspergillus oryzae SU16 is used in the manufacture of koji, the Shaoxing rice wine starter culture. In the current study, a comprehensive analysis of the secretome profile of A. oryzae SU16 in Shaoxing rice wine koji was performed for the first time. The proteomic analysis for the identification of the secretory proteins was done using two-dimensional electrophoresis combined with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-tandem time of flight mass spectrometry based on the annotated A. oryzae genome sequence. A total of 41 unique proteins were identified from the secretome. These proteins included 17 extracellular proteins following the classical secretory pathway, and 10 extracellular proteins putatively secreted by the non-classical secretory pathway. The present secretome profile greatly differed from previous reports on A. oryzae growing in other solid-state nutrient sources. Several new secretory or putative secretory proteins were also found. These proteomic data will significantly aid the advancement of research on the secretome of A. oryzae, especially in solid-state cultures, and in elucidating the production process mechanism of Shaoxing rice wine koji. The findings may promote the technological development and innovation of the Shaoxing rice wine industry. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Characterization of Volatile Flavor Compounds in Chinese Rice Wine Fermented from Enzymatic Extruded Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Enbo; Long, Jie; Wu, Zhengzong; Li, Hongyan; Wang, Fang; Xu, Xueming; Jin, Zhengyu; Jiao, Aiquan

    2015-07-01

    Enzymatic extrusion, instead of traditional steam cooking, to treat rice is an efficient and alternative pretreatment for Chinese rice wine fermentation. In order to determine the formation of volatiles in enzymatic extrusion-processed rice wine (EE), and to confirm its characteristic flavor compounds, headspace solid-phase micro-extraction followed by GC-MS was used. A total of 66 volatile compounds were identified in EE. During fermentation, most volatiles generated from enzymatic extruded rice had the similar trends with those from steam-cooked rice, but the differences in the concentration of volatiles indicated a changed balance of flavors release caused by enzymatic extrusion. Besides, the concentrations and sorts of volatiles in EEs fermented from different rice particle sizes, were not dramatically different. By principal component analysis, EE could be distinctly separated from other traditional Chinese rice wines according to its characteristic volatiles, namely, 2-heptanol, 1-octen-3-ol, ethyl 4-hydroxybenzoate, methylpentyl 2-propenoate, γ-hexalactone, and 4-vinylguaiacol. Enzymatic extrusion liquefaction has been a popular thermal treatment for cereals, and gradually being applied in fermentation and liquor-making industry all over the world. The characterization of volatile flavor compounds in Chinese rice wine processed by enzymatic extrusion liquefaction pretreatment, might be made use not only for a better understanding of this new-type rice wine, but for the further utilization of enzymatic extrusion in other wine or alcohol production as well. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  6. Genomic Evolution of Saccharomyces cerevisiae under Chinese Rice Wine Fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yudong; Zhang, Weiping; Zheng, Daoqiong; Zhou, Zhan; Yu, Wenwen; Zhang, Lei; Feng, Lifang; Liang, Xinle; Guan, Wenjun; Zhou, Jingwen; Chen, Jian; Lin, Zhenguo

    2014-01-01

    Rice wine fermentation represents a unique environment for the evolution of the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. To understand how the selection pressure shaped the yeast genome and gene regulation, we determined the genome sequence and transcriptome of a S. cerevisiae strain YHJ7 isolated from Chinese rice wine (Huangjiu), a popular traditional alcoholic beverage in China. By comparing the genome of YHJ7 to the lab strain S288c, a Japanese sake strain K7, and a Chinese industrial bioethanol strain YJSH1, we identified many genomic sequence and structural variations in YHJ7, which are mainly located in subtelomeric regions, suggesting that these regions play an important role in genomic evolution between strains. In addition, our comparative transcriptome analysis between YHJ7 and S288c revealed a set of differentially expressed genes, including those involved in glucose transport (e.g., HXT2, HXT7) and oxidoredutase activity (e.g., AAD10, ADH7). Interestingly, many of these genomic and transcriptional variations are directly or indirectly associated with the adaptation of YHJ7 strain to its specific niches. Our molecular evolution analysis suggested that Japanese sake strains (K7/UC5) were derived from Chinese rice wine strains (YHJ7) at least approximately 2,300 years ago, providing the first molecular evidence elucidating the origin of Japanese sake strains. Our results depict interesting insights regarding the evolution of yeast during rice wine fermentation, and provided a valuable resource for genetic engineering to improve industrial wine-making strains. PMID:25212861

  7. Defined fungal starter granules for purple glutinous rice wine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ngo Thi Phuong Dung, N.T.P.

    2004-01-01

    The Mekong Delta region ofSouth Vietnamis particularly known as a production area of purple glutinous rice wine ( RuouNepThan ). The latter differs from regular

  8. Effects of Variety and Fermentation Time on the Quality of Rice Wine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to investigate the effect of variety and fermentation time on rice wine quality. Two rice varieties, X- Jigna and Gomera, and three fermentation times, 5, 6 and 7 days were used to study the physicochemical and sensory qualities of wine. Significant difference was observed at P<0.05 among the rice ...

  9. Genomic evolution of Saccharomyces cerevisiae under Chinese rice wine fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yudong; Zhang, Weiping; Zheng, Daoqiong; Zhou, Zhan; Yu, Wenwen; Zhang, Lei; Feng, Lifang; Liang, Xinle; Guan, Wenjun; Zhou, Jingwen; Chen, Jian; Lin, Zhenguo

    2014-09-10

    Rice wine fermentation represents a unique environment for the evolution of the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. To understand how the selection pressure shaped the yeast genome and gene regulation, we determined the genome sequence and transcriptome of a S. cerevisiae strain YHJ7 isolated from Chinese rice wine (Huangjiu), a popular traditional alcoholic beverage in China. By comparing the genome of YHJ7 to the lab strain S288c, a Japanese sake strain K7, and a Chinese industrial bioethanol strain YJSH1, we identified many genomic sequence and structural variations in YHJ7, which are mainly located in subtelomeric regions, suggesting that these regions play an important role in genomic evolution between strains. In addition, our comparative transcriptome analysis between YHJ7 and S288c revealed a set of differentially expressed genes, including those involved in glucose transport (e.g., HXT2, HXT7) and oxidoredutase activity (e.g., AAD10, ADH7). Interestingly, many of these genomic and transcriptional variations are directly or indirectly associated with the adaptation of YHJ7 strain to its specific niches. Our molecular evolution analysis suggested that Japanese sake strains (K7/UC5) were derived from Chinese rice wine strains (YHJ7) at least approximately 2,300 years ago, providing the first molecular evidence elucidating the origin of Japanese sake strains. Our results depict interesting insights regarding the evolution of yeast during rice wine fermentation, and provided a valuable resource for genetic engineering to improve industrial wine-making strains. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  10. Functionality of selected strains of moulds and yeasts from Vietnamese rice wine starters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dung, N.T.P.; Rombouts, F.M.; Nout, M.J.R.

    2006-01-01

    The role of starch-degrading mycelial fungi, and the alcohol production and ethanol tolerance of the yeasts isolated from selected Vietnamese traditional rice wine starters were examined, and optimum conditions for these essential steps in rice wine fermentation were determined. Of pure isolates

  11. Characterization of Microbial Communities in Chinese Rice Wine Collected at Yichang City and Suzhou City in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Yucai; Gong, Yanli; Li, Yajie; Pan, Zejiang; Yao, Yi; Li, Ning; Guo, Jinling; Gong, Dachun; Tian, Yihong; Peng, Caiyun

    2017-08-28

    Two typical microbial communities from Chinese rice wine fermentation collected in Yichang city and Suzhou city in China were investigated. Both communities could ferment glutinous rice to rice wine in 2 days. The sugar and ethanol contents were 198.67 and 14.47 mg/g, respectively, for rice wine from Yichang city, and 292.50 and 12.31 mg/g, respectively, for rice wine from Suzhou city. Acetic acid and lactic acid were the most abundant organic acids. Abundant fungi and bacteria were detected in both communities by high-throughput sequencing. Saccharomycopsis fibuligera and Rhizopus oryzae were the dominant fungi in rice wine from Suzhou city, compared with R. oryzae , Wickerhamomyces anomalus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Mucor indicus , and Rhizopus microsporus in rice wine from Yichang city. Bacterial diversity was greater than fungal diversity in both communities. Citrobacter was the most abundant genus. Furthermore, Exiguobacterium, Aeromonas, Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas, Enterobacter, Bacillus , and Lactococcus were highly abundant in both communities.

  12. Innovation Chinese rice wine brewing technology by bi-acidification to exclude rice soaking process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiao Lu; Liu, Shuang Ping; Yu, Jian Shen; Yu, Yong Jian; Zhu, Sheng Hu; Zhou, Zhi Lei; Hu, Jian; Mao, Jian

    2017-04-01

    As a traditional fermented alcoholic beverage of China, Chinese rice wine (CRW) had a long history of more than 5000 years. Rice soaking process was the most crucial step during CRW brewing process, because rice soaking quality directly determined the quality of CRW. However, rice soaking water would cause the eutrophication of water bodies and waste of water. The longer time of rice soaking, the higher the content of biogenic amine, and it would have a huge impact on human health. An innovation brewing technology was carried out to exclude the rice soaking process and the Lactobacillus was added to make up for the total acid. Compared to the traditional brewing technology, the new technology saved water resources and reduced environmental pollution. The concentration of biogenic amine was also decreased by 27.16%, which improving the security of the CRW. The esters increased led to more soft-tasted CRW and less aging time; the quality of CRW would be improved with less alcohol. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Studies on effects of γ-ray irradiation on yellow rice wine mellowness and sterilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hua Fenmei; Chen Qiufang

    1994-03-01

    The effects of irradiation dosage, irradiation temperature, different kinds of packing container, vacuous capacity of the container, technology of making wine and storage time on acceleration of yellow rice wine mellowness were studied by sensory evaluation and chemical composition analysis. The results showed low dosage of γ-ray irradiation had accelerated the mellowness of yellow rice wine. The unique flavour of colour, aroma, taste and style were still remained after the wine was irradiated. The hygiene and safety experiments showed the irradiated wine is safe to human health. The optimal temperature during γ-ray irradiation was 30∼40 degree C. The pottery containers were superior to the glass container for the packing container during yellow wine irradiation. The suitable vacuous capacity for a 500 ml glass bottle was 100 ml. The new technology of brewing wine was better than the traditional technology for the quality of irradiated wine. The proper storage time after irradiation was 5∼6 months. The γ-ray irradiation combined at 60 degree C of temperature had good effects on sterilization of raw yellow wine. The quality of irradiated wine was stable, the chemical composition was not changed, and it was still remained the traditional flavour. It is up to the standard of export wine

  14. Development of defined mixed-culture fungal fermentation starter granulate for controlled production of rice wine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ngo Thi Phuong Dung, N.T.P.; Rombouts, F.M.; Nout, M.J.R.

    2005-01-01

    As a first step in the development of defined fungal starter granules for controlled winemaking from purple glutinous rice, the interaction of moulds and yeasts isolated from Vietnamese rice wine starters and the effect of some representative oriental herbs on the growth of moulds and yeasts were

  15. Age determination of bottled Chinese rice wine by VIS-NIR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Haiyan; Lin, Tao; Ying, Yibin; Pan, Xingxiang

    2006-10-01

    The feasibility of non-invasive visible and near infrared (VIS-NIR) spectroscopy for determining wine age (1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 years) of Chinese rice wine was investigated. Samples of Chinese rice wine were analyzed in 600 mL square brown glass bottles with side length of approximately 64 mm at room temperature. VIS-NIR spectra of 100 bottled Chinese rice wine samples were collected in transmission mode in the wavelength range of 350-1200 nm by a fiber spectrometer system. Discriminant models were developed based on discriminant analysis (DA) together with raw, first and second derivative spectra. The concentration of alcoholic degree, total acid, and °Brix was determined to validate the NIR results. The calibration result for raw spectra was better than that for first and second derivative spectra. The percentage of samples correctly classified for raw spectra was 98%. For 1-, 2-, and 3-year-old sample groups, the sample were all correctly classified, and for 4- and 5-year-old sample groups, the percentage of samples correctly classified was 92.9%, respectively. In validation analysis, the percentage of samples correctly classified was 100%. The results demonstrated that VIS-NIR spectroscopic technique could be used as a non-invasive, rapid and reliable method for predicting wine age of bottled Chinese rice wine.

  16. Studies of factors for speeding up mellowness of yellow rice wine by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hua Fenmei; Chen Qiufang; Yu Yuntao; Huang Liugen

    1991-01-01

    The paper described the research result of the factors for speeding up mellowness of yellow rice wine by irradiation of low dosage. The effect of speeding up its mellowness was gained through the research of different dosage, irradiated temperature, different container, space of container and storing temperature etc.. The experiment indicated that the best dosage was 100-600 Gy with 30-40 deg C tempreature; the pottery container for wraping wine was better than the glass one; the better space was 100 ml empty of one container and the storing time of irradiated wine covered 5-6 months

  17. Metagenomic sequencing reveals the relationship between microbiota composition and quality of Chinese Rice Wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Xutao; Chen, Jing; Liu, Lin; Wu, Huan; Tan, Haiqin; Xie, Guangfa; Xu, Qian; Zou, Huijun; Yu, Wenjing; Wang, Lan; Qin, Nan

    2016-05-31

    Chinese Rice Wine (CRW) is a common alcoholic beverage in China. To investigate the influence of microbial composition on the quality of CRW, high throughput sequencing was performed for 110 wine samples on bacterial 16S rRNA gene and fungal Internal Transcribed Spacer II (ITS2). Bioinformatic analyses demonstrated that the quality of yeast starter and final wine correlated with microbial taxonomic composition, which was exemplified by our finding that wine spoilage resulted from a high proportion of genus Lactobacillus. Subsequently, based on Lactobacillus abundance of an early stage, a model was constructed to predict final wine quality. In addition, three batches of 20 representative wine samples selected from a pool of 110 samples were further analyzed in metagenomics. The results revealed that wine spoilage was due to rapid growth of Lactobacillus brevis at the early stage of fermentation. Gene functional analysis indicated the importance of some pathways such as synthesis of biotin, malolactic fermentation and production of short-chain fatty acid. These results led to a conclusion that metabolisms of microbes influence the wine quality. Thus, nurturing of beneficial microbes and inhibition of undesired ones are both important for the mechanized brewery.

  18. Characteristics of some traditional Vietnamese starch-based rice wine fermentation starters (men)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dung, N.T.P.; Rombouts, F.M.; Nout, M.J.R.

    2007-01-01

    In the Mekong Delta region of South-Vietnam, wine from purple glutinous rice is particularly interesting because of its sherry-like taste and flavour and its attractive brown-red colour. It is manufactured at home or by small cottage industries, using traditional solid-state starters (Men). With the

  19. Adaptive evolution of Saccharomyces cerevisiae with enhanced ethanol tolerance for Chinese rice wine fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuang; Xu, Yan

    2014-08-01

    High tolerance towards ethanol is a desirable property for the Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains used in the alcoholic beverage industry. To improve the ethanol tolerance of an industrial Chinese rice wine yeast, a sequential batch fermentation strategy was used to adaptively evolve a chemically mutagenized Chinese rice wine G85 strain. The high level of ethanol produced under Chinese rice wine-like fermentation conditions was used as the selective pressure. After adaptive evolution of approximately 200 generations, mutant G85X-8 was isolated and shown to have markedly increased ethanol tolerance. The evolved strain also showed higher osmotic and temperature tolerances than the parental strain. Laboratory Chinese rice wine fermentation showed that the evolved G85X-8 strain was able to catabolize sugars more completely than the parental G85 strain. A higher level of yeast cell activity was found in the fermentation mash produced by the evolved strain, but the aroma profiles were similar between the evolved and parental strains. The improved ethanol tolerance in the evolved strain might be ascribed to the altered fatty acids composition of the cell membrane and higher intracellular trehalose concentrations. These results suggest that adaptive evolution is an efficient approach for the non-recombinant modification of industrial yeast strains.

  20. [Study on content of ethyl carbamate in yellow rice wine and its change in Zhejiang province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiang-hong; Wu, Ping-gu; Wang, Li-yuan; Zhang, Jing; Tan, Ying; Ying, Ying; Ma, Bing-jie

    2013-11-01

    To understand the content status of ethyl carbamate (EC) in yellow rice wine and the changes in storage period and shelf life in Zhejiang province. A total of 475 samples of yellow rice wine purchased randomly from supermarkets and food stores in Zhejiang province during 2008-2012, and 49 samples collected from manufacturers were measured for EC content. The sample collected from manufacturers by filter sterilization was placed at 4 °C, room temperature and 37 °C for 400 d, respectively;a bottled wine and a wine in bag were bought from market were placed for 400 d in room temperature to conduct shelf life storage test, and measure the content in every point in 2011. The EC of the samples was determinated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry after the samples were diluted with D5-EC isotope dilution technique, and purified by alkaline diatomite solid phase extraction column. The overall detection rate of EC was 99% (472/475) in yellow rice wine of Zhejiang province in 2008-2012, the median value was 70-112 µg/kg, the 90th percentile was 190-333 µg/kg, the 95th percentile was 214-393 µg/kg, and the maximum value was 430-515 µg/kg. The content of EC was increased gradually along with the increasing of storage age in commercially yellow rice wine, and the average content of EC were positively correlated with storage age(r = 0.988). The contents of EC in yellow rice wine after sterilization increased from 74 µg/kg to 86 µg/kg, 127 µg/kg and 509 µg/kg at 4 °C, room temperature and 37°C, respectively for 400 d storage, the differences had statistical significance (F = 14.73, P wines in shelf life, which stored in room temperature with bottle and bag package, was decreased slightly with increasing storage time in the beginning, from 215 to 184 µg/kg and 196 to 158 µg/kg, respectively, and increased again with increasing storage time after 250 d, with 252 µg/kg and 210 µg/kg in bottle and bag package after 400 d, respectively, the differences had

  1. Characterization of Chinese rice wine taste attributes using liquid chromatographic analysis, sensory evaluation, and an electronic tongue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, HaiYan; Zhao, Jie; Li, Fenghua; Tian, Huaixiang; Ma, Xia

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the taste characteristics of Chinese rice wine, wine samples sourced from different vintage years were analyzed using liquid chromatographic analysis, sensory evaluation, and an electronic tongue. Six organic acids and seventeen amino acids were measured using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Five monosaccharides were measured using anion-exchange chromatography. The global taste attributes were analyzed using an electronic tongue (E-tongue). The correlations between the 28 taste-active compounds and the sensory attributes, and the correlations between the E-tongue response and the sensory attributes were established via partial least square discriminant analysis (PLSDA). E-tongue response data combined with linear discriminant analysis (LDA) were used to discriminate the Chinese rice wine samples sourced from different vintage years. Sensory evaluation indicated significant differences in the Chinese rice wine samples sourced from 2003, 2005, 2008, and 2010 vintage years in the sensory attributes of harmony and mellow. The PLSDA model for the taste-active compounds and the sensory attributes showed that proline, fucose, arabinose, lactic acid, glutamic acid, arginine, isoleucine, valine, threonine, and lysine had an influence on the taste characteristic of Chinese rice wine. The Chinese rice wine samples were all correctly classified using the E-tongue and LDA. The electronic tongue was an effective tool for rapid discrimination of Chinese rice wine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Determination of Chinese rice wine from different wineries by near-infrared spectroscopy combined with chemometrics methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Xiaoying; Ying, Yibin; Yu, Haiyan; Xie, Lijuan; Fu, Xiaping; Zhou, Ying; Jiang, Xuesong

    2007-09-01

    In this paper, 104 samples of Chinese rice wines of the same variety (Shaoxing rice wine), collected in three winery ("guyuelongshan", "pagoda" brand, "kuaijishan"), three brewed years (2002, 2004, 2004-2006) were analyzed by near-infrared transmission spectroscopy between 800 and 2500 nm. The spectral differences were studied by principal components analysis (PCA), and Classifications, according the brand, were carried out by discriminant analysis (DA) and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLSDA). The DA model gained a total accuracy of 94.23% and when used to predict the brand of the validation set samples, a better result, correctly classified all of the three kinds of Chinese rice wine up to 100%, are obtained by PLSDA model. The work reported here is a feasibility study and requires further development with considerable samples of more different brands. Further studies are needed in order to improve the accuracy and robustness, and to extend the discrimination to other Chinese rice wine varieties or brands.

  3. Formation of ethyl carbamate and changes during fermentation and storage of yellow rice wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Pinggu; Cai, Chenggang; Shen, Xianghong; Wang, Liyuan; Zhang, Jing; Tan, Ying; Jiang, Wei; Pan, Xiaodong

    2014-01-01

    Ethyl carbamate (EC) was analyzed during yellow rice wine production and storage. EC increased slowly during fermentation and rapidly after frying and sterilization. Less amount of EC was formed when cooled rapidly to 30 °C than when cooled naturally. High temperature and long storage time increased EC formation. After 400 days storage, EC increased from 74.0 to 84.2, 131.8 and 509.4 μg/kg at 4 °C, room temperature and 37 °C, respectively, and there was significantly difference between the fried wine and the wine on sale from 2011 (pwine fermentation and was above 20 mg/kg after the wine was fried; urea contributed to EC formation when the fried wine was cooled slowly. These results indicate that it is necessary for industry to optimize the wine frying conditions, such as temperature, time and cooling process in order to decrease EC formation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. [Degradation of urea and ethyl carbamate in Chinese Rice wine by recombinant acid urease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jianli; Kang, Zhen; Liu, Qingtao; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Ethyl carbamate (EC) as a potential carcinogen commonly exists in traditional fermented foods. It is important eliminate urea that is the precursors of EC in many fermented foods, including Chinese Rice wine. On the basis of achieving high-level overexpression of food-grade ethanol-resistant acid urease, we studied the hydrolysis of urea and EC with the recombinant acid urease. Recombinant acid urease showed degraded urea in both the simulated system with ethanol and Chinese Rice wine (60 mg/L of urea was completely degraded within 25 h), indicating that the recombinant enzyme is suitable for the elimination of urea in Chinese Rice wine. Although recombinant acid urease also has degradation catalytic activity on EC, no obvious degradation of EC was observed. Further investigation results showed that the Km value for urea and EC of the recombinant acid urease was 0.7147 mmol/L and 41.32 mmol/L, respectively. The results provided theoretical foundation for realizing simultaneous degradation of urea and EC.

  5. Prediction of ethanol in bottled Chinese rice wine by NIR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Yibin; Yu, Haiyan; Pan, Xingxiang; Lin, Tao

    2006-10-01

    To evaluate the applicability of non-invasive visible and near infrared (VIS-NIR) spectroscopy for determining ethanol concentration of Chinese rice wine in square brown glass bottle, transmission spectra of 100 bottled Chinese rice wine samples were collected in the spectral range of 350-1200 nm. Statistical equations were established between the reference data and VIS-NIR spectra by partial least squares (PLS) regression method. Performance of three kinds of mathematical treatment of spectra (original spectra, first derivative spectra and second derivative spectra) were also discussed. The PLS models of original spectra turned out better results, with higher correlation coefficient in calibration (R cal) of 0.89, lower root mean standard error of calibration (RMSEC) of 0.165, and lower root mean standard error of cross validation (RMSECV) of 0.179. Using original spectra, PLS models for ethanol concentration prediction were developed. The R cal and the correlation coefficient in validation (R val) were 0.928 and 0.875, respectively; and the RMSEC and the root mean standard error of validation (RMSEP) were 0.135 (%, v v -1) and 0.177 (%, v v -1), respectively. The results demonstrated that VIS-NIR spectroscopy could be used to predict ethanol concentration in bottled Chinese rice wine.

  6. Research into the functional components and antioxidant activities of North China rice wine (Ji Mo Lao Jiu)

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shuai; Mao, Xiangzhao; Liu, Pei; Lin, Hong; Du, Zuyuan; Lv, Ning; Han, Jichen; Qiu, Cuifang

    2013-01-01

    Over the last decade, considerable experimental evidence has supported the view that grape wine and South China rice wine are rich in diverse nutrients and have powerful antioxidant activity. However, little research has been carried out for North China rice wine, of which Ji Mo Lao Jiu (JMLJ) is the outstanding representative. In this study, the functional components and antioxidant activity of JMLJ were investigated. Twenty-eight free amino acids were found in JMLJ, much more than that previously reported in other Chinese rice wines (16–21). Functional oligosaccharides (5290.222 mg/L), total phenols (722.431 ± 10.970 mg/L), and mineral elements (9) were rich in JMLJ. When compared with synthetic antioxidants, such as butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), JMLJ showed effective 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging and reducing capacity. The results of this study lay the foundation for promoting the utilization of JMLJ and the development of North China rice wine in the food industry. PMID:24804035

  7. Research into the functional components and antioxidant activities of North China rice wine (Ji Mo Lao Jiu).

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shuai; Mao, Xiangzhao; Liu, Pei; Lin, Hong; Du, Zuyuan; Lv, Ning; Han, Jichen; Qiu, Cuifang

    2013-07-01

    Over the last decade, considerable experimental evidence has supported the view that grape wine and South China rice wine are rich in diverse nutrients and have powerful antioxidant activity. However, little research has been carried out for North China rice wine, of which Ji Mo Lao Jiu (JMLJ) is the outstanding representative. In this study, the functional components and antioxidant activity of JMLJ were investigated. Twenty-eight free amino acids were found in JMLJ, much more than that previously reported in other Chinese rice wines (16-21). Functional oligosaccharides (5290.222 mg/L), total phenols (722.431 ± 10.970 mg/L), and mineral elements (9) were rich in JMLJ. When compared with synthetic antioxidants, such as butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), JMLJ showed effective 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging and reducing capacity. The results of this study lay the foundation for promoting the utilization of JMLJ and the development of North China rice wine in the food industry.

  8. Simultaneous determination of 15 phenolic constituents of Chinese black rice wine by HPLC-MS/MS with SPE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yutang; Liu, Yuanyuan; Xiao, Chunxia; Liu, Laping; Hao, Miao; Wang, Jianguo; Liu, Xuebo

    2014-06-01

    This study established a new method for quantitative and qualitative determination of certain components in black rice wine, a traditional Chinese brewed wine. Specifically, we combined solid-phase extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (MS/MS) to determine 8 phenolic acids, 3 flavonols, and 4 anthocyanins in black rice wine. First, we clean samples with OASIS HLB cartridges and optimized extraction parameters. Next, we performed separation on a SHIM-PACK XR-ODS column (I.D. 3.0 mm × 75 mm, 2.2 μm particle size) with a gradient elution of 50% aqueous acetonitrile (V/V) and water, both containing 0.2% formic acid. We used multiple-reaction monitoring scanning for quantification, with switching electrospray ion source polarity between positive and negative modes in a single chromatographic run. We detected 15 phenolic compounds properly within 38 min under optimized conditions. Limits of detection ranged from 0.008 to 0.030 mg/L, and average recoveries ranged from 60.8 to 103.1% with relative standard deviation ≤8.6%. We validated the method and found it to be sensitive and reliable for quantifying phenolic compounds in rice wine matrices. This study developed a new, reliable HPLC-MS/MS method for simultaneous determination of 15 bioactive components in black rice wine. This method was validated and found to be sensitive and reliable for quantifying phenolic compounds in rice wine. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  9. Identification and characterization of filamentous fungi isolated from fermentation starters for Hong Qu glutinous rice wine brewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Xu-Cong; Huang, Zhi-Qing; Zhang, Wen; Rao, Ping-Fan; Ni, Li

    2012-01-01

    Hong Qu glutinous rice wine is one of the most popular traditional rice wines in China. Traditionally, this wine is brewed from glutinous rice with the addition of wine fermentation starters (Hong Qu (also called red yeast rice) and White Qu). The objective of this study was to investigate the variability of filamentous fungi associated with traditional fermentation starters through a traditional culture-dependent method and a molecular identification approach. In this study, forty-three filamentous fungi were separated by traditional culture-dependent means (macro- and microscopic characteristics) from 10 fermentation starters and classified into 16 different species based on morphological examination and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences analysis. It was observed that the genus Aspergillus had the highest number (14 isolates) of isolates followed by Rhizopus (11 isolates), Monascus (5 isolates) and Penicillium (4 isolates). The species R. oryzae, A. niger, A. flavus and M. purpureus were frequently found in wine starter samples, among which R. oryzae was the most frequent species. The enzyme-producing properties (glucoamylase, α-amylase and protease) of all fungal isolates from different starters were also evaluated. A. flavus, R. oryzae and M. purpureus were found to be better glucoamylase producers. A. flavus, R. oryzae and A.oryzae exhibited higher activity of α-amylase. A. flavus and A. oryzae had higher protease activity. However, some fungal isolates of the same species exhibited a significant variability in the production levels for all determined enzyme activity. This study is the first to identify filamentous fungi associated with the starter of Hong Qu glutinous rice wine using both traditional and molecular methods. The results enrich our knowledge of liquor-related micro-organisms, and can be used to promote the development of the traditional fermentation technology.

  10. Microbial diversity and chemical analysis of the starters used in traditional Chinese sweet rice wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Haiying; Zhang, Ting; Zhang, Qi; Luo, Jie; Cai, Chenggang; Mao, Jianwei

    2018-08-01

    Chinese sweet rice wine (CSRW) is a popular alcoholic drink in China. To investigate the effect of the microbial composition in CSRW starters on the final quality of the alcoholic drink, high-throughput sequencing on the fungal internal transcribed spacer II and bacterial 16S rRNA gene of the microflora in 8 starter samples was performed. The sequencing data analysis showed that 10 genera of yeasts and mold, and 11 genera of bacteria were identified. Fungal diversity analyses showed the significant variances in the fungal compositions among the starter samples. Starter microbiota were dominated by the Rhizopus genus in SZ5, LS6, NN8, QD9, DZ10 and DZ11, indicating its important role in starch hydrolysis during CSRW brewing. According to principal coordinate analyses, the bacterial composition had even less similarity among the 8 starter samples. The chemical determination of CSRW fermented with the 8 starters demonstrated that the CSRW quality and flavor were drastically influenced by the taxonomic composition and metabolism of the microbes in the starters. This study suggests it is necessary to standardize rice wine manufacturing and flavor classification by specifying starter and fermentation techniques. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A Bacillus paralicheniformis Iron-Containing Urease Reduces Urea Concentrations in Rice Wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qingtao; Chen, Yuqi; Yuan, Minglai; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian; Kang, Zhen

    2017-09-01

    Urease, a nickel-containing metalloenzyme, was the first enzyme to be crystallized and has a prominent position in the history of biochemistry. In the present study, we identified a nickel urease gene cluster, ureABCEFGDH , in Bacillus paralicheniformis ATCC 9945a and characterized it in Escherichia coli Enzymatic assays demonstrate that this oxygen-stable urease is also an iron-containing acid urease. Heterologous expression assays of UreH suggest that this accessory protein is involved in the transmembrane transportation of nickel and iron ions. Moreover, this iron-containing acid urease has a potential application in the degradation of urea in rice wine. The present study not only enhances our understanding of the mechanism of activation of urease but also provides insight into the evolution of metalloenzymes. IMPORTANCE An iron-containing, oxygen-stable acid urease from B. paralicheniformis ATCC 9945a with good enzymatic properties was characterized. This acid urease shows activities toward both urea and ethyl carbamate. After digestion with 6 U/ml urease, approximately 92% of the urea in rice wine was removed, suggesting that this urease has great potential in the food industry. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  12. Differentiation of Chinese rice wines from different wineries based on mineral elemental fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Fei; Wu, Jian; Ying, Yibin; Li, Bobin; Jiang, Tao

    2013-12-15

    Discrimination of Chinese rice wines from three well-known wineries ("Guyuelongshan", "Kuaijishan", and "Pagoda") in China has been carried out according to mineral element contents in this study. Nineteen macro and trace mineral elements (Na, Mg, Al, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, V, Cr, Co, Ni, As, Se, Mo, Cd, Ba and Pb) were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) in 117 samples. Then the experimental data were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) and principal component analysis (PCA) to reveal significant differences and potential patterns between samples. Stepwise linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) were applied to develop classification models and achieved correct classified rates of 100% and 97.4% for the prediction sample set, respectively. The discrimination could be attributed to different raw materials (mainly water) and elaboration processes employed. The results indicate that the element compositions combined with multivariate analysis can be used as fingerprinting techniques to protect prestigious wineries and enable the authenticity of Chinese rice wine. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Intelligent sensing sensory quality of Chinese rice wine using near infrared spectroscopy and nonlinear tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Qin; Chen, Quansheng; Zhao, Jiewen

    2016-02-01

    The approach presented herein reports the application of near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, in contrast with human sensory panel, as a tool for estimating Chinese rice wine quality; concretely, to achieve the prediction of the overall sensory scores assigned by the trained sensory panel. Back propagation artificial neural network (BPANN) combined with adaptive boosting (AdaBoost) algorithm, namely BP-AdaBoost, as a novel nonlinear algorithm, was proposed in modeling. First, the optimal spectra intervals were selected by synergy interval partial least square (Si-PLS). Then, BP-AdaBoost model based on the optimal spectra intervals was established, called Si-BP-AdaBoost model. These models were optimized by cross validation, and the performance of each final model was evaluated according to correlation coefficient (Rp) and root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) in prediction set. Si-BP-AdaBoost showed excellent performance in comparison with other models. The best Si-BP-AdaBoost model was achieved with Rp = 0.9180 and RMSEP = 2.23 in the prediction set. It was concluded that NIR spectroscopy combined with Si-BP-AdaBoost was an appropriate method for the prediction of the sensory quality in Chinese rice wine.

  14. [Determination of four coumarin constituents before and after Angelicae Dahuricae Radix stewed with yellow rice wine and research on its mutual transformation mechanism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Zi-Min; Wang, Jing; Jia, Tian-Zhu; Chen, Jian-Feng

    2016-08-01

    To determine the contents of oxypeucedanin, oxypeucedanin hydrate, byakangelicol and byak-angelicin both before and after Angelicae Dahuricae Radix was stewed with yellow rice wine by high-performance liquid chromatography, and study the mutual transformation mechanisms of oxypeucedanin into oxypeucedanin hydrate, as well as byakangelicol into byak-angelicin. The research results indicated that the contents of oxypeucedanin and byakangelicol were decreased, but the contents of oxypeucedanin hydrate and byak-angelicin were increased after Angelicae Dahuricae Radix was processed with yellow rice wine. The contents' changes of these chemical compounds were due to the ring opening reaction of epoxy compounds, such as oxypeucedanin and byakangelicol under the weak acidity and heating conditions of yellow rice wine. This research could provide a scientific basis for the processing mechanism of Angelicae Dahuricae Radix with yellow rice wine stewing. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  15. Decreased production of higher alcohols by Saccharomyces cerevisiae for Chinese rice wine fermentation by deletion of Bat aminotransferases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cui-Ying; Qi, Ya-Nan; Ma, Hong-Xia; Li, Wei; Dai, Long-Hai; Xiao, Dong-Guang

    2015-04-01

    An appropriate level of higher alcohols produced by yeast during the fermentation is one of the most important factors influencing Chinese rice wine quality. In this study, BAT1 and BAT2 single- and double-gene-deletion mutant strains were constructed from an industrial yeast strain RY1 to decrease higher alcohols during Chinese rice wine fermentation. The results showed that the BAT2 single-gene-deletion mutant strain produced best improvement in the production of higher alcohols while remaining showed normal growth and fermentation characteristics. Furthermore, a BAT2 single-gene-deletion diploid engineered strain RY1-Δbat2 was constructed and produced low levels of isobutanol and isoamylol (isoamyl alcohol and active amyl alcohol) in simulated fermentation of Chinese rice wine, 92.40 and 303.31 mg/L, respectively, which were 33.00 and 14.20 % lower than those of the parental strain RY1. The differences in fermentation performance between RY1-Δbat2 and RY1 were minor. Therefore, construction of this yeast strain is important in future development in Chinese wine industry and provides insights on generating yeast strains for other fermented alcoholic beverages.

  16. Microbiological diversity and prevalence of spoilage and pathogenic bacteria in commercial fermented alcoholic beverages (beer, fruit wine, refined rice wine, and yakju).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Se Hui; Kim, Nam Hee; Shim, Moon Bo; Jeon, Young Wook; Ahn, Ji Hye; Lee, Soon Ho; Hwang, In Gyun; Rhee, Min Suk

    2015-04-01

    The present study examined 469 commercially available fermented alcoholic beverages (FABs), including beer (draft, microbrewed, and pasteurized), fruit wine (grape and others), refined rice wine, and yakju (raw and pasteurized). Samples were screened for Escherichia coli and eight foodborne pathogens (Bacillus cereus, Campylobacter jejuni, Clostridium perfringens, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., Staphylococcus aureus, and Yersinia enterocolitica), and the aerobic plate count, lactic acid bacteria, acetic acid bacteria, fungi, and total coliforms were also enumerated. Microbrewed beer contained the highest number of microorganisms (average aerobic plate count, 3.5; lactic acid bacteria, 2.1; acetic acid bacteria, 2.0; and fungi, 3.6 log CFU/ml), followed by draft beer and yakju (P beer samples) and B. cereus (detected in all FABs) were present in some products. B. cereus was detected most frequently in microbrewed beer (54.8% of samples) and nonpasteurized yakju (50.0%), followed by pasteurized yakju (28.8%), refined rice wine (25.0%), other fruit wines (12.3%), grape wine (8.6%), draft beer (5.6%), and pasteurized beer (2.2%) (P < 0.05). The finding that spore-forming B. cereus and coliform bacteria can survive the harsh conditions present in alcoholic beverages should be taken into account (alongside traditional quality indicators such as the presence of lactic acid-producing bacteria, acetic acid-producing bacteria, or both) when developing manufacturing systems and methods to prolong the shelf life of high-quality FAB products. New strategic quality management plans for various FABs are needed.

  17. Immunostimulatory Effects of Polysaccharides Isolated from Makgeolli (Traditional Korean Rice Wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Won Cho

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Makgeolli is a traditional Korean rice wine, reported to have various biological functions. In this study, the immunostimulatory activity of a polysaccharide from makgeolli (PSM was investigated. The polysaccharide fraction was isolated from makgeolli by hot water extraction, ethanol precipitation, dialysis, and lyophilization. The major constituents in PSM were neutral sugars (87.3%. PSM was composed of five different sugars, glucose, mannose, galactose, xylose, and arabinose. In normal mice, PSM treatment increased the spleen index (p < 0.05 as well as splenocyte proliferation (p < 0.05 in combination with concanavalin A or lipopolysaccharide. The immunostimulatory activities of PSM were also examined in cyclophosphamide (CY-induced immunosuppressed mice. Mice treated with PSM exhibited increased splenocyte proliferation (p < 0.05, natural killer cell activity, and white blood cell counts (p < 0.01 compared with immunosuppressed mice. These results indicate that PSM can enhance immune function in normal mice and CY-induced immunosuppressed mice.

  18. Research progress on the brewing techniques of new-type rice wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Aiquan; Xu, Xueming; Jin, Zhengyu

    2017-01-15

    As a traditional alcoholic beverage, Chinese rice wine (CRW) with high nutritional value and unique flavor has been popular in China for thousands of years. Although traditional production methods had been used without change for centuries, numerous technological innovations in the last decades have greatly impacted on the CRW industry. However, reviews related to the technology research progress in this field are relatively few. This article aimed at providing a brief summary of the recent developments in the new brewing technologies for making CRW. Based on the comparison between the conventional methods and the innovative technologies of CRW brewing, three principal aspects were summarized and sorted, including the innovation of raw material pretreatment, the optimization of fermentation and the reform of sterilization technology. Furthermore, by comparing the advantages and disadvantages of these methods, various issues are addressed related to the prospect of the CRW industry. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. PLS-NIR determination of five parameters in different types of Chinese rice wine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Haiyan; Ying, Yibin; Fu, Xiaping; Lu, Huishan

    2005-11-01

    To evaluate the applicability of near infrared spectroscopy for determination of the five enological parameters (alcoholic degree, pH value, total acid and amino acid nitrogen, °Brix) of Chinese rice wine, transmission spectra were collected in the spectral range from 12500 to 3800 cm-1 in a 1 mm path length rectangular quartz cuvette with air as reference at room temperature. Five calibration equations for the five parameters were established between the reference data and spectra by partial least squares (PLS) regression, separately. The best calibration results were achieved for the determination of alcoholic degree and °Brix. The RPD (ration of the standard deviation of the samples to the SECV) values of the calibration for both alcoholic degree and °Brix were higher than 3 (4.30 and 7.94, respectively), which demonstrated the robustness and power of the calibration models. The determination coefficients (R2) for alcoholic degree and °Brix were 0.987 and 0.991, respectively. The performance of pH, total acid and amino acid nitrogen was not as good as that of alcoholic degree and °Brix. The RPD values for the three parameters were 1.48, 1.85 and 1.82, respectively, and R2 values were 0.964, 0.970 and 0.971, respectively. In validation step, R2 value of the five parameters are all higher than 0.7, especially for alcoholic degree and °Brix (0.968 and 0.956, respectively). The results demonstrated that NIR spectroscopy could be used to predict the concentration of the five enological parameters in Chinese rice wine.

  20. Metabolic engineering of the regulators in nitrogen catabolite repression to reduce the production of ethyl carbamate in a model rice wine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xinrui; Zou, Huijun; Fu, Jianwei; Zhou, Jingwen; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Rice wine has been one of the most popular traditional alcoholic drinks in China. However, the presence of potentially carcinogenic ethyl carbamate (EC) in rice wine has raised a series of food safety issues. During rice wine production, the key reason for EC formation is urea accumulation, which occurs because of nitrogen catabolite repression (NCR) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. NCR represses urea utilization by retaining Gln3p in the cytoplasm when preferred nitrogen sources are present. In order to increase the nuclear localization of Gln3p, some possible phosphorylation sites on the nuclear localization signal were mutated and the nuclear localization regulation signal was truncated, and the disruption of URE2 provided an additional method of reducing urea accumulation. By combining these strategies, the genes involved in urea utilization (DUR1,2 and DUR3) could be significantly activated in the presence of glutamine. During shake flask fermentations of the genetically modified strains, very little urea accumulated in the medium. Furthermore, the concentrations of urea and EC were reduced by 63% and 72%, respectively, in a model rice wine system. Examination of the normal nutrients in rice wine indicated that there were few differences in fermentation characteristics between the wild-type strain and the genetically modified strain. These results show that metabolic engineering of the NCR regulators has great potential as a method for eliminating EC during rice wine production.

  1. Metabolic Engineering of the Regulators in Nitrogen Catabolite Repression To Reduce the Production of Ethyl Carbamate in a Model Rice Wine System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xinrui; Zou, Huijun; Fu, Jianwei; Chen, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Rice wine has been one of the most popular traditional alcoholic drinks in China. However, the presence of potentially carcinogenic ethyl carbamate (EC) in rice wine has raised a series of food safety issues. During rice wine production, the key reason for EC formation is urea accumulation, which occurs because of nitrogen catabolite repression (NCR) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. NCR represses urea utilization by retaining Gln3p in the cytoplasm when preferred nitrogen sources are present. In order to increase the nuclear localization of Gln3p, some possible phosphorylation sites on the nuclear localization signal were mutated and the nuclear localization regulation signal was truncated, and the disruption of URE2 provided an additional method of reducing urea accumulation. By combining these strategies, the genes involved in urea utilization (DUR1,2 and DUR3) could be significantly activated in the presence of glutamine. During shake flask fermentations of the genetically modified strains, very little urea accumulated in the medium. Furthermore, the concentrations of urea and EC were reduced by 63% and 72%, respectively, in a model rice wine system. Examination of the normal nutrients in rice wine indicated that there were few differences in fermentation characteristics between the wild-type strain and the genetically modified strain. These results show that metabolic engineering of the NCR regulators has great potential as a method for eliminating EC during rice wine production. PMID:24185848

  2. Glutinous rice variety R817 for good quality wine developed by radiation induced mutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Mingxian; Luo Rongting; Xu Baocai

    1987-01-01

    Full text: The variety has been developed by gamma irradiation of dry seeds of Ai Shang Nu' at Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences. The main characteristics are as follows: 1. It has higher yield: Average about 6000 kg/ha, maximum 7800 kg/ha in trials, about 10% above the control variety 'Shang Nuo No. 4'. 2. It is disease resistant: After artificial inoculation resistant to rice blast pathotypes A, A63, B1, B15, C3, C13, C15, D3, E1, G1. 3. The growing period of the variety is about 136 days in Hangzhou. 3 days earlier than the original variety. The seedling period could be long or short. 4. It has good grain quality suitable for making Xiang Xue, Shan Miang and other well known rice wines. The variety is being grown all over our province and in some neighbouring provinces. Its cultivation area was 2000 ha in 1984, more than 8000 ha in 1985 and is rapidly increasing. (author)

  3. Effect of gallic and protocatechuic acids on the metabolism of ethyl carbamate in Chinese yellow rice wine brewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wanyi; Fang, Ruosi; Chen, Qihe

    2017-10-15

    It was studied that gallic and protocatechuic acids played important roles in ethyl carbamate (EC) forming. Gallic and protocatechuic acids can reduce the arginine consumption through inhibiting the arginine deiminase enzyme. Therefore, they are generally added to regulate EC catabolism in the course of yellow rice wine leavening at the third day. In this work, gallic and protocatechuic acids made little influence on the growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Besides, the addition of 200mg/L gallic or protocatechuic acid could prevent the transformation from urea/citrulline to EC. Gallic acid showed better inhibiting effect that the content of EC could be reduced by 91.9% at most. Furthermore, the production of amino acids and volatile flavor compounds are not markedly affected by phenolic compounds. The discoveries reveal that EC can be reduced by supplying gallic acid or protocatechuic acid while yellow rice wine leavening. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Identification of the Rice Wines with Different Marked Ages by Electronic Nose Coupled with Smartphone and Cloud Storage Platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zhebo; Xiao, Xize; Wang, Jun; Wang, Hui

    2017-10-31

    In this study, a portable electronic nose (E-nose) was self-developed to identify rice wines with different marked ages-all the operations of the E-nose were controlled by a special Smartphone Application. The sensor array of the E-nose was comprised of 12 MOS sensors and the obtained response values were transmitted to the Smartphone thorough a wireless communication module. Then, Aliyun worked as a cloud storage platform for the storage of responses and identification models. The measurement of the E-nose was composed of the taste information obtained phase (TIOP) and the aftertaste information obtained phase (AIOP). The area feature data obtained from the TIOP and the feature data obtained from the TIOP-AIOP were applied to identify rice wines by using pattern recognition methods. Principal component analysis (PCA), locally linear embedding (LLE) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) were applied for the classification of those wine samples. LDA based on the area feature data obtained from the TIOP-AIOP proved a powerful tool and showed the best classification results. Partial least-squares regression (PLSR) and support vector machine (SVM) were applied for the predictions of marked ages and SVM (R² = 0.9942) worked much better than PLSR.

  5. Identification of the Rice Wines with Different Marked Ages by Electronic Nose Coupled with Smartphone and Cloud Storage Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhebo Wei

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a portable electronic nose (E-nose was self-developed to identify rice wines with different marked ages—all the operations of the E-nose were controlled by a special Smartphone Application. The sensor array of the E-nose was comprised of 12 MOS sensors and the obtained response values were transmitted to the Smartphone thorough a wireless communication module. Then, Aliyun worked as a cloud storage platform for the storage of responses and identification models. The measurement of the E-nose was composed of the taste information obtained phase (TIOP and the aftertaste information obtained phase (AIOP. The area feature data obtained from the TIOP and the feature data obtained from the TIOP-AIOP were applied to identify rice wines by using pattern recognition methods. Principal component analysis (PCA, locally linear embedding (LLE and linear discriminant analysis (LDA were applied for the classification of those wine samples. LDA based on the area feature data obtained from the TIOP-AIOP proved a powerful tool and showed the best classification results. Partial least-squares regression (PLSR and support vector machine (SVM were applied for the predictions of marked ages and SVM (R2 = 0.9942 worked much better than PLSR.

  6. A micro-fluidic sub-microliter sample introduction system for direct analysis of Chinese rice wine by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry using external aqueous calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Heyong; Liu, Jinhua; Xu, Zigang; Yin, Xuefeng

    2012-07-01

    A microfluidic sub-microliter sample introducing system was developed for direct analysis of Chinese rice wine by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). It consisted of a microfluidic chip integrating variable-volume sampling channels (0.1-0.8 μL), an eight-way multi-functional valve used in flow injection analysis (FIA), a syringe pump and a peristaltic pump of the Ar ICP-MS instrument. Three solutions, i.e., 15, 40 and 100 g L- 1 glucose in 20% ethanol were used to simulate Chinese rice wine of the dry type, the semidry type and the semisweet type, each. The effects of their volume introduced into ICP-MS on the plasma stability and ICP-MS intensities were studied. The experimental results showed that neither alteration of plasma stability nor carbon deposition was observed when the sampling volume of 20% ethanol containing 100 g L- 1 glucose was downscaled to 0.8 μL. Further reducing the sampling volume to 0.4 μL, no significant difference between the intensities of multi-element standard prepared in three simulated Chinese rice wine matrices and those in aqueous solution was observed. It indicated no negative effect of Chinese rice wine matrix on the ICP-MS intensities. A sampling volume of 0.4 μL was considered to be a good compromise between sensitivity and matrix effect. The flow rate of the carrier was chosen as 20 μL min- 1 for obtaining peaks with the highest peak height within the shortest time. Based on these observations, a microflow injection (μFI) method for the direct determination of cadmium and lead in Chinese rice wine by ICP-MS using an external aqueous calibration was developed. The sample throughput was 45 h- 1 with the detection limit of 19.8 and 10.4 ng L- 1 for Cd and Pb, respectively. The contents of Cd and Pb in 10 Chinese rice wine samples were measured. The results agreed well with those determined by ICP-MS with the conventional sampling system after microwave assisted digestion. The recoveries of three Chinese

  7. Isolation and identification of mold and yeast in medombae, a rice wine starter culture from Kompong Cham Province, Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chay, C.,

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Medombae is a dried starter culture used for traditional rice wine processing in Cambodia. However, studies on the role of mold and yeast present and their efficacy for rice wine fermentation are still limited. Cultural and morphological tests revealed that the isolated representative mold strains were isolated based on the method of identification used as Mucor spp and Rhizopus oryzae. On the other hand, the biochemical properties of the first yeast isolate using the Vitek 2 identification system and YST Card identification suggests its identity as Candida tropicalis. The second yeast strain examined for its morphological and cultural characteristic using agar slide technique, and its protein profile which was compared to the reference and sample protein masses using Biomerieux Vitek MS (MALD-TOF showed the presence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The biochemical characteristics and cellular characteristics of the third yeast isolate as described by Lodder (1970 and Kreger-Van Rij (1984 confirmed its identity as Saccharomycopsis spp. The DNA test of identification of the isolates should be conducted to further confirm the identity of the isolates.

