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Sample records for rice weevil sitophilus

  1. Some factors affecting reproduction in the Rice weevil Sitophilus Oryzae (L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasaballa, Z.A.; Abdelkawy, F.K.

    1992-01-01

    Laboratory investigations on the effects or radiation, type of food and population density on the reproductive potential of the rice weevil. Sitophilus Oryzae were conducted at 30 degree C. and 75% R.H. The results indicate that the survival number of adult weevils infesting wheat grains increased markedly after 45 and 90 days of infestation. The survival and reproductive potential of the rice weevils declined significantly after exposure to gamma rays. This decline was more pronounced after 90 days and appeared to be markedly dose dependent. It was noticed that the rate of reproduction of the rice weevils was greatly influenced by insect crowding, science adults of S. Oryzae reared under crowded conditions failed to increase in numbers for 3 months as was expected. The reproduction of S. Oryzae was affected by the type of food. Wheat grains were more suitable than rice and maize grains as the average survival numbers of S. Oryzae reared on wheat grains were more after 45 and 90 days than those reared on rice and maize grains.3 tab

  2. A study on the life cycle and the effect of radiation on rice weevil, sitophilus oryzae L.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1969-12-31

    Studies on the life cycle and the effect of radiation on rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae L. were made. Each stage of development of rice weevil was determined. The egg, larval and pupal stage was 7-9, 13-17 and 7-11 days respectively. The highest rate of oviposition was at 3-6 days. Rice weevils in different stages were exposed to various doses of gamma-radiation and the effects were recorded. It was observed that the males were more susceptible to radiation than females. A dose of 3500-5000 rads induced sterility in adult stage and no hatchability was observed at a dose of 5000 rads. The LD{sub 50} in egg, larval, pupal and adult stage was 15, 120, 1300 and 28400 rads respectively. The response of adult weevils to gamma radiation obtained from Co-60 and the reactor (U{sup 235}) appeared nearly the same. No radioresistance was observed in the second and third generations of rice weevils when adult parents were irradiated at a dose of 2500 rads. There was no recovery of germ cells in male insects following radiation exposure of about 5000 rads. A decrease in the population of rice weevils was noted when the irradiated males were introduced to mate with the non-irradiated females. The Sterile Male Release Technique could be well applied to reduce the number of rice weevils in storage places.

  3. Effects of gamma radiation on the response of the rice weevil, sitophilus oryzae to heat and humidity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakid, A.M.; Hilmy, N.M.; El-Monairy, O.M.

    1991-01-01

    The rice weevil, sitophilus oryzae L.was irradiated with 4 doses of gamma radiation (20,40,60 and 80 krad) and then examined for its response towards two different temperatures (45 and 25 degree C) or humidities (10 and 70% R.H.) For this purpose, two different apparatus were used. Each two temperature or humidity combinations were given to the weevils at the same time. The irradiated insects with 20 or 40 krad showed a marked increase in their speed at the warm side (45 degree C) than the controls. Those irradiated with 60 and 80 krad decreased their speed to about the control level. When the irradiated weevils were given the choice between 45 degree C and 25 degree C, their intensity of reaction towards the cooler side was decreased with increasing the doses. The rate of movement at 10% R.H. was not changed at 20 krad. However, at 40, 60 or 80 krad, it was increased with increasing the dose. The intensity of reaction of the irradiated weevils increased towards the dry side with increasing the dose.2 tab

  4. Toxicity of lemon grass Cymbopogon citratus powder and methanol extract against rice weevil Sitophilus oryzae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae

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    Martin Osaigbokan Uwamose

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the toxicity potential of lemon grass [Cymbopogon citratus (C. citratus] products against adult rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae. Methods: Lemon grass (C. citratus leaves were sundried for 7 days, pulverized and sieved using 0.5 mm mesh size to obtain fine powders. About 500 g of the powder were dissolved in 1000 mL of 90% methanol to produce the extract. The powder and extract were used for the bioassay. The powder was tested at 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 g/10 g rice grains, respectively. The toxic potential of the extract of concentration of 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5 mg/mL were evaluated using the filter paper method. The experiment was setup on a completely randomized design using three replicates per treatment. Results: The results indicated significant difference (F = 7.450; df = 3.15; P < 0.05 in mean percentage mortality after 24, 48, 72, and 96 h exposure with the powder compared with the control. Significantly (F = 5.519; df = 3.15; P < 0.05 higher percentage adult mortality was also observed in the extract after 24, 48, 72, and 96 h exposure compared with the control. The LC50 value of the powder was 4.91 g/10 g of rice while the LT50 was 160.51 h. The LC50 value of the extract was 2.16 mg/20 mL of methanol with an LT50 of 75.10 h. The methanol extract of C. citratus showed the highest mortality compared to the powder which was less toxic. Conclusions: The study showed that C. citratus products are promising insecticides and can be used effectively in the management of Sitophilus oryzae in storage..

  5. Ethnobotanicals for Storage Pest Management: Effect of powdered leaves of Olax zeylanica in suppressing infestations of rice weevil Sitophilus oryzae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachini Dinusha Fernando

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The rice weevil Sitophilus oryzae is considered the major problem in stored rice in Sri Lanka. Due to the adverse effects of pesticide usage, research on the re-evaluation and use of many ethnobotanicals as alternative storage pest control agents has been intensified. Although plant materials with insecticidal properties provide small-scale farmers with a locally available, eco-friendly and inexpensive method of control of storage insect pests, lack of understanding and knowledge prevent their widespread application. The present study was therefore undertaken to investigate the effectiveness of the botanical Olax zeylanica in controlling infestations of the rice weevil with the view of fulfilling this lack. In two separate bioassays, contact/feeding and fumigant toxicity of powdered leaves of O. zeylanica were tested against 1-7 days old adults under laboratory conditions. All experiments were conducted using a no-choice bioassay apparatus. Contact/feeding toxicity was tested by directly exposing weevils to 1.0, 3.0, 5.0 and 7.5g of leaf powder mixed with 100g of rice grains while fumigant toxicity was evaluated by using the same doses where weevils were exposed to fumes emitted from the leaf powders. In both bioassays 100% mortality of the weevils was observed within 18 hours of exposure to 3.0, 5.0 and 7.5g doses of leaf powder. Percentage weevil mortality in treated rice tested with three doses of leaf powder at all the time intervals (except for 1.0g was significantly higher (p < 0.05 than that of the corresponding control. No Contact/feeding toxicity was recorded when weevils were directly exposed to 1.0g leaf powder whereas only 14% weevil mortality was observed even after 24hours of exposure to fumes of leaf powder. Results also revealed that weevil mortality increased both with increasing dose and time of exposure. It is of interest to note that in both bioassays a 100% weevil mortality was obtained after 18 hours of exposure to

  6. Rice weevil response to basil oil fumigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basil oil, Ocimum basilicum L., is a volatile plant essential oil that is known to have insecticidal activity against stored product pests such as rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (L.). Basil oil was diluted in acetone and applied to a sponge held inside a tea strainer for fumigations in containers wi...

  7. Application of Principal Component Analysis in Assessment of Relation Between the Parameters of Technological Quality of Wheat Grains Treated with Inert Dusts Against Rice Weevil (Sitophilus oryzae L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Bodroža-Solarov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Quality parameters of several wheat grain lots (low vitreous and high vitreous grains,non-infested and infested with rice weevils, (Sitophilus oryzae L. treated with inert dusts(natural zeolite, two diatomaceous earths originating from Serbia and a commercial productProtect-It® were investigated. Principal component analysis (PCA was used to investigatethe classification of treated grain lots and to assess how attributes of technological qualitycontribute to this classification. This research showed that vitreousness (0.95 and test weight(0.93 contributed most to the first principal component whereas extensigraph area (-0.76contributed to the second component. The determined accountability of the total variabilityby the first component was around 55%, while with the second it was 18%, which meansthat those two dimensions together account for around 70% of total variability of the observedset of variables. Principal component analysis (PCA of data set was able to distinguishamong the various treatments of wheat lots. It was revealed that inert dust treatments producedifferent effects depending on the degree of endosperm vitreousness.

  8. Control of Rice Weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (L., in Stored Wheat Grains with Mesquite Plant, Prosopis juliflora (SW, D.C. Seed Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.H. AI-Moajel

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of mesquite plant, Prosopis juliflora (SW D.C. (Family: Mimosaceae, seed extracts against rice weevil. Sitophilus oryzae (L, reared on wheat grains was investigated in the laboratory. The tested plant extracts of P. juliflora in petroleum ether, chloroform, and acetone, effectively controlled adults and their toxicity based on LC95 and LC5O values respectively was in order: acetone (12.0, 5.8ml/kg < pet ether (8.0, 4.1ml/kg chloroform (6.3, 2.2ml/kg. A highly significant oviposition deterency effect (P< 0.05 was found for all extracts at LC50 levels, while at LC95 levels, oviposition was nearly completely inhibited. Thus, progeny emergence was completely suppressed at Legs levels, also at LCSC, of acetone extract. Chlorofonn extract indicated a slow rate of degradation alter one month of storage (90% mortality. All tested plant extracts reduced weight loss in wheat grains after 45 days of storage, but chloroform extract was the most effective. Most treatments did not significantly affect water absorption but viability was significantly reduced. Petroleum ether and chloroform extracts caused a significant inhibition effect on acetyl choline esterase (AchE in adults while acetone extract caused a significant activation effect. All three different extracts, caused a significant activation effect on phosphases (AcP and AlkP, except for chloroform and acetone extract treatments which caused significant inhibition of AcP in adults. All extracts caused a significant decrease in protein and carbohydrate contents of adults, except the carbohydrate content of adults treated with acetone extract. There was a significant increase in lipid content in adults treated with all three extracts and significant increase of carbohydrate content only in adults treated with acetone extract.

  9. Polygalacturonase from Sitophilus oryzae: Possible horizontal transfer of a pectinase gene from fungi to weevils

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    Zhicheng Shen

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Endo-polygalacturonase, one of the group of enzymes known collectively as pectinases, is widely distributed in bacteria, plants and fungi. The enzyme has also been found in several weevil species and a few other insects, such as aphids, but not in Drosophila melanogaster, Anopheles gambiae, or Caenorhabditis elegans or, as far as is known, in any more primitive animal species. What, then, is the genetic origin of the polygalacturonases in weevils? Since some weevil species harbor symbiotic microorganisms, it has been suggested, reasonably, that the symbionts' genomes of both aphids and weevils, rather than the insects' genomes, could encode polygalacturonase. We report here the cloning of a cDNA that encodes endo-polygalacturonase in the rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (L., and investigations based on the cloned cDNA. Our results, which include analysis of genes in antibiotic-treated rice weevils, indicate that the enzyme is, in fact, encoded by the insect genome. Given the apparent absence of the gene in much of the rest of the animal kingdom, it is therefore likely that the rice weevil polygalacturonase gene was incorporated into the weevil's genome by horizontal transfer, possibly from a fungus.

  10. Resistance of maize varieties to the maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed at evaluating commonly used maize varieties, collected from Melkasa and Bako Agricultural Research Centers and Haramaya University, Ethiopia, against the maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais Motsch., one of the most important cosmopolitan stored product pests in maize. A total of 13 improved maize ...

  11. Studies on food preferences of maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais Mots. to different crops in Chitwan, Nepal

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    Sheela Devi Sharma

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Food preference by the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky was studied on seven different crops and varieties including maize, wheat and rice. They were maize cultivars namely Arun-2, Manakamana-4, Deuti, buckwheat local cultivar, wheat cultivar namely Annapurna-1, polished rice-Radha 4 and unshelled rice cultivar Mansuli under storage condition at Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science, Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal from June 2013 to February 2014 . The hosts were tested using completely randomized design with three replications and were laid in free-choice and no-choice conditions. The maximum number of grain loss was recorded in wheat followed by polished rice respectively. Similarly, the highest weight loss was recorded in polished rice followed by Wheat in both conditions. F1 progeny emergence of weevil was highest in wheat followed by polished rice in free-choice and in no choice conditions, the highest progeny were emerged from polished rice followed by wheat. The lowest numbers of weevils emerged from rice in both conditions. Maximum germination losses were recorded in wheat (24.33% and lowest in Arun-2 (9.67. The rice showed a relatively higher preference to maize weevil under storage condition.

  12. Determination of behaviour of the corn weevil Sitophilus zeamais, Motschulsky, 1855 (Coleoptera, Curculionidae) in corn, rice and wheat grains by using radioactive tracer iodine-131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacheco, I.A.

    1989-01-01

    The dispersion behaviour and distribution pattern of Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky, 1855 through a bulk of corn, rice and wheat,leaving from a infestation focus, was investigated by means of tracer methodology. Adults insects were labeled with the gamma emitter 131 I, through bath in Na 131 I solution and released onto the top of grain mass deposited in cylinders each 430 mm height and 195 mm in diameter, filled to 20 mm of the top with grains. The cylinders were enclosed with lids. The insects were detected through the bulk of the grain by means of a crystal scintillator, in fourteen sites, zero 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96 and 120 hours after releasing. (author)

  13. Biological Activity of Essential Oils from Leaves and Fruits of Pepper Tree (Schinus molle L. to Control Rice Weevil (Sitophilus oryzae L. Bioactividad de aceites esenciales de hojas y frutos del aguaribay (Schinus molle L. en el gorgojo del arroz (Sitophilus oryzae L.

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    Verónica Benzi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Rice weevil (Sitophilus oryzae L. is a primary insect pest of stored grain. The development of resistance resulted in the application of synthetic insecticides. In recent years many plant essential oils have provided potential alternatives to currently used insect control agents. The Brazilian pepper tree (Schinus molle L. var. areira (L. DC. (Anacardiaceae has different biological properties such as insecticidal activity. In this study, repellent, fumigant activity, nutritional indices, and feeding deterrent action were evaluated on S. oryzae adults. Filter paper impregnation was used to test fumigant toxicity, whereas treated whole wheat was used to evaluate repellent activity and a flour disk bioassay was done to evaluate feeding deterrent action and nutritional index alteration. Leaf essential oils showed repellent effects at both concentrations (0.04 and 0.4% w/w, while fruit essential oils lacked repellent activity. Both plant oils altered nutritional indices. Fruit essential oils had a strong feeding deterrent action (62% while leaves had a slight effect (40.6%. With respect to fumigant activity, neither of the essential oils was found to be toxic.El gorgojo del arroz (Sitophilus oryzae. L. es un insecto-plaga de infestación primaria de granos. El uso de insecticidas sintéticos ha desarrollado fenómenos de resistencia. En los últimos años los aceites esenciales se presentan como una alternativa en el control de insectos-plaga. El aguaribay (Schinus molle L. var. areira (L. DC. (Anacardiaceae es una planta con diferentes propiedades biológicas entre las que se destacan el uso como insecticida. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la actividad fumigante, repelente, los índices nutricionales y la actividad antialimentaria de los aceites esenciales de hojas y frutos de S. molle var. areira en adultos de S. oryzae. Para la actividad fumigante se utilizó la técnica de impregnación de papeles de filtro; para la actividad repelente

  14. A radioisotope technique for laboratory studies of the dispersal of rice weevil in grain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.Z.A.; Robertson, G.B.

    1979-01-01

    Adult rice weevils (Sitophilus oryzae (L.)) were marked with paint containing Scandium-46 and detected in a column of wheat 4.5 cm diam by means of a γ-scintillation counter. The radioactive paint had no effect on the mobility and longevity of the insects. Two weevils marked with Sc-46 could be located if they were more than 2.5 cm apart. An account is given of the use of the technique to follow the movements of a single pair of male and female weevils over 8 days. (Auth.)

  15. Screening of promising maize genotypes against maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais Motschulky) in storage condition

    OpenAIRE

    Ram B Paneru; Resham B Thapa

    2017-01-01

    The maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky) is a serious pest of economic importance in stored grains. It causes major damage to stored maize grain thereby reducing its weight, quality and germination. An experiment was conducted in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with 3 replications to screen 32 maize genotypes against maize weevil in no-choice and free-choice conditions at Entomology Division, Khumaltar, Lalitpur (Room temperature: Maximum 24-32°C and Minimum 18-27°C). The fin...

  16. Screening of promising maize genotypes against maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais Motschulky in storage condition

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    Ram B Paneru

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky is a serious pest of economic importance in stored grains. It causes major damage to stored maize grain thereby reducing its weight, quality and germination. An experiment was conducted in randomized complete block design (RCBD with 3 replications to screen 32 maize genotypes against maize weevil in no-choice and free-choice conditions at Entomology Division, Khumaltar, Lalitpur (Room temperature: Maximum 24-32°C and Minimum 18-27°C. The findings showed that the maize genotypes had different response to maize weevil damage ranging from susceptible to tolerance. The genotypes Manakamana-3, Lumle White POP Corn and Ganesh-2 showed their tolerance to S. zeamais as evidenced by lower number of weevil emerged/attracted, lower amount of grain debris release and lower proportion of bored grains, while the genotype ZM-627 was the most susceptible to weevil damage in both tests. The other remaining genotypes were intermediate types. This information is useful to improve grain protection in storage and varietal improvement/release program.

  17. Genetics of resistance to stored grain weevil (Sitophilus oryzae L. in maize

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    Rajkumar Zunjare

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Stored grain weevil (Sitophilus oryzae has emerged as important storage grain pest of maize, causing substantial economic losses. Owing to high costs and environmental hazards of pesticides, host plant resistance holds promise for effective control of weevils. In the present study, a set of experimental maize hybrids generated using line × tester mating design were evaluated against S. oryzae. Significant variation for grain weight loss (GWL (6.0–49.1%, number of insect progeny emerged (NIP (17.8–203.3, grain hardness (GH (263.1–495.4 N, and pericarp thickness (PT (60.3–161.0 μm was observed. Strong positive association was observed between GWL and NIP. GH and PT did not show any correlation with GWL and NIP. Additive and non-additive gene actions were important for both GWL and NIP. Promising inbreds and experimental crosses identified can be effectively utilized in the resistance breeding programme. In majority of promising crosses having desirable SCA effects, one of the parents had desirable GCA effects, indicating that selection of inbred parents based on per se performance for generating resistant crosses may be possible. The commercial hybrid checks were highly susceptible compared to experimental hybrids. The inbreds and experimental hybrids identified hold promise in developing weevil resistant maize cultivars offering sustainable solution to management of weevils in maize.

  18. Disinfestation of stored rice and corn grains by gamma irradiation. 3. Survival values for irradiated rice weevil and flour beetle and comparison of gamma irradiation and fumigation of weevil infested grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manoto, E.C.; Villarcarlos, L.T.

    1976-02-01

    Survival values for Sitophilus oryzae and Tribolium castaneum adults were studied using gamma radiation dosage of 25, 50, 100 and 150 krad. Results with the two species seemed similar, although the rice weevil appeared the more sensitive. Rice and corn grains were artificially infested with Sitophilus oryzae and then treated with gamma radiation or fumigation. Both treatment reduced or eliminated adult emergence although fumigation left some insecticidal residues in corn. Sterility in the adult weevils was induced by 15 or 25 krad treatment of gamma radiation. A practical control level for bulk irradiation of rice or corn grains could probably be achieved by a 25 krad treatment although complete disinfestation should be achieved by a 50 krad treatment

  19. Does cypermethrin affect enzyme activity, respiration rate and walking behavior of the maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais)?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ronnie Von Santos Veloso; Eliseu José G.Pereira; Raul Narciso C.Guedes; Maria Goreti A.Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    Insecticides cause a range of sub-lethal effects on targeted insects,which are frequently detrimental to them.However,targeted insects are able to cope with insecticides within sub-lethal ranges,which vary with their susceptibility.Here we assessed the response of three strains of the maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky (Coleoptera:Curculionidae) to sub-lethal exposure to the pyrethoid insecticide cypermethrin.We expected enzyme induction associated with cypermethrin resistance since it would aid the resistant insects in surviving such exposure.Lower respiration rate and lower activity were also expected in insecticide-resistant insects since these traits are also likely to favor survivorship under insecticide exposure.Curiously though,cypermethrin did not affect activity of digestive and energy metabolism enzymes,and even reduced the activity of some enzymes (particularly for cellulase and cysteine-proteinase activity in this case).There was strain variation in response,which may be (partially) related to insecticide resistance in some strains.Sub-lethal exposure to cypermethrin depressed proteolytic and mainly cellulolytic activity in the exposed insects,which is likely to impair their fitness.However,such exposure did not affect respiration rate and walking behavior of the insects (except for the susceptible strain where walking activity was reduced).Walking activity varies with strain and may minimize insecticide exposure,which should be a concern,particularly if associated with (physiological) insecticide resistance.

  20. Basil oil fumigation increases radiation sensitivity in adult Sitophilus oryzae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    The biological activity of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) oil was tested against the stored product pest rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae(L.). Adult weevils were exposed to seven different concentrations of basil oil ranging from 0.12 µl/ml-0.60 µl/ml in Petri dishes and mortality was assessed at 3,4 and...

  1. Gamma radiation effects on rice, substrate for Sitophilus oryzae (L.) rearing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiendl, F.M.; Arthur, V.; Walder, J.M.M.; Domarco, R.E.

    1987-01-01

    The gamma radiation effects (800 Krad, 60 Co) on rice are studied. Degraded substances by the radiation and how this degradation affects the biology of Sitophilus oryzae (L.) are searched. The vitamins, proteins and stard of the rice are affected by the radiation. (M.A.C.) [pt

  2. efficacy of rice husk ash against rice weevil and lesser grain borer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    2017-05-05

    May 5, 2017 ... this study was to determine efficacy of RHA from “Mr. Harry” rice variety against Rhyzopertha dominica and. Sitophilus oryzae. ..... Spectroscopy, following lithium metaborate/ ..... feasibility of using RHA to treat grains meant.

  3. Evaluation of gamma irradiated essential oils to control stored-grain weevil, Sitophilus zeamais and cockroach, Blattella germanica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potenza, Marcos Roberto; Gomes, Davinni Habral Passini; Silvestre, Denise de Fatima; Da Silva, Rita de Cassia; Arthur, Valter

    2004-01-01

    Most of the essential oils have insecticidal activity and are alternatives to plant protection and urban pest control. The gamma radiation has been used to control microorganisms and insects in dehydrate herbs, spices, medicinal plants and other materials. This work aimed to evaluate the effect of irradiated essential oils as contact poison on Stored grain, weevil, Sitophilus zeamais and as stomach poison in cockroach, Blattella germanica. The bioassay with B. germanica demonstrated efficiency between 22.0 and 30.0% and between 30.0 and 42.0% respectively, to irradiated essential oils of E. citriodora and E. globulus and they demonstrated too repellency to the nymphs. The gamma radiation promoted changes in essential oils Eucalyptus citriodora and E. globulus and showed increased effectiveness on B. germanica nymphs besides a significative reduction of repellency. Gamma radiation thus interfered on behavior of some essential oils by increasing or reducing activating or inactivating their efficiency to pest control. (author)

  4. Behavior study weevil ultradian sitophilus oryzae (coleoptera: curculionidae) treated with ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrenechea, C.D.; Ritacco, M.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the sublethal dose of beetle Sitophilus oryzae primary pest grain products through the application of ionizing radiation as disinfestation. process. This beetle is a small insect, reddish brown, 3 mm in length that is characterized by the prolongation of his face. It causes severe damages in the material infesting either larval or adult state. They get their power supply of various materials, which include: grains of wheat, corn, rice, noodles and biscuits, among others. The insect under study, is bred in a natural substrate that infests (noodles) preventing the arrival of direct light and environmental conditions while maintaining the temperature ranging between 19 and 23 o O C with 41% relative humidity average. The adults are irradiated in darkness in the irradiation plant located at the Ezeiza Atomic Center (PISI), whose source is approximately 750 kCi 60 Co activity. Mature specimens are irradiated at 2 kGy, with a dose rate of between 260.00 and 286.33 Gy / min and at temperatures ranging between 15.4 and 18.1 o C until the moment. The material is observed 3 times daily stages comprising ultradian (morning, afternoon and evening) observed number of live / dead etolology, taxismo, physiology and restoration post irradiation, these data are compared with untreated. material. Were irradiated until 255 individuals, verifying the LD 50 for the second day post irradiation. It is found that immediately after the application of the method, adults lose the ability to move, being initially temporarily until it becomes final. Insects move only certain parts of the body (legs and antennae, mainly). In some specimens are observed in the mouth secretions transparent and light yellow in the anal region (under study), response evidenced in adult insects control of this species (author)

  5. Do rice water weevils and rice stem borers compete when sharing a host plant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Sheng-Wei; He, Yan; Ji, Xiang-Hua; Jiang, Ming-Xing; Cheng, Jia-An

    2008-07-01

    The rice water weevil (RWW) Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus Kuschel (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is an invasive insect pest of rice Oryza sativa L. in China. Little is known about the interactions of this weevil with indigenous herbivores. In the present study, adult feeding and population density of the weevil, injury level of striped stem borer Chilo suppressalis (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and pink stem borer Sesamia inferens (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) to rice, as well as growth status of their host plants were surveyed in a rice field located in Southeastern Zhejiang, China, in 2004 with the objective to discover interspecific interactions on the rice. At tillering stage, both adult feeding of the weevil and injury of the stem borers tended to occur on larger tillers (bearing 5 leaves) compared with small tillers (bearing 2~4 leaves), but the insects showed no evident competition with each other. At booting stage, the stem borers caused more withering/dead hearts and the weevil reached a higher density on the plants which had more productive tillers and larger root system; the number of weevils per tiller correlated negatively with the percentage of withering/dead hearts of plants in a hill. These observations indicate that interspecific interactions exist between the rice water weevil and the rice stem borers with negative relations occurring at booting or earlier developmental stages of rice.