  8. A micro-fluidic sub-microliter sample introduction system for direct analysis of Chinese rice wine by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry using external aqueous calibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Heyong [Institute of Microanalytical Systems, Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310027 (China); College of Material Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou, 310036 (China); Liu, Jinhua [College of Material Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou, 310036 (China); Xu, Zigang [Institute of Analytical and Applied Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310027 (China); Yin, Xuefeng, E-mail: yinxf@zju.edu.cn [Institute of Microanalytical Systems, Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310027 (China); College of Material Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou, 310036 (China)

    2012-07-15

    A microfluidic sub-microliter sample introducing system was developed for direct analysis of Chinese rice wine by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). It consisted of a microfluidic chip integrating variable-volume sampling channels (0.1-0.8 {mu}L), an eight-way multi-functional valve used in flow injection analysis (FIA), a syringe pump and a peristaltic pump of the Ar ICP-MS instrument. Three solutions, i.e., 15, 40 and 100 g L{sup -1} glucose in 20% ethanol were used to simulate Chinese rice wine of the dry type, the semidry type and the semisweet type, each. The effects of their volume introduced into ICP-MS on the plasma stability and ICP-MS intensities were studied. The experimental results showed that neither alteration of plasma stability nor carbon deposition was observed when the sampling volume of 20% ethanol containing 100 g L{sup -1} glucose was downscaled to 0.8 {mu}L. Further reducing the sampling volume to 0.4 {mu}L, no significant difference between the intensities of multi-element standard prepared in three simulated Chinese rice wine matrices and those in aqueous solution was observed. It indicated no negative effect of Chinese rice wine matrix on the ICP-MS intensities. A sampling volume of 0.4 {mu}L was considered to be a good compromise between sensitivity and matrix effect. The flow rate of the carrier was chosen as 20 {mu}L min{sup -1} for obtaining peaks with the highest peak height within the shortest time. Based on these observations, a microflow injection ({mu}FI) method for the direct determination of cadmium and lead in Chinese rice wine by ICP-MS using an external aqueous calibration was developed. The sample throughput was 45 h{sup -1} with the detection limit of 19.8 and 10.4 ng L{sup -1} for Cd and Pb, respectively. The contents of Cd and Pb in 10 Chinese rice wine samples were measured. The results agreed well with those determined by ICP-MS with the conventional sampling system after microwave assisted digestion

  9. A micro-fluidic sub-microliter sample introduction system for direct analysis of Chinese rice wine by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry using external aqueous calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Heyong; Liu, Jinhua; Xu, Zigang; Yin, Xuefeng

    2012-01-01

    A microfluidic sub-microliter sample introducing system was developed for direct analysis of Chinese rice wine by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). It consisted of a microfluidic chip integrating variable-volume sampling channels (0.1–0.8 μL), an eight-way multi-functional valve used in flow injection analysis (FIA), a syringe pump and a peristaltic pump of the Ar ICP-MS instrument. Three solutions, i.e., 15, 40 and 100 g L −1 glucose in 20% ethanol were used to simulate Chinese rice wine of the dry type, the semidry type and the semisweet type, each. The effects of their volume introduced into ICP-MS on the plasma stability and ICP-MS intensities were studied. The experimental results showed that neither alteration of plasma stability nor carbon deposition was observed when the sampling volume of 20% ethanol containing 100 g L −1 glucose was downscaled to 0.8 μL. Further reducing the sampling volume to 0.4 μL, no significant difference between the intensities of multi-element standard prepared in three simulated Chinese rice wine matrices and those in aqueous solution was observed. It indicated no negative effect of Chinese rice wine matrix on the ICP-MS intensities. A sampling volume of 0.4 μL was considered to be a good compromise between sensitivity and matrix effect. The flow rate of the carrier was chosen as 20 μL min −1 for obtaining peaks with the highest peak height within the shortest time. Based on these observations, a microflow injection (μFI) method for the direct determination of cadmium and lead in Chinese rice wine by ICP-MS using an external aqueous calibration was developed. The sample throughput was 45 h −1 with the detection limit of 19.8 and 10.4 ng L −1 for Cd and Pb, respectively. The contents of Cd and Pb in 10 Chinese rice wine samples were measured. The results agreed well with those determined by ICP-MS with the conventional sampling system after microwave assisted digestion. The recoveries of three

  10. The Determination of Biogenic Amine in Yellow Rice Wine%黄酒中生物胺的测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    玉澜; 谢济运; 蓝峻峰

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to seek a rapid, simple and sensitive detection method for determining the content of biogenic amine in yellow rice wine. [ Methods] Taking dansyl chloride as derivating agent and using room temperature ionic liquids (RTIIs) as extractive, enrichment and derivative media, to determine the content of biogenic amine in yellow rice wine. [ Result] Using RTTLs [ HMIM] PF6 as media to derive, extract and enrich biogenic amine in yellow rice wine. Based on the test, the ideal derive conditions were obtained; derivative dose 1.5 ml, borax buffer solution pH 9.10, borax buffer solution 2.0 ml, [ HMIMJPF6 ion liquid 1.0 ml, supersonic time 30 min. The recovery rate of 6 biogenic amines was among 87.5% -109.8% , relative standard deviation was among 0.75% - 3. 21% , the detection limit was among 0.005 -0.025 μg/ml. The method was the integration of extractive, enrichment and derivative, it simplified the test greatly, ionic liquid could promote the isolation effectively, the stability was better and the linear range of the established method was better. [Conclusion] The method is a rapid, simple and sensitive detection method for determining the content of trace biogenic amine in yellow rice wine and other beverages.%[目的]为测定黄酒中生物胺的含量寻求一种快速、简单、灵敏的检测方法.[方法]以丹磺酰氯为衍生剂,室温离子液体作为萃取、富集、衍生介质采测定黄酒中生物胺的含量.[结果]用室温离子液体[ HMIM] PF6为介质来衍生、萃取和富集黄酒中的生物胺.通过试验得出比较理想的衍生条件:衍生剂量1.5ml,硼砂缓冲液的pH 9.10,硼砂缓冲液量为2.0 ml,1.0ml[HMIM]PF6离子液,超声时间为30 min.所得出的6种生物胺回收率为87.5%~109.8%,相对标准偏差为0.75% ~3.21%,检出限量为0.005~0.025 μg/ml.该方法将衍生、萃取和富集3个步骤集于一体,大大简化了试验,离子液体可有效促进分离,稳定性良

  11. Effects of natural plant extracts and gamma rays on lactobacillus isolated from Korean traditional raw rice wine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Ji Young; Kim, Jae Hun; Lee, Ju Woon; Kim, Jin Kyu [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    Recently, Korean traditional raw rice wines (RRW) have received attention because they are a nutritious food with health properties. But the rapid deterioration of fermented RRW is one of the serious problems for brewing and marketing in the world beyond Korea. The goal of this study was to develop a way to enhance the quality and to lengthen the period of circulation of the RRW. A lactic acid bacterium was isolated from RRW. It was identified as Lactobacillus fermentum (98%) based on its biochemical properties, and 16S rRNA sequence. Treatments of RRW with gamma radiation and green tea extracts reduced the bacterial population except for yeasts and Lactobacillus in the RRW. This result suggested that the natural plant extracts and catechin products can be used as an effective natural storage agent.

  12. Effects of natural plant extracts and gamma rays on lactobacillus isolated from Korean traditional raw rice wine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Ji Young; Kim, Jae Hun; Lee, Ju Woon; Kim, Jin Kyu

    2010-01-01

    Recently, Korean traditional raw rice wines (RRW) have received attention because they are a nutritious food with health properties. But the rapid deterioration of fermented RRW is one of the serious problems for brewing and marketing in the world beyond Korea. The goal of this study was to develop a way to enhance the quality and to lengthen the period of circulation of the RRW. A lactic acid bacterium was isolated from RRW. It was identified as Lactobacillus fermentum (98%) based on its biochemical properties, and 16S rRNA sequence. Treatments of RRW with gamma radiation and green tea extracts reduced the bacterial population except for yeasts and Lactobacillus in the RRW. This result suggested that the natural plant extracts and catechin products can be used as an effective natural storage agent

  13. Determination of oligosaccharides and monosaccharides in Hakka rice wine by precolumn derivation high-performance liquid chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weidong Bai

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a precolumn derivatization procedure with 1-phenyl-3-methyl-5-pyrazolone (PMP reagent to detect oligosaccharides and monosaccharides in Hakka rice wine. The subsequent separation of the derivatized glucose–PMP also was performed using a mobile phase consisting of the molar ratio of acetonitrile to ammonium acetate buffer (0.1M of 22:78 at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min with the column temperature of 35°C, and the pH of ammonium acetate buffer at 5.5. The optimum derivation conditions were as follows: reaction temperature, 70°C; reaction time, 30 minutes; molar ratio of PMP to glucose, 10:1 (v/v; molar ratio of sodium hydroxide to glucose, 3:1 (v/v. The recovery rates were between 93.13% and 102.08% with relative standard deviation of 0.96–2.48%. The established method provides sufficient sensitivity with values of limit of detection of 0.09–0.26 mg/L and limit of quantification of 0.27–0.87 mg/L for determination of oligosaccharides and monosaccharides.

  14. Impact of Microbial Composition of Cambodian Traditional Dried Starters (Dombea on Flavor Compounds of Rice Wine: Combining Amplicon Sequencing With HP-SPME-GCMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokny Ly

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Dombae is a traditional ferment starter which has been used for starchy based wine production in Cambodia. However, the production technology of rice wine in Cambodia is not optimized. The current study aimed to investigate the microbiota associated in five ferment starters and the effect of a traditional fermentation process using a metagenomics sequencing analysis and HS-SPME-GCMS for the characterization of the aromatic profiles at the end of fermentation. Most of bacteria identified in this study were lactic acid bacteria including Weissella cibaria, Pediococcus sp. MMZ60A, Lactobacillus fermentum, and Lactobacillus plantarum. Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomycopsis fibuligera were found to be abundant yeasts while the only amylolytic filamentous fungus was Rhizopus oryzae. A total of 25 aromatic compounds were detected and identified as esters, alcohols, acids, ketones and aldehydes. The alcohol group was dominant in each rice wine. Significant changes were observed at the level of microbial communities during fermentation, suggesting microbial succession for the assimilation of starch and subsequently assimilation of fermentation by-products leading to the production of flavor compounds. At this level, the presence of Weissella, Pediococcus, and Lactobacillus genus was strongly correlated with most of the flavor compounds detected.

  15. Impact of Microbial Composition of Cambodian Traditional Dried Starters (Dombea) on Flavor Compounds of Rice Wine: Combining Amplicon Sequencing With HP-SPME-GCMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ly, Sokny; Mith, Hasika; Tarayre, Cédric; Taminiau, Bernard; Daube, Georges; Fauconnier, Marie-Laure; Delvigne, Frank

    2018-01-01

    Dombae is a traditional ferment starter which has been used for starchy based wine production in Cambodia. However, the production technology of rice wine in Cambodia is not optimized. The current study aimed to investigate the microbiota associated in five ferment starters and the effect of a traditional fermentation process using a metagenomics sequencing analysis and HS-SPME-GCMS for the characterization of the aromatic profiles at the end of fermentation. Most of bacteria identified in this study were lactic acid bacteria including Weissella cibaria, Pediococcus sp. MMZ60A, Lactobacillus fermentum, and Lactobacillus plantarum. Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomycopsis fibuligera were found to be abundant yeasts while the only amylolytic filamentous fungus was Rhizopus oryzae. A total of 25 aromatic compounds were detected and identified as esters, alcohols, acids, ketones and aldehydes. The alcohol group was dominant in each rice wine. Significant changes were observed at the level of microbial communities during fermentation, suggesting microbial succession for the assimilation of starch and subsequently assimilation of fermentation by-products leading to the production of flavor compounds. At this level, the presence of Weissella, Pediococcus, and Lactobacillus genus was strongly correlated with most of the flavor compounds detected. PMID:29867806

  16. Formation of heterocyclic amines in Chinese marinated meat: effects of animal species and ingredients (rock candy, soy sauce and rice wine).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pan; Hong, Yanting; Ke, Weixin; Hu, Xiaosong; Chen, Fang

    2017-09-01

    Heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) are one type of neo-formed contaminants in protein-rich foods during heat processing. Recently, accumulative studies have focused on the formation of HAs in Western foods. However, there is little knowledge about the occurrence of HAAs in traditional Chinese foods. The objective of this study was to determinate the contents of main HAs in traditional marinated meat products by UPLC-MS/MS, and to investigate the effects of animal species and the ingredients (soy sauce, rock candy, and rice wine) on the formation of HAAs in marinated meats. Five HAs - 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]-quinolone (IQ), 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), 2-amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQ), 9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole (Norharman) and l-methyl-9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole (Harman) - were detected in 12 marinated meats, but 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) was only found in three chicken marinates. The animal species and ingredients (soy sauce, rock candy and rice wine) have significant influence on the formation of HAAs in meat marinates. Beef had the highest content of total HAAs compared with pork, mutton and chicken. Meanwhile, soy sauce contributed to the formation of HAAs more greatly than rock candy, soy sauce, and rice wine. Choice of raw materials and optimisation of ingredients recipe should be become a critical point to control the HAAs formation in marinated meats. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Comparison of volatile and non-volatile metabolites in rice wine fermented by Koji inoculated with Saccharomycopsis fibuligera and Aspergillus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Eun Yeong; Lee, Sang Mi; Kim, Minjoo; Seo, Jeong-Ah; Kim, Young-Suk

    2018-07-01

    This study investigated volatile and nonvolatile metabolite profiles of makgeolli (a traditional rice wine in Korea) fermented by koji inoculated with Saccharomycopsis fibuligera and/or Aspergillus oryzae. The enzyme activities in koji were also examined to determine their effects on the formation of metabolites. The contents of all 18 amino acids detected were the highest in makgeolli fermented by S. fibuligera CN2601-09, and increased after combining with A. oryzae CN1102-08, unlike the contents of most fatty acids. On the other hand, major volatile metabolites were fusel alcohols, acetate esters, and ethyl esters. The contents of most fusel alcohols and acetate esters were the highest in makgeolli fermented by S. fibuligera CN2601-09, for which the protease activity was the highest, leading to the largest amounts of amino acods. The makgeolli samples fermented only by koji inoculated with S. fibuligera could be discriminated on PCA plots from the makgeolli samples fermented in combination with A. oryzae. In the case of nonvolatile metabolites, all amino acids and some metabolites such as xylose, 2-methylbenzoic acid, and oxalic acid contributed mainly to the characteristics of makgeolli fermented by koji inoculated with S. fibuligera and A. oryzae. These results showed that the formations of volatile and nonvolatile metabolites in makgeolli can be significantly affected by microbial strains with different enzyme activities in koji. To our knowledge, this study is the first report on the effects of S. fibuligera strains on the formation of volatile and non-volatile metabolites in rice wine, facilitating their use in brewing rice wine. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Simultaneous determination of ethyl carbamate and urea in Korean rice wine by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometric detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gyeong-Hweon; Bang, Dae-Young; Lim, Jung-Hoon; Yoon, Seok-Min; Yea, Myeong-Jai; Chi, Young-Min

    2017-10-15

    In this study, a rapid method for simultaneous detection of ethyl carbamate (EC) and urea in Korean rice wine was developed. To achieve quantitative analysis of EC and urea, the conditions for Ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) separation and atmospheric-pressure chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry (APCI-MS/MS) detection were first optimized. Under the established conditions, the detection limit, relative standard deviation and linear range were 2.83μg/L, 3.75-5.96%, and 0.01-10.0mg/L, respectively, for urea; the corresponding values were 0.17μg/L, 1.06-4.01%, and 1.0-50.0μg/L, respectively, for EC. The correlation between the contents of EC and its precursor urea was determined under specific pH (3.5 and 4.5) and temperature (4, 25, and 50°C) conditions using the developed method. As a result, EC content was increased with greater temperature and lower pH. In Korean rice wine, urea was detected 0.19-1.37mg/L and EC was detected 2.0-7.7μg/L. The method developed in this study, which has the advantages of simplified sample preparation, low detection limits, and good selectivity, was successfully applied for the rapid analysis of EC and urea. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Real-time monitoring of process parameters in rice wine fermentation by a portable spectral analytical system combined with multivariate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Qin; Zhao, Jiewen; Pan, Wenxiu; Chen, Quansheng

    2016-01-01

    A portable and low-cost spectral analytical system was developed and used to monitor real-time process parameters, i.e. total sugar content (TSC), alcohol content (AC) and pH during rice wine fermentation. Various partial least square (PLS) algorithms were implemented to construct models. The performance of a model was evaluated by the correlation coefficient (Rp) and the root mean square error (RMSEP) in the prediction set. Among the models used, the synergy interval PLS (Si-PLS) was found to be superior. The optimal performance by the Si-PLS model for the TSC was Rp = 0.8694, RMSEP = 0.438; the AC was Rp = 0.8097, RMSEP = 0.617; and the pH was Rp = 0.9039, RMSEP = 0.0805. The stability and reliability of the system, as well as the optimal models, were verified using coefficients of variation, most of which were found to be less than 5%. The results suggest this portable system is a promising tool that could be used as an alternative method for rapid monitoring of process parameters during rice wine fermentation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of different PCR primers for denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis of fungal community structure in traditional fermentation starters used for Hong Qu glutinous rice wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Xu-Cong; Jiang, Ya-Jun; Liu, Jie; Guo, Wei-Ling; Liu, Zhi-Bin; Zhang, Wen; Rao, Ping-Fan; Ni, Li

    2017-08-16

    Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) has become a widely used tool to examine microbial community structure. However, when DGGE is applied to evaluate the fungal community of traditional fermentation starters, the choice of hypervariable ribosomal RNA gene regions is still controversial. In the current study, several previously published fungal PCR primer sets were compared and evaluated using PCR-DGGE, with the purpose of screening a suitable primer set to study the fungal community of traditional fermentation starters for Hong Qu glutinous rice wine. Firstly, different primer sets were used to amplify different hypervariable regions from pure fungal cultures. Except NS1/FR1+ and ITS1fGC/ITS4, other primer sets (NL1+/LS2R, NL3A/NL4GC, FF390/FR1+, NS1/GCFung, NS3+/YM951r and ITS1fGC/ITS2r) amplified the target DNA sequences successfully. Secondly, the selected primer sets were further evaluated based on their resolution to distinguish different fungal cultures through DGGE fingerprints. Three primer sets (NL1+/LS2R, NS1/GCFung and ITS1fGC/ITS2r) were finally selected for investigating the fungal community structure of different traditional fermentation starters for Hong Qu glutinous rice wine. The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region amplified by ITS1fGC/ITS2r, which is more hypervariable than the 18S rRNA gene and 26S rRNA gene, provides an excellent tool to separate amplification products of different fungal species. Results indicated that PCR-DGGE profile using ITS1fGC/ITS2r showed more abundant fungal species than that using NL1+/LS2R and NS1/GCFung. Therefore, ITS1fGC/ITS2r is the most suitable primer set for PCR-DGGE analysis of fungal community structure in traditional fermentation starters for Hong Qu glutinous rice wine. DGGE profiles based on ITS1fGC/ITS2r revealed the presence of twenty-four fungal species in traditional fermentation starter. A significant difference of fungal community can be observed directly from DGGE fingerprints and

  1. Wine producers’ perceptions of wine tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Sevil, Güven; Yüncü, Hilmi Rafet

    2010-01-01

    Wine tourism has generated tremendous interest over the last two decades from both, both, industrial and academic circles. Wine tourism is a hybrid activity that integrates wine and tourism industries. Many wine regions and wine producers promote their wine through visitations of wineries. Wine, wine region and wine producers are main elements of wine tourism product. A successful wine tourism experience depends on point of view of producers on visitation to wineries as well as quality of win...

  2. Wine fraud

    OpenAIRE

    Holmberg, Lars

    2010-01-01

    Lars HolmbergFaculty of Law, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, DenmarkAbstract: Wine fraud may take several forms, of which two are discussed here: consumption fraud aimed at the wine market in general, and collector fraud aimed at the very top of the wine market. Examples of wine fraud past and present are given, and a suggestion about the extent of contemporary consumer fraud in Europe is provided. Technological possibilities for future detection and prevention of both forms of wine fra...

  3. Investigation of the Effect of Rice Wine on the Metabolites of the Main Components of Herbal Medicine in Rat Urine by Ultrahigh-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Quadrupole/Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry: A Case Study on Cornus officinalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Cao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF/MS was developed for rapid and sensitive analysis of the effect of rice wine on the metabolites of the main components of herbal medicine in rat urine. Using Cornus officinalis as a model of herbal medicine, the metabolite profiles of crude and processed (steaming the crude drug presteeped in rice wine Cornus officinalis extracts in rat urine were investigated. The metabolites of Cornus officinalis were identified by using dynamic adjustment of the fragmentor voltage to produce structure-relevant fragment ions. In this work, we identified the parent compounds and metabolites of crude and processed Cornus officinalis in rats. In total, three parent compounds and seventeen new metabolites of Cornus officinalis were found in rats. The contents of the parent compounds and metabolites in vivo varied significantly after intragastric (i.g. administration of aqueous extracts of crude and processed Cornus officinalis. Data from this study suggests that UPLC-QTOF/MS could be used as a potential tool for uncovering the effects of excipients found in the metabolites of the main components of herbal medicine, in vivo, to predict and discover the processing mechanisms of herbal medicine.

  4. Wine fraud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Holmberg

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Lars HolmbergFaculty of Law, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, DenmarkAbstract: Wine fraud may take several forms, of which two are discussed here: consumption fraud aimed at the wine market in general, and collector fraud aimed at the very top of the wine market. Examples of wine fraud past and present are given, and a suggestion about the extent of contemporary consumer fraud in Europe is provided. Technological possibilities for future detection and prevention of both forms of wine fraud are discussed.Keywords: adulteration, counterfeit, detection

  5. Wine phenolics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterhouse, Andrew L

    2002-05-01

    Wine contains many phenolic substances, most of which originate in the grape berry. The phenolics have a number of important functions in wine, affecting the tastes of bitterness and astringency, especially in red wine. Second, the color of red wine is caused by phenolics. Third, the phenolics are the key wine preservative and the basis of long aging. Lastly, since phenolics oxidize readily, they are the component that suffers owing to oxidation and the substance that turns brown in wine (and other foods) when exposed to air. Wine phenolics include the non-flavonoids: hydroxycinnamates, hydroxybenzoates and the stilbenes; plus the flavonoids: flavan-3-ols, the flavonols, and the anthocyanins. While polymeric condensed tannins and pigmented tannins constitute the majority of wine phenolics, their large size precludes absorption and thus they are not likely to have many health effects (except, perhaps, in the gut). The total amount of phenols found in a glass of red wine is on the order of 200 mg versus about 40 mg in a glass of white wine.

  6. FLUORIDE LEVELS IN COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE RICE IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    2013-05-05

    May 5, 2013 ... Rice is one of the commonly consumed cereals for more than half of the ... also used as flour, for making rice wine, as ingredient for beer and liquor, ... Fluoride is a necessary element to human health, and a moderate amount of fluoride intake ... For Ethiopian red rice (ERR) Fogera was selected to collect.

  7. WINE AND WINE TOURISM IN MACEDONIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cane Koteski

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Wine (Latin: vinum is an alcoholic beverage obtained by the fermentation of the grapes, the fruit of the vine plant. In Europe, according to legal regulations, the wine is the product obtained exclusively by full or partial fermentation of fresh grapes, clove or not, or of grape must. The transformation of grapes into wine is called vinification. The science of wine is called oenology. In some other parts of the world, the word wine can be true of alcohol obtained from other types of fruit. These wines are referred to as fruit wines, or wear a name by which the fruit is used for obtaining them (for example apple wine. Wine tourism is a type of tourism that involves visiting wineries, tasting, consumption and purchase of wine, usually directly from the manufacturer. This type of tourism includes visits to wineries, vineyards and restaurants famous for special local wines, as well as organized wine tours, visits to wine festivals and other special events. Many wine regions around the world to promote this tourism because it affects very positively to the local economy. In these regions, viticulture and hospitality organizations have spent significant resources over the years for the promotion of wine tourism. Wine tourism in my country is respected, but strong growth.

  8. WINE AND WINE TOURISM IN MACEDONIA

    OpenAIRE

    Cane Koteski; Zlatko Jakovlev; Dragana Soltirovska

    2016-01-01

    Wine (Latin: vinum) is an alcoholic beverage obtained by the fermentation of the grapes, the fruit of the vine plant. In Europe, according to legal regulations, the wine is the product obtained exclusively by full or partial fermentation of fresh grapes, clove or not, or of grape must. The transformation of grapes into wine is called vinification. The science of wine is called oenology. In some other parts of the world, the word wine can be true of alcohol obtained ...

  9. Talking About Wine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehrer, Adrienne

    1975-01-01

    A structural analysis of the wine vocabulary used by wine experts is given. Experiments involving typical wine drinkers show that there is little consensus in how the words are applied to wine. Communication tasks show that the sender and receiver of messages about wine perform little better than chance. (Author/RM)

  10. Wine and heart health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Health and wine; Wine and heart disease; Preventing heart disease - wine; Preventing heart disease - alcohol ... more often just to lower your risk of heart disease. Heavier drinking can harm the heart and ...

  11. Effects of Synchronization of Carbohydrate and Protein Supply in Total Mixed Ration with Korean Rice Wine Residue on Ruminal Fermentation, Nitrogen Metabolism and Microbial Protein Synthesis in Holstein Steers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Yu Piao

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Three Holstein steers in the growing phase, each with a ruminal cannula, were used to test the hypothesis that the synchronization of the hourly rate of carbohydrate and nitrogen (N released in the rumen would increase the amount of retained nitrogen for growth and thus improve the efficiency of microbial protein synthesis (EMPS. In Experiment 1, in situ degradability coefficients of carbohydrate and N in feeds including Korean rice wine residue (RWR were determined. In Experiment 2, three total mixed ration (TMR diets having different rates of carbohydrate and N release in the rumen were formulated using the in situ degradability of the feeds. All diets were made to contain similar contents of crude protein (CP and neutral detergent fiber (NDF but varied in their hourly pattern of nutrient release. The synchrony index of the three TMRs was 0.51 (LS, 0.77 (MS and 0.95 (HS, respectively. The diets were fed at a restricted level (2% of the animal’s body weight in a 3×3 Latin-square design. Synchronizing the hourly supply of energy and N in the rumen did not significantly alter the digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, NDF or acid detergent fiber (ADF (p>0.05. The ruminal NH3-N content of the LS group at three hours after feeding was significantly higher (p0.05. In addition, the purine derivative (PD excretion in urine and microbial-N production (MN among the three groups were not significantly different (p>0.05. In conclusion, synchronizing dietary energy and N supply to the rumen did not have a major effect on nutrient digestion or microbial protein synthesis (MPS in Holstein steers.

  12. Tears of Wine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gugliotti, Marcos

    2004-01-01

    The unique occurrence of the upward motion of a thin film of wine, and its formation into drops inside the wall of a wine glass is explained. Evaporation of alcohol generates a surface tension gradient, moving the film of wine upwards on the internal sides of a wine glass, where it collects and forms into drops or tears.

  13. Port-Wine Stains

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Port-Wine Stains KidsHealth / For Parents / Port-Wine Stains What's ... Manchas de vino de oporto What Are Port-Wine Stains? A port-wine stain is a type ...

  14. Between wine consumption and wine tourism: Consumer and spatial behavior of Israeli wine tourists

    OpenAIRE

    Shor, Noa; Mansfeld, Yoel

    2010-01-01

    The development of wine tourism worldwide has been accompanied by academic research on wine tourism and wine tourists. Wine tourists and wine enthusiasts have been found to share many socio-demographic similarities. It has been found that people visiting wineries consume wine on a regular basis, have an average to high level of knowledge about wine, and visit wineries and wine-producing regions a few times a year. Their involvement with wine is apparent both from their daily consumption and f...

  15. Finnish customers'beverage choice and the potential of Vietnamese wine in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Nga

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the thesis is to discover the potential of selling Asian wine and beverages in Vaasa in particular and in Finland in general. The Asian wine means all of the alcohol made locally Asian with different ingredients including fruit, rice and grapes. The thesis primarily concentrated on the combination of Asian food along with wine in different theory. From that, it gives the outlook of pairing Asian food with local Asian beverages. It presents general information about Asian food and i...

  16. Globalization and wine business: Port wine

    OpenAIRE

    Rebelo, Joao; Correia, Leonida; Caldas, Jose Vaz

    2007-01-01

    In the past two decades the world has seen acceleration in the process of globalisation, affecting virtually all industries and consumers. The wine sector is no exception, witnessing increased exports and imports, decreasing consumption per capita in the producing countries, and a wave of direct foreign investment and mergers and acquisitions in the industry. Among European wine producers the Port wine can be seen as a representative case of globalisation and as a benchmark, because almost 90...

  17. Red wines good, white wines bad?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Velden, D.P.; Mansvelt, E.P.G.; Troup, G.J.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: In 1994, free radicals were discovered in red wines, but only in whites exposed to skins and seeds, and/or oak. The radicals are on the phenolics, and therefore a measure of phenolic content. In 1995, Fuhrman, Levy and Aviram published a study showing antioxidant effects of red wine in the standard Israeli diet, but pro-oxidant effects of the white wine used. No phenolic analysis was done, but low or no phenolics were suspected. Letters to the winery used by Aviram proved fruitless. In 2001, Aviram admits that to see a significant antioxidant effect from white wine, he must make his own, giving it skin and seed contact, and adding alcohol to the fermenting stage, to leach out more tannin from the seeds. This would be unsaleable as a table wine, but not as a 'fortified' or 'dessert' wine. A completely independent study by van Velden in South Africa, with phenol analysis of wines, shows pro- oxidant behaviour of white wines low or lacking in phenolic content. This will be summarised. A Japanese study of the antioxidant properties of some wines shows none for wines low or lacking in catechin content. In the 1950's, two similar but independent studies on different laboratory animals showed no ill effects from 10% alcohol red wine in their diet, but serious effects from 10% pure alcohol - water mix. Conclusion. Drinking only of white wines lacking in phenols, either due to 'fining', or to deliberate avoidance in making, at the recommended 'moderate' drinking level, may be deleterious to cardiovascular health, because of their pro-oxidant action, now established

  18. Wine production in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Jan Børsen; Smith, Valdemar

    By the end of the former century there were less than 10 commercial vintners producing wine in Denmark. There was widespread acceptance of the view that commercial production of wine in the most northern parts of Europe was impossible. However, the number of commercial wine growers in Denmark grew...... to more than 60 at the end of year 2009 and the Association of Danish Winegrowers now counts more than 1400 members. Denmark can no longer be seen as a non-wine producing country! Formally, the transformation of Denmark to a wine producing country took place in year 2000 when Denmark was accepted...... as a commercial wine producing nation within the European Union. Based on a remarkably detailed micro data set this paper first gives a description of wine production in Denmark and thereafter we address the question whether vineyard characteristics are important for the quality of the wine and/or whether...

  19. Wine tourism in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinelli Colombini D

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Donatella Cinelli Colombini Orcia Doc Wine Consortium, Rocca d’Orcia , Italy Abstract: This text includes the history of wine tourism in Italy since 1993, when the first edition of the event “Cantine Aperte” (Open Cellars, Wine Day, took place. The movement grew from the initial 25 wineries to the 21,000 that participate today in opening their doors to the public, while visitors grew in numbers from a couple of hundred, 20 years ago, to the current 4 to 6 million. Wine tourists can be divided into four main groups: wine tourists by chance, classic wine tourists, talent scouts, and lovers of luxury. Each group is examined according to its consumption, its conduct, and its expectations. Wine tourism in Italy boasts around 170 territorial networks: “Strade del Vino” (wine routes regulated by law. After an initial pioneer phase during which preexisting wineries adapted to the growing number of tourists, modern-day wineries were created with bespoke areas for the welcoming of visitors. Wineries in Italy can be classified into the following main types: “functional wineries” that concentrate on productive efficiency; “cathedrals” – renovated historic buildings or modern “starchitecture” designs in which esthetics play an important role; wineries with a “strong identity” linked to the owner or wine producer with the special imprint of his or her personal wine making passion. Other features of Italian wine territories such as food and wellness centers not to speak of the ever present cultural heritage also play a part in attracting wine tourists. Lastly, an evaluation is made of business and communication aspects with a specific reference to the use of the web. Keywords: wine tourism, Italian wineries, winery tours, wine roads of Italy

  20. Mapping of wine industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Віліна Пересадько

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Having reviewed a variety of approaches to understanding the essence of wine industry, having studied the modern ideas about the future of wine industry, having analyzed more than 50 maps from the Internet we have set the trends and special features of wine industry mapping in the world, such as: - the vast majority of maps displays the development of the industry at regional or national level, whereas there are practically no world maps; - wine-growing regions are represented on maps very unevenly; - all existing maps of the industry could be classified as analytical ascertaining inventory type; - the dominant ways of cartographic representation are area method and qualitative background method, sign method and collation maps are rarely used; - basically all the Internet maps have low quality as they are scanned images with poor resolution; - the special feature of maps published lately is lack of geographical basis (except for state borders and coastline. We created wine production and consumption world map «Wine Industry» in the scale of 1:60 000 000 with simple geographical basis (state names, state borders, major rivers, coastline. It was concluded that from the methodological point of view it is incorrect not to show geographical basis on maps of wine industry. Analysis of this map allowed us to identify areas of traditional wine-making, potential wine-making areas and countries which claim to be the world leaders in the field of wine production. We found disbalans between wine production and wine consumption - increasing wine production in South America, China and the United States and increasing wine consumption (mainly due to the import products in countries where the grape is not the primary agricultural product.

  1. Vacuolar morphology of Saccharomyces cerevisiae during the process of wine making and Japanese sake brewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izawa, Shingo; Ikeda, Kayo; Miki, Takeo; Wakai, Yoshinori; Inoue, Yoshiharu

    2010-09-01

    Although ethanol and osmotic stress affect the vacuolar morphology of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, little information is available about changes in vacuolar morphology during the processes of wine making and Japanese sake (rice wine) brewing. Here, we elucidated changes in the morphology of yeast vacuoles using Zrc1p-GFP, a vacuolar membrane protein, so as to better understand yeast physiology during the brewing process. Wine yeast cells (OC-2 and EC1118) contained highly fragmented vacuoles in the sake mash (moromi) as well as in the grape must. Although sake yeast cells (Kyokai no. 9 and no. 10) also contained highly fragmented vacuoles during the wine-making process, they showed quite a distinct vacuolar morphology during sake brewing. Since the environment surrounding sake yeast cells in the sake mash did not differ much from that surrounding wine yeast cells, the difference in vacuolar morphology during sake brewing between wine yeast and sake yeast was likely caused by innate characters.

  2. Bread, beer and wine: Saccharomyces cerevisiae diversity reflects human history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legras, Jean-Luc; Merdinoglu, Didier; Cornuet, Jean-Marie; Karst, Francis

    2007-05-01

    Fermented beverages and foods have played a significant role in most societies worldwide for millennia. To better understand how the yeast species Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the main fermenting agent, evolved along this historical and expansion process, we analysed the genetic diversity among 651 strains from 56 different geographical origins, worldwide. Their genotyping at 12 microsatellite loci revealed 575 distinct genotypes organized in subgroups of yeast types, i.e. bread, beer, wine, sake. Some of these groups presented unexpected relatedness: Bread strains displayed a combination of alleles intermediate between beer and wine strains, and strains used for rice wine and sake were most closely related to beer and bread strains. However, up to 28% of genetic diversity between these technological groups was associated with geographical differences which suggests local domestications. Focusing on wine yeasts, a group of Lebanese strains were basal in an F(ST) tree, suggesting a Mesopotamia-based origin of most wine strains. In Europe, migration of wine strains occurred through the Danube Valley, and around the Mediterranean Sea. An approximate Bayesian computation approach suggested a postglacial divergence (most probable period 10,000-12,000 bp). As our results suggest intimate association between man and wine yeast across centuries, we hypothesize that yeast followed man and vine migrations as a commensal member of grapevine flora.

  3. 27 CFR 24.215 - Wine or wine products not for beverage use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wine or wine products not... AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Other Than Standard Wine § 24.215 Wine or wine products not for beverage use. (a) General. Wine, or wine products made from wine...

  4. Wine and endothelial function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caimi, G; Carollo, C; Lo Presti, R

    2003-01-01

    In recent years many studies have focused on the well-known relationship between wine consumption and cardiovascular risk. Wine exerts its protective effects through various changes in lipoprotein profile, coagulation and fibrinolytic cascades, platelet aggregation, oxidative mechanisms and endothelial function. The last has earned more attention for its implications in atherogenesis. Endothelium regulates vascular tone by a delicate balancing among vasorelaxing (nitric oxide [NO]) and vasoconstrincting (endothelins) factors produced by endothelium in response to various stimuli. In rat models, wine and other grape derivatives exerted an endothelium-dependent vasorelaxing capacity especially associated with the NO-stimulating activity of their polyphenol components. In experimental conditions, reservatrol (a stilbene polyphenol) protected hearts and kidneys from ischemia-reperfusion injury through antioxidant activity and upregulation of NO production. Wine polyphenols are also able to induce the expression of genes involved in the NO pathway within the arterial wall. The effects of wine on endothelial function in humans are not yet clearly understood. A favorable action of red wine or dealcoholized wine extract or purple grape juice on endothelial function has been observed by several authors, but discrimination between ethanol and polyphenol effects is controversial. It is, however likely that regular and prolonged moderate wine drinking positively affects endothelial function. The beneficial effects of wine on cardiovascular health are greater if wine is associated with a healthy diet. The most recent nutritional and epidemiologic studies show that the ideal diet closely resembles the Mediterranean diet.

  5. WINE MARKETS IN CENTRAL EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Š BOJNEC

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the tendencies of grapes growing, wine trading and wine price competitiveness in Central European region. Croatia is net exporter of wines, Hungary is net exporter of grapes and wines, and Austria, Slovakia, and Slovenia are net importers of grapes and wines. Reductions in vineyards and increase in yields are found for Austria, Hungary, and Slovakia. More stable developments in vineyards, but decline in yields, are found for Croatia and Slovenia. Grape production increases in Austria, remains stable in Croatia, explores annual oscillations in Hungary, and declines in Slovakia and Slovenia. Export-to-import wine prices deteriorate for Austria and Hungary with most recent stabilization and price similarity, which hold also for Slovakia. Slovenian export-to-import wine prices are unstable, while Croatia experiences a bit higher export than import wine prices. Wine marketing, wine brand image of quality, and wine tourism are seen as tools to improve competitiveness in the wine sector.

  6. Optimization of Processing Technology of Compound Dandelion Wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Jixuan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Exploring dandelion food has been the concern in fields of the food processing and pharmaceutical industry for playing exact curative effect on high-fat-diet induced hepatic steatosis and diuretic activity. Few dandelion foods including drinks and microencapsulation were explored and unilateral dandelion wine were less carried out for its bitter flavour. In tis paper, to optimize the processing technologies of fermented compound wine from dandelion root, the orthogonal experiment design method was used to composite dandelion root powder with glutinous rice and schisandra fruit and optimize the fermenting parameters. Four factors with dandelion content, schisandra content, acidity and sugar content were discussed. The acidity factor was firstly confirmed as 7.0 g/L. The other three factors were confirmed by a series experiments as dandelion 0.55%, schisandra 0.5%, sugar 22%. With nine step processing of mixing substrate, stirring with water, cooking rice, amylase saccharification, pectinase hydrolysis, adjusting juice, fermenting with yeast, fitering, aging, sterilization, a light yellow wine with the special taste with flavour of dandelion, schisandra and rice and less bitter, few index were determined as 14.7% alcohol, 6.85 g/L acidity. A dandelion fermented compound wine with suitable flavour and sanitarian function was developed for enriching the dandelion food.

  7. Mapping of wine industry

    OpenAIRE

    Віліна Пересадько; Надія Максименко; Катерина Біла

    2016-01-01

    Having reviewed a variety of approaches to understanding the essence of wine industry, having studied the modern ideas about the future of wine industry, having analyzed more than 50 maps from the Internet we have set the trends and special features of wine industry mapping in the world, such as: - the vast majority of maps displays the development of the industry at regional or national level, whereas there are practically no world maps; - wine-growing regions are represented on maps very un...

  8. Wine consumers' subjective responses to wine mouthfeel and understanding of wine body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niimi, Jun; Danner, Lukas; Li, Luxing; Bossan, Hélène; Bastian, Susan E P

    2017-09-01

    Wine mouthfeel is considered important for wine quality by experts, while consumers understanding of mouthfeel and the role of wine body in their wine choice is unknown. One experiment determined the influence of intrinsic wine mouthfeel on consumers' wine liking and emotions, and the other, how consumers understand the term wine body. The first experiment used a 2 astringency level×2 body level experimental design. The samples were base wine with; nothing added (control), added xanthan gum (for increased body), added grape seed extract (GSE, for increased astringency), and with both added xanthan gum and GSE. The consumer taste trial (n=112) indicated that wine with increased body did not influence wine liking and emotions; while increased astringency decreased liking and elicited more intense negative emotions. The second experiment examined consumers' knowledge of wine body through an online survey (n=136). Consumers described wine body most frequently using words such as flavour, fullness, and strength. Wine body was therefore understood by consumers predominantly as a holistic multi-sensory perception of flavour. Wine flavour was indicated by consumers to be the most important factor driving purchase decisions followed by balance of flavours and wine body. It is crucial that wine professionals carefully communicate wine characteristics to consumers to prevent possible misunderstandings such as the meaning of wine body and as a result better meet consumer expectations. In future, the term body may benefit from a clearer definition for academic research as well as industry. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. 27 CFR 27.42 - Wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TREASURY LIQUORS IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER Tax On Imported Distilled Spirits, Wines, and Beer Wines § 27.42 Wines. All wines (including imitation, substandard, or artificial wine, and... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wines. 27.42 Section 27.42...

  10. Microoxidation in wine production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilmartin, Paul A

    2010-01-01

    Microoxygenation (MOX) is now widely applied for the maturation of red wines as an alternative to barrel aging. The proposed improvements in wine quality arising from MOX include color stabilization, removal of unwanted off-odors, and improvements in wine mouthfeel. In this review, an outline is provided of oxygenation systems, particularly microbullage and polymer membrane delivery, and of the current understanding of wine oxidation processes. A summary of the results from published studies into red wine MOX is then provided, beginning with observations on O(2) and acetaldehyde accumulation, and the moderating effect of added sulfur dioxide. Effects upon red wine color, particularly the more rapid formation of polymeric pigments and higher color retention, have been consistently demonstrated in MOX studies, along with further effects on specific polyphenol compounds. A few reports have recently examined the effect of MOX on red wine aromas, but these have yet to identify compounds that consistently change in a manner that would explain sensory observations regarding a lowering of herbaceous and reductive odors. Likewise, tannin analyses have been undertaken in several studies, but explanations of the decline in wine astringency remain to be developed. The accelerated growth of unwanted microorganisms has also been examined in a limited number of studies, but no major problems have been identified in this area. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Vinegar rice (Oryza sativa L.) produced by a submerged fermentation process from alcoholic fermented rice

    OpenAIRE

    Spinosa,Wilma Aparecida; Santos Júnior,Vitório dos; Galvan,Diego; Fiorio,Jhonatan Luiz; Gomez,Raul Jorge Hernan Castro

    2015-01-01

    Considering the limited availability of technology for the production of rice vinegar and also due to the potential consumer product market, this study aimed to use alcoholic fermented rice (rice wine (Oryza sativa L.)) for vinegar production. An alcoholic solution with 6.28% (w/v) ethanol was oxidized by a submerged fermentation process to produce vinegar. The process of acetic acid fermentation occurred at 30 ± 0.3°C in a FRINGS® Acetator (Germany) for the production of vineg...

  12. Rice microstructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    An understanding of plant structure is desirable to obtain a clear idea of the overall impact of a crop. A mature rice plant consists of leafy components (left in the field post-harvest) and paddy rice (collected). The rice plant is supported by a hollow stem (culm) with leaf sheaths attached to nod...

  13. New techniques for wine aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    m Hatice Kalkan Yıldırı

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aging of wine requires a long time therefore it can cause loss of time and money. Therefore using of new techniques for wine aging shortens the length of aging time and wines may be placed on the market more quickly. Nowadays, gamma irradiation, ultrasonic waves, AC electric field and micro-oxygenation are the new techniques for wine aging. Gamma irradiation (after fermentation is accelerated physical maturation method. Gamma irradiation, in a suitable dosage (200 Gy, is a suitable method for improving some wine defects and producing a higher taste quality in wine. The 20 kHz ultrasonic waves aged wine much more quickly than standard aging, with similar quality. The wine treated by 20 kHz ultrasonic waves had a taste equivalent to 1 year aged wine. Wine maturing with AC electric field promises novel process accelerating aging process of fresh wine when suitable conditions are applied. As a result of research, an optimum treatment (electric field 600 V/cm and duration time 3 min was identified to accelerate wine aging. Harsh and pungent raw wine become harmonious and dainty. This process is equivalent to 6 month aging in oak barrel. Microoxygenation is a very important technique used in aging wines in order to improve their characteristics. The techniques of wine tank aging imply the use of small doses of oxygen (2 ml L−1 month−1 and the addition of wood pieces of oak to the wine. Studies concerning these new techniques demonstrated that maturation of wines become more quickly than standard maturation procedures with keeping and improving the wine quality.

  14. Calcium isotopes in wine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmden, C. E.

    2011-12-01

    The δ 44/40Ca values of bottled wine vary between -0.76% to -1.55% on the seawater scale and correlate weakly with inverse Ca concentration and Mg/Ca ratio, such that the lowest δ 44/40Ca values have the highest Ca concentrations and lowest Mg/Ca ratios. The correlation is notable in the sense that the measured wines include both whites and reds sampled from different wine growing regions of the world, and cover a wide range of quality. Trends among the data yield clues regarding the cause of the observed isotopic fractionation. White wines, and wines generally perceived to be of lower quality, have lower δ 44/40Ca values compared to red wines and wines of generally perceived higher quality. Quality was assessed qualitatively through sensory evaluation, price, and scores assigned by critics. The relationship between δ 44/40Ca and wine quality was most apparent when comparing wines of one varietal from one producer from the same growing region. In the vineyard, wine quality is related to factors such as the tonnage of the crop and the ripeness of the grapes at the time of harvesting, the thickness of the skins for reds, the age of the vines, as well as the place where the grapes were grown (terroir). Quality is also influenced by winemaking practices such as fermentation temperature, duration of skin contact, and barrel ageing. Accordingly, the relationship between δ 44/40Ca and wine quality may originate during grape ripening in the vineyard or during winemaking in the cellar. We tested the grape ripening hypothesis using Merlot grapes sampled from a vineyard in the Okanagan, British Columbia, using sugar content (degrees Brix) as an indicator of ripeness. The grapes were separated into pulp, skin, and pip fractions and were analyzed separately. Thus far, there is no clear evidence for a systematic change in δ 44/40Ca values associated with progressive ripening of grapes in the vineyard. On the day of harvesting, the δ 44/40Ca value of juice squeezed from

  15. 27 CFR 24.218 - Other wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Other wine. 24.218 Section... THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Other Than Standard Wine § 24.218 Other wine. (a) General. Other than standard wine not included in other sections in this subpart are considered other wine. Those...

  16. 27 CFR 24.292 - Exported wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exported wine. 24.292... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Removal, Return and Receipt of Wine Removals Without Payment of Tax § 24.292 Exported wine. (a) General. Wine may be removed from a bonded wine premises without payment of tax...

  17. 27 CFR 4.27 - Vintage wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vintage wine. 4.27 Section... THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Standards of Identity for Wine § 4.27 Vintage wine. (a) General. Vintage wine is wine labeled with the year of harvest of the grapes and made in...

  18. Wine and Climate Change

    OpenAIRE

    Ashenfelter, Orley; Storchmann, Karl

    2014-01-01

    In this article we provide an overview of the extensive literature on the impact of weather and climate on grapes and wine with the goal of describing how climate change is likely to affect their production. We start by discussing the physical impact of weather on vine phenology, berry composition and yields, and then survey the economic literature measuring the effects of temperature on wine quality, prices, costs and profits and how climate change will affect these. We also describe what ha...

  19. Wine tourism and sustainable environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.ª Luisa González San José

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability is a model of development in which the present actions should not compromise the future of future generations, and is linked to economic and social development which must respect the environment. Wine tourism or enotourism is a pleasant mode of tourism that combines the pleasure of wine-tasting, with cultural aspects related to the wine culture developing in wine regions over time until the present day. It can be affirmed that wine culture, and its use through wine tourism experiences, is clearly correlated to social (socially equitable, economic (economically feasible, environmental (environmentally sound and cultural aspects of the sustainability of winegrowing regions and territories.

  20. A new wine superpower? An analysis of the Chinese wine industry

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yuanbo; Bardaji de Azcarate, Isabel

    2017-01-01

    China is one of the most attractive wine markets and a hopeful wine producer in the twenty-first century. Current studies of wine in China tend to focus on the wine market but seldom analyze the domestic wine industry, which contributes approximately 70% of the total wine consumed in the country. This paper reviews the wine history and the development of wine in China and analyses the current situation and perspectives of the Chinese wine industry, considering both traditional con...

  1. ASPECTS REGARDING WINE PRODUCTION AND WINE SECTOR COMPETITIVENESS IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca Georgiana LADARU

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper aimed to make some assumptions regarding wine sector competitiveness in Romania. Vineyards have an important share in Romanian agriculture, Romania being ranked on 11th position in the world and on 5th position in the European Union in terms of vineyards surface, while the wine industry is an important contributor to the GDP. The research method was based on analyze of wine sector evolution in the last years. The paper presents current global context of wine market at international level and focus on Romanian wine production sector and wine trade, seen in the light of competitiveness. The competitiveness of Romanian wine sector need to be related with measures that are able to increase the attractiveness of Romanian wines, both on domestic and external markets.

  2. Determination of tritium in wine and wine yeast samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotarlea, Monica-Ionela; Paunescu, Niculina; Galeriu, D.; Mocanu, N.; Margineanu, R.; Marin, G.

    1997-01-01

    A sensitive method for evaluating the tritium content in wine and wine yeast was applied to estimate tritium impact on the environment in the surrounding area of nuclear power plant Cernavoda, where the vineyards are part of representative agricultural ecosystem. Analytical procedures were developed to determine HTO in wine and wine yeast samples. The content of organic compounds affecting the LSC measurement is reduced by fractionating distillation for wine samples and azeotropic distillation followed by fractional distillation for wine yeast samples. Finally, the water samples obtained after fractional distillation were normally distilled with KMO 4 . The established procedures were successfully applied for wine and wine yeast samples from Mulfatlar harvests of the years 1995 and 1996. (authors)

  3. Wine and Maths: Mathematical Solutions to Wine-Inspired Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadeddu, L.; Cauli, A.

    2018-01-01

    We deal with an application of partial differential equations to the correct definition of a wine cellar. We present some historical details about this problem. We also discuss how to build or renew a wine cellar, creating ideal conditions for the ageing process and improving the quality of wines. Our goal is to calculate the optimal depth…

  4. Is wine savory? Umami taste in wine

    OpenAIRE

    Alice, Vilela; António, Inês; Fernanda, Cosme

    2016-01-01

    Umami is an important taste element in natural products like wine. The umami taste has distinctive properties that differentiate it from other tastes, including a taste-enhancing synergism between two umami compounds, L-glutamate and 5’-ribonulceotides, and a prolonged aftertaste. In human taste cells, taste buds transduce the chemicals that elicit the umami tastes into membrane depolarization, which triggers release of transmitter to activate gustatory afferent nerve fibers. Umami taste stim...

  5. Consumer perceptions of organic wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca IORDACHESCU

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper develops a study on the Romanians’ attitudes towards the organic wines. The analysis has been done in two stages – at a quantitative level and a qualitative one. The quantitative study has been done on a sample of 122 respondents – consumers and non-consumersin low percentage. The questionnaire investigated the general perception of wines, and included a dedicated section for the organic wines, addressed to the respondents aware of this product.The qualitative stage has been realized through a sensorial analysis, where three white wines and two red wines have been tasted by trained tasters. Among the five wines, one white – Chardonnay was organicwine. Both studies proved that the organic wine has a potential in Romania due to the sensorial qualities and people’s perception. However, the development of organic wine market won’t be a quick process and it will require first of all improving Romanians’ ‘organic’ culture.

  6. Technological change in the wine market? The role of QR codes and wine apps in consumer wine purchases

    OpenAIRE

    Lindsey M. Higgins; Marianne McGarry Wolf; Mitchell J. Wolf

    2014-01-01

    As an experiential good, wine purchases in the absence of tastings are often challenging and information-laden decisions. Technology has shaped the way consumers negotiate this complex purchase process. Using a sample of 631 US wine consumers, this research aims to identify the role of mobile applications and QR codes in the wine purchase decision. Results suggest that wine consumers that consider themselves wine connoisseurs or experts, enjoy talking about wine, and are interested in wine th...

  7. Fun with Singing Wine Glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, Christine; Galloway, Melodie; Ruiz, Michael J.

    2018-01-01

    A fun activity is presented using singing wine glasses for introductory physics students. Students tune a white wine glass and a red wine glass to as many semitones as possible by filling the glasses with the appropriate amounts of water. A smart phone app is used to measure the frequencies of equal-temperament tones. Then plots of frequency…

  8. Electronic Nose For Measuring Wine Evolution In Wine Cellars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lozano, J.; Santos, J. P.; Horrillo, M. C.; Cabellos, J. M.; Arroyo, T.