  6. Do rice water weevils and rice stem borers compete when sharing a host plant?*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Sheng-wei; He, Yan; Ji, Xiang-hua; Jiang, Ming-xing; Cheng, Jia-an

    2008-01-01

    The rice water weevil (RWW) Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus Kuschel (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is an invasive insect pest of rice Oryza sativa L. in China. Little is known about the interactions of this weevil with indigenous herbivores. In the present study, adult feeding and population density of the weevil, injury level of striped stem borer Chilo suppressalis (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and pink stem borer Sesamia inferens (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) to rice, as well as growth status of their host plants were surveyed in a rice field located in Southeastern Zhejiang, China, in 2004 with the objective to discover interspecific interactions on the rice. At tillering stage, both adult feeding of the weevil and injury of the stem borers tended to occur on larger tillers (bearing 5 leaves) compared with small tillers (bearing 2~4 leaves), but the insects showed no evident competition with each other. At booting stage, the stem borers caused more withering/dead hearts and the weevil reached a higher density on the plants which had more productive tillers and larger root system; the number of weevils per tiller correlated negatively with the percentage of withering/dead hearts of plants in a hill. These observations indicate that interspecific interactions exist between the rice water weevil and the rice stem borers with negative relations occurring at booting or earlier developmental stages of rice. PMID:18600788

  7. Physico-chemical and sensorial characteristics of rice (Oryza sativa L.) irradiated and the effect in Sitophilus oryzae L. development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zanao, Cintia Fernanda Pedroso

    2007-01-01

    Rice is exposed to injuries especially due to the attack of insects, which represent great qualitative and quantitative losses. The aim of the present research was to verify the viability of the gamma irradiation as rice (Oryza sativa L.) conservation method; its efficiency in the control of an important pest for stored grains Sitophilus oryzae L. and the effects that irradiation may present in irradiated grains in relation to the sensory aspect and starch alterations. Samples were composed of polished rice and the gamma irradiation dosages used were 0.5; 1.0; 3.0; and 5.0 kGy, and kept at room temperature. Analyses of the grain breakage percentages during processing and the longevity and reproduction of the rice weevil were performed. Analyses of the centesimal composition, phytic acid, apparent amylose content and starch paste properties were also conducted, as well as analyses of the rice color (instrumental) and acceptability (hedonic test), aimed at the determination of the raw and cooked rice sensory quality. It was verified that the gamma irradiation did not change the grain breakage percentage significantly and caused a negative effect on the insect development. Irradiation did not change the centesimal composition significantly. No significant values of phytic acid were found because during rice processing, the outer part (bran) containing 85-92% of total phytates was removed. Values from 17.33 to 18.44% for the apparent amylose content were found, and irradiation did not affect the rice starch amylose content significantly. The paste properties results were significantly changed, where reduction on the paste temperature, decrease on the time for the occurrence of the peak viscosity, reduction on the final viscosity values were observed. The retrogradation tendency became less intense in starches with increasing irradiation dosages. Statistical differences (p<0.05) were detected in the sensory aspect between irradiated and non-irradiated samples, and the

  8. Resistance of irradiated and non-irradiated corn grain genotypes against the weevil Sitophilus zeamais Mots., 1855 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Carolina Natali de

    2005-01-01

    The resistance of 13 /////com grain genotypes was evaluated against the attack of Sitophilus zeamais (Mots.) by means of a no-choice test; 6 of them were selected (AGN 2012, AGN 30AOO, AGN 31A31, AGN 25A23, AGN 32A43, and AGN 35A42) and then submitted to a free-choice test where attractiveness and non preference for oviposition were assessed. The grain from the selected genotypes were later treated with Cobalt-60 gamma radiation at the doses of 0.0; 0.5; 1.0; and 1.5 kGy and submitted to the same tests. Based on the results, it was verified that genotypes AGN 2012 (30.6 eggs), AGN 31A31 (33.6 eggs), and AGN 30AOO (34.8 eggs) showed a non-preference for oviposition type of resistance, while non-preference for feeding and/or antibiosis were observed in the first two genotypes only. Genotypes AGN 25A23, AGN 32A43, and AGN 35A42 were the most susceptible to com weevil. The increasing gamma radiation ( 60 Co) doses reduced the mean mass of adults in genotype AGN 2012; however, the same parameter increased in genotype AGN 35A42; when treated at the dose of 1.5 kGy, genotypes AGN 2012 and AGN 31A31 showed a reduction in their mean masses of adults, while genotypes AGN 30AOO and AGN 35A42 showed higher mean mass of adults values. The increasing gamma radiation doses ( 60 Co) provided a reduction in mean grain dry mass consumed by the weevil; however, it was concluded that irradiation did not break com grain resistance and can be used for S. zeamais disinfestation prior to storage. (author)

  9. EFFECT OF PLANT ESSENTIAL OILS ON THE DEVELOPMENT AND FERTILITY OF GRAIN WEEVIL (SITOPHILUS GRANARIUS L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA WAWRZYNIAK

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available There was analyzed the effect of selected essential oils (orange, lemon, vanilla, linden blossom, thyme, geranium and tea oils on the development and fertility of the most dangerous cereal grain storage pest, grain weevil. Based on the results obtained, it was observed that a strong effect limiting the population of grain weevil was found for vanilla and orange oils. In the experiment combinations which involved essential oils, there was observed a prolonged pest development cycle and a higher mortality of maternal individuals than in the other tests. On the other hand, the lowest fecundity rate was recorded in the combination in which thyme oil was tested.

  10. On-farm management practices against rice root weevil (Echinocnemus oryzae Marshall)

    OpenAIRE

    Rakesh Pandey; Ajit Kumar Chaturvedi; Rudal Prasad Chaudhary; Rajendra Prasad

    2017-01-01

    Rice is the staple food of over half the world's population and occupies almost one-fifth of the global cropland under cereals. The rice root weevil, Echinocnemus oryzae Marshall, (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) has posed a problem in paddy cultivation areas in India. The damage by this root weevil results in a significant decrease in root and shoot biomass and ultimately the yield of rice plants. Studies were conducted to test the effective management practices of rice root weevil using a seedli...

  11. Fumigant Compounds from the Essential Oil of Chinese Blumea balsamifera Leaves against the Maize Weevil (Sitophilus zeamais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sha Sha Chu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Essential oil of Chinese medicinal herb, Blumea balsamifera leaves, was found to possess fumigant toxicity against the maize weevils, Sitophilus zeamais. The main components of the essential oil of B. balsamifera were 1,8-cineole (20.98%, borneol (11.99%, β-caryophyllene (10.38%, camphor (8.06%, 4-terpineol (6.49%, α-terpineol (5.91%, and caryophyllene oxide (5.35%. Bioactivity-guided chromatographic separation of the essential oil on repeated silica gel columns led to isolate five constituent compounds, namely, 1,8-cineole, borneol, camphor, α-terpineol, and 4-terpineol. 1,8-Cineole, 4-terpineol, and α-terpineol showed pronounced fumigant toxicity against S. zeamais adults (LC50 = 2.96 mg/L, 4.79 mg/L, and 7.45 mg/L air, resp. and were more toxic than camphor (LC50 = 21.64 mg/L air and borneol (LC50 = 21.67 mg/L air. The crude essential oil also possessed strong fumigant toxicity against S. zeamais adults (LC50 = 10.71 mg/L air.

  12. Locomotory and physiological responses induced by clove and cinnamon essential oils in the maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales Correa, Yenis Del Carmen; Faroni, Lêda R A; Haddi, Khalid; Oliveira, Eugênio E; Pereira, Eliseu José G

    2015-11-01

    Plant essential oils have been suggested as a suitable alternative for controlling stored pests worldwide. However, very little is known about the physiological or behavioral responses induced by these compounds in insect populations that are resistant to traditional insecticides. Thus, this investigation evaluated the toxicity (including the impacts on population growth) as well as the locomotory and respiratory responses induced by clove, Syzygium aromaticum L., and cinnamon, Cinnamomum zeylanicum L., essential oils in Brazilian populations of the maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais. We used populations that are resistant to phosphine and pyrethroids (PyPhR), only resistant to pyrethroids (PyR1 and PyR2) or susceptible to both insecticide types (SUS). The PyPhR population was more tolerant to cinnamon essential oil, and its population growth rate was less affected by both oil types. Insects from this population reduced their respiratory rates (i.e., CO2 production) after being exposed to both oil types and avoided (in free choice-experiments) or reduced their mobility on essential oil-treated surfaces. The PyR1 and PyR2 populations reduced their respiratory rates, avoided (without changing their locomotory behavior in no-choice experiments) essential oil-treated surfaces and their population growth rates were severely affected by both oil types. Individuals from SUS population increased their mobility on surfaces that were treated with both oil types and showed the highest levels of susceptibility to these oils. Our findings indicate that S. zeamais populations that are resistant to traditional insecticides might have distinct but possibly overlapping mechanisms to mitigate the actions of essential oils and traditional insecticides. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Enhanced activity of carbohydrate- and lipid-metabolizing enzymes in insecticide-resistant populations of the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, R A; Guedes, R N C; Oliveira, M G A; Ferreira, G H

    2008-08-01

    Insecticide resistance is frequently associated with fitness disadvantages in the absence of insecticides. However, intense past selection with insecticides may allow the evolution of fitness modifier alleles that mitigate the cost of insecticide resistance and their consequent fitness disadvantages. Populations of Sitophilus zeamais with different levels of susceptibility to insecticides show differences in the accumulation and mobilization of energy reserves. These differences may allow S. zeamais to better withstand toxic compounds without reducing the beetles' reproductive fitness. Enzymatic assays with carbohydrate- and lipid-metabolizing enzymes were, therefore, carried out to test this hypothesis. Activity levels of trehalase, glycogen phosphorylase, lipase, glycosidase and amylase were determined in two insecticide-resistant populations showing (resistant cost) or not showing (resistant no-cost) associated fitness cost, and in an insecticide-susceptible population. Respirometry bioassays were also carried out with these weevil populations. The resistant no-cost population showed significantly higher body mass and respiration rate than the other two populations, which were similar. No significant differences in glycogen phosphorylase and glycosidase were observed among the populations. Among the enzymes studied, trehalase and lipase showed higher activity in the resistant cost population. The results obtained in the assays with amylase also indicate significant differences in activity among the populations, but with higher activity in the resistant no-cost population. The inverse activity trends of lipases and amylases in both resistant populations, one showing fitness disadvantage without insecticide exposure and the other not showing it, may underlay the mitigation of insecticide resistance physiological costs observed in the resistant no-cost population. The higher amylase activity observed in the resistant no-cost population may favor energy storage

  14. Resistance of Rice Varieties to the Stored-Product Insect, Sitophilus zeamais (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, Catarina; Mendes, Raquel; Lima, Arlindo; Barros, Graça; Fields, Paul; Da Costa, Luísa Beirão; Rodrigues, José Carlos; Silva, Maria José; Correia, Augusto Manuel; Carvalho, Maria Otilia

    2016-02-01

    Four common Portuguese rice varieties--Thaibonnet, Gladio, Albatros, and Eurosis--were tested for their relative susceptibility to Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky, a common pest of stored rice in Portugal and in tropical countries. Physical (moisture content, hardness, length, and width) and chemical (by attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy) properties of rice kernels were measured. Insect bioassays measured median developmental time, Dobie's index of susceptibility, percentage of damaged grains and weight loss, and progeny developed. This was done for paddy, brown rice, and polished rice for each variety. There were small, but significant, differences in insect resistance among the varieties. However, it was different for paddy and polished rice. In paddy, these differences were correlated with hull damage, and Eurosis was the most susceptible variety. In polished rice, resistance was correlated with hardness, and Thaibonnet was the most susceptible variety. In general, paddy rice was more resistant to insect attack, followed by polished rice and then brown rice. Paddy kernels selected with undamaged hull were completely resistant to attack. Implications for IPM and breeding for resistant varieties are discussed. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Comparison of insecticidal efficacy of four natural substances against granary weevil (Sitophilus granarius [L.]) adults: does the combined use of the substances improve their efficacy?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohinc, T.; Trdan, S.

    2017-07-01

    Laboratory tests were carried out to evaluate the insecticidal efficacy of different natural inert dusts (diatomaceous earth, wood ash, quartz sand) and the leaf powder of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. against granary weevil (Sitophilus granarius [L.]) adults. The efficacy of the substances was tested individually and in combination with each other. The substances were applied at different concentrations, and bioassays were carried out at four different temperatures (20, 25, 30 and 35°C) and two different relative humidity (RH) levels (55% and 75%). The adult mortality was recorded after the 7th, 14th and 21st days of exposure. The progeny production of individuals exposed to different combinations was also assessed. Wood ash proved to be the most efficient inert dust in our research. We detected 100% mortality in the treatment exposed to a higher concentration (5 w%) of wood ash at 35°C and 55% RH after 7 days of exposure. A lower RH level had also a negative impact on the progeny production. We can conclude that wood ash can be efficient in controlling granary weevil adults as a single substance or in combination with other substances. Further surveys should focus on the impact of the wood ash dose rates. Due to the high percentage of area covered with forest in some European countries, the main ingredient is present locally, but additional surveys are needed to help improve the practical use of wood ash.

  16. Comparison of insecticidal efficacy of four natural substances against granary weevil (Sitophilus granarius [L.] adults: does the combined use of the substances improve their efficacy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Bohinc

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory tests were carried out to evaluate the insecticidal efficacy of different natural inert dusts (diatomaceous earth, wood ash, quartz sand and the leaf powder of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. against granary weevil (Sitophilus granarius [L.] adults. The efficacy of the substances was tested individually and in combination with each other. The substances were applied at different concentrations, and bioassays were carried out at four different temperatures (20, 25, 30 and 35°C and two different relative humidity (RH levels (55% and 75%. The adult mortality was recorded after the 7th, 14th and 21st days of exposure. The progeny production of individuals exposed to different combinations was also assessed. Wood ash proved to be the most efficient inert dust in our research. We detected 100% mortality in the treatment exposed to a higher concentration (5 w% of wood ash at 35°C and 55% RH after 7 days of exposure. A lower RH level had also a negative impact on the progeny production. We can conclude that wood ash can be efficient in controlling granary weevil adults as a single substance or in combination with other substances. Further surveys should focus on the impact of the wood ash dose rates. Due to the high percentage of area covered with forest in some European countries, the main ingredient is present locally, but additional surveys are needed to help improve the practical use of wood ash.

  17. The influence of package and gamma radiation in the quarantine treatment of Sitophilus Orizae in rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modolo, Debora M.; Oliveira, Ana Claudia S.; Silva, Lucia C.A.S.; Arthur, Valter; Harder, Marcia N.C.; Arthur, Paula B.; Lima, Roberta B.

    2009-01-01

    There are a variety of insect and pests that damage stored grains, therefore, the need for better conservation with advanced technology, high efficiency, absence of side effects, irradiation has been used as an alternative method to control these insects, being completely the opposite the chemical treatment, which leaves waste and is not always efficient enough. This study has the objective to use the gamma radiation from Cobalt-60 for the control of Sitophilus oryzae, in plastic package with previously infested rice and artificially reinfested. In this research was used 3 types of samples: 'Prato Fino' rice's package, crystal sugar's package and 'Namorado' rice's package. It were packages (bags) of 10x5cm for each type of sample, containing holes for gases exchange. Each pack contained 20g of wholemeal rice and 10 adult insects of the species S. oryzae. The samples were irradiated with dose of 1 kGy to make disinfestations under a dose rate of 0.560 Gy/hour and more the non-irradiated sample (control). After irradiation the bags were placed in a glass bottle with the volume of 3 liters and it were added 300 adult insects in the same bottle to induce reinfestation. This container was closed and after 60 days was calculated the number of living and dead insects existing in each package. The experiment was developed in a room with temperature 25 ± 5 deg C and relative humidity of 60 ± 5%. With the results obtained, it was concluded that the packages containing holes for gases exchange from inside to outside of the package showed more ease of penetration of insects, while the two packages without holes prevented the reinfestation of insects. The dose of 1 kGy was sufficient to induce disinfestations of rice. (author)

  18. Evaluation of freshly prepared juice from garlic (Allium sativum L. as a biopesticide against the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais (Motsch. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nwachukwu Ifeanyi Daniel

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Freshly prepared garlic (Allium sativum L. juice, containing the antimicrobial allicin, was evaluated as a possible grain pro-tectant against the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais (Motsch.. Each experiment was set out in Completely Randomized Design (CRD with four replications, and there was a control treatment. Adult mortality and weight loss percentage were investigated. There was an observed increase in adult mortality following days of exposure in all treatments. Statistically significant (p < 0.05 reduced grain loss was also observed in all the treatments when compared with the control. The juice samples were freshly prepared from an indigenous Nigerian garlic cultivar (GUN and a cultivar purchased from a supermarket in Germany (GAG. These garlic juice samples exhibited lethal effects causing at least 90% adult mortality in contact toxicity tests. The amount of allicin in GUN was 1.88 mg/ml according to High Pressure Liquids Chromatography (HPLC analysis, while the amount of allicin in GAG was 3.50 mg/ml. This study highlights the potential of A. sativum containing allicin for biorational control of maize grains against S. zeamais infestation and damage.

  19. Elimination of Sitophilus oryzae (L.) by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, Fernanda Peixoto

    2005-01-01

    Food treatment by exposure to ionizing radiation, known as food irradiation, presents several attractive features such as: leaving no residues, posing no threat to consumer health, usually causing no damage to sensory or nutritional properties and acting uniformly throughout the volume of the products. This work investigated the efficiency of irradiation for eliminating Sitophilus oryzae (L.), also known as 'the rice weevil', a small beetle frequently found in infested grains. A total of 444 individuals of Sitophilus oryzae (L.) found in corn meal and noodles supplies were irradiated with gamma ray doses of 0, 0.6, 0.9, 1.0, 1.2, 1.5 and 2.0 kGy and then visually monitored for 4 days in order to determine the number of insects still alive. The least-squares fitting method was used to determine the survival curves as functions of post-irradiation time and dose. The living fraction of the irradiated population was found to decrease exponentially with time. The results indicated that doses of 2.0, 1.5 and 0.6 kGy cause immediate death, instantaneous immobility and death of the species within one week, respectively. The findings suggest that disinfestation of Sitophilus oryzae (L.) by irradiation is an interesting option to the dangerous use of toxic chemicals. (author)

  20. Elimination of Sitophilus oryzae (L.) by irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Fernanda Peixoto [Exercito Brasileiro, Brasilia, DF (Brazil). Diretoria de Suprimento. Dept. Logistico]. E-mail: peixotocastro@dlog.eb.mil.br; Vital, Helio de Carvalho [Centro Tecnologico do Exercito (CTEx), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (brazil)]. E-mail: vital@ctex.eb.br

    2005-07-01

    Food treatment by exposure to ionizing radiation, known as food irradiation, presents several attractive features such as: leaving no residues, posing no threat to consumer health, usually causing no damage to sensory or nutritional properties and acting uniformly throughout the volume of the products. This work investigated the efficiency of irradiation for eliminating Sitophilus oryzae (L.), also known as 'the rice weevil', a small beetle frequently found in infested grains. A total of 444 individuals of Sitophilus oryzae (L.) found in corn meal and noodles supplies were irradiated with gamma ray doses of 0, 0.6, 0.9, 1.0, 1.2, 1.5 and 2.0 kGy and then visually monitored for 4 days in order to determine the number of insects still alive. The least-squares fitting method was used to determine the survival curves as functions of post-irradiation time and dose. The living fraction of the irradiated population was found to decrease exponentially with time. The results indicated that doses of 2.0, 1.5 and 0.6 kGy cause immediate death, instantaneous immobility and death of the species within one week, respectively. The findings suggest that disinfestation of Sitophilus oryzae (L.) by irradiation is an interesting option to the dangerous use of toxic chemicals. (author)

  1. Influence of Rice Seeding Rate on Efficacies of Neonicotinoid and Anthranilic Diamide Seed Treatments against Rice Water Weevil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Hamm

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Rice in the U.S. is frequently seeded at low rates and treated before sowing with neonicotinoid or anthranilic diamide insecticides to target the rice water weevil. A previous study of the influence of seeding rate on rice water weevil densities showed an inverse relationship between seeding rates and immature weevil densities. This study investigated interactive effects of seeding rate and seed treatment on weevil densities and rice yields; in particular, experiments were designed to determine whether seed treatments were less effective at low seeding rates. Four experiments were conducted over three years by varying seeding rates of rice treated at constant per seed rates of insecticide. Larval suppression by chlorantraniliprole was superior to thiamethoxam or clothianidin, and infestations at low seeding rates were up to 47% higher than at high seeding rates. Little evidence was found for the hypothesis that seed treatments are less effective at low seeding rates; in only one of four experiments was the reduction in weevil densities by thiamethoxam greater at high than at low seeding rates. However, suppression of larvae by neonicotinoid seed treatments in plots seeded at low rates was generally poor, and caution must be exercised when using the neonicotioids at low seeding rates.

  2. The influence of irradiated wheat on longevity and reproduction of the grain weevil sitophilus granarius LINNE 1758

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthur, V.; Wiendl, F.M.; Franco, S.S.H.

    1993-01-01

    The main objective of the present research was to determine the influence of gamma irradiations on wheat, the diet of the grain weevil, using as parameters of the longevity and reproduction of this insect. The doses of 60 Co γ-rays applied to wheat grains were 0(control), 125, 250, 500, 1000, 2000, and 4000 Gy, at a dose rate of 3000 Gy per hour. The longevity, expressed as life-expectancy in days, and the reproduction expressed as the number of F 1 adults, showed no differences up to the dose of 2000 Gy. The wheat irradiated with the dose of 4000 Gy induced a lower life-expectancy of the insects fed with irradiated wheat and a smaller number of insects of the F 1 generation

  3. On-farm management practices against rice root weevil (Echinocnemus oryzae Marshall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Pandey

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Rice is the staple food of over half the world's population and occupies almost one-fifth of the global cropland under cereals. The rice root weevil, Echinocnemus oryzae Marshall, (Coleoptera: Curculionidae has posed a problem in paddy cultivation areas in India. The damage by this root weevil results in a significant decrease in root and shoot biomass and ultimately the yield of rice plants. Studies were conducted to test the effective management practices of rice root weevil using a seedling treatment with chlorpyriphos alone and in combination with a soil application of chlorpyriphos, fipronil and cartap hydrochloride during 2013 and 2014. The benefit:cost (B:C ratio was also determined from the marketable yield and cost of treatments incurred in the technology to justify the economic viability of the appropriate technology management against E. oryzae. Reductions in tillers/hill (35.2% and 26.27% and, in panicles/hill (44.0% and 31.96% were observed during 2013 and 2014, respectively. The least number of root weevils (3.67 and 3.13 were observed in comparison to no root weevil management practice (23.53 and 32.53 during 2013 and 2014, respectively, from the treatment of seedlings prior to transplanting with chlorpyriphos at 3 mL/L of water followed by soil application with cartap hydrochloride at 20 kg/ha. The highest numbers of tillers/hill (25.00 and 23.60, numbers of panicles/hill (20.00 and 19.40, yield (5.41 t/ha and 4.57 t/ha and B:C ratio (1.75 and 1.48 were also observed from the same treatment during 2013 and 2014, respectively.

  4. Variation of Body Size in Rice Water Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Its Associations with Population Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Yunshan; Ao, Yan; Jiang, Mingxing; Way, Michael O

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Life history characteristics help us to determine the ability of invasive species to establish and thrive in an exotic environment. However, so far, there have been very few reports concerning geographic variation in the body size of invasive insects and the associations between body size variation and population biology. In this study, we surveyed the geographic variation in body size of an invasive agricultural pest, the rice water weevil Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus Kuschel (Coleopte...

  5. The control of stored rice pests by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiendl, F.M.

    1983-01-01

    The advantages of nuclear energy application in pest control of foods are emphasized. The following topics are ruled out: grain production; food storage and infestation; entomological researches with insects of stored products, specially rice; researches carried out in Brazil with Sitophilus zeamais Mots and Sitophilus oryzae L.; moths of greater power; the methodology applied to the study of radiation sterilizing doses for woodworms, weevils and moths that infest grains and stored products; palatability-and wholesomeness assays and, at least, stock maintenance. (M.A.) [pt

  6. Reproductive Plasticity of an Invasive Insect Pest, Rice Water Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yunshang; Ao, Yan; Jiang, Mingxing

    2017-12-05

    Reproductive plasticity is a key determinant of species invasiveness. However, there are a limited number of studies addressing this issue in exotic insects. The rice water weevil Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus Kuschel (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), which is native to North America, is one of the most invasive insect pests in east Asia. In this study, we investigated the reproductive status of first-generation females (progeny of overwintered weevils) from five geographic regions in southern and northern China in the field, and reproductive status and ovipositional features of females provided with suitable host plants in the laboratory after collection. Under field conditions, a proportion of females oviposited, while the rest remained in diapause from all three southern regions investigated, but reproductive development did not take place in females from the two northern regions, where the weevil produces only one generation per year. However, when fed host plants in the laboratory, females from all regions laid eggs. They typically had a very short ovipositional period (3-6 d on average on rice at a temperature of 27°C), laid a low number of eggs, and did not die soon after oviposition; this was different from common reproductive females. We concluded that first-generation L. oryzophilus females, which largely enter diapause after emergence, are highly plastic in their reproductive performance and are ready to reproduce under favorable conditions. Our results indicate the significance of their reproductive plasticity for geographic spread and population development. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Identification of species and geographical strains of Sitophilus oryzae and Sitophilus zeamais using the visible/near-infrared hyperspectral imaging technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yang; Zhang, Chaojie; Chen, Quansheng; Li, Yanyu; Qi, Shuai; Tian, Lin; Ren, YongLin

    2015-08-01

    Identifying stored-product insects is essential for granary management. Automated, computer-based classification methods are rapidly developing in many areas. A hyperspectral imaging technique could potentially be developed to identify stored-product insect species and geographical strains. This study tested and adapted the technique using four geographical strains of each of two insect species, the rice weevil and maize weevil, to collect and analyse the resultant hyperspectral data. Three characteristic images that corresponded to the dominant wavelengths, 505, 659 and 955 nm, were selected by multivariate image analysis. Each image was processed, and 22 morphological and textural features from regions of interest were extracted as the inputs for an identification model. We found the backpropagation neural network model to be the superior method for distinguishing between the insect species and geographical strains. The overall recognition rates of the classification model for insect species were 100 and 98.13% for the calibration and prediction sets respectively, while the rates of the model for geographical strains were 94.17 and 86.88% respectively. This study has demonstrated that hyperspectral imaging, together with the appropriate recognition method, could provide a potential instrument for identifying insects and could become a useful tool for identification of Sitophilus oryzae and Sitophilus zeamais to aid in the management of stored-product insects. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. (Allium sativum L.) Liliaceae as protectants against the maize weevil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    REV. FR. ANTHONY

    2014-03-05

    , was evaluated as a possible grain protectant against the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais (Motsch.). Each experiment was set out in completely randomized design (CRD) with four replications and a control treatment. Adult.

  9. Interspecific competition between Sitophilus zeamais and Sitotroga cerealella in a patchy environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nykjær Larsen, Marie; Nachman, Gösta Støger; Skovgaard, Henrik

    2005-01-01

    The maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais (Motchulsky) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), and the Angoumois grain moth, Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), are important insect pests of stored products. The coexistence in nature of the two species on maize has been difficult to explai...

  10. Toxic effects of essential plant oils in adult Sitophilus oryzae (Linnaeus (Coleoptera, Curculionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Roveré Franz

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Toxic effects of essential plant oils in adult Sitophilus oryzae (Linnaeus (Coleoptera, Curculionidae. Stored grains are subject to losses in quality nutritional value and in sanitation from the time they are stored to the time they are consumed. Botanical insecticides may offer an alternative solution for pest control. The objective was to test the insecticidal properties of the essential oils of Cymbopogon citratus (leaf, Zingiber officinale (root and Mentha sp. (leaf. The efficacy of these oils was tested to control the rice weevil, S. oryzae, using hydrodistillation. Chemical analysis of the essential oils was carried out by gas chromatography. Major components of C. citratus were geranial (48% and neral (31%, of Z. officinale were α-zingibereno (13%, geranial (16%, neral (10% and α-farneseno (5% and of Mentha sp. was menthol (92%. Bioassays were carried out by fumigation and topical application. In topical application assays, the essential oil of C. citratus had greater toxicity (LC50 0.027 µL mL-1 and shorter exposure time than the oils of the other two plants. After 24 h and 48 h, 70% and 100% mortality of S. oryzae occurred, respectively. In fumigation assays, essential oil of Z. officinale had a lower LC50 (1.18 µL cm-2 and 70% mortality after 24 h exposure. Therefore, we recommend the use of essential oils of C. citratus and Z. officinale to control the rice weevil S. oryzae.

  11. Microwave radiation effects on the different stages of Sitophilus oryzae (Linne, 1763) (Coleoptera, Curculionidae) evolutive cycle in rice, focusing its control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franco, Jose G.; Franco, Suely S.H.; Franco, Caio H.; Arthur, Paula B.; Arthur, Valter

    2013-01-01

    As insects increase in radio tolerance as they develop and usually several developmental stages of pest may present in grain shipped commodity, it is important to know the microwave radiation susceptibility of stages of the target insect before the establishment of microwave radiation quarantine treatments. The current research had the aim to evaluate the microwave radiation effects on several phases of the rice weevil evolution cycle (S.oryzae), focusing its control. This specie is considered as on of the most serious worldwide pests for stored grains. The tests have been done in glass vials with 250 grams of whole grain (brown) rice and the irradiation was done in a 2,450 MHz commercial microwave oven, model Carousel II (potency of 800W). It was determined the exposure time needed to each phase control for the insect evolutive cycle, concluding that the immature phases (larvae and pupae), contained inside the rice, are more sensitive, requiring only 100 seconds to obtain 100% control while the egg phase requires a longer exposure (130 seconds). Referring to the grown phase, the time required to attain the lethal dose was 160 seconds. All the exposure time have been irradiated with a low potency (240 W). It also displayed that to greater quantities of rice (1.0 kg), with egg presence and forming a 2.0-centimeter layer on the microwave plate surface, it required an exposure time of 180 seconds. Therefore, in a more effective way, we can recommend these 180 seconds exposure time to the control of all phases concerning the insect evolutive cycle. (author)

  12. Microwave radiation effects on the different stages of Sitophilus oryzae (Linne, 1763) (Coleoptera, Curculionidae) evolutive cycle in rice, focusing its control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franco, Jose G.; Franco, Suely S.H., E-mail: gilmita@uol.com.br, E-mail: zegilmar60@gmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Franco, Caio H.; Arthur, Paula B.; Arthur, Valter, E-mail: caiohaddadfranco@lnbio.cnpem.com.br, E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Radiobiologia e Ambiente

    2013-07-01

    As insects increase in radio tolerance as they develop and usually several developmental stages of pest may present in grain shipped commodity, it is important to know the microwave radiation susceptibility of stages of the target insect before the establishment of microwave radiation quarantine treatments. The current research had the aim to evaluate the microwave radiation effects on several phases of the rice weevil evolution cycle (S.oryzae), focusing its control. This specie is considered as on of the most serious worldwide pests for stored grains. The tests have been done in glass vials with 250 grams of whole grain (brown) rice and the irradiation was done in a 2,450 MHz commercial microwave oven, model Carousel II (potency of 800W). It was determined the exposure time needed to each phase control for the insect evolutive cycle, concluding that the immature phases (larvae and pupae), contained inside the rice, are more sensitive, requiring only 100 seconds to obtain 100% control while the egg phase requires a longer exposure (130 seconds). Referring to the grown phase, the time required to attain the lethal dose was 160 seconds. All the exposure time have been irradiated with a low potency (240 W). It also displayed that to greater quantities of rice (1.0 kg), with egg presence and forming a 2.0-centimeter layer on the microwave plate surface, it required an exposure time of 180 seconds. Therefore, in a more effective way, we can recommend these 180 seconds exposure time to the control of all phases concerning the insect evolutive cycle. (author)

  13. Efeito da irradiação gama nas características físico-químicas e sensoriais do arroz (Oryza sativa L. e no desenvolvimento de Sitophilus oryzae L. Effect of gamma irradiation on physico-chemical and sensorial characteristics of rice (Oryza sativa L. and on the development of Sitophilus oryzae L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cíntia Fernanda Pedroso Zanão

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available A pesquisa teve como objetivo verificar a viabilidade da radiação gama como método de conservação do arroz polido (Oryza sativa L.. As amostras foram irradiadas com doses 0,5; 1,0; 3,0; e 5,0 kGy. Foram realizadas análises da quebra do grão no beneficiamento, da longevidade e reprodução do Sitophilus oryzae L., a composição centesimal, o conteúdo de amilose aparente e propriedades de pasta dos amidos, e análises para cor (instrumental e análise sensorial do arroz cru e cozido. Foi utilizado teste de Tukey (p The objective of this research was to verify the viability of the gamma radiation as polished rice (Oryza sativa L. conservation method. The samples were irradiated with doses of 0.5; 1.0; 3.0; and 5.0 kGy. Analysis of the grain breakage during the enriching process, longevity and reproduction of the Sitophilus oryzae L., centesimal composition, apparent amylose content, starch paste properties, color (instrumental, and the sensorial evaluation of raw and cooked rice were performed. It was verified that the irradiation did not change the percentage of grain breakage during the enrichment process, and it caused a negative effect on the development of insects. The irradiation did not change significantly the centesimal composition and the apparent amylase content. The Tukey test (p < 0.05 was conducted to verify the differences between the treatments. Gamma irradiation affected the pasting properties of the rice flour. Pasting parameters as temperature, peak, final viscosity, and setback values showed decreasing values with irradiation doses. Differences were detected in the sensorial aspect among the samples, and the sample irradiated with the dose of 1.0 kGy presented greater averages. Regarding the instrumental color parameter, it was observed the difference in the values b* indicating that the rice changed the white color for yellowish with the increase in the irradiation dose. The irradiation dose of 1.0 kGy proved the best

  14. Development and Life History of Sitophilus zeamais (Coleoptera: Curculionidae on Cereal Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Adebayo Ojo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, is one of the most destructive pests of stored cereals. Knowledge of the life history and biology is important to the development of an integrated pest management program. Investigation was carried out on developmental biology of S. zeamais on four main cereal crops, maize, rice, sorghum, and millet, under laboratory conditions. Egg incubation, oviposition periods, and larval instar development were not different significantly among the food hosts. Number of eggs laid varied significantly among the cereal grains; mean fecundity was highest on maize (67.2±3.16 and lowest on millet (53.8±0.17. Number of immature (larva and pupa and adult stages varied significantly among the cereal grains. There exist four larval instars with a varied mean head capsule width, with a mean total instar larval developmental period of 23.1, 22.2, 22.2, and 21.6 d on maize, rice, sorghum, and millet, respectively. There was linear relationship and significant correlation between the stages of larval development and head capsule width. The mean developmental period from egg to adult varied, being highest on maize (34.7 d and lowest on sorghum (33.5 d.

  15. [Radiation induced changes in the cuticular hydrocarbons of the granary weevil and their relationship to dessication and adult mortality]. Half-yearly report, February 15-August 14, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    Granary weevil (Sitophilus granarius) were irradiated with cesium-137 derived gamma radiation at various age groups. Hydrocarbon analysis of epicuticles were studied chromatographically and by mass spectroscopy. 3 figs., 4 tabs. (DT)

  16. Protection of Grain Products from Sitophilus oryzae (L.) Contamination by Anti-Insect Pest Repellent Sachet Containing Allyl Mercaptan Microcapsule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yoonjee; Lee, Soo-Hyun; Na, Ja Hyun; Chang, Pahn-Shick; Han, Jaejoon

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an anti-insect pest repellent sachet to prevent Sitophilus oryzae (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) contamination in grain packaging. The anti-insect pest activities of essential oils (EOs) from garlic (Allium Sativum), ginger (Zingiber Officinalis), black pepper (Piper nigrum), onion (Allium cepa), and fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) as well as major compounds (allyl disulfide, AD; allyl mercaptan, AM) isolated from of garlic and onion (AD and AM) were measured against S. oryzae. The results revealed that garlic EO, onion EO, AD, and AM showed strong fumigant insecticidal activities. Among these, AM showed the highest acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition rate, indicating that the fumigation insecticidal efficacy of AM is related with its AChE inhibition ability. Subsequently, the microcapsules were produced with a high efficiency (80.02%) by using AM as a core material and rice flour as a wall material. Finally, sachet composed of rice flour microcapsule containing 2% AM (RAM) was produced. Repellent assay was performed to measure anti-insect pest ability of the RAM sachet, showed remarkable repelling effect within 48 h both in the presence or absence of attractant. In a release profile of RAM sachet, it was expected to last over 20 mo during the distribution period of brown rice. Moreover, RAM sachet showed no undesirable changes to the sensory properties of the rice both before and after cooking. Taken together, these results suggest that the newly developed RAM sachet could be used as a packaging material to protect grain products from S. oryzae contamination. The rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), causes damages to stored products and its contamination in grain products has become a major problem in cereal market. To preserve brown rice, an anti-insect pest repellent sachet containing 2% allyl mercaptan was newly developed and it showed remarkable repellent abilities against S. oryzae. It

  17. Perception of gamma radiation by adults of Sitophilus zeamais mots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiendl, F.M.; Walder, J.M.M.

    1975-05-01

    Perception of gamma radiation by living organisms has been evidenced only a few times. The occurence of such perception with maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky is presented. Tubes containing maize weevil were placed in a radial position to a gamma source. Counting of the insects inside the tubes at different distances from the source was made immediately after irradiation. It was noticed that the insects submitted to irradiation had been driven away from the source as compared with those not submitted (control). A possible relationship exists between this effect and the Cerenkov effect which affects directly the visual organs of the insect. This is probably due to the fact that the insects have a large quantity of water in the occular cells

  18. Use of radiation disinfestation in the control of rice insect pests during storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Kady, E.A.

    1981-01-01

    Rice weevil (Sitophilus oryzae), red flour beetle (Tribolium castaeneum), saw-toothed grain beetle (Oryzaephilus surinamensis), and flour moth (Ephestia kuehniella) are commonly found in Egyptian stored rice. The aim of this project is to carry out a study of a pilot-scale radiation disinfestation of these rice insect pests in an amount large enough to extrapolate data for later commercial practice. Fumigation treatments with phostoxin, methyl bromide and a combination treatment (methyl bromide + 7.5 krad) were also performed as a comparison to reveal the most effective way to control these rice pests. The most effective of all treatments tested was the 50-krad treatment. Complete sterility for the adults of these pests was obtained after treating rice directly, while complete mortality was reached within 30-60 days. Regarding fumigation treatments - phostoxin, methylbromide and combined treatment (methylbromide + 7.5 krad), the living stages of the four insect pests in rice varied during the storage period. However, the combination treatment gave the best results. Adults of the three Coleopteran species appeared in rice after four months because the 7.5-krad dose was not enough to kill the eggs which might have been laid by young females before being killed by fumigants. (author)

  19. Mortality and reproduction of Sitophilus zeamais Mots. on irradiated macaroni and maize

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiendl, F.M.

    1975-11-01

    Maize weevils, Sitophilus zeamais Mots. were reared on irradiated macaroni and maize. Diets were treated with dosages of O (control), 20, 100, 500 and 1500 Krad of gamma radiation from a Cobalt 60 gamma source, with a supplementary doses of 5000 Krad on maize. The parent generation was checked for mortality and fecundity. The analysis of results indicated decrease of longevity on diets used. Also it could be observed that on maize, the doses of 100 Krad caused an increase of progeny, with no effects on other dosages

  20. Toxicity of Rhododendron anthopogonoides Essential Oil and Its Constituent Compounds towards Sitophilus zeamais

    OpenAIRE

    Qi Zhi Liu; Zhi Wei Deng; Shu Shan Du; Cheng Fang Wang; Yu Xin Zhou; Kai Yang; Zhi Long Liu

    2011-01-01

    The screening of several Chinese medicinal plants for insecticidal principles showed that essential oil of Rhododendron anthopogonoides flowering aerial parts possessed significant toxicity against maize weevils, Sitophilus zeamais. A total of 37 components were identified in the essential oil and the main constituents of the essential oil were 4-phenyl-2-butanone (27.22%), nerolidol (8.08%), 1,4-cineole (7.85%), caryophyllene (7.63%) and γ-elemene (6.10%), followed by α-farnesene (4.40%) and...

  1. Gamma radiation effects in Sitophilus oryzae (Linne, 1763) (Coleoptera, Curculionidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacheco, J.M.

    1973-01-01

    Lethal effects were studied for the egg, larval and pupal stages as well as sterilization of adults of Sitophilus oryzae (L.) by the application of gamma radiation. Irradiation of pupae with an estimated dosis of 7887 ± 158 rad inhibits adult emergency. Hypotheses have been suggested that the apparent density and (or) nutrient value of food substrates decisively influence the sterilizing dosis for this insect. Thus, in rice and maize which are apparently denser and (or) of higher nutrient value than maccaroni, insects are sterilized by a dosis of 7 krad, while in maccaroni the sterilizing dosis decreases to 5 krad. (author)

  2. External and internal structure of weevils (Insecta: Coleoptera) investigated with phase-contrast X-ray imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoennicke, M.G.; Cusatis, C.; Rigon, L.; Menk, R.-H.; Arfelli, F.; Foerster, L.A.; Rosado-Neto, G.H.

    2010-01-01

    Weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) are identified by the external structure (dorsal, ventral and lateral features) and also by internal structure. The genitalia can be used to distinguish the sex and to identify the insects when the external structure appears identical. For this purpose, a destructive dissecting microscopy procedure is usually employed. In this paper, phase contrast X-ray imaging (radiography and tomography) is employed to investigate the internal structure (genitalia) of two entire species of weevils that presents very similar external structures (Sitophilus oryzae and Sitophilus zeamais). The detection of features, which looks like the genital structure, shows that such non-destructive technique could be used as an alternative method for identification of insects. This method is especially useful in examining the internal features of precious species from museum collections, as already described in the recent literature.

  3. Gamma radiation effects in Sitophilus oryzae (Linne, 1763) (Coleoptera, Curculionidae); Efeitos da radiacao gama em Sitophilus oryzae (Linne, 1763) (Coleoptera, Curculionidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacheco, J M

    1974-12-31

    Lethal effects were studied for the egg, larval and pupal stages as well as sterilization of adults of Sitophilus oryzae (L.) by the application of gamma radiation. Irradiation of pupae with an estimated dosis of 7887 {+-} 158 rad inhibits adult emergency. Hypotheses have been suggested that the apparent density and (or) nutrient value of food substrates decisively influence the sterilizing dosis for this insect. Thus, in rice and maize which are apparently denser and (or) of higher nutrient value than maccaroni, insects are sterilized by a dosis of 7 krad, while in maccaroni the sterilizing dosis decreases to 5 krad. (author).

  4. Control of Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky (Coleoptera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky is the main insect damaging stored maize in the western highlands of Cameroon. High cost, unreliable supply and environmental hazards of chemical insecticides necessitate search for cheaper, safe and easily available local alternatives. This study identifies and evaluates some local plant ...

  5. Weevil x Insecticide: Does 'Personality' Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Juliana A; Cardoso, Danúbia G; Della Lucia, Terezinha Maria C; Guedes, Raul Narciso C

    2013-01-01

    An insect's behavior is the expression of its integrated physiology in response to external and internal stimuli, turning insect behavior into a potential determinant of insecticide exposure. Behavioral traits may therefore influence insecticide efficacy against insects, compromising the validity of standard bioassays of insecticide activity, which are fundamentally based on lethality alone. By extension, insect 'personality' (i.e., an individual's integrated set of behavioral tendencies that is inferred from multiple empirical measures) may also be an important determinant of insecticide exposure and activity. This has yet to be considered because the behavioral studies involving insects and insecticides focus on populations rather than on individuals. Even among studies of animal 'personality', the relative contributions of individual and population variation are usually neglected. Here, we assessed behavioral traits (within the categories: activity, boldness/shyness, and exploration/avoidance) of individuals from 15 populations of the maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais), an important stored-grain pest with serious problems of insecticide resistance, and correlated the behavioral responses with the activity of the insecticide deltamethrin. This analysis was performed at both the population and individual levels. There was significant variation in weevil 'personality' among individuals and populations, but variation among individuals within populations accounted for most of the observed variation (92.57%). This result emphasizes the importance of individual variation in behavioral and 'personality' studies. When the behavioral traits assessed were correlated with median lethal time (LT50) at the population level and with the survival time under insecticide exposure, activity traits, particularly the distance walked, significantly increased survival time. Therefore, behavioral traits are important components of insecticide efficacy, and individual variation should be

  6. Toxicity of Rhododendron anthopogonoides Essential Oil and Its Constituent Compounds towards Sitophilus zeamais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Zhi Liu

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The screening of several Chinese medicinal plants for insecticidal principles showed that essential oil of Rhododendron anthopogonoides flowering aerial parts possessed significant toxicity against maize weevils, Sitophilus zeamais. A total of 37 components were identified in the essential oil and the main constituents of the essential oil were 4-phenyl-2-butanone (27.22%, nerolidol (8.08%, 1,4-cineole (7.85%, caryophyllene (7.63% and γ-elemene (6.10%, followed by α-farnesene (4.40% and spathulenol (4.19%. Repeated bioactivity-directed chromatographic separation on silica gel columns led us to isolate three compounds, namely 4-phenyl-2-butanone, 1,4-cineole, and nerolidol. 4-Phenyl-2-butanone shows pronounced contact toxicity against S. zeamais (LD50 = 6.98 mg/adult and was more toxic than either 1,4-cineole or nerolidol (LD50 = 50.86 mg/adult and 29.30 mg/adult, respectively against the maize weevils, while the crude essential oil had a LD50 value of 11.67 mg/adult. 4-Phenyl-2-butanone and 1,4-cineole also possessed strong fumigant toxicity against the adults of S. zeamais (LC50 = 3.80 mg/L and 21.43 mg/L while the crude essential oil had a LC50 value of 9.66 mg/L.

  7. Influence of oxygen, nitrogen and carbonic gas during gamma irradiation of 'Sitophilus zeamais' Mots. and 'Zabrotes subfasciatus' (Boh.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiendl, F.M.; Tornisielo, V.L.; Walder, J.M.N.; Sgrillo, R.B.

    1976-01-01

    Zero to twenty-four hour old adults of the corn-weevil (S. zeamais) and of the bean weevil (Z. subfasciatus) with their food were irradiated with 5 krad of gamma rays from a Co-60 source (dose rate of 96.25 krad/h). The foodstuffs for the corn weevil were maize and rice as well as common beans for the bean weevil. Before irradiation, the insects of each treatment were exposed to 30 minutes gas fluxes of air, oxygen, nitrogen or carbonic gas, respectively. After irradiation, insects were kept in a temperature controlled chamber at 28 0 C. Losses in weight of the foodstuffs were recorded for 51 weeks. The greatest weight loss was found in the treatment with air flux. Weight losses decreased with the nitrogen, carbonic gas and oxygen treatments, respectively [pt

  8. Efficacy of Selected Insecticides Applied to Hybrid Rice Seed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, A.; Gore, J.; Musser, F.; Cook, D.; Walker, T.; Dobbins, C.

    2016-01-01

    Hybrid rice and insecticide seed treatments targeting rice water weevil, Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus Kuschel, have altered the landscape of rice production. The effect of reduced seeding rates on seed treatment efficacy in hybrid rice has not been studied. During 2011 and 2012, an experiment was conducted at seven locations to determine the relationship between low seeding rates used in hybrid rice and efficacy of selected insecticidal seed treatments as measured by rice water weevil densities and yield. Labeled rates of thiamethoxam, chlorantraniliprole, and clothianidin were compared with higher rates of these products to determine if labeled rates provide an acceptable level of control of the rice water weevil. Study locations were divided into low, moderate, and high groups based on rice water weevil larval densities. All seed treatments and seed treatment rates reduced rice water weevil densities. However, there was no observed yield or economic benefit from the use of an insecticidal seed treatment in areas of low pressure. Differences in yield were observed among seed treatments and seed treatment rates in moderate and high pressure locations, and all seed treatments yielded better than the untreated plots, but these differences were not always economical. All seed treatments showed an economic advantage in areas of high weevil pressure, and there were no differences among seed treatment products or rates, suggesting that currently labeled seed treatment rates in hybrid rice are effective for rice water weevil management. PMID:26537671

  9. The asymmetric synthesis of (+-sitophilure, the natural form of the aggregation pheromone of Sitophilus oryzae L. and Sitophilus zeamais M.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilli Ronaldo A.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric synthesis of (+-sitophilure, the aggregation pheromone of Sitophilus oryzae L. and Sitophilus zeamais M., was carried out in 12 steps, 18% overall yield and 82% enantiomeric excess from the enzymatic reduction of methyl 3-oxopentanoate with S. cerevisiae in the presence of ethyl chloroacetate.

  10. Basic studies on the efficacy of gamma irradiation as insect disinfestation and sterilising techniques for stored rice insects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Rahim Muda.

    1987-01-01

    Basic laboratory evaluations on the efficacy of gamma irradiation on the insect sitophilus zeamais, Motch. showed this method of insect control is effective to disinfest both internal and surface infestations in stored milled rice, and substantially reduced reproductive potentials of the weevil. Adult emergence of treated larvae developing within the rice kernel reduced by an average of 82% for treatment doses of 0.05 to 1 kGy. All emerged adults died within 16 days upon emergence at all tested doses. Radiated adult insects showed 100% mortality within 18 days at doses above 0.15 kGy; 26 days at 0.1 kGy and 33 days at 0.05 kGy. However none of the tested doses recorded total immediate mortality after treatment. Significant sterility effects through 93% reduction in F 1 progenies can be achieved by sterilising both parents; but none of the tested doses showed potential for employment as male sterilising technique alone. (author)

  11. Chemical Composition and Toxicity against Sitophilus zeamais and Tribolium castaneum of the Essential Oil of Murraya exotica Aerial Parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Long Liu

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In our screening program for new agrochemicals from Chinese medicinal herbs, Murraya exotica was found to possess insecticidal activity against the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais and red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. The essential oil of aerial parts of M. exotica was obtained by hydrodistillation and investigated by GC and GC-MS. The main components of M. exotica essential oil were spathulenol (17.7%, a-pinene (13.3%, caryophyllene oxide (8.6%, and a-caryophyllene (7.3%. Essential oil of M. exotica possessed fumigant toxicity against S. zeamais and T. castaneum adults with LC50 values of 8.29 and 6.84 mg/L, respectively. The essential oils also show contact toxicity against S. zeamais and T. castaneum adults with LD50 values of 11.41 and 20.94 mg/adult, respectively.

  12. Enzyme Polymorphism in Sitophilus oryzae (Linnaeus, 1763 and Sitophilus zeamais (Motschulsky, 1855 (Coleoptera, Curculionidae in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle das Neves Bespalhok

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Beetles of the species Sitophilus oryzae and S. zeamais are pests of great economic importance since they attack not only rice and maize but also several other cereals. In fact, these beetles are one of the most visible threats to sustainable food production. Current study estimated the genetic variability of S. oryzae in two samples, one from the State of Paraná (PR, Brazil, and another from the state of Rio Grande do Sul (RS, Brazil, and a sample of S. zeamais from the State of Santa Catarina (SC, Brazil. Isozyme electrophoresis in starch gel technique was employed to analyze eight enzyme systems (AAT, ACP, GDH, GPI, IDH, MDH, PGM and ME. Average heterozygosity rates were 0.0091, 0.0100 and 0.0000 and expected heterozygosity rates were 0.0419, 0.0452 and 0.0000 respectively for the samples of PR, SC and RS samples. The percentage of polymorphic loci was 30% in the PR sample, 0% in the RS sample and 30% in the SC sample. Genetic identity rates were I=0.9983 between samples from PR and RS; I = 0.6892 between PR and SC, and I = 0.6925 between SC and RS. Nei´s (1978 genetic distance rates  were 0.0017, 0.3722 and 0.3675. Samples presented low genetic variability.

  13. Biotoxic efficacy of two horticultural plants against infestation of Sitophilus oryzae on stored maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercy Olayinka ONI

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Since botanicals still remained the most promising tool that could obviate the use of chemical insecticides, this study investigated the biotoxic effect of Acacia auriculiformis and Acalypha goddsefiana powder and oil against Sitophilus oryzae. The powder of the plants were tested at 0.0g (control, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0 and 2.0g dosages while their extracts were prepared at 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5% concentrations per 20g of maize seeds. Solvent control was also prepared for the oil extracts bioassay. Mortality, adult emergence, % inhibition rate and % weight loss were observed. LD50 and LC50 of the powders and oils of the two botanicals were calculated at 48 hours of application. The powders of both plants achieved complete weevil mortality within 72h of application at 2.0g and their effect was significantly (p<0.05 different from other dosages except 1.0g dosage. Also, the extracts of both plant achieved 100% insect mortality within 48h hours of application at 5%. However the powder and oil of A. auriculiformis appeared more effective than that of A. goddsefiana in term of mortality as reflected by their lethal dosage and concentration. However, A. goddsefiana powder and extract appeared more effective than that of A. auriculiformis in term of protectability as they greatly reduced the emergence of the adult weevil and their ability to cause weight loss of the maize grains. Only the higher dosages and concentrations of the plants were able to achieve 100% inhibition rate.

  14. Do boll weevils really diapause?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman, diapause has been poorly understood since the term was first used 50 yrs ago to describe the pest’s winter dormancy in temperate regions. This literature-based study found that low temperature and changes in photoperiod are the boll weevil diapause-i...

  15. Insecticidal Activity of Peumus boldus Molina Essential Oil against Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky Actividad Insecticida del Aceite Esencial de Peumus boldus Molina sobre Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Betancur R

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In stored grains, the main agents diminishing production are insects, which can produce losses between 20% and 80% before harvest or under storage. The insecticidal properties of the essential oil of fresh leaves of Peumus boldus Molina against maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky adults were determined under laboratory conditions. The highest mortality (100% was achieved at 4% concentration by contact with a treated glass surface. The same concentration in impregnated corn (Zea mays L. grain, resulted in 98.7% mortality. Mortality by fumigant action at 6 h was 100% with 35 µL oil in 0.15 L (air volume. Concentrations 1, 2 and 4% of essential oil produced 0% F1 adult emergence. At 10 d of residual effect, the 4% concentration reached 63.7% mortality. All treatments were repellent to adults of S. zeamais and corn grain germination was not affected by any treatment.Los principales agentes que disminuyen la producción en los granos almacenados son los insectos, antes de la cosecha y en el almacenamiento pueden causar pérdidas de 20 a 80%. Se evaluaron las propiedades insecticidas del aceite esencial de hojas frescas de Peumus boldus Molina para el control de adultos de gorgojo del maíz (Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky en laboratorio. La mayor mortalidad (100% por contacto con una superficie de vidrio tratada se obtuvo con la concentración de 4%. Esta misma concentración produjo 98,7% de mortalidad en exposición a grano de maíz (Zea mays L. tratado. El efecto fumigante a las 6 h de exposición fue 100% con 35 µL de aceite en 0,15 L (volumen de aire. Con las concentraciones de 1, 2 y 4% de aceite esencial, el porcentaje de emergencia de la F1 fue 0%. A los 10 d de efecto residual se alcanzó 63,7% de mortalidad con la concentración de 4%. Todos los tratamientos fueron repelentes para adultos de S. zeamais y ningún tratamiento afectó la germinación de los granos.