    2009-01-01

    An electronic nose installed in a wine cellar for measuring the wine evolution is presented in this paper. The system extract the aroma directly from the tanks where wine is stored and carry the volatile compounds to the sensors cell. A tin oxide multisensor, prepared with RF sputtering onto an alumina substrate and doped with chromium and indium, is used. The whole system is fully automated and controlled by computer and can be supervised by internet. Linear techniques like principal component analysis (PCA) and nonlinear ones like probabilistic neural networks (PNN) are used for pattern recognition. Results show that system can detect the evolution of two different wines along 9 months stored in tanks. This system could be trained to detect off-odours of wine and warn the wine expert to correct it as soon as possible, improving the final quality of wine.

  9. [Eulogy of wine?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfroid, I O

    1997-12-20

    In the literature the beneficial effects on health of drinking alcoholic beverages, especially red wine, is becoming increasingly more evident. We report an objective analysis of the advantages and the dangers of such a tendency. It appears that the daily consumption of red wine at moderate doses (200-400 ml a day) has real prophylactic effects. These are particularly marked in the prevention of coronary heart disease (CHD), but also for a possible cancer chemopreventive activity, in the prevention of type II diabetes, of ischemic stroke, of osteoporosis in older women, and of Alzheimer's disease. But, inasmuch as the consumption of alcoholic beverages always involves a potential danger (organic diseases, risk of dependence, alcoholism), from a medical point of view eulogy to wine is ethically indefensible. Similar effects may be obtained from a diet rich in fruits and fresh vegetables.

  10. Relationship between Menthiafolic Acid and Wine Lactone in Wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giaccio, Joanne; Curtin, Chris D; Sefton, Mark A; Taylor, Dennis K

    2015-09-23

    Menthiafolic acid (6-hydroxy-2,6-dimethylocta-2,7-dienoic acid, 2a) was quantified by GC-MS in 28 white wines, 4 Shiraz wines, and for the first time in 6 white grape juice samples. Menthiafolic acid was detected in all but one of the wine samples at concentrations ranging from 26 to 342 μg/L and in the juice samples from 16 to 236 μg/L. Various model fermentation experiments showed that some menthiafolic acid in wine could be generated from the grape-derived menthiafolic acid glucose ester (2b) during alcoholic and malolactic fermentation. Samples containing high concentrations of menthiafolic acid were also analyzed by enantioselective GC-MS and were shown to contain this compound in predominantly the (S)-configuration. Enantioselective analysis of wine lactone (1) in one of these samples, a four-year-old Chardonnay wine showed, for the first time, the presence of the 3R,3aR,7aS isomer of wine lactone (1b), which is the enantiomer of the form previously reported as the sole isomer present in young wine samples. The weakly odorous 3R,3aR,7aS 1b form comprised 69% of the total wine lactone in the sample. On the basis of the enantioselectivity of the hydrolytic conversion of menthiafolic acid to wine lactone at pH 3.0 determined previously and the relative proportions of (R)- and (S)-menthiafolic acid in the Chardonnay wine, the predicted ratio of wine lactone enantiomers that would be formed from hydrolysis at ambient temperature of the menthiafolic acid present in this wine was close to the ratio measured, which was consistent with menthiafolic acid being the major or sole precursor to wine lactone in this sample.

  11. Botrytized wines – current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magyar I

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Ildikó Magyar, János Soós Department of Oenology, Institute of Viticulture and Oenology, Szent István University, Budapest, Hungary Abstract: Botrytized wines are wine specialties made of overripe grapes infected by Botrytis cinerea with the form “noble rot”. Due to the particular characteristics of the noble rotted grape, these wines (eg, Tokaji Aszú, Sauternes, Trockenbeerenauslese types, etc have many characteristic features, including higher or lower residual sugar content and unique aroma composition. The technology, biochemistry, and special characteristics of botrytized wines have been researched for a long time. This review outlines the main directions of the current studies, giving a brief overview on the recent findings. Beside the traditional wine types, noble rot is increasingly utilized in making newer sweet wine styles and straw (passito wines, which generates a series of new interesting experimental results. The fungus–grape interactions during the noble rot, the induced botrytization, the microbial communities of botrytized wines, and the volatile compounds having key roles in the distinct aroma of these wine styles are being focused on in the current studies in this field. Keywords: Botrytis, noble rot, sweet wines, passito wine, aroma

  12. 27 CFR 24.203 - Honey wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Honey wine. 24.203 Section... THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Agricultural Wine § 24.203 Honey wine. (a) Subject to paragraph (b) of this section, a winemaker, in the production of wine from honey, may add the following: (1...

  13. Determination of Favorite Wine from Comparison of Wine Aroma Attributes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koike, Takayuki; Kamimura, Hironobu; Shimada, Kouji; Yamada, Hiroshi; Kaneki, Noriaki

    The decision to choose the appropriate product matching the preference of each individual is based on the psychological impression of the adjective and the alternatives. The preference for a product group and physical condition also affect decision-making. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of differences in the preference of wine and changes in hunger level on the psychological and neuro-physiological aspects of decision-making where the subjects were asked to choose their most favorite wine after sniffing the aroma of several wines. The psychological aspects of decision-making while sniffing five different kinds of wine were evaluated by the analytical hierarchal process (AHP) method, while the neuro-physiological aspects were evaluated by measuring the level of oxygenated hemoglobin concentrations (O2Hb) in the process of smelling the wine aromas within three minutes compared to when the non-odor and alcoholic solutions were presented. AHP analysis showed that the adjective “Favorite” was given the highest importance and a white wine with a sweet aroma was the most favored wine, regardless of the wine preference. The normalized mean O2Hb levels in each minute showed that, in the case of the wine lovers, the time course of the O2Hb level, decreased when they sensed the wine aroma compared to when they sensed non-odor solutions, and, in non-wine lovers, the O2Hb levels remained at higher values compared to the smell of the non-odor solution when they sensed the aroma of the alcoholic solution. The results indicate that there are differences with regard to decision-making between the psychological and physiological aspects when people are made to choose their most favorite wine by sniffing wine aromas.

  14. Degradation of transgene DNA in genetically modified herbicide-tolerant rice during food processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Shangxin; Zhou, Guanghong; Gao, Feng; Zhang, Wei; Qiu, Liangyan; Dai, Sifa; Xu, Xinglian; Xiao, Hongmei

    2011-12-01

    In order to assess the effect of food processing on the degradation of exogenous DNA components in sweet rice wine and rice crackers made from genetically modified (GM) rice (Oryza sativa L.), we developed genomic DNA extraction methods and compared the effect of different food processing procedures on DNA degradation. It was found that the purity, quantity and quality of DNA by alkaline lysis method were higher than by CTAB (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide) method. For sweet rice wine, CAMV35S (cauliflower mosaic virus 35S) promoter and NOS (nopaline synthase) terminator were degraded by the third day, whereas the exogenous gene Bar (bialaphos resistance) remained unaffected. For rice crackers, boiling, drying and microwaving contributed to the initial degradations of DNA. Baking resulted in further degradations, and frying led to the most severe changes. These results indicated that the stability of DNA in GM rice was different under different processing conditions. For sweet rice wine, Bar was most stable, followed by NOS, CAMV35S, and SPS. For rice crackers, CAMV35S was most stable, followed by SPS, NOS, and Bar. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Port-wine stain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About MedlinePlus Show Search Search MedlinePlus GO GO About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Port-wine stain URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/ ...

  16. Does wine prevent dementia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger M Pinder

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Roger M PinderPharma Consultant, York, UKAbstract: There is substantial evidence that moderate consumption of alcohol reduces significantly the risks of coronary heart disease, stroke and type 2 diabetes. Furthermore, the incidence of dementia, both of the Alzheimer’s type (AD and the vascular variety (VaD, is lower in societies which consume a Mediterranean diet of mainly fish, fruit, vegetables, olive oil, and wine. In particular, extensive evidence from both population-based cohort and case control studies in different areas of the world and across genders and racial groups suggests that regular consumption of moderate amounts of alcohol, especially in the form of wine, is associated with a lower risk of developing AD and VaD compared with abstention and heavy drinking. Carriers of the APOE ε4 allele seem to gain less benefit. Age-related cognitive decline, particularly in women, is lower in regular drinkers, while older drinkers with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI progress less frequently to AD than their abstaining counterparts. Plausible biological mechanisms for the neuroprotective effects of wine include its glucose-modifying, antioxidant and inflammatory properties, but it additionally seems to modify the neuropathology of AD, particularly the deposition of amyloid plaque. Indeed, some of these mechanisms are already targets for the development of new therapeutic agents for the treatment of dementia.Keywords: alcohol, Alzheimer’s disease, dementia, epidemiology, polyphenols, wine

  17. Scavenging Capacities of Some Wines and Wine Phenolic Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis G. Roussis

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the ability of different wines – a sweet red, a dry red, a sweet white, and a dry white – to scavenge the stable 1,1’-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl radical (DPPH. and to determine their phenolic composition. Both red wines contained, apart from anthocyanins, also higher concentration of total phenolics, tartaric esters, and flavonols than the two white wines. All wines exhibited scavenging activity analogous to their total phenolic content. However, their phenolics differed in antiradical potency, which was visible in their EC50 values. The dry red wine, Xinomavro, had a lower EC50 value, indicating the higher antiradical potency of its phenolics. The scavenging capacities of phenolic extracts from Xinomavro red wine on hydroxyl radicals, superoxide radicals, and singlet oxygen were also assessed. Wine total extract was fractionated by extraction, and each of the three fractions was then subfractionated by column chromatography into two subfractions. Wine total extract, and its fractions and subfractions exhibited scavenging capacity on hydroxyl radicals, superoxide radicals, and singlet oxygen, indicating the activity of many wine phenolics. The most active wine extracts towards hydroxyl radicals were characterized by the high peaks of flavanols, anthocyanins and flavonols in their HPLC-DAD chromatograms. The most active extract towards superoxide radicals was rich in flavanols and anthocyanins. The characteristic phenolics of the most active wine extracts towards singlet oxygen were flavanols, flavonols and phenolic acids. The ability of all red wine phenolic extracts to scavenge singlet oxygen, along with hydroxyl and superoxide radicals, emphasizes its health functionality.

  18. Estimating Hedonic Prices for Stellenbosch wine

    OpenAIRE

    Sanja Lutzeyer

    2008-01-01

    This paper estimates a hedonic price function for Stellenbosch wines to determine the association between market value and different characteristics of these wines. In such a hedonic price function, the price of a bottle of wine is ascribed to the implicit value of its attributes. Besides contributing to both South African and international wine pricing literature, the benefits of developing a hedonic wine pricing model extend to numerous players in the wine industry. Consumers are provided w...

  19. Determination of tritium in wine yeast samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotarlea, Monica-Ionela; Paunescu Niculina; Galeriu, D; Mocanu, N.; Margineanu, R.; Marin, G.

    1998-01-01

    Analytical procedures were developed to determine tritium in wine and wine yeast samples. The content of organic compounds affecting the LSC measurement is reduced by fractioning distillation for wine samples and azeotropic distillation/fractional distillation for wine yeast samples. Finally, the water samples were normally distilled with K MO 4 . The established procedures were successfully applied for wine and wine samples from Murfatlar harvests of the years 1995 and 1996. (authors)

  20. MARKETING IMPLICATION IN WINE ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ştefan MATEI

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The wine, a very complex product in viticulture, has proved its tremendous importance not only to the individual but rational nutrition and increasing national income of a country cultivators (evidenced by the upward trend of the share of crop production horticulture and viticulture in the global economy agricultural. More interesting is, given the continued growth in the number of scientific publications and their quality (at least since the 1980s - where "wine" is the centerpiece of these studies - we can not but be witnessing a growing interest more to this "potion" and found that the growing popularity of wine in the science reveals the emergence of a new academic field, ie "wine economy" (or wine-economy. This study aims to make a foray into "wine economy" and to outline some of the implications of marketing in this area.

  1. Oxidation mechanisms occurring in wines

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Carla Maria; Ferreira, António César Silva; Freitas, Victor De; Silva, Artur M. S.

    2011-01-01

    The present review aims to show the state of the art on the oxidation mechanisms occurring in wines, as well as the methods to monitor, classify and diagnose wine oxidation. Wine oxidation can be divided in enzymatic oxidation and non-enzymatic oxidation. Enzymatic oxidation almost entirely occurs in grape must and is largely correlated with the content of hydroxycinnamates, such as caffeoyltartaric acid and paracoumaroyltartaric acid, and flavan-3-ols. Non-enzymatic oxidation, al...

  2. PROMOTION STRATEGIES IN WINE MARKETING

    OpenAIRE

    Ştefan MATEI

    2014-01-01

    Marketing has proven to be very useful instrument in the wine industry, in fostering comprehensive, cohesive and effective strategies which wineries require to effectively compete in today’s almost saturated wine market. But within wine marketing, the promotion strategy, from our point of view, is the most important component of the winery that can ensure the success in the market or can shorten the life cycle of the product. This being said, the aim of the paper is twofold. Firstly, to deter...

  3. New wine world from China: An analysis of competitiveness of the wine industry in Ningxia

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yuanbo; Bardaji de Azcarate, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    Recently, China has become a huge wine consumer market as well as being an important wine producer. China has the fifth largest global wine consumption and the largest global red wine market (OIV, 2015) with most of the wine consumed (approximately 70%-80%) being produced domestically. With the growing economy and technological advances, the Chinese domestic wine industry has seen significant development. Now, China has the second largest vineyard area (table grape and wine grape) just after ...

  4. Environmental attitudes towards wine tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Taylor

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Christopher Taylor1, Nelson Barber2, Cynthia Deale31School of Business, Eastern New Mexico University, Portales, Roosevelt County, NM, USA; 2Whittemore School of Business, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH, USA; 3Department of Hospitality Management, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC , USAAbstract: Wine tourism marketers frequently seek new ways to promote destinations, often executing ecologically sustainable practices. As consumer environmental knowledge of a wine tourism destination increases, consumer attitudes change, influencing perceptions of the environmental policies of a wine region. In this consumer-driven economy, it is therefore important to search for effective ways to market destinations, and one approach is selective marketing. By focusing on consumers in this manner, it is possible to understand better their concerns and motivations, which should aid in marketing and advertising efforts. This study investigated wine consumers environmental concerns and attitudes about wine regions. Results suggest environmental attitudes differed by demographics regarding the impact of wine tourism, providing ideas on further marketing efforts for those involved in wine tourism.Keywords: sustainable wine tourism, green products, wine marketing, consumers

  5. Taxation and Consumption of Wine

    OpenAIRE

    Tsolakis, Dimitris

    1983-01-01

    In this article, the impact that a sales tax might have upon wine consumption and, hence, on the wine and grape growing industries, is analysed. Implications for government revenue are also considered. It is shown that the relative responsiveness of supply and demand, rather than the level in the marketing chain at which a tax is levied, determines where the tax burden finally falls. The imposition of a tax on wine might force certain sectors of the wine and grape industries to undergo a phas...

  6. Is Wine a Financial Parachute?

    OpenAIRE

    Baldi, Lucia; Vandone, Daniela; Peri, Massimo

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes the relationship between Global Wine Industry Share Price Indexes and composite stock market indexes using a Threshold Vector Error Correction Model (TVECM), aiming to investigate if investments in the wine sector play a role in determining financial risk and return to investors who include it in their portfolio. Whilst in most of the literature analyses the return of investments of fine wine, this paper places the focus to “normal” (i.e. non‐fine) wine, using data from th...

  7. Wine Expertise Predicts Taste Phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, John E; Pickering, Gary J

    2012-03-01

    Taste phenotypes have long been studied in relation to alcohol intake, dependence, and family history, with contradictory findings. However, on balance - with appropriate caveats about populations tested, outcomes measured and psychophysical methods used - an association between variation in taste responsiveness and some alcohol behaviors is supported. Recent work suggests super-tasting (operationalized via propylthiouracil (PROP) bitterness) not only associates with heightened response but also with more acute discrimination between stimuli. Here, we explore relationships between food and beverage adventurousness and taste phenotype. A convenience sample of wine drinkers (n=330) were recruited in Ontario and phenotyped for PROP bitterness via filter paper disk. They also filled out a short questionnaire regarding willingness to try new foods, alcoholic beverages and wines as well as level of wine involvement, which was used to classify them as a wine expert (n=110) or wine consumer (n=220). In univariate logisitic models, food adventurousness predicted trying new wines and beverages but not expertise. Likewise, wine expertise predicted willingness to try new wines and beverages but not foods. In separate multivariate logistic models, willingness to try new wines and beverages was predicted by expertise and food adventurousness but not PROP. However, mean PROP bitterness was higher among wine experts than wine consumers, and the conditional distribution functions differed between experts and consumers. In contrast, PROP means and distributions did not differ with food adventurousness. These data suggest individuals may self-select for specific professions based on sensory ability (i.e., an active gene-environment correlation) but phenotype does not explain willingness to try new stimuli.

  8. Factors Contributing to a Memorable Wine Route Experience ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wine tourism, especially wine festivals and routes, is becoming more popular in South Africa, primarily because it gives wine cellars and wine farms greater publicity and exposure leading to increase in wine sales. The wine farmers or cellars are also expanding their product offering to involve more than just wine tasting ...

  9. 27 CFR 24.193 - Conversion into still wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Conversion into still wine..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Effervescent Wine § 24.193 Conversion into still wine. Sparkling wine or artificially carbonated wine may be dumped for use as still wine. The dumping process will...

  10. 27 CFR 24.294 - Destruction of wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Destruction of wine. 24..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Removal, Return and Receipt of Wine Removals Without Payment of Tax § 24.294 Destruction of wine. (a) General. Wine on bonded wine premises may be destroyed on or off wine...

  11. The health benefits of wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, J B; Walzem, R L

    2000-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies from numerous disparate populations reveal that individuals with the habit of daily moderate wine consumption enjoy significant reductions in all-cause and particularly cardiovascular mortality when compared with individuals who abstain or who drink alcohol to excess. Researchers are working to explain this observation in molecular and nutritional terms. Moderate ethanol intake from any type of beverage improves lipoprotein metabolism and lowers cardiovascular mortality risk. The question now is whether wine, particularly red wine with its abundant content of phenolic acids and polyphenols, confers additional health benefits. Discovering the nutritional properties of wine is a challenging task, which requires that the biological actions and bioavailability of the >200 individual phenolic compounds be documented and interpreted within the societal factors that stratify wine consumption and the myriad effects of alcohol alone. Further challenge arises because the health benefits of wine address the prevention of slowly developing diseases for which validated biomarkers are rare. Thus, although the benefits of the polyphenols from fruits and vegetables are increasingly accepted, consensus on wine is developing more slowly. Scientific research has demonstrated that the molecules present in grapes and in wine alter cellular metabolism and signaling, which is consistent mechanistically with reducing arterial disease. Future research must address specific mechanisms both of alcohol and of polyphenolic action and develop biomarkers of their role in disease prevention in individuals.

  12. [Beer, wine, spirits and mortality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grønbaek, M N; Sørensen, T I; Johansen, D; Becker, U; Gottschau, A; Schnohr, P; Hein, H O; Jensen, G

    2001-05-23

    A population based cohort study investigates the association between alcohol intake and mortality from all causes, coronary heart disease and cancer. The design is prospective with baseline assessment of intake of beer, wine and spirits, smoking habits, educational level, physical activity, and body mass index and a total of 257,859 person-years follow-up on mortality. A total of 4,833 participants died, of these 1,075 from coronary heart disease and 1,552 of cancer. Compared with non-drinkers, light drinkers who avoided wine, had a relative risk of death from all causes of 0.90 (0.82-0.99) and those who drank wine had a relative risk of 0.66 (0.55-0.77). Heavy drinkers who avoided wine were at higher risk of death from all causes than were heavy drinkers who included wine in their alcohol intake. Wine drinkers had significantly lower mortality from both coronary heart disease and cancer than did non-wine drinkers (p = 0.007 and p = 0.004, respectively). In conclusion, wine intake may have a beneficial effect on all cause mortality that is additive to that of alcohol. This effect may be attributable to a reduction in death from both coronary heart disease and cancer.

  13. French Wines on the Decline?:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steiner, Bodo

    2004-01-01

    French wines, differentiated by geographic origin, served for many decades as a basis for the French success in the British wine market. However in the early 1990s, market share began to decline. This article explores the values that market participants placed on labelling information on French...

  14. Tasting Wine: A Learning Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Tanya J.; Donaldson, Jilleen A.; Harry, Emma

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a field trip by senior undergraduate anthropology students to a local winery, where they participated in a wine-tasting class with winery staff. In response to explicit hints from a wine-tasting facilitator, and more subtle cues from the cultural capital embedded in their surroundings and the winery staff, the students…

  15. Technological change in the wine market? The role of QR codes and wine apps in consumer wine purchases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsey M. Higgins

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available As an experiential good, wine purchases in the absence of tastings are often challenging and information-laden decisions. Technology has shaped the way consumers negotiate this complex purchase process. Using a sample of 631 US wine consumers, this research aims to identify the role of mobile applications and QR codes in the wine purchase decision. Results suggest that wine consumers that consider themselves wine connoisseurs or experts, enjoy talking about wine, and are interested in wine that is produced locally, organically, or sustainably are more likely to employ technology in their wine purchase decision. While disruption appears to have occurred on the supply side (number of wine applications available and the number of wine labels with a QR code, this research suggests that relatively little change is occurring on the demand side (a relatively small segment of the population—those already interested in wine—are employing the technology to aid in their purchase decision.

  16. 27 CFR 19.534 - Withdrawals of spirits for use in production of nonbeverage wine and nonbeverage wine products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... use in production of nonbeverage wine and nonbeverage wine products. 19.534 Section 19.534 Alcohol... Withdrawals of spirits for use in production of nonbeverage wine and nonbeverage wine products. Spirits... bonded wine cellar for use in the production of nonbeverage wine and nonbeverage wine products. (Sec. 455...

  17. Potential wine ageing during transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Rainer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In a global world, wineries have to satisfy the demand of consumers who wish to drink high quality wines from countries all over the world. To fulfill this request wines have to be transported, crossing thereby great distances from the place of production to the consumer country. At the Institute of Enology of Hochschule Geisenheim University examinations with White-, Rosé- and Red-Wines of different origins which had been transported over longer distances within Europe (Portugal, France, Italy to Germany by trucks were carried out. Shipping of wines was simulated in a climatized cabinet to analyze the influence on wine quality during this way and conditions of transportation. Time and temperature profiles were based on real transport situtations which were recorded during shipping from Germany to Japan using data loggers. White, Rosé and Red wines were transported during 6 to 8 weeks and then were analytically and sensorically compared to those which were stored at a constant temperature of 15 ∘C. Besides the effect of temperature, the movements and vibrations encountered by the wines were also examined. Analytically wines were analyzed for general analytical parameters with Fourier-Transformation-Infrared-Spectroscopie (FTIR, Colour differences (Spectralphotometrie and free and total sulfuric acid with Flow-Injection-Analysis (FIA. Sensory examinations with a trained panel were performed in difference tests in form of rankings and triangular tests. Summarizing the results from the different tests it could be found that transportation had an influence on the potential ageing of wines depending on the wine matrix. Especially high and varying temperatures during transportations over a longer distance and time had negative influences on wine quality. Also the movement of wine at higher temperatures had showed a negative effect whereas transport at cool temperatures even below 0 ∘C did not influence wine characteristics. Sophisticated

  18. 27 CFR 24.77 - Experimental wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Experimental wine. 24.77... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions Tax Exempt Wine § 24.77 Experimental wine. (a) General. Any scientific university, college of learning, or institution of scientific...

  19. AUTOMATION OF CHAMPAGNE WINES PROCESS IN SPARKLING WINE PRESSURE TANK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Lukyanchuk

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The wine industry is now successfully solved the problem for the implementation of automation receiving points of grapes, crushing and pressing departments installation continuous fermentation work, blend tanks, production lines ordinary Madeira continuously working plants for ethyl alcohol installations champagne wine in continuous flow, etc. With the development of automation of technological progress productivity winemaking process develops in the following areas: organization of complex avtomatization sites grape processing with bulk transportation of the latter; improving the quality and durability of wines by the processing of a wide applying wine cold and heat, as well as technical and microbiological control most powerful automation equipment; the introduction of automated production processes of continuous technical champagne, sherry wine and cognac alcohol madery; the use of complex automation auxiliary production sites (boilers, air conditioners, refrigeration unitsand other.; complex avtomatization creation of enterprises, and sites manufactory bottling wines. In the wine industry developed more sophisticated schemes of automation and devices that enable the transition to integrated production automation, will create, are indicative automated enterprise serving for laboratories to study of the main problems of automation of production processes of winemaking.

  20. 27 CFR 24.210 - Classes of wine other than standard wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... fermentation wine, produced as provided in § 24.212; (b) Heavy bodied blending wine, produced as provided in...; (f) Vinegar stock, produced as provided in § 24.217; and (g) Wines other than those in classes listed...

  1. Wine tourism among Generations X and Y

    OpenAIRE

    Getz, Donald; Carlsen, Jack

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the wine tourism experience from the perspective of young adults, specifically Generation X and Y consumers. Both the wine industry and wine tourism destinations have a particular interest in learning more about these age cohorts, as wine consumption and wine-related travel have been dominated by older adults. Little research has focused on Gen X and Y and how they might become more involved. Accordingly, in this paper their motivation for taking a winery tour, level of eg...

  2. (PGMS) rice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-04-18

    Apr 18, 2011 ... tics, led us to predict that pollen cell abortion in this type of rice when ... averages of natural day-light-lengths and temperatures were used. A natural long ... blocks were allowed to grow under natural growth conditions (which.

  3. New wine world from Asia. Development, regional comparison and opportunities for the wine industry in China

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yuanbo; Bardaji de Azcarate, Isabel

    2017-01-01

    Recently, China has become a huge wine consumer market as China had the fifth largest global wine consumption and the largest global red wine consumption in 2015 with most of the wine consumed (approximately 70%) being produced domestically. With the growing economy and technological advance, the Chinese domestic wine industry has seen significant development. The Chinese wine industry has flourished across the broad territory from the east costal area to the west desert area with distinct cl...

  4. The mouthfeel of white wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawel, Richard; Smith, Paul A; Cicerale, Sara; Keast, Russell

    2017-07-05

    White wine mouthfeel which encompasses the tactile, chemosensory and taste attributes of perceived viscosity, astringency, hotness and bitterness is increasingly being recognized as an important component of overall white wine quality. This review summarizes the physiological basis for the perception of white wine mouthfeel and the direct and interactive effects of white wine composition, specifically those of low molecular weight phenolic compounds, polysaccharides, pH, ethanol, glycerol, dissolved carbon dioxide, and peptides. Ethyl alcohol concentration and pH play a direct role in determining most aspects of mouthfeel perception, and provide an overall framework on which the other minor wine components can interact to influence white wine mouthfeel. Phenolic compounds broadly impact on the mouthfeel by contributing to its viscosity, astringency, hotness and bitterness. Their breadth of influence likely results from their structural diversity which would allow them to activate multiple sensory mechanisms involved in mouthfeel perception. Conversely, polysaccharides have a small modulating effect on astringency and hotness perception, and glycerol does not affect perceived viscosity within the narrow concentration range found in white wine. Many of the major sensory attributes that contribute to the overall impression of mouthfeel are elicited by more than one class compound suggesting that different physiological mechanisms may be involved in the construct of mouthfeel percepts.

  5. Saccharomyces cerevisiae proteinase A excretion and wine making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Lulu; Chen, Yefu; Du, Yongjing; Wang, Xibin; Guo, Xuewu; Dong, Jian; Xiao, Dongguang

    2017-11-09

    Proteinase A (PrA), the major protease in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, plays an essential role in zymogen activation, sporulation, and other physiological processes in vivo. The extracellular secretion of PrA often occurs during alcoholic fermentation, especially in the later stages when the yeast cells are under stress conditions, and affects the quality and safety of fermented products. Thus, the mechanism underlying PrA excretion must be explored to improve the quality and safety of fermented products. This paper briefly introduces the structure and physiological function of PrA. Two transport routes of PrA, namely, the Golgi-to-vacuole pathway and the constitutive Golgi-to-plasma membrane pathway, are also discussed. Moreover, the research history and developments on the mechanism of extracellular PrA secretion are described. In addition, it is briefly discussed that calcium homeostasis plays an important role in the secretory pathway of proteins, implying that the regulation of PrA delivery to the plasma membrane requires the involvement of calcium ion. Finally, this review focuses on the effects of PrA excretion on wine making (including Chinese rice wine, grape wine, and beer brewage) and presents strategies to control PrA excretion.

  6. AUTOMATION OF CHAMPAGNE WINES PROCESS IN SPARKLING WINE PRESSURE TANK

    OpenAIRE

    E. V. Lukyanchuk; V. A. Khobin; V. A. Khobin

    2016-01-01

    The wine industry is now successfully solved the problem for the implementation of automation receiving points of grapes, crushing and pressing departments installation continuous fermentation work, blend tanks, production lines ordinary Madeira continuously working plants for ethyl alcohol installations champagne wine in continuous flow, etc. With the development of automation of technological progress productivity winemaking process develops in the following areas: organization of complex a...

  7. Biological Demalication and Deacetification of Musts and Wines: Can Wine Yeasts Make the Wine Taste Better?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Vilela

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Grape musts sometimes reveal excess acidity. An excessive amount of organic acids negatively affect wine yeasts and yeast fermentation, and the obtained wines are characterized by an inappropriate balance between sweetness, acidity or sourness, and flavor/aroma components. An appropriate acidity, pleasant to the palate is more difficult to achieve in wines that have high acidity due to an excess of malic acid, because the Saccharomyces species in general, cannot effectively degrade malic acid during alcoholic fermentation. One approach to solving this problem is biological deacidification by lactic acid bacteria or non-Saccharomyces yeasts, like Schizosaccharomyces pombe that show the ability to degrade L-malic acid. Excessive volatile acidity in wine is also a problem in the wine industry. The use of free or immobilized Saccharomyces cells has been studied to solve both these problems since these yeasts are wine yeasts that show a good balance between taste/flavor and aromatic compounds during alcoholic fermentation. The aim of this review is to give some insights into the use of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains to perform biological demalication (malic acid degradation and deacetification (reduction of volatile acidity of wine in an attempt to better understand their biochemistry and enological features.

  8. PROMOTION STRATEGIES IN WINE MARKETING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ştefan MATEI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Marketing has proven to be very useful instrument in the wine industry, in fostering comprehensive, cohesive and effective strategies which wineries require to effectively compete in today’s almost saturated wine market. But within wine marketing, the promotion strategy, from our point of view, is the most important component of the winery that can ensure the success in the market or can shorten the life cycle of the product. This being said, the aim of the paper is twofold. Firstly, to determine and analyze the steps that are required to create a promotion strategy in the wine industry, by comparing different approaches. Secondly, to identify the instruments of the promotional mix that helps a winery to implement its promotional strategy. Bearing that in mind, the paper starts with some theoretical aspects regarding the promotion strategy and ends by providing a brief overview of the main findings.

  9. 27 CFR 24.212 - High fermentation wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false High fermentation wine. 24..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Other Than Standard Wine § 24.212 High fermentation wine. High fermentation wine is wine made with the addition of sugar within the limitations prescribed...

  10. 27 CFR 24.293 - Wine for Government use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wine for Government use..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Removal, Return and Receipt of Wine Removals Without Payment of Tax § 24.293 Wine for Government use. (a) General. Wine may be removed from bonded wine premises, free of...

  11. 27 CFR 24.296 - Taxpaid wine operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Taxpaid wine operations..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Removal, Return and Receipt of Wine Taxpaid Wine Operations § 24.296 Taxpaid wine operations. (a) General. The proprietor may conduct taxpaid wine operations authorized by...

  12. 27 CFR 24.213 - Heavy bodied blending wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Heavy bodied blending wine..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Other Than Standard Wine § 24.213 Heavy bodied blending wine. Heavy bodied blending wine is wine made for blending purposes from grapes or other fruit without...

  13. 27 CFR 24.256 - Bottle aging wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bottle aging wine. 24.256... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Storage, Treatment and Finishing of Wine Bottling, Packing, and Labeling of Wine § 24.256 Bottle aging wine. Wine bottled or packed and stored for the purpose of aging need...

  14. 27 CFR 24.311 - Taxpaid wine record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Taxpaid wine record. 24..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Records and Reports § 24.311 Taxpaid wine record. A proprietor who has taxpaid United States or foreign wine on taxpaid wine premises or on taxpaid wine bottling house...

  15. Environmental attitudes towards wine tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson Barber, Nelson; Taylor,Chris; Deale,Cynthia

    2010-01-01

    Christopher Taylor1, Nelson Barber2, Cynthia Deale31School of Business, Eastern New Mexico University, Portales, Roosevelt County, NM, USA; 2Whittemore School of Business, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH, USA; 3Department of Hospitality Management, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC , USAAbstract: Wine tourism marketers frequently seek new ways to promote destinations, often executing ecologically sustainable practices. As consumer environmental knowledge of a wine tourism desti...

  16. A cointegration analysis of wine stock indexes

    OpenAIRE

    Sabina Introvigne; Emanuele Bacchiocchi; Daniela Vandone

    2017-01-01

    This paper analyzes price patterns and long-run relationships for both fine wine and non-fine wine, with the aim to highlight price dynamics and co-movements between series, and to exploit potential diversification benefits. Data are from Liv-Ex 100 Fine Wine for fine wine, the Mediobanca Global Wine Industry Share Price for normal wine, and the MSCI World Index as a proxy of the overall stock market. Engle-Granger and Johansen tests were used to detect whether and to what extent the series c...

  17. Different preferences for wine communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Sillani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at verifying the presence of variations in the reactions of different types of audiences to certain communication tools for wine. Five samples of audiences were compared: wine professionals, organic produce specialists, wine tourists, and two samples of general tourists. The following bundle of attributes were considered: name of the grape; information on organic production methods; type of closure; QR code; landscape; advertising language. Diverse audience’s preferences were measured by conjoint analysis. The results have shown a common sensitivity to certain attributes, and a different or contrary sensitivity to others. In particular, all samples have demonstrated that: 1 certified organic wines communicated in standard wine-market style have the potential of becoming market leaders; 2 photographs facilitate the acceptance of technologically-advanced closures; 3 the presence of the QR code in printed advertisements increases the expected value of the product; 4a landscape characterised by holistic “garden viticulture” increases preferences. Textual language was more effective with professionals, while photographic language was more effective with tourists. Supplementary information on the organic production methods, in addition to the mandatory labelling requirements, increased the preferences of professionals and wine tourists, and was counterproductive with the general tourists.

  18. Microbial Glycosidases for Wine Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergi Maicas

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Winemaking is a complex process involving the interaction of different microbes. The two main groups of microorganisms involved are yeasts and bacteria. The yeasts present in spontaneous fermentation may be divided into two groups: the Saccharomyces yeasts, particularly S. cerevisiae; and the non-Saccharomyces yeasts, which include members of the genera Rhodotorula, Pichia, Candida, Debaryomyces, Metschtnikowia, Hansenula, and Hanseniaspora. S. cerevisiae yeasts are able to convert sugar into ethanol and CO2 via fermentation. They have been used by humans for thousands of years for the production of fermented beverages and foods, including wine. Their enzymes provide interesting organoleptic characteristics in wine. Glycosidases with oenological implications have been widely reported in yeasts, bacteria, and fungi. β-Glucosidase activity is involved in the release of terpenes to wine, thus contributing to varietal aroma. α-Rhamnosidase, α-arabinosidase, or β-apiosidase activities have also been reported to contribute to the wine production process. Oenococcus oeni (a lactic acid bacteria present in wine also has numerous glycosidases, and their activities contribute to the liberation of several aromatic compounds which contribute to floral and fruity wine characteristics.

  19. Degradation of endogenous and exogenous genes of genetically modified rice with Cry1Ab during food processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Xing, Fuguo; Selvaraj, Jonathan Nimal; Liu, Yang

    2014-05-01

    In order to assess the degradation of endogenous and exogenous genes during food processing, genetically modified rice with Cry1Ab was used as raw material to produce 4 processed foods: steamed rice, rice noodles, rice crackers, and sweet rice wine. The results showed various processing procedures caused different degrees of degradation of both endogenous and exogenous genes. During the processing of steamed rice and rice noodles, the procedures were so mild that only genes larger than 1500 bp were degraded, and no degradation of NOS terminator and Hpt gene was detected. For rice crackers, frying was the most severe procedure, followed by microwaving, baking, boiling, 1st drying, and 2nd drying. For sweet rice wine, fermentation had more impact on degradation of genes than the other processing procedures. All procedures in this study did not lead to degradation of genes to below 200 bp, except for NOS terminator. In the case of stability of the genes studied during processing of rice crackers and sweet rice wine, SPS gene was the most, followed by the Cry1Ab gene, Hpt gene, Pubi promoter, and NOS terminator. In our study, we gained some information about the degradation of endogenous and exogenous genes during 4 foods processing, compared the different stabilities between endogenous and exogenous genes, and analyzed different effects of procedure on degradation of genes. In addition, the fragments of endogenous and exogenous genes about 200 bp could be detected in final products, except NOS terminator. As a result, we provided some base information about risk assessment of genetically modified (GM) food and appropriate length of fragment to detect GM component in processed foods. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  20. The enhancement mechanism of wine-processed Radix Scutellaria on NTG-induced migraine rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Cheng-Long; He, Xin; Dong, Cui-Lan; Song, Zi-Jing; Ji, Jun; Wang, Xue; Wang, Ling; Wang, Jiao-Ying; Du, Wen-Juan; Wang, Chong-Zhi; Yuan, Chun-Su; Guo, Chang-Run; Zhang, Chun-Feng

    2017-07-01

    To elucidate the increasing dissolution and enhancement mechanism of wine-processed Radix Scutellaria (RS) by fractal theory in nitroglycerin (NTG)-induced migraine rats. We prepared three RS from the process with 10% (S1), 15% (S2), 20% (S3) (v/m) rice wine. Mercury intrusion porosimetry and scanning electron microscope were employed to explore the internal structure of RS and the components dissolution of RS was analyzed by HPLC. Rats were randomly allocated into following groups and orally given different solutions for 10days: normal group (NOR, normal saline), model group (MOD, normal saline), Tianshu capsule group (TSC, 0.425mg/kg), ibuprofen group (IBU, 0.0821mg/kg), crude RS group (CRU, 1.04mg/kg) and wine-processed RS group (WP, 1.04mg/kg) followed by bolus subcutaneously injection of NTG (10mg/kg) to induce migraine model except NOR. Biochemical indexes (nitric oxide-NO, calcitonin-gene-related peptide-CGRP, and endothelin-ET) and c-fos positive cells were measured with commercial kits and immunohistochemical method, separately. Total surface area significantly increased in wine-processed RS (pWine-processed RS could be a promising candidate medicine for migraine treatment due to its increased component dissolution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Proton-beam technique dates fine wine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumé, Belle

    2008-10-01

    Nuclear physicists in France have invented a way to authenticate the vintage of rare wine without needing a sommelier's keen nose or even a corkscrew. The technique, which involves firing high-energy protons at wine bottles, can determine how old the bottles are and even where they come from. The new method could help unmask counterfeit wines - a growing problem in the fine-wine industry, where a bottle can sell for thousands of Euros.

  2. Microbial Contribution to Wine Aroma and Its Intended Use for Wine Quality Improvement

    OpenAIRE

    Belda Aguilar, Ignacio; Ruiz, Javier; Esteban Fernández, Adelaida; Navascués, Eva; Marquina Díaz, Domingo; Santos de la Sen, Antonio; Moreno Arribas, M. Victoria

    2017-01-01

    Wine is a complex matrix that includes components with different chemical natures, the volatile compounds being responsible for wine aroma quality. The microbial ecosystem of grapes and wine, including Saccharomyces and non-Saccharomyces yeasts, as well as lactic acid bacteria, is considered by winemakers and oenologists as a decisive factor influencing wine aroma and consumer’s preferences. The challenges and opportunities emanating from the contribution of wine microbiome to the production ...

  3. Associations among Wine Grape Microbiome, Metabolome, and Fermentation Behavior Suggest Microbial Contribution to Regional Wine Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokulich, Nicholas A; Collins, Thomas S; Masarweh, Chad; Allen, Greg; Heymann, Hildegarde; Ebeler, Susan E; Mills, David A

    2016-06-14

    Regionally distinct wine characteristics (terroir) are an important aspect of wine production and consumer appreciation. Microbial activity is an integral part of wine production, and grape and wine microbiota present regionally defined patterns associated with vineyard and climatic conditions, but the degree to which these microbial patterns associate with the chemical composition of wine is unclear. Through a longitudinal survey of over 200 commercial wine fermentations, we demonstrate that both grape microbiota and wine metabolite profiles distinguish viticultural area designations and individual vineyards within Napa and Sonoma Counties, California. Associations among wine microbiota and fermentation characteristics suggest new links between microbiota, fermentation performance, and wine properties. The bacterial and fungal consortia of wine fermentations, composed from vineyard and winery sources, correlate with the chemical composition of the finished wines and predict metabolite abundances in finished wines using machine learning models. The use of postharvest microbiota as an early predictor of wine chemical composition is unprecedented and potentially poses a new paradigm for quality control of agricultural products. These findings add further evidence that microbial activity is associated with wine terroir Wine production is a multi-billion-dollar global industry for which microbial control and wine chemical composition are crucial aspects of quality. Terroir is an important feature of consumer appreciation and wine culture, but the many factors that contribute to terroir are nebulous. We show that grape and wine microbiota exhibit regional patterns that correlate with wine chemical composition, suggesting that the grape microbiome may influence terroir In addition to enriching our understanding of how growing region and wine properties interact, this may provide further economic incentive for agricultural and enological practices that maintain regional

  4. 27 CFR 31.232 - Wine bottling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... The decanting of wine by caterers or other retail dealers for table or room service, banquets, and... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wine bottling. 31.232... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS ALCOHOL BEVERAGE DEALERS Miscellaneous § 31.232 Wine bottling. Each person...

  5. The Essentials of Proper Wine Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manago, Gary H.

    This instructional unit was designed to assist the food services instructor and/or the restaurant manager in training students and/or staff in the proper procedure for serving wines to guests. The lesson plans included in this unit focus on: (1) the different types of wine glasses and their uses; (2) the parts of a wine glass; (3) the proper…

  6. Changes in Wine Ethanol Content Due to Evaporation from Wine Glasses and Implications for Sensory Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollan, David; Pham, Duc-Truc; Wilkinson, Kerry Leigh

    2016-10-12

    The relative proportion of water and ethanol present in alcoholic beverages can significantly influence the perception of wine sensory attributes. This study therefore investigated changes in wine ethanol concentration due to evaporation from wine glasses. The ethanol content of commercial wines exposed to ambient conditions while in wine glasses was monitored over time. No change in wine ethanol content was observed where glasses were covered with plastic lids, but where glasses were not covered, evaporation had a significant impact on wine ethanol content, with losses from 0.9 to 1.9% alcohol by volume observed for wines that received direct exposure to airflow for 2 h. Evaporation also resulted in decreases in the concentration of some fermentation volatiles (determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry) and a perceptible change in wine aroma. The rate of ethanol loss was strongly influenced by exposure to airflow (i.e., from the laboratory air-conditioning unit), together with certain glass shape and wine parameters; glass headspace in particular. This is the first study to demonstrate the significant potential for ethanol evaporation from wine in wine glasses. Research findings have important implications for the technical evaluation of wine sensory properties; in particular, informal sensory trials and wine show judging, where the use of covers on wine glasses is not standard practice.

  7. Wine tourism : a review of the Chilean case

    OpenAIRE

    Kunc, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Wine tourism has become a thriving niche in global tourism industry with successful cases like Napa Valley in the USA with 19 million visitors per year. However, there are important disparities among wine regions. The paper analyses the case of the Chilean wine tourism, which is one of the regions with less wine tourists although it is very important in global wine industry, and its reasons for its low level of development. Chilean wine industry has been developing its infrastructure in wine ...

  8. Physico-chemical characterisation of Slovak wines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbora Lapčíková

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was characterisation of selected varieties of still wines produced in Slovak Republic in vintage year 2013 and one 2012. There were tested ten samples of nine varieties of wines originated from Malokarpatská "Lesser Carpathian" and Južnoslovenská "Southern Slovakia" wine regions of Slovak Republic, Dornfelder, Frankovka modrá, Svätovarinecké, Zweigeltrebe, Müller Thurgau, Veltlínské zelené, Rizling rýnsky, Rizling vlašský and Sauvignon wines. There were studied selected physico-chemical properties of tested wines as a total contents of anthocyanins and polyphenols by means of spectrophotometry, titratable acidity, density and chromatic characteristics. The highest content of anthocyanins (TAC was found in red wine Frankovka modrá, 183 mg.L-1 and the lowest for sample rose wine St. Laurent 19 mg.L-1. The content of total phenolic compounds as a gallic acid was in range 2833 to 1961 mg.L-1 for red wines, 1016 and 1013 mg.L-1 for rose wines, 1085 to 549 mg.L-1for white wines.  Total acidy was average 6.3 ±0.3 g.L-1 only for Ryzling rýnský, 8.2 g.L-1 and Sauvignon rose 8.0 g.L-1 and was expressed as the amount of tartaric acid. Quality of wines can be expressed by colour intensity too. Was evaluated and compared intensity of colour in wines by CIE Lab method and the total differences between red, rose and white wine DE* was calculated. The most differences was found for Svätovarinecké a Frankovka modrá (2.5 - red wines ("clearly perceptible" and 4.9 for Veltlýnské zelené and Müller Thurgau - white wine ("moderating effect".

  9. Fun with singing wine glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, Christine; Galloway, Melodie; Ruiz, Michael J.

    2018-05-01

    A fun activity is presented using singing wine glasses for introductory physics students. Students tune a white wine glass and a red wine glass to as many semitones as possible by filling the glasses with the appropriate amounts of water. A smart phone app is used to measure the frequencies of equal-temperament tones. Then plots of frequency against water volume percent are made using a spreadsheet. Students can also play combinations of pitches with several glasses. A video (Ruiz 2018 Video: Singing glasses http://mjtruiz.com/ped/wineglasses/) is provided which includes an excerpt of a beautiful piece written for singing glasses and choir: Stars by Latvian composer Ēriks Ešenvalds.

  10. Raman spectroscopy of white wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Coralie; Bruneel, Jean-Luc; Guyon, François; Médina, Bernard; Jourdes, Michael; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis; Guillaume, François

    2015-08-15

    The feasibility of exploiting Raman scattering to analyze white wines has been investigated using 3 different wavelengths of the incoming laser radiation in the near-UV (325 nm), visible (532 nm) and near infrared (785 nm). To help in the interpretation of the Raman spectra, the absorption properties in the UV-visible range of two wine samples as well as their laser induced fluorescence have also been investigated. Thanks to the strong intensity enhancement of the Raman scattered light due to electronic resonance with 325 nm laser excitation, hydroxycinnamic acids may be detected and analyzed selectively. Fructose and glucose may also be easily detected below ca. 1000 cm(-1). This feasibility study demonstrates the potential of the Raman spectroscopic technique for the analysis of white wines. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. QUALITY EVALUATION OF DENDALION WINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldona Sugintienė

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The world tendencies are pronounced to attach significance to production of natural fermentation alcohol drinks. The fanciers of drinks take interest in the production of homemade drinks, and especially healthy drinks.Production of original and even health friendly drinks has been recently a matter of increased interest among amateur producers and drink manufacturers in Europe as well. Dandelion wine is one of the drinks produced by use of different amounts of various ingredients and available equipment in the fermentation laboratory. The following characteristics are determined upon the main fermentation in the matured and clarified wine:- sensory indicators (color, appearance and clearness; aroma and bouquets, taste and texture, and aftertaste,- analytical indicators (alcoholic strength by volume, determination of sugars, total acidity, volatile acidity.Dandelions wine is most distinguished by its flavor characteristics.

  12. Generation Y preferences towards wine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chrysochou, Polymeros; Krystallis Krontalis, Athanasios; Mocanu, Ana

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore differences in wine preferences between Generation Y and older cohorts in the USA. Design/methodology/approach – A total of 260 US consumers participated in a web-based survey that took place in April 2010. The best-worst scaling method was applied...... measuring the level of importance given by participants to a list of most common attributes used in choice of wine. Independent sample t-tests were applied to compare the best-worst scores between Generation Y and older cohorts. Findings – Differences were found in the level of importance that Generation Y...... gives to wine attributes in comparison to older cohorts. Generation Y was found to attach more importance to attributes such as “Someone recommended it”, “Attractive front label” and “Promotional display in-store”, whereas older cohorts gave more importance to attributes such as “I read about it...

  13. Wine polyphenols: potential agents in neuroprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basli, Abdelkader; Soulet, Stéphanie; Chaher, Nassima; Mérillon, Jean-Michel; Chibane, Mohamed; Monti, Jean-Pierre; Richard, Tristan

    2012-01-01

    There are numerous studies indicating that a moderate consumption of red wine provides certain health benefits, such as the protection against neurodegenerative diseases. This protective effect is most likely due to the presence of phenolic compounds in wine. Wine polyphenolic compounds are well known for the antioxidant properties. Oxidative stress is involved in many forms of cellular and molecular deterioration. This damage can lead to cell death and various neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson's or Alzheimer's diseases. Extensive investigations have been undertaken to determine the neuroprotective effects of wine-related polyphenols. In this review we present the neuroprotective abilities of the major classes of wine-related polyphenols.

  14. Wine Polyphenols: Potential Agents in Neuroprotection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basli, Abdelkader; Soulet, Stéphanie; Chaher, Nassima; Mérillon, Jean-Michel; Chibane, Mohamed; Monti, Jean-Pierre; Richard, Tristan

    2012-01-01

    There are numerous studies indicating that a moderate consumption of red wine provides certain health benefits, such as the protection against neurodegenerative diseases. This protective effect is most likely due to the presence of phenolic compounds in wine. Wine polyphenolic compounds are well known for the antioxidant properties. Oxidative stress is involved in many forms of cellular and molecular deterioration. This damage can lead to cell death and various neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson's or Alzheimer's diseases. Extensive investigations have been undertaken to determine the neuroprotective effects of wine-related polyphenols. In this review we present the neuroprotective abilities of the major classes of wine-related polyphenols. PMID:22829964

  15. Do Taxes Produce Better Wine?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljunge, Jan Martin

    2011-01-01

    Theory predicts that unit taxes increase the quality consumed in a market, since unit taxes reduce the relative price of high quality goods. Ad valorem taxes, on the other hand, have no effect on relative prices, and should not affect product quality. The hypothesis is tested empirically in the U...... wine market. I find that the market share of high quality wine is significantly increased by unit taxes, and that there is no significant effect of ad valorem taxes, in accordance with the hypothesis and previous empirical studies....

  16. Associations among Wine Grape Microbiome, Metabolome, and Fermentation Behavior Suggest Microbial Contribution to Regional Wine Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokulich, Nicholas A.; Collins, Thomas S.; Masarweh, Chad; Allen, Greg; Heymann, Hildegarde; Ebeler, Susan E.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Regionally distinct wine characteristics (terroir) are an important aspect of wine production and consumer appreciation. Microbial activity is an integral part of wine production, and grape and wine microbiota present regionally defined patterns associated with vineyard and climatic conditions, but the degree to which these microbial patterns associate with the chemical composition of wine is unclear. Through a longitudinal survey of over 200 commercial wine fermentations, we demonstrate that both grape microbiota and wine metabolite profiles distinguish viticultural area designations and individual vineyards within Napa and Sonoma Counties, California. Associations among wine microbiota and fermentation characteristics suggest new links between microbiota, fermentation performance, and wine properties. The bacterial and fungal consortia of wine fermentations, composed from vineyard and winery sources, correlate with the chemical composition of the finished wines and predict metabolite abundances in finished wines using machine learning models. The use of postharvest microbiota as an early predictor of wine chemical composition is unprecedented and potentially poses a new paradigm for quality control of agricultural products. These findings add further evidence that microbial activity is associated with wine terroir. PMID:27302757

  17. Development of Young Coconut (Cocos nucifera Wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polemer M. Cuarto

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to develop wine from young coconut water. This investigated the acceptability of the quality attributes of young coconut wine compared with commercial wine. Using a 5 - point hedonic scale, sensory evaluation test was done by the panelists (N=30 to evaluate the accep tability of the product quality attributes such as color, aroma and taste. Results of the sensory evaluation showed that young coconut wine has a pale light color, powerful aroma and sweet taste. Results also showed that panelists choose the color and tast e of the young coconut wine as its desirable attributes. Statistical analysis (p<0.05 showed significant difference in the color and aroma between young coconut wine and commercial wine but no significant difference in terms of taste.