  16. Toxicity of Boldo Peumus boldus Molina for Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky and Tribolium castaneum Herbst Toxicidad del Boldo, Peumus boldus Molina, sobre Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky y Tribolium castaneum Herbst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Ortiz U

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky and the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum Herbst are two key pests of stored-grain products worldwide. The insecticidal activity of boldo (Peumus boldus Molina powder, liquid ethanolic and hexanic extracts against S. zeamais and T. castaneum were evaluated under laboratory conditions. The evaluated variables were mortality, emergence of adult insects (F1, and grain weight loss. The experimental design was completely randomized. The mortality in S. zeamais was 100% even at the lowest powder concentration (0.5% w/w, whereas emergence of F1 adult insects was 0% and grain weight loss was El gorgojo del maíz (Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky y el gorgojo castaño de la harina (Tribolium castaneum Herbst son plagas primarias de productos almacenados a nivel mundial. Se evaluó en laboratorio la actividad insecticida de polvo y extractos líquidos etanólicos y hexánicos del boldo (Peumus boldus Molina sobre S. zeamais y T. castaneum. Las variables evaluadas fueron mortalidad y emergencia de insectos adultos (F1 y pérdida de peso de los granos con un diseño experimental completamente al azar. La mortalidad en S. zeamais fue 100%, incluso con la concentración menor (0,5% p/p mientras que la emergencia de insectos adultos y la pérdida de peso de granos de maíz fue < 0,08%. Para T. castaneum sólo las concentraciones de 8 y 16% p/p de polvo causaron una mortalidad de 100%. Los extractos en agua, etanol, y hexano tuvieron un efecto insecticida de 100% en S. zeamais, mientras que en T. castaneum sólo el extracto en etanol alcanzó este valor. Por lo tanto, el polvo y los extractos evaluados de P. boldus presentan actividad insecticida contra S. zeamais y T. castaneum y son promisorios para utilizarse contra éstas y otras plagas de granos almacenados.

  17. Radiation induced changes in the cuticular hydrocarbons of the granary weevil and their relationships to desiccation and adult mortality: Annual progress report, February 15, 1986 to February 14, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sriharan, S.

    1987-03-01

    The effects of gamma-ray irradiation on granary weevil Sitophilus granarius was studied. Cesium-137 was investigated with regard to its effectiveness in insect disinfestation of grains. The cuticular hydrocarbons of treated and control weevils were analyzed by gas chromatography, mass spectrometry (Gc/Ms). The effects of different dose rates and Relative Humidity (RH) conditions on desiccation were studied by determining body weight and moisture loss. Observations on germination of irradiated wheat seeds were made as complementary to the above studies. The weevils of older age group were more sensitive to gamma radiation. With dose-rate exceeding .15 kGy the mortality is higher during 11 to 15 days after irradiation. While at lower dose-rates 0.01 kGy and 0.05 kGy lower age group insect tend to prolong and survive longer. Analysis of epicuticular hydrocarbons of adult Sitophilus granarius showed that hydrocarbons C 25 to C 33 were present in significant amount. The qualitative and quantitative analysis of irradiated and control weevils suggests that there was little qualitative but considerable quantitative differences between the hydrocarbon fraction (C 25 to C 33 ) in these two groups. 3 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs

  18. African Journal of Biotechnology - Vol 6, No 4 (2007)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... postulata) for repellency, insecticidal activity against rice weevil (Sitophilus oryzae) ... Control of Aspergillus niger with garlic, onion and leek extracts · EMAIL FREE ... In vitro antimicrobial characteristics of bacteriocinproducing Lactobacillus ...

  19. Biocontrol Potential of Lariophagus distinguendus (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) Against Sitophilus granarius (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) at Low Temperatures: Reproduction and Parasitoid-Induced Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lise Stengård

    2007-01-01

    Lariophagus distinguendus Förster (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) has been suggested as a biological control agent against the granary weevil, Sitophilus granarius (L.), in grain stores. Information on the effect of low temperatures prevailing in grain stores is necessary to be able to predict...... the potential of this parasitoid against S. granarius in temperate regions, where grain is cooled with ambient air to achieve safe storage conditions. The influence of constant temperatures of 16, 18, and 20°C on life table parameters and parasitoid-induced mortality (PIM) was investigated in the laboratory. L...... is quicker than that of its host, estimated from the literature; and it kills many hosts in addition to those used for reproduction....

  20. A new light on the evolution and propagation of prehistoric grain pests: the world's oldest maize weevils found in Jomon Potteries, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obata, Hiroki; Manabe, Aya; Nakamura, Naoko; Onishi, Tomokazu; Senba, Yasuko

    2011-03-29

    Three Sitophilus species (S. granarius L., S. oryzae L., and S. zeamais Mots.) are closely related based on DNA analysis of their endosymbionts. All are seed parasites of cereal crops and important economic pest species in stored grain. The Sitophilus species that currently exist, including these three species, are generally believed to be endemic to Asia's forested areas, suggesting that the first infestations of stored grain must have taken place near the forested mountains of southwestern Asia. Previous archaeological data and historical records suggest that the three species may have been diffused by the spread of Neolithic agriculture, but this hypothesis has only been established for granary weevils in European and southwestern Asian archaeological records. There was little archeological evidence for grain pests in East Asia before the discovery of maize weevil impressions in Jomon pottery in 2004 using the "impression replica" method. Our research on Jomon agriculture based on seed and insect impressions in pottery continued to seek additional evidence. In 2010, we discovered older weevil impressions in Jomon pottery dating to ca. 10 500 BP. These specimens are the oldest harmful insects in the world discovered at archaeological sites. Our results provide evidence of harmful insects living in the villages from the Earliest Jomon, when no cereals were cultivated. This suggests we must reconsider previous scenarios for the evolution and propagation of grain pest weevils, especially in eastern Asia. Although details of their biology or the foods they infested remain unclear, we hope future interdisciplinary collaborations among geneticists, entomologists, and archaeologists will provide the missing details.

  1. A new light on the evolution and propagation of prehistoric grain pests: the world's oldest maize weevils found in Jomon Potteries, Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroki Obata

    Full Text Available Three Sitophilus species (S. granarius L., S. oryzae L., and S. zeamais Mots. are closely related based on DNA analysis of their endosymbionts. All are seed parasites of cereal crops and important economic pest species in stored grain. The Sitophilus species that currently exist, including these three species, are generally believed to be endemic to Asia's forested areas, suggesting that the first infestations of stored grain must have taken place near the forested mountains of southwestern Asia. Previous archaeological data and historical records suggest that the three species may have been diffused by the spread of Neolithic agriculture, but this hypothesis has only been established for granary weevils in European and southwestern Asian archaeological records. There was little archeological evidence for grain pests in East Asia before the discovery of maize weevil impressions in Jomon pottery in 2004 using the "impression replica" method. Our research on Jomon agriculture based on seed and insect impressions in pottery continued to seek additional evidence. In 2010, we discovered older weevil impressions in Jomon pottery dating to ca. 10 500 BP. These specimens are the oldest harmful insects in the world discovered at archaeological sites. Our results provide evidence of harmful insects living in the villages from the Earliest Jomon, when no cereals were cultivated. This suggests we must reconsider previous scenarios for the evolution and propagation of grain pest weevils, especially in eastern Asia. Although details of their biology or the foods they infested remain unclear, we hope future interdisciplinary collaborations among geneticists, entomologists, and archaeologists will provide the missing details.

  2. Pyrethroid resistance in Sitophilus zeamais is associated with a mutation (T929I) in the voltage-gated sodium channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Rúbia A; Williamson, Martin S; Bass, Christopher; Field, Linda M; Duce, Ian R

    2011-08-01

    The maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais, is the most important pest affecting stored grain in Brazil and its control relies heavily on the use of insecticides. The intensive use of compounds such as the pyrethroids has led to the emergence of resistance, and previous studies have suggested that resistance to both pyrethroids and 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT) may result from reduced sensitivity of the insecticide target, the voltage-gated sodium channel. To identify the molecular mechanisms underlying pyrethroid resistance in S. zeamais, the domain II region of the voltage-gated sodium channel (para-orthologue) gene was amplified by PCR and sequenced from susceptible and resistant laboratory S. zeamais strains that were selected with a discriminating dose of DDT. A single point mutation, T929I, was found in the para gene of the resistant S. zeamais populations and its presence in individual weevils was strongly associated with survival after DDT exposure. This is the first identification of a target-site resistance mutation in S. zeamais and unusually it is a super-kdr type mutation occurring in the absence of the more common kdr (L1014F) substitution. A high-throughput assay based on TaqMan single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping was developed for sensitive detection of the mutation and used to screen field-collected strains of S. zeamais. This showed that the mutation is present at low frequency in field populations and is a useful tool for informing control strategies. © 2011 The Authors. Insect Molecular Biology © 2011 The Royal Entomological Society.

  3. Bioactivity of Peumus boldus Molina, Laurelia sempervirens (Ruiz & Pav. Tul. and Laureliopsis philippiana (Looser Schodde (Monimiacea essential oils against Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky

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    Carmen Herrera-Rodríguez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky is one of most important pest of stored seeds worldwide, but its current control method is based on the use of synthetic insecticides, usually leading to undesirable problems such as insecticide residues on treated food, human intoxications, and insect resistance development. Therefore the search of friendly alternative methods is required. The aim of this study was to assess, under laboratory conditions, the insecticidal properties of Peumus boldus Molina, Laurelia sempervirens (Ruiz & Pav. Tul., and Laureliopsis philippiana (Looser Schodde essential oils against S. zeamais. The phytochemical analysis of the three essential oils showed 1,8-cineole, safrole and methyleugenol as the common components; all of them documented with insecticidal activity from essential oils from other plant species. The highest toxicity (100% mortality of these three oils acting as a contact insecticide was observed at 24 h exposure at 4% concentration. The estimated LC50 values for P. boldus, L. sempervirens, and L. philippiana were 0.37, 1.02, and 0.28 μL g-1, respectively. Peumus boldus exhibited the highest fumigant activity with 100% adult mortality at 30 μL oil L-1 air. At ≥ 0.5% (v/w concentration, all essential oils showed repellent activity. These three essential oils showed a promissory insecticidal activity against the maize weevil.

  4. Toxicidade de óleos essenciais de Piper aduncum e Piper hispidinervum em Sitophilus zeamais Toxicity of essential oils of Piper aduncum and Piper hispidinervum against Sitophilus zeamais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joelma Lima Vidal Estrela

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Óleos essenciais de Piper aduncum L. e Piper hispidinervum C.DC. (Piperaceae foram avaliados quanto ao efeito inseticida em Sitophilus zeamais Motsch. por ação de contato, fumigação e tópica. Na determinação da DL50 e CL50, foi utilizada a análise de Probit. Médias porcentuais de mortalidade dos insetos foram comparadas por meio da análise de regressão linear e superposição das barras do erro padrão. S. zeamais foi mais suscetível ao efeito de contato do óleo de P. hispidinervum em relação ao de P. aduncum, obtendo-se CL50 de 0,51 e 2,87 mL cm- 2 de óleo, respectivamente. Mortalidade próxima a 100% foi obtida nas concentrações de 20 e 30% do óleo de P. hispidinervum. Quanto ao efeito fumigante, a susceptibilidade foi maior no óleo de P. aduncum do que no de P. hispidinervum. Houve diferença significativa entre os óleos somente nas concentrações de 0,1 e 1,0. A DL50 foi semelhante nos dois óleos essenciais por aplicação tópica. No entanto, a mortalidade foi maior com P. aduncum. Óleos essenciais de P. aduncum e P. hispidinervum possuem efeito inseticida em S. zeamais, mas as respostas dependem da concentração e do método de exposição a que o inseto seja submetido.Essential oils of Piper aduncum L. and Piper hispidinervum C. DC. (Piperaceae were tested against Sitophilus zeamais Motsch. Contact, fumigant toxicity and topical effect were tested. Probit analysis was employed in evaluating the LC50 and LD50 response. Linear regression analysis and superposition of the bars (means error standard were used for comparison of means percentage mortality. S. zeamais was more susceptible to the contact toxicity of the P. hispidinervum oil than P. aduncum oil with LC50 values of 0.51 and 2.87 mL cm-2 of the oil, respectively. The mortality rate was nearly 100% at P. hispidinervum oil concentrations of 20 and 30%. With respect to the fumigant action, the weevil was more susceptible to the P. aduncum oil than to P

  5. Chemical Composition and Insecticidal Activity against Sitophilus zeamais of the Essential Oils of Artemisia capillaris and Artemisia mongolica

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    Zhi Long Liu

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In our screening program for new agrochemicals from local wild plants, Artemisia capillaris and A. mongolica were found to possess insecticidal activity against the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais. The essential oils of aerial parts of the two plants were obtained by hydrodistillation and were investigated by GC and GC-MS. The main components of A. capillaris essential oil were 1,8-cineole (13.75%, germacrene D (10.41%, and camphor (8.57%. The main constituents of A. mongolica essential oil were α-pinene (12.68%, germacrene D (8.36%, and γ-terpinene (8.17%. Essential oils of A. capillaris and A. mongolica possess fumigant toxicity against S. zeamais adults with LC50 values of 5.31 and 7.35 mg/L respectively. The essential oils also show contact toxicity against S. zeamais adults with LD50 values of 105.95 and 87.92 mg/adult, respectively.

  6. Enhancing banana weevil ( Cosmopolites sordidus ) resistance by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enhancing banana weevil (Cosmopolites sordidus) resistance by plant genetic modification: A perspective. Andrew Kiggundu, Michael Pillay, Altus Viljoen, Clifford Gold, Wilberforce Tushemereirwe, Karl Kunert ...

  7. Boll weevil invasion process in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    The boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman, is the most destructive cotton pest in the Western Hemisphere. In 1993, the pest was reported in Argentina, and in 1994 boll weevils were captured in cotton fields in the Formosa Province on the border between Argentina and Paraguay. The pest ha...

  8. Comparative toxicity of four local botanical powders to Sitophilus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maize grains were admixed with the powders at the rates0, 5, 10, 20 and 40 g/kg for the assessment of mortality over a 14-d or 30-d period, as well as for population increase and damage. Within 14-d exposure, P. glandulosus powder caused the highest weevil mortality followed by A. indica. A. indica powder was by far ...

  9. Disinfestation of stored rice and corn grains by gamma irradiation. 4. Evaluation of various packaging materials for treated corn grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manoto, E.C.; Villacarlos, L.T.

    1976-03-01

    The effectiveness of five different containers, bell jar, malathion-impregnated bag, plastic woven sack, polyethylene bag (0.006 and 0.008 inch thickness) and polypropylene bags (0.004 inch thickness), in protecting irradiated or fumigated corn grains against reinfestation by rice weevils was evaluated. Results from this study showed that all materials tested except for the plastic woven sack prevented penetration by rice weevils from 1 to 6 months of storage. Fumigation with methyl bromide killed all the immature stages of the weevil but irradiation with 15 krad allowed a few to survive up to two months after irradiation. Fumigation was effective in killing all stages of the weevil but some residues were left after treatment. A dose higher than 15 krad that will kill all the stages of the weevils in a short time should be tried for disinfestation of stored grains

  10. Effects of Olea europaea L. Leaf Metabolites on the Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus and Three Stored Pests, Sitophilus granarius, Tribolium confusum and Acanthoscelides obtectus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Kısa

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Olea europea L. emerged as a good source of traditional medicine for the treatment of various ailments of various countries of the world, in particular Mediterranean countries. In this study, oleuropein (1, oleanolic acid (2, maslinic acid (3, a mixture of erythrodiol and uvaol (4 and 5 isolated from the leaves of olive were added at two concentrations (1g/100g feed and 4g/100 g feed into fish feed. Oreochromis niloticus (Nile tilapia were fed twice a day with the feed during 96 hours. The levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alkaline phosphatase (ALP enzymes and glucose levels in the serums of fishes fed with pure compounds were found to be higher as compared with the control group. Pure metabolites affect the liver metabolism of Nile tilapia. These results suggested that the compounds tested affect the liver metabolism of Nile tilapia. Compounds 1, 2, 3 and 4+5 (2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 mg/Petri dish concentrations were also tested for contact toxic effects against three important stored pests, Sitophilus granarius (weevil, Tribolium confusum (confused flour beetle and Acanthoscelides obtectus (bean weevil. The toxic effects of the metabolites were lower than those of the insecticide, dichlorvos (DDVP. DDVP caused complete mortality of the insects after 48 hours of treatments, the metabolites caused the mortality rates 16.7-63.3 %, 13.3-67.0 % and 26.7-59.0 % of S. granarius, T. confusum and A. obtectus, respectively. Maslinic acid (3 has the most toxic compound with the lowest LC 50 values (0.66 mg/Petri, 0.61 mg/Petri and 1.71 mg/Petri for S. granarius, T. confusum and A. obtectus, respectively. These results show that maslinic acid (3 as well as other substances can be used as natural insecticides against these pests.

  11. Effects of Storage and Granary Weevil Infestation on Gel Electrophoresis and Protein Solubility Properties of Hard and Soft Wheat Flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Sule; Yalçin, Erkan; Özkaya, Hazim

    2018-02-24

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of storage and granary weevil, Sitophilus granarius (L.; Coleoptera: Curculionidae), infestation on pH, protein solubility (PS) and gel electrophoresis properties of meal and roller-milled flours of hard (Ceyhan-99 cv.) and soft (Eser cv.) wheat cultivars, respectively, after 6 mo of storage. Sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) technique was applied for studying the electrophoretic properties. Hard and soft wheats were infested with non-sexed S. granarius at a rate of two adults/ kg, and stored for 6 mo at 30 ± 1°C and 70 ± 5% RH. The pest-free wheat samples were used as control. The infested and its control samples were collected monthly, and after cleaning the granary weevils, they were hammer-milled or roller-milled in order to get meal flours and roller-milled flours, respectively. The effect of infestation on the storage proteins was more obvious in meal flours than that of the roller-milled flours. Granary weevil feeding resulted secreting of hydrolyzing enzymes and increased the acidity of flours; subsequently the breaking and releasing of some storage proteins generally caused a decrease in pH and an increase in PS values of the meal flours of wheat cultivars. SDS-PAGE results generally indicated that towards the end of storage, the insect population, that greatly increased, caused minor protein depletions resulting decreasing protein band intensities between 113 and 58 kDa of hard wheat meal flour and 101 and 40 kDa of soft wheat roller-milled flour. Consequently, the potential effect of changes probably occurred in high molecular weight glutenin subunits of both wheat cultivars.

  12. PENGUJIAN BEBERAPA JENIS INSEKTISIDA NABATI TERHADAP KUTU BERAS (Sitophilus oryzae L

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    Muhammad Isnaini

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study first to determine whether or not capable of  natural insecticides to kill Sitophilus oryzae L and to determine effective of  natural insecticides to kill Sitophilus oryzae L. This type of research is an experimental research with quantitative descriptive and The data collection techniques used is the observation and documentation. The data analyzed with ANOVA analysis techniques followed by BJND test. Based on the comparison of the calculated F value contained in the ANOVA analysis is greater than the F table , either at the significant level of 5 % and the 1% significance level (79.57 > 2.67 / 4:43. Thus stated that H1 accepted and rejected H0. The results showed that the first, the natural insecticide able to kill Sitophilus oryzae L and mortality rate highest in Cymbopogon citratus treatment that is equal to 13.2 with the total percentage of mortality of 66%, both effective plant-based insecticides to kill Sitophilus oryzae L that leaves just Cymbopogon citratus (66% and Morinda citrifolia L (60%.The conclusions obtained from this study: First, some kind of  natural insecticide able to kill Sitophilus oryzae L,  second based on the results of the ANOVA analysis of all types of insecticides to kill Sitophilus oryzae L effectively, but if effectiveness was seen by the number of mortality up to 50 % or more, then just Cymbopogon citratus and Morinda citrifolia L.

  13. Edge effect on weevils and spiders

    OpenAIRE

    Horváth, R.; Magura, T.; Péter, G.; Tóthmérész, B.

    2002-01-01

    The edge effect on weevils and spiders was tested along oak forest – meadow transects using sweep-net samples at the Síkfökút Project in Hungary. For spiders the species richness was significantly higher in the forest edge than either in the meadow or the forest interior. For weevils the species richness of the forest edge was higher than that of the meadow, but the difference was not statistically significant whereas the species richness of the forest...

  14. Effects of temperature variation before and after gamma irradiation on the longevity and reproduction of Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky, 1855 (Coleoptera, Curculionidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camargo, A.A.; Wiendl, F.M.; Bergamo, M.A.

    1983-01-01

    A basic study of radiobiology in order to verify the synergistic effects of the sudden variation of temperature on the longevity and reproduction of Sitophilus zeamais Mots., 1855 is done, before and after gamma irradiation, and to analyse such effects in the practical application of the irradiation system of stored grains for human consumption. Also to take advantage of the synergistic effects so as to reduce the dose rate necessary to control weevils attacking stored grains. The insects were irradiated at the rates of 0 (control), 2, 4, 8, 16, 32 and 64 krad, by using a 60-Cobalt source. In a first experiment, the insects were exposed to cooling at -8 0 C below zero for 15 minutes after irradiation; in a second experiment this treatment was done before irradiation. The countings of the insect birth and death rates were weekly done. From these data one can conclude that the adult longevity decreased and the mortality increased when the insects were cooled before irradiation, and also that cooling before irradiation induces a more deleterious effect on the insect than cooling after irradiation, resulting in a lower birth rate. (Author) [pt

  15. Efficiency of inert mineral dusts in the control of corn weevil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos F. Jairoce

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Corn weevil (Sitophilus zeamais may cause great losses in the crop and in stored corn grains. This insect is controlled with the use of chemical insecticides, which may cause serious damage to human health. One alternative of control is the use of inert dusts. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of inert dusts in the control of S. zeamais under laboratory conditions. The experiment was conducted in 2014, in a completely randomized design, and the treatments consisted of basalt dust with three different granulometries (A, B and C and diatomaceous earth, each of which at the doses of 2 and 4 kg t-1 and a control (no application. Each treatment had four replicates, and the sample unit consisted of 20 g of corn grains infected with 10 adults of S. zeamais kept in temperature-controlled chamber at 25 °C, 70% RH and photophase of 12 h. The dust efficiency was calculated using the equation of Abbott. The mortality rate was higher with the use of diatomaceous earth, reaching 100% after 5 days of exposure and the percentage of control for basalt dusts, 29 days after treatment, was above 80%.

  16. Edge effect on weevils and spiders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Horváth

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available The edge effect on weevils and spiders was tested along oak forest – meadow transects using sweep-net samples at the Síkfökút Project in Hungary. For spiders the species richness was significantly higher in the forest edge than either in the meadow or the forest interior. For weevils the species richness of the forest edge was higher than that of the meadow, but the difference was not statistically significant whereas the species richness of the forest interior was significantly lower than that of the forest edge and the meadow. The composition of the spider assemblage of the edge was more similar to the forest, while the composition of weevils in the edge was more similar to the meadow. Our results based on two invertebrate groups operating on different trophic levels suggest that there is a significant edge effect for the studied taxa resulting in higher species richness in the edge.

  17. Insecticidal Properties of Peumus boldus Molina Powder Used Alone and Mixed with Lime Against Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky (Coleopter: Curculionidae Propiedades Insecticidas del Polvo de Peumus boldus Molina Solo y en Mezcla con Cal contra Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Curculionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Bustos-Figueroa

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The insecticidal properties of boldus (Peumus boldus Molina powder used alone and mixed with lime against adults of maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky were evaluated under laboratory conditions. Additionally, aeration effects (presence or absence and temperature (room temperature vs. 3 ºC on insecticidal properties were studied over time. A mortality rate of 100% was observed at 20 g kg-1 (w/w of P. boldus powder when used alone and mixed with lime in proportions of 50:50, 60:40, and 80:20. The 50% lethal concentration (LC50 for all treatments was Se evaluaron las propiedades insecticidas del polvo de boldo (Peumus boldus Molina, solo y en mezcla con cal, bajo condiciones de laboratorio. Adicionalmente, se evaluó el efecto de la aeración (presencia vs. ausencia y de la temperatura (temperatura ambiente vs. 3 ºC sobre la mortalidad y emergencia de adultos de la F1. La concentración de 20 g kg-1 (p/p del polvo de boldo ya sea solo o en combinación con cal en las proporciones de 50:50, 60:40 y 80:20 mostraron 100% de mortalidad. La concentración letal 50% (CL50, en todos los tratamientos fue menor a 5 g kg-1 (p/p mientras que la CL90 no superó 11 g kg-1 (p/p. La mezcla del polvo con los granos de maíz tanto solo como en mezcla con cal no afectó la germinación. La temperatura y la aeración no afectaron la mortalidad de los adultos parentales ni la emergencia de adultos de la F1. Cuando se mezcló el maíz con el polvo de boldo molido 24 h antes de la infestación con adultos, la mortalidad de los adultos parentales y la emergencia de adultos de la F1 fue de 100 y de 0%, respectivamente. Los resultados no fueron satisfactorios cuando el polvo de boldo almacenado durante 30, 60 y 90 d fue mezclado con el maíz infestado. La toxicidad del follaje de boldo es alta 24 h después de pulverizarse; si el tiempo es mayor, la toxicidad declina significativamente.

  18. Evolution: Weevils Get Tough on Symbiotic Tyrosine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Colin

    2017-12-04

    Weevils, which represent one of the most diverse groups of terrestrial insects in nature, obtain a tough exoskeleton through the activity of an ancient bacterial symbiont with a tiny genome that serves as a factory for the production of tyrosine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Insects in IBL-4 pine weevil traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    I. Skrzecz

    2003-01-01

    Pipe traps (IBL-4) are used in Polish coniferous plantations to monitor and control the pine weevil (Hylobius abietis L.). This study was conducted in a one-year old pine plantation established on a reforested clear-cut area in order to evaluate the impact of these traps on non-target insects. Evaluation of the catches indicated that species of

  20. Integrating Soil Silicon Amendment into Management Programs for Insect Pests of Drill-Seeded Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas, James M; Way, Michael O; Pearson, Rebecca A; Stout, Michael J

    2017-08-13

    Silicon soil amendment has been shown to enhance plant defenses against insect pests. Rice is a silicon-accumulating graminaceous plant. In the southern United States, the rice water weevil and stem borers are important pests of rice. Current management tactics for these pests rely heavily on the use of insecticides. This study evaluated the effects of silicon amendment when combined with current management tactics for these rice insect pests in the field. Field experiments were conducted from 2013 to 2015. Rice was drill-planted in plots subjected to factorial combinations of variety (conventional and hybrid), chlorantraniliprole seed treatment (treated and untreated), and silicon amendment (treated and untreated). Silicon amendment reduced densities of weevil larvae on a single sampling date in 2014, but did not affect densities of whiteheads caused by stem borers. In contrast, insecticidal seed treatment strongly reduced densities of both weevil larvae and whiteheads. Higher densities of weevil larvae were also observed in the hybrid variety in 2014, while higher incidences of whiteheads were observed in the conventional variety in 2014 and 2015. Silicon amendment improved rice yields, as did chlorantraniliprole seed treatment and use of the hybrid variety.

  1. Pine weevil feeding in Scots pine and Norway spruce regenerations

    OpenAIRE

    Wallertz, Kristina

    2009-01-01

    Damage caused by the pine weevil, Hylobius abietis (L) feeding on conifer seedlings is a major problem in reforested areas in many parts of Europe. The adult weevil feeds on the stem-bark of young seedlings, frequently killing a large proportion of newly planted seedlings. The aims of the studies underlying this thesis were to investigate whether additional food supplies could decrease the damage caused by pine weevil to seedlings, and to determine whether access to extra food might explain w...