  18. The complexity of wine: clarifying the role of microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tempère, Sophie; Marchal, Axel; Barbe, Jean-Christophe; Bely, Marina; Masneuf-Pomarede, Isabelle; Marullo, Philippe; Albertin, Warren

    2018-05-01

    The concept of wine complexity has gained considerable interest in recent years, both for wine consumers and wine scientists. As a consequence, some research programs concentrate on the factors that could improve the perceived complexity of a wine. Notably, the possible influence of microbiological factors is particularly investigated. However, wine complexity is a multicomponent concept not easily defined. In this review, we first describe the actual knowledge regarding wine complexity, its perception, and wine chemical composition. In particular, we emphasize that, contrary to expectations, the perception of wine complexity is not related to wine chemical complexity. Then, we review the impact of wine microorganisms on wine complexity, with a specific focus on publications including sensory analyses. While microorganisms definitively can impact wine complexity, the underlying mechanisms and molecules are far from being deciphered. Finally, we discuss some prospective research fields that will help improving our understanding of wine complexity, including perceptive interactions, microbial interactions, and other challenging phenomena.

  19. Vinegar rice (Oryza sativa L. produced by a submerged fermentation process from alcoholic fermented rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilma Aparecida Spinosa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Considering the limited availability of technology for the production of rice vinegar and also due to the potential consumer product market, this study aimed to use alcoholic fermented rice (rice wine (Oryza sativa L. for vinegar production. An alcoholic solution with 6.28% (w/v ethanol was oxidized by a submerged fermentation process to produce vinegar. The process of acetic acid fermentation occurred at 30 ± 0.3°C in a FRINGS® Acetator (Germany for the production of vinegar and was followed through 10 cycles. The vinegar had a total acidity of 6.85% (w/v, 0.17% alcohol (w/v, 1.26% (w/v minerals and 1.78% (w/v dry extract. The composition of organic acids present in rice vinegar was: cis-aconitic acid (6 mg/L, maleic acid (3 mg/L, trans-aconitic acid (3 mg/L, shikimic + succinic acid (4 mg/L, lactic acid (300 mg/L, formic acid (180 mg/L, oxalic acid (3 mg/L, fumaric acid (3 mg/L and itaconic acid (1 mg/L.

  20. Brazilian sparkling wine: A successful trajectory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wurz Douglas André

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to explore the evolution of internal and external commercialization of Brazilian sparkling wines during the period between 1986 and 2015, giving an overview of the current situation and its market trends, and highlighting the importance of Brazil in the world scenario for sparkling wines. This research is based on quantitative data sources provided by different institutions: International Organization of Vine and Wine (OIV, Brazilian Union of Viticulture (UVIBRA, Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Supply (MAPA and Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation (EMBRAPA. Brazil is a promising country for the sparkling wine market. From 1986–2015, there was an increase of 465.6% in the sales of sparkling wine in the Brazilian domestic market, especially the last ten, which accounted for an increase of 215.7%. In 1998, Brazilian sparkling wines accounted for 70.5% of sparkling wines sold in Brazil. Today, they represent 82.1%of national market, and proved to be one of the most prestigious products from Brazilian viticulture when compared, for example, to non-sparkling wines, which 79% are imported wines. Of the imported sparkling wines consumed in Brazil, six countries account for 98.5% of the market (France: 32.7%; Italy: 24.8% and Spain: 21.9%. The volume exportation of Brazilian sparkling wine has grown significantly in recent years (4,210.2%, with Paraguay, China, Uruguay, the United States, France and the United Kingdom being the major buyers. The evolution of exports shows that Brazilian sparkling wine becomes an alternative to those produced in traditional countries, such as France, Italy and Spain, due to their quality and price. There is an increase in the commercialization of sparkling wines in the Brazilian domestic market, in addition to the growing participation of Brazil in the volume of exports in the world market, placing Brazil in a leading position in the production and sale of sparkling wines.

  1. 27 CFR 24.301 - Bulk still wine record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... produces or receives still wine in bond, (including wine intended for use as distilling material or vinegar.... The bulk still wine record will contain the following: (a) The volume produced by fermentation in wine... fermentation, amelioration, sweetening, addition of spirits, blending; (d) The volume of wine used and produced...

  2. Country-wine making from Eembe fruit (Berchemia discolor) of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Country-wine was made from dried Eembe fruit purchased from Katima Mulilo open market using commercial wine yeast. The fruit produced a wine with 8.6% alcohol content when no sugar was added. Fermentation to produce the wine was carried out at 22ºC. The clarity, aroma, colour and acceptability of the wine was ...

  3. 27 CFR 26.97 - Marking containers of wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Marking containers of wine... Liquors and Articles in Puerto Rico Wine § 26.97 Marking containers of wine. Containers of wine of Puerto... winemaker, the serial number of the container, the kind and taxable grade of the wine, the gallon content...

  4. 27 CFR 24.307 - Nonbeverage wine record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nonbeverage wine record..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Records and Reports § 24.307 Nonbeverage wine record. A proprietor who produces nonbeverage wine or wine products shall maintain a record by transaction date of such...

  5. 27 CFR 4.71 - Standard wine containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Standard wine containers..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Standards of Fill for Wine § 4.71 Standard wine containers. (a) A standard wine container shall be made, formed and filled to meet the...

  6. 27 CFR 24.302 - Effervescent wine record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effervescent wine record..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Records and Reports § 24.302 Effervescent wine record. A proprietor who produces or receives sparkling wine or artificially carbonated wine in bond shall maintain records...

  7. The role and influence of wine awards as perceived by the South African wine consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. J. Herbst

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine whether, in the mind of the consumer, wine awards do indeed play a significant role in influencing consumer choices. Initially, a literature review was conducted to establish the role of wine awards in wine marketing. Problem investigated: The increasing number of wine competitions appears to dilute the value of wine awards as a marketing tool. The local wine consumers are currently bombarded by a variety of wine choices and need to use cues to assist them in making buying decisions. Consumers are also sceptical about the honesty of producers in marketing their awards. The question arises, whether, in the minds of South Africa's wine consumers, awards play a strong enough role in influencing their choice when buying wine. Research design: A convenience sample was drawn among South African wine consumers by using an online survey questionnaire. A sample of 285 was realised and the data analysed by using descriptive and inferential statistical methods. Findings and implications: Wine awards are indeed recognised by the consumer as a cue that shapes their choices / selection criteria, but their importance is relatively low compared to other cues such as variety, vintage, producer, production method, packaging, place of origin and price. Yet, having established that decision-making is a complex set of interactions, wine awards do nevertheless play a role in supporting a decision in certain circumstances and for certain customer segments. Generally speaking, it was found that the more sophisticated a consumer (connoisseur is the less regard exists for wine awards. Not only do wine awards have lesser power in shaping decisions, but also attitudes towards the concept of wine awards are more negative. Lesser informed consumers tend to take more guidance from, and are less opinionated about the concept of wine awards. An independent monitoring authority is seen as a solution to raise the profile of wine

  8. Sulfites and the wine metabolome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roullier-Gall, Chloé; Hemmler, Daniel; Gonsior, Michael; Li, Yan; Nikolantonaki, Maria; Aron, Alissa; Coelho, Christian; Gougeon, Régis D; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe

    2017-12-15

    In a context of societal concern about food preservation, the reduction of sulfite input plays a major role in the wine industry. To improve the understanding of the chemistry involved in the SO 2 protection, a series of bottle aged Chardonnay wines made from the same must, but with different concentrations of SO 2 added at pressing were analyzed by ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS) and excitation emission matrix fluorescence (EEMF). Metabolic fingerprints from FT-ICR-MS data could discriminate wines according to the added concentration to the must but they also revealed chemistry-related differences according to the type of stopper, providing a wine metabolomics picture of the impact of distinct stopping strategies. Spearman rank correlation was applied to link the statistically modeled EEMF components (parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC)) and the exact mass information from FT-ICR-MS, and thus revealing the extent of sulfur-containing compounds which could show some correlation with fluorescence fingerprints. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The Microbial Diversity of Sherry Wines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Cordero-Bueso

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The principal role of wine yeast is to transform efficiently the grape-berries’ sugars to ethanol, carbon dioxide, and other metabolites, without the production of off-flavors. Wine yeast strains are able to ferment musts, while other commercial or laboratory strains fail to do so. The genetic differences that characterize wine yeast strains in contrast to the biological ageing of the veil-forming yeasts in Sherry wines are poorly understood. Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains frequently exhibit rather specific phenotypic features needed for adaptation to a special environment, like fortified wines with ethanol up to 15% (v/v, known as Sherry wines. Factors that affect the correct development of the veil of flor during ageing are also reviewed, along with the related aspects of wine composition, biofilm formation processes, and yeast autolysis. This review highlights the importance of yeast ecology and yeast metabolic reactions in determining Sherry wine quality and the wealth of untapped indigenous microorganisms co-existing with the veil-forming yeast strains. It covers the complexity of the veil forming wine yeasts’ genetic features, and the genetic techniques often used in strain selection and monitoring during fermentation or biological ageing. Finally, the outlook for new insights to protect and to maintain the microbiota of the Sherry wines will be discussed.

  10. BIOGENIC AMINES CONTENT IN DIFFERENT WINE SAMPLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Kántor

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-five samples of different Slovak wines before and after filtration were analysed in order to determine the content of eight biogenic amines (tryptamine, phenylalanine, putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, tyramine, spermidine and spermine. The method involves extraction of biogenic amines from wine samples with used dansyl chloride. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC was used for determination of biogenic amines equipped with a Rapid Resolution High Definition (RRHD, DAD detectors and Extend-C18 LC column (50 mm x 3.0 mm ID, 1.8 μm particle size. In this study the highest level of biogenic amine in all wine samples represent tryptamine (TRM with the highest content 170.9±5.3 mg/L in Pinot Blanc wine. Phenylalanine (PHE cadaverine (CAD, histamine (HIS and spermidine (SPD were not detected in all wines; mainly SPD was not detected in 16 wines, HIS not detected in 14 wines, PHE and CAD not detected in 2 wines. Tyramine (TYR, spermine (SPN and putrescine (PUT were detected in all wines, but PUT and SPN in very low concentration. The worst wine samples with high biogenic amine content were Saint Laurent (BF, Pinot Blanc (S and Pinot Noir (AF.

  11. How do consumers describe wine astringency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Leticia; Giménez, Ana; Medina, Karina; Boido, Eduardo; Ares, Gastón

    2015-12-01

    Astringency is one of the most important sensory characteristics of red wine. Although a hierarchically structured vocabulary to describe the mouthfeel sensations of red wine has been proposed, research on consumers' astringency vocabulary is lacking. In this context, the aim of this work was to gain an insight on the vocabulary used by wine consumers to describe the astringency of red wine and to evaluate the influence of wine involvement on consumers' vocabulary. One hundred and twenty-five wine consumers completed and on-line survey with five tasks: an open-ended question about the definition of wine astringency, free listing the sensations perceived when drinking an astringent wine, free listing the words they would use to describe the astringency of a red wine, a CATA question with 44 terms used in the literature to describe astringency, and a wine involvement questionnaire. When thinking about wine astringency consumers freely elicited terms included in the Mouth-feel Wheel, such as dryness and harsh. The majority of the specific sub-qualities of the Mouth-feel Wheel were not included in consumer responses. Also, terms not classified as astringency descriptors were elicited (e.g. acid and bitter). Only 17 out of the 31 terms from the Mouth-feel Wheel were used by more than 10% of participants when answering the CATA question. There were no large differences in the responses of consumer segments with different wine involvement. Results from the present work suggest that most of the terms of the Mouth-feel Wheel might not be adequate to communicate the astringency characteristics of red wine to consumers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. OLFACTOMETRIC CHARACTERIZATION OF TAMÂIOASA ROMÂNEASCĂ WINE COME FROM DIFFERENT WINE REGIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luminiţa VIŞAN

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The work refers to the analysis of aroma compounds identified in Tamaioasa Romanian wines from 2 distinct Romanian wine-growing areas: vineyard Stefanesti-Arges and Pietroasa, watching, and in particular the variation of flavorings depending on the region of origin. Gas chromatographic method coupled with mass Spectrometry were identified 6 esters, 3 higher alcohols, 1 aromatic alcohol, 2 terpenes, 1 lactone, 1 acid and 1 aldehyde. The high concentration of ethyl acetate, ethyl butanoate, isoamyl alcohol were identified; flavor specific Tamaioasa Romanian wine is given by 1-Į-terpineol, terpenic alcohol has been identified in this wine in large quantities. Research has shown that wine-growing region influence the organoleptic characteristics of wine and aromatic content of their wines, so the wines can be very quickly recognized when tasting.

  13. Putting words on wine: OENOLEX Burgundy, new directions in wine lexicography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leroyer, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    OENOLEX Burgundy: New Directions in Specialised Lexicography The (meta)lexicography of wine encompasses the study and compiling of entries on the language of wine in general language dictionaries, or on the knowledge of wine in specialised dictionaries and encyclopedias. Also, although more rarely......, it encompasses the study and compiling of single-field dictionaries of the language and/or knowledge of wine. However, this is but a fraction of the lexicographic picture. The lexicography of wine also includes a broad range of lexicographically structured information tools on paper and online, such as wine...... Burgundy is an ongoing interdisplinary, international research project between specialised (meta)lexicographers, linguists, and wine experts. The project is co-financed by the Burgundy Wine Board and by the French region Burgundy. It is aimed at the development of new functions and multimodal usage modes...

  14. Multivariate Methods Based Soft Measurement for Wine Quality Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen Yin

    2014-01-01

    a decision. However, since the physicochemical indexes of wine can to some extent reflect the quality of wine, the multivariate statistical methods based soft measure can help the oenologist in wine evaluation.

  15. DNA degradation in genetically modified rice with Cry1Ab by food processing methods: implications for the quantification of genetically modified organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Fuguo; Zhang, Wei; Selvaraj, Jonathan Nimal; Liu, Yang

    2015-05-01

    Food processing methods contribute to DNA degradation, thereby affecting genetically modified organism detection and quantification. This study evaluated the effect of food processing methods on the relative transgenic content of genetically modified rice with Cry1Ab. In steamed rice and rice noodles, the levels of Cry1Ab were ⩾ 100% and <83%, respectively. Frying and baking in rice crackers contributed to a reduction in Pubi and Cry1Ab, while microwaving caused a decrease in Pubi and an increase in Cry1Ab. The processing methods of sweet rice wine had the most severe degradation effects on Pubi and Cry1Ab. In steamed rice and rice noodles, Cry1Ab was the most stable, followed by SPS and Pubi. However, in rice crackers and sweet rice wine, SPS was the most stable, followed by Cry1Ab and Pubi. Therefore, Cry1Ab is a better representative of transgenic components than is Pubi because the levels of Cry1Ab were less affected compared to Pubi. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. SENSORY PROPERTIES OF SOME WHITE WINES, FLAVORED WINES AND VERMOUTH TYPE WINES, PREPARED BY USING OWN RECIPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica Elena CULEA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to characterize, from sensorial point of view, the basic white wines White Fetească, Italian Riesling, Sauvignon Blanc, as well as flavored wines and vermouth type wines, obtained by addition of hydroalcoholic plants macerates to basic wines, tasting technique was used. It is known that sensory analysis is a method that can provide an overview of a wine. The main features analyzed were: appearance, color, smell and taste. Initial, wines presented specific features of grapes variety from which they belong, being characterized by harmony and complex flavor. The hydroalcoholic macerates were obtained by preparing two recipes (labeled I and II of different mixtures of plants. Recipes I A in 45% alcohol and I B in 60% alcohol, had characteristics of appearance, color, taste and smell, very intense, specific, prevailing the taste of anise, fennel and coriander. The macerates prepared with recipes II A in 45% alcohol and II B in 60% alcohol (mixture of a few herbs and peel of citrus fruits showed peculiarities of taste, odor, flavor less intense, prevailing the smell of nutmeg and citrus flavor. Recipes I A and I B of hydroalcoholic plants macerates decisively influenced the color, taste, flavor, smell and appearance of flavored wines. Recipes II A and II B influenced discreetly the sensory properties of flavored wines. Vermouth type wines obtained by addition of hydroalcoholic plants macerates + other ingredients (citric acid, alcohol, sugar, presented harmonious sensory characteristics, balanced, discreet, subtle, compared with flavored wines obtained only by the addition of hydroalcoholic plants macerates to the basic wines. The latter had a color, aroma, taste, smell, more intense, more rustic. Herbal recipes I B and II B (prepared in 60% alcohol, have strongly influenced the sensory properties of flavored wines, compared to recipes I A and II A (prepared in 45% alcohol.

  17. Rice peasants and rice research in Colombia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spijkers, P.A.N.M.

    1983-01-01

    Rice has been grown as a food crop in Latin America from early colonial times. In Colombia rice became a prominent subsistence crop especially on the north coast where it has been grown since the 17th century, sometimes also as a commercial crop. During the last twenty years there has been a sharp

  18. Distribution alternatives for a small wine-producer

    OpenAIRE

    Radka Šperková; Jiří Duda

    2010-01-01

    Distribution can be defined as a way of goods from producer to consumer. In wine production industry there exist several distribution channels, through which wine is distributed to the final consumer. Aim of this paper is to identify and compare advantages and disadvantages of particular distribution channels for wine sales related to a small wine-producer.Distribution of wine to the final consumer is done through dealers represented by retail chains, specialized wine-shops, hotels, and resta...

  19. WinePeer - A Pre-Launch Strategic Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Larry; McLeod, Kevin; Renke, Martin

    2010-01-01

    WinePeer is a mobile application that enables wine consumers to rate wines in 60 seconds for the purposes of developing an evolving taste profile with the potential to be leveraged in many different ways. This work determines the viability of WinePeer as a business venture through providing a comprehensive analysis of the external environment including the wine industry supply chain, regulatory influences and global wine industry trends. Drawing on the work of Kim and Mauborgne, this analysis...

  20. Evaluation of chemical composition of defect wine distillates

    OpenAIRE

    Mihaljević Žulj, Marin; Posavec, Barbara; Škvorc, Melanija; Tupajić, Pavica

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the chemical composition of the distillate obtained from wine with off-flavour. The chemical composition of wine distillates obtained by distillation of Chardonnay wine with oxidation off-flavour was investigated. Distillation of wine was carried out using a simple distillation pot still by double distillation and separation the different portion of the first fraction. Volatile compounds of wine and wine distillates (acetaldehyde, ethyl acetate, methanol ...

  1. How intrinsic values influence wines prices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gál Péter

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of hedonic price indices is quite common in the wine economics literature, yet they mainly include scores of organoleptic tests and some dummy variables representing varieties and quality signs as geographical indications. This study focuses on the relation between the composition and the price of wines on the example of Hungarian wines. In Hungary, the wine law renders chemical analysis compulsory for all wines released to the market. The study includes five main compounds: actual alcoholic strength, total sugars, total acidity, sugar free extract and pH value and is based on hedonic price indices calculated on a sample of 2,453 wines. Results of several regressions – using different model specifications – consistently show that actual alcoholic strength, sugar content, sugar free extract and pH value are related with the price. Some characteristics have an optimal level, while in other cases the relation is linear.

  2. Wine vessels (Vasa vinaria in roman law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aličić Samir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The notion of 'wine vessels' in Roman law comprises all the winecontaining recipients. There is no legal standardization of wine vessels by means of volume, and although the terms amphora, urna and culleus are used to designate both the vessels and the units of measure, these are two different meanings of the terms. In regard of the question, whether the vessels make appurtenance of the wine, jurisprudents of proculean school divided them in two categories. In the first category are those that follow legal status of wine, usually amphoras and other jars (cadi which are used for 'packaging', i. e. 'bottling' of the wine. The second category make mostly vats (cuppae and ceramic cisterns (dolia, which don't follow legal status of wine, making instead part of farming equipment of a landed property (instrumentum fundi and it's appurtenance. But, the roman jurists are not consistent regarding criteria for distinguishing these two categories.

  3. Properties of palm wine yeasts and its performance in wine making ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fresh palm wine samples were obtained from oil palm and raffia palm into sterile flasks. The samples were examined for yeasts properties and performance in wine making using grapes. The yeasts in the palm wine were characterized, identified, and screened for their sedimentation rate, ethanol tolerance, alcohol content, ...

  4. Wine Polyphenols: Potential Agents in Neuroprotection

    OpenAIRE

    Basli, Abdelkader; Soulet, Stéphanie; Chaher, Nassima; Mérillon, Jean-Michel; Chibane, Mohamed; Monti, Jean-Pierre; Richard, Tristan

    2012-01-01

    There are numerous studies indicating that a moderate consumption of red wine provides certain health benefits, such as the protection against neurodegenerative diseases. This protective effect is most likely due to the presence of phenolic compounds in wine. Wine polyphenolic compounds are well known for the antioxidant properties. Oxidative stress is involved in many forms of cellular and molecular deterioration. This damage can lead to cell death and various neurodegenerative disorders, su...

  5. Wine Flavonoids in Health and Disease Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Iva; Pérez-Gregorio, Rosa; Soares, Susana; Mateus, Nuno; de Freitas, Victor

    2017-02-14

    Wine, and particularly red wine, is a beverage with a great chemical complexity that is in continuous evolution. Chemically, wine is a hydroalcoholic solution (~78% water) that comprises a wide variety of chemical components, including aldehydes, esters, ketones, lipids, minerals, organic acids, phenolics, soluble proteins, sugars and vitamins. Flavonoids constitute a major group of polyphenolic compounds which are directly associated with the organoleptic and health-promoting properties of red wine. However, due to the insufficient epidemiological and in vivo evidences on this subject, the presence of a high number of variables such as human age, metabolism, the presence of alcohol, the complex wine chemistry, and the wide array of in vivo biological effects of these compounds suggest that only cautious conclusions may be drawn from studies focusing on the direct effect of wine and any specific health issue. Nevertheless, there are several reports on the health protective properties of wine phenolics for several diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, some cancers, obesity, neurodegenerative diseases, diabetes, allergies and osteoporosis. The different interactions that wine flavonoids may have with key biological targets are crucial for some of these health-promoting effects. The interaction between some wine flavonoids and some specific enzymes are one example. The way wine flavonoids may be absorbed and metabolized could interfere with their bioavailability and therefore in their health-promoting effect. Hence, some reports have focused on flavonoids absorption, metabolism, microbiota effect and overall on flavonoids bioavailability. This review summarizes some of these major issues which are directly related to the potential health-promoting effects of wine flavonoids. Reports related to flavonoids and health highlight some relevant scientific information. However, there is still a gap between the knowledge of wine flavonoids bioavailability and their health

  6. Development of wine tourism in South Moravia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Prokeš

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Wine tourism development and the resulting formation of regional strategic alliances in the form of clusters may lead to increasing the competitiveness of wineries in South Moravia in the southeastern part of the Czech Republic.The main research objective of this paper was to find potential for wine tourism development and creating a plan for newly formed strategic alliance coordinating services offer all wineries in the region. This study describes the potential to offer services and products of wine growing areas in South Moravia region, suitable for promotion offers wine tourism destinations and services. In principle, it is used the calculation for the establishment of the wine cluster according to Porter’s formula, and was designed by concentration coefficient of vineyards for wine cluster formation, which is based on the unique and specific conditions of the wine region of South Moravia.To achieve the objective of the study was conducted marketing research data collection and mapping current events and activities taking place in the wine-growing region of Moravia, promoting or offering specific local products and services associated with gastronomy and wine. The dynamic development of the wine category, major changes in market and consumer demand are the main causes for the formation of associations of small and medium-sized wineries. The application of the results of research was a plan for the establishment of new alliance – wine cluster, where is potential co-operation between associations VOC appellation and other entities involving suppliers, customers, research institutions and universities. The plan to create a wine tourism cluster was proposed to establish cooperation between the newly emerging associations of VOC at three sub-regions of South Moravia, in order to achieve competitive advantage.

  7. Wine Price Markup in California Restaurants

    OpenAIRE

    Amspacher, William

    2011-01-01

    The study quantifies the relationship between retail wine price and restaurant mark-up. Ordinary Least Squares regressions were run to estimate how restaurant mark-up responded to retail price. Separate regressions were run for white wine, red wine, and both red and white combined. Both slope and intercept coefficients for each of these regressions were highly significant and indicated the expected inverse relationship between retail price and mark-up.

  8. Wine industry logistics in Republic of Macedonia

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanova, Violeta; Atanasoski, Drasko

    2013-01-01

    The theoretical characteristics of logistics and logistics systems are numerous, with specific characteristics, different implications and missions. Logistics activities in the wine industry are very important. Macedonia is a large exporter of wine. In terms of export value of agricultural products in Macedonia, wine is at the first place in terms of exports of alcoholic beverages, and at the second place immediately after the tobacco. The winemaking in Macedonia is continuously increasing, e...

  9. Wine consumption and intestinal redox homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiorella Biasi

    2014-01-01

    Wine components have been proposed as an alternative natural approach to prevent or treat inflammatory bowel diseases. The difficulty remains to distinguish whether these positive properties are due only to polyphenols in wine or also to the alcohol intake, since many studies have reported ethanol to possess various beneficial effects. Our knowledge of the use of wine components in managing human intestinal inflammatory diseases is still quite limited, and further clinical studies may afford more solid evidence of their beneficial effects.

  10. What Drives Wine Expenditure in the United States? A Four-State Wine Market Segmentation and Consumer Behaviors Study

    OpenAIRE

    Deng, Xueting; Woods, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    This study explores wine expenditure driven factors for consumers in the United States by employing a four-state consumer behaviors study. A market segmentation method is applied to investigate spending patterns of 1,609 wine consumers in Pennsylvania, Ohio, Kentucky, and Tennessee. Determinants including wine consumption frequency, preference of differently priced wines, wine knowledge, past wine experience, and “local” involvement are investigated and compared for their significance in driv...

  11. Oenology: red wine procyanidins and vascular health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corder, R; Mullen, W; Khan, N Q; Marks, S C; Wood, E G; Carrier, M J; Crozier, A

    2006-11-30

    Regular, moderate consumption of red wine is linked to a reduced risk of coronary heart disease and to lower overall mortality, but the relative contribution of wine's alcohol and polyphenol components to these effects is unclear. Here we identify procyanidins as the principal vasoactive polyphenols in red wine and show that they are present at higher concentrations in wines from areas of southwestern France and Sardinia, where traditional production methods ensure that these compounds are efficiently extracted during vinification. These regions also happen to be associated with increased longevity in the population.

  12. A cointegration analysis of wine stock indexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Introvigne

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes price patterns and long-run relationships for both fine wine and non-fine wine, with the aim to highlight price dynamics and co-movements between series, and to exploit potential diversification benefits. Data are from Liv-Ex 100 Fine Wine for fine wine, the Mediobanca Global Wine Industry Share Price for normal wine, and the MSCI World Index as a proxy of the overall stock market. Engle-Granger and Johansen tests were used to detect whether and to what extent the series co-move in the long run and which one of the variables contributes proactively to such an equilibrium by reacting to disequilibria from the long-run path. The estimates highlight that i the two wine indexes have a higher Sharpe ratio compared to the general stock market index, revealing wine stocks as a profitable investment per se, and ii the absence of cointegration among the three series and the existence of possible diversification benefits. In fact, in the long-run price do not move together and, therefore, investors may be better off by including wine stocks into investment portfolios and take advantage of diversification

  13. Investigation of Phenolic Components of Hungarian Wines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    László Márk

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Ninety-two wines from the southernmost wine-producing region in Hungary(Villány were analyzed for their polyphenolic content by high performance liquidchromatography (HPLC. Our results show that wine variety or vintage year could not bedistinguished based on polyphenol content, but winery origin could be. Resveratrolconcentration is mainly dependent on variety and vintage year. The “human factor” (i.e.,winemaking style and technology seems to be more decisive for the polyphenoliccomposition of red wines than other factors, such as variety and vintage year.

  14. Trends in wine production and trade

    OpenAIRE

    Lazanyi, Janos

    2008-01-01

    Historically, wine production and consumption have been at home in Europe. The most important countries mentionable are France, Italy, Germany, Spain, Greece, Portugal, Moldova, Romania, Bulgaria and Hungary. The European Union (EU 27) occupies a leading position on the world wine market. Globally, it accounts for 49.9% of growing areas and 39.1% of grape production, according to FAO data for the year 2006. The European Union (EU 27) produces 60.0%of wine and accounts for 55.4%of wine imports...

  15. Changes in the International Wine Market

    OpenAIRE

    Vlahović, Branislav; Puškarić, Anton; Tomašević, Dejan

    2013-01-01

    Knowing international market is a basis for segmentation and making right and timely marketing decisions regarding wine export. In this piece, we have analized the international wine market, and determined changes in international turnover, with largest importers and exporters for the period of 2001 - 2011. The average wine export in the world was 8,4 tons, with a growth tendency of 5,0% per year. Converted in money, the average export amounted to 22 billion US Dollars, which makes wine one o...

  16. Sensing Free Sulfur Dioxide in Wine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monro, Tanya M.; Moore, Rachel L.; Nguyen, Mai-Chi; Ebendorff-Heidepriem, Heike; Skouroumounis, George K.; Elsey, Gordon M.; Taylor, Dennis K.

    2012-01-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is important in the winemaking process as it aids in preventing microbial growth and the oxidation of wine. These processes and others consume the SO2 over time, resulting in wines with little SO2 protection. Furthermore, SO2 and sulfiting agents are known to be allergens to many individuals and for that reason their levels need to be monitored and regulated in final wine products. Many of the current techniques for monitoring SO2 in wine require the SO2 to be separated from the wine prior to analysis. This investigation demonstrates a technique capable of measuring free sulfite concentrations in low volume liquid samples in white wine. This approach adapts a known colorimetric reaction to a suspended core optical fiber sensing platform, and exploits the interaction between guided light located within the fiber voids and a mixture of the wine sample and a colorimetric analyte. We have shown that this technique enables measurements to be made without dilution of the wine samples, thus paving the way towards real time in situ wine monitoring. PMID:23112627

  17. Segmentation and drivers of wine liking and consumption in US wine consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pickering GJ

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Gary J Pickering,1–3 Arun K Jain,4 Ram Bezawada4 1Department of Biological Sciences, Brock University, St Catharines, ON, Canada; 2Cool Climate Oenology and Viticulture Institute, Brock University, St Catharines, ON, Canada; 3Department of Psychology, Brock University, St Catharines, ON, Canada; 4School of Management, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY, USA Abstract: This study examined the influence of selected experiential (wine expertise, psychological (alcoholic beverage adventurousness, and biological (age, sex, 6-n-propylthiouracil [PROP] responsiveness factors on self-reported liking and consumption of 14 wine styles in a sample of 1,010 US wine consumers. Cluster analysis of wine liking scores revealed three distinct groups, representing plausible market segments, namely red wine lovers, dry table wine likers and sweet dislikers, and sweet wine likers. These clusters differ in key demographic measures, including sex, age, household income, and education, as well as wine expertise and PROP responsiveness. Wines were collapsed into five categories (dry table, sparkling, fortified, sweet, and wine-based beverages to examine more closely the factors affecting wine liking, total annual intake, and consumption frequency (analysis of variance [ANOVA] followed by Tukey's honest significant difference [HSD] 0.05. Wine expertise was most strongly associated with liking and consumption measures, while PROP responsiveness and alcoholic beverage adventurousness were also important contributors. Neither age nor sex had any large and consistent effects on liking or consumption, although the sex × expertise interaction was significant for some styles. These data provide an example of multifactorial segmentation of a wine market using Northeastern United States as an example, and indicate opportunities for targeted alignment of marketing to cohorts identified here. Keywords: market segmentation, taste genetics, PROP, wine expertise, wine liking

  18. Wine and Words: A Trilingual Wine Dictionary for South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle F. van der Merwe

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: The South African wine industry identified the need for a special-field on-line dictionary on viticulture and oenology in Afrikaans, English and isi-Xhosa. The dictionary provides information on wine terminology as well as linguistic information on the use of such terminology. The purpose of this article is to give a description of the project. The process of compiling the dictionary is described, from the co-operation between the wine industry and lexicographers to the intended target users and the choice of languages of the dictionary. Functions of the dictionary are discussed, with reference to specific user situations, namely text production, text reception and translation. A system of labels has been designed for the dictionary and its benefit for the user is explained. In assisting the user to make an informed choice of a term, the notion of proscriptiveness has been followed in the presentation of information in the wine dictionary.

    Keywords: TRILINGUAL WINE DICTIONARY, SPECIALISED LEXICOGRAPHY, VITICULTUREAND OENOLOGY TERMS, ON-LINE DICTIONARY, TARGET USERS, USER SITUATIONS,FUNCTIONS, TEXT RECEPTION, TEXT PRODUCTION, TRANSLATION, LABELS, ENCYCLOPEDICKNOWLEDGE, LINGUISTIC KNOWLEDGE, PROSCRIPTION

    Opsomming: Wyn en woorde: 'n Drietalige Wynwoordeboek vir Suid-Afrika. Die Suid-Afrikaanse wynbedryf het die behoefte aan 'n aanlynvakwoordeboek oor wynenwingerdkunde in Afrikaans, Engels en isiXhosa geïdentifiseer. Die woordeboek verskaf inligtingoor wynterminologie, sowel as taalkundige inligting oor die gebruik van sulke terminologie. Diedoel van hierdie artikel is om 'n beskrywing van die projek te gee. Die samestellingsproses van diewoordeboek word beskryf, vanaf die samewerking tussen die wynbedryf en die leksikograwe, totdie voorgestelde teikengebruikers en die keuse van die tale van die woordeboek. Funksies van diewoordeboek word bespreek, met verwysing na spesifieke gebruikersituasies, naamlik teksproduksie

  19. Resveratrol: Chemoprevention with red wine

    OpenAIRE

    Arısan, Elif Damla; Palavan-Ünsal, Narçin

    2007-01-01

    According to epidemiological studies, western diet has disadvantages because of cancer prevalence more than Mediterranean or Asia people who consume more vegetables and fruits. Resveratrol (trans-3,4,5-trihydroxystilbene) which is highly found in grapes, berries has received attention for its potential chemopreventive and antitumor effects in experimental systems. Because of high resveratrol content, researchers noted that red wine has multidimensional benefits for ...

  20. Thermodynamics of grape and wine tannin interaction with polyproline: implications for red wine astringency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRae, Jacqui M; Falconer, Robert J; Kennedy, James A

    2010-12-08

    The astringency of red wine is largely due to the interaction between wine tannins and salivary proline-rich proteins and is known to change as wine ages. To further understand the mechanisms behind wine astringency change over time, thermodynamics of the interactions between poly(l-proline) (PLP) and grape seed and skin tannins (preveraison (PV) and commercially ripe) or Shiraz wine tannins (2 years old and 9-10 years old) was analyzed using isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). The nature of these interactions varied with changes to the tannin structure that are associated with maturation. The change in enthalpy associated with hydrophobic interaction and hydrogen bonding decreased with tannin age and the stoichiometry of binding indicated that grape tannins associated with more proline residues than wine tannins, irrespective of molecular size. These results could provide an explanation for the observed change in wine astringency quality with age.

  1. Wine, resveratrol and health: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Raúl F; García-Parrilla, Maria C; Puertas, Belén; Cantos-Villar, Emma

    2009-05-01

    Several studies have cited the Mediterranean diet as an example of healthy eating. In fact, the Mediterranean diet has become the reference diet for the prevention of cardiovascular disease. Red wine seems to be an essential component of the diet, since moderate consumption of wine is associated with lower risk and mortality from cardiovascular disease. Evidence is also accumulating that wine helps prevent the development of certain cancers. Of all the many components of wine, resveratrol, which is a natural component specifically present in wine, has been identified as being mainly responsible for these health-promoting properties. Many valuable properties such as cardioprotective and anticarcinogenic activity have been attributed to resveratrol; however, its bioavailability is quite low. The bioactivity of metabolites derived from resveratrol, and the accumulation of resveratrol in vital organs are still under study, but there are high expectations of positive results. Other stilbene compounds are also considered in this review, despite being present in undetectable or very small quantities in wine. The present paper reviews all aspects of the health properties of wine, bioactive compounds found in wine, and their concentrations, bioavailability and possible synergistic effects.

  2. Stellenbosch Wine Route wineries: Management's perspective on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kirstam

    Certain tourism-related services and facilities are perceived to contribute ... overall success of the wine industry was historically determined only by the quality ... loyalty, the building of brand awareness and higher profits from winery sales (Hall ... aspects relating to wine tourism, such as its impact on revenue, the real cost of.

  3. Economic impacts of wine tourism in Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi-Kyung Kim; Seung Hyun Kim

    2003-01-01

    In Michigan, wine tourism is perceived as increasingly important concept because more and more tourists visit wineries and wine tasting rooms annually. However there have been few studies conducted concerning the economic impacts of wineries in Michigan even though the industry has been recognized as having significant economic impact potential. The primary purpose of...

  4. Characterization of Phenolic Compounds in Wine Lees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhijing, Ye; Shavandi, Amin; Harrison, Roland; Bekhit, Alaa El-Din A

    2018-03-25

    The effect of vinification techniques on phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of wine lees are poorly understood. The present study investigated the antioxidant activity of white and red wine lees generated at early fermentation and during aging. In this study, the total phenol content (TPC), total tannin content (TTC), mean degree of polymerization (mDP), and antioxidant activities of five white and eight red wine lees samples from different vinification backgrounds were determined. The results showed that vinification techniques had a significant ( p tannin content of the samples. White wine lees had high mDP content compared with red ones. Catechin (50-62%) and epicatechin contents were the predominant terminal units of polymeric proanthocyanidin extracted from examined samples. Epigallocatechin was the predominant extension unit of white wine lees, whereas epicatechin was the predominant compound in red wine marc. The ORAC (oxygen radical absorbance capacity) assay was strongly correlated with the DPPH (α, α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl) assay, and the results showed the strong antioxidant activities associated with red wine lees (PN > 35 mg Trolox/g FDM) (PN: Pinot noir lees; FDM: Freeze-dried Material). This study indicates that tannin is one of the major phenolic compounds available in wine lees that can be useful in human and animal health applications.

  5. Wine consumption and intestinal redox homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biasi, Fiorella; Deiana, Monica; Guina, Tina; Gamba, Paola; Leonarduzzi, Gabriella; Poli, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Regular consumption of moderate doses of wine is an integral part of the Mediterranean diet, which has long been considered to provide remarkable health benefits. Wine׳s beneficial effect has been attributed principally to its non-alcoholic portion, which has antioxidant properties, and contains a wide variety of phenolics, generally called polyphenols. Wine phenolics may prevent or delay the progression of intestinal diseases characterized by oxidative stress and inflammation, especially because they reach higher concentrations in the gut than in other tissues. They act as both free radical scavengers and modulators of specific inflammation-related genes involved in cellular redox signaling. In addition, the importance of wine polyphenols has recently been stressed for their ability to act as prebiotics and antimicrobial agents. Wine components have been proposed as an alternative natural approach to prevent or treat inflammatory bowel diseases. The difficulty remains to distinguish whether these positive properties are due only to polyphenols in wine or also to the alcohol intake, since many studies have reported ethanol to possess various beneficial effects. Our knowledge of the use of wine components in managing human intestinal inflammatory diseases is still quite limited, and further clinical studies may afford more solid evidence of their beneficial effects. PMID:25009781

  6. Grape Juice: Same Heart Benefits as Wine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eating Does grape juice offer the same heart benefits as red wine? Answers from Katherine Zeratsky, R.D., L.D. ... juices may provide some of the same heart benefits of red wine, including: Reducing the risk of blood clots Reducing ...

  7. Characterization of Phenolic Compounds in Wine Lees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Zhijing

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of vinification techniques on phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of wine lees are poorly understood. The present study investigated the antioxidant activity of white and red wine lees generated at early fermentation and during aging. In this study, the total phenol content (TPC, total tannin content (TTC, mean degree of polymerization (mDP, and antioxidant activities of five white and eight red wine lees samples from different vinification backgrounds were determined. The results showed that vinification techniques had a significant (p < 0.05 impact on total phenol and tannin content of the samples. White wine lees had high mDP content compared with red ones. Catechin (50–62% and epicatechin contents were the predominant terminal units of polymeric proanthocyanidin extracted from examined samples. Epigallocatechin was the predominant extension unit of white wine lees, whereas epicatechin was the predominant compound in red wine marc. The ORAC (oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay was strongly correlated with the DPPH (α, α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl assay, and the results showed the strong antioxidant activities associated with red wine lees (PN > 35 mg Trolox/g FDM (PN: Pinot noir lees; FDM: Freeze-dried Material. This study indicates that tannin is one of the major phenolic compounds available in wine lees that can be useful in human and animal health applications.

  8. Laser treatment of Port-wine stains

    OpenAIRE

    Boffa, Michael J.

    2001-01-01

    A state-of-the-art pulsed dye laser machine to treat port-wine stains and other vascular lesions has been available in the Malta Health Service since 1999. This article reviews the pathophysiology and clinical features of port- wine stains and describes the principles of laser treatment for this condition.

  9. Characterization of Phenolic Compounds in Wine Lees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhijing, Ye; Shavandi, Amin; Harrison, Roland; Bekhit, Alaa El-Din A.

    2018-01-01

    The effect of vinification techniques on phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of wine lees are poorly understood. The present study investigated the antioxidant activity of white and red wine lees generated at early fermentation and during aging. In this study, the total phenol content (TPC), total tannin content (TTC), mean degree of polymerization (mDP), and antioxidant activities of five white and eight red wine lees samples from different vinification backgrounds were determined. The results showed that vinification techniques had a significant (p wine lees had high mDP content compared with red ones. Catechin (50–62%) and epicatechin contents were the predominant terminal units of polymeric proanthocyanidin extracted from examined samples. Epigallocatechin was the predominant extension unit of white wine lees, whereas epicatechin was the predominant compound in red wine marc. The ORAC (oxygen radical absorbance capacity) assay was strongly correlated with the DPPH (α,α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl) assay, and the results showed the strong antioxidant activities associated with red wine lees (PN > 35 mg Trolox/g FDM) (PN: Pinot noir lees; FDM: Freeze-dried Material). This study indicates that tannin is one of the major phenolic compounds available in wine lees that can be useful in human and animal health applications. PMID:29587406

  10. Wine Polyphenols: Potential Agents in Neuroprotection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelkader Basli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There are numerous studies indicating that a moderate consumption of red wine provides certain health benefits, such as the protection against neurodegenerative diseases. This protective effect is most likely due to the presence of phenolic compounds in wine. Wine polyphenolic compounds are well known for the antioxidant properties. Oxidative stress is involved in many forms of cellular and molecular deterioration. This damage can lead to cell death and various neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson’s or Alzheimer’s diseases. Extensive investigations have been undertaken to determine the neuroprotective effects of wine-related polyphenols. In this review we present the neuroprotective abilities of the major classes of wine-related polyphenols.

  11. Determination of Phenolic Compounds in Wines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charalampos Proestos

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Wine contains natural antioxidants such as phenolic compounds also known as bioactive compounds. Samples of commercially available Greek wines were analyzed in order to determine this phenolic content. For the analysis, Reversed Phase-High Performance Liquid Chromatography (RP-HPLC coupled with a multiwavelength Ultraviolet/visible (UV/vis detector was used. The most abundant phenolic substances detected were (+-catechin (13.5-72.4 mg L-1 , gallic acid (0.40-99.47 mg L-1 and caffeic acid (0.87-33.48 mg L-1. The principal component analysis (PCA technique was used to study differentiation among wines according to their production area. Red wines contained more phenolic substances than white ones. Differences of the phenolic composition in wines of the same cultivar were investigated too.

  12. 27 CFR 24.255 - Bottling or packing wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... in the same tax class when that wine is removed from bond, without benefit of tolerance, when the... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bottling or packing wine..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Storage, Treatment and Finishing of Wine Bottling, Packing, and...

  13. 27 CFR 24.86 - Essences produced on wine premises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Essences produced on wine... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions Essences § 24.86 Essences produced on wine premises. Wine, taxpaid spirits, or spirits withdrawn tax-free may be...

  14. 27 CFR 24.233 - Addition of spirits to wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... wine. 24.233 Section 24.233 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Spirits § 24.233 Addition of spirits to wine. (a) Prior to the addition of spirits. Wine will be placed in tanks approved for the addition of spirits. The...

  15. 27 CFR 24.308 - Bottled or packed wine record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bottled or packed wine... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Records and Reports § 24.308 Bottled or packed wine record. A proprietor who bottles, packs, or receives bottled or packed beverage wine in bond shall...

  16. 27 CFR 24.241 - Decolorizing juice or wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Decolorizing juice or wine..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Storage, Treatment and Finishing of Wine § 24.241 Decolorizing juice or wine. (a) Conditions and limitations. If the proprietor wishes to use activated carbon or other...

  17. 27 CFR 24.101 - Bonded wine premises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bonded wine premises. 24..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Establishment and Operations Premises and Operations § 24.101 Bonded wine premises. (a) General. A person desiring to conduct operations involving untaxpaid wine, including...

  18. 78 FR 34565 - Modification of Mandatory Label Information for Wine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-10

    ... for Wine AGENCY: Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau, Treasury. ACTION: Final rule; Treasury... the mandatory labeling requirements for wine. The regulatory change permits alcohol content to appear... regulatory change provides greater flexibility in wine labeling, and will conform the TTB wine labeling...

  19. 27 CFR 24.135 - Wine premises alternation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wine premises alternation..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Establishment and Operations Alternation § 24.135 Wine premises alternation. (a) General. The proprietor of a bonded winery or bonded wine cellar may alternate all or a...

  20. 27 CFR 28.315 - Loss of wine in transit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Loss of wine in transit..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Losses Wine § 28.315 Loss of wine in transit. The tax on wine withdrawn without payment of tax under this part and which is lost during transportation...

  1. 27 CFR 24.303 - Formula wine record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formula wine record. 24..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Records and Reports § 24.303 Formula wine record. A proprietor who produces beverage formula wine shall maintain records showing by transaction date the details of production...

  2. 27 CFR 26.264 - Determination of tax on wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... wine. 26.264 Section 26.264 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Procedure at Port of Entry From the Virgin Islands § 26.264 Determination of tax on wine. If the certificate prescribed in § 26.205 covers wine, the wine tax will be collected at the rates imposed by section 5041...

  3. 27 CFR 1.61 - Use of wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of wine. 1.61 Section..., NONINDUSTRIAL USE OF DISTILLED SPIRITS AND WINE, BULK SALES AND BOTTLING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Nonindustrial Use of Distilled Spirits and Wine Uses Regarded As Industrial § 1.61 Use of wine. The following uses of...

  4. 27 CFR 24.141 - Bonded wine warehouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bonded wine warehouse. 24..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Establishment and Operations Permanent Discontinuance of Operations § 24.141 Bonded wine warehouse. Where all operations at a bonded wine warehouse are to be permanently...

  5. Teaching the Language and Culture of France through Its Wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berwald, Jean-Pierre

    The study of wine offers possibilities for teaching a variety of topics in the high school or college French class: geography, history, grape varieties, food-wine combinations, the art of appreciating and distinguishing wines, the wine industry, and French daily life. The development of a slide-tape presentation is described in detail. Resource…

  6. Can German wine cooperatives compete on quality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schamel Guenter H.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes how German cooperative wineries compete with private (i.e. non-cooperative wineries regarding reputation, quality categorization and varietal selection. Among the reasons why German cooperatives lag behind in terms of reputation for quality wine are organization principles of cooperatives and the difficulty to manage growers supplying grapes of different qualities. Cooperatives turn their supply of grapes into wine often classified as quality wine without much distinction. Conversely, privately owned wineries growing their own grapes may have more control over quality along their production chain and are able to produce more distinctive wines. In turn, they gain more reputation with final consumers with respect to quality. We analyze data for private and cooperative wineries from Germany. Our objective is to identify key differences in terms of reputation for quality wine production. Specifically, we look at interaction effects based on organizational form (cooperative vs. private and the German wine quality categorization (i.e. basic quality wine vs. Kabinett, Spätlese, or Auslese as well as varietal effects. We employ a hedonic pricing model to test the hypothesis that wines produced by private producers receive a reputation premium relative to cooperatives. Moreover, we hypothesize that private wineries receive a price premium relative to coopera- tives for other than basic quality wines and distinct varieties such as Riesling and Pinot Noir. The empirical analysis confirms both hypotheses. The estimated coefficients indicate that cooperatives are unable to gain quality premium for most quality cat- egories and gain price premiums only for non-distinct varieties such as Lemberger and Dornfelder. We can argue that German cooperatives are stuck in the low quality corner of the quality and variety spectrum and are currently not able to compete with private wineries in terms of quality. This result supports the observation

  7. WINE ROAD - AN INSTRUMENT FOR THE VALORISATION OF WINE TOURISM POTENTIAL CASE STUDY: ALBA COUNTY VINEYARDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    UNGUREANU Mihaela

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this study is to highlight the wine-growing and wine-making potential of Alba County and the way it can be valorised. Alba county has a rich winegrowing and wine-making heritage, a fact which is due to the long-standing tradition of winegrowing on these area, as well as to the characteristics of the natural factors (relief, geology, climate, soil, favourable for obtaining high-quality wines, the reputation of which has been acquired at national and international competitions. In order to render useful the wine tourism resources, the development of a specific infrastructure is needed, as well as the creation of complex tourist products, able to satisfy a wide range of tourist motivations. An efficient instrument to make productive the wine potential of a region is the „Wine Road" – a tourist trail which includes the tourist attractions of a delimited area, usually with a controlled designation of origin, and also a diverse range of tourist services (transportation, accommodation, catering leisure etc.. In Alba County, the „Wine Road" can be considered as a tourist attraction in itself, but also a means of harnessing the rich cultural-historical and natural heritage and, implicitly, the wine-growing and wine-making heritage.

  8. Metals in wine--impact on wine quality and health outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tariba, Blanka

    2011-12-01

    Metals in wine can originate from both natural and anthropogenic sources, and its concentration can be a significant parameter affecting consumption and conservation of wine. Since metallic ions have important role in oxide-reductive reactions resulting in wine browning, turbidity, cloudiness, and astringency, wine quality depends greatly on its metal composition. Moreover, metals in wine may affect human health. Consumption of wine may contribute to the daily dietary intake of essential metals (i.e., copper, iron, and zinc) but can also have potentially toxic effects if metal concentrations are not kept under allowable limits. Therefore, a strict analytical control of metal concentration is required during the whole process of wine production. This article presents a critical review of the existing literature regarding the measured metal concentration in wine, methods applied for their determination, and possible sources, as well as their impact on wine quality and human health. The main focus is set on aluminum, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, iron, manganese, nickel, lead, and zinc, as these elements most often affect wine quality and human health.

  9. Phenolic compounds in Merlot wines from two wine regions of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eugenio Daudt

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, the grape and wine production takes place mainly in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, and the region "Serra" is known as the traditional wine region. In the last years, new areas have emerged, with emphasis for the Campanha region; the red wines from this region have low acidity, little color intensity, and are wines to drink while young, even when produced from grape varieties such as Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of different maceration types on the phenolic compounds of Merlot wines made with grapes produced in two regions of Rio Grande do Sul, Serra and Campanha, as well as to identify the key differences between the wines produced. The localization of the vineyards seems to have more influence on the wine characteristics than the maceration type. The color due copigmentation was an important aspect in the wines made with short maceration. The effect of extended maceration was different than the expected for the Campanha region wines; the extended maceration increased the extraction of tannins resulting in greater color intensity and a greater amount of anthocyanins. The pH control seems to be a key factor for the Campanha region wines.