  2. Pine weevil (Hylobius abietis) antifeedants from lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratt, K; Sunnerheim, K; Nordenhem, H; Nordlander, G; Langström, B

    2001-11-01

    Pine weevils (Hylobius abietis) fed less on bark of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) than on bark of Scots pine (P. sylvestris). Two pine weevil antifeedants, ethyl trans-cinnamate and ethyl 2,3-dibromo-3-phenyl-propanoate, were isolated from bark of lodgepole pine. These two compounds significantly reduced pine weevil feeding in a laboratory bioassay. In field assays, the second compound significantly decreased pine weevil damage on planted seedlings. Ethyl 2,3-dibromo-3-phenylpropanoate has not previously been reported as a natural product.

  3. Eradication of sweet potato weevil using Co-60 gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokunaga, Taizo

    2007-01-01

    Sweet potato weevil which is a harmful insect injuring sweet potatoes was found out at Yoron Island in 1915 for the first time in Kagoshima prefecture, Japan. Here the eradication of sweet potato weevils using cobalt 60 irradiation achieved at Kikai Island is described. The mass-reared male weevils in potatoes are in pasture after sterilized by gamma irradiation. If the sexually sterile male copulates with a wild female, the egg does not incubate. By the repeated sterilization during several generations, the eradication of sweet potato weevils was accomplished. (M.H.)

  4. Components and Insecticidal Activity against the Maize Weevils of Zanthoxylum schinifolium Fruits and Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Shan Du

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In our screening program for new agrochemicals from Chinese medicinal herbs and wild plants, Zanthoxylum schinifolium essential oils were found to possess strong insecticidal activity against the maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais. The essential oils of Z. schinifolium fruits and leaves were extracted via hydrodistillation and investigated by GC and GC-MS. Estragole (69.52% was the major compound of the essential oil of fresh fruits, followed by linalool (8.63% and limonene (4.34% and 94.33% of the total components were monoterpenoids. The main components of the essential oil of fresh leaves were linalool (12.94%, ar-tumerone (8.95%, limonene (6.45% and elixene (5.43% and only 50.62% were monoterpenoids. However, the essential oil from purchased fruits contained linalool (33.42%, limonene (13.66% and sabinene (5.72%, followed by estragole (4.67%, nerol (4.56% and 4-terpineol (4.27%. Estragole, linalool and sabinene were separated and purified by silica gel column chromatography and preparative thin layer chromatography, and further identified by means of physicochemical and spectrometric analysis. The essential oil from the fresh fruits (LD50 = 15.93 μg/adult possessed two times more toxicity to the insects compared with that of fresh leaves (LD50 = 35.31 μg/adult. Estragole, linalool and sabinene exhibited contact activity against S. zeamais with LD50 values of 17.63, 13.90 and 23.98 μg/adult, respectively. The essential oils of Z. schinifolium possessed strong fumigant toxicity against S. zeamais adults with LC50 values of 13.19 mg/L (fresh fruits, 24.04 mg/L (fresh leaves and 17.63 mg/L (purchased fruits. Estragole, linalool and sabinene also exhibited strong fumigant toxicity against the maize weevils with LC50 values of 14.10, 10.46 and 9.12 mg/L, respectively.

  5. Insecticidal Effect of Fruit Extracts from Xylopia aethiopica and Dennettia tripetala (Annonaceae against Sitophilus oryzae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae Efecto Insecticida de Extractos de Fruta de Xylopia aethiopica y Dennettia tripetala (Annonaceae contra Sitophilus oryzae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald A . Ukeh

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The insecticidal and repellent activities of fruit extracts of Xylopia aethiopica (Dunal A. Rich. and Dennettia tripetala (Baker f. G.E. Schatz belonging to the family Annonaceae was studied against Sitophilus oryzae (L., an economic, primary post-harvest pest of rice, and other cereal products. Infested rice grains (100 g treated with 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5% (w/w powders of both plants were evaluated for toxicity against S. oryzae every 24 h for 3 d, and during Fi progeny emergence. The essential oils of both plants were also applied at 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 mg cm-2 filter paper in Petri dishes for toxicity bioassays at 24 h exposure. Repellence bioassay with 10 μL solution of essential oils on filter paper was performed in a Y-Tube airflow olfactometer. Results indicate that powders of both plants significantly (P La actividad insecticida y repelente de los extractos frutales de Xylopia aethiopica (Dunal A. Rich. y Dennettia tripetala (Baker f. G.E. Schatz pertenecientes a la familia Annonaceae fueron evaluados contra Sitophilus oryzae (L., plaga primaria de importancia económica en poscosecha de arroz y otros cereales. Granos de arroz (100 g infestados tratados con polvos de ambas plantas al 1, 2, 3, 4, y 5% (p/p fueron evaluados para la toxicidad contra S. oryzae cada 24 h por 3 d y durante la emergencia de la progenie F1. Los aceites esenciales de ambas plantas también fueron aplicados en papel filtro a 0,5; 1; 1,5 y 2 mg cm-2 en cajas de Petri para bioensayos de toxicidad con exposición de 24 h. Bioensayos de repelencia con 10 μL de solución de los aceites esenciales impregnados en papel filtro fueron realizados en un olfatómetro de flujo de aire Y-Tube. Los resultados indican que los polvos de ambas plantas causan una mortalidad significativa de estos insectos (P < 0,001 y una reducción en la emergencia de la progenie F1 con relación al control. Los aceites esenciales también mostraron un efecto adulticida significativo (P < 0,001 despu

  6. Iridovirus in the root weevil Diaprepes abbreviatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.B. Hunter

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Invertebrate iridescent virus 6 (IIV6 was evaluated for mode of transmission and ability to cause infection in the root weevil, Diaprepes abbreviatus (L.. This is the first evidence of IIV6 infection in D. abbreviatus, which caused both patent and sub-lethal covert infections in both larvae and adults. Adults and larvae were successfully infected with IIV6 by puncture, injection and per os. Transmission of IIV6 was demonstrated between infected and healthy individuals regardless of gender. Virus was detected in egg masses produced by virus-infected females suggesting IIV6 is transmitted transovarially. Virus particles were observed in the cytoplasm of weevil cells, and were shown to infect fat bodies, muscle, and nerve tissues, as visualized using transmission electron microscopy. Patent infections resulted in death of individuals within 3 to 4 days post infection. Individuals with covert infections tested positive for virus infection on day 7 by polymerase chain reaction analysis. Sequencing of PCR amplicons confirmed virus infection. Discovery of new pathogens against root weevils may provide new management tools for development of control strategies based on induced epizootics. This is the first report of a virus infecting D. abbreviatus.

  7. Response of banana hybrids to the banana weevil (Cosmopolites ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Response of banana hybrids to the banana weevil (Cosmopolites sordidus Germar) .... A number of physical and chemical factors are .... The total number of weevils trapped were then counted and recorded. Agronomic characteristics. Bunch weight, girth and height. In addition to corm damage assesment, data was also ...

  8. Response of banana cultivars to banana weevil attack | Kiggundu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    East African Highland Bananas (EAHB) (Musa AAA, 'Matooke' group) are a major staple food in the East African region. However, banana weevil (Cosmopolites sorllidus) is a major production constraint to bananas and may cause damage levels of up to 100%. Pesticides can effectively control banana weevil but these are ...

  9. Field attraction of the vine weevil Otiorhynchus sulcatus to Kairomones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, van R.W.H.M.; Bruck, D.J.; Griepink, F.C.; Kogel, de W.J.

    2012-01-01

    Root weevils in the genus Otiorhynchus are cited as one of the most important pests in the major nursery and small fruit production areas throughout the United States, western Canada, and northern Europe. A major problem in combating weevil attack is monitoring and timing of control measures.

  10. Element Content Analysis of Edible Insect of Ghana (Curculionidae: Sitophilus zeamais) Using EDXRF Spectrometer

    OpenAIRE

    AYDOĞAN, Zeynep; GÜROL, Ali; İNCEKARA, Ümit; TAHİDU, Osman Damba

    2016-01-01

    The overall study objective was to develop baseline information on the heavy elements concentration in edible insect Sitophilus zeamais (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and to evaluate the contamination levels of this insect. Twelve heavy elements (V, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br, Sn, Sb, I, La, Ce, Pb) were analysed by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF). The element concentration showed trend of Cu>Zn>Sn>Sb>Mn>Fe>I=La>Ce>Br>V>P...

  11. Laboratory and field evaluation of sterile male boll weevil competitiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGovern, W.L.

    1976-01-01

    The production of pheromone by boll weevils, Anthonomus grandis Boheman, treated with 10,000 rad of CO-60 gamma irradiation compared favorably with that of control weevils for 5 days; however, feeding (determined by frass collection) was reduced from the first day post-treatment. No direct correlation was found between production of pheromone and elimination of frass. Overwintered male boll weevils were found to produce small quantities of pheromone and the ratio of components was less attractive at the same concentration as the standard laboratory formulation of grandlure. Most healthy sterilized male weevils should be more attractive than overwintered males. Laboratory-reared sterilized male boll weevils can be as attractive to female weevils as overwintered field males. Weevils treated with busulfan (1,4-butanediol dimethanesulfonate) alone were more attractive than those treated with combinations of busulfan and hempa. In general, sterilization reduced the attractiveness of laboratory males by about 50 percent. Evidence is presented for the existence of ''super-males.''

  12. X-ray CT in the detection of palm weevils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, A.K.W.; Alghamdi, A.A.; Spyrou, N.M.

    2012-01-01

    Early detection of the red palm weevils (RPW) is a major challenge in agriculture among all kinds of palm trees due to the nature of the insect and the difficulty to trace them through their life stages associated with the tree life. Many methods have been applied for the weevil detection such as X-ray diffraction techniques, fluoroscopy and ultrasound. On the other hand, the idea of tomography has been used for other purposes such as the determination of the age of the tree and for applied environmental studies. Such technology can also reveal the weevil in principle. In this study, we explore the use of X-ray CT for weevil detection with the Monte Carlo method. A model of the stem of a palm tree is developed for simulations. MCNPX is chosen to carry out the simulations for the radiography tally in the code. The tally records the 2D data of the X-ray beams irradiating the tree model. An iterative reconstruction method for cone beam CT is applied to obtain the 3D slices of the tree model. We are exploring the minimum number of projection angles and the detectability of the weevil. We shall also report the sensitivity of weevil detection using X-ray CT with a large set of simulations with different weevil sizes and tree diameters. (author)

  13. An irradiation marker for mango seed weevil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heather, N.W.; Lescano, H.G.; Congdon, B.C.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this study was to look for a method to determine whether live mango seed weevil, Sternochetus mangifera (Fabricius) present in fruit had been irradiated at a quarantine dose or lower. We looked specifically for anatomical effects on the supra-oesophageal ganglion of larvae and tested a biochemical method for detection of the effects of irradiation on the protein profile of pupae. Neither method was successful. However, because for most international export markets mangoes need only be found free of the pest at inspection sourcing from pest-free production orchards and quality control systems incorporating requisite pest management components could prove practicable and satisfy most markets. (author)

  14. Genotypic variation for maize weevil resistance in eastern and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Uganda Journal of Agricultural Sciences by National Agricultural Research Organisation ... damage, median development period, Dobie's index of susceptibility, and ... resistance and grain yield, suggesting that breeding for maize weevil ...

  15. Phenoloxidase and melanization test for mango seed weevil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heather, N.W.

    1999-01-01

    This project was initiated to determine whether the phenoloxidase test successfully developed for fruit flies would be applicable to mango seed weevil, Sternochetus mangiferae (Fabricius). Mango seed weevil represents a quarantine impediment to the entry of mangoes to mainland USA and some other countries. It is not a destructive pest and rarely causes fruit damage even in late maturing varieties in which adults can emerge from ripe fruit. The main problem with the weevils come from nursery propagators who are concerned about possible effects on germination. It is questionable whether this is adequate justification for the level of quarantine importance with which this pest is currently regarded. It should not be confused with the mango pulp weevil Sternochetus frigidus Fabricius which does damage all infested fruit. (author)

  16. Control of Pecan Weevil With Microbial Biopesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro-Ilan, David I; Cottrell, Ted E; Bock, Clive; Mai, Kim; Boykin, Debbie; Wells, Lenny; Hudson, William G; Mizell, Russell F

    2017-12-08

    The pecan weevil, Curculio caryae (Horn) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is a key pest of pecans Carya illinoinensis ([Wangenh.] K. Koch) (Fagales: Juglandaceae). Control recommendations rely on broad spectrum chemical insecticides. Due to regulatory and environmental concerns, effective alternatives for C. caryae control must be sought for pecan production in conventional and organic systems. We explored the use of microbial biopesticides for control of C. caryae in Georgia pecan orchards. Three experiments were conducted. The first investigated an integrated microbial control approach in an organic system at two locations. Three microbial agents, Grandevo (based on byproducts of the bacterium Chromobacterium subtsugae Martin, Gundersen-Rindal, Blackburn & Buyer), the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema carpocapsae (Weiser), and entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin, were applied to each treatment plot (0.6 ha) at different times during the season. A second experiment compared the effects of S. carpocapsae and B. bassiana applied as single treatments relative to application of both agents (at different times); survival of C. caryae was assessed approximately 11 mo after larvae were added to pots sunk in an organic pecan orchard. In a conventional orchard (with 1.0 ha plots), the third experiment compared Grandevo applications to a commonly used regime of chemical insecticides (carbaryl alternated with a pyrethroid). All experiments were repeated in consecutive years. The combined pest management tactic (experiment 1) reduced C. caryae infestation relative to non-treated control plots in both locations in 2014 and one of the two locations in 2015 (the other location had less than 1% infestation). In experiment 2, no differences among combined microbial treatments, single-applied microbial treatments or different numbers of application were observed, yet all microbial treatments reduced C. caryae survival relative to the control. In the third

  17. Toxicidade de óleos essenciais de Piper aduncum e Piper hispidinervum em Sitophilus zeamais Toxicity of essential oils of Piper aduncum and Piper hispidinervum against Sitophilus zeamais

    OpenAIRE

    Joelma Lima Vidal Estrela; Murilo Fazolin; Valdomiro Catani; Marcio Rodrigues Alécio; Marilene Santos de Lima

    2006-01-01

    Óleos essenciais de Piper aduncum L. e Piper hispidinervum C.DC. (Piperaceae) foram avaliados quanto ao efeito inseticida em Sitophilus zeamais Motsch. por ação de contato, fumigação e tópica. Na determinação da DL50 e CL50, foi utilizada a análise de Probit. Médias porcentuais de mortalidade dos insetos foram comparadas por meio da análise de regressão linear e superposição das barras do erro padrão. S. zeamais foi mais suscetível ao efeito de contato do óleo de P. hispidinervum em relação a...

  18. Gamma-radiation control of the Sitophilus-orizae insect pest in the wheat grain storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritacco, M.

    1988-01-01

    Insects produce very important grain lost in the cereal storage. This lost is highly variable according to the type of cereal and the stored time. The principal pest among coleopters is Sitophilus orizae which attacks wheat grains. Ionizing radiation allowed us to develope an alternative control method to the chemical insecticides which have serious disadvantages. Our results expressed as the DL 50 , showed a considerable reduction of adult life spanning from 250 Gy. Post-irradiation adquired sterility was observed in the stored grain due to the absence of descendents. (Autor) [es

  19. Insecticidal Activity of Melaleuca alternifolia Essential Oil and RNA-Seq Analysis of Sitophilus zeamais Transcriptome in Response to Oil Fumigation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Liao

    Full Text Available The cereal weevil, Sitophilus zeamais is one of the most destructive pests of stored cereals worldwide. Frequent use of fumigants for managing stored-product insects has led to the development of resistance in insects. Essential oils from aromatic plants including the tea oil plant, Melaleuca alternifolia may provide environmentally friendly alternatives to currently used pest control agents. However, little is known about molecular events involved in stored-product insects in response to plant essential oil fumigation.M. alternifolia essential oil was shown to possess the fumigant toxicity against S. zeamais. The constituent, terpinen-4-ol was the most effective compound for fumigant toxicity. M. alternifolia essential oil significantly inhibited the activity of three enzymes in S. zeamais, including two detoxifying enzymes, glutathione S-transferase (GST, and carboxylesterase (CarE, as well as a nerve conduction enzyme, acetylcholinesterase (AChE. Comparative transcriptome analysis of S. zeamais through RNA-Seq identified a total of 3,562 differentially expressed genes (DEGs, of which 2,836 and 726 were up-regulated and down-regulated in response to M. alternifolia essential oil fumigation, respectively. Based on gene ontology (GO analysis, the majority of DEGs were involved in insecticide detoxification and mitochondrial function. Furthermore, an abundance of DEGs mapped into the metabolism pathway in the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG pathway database were associated with respiration and metabolism of xenobiotics, including cytochrome P450s, CarEs, GSTs, and ATP-binding cassette transporters (ABC transporters. Some DEGs mapped into the proteasome and phagosome pathway were found to be significantly enriched. These results led us to propose a model of insecticide action that M. alternifolia essential oil likely directly affects the hydrogen carrier to block the electron flow and interfere energy synthesis in mitochondrial

  20. Insecticidal Activity of Melaleuca alternifolia Essential Oil and RNA-Seq Analysis of Sitophilus zeamais Transcriptome in Response to Oil Fumigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Min; Xiao, Jin-Jing; Zhou, Li-Jun; Liu, Yang; Wu, Xiang-Wei; Hua, Ri-Mao; Wang, Gui-Rong; Cao, Hai-Qun

    2016-01-01

    The cereal weevil, Sitophilus zeamais is one of the most destructive pests of stored cereals worldwide. Frequent use of fumigants for managing stored-product insects has led to the development of resistance in insects. Essential oils from aromatic plants including the tea oil plant, Melaleuca alternifolia may provide environmentally friendly alternatives to currently used pest control agents. However, little is known about molecular events involved in stored-product insects in response to plant essential oil fumigation. M. alternifolia essential oil was shown to possess the fumigant toxicity against S. zeamais. The constituent, terpinen-4-ol was the most effective compound for fumigant toxicity. M. alternifolia essential oil significantly inhibited the activity of three enzymes in S. zeamais, including two detoxifying enzymes, glutathione S-transferase (GST), and carboxylesterase (CarE), as well as a nerve conduction enzyme, acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Comparative transcriptome analysis of S. zeamais through RNA-Seq identified a total of 3,562 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), of which 2,836 and 726 were up-regulated and down-regulated in response to M. alternifolia essential oil fumigation, respectively. Based on gene ontology (GO) analysis, the majority of DEGs were involved in insecticide detoxification and mitochondrial function. Furthermore, an abundance of DEGs mapped into the metabolism pathway in the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway database were associated with respiration and metabolism of xenobiotics, including cytochrome P450s, CarEs, GSTs, and ATP-binding cassette transporters (ABC transporters). Some DEGs mapped into the proteasome and phagosome pathway were found to be significantly enriched. These results led us to propose a model of insecticide action that M. alternifolia essential oil likely directly affects the hydrogen carrier to block the electron flow and interfere energy synthesis in mitochondrial respiratory chain

  1. Atividade inseticida do óleo essencial de Tanaecium nocturnum (Barb. Rodr. Bur. & K. Shum (Bignoneaceae sobre Sitophilus zeamais Motsch. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae Insecticide activity of the essencial oil Tanaecium nocturnum (Barb. Rodr. Bur. & K. Shum (Bignoneaceae on Sitophilus zeamais Motsch. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murilo Fazolin

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O óleo essencial extraído de folhas frescas de Tanaecium nocturnum (Barb. Rodr. Bur.& K. Shum por destilação de arraste a vapor foi avaliado quanto à toxicidade a Sitophilus zeamais Motsch., principal praga do milho armazenado. Papel de filtro e grãos de milho foram impregnados pelo óleo para se avaliar o efeito por via de contato (papel-filtro e fumigação, respectivamente. Para avaliação do efeito da aplicação tópica 0,5 µl das diferentes concentrações do óleo foram aplicadas em adultos do inseto. A partir de uma ampla faixa de concentrações, foram determinadas as mais promissoras para os bioensaios definitivos. Na determinação das dose/concentrações-letais (DL50 e CL50 foi utilizada a análise de Probit, realizando-se também, uma análise de regressão linear conjunta de todos os dados de mortalidade. O óleo de T. nocturnum foi considerado tóxico para S. zeamais baseado nos seguintes valores: CL50 de 14,1 ng.cm-2 e CL50 de 1.321,6 ng.g-1 de grãos para os efeitos de contacto (papel-filtro e fumigação, respectivamente, e DL50 de 14,7 µg.mg-1 de inseto para efeito tópico. Porcentagens de mortalidade próximas a 100 % foram obtidas nas concentrações de: 2 e 5 % (m/v (contato, 3 4, e 5 % (m/v (fumigação e 10 % (m/v para o efeito de aplicação tópica. O presente estudo mostrou que o ácido cianídrico, liberado do óleo essencial de T. nocturnum por hidrólise, pode ter atividade inseticida para S. zeamais e que concentrações acima de 4 % (m/v são promissoras no controle do inseto.Insecticidal activities of Tanaecium nocturnum (Barb. Rodr. Bur. & K. Shum (Bignoneaceae essential oil against Sitophilus zeamais Motsch. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae. The essential oil extracted from fresh leaves of the Tanaecium nocturnum (Barb. Rodr. Bur.& K. Shum by steam distillation, was tested against maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais Motsch.. Filter paper and maize grains impregnation was employed, for contact and fumigant

  2. Diapause in the Boll Weevil (Coleopetra: Curculionidae) : Life-Stage Sensitivity to Enviromental Cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terence L. Wagner; Eric J. Villavaso; Jefferey L. Willers

    1999-01-01

    This study examines the diapause response in naturally occurring boll weevils under field and simulated field environments of north Mississippi. Squares containing early-stage weevils were collected in July, August, and September and subsamples from each group were installed into similar dynamic environments in the laboratory. In this manner, some weevils experienced...

  3. Molecular diagnostic for boll weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) based on amplification of three species-specific microsatellites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung Seok; Szendrei, Zsofia; Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar; Mulder, Phillip G; Sappington, Thomas W

    2009-04-01

    The boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is a serious pest of cultivated cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., in the Americas, and reinfestation of zones from which they have been eradicated is of perpetual concern. Extensive arrays of pheromone traps monitor for reintroductions, but occasionally the traps collect nontarget weevils that can be misidentified by scouts. For example, the congeneric pepper weevil, Anthonomus eugenii Cano, and other superficially similar weevils are attracted to components of the boll weevil lure or trap color. Although morphologically distinguishable by trained personnel, the potential for misidentification is compounded when captured weevils are dismembered or partially consumed by ants or ground beetles that sometimes feed on them in the traps. Because misidentification can have expensive consequences, a molecular diagnostic tool would be of great value to eradication managers. We demonstrate that a cocktail of three primer pairs in a single polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplify species-specific microsatellites that unambiguously distinguish the boll weevil from three other weevil species tested, including pepper weevil; cranberry weevil, Anthonomus eugenii musculus Say; and pecan weevil, Curculio caryae Horn. However, it does not distinguish the boll weevil from the subspecific "thurberia" weevil. A universal internal transcribed spacer primer pair included in the cocktail cross-amplifies DNA from all species, serving as a positive control. Furthermore, the diagnostic primers amplified the target microsatellites from various boll weevil adult body parts, indicating that the PCR technology using the primer cocktail is sensitive enough to positively identify a boll weevil even when the body is partly degraded.

  4. Variación anual de las propiedades insecticidas de Peumus boldus sobre Sitophilus zeamais Annual variation of insecticide properties of Peumus boldus on Sitophilus zeamais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Pérez

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue determinar la variación anual en las propiedades insecticidas de Peumus boldus Molina, en el control de Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky, bajo condiciones de laboratorio. El polvo de hojas de P. boldus se evaluó durante 12 meses, en concentraciones de 0,5, 1 y 2% (p/p. Se evaluaron 36 tratamientos con tres repeticiones, en un diseño experimental completamente al azar, con un arreglo factorial. Se determinó el porcentaje de mortalidad y emergencia de insectos adultos e inmaduros y pérdida de peso y germinación del grano. La mayor mortalidad se obtuvo en los meses de agosto y septiembre de 2003, para las tres concentraciones con un 100%, mientras que la menor fue en mayo de 2003, cuando solo la concentración de 2% fue próxima a 100% de mortalidad. La menor emergencia de insectos adultos y pérdida de peso se obtuvieron en los mismos tratamientos. El efecto sobre estados inmaduros fue menor que contra adultos, y la germinación de los granos de maíz fue afectada por los polvos de P. boldus. Las propiedades insecticidas del polvo de hojas de P. boldus no son estables durante el año, Mayo es el mes con la menor eficacia insecticida, y la germinación de las semillas se ve afectada por el polvo.The objective of this work was to determine the annual variation of Peumus boldus Molina insecticidal properties for the control of Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky, under laboratory conditions. The powder of P. boldus leaves was evaluated, during 12 months, in 0.5, 1, and 2% (w/w concentrations. Thirty-six treatments, with three replications, were evaluated in a completely randomized experimental design, with a factorial arrangement. Evaluations were made for adult and immature insect percentage mortality and emergence, grain weight loss and seed germination. The greatest mortality was obtained in August and September 2003, in the three concentrations with 100%, and the lowest mortality was registered in May 2003

  5. Boll weevil eradication: a model for sea lamprey control?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, James W.; Swink, William D.

    2003-01-01

    Invasions of boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis) into the United States and sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) into the Great Lakes were similar in many ways. Important species (American cotton, Gossypium hirsutum, and lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush) and the industries they supported were negatively affected. Initial control efforts were unsuccessful until pesticides and application technologies were developed. For boll weevils, controls relying on pesticides evolved into an integrated program that included recommended farming practices and poisoned baits. However, the discovery of a boll weevil sex pheromone in 1964 allowed adoption of an ongoing program of eradication. Despite opposition over concept and cost, insecticides, pheromone traps, poisoned baits, and approved farming practices were used to eradicate boll weevils from Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, and Alabama by 1999. Using the working back approach along the path of the original invasion, eradication was nearly completed by 2002 in Mississippi and eradication programs were underway in Arkansas, Tennessee, Oklahoma, Louisiana, and parts of Texas. Insecticide use for cotton production decreased 50 to 90%, and cotton yields and farm income increased an average of 78 kg/ha and $190 U.S./ha in areas where boll weevils were eradicated. For sea lampreys, integrated management uses lampricides, barriers to migration, trapping, and release of sterilized males. Although sea lamprey eradication is not currently feasible, recent research on larval and sex pheromones might provide the tools to make it possible. A successful eradication program for sea lampreys starting in Lake Superior and expanding to the lower Great Lakes would ultimately provide huge ecological and economic benefits by eliminating lampricide applications, removing barriers that block teleost fishes, and facilitating the recovery of lake trout. Should the opportunity arise, the concept of sea lamprey eradication should

  6. Mechanical damage in cotton buds caused by the boll weevil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Roseane Cavalcanti

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis Boheman causes high levels of bud abscission in cotton plants due to feeding or oviposition punctures. It has been reported that abscission is mainly due to enzymes present in the insect's saliva, but mechanical damage could also contribute to square abscission. The objective of this paper was to undertake an analysis of the morphological damages caused by the insect in cotton squares using microscopy. Anthers and ovules are the main target of boll weevil feeding. The process initiates by perforation of young sepal and petal tissues and proceeds with subsequent alimentation on stamen and ovary leading to abscission of floral structures.