  10. Rosé wine volatile composition and the preferences of Chinese wine professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiaming; Capone, Dimitra L; Wilkinson, Kerry L; Jeffery, David W

    2016-07-01

    Rosé wine aromas range from fruity and floral, to more developed, savoury characters. Lighter than red wines, rosé wines tend to match well with Asian cuisines, yet little is known about the factors driving desirability of rosé wines in emerging markets such as China. This study involved Chinese wine professionals participating in blind rosé wine tastings comprising 23 rosé wines from Australia, China and France in three major cities in China. According to the sensory results, a link between the preference, quality and expected retail price of the wines was observed, and assessors preferred wines with prominent red fruit, floral, confectionery and honey characters, and without developed attributes or too much sweetness. Basic wine chemical parameters and 47 volatile compounds, including 5 potent thiols, were determined. Correlations between chemical components, sensory attributes and preference/quality/expected price were visualised by network analysis, revealing relationships that are worthy of further investigation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Developing Wine Tourism: An Exploratory Study of Wineries in Newfoundland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roselyne N. OKECH

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study identifies the wine tourism product and the experience as well as factors that contribute to wine preferences and consumption. This is a case study of wine tourists’ visiting the Auk Island winery, Twillingate and Rodrigues winery, Markland both in Newfoundland Province. The research results reveal that most of the visitors came to the wineries because they were on vacation, wine tasting and wine purchasing. The study further revealed that quality of wines, wine taste tour and value for money influenced their decision to purchase the wines. Overall, there were significant relationships found in demographic characteristics and wine references and these findings, have an implication for wine tourism promotion in the Province in future.

  12. Drunken modernity: wine in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn Kjellgren

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Tandis que le vin essaie de s’infiltrer dans le répertoire culinaire de la Chine, il s’agit plus qu’un simple processus de flux culinaires globaux du centre vers la périphérie. Le vin chinois est devenu un nouvel outil d’identification ainsi qu’un signe de la position renégociée de cette nation dans le monde. Pour ce qu’elle vaut, l’industrie vinicole sert également l’intérêt de l’État-parti en renforçant sa légitimité et en établissant son agenda politique. Dans cet article, qui rend compte de l’histoire du vin chinois ainsi que sa situation actuelle, la boisson est prise comme exemple des changements culinaires contemporains, mais surtout comme moyen d’explorer les significations et les limites sociales d’une modernité émergente distinctement chinoise. Une modernité qui dans sa volonté apparente d’absorber le nouveau et l’étranger remplace la dichotomie sino-occidentale jusque là prédominante, tout en adhérant toujours aux vieilles rengaines ‘que l’ancien serve le présent’ et ‘que l’étranger serve le chinois.’As grape wine tries to sell its way into the standard culinary repertoire of China, it is more than simply a process of a global culinary flow from the centre to the periphery. Chinese wine has become a new tool for identification as well as a sign of the nation’s renegotiated position in the world. For what it is worth, the wine industry also serves the interest of the party-state by strengthening its legitimacy and substantiating its political agenda. In this article, which reviews China’s wine history as well as the present situation, the drink is taken as an example of contemporary culinary change, but foremost as a means to explore the meanings and social limits of an emergent distinctly Chinese modernity. A modernity that in its apparent willingness to embrace the new and foreign supersedes the hitherto predominant Sino-Western dichotomy, while still adhering to the

  13. MARKETING STRATEGIES FOR ORGANIC WINE GROWERS IN THE VENETO REGION

    OpenAIRE

    Rossetto, Luca

    2002-01-01

    The Italian organic wine sector has dramatically increased, recently. In the last two years, the organic vineyard area has doubled reaching more than 50.000 hectares, while organic wineries account are more than 9.000 farms. In particular, the Veneto Region accounts for 4% of total area and for 15% of organic wine makers. This study analyzes the organic wine sector in the Veneto Region mainly focusing on marketing issues. Two organic wine enterprises are recognized: 1) small wine growers and ...

  14. Wine tourism in the Canary Islands: An exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duarte Alonso, Abel

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Wine tourism is experiencing significant development in both new and old European wine regions. In the case of the Canary Islands, wine has been produced and traded for centuries but little is known about the current state or potential for wine tourism on the islands, despite the fact that millions of tourists, including many potential wine tourists, visit the islands each year. In this exploratory study, the perspectives of winery owners and managers on wine tourism are examined via in-depth face-to-face interviews among 23 small winery operators to reveal that the scope for exploiting wine tourism on the islands has been recognized and that some wineries are either already involved in wine tourism, includ-ing as part of a wine trail, or plan to be more involved in the future. It was also discovered, that there were a number of issues that challenge the development of their wine and wine tourism industry, includ-ing competition from non-Canary Island wines and anti-drink-drive laws that are inhibit passers by to consume wine at the cellar door. Operators stressed the need to find a balance between mass tourism and the niche produce of wine. Moreover, the findings identify avenues for future research on wine tourism development in the Canary Islands.

  15. THE DIFFERENCE IN COLOR AND SENSORY OF ORGANIC QUALITY WINE AND WINE FROM CONVENTIONAL CULTIVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viera Šottníková

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the colour and sensory evaluation of wines and organic wines from conventional cultivation. 6 organic wines and 6 wines from conventional cultivation were evaluated. The methodology describes colour measurements using spectrophotometry and sensory 20-point-scale system of scoring. The colour evaluation of different varieties did not clearly demonstrate impact of growing on lightness or hue and saturation of wine. Conclusive differences in colour (P <0.05 were established, especially for Pinot Blanc and Malverina from white varieties and Medina from red grapes. The greatest colour stability was demonstrated by Moravian Muscat. Sensory evaluation did not show any noticeable differences between the wines of conventional and organic production, there were, however, differences among varieties.

  16. La comunicazione dei wine bloggers: autoctono vs globale / The communication of wine bloggers: native vs global

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Cavallo

    2016-06-01

    The work steps provided by methodology are: 1 identifi cation of the top 100 international wine blogs; 2 text mining on the blog articles in the homepage of each wine blog, in order to identify the most widely-mentioned “global” wine; 3 selection of the articles related to the two types of wines in exam, in order to deepen investigate them through the text mining analysis; 4 evaluation of the gap in the web communication of wine bloggers, through a model designed and tested in earlier work for such purpose. The analysis enables the search for information, which aims to identify similarities/differences or peculiarities in the web communication of the two different wines.

  17. Wine oxidation and the role of cork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbowiak, Thomas; Gougeon, Régis D; Alinc, Jean-Baptiste; Brachais, Laurent; Debeaufort, Frédéric; Voilley, Andrée; Chassagne, David

    2010-01-01

    The present review aims to show the state of the art of oxidation mechanisms occurring especially in white wines by taking into account knowledge from different fields in relation to the subject. It is therefore divided into three main parts. First, the mechanisms of oxidation relevant to white wine are discussed in the light of recent scientific literature. Next, the phenomenon of oxygen solubility in wine during the winemaking process, and in particular during bottling is stated theoretically as well as practically. Finally, the aspect of wine conservation after bottling is examined with respect to mass transfers which may occur through the closure, with a special emphasis on cork. Currently, specific physico-chemical properties still make cork closures the most important closure type used for the wine market, and especially for high quality wines. This final section will also include a review of studies performed on this subject, which have been analyzed in detail from a theoretical mass transfer point of view, in order to assess the extent to which the proposed scientific tools and the observed tendencies are relevant to progress in the understanding of the impact of this parameter on the behavior of a wine.

  18. Kebijakan Labeling terhadap Impor Wine di Pasar Uni Eropa Tahun 2010-2012 (Studi Kasus: Wine Australia)

    OpenAIRE

    ", Afrizal; Ulfa, Putri Nabillah

    2016-01-01

    This research describes about how the impact of wine labeling policy reform by the European Union to Australian wine imports in the EU market in 2010 until 2012. This is done by European Union because Australian wine import in 2004, 2005 and 2006 increase in EU Market. Besides that, European Union wants to protect their wine by the reformation. In this research writer finds out that wine labeling policy reforms by European Union has influence to protect their domestic products from the Austra...

  19. Wine and health perceptions: Exploring the impact of gender, age and ethnicity on consumer perceptions of wine and health

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Kathryn J.; Liz Thach, MW; Olsen, Janeen

    2016-01-01

    This study explores U.S. wine consumers’ perception of wine and health by gender, age, and ethnic background. An extensive body of epidemiological studies suggests that there are health benefits from moderate wine drinking. In light of an increased consumer preference over healthier foods and beverages, it is important to understand the health orientation of wine consumers and the effect of gender, age, or ethnicity on their perceptions of wine and health. An online survey was used to collect...

  20. Activation of wine bentonite with gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goranov, N.; Antonov, M.

    1997-01-01

    The action of gamma rays on wine bentonite as well as influence of its adsorption and technologic qualities on the composition and stability of wines against protein darkening and precipitation has been studied. The experiments were carried out with wine bentonite produced in the firm Bentonite and irradiated with doses of 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0 MR. White and red wines have been treated with irradiated bentonite under laboratory conditions at 1.0 g/dm 3 . All samples are treated at the same conditions. The flocculation rate of the sediment was determined visually. Samples have been taken 24 h later from the cleared wine layers. The following parameters have been determined: clarification, filtration rate, phenolic compounds, calcium, colour intensity, total extracted substances, etc. The volume of the sediment has been determined also. The control samples have been taken from the same unirradiated wines. The results showed better and faster clarification in on the third, the 20th and the 24th hours with using of gamma-irradiated at doses 0.8 and 1.0 MR. The sediment was the most compact and its volume - the smallest compared to the samples treated with bentonite irradiated with doses of 0.6 and 0.4 MR. This ensures a faster clarification and better filtration of treated wines. The bentonite activated with doses of 0.8 and 1.0 MR adsorbs the phenolic compounds and the complex protein-phenolic molecules better. In the same time it adsorbs less extracted substances compared to untreated bentonite and so preserves all organoleptic properties of wine. The irradiated bentonite adsorbs less the monomers of anthocyan compounds which ensures brighter natural colour of wine. The gamma-rays activation consolidates calcium in the crystal lattice of bentonite particles and in this way eliminates the formation of crystal precipitates

  1. Microbial terroir for wine grapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, J. A.; van der Lelie, D.; Zarraonaindia, I.

    2013-12-05

    The viticulture industry has been selectively growing vine cultivars with different traits (grape size, shape, color, flavor, yield of fruit, and so forth) for millennia, and small variations in soil composition, water management, climate, and the aspect of vineyards have long been associated with shifts in these traits. As such, many different clonal varieties of vines exist, even within given grape varieties, such as merlot, pinot noir, and chardonnay. The commensal microbial flora that coexists with the plant may be one of the key factors that influence these traits. To date, the role of microbes has been largely ignored, outside of microbial pathogens, mainly because the technologies did not exist to allow us to look in any real depth or breadth at the community structure of the multitudes of bacterial and fungal species associated with each plant. In PNAS, Bokulich et al. (1) used next-generation sequencing of 16S rRNA and internal transcribed spacer ribosomal sequence to determine the relative abundances of bacteria and fungi, respectively, from grape must (freshly pressed grape juice, containing the skins and seeds) from plants in eight vineyards representing four of the major wine growing regions in California. The authors show that the microbiomes (bacterial and fungal taxonomic structure) associated with this early fermentation stage show defined biogeography, illustrating that different wine-growing regions maintain different microbial communities, with some influences from the grape variety and the year of production.

  2. Rice (Oryza) hemoglobins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemoglobins (Hbs) corresponding to non-symbiotic (nsHb) and truncated (tHb) Hbs have been identified in rice (Oryza). This review discusses the major findings from the current studies on rice Hbs. At the molecular level, a family of the nshb genes, consisting of hb1, hb2, hb3, hb4 and hb5, and a sin...

  3. Fungal and enzymatic remediation of a wine lees and five wine-related distillery wastewaters

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Strong, PJ

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The alcohol fermentation industry is divided into three main categories: brewing, distilling and wine manufacture. Each of these categories produces wastewaters with com- mon characteristics, such as acidic pH values and high bio- chemical oxygen demand....O. Box 94, Grahamstown 6140, South Africa , Pretoria 0001, South Africa 6 December 2007; accepted 12 December 2007 (2008) xxx–xxx and enzymatic remediation of a wine lees and five ..., Bioresour. e ARTICLE IN PRESS Distillery and wine...

  4. Sensorial evaluation genuineness of wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Tomášek

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The qualitative indicators of wine are also sensoric properties besides analytic properties. The specimens were evaluated immediately after their stabilization. Of course, by the time the sensoric properties are changing and can influence later evaluation, even customers in their desicion for repeating purchase. Specialists evaluated specimen of white wines such as: rhine Riesling, Sauvignon blanc and gruner Veltliner from three locations of Znojmo winery region. All specimen weren´t fermented to dry and they weren´t procesed the same technology, in spite of this, the speciments were evaluated objectively as possilble. The common parameters of vineyards were: exhibition, evaluation above sea-level and average annual temperatrature. The climatic factors had minimum differences in both monitoring vintages of growing season. A different parametr had soils, their geological origin, type of soil, structure and po­wer of topsoil. The acquired results were evaluated and graphically displayed.Gruner Veltliner – specimen No. 1 – this variety was covered in smell and taste by used technology. An outstanding location was a vineyard Weinperky with paleozoic sediments of neogene and higher pH and deeper arable level provides this location incommutable feature in contrast to from other recognizing vineyards of future wine. More likely geological-soil features have even specimens No. 3 and 4, which showed balance characteristic features in recognizing vintage. The specimens No. 2 and 1 had quantity untypical variety shades and they showed balance large differences both in evaluating committees and in recognizing vintages.Sauvignon blanc – the most suitable location was a vineyard Knížecí vrch – a specimen No. 6, which lies on lighter limy soils of Dyje massif together with higher pH created nice feature of variety. A spe­cimen No. 8 had more likely characteristics of location than a specimen No. 6. That express in evaluation. A specimen No. 7

  5. Polyphenols produced during red wine ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouillard, R; George, F; Fougerousse, A

    1997-01-01

    Over the past few years, it has been accepted that a moderate red wine consumption is a factor beneficial to human health. Indeed, people of France and Italy, the two major wine-producing European countries, eat a lot of fatty foods but suffer less from fatal heart strokes than people in North-America or in the northern regions of Europe, where wine is not consumed on a regular basis. For a time, ethanol was thought to be the "good" chemical species hiding behind what is known as the "French paradox". Researchers now have turned their investigations towards a family of natural substances called "polyphenols", which are only found in plants and are abundant in grapes. It is well known that these molecules behave as radical scavengers and antioxidants, and it has been demonstrated that they can protect cholesterol in the LDL species from oxidation, a process thought to be at the origin of many fatal heart attacks. However, taken one by one, it remains difficult to demonstrate which are the best polyphenols as far as their antioxidant activities are concerned. The main obstacle in that kind of research is not the design of the chemical and biological tests themselves, but surprisingly enough, the limited access to chemically pure and structurally elucidated polyphenolic compounds. In this article, particular attention will be paid to polyphenols of red wine made from Vitis vinifera cultivars. With respect to the "French paradox", we address the following question: are wine polyphenolic compounds identical to those found in grapes (skin, pulp and seed), or are there biochemical modifications specifically taking place on the native flavonoids when a wine ages? Indeed, structural changes occur during wine conservation, and one of the most studied of those changes concerns red wine colour evolution, called "wine ageing". As a wine ages, it has been demonstrated that the initially present grape pigments slowly turn into new more stable red pigments. That phenomenon goes on

  6. Wine Flavonoids in Health and Disease Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iva Fernandes

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Wine, and particularly red wine, is a beverage with a great chemical complexity that is in continuous evolution. Chemically, wine is a hydroalcoholic solution (~78% water that comprises a wide variety of chemical components, including aldehydes, esters, ketones, lipids, minerals, organic acids, phenolics, soluble proteins, sugars and vitamins. Flavonoids constitute a major group of polyphenolic compounds which are directly associated with the organoleptic and health-promoting properties of red wine. However, due to the insufficient epidemiological and in vivo evidences on this subject, the presence of a high number of variables such as human age, metabolism, the presence of alcohol, the complex wine chemistry, and the wide array of in vivo biological effects of these compounds suggest that only cautious conclusions may be drawn from studies focusing on the direct effect of wine and any specific health issue. Nevertheless, there are several reports on the health protective properties of wine phenolics for several diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, some cancers, obesity, neurodegenerative diseases, diabetes, allergies and osteoporosis. The different interactions that wine flavonoids may have with key biological targets are crucial for some of these health-promoting effects. The interaction between some wine flavonoids and some specific enzymes are one example. The way wine flavonoids may be absorbed and metabolized could interfere with their bioavailability and therefore in their health-promoting effect. Hence, some reports have focused on flavonoids absorption, metabolism, microbiota effect and overall on flavonoids bioavailability. This review summarizes some of these major issues which are directly related to the potential health-promoting effects of wine flavonoids. Reports related to flavonoids and health highlight some relevant scientific information. However, there is still a gap between the knowledge of wine flavonoids

  7. Membrane Technologies in Wine Industry: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Rayess, Youssef; Mietton-Peuchot, Martine

    2016-09-09

    Membrane processes are increasingly reported for various applications in wine industry such as microfiltration, electrodialysis, and reverse osmosis, but also emerging processes as bipolar electrodialysis and membrane contactor. Membrane-based processes are playing a critical role in the field of separation/purification, clarification, stabilization, concentration, and de-alcoholization of wine products. They begin to be an integral part of the winemaking process. This review will provide an overview of recent developments, applications, and published literature in membrane technologies applied in wine industry.

  8. A healthy indulgence? Wine consumers and the health benefits of wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsey M. Higgins

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Heart disease is the leading cause of death in the US. Moderate red wine consumption has been linked to a reduction in the risk of death by heart disease and heart attack by 30–50%. With about 600,000 people dying from heart disease in the US each year, red wine has become increasingly popular among health conscious consumers. Wine is often touted for its potential health benefits, but to what extent is “health” a factor when consumers make their consumption decisions for alcoholic beverages? This study aims to further understand how consumers make their beverage choices and to understand the role wine health benefit knowledge plays in the willingness of consumers to purchase wine. The results suggest that consumers value the relationship between food/beverage intake and their health status. Consumers with few health issues were the ones more likely to indicate that they consume wine for health reasons, suggesting a potential market among consumers with known health issues. In addition, consumers who attributed the most health benefits to wine were the ones most likely to drink more wine and pay more for wine if it were health enhanced.

  9. Reinventing the American Wine Industry: Marketing Strategies and the Construction of Wine Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Oda, Ai

    2017-01-01

    This working paper examines the remarkable growth of wine consumption in the United States since the 1960s. The country is now the largest wine consumer in the world, exceeding the wine-producing European countries such as France and Italy, which had long dominated world markets. The paper identifies the late 1960s and 1970s as the major turning point by analyzing the role of businesses in reinventing the image of wine from a cheap and very alcoholic beverage to a sophisticated natural produc...

  10. Wine consumption habits and consumer preferences between wines aged in barrels or with chips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Magariño, Silvia; Ortega-Heras, Miriam; González-Sanjosé, María Luisa

    2011-03-30

    The use of oak wood pieces in winemaking is increasing, but the acceptance of this technique by consumers is unknown. For that reason, the main aim of this study was to measure consumers' opinion of red wines made with this new technique, their acceptance of them and their intention to purchase these wines. A preference ranking test was also carried out. A specific questionnaire was drawn up for this study and 65 frequent red wine consumers tasted four wines, two aged traditionally in barrels and two macerated with chips, and a forced choice preference test was carried out. Fifty-five per cent of respondents said that they would not buy wines made using oak chips, although most respondents would buy these wines if, after tasting them, they were as pleasant and had the same quality as the wines aged traditionally in barrels. Wines obtained with oak wood fragments were not significantly rejected either by consumers who answered the questionnaire or by consumer tasters, which could be due to the large disparity of preferences found among tasters. The results clearly indicate that producers should develop each wine taking into account the specific preferences of each consumer group. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. WINE ROAD - AN INSTRUMENT FOR THE VALORISATION OF WINE TOURISM POTENTIAL CASE STUDY: ALBA COUNTY VINEYARDS

    OpenAIRE

    UNGUREANU Mihaela

    2015-01-01

    The main aim of this study is to highlight the wine-growing and wine-making potential of Alba County and the way it can be valorised. Alba county has a rich winegrowing and wine-making heritage, a fact which is due to the long-standing tradition of winegrowing on these area, as well as to the characteristics of the natural factors (relief, geology, climate, soil), favourable for obtaining high-quality wines, the reputation of which has been acquired at national and international competitions....

  12. Phenolic compositions of 50 and 30 year sequences of Australian red wines: the impact of wine age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRae, Jacqui M; Dambergs, Robert G; Kassara, Stella; Parker, Mango; Jeffery, David W; Herderich, Markus J; Smith, Paul A

    2012-10-10

    The phenolic composition of red wine impacts upon the color and mouthfeel and thus quality of the wine. Both of these characteristics differ depending on the age of a wine, with the purple of young wines changing to brick red and the puckering or aggressive astringency softening in older wines. This study investigated the color parameters, tannin concentrations and tannin composition of a 50 year series of Cabernet Sauvignon wines from a commercial label as well as 30 year series of Cabernet Sauvignon and Shiraz wines from a separate commercial label to assess the impact of wine age on phenolic composition and concentration. The wine color density in wines of 40 to 50 years old was around 5 AU compared with 16 AU of wine less than 12 months old, which correlated well with the concentration of non-bleachable pigments and pigmented polymers. Conversely, the anthocyanin concentrations in 10 year old wines were substantially lower than that of recently bottled wines (around 100 mg/L compared with 627 mg/L, respectively), adding further evidence that non-bleachable pigments including pigmented polymers play a much larger role in long-term wine color than anthocyanins. No age-related trend was observed for tannin concentration, indicating that the widely noted softer astringency of older red wines cannot necessarily be directly related to lower concentrations of soluble wine tannin and is potentially a consequence of changes in tannin structure. Wine tannins from older wines were generally larger than tannins from younger wines and showed structural changes consistent with oxidation.

  13. QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH ON CONSUMER BEHAVIOR BY OPTICAL RED WINE MARKETING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana STOIAN

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Study exhaustive wine area is a frequently researched topic since the beginning of 2000 when it comes to legislative bases for wine and wine products. Among the considerations that led to its choice of study include: Romania considerable resources in terms of agricultural area, and especially the wine (mention here the existence of eight wine regions, vineyards and a hundred thirty seven support and attention given to the legislative branch of Romanian wine (by law 244/2002-Legea vineyard and wine, and the European and not least history as a wine producing country with Spain, Italy and France. The paper aims to determine whether or not a situation determinant of marketing in red wine consumption by analyzing questionnaire responses developed.

  14. Understanding Consumer Preferences for Australian Sparkling Wine vs. French Champagne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Culbert

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Sparkling wine represents a small but significant proportion of the Australian wine industry’s total production. Yet, Australia remains a significant importer of French Champagne. This study investigated consumer preferences for Australian sparkling wine vs. French Champagne and any compositional and/or sensorial bases for these preferences. A range of French and Australian sparkling wines were analyzed by MIR spectroscopy to determine if sparkling wines could be differentiated according to country of origin. A subset of wines, comprising two French Champagnes, a French sparkling wine and three Australian sparkling wines, were selected for (i descriptive analysis to characterize their sensory profiles and (ii acceptance tests to determine consumer liking (n = 95 Australian wine consumers. Significant differences were observed between liking scores; on average, the $70 French Champagne was liked least and the $12 Australian sparkling wine liked most, but segmentation (based on individual liking scores identified clusters comprising consumers with distinct wine preferences. Interestingly, when consumers were shown wine bottle labels, they considered French wines to be more expensive than Australian wines, demonstrating a clear country of origin influence.

  15. Red Wine Polyphenols for Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shan; Sun, Cuirong; Pan, Yuanjiang

    2008-01-01

    Conventional cancer therapies, the second leading cause of death worldwide, result in serious side effects and, at best, merely extend the patient's lifespan by a few years. Searching for effective prevention is of high priority in both basic and clinical sciences. In recent decades natural products have been considered to be an important source of cancer chemopreventive agents. Red wine polyphenols, which consisted of various powerful antioxidants such as flavonoids and stilbenes, have been implicated in cancer prevention and that promote human health without recognizable side effects. Since resveratrol, a major component of red wine polyphenols, has been studied and reviewed extensively for its chemopreventive activity to interfere with the multi-stage carcinogenesis, this review focuses on recent progress in studies on cancer chemopreventive activities of red wine polyphenol extracts and fractions as well as other red wine polyphenols, like procyanidin B5 analogues and myricetin. PMID:19325788

  16. Red Wine Polyphenols for Cancer Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanjiang Pan

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Conventional cancer therapies, the second leading cause of death worldwide, result in serious side effects and, at best, merely extend the patient's lifespan by a few years. Searching for effective prevention is of high priority in both basic and clinical sciences. In recent decades natural products have been considered to be an important source of cancer chemopreventive agents. Red wine polyphenols, which consisted of various powerful antioxidants such as flavonoids and stilbenes, have been implicated in cancer prevention and that promote human health without recognizable side effects. Since resveratrol, a major component of red wine polyphenols, has been studied and reviewed extensively for its chemopreventive activity to interfere with the multi-stage carcinogenesis, this review focuses on recent progress in studies on cancer chemopreventive activities of red wine polyphenol extracts and fractions as well as other red wine polyphenols, like procyanidin B5 analogues and myricetin.

  17. Social representation of wine among young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Céline Simonnet-Toussaint

    2004-06-01

    It finally seems that wine suffers from its nearly sacred image. The young seem not to allow themselves to consume this product, whose image is associated with coded practices that obviously, are different from those of other spirits.

  18. Assessing wine quality using isotopic methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costinel, Diana; Ionete, Roxana Elena; Vremera, Raluca; Stefanescu, Ioan

    2010-01-01

    Full text: The analytical methods used to determine the isotope ratios of deuterium, carbon-13 and oxygen-18 in wines have gained official recognition from the Office International de la Vigne et du Vin (OIV) and National Organisation of Vine and Wine. The amount of stable isotopes in water and carbon dioxide from plant organic materials and their distribution in sugar and ethanol molecules are influenced by geo-climatic conditions of the region, grape varieties and the year of harvest. For wine characterization, to prove the botanical and geographical origin of the raw material, the isotopic analysis by continuous flow mass spectrometry CF-IRMS has made a significant contribution. This paper emphasize the results of a study concerning the assessing of water adulterated wines and non-grape alcohol and sugar additions at different concentration levels, using CF-IRMS analytical technique. (authors)

  19. Electronic Noses and Tongues in Wine Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luz Rodriguez-Mendez

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The quality of wines is usually evaluated by a sensory panel formed of trained experts or traditional chemical analysis. Over the last few decades, electronic noses and electronic tongues have been developed to determine the quality of foods and beverages. They consist of arrays of sensors with cross-sensitivity, combined with pattern recognition software, which provide a fingerprint of the samples that can be used to discriminate or classify the samples. This holistic approach is inspired by the method used in mammals to recognize food through their senses. They have been widely applied to the analysis of wines, including quality control, aging control or the detection of fraudulence, among others. In this paper, the current status of research and development in the field of electronic noses and tongues applied to the analysis of wines is reviewed. Their potential applications in the wine industry are described. The review ends with a final comment about expected future developments.

  20. 27 CFR 24.295 - Return of unmerchantable wine to bond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... wine to bond. 24.295 Section 24.295 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Removal, Return and Receipt of Wine Return of Unmerchantable Wine to Bond § 24.295 Return of unmerchantable wine to bond. (a) General. Wine produced in the...

  1. 27 CFR 24.244 - Use of acid to stabilize standard wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... standard wine. 24.244 Section 24.244 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Storage, Treatment and Finishing of Wine § 24.244 Use of acid to stabilize standard wine. Standard wine other than citrus wine, regardless of the fixed...

  2. Red Wine, Resveratrol and Atrial Fibrillation

    OpenAIRE

    Stephan, Laura Siga; Almeida, Eduardo Dytz; Markoski, Melissa Medeiros; Garavaglia, Juliano; Marcadenti, Aline

    2017-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common cardiac arrhythmia that is associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease and overall mortality. Excessive alcohol intake is a well-known risk factor for AF, but this correlation is less clear with light and moderate drinking. Besides, low doses of red wine may acutely prolong repolarization and slow cardiac conduction. Resveratrol, a bioactive polyphenol found in grapes and red wine, has been linked to antiarrhythmic properties and may act as a...

  3. Wine phenolics: looking for a smooth mouthfeel

    OpenAIRE

    Alice, Vilela; António, M. Jordão; Fernanda, Cosme

    2016-01-01

    Each grape variety has its own phenolic profile. However, the concentration of the phenolic compounds present in wine mainly dependson winemaking processes. Phenolic compounds influence wine sensorial characteristics namely taste or mouthfeel, bitterness, astringency and color. Humans can perceive six basic tastes: sweet, salty; sour; umami; fat-taste and bitter taste. This last basic taste is considered as a defense mechanism against the ingestion of potential poisons. Some of the genes,enco...

  4. Empirical investigation on gastronomy and wine tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Petrevska, Biljana; Deleva, Stefanija

    2014-01-01

    Preparation and consumption of food and wine is part of the culture, which emphasizes their importance to be included in all aspects of human life. In this line, the food does not reflect the intrinsic nature, but cultural “exercise” as well. Moreover, the way people prepare the food and wine can be considered as evidence of civilization since there are cultural differences in applying the basic ingredients. The paper presents an overview on the inevitable relationship between food and touris...

  5. WINE ADVISOR EXPERT SYSTEM USING DECISION RULES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinuca Elena Claudia

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article I focus on developing an expert system for advising the choice of wine that best matches a specific occasion. An expert system is a computer application that performs a task that would be performed by a human expert. The implementation is done using Delphi programming language. I used to represent the knowledge bases a set of rules. The rules are of type IF THEN ELSE rules, decision rules based on different important wine features.

  6. An overview of the biodynamic wine sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castellini A

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Alessandra Castellini,1 Christine Mauracher,2 Stefania Troiano3 1Department of Agricultural Sciences, Alma Mater Studiorum, University of Bologna, Bologna, 2Department of Management, University Ca’ Foscari of Venice, Venice, 3Department of Economics and Statistics, University of Udine, Udine, Italy Abstract: The wine industry is currently shifting toward more sustainable production practices. Due to the growing globalized wine market and the increasing environmental impacts, producers have begun to pay more attention to organic and biodynamic products. Using a systematic literature review, this review aims to investigate the biodynamic production system in the viticulture and winemaking process. In particular, the review examines, 1 the biodynamic practice and its main characteristics including the certification system; 2 the biodynamic market characteristics and the recent trends, the production costs and the marketing strategies adopted by wineries; 3 the demand attributes and wine consumers’ perception on sustainable practices and “green products” such as biodynamic products; and 4 the association between the biodynamic wine chain and the environment. The review highlights the research progress in this field and reflects on the potentiality and needs of the biodynamic viticulture and wine sector. The literature clearly indicates the lack of knowledge regarding, mainly, the biodynamic farming concept and the label. Moreover, while it is clear that consumers are willing to spend more for an organic wine than for a conventional one, there are no data about the willingness to pay for biodynamic wines. Finally, the review concludes with implications and suggestions for further research. Keywords: biodynamic, viticulture, wine, environment, market analysis, consumer

  7. ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY OF THE U.S. WINE INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Canning, Patrick N.; Perez, Agnes C.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines wine trade in the United States to assess the impact of higher energy costs on the average distance of world and U.S. regional wine shipments, or wine miles, to U.S. markets. To examine this issue we calibrate a spatial equilibrium model of the U.S. wine industry. The model accounts for (i) consumer preferences for variety, (ii) monopolistic-competition/increasing-returns in the production of differentiated wine products, and (iii) transportation costs. Wine production are...

  8. Wine Tourism and Sustainability: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Maria Montella

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The literature on tourism and events is endless; a niche in this wide research field is represented by food and wine research. The growing interest shown by wine tourists has nurtured the proliferation of wine events and the growth of the wine tourism business; as a consequence, academicians’ interest in this issue has increased. At the same time, research on tourism and events is an evolving field and it has moved from a main economic focus to a broader perspective: some scholars have highlighted how the growing interest towards green and sustainable practices has stimulated academic research and a lot has been done on the management of environmental issues. Given the resonance of wine tourism and the role it has for local and rural development, the interest towards the issue of sustainability in wine is more than warranted. Thus, this paper aims to provide some useful insights about where research has gone and where it is going; a thorough literature review has been performed.

  9. Scopolamine poisoning from homemade 'moon flower' wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, E A; Meloan, C E; Pickell, J A; Oehme, F W

    1991-01-01

    LH, a 76-year-old Caucasian male, ingested 3 teaspoons (15 mL) of a homemade wine over a 1-h period and became ill. Approximately 1.5 h later, he was taken to the emergency room of a local hospital with symptoms of respiratory distress and weakness. The plant used in making the wine was Angel's trumpet (Datura suaveolens), which reportedly contains varying amounts of scopolamine and atropine. A sample of the wine was collected and analyzed for these two compounds by reversed-phase HPLC chromatography using 97% methanol-3% deionized water. The filtered wine contained an estimated 29 mg scopolamine/mL, which produced a total ingested dose of 435 mg. No atropine was detected. The scopolamine was confirmed by TLC. An oral dose of 50 mg of atropine sulfate in humans has been reported fatal, but there is no reported fatal dose for scopolamine. The alcohol content and 3.8 pH of the homemade wine may have increased the extraction of this compound from the plant material, and the wine fermentation process may have concentrated the original extract.

  10. Flor Yeast: New Perspectives Beyond Wine Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legras, Jean-Luc; Moreno-Garcia, Jaime; Zara, Severino; Zara, Giacomo; Garcia-Martinez, Teresa; Mauricio, Juan C.; Mannazzu, Ilaria; Coi, Anna L.; Bou Zeidan, Marc; Dequin, Sylvie; Moreno, Juan; Budroni, Marilena

    2016-01-01

    The most important dogma in white-wine production is the preservation of the wine aroma and the limitation of the oxidative action of oxygen. In contrast, the aging of Sherry and Sherry-like wines is an aerobic process that depends on the oxidative activity of flor strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Under depletion of nitrogen and fermentable carbon sources, these yeast produce aggregates of floating cells and form an air–liquid biofilm on the wine surface, which is also known as velum or flor. This behavior is due to genetic and metabolic peculiarities that differentiate flor yeast from other wine yeast. This review will focus first on the most updated data obtained through the analysis of flor yeast with -omic tools. Comparative genomics, proteomics, and metabolomics of flor and wine yeast strains are shedding new light on several features of these special yeast, and in particular, they have revealed the extent of proteome remodeling imposed by the biofilm life-style. Finally, new insights in terms of promotion and inhibition of biofilm formation through small molecules, amino acids, and di/tri-peptides, and novel possibilities for the exploitation of biofilm immobilization within a fungal hyphae framework, will be discussed. PMID:27148192

  11. Newly generated interspecific wine yeast hybrids introduce flavour and aroma diversity to wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellon, Jennifer R; Eglinton, Jeffery M; Siebert, Tracey E; Pollnitz, Alan P; Rose, Louisa; de Barros Lopes, Miguel; Chambers, Paul J

    2011-08-01

    Increasingly, winemakers are looking for ways to introduce aroma and flavour diversity to their wines as a means of improving style and increasing product differentiation. While currently available commercial yeast strains produce consistently sound fermentations, there are indications that sensory complexity and improved palate structure are obtained when other species of yeast are active during fermentation. In this study, we explore a strategy to increase the impact of non-Saccharomyces cerevisiae inputs without the risks associated with spontaneous fermentations, through generating interspecific hybrids between a S. cerevisiae wine strain and a second species. For our experiments, we used rare mating to produce hybrids between S. cerevisiae and other closely related yeast of the Saccharomyces sensu stricto complex. These hybrid yeast strains display desirable properties of both parents and produce wines with concentrations of aromatic fermentation products that are different to what is found in wine made using the commercial wine yeast parent. Our results demonstrate, for the first time, that the introduction of genetic material from a non-S. cerevisiae parent into a wine yeast background can impact favourably on the wine flavour and aroma profile of a commercial S. cerevisiae wine yeast.

  12. From Sugar of Grape to Alcohol of Wine: Sensorial Impact of Alcohol in Wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António M. Jordão

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The quality of grapes, as well as wine quality, flavor, stability, and sensorial characteristics depends on the content and composition of several different groups of compounds from grapes. One of these groups of compounds are sugars and consequently the alcohol content quantified in wines after alcoholic fermentation. During grape berry ripening, sucrose transported from the leaves is accumulated in the berry vacuoles as glucose and fructose. The wine alcohol content continues to be a challenge in oenology, as it is also the study of the role of chemosensory factors in alcohol intake and consumer preferences. Several technical and scientific advances have occurred in recent years, such as identification of receptors and other important molecules involved in the transduction mechanisms of flavor. In addition, consumers know that wines with high alcohol content can causes a gustatory disequilibrium affecting wine sensory perceptions leading to unbalanced wines. Hence, the object of this review is to enhance the knowledge on wine grape sugar composition, the alcohol perception on a sensorial level, as well as several technological practices that can be applied to reduce the wine alcohol content.

  13. Micro-drinking behaviours and consumption of wine in different wine glass sizes: a laboratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupan, Z; Pechey, R; Couturier, D L; Hollands, G J; Marteau, T M

    2017-06-12

    Tableware size may influence how much food and non-alcoholic drink is consumed. Preliminary evidence of the impact of glass size on purchasing of alcoholic drinks shows an increase in wine sales of almost 10% when the same portion of wine is served in a larger glass. The primary aim of the current study is to test if micro-drinking behaviours act as a mechanism that could underlie this effect, through an increase in drinking rate, sip duration and/or number of sips from a larger glass. In a between-subjects experimental design, 166 young women were randomised to drink a 175 ml portion of wine from either a smaller (250 ml) or larger (370 ml) wine glass. Primary outcomes were three micro-drinking behaviours, assessed observationally using video recordings: drinking rate, sip number and sip duration. Other possible mechanisms examined were satisfaction with the perceived amount of wine served and pleasure of the drinking experience, assessed using self-report measures. Wine drunk from the larger, compared with the smaller glass, was consumed more slowly and with shorter sip duration, counter to the hypothesised direction of effect. No differences were observed in any of the other outcome measures. These findings provide no support for the hypothesised mechanisms by which serving wine in larger wine glasses increases consumption. While micro-drinking behaviours may still prove to be a mechanism explaining consumption from different glass sizes, cross-validation of these results in a more naturalistic setting is needed.

  14. Grey relational analysis for evaluating the effects of different rates of wine lees-derived biochar application on a plant-soil system with multi-metal contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Min; Zhu, Qihong; Wu, Jun; He, Yan; Yang, Gang; Zhang, Xiaohong; Li, Li; Yu, Xiaoyu; Peng, Hong; Wang, Lilin

    2018-03-01

    In this study, grey relational analysis (GRA) was used to investigate the effects of different application rates of wine lees-derived biochar on a plant-soil system with multi-metal contamination. A pot experiment was conducted to determine rice growth in multi-metal-contaminated soil amended with samples of wine lees-derived biochar, and 47 indicators (including soil properties, microbial activity, and plant physiology) were selected as evaluation indexes to assess the plant-soil system. The results indicated that higher wine lees-derived biochar application rates (2% W/W) were favorable for soil fertility, the bioconcentration factor (BF), and the mobility factor (MF, %) (with the exception of Cr, Zn, and Hg), but an application of 1% produced the highest plant growth, enzymatic activities, and bacterial diversity. The richness of the bacterial communities was reduced in the soil amended with the wine lees-derived biochar. According to the GRA assessment, the 1% application rate of wine lees-derived biochar was more suitable for restoring the holistic plant-soil system than were the application rates of 0, 0.5, and 2% (W/W). Furthermore, this study shows that GRA is a useful method for evaluating plant-soil systems.

  15. Perception of wine labels by Hong Kong Chinese consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicky Chi Man Tang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite Hong Kong׳s growing wine consumption and the abundance of retail brands available there, the demanding choice task faced by its wine consumers, who are more subject to a mix of Chinese and Western cultural influences than consumers in other South Asian countries, has not been studied until now. This exploratory study aims to delve into the importance of wine label attributes for Hong Kong Chinese wine consumers, and to shed light on the ways in which their perceptions affect their choice of wine. Employing an online survey, the results suggest that Hong Kong Chinese wine consumers look for the top three most searched attributes: wine origin, grape variety, and food and wine pairing. A simple means differences test indicated that a traditional label design is favored over modern and contemporary wine labels, and that yellow is the most preferred color. However, a data-driven segmentation analysis reveals that about 95% of young Hong Kong Chinese wine consumers prefer “elegant contemporary” labels with red as the dominant color. These findings could be useful for wineries entering this market and for wine label designers who wish to better understand how Hong Kong wine consumers assess alternatives when choosing a bottle of wine.

  16. [Nutrition and health--favorable effect of wine and wine flavonoids on cardiovascular diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Wiel, A

    2002-12-21

    Epidemiological studies have shown a favourable effect of moderate alcohol consumption with regard to atherosclerotic disorders. In addition to alcohol, wine contains a large number of other components including polyphenols. These polyphenols mainly originate from the skins and seeds of grapes and, because of differences in vinification, their variety and concentration is higher in red wine than in white wine. In vitro and ex vivo studies have shown that some of these polyphenols are able to slow down LDL-cholesterol oxidation, stimulate NO production, influence prostaglandin synthesis and inhibit platelet aggregation. However, little is known about their resorption, bioavailability and effectiveness in vivo. Since data from intervention studies with wine polyphenols are also lacking, no statement can yet be made about any clinically relevant effect of these components, in either red or white wine, in terms of cardiovascular diseases.

  17. Digital wine marketing: Social media marketing for the wine industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viana Natália Andrade

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The wine industry recognizes the increasingly relevant role of digital marketing as a valuable and appropriate tool to reach (adult consumers. This paper intends to trace a brief analysis about Digital Wine Marketing and Social Media Marketing contribution for the Wine Industry to increase brand awareness and sales and develop a short guidance to digital marketing as well. When consumers search for wine and wineries on internet they are bombarded with an massive volume of brand messages, meaning that delivering creative, polished content is key if a brand wants to capture people's attention. So, make a good wine is a important part of the work, but after this is necessary to give it the presentation it deserves, communicating accurately to consumers and have in mind that digital marketing activities are in a state of evolutionary development, where new trends are likely to occur rapidly and wineries have to adapt.

  18. Changes in Wine Aroma Composition According to Botrytized Berry Percentage: A Preliminary Study on Amarone Wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Fedrizzi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of Botrytis cinerea, a noble rot, on the aroma components of Amarone, a dry red wine produced from withered grapes. A comparative analysis of wines obtained from manually selected healthy and botrytized grapes was done. Aroma analysis revealed that most compounds varied significantly according to the percentage of botrytized berries utilized. Botrytized wines contained less fatty acids and more fruity acetates than healthy wines. A positive correlation between the content of N-(3-methylbutylacetamide, sherry lactone and an unidentified compound and the level of fungal infection was also observed. The results indicate that noble rot can significantly modify important aroma components of Amarone wine.

  19. Relationship between wine scores and visible-near-infrared spectra of Australian red wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozzolino, D; Cowey, G; Lattey, K A; Godden, P; Cynkar, W U; Dambergs, R G; Janik, L; Gishen, M

    2008-06-01

    Sensory analysis of wine involves the measurement, interpretation and understanding of human responses to the properties perceived by the senses such as sight, smell and taste. The sensory evaluation of wine is often carried out by wine judges, winemakers and technical staff, and allows characterization of the quality of the wine. However, this method is lengthy, expensive, and its results depend on panel training and the specific vocabulary used by the panel. A robust, rapid, unbiased and inexpensive method to assist in quality assessment purposes will therefore be beneficial for the modern wine industry. This study aims to investigate the relationship between sensory analysis, visible (VIS) and near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy to assess sensory properties of commercial Australian wine varieties. For the purposes of this study 118 red wine samples (Cabernet Sauvignon, Shiraz, Pinot Noir, Tempranillo, Nebbiolo and blends) graded by a panel of experienced tasters and scored according to the Australian wine show system were scanned in transmission in the VIS and NIR range (400-2,500 nm). Partial least squares regression models were developed between the overall score given by the judges and the combined VIS-NIR spectra, using full cross validation (leave-one-out method). The results showed that NIR spectroscopy was able to predict wine quality scores in red wine samples (R = 0.61 and standard error of prediction of 0.81). The practical implication of this study is that instrumental methods such as VIS-NIR spectroscopy can be used to complement sensory analysis and can facilitate the task at early stages of product development, making high-throughput screening of novel products feasible or maintaining the consistency of the product.

  20. Wine tourism product clubs as a way to increase wine added value: the case of Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José Del Campo Gomis

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Francisco José Del Campo Gomis, David López Lluch, José Miguel Sales Civera, Asunción M Agulló Torres, Margarita Brugarolas, Mollá-Bauzá, África Martínez Poveda, Fermín Camacho de los Ríos, Antonio Miguel Nogués PedregalDepartament of Agrienvironmental Economics, Universidad Miguel Hernández, Campus Universitario de Orihuela-Desamparados, Orihuela (Alicante, SpainAbstract: The objective of this paper is to analyze how the wine tourism product clubs work in Spain and their importance for Spanish wine tourism. A tourism product club is a product development partnership established and led by the tourism industry stakeholders including small- and/or medium-sized companies. The group pools its resources to develop new marketready products or to increase the value of existing ones. Lodging companies, tour operators, administrators of tourism facilities, tourist associations, government, other companies of the sector and, even, nontourist companies can participate as members of a tourism product club. Following this model, wine tourism can contribute to create a wine tourism product club. In Spain the international promotion of tourist products is carried out through the Turespaña website. The wine tourism product club, The Wine Routes of Spain, is one of the wine tourism product clubs developed by the Spanish government. It is an ambitious project that began in 2001. Nevertheless, other Spanish regions have created more wine tourism product clubs in order to develop their own wine tourism industry such as “Divinum vitae – Where the pleasues are born” created in Castilla–La Mancha in 2006.Keywords: wine, tourism, product club, Spain

  1. Interactions between yeast lees and wine polyphenols during simulation of wine aging: I. Analysis of remnant polyphenolic compounds in the resulting wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazauric, Jean-Paul; Salmon, Jean-Michel

    2005-07-13

    Wine aging on yeast lees is a traditional enological practice used during the manufacture of wines. This technique has increased in popularity in recent years for the aging of red wines. Although wine polyphenols interact with yeast lees to a limited extent, such interactions have a large effect on the reactivity toward oxygen of wine polyphenolic compounds and yeast lees. Various domains of the yeast cell wall are protected by wine polyphenols from the action of extracellular hydrolytic enzymatic activities. Polysaccharides released during autolysis are thought to exert a significant effect on the sensory qualities of wine. We studied the chemical composition of polyphenolic compounds remaining in solution or adsorbed on yeast lees after various contact times during the simulation of wine aging. The analysis of the remnant polyphenols in the wine indicated that wine polyphenols adsorption on yeast lees follows biphasic kinetics. An initial and rapid fixation is followed by a slow, constant, and saturating fixation that reaches its maximum after about 1 week. Only very few monomeric phenolic compounds remained adsorbed on yeast lees, and no preferential adsorption of low or high polymeric size tannins occurred. The remnant condensed tannins in the wine contained fewer epigallocatechin units than the initial tannins, indicating that polar condensed tannins were preferentially adsorbed on yeast lees. Conversely, the efficiency of anthocyanin adsorption on yeast lees was unrelated to its polarity.

  2. Inhibition of the Decrease of Volatile Esters and Terpenes During Storage of Wines and a Model Wine Medium by Wine Phenolic Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Lambropoulos

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of red wine phenolic extracts on the stability of wine volatile esters and terpenes was examined. Muscat (white and Xinomavro (red wines were enriched with each extract at 120 or 200 mg/L, and stored in open bottles at 20 °C for 3 and 2.5 days, respectively. Moreover, a model wine medium containing isoamyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate and linalool was enriched with each extract at 100 mg/L, and stored in sealed bottles at 20 °C for 45–90 days. All samples were analysed for volatiles using SPME along with GC-MS analysis. Phenolic composition of wine extracts was determined using HPLC-DAD. No effect on the concentration of any volatiles was observed as a result of the addition of each extract in each wine or the model medium. A wine extract rich in phenolic acids and another one rich in anthocyanins and flavanols inhibited the decrease of volatile esters and terpenes in one or both wines and the model medium. Among them were several important for the aroma of wine such as ethyl acetate, isoamyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate, ethyl octanoate, ethyl decanoate and linalool. The results presented here indicate that wine phenolic acids, and anthocyanins or flavanols may be taken into account as potent inhibitors of the disappearance of volatile esters and terpenes in wines.

  3. Discrimination of wine from grape cultivated in Japan, imported wine, and others by multi-elemental analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Hideaki; Akamatsu, Fumikazu; Kamada, Aya; Koyama, Kazuya; Okuda, Masaki; Fukuda, Hisashi; Iwashita, Kazuhiro; Goto-Yamamoto, Nami

    2018-04-01

    Differences in mineral concentrations were examined among three types of wine in the Japanese market place: Japan wine, imported wine, and domestically produced wine mainly from foreign ingredients (DWF), where Japan wine has been recently defined by the National Tax Agency as domestically produced wine from grapes cultivated in Japan. The main objective of this study was to examine the possibility of controlling the authenticity of Japan wine. The concentrations of 18 minerals (Li, B, Na, Mg, Si, P, S, K, Ca, Mn, Co, Ni, Ga, Rb, Sr, Mo, Ba, and Pb) in 214 wine samples were determined by inductively coupled-plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and ICP-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). In general, Japan wine had a higher concentration of potassium and lower concentrations of eight elements (Li, B, Na, Si, S, Co, Sr, and Pb) as compared with the other two groups of wine. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) models based on concentrations of the 18 minerals facilitated the identification of three wine groups: Japan wine, imported wine, and DWF with a 91.1% classification score and 87.9% prediction score. In addition, an LDA model for discrimination of wine from four domestic geographic origins (Yamanashi, Nagano, Hokkaido, and Yamagata Prefectures) using 18 elements gave a classification score of 93.1% and a prediction score of 76.4%. In summary, we have shown that an LDA model based on mineral concentrations is useful for distinguishing Japan wine from other wine groups, and can contribute to classification of the four main domestic wine-producing regions of Japan. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. An exploration of loyalty determinants in Greek wine varieties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krystallis, Athanasios; Chrysochou, Polymeros

    or type of the wine variety per se does not constitute a particularly important loyalty component in the wines' marketing mix. Research limitations/implications: The wine category has always been one of the most The wine category has always been one of the most challenging product categories......Purpose: This paper aims to provide a deeper understanding of the market structure of red This paper aims to provide a deeper understanding of the market structure of red and white wines from Greek wine varieties and measure loyalty behaviour of frequent wine buyers in Greece. Design....../methodology: The study concerned measuring brand performance and loyalty of 4 The study concerned measuring brand performance and loyalty of 4 different Greek wine varieties. Based on stated preference data, basic brand performance measures are estimated through Juster purchase probabilities of brand choice. To measure...

  5. European consumers’ perception of moderate wine consumption on health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Vecchio

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study examines the perceptions that French, Italian and Spanish consumers have about the possible health effects of what they consider to be a moderate wine consumption. Furthermore, it identifies whether the following factors positively or negatively influence consumer opinion – wine appreciation, environmental awareness, environmental labels, local legislation and media coverage. Perceptions were identified through an online survey of 1183 respondents. The respondents perceive wine as a rather healthy product if consumed moderately. Wine appreciation positively influences the perception of a healthy effect of moderate wine consumption. French policies advising constraints on wine consumption indirectly influence consumer opinion about the unhealthy effects caused by wine. French and Spanish consumers with high environmental awareness perceive a wine with an eco-label to be healthier than a conventional one.

  6. Different techniques for reducing alcohol levels in wine: A review⋆

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozturk Burcu

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this review is to provide technical and practical information covering the outstanding techniques that may be used to adjust elevated alcohol concentration in wine and their effects on wine from the point of organoleptic characteristics view.

  7. Behaviour of Millenial wine consumers in southern Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovanović Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumer behaviour when purchasing wine is the result of a complementary operation of the large number of different factors, which may include economic, geographic, social, psychological, and other. Discovering consumer preferences for wine and their buying behavior would allow the application of an appropriate marketing strategy to increase the sales of wine. Special attention was given to one of the most promising new demographic segments that likes to buy – Millennial generation. The main purpose of this research is to find out if the wine attributes of the Millennials are different from other generations in southern Serbia. Results of this research are shown that when choosing wine, the quality of wine has the biggest impact on consumers, rather than others wine attributes. The paper also asserts that, the wine industry should particularly focus on marketing to Millennial age group, as this segment has a high willingness to experiment.

  8. Antimicrobial Effectiveness of Selected Vranac Wines Against Six ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    glucoside and. Folin - Ciocalteu`s phenol reagent were supplied from Sigma Chemical Co. (St Louis, Mo, USA); used reagents were of analytical quality. Wines samples. Selected Vranac wines from vintage 2009, made from autochthonic Vranac V.

  9. Port wine stain on a child's face (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Port wine stains are always present at birth. In an infant, they are flat, pink, vascular lesions. Common locations ... may be present anywhere on the body. Port wine stains may appear in association with other syndromes.

  10. Transfer of gaseous iodine from atmosphere to rough rice, brown rice and polished rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumiya, Misako; Uchida, Shigeo; Muramatsu, Yasuyuki; Ohmomo, Yoichiro; Yamaguchi, Shuho; Obata, Hitoshi.

    1987-01-01

    Experiments were carried out in order to obtain information required for establishing transfer coefficients of gaseous iodine (I 2 ) to rough rice, brown rice and polished rice. The gaseous iodine deposited on young rice plants before the heading period was scarcely found in the rough rice harvested at the full ripe stage. The biological half life of iodine in hull, however, was much slower than that in leaves of 14 days. The translocation of iodine from leaves and stalks to rough rice was not clearly recognized. Therefore, it was deduced that iodine found in brown rice mainly should originate from that deposited on the hull. The distribution ratios of iodine between rough rice and brown rice, and between brown rice and polished rice were 100:4 and 100:30 on 100 grains basis, respectively. If average normalized deposition velocity (V d(m) ) or derived deposition velocity (V s ) are given, the transfer coefficients of gaseous iodine to rough rice (TF r ), brown rice (TF b ) and polished rice (TF p ) could be calculated. (author)

  11. Authenticity of rice (Oryza sativa L.) geographical origin based on analysis of C, N, O and S stable isotope ratios: a preliminary case report in Korea, China and Philippine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Ill-Min; Kim, Jae-Kwang; Prabakaran, Mayakrishnan; Yang, Jin-Hee; Kim, Seung-Hyun

    2016-05-01

    Although rice (Oryza sativa L.) is the third largest food crop, relatively fewer studies have been reported on rice geographical origin based on light element isotope ratios in comparison with other foods such as wine, beef, juice, oil and milk. Therefore this study tries to discriminate the geographical origin of the same rice cultivars grown in different Asian countries using the analysis of C, N, O and S stable isotope ratios and chemometrics. The δ(15) NAIR , δ(18) OVSMOW and δ(34) SVCDT values of brown rice were more markedly influenced by geographical origin than was the δ(13) CVPDB value. In particular, the combination of δ(18) OVSMOW and δ(34) SVCDT more efficiently discriminated rice geographical origin than did the remaining combinations. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed a clear discrimination between different rice geographical origins but not between rice genotypes. In particular, the first components of PCA discriminated rice cultivated in the Philippines from rice cultivated in China and Korea. The present findings suggest that analysis of the light element isotope composition combined with chemometrics can be potentially applicable to discriminate rice geographical origin and also may provide a valuable insight into the control of improper or fraudulent labeling regarding the geographical origin of rice worldwide. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Experimental evidence for the cardioprotective effects of red wine

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Samarjit; Santani, Dev D; Dhalla, Naranjan S

    2007-01-01

    Both epidemiological and experimental studies have revealed that intake of wine, particularly red wine, in moderation protects cardiovascular health; however, the experimental basis for such an action is not fully understood. Because all types of red wine contain varying amounts of alcohol and antioxidants, it is likely that the cardioprotective effect of red wine is due to both these constituents. In view of its direct action on the vascular smooth muscle cells, alcohol may produce coronary ...

  13. The Palm Wine Trade: Occupational and Health Hazards

    OpenAIRE

    L Mbuagbaw; SG Noorduyn

    2012-01-01

    The palm wine trade is an important economic activity for many tropical rural areas worldwide. In West Africa, palm wine holds high sociocultural and traditional values. Wine tappers often climb very tall trees with rudimentary equipment to harvest palm sap and risk severe injuries in the event of a fall. Furthermore, the wine quickly ferments beyond the desired taste and alcohol content, reducing the market power of these tappers. Therefore, to maximize benefits or to enhance shelf life, a v...

  14. The synergies of the Italian wine and tourism sectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Gaetano Santeramo

    2017-06-01

    We analyse the synergic relations between the domestic tourism in Italy and wine industry exploring data on flows of domestic tourism among the Italian regions and key indicators for the wine industry. The region of origin of tourists is a determining factor in the choice of destination; we also highlight the role of customer loyalty. The political implications are relevant: institutions and political actors could exploit the synergies between the tourism and the wine industries by promoting excellence in wine.

  15. Model for voluntary wine and alcohol consumption in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arola, L; Roig, R; Cascón, E; Brunet, M J; Fornós, N; Sabaté, M; Raga, X; Batista, J; Salvadó, M J; Bladé, C

    1997-08-01

    It has been suggested that moderate consumption of ethanol and wine has a protective effect on human health. Animal models used to date for alcohol consumption can not mimic real situations in humans because the consumption is forced and/or excessive. The present study proposes to determine the effects of a voluntary and ad lib consumption model more similar to that of human behavior. Male Wistar rats had free access to either standard diet and water or the same diet plus red wine, sweet wine, or a solution equivalent to red wine (13.5% ethanol) or to sweet wine (20% ethanol + 130 g/L sucrose) for 30 days or 6 months. Daily wine consumption was 15.8 +/- 0.9 and 2.0 +/- 0.2 ml/day for sweet and red wines, respectively. The consumption of each of the alcoholic solutions was similar to that of the wine they were simulating. Drinking wine or ethanol did not affect food and water intakes or growth rate. Plasma metabolites were not substantially affected by consumption of wine or ethanol. Although moderate and high wine consumption did not change the activity of plasma marker enzymes of tissue damage, the consumption of the 2 alcoholic solutions caused a long-term increase in the activity of aspartate aminotransferase. It seems that wine consumption protects the organism from hepatic lesions induced by ethanol alone.

  16. Danish Consumer Preferences for Wine and the Impact of Involvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chrysochou, Polymeros; Brunbjerg Jørgensen, Jacob

    choosing wine. We further measured consumer level of purchase involvement and we compared their preferences between high and low involvement groups. Findings: Our results show that Danish wine consumers mainly rely on previous experience with wine. Conversely, alcohol content and marketing actions (e...

  17. Zero additives preservation of Raphia palm wine | Dioha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Palm wine obtained from Raphia palm (Raphia hookeri) in Ayingba, Kogi State, Nigeria, was pasteurized through zero addition of preservative and placed on the shelf for 6 months. After 6 months, another sample of palm wine obtained from the same area was fetched and comparative analysis was carried out on both wine ...

  18. 27 CFR 26.222 - Still wines containing carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... carbon dioxide. 26.222 Section 26.222 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... ISLANDS Formulas for Products From the Virgin Islands § 26.222 Still wines containing carbon dioxide. (a) General. Still wines may contain not more than 0.392 gram of carbon dioxide per 100 milliliters of wine...

  19. 27 CFR 26.52 - Still wines containing carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... carbon dioxide. 26.52 Section 26.52 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... ISLANDS Formulas for Products From Puerto Rico § 26.52 Still wines containing carbon dioxide. (a) General. Still wines may contain not more than 0.392 gram of carbon dioxide per 100 milliliters of wine; except...

  20. Decrease of radioactive contamination by official wine-making procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foerstel, H.; Steffens, W.

    1993-01-01

    A contamination with strontium may be lowered by precipitation as tartaric acid complex, a contamination with cesium or cobalt by precipitation of hexacyanoferrates, both accepted wine-making techniques. Contaminated must was obtained both by addition of nuclides to products from the wine harvest or better by growing wine plants on contaminated soils. (orig.) [de

  1. New Proposals for the Design of Integrated Online Wine Industry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    monolingual online wine dictionary commissioned by the Burgundian wine industry, offers vari- ... number of word lists, glossaries, and online wine dictionaries of varying qual- ity. ...... Kopenhagener Beiträge zur Germanistischen Linguistik 25: 5-21. ... graphical Theory with Particular Focus on Learner's Lexicography.

  2. The South African wine industry: Insights survey 2013

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Blok, T

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available PwC’s 2013 South African wine industry insights survey explores some of the issues facing local wine businesses, specifically those evident from the financial results of the 2012 harvest, human resource management practices in the industry and wine...

  3. 27 CFR 19.26 - Tax on wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tax on wine. 19.26 Section... THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Taxes Gallonage Taxes § 19.26 Tax on wine. (a) Imposition of tax. A tax is imposed by 26 U.S.C. 5041 or 7652 on wine (including imitation, substandard, or...

  4. 27 CFR 26.67 - Bond, Form 2897-Wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bond, Form 2897-Wine. 26... Liquors and Articles in Puerto Rico Bonds § 26.67 Bond, Form 2897—Wine. Where a proprietor intends to withdraw, for purpose of shipment to the United States, wine of Puerto Rican manufacture from bonded...

  5. 27 CFR 28.132 - Responsibility for return of wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of wine. 28.132 Section 28.132 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Withdrawal of Wine Without... Customs Bonded Warehouse, or Transportation to a Manufacturing Bonded Warehouse Return of Wines to Bonded...

  6. 27 CFR 27.140 - Certification requirements for wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... for wine. 27.140 Section 27.140 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER Importer's Records and Reports Other Records § 27.140 Certification requirements for wine. (a) Definitions...

  7. 77 FR 16671 - Labeling Imported Wines With Multistate Appellations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    ... were suggested by domestic wine industry members. ATF decided to allow multistate appellations ``in...-2010-0007; T.D. TTB-101; Re: Notice No. 110] RIN 1513-AB58 Labeling Imported Wines With Multistate.... SUMMARY: The Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau is amending the wine labeling regulations to allow...

  8. Guest Editorial: Resveratrol-enhanced wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip A Norrie

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Philip A NorrieGeneral Medical Practitioner, Elanora Heights, NSW, AustraliaMan has been drinking wine for the last 9,000 years and the medical profession has been using it as a medicine for the past 5,000 years, making it man’s oldest medicine. The greatest doctors and scientists of the past have sung its praises. Hippocrates (Greek physician and father of modern medicine, 460–370 BC said “Wine is fit for man in a wonderful way provided it is taken with good sense by the sick as well as the healthy”. Pliny the Elder (Roman scientist and historian, 23–79 said “In vino sanitas – in wine there is health” and Paracelsus (German physician and father of modern pharmacology, 1493–1541 said “Whether wine is a nourishment, medicine or poison is a matter of dosage”, while Louis Pasteur (French scientist, 1822–1895 referred to wine as “The most healthful and hygienic of beverages”. I refer to it as the thinking person’s health drink.

  9. Colorimetric Sensor Array for White Wine Tasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo Chung

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A colorimetric sensor array was developed to characterize and quantify the taste of white wines. A charge-coupled device (CCD camera captured images of the sensor array from 23 different white wine samples, and the change in the R, G, B color components from the control were analyzed by principal component analysis. Additionally, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC was used to analyze the chemical components of each wine sample responsible for its taste. A two-dimensional score plot was created with 23 data points. It revealed clusters created from the same type of grape, and trends of sweetness, sourness, and astringency were mapped. An artificial neural network model was developed to predict the degree of sweetness, sourness, and astringency of the white wines. The coefficients of determination (R2 for the HPLC results and the sweetness, sourness, and astringency were 0.96, 0.95, and 0.83, respectively. This research could provide a simple and low-cost but sensitive taste prediction system, and, by helping consumer selection, will be able to have a positive effect on the wine industry.

  10. Colorimetric Sensor Array for White Wine Tasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Soo; Park, Tu San; Park, Soo Hyun; Kim, Joon Yong; Park, Seongmin; Son, Daesik; Bae, Young Min; Cho, Seong In

    2015-07-24

    A colorimetric sensor array was developed to characterize and quantify the taste of white wines. A charge-coupled device (CCD) camera captured images of the sensor array from 23 different white wine samples, and the change in the R, G, B color components from the control were analyzed by principal component analysis. Additionally, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to analyze the chemical components of each wine sample responsible for its taste. A two-dimensional score plot was created with 23 data points. It revealed clusters created from the same type of grape, and trends of sweetness, sourness, and astringency were mapped. An artificial neural network model was developed to predict the degree of sweetness, sourness, and astringency of the white wines. The coefficients of determination (R2) for the HPLC results and the sweetness, sourness, and astringency were 0.96, 0.95, and 0.83, respectively. This research could provide a simple and low-cost but sensitive taste prediction system, and, by helping consumer selection, will be able to have a positive effect on the wine industry.

  11. Flavoured Wine – Fad, Fashion or Trend?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Damien

    2016-01-01

    With this divergence between publicity and market behaviour being echoing across the globe, wine producers need to be able to determine whether a new category represents an opportunity to consider a strategic change in business direction. Although publicity has been shown to effect a change in wine consumer behaviour, the conditions surrounding a new wine category's growth from fad, trend and fashion are analysed for the purpose of strategic management. This study extends findings from historical narratives through the use of empirical evidence from both European and New World wine markets. The evidence is contrasted with a contemporary phenomenological experience expressed by influencers within both of those markets, as a means to illustrate the disparity between the contemporary appeal of popular publicity, and the challenges faced by wine producers having to respond to the market reality. This study illustrates that implementing strategic decisions on whether to engage in a new trend, depends on the innovative category being consistent with existing strategy and able to impact the market without reliance on external publicity.

  12. 222Rn in wine cellars in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csige, I.; Hunyadi, I.; Szerbin, P.; Juhasz, L.

    2004-01-01

    We measured seasonal average 222 Rn activity concentrations in the air of 60 wine cellars in the Tokajhegyalja and Villany wine regions of Hungary using Radamon type etched track radon detectors. The exposure period was 3 months, matching the seasons of 2003-2004. We also used an ionization chamber-type continuous 222 Rn-monitor (AlphaGUARD PQ222, Genitron Instruments, Germany) to study temporal variations of 222 Rn activity concentration in a selected wine cellar in the Tokajhegyalja wine region. This instruments also recorded temperature, atmospheric pressure and relative humidity data. The etched track detector data revealed that the 222 Rn activity concentrations in the air of wine cellars spread over a wide range, from the ambient outdoor concentration of 6 Bq.m -3 up to 6 kBq.m -3 characteristic of natural caves. The temporal variation of 222 Rn activity concentration in the air of the selected cellar varied inversely with the variation of the atmospheric pressure. Earlier we observed similar phenomena in natural karstic caves connected to the surface with vertical shafts only. This suggests that relatively large volume of pore space of the embedding rock communicates with the volume of the cellar induced by the variation of the atmospheric pressure

  13. Applications of radiation within the wine industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, K.J.; Moran, G.; Boreham, D.

    2003-01-01

    The objective was to test the feasibility of taint removal in industrial wines through the use of radiation. The process used the cobalt-60 source in the McMaster University Nuclear Reactor. When wine, composed mainly of water (∼87%), alcohol (∼10%), acid (∼2%), and anthrocyanins/tannins (∼0.1%), is irradiated, water molecules are hydrolyzed generating free radicals in solution. These free radicals are oxidizing agents that will oxidize other molecules in the wine. The focus has been a specific taint introduced into 2000-2001 vintages by the Asian lady-bird beetle (Harmonia Axyridis) whose population has increased dramatically of late. This taint - thought to be a methoxy-pyrazine - is detectable by taste in 1-2 parts per trillion (ppt). Preliminary sensory evaluation has shown that radiation dramatically improves tainted wines by eliminating the lady beetle taint. Chemical tests have indicated that radiation is acting as an oxidizing agent, reducing levels of SO 2 (introduced into wines to prevent oxidation) by nearly 40-70%. Research ongoing involves the detection of the taint (the implicated methoxy-pyrazine) by mass spectrometry as a taint assessment tool, and an indicator that radiation has removed the taint

  14. Using Data Mining for Wine Quality Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortez, Paulo; Teixeira, Juliana; Cerdeira, António; Almeida, Fernando; Matos, Telmo; Reis, José

    Certification and quality assessment are crucial issues within the wine industry. Currently, wine quality is mostly assessed by physicochemical (e.g alcohol levels) and sensory (e.g. human expert evaluation) tests. In this paper, we propose a data mining approach to predict wine preferences that is based on easily available analytical tests at the certification step. A large dataset is considered with white vinho verde samples from the Minho region of Portugal. Wine quality is modeled under a regression approach, which preserves the order of the grades. Explanatory knowledge is given in terms of a sensitivity analysis, which measures the response changes when a given input variable is varied through its domain. Three regression techniques were applied, under a computationally efficient procedure that performs simultaneous variable and model selection and that is guided by the sensitivity analysis. The support vector machine achieved promising results, outperforming the multiple regression and neural network methods. Such model is useful for understanding how physicochemical tests affect the sensory preferences. Moreover, it can support the wine expert evaluations and ultimately improve the production.

  15. Ethylidene-bridged Flavan-3-ols in red wine and correlation with wine age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drinkine, Jessica; Lopes, Paulo; Kennedy, James A; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis; Saucier, Cedric

    2007-07-25

    Condensed tannins are responsible for astringency and bitterness and participate in the color stability of red wines. During wine making and aging, they undergo chemical changes including, for example, acetaldehyde-induced polymerization. Following this study, the ethylidene-bridged flavan-3-ols were monitored in different vintage wines made from grapes collected in the same vineyard in three wineries in Bordeaux, Pauillac, and Saint Julien. Flavan-3-ol ethylidene bridges were quantified by wine 2,2'-ethylidenediphloroglucinol (EDP) phloroglucinolysis. This method was based upon the analysis of EDP, a product formed after acid-catalyzed cleavage of wine flavan-3-ols in the presence of excess phloroglucinol. The flavan-3-ol ethylidene bridges were then compared to flavan-3-ol contents (phloroglucinolysis), phenolic contents, and color measurements. Low amounts of flavan-3-ol ethylidene bridges (0.8-2.5 mg L(-1)) were quantified in wines. Flavan-3-ol ethylidene bridges represent less than 4% of flavan-3-ol bonds, but the proportion of these linkages relative to native interflavan bonds increased with wine age. This proportion correlated with pigmented polymers.

  16. What Drives Local Wine Expenditure in Kentucky, Ohio, Tennessee and Pennsylvania? A Consumer Behavior and Wine Market Segmentation Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Deng, Xueting; Woods, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    This study explores wine expenditure driven factors for consumers in the United States by employing a four-state consumer behaviors study. A market segmentation method is applied to investigate spending patterns of wine consumers in Pennsylvania, Ohio, Kentucky, and Tennessee. Determinants including market segmentation measurements, lifestyle factors and demographic variables are investigated and compared for their significance in driving local wine expenditure, local wine purchase probabilit...

  17. The Effects of Pre-Fermentative Addition of Oenological Tannins on Wine Components and Sensorial Qualities of Red Wine

    OpenAIRE

    Kai Chen; Carlos Escott; Iris Loira; Juan Manuel del Fresno; Antonio Morata; Wendu Tesfaye; Fernando Calderon; Santiago Benito; Jose Antonio Suárez-Lepe

    2016-01-01

    Today in the wine industry, oenological tannins are widely used to improve wine quality and prevent oxidation in wine aging. With the development of tannin products, new oenological tannins are developed with many specific functions, such as modifying antioxidant effect, colour stabilization and aroma modifications. The aim of this work is to investigate effects of pre-fermentative addition of oenological tannins on wine colour, anthocyanins, volatile compounds and sensorial properties. In th...

  18. Polyphenolic and aroma profile of Vranec wines fermented with isolated yeasts from Tikveš wine area

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanova, Violeta; Mitrev, Sasa; Karov, Ilija; Dimovska, Violeta; Ilieva, Fidanka; Balabanova, Biljana; Kovacevik, Biljana

    2013-01-01

    Wine contains a number of polyphenolic constituents classified as flavonoids and non-flavonoids that play a major role in enology. They contribute to wine sensory characteristics, especially colour, flavor and astringency and therefore, to the differences between red and white wines. On the other hand, wine aroma is a one of its most important characteristics produced by a complex balance of different groups of volatile compounds, belonging to alcohols, esters, aldehydes, lactones, terpenes, ...

  19. Australian wine consumers’ acceptance of and attitudes toward the use of additives in wine and food production

    OpenAIRE

    Saltman Y; Johnson TE; Wilkinson KL; Bastian SEP

    2015-01-01

    Yaelle Saltman, Trent E Johnson, Kerry L Wilkinson, Susan EP Bastian Department of Wine and Food, School of Agriculture, Food and Wine, The University of Adelaide, Waite Campus, Adelaide, SA, Australia. Abstract: Additives are routinely used in food and wine production to enhance product quality and/or prevent spoilage. Compared with other industries, the wine industry is only permitted to use a limited number of additives. Whereas flavor additives are often used to intensify the aroma and f...

  20. Australian wine consumers’ acceptance of and attitudes toward the use of additives in wine and food production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saltman Y

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Yaelle Saltman, Trent E Johnson, Kerry L Wilkinson, Susan EP Bastian Department of Wine and Food, School of Agriculture, Food and Wine, The University of Adelaide, Waite Campus, Adelaide, SA, Australia. Abstract: Additives are routinely used in food and wine production to enhance product quality and/or prevent spoilage. Compared with other industries, the wine industry is only permitted to use a limited number of additives. Whereas flavor additives are often used to intensify the aroma and flavor of foods and beverages, the addition of flavorings to wine contravenes the legal definition of wine. Given the current legislation, it is perhaps not surprising that the potential use of food additives in wine production has not been explored. This study therefore investigated Australian wine consumers' acceptance of and attitudes toward the use of additives in food and wine production. Consumers (n=1,031 were segmented based on their self-reported wine knowledge (ie, subjective knowledge. Using these ratings, low (n=271, medium (n=528, and high (n=232 knowledge segments were identified. Consumers considered natural flavorings and colors, and additives associated with health benefits (eg, vitamins, minerals, and omega 3 fatty acids, to be acceptable food additives, irrespective of their level of wine knowledge. In contrast, the use of winemaking additives, even commonly used and legally permitted additives such as tartaric acid, preservatives, oak chips, and tannins, were considered far less acceptable, particularly, by less knowledgeable consumers. Surprisingly, natural flavorings were considered more acceptable than currently used winemaking additives. Consumers were therefore asked to identify the flavors they would most prefer in white and red wines. Fruit flavors featured prominently in consumer responses, eg, lemon and apple for white wines and blackcurrant and raspberry for red wines, but vanilla and/or chocolate, ie, attributes typically

  1. Analysis of the Wine Experience Tourism Based on Experience Economy: A Case for Changyu Wine Tourism in China

    OpenAIRE

    Min Wei

    2013-01-01

    The characteristics embodied in the experience economy are that production and consumption is a twin process and experience is the process “products”. Wine tourism to a way of life we pursue and increasingly becoming a way of forming personal development and lifestyle. It is precisely these factors prompted the inevitable link between tourism and wine. In this context, world wine production capacity is relative to the spending power of the high-speed development, promoting wines Chamber of ve...

  2. Prevalence of Rice Yellow Mottle Virus (RYMV) on Rice Plants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Incidence of Rice yellow mottle virus (RYMV) on rice plants (ofada) grown in two local government areas (LGAs) of Ogun State had been evaluated during a two year field survey. Six month old rice plants were observed for symptom expression and leaf samples collected for serological indexing. Of the 60 leaf ...

  3. Adapting the wine industry in China to climate change: Challenges and opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yuanbo; Bardaji de Azcarate, Isabel

    2017-01-01

    Recently, China has become an exciting wine consumer market and one of the most important wine producers. China?s domestic wine industry is in the enviable position of contributing approximately 70 % of the total wine consumed with a 1.36 billion population market and the second largest world economy. Current studies of the Chinese wine industry are mostly focused on the wine market. However, global climate change, which affects the quantity, quality and distribution of wine, will have a stro...

  4. Introducing a new breed of wine yeast: interspecific hybridisation between a commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine yeast and Saccharomyces mikatae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellon, Jennifer R; Schmid, Frank; Capone, Dimitra L; Dunn, Barbara L; Chambers, Paul J

    2013-01-01

    Interspecific hybrids are commonplace in agriculture and horticulture; bread wheat and grapefruit are but two examples. The benefits derived from interspecific hybridisation include the potential of generating advantageous transgressive phenotypes. This paper describes the generation of a new breed of wine yeast by interspecific hybridisation between a commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine yeast strain and Saccharomyces mikatae, a species hitherto not associated with industrial fermentation environs. While commercially available wine yeast strains provide consistent and reliable fermentations, wines produced using single inocula are thought to lack the sensory complexity and rounded palate structure obtained from spontaneous fermentations. In contrast, interspecific yeast hybrids have the potential to deliver increased complexity to wine sensory properties and alternative wine styles through the formation of novel, and wider ranging, yeast volatile fermentation metabolite profiles, whilst maintaining the robustness of the wine yeast parent. Screening of newly generated hybrids from a cross between a S. cerevisiae wine yeast and S. mikatae (closely-related but ecologically distant members of the Saccharomyces sensu stricto clade), has identified progeny with robust fermentation properties and winemaking potential. Chemical analysis showed that, relative to the S. cerevisiae wine yeast parent, hybrids produced wines with different concentrations of volatile metabolites that are known to contribute to wine flavour and aroma, including flavour compounds associated with non-Saccharomyces species. The new S. cerevisiae x S. mikatae hybrids have the potential to produce complex wines akin to products of spontaneous fermentation while giving winemakers the safeguard of an inoculated ferment.

  5. Introducing a new breed of wine yeast: interspecific hybridisation between a commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine yeast and Saccharomyces mikatae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer R Bellon

    Full Text Available Interspecific hybrids are commonplace in agriculture and horticulture; bread wheat and grapefruit are but two examples. The benefits derived from interspecific hybridisation include the potential of generating advantageous transgressive phenotypes. This paper describes the generation of a new breed of wine yeast by interspecific hybridisation between a commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine yeast strain and Saccharomyces mikatae, a species hitherto not associated with industrial fermentation environs. While commercially available wine yeast strains provide consistent and reliable fermentations, wines produced using single inocula are thought to lack the sensory complexity and rounded palate structure obtained from spontaneous fermentations. In contrast, interspecific yeast hybrids have the potential to deliver increased complexity to wine sensory properties and alternative wine styles through the formation of novel, and wider ranging, yeast volatile fermentation metabolite profiles, whilst maintaining the robustness of the wine yeast parent. Screening of newly generated hybrids from a cross between a S. cerevisiae wine yeast and S. mikatae (closely-related but ecologically distant members of the Saccharomyces sensu stricto clade, has identified progeny with robust fermentation properties and winemaking potential. Chemical analysis showed that, relative to the S. cerevisiae wine yeast parent, hybrids produced wines with different concentrations of volatile metabolites that are known to contribute to wine flavour and aroma, including flavour compounds associated with non-Saccharomyces species. The new S. cerevisiae x S. mikatae hybrids have the potential to produce complex wines akin to products of spontaneous fermentation while giving winemakers the safeguard of an inoculated ferment.

  6. Introducing a New Breed of Wine Yeast: Interspecific Hybridisation between a Commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae Wine Yeast and Saccharomyces mikatae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellon, Jennifer R.; Schmid, Frank; Capone, Dimitra L.; Dunn, Barbara L.; Chambers, Paul J.

    2013-01-01

    Interspecific hybrids are commonplace in agriculture and horticulture; bread wheat and grapefruit are but two examples. The benefits derived from interspecific hybridisation include the potential of generating advantageous transgressive phenotypes. This paper describes the generation of a new breed of wine yeast by interspecific hybridisation between a commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine yeast strain and Saccharomyces mikatae, a species hitherto not associated with industrial fermentation environs. While commercially available wine yeast strains provide consistent and reliable fermentations, wines produced using single inocula are thought to lack the sensory complexity and rounded palate structure obtained from spontaneous fermentations. In contrast, interspecific yeast hybrids have the potential to deliver increased complexity to wine sensory properties and alternative wine styles through the formation of novel, and wider ranging, yeast volatile fermentation metabolite profiles, whilst maintaining the robustness of the wine yeast parent. Screening of newly generated hybrids from a cross between a S. cerevisiae wine yeast and S. mikatae (closely-related but ecologically distant members of the Saccharomyces sensu stricto clade), has identified progeny with robust fermentation properties and winemaking potential. Chemical analysis showed that, relative to the S. cerevisiae wine yeast parent, hybrids produced wines with different concentrations of volatile metabolites that are known to contribute to wine flavour and aroma, including flavour compounds associated with non-Saccharomyces species. The new S. cerevisiae x S. mikatae hybrids have the potential to produce complex wines akin to products of spontaneous fermentation while giving winemakers the safeguard of an inoculated ferment. PMID:23614011

  7. A healthy indulgence? Wine consumers and the health benefits of wine

    OpenAIRE

    Lindsey M. Higgins; Erica Llanos

    2015-01-01

    Heart disease is the leading cause of death in the US. Moderate red wine consumption has been linked to a reduction in the risk of death by heart disease and heart attack by 30–50%. With about 600,000 people dying from heart disease in the US each year, red wine has become increasingly popular among health conscious consumers. Wine is often touted for its potential health benefits, but to what extent is “health” a factor when consumers make their consumption decisions for alcoholic beverages?...

  8. Genetic dissection of grain traits in Yamadanishiki, an excellent sake-brewing rice cultivar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Satoshi; Suehiro, Miki; Ebana, Kaworu; Hori, Kiyosumi; Onogi, Akio; Iwata, Hiroyoshi; Yamasaki, Masanori

    2017-12-01

    The grain traits of Yamadanishiki, an excellent sake-brewing rice cultivar in Japan, are governed by multiple QTLs, namely, a total of 42 QTLs including six major QTLs. Japanese rice wine (sake) is produced using brewing rice (Oryza sativa L.) that carries traits desirable for sake-brewing, such as a larger grain size and higher white-core expression rate (WCE) compared to cooking rice cultivars. However, the genetic basis for these traits in brewing rice cultivars is still unclear. We performed analyses of quantitative trait locus (QTL) of grain and days to heading over 3 years on populations derived from crosses between Koshihikari, a cooking rice, and Yamadanishiki, an excellent sake-brewing rice. A total of 42 QTLs were detected for the grain traits, and the Yamadanishiki alleles at 16 QTLs contributed to larger grain size. Two major QTLs essential for regulating both 100-grain weight (GWt) and grain width (GWh) were harbored in the same regions on chromosomes 5 and 10. An interaction was noted between the environment and the QTL associated with WCE on chromosome 6, which was detected in two of 3 years. In addition, two QTLs for WCE on chromosomes 3 and 10 overlapped with the QTLs for GWt and GWh, suggesting that QTLs associated with grain size also play an important role in the formation of white-core. Despite differences in the rate of grain growth in both Koshihikari and Yamadanishiki across 2 years, the WCE in Yamadanishiki remained consistent, thus demonstrating that the formation of white-core does not depend on grain filling speed. These data can be informative for programs involved in breeding better cooking and brewing rice cultivars.

  9. PIXE determination of Pb in wine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kocsonya, A.; Guguianu, O.; Demeter, I.; Hollos-Nagy, Katalin; Kovacs, I.; Szokefalvi-Nagy, Z. E-mail: sznagy@rmki.kfki.hu

    2002-04-01

    The permissible level of the Pb content in wine varies in the range of 200-300 {mu}g/l in different countries. These values are below the detection limit for standard PIXE spectrometry. Initiated by an intercomparison action of The International Measurement Evaluation Programme (IMEP, Geel, Belgium), an attempt was made to lower the detection limit of PIXE without introducing any additional chemical steps. Wine samples of 5 ml were gradually condensed below an infrared lamp and 8 {mu}l aliquots were taken from time to time and pipetted onto filter paper. The samples were analysed by standard PIXE technique, with the analyte addition method used for calibration. A detection limit of about 50 ppb was finally achieved. Comparing this value to the permissible levels, this simple and fast technique can be used for screening purposes. As an application, the lead content of three Hungarian market wines was also measured.

  10. Fermentation and Characterization of Pitaya Wine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Xiao; Yang, Yaxuan; Ma, Lina; Peng, Shaodan; Lin, Mao

    2017-12-01

    Juice was extracted from pitaya pulp. After fermentation, the wine produced contained 11.2% vol (v/v) alcohol, total sugar content is 7.3g/L, 7.8% °Brix, the content of titratable acid and amino acid nitrogen are 2.34 g/L and 0.46 g/L, respectively. Dragon fruit wine of the communist party of detect aroma components is 56 kinds, content is more than 0.5%, 17 kinds, 9 esters are among those kinds, 5 kinds alcohol, there are 2 kinds of acids, one kind of alkanes. The physicochemical characteristics of wines produced from pitaya is attractive, with unique flavor and rich nutritional value, which makes it widely accepted and even liked.

  11. STUDY ON PROMOTING WINE BRANDS ONLINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta CRISTACHE

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present paper is to emphasize the role and importance of social media as a powerful wine promotion instrument. The necessity of approaching this issue is justified by the fact that we live in a Google-centric world and that companies’ marketing strategy as well as their content must constantly adapt to the online searching and information gathering behaviour. To this purpose, our research efforts concentrated on examining the top ten wine producers in Romania, pointing out that corporate rigor supports effective web-sites and social media accounts for wine producers. Form the marketing management perspective, the development of a model to assess the web-site and social media account is highly required as it is useful for winemaking companies. From the academic perspective, it aims at identifying the correlation between the behaviour of modern consumer and the social media impact on all aspects of life.

  12. PIXE determination of Pb in wine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocsonya, A.; Guguianu, O.; Demeter, I.; Hollos-Nagy, Katalin; Kovacs, I.; Szokefalvi-Nagy, Z.

    2002-01-01

    The permissible level of the Pb content in wine varies in the range of 200-300 μg/l in different countries. These values are below the detection limit for standard PIXE spectrometry. Initiated by an intercomparison action of The International Measurement Evaluation Programme (IMEP, Geel, Belgium), an attempt was made to lower the detection limit of PIXE without introducing any additional chemical steps. Wine samples of 5 ml were gradually condensed below an infrared lamp and 8 μl aliquots were taken from time to time and pipetted onto filter paper. The samples were analysed by standard PIXE technique, with the analyte addition method used for calibration. A detection limit of about 50 ppb was finally achieved. Comparing this value to the permissible levels, this simple and fast technique can be used for screening purposes. As an application, the lead content of three Hungarian market wines was also measured

  13. Spectrochemical determination of lead in wines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DRAGAN MARKOVIC

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The determination of lead in wines of different origin was performed by means of atomic emission spectroscopy with argon stabilized DC. U-shaped arc and electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. The comparison of the results obtained by the direct and standard addition method has indicated the presence of a depressive effect of the complex organic matrix. The effect is avoided successfully by mineralization, as well as by dissolution of the samples. Thus, a relative simple but precise and sensitive method involving the application of a stabilized arc and photoelectric detection with time integration of the emission signals is recommended for the determination of low concentrations of lead in wines. The complex organic matrix was investigated by recording the IR spectra of different wine fractions.

  14. 7 CFR 868.310 - Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled Rice. (See also Â... Milled Rice Principles Governing Application of Standards § 868.310 Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled Rice...

  15. Cashew wine vinegar production: alcoholic and acetic fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, M. E.; Torres Neto, A. B.; Silva, W. B.; Silva, F. L. H.; Swarnakar, R.

    2007-01-01

    Cashew wine of demi-sec grade was produced in a stirred batch reactor. The kinetic parameters obtained for cashew wine fermentation were Y X/S=0.061, Y P/S=0.3 and µmax=0.16 h-1. The yield and the productivity of cashew wine were 57.7% and 0.78 g/Lh respectively. A 2² factorial experimental design was used for the cashew wine vinegar fermentation optimization study. The cashew wine vinegar process optimization ranges found for initial concentrations of ethanol and acetic acid as independent v...

  16. ROMANIAN WINE TRADE IN THE PERIOD 2007-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca Georgiana LADARU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper is based on a research that aimed to analyze the wine exports of Romania by top destination countries in the period 2007-2013. The research method was based on statistical interpretations of the trade data provided by International Trade Center. In value terms the Romanian wine exports increased each year during this period, the main export destination being Germania, United Kingdom and China. Spain was the main exporter of wine for Romania, this country taking advantage of reduced Romanian wine production and Romanian domestic market potential for wine sales.

  17. Beer, wine, spirits and subjective health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grønbaek, M; Mortensen, E L; Mygind, K; Andersen, A T; Becker, U; Gluud, C; Sørensen, T I

    1999-11-01

    To examine the association between intake of different types of alcoholic beverages and self reported subjective health. Cross sectional health survey with assessment of intake of beer, wine and spirits (at last non-weekend day), smoking habits, social networks, physical activity, body mass index, educational level, presence of chronic disease, and self reported health. WHO Copenhagen Healthy City Survey, Denmark. 4113 men and 7926 women aged 18 to 100 years. Of the 12,039 subjects, 8680 reported their health as optimal, and 3359 reported a suboptimal health. After controlling for the covariates, the relation between total alcohol intake and the proportion reporting suboptimal health was J shaped. Heavy drinkers of any of the three types of alcoholic beverages had a higher prevalence of suboptimal health than non-drinkers. However, only light (1-2 glasses of wine yesterday) and moderate (3-5) wine drinkers had significantly lower odds ratios for suboptimal health--0.72 (95% confidence limits; 0.56 to 0.92) and 0.65 (0.49 to 0.87), respectively--when compared with non-wine drinkers. Moderate beer or spirits drinkers did not differ significantly from non-drinkers of these beverages with regard to prevalence of suboptimal health. Consistently, beer preference drinkers had an odds ratio of 1.50 (1.25 to 1.80) for suboptimal health compared with wine preference drinkers. A light to moderate wine intake is related to good self perceived health, whereas this is not the case for beer and spirits. The causal relations creating this association are unknown and should be considered when interpreting the relation between different types of alcoholic beverages and subsequent morbidity and mortality.

  18. Extraction of rice bran oil from local rice husk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anwar, J.; Zaman, W.; Salman, M.; Jabeen, N.

    2006-01-01

    Rice Bran Oil is widely used in pharmaceutical, food and chemical industries due to its unique properties and high medicinal value. In the present work, extraction of rice bran oil from different samples of rice husk collected from local rice shellers by solvent extraction method has been studied. Experiments were conducted using a soxhelt apparatus, to extract rice bran oil using hexane, petroleum ether, ethanol and methanol as the solvents and the yields obtained under different conditions were compared. Batch extraction tests showed that the rate of extraction decreases with time and the solution approaches saturation at an exponential rate. (author)

  19. Impact of Xanthylium Derivatives on the Color of White Wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bührle, Franziska; Gohl, Anita; Weber, Fabian

    2017-08-19

    Xanthylium derivatives are yellow to orange pigments with a glyoxylic acid bridge formed by dimerization of flavanols, which are built by oxidative cleavage of tartaric acid. Although their structure and formation under wine-like conditions are well established, knowledge about their color properties and their occurrence and importance in wine is deficient. Xanthylium cations and their corresponding esters were synthesized in a model wine solution and isolated via high-performance countercurrent chromatography (HPCCC) and solid phase extraction (SPE). A Three-Alternative-Forced-Choice (3-AFC) test was applied to reveal the color perception threshold of the isolated compounds in white wine. Their presence and color impact was assessed in 70 different wines (58 white and 12 rosé wines) by UHPLC-DAD-ESI-MS n and the storage stability in wine was determined. The thresholds in young Riesling wine were 0.57 mg/L (cations), 1.04 mg/L (esters) and 0.67 mg/L (1:1 ( w / w ) mixture), respectively. The low thresholds suggest a possible impact on white wine color, but concentrations in wines were below the threshold. The stability study showed the degradation of the compounds during storage under several conditions. Despite the low perception threshold, xanthylium derivatives might have no direct impact on white wine color, but might play a role in color formation as intermediate products in polymerization and browning.

  20. Influence of radiation processing of grapes on wine quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Sumit; Padole, Rupali; Variyar, Prasad S.; Sharma, Arun

    2015-01-01

    Grapes (Var. Shiraz and Cabernet) were subjected to radiation processing (up to 2 kGy) and wines were prepared and matured (4 months, 15 °C). The wines were analyzed for chromatic characteristics, total anthocyanin (TA), phenolic (TP) and total antioxidant (TAC) content. Aroma of wines was analyzed by GC/MS and sensory analysis was carried out using descriptive analysis. TA, TP and TAC were 77, 31 and 37 percent higher for irradiated (1500 Gy) Cabernet wines, while irradiated Shiraz wines demonstrated 47, 18 and 19 percent higher TA, TP and TAC, respectively. HPLC-DAD analysis revealed that radiation processing of grapes resulted in increased extraction of phenolic constituents in wine with no qualitative changes. No major radiation induced changes were observed in aroma constituents of wine. Sensory analysis revealed that 1500 Gy irradiated samples had higher fruity and berry notes. Thus, radiation processing of grapes resulted in wines with improved organoleptic and antioxidant properties. - Highlights: • Grapes were subjected to radiation processing before wine making. • Wines from irradiated grapes had higher antioxidant and phenolics compared to control. • HPLC analysis confirmed improved extraction of phenolics due to radiation processing. • Aroma profile and sensory quality of control and irradiated wines were similar

  1. Grape and wine culture in Georgia, the South Caucasus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maghradze David

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2014, the National Wine Agency of the Republic of Georgia initiated a three-year “Research Project for the study of Georgian Grapes and Wine Culture. Through collaborative research by Georgian and foreign institutions and researchers, the project aims to: stimulate research of Georgian viticulture and viniculture, through the lens of the country with the earliest tradition of grape domestication and winemaking; and to reconstruct the continuous development of viticulture and wine culture through time. The project advances the study of grape and wine culture by utilizing a multidisciplinary approach, including: archaeology, history, ethnography, molecular genetics, biomolecular archaeology, palaeobotany, ampelography, enology, climatology and other scientific fields. These studies are diachronic in their approach, beginning with the oldest Neolithic civilizations, to present day, creating a holistic understanding of the continuity and complexity of Georgian Wine Culture to help popularize Georgian Wine throughout the global wine market.

  2. Does behaviour of heavy and light wine buyers differ?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chrysochou, Polymeros; Lockshin, Larry; Habenschuss, Sarah

    and contribution to a brand’s sales, light wine buyers comprise an important target group for small share wine brands. Winemakers of small brands should acknowledge this fact, trying to meet expectations of light buyers as well. In addition, direct marketing strategies could be adapted for each group individually......Purpose: The aim of this paper is to explore the differences in behaviour between heavy and light wine buyers. This is conducted by comparing heavy and light buyers of wine in terms of their repertoires including the size, purchase frequency and market shares across brands, as well as loyalty...... exhibited towards particular wine attributes. Design/methodology/approach: Using panel data of wine purchases in the UK for each buyer group (light and heavy) market shares and loyalty to wine attributes were examined. The polarisation index φ (phi) was used as a measure of loyalty. Findings: The light...

  3. Free radical scavenging properties of some wine probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stasko, A.; Liptakova, M.; Malik, F.

    1999-01-01

    There are preliminary results of investigation of scavenging properties of 8 probes of Slovak wines (consisting of one reference, 3 probes of white wine and 4 probes of red wine). According to the literature so far, wine probes contain paramagnetic species (Mn 2+ , characterised with sextet spectrum, and a singlet line around g=2,00). In our probes we observed Mn 2+ signals, but no significant evidence for a single line of free radical was found. We can conclude that Mn 2+ content in the red wines is generally higher than in the white ones. Further, we investigated the scavenging activities of the probes adding solution of dinitropicryl hydrazyl (DPPH-stable radical) to them. Their ability to terminate free radicals resulted in the decrease of the final DPPH concentrations in the probes. The red wines have significantly higher capability to scavenge free radicals than the probes of white wines. (authors)

  4. Effect of wine inhibitors on free pineapple stem bromelain activity in a model wine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esti, Marco; Benucci, Ilaria; Liburdi, Katia; Garzillo, Anna Maria Vittoria

    2011-04-13

    The influence of potential inhibitors, naturally present in wine, on the activity of stem bromelain was investigated in order to evaluate the applicability of this enzyme for protein stabilization in white wine. Bromelain proteolytic activity was tested against a synthetic substrate (Bz-Phe-Val-Arg-pNA) in a model wine system after adding ethanol, sulfur dioxide (SO(2)), skin, seed, and gallic and ellagic tannins at the average range of their concentration in wine. All the inhibitors of stem bromelain activity tested turned out to be reversible. Ethanol was a competitive inhibitor with a rather limited effect. Gallic and ellagic tannins have no inhibitory effect on stem bromelain activity, while both seed and skin tannins were uncompetitive inhibitors. The strongest inhibition effect was revealed for sulfur dioxide, which was a mixed-type inhibitor for the enzyme activity. This study provides useful information relative to a future biotechnological application of stem bromelain in winemaking.

  5. A letter by the Regional Editor for Oceania: China and wine: Its impact on the global wine trade

    OpenAIRE

    Larry Lockshin

    2014-01-01

    China׳s growing wine consumption is having a major effect on the global trade in wine. Growing awareness and consumption of grape-based wine in China has moved from a small number of very wealthy and often older buyers to an increasing number of younger, middle-class consumers. In this editorial, I will explore some of the effects I think this growing market is having on the wine trade and how this shapes the future research agenda for wine business related to China.

  6. Gasification of rice husks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marzetti, P. (ENEA, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Fonti Alternative e Risparmio Energetico)

    The paper outlines the thermochemical processes and equipment involved in the gasification of rice husks. An assessment is made of the feasibility (availability, technology requirements, economics of production and marketing) of this renewable energy source. Results, reported here in tabular form, of experimental trials at an Italian pilot plant (producing, with the use of 165 kg/h of rice husks, 350,000 kcal/h of gas with a conversion yield of 70%) indicated good feasibility. More research is required to improve the combustion qualities of the final product.

  7. Comparative Analysis of Total Phenolic Content in Sea Buckthorn Wine and Other Selected Fruit Wines

    OpenAIRE

    Bharti Negi; Gargi Dey

    2009-01-01

    This is the first report from India on a beverage resulting from alcoholic fermentation of the juice of sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L) using lab isolated yeast strain. The health promoting potential of the product was evaluated based on its total phenolic content. The most important finding was that under the present fermentation condition, the total phenolic content of the wine product was 689 mg GAE/L. Investigation of influence of bottle ageing on the sea buckthorn wine showed a sl...

  8. Wine glass size and wine sales: a replication study in two bars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pechey, Rachel; Couturier, Dominique-Laurent; Hollands, Gareth J; Mantzari, Eleni; Zupan, Zorana; Marteau, Theresa M

    2017-08-01

    Wine glass size may influence perceived volume and subsequently purchasing and consumption. Using a larger glass to serve the same portions of wine was found to increase wine sales by 9.4% (95% CI 1.9, 17.5) in a recent study conducted in one bar. The current study aimed to replicate this previous work in two other bars using a wider range of glass sizes. To match the previous study, a repeated multiple treatment reversal design, during which wine was served in glasses of the same design but different sizes, was used. The study was conducted in two bars in Cambridge, England, using glass sizes of 300, 370, 510 ml (Bar 1) and 300 and 510 ml (Bar 2). Customers purchased their choice of a 750 ml bottle, or standard UK measures of 125, 175 or 250 ml of wine, each of which was served with the same glass. Bar 1 Daily wine volume (ml) purchased was 10.5% (95% CI 1.0, 20.9) higher when sold in 510 ml compared to 370 ml glasses; but sales were not significantly higher with 370 ml versus 300 ml glasses (6.5%, 95% CI -5.2, 19.6). Bar 2 Findings were inconclusive as to whether daily wine purchased differed when using 510 ml versus 300 ml glasses (-1.1%, 95% CI -12.6, 11.9). These results provide a partial replication of previous work showing that introducing larger glasses (without manipulating portion size) increases purchasing. Understanding the mechanisms by which wine glass size influences consumption may elucidate when the effect can be expected and when not. Trial registration This study is a replication study, based on the procedure set out in the trial registration for the study that it attempts to replicate (ISRCTN registry: ISRCTN12018175).

  9. 27 CFR 24.290 - Removal of wine as distilling material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... or the distilled spirits plant. (b) Special natural wine. Unmarketable special natural wine may be removed to a distilled spirits plant for use as distilling material in the production of wine spirits (but... removal. If wine spirits produced from special natural wine contain any flavor characteristics of the...

  10. Measuring success of a wine festival: is it really that simple ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One of the country's largest wine festivals, the Wacky Wine Festival, is held annually in Robertson, South Africa. Forty-eight wine farms participate actively in the Robertson Valley that forms part of the wine route and festival, which makes this wine festival unique. This paper presents the results of a survey that was ...

  11. 27 CFR 27.42a - Still wines containing carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... carbon dioxide. 27.42a Section 27.42a Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... On Imported Distilled Spirits, Wines, and Beer Wines § 27.42a Still wines containing carbon dioxide. Still wines may contain not more than 0.392 gram of carbon dioxide per 100 milliliters of wine; except...

  12. 27 CFR 24.91 - Conveyance of untaxpaid wine or spirits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... wine or spirits. 24.91 Section 24.91 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions Conveyance of Wine Or Spirits on Wine Premises § 24.91 Conveyance of untaxpaid wine or spirits. Untaxpaid...

  13. 27 CFR 19.532 - Withdrawals of spirits for use in wine production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... use in wine production. 19.532 Section 19.532 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... Withdrawals Withdrawal of Spirits Without Payment of Tax § 19.532 Withdrawals of spirits for use in wine production. Wine spirits may be withdrawn to a bonded wine cellar without payment of tax for use in wine...

  14. 27 CFR 24.245 - Use of carbon dioxide in still wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... still wine. 24.245 Section 24.245 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Storage, Treatment and Finishing of Wine § 24.245 Use of carbon dioxide in still wine. The addition of carbon dioxide to (and retention in) still wine...

  15. Aroma release in the oral cavity after wine intake is influenced by wine matrix composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban-Fernández, Adelaida; Muñoz-González, Carolina; Jiménez-Girón, Ana; Pérez-Jiménez, María; Pozo-Bayón, María Ángeles

    2018-03-15

    The aim of this study has been to investigate if wine matrix composition might influence the interaction between odorants and oral mucosa in the oral cavity during a "wine intake-like" situation. Aroma released after exposing the oral cavity of three individuals to different wines (n=12) previously spiked with six target aromas was followed by an -in vivo intra-oral SPME approach. Results showed a significant effect of wine matrix composition on the intra-oral aroma release of certain odorants. Among the wine matrix parameters, phenolic compounds showed the largest impact. This effect was dependent on their chemical structure. Some phenolic acids (e.g. hippuric, caffeic) were associated to an increase in the intra-oral release of certain odorants (e.g. linalool, β-ionone), while flavonoids showed the opposite effect, decreasing the intra-oral release of aliphatic esters (ethyl hexanoate). This work shows for the first time, the impact of wine composition on oral-mucosa interactions under physiological conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Comparison of consecutive harvests versus blending treatments to produce lower alcohol wines from Cabernet Sauvignon grapes: Impact on wine volatile composition and sensory properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schelezki, Olaf J; Šuklje, Katja; Boss, Paul K; Jeffery, David W

    2018-09-01

    This study extends previous work on Cabernet Sauvignon wines of lowered alcohol concentrations produced by pre-fermentatively substituting proportions of juice from an overripe crop with "green harvest wine" or water to adjust initial sugar concentrations. Resulting wines were assessed for their volatile compositions and sensory characteristics to evaluate the suitability of this winemaking approach to managing wine alcohol concentrations in warm viticulture regions. Wines from water or green harvest wine substitution were also compared to wines of similar alcohol content produced from earlier harvested grapes. Implementation of water substitution in particular resulted in minor alterations of wine volatile composition compared to the control, and positive aroma and flavour characteristics were preserved. However, overripe sensory attributes such as 'hotness' and 'port wine' were conserved whereas they were absent in wines of similar alcohol level made from earlier harvested grapes, thereby emphasising the relevance of grape (over)maturity when producing lower alcohol wines. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Red Wine, Resveratrol and Atrial Fibrillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garavaglia, Juliano; Marcadenti, Aline

    2017-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common cardiac arrhythmia that is associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease and overall mortality. Excessive alcohol intake is a well-known risk factor for AF, but this correlation is less clear with light and moderate drinking. Besides, low doses of red wine may acutely prolong repolarization and slow cardiac conduction. Resveratrol, a bioactive polyphenol found in grapes and red wine, has been linked to antiarrhythmic properties and may act as an inhibitor of both intracellular calcium release and pathological signaling cascades in AF, eliminating calcium overload and preserving the cardiomyocyte contractile function. However, there are still no clinical trials at all that prove that resveratrol supplementation leads to improved outcomes. Besides, no observational study supports a beneficial effect of light or moderate alcohol intake and a lower risk of AF. The purpose of this review is to briefly describe possible beneficial effects of red wine and resveratrol in AF, and also present studies conducted in humans regarding chronic red wine consumption, resveratrol, and AF. PMID:29084143

  18. Red Wine, Resveratrol and Atrial Fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Siga Stephan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Atrial fibrillation (AF is a common cardiac arrhythmia that is associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease and overall mortality. Excessive alcohol intake is a well-known risk factor for AF, but this correlation is less clear with light and moderate drinking. Besides, low doses of red wine may acutely prolong repolarization and slow cardiac conduction. Resveratrol, a bioactive polyphenol found in grapes and red wine, has been linked to antiarrhythmic properties and may act as an inhibitor of both intracellular calcium release and pathological signaling cascades in AF, eliminating calcium overload and preserving the cardiomyocyte contractile function. However, there are still no clinical trials at all that prove that resveratrol supplementation leads to improved outcomes. Besides, no observational study supports a beneficial effect of light or moderate alcohol intake and a lower risk of AF. The purpose of this review is to briefly describe possible beneficial effects of red wine and resveratrol in AF, and also present studies conducted in humans regarding chronic red wine consumption, resveratrol, and AF.