  7. Alfalfa weevil male: effect of γ-radiation and weevil age on mating competitiveness and sperm transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wollam, J.D.; Hower, A.A. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Virgin male Hypera postica (Gyllenhal) were irradiated at 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 weeks of age. Alfalfa weevils from each age group were subjected to γ-radiation doses of 0, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 krads. Mating competitiveness was reduced by the 5 to 6 krad doses in all age groups except those 4 weeks old. Weevils irradiated at 1 week of age showed a reduction in competitiveness at doses above 2 krad. Radiation dose and age at irradiation had little noticeable effect on sperm transfer

  8. Toxicidade de óleos essenciais de Piper aduncum e Piper hispidinervum em Sitophilus zeamais

    OpenAIRE

    Estrela,Joelma Lima Vidal; Fazolin,Murilo; Catani,Valdomiro; Alécio,Marcio Rodrigues; Lima,Marilene Santos de

    2006-01-01

    Óleos essenciais de Piper aduncum L. e Piper hispidinervum C.DC. (Piperaceae) foram avaliados quanto ao efeito inseticida em Sitophilus zeamais Motsch. por ação de contato, fumigação e tópica. Na determinação da DL50 e CL50, foi utilizada a análise de Probit. Médias porcentuais de mortalidade dos insetos foram comparadas por meio da análise de regressão linear e superposição das barras do erro padrão. S. zeamais foi mais suscetível ao efeito de contato do óleo de P. hispidinervum em relação a...

  9. Boll weevil: experimental sterilization of large numbers by fractionated irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haynes, J.W.; Wright, J.E.; Davich, T.B.; Roberson, J.; Griffin, J.G.; Darden, E.

    1978-01-01

    Boll weevils, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman, 9 days after egg implantation in the larval diet were transported from the Boll Weevil Research Laboratory, Mississippi State, MS, to the Comparative Animal Research Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, and irradiated with 6.9 krad (test 1) or 7.2 krad (test 2) of 60 Co gamma rays delivered in 25 equal doses over 100 h. In test 1, from 600 individual pairs of T (treated) males x N (normal) females, only 114 eggs hatched from a sample of 950 eggs, and 47 adults emerged from a sample of 1042 eggs. Also, from 600 pairs of T females x N males, 6 eggs hatched of a sample of 6 eggs and 12 adults emerged from a sample of 20 eggs. In test 2, from 700 individual pairs of T males x N females, 54 eggs hatched from a sample of 1510, and 10 adults emerged from a sample of 1703 eggs. Also, in T females x N males matings, 1 egg hatched of a sample of 3, and no adults emerged from a sample of 4. Transportation and handling in the 2nd test reduced adult emergence an avg of 49%. Thus the 2 replicates in test 2 resulted in 3.4 x 10 5 and 4.3 x 10 5 irradiated weevils emerging/day for 7 days. Bacterial contamination of weevils was low

  10. Irradiated boll weevils: pheromone production determined by GLC analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGovern, W.L.; McKibben, G.H.; Gueldner, R.C.; Cross, W.H.

    1975-01-01

    The production of pheromone by Anthonomus grandis Boheman when treated with 10,000 rad of 60 Co gamma irradiation compared favorably with that of control weevils for 5 days; however, feeding (determined by frass collection) was reduced from day one. No direct correlation was found between production of pheromone and elimination of frass

  11. The conundrum of chemical boll weevil control in subtropical regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is a tropical Mesoamerican insect that invaded the United States in 1893, spreading across the Cotton Belt as the key pest of cotton and causing billions of dollars in yield losses and insecticide-based control efforts;...

  12. Cultural control of banana weevils in Ntungamo, southwestern Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okech, S.H.; Gold, C.S.; Bagamba, F.; Masanza, M.; Tushemereirwe, W.; Ssennyonga, J.

    2005-01-01

    The International Institute of Tropical Agriculture and the Uganda National Banana Research Programme tested and evaluated selected cultural management options for the banana weevil through on-farm farmer participatory research in Ntungamo district, Uganda between 1996 and 003. A farmer adoption

  13. Microbiological quality of raw and roasted African palm weevil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microbiological quality of raw and roasted African palm weevil ( Rhynchophorus phoenicis ) consumed in the south eastern Nigeria. ... Rhynchophorus phoenicis though reported to be highly nutritious in terms of amino acid profile and presence of unsaturated fatty acid can be a source of food poison if not properly handled ...

  14. A screening method for banana weevil ( Cosmopolites sordidus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The banana weevil (Cosmopolites sordidus Germar) is a serious pest in most banana-growing areas of the world. Host-plant resistance is considered to be the most feasible and sustainable method for its control. However, a quick and effective method for screening banana genotypes for resistance against the banana ...

  15. Brilliant camouflage : photonic crystals in the diamond weevil, Entimus imperialis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilts, Bodo D.; Michielsen, Kristel; Kuipers, Jeroen; Raedt, Hans De; Stavenga, Doekele G.

    2012-01-01

    The neotropical diamond weevil, Entimus imperialis, is marked by rows of brilliant spots on the overall black elytra. The spots are concave pits with intricate patterns of structural-coloured scales, consisting of large domains of three-dimensional photonic crystals that have a diamond-type

  16. Rice microstructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    An understanding of plant structure is desirable to obtain a clear idea of the overall impact of a crop. A mature rice plant consists of leafy components (left in the field post-harvest) and paddy rice (collected). The rice plant is supported by a hollow stem (culm) with leaf sheaths attached to nod...

  17. Selective breeding for increased pheromone production in the boll weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCoy, J.R.; Wright, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    The male boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman, uses an aggregating pheromone to attract females, after which mating often occurs. Sterile boll weevil release programs depend upon this phenomenon to produce sterile matings with feral females. In an effort to increase the effectiveness of the individual sterile male and thereby reduce the number of sterile males required per hectare, a selective-breeding system was used to increase the total pheromone produced by individual male boll weevils. This breeding program increased the total pheromone production by individual male boll weevils to 4.5 times that of the parent population. After irradiation-induced sterilization, there remained 2.2 times more pheromone produced by the selected strain. Therefore, these sterile weevils should be about 2.2 times more attractive to feral females than the parent weevils now in use, and they have the potential to reduce the number of sterile males required in a sterile release program

  18. Fractionated vs acute irradiation: the effects of treating adult boll weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) at different ages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haynes, J.W.; Wright, J.E.; Mattix, E.

    1979-01-01

    When 6-7 days old mass-reared ebony boll weevils, Anthonomus grandis Boheman, were given 25 doses of γ-irradiation totaling 6625 rads, mortality was 14%-15% less 1 week later than when young weevils (1-2 day-old) were similarly treated. However, giving older weevils an acute dose of 6625 rads did not reduce mortality. Seven-day-old weevils receiving the acute treatment mated 10% more than weevils that were 3 days old at the time of treatment. Seven-day-old male weevils exposed to the fractionated treatment transferred sperm to 12% more females than 7-day-old males exposed to the acute treatment. (Auth.)

  19. The use of aggregation pheromone to enhance dissemination of Beauveria bassiana for the control of the banana weevil in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tinzaara, W.; Gold, C.S.; Dicke, M.; Huis, van A.; Nankinga, C.M.; Kagezi, G.H.; Ragama, P.E.

    2007-01-01

    Candidate strains of Beauveria bassiana were identified for use in integrated pest management of the banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus. Horizontal field transmission of B. bassiana between banana weevils using different delivery systems, including aggregation pheromones, was investigated. We

  20. Efficacy of modified atmosphere packaging to control Sitophilus spp. in organic maize grain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo De Carli

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of modified atmosphere packaging on the mortality of Sitophilus spp. in organic maize grain was studied. Maize grains were packed with five different atmospheres consisting of 20% O2, or 20, 40, 60, 80% CO2 with remaining N2. The packages were stored for 30 days at 26°C. CO2 and O2 concentrations were monitored inside the packages during the storage. The moisture content, titratable acidity and pH were analysed on the first and thirtieth day. At 5, 15 and 30 days of storage no significant differences were observed in the percentages of dead insects when CO2 was used. The results of progeny indicated that from the fifth day the number of emerging insects was low at 20, 60 and 80% CO2. Complete inhibition of the insects was achieved with 30 days of exposure in CO2 atmospheres.O efeito da embalagem em atmosferas modificadas sobre os insetos Sitophilus spp. nos grãos de milho orgânico foi estudado. Os grãos de milho foram empacotados em cinco atmosferas iniciais diferentes de 20% de O2, ou 20, 40, 60, 80% de CO2 com balanço de N2. As embalagens foram armazenadas por 30 dias a 26ºC. As concentrações de CO2 e O2 foram monitoradas dentro das embalagens durante o armazenamento. As análises de teor de umidade, acidez e pH foram também realizados no primeiro e trigésimo dia. Os resultados mostraram que no quinto, décimo quinto e trigésimo dia de estocagem não foram encontrados diferenças significativas nas porcentagens de insetos mortos quando CO2 foi usado. Os resultados relativos à progênie indicaram que no quinto dia o número de insetos emergentes foi menor a 20, 60 e 80% CO2. A completa inibição dos insetos foi atingida com 30 dias de exposição em atmosferas de CO2.

  1. Captures of Boll Weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Relation to Trap Orientation and Distance From Brush Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spurgeon, Dale W

    2016-04-01

    Eradication programs for the boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman) rely on pheromone-baited traps to trigger insecticide treatments and monitor program progress. A key objective of monitoring in these programs is the timely detection of incipient weevil populations to limit or prevent re-infestation. Therefore, improvements in the effectiveness of trapping would enhance efforts to achieve and maintain eradication. Association of pheromone traps with woodlots and other prominent vegetation are reported to increase captures of weevils, but the spatial scale over which this effect occurs is unknown. The influences of trap distance (0, 10, and 20 m) and orientation (leeward or windward) to brush lines on boll weevil captures were examined during three noncropping seasons (October to February) in the Rio Grande Valley of Texas. Differences in numbers of captured weevils and in the probability of capture between traps at 10 or 20 m from brush, although often statistically significant, were generally small and variable. Variations in boll weevil population levels, wind directions, and wind speeds apparently contributed to this variability. In contrast, traps closely associated with brush (0 m) generally captured larger numbers of weevils, and offered a higher probability of weevil capture compared with traps away from brush. These increases in the probability of weevil capture were as high as 30%. Such increases in the ability of traps to detect low-level boll weevil populations indicate trap placement with respect to prominent vegetation is an important consideration in maximizing the effectiveness of trap-based monitoring for the boll weevil.

  2. Failure of pheromone traps in detecting incipient populations of boll weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae): Investigation of two potential contributing factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Progress towards complete eradication of the boll weevil has been delayed in some areas of Texas due to the inconsistent performance of pheromone traps in detecting incipient weevil populations. In 2008 substantial infestations of boll weevils, Anthonomus grandis Boheman, were detected in several c...

  3. The influence of silvicultural practices on genetic improvement: height growth and weevil resistance in eastern white pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    F. Thomas Ledig; D.M. Smith

    1981-01-01

    When grown in a common environment, the progeny of white pine (Pinus strobus L.) from weeviled stands improved by selection thinning outperformed the progeny of wolfy dominants from untreated stands in both height and weevil resistance. Within families, weevils tended to attack the tallest trees. Among families the relationship was not as strong and...

  4. Karyotypic analysis of the cotton boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis Boheman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNally, L R; Beck, M L; Biggers, C J

    2000-01-01

    The diploid chromosome number of the cotton boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis Boheman, is 44. Both C- and N-banding techniques of mitotic cells demonstrated constitutive heterochromatin in the p arm of the eight largest chromosomes, the p arm of the X chromosome, and the centromeric region of autosomal groups A-D. Neither the y nor the group E autosomes appeared to contain constitutive heterochromatin. Supernumerary chromosomes were not found in the boll weevil. Restriction endonuclease banding of primary spermatocytes revealed a rod-shaped Xy tetrad in which the X and y were terminally associated. The p arm of the large, submetacentric X was C-band positive. While two of the autosomal tetrads were typically ring-shaped in primary spermatocytes, the remaining 19 autosomal tetrads were rod-shaped.

  5. Modelos analíticos do crescimento populacional de Sitophilus zeamais em trigo armazenado Analytical models for population growth of Sitophilus zeamais in stored wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arienilmar A. L. da Silva

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Para se atingir os objetivos propostos neste trabalho, desenvolveram-se modelos analíticos do crescimento populacional de S. zeamais em grãos de trigo armazenados com teor de umidade de 11,1%. O crescimento populacional foi avaliado durante 90 dias de armazenagem, nas temperaturas de 16, 20, 24, 28, 32 e 36 ºC, partindo-se de infestações iniciais que variaram de 1,3 a 9,3 insetos por kg de trigo. Os modelos explicaram de 93,9 a 98,9% da variação na densidade populacional. O crescimento populacional foi afetado pelo tamanho da população que iniciou a infestação, ou seja, quanto maior foi a infestação inicial maior também foi o crescimento populacional ao longo do tempo de armazenagem, que ocorreu na temperatura de 28 ºC e diminuiu drasticamente abaixo e acima desta. Na temperatura de 36 ºC, todas as populações foram extintas entre 15 e 45 dias de armazenagem, mas nenhuma população se extinguiu a 16 ºC. Os modelos apresentaram excelentes ajustes, estando em conformidade com os princípios gerais da dinâmica de populações de insetos em um sistema de grãos armazenados e descrevem muito bem o crescimento populacional de S. zeamais em relação ao efeito da temperatura e da densidade populacional inicial.Analytical models of population growth were developed for Sitophilus zeamais, in grain wheat stored at 11.1% of moisture content. Population growth was monitored for 90 days at the temperatures of 16, 20, 24, 28, 32 and 36 ºC and initial adult population densities varying between 1.3 and 9.3 insects per kg. The models obtained explained between 93.9 and 98.99% of the variation in density of adult insects. The population growth was affected by initial population density of infestation and increased proportionately with degree of infestation. The highest population growth occurred at 28 ºC and drastically decreased for lower and higher temperatures. Population extinction took place between 15 and 45 days of storage for all

  6. Components of competitiveness in sterile male boll weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villavaso, E.J.; McGovern, W.L.; Wagner, T.L.; Willers, J.L.

    1998-01-01

    This study examines the relative importance of age at the time of irradiation on attractiveness, mating ability, sperm transfer, prior mating, and longevity as factors of competitiveness in sterile male boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman. The amount of sperm transferred by irradiated males appeared to be the most important factor in competitiveness. More sperm was transferred by virgin males irradiated on day 5 than by virgin males irradiated on day 2, and males irradiated on day 5 had greater impact on egg hatch than those irradiated on day 2. The amount of sperm in spermathecae of females mated to virgin mates irradiated on day 5 was indistinguishable from that in females mated to virgin control males. Mating ability of males of all treatments was similar. Comparable numbers of boll weevils were captured in traps baited with males irradiated at 2 or 5 d during the first 4-5 d after irradiation, but thereafter, generally more weevils were captured in traps baited with males irradiated at 2 d or with control males. Attractiveness of males irradiated at 2 d was generally comparable to that of control males. More than 91% of irradiated males individually caged on cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., plants lived for 10 d in the field, and 40% lived for 14 d; all individually caged control males lived 14 d. When released into cotton fields, however, the numbers of both irradiated and control males declined sharply over 14 d. Thus, the potential for an effective 2-wk life span in the field suggested by the caged study did not appear to apply to laboratory-reared weevils released into cotton fields

  7. Phenylphenalenones Accumulate in Plant Tissues of Two Banana Cultivars in Response to Herbivory by the Banana Weevil and Banana Stem Weevil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hölscher, Dirk; Buerkert, Andreas; Schneider, Bernd

    2016-08-25

    Phenylphenalenone-type compounds accumulated in the tissues of two banana cultivars-Musa acuminata cv. "Grande Naine" (AAA) and Musa acuminata × balbisiana Colla cv. "Bluggoe" (ABB)-when these were fed on by the banana weevil (Cosmopolites sordidus (Germ.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)) and the banana stem weevil (Odoiporus longicollis (Oliver) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)). The chemical constituents of the banana material were separated by means of chromatographic techniques and identified by NMR spectroscopy. One new compound, 2-methoxy-4-phenylphenalen-1-one, was found exclusively in the corm material of "Bluggoe" that had been fed on by the weevils.

  8. Phenylphenalenones Accumulate in Plant Tissues of Two Banana Cultivars in Response to Herbivory by the Banana Weevil and Banana Stem Weevil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Hölscher

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Phenylphenalenone-type compounds accumulated in the tissues of two banana cultivars—Musa acuminata cv. “Grande Naine” (AAA and Musa acuminata × balbisiana Colla cv. “Bluggoe” (ABB—when these were fed on by the banana weevil (Cosmopolites sordidus (Germ. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae and the banana stem weevil (Odoiporus longicollis (Oliver (Coleoptera: Curculionidae. The chemical constituents of the banana material were separated by means of chromatographic techniques and identified by NMR spectroscopy. One new compound, 2-methoxy-4-phenylphenalen-1-one, was found exclusively in the corm material of “Bluggoe” that had been fed on by the weevils.

  9. Stable isotope tracer marking of individual boll weevils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, W.D.; Showler, A.T.; Armstrong, J.S.; Westbrook, J.K.

    2006-01-01

    Stable isotope markers have been used to study animal nutrition for several decades and more recently to study the foraging and cultural habits of imported fire ants. In this work, we have extended that effort to evaluate the potential for marking boll weevils, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), with the rare earth element samarium to aid in studies of insect invasion and pest eradication protocols. Neutron activation analysis (NAA) was performed on the marked boll weevils as well as plant material from the cotton squares on which the insects were fed. Samarium levels in non-dosed insects average about 20 ng/g or about 100 pg total element per insect. Our computed average determination limit was 36 pg samarium/weevil. The determination limit for cotton plant squares and leaves averaged 3.5 ng/g and 8.2 ng/g, respectively. These initial results indicate the NAA method is capable of identifying individual marked insects which have assimilated 1 ng of samarium, a ten-fold increase in content over average blank values. (author)

  10. Relationship between carrot weevil infestation and parsley yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Angel N; Hoy, Casey W

    2005-08-01

    The relationship between numbers of carrot weevil, Listronotus oregonensis (LeConte), oviposition scars and parsley fresh weight and plant mortality was measured in research plots during 1999 and 2000. Fresh weight was measured in one to two cuttings of parsley planted on two planting dates. The average weight declined with increasing numbers of oviposition scars in the later planting in 1999. Compensatory growth in surviving plants may reduce this effect. Plant mortality increased as number of oviposition scars per plant increased in the second planting in both years and in the first cutting of the first planting in 2000. One oviposition scar per plant is sufficient to result in significant reduction in fresh weight per plant. In commercial parsley fields, the relationship between fresh weight of parsley per 30-cm row section of parsley was best described as a linear function of the proportion of plants with root feeding. Economic damage to parsley that is equivalent to the cost of controlling carrot weevil was estimated to result from approximately 1% of plants with root damage. Based upon this estimated economic injury level, we suggest an action threshold of 1% of plants containing carrot weevil oviposition scars earlier in the growing season when controls could be applied to prevent the damage.

  11. Tenancy, Marriage, and the Boll Weevil Infestation, 1892-1930.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloome, Deirdre; Feigenbaum, James; Muller, Christopher

    2017-06-01

    In the early twentieth century, the cotton-growing regions of the U.S. South were dominated by families of tenant farmers. Tenant farming created opportunities and incentives for prospective tenants to marry at young ages. These opportunities and incentives especially affected African Americans, who had few alternatives to working as tenants. Using complete-count Census of Population data from 1900-1930 and Census of Agriculture data from 1889-1929, we find that increases in tenancy over time increased the prevalence of marriage among young African Americans. We then study how marriage was affected by one of the most notorious disruptions to southern agriculture at the turn of the century: the boll weevil infestation of 1892-1922. Using historical Department of Agriculture maps, we show that the boll weevil's arrival reduced the share of farms worked by tenants as well as the share of African Americans who married at young ages. When the boll weevil infestation altered African Americans' opportunities and incentives to marry, the share of African Americans who married young fell accordingly. Our results provide new evidence about the effect of economic and political institutions on demographic transformations.

  12. Fumigant toxicity of five essential oils rich in ketones against Sitophilus zeamais (Motschulsky

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M Herrera

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils (EOs and individual compounds act as fumigants against insects found in stored products. In fumigant assays, Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky adults were treated with essential oils derived from Aphyllocladus decussatus Hieron, Aloysia polystachya Griseb, Minthostachys verticillata Griseb Epling and Tagetes minuta L , which are rich in ketones and their major components: a- thujone, R-carvone, S-carvone, (- menthone, R (+ pulegone and E-Z- ocimenone. M. verticillata oil was the most toxic ( LC50: 116.6 µl /L air characterized by a high percentage of menthone (40.1% and pulegone (43.7%. All ketones showed insecticidal activity against S. zeamais. However, pulegone (LC50: 11.8 µl/L air, R- carvone (LC50: 17.5 µl/L air, S-carvone (LC50: 28.1 µl/L air and E-Z-ocimenone (LC50: 42.3 µl/L air were the most toxic. These ketones are a,b-unsaturated carbonyl. This feature could play a fundamental role in the increase of insecticidal activity against S. zeamais.

  13. EFEITO RESIDUAL DE INSETICIDAS NATURAIS NO CONTROLE DE SITOPHILUS ZEAMAIS MOTS. EM MILHO ARMAZENADO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Leandro Braga de Castro Coitinho

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The residual effect of natural insecticides was evaluated on adults of Sitophilus zeamais Mots. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae on stored corn grains. Clove (Syzygium aromaticum L., white pepper (Piper nigrum L., neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss and silica dioxide powders were tested as well as neem, eucalyptus (Eucaliptus globulus Labill and Eucaliptus citriodora Hook., eugenol, andiroba (Carapa guianensis Aubl., rosemary (Lippia gracillis HBK., cedar (Cedrela fissilis Vell. and pequi (Caryocar brasiliense Camb. oils. Powders were tested at concentration of 1kg/t in 50g-corn-plot and the oils at dosage of 50¿L in 20g-corn-plot. The plots infestation was accomplished using 20 and 8 adults (males and females of S. zeamais being 0 to 15 days old, respectively, in the experiments with powders and oils. Silica dioxide caused 46.7, 38.3 and 37.5% of mortality, respectively, in the initial (soon after the treatment with the powders or oils and at 60 and 120 days of storage periods, but the mortality induced by the other powders was inexpressive. In the three studied storage periods, silica dioxide was the more efficient in reducing adults emergency. At the initial storage period, all the oils caused mortality above 79%, however, after 60 and 120 days, mortality was lower than 2.5%. The adult emergency increased as stored period increased, although at 120 days the best performance was obtained using neem, followed by andiroba, cedar, rosemary and E. globulus oils.

  14. Bioactivity of diatomaceous earth to Sitophilus zeamais (Coleoptera: Curculionidae in different application conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adalberto H. Sousa

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the insecticidal activity of diatomaceous earth (DE at different ambient temperatures on adult Sitophilus zeamais and progeny, using different doses and exposure periods. The experiments were performed in Petri dishes containing 40 g of the whole corn kernel, treated with DE at doses of 0, 0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 kg Mg-1. Each dish was infested with 25 S. zeamais adults and kept at climatic chambers under temperatures of 20, 25, 30, 35 and 40 ºC. The insect mortality was recorded after six and 15 days from the beginning of the bioassays. The grains evaluated at 15 days were separated from insects and kept in the dishes for another 75 days under the same temperature conditions. After this period the effect of ambient temperature and of diatomaceous earth doses on the emergence of S. zeamais in the F1 generation was evaluated. It was found that the mortality of S. zeamais increased with the higher dose and temperature during the exposure period of six and 15 days. The number of insects emerged reduced with increasing temperature in these two exposure periods. The increase of temperature and exposure period favored the efficacy of DE in lower doses for control of S. zeamais.

  15. ATIVIDADE INSETICIDA DE ÓLEOS VEGETAIS SOBRE Sitophilus zeamais MOTS. (COLEOPTERA: CURCULIONIDAE EM MILHO ARMAZENADO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Leandro Braga de Castro Coitinho

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Oils of andiroba (Carapa guianensis Aubl., copaiba (Copaifera sp., Eucaliptus globulus Labill. and Eucaliptus citriodora Hook., neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss, eugenol, souari nut (Caryocar brasiliense Camb., rosemary (Lippia gracillis HBK., and cedar (Cedrela fissilis Vell. were evaluated in adults of Sitophilus zeamais Mots. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae. In the non-choice test, 20 g of corn grains per plot were treated with 50¿L of each oil and homogenized for two minutes. The plot was infested with eight 0 to 15 days-old S. zeamais adults. The E. globulus, eugenol, rosemary, and neem oils caused 100% mortality in S. zeamais adults. Except for copaiba, all oils caused mortality above 87% and the reduction in emergence of 100%. In the free-choice tests, arenas consisting of two plastic containers symmetrically interconnected to a central box by two plastic tubes were used. Twenty grams of non-treated corn (control were placed in one of the boxes and the same amount of grain treated with 50¿L of each oil comprised the other treatment. Sixteen non-sexed S. zeamais adults (0-15 days old were released in the central box. The rosemary, E. citriodora, eugenol and copaiba oils were the most repellent for S. zeamais adults, with repellence percentage varying from 97.3 to 87.7. Rosemary, andiroba, neem, and cedar reduced S. zeamais emergence in 100%, while the reduction caused by the other oils ranged from 72.7 to 97.9%.

  16. Value loss from weevil-caused defects in eastern white pine lumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myron D. Ostrander; Carl H. Stoltenberg

    1957-01-01

    Owners of eastern white pine stands suffer financially in several ways from attacks by the white-pine weevil (Pissodes strobi). Crooks, forks, and other weevil-caused tree-bole deformities increase bucking, logging, and sawing costs, and they reduce recoverable volumes. The injuries also reduce the average value of the lumber recovered. It is only with this reduction...

  17. The boll weevil plague and its effect on the southern agricultural sector, 1889–1929

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ager, Philipp; Brueckner, Markus; Herz, Benedikt

    2017-01-01

    In the early 1890s, cotton fields in the American South were ravaged by the boll weevil. Using a model that controls for differences in the intensity of cotton production at the county level, we show how the boll weevil significantly changed southern agricultural labor arrangements and labor market...

  18. Attraction of milkweed stem weevils, Rhyssomatus spp. (Coleoptera: Curculiondae), to grandlure

    Science.gov (United States)

    A trapping study was initiated in the spring of 2010 to compare the attraction of boll weevils to standard grandlure (synthesized boll weevil pheromone) and a new experimental formulation of grandlure. Both formulations contained the same four pheromone components, but differed in the proportion of...

  19. Attraction of dispersing boll weevils from surrounding habitats relative to simulated pheromone diffusion from traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ability to detect populations of boll weevils, Anthonomus grandis (Boheman), with pheromone traps has contributed significantly in progress toward eradication of the boll weevil. However, new information is needed to aid in the interpretation of trap captures, such as identification of habitats...

  20. Investigation of pheromone-based factors that may reduce capture of boll weevils in traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis Boheman) eradication programs rely almost exclusively on pheromone traps to detect weevils, assess populations, and indicate the need for insecticide treatment. However, instances have been reported recently in Medina Co., TX, where field infestations occur without p...

  1. Temperature influences on diapause induction and survival in the boll weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), has been the most important pest of cotton (Gossypium spp.) wherever it occurs. Although eradication programs in the U.S. have reduced the range of this pest, the weevil remains an intractable problem in subtropical Tex...