  19. Red Wine Polyphenols and Vascular Function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.P.G. Botden (Ilse)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractHippocrates, the father of modern medicine, said many centuries ago: “let food be your medicine.” Today, this quote still shows its value, amongst others by the !nding that red wine consumption attributes to a healthy life style, reducing the risk to develop cardiovascular diseases.

  20. Red Wine, Resveratrol and Atrial Fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, Laura Siga; Almeida, Eduardo Dytz; Markoski, Melissa Medeiros; Garavaglia, Juliano; Marcadenti, Aline

    2017-10-30

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common cardiac arrhythmia that is associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease and overall mortality. Excessive alcohol intake is a well-known risk factor for AF, but this correlation is less clear with light and moderate drinking. Besides, low doses of red wine may acutely prolong repolarization and slow cardiac conduction. Resveratrol, a bioactive polyphenol found in grapes and red wine, has been linked to antiarrhythmic properties and may act as an inhibitor of both intracellular calcium release and pathological signaling cascades in AF, eliminating calcium overload and preserving the cardiomyocyte contractile function. However, there are still no clinical trials at all that prove that resveratrol supplementation leads to improved outcomes. Besides, no observational study supports a beneficial effect of light or moderate alcohol intake and a lower risk of AF. The purpose of this review is to briefly describe possible beneficial effects of red wine and resveratrol in AF, and also present studies conducted in humans regarding chronic red wine consumption, resveratrol, and AF.

  1. Climate Change and Global Wine Quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, G.V. [Department of Geography, Southern Oregon University, 1250 Siskiyou Blvd, Ashland, Oregon, 97520 (United States); White, M.A. [Department of Aquatic, Watershed, and Earth Resources, Utah State University, Logan, Utah, 84322 (United States); Cooper, O.R. [Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences CIRES, University of Colorado/NOAA Aeronomy Laboratory, Boulder, Colorado, 80305 (United States); Storchmann, K. [Department of Economics, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, 06520 (United States)

    2005-12-01

    From 1950 to 1999 the majority of the world's highest quality wine-producing regions experienced growing season warming trends. Vintage quality ratings during this same time period increased significantly while year-to-year variation declined. While improved winemaking knowledge and husbandry practices contributed to the better vintages it was shown that climate had, and will likely always have, a significant role in quality variations. This study revealed that the impacts of climate change are not likely to be uniform across all varieties and regions. Currently, many European regions appear to be at or near their optimum growing season temperatures, while the relationships are less defined in the New World viticulture regions. For future climates, model output for global wine producing regions predicts an average warming of 2C in the next 50 yr. For regions producing high-quality grapes at the margins of their climatic limits, these results suggest that future climate change will exceed a climatic threshold such that the ripening of balanced fruit required for existing varieties and wine styles will become progressively more difficult. In other regions, historical and predicted climate changes could push some regions into more optimal climatic regimes for the production of current varietals. In addition, the warmer conditions could lead to more poleward locations potentially becoming more conducive to grape growing and wine production.

  2. Wine Resveratrol: From the Ground Up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Bavaresco

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The ability of the grapevine to activate defense mechanisms against some pathogens has been shown to be linked to the synthesis of resveratrol and other stilbenes by the plant (inducible viniferins. Metabolized viniferins may also be produced or modified by extracellular enzymes released by the pathogen in an attempt to eliminate undesirable toxic compounds. Because of the important properties of resveratrol, there is increasing interest in producing wines with higher contents of this compound and a higher nutritional value. Many biotic and abiotic elicitors can trigger the resveratrol synthesis in the berries, and some examples are reported. Under the same elicitation pressure, viticultural and enological factors can substantially affect the resveratrol concentration in the wine. The production of high resveratrol-containing grapes and wines relies on quality-oriented viticulture (suitable terroirs and sustainable cultural practices and winemaking technologies that avoid degradation of the compound. In general, the oenological practices commonly used to stabilize wine after fermentation do not affect resveratrol concentration, which shows considerable stability. Finally the paper reports on two sirtuin genes (SIRT expressed in grapevine leaves and berries and the role of resveratrol on the deacetylation activity of the encoded enzymes.

  3. Progress in authentication of food and wine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Authentication of foods, wines and beverages for varietal, country- (or region-) of-origin, and processing conditions is becoming of increasing concern to consumers and regulators both in the U.S. and internationally. As markets become more globalized and foods and beverages are sourced from many lo...

  4. Wine Traceability with Rare Earth Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Aceto

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The traceability of foodstuffs is now a relevant aspect of the food market. Scientific research has been devoted to addressing this issue by developing analytical protocols in order to find the link between soil and food items. In this view, chemical parameters that can act as soil markers are being sought. In this work, the role of rare earth elements (REEs as geochemical markers in the traceability of red wine is discussed. The REE distribution in samples from each step of the wine making process of Primitivo wine (produced in Southern Italy was determined using the highly sensitive inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS technique. Samples analyzed include grapes, must, and wine samples after every step in the vinification process. The resulting data were compared to the REE distribution in the soil, revealing that the soil fingerprint is maintained in the intermediate products up to and including grape must. Fractionation occurs thereafter as a consequence of further external interventions, which tends to modify the REE profile.

  5. Herbicide residues in grapes and wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, G G; Williams, B

    1999-05-01

    The persistence of several common herbicides from grapes to wine has been studied. Shiraz, Tarrango and Doradillo grapes were separately sprayed with either norflurazon, oxyfluorfen, oxadiazon or trifluralin-persistent herbicides commonly used for weed control in vineyards. The dissipation of the herbicides from the grapes was followed for 28 days following treatment. Results showed that norflurazon was the most persist herbicide although there were detectable residues of all the herbicides on both red and white grapes at the end of the study period. The penetration of herbicides into the flesh of the grapes was found to be significantly greater for white grapes than for red grapes. Small-lot winemaking experiments showed that norflurazon persisted at levels close to the initial concentration through vinification and into the finished wine. The other herbicides degraded, essentially via first-order kinetics, within the period of "first fermentation" and had largely disappeared after 28 days. The use of charcoal together with filter pads, or with diatomaceous earth was shown to be very effective in removing herbicide residues from the wine. A 5% charcoal filter removed more than 96% of the norflurazon persisting in the treated wine.

  6. Photoacoustic imaging of port-wine stains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolkman, Roy G. M.; Mulder, Miranda J.; Glade, Conrad P.; Steenbergen, Wiendelt; van Leeuwen, Ton G.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: To optimize laser therapy of port-wine stains (PWSs), information about the vasculature as well as lesion depth is valuable. In this study we investigated the use of photoacoustic imaging (PAI) to obtain this information. STUDY DESIGN/MATERIALS AND METHODS: PAI uses pulsed

  7. Photoacoustic Imaging of Port-Wine Stains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolkman, R.G.M.; Mulder, M.J.; Mulder, Miranda J.; Glade, Conrad P.; Steenbergen, Wiendelt; van Leeuwen, Ton

    2008-01-01

    Background and Objective: To optimize laser therapy of port-wine stains (PWSs), information about the vasculature as well as lesion depth is valuable. In this study we investigated the use of photoacoustic imaging (PAI) to obtain this information. - Study Design/Materials and Methods: PAI uses

  8. Modern methods of wine quality analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Галина Зуфарівна Гайда

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available  In this paper physical-chemical and enzymatic methods of quantitative analysis of the basic wine components were reviewed. The results of own experiments were presented for the development of enzyme- and cell-based amperometric sensors on ethanol, lactate, glucose, arginine

  9. Hybridization of Palm Wine Yeasts ( Saccharomyces Cerevisiae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Haploid auxotrophic strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were selected from palm wine and propagated by protoplast fusion with Brewers yeast. Fusion resulted in an increase in both ethanol production and tolerance against exogenous ethanol. Mean fusion frequencies obtained for a mating types ranged between 8 x ...

  10. Trace elements in wine and other beverages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eschnauer, H.

    1974-01-01

    Survey of the mostly physical methods of analysis (e.g. activation analysis) for the dectection of trace elements in wine and in other alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages as well as for detection of radioactivity (natural and man-made) in these beverages. (HP) [de

  11. LIFE CYCLE OF A WINE BRAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktoriia Paziuk

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work is to determine the life cycle of the wine brand, the development of ways to improve its effectiveness at different stages of the life cycle. Being scientifically informed of the existence of the life cycle of the brand allows modern enterprises to enhance their competitive position in the market and take advantage of the acquired differences in order to attract more attention from consumers. Methods. The study is based on scientific methods of research of economic phenomena: the dialectic, abstract logical (in the exercise of theoretical generalizations to the definition of the concept of «life cycle of the perpetrator of the brand, a scientific abstraction, comparison and ordering (the study of factors influencing the life cycle of the perpetrator of the brand and the factors influencing a choice of products for consumers, statistical and problem-chronological (the study of the requirements of the brand in a changing consumer preferences, logical generalization (in determining the social and ethical functions guilty brand. Results. The stages of the life cycle of the wine brand, which take into account its characteristics and form its social and ethical functions. Describing the requirements for the wine brand in the changing tastes and preferences of consumers. Specification of wine promotion of the brand in an increasingly competitive environment. Preconditions have been set for a new wine brand. The practical significance. The brand always increases the value of the product and its entry into new markets, as well as reduces the time to attract consumers. Possibility to ensure the growth of the brand in a declining market; building market share in a highly competitive environment; marketing innovative products in order to create a new sales strategy. After all, to gain and maintain the popularity of a certain product, one must personalize it with giving associations and a way to provide it with distinctive features. Only

  12. Rice as commodity and anti-commodity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richards, P.

    2016-01-01

    On the Upper West Africa coast rice belongs to two species — African rice (Oryza glaberrima Steud.) and Asian rice (Oryza sativa L.). African rice was domesticated in the region, perhaps three millennia ago, from a presumed wild ancestor, O. barthii. Asian rice was introduced via trans-Saharan

  13. Diseases of wild rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diseases are much more pronounced in cultivated wild rice than in natural stands, most likely due to the narrower genetic base of the populations, plant stress due to high planting density and floodwater removal prior to harvest, and high relative humidity in the plant canopy. Yield losses occur as ...

  14. Promising rice mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakim, L.; Azam, M.A.; Miah, A.J.; Mansur, M.A.; Akanda, H.R.

    1988-01-01

    Two induced mutants namely, Mut NS 1 (tall) and Mut NS 5 (semi-dwarf) derived from rice variety Nizersail were evaluated for various agronomic characters at four locations in Bangladesh. Both the mutants matured about three weeks earlier and yielded significantly higher than the parent variety Nizersail. (author). 3 tabs., 9 refs

  15. Distribution alternatives for a small wine-producer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radka Šperková

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Distribution can be defined as a way of goods from producer to consumer. In wine production industry there exist several distribution channels, through which wine is distributed to the final consumer. Aim of this paper is to identify and compare advantages and disadvantages of particular distribution channels for wine sales related to a small wine-producer.Distribution of wine to the final consumer is done through dealers represented by retail chains, specialized wine-shops, hotels, and restaurants. In a smaller scale it is done through internet sales, own outlets and wine auctions. According to the research of Focus agency, Marketing & Social Research, done in 2009, customers buy wine mostly in retail chains and decide on sort and quality of wine directly at the moment of purchase. Selection is based except wine quality also on the shape of the bottle, etiquette, and also cork (consumers explicitly prefer cork, and the screw top rather discourages. Certain part of customers – specifically those, who are more acquainted with wine – buy wine in special wine-shops. The research shows a decrease of direct wine-sales.When using services of independent trade organizations, producers have to control the intensity of commercial activities and knowledge of technical characteristics of products. Small wine producers, though, do not have to use this distribution channel, and can focus only on direct sales. For some small wine producers, specifically those operating in the areas with an extended possibility for wine-tourism, this channel can be more suitable and effective than using retail chains. This way of distribution does not require extensive start-up investments, it is directly dependent on producers own effort, and can be done as a supplementary activity to the main source of income.Regardless the particular choice of a distribution channel by a small wine producer it is necessary to be judged not only from the viewpoint of its advantages and

  16. Selenium speciation profiles in biofortified sangiovese wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontanella, Maria Chiara; D'Amato, Roberto; Regni, Luca; Proietti, Primo; Beone, Gian Maria; Businelli, Daniela

    2017-09-01

    Biofortification is an agronomic-based strategy, utilized by farmers, to produce selenium (Se)-enriched food products that may help reduce dietary deficiencies of Se occurring throughout susceptible regions of the world. The foliar exposure route application ensures a high efficiency of Se assimilation by the plant since it does not depend on root-to-shoot translocation. In this study we treated grapevines of Sangiovese variety in the pre-flowering period with sodium selenate (100mg Se L -1 ). Se content was measured in leaves, fruit at harvest time and in wine respectively in treated and not treated samples with ICP-MS. At harvest, a higher amount of Se in the treated leaves compared to untreated ones was found, 16.0±3.1mgkg -1 dry weight (dw) against 0.17±0.006mgkg -1 dw in the untreated ones. The treated grapes had a content of Se of 0.800±0.08mgkg -1 dw, while that untreated one 0.065±0.025mgkg -1 dw. Immediately after the malolactic fermentation, the wine obtained from treated and untreated vines had a Se content of 0.620±0.09mg Se L -1 and 0.024±0.010mg Se L -1 respectively. In our case the percentage of inorganic Se is 26% of the total Se in the untreated wine, while in Se enriched wine this percentage increase to 47.5% of the total Se. The Se(VI) was the inorganic chemical form more present in enriched wine, probably due to foliar application with selenate. Distributions of Se species suggested being careful to the choice of the enrichment solutions to promote a balanced distribution of different chemical forms, perhaps favouring the accumulation of organic forms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Phenolic Analysis and Theoretic Design for Chinese Commercial Wines' Authentication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Si-Yu; Zhu, Bao-Qing; Reeves, Malcolm J; Duan, Chang-Qing

    2018-01-01

    To develop a robust tool for Chinese commercial wines' varietal, regional, and vintage authentication, phenolic compounds in 121 Chinese commercial dry red wines were detected and quantified by using high-performance liquid chromatography triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry (HPLC-QqQ-MS/MS), and differentiation abilities of principal component analysis (PCA), partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) were compared. Better than PCA and PLS-DA, OPLS-DA models used to differentiate wines according to their varieties (Cabernet Sauvignon or other varieties), regions (east or west Cabernet Sauvignon wines), and vintages (young or old Cabernet Sauvignon wines) were ideally established. The S-plot provided in OPLS-DA models showed the key phenolic compounds which were both statistically and biochemically significant in sample differentiation. Besides, the potential of the OPLS-DA models in deeper sample differentiating of more detailed regional and vintage information of wines was proved optimistic. On the basis of our results, a promising theoretic design for wine authentication was further proposed for the first time, which might be helpful in practical authentication of more commercial wines. The phenolic data of 121 Chinese commercial dry red wines was processed with different statistical tools for varietal, regional, and vintage differentiation. A promising theoretical design was summarized, which might be helpful for wine authentication in practical situation. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  18. WINE TOURISM IN WESTERN MOLDOVA - TO A FUTURE ALSACE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela MANEA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Wine tourism has emerge as a form of redinamization, recovery of wine products. It was necessary such a tourism form for the wine-growing regions to assert in this tourist industry through landscapes as well as the products offered. Countries like France, Italy and Spain are already among the most definitive statement in this area, being basically those that outline the so-called Old World of the wine tourism domain. This is due to a long history of viticulture, terroir, winemaking method and cultural heritage. Romania is also on the wine countries list being part of the top ten countries according to the hierarchy made by OIV. Wine tourism started to come also in Romania, increasingly more wineries adopting wine recovery forms through tourism. It is adopting foreign models of wine tourism but keeping the local specific. Thus Moldova, the largest wine region began to adapt some wine tourism development models and this article will demonstrate whether this model is beneficial for Moldova.

  19. Investigating differences in light stable isotopes between Thai jasmine rice and Sungyod rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukusamude, C.; Kongsri, S.

    2017-10-01

    We report the differences in light stable isotopes between two kinds of Thai rice (Thai jasmine and Sungyod rice). Thai jasmine rice and Sungyod rice were cultivated in the northeast and the south of Thailand. Light isotopes including 13C, 15N and 18O of Thai jasmine rice and Sungyod rice samples were carried out using isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS). Thai jasmine rice (Khao Dawk Mali 105) was cultivated from Thung Kula Rong Hai area, whereas Sungyod rice was cultivated from Phathalung province. Hypothesis testing of difference of each isotope between Thai jasmine rice and Sungyod rice was also studied. The study was the feasibility test whether the light stable isotopes can be the variables to identify Thai jasmine rice and Sungyod rice. The result shows that there was difference in the isotope patterns of Thai jasmine rice and Sungyod rice. Our results may provide the useful information in term of stable isotope profiles of Thai rice.

  20. Radiation disinfestation of Basmati rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, V.S.; Gholap, A.S.; Adhikari, H.R.; Nair, P.M.

    1994-01-01

    Effect of low dose γ-radiation on prepackaged Basmati rice was studied in order to achieve disinfestation of rice. Basmati rice procured from local market was repacked in 1 kg pouches made from high density polyethylene (HDP) and biaxially oriented polypropylene: low density polyethylene (BOPP/LDP) laminate and irradiated at doses from 0.25-1.0 kGy. Within one month of storage at room temperature, unirradiated (control) Basmati rice developed heavy infestation. No infestation was observed in any of the irradiated samples even at 0.25 kGy and the rice could be stored for 6 months in a clean state. Irradiation (at 0.25 kGy) did not alter the moisture content of the rice. Likewise, no significant change was noted due to irradiation in the functional properties of rice such as swelling index and water absorption and in total volatile components responsible for flavour of Basmati rice. In organoleptic evaluation, no significant difference was found between the acceptability of irradiated (0.25 kGy) and control rice. These results are significant in view of the high export potential of Basmati rice and the transit losses at present due to infestation. (author). 24 refs., 5 tabs., 1 fig

  1. 87Sr/86Sr from rock and soil into vine and wine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horn, P.; Schaaf, P.; Holbach, B.; Hoelzl, S.; Eschnauer, H.

    1993-01-01

    For provenance assignments of wines strontium isotope ratios can be used because soils from different wine-growing regions, and hence the wines grown there, each show specific ratios. Some successful applications are demonstrated. (orig.)

  2. Modifications in climate suitability for wine production of Romanian wine regions as a result of climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irimia Liviu Mihai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to reveal the shifts in climate suitability for wine production affecting Romanian wine growing regions. For this, we analyzed the spatial distribution over Romanian territory of the oenoclimate aptitude index (IAOe for the 1961 to 1990 and 1991 to 2013 time periods. The IAOe has been calculated based on gridded data at 10 × 10 km resolution of average daily temperature, precipitation and sunshine duration between 1961–2013, originating from about 150 weather stations across Romanian territory and recorded in the ROCADA database. The study reveals: northward shifts and to higher altitudes of suitability for wine production; the appearance of new areas suitable for wine production; the expansion or the shrinkage of the current areas suitable for wine production; shifts in classes of suitability for wine production in the current wine regions and appearance of premises of replacing their specific varieties and traditional wine type production; the tendency to level climate suitability at regional scale by diminishing suitability for white wines and replacing it with climate suitability for red wines. The study provides a solid support for developing strategies to adapt Romanian viticulture to climate change.

  3. Wine and health perceptions: Exploring the impact of gender, age and ethnicity on consumer perceptions of wine and health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn J. Chang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study explores U.S. wine consumers’ perception of wine and health by gender, age, and ethnic background. An extensive body of epidemiological studies suggests that there are health benefits from moderate wine drinking. In light of an increased consumer preference over healthier foods and beverages, it is important to understand the health orientation of wine consumers and the effect of gender, age, or ethnicity on their perceptions of wine and health. An online survey was used to collect data from more than 1000 U.S. wine consumers. The results show that there is a statistically significant difference across demographic segments in terms of the level of health consciousness. Millennials and Asians are the most concerned, whereas Whites are the least, about health in their respective segments. Red wine is considered the healthiest wine type compared to other colors and styles. Moreover, more than 80% of the sample believes drinking red wine is healthier than drinking beer or spirits. However, nearly 50% of the sample thinks sulfites in wine can cause headaches. Managerial implications are discussed.

  4. Wine market in the United States and in the California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Chládková

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes wine market in the United States and in the California. The paper is focused on characteristic of winegrowing, wine-production, wine-consumption and wine export too. Export of California wine is growing and wine is exported to the EU for the first. We can expect to grow of interest of our consumers too. California wine will compete in high quality and low prices. California is the fourth largest wine producer in the world after France, Italy and Spain. It accounted for $ 643 million in wine exports in 2003 from $ 537 million in 1998. Wine grapes were grown in 46 of California’s 58 counties, covering 529000 acres in 2003. California produced 444 million gallons of wine in 1998 it is 90 percent of all U.S. wine production, making California the leading wine producing state in America. The California wine industry has an annual impact of $ 45.4 billion on the state’s economy. An important California employer, the wine industry provides 207550 full-time equivalent jobs in wineries, vineyards or other affiliated businesses throughout the state. There are at least 1294 bricks and mortar commercial wineries in California. But the wine consumption is very low in California.Because California together with South Africa and another countries that so-called New World are important producers with growing export, is very necessary to analyse these markets because they are great competitors for Czech producers. These problems solved in another foreigner markets Černíková, Žufan (2004, Duda (2004, Hrabalová (2004, Kudová (2005, Lišková (2004, Tomšík, Chládková (2005.The paper is a part of solution of the grant focused on analysis and formulation of further development of winegrowing and wine-production in the Czech Republic provided by the Ministry of Agriculture (No. QF 3276, and it is also a part of solution of the research plan of the Faculty of Business and Economics, MUAF in Brno (No. MSM 6215648904.

  5. The determination of titratable acidity and total tannins in red wine

    OpenAIRE

    Rajković Miloš B.; Sredović Ivana D.

    2009-01-01

    Titration acidity and content of total tannins in mass-market red wines are analyzed in this paper. The content of total acids in wine, expressed through wine acid, was analyzed by potentiometric titration on 7.00 pH value. According to titratable acidity in analyzed wines, all wines (only) with analyzed parameters according to Regulations about wine quality. The analysis of differential potentiometric curves shows that these curves can give the answer to the question if non organic substance...

  6. STUDIES REGARDING THE COLOR EVOLUTION DURING MATURATION OF CABERNET SAUVIGNON AND PINOT NOIR WINES

    OpenAIRE

    Luminiţa Vişan; Ciprian Nicolae Popa; Radiana Tamba-Berehoiu

    2017-01-01

    During maturation of red wines their chromatic characteristics change due to degradation reactions of anthocyanin pigments and polymers formation. It was studied the polyphenolic composition of young red wines Cabernet Sauvignon and Pinot Noir and its evolution during wines maturation. The wines were obtained in the Ceptura vine center, from the harvest year of 2015. The polyphenolic composition of wines was judged by the content in polyphenols, tannins and anthocyanins. A wine tannin structu...

  7. Experimental evidence for the cardioprotective effects of red wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Samarjit; Santani, Dev D; Dhalla, Naranjan S

    2007-01-01

    Both epidemiological and experimental studies have revealed that intake of wine, particularly red wine, in moderation protects cardiovascular health; however, the experimental basis for such an action is not fully understood. Because all types of red wine contain varying amounts of alcohol and antioxidants, it is likely that the cardioprotective effect of red wine is due to both these constituents. In view of its direct action on the vascular smooth muscle cells, alcohol may produce coronary vasodilation in addition to attenuating oxidative stress by its action on the central nervous system. The antioxidant components of red wine may provide cardioprotection by their ability to reduce oxidative stress in the heart under different pathological conditions. Mild-to-moderate red wine consumption improves cardiac function in the ischemic myocardium through the protection of endothelial function, the expression of several cardioprotective oxidative stress-inducible proteins, as well as the activation of adenosine receptors and nitrous oxide synthase mechanisms.

  8. Experimental evidence for the cardioprotective effects of red wine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Samarjit; Santani, Dev D; Dhalla, Naranjan S

    2007-01-01

    Both epidemiological and experimental studies have revealed that intake of wine, particularly red wine, in moderation protects cardiovascular health; however, the experimental basis for such an action is not fully understood. Because all types of red wine contain varying amounts of alcohol and antioxidants, it is likely that the cardioprotective effect of red wine is due to both these constituents. In view of its direct action on the vascular smooth muscle cells, alcohol may produce coronary vasodilation in addition to attenuating oxidative stress by its action on the central nervous system. The antioxidant components of red wine may provide cardioprotection by their ability to reduce oxidative stress in the heart under different pathological conditions. Mild-to-moderate red wine consumption improves cardiac function in the ischemic myocardium through the protection of endothelial function, the expression of several cardioprotective oxidative stress-inducible proteins, as well as the activation of adenosine receptors and nitrous oxide synthase mechanisms. PMID:18650973

  9. The microbial ecology of wine grape berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barata, A; Malfeito-Ferreira, M; Loureiro, V

    2012-02-15

    Grapes have a complex microbial ecology including filamentous fungi, yeasts and bacteria with different physiological characteristics and effects upon wine production. Some species are only found in grapes, such as parasitic fungi and environmental bacteria, while others have the ability to survive and grow in wines, constituting the wine microbial consortium. This consortium covers yeast species, lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria. The proportion of these microorganisms depends on the grape ripening stage and on the availability of nutrients. Grape berries are susceptible to fungal parasites until véraison after which the microbiota of truly intact berries is similar to that of plant leaves, which is dominated by basidiomycetous yeasts (e.g. Cryptococcus spp., Rhodotorula spp. Sporobolomyces spp.) and the yeast-like fungus Aureobasidium pullulans. The cuticle of visually intact berries may bear microfissures and softens with ripening, increasing nutrient availability and explaining the possible dominance by the oxidative or weakly fermentative ascomycetous populations (e.g. Candida spp., Hanseniaspora spp., Metschnikowia spp., Pichia spp.) approaching harvest time. When grape skin is clearly damaged, the availability of high sugar concentrations on the berry surface favours the increase of ascomycetes with higher fermentative activity like Pichia spp. and Zygoascus hellenicus, including dangerous wine spoilage yeasts (e.g. Zygosaccharomyces spp., Torulaspora spp.), and of acetic acid bacteria (e.g. Gluconobacter spp., Acetobacter spp.). The sugar fermenting species Saccharomyces cerevisiae is rarely found on unblemished berries, being favoured by grape damage. Lactic acid bacteria are minor partners of grape microbiota and while being the typical agent of malolactic fermentation, Oenococcus oeni has been seldom isolated from grapes in the vineyard. Environmental ubiquitous bacteria of the genus Enterobacter spp., Enterococcus spp., Bacillus spp

  10. Climate variability and Port wine quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia, Celia; Liberato, Margarida L. R.; Trigo, Ricardo M.; Dacamara, Carlos

    2010-05-01

    Recent warming trends for Portugal have been found to be steepest in winter and spring and more pronounced for minimum than for maximum values of temperature (Miranda et al, 2002). These trends and associated changes in temperature and precipitation regimes may exert strong influences on agriculture systems. For instance, high values of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index have been shown to significantly reduce precipitation over Iberia and therefore induce low yield wheat crops in Portugal (Gouveia and Trigo, 2006). Port wine is produced from grapes grown in selected areas of the Douro valley, the so-called Região Demarcada do Douro, the first wine-producing region of the world (dating from 1758). A vintage wine is made from grapes that were grown and harvested in a single specified year and is classified as such because of the above average quality, a status that is attributed by Port houses in their best years. The Douro region presents distinctive climatic, topographic and soil characteristics. While the latest factors are fixed in time, the former may considerably change from year to year, exposing the Port wine productions to a large risk associated to interannual and intra-seasonal climatic variations. It is therefore to be expected that high quality wines are generally associated to optimum climatic conditions. In this work we have performed an analysis of the distinct behaviour of several meteorological fields in vintage versus non-vintage years. The relative importance of maximum and minimum temperature, precipitation and frost days is assessed for each individual month of the vegetative cycle and their importance to a high quality wine year is evaluated. Composites of 500 hPa geopotential height and sea level pressure fields over the Euro Atlantic region are also compared for vintage and non-vintage years. Results reveal a strong dependence of vintage production on maximum temperature and precipitation during spring and summer (the growing season

  11. Study of Rice Marketing System in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Feizabadi, Yaser

    2011-01-01

    Rice comes second after wheat in Iran`s food consumption economy. Rising population and recent growth in GDP has made Iran one of the greatest rice importer countries all over the world. That is why rice marketing has always been a controversial issue in Iran`s agricultural economics. To study rice marketing system in Iran, this paper aims to calculate rice marketing margin, market efficiency and marketing cost coefficient in seaside Mazandaran province( where 70 percent of domestic rice prod...

  12. Influence of biological, experiential and psychological factors in wine preference segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, Gary J; Hayes, John E

    2017-06-01

    We sought to determine the influence of selected biological, experiential and psychological variables on self-reported liking and consumption of wine in a sample of 329 Ontario wine consumers. Cluster analysis revealed three distinct groups, representing plausible market segments: wine lovers; dry table wine likers/sweet dislikers; and sweet wine likers/fortified dislikers. These groups differ in level of wine expertise, wine adventurousness, alcohol intake, bitterness from 6- n -propylthiouracil (PROP), and several demographic variables. PROP hypo-tasters ( n =113) and PROP hyper-tasters ( n =112) differed in liking scores for nine of the 11 wine styles [ANCOVA, P (F)branding and marketing strategies.

  13. Metal Concentrations of Red Wines in Southeast Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Dumitru BORA

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Daily consumption, wine contributes to the requirements of essential elements, such as Ca, Fe, Mn, Mo, Co, Cr, K, Ni, Se and Zn for humans. However, the presence of significant amount of heavy metal in wine may harm the health of consumers. The present work is aimed at establishing the heavy metal content in red wines from Dealu Bujorului vineyard using ICP-MS method for the determination of metals content. In this study 3 red wines obtained from ‘Băbească neagră’, ‘Negru Aromat’ and ‘Burgund Mare’ cultivars were investigated. The wine samples were obtained from micro-wine production under conditions of 2014, 2015, 2016 from Dealu Bujorului vineyard. The determination of 13 elements was performed with ICP-MS. The high level of Ca (64.81-62.49 mg/L, Mg (132.61-101.44 mg/L and Fe were observed in the wine samples analysed. Heavy metals like As, Cd, U, Hg and Pb was found below acceptable limits. Concentration of Na (1 mg/L, Cu (1 mg/L, As (0.2 mg/L, Cd (0.01 mg/L, Zn (5 mg/L and Pb (0.15 mg/L metals in analysed wine samples were under Maximum Permissible Limits (MPL, respectively as published by the Organization of Vine and Wine. Calcium and magnesium were the most abundant elements in all investigated wine samples. Concentration of Na (1 mg/L, Cu (1 mg/L, As (0.2 mg/L, Cd (0.01 mg/L, Zn (5 mg/L and Pb (0.15 mg/L in analysed wine samples were under Maximum Permissible Limits (MPL, respectively as published by the Organization of Vine and Wine.

  14. Radioactive content in Portuguese wines (1951-1971)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brito, M.C.F.Q.

    1975-01-01

    In this work we describe some considerations about the importance of a wine control quality, concerning the radioactive content susceptible to enter in a human diet. Results of total beta activity measurements and determination of radionuclides such as 90 Sr, 137 Cs and Uranium and Thorium radioactive families were determined in Fundao country wines (crops from 1951 to 1968) and in recent wines from different provinces

  15. Biodiversity of wine grapes: less than we thought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinder RM

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Roger M PinderInternational Journal of Wine Research, York, UKThe Editor of the International Journal of Wine Research has had a long-standing interest in the genetics of wine grape varieties. Two publications, in particular, piqued the interest from both the scientific and consumer point of view. Cabernet Sauvignon is the offspring of a chance cross-pollination of Sauvignon Blanc and Cabernet Franc in western France several centuries ago.

  16. Oxygen contribution to phenolic evolution during aging of red wines

    OpenAIRE

    Picariello, Luigi

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Red wine aging is essentially an oxidative process mainly regulated by wine phenolic composition and storage conditions. Wines contain hydroquinones such as catechol derivatives that undergo redox reactions, reducing oxygen to hydrogen peroxide. These reaction are catalized by metals. Iron(II) species present react with hydrogen peroxide to form hydroxyl radicals in the Fenton reaction. These radicals can then react with alcohols to form aldehydes. Because ethanol is the predomina...

  17. Phenolic Compounds from Wine as Natural Preservatives of Fish Meat

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro Aredes Aredes-Fernández; María Cristina Manca de Nadra; María José Rodríguez-Vaquero

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate the antibacterial effect of phenolic compound combinations and total polyphenols of Argentinean red wine varieties against Escherichia coli ATCC 35218 and Listeria monocytogenes using commercial fish meat as model food. Rutin-quercetin combination and three wine varieties (Cabernet Sauvignon, Malbec and Merlot) caused cellular death of both bacteria on fish meat at 4 °C. Rutin-quercetin combination was effective on fish meat even at 20 °C. Clarified wine...

  18. Colloidal stability of tannins: astringency, wine tasting and beyond

    OpenAIRE

    Zanchi, D.; Poulain, C.; Konarev, P.; Tribet, C.; Svergun, D. I.

    2008-01-01

    Tannin-tannin and tannin-protein interactions in water-ethanol solvent mixtures are studied in the context of red wine tasting. While tannin self-aggregation is relevant for visual aspect of wine tasting (limpidity and related colloidal phenomena), tannin affinities for salivary proline-rich proteins is fundamental for a wide spectrum of organoleptic properties related to astringency. Tannin-tannin interactions are analyzed in water-ethanol wine-like solvents and the precipitation map is cons...

  19. Behaviour of Millenial wine consumers in southern Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Radovanović Vladimir; Petrović Jelena; Radovanović Blaga

    2017-01-01

    Consumer behaviour when purchasing wine is the result of a complementary operation of the large number of different factors, which may include economic, geographic, social, psychological, and other. Discovering consumer preferences for wine and their buying behavior would allow the application of an appropriate marketing strategy to increase the sales of wine. Special attention was given to one of the most promising new demographic segments that likes to buy – Millennial generation. The main ...

  20. Wine, Spirits and the Lung: Good, Bad or Indifferent?

    OpenAIRE

    Kamholz, Stephan L

    2006-01-01

    The putative cardiovascular risks and benefits of the ingestion of wine and alcohol-containing spirits have been well publicized; however, less attention has been focused upon the health effects of wine and spirits consumption on the respiratory system. This paper will highlight epidemiologic, clinical and experimental data on the effects of wine and distilled spirits [and the chemical components thereof] on lung function, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease progression, lung cancer risk, r...

  1. Conversion to organic wine production: exploring the economic performance impacts

    OpenAIRE

    Nisén, Pia

    2014-01-01

    This study focuses on understanding the relationship between organic wine production and economic performance. The aim of this study is to clarify, what are the economic impacts that result from the conversion of wine production from conventional to organic. This is an interesting topic to be explored in more detail because despite the increasing demand of organic wine and share of vineyard area used for organic winemaking, the economic consequences of the conversion are still somewhat unclea...

  2. Challenges in Italian wine routes: managing stakeholder networks

    OpenAIRE

    Bregoli, Ilenia; Hingley, Martin; Del Chiappa, Giacomo; Sodano, Valeria

    2016-01-01

    Purpose – The aim of this article is to analyse how wine and tourism operators understand the concept of a wine route, in order to determine the impact that definition can have on the extent to which stakeholders working within distinct, but related sectors (namely wine production, tourism, food and hospitality) collaborate with each other and share knowledge. Design/methodology/approach – By adopting the theoretical lens of “boundary objects” (understood as tangible or intangible entitie...

  3. THE CONTENT OF OCHRATOXIN A IN MOLDAVIAN WINE PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Găină

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The basic objective of this work is studying the content of ochratoxin A (OTA in grapes, grape juice, and wine. This is an analysis of their origin, the conditions of contamination and ways decontamination, toxiconogenes mushrooms, toxicity, world and European regulations. It was estimated the methods of detection of mycotoxins in wine products. It has examined the contents of OTA in the Moldavian juice/wine from different varietals at different stages of winemaking and obtained by different proceeds winemaking.

  4. The New World challenge: Performance trends in wine production in major wine-exporting countries in the 2000s and their implications for the Australian wine industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euan Fleming

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Anderson, K., Nelgen, S., 2011. Global Wine Markets, 1961 to 2009: A Statistical Compendium. University of Adelaide Press, Adelaide publication of an index of revealed comparative advantage suggests that the Australian wine industry had come under increased competition from other “New World” producers in the first decade of this century. We examine this influence by comparing the transformation of winegrapes into wine volume and value in the 11 largest wine-exporting countries during the years, 2000–2009. Our focus is on the challenge issued by other New World producers from the Southern Hemisphere to Australian producers, and the continuing challenge to Old World global supremacy by New World producers and its response. Four performance measures are used this study. Two key trends are evident. First, all countries migrated to higher price points, albeit with differing degrees of success: slightly declining productivity in transforming winegrapes into wine output was overwhelmed by price/quality effects, leading to substantial gains in transforming winegrapes into wine value. Second, New World producers plus Portugal and Spain were much more successful in achieving gains in their export value proposition than they were in extracting value in their domestic markets. Results show that Australian wine producers had lost some of their competitive advantage during the 2000s as their pre-existing strategy dominated by the export of high-volume wines by large companies at low to medium price points, and their reliance on a reputation for reliable good quality for the price point was beginning to fail in the face of competition from both New World and Old World producers. Acknowledgement of this outcome has led to a good deal of introspection, and recognition of the need to promote the wine regions of Australia, based on higher-quality wines, and to select and promote quality indicators.

  5. Nicaragua - Rice and Banana Farmers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — This report is an impact evaluation of two components of the Rural Business Development Program (RBD) in Nicaragua, specifically the components benefitting rice and...

  6. Relations between must clarification and organoleptic attributes of wine varietes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír Vietoris

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Blowdown musts is important operation performed in winemaking, which can have a major impact on the future quality of the wine. Blowdown of the wine removes components that may carry elements that negatively affect the hygienic and sensory quality of the wine. Fining of musts and wines is carried either by a static method or using different fining preparations. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of different methods of decanting on the wine quality varieties of Sauvignon. The overall sensory quality was evaluated (100 - points system, and semantic differential and the aromatic profile (profile method. All sensory evaluations were practiced by skilled sensory panel in controled conditions of Faculty sensory lab. Wine samples were clarified by static manner or with the assistance of the preparation applied to the clarification of wine in two different doses. By the results and their visualization of flavour and smell profile by spider plots we could conclude that pure cultures have positive effect on processed wine. Based on the results we found a beneficial effect of clearing by the clarification of the preparation based on cellulose, polyvinylpolypyrrolidone, gelatin and mineral adsorbents at 100 g.100 L-1  of the sensory quality of the wine.

  7. Wine, spirits and the lung: good, bad or indifferent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamholz, Stephan L

    2006-01-01

    The putative cardiovascular risks and benefits of the ingestion of wine and alcohol-containing spirits have been well publicized; however, less attention has been focused upon the health effects of wine and spirits consumption on the respiratory system. This paper will highlight epidemiologic, clinical and experimental data on the effects of wine and distilled spirits [and the chemical components thereof] on lung function, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease progression, lung cancer risk, risk of developing acute respiratory distress syndrome, high altitude pulmonary edema and wine [sulfite] associated asthma. Several studies have demonstrated a positive [beneficial] effect of light-to-moderate wine consumption on pulmonary function, while chronic ingestion of distilled spirits may have either no effect, or a negative effect. Studies in Scandinavia, Europe and South America have suggested a possible protective effect of wine ingestion against lung cancer, especially adenocarcinoma. Resveratrol [3,5,4'-trihydroxystilbene] a polyphenolic compound found in red wine, has anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and estrogen agonist effects and may be responsible for some of the health benefits of wine. The spectrum of potentially beneficial clinical effects of resveratrol and other wine-derived compounds is discussed.

  8. Wine quality, reputation, denominations: How cooperatives and private wineries compete?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schamel Guenter H.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyze how cooperatives in Northern Italy (Alto Adige and Trentino compete with private wineries regarding product quality and reputation, i.e. if firm organization affects wine quality and winery reputation. Moreover, we examine if cooperatives with deep roots in their local economy specialize in specific regional denomination rules (i.e. DOC, IGT. Compared to private wineries, cooperatives face additional challenges in order to raise wine quality, among them appropriate incentives that induce individual growers to supply high quality grapes (e.g. vineyard management and grape pricing schemes to lower yields. The quality reputation of a winery with consumers depends crucially on its winemaking skills. Wine regions differ with respect to climatic conditions and quality denomination rules. Assuming similar climatic conditions within wine regions as well as winemaking skills between firms, incentive schemes to induce individual growers to supply high quality grapes and quality denomination rules remain crucial determinants of wine quality and winery reputation when comparing different regions and firm organizational forms. The data set analyzed allows differentiating local cooperatives vs. private wineries and denotes retail prices, wine quality evaluations, indicators for winery reputation, and distinct denomination rules. We employ a hedonic pricing model in order to test the following hypothesis: First, wines produced by cooperatives suffer a significant reputation and/or wine quality discount relative to wines from private producers. Second, cooperatives and/or private wineries specialize in specific wine denominations for which they receive a price premium relative the competing organizational form. Our results are mixed. However, we reject the hypothesis that cooperatives suffer a reputation/wine quality discount relative to private producers for the Alto Adige wine region. Moreover, we find that regional cooperatives and private

  9. Wine and culinary tourism: Preferences of experiential consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schamel Guenter H.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We explore the key components of consumer demand for the development of a successful wine and culinary tourism segment. In particular, we investigate the demand preferences that are important to consumers interested in a wine and culinary related hotel stay in South Tyrol. Conceptually, we utilize the 4E-Model of experiential consumption by Pine & Gilmore [1, 2] and propose that the four realms of an experience (i.e., entertainment, education, escapist, and aesthetic relate to the principal components of consumer preferences. We survey potential tourists to gain a better understanding of their demand preferences for culinary and wine related hotel stays. Using an exploratory factor analysis, we identify the principal components of consumer demand preferences. The most preferred demand feature of a culinary wine experience relates to informative entertainment. The second feature relates to social-cultural activities that are educating. The third are escapist wine and food-specific activities and the forth relates to the aesthetics of accommodation traits and style in the culinary and wine domain. Moreover, we study the current supply attributes of wine and culinary related hotel offer in South Tyrol and their pricing using a hedonic model. Attributes that provide an entertainment experience form the basis of any offer in the wine and culinary domain. Attributes that provide an educational experience are highly relevant and add will a significant price premium. Matching demand preferences and supply conditions is crucial in developing a successful culinary and wine related tourism segment.

  10. Antioxidant capacity of plasma after red wine intake in Human

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gianmmanco

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Antioxidant effects after consumption of red wine have been investigated in several studies but results are contradictory and the difference in the plasma antioxidant capacity (AC after intake of red wine between women and men has never been studies. This work purpose is manifold: to ascertain whether red wine intake modifies the human plasma AC; to study the behaviour of plasma AC of women in comparison with men and finally to investigate on the plasma uric acid concentration and its relationships with the plasma AC after red wine intake.

  11. Chemical Assessment of White Wine during Fermentation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodora Coldea

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available There were investigated chemical properties of indigenous white wine varieties (Fetească albă, Fetească regală and Galbenă de Odobeşti during fermentation. The white wine making process took place at Wine Pilot Station of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca. We aimed to monitorize the evolution of fermentation process parameters (temperature, alcohol content, and real extract and the quality of the bottled white wine (total acidity, alcohol content, total sulfur dioxide, total dry extract. The results obtained were in accordance to Romanian Legislation.

  12. Application of insoluble fibers in the fining of wine phenolics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Raúl F; Smith, Paul; Bindon, Keren A

    2013-05-08

    The application of animal-derived proteins as wine fining agents has been subject to increased regulation in recent years. As an alternative to protein-based fining agents, insoluble plant-derived fibers have the capacity to adsorb red wine tannins. Changes in red wine tannin were analyzed following application of fibers derived from apple and grape and protein-based fining agents. Other changes in wine composition, namely, color, monomeric phenolics, metals, and turbidity, were also determined. Wine tannin was maximally reduced by application of an apple pomace fiber and a grape pomace fiber (G4), removing 42 and 38%, respectively. Potassium caseinate maximally removed 19% of wine tannin, although applied at a lower dose. Fibers reduced anthocyanins, total phenolics, and wine color density, but changes in wine hue were minor. Proteins and apple fiber selectively removed high molecular mass phenolics, whereas grape fibers removed those of both high and low molecular mass. The results show that insoluble fibers may be considered as alternative fining agents for red wines.

  13. Micro-oxygenation of red wine: techniques, applications, and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidtke, Leigh M; Clark, Andrew C; Scollary, Geoff R

    2011-02-01

    Wine micro-oxygenation (MOX) is the controlled addition of oxygen to wine in a manner designed to ensure that complete mass transfer of molecular oxygen from gaseous to dissolved state occurs. MOX was initially developed to improve the body, structure, and fruitfulness in red wines with high concentrations of tannins and anthocyanins, by replicating the ingress of oxygen thought to arise from barrel maturation, but without the need for putting all wine to barrel. This review describes the operational parameters essential for the effective performance of the micro-oxidation process as well as the chemical and microbiological outcomes. The methodologies for introducing oxygen into the wine, the rates of oxygen addition, and their relationship to oxygen solubility in the wine matrix are examined. The review focuses on the techniques used for monitoring the MOX process, including sensory assessment, physicochemical properties, and the critical balance of the rate of oxygen addition in relation to maintaining the sulfur dioxide concentration. The chemistry of oxygen reactivity with wine components, the changes in wine composition that occur as a consequence of MOX, and the potential for wine spoilage if proper monitoring is not adopted are examined. Gaps in existing knowledge are addressed focusing on the limitations associated with the transfer of concepts from research trials in small volume tanks to commercial practice, and the dearth of kinetic data for the various chemical and physical processes that are claimed to occur during MOX.

  14. APPLICATION OF USABILITY CONCEPTS IN WINE MARKETING: A MULTIDISCIPLINARY REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălina CHIVU-DRAGHIA

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Various studies have shown that the wine consumption decline in young generation could be influenced by the perception of wine as intimidating and difficult to understand, and by the lack of adaptability of the product’s communication strategy and packaging design to their lifestyle. Information available on the packaging is often complex and confusing for novice wine consumers and sometimes even irrelevant in regards to the intrinsic characteristics of the product. Furthermore, wine is seen by young adult consumers as old fashion, formal and mostly not associated with their relaxed attitude and “on the move” lifestyle. The objective of this paper is to analyse the usability key principles and heuristic and their applicability in wine marketing as a mean to improve the perception and increase understanding of wine for the young and/or novice consumers. The paper aims to review the existing knowledge and findings about the concept of usability (with special emphasis on Usability Engineering and Human Computer Interaction (HCI, in order to explore the aspects applicable in wine marketing. The usability concept proves useful in wine marketing to simplify the decision process, to make the meeting with the product less intimidating and more engaging, and to decrease the risk perception for the inexperienced wine consumers.

  15. Exogenous CO2 in South American sparkling wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardelli Susiane

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The sparkling wine production and consumption have increased significantly in the last years. With the increased demand appear the necessity to check the sparkling wine authenticity, because the practice of adding CO2 in sparkling wine is not allow. A way to control the carbonation process is through the determination of CO2 δ13C, because the sugar added during the second fermentation define the CO2 isotopic value, according to elaboration process. For this reason, the aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between values of δ13C from still wines and sparkling wines, in order to set up limit values to exogenous carbonation control. Thirty-eight still wines elaborated by microvinification and 59 samples of commercial sparkling wines were analyzed, using an isotope ratio mass spectrometer (IRMS. The most negative value of natural δ13C from still wine found was − 24.7‰, it can be to estimate that lowest values are an indicative of industrial CO2 addition. Among the commercial sparkling wine from South America evaluated in this study, 10% from the samples showed signs of carbonation. Through this research was possible to establish limits of isotopic values to determine the presence of exogenous CO2.

  16. Spoilage potential of brettanomyces bruxellensis strains isolated from Italian wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzzon, Raffaele; Larcher, Roberto; Guarcello, Rosa; Francesca, Nicola; Settanni, Luca; Moschetti, Giancarlo

    2018-03-01

    Brettanomyces bruxellensis is an important wine spoilage agent. In this study a population of Brettanomyces strains isolated from Italian wines was thoroughly investigated to evaluate adaptability to wine conditions and spoilage potential. The presumptive isolates of Brettanomyces were identified at species level with 26S rRNA gene sequencing and species-specific PCR, and subsequently subjected to analysis of intra-species variability through the study of intron splice sites (ISS-PCR). Although, some strains were tracked in wines from different regions, extensive genetic biodiversity was observed within the B. bruxellensis population investigated. All strains were evaluated for their growth ability in the presence of ethanol, high sugar content, low pH, different temperatures and sulphur dioxide, using optical density and flow cytometry measurement. The ability of yeasts to produce ethyl phenols in red wines with different chemical compositions was evaluated by means of high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection (HPLC-ECD). The results highlighted wide variability in B. bruxellensis in response to wine limiting factors and in terms of the accumulation of ethyl phenols. As regards this last aspect, the differences found among strains were closely related to chemical composition of wine and strain resistance to environmental stress factors, making a priori evaluation of risk of wine alteration quite difficult. These results suggest that strategies for the control of Brettanomyces should be tailored on the basis of strain distribution and wine characteristics. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. What drives Greek consumer preferences for cask wine?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chrysochou, Polymeros; Corsi, A. M.; Krystallis Krontalis, Athanasios

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – Cask wine (bag-in-box, soft pack) has not received considerable attention in wine marketing research, but interest among winemakers and consumers has been increasing steadily. However, little is known about what drives consumer preferences for cask wine and, furthermore, what the profile...... a sustainable eco-friendly positioning. Originality/value – This study contributes to the understanding of what drives consumers’ preferences for cask wine, something that few studies have done until now. Moreover, this is the first study to use the BWS method for this type of product....

  18. Plastic optical fibre sensor for Madeira wine monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novo, C.; Bilro, L.; Alberto, N.; Antunes, P.; Nogueira, R.; Pinto, J. L.