  2. Forensic pollen geolocation techniques used to identify the origin of boll weevil reinfestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis, entered the United States of America in the early 20th century and became a major pest in cotton, Gossypium spp. Shortly after the passage of Tropical Storm Erin on 16 August 2007 through the South Texas/Winter Garden boll weevil eradication zone, over 150 boll ...

  3. Reducing boll weevil populations by clipping terminal buds and removing abscised fruiting bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    The boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) punctures cotton squares and young bolls during feeding and oviposition, causing abscission of flower buds (squares) in the instance of oviposition. Fallen squares are a source of next generation adult boll weevils that...

  4. Root deformation reduces tolerance of lodgepole pine to attack by Warren root collar weevil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Jeanne A; Lindgren, B Staffan

    2010-04-01

    Surveys were conducted on regenerating stands of lodgepole pine to determine the relationship between root deformation and susceptibility to attack by the Warren root collar weevil, Hylobius warreni Wood. The total number of trees attacked by H. warreni did not differ between planted and natural trees. A matched case-control logistic regression suggested that root cross-sectional area was more important in predicting weevil attack for naturally regenerated trees than for planted trees, but weevils were associated with a larger reduction in height-to-diameter ratios for trees with planted root characteristics than for trees with natural root form. Neither the stability of attacked versus unattacked trees differed significantly and there was no significant interaction of weevil attack and tree type, but weevil-killed trees had different root characteristics than alive, attacked trees. Lateral distribution and root cross-sectional area were significant predictors of alive attacked trees versus weevil-killed trees, suggesting that trees with poor lateral spread or poor root cross-sectional area are more likely to die from weevil attack. We conclude that root deformation does not necessarily increase susceptibility to attack but may increase the likelihood of mortality. Thus, measures to facilitate good root form are needed when planting pine in areas with high risk of Warren root collar weevil attack.

  5. A semiochemical-based push-pull management strategy for pepper weevil

    Science.gov (United States)

    The pepper weevil Anthonomus eugeenii is a serious pest on peppers in southern United States. The weevils lay their eggs in flower buds and immature fruit where the larvae feed on the developing seed. Consequently, infestations are hard to control by pesticide applications. The aggregation pheromo...

  6. Phenotypic evidence suggests a possible major-gene element to weevil resistance in Sitka spruce

    Science.gov (United States)

    John N. King; René I. Alfaro; Peter Ott; Lara vanAkker

    2012-01-01

    The weevil resistance breeding program against the white pine weevil, Pissodes strobi Peck (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), particularly for Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr), is arguably one of the most successful pest resistance breeding programs for plantation forest species, and it has done a lot to rehabilitate...

  7. Effect of age, female mating status and density on the banana weevil response to aggregation pheromone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tinzaara, W.; Gold, C.S.; Dicke, M.; Huis, van A.; Ragama, P.E.

    2011-01-01

    The banana (Musa spp.) weevil (Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is a major pest in East Africa causing yield losses of up to 14 metric tonnes per hectare annually. Laboratory and field experiments were conducted to determine whether the response of the banana weevil,

  8. Olfactory responses of banana weevil predators to volatiles from banana pseudostem tissue and synthetic pheromone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinzaara, W; Gold, C S; Dicke, M; van Huis, A

    2005-07-01

    As a response to attack by herbivores, plants can emit a variety of volatile substances that attract natural enemies of these insect pests. Predators of the banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) such as Dactylosternum abdominale (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae) and Pheidole megacephala (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), are normally found in association with weevil-infested rotten pseudostems and harvested stumps. We investigated whether these predators are attracted to such environments in response to volatiles produced by the host plant, by the weevil, or by the weevil plant complex. We evaluated predator responses towards volatiles from banana pseudostem tissue (synomones) and the synthetic banana weevil aggregation pheromone Cosmolure+ in a two-choice olfactometer. The beetle D. abdominale was attracted to fermenting banana pseudostem tissue and Cosmolure+, whereas the ant P. megacephala was attracted only to fermented pseudostem tissue. Both predators were attracted to banana pseudostem tissue that had been damaged by weevil larvae irrespective of weevil presence. Adding pheromone did not enhance predator response to volatiles from pseudostem tissue fed on by weevils. The numbers of both predators recovered with pseudostem traps in the field from banana mats with a pheromone trap were similar to those in pseudostem traps at different distance ranges from the pheromone. Our study shows that the generalist predators D. abdominale and P. megacephala use volatiles from fermented banana pseudostem tissue as the major chemical cue when searching for prey.

  9. Effect of mulching on banana weevil movement relative to pheromone traps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tinzaara, W.; Gold, C.S.; Dicke, M.; Huis, van A.; Ragama, P.E.

    2008-01-01

    Banana weevil (Cosmopolites sordidus) is a major pest in East Africa causing yield losses of up to 14 metric tonnes per hectare annually. A study was conducted in Uganda to determine the effect of mulching on banana (Musa spp. L.) weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae),

  10. Effect of age, female mating status and density on the banana weevil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The banana (Musa spp.) weevil (Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is a major pest in East Africa causing yield losses of up to 14 metric tonnes per hectare annually. Laboratory and field experiments were conducted to determine whether the response of the banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus ...

  11. Comparisons of boll weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) pheromone traps with and without kill strips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, C P C; Armstrong, J S; Spurgeon, D W; Duke, S

    2009-02-01

    Boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), eradication programs typically equip pheromone traps with an insecticide-impregnated kill strip. These strips are intended to kill captured insects, thereby simplifying trap servicing and reducing the loss of weevils from predation and escape. However, the effectiveness of kill strips has not been extensively evaluated. We examined the influences of kill strips on weevil captures, trap servicing, and the incidences of weevil predation and trap obstruction (e.g., by spider webs). Evaluations were conducted weekly during three different production periods (pre- to early-, late-, and postseason) of cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., to represent different environmental conditions and weevil population levels. Within each period, mean weekly captures of weevils in traps with and without kill strips were statistically similar. On average, traps with kill strips took 9 s longer to service than traps without kill strips, but statistical differences were only detected during the late-season period. Overall, the mean weekly proportion of traps with evidence of weevil predation or trap obstruction was significantly lower for traps with kill strips (0.25) than for traps without kill strips (0.37). However, this reduction in the frequency of weevil predation or trap obstruction was too small to produce a corresponding increase in the numbers of weevils captured. In light of these findings, the use of kill strips is likely unnecessary in eradication programs, but may be a consideration in situations when the numbers of deployed traps are reduced and chronic problems with weevil predation or trap obstruction exist.

  12. A model for long-distance dispersal of boll weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbrook, John K.; Eyster, Ritchie S.; Allen, Charles T.

    2011-07-01

    The boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis (Boheman), has been a major insect pest of cotton production in the US, accounting for yield losses and control costs on the order of several billion US dollars since the introduction of the pest in 1892. Boll weevil eradication programs have eliminated reproducing populations in nearly 94%, and progressed toward eradication within the remaining 6%, of cotton production areas. However, the ability of weevils to disperse and reinfest eradicated zones threatens to undermine the previous investment toward eradication of this pest. In this study, the HYSPLIT atmospheric dispersion model was used to simulate daily wind-aided dispersal of weevils from the Lower Rio Grande Valley (LRGV) of southern Texas and northeastern Mexico. Simulated weevil dispersal was compared with weekly capture of weevils in pheromone traps along highway trap lines between the LRGV and the South Texas / Winter Garden zone of the Texas Boll Weevil Eradication Program. A logistic regression model was fit to the probability of capturing at least one weevil in individual pheromone traps relative to specific values of simulated weevil dispersal, which resulted in 60.4% concordance, 21.3% discordance, and 18.3% ties in estimating captures and non-captures. During the first full year of active eradication with widespread insecticide applications in 2006, the dispersal model accurately estimated 71.8%, erroneously estimated 12.5%, and tied 15.7% of capture and non-capture events. Model simulations provide a temporal risk assessment over large areas of weevil reinfestation resulting from dispersal by prevailing winds. Eradication program managers can use the model risk assessment information to effectively schedule and target enhanced trapping, crop scouting, and insecticide applications.

  13. Phenylphenalenones Accumulate in Plant Tissues of Two Banana Cultivars in Response to Herbivory by the Banana Weevil and Banana Stem Weevil

    OpenAIRE

    H?lscher, Dirk; Buerkert, Andreas; Schneider, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    Phenylphenalenone-type compounds accumulated in the tissues of two banana cultivars—Musa acuminata cv. “Grande Naine” (AAA) and Musa acuminata × balbisiana Colla cv. “Bluggoe” (ABB)—when these were fed on by the banana weevil (Cosmopolites sordidus (Germ.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)) and the banana stem weevil (Odoiporus longicollis (Oliver) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)). The chemical constituents of the banana material were separated by means of chromatographic techniques and identified by N...

  14. HOJAS DE CHAN (Hyptis suaveolens PARA EL CONTROL DE Sitophilus zeamais Y Zabrotes subfasciatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Modesto Armando G\\u00F3mez-Peralta

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el obje­tivo de evaluar el efecto de la hoja de chan sobre Sitophilus zeamais y Zabrotes subfasciatus en granos almacenados de maíz y fri­jol respectivamente, se estableció un ensayo en condiciones controladas en el año 2007, entre los meses de mayo a setiembre, en la ciudad de León, Nicaragua, a 129 msnm y una temperatura promedio de 29 °C. Se emplearon semillas de frijol de la variedad DOR 364 y semillas de maíz de la variedad NB - 6. Las hojas de chan del estrato medio de las plantas hacia el estrato superior y de tamaño similar, se colectaron antes de la floración se secaron por tres días en un secador solar y luego fueron pulverizadas. Las unidades experimentales consistieron de frascos de plástico de 172,2 g de capacidad, y dimensiones de 7,5 cm de diámetro por 8 cm de alto, a los que se adicionaron 100 g de maíz o 100 g de frijol. Los tratamientos consistieron en la adición del polvo de hoja seca de chan entre las semillas en seis dosis: 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 y 25 gramos por 100 de semilla. Luego se adicionaron 20 adultos seleccionados al azar y sin sexar. Las variables medidas en frijol y maíz fueron: número de insectos muertos; número de granos picados; número de adultos mergidos de los granos y peso del los granos. El polvo de las hojas de chan sólo tuvo efecto en la mortalidad de S. zeamays.

  15. Quarantine treatment for Sitophilus zeamais (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) through gamma radiation from Cobalt-60

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, Amanda Cristina Oliveira; Potenza, Marcos Roberto

    2009-01-01

    Pests like beetles, moths, fungus and mites normally attack stored products such as grains, spices, flours, brans and tobacco in bale. Among these pests the Sitophilus zeamais is one of the most important pests due its elevated potential of reproduction, infesting a great number of products, inducing great damages. This work had as objective to determine the efficacy of gamma radiation from Cobalt-60 as quarantine treatment for S. zeamais. The insects used in this experiment were reared in maize grains, at the Laboratorio de Artropodes of the Instituto Biologico/SP, on climatic room with 27 ± 2 deg C of temperature and relative humidity of 70 ± 5%. Samples containing 25 adult insects were put in acrylic recipients measuring 2.8cm x 2.8cm. Each treatment had four repetitions, in a total of 100 insects for treatment. They were irradiated with growing doses of gamma radiation: 0 (control); 0,25; 0,5; 0,75; 1,0; 1,25; 1,5; 1,75; 2,0; 2,25 2,5; 2,75; 3,0; 3,5 e 4,0 kGy, in a experimental irradiator of Cobalt-60, model Gammacell-220, located at the Centro de Tecnologia da Radiacoes - CTR of the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares - IPEN/CNEN/SP. After irradiation, the samples were transferred to plastic recipients measuring 3,5cm x 10cm, with perforated lids (to allow gaseous exchanges). After the irradiation the samples were kept in climatic room (27 ± 2 deg C and 70 ± 5%). The mortality of insects was evaluated 1 hour after the irradiation and also on the next 7 days. By the results obtained we can conclude that was the dose of 2.75 kGy that induced the immediate mortality for adult insects of the specie S. zeamais. (author)

  16. Resposta de Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky 1885 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae frente ao extrato de Capsicum annuum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Ferreira da Silva

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available O uso desenfreado de agrotóxicos vem a ser um caso de saúde pública, pois prejudica a saúde do trabalhador do campo assim como do consumidor final desses produtos. O Sitophilus zeamais é uma praga de armazenamento que ataca o milho, e no combate a essa praga comumente é utilizado produtos tóxicos. Visando essa problemática, a busca por produtos alternativos vem a ser um campo de investigação promissor, pois esse método de controle não gera resíduos para o homem tão pouco ao meio ambiente. O extrato utilizado para avaliar o potencial de repelência foi o de Capsicum annuum L. popularmente conhecido como pimentão. Os testes foram realizados com a utilização de arenas, onde em cada arena foram liberados 30 adultos de S. zeamais, não sexados e após 24 horas, foram registrados o número de insetos em cada recipiente. Os grãos de milho foram tratados com volume de extrato correspondente a 1,0% da massa de grãos, nas concentrações 0,0 (álcool 70%; 25,0; 50,0; 75,0 e 100,0% (volume de extrato/volume álcool. O experimento foi organizado segundo o delineamento inteiramente casualizado e constou de cinco tratamentos e quatro repetições. As maiores repelências foram observadas nas concentrações de 25% e 100%, repelindo 72 e 70% dos insetos respectivamente. Sendo assim a utilização desse extrato pode ser empregado no tratamento de sementes armazenadas, evitando assim uma maior infestação desses insetos, preservando assim a integridade física e fisiológica das sementes.

  17. Winter flooding of California rice fields reduces immature populations of Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in the spring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghaee, Mohammad-Amir; Godfrey, Larry D

    2017-07-01

    In California, rice fields are flooded over the winter months (November to March) to facilitate degradation of post-harvest rice straw and to provide temporary habitat for migratory waterfowl. Prior research showed that winter flood rice fields had fewer rice water weevil (Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus), larvae and pupae during the rice production season than fields that were left unflooded in the winter. A series of experiments were conducted to provide further support for these trends under controlled conditions and to find a mechanism for this phenomenon. Under winter flooded conditions there was a 50% reduction in populations of weevil immatures compared with the untreated control (no straw or winter flood). These same conditions corresponded to a 20% increase in the amount of silicon found in plant tissues in 2014 and a 39 to 90% decrease in methane production in the soil from 2013 to 2014, respectively. Evidence from previous field research and these controlled studies supports winter flooding as an appropriate tactic for controlling L. oryzophilus populations in the spring. However, the mechanism that would explain why winter flooding adversely affects L. oryzophilus immatures remains unclear. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Control of the mango weevil with the emphasis on radurisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kok, I.B.

    1979-01-01

    The mango weevil is one of the most important mango insect pests. Although it is of lesser importance in the case of early maturing cultivars, it is of greater significance in late maturing cultivars. In these cultivars most of the insects are in die adult beetle stage at harvesting. The beetles are then inclined to leave the seed and tunnel through the edible portion of the fruit, leaving an unsightly scar on the outside of the fruit. This also serves as a suitable site for secondary fungal development. By spraying the mango trees during the winter, or early spring, the beetle population may be significantly reduced. Orchard sanitation and the destruction of the pips which are usually scattered over the farm, also contributes markedly to the reduction of the beetle population. Radurisation of matured, i.e. marketable fruit, protects it from damage in that it prevents the emergence of the weevil. The most effective dosages ranged from 0,5 to 0,85 kGy. Dosages in excess of 0,85 kGy tended to be phytotoxic to the fruit. It is hoped that this research will lead to commercial radurisation treatments [af

  19. [Biological characteristics of the egg phase of citrus root weevils].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes, Jerson V C; Parra, José R P

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this work was to study some characteristics of the egg phase of three species of citrus root weevils. The insects were collected from citrus plants in Itapetininga, SP, and brought to the Laboratório de Biologia de Insetos of ESALQ/USP, in Piracicaba, SP, where the species Naupactus cervinus (Boheman), Naupactus versatilis (Hustache) and Parapantomorus fluctuosus (Boheman) were kept. Duration and viability of the egg phase were evaluated, and the lower temperature threshold and thermal constant (K) were calculated for these species. The species of citrus root weevils showed different duration of egg phases. The egg phase ranged from 40.4 to 13.8 N. cervinus, from 38.7 to 20.0 days for N. versatilis, and from 35.0 to 13.8 days for P. fluctuosus, depending upon temperature. The temperature thresholds of this stage were 8.1, 8.3, and 9.9 masculineC at thermal constant was 385.7, 397.7 and 294.1 degree-days, for N. cervinus, N. versatilis and P. fluctuosus respectively. The duration of the egg phases of N. cervinus and N. versatilis were similar at the same temperatures and P. fluctuosus had a faster development than Naupactus spp. in all temperatures tested.

  20. A survey of the weevils of Ukraine (Coleoptera: Curculionoidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunakov, Nikolai; Nazarenko, Vitalij; Filimonov, Rostislav; Volovnik, Semyon

    2018-04-05

    The fauna of weevils Curculionoidea of Ukraine numbers 1453 species equivalent to 25.3% of European fauna. They belong to 10 families and 364 genera. A total of 51 species are recorded from Ukraine for the first time. Assessment of inventory completeness indicates that 62% of the area of Ukraine are covered by samples. Spatial join analysis has reveals strong collecting biases and shows maximal richness in cells which fall into well-sampled provinces. A total of 22 out of 33 studied model sites are well-sampled (C>0.5). In total, we estimate ca.1470 species of Curculionoidea living in Ukraine. Curculionidae comprise the majority (82%) of the fauna, with 1202 species and 266 genera, and with remarkably high proportion of the three largest subfamilies: Entiminae (26%), Curculioninae (19%), and Ceutorhynchinae (18%). Consolidated data analysis shows highest richness (678-822 spp.) in provinces which fall into the mountain areas. Aggregated species richness for each of five ecoregions uncovers highest values in Pontic steppe (665 species) and East European forest-steppe (593 species). Habitat distribution of weevils is strongly uneven. Most of the richness (565 spp.) is harboured in lowland broadleaf forests. Salt marshes, salt steppes and sands are extreme habitats with low richness but high proportion of habitat specialists. Only 141 dominant species representing 18% of the total fauna but make up to 63% of the total population of weevils in Ukraine. Endemic species comprise a small proportion of the fauna but are remarkably concentrated in the mountains of Crimea (24 species) and the Carpathians (25 species). Along with 'true' endemics, 210 species are narrowly-ranged non-endemics and also have higher concentration in Crimea and the Carpathians (105 and 38 spp.). A total of 82 species are qualified as widely-ranged with high concentration in Central European Mixed Forests and East European Forest Steppe (71 spp. on average per province).        The high

  1. Response of Sitophilus granarius L. to fumigant toxicity of some plant volatile oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali F. Hamza

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available One-week-old adults of Sitophilus granarius (L. reared on wheat were subjected to pure plant volatile oils of Thuja, Eucalyptus and Peppermint. Volatile oil of Thuja was extracted from unripe fruits of Thuja orientalis plant by water distillation. The objective of the current study was to determine the fumigant toxicity of these volatile oils against adults of S. granarius. The fumigant toxicity of the volatile oils was tested against 1week old adults of S. granarius at 28±2 °C and 65±5% RH in darkness. The mortality of adults was tested at different concentrations ranging from 20 to 100 μl of Thuja, 10–30 μl of Eucalyptus and 3–15 μl of Peppermint at different exposure times (24, 48 and 72 h. The results demonstrated that the mortality increased with increases in concentration and exposure periods. The percent mortality of S. granarius reached 91.2, 95.0 and 91.2% when 1-w-old adult exposed to higher concentration of Thuja, Eucalyptus and Peppermint oils, respectively, comparing to 0% in the control after 24 h. After 72 h the percent mortality was 100% at the higher concentration of the three volatile oils. LC50 and LC90 were determined for each volatile oil and each exposure period. Data probit analysis demonstrated that concentrations of 70.71 μl Thuja, 16.95 μl Eucalyptus and 10.48 μl Peppermint, recorded 50% mortality after 24 h, however it reached 90% when concentrations increased to 104.04 μl Thuja, 25.48 μl Eucalyptus and 15.92 μl Peppermint after the same period. LC50 and LC90 values were decreased by increasing the exposure periods. These results showed that the three volatile oils could be applicable to the management of populations of S. granarius (L..

  2. Bazı Biyolojik Preparatların Sitophilus granarius (Coleoptera: Curculionidae Erginlerine Etkileri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuğba AYYILDIZ

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmada, Entomopatojen funguslardan Biocatch, Nibortem (Verticillium lecani, BMAUM-M3-003 (Metharizum anisopliae ile okaliptus ve zencefil bitkilerinden elde edilen uçucu yağların ve bir bitkisel ekstrakt preparatı olan Nibedicine EC (Azadiractin’in buğdaylarda oldukça önemli zarara neden olan Sitophilus granarius (Coleoptera: Curculionidae erginlerine karşı laboratuar koşullarında etkinlikleri denenmiştir. 10x10x8 cm boyutlarında ağızları tül ile yapıştırılmış olan plastik kaplarda ve 25±1 °C sıcaklık, %60±5 nem oranlarında ve 16:8 saat ışıklandırma süresine ayarlı iklim odasında yetiştirilen S. granarius erginleri üzerine Biocatch, Nibortem (Verticillium lecanii entomopatojen funguslardan 1x109  cfu/mL, BMAUM-M3-003 (Metharizum anisopliae 1x108  cfu/mL dozunda, Nibedicine EC (Azadirachtin 3000 ppm dozunda, uçucu yağlar ise %1 (1 l/100 l dozunda uygulanmıştır. Çalışma sonucunda elde edilen verilere göre BMAUM-M3-003 kodlu entomopatojen fungus (M. anisopliae, S. granarius’u zamana bağlı olarak en fazla etkileyen etmen olmuştur. Yapılan değerlendirmeler sonucunda kullanılan preparatların 21 gün sonunda etkileri incelendiğinde, zencefilin %89.47, diğerlerinin ise %100 ölüm oranına sahip olduğu saptanmıştır.

  3. Host-plant preference and performance of the vine weevil Otiorhynchus sulcatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Tol, R.W.H.M.; van Dijk, N.; Sabelis, M.W.

    2004-01-01

    The relationship between reproductive performance and preference for potential host plants of the vine weevil is investigated, as shown in tests on contact (or feeding) preference, presented herein, and tests on olfactory preference, published elsewhere. Assessment of reproductive performance shows

  4. Parasitoids of boll weevil Anthonomus grandis and resident predators in kaolin-treated cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Leme Santos

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneous use of control methods is essential to reach success in managing arthropod pests. The current study investigated the effect of kaolin application on resident predators in the cotton plant canopy and parasitism of boll weevil on abscised squares in the field, and parasitism of boll weevil in the laboratory. Predators Araneae, Formicidae, Chrysopidae, and Coccinellidae showed similar seasonal densities for kaolin-treated and untreated cotton fields as well as the emergence rate of the parasitoids Bracon vulgaris Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Braconidae and Catolaccus grandis Burks (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae from abscised field-collected structures. Under laboratory conditions, the parasitism of boll weevil larvae infesting squares was similar when treated and untreated squares with kaolin were offered to the parasitoid under free choice test. Therefore, the results show that spraying cotton fields with kaolin does not affect the natural biological control by parasitoids of boll weevil and pink bollworm and resident predators naturally occurring in cotton fields.

  5. Effects of covering highland banana stumps with soil on banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) oviposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masanza, M.; Gold, C.S.; Huis, van A.; Ragama, P.E.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of covering post-harvest banana stumps with soil on banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) oviposition levels was investigated at three locations, Sendusu, Kawanda Agricultural Research Institute (KARI) and Ntungamo district of southwestern Uganda. In the first experiment

  6. Olfactory responses of banana weevil predators to volatiles from banana pseudostem tissue and synthetic pheromone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tinzaara, W.; Gold, C.S.; Dicke, M.; Huis, van A.

    2005-01-01

    As a response to attack by herbivores, plants can emit a variety of volatile substances that attract natural enemies of these insect pests. Predators of the banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) such as Dactylosternum abdominale (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae) and

  7. Captures of Boll Weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Relation to Trap Distance From Cotton Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spurgeon, Dale W

    2016-12-01

    The boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman) has been eradicated from much of the United States, but remains an important pest of cotton (Gossypium spp.) in other parts of the Americas. Where the weevil occurs, the pheromone trap is a key tool for population monitoring or detection. Traditional monitoring programs have placed traps in or near the outermost cotton rows where damage by farm equipment can cause loss of trapping data. Recently, some programs have adopted a trap placement adjacent to but outside monitored fields. The effects of these changes have not been previously reported. Captures of early-season boll weevils by traps near (≤1 m) or far (7-10 m) from the outermost cotton row were evaluated. In 2005, during renewed efforts to eradicate the boll weevil from the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas, far traps consistently captured more weevils than traps near cotton. Traps at both placements indicated similar patterns of early-season weevil captures, which were consistent with those previously reported. In 2006, no distinction between trap placements was detected. Early-season patterns of captures in 2006 were again similar for both trap placements, but captures were much lower and less regular compared with those observed in 2005. These results suggest magnitude and likelihood of weevil capture in traps placed away from cotton are at least as high as for traps adjacent to cotton. Therefore, relocation of traps away from the outer rows of cotton should not negatively impact ability to monitor or detect the boll weevil. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2016. This work is written by a US Government employee and is in the public domain in the US.

  8. Control of Cowpea Weevil, Callosobruchus Maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), Using Natural Plant Products

    OpenAIRE

    Tiroesele, Bamphitlhi; Thomas, Kesegofetse; Seketeme, Seipati

    2014-01-01

    A laboratory study was conducted to investigate the effects of natural products on the reproduction and damage of Callosobruchus maculatus, the cowpea weevil, on cowpea seeds at Botswana College of Agriculture in Gaborone, Botswana. The cowpea variety Blackeye was used in the study. Fifty grams of each plant product (garlic, peppermint and chilies) was added to 500 g of the cowpea seeds. Findings of this experiment revealed that chilies and garlic had negative effects on cowpea weevils for al...

  9. A Robust Recognition System for Pecan Weevil using Artificial Neural Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Saleh Mufleh Al-Saqer

    2012-01-01

    Problem statement: Pecan Weevil is a widely found pest among pecan trees and these pests are known to cause significant damage to the pecan trees resulting in enormous annual losses to pecan growers. Traditional identification techniques for pecan weevil include traps with pheromones to detect the infestation of these pests. However, these traditional methods require expensive labor hours to set-up the traps and their monitoring. These techniques are also unreliable for early detection of pec...

  10. Collection of pheromone from atmosphere surrounding boll weevils,Anthonomus grandis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, J F; Benedict, J H; Payne, T L; Camp, B J; Vinson, S B

    1989-02-01

    An effluvial method was developed to collect the pheromone, grandlure from actively calling male boll weevils,Anthonomus grandis Boheman. The adsorbant, Porapak Q (ethylvinylbenzene-divinylbenzene), was utilized to trap and concentrate the pheromone. Captured pheromone was desorbed from columns packed with Porapak Q by elution withn-pentane and quantified by capillary column gas-liquid chromatography. In recovery studies with known amounts of synthetic grandlure, we found that the amount of each pheromone component collected was a function of collection duration, elution volume, and initial concentration. This effluvial method was capable of recovering as much as 94.9% of a known quantity (80 μg) of grandlure. The chromatograms were free of extraneous peaks. In studies of insect-produced pheromone, the effluvial method was used to collect pheromone from the air space surrounding male boll weevils as they fed on flower buds from CAMD-E cotton. The quantity and quality of boll-weevil-produced pheromone was determined for days 6, 8, 10, 11, 12, 13, and 14 of boll weevil adulthood. The maximum quantity of natural pheromone was produced on day 13 (4.2 μg/weevil) with a pheromone component ratio of 2.41∶2.29∶0.95∶1 for components I, II, III, and IV, respectively. The effluvial method described in this report is an efficient method to collect and quantify boll weevil pheromone from the atmosphere surrounding actively calling insects. Other applications of this method are suggested.