    2014-08-01

    Madeira wine is a fortified wine produced in Madeira Island, Portugal. Its characteristics are strongly influenced by the winemaking method used which includes a typical and unique step called estufagem. This process consists on heating the wine up to 55 ºC for at least 3 months. In this paper, the characterization of the sensor for the pilot scale facility of estufagem installed in Madeira University is presented, being the device an optimization of a previous version. The response of the sensor was tested towards colour and refractive index, showing a good performance. Madeira wine with different estufagem times was also analysed.

  19. Global Wine Markets, 1961 to 2009: A statistical compendium

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Kym; Nelgen, Signe

    2011-01-01

    Until very recently, most grape-based wine was consumed close to where it was produced, and mostly that was in Europe. Barely one-tenth of the world’s wine production was exported prior to the 1970s, even counting intra-European trade. The latest wave of globalization has changed that forever. Now more than one-third of all wine consumed globally is produced in another country, and Europe’s dominance of global wine trade has been greatly diminished by the surge of exports from ‘New World’ pro...

  20. Singlet Oxygen Detection Using Red Wine Extracts as Photosensitizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagunes, Irene; Vázquez-Ortega, Fernanda; Trigos, Ángel

    2017-09-01

    Moderate consumption of red wine provides beneficial effects to health. This is attributed to polyphenol compounds present in wine such as resveratrol, quercetin, gallic acid, rutin, and vanillic acid. The amount of these antioxidants is variable; nevertheless, the main beneficial effects of red wine are attributed to resveratrol. However, it has been found that resveratrol and quercetin are able to photosensitize singlet oxygen generation and conversely, gallic acid acts as quencher. Therefore, and since resveratrol and quercetin are some of the most important antioxidants reported in red wines, the aim of this research was to evaluate the photosensitizing ability of 12 red wine extracts through photo-oxidation of ergosterol. The presence of 1 O 2 was detected by ergosterol conversion into peroxide of ergosterol through 1 H NMR analysis. Our results showed that 10 wine extracts were able to act as photosensitizers in the generation of singlet oxygen. The presence of 1 O 2 can damage other compounds of red wine and cause possible organoleptic alterations. Finally, although the reaction conditions employed in this research do not resemble the inherent conditions in wine making processing or storing, or even during its consumption, this knowledge could be useful to prevent possible pro-oxidant effects and avoid detrimental effects in red wines. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  1. Brettanomyces bruxellensis yeasts: impact on wine and winemaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnolucci, Monica; Tirelli, Antonio; Cocolin, Luca; Toffanin, Annita

    2017-09-21

    Yeasts belonging to the Brettanomyces/Dekkera genus are non-conventional yeasts, which affect winemaking by causing wine spoilage all over the world. This mini-review focuses on recent results concerning the presence of Brettanomyces bruxellensis throughout the wine processing chain. Here, culture-dependent and independent methods to detect this yeast on grapes and at the very early stage of wine production are encompassed. Chemical, physical and biological tools, devised for the prevention and control of such a detrimental species during winemaking are also presented. Finally, the mini-review identifies future research areas relevant to the improvement of wine safety and sensory profiles.

  2. Analytical techniques for wine analysis: An African perspective; a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villiers, André de; Alberts, Phillipus; Tredoux, Andreas G.J.; Nieuwoudt, Hélène H.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Analytical techniques developed for grape and wine analysis in Africa are reviewed. ► The utility of infrared spectroscopic methods is demonstrated. ► An overview of separation of wine constituents by GC, HPLC, CE is presented. ► Novel LC and GC sample preparation methods for LC and GC are presented. ► Emerging methods for grape and wine analysis in Africa are discussed. - Abstract: Analytical chemistry is playing an ever-increasingly important role in the global wine industry. Chemical analysis of wine is essential in ensuring product safety and conformity to regulatory laws governing the international market, as well as understanding the fundamental aspects of grape and wine production to improve manufacturing processes. Within this field, advanced instrumental analysis methods have been exploited more extensively in recent years. Important advances in instrumental analytical techniques have also found application in the wine industry. This review aims to highlight the most important developments in the field of instrumental wine and grape analysis in the African context. The focus of this overview is specifically on the application of advanced instrumental techniques, including spectroscopic and chromatographic methods. Recent developments in wine and grape analysis and their application in the African context are highlighted, and future trends are discussed in terms of their potential contribution to the industry.

  3. Potential and risks in the Romanian wine industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana BĂRBULESCU1

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The present descriptive paper presents some historical, geographical and institutional landmarks of the Romanian wine sector. It offers a brief analysis of the Romanian vineyard production evolution and of the national wine market conjuncture, taking into account the global context, which allows to outline Romania's place on the world wine map. Wine promotion on foreign markets must be done emphasizing indigenous varieties, that is why knowing them is essential. Highlighting the progress made by Romanian winemakers, the difficulties they face and the opportunities in the market allow us to draw conclusions which open horizons for extensive research in this industry.

  4. Analytical techniques for wine analysis: An African perspective; a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villiers, Andre de, E-mail: ajdevill@sun.ac.za [Department of Chemistry and Polymer Science, Stellenbosch University, Private Bag X1, Matieland 7602, Stellenbosch (South Africa); Alberts, Phillipus [Department of Chemistry and Polymer Science, Stellenbosch University, Private Bag X1, Matieland 7602, Stellenbosch (South Africa); Tredoux, Andreas G.J.; Nieuwoudt, Helene H. [Institute for Wine Biotechnology, Department of Viticulture and Oenology, Stellenbosch University, Private Bag X1, Matieland 7602, Stellenbosch (South Africa)

    2012-06-12

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Analytical techniques developed for grape and wine analysis in Africa are reviewed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The utility of infrared spectroscopic methods is demonstrated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An overview of separation of wine constituents by GC, HPLC, CE is presented. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Novel LC and GC sample preparation methods for LC and GC are presented. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Emerging methods for grape and wine analysis in Africa are discussed. - Abstract: Analytical chemistry is playing an ever-increasingly important role in the global wine industry. Chemical analysis of wine is essential in ensuring product safety and conformity to regulatory laws governing the international market, as well as understanding the fundamental aspects of grape and wine production to improve manufacturing processes. Within this field, advanced instrumental analysis methods have been exploited more extensively in recent years. Important advances in instrumental analytical techniques have also found application in the wine industry. This review aims to highlight the most important developments in the field of instrumental wine and grape analysis in the African context. The focus of this overview is specifically on the application of advanced instrumental techniques, including spectroscopic and chromatographic methods. Recent developments in wine and grape analysis and their application in the African context are highlighted, and future trends are discussed in terms of their potential contribution to the industry.

  5. Sorghum and rice: Mali

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Agriculture is the mainstay of the Malian economy and yet cereal imports absorb 6.5% of GDP. Food self-sufficiency is therefore a national priority. The Joint FAO/IAEA Division is supporting a programme to improve local varieties of sorghum and rice by using nuclear techniques to develop new cultivars that will produce higher yields under Mali's semi-arid climatic conditions. (IAEA)

  6. Diversity of some endophytic fungi associated with rice black bug Paraeucosmetus pallicornis on rice plant

    OpenAIRE

    Nur, Amin; La Daha; Nurariaty, Agus; Ade, Rosmana; Muh., Fadlan

    2015-01-01

    A new rice insect pest was sighted in some rice producing areas of South Sulawesi Province, Indonesia. This pest is rice black bugs Paraeucosmetus pallicornis. The research aimed to isolation of fungi associated with rice black bugs Paraeucosmetus pallicornis, so as to know the cause of a bitter taste to the rice. The isolation of the fungi consist of three kinds of treatment, namely rice black bugs without sterilization, with sterilization and rice black bugs cut and sterilized. The resul...

  7. Wine and Cardiovascular Health: A Comprehensive Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haseeb, Sohaib; Alexander, Bryce; Baranchuk, Adrian

    2017-10-10

    Alcoholic beverages have been consumed for thousands of years, attracting great human interest for social, personal, and religious occasions. In addition, they have long been debated to confer cardioprotective benefits. The French Paradox is an observation of a low prevalence of ischemic heart disease, with high intakes of saturated fat, a phenomenon accredited to the consumption of red wine. Although many epidemiological investigations have supported this view, others have attributed it to beer or spirits, with many suggesting that the drink type is not important. Although excessive consumption of alcoholic beverages is commonly regarded to be detrimental to cardiovascular health, there is a debate as to whether light-to-moderate intake is cardioprotective. Although there is extensive epidemiological support for this drinking pattern, a consensus has not been reached. On the basis of published work, we describe the composition of wine and the effects of constituent polyphenols on chronic cardiovascular diseases. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  8. Red wine: A drink to your heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, T.S. Mohamed; Basha, S. Darbar

    2010-01-01

    Mortality and morbidity are still high in cardiovascular disease (CVD). Myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury leading to myocardial infarction is one of the most frequent causes of the death in humans. Atherosclerosis and generation of reactive oxygen species through oxidative stress is the major risk factor for CVD. From the literature collection, it has been identified that moderate consumption of red wine helps in preventing CVD through several mechanisms, including increasing the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol plasma levels, decreasing platelet aggregation, by antioxidant effects, and by restoration of endothelial function. The aim of this review is to discuss the accumulating evidence that suggests that red wine possesses a diverse range of biological actions and may be beneficial in the prevention of CVD. PMID:21264180

  9. Ravintolaelämys : case Wine & View

    OpenAIRE

    Piirainen, Anu

    2010-01-01

    Tämä opinnäytetyö käsittelee ravintolaelämystä ja sen syntyyn vaikuttavia tekijöitä. Työn toimeksiantaja on Wine & view viinibaari Helsinki-Vantaan lentoasemalla. Wine & view viinibaari on osa SSP Finland Oy:n ravintolatarjontaa lentoasemalla. Opinnäytetyön teoriaosuudessa selvitetään elämystä yhteiskunnan, asiakaspalveluyrityksen ja asiakkaan näkökulmasta. Lisäksi teoriaosuudessa lähestytään aihetta kuluttajakäyttäytymisen näkökulmasta. Työn empiirisessä osuudessa haetaan asiakkaiden hav...

  10. An assessment of the effects of wine volatiles on the perception of taste and astringency in wine

    OpenAIRE

    Sáenz-Navajas, María-Pilar; Campo, Eva; Fernández-Zurbano, Purificación; Valentin, Dominique

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this work is measuring the effect of different volatile extract compositions on the perception of taste, astringency, global intensity and persistence of wine. Six Spanish wines, two from Chardonnay and four from Tempranillo grapes, all of them showing different chemical and sensory characteristics, were selected. Wines were separated into volatile and non-volatile fractions by solid phase extraction and lyophilisation and further liquid extraction, respectively. Eighteen "re...

  11. Application of Wine Pomace seeds as finning agent during production of red wines and its effects over colour parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    m Hatice Kalkan Yıldırı

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available During production of wines are used different fining agents with animal origin for preventing later presipitation and reducing harshenss of wines. Even these positive properties they may cause some allergic reactions in consumers with allergic predispositons. Due to health concern wine pomace seeds could be a new alternative as fining agent with plant origin. In this study were evaluated preliminary effects of seeds over wine qulity expecially wine colour. As the next stage will be considered thier health effects. Grapes of Vitis vinifera L. cvs. “Cabernet Sauvignon” were manually harvested at optimum maturity (25∘Brix and transported to the Experimental Winery at the Department of Food Engineering, Ege University, Izmir, Turkey. Wine production were done according to the accepted wine production procedures with exeption of SO2 (it was not added. Obtained grape seeds flour (drying and milling were used as fining agent with different values (2/4/6/8/10 gram/100 ml. In all wines basic wine chemical parameters and some spesific colour parameters were determined %D280, %D420, %D520, %D620, CD: Colour density, CI: Colour intensity, T: Tint value, dA %: Proportion of red colour produced by flavylium cations , %Y: Proportion of yellow colour, % R: Proportion of red colour and % B: Proportion of blue colour. The results demonstrated the possibility of using wine pomace grape seeds as fining agent. Concidering colour parametrs of obtianed wines the best results were deterrmined with 8 g/100 ml application. Futher studies are needed in order to evaluate other wine parameters.

  12. Context and wine quality effects on consumers' mood, emotions, liking and willingness to pay for Australian Shiraz wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danner, Lukas; Ristic, Renata; Johnson, Trent E; Meiselman, Herbert L; Hoek, Annet C; Jeffery, David W; Bastian, Susan E P

    2016-11-01

    This study investigated the effect of different contexts on consumers' mood, product-evoked emotions, liking and willingness to pay for wine. Three consumer trials (n=114, 115, and 120) examined 3 different sample sets of 4 Australian commercial Shiraz wines. Each sample set was comprised of a high, medium-high, medium-low and low quality wine as designated by an expert panel. Wine consumers evaluated the same set of wines in the three different contexts, ranging from a highly-controlled laboratory setting to more realistic restaurant and at-home settings. Results showed that high quality wines were liked more and elicited more intense emotions of positive valence compared to wines of lower quality. Context effects were observed on emotions, but not on liking, indicating that although emotions and liking are correlated, the measurement of emotions can deliver additional information over liking. Tasting wine in the restaurant context evoked more intense positive emotions compared to the home and laboratory contexts. Participants' mood before tasting the wines had a strong influence on consecutive product-evoked emotion ratings, but only weak influence on liking ratings. Furthermore, a strong relationship between wine-evoked emotions and willingness to pay was observed, showing that if a wine-evoked more intense emotion of positive valence e.g., contented, enthusiastic, happy, optimistic and passionate participants were willing to pay significantly more for a bottle. Additionally, the absence of negative emotions, even if typically evoked to a very weak extent, is a requirement for an increased willingness to pay. This study indicates it is worthwhile to consider context and emotions in wine testing and marketing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Red wine: A drink to your heart

    OpenAIRE

    Saleem, T.S. Mohamed; Basha, S. Darbar

    2010-01-01

    Mortality and morbidity are still high in cardiovascular disease (CVD). Myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury leading to myocardial infarction is one of the most frequent causes of the death in humans. Atherosclerosis and generation of reactive oxygen species through oxidative stress is the major risk factor for CVD. From the literature collection, it has been identified that moderate consumption of red wine helps in preventing CVD through several mechanisms, including increasing the high-de...

  14. Red Wine Polyphenols and Vascular Function

    OpenAIRE

    Botden, Ilse

    2012-01-01

    textabstractHippocrates, the father of modern medicine, said many centuries ago: “let food be your medicine.” Today, this quote still shows its value, amongst others by the !nding that red wine consumption attributes to a healthy life style, reducing the risk to develop cardiovascular diseases. Cardiovascular diseases are one of the leading causes of death in many economically developed countries as well as in emerging economies.1 It has become a global epidemic problem, with type 2 diabetes,...

  15. Red Wine Polyphenols for Cancer Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    He, Shan; Sun, Cuirong; Pan, Yuanjiang

    2008-01-01

    Conventional cancer therapies, the second leading cause of death worldwide, result in serious side effects and, at best, merely extend the patient's lifespan by a few years. Searching for effective prevention is of high priority in both basic and clinical sciences. In recent decades natural products have been considered to be an important source of cancer chemopreventive agents. Red wine polyphenols, which consisted of various powerful antioxidants such as flavonoids and stilbenes, have been ...

  16. Laser Treatment of Port Wine Stains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majaron, Boris; Nelson, J. Stuart

    Port wine stain (PWS), also called nevus flammeus, is a congenital, cutaneous vascular malformation involving post-capillary venules which produce a light pink to red to dark-red-violet discoloration of human skin [1]. PWS occurs in an estimated 3 children per 1000 live births, affecting males and females and all racial groups equally [2]. There appears to be no hereditary predilection for PWS within families. There are no known risk factors or ways to prevent PWS.

  17. Spanish wines in the US market: What attributes do US consumers look for in Spanish wines?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Areta, A.; Bardají, I.; Iráizoz, B.

    2017-07-01

    This paper analysed the impact of different attributes in Spanish quality wines on United States (US) demand behaviour. A hedonic price model was estimated in order to assess the values that US consumers give Spanish wines. The main results showed that the most influential factor on sale price was aging, which had a positive impact. US consumers valued the quality ratings provided by experts, especially in the upper price categories. The year of vintage and size of the winery were considered medium importance factors in decision-making, with the latest vintages and the smallest wineries receiving the highest ratings. Geographical origin (appellation) helped to explain consumer preferences. Although colour was the least important attribute in consumers’ purchase decisions, red wines were the most highly rated in this attribute.

  18. Spanish wines in the US market: What attributes do US consumers look for in Spanish wines?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Areta, A.; Bardají, I.; Iráizoz, B.

    2017-01-01

    This paper analysed the impact of different attributes in Spanish quality wines on United States (US) demand behaviour. A hedonic price model was estimated in order to assess the values that US consumers give Spanish wines. The main results showed that the most influential factor on sale price was aging, which had a positive impact. US consumers valued the quality ratings provided by experts, especially in the upper price categories. The year of vintage and size of the winery were considered medium importance factors in decision-making, with the latest vintages and the smallest wineries receiving the highest ratings. Geographical origin (appellation) helped to explain consumer preferences. Although colour was the least important attribute in consumers’ purchase decisions, red wines were the most highly rated in this attribute.

  19. Aroma Precursors in Grapes and Wine: Flavor Release during Wine Production and Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Mango; Capone, Dimitra L; Francis, I Leigh; Herderich, Markus J

    2018-03-14

    Pioneering investigations into precursors of fruity and floral flavors established the importance of terpenoid and C 13 -norisoprenoid glycosides to the flavor of aromatic wines. Nowadays flavor precursors in grapes and wine are known to be structurally diverse, encompassing glycosides, amino acid conjugates, odorless volatiles, hydroxycinnamic acids, and many others. Flavor precursors mainly originate in the grape berry but also from oak or other materials involved in winemaking. Flavors are released from precursors during crushing and subsequent production steps by enzymatic and nonenzymatic transformations, via microbial glycosidases, esterases, C-S lyases, and decarboxylases, and through acid-catalyzed hydrolysis and chemical rearrangements. Flavors can also be liberated from glycosides and amino acid conjugates by oral microbiota. Hence, it is increasingly likely that flavor precursors contribute to retronasal aroma formation through in-mouth release during consumption, prompting a shift in focus from identifying aroma precursors in grapes to understanding aroma precursors present in bottled wine.

  20. Broken rice kernels and the kinetics of rice hydration and texture during cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Mohammed; Meullenet, Jean-Francois

    2013-05-01

    During rice milling and processing, broken kernels are inevitably present, although to date it has been unclear as to how the presence of broken kernels affects rice hydration and cooked rice texture. Therefore, this work intended to study the effect of broken kernels in a rice sample on rice hydration and texture during cooking. Two medium-grain and two long-grain rice cultivars were harvested, dried and milled, and the broken kernels were separated from unbroken kernels. Broken rice kernels were subsequently combined with unbroken rice kernels forming treatments of 0, 40, 150, 350 or 1000 g kg(-1) broken kernels ratio. Rice samples were then cooked and the moisture content of the cooked rice, the moisture uptake rate, and rice hardness and stickiness were measured. As the amount of broken rice kernels increased, rice sample texture became increasingly softer (P hardness was negatively correlated to the percentage of broken kernels in rice samples. Differences in the proportions of broken rice in a milled rice sample play a major role in determining the texture properties of cooked rice. Variations in the moisture migration kinetics between broken and unbroken kernels caused faster hydration of the cores of broken rice kernels, with greater starch leach-out during cooking affecting the texture of the cooked rice. The texture of cooked rice can be controlled, to some extent, by varying the proportion of broken kernels in milled rice. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Alcohol, red wine and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollin, S D; Jones, P J

    2001-05-01

    The objective of this article is to review the existing literature concerning the effects and mechanisms of action of red wine consumption vs. other alcoholic beverages on the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Of particular interest is the form and quantity of alcohol consumed. This relationship between alcohol consumption and mortality is well supported by epidemiologic studies, which have suggested that different forms of alcohol alter the relative risk values for mortality from CVD. Although not without exception, current evidence from epidemiologic and experimental studies suggests a protective effect against the development of CVD with moderate consumption of red wine. The exact nature of the protective effect remains to be established. However, mechanisms including LDL oxidation and alterations in hemostatic variables are being increasingly recognized as contributory. Key components of red wine thought to be responsible for the protective effects include phenolic compounds and alcohol content. Despite the research presented, some questions relating to the current recommendations regarding moderate alcohol consumption and cardiovascular health remain. However, collectively, the literature aids in understanding some of the ways in which alcoholic beverages and their components affect the health of our population.

  2. Volatile phenolics in Teran PTP red wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena BAŠA ČESNIK

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The volatile phenolics, 4-ethylphenol, 4-vinylphenol, 4-ethylguaiacol and 4-vinylguaiacol were quantified in Teran PTP wines that were produced in the Kras winegrowing district. The compounds were determined by using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry after extraction with diethylether. Three years monitoring (2011, 2012, 2013 vintages showed that all four undesirable compounds were identified in Teran PTP wines, however their content did not influence significantly the sensory characteristics of the wine. The average contents gained over the three-year period (2011-2013; n=82 were 153±193 µg L-1 for 4-ethylphenol, 1265±682 µg L-1 for 4-vinylphenol, 69±94 µg L-1 for 4-ethylguaiacol and 128±106 µg L-1 for 4-vinylguaiacol. 7.3 % of samples showed contents of 4-ethylphenol above the odour threshold values. For 4-vinylphenol, 4-ethylguaiacol and 4-vinylguaiacol that percentage was 98.8 %, 25.6 % and 91.5 %, respectively.

  3. Statistical modelling of fine red wine production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Rosa Castro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Producing wine is a very important economic activity in the province of San Juan in Argentina; it is therefore most important to predict production regarding the quantity of raw material needed. This work was aimed at obtaining a model relating kilograms of crushed grape to the litres of wine so produced. Such model will be used for predicting precise future values and confidence intervals for determined quantities of crushed grapes. Data from a vineyard in the province of San Juan was thus used in this work. The sampling coefficient of correlation was calculated and a dispersion diagram was then constructed; this indicated a li- neal relationship between the litres of wine obtained and the kilograms of crushed grape. Two lineal models were then adopted and variance analysis was carried out because the data came from normal populations having the same variance. The most appropriate model was obtained from this analysis; it was validated with experimental values, a good approach being obtained.

  4. Self-reported consumption of wine and other alcoholic beverages in a German wine area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fronk P

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Petra Fronk,1 Maria Blettner,2 Heinz Decker1 1Institute for Molecular Biophysics, Johannes Gutenberg University of Mainz, Mainz, Germany; 2Institute for Medical Biostatistics, Epidemiology and Informatics, Johannes Gutenberg University of Mainz, Mainz, Germany Purpose: To describe the consumption of alcoholic beverages in a German wine area, with special attention to the number of people drinking more than the tolerable upper alcohol intake level (TUAL. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted using a mailed questionnaire, to investigate the weekly consumption of wine, beer, and spirits during the preceding 12 months in Mainz, the state capital of Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. The analysis included 948 responders aged 20–69 years. Results: A total of 948 respondents, with a mean age of 43.7 years, were included in the analysis. About 85% of the respondents consumed alcoholic beverages, with an average of about 13.5 g alcohol/day. Men drank about twice as much as women. In total, 30% of women and 24% of men reported drinking more than the TUAL, and 9.2% of women and 7.2% of men reported drinking more than twice as much as the TUAL. The highest proportion of persons drinking more than the TUAL was found among elderly people. The preferred beverage was wine, which contributed 74% (for women and 54% (for men to the total alcohol intake. On average, the respondents drank 2.8 glasses of wine per week, 1.4 bottles beer, and negligible amounts of spirits. Conclusion: Wine was the preferred alcoholic beverage in Mainz, which was expected for people living in a wine area. A rather large number of people, especially among the elderly, consumed alcohol in an amount higher than the TUAL which may be harmful to health. Keywords: beer, spirits, TUAL, Mainz

  5. Influence of biological, experiential and psychological factors in wine preference segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, Gary J; Hayes, John E

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims We sought to determine the influence of selected biological, experiential and psychological variables on self-reported liking and consumption of wine in a sample of 329 Ontario wine consumers. Methods and Results Cluster analysis revealed three distinct groups, representing plausible market segments: wine lovers; dry table wine likers/sweet dislikers; and sweet wine likers/fortified dislikers. These groups differ in level of wine expertise, wine adventurousness, alcohol intake, bitterness from 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP), and several demographic variables. PROP hypo-tasters (n=113) and PROP hyper-tasters (n=112) differed in liking scores for nine of the 11 wine styles [ANCOVA, P(F)variables examined. Taste phenotype also contributes significantly to variation in wine liking. Significance of the Study Ontario wine consumers fall into one of three wine liking clusters, which differ in experiential, biological, psychological and demographic features that can be targeted through branding and marketing strategies. PMID:28579910

  6. The Haitian Rice Tariff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mats Lundahl

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Se ha argumentado que los problemas agríco-las de Haití derivan de la tarifa del arroz de a mediados de los años noventa. Antes, supues-tamente, Haití fue autosuficiente, abastecida por su producción doméstica. Después de la reducción, el mercado haitiano se inundó en importaciones de arroz barato de los EEUU, lo cual despojó a los campesinos de sus fincas, convirtiendolos en migrantes internos, hacia los empleos de bajo pago de las ciudades. El artículo rechaza ese argumento y demuestra que es falso. La malnutrición fue un fenómeno extendido en Haití mucho antes de la reducción de la tarifa del arroz, la cual tampoco tuvo un gran impacto en la importación y la producción doméstica del arroz. Lo que sí impulsó el aumento de las importaciones fue el crecimiento de la población. También el artículo argumenta que un aumento de la tarifa del arroz no solucionará el problema de la alimentación que sufre Haití. English: It has been argued that Haiti’s agricultural problems derive from the reduction of the rice tariff in the mid-1990s. Before that Haiti was allegedly able to meet its food needs by domestic production. After the reduction the Haitian market was swamped by imports of cheap American rice which drove the farmers off their lands and forced them to migrate to low-wage industrial jobs in the cities. The article demonstrates that the argument is false. Malnutrition was widespread in Haiti long before the rice tariff reduction, and the latter did not have much of an impact on rice imports and domestic production. Instead, the main driving force behind imports appears to be population growth. It is also shown that an increase of the rice tariff will not solve Haiti’s food problem.

  7. [Amperometric biosensor for ethanol analysis in wines and grape must during wine fermentation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shkotova, L V; Slast'ia, E A; Zhyliakova, T A; Soldatkin, O P; Schuhmann, W; Dziadevych, S V

    2005-01-01

    The amperometric biosensor for ethanol determination based on alcohol oxidase immobilised by the method of electrochemical polymerization has been developed. The industrial screen-printed platinum electrodes were used as transducers for creation of amperometric alcohol biosensor. Optimal conditions for electrochemical deposition of an active membrane with alcohol oxidase has been determined. Biosensors are characterised by good reproducibility and operational stability with minimal detection limit of ethanol 8 x 10(-5) M. The good correlation of results for ethanol detection in wine and during wine fermentation by using the developed amperometric biosensor with the data obtained by the standard methods was shown (r = 0.995).

  8. Nutritional test of rice in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horii, Masaji; Yoshikawa, Seiji

    1980-01-01

    Behaviors on N derived from rice were followed up by means of 15 N-labeled rice. In the first test, the single unpolished rice diet and the diet of rice and bean lecithin (4.5%) produced urinary excretion of 10 - 12% of 15 N, and that of rice and mannan from devil's tongue (3%), 16 - 20%. The single unpolished rice diet showed slightly more urinary excretion of 15 N, and the other 2 diets showed a similar proportion of 15 N in 3 days. The results indicated that the diet containing mannan from devil's tongue resulted in a poor N absorption by rice, a large quantity of N being excreted over a long period of time. This suggested differences and time lags in the excretion of rice N into the stool and urine depending on the diet constitution. With the unpolished rice diet, a small quantity of rice protein was not absorbed, but was excreted. In the 2nd test with 15 N-polished rice, the urinary excretion rate was 11.44% for a single rice diet, 11.16% for a mixed diet of rice and bean (1:1 in protein), 10.99% for rice and egg yolk, 9.66% for rice, bean and egg yolk and 8.10% for rice and bean lecithin. This decrease in urinary excretion indicated a corresponding increase in absorption of rice protein. (Chiba, N.)

  9. Analysis of selected chemical parameters in Piemontese wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stępień, Agnieszka E; Stawarczyk, Kinga; Bilek, Maciej; Kędziora, Katarzyna M

    2015-01-01

    Piemontese wines are well known and valued all over the world. The most popular of them are Barolo and Barbaresco wines. However, in Poland, they are still little known and only now are being gradually introduced to a wider range of consumers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the content of inorganic anions, minerals, sugars and glycerol of Piemontese wines from micro-region Langhe, classified as DOCG ("Denominazione di Origine Controllata e Garantita", ie. controlled designation of origin guaranteed) and DOC ("Denominazione di Origine Controllata", ie. controlled designation of origin) products. Seven types of red wines and one type of white wine were tested. High Performance Ion Chromatography with conductometric detection (HPLC-CD) was used to measure the content of inorganic anions, ie. fluorides, chlorides, sulfates and phosphates. Flame atomic absorption spectrometry (F-AAS) was used to measure the content of minerals, ie. magnesium, calcium, sodium, copper, potassium, zinc and iron, while High Performance Liquid Chromatography with charged aerosol detection (HPLC-CAD) was used to measure the content of glycerol and sugars, ie. fructose, glucose and sucrose. Our studies show that although Piemontese wines are characterized by a relatively low content of minerals in comparison with the wines from other regions, they contain a lot of ingredients that have beneficial effects for human health. Moreover, we observed that the studied wines contain particularly high concentration of inorganic ions--phosphates and fluorides. Furthermore, all tested red wines show far reaching similarities in their chemical properties, which is possibly a direct consequence of using in their production locally cultivated grape varieties. Analysis of the wines from the Piemont region, classified as DOCG, DOC, confirmed that these are dry wines of a high quality.

  10. Microbial diversity and biochemical characteristics of Borassus akeassii wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapsoba, F; Savadogo, A; Legras, J-L; Zongo, C; Traore, A S

    2016-10-01

    Palm wine produced traditionally and consumed by many people in the South-West of Burkina Faso is subject to alteration. In this study, we carried out a follow-up of two palm wines' fermentation during the 10 days in which palm wines are classically produced and consumed. We monitored biochemical characteristics of fermenting wines as well as followed the microflora kinetics using culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. The analysis of the acid content and the bacterial population revealed the correlation between the development of Lactic acid bacteria, acetic acid, and total acidity. Ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis and sequencing results revealed different yeast and bacterial populations for the two palm wines. Although Saccharomyces cerevisiae remained the sole yeast species in one fermentation, it was quickly replaced by Clavispora lusitaniae in the second fermentation, which had never been described until now in palm wine. When considering bacteria, the species Corynebacterium sp., Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus paracasei and Leuconostoc sp. were detected in both palm wines. But we also detected Acetobacter pasteurianus, Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis in the second fermentation. Our results highlight the evolution of palm wine during the 10 days separating palm tapping and consumption of the fermented wine. The fermentation step is performed within few hours and completed after 24 h. The next days, its acidity increases progressively with the production of lactic and acetic acids by bacteria. The high production of acetic acid is very likely one of the main cause of palm wine degradation during this period. This indicates that the solution to palm wine preservation might be protection against oxygen, as well as the limit of bacterial growth through the use of preservatives. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  11. Wine and Cheese: Two Products or One Association? A New Method for Assessing Wine-Cheese Pairing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara V. Galmarini

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify which attributes impacted the dynamic liking of cheese and wine individually, as well as when consumed together. Three wines (one white, Pouilly Loché; and two red, Maranges and Beaujolais and three cheeses (Comté, Époisses, Chaource were individually evaluated by a group of 60 consumers using mono-intake Temporal Dominance of Sensations (TDS with simultaneous hedonic ratings. The same data acquisition screen was used for all products showing a unique list of 14 descriptors (covering cheese and wine perception and a hedonic scale for dynamical rating of liking. The dynamic hedonic data were associated with the TDS profiles obtaining Temporal Drivers of Liking (TDL. Furthermore, the nine associations that resulted from combining each wine with each cheese were evaluated by multi-bite and multi-sip TDS. Individually, Chaource had practically no TDL; for Comté, mushroom flavor was a positive TDL, and in Époisses, salty was a negative TDL. As for wines, negative TDL were only found in the red wines: bitter, sour and astringent. Positive TDL for wines were: fruity, spicy and woody. Changes in the dynamic perception had a bigger impact on liking of wine compared to cheese. For the associations, the negative TDL were only three and mostly wine related: sour (for seven out of nine combinations, bitter (six out of nine and astringent (five out of nine. Positive TDL were more varied (a total of 10 descriptors and were related either to wine or cheese. As opposed to what was found in cheese alone, salty was a positive TDL in two of the combinations. It was observed that the dynamic sensory perception had a more important impact on liking in wine-cheese combinations than when consumed separately. TDS and TDL have a big potential in the study of food pairing, which should be further exploited.

  12. Analysis of total phenolic, flavonoids, anthocyanins and tannins content in Romanian red wines: prediction of antioxidant activities and classification of wines using artificial neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosu, Anamaria; Cristea, Vasile-Mircea; Cimpoiu, Claudia

    2014-05-01

    Wine is one of the most consumed beverages over the world containing large quantities of polyphenolic compounds. These compounds are responsible for quality of red wines, influencing the antioxidant activity, astringency, bitterness and colour, their composition in wine being influenced by the varieties, the vintage and the wineries. The aim of the present work is to build software instruments intended to work as data-mining tools for predicting valuable properties of wine and for revealing different wine classes. The developed ANNs are able to reveal the relationships between the concentration of total phenolic, flavonoids, anthocyanins, and tannins content, associated to the antioxidant activity, and the wine distinctive classes determined by the wine variety, harvesting year or winery. The presented ANNs proved to be reliable software tools for assessment or validation of the wine essential characteristics and authenticity and may be further used to establish a database of analytical characteristics of wines. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Reducing pesticide level in wine by selective filtration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lempereur Valérie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Wine Pesticide residues, even when below grape regulatory limit, are a concern for consumers and have an impact on the export potential of wine in certain markets. A consortium of European SMEs (www.adfimax.com has developed a product that reduces the level of mycotoxins and pesticides in wine while keeping all other wine parameter identical. The product is derived from renewable vegetable fiber. The production process includes both activation and micronisation. The usage recommendation is to substitute only the pre-coat, typically perlite, by the product at 1 or 1.5 kg⋅m−2 without changing the other layer (body feed typically kieselguhr. This paper describes the results of numerous industrial trials that were performed in France, Luxemburg, Germany and Spain. The impact of the product on the wine oenological characteristics was evaluated for different wine (white, red and rosé in different countries and for different grape variety (including Cabernet sauvignon, Merlot and Gamay. Results showed a reduction of the test wine pesticide level of 50% to 60% for all pesticides compared to the blank. Level of pesticide analyzed in the cake where extremely high at a level of a 1,000 times greater than the filtered wine showing the ability of the product to selectively capture the pesticides molecules.

  14. New Uses of Hawthorn Fruits in Tonic Wines Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andruţa Elena MUREŞAN

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Tonic wines are true natural elixirs, having the property to fortify the organism. To achieve a complex product and to supplement the antioxidant properties of the wine, the hawthorn fruits were added. They completed the product by maceration, so that the tonic wine got major active substances which have great medicinal value being effective in treating cardiovascular diseases. The content of polyphenols of tonic wine is about six times higher than in simple wine, the hawthorn representing a product rich in polyphenols (510.2 mg GAE/100g. Antioxidant capacity increased when hawthorn fruits were added, as they have an important contribution in terms of new product antioxidant properties. Hawthorn, honey and rosemary added extra minerals in the total dry extract. The relative density increased due to the substances present in hawthorn. The concentration of alcohol slightly increased due to the fermentation which triggers during maceration. The acidity of the new tonic wine developed here was higher, as compared to the simple wine. Higher acidity also contributed to the palatability, the new tonic wine showing a pleasant refreshing taste.

  15. Do heavy metals counter the potential health benefits of wine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The possibility that wine, consumed in modest amounts, can have health benefits has been highlighted frequently in the public and scientific press and was recently briefly reviewed in the South African medical literature.1 Much of the benefit is attributed to the antioxidant activity of wine. In contrast, concern was recently ...

  16. The palm wine trade: occupational and health hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbuagbaw, L; Noorduyn, S G

    2012-10-01

    The palm wine trade is an important economic activity for many tropical rural areas worldwide. In West Africa, palm wine holds high sociocultural and traditional values. Wine tappers often climb very tall trees with rudimentary equipment to harvest palm sap and risk severe injuries in the event of a fall. Furthermore, the wine quickly ferments beyond the desired taste and alcohol content, reducing the market power of these tappers. Therefore, to maximize benefits or to enhance shelf life, a variety of components are added to the palm tree sap, introducing the possibility of deadly contaminants. This paper highlights the public health implications of uncontrolled palm wine production and the relative neglect of the wine tapper. We draw from the limited published literature and use Cameroon as a case study. The palm wine trade can be more productive and safe if tappers work in cooperatives to improve their market power. Public health authorities need to monitor the quality of this cheap and common source of alcohol and enact regulations to protect wine tappers from the current level of occupational hazards. There are varying levels of progress to control quality and ensure safety in different parts of the world. Legislation and collaboration with traditional structures may offer a framework for change.

  17. Assessing wines based on total phenols, phenolic acids and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the phenolic profile of some red wines produced from native Turkish grape varieties (Vitis vinifera Öküzgözü, V. vinifera Boğazkere and V. vinifera Shiraz) and some red fruit wines produced from pomegranate (Punica granatum L.), myrtle (Myrtus communis L.) and black mulberry ...

  18. 27 CFR 24.257 - Labeling wine containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... container of beverage wine prior to removal for consumption or sale. The minimum type size for information... wines under 7 percent alcohol is under the jurisdiction of the Food and Drug Administration. (iv) The..., 5662) (Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 1512-0503) [T.D. ATF-299...

  19. Evolution of anthocyanin profile from grape to wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margherita Squadrito

    2010-09-01

    Significance and impact of the study: Only in varieties in which the anthocyanin profile of grapes is characterized by low percentages of di-oxygenated side-ring forms is it possible to gain information about the varietal origin of a young wine by comparing the profiles of both grape and wine. However, great care is required.

  20. Production of red wine from roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Red wine was produced from must formulated by mixing 10% (w/v) roselle calyces (Hibiscus sabdriffa var. sabdariffa) Hot water extract with pawpaw juice at the rate of 3:1. The must was formulated using a pure strain of Sacchromyces cerevisiae isolated from palm wine, propagated and pitched at a rate of 8% (v/v).

  1. Lasers or light sources for treating port-wine stains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faurschou, Annesofie; Olesen, Anne Braae; Leonardi-Bee, Jo

    2011-01-01

    Port-wine stains are birthmarks caused by malformations of blood vessels in the skin. Port-wine stains manifest themselves in infancy as a flat, red mark and do not regress spontaneously but may, if untreated, become darker and thicker in adult life. The profusion of various lasers and light...

  2. New Proposals for the Design of Integrated Online Wine Industry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The specialised lexicographic treatment ofoenology and viticulture usually consists in the compiling of articles describing the language of wine in general language dictionaries, or presenting professional knowledge of wine in specialised multi-field dictionaries and encyclopedias. This treatment also encompasses the ...

  3. Does osmotic distillation change the isotopic relation of wines?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmitt Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently partial alcohol reduction of wine is in the focus of research worldwide. There are several technologies available to achieve this target. These techniques are either based on distilling or membrane processes. Osmotic distillation, one of the possibilities, is a quite modern membrane process that can be used. During that process, wine is pumped in counter flow to water along a micro porous, hydrophobic membrane. The volatile components of the wine can permeate that membrane and are dissolved in water. The driving force of that process is the vapor pressure difference between the volatiles on the wine and water side of the membrane. The aim of this work was to determine if the alcohol reduction by osmotic distillation can change the isotopic relation in a wine. Can this enological practice change the composition of a wine in a way that an illegal water addition is simulated? Different wines were reduced by 2% alcohol v/v with varying process parameters. The isotopic analysis of the O 16/18 ratio in the wine were performed according to the OIV methods (353/2009 These analyses showed that the isotopic ratio is modified by an alcohol reduction of 2% v/v in a way that corresponds to an addition of 4–5% of external water.

  4. Marketing research into wine consumption determinants in Vojvodina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salai Suzana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Until a few decades ago, the market of Vojvodina as a segment of the Serbian market played a crucial role in wine production. Wine consumption in the 1970s amounted to thirty litres per capita, whereas forty years later, it has been reduced to about three litres. The development of technology in the modernday conditions tends to make a positive impact on daily life, which, however, is not the case with viticulture, wine production and consumption - a sphere where development trends have had the opposite direction. Consequently, the centuries-old tradition of viticulture is almost extinct, substituted by other drinks and cultures. The economic and cultural development and wine production have been, so to say, neglected. In the meantime, producers of beer and soft drinks took over the domination, and these intensely promoted beverages have been widely adopted by the consumers of younger generations. Wine, as 'the divine drink, is the symbol of happiness, wisdom, health and life', is well known in most cultures, which should enable the return of the old glory. The potentials of wine are yet to be researched so that wine production can reach, or even exceed its earlier place in society. The aim of this article is to research the geographic, demographic, economic, sociological and psychological determinants predominantly shaping the behaviour of wine consumers and traditional producers in Vojvodina.

  5. Red Wine and Resveratrol: Good for Your Heart?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or a substance called resveratrol, have heart-healthy benefits. Red wine seems to have heart-healthy benefits. But it's ... may have some of the same heart-healthy benefits of red wine. Other foods that contain some resveratrol include peanuts, ...

  6. The role of cooperatives in the Georgian wine industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kvariani Levani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential of the Georgian wine industry is not fully utilized. High fragmentation of agricultural land leads to limited production that restricts farmers' access to capital resources, finances, and markets, and prevents further development of the Georgian wine industry. Grape collectors and wine makers need help to join their capital and efforts, to gain economies of scale in production and marketing by jointly accessing agricultural inputs. This study aims to identify the importance of farmer cooperatives for grape producers in the Georgian wine industry in order to overcome inefficiency in the sector. Furthermore, this research project investigates the barriers and driving forces of smallholder grape farmers or wine makers to join cooperatives. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with stakeholders of the Georgian wine industry in order to assess different perspectives on the importance and benefits of farmer cooperatives in the local context. The interview results permit economic analysis of transaction costs, agency theory and property rights in the context of the nascent cooperative movement in the Georgian wine industry. The interviews revealed that development of agriculture cooperatives in the Georgian wine industry is strongly dependent on both farmer enthusiasm and governmental support.1

  7. The Palm Wine Trade: Occupational and Health Hazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Mbuagbaw

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The palm wine trade is an important economic activity for many tropical rural areas worldwide. In West Africa, palm wine holds high sociocultural and traditional values. Wine tappers often climb very tall trees with rudimentary equipment to harvest palm sap and risk severe injuries in the event of a fall. Furthermore, the wine quickly ferments beyond the desired taste and alcohol content, reducing the market power of these tappers. Therefore, to maximize benefits or to enhance shelf life, a variety of components are added to the palm tree sap, introducing the possibility of deadly contaminants. This paper highlights the public health implications of uncontrolled palm wine production and the relative neglect of the wine tapper. We draw from the limited published literature and use Cameroon as a case study. The palm wine trade can be more productive and safe if tappers work in cooperatives to improve their market power. Public health authorities need to monitor the quality of this cheap and common source of alcohol and enact regulations to protect wine tappers from the current level of occupational hazards. There are varying levels of progress to control quality and ensure safety in different parts of the world. Legislation and collaboration with traditional structures may offer a framework for change.

  8. Changes in aroma composition of blackberry wine during ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study aimed at investigating the influence of fermentation (primary and secondary) on aroma composition of blackberry wine. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was applied to quantify the compounds relevant to sparkling wine aroma. Investigation on this study revealed that a number of aroma ...

  9. Discovering the Language of Wine Reviews : A Text Mining Account

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lefever, Els; Hendrickx, Iris; Croijmans, Ilja; van den Bosch, A.; Majid, Asifa

    It is widely held that smells and flavors are impossible to put into words. In this paper we test this claim by seeking predictive patterns in wine reviews, which ostensibly aim to provide guides to perceptual content. Wine reviews have previously been critiqued as random and meaningless. We

  10. Structures and colour properties of new red wine pigments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Håkansson, Anders Eckart; Pardon, K.; Hayasaka, Y.

    2003-01-01

    the colour properties of the pigments were characterized; it could be demonstrated that the pyranoanthocyanins retained their red colour at pH 3.6 in model wine and were resistant to bisulfite-mediated bleaching. Finally, HPLC-MS analysis confirmed the presence of both anthocyanin-derived pigments in red...... wine....

  11. Preference shifts in the demand for wine and beer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butter, F.A.G. den; Delifotis, A.; Koning, Ruud H.

    1997-01-01

    Preference shifts in the demand for wine and beer are empirically investigated for Germany, the Netherlands, France, and Italy. With the rise in disposable income we see a shift from the demand for beer to the demand for wine notably in the Netherlands and somewhat less clearly in Germany, and a

  12. Effect of red wine consumption on biomarkers of oxidative stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrieks, I.C.; Berg, R. van; Sierksma, A.; Beulens, J.W.J.; Vaes, W.H.J.; Hendriks, N.F.J.

    2013-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate the effect of acute and chronic consumption of red wine or de-alcoholized red wine with a similar antioxidant capacity on plasma total antioxidant capacity (TEAC), nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activity and F2-isoprostanes (8-iso-PGF2α) in healthy men. Methods: Nineteen healthy men

  13. 21 CFR 137.350 - Enriched rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Enriched rice. 137.350 Section 137.350 Food and... Related Products § 137.350 Enriched rice. (a) The foods for which definitions and standards of identity are prescribed by this section are forms of milled rice (except rice coated with talc and glucose and...

  14. Yeast cell wall chitin reduces wine haze formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndlovu, Thulile; Divol, Benoit; Bauer, Florian F

    2018-04-27

    Protein haze formation in bottled wines is a significant concern for the global wine industry and wine clarification before bottling is therefore a common but expensive practice. Previous studies have shown that wine yeast strains can reduce haze formation through the secretion of certain mannoproteins, but it has been suggested that other yeast-dependent haze protective mechanisms exist. On the other hand, addition of chitin has been shown to reduce haze formation, likely because grape chitinases have been shown to be the major contributors to haze. In this study, Chardonnay grape must fermented by various yeast strains resulted in wines with different protein haze levels indicating differences in haze protective capacities of the strains. The cell wall chitin levels of these strains were determined, and a strong correlation between cell wall chitin levels and haze protection capability was observed. To further evaluate the mechanism of haze protection, Escherichia coli -produced GFP-tagged grape chitinase was shown to bind efficiently to yeast cell walls in a cell wall chitin concentration-dependent manner, while commercial chitinase was removed from synthetic wine in quantities also correlated with the cell wall chitin levels of the strains. Our findings suggest a new mechanism of reducing wine haze, and propose a strategy for optimizing wine yeast strains to improve wine clarification. Importance In this study, we establish a new mechanism by which wine yeast strains can impact on the protein haze formation of wines, and demonstrate that yeast cell wall chitin binds grape chitinase in a chitin-concentration dependent manner. We also show that yeast can remove this haze-forming protein from wine. Chitin has in the past been shown to efficiently reduce wine haze formation when added to the wine in high concentration as a clarifying agent. Our data suggest that the selection of yeast strains with high levels of cell wall chitin can reduce protein haze. We also

  15. Cashew wine vinegar production: alcoholic and acetic fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Silva

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Cashew wine of demi-sec grade was produced in a stirred batch reactor. The kinetic parameters obtained for cashew wine fermentation were Y X/S=0.061, Y P/S=0.3 and µmax=0.16 h-1. The yield and the productivity of cashew wine were 57.7% and 0.78 g/Lh respectively. A 2² factorial experimental design was used for the cashew wine vinegar fermentation optimization study. The cashew wine vinegar process optimization ranges found for initial concentrations of ethanol and acetic acid as independent variables were 4.8 to 6.0% and 1.0 to 1.3% respectively.

  16. An exploration of loyalty determinants in Greek wine varieties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krystallis, Athanasios; Chrysochou, Polymeros

    2010-01-01

    Purpose - This paper aims to provide a deeper understanding of the market structure of Greek red and white wine varieties and to measure the loyalty behaviour of frequent wine buyers in Greece. Design/methodology/approach - The study measures brand performance and loyalty of four different Greek...... wine varieties. Based on stated preference data, basic brand performance measures are estimated through Juster purchase probabilities of brand choice. To measure loyalty behaviour, the polarisation index w (phi) is used as a measure to model both loyalty to the brand name and specific wine attributes...... and their levels. Findings - The findings of the present study point to the conclusion that each one of the four Greek wine varieties under examination exhibits its own market structure and loyalty profile, whereas price, quality certification and winemaker's size seem to function as loyalty stimulators more...

  17. Production and Quality Evaluation of Pineapple Fruit Wine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Ningli; Ma, Lina; Li, Liuji; Gong, Xiao; Ye, Jianzhi

    2017-12-01

    The fermentation process of pineapple fruit wine was studied. The juice was inoculated with 5% (v/v) active yeast and held at 20 °C for 7 days. Total sugar and pH decreased while the alcoholic strength increased with increasing length of fermentation. The fermented fruit wine contains 2.29 g/L total acid, 10.2 % (v/v) alcohol, 5.4 °Brix soluble solids, pH 3.52. Pineapple wine detected 68 kinds of aroma components, including 34 esters, 13 alcohols. The ester material accounted for 52.25% of the main aroma components. The quality and sensory evaluation results indicated that pineapple fruit wine belongs to a kind of low alcohol wine, so it is easy to be accepted by the public.

  18. Evaporation of droplets in a Champagne wine aerosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghabache, Elisabeth; Liger-Belair, Gérard; Antkowiak, Arnaud; Séon, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    In a single glass of champagne about a million bubbles nucleate on the wall and rise towards the surface. When these bubbles reach the surface and rupture, they project a multitude of tiny droplets in the form of a particular aerosol holding a concentrate of wine aromas. Based on the model experiment of a single bubble bursting in idealized champagnes, the key features of the champagne aerosol are identified. In particular, we show that film drops, critical in sea spray for example, are here nonexistent. We then demonstrate that compared to a still wine, champagne fizz drastically enhances the transfer of liquid into the atmosphere. There, conditions on bubble radius and wine viscosity that optimize aerosol evaporation are provided. These results pave the way towards the fine tuning of flavor release during sparkling wine tasting, a major issue for the sparkling wine industry. PMID:27125240

  19. Evaporation of droplets in a Champagne wine aerosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghabache, Elisabeth; Liger-Belair, Gérard; Antkowiak, Arnaud; Séon, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    In a single glass of champagne about a million bubbles nucleate on the wall and rise towards the surface. When these bubbles reach the surface and rupture, they project a multitude of tiny droplets in the form of a particular aerosol holding a concentrate of wine aromas. Based on the model experiment of a single bubble bursting in idealized champagnes, the key features of the champagne aerosol are identified. In particular, we show that film drops, critical in sea spray for example, are here nonexistent. We then demonstrate that compared to a still wine, champagne fizz drastically enhances the transfer of liquid into the atmosphere. There, conditions on bubble radius and wine viscosity that optimize aerosol evaporation are provided. These results pave the way towards the fine tuning of flavor release during sparkling wine tasting, a major issue for the sparkling wine industry.

  20. Radiocarbon 14C differentiation of sparkling and carbonated wines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, G.E.; Krueger, H.W.; Burggraff, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    Specific 14 C-activities, percent of modern 14 C-activity, and calculated percent of fermentation CO 2 are presented for CO 2 contained in commercial sparkling wines, labeled as champagne or produced by the bulk (charmat) process. These data are given for the production years 1976-1982. The survey encompassed effervescent wines produced in Spain, Italy, West Germany, California, and New York. Addition of synthetic CO 2 to approximately 40 samples represented as sparkling wines was indicated by low 14 C-activities of CO 2 in these wines. Data for 14 C-activity were also presented for the ethanol distilled from sparkling wines for the years 1977-1980. In all cases, the 14 C-activity of ethanol was appropriate to the year of vintage