  11. Reproductive dormancy in boll-weevil from populations of the midwest of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula, D P; Claudino, D; Timbó, R V; Miranda, J E; Bemquerer, M P; Ribeiro, A C J; Sujii, E R; Fontes, E M G; Pires, C S S

    2013-02-01

    The boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis Boheman) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is an introduced pest in Brazil, which in 30 yr has successfully expanded to various eco-regions and became the most important pest of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum, Malvaceae). Given the limited knowledge about the adaptive mechanisms that allowed successful establishment of the pest population in a tropical region, in this work we studied the potential of the Midwest population of boll weevils to enter a reproductive dormancy and identified the importance of the feeding source for induction of dormancy. We investigated morphological and physiological characters as indicators of the dormancy. We also investigated the occurrence of reproductive dormancy in boll weevils populations from cotton farms of the Midwestern region of Brazil during the cotton and noncotton seasons of 2009 and 2010. The studies revealed that boll weevils entered facultative reproductive dormancy; however, unlike what has been observed for boll weevils from temperate and subtropical regions, the hypertrophy of fat body and hexamerin levels did not straightly correlated to reproductive dormancy. The food source and field conditions during early adult development were decisive factor for the induction of reproductive dormancy. The incidence of reproductive dormancy increased progressively as the phenology of cotton plant advanced, reaching approximately 90% at the end of the crop season. During the noncotton season, the boll weevil was predominantly found in reproductive dormancy, especially females; however, there is evidence of use of multiple adaptive strategies to colonize the next harvest.

  12. Survival and preference of cotton boll weevil adults for alternative food sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pimenta

    Full Text Available Abstract Plants that have potential as alternative food source (floral nectar, pollen and plant tissues to the boll weevil during the intercropping season were evaluated considering the prevalent conditions of Cerrado in the Central Brazil. Initially, we tested the nutritional adequacy for the survival of the insect of flower resource (pollen and nectar provided by eight plant species (fennel, mexican sunflower, castor bean, okra, hibiscus, sorghum, pigeonpea and sunn hemp. Subsequently, we tested if the resources provided by the selected plants continued to be exploited by the boll weevil in the presence of cotton plant, its main food source average longevity of boll weevil adults was significantly longer when they were fed on hibiscus’ flowers (166.6 ± 74.4 and okra flowers (34.7 ± 28.9 than when they fed on flowers of other six species. Subsequently, the preference of the boll weevil in the use of resources was compared between okra or hibiscus and cotton plants, in dual choice experiments. Boll weevils preferred plants of the three species in the reproductive stages than those in vegetative stages. Although the cotton plant in the reproductive stage was the most preferred plant of all, boll weevils preferred flowering okra and hibiscus than cotton at the vegetative stage.

  13. Ecology and phenology of the boll weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) on an unusual wild host, Hibiscus pernambucensis, in southeastern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzaluz, I O; Jones, R W

    2001-12-01

    The phenology and ecology of Hibiscus pernambucensis Arruda and its interaction and importance in maintaining populations of the boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis Boheman, were studied over a period of 3 yr in the Soconusco Region of the state of Chiapas, Mexico. H. pernambucensis is a small tree of Neotropical distribution, restricted to lowland areas, and generally associated with halophytic vegetation. This species is found exclusively along the shores of brackish estuaries, in or near mangrove swamps in southeastern Mexico. In this region, H. pernambucensis has a highly seasonal flowering pattern in which the greatest bud production occurs shortly after the start of the rainy season in May and the highest fruit production occurs in July and August. Boll weevil larvae were found in buds of H. pernambucensis during all months but February and densities of buds and weevils were highest from May through September. The percentage of buds infested with boll weevil larvae rarely exceeded 30%. Because plant densities and reproductive output of H. pernambucensis is relatively low and, consequently, the number of oviposition and larval development sites for boll weevils is limited, the importance of this plant as a source of boll weevils with potential of attacking commercial cotton is minimal in comparison with the quantity produced in cultivated cotton. However, the plant could be important as a reservoir of boll weevils in areas of boll weevil quarantine and eradication programs. The factors and circumstances that may have led to this apparent recent host shift of the boll weevil in this region are discussed.

  14. Comparative studies on mitochondrial electron transport chain complexes of Sitophilus zeamais treated with allyl isothiocyanate and calcium phosphide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Wu, Hua; Zhao, Yuan; Ma, Zhiqing; Zhang, Xing

    2016-01-01

    With Sitophilus zeamais as the target organism, the present study for the first time attempted to elucidate the comparative effects between allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) and calcium phosphide (Ca3P2), exposure on mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC.) complex I & IV and their downstream effects on enzymes relevant to reactive oxygen species (ROS). In vivo, both AITC and Ca3P2 inhibited complex I and IV with similar downstream effects. In contrast with Ca3P2, the inhibition of complex I caused by AITC was dependent on time and dose. In vitro, AITC inhibited complex IV more significantly than complex I. These results indicate that mitochondrial complex IV is the primary target of AITC, and that complex I is another potential target. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. (PGMS) rice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-04-18

    Apr 18, 2011 ... tics, led us to predict that pollen cell abortion in this type of rice when ... averages of natural day-light-lengths and temperatures were used. A natural long ... blocks were allowed to grow under natural growth conditions (which.

  16. Transoceanic origin of microendemic and flightless New Caledonian weevils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toussaint, Emmanuel F A; Tänzler, Rene; Balke, Michael; Riedel, Alexander

    2017-06-01

    The origin of the astonishing New Caledonian biota continues to fuel a heated debate among advocates of a Gondwanan relict scenario and defenders of late oceanic dispersal. Here, we study the origin of New Caledonian Trigonopterus flightless weevils using a multimarker molecular phylogeny. We infer two independent clades of species found in the archipelago. Our dating estimates suggest a Late Miocene origin of both clades long after the re-emergence of New Caledonia about 37 Ma. The estimation of ancestral ranges supports an ancestral origin of the genus in a combined region encompassing Australia and New Guinea with subsequent colonizations of New Caledonia out of New Guinea in the mid-Miocene. The two New Caledonian lineages have had very different evolutionary trajectories. Colonizers belonging to a clade of foliage dwellers greatly diversified, whereas species inhabiting leaf-litter have been less successful.

  17. Abiotic partitioning of clothianidin under simulated rice field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Rebecca A; Parikh, Sanjai J; Tjeerdema, Ronald S

    2015-10-01

    Clothianidin is registered for pre- and post-flood application in Californian rice fields for control of the rice seed midge, Cricotopus sylvestris, and the rice water weevil, Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus. The objective was to characterize air-water and soil-water partitioning of clothianidin under simulated Californian rice field conditions. Clothianidin was confirmed to be non-volatile (from water) via the gas purge method, as no loss from the aqueous phase was observed at 22 and 37 °C; an upper-limit KH value was calculated at 2.9 × 10(-11) Pa m(3) mol(-1) (20 °C). Soil-water partitioning was determined by the batch equilibrium method using four soils collected from rice fields in the Sacramento Valley, and sorption affinity (Kd ), sorbent capacity, desorption and organic-carbon-normalized distribution (Koc ) were determined. Values for pH, cation exchange capacity and organic matter content ranged from 4.5 to 6.6, from 5.9 to 37.9 and from 1.25 to 1.97% respectively. The log Koc values (22 and 37 °C) ranged from 2.6 to 2.7, while sorption capacity was low at 22 °C and decreased further at 37 °C. Hysteresis was observed in soils at both temperatures, suggesting that bound residues do not readily desorb. Soil-water and air-water partitioning will not significantly reduce offsite transport of clothianidin from flooded rice fields via drainage. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Morphology, diet, and temperature dependent host-free survival of the boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman, is an important pest of cotton (Gossypium spp.) in South America, Mexico, and southernmost Texas in the United States. A key factor in the persistence of the boll weevil is its ability to survive the non-cotton season. Mechanisms facilitating this...

  19. Effects of Temperature and Adult Diet on Development of Hypertrophied Fat Body in Prediapausing Boll Weevil (Coleoptera Curculionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terence L. Wagner; Eric J. Villavaso

    1999-01-01

    This study examines the effects of temperature and adult diet on the development of hypertrophied fat bodies in prediapausing adult boll weevils, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman. Simulation models derived from this work are used to estimate the minimal ages at which male and female boll weevils exhibit diapause morphology, based on conditions...

  20. Boll weevil within season and off-season activity monitored using a pheromone-and-glue reusable tube trap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robério Carlos dos Santos Neves

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The boll weevil colonizes cotton fields as early as cotton squaring, causing significant losses due to feeding and protected development inside fruiting structures throughout crop phenology. Successful control depends on control of adults and their accurate detection when they colonize the crops. The commercial trap and boll weevil attract-and-control tubes (BWACT are the only available tools to monitor and attract-and-kill boll weevil, despite limitation in efficacy, and insecticide in BWACT is not allowed in organic production. A grandlure-and-glue reusable and insecticide-free tube (GGT made with polyvinyl chloride tube, smeared with entomological glue, and lured with pheromone was tested to detect boll weevil activity across various seasons. Boll weevil showed activity during growing season and off-season from 2009 to 2012 in the Semiarid and with higher numbers captured in GGT in comparisons to commercial traps. GGT was able to detect early weevils in the field right after planting. Further, the overall averages resulted in 34-, 16.8-, and 7.5-times more weevils captured in GGTs compared to the traps during stalk destruction in the Semiarid 2011 and Cerrado season 2012/13 and during the harvesting period in the Cerrado season 2011/12, respectively. Therefore, boll weevils were captured actively during season and off-season and early captures obtained in GGT compared to traps showed a better correlation between captures and square damage.

  1. Efficacy of fipronil aerially applied in oil adjuvants and drift retardants against boll weevils, Anthonomus Grandis Boheman (Coleoptera:Curculionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph E. Mulrooney

    2002-01-01

    Results of aerial application tests in the field and insecticide transfer tests in the laboratory showed that cottonseed oil was the most effective oil adjuvant to use with fipronil for controlling boll weevils under field conditions and for transferring fipronil from cotton leaf surfaces to boll weevils. The mineral oil and mineral oil + drift retardant more...

  2. Effects of two pheromone trap densities against banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus, populations and their impact on plant damage in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tinzaara, W.; Gold, C.S.; Kagezi, G.H.; Dicke, M.; Huis, van A.; Nankinga, C.; Tushemereirwe, W.; Ragama, P.E.

    2005-01-01

    An on-farm study to evaluate the effect of pheromone trap density on the population of the banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Col., Curculionidae) was conducted in Masaka district, Uganda. The pheromone used was Cosmolure+, a commercially available weevil aggregation pheromone. Forty-two

  3. Population density of oil palm pollinator weevil Elaeidobius kamerunicus based on seasonal effect and age of oil palm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daud, Syarifah Nadiah Syed Mat; Ghani, Idris Abd.

    2016-11-01

    The pollinating weevil, Elaedobius kamerunicus (EK) has been known to be the most efficient insect pollinator of oil palm, and has successfully improved the oil palm pollination and increased the yield. Its introduction has greatly reduced the need for assisted pollination. The purpose of this study was to identify the population density of oil palm pollinator weevil EK using the concept of pollinator force and to relate the population density with the seasonal effect and the age of oil palm at Lekir Oil Palm Plantation Batu 14, Perak, Peninsular Malaysia. The pollinator force of the weevil was sustained at a range between 3095.2 to 19126.1 weevils per ha. The overall mean of weevil per spikelet shows that the range of weevil was between 13.51 and 54.06 per spikelet. There was no correlation between rainfall and population density of EK. However, positive correlation was obtained between weevil density and the number of anthesising female inflorescence of oil palm (r= 0.938, poil palm stands had significantly different population density than that of a 8-year old oil palm stand. The information of this study should be useful as a baseline data to investigate why there is such a wide range of weevils per ha or spikelet. Further study should also be done to relate the number pollinator force per spikelete and the Fresh fruit Bunch (FFB), fruit set or fruit to bunch ratio.

  4. Comparative acute toxicity of neonicotinoid and pyrethroid insecticides to non-target crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) associated with rice-crayfish crop rotations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbee, Gary C; Stout, Michael J

    2009-11-01

    Most insecticides used to control rice water weevil (Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus Kuscel) infestations are pyrethroids. However, pyrethroids are highly toxic to non-target crayfish associated with rice-crayfish crop rotations. One solution to the near-exclusive reliance on pyrethroids in a rice-crayfish pest management program is to incorporate neonicotinoid insecticides, which are insect specific and effective against weevils but not extremely toxic to crayfish. This study aimed to take the first step to assess neonicotinoids as alternatives to pyrethroids in rice-crayfish crop rotations by measuring the acute toxicities of three candidate neonicotinoid insecticides, clothianidin, dinotefuran and thiamethoxam, to juvenile Procambarus clarkii (Girard) crayfish and comparing them with the acute toxicities of two currently used pyrethroid insecticides, lambda-cyhalothrin and etofenprox. Neonicotinoid insecticides are at least 2-3 orders of magnitude less acutely toxic (96 h LC(50)) than pyrethroids to juvenile Procambarid crayfish: lambda-cyhalothrin (0.16 microg AI L(-1)) = etofenprox (0.29 microg AI L(-1)) > clothianidin (59 microg AI L(-1)) > thiamethoxam (967 microg AI L(-1)) > dinotefuran (2032 microg AI L(-1)). Neonicotinoid insecticides appear to be much less hazardous alternatives to pyrethroids in rice-crayfish crop rotations. Further field-level neonicotinoid acute and chronic toxicity testing with crayfish is needed. (c) 2009 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Investigating the potential of an autodissemination system for managing populations of vine weevil, Otiorhynchus sulcatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) with entomopathogenic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Tom W; Hough, Gemma; Arbona, Charlotte; Roberts, Harriet; Bennison, Jude; Buxton, John; Prince, Gill; Chandler, Dave

    2018-05-01

    Vine weevil, also known as black vine weevil, (Otiorhynchus sulcatus) is an economically important pest affecting soft fruit and nursery stock in temperate regions. We used laboratory and polytunnel experiments to investigate a novel control system based on autodissemination of spores of an entomopathogenic fungus to populations of adult vine weevils. The fungus was applied as a conidial powder, used on its own or formulated with talc, to a simple plastic refuge for vine weevils. The potential for adult weevils to disseminate the fungus was investigated first in polytunnel experiments using fluorescent powders applied to the refuge in lieu of fungal conidia. In this system, 88% of adult weevils came in contact with the powder within 48 h. When the powder was applied to five adult weevils that were then placed within a population of 35 potential recipients, it was transmitted on average to 75% of the recipient population within 7 days. Three isolates of entomopathogenic fungi (Beauveria bassiana isolate codes 433.99 and 1749.11 and Metarhizium brunneum isolate code 275.86), selected from a laboratory virulence screen. These three isolates were then investigated for efficacy when applied as conidial powders in artificial refuges placed among populations of adult weevils held in experimental boxes in the laboratory at 20 °C. Under this regime, the fungal isolates caused 70-90% mortality of adult weevils over 28 days. A final polytunnel experiment tested the efficacy of conidial powders of M. brunneum 275.86 placed in artificial refuges to increase vine weevil mortality. Overall weevil mortality was relatively low (26-41%) but was significantly higher in cages in which the conidial powders were placed in refuge traps than in cages with control traps. The lower weevil mortality recorded in the polytunnel experiment compared to the laboratory test was most likely a consequence of the greater amounts of inoculum required to kill adult weevils when conditions

  6. Use of sterile male technique for insects to eradicate red palm weevil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Turaihi, E.H.

    2012-01-01

    The date palm plantations in the Middle East countries are infested by a devastating insect which is called red palm weevil originally from India and spread firstly into the Arab Gulf countries through imported palm trees. Red palm weevil is mainly controlled by using synthetic chemical pesticides and aggregative pheromone traps. Use of chemical pesticides has dramatically increased during recent years and posed many poisoning cases, pollution of environment, killed beneficial and non-target insects. The aim of this study is to highlight the application of Sterile Insect Technique to suppress or eradicate red palm weevil. The results revealed that the application of Sterile Insect Technique to control cotton boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis) in USA could be considered as an ideal example to apply the Sterile Insect Technique against red palm weevil because both species have similarities such as : both are exotic pests; have protected larval and pupal stages; have limited hosts; have economic importance; have an aggregative pheromone that attracts males and females; that can be used for detection and survey; and finally both insects are Coleopterans belonging to the same family.

  7. Pea weevil damage and chemical characteristics of pea cultivars determining their resistance to Bruchus pisorum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolova, I

    2016-04-01

    Bruchus pisorum (L.) is one of the most intractable pest problems of cultivated pea in Europe. Development of resistant cultivars is very important to environmental protection and would solve this problem to a great extent. Therefore, the resistance of five spring pea cultivars was studied to B. pisorum: Glyans, Modus; Kamerton and Svit and Pleven 4 based on the weevil damage and chemical composition of seeds. The seeds were classified as three types: healthy seeds (type one), damaged seeds with parasitoid emergence holes (type two) and damaged seeds with bruchid emergence holes (type three). From visibly damaged pea seeds by pea weevil B. pisorum was isolated the parasitoid Triaspis thoracica Curtis (Hymenoptera, Braconidae). Modus, followed by Glyans was outlined as resistant cultivars against the pea weevil. They had the lowest total damaged seed degree, loss in weight of damaged seeds (type two and type three) and values of susceptibility coefficients. A strong negative relationship (r = -0.838) between the weight of type one seeds and the proportion of type three seeds was found. Cultivars with lower protein and phosphorus (P) content had a lower level of damage. The crude protein, crude fiber and P content in damaged seeds significantly or no significantly were increased as compared with the healthy seeds due to weevil damage. The P content had the highest significant influence on pea weevil infestation. Use of chemical markers for resistance to the creation of new pea cultivars can be effective method for defense and control against B. pisorum.

  8. Flora and Fauna on Backs of Large Papuan Moss-Forest Weevils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gressitt, J L; Sedlacek, J; Szent-Ivany, J J

    1965-12-31

    Large, living, flightless weevils feeding on leaves of woody plants high moss forest on various New Guinea mountain ranges have plant growth on their backs. Fungi and algae have been found on 11 species of Gymnopholus, lichens on six species, and liverworts on one species. In other genera of weevils, on the same mountains, there are additional specific associations with fungi, algae, lichens, and liverworts. The fungi and lichens, at least, are inhabited by oribatid mites of a new family, which may spread the plants from beetle to beetle. Also, nematodes, rotifers, psocids, and diatoms occur among the plants. Specialized scales or hairs, and a secretion, in depressions on the weevils' backs, appear to be associated with cpcouragement of the plant growth. Mutualistic symbiotic relationships seem to be clearly indicated.

  9. Evidence for volatile male-produced pheromone in banana weevilCosmopolites sordidus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budenberg, W J; Ndiege, I O; Karago, F W

    1993-09-01

    Females of the banana weevil,Cosmopolites sordidus, were attracted to and made longer visits to live conspecific males, trapped volatiles from males, and dissected male hindguts in a still-air olfactometer. Male weevils were attracted to volatiles trapped from males and made longer visits to live males and volatiles from males. Live females, collected volatiles from females and female hindguts, elicited small or no behavioral responses from either sex. Electroantennogram (EAG) responses from both male and female antennae were elicited by collected volatiles from males and by dichloromethane extracts of male hindguts and bodies but not by surface washes of males. No significant EAG responses were given to equivalent material from females. It is therefore suggested that male banana weevils release an aggregation pheromone via their hindgut.

  10. INVESTIGATIONS ON THE RESISTANCE OF SOME BULGARIAN COMMON BEAN GENOTYPES TOWARDS BEAN WEEVIL (ACANTHOSCELIDES OBTECTUS SAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Dimitrova Apostolova

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The most effective, environmentally sound and safety way to fight pests with biological means is the use of resistant varieties to them. In the present study were indicated the reactions of 30 Bulgarian common bean genotypes to the most economically important enemy – bean weevil (Acanthoscelidis obtectus Say. For this purpose, the following indicators were traced – seed damages and young adult insects, which largely characterized the response of different common bean genotypes to that biological pest enemy. The results of this investigation present a sensitive response to the sustainability of different genotypes to the bean weevil. The Bulgarian common bean varieties Plovdiv 11M, Abritus, Crystal and Bulgari can be used in breeding programs as donors of resistance to the bean weevil.

  11. Acute toxicity of chlorantraniliprole to non-target crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) associated with rice-crayfish cropping systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbee, Gary C; McClain, W Ray; Lanka, Srinivas K; Stout, Michael J

    2010-09-01

    Chlorantraniliprole, a novel anthranilic diamide insecticide, was recently introduced into the United States where rice-crayfish crop rotations are practiced to control rice water weevil (Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus Kuschel) infestations. Chlorantraniliprole has high margins of mammalian safety and excellent insecticidal efficacy, but its toxicity to non-target crayfish is uncertain. In this study, the acute toxicity of chlorantraniliprole to the red swamp crayfish Procambarus clarkii Girard was determined using aquatic and feeding assays. The aquatic 96 h median lethal toxicity (LC(50)) data indicate that technical-grade chlorantraniliprole is highly toxic (US EPA category) to crayfish with an LC(50) of 951 microg L(-1) (95% CL = 741-1118 microg L(-1)). A no observed effect concentration (NOEC) of 480 microg L(-1) was recorded. Neither the 36 day chronic feeding study, where crayfish fed on chlorantraniliprole-treated rice seed in aquaria, nor the 144 h acute feeding test, where crayfish fed on rice seeds treated with chlorantraniliprole, produced mortality or abnormal behavior. Chlorantraniliprole is three orders of magnitude less acutely toxic to P. clarkii than lambda-cyhalothrin and etofenprox, two pyrethroid insecticides also used in rice, and is less likely to cause acute crayfish toxicity in rice pond ecosystems. Based on acute toxicity data, the use of chlorantraniliprole should be more compatible with rice-crayfish crop rotations than pyrethroids. (c) 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Effect of allyl isothiocyanate on ultra-structure and the activities of four enzymes in adult Sitophilus zeamais.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hua; Liu, Xue-ru; Yu, Dong-dong; Zhang, Xing; Feng, Jun-tao

    2014-02-01

    Rarefaction and vacuolization of the mitochondrial matrix of AITC-treated (allyl isothiocyanate-treated) adult Sitophilus zeamais were evident according to the ultra-structural by TEM. Four important enzymes in adult S. zeamais were further studied after fumigation treatment with allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) extracted from Armoracia rusticana roots and shoots. The enzymes were glutathione S-transferase (GST), catalase (CAT), cytochrome c oxidase, and acetylcholinesterase (AChE). The results indicated that the activities of the four enzymes were strongly time and dose depended. With prolonged exposure time, treatment with 0.74μg/mL AITC inhibited the activities of cytochrome c oxidase, AChE, and CAT, but induced the activity of GST. The activities of cytochrome c oxidase, AChE, and CAT were remarkably induced at a low AITC dosage (0.25μg/mL), but were restrained with increased AITC dosage. The activity of GST was inhibited at a low AITC dosage (0.5μg/mL), but was induced at a high AITC dosage (1.5μg/mL). According to the results of TEM, toxic symptoms and enzymes activities, it suggested that mitochondrial maybe the one site of action of AITC against the adult S. zeamais and it also suggested that cytochrome c oxidase maybe one target protein of AITC against the adult S. zeamais, which need to further confirmed by protein function tested. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Efficacy of the organic-certified insecticide Diatect II against the boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis) in cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sappington, Thomas W

    2002-10-01

    The efficacy of the organic insecticide Diatect II against boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis Boheman) in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L) in the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas were assessed in small-plot field trials and greenhouse cage tests using azinphos-methyl treatments as a standard for comparison. Plastic sheets were placed in the furrows of the treated plots to retrieve boll weevils which dropped from the plants after being killed by the insecticides. Samples of live weevils taken by a tractor-mounted vacuum sampler revealed a modest, but significant, reduction in boll weevil populations in Diatect II plots. However, samples of dead weevils indicated that this reduction was due to movement of weevils out of the plots rather than to mortality. This interpretation is supported by greenhouse cage studies, where mortality in Diatect II treated cages was no greater than that in untreated control cages. The effects of insecticide treatments in small plots can be confounded easily and quickly by interplot movement of target insects. Although the relative effects of various compounds can usually be assessed by sampling the populations in plots soon after treatment, the best measure of efficacy is obtained by directly sampling insects that have died in the plot. This parameter is insulated from the effects of interplot movement, unless the toxicant is slow to immobilize the target insect. Taken together, our results indicate little efficacy by Diatect II against boll weevil under our test conditions.

  14. Evaluation of extended-life pheromone formulations used with and without dichlorvos for boll weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) trapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, J Scott; Greenberg, Shoil M

    2008-04-01

    Boll weevil traps baited with a ComboLure (25 of mg grandlure + 30 mg of eugenol + 90 of mg dichlorvos [DDVP]), an extended-release lure (25 mg of grandlure + 30 mg of eugenol + 60 of mg DDVP kill-strip), and extended-release lure with no DDVP were evaluated for boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), captures in South Texas cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., fields during February-March 2005 and March-April 2006. The traps were serviced once a week for five consecutive weeks by using the same methodology as active boll weevil eradication programs. Mean captured boll weevils from extended-release lures with no DDVP were significantly higher in five of 10 trapping weeks compared with captures of the ComboLure and extended lure. Weekly mortality of boll weevils captured was similar for the ComboLure (72.6 +/- 4.7%) and extended lure + DDVP (73.5 +/- 4.0%), and both were significantly higher than the extended lure (32.8 +/- 5.0%) with no DDVP. The presence or absence of DDVP did not significantly affect the sex ratio of field-captured boll weevils. We found no functional reasoning for using DDVP in large scale trapping of boll weevils regardless of the formulation or presentation in the trap. We conducted two additional trapping evaluations after the 2005 and 2006 studies, but the numbers of boll weevils captured were too low for statistical comparisons, indicating that boll weevil eradication is reducing populations in the Rio Grande Valley of Texas.

  15. Efficacy of aggregation pheromone in trapping red palm weevil (Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier) and rhinoceros beetle (Oryctes rhinoceros Linn.) from infested coconut palms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarthy, A K; Chandrashekharaiah, M; Kandakoor, Subhash B; Nagaraj, D N

    2014-05-01

    Red palm weevil and Rhinoceros beetle are the major pests inflicting severe damage to coconut palms. Due to ineffectiveness of the current management practices to control the two important pests on coconut, a study was conducted to know the attractiveness of red palm weevil and rhinoceros beetle to aggregation pheromone. Olfactometer studies indicated that the aggregation pheromone of red palm weevil and rhinoceros beetle attracted significantly more number of weevils (13.4 females and 7.6 male weevils) and beetles (6.5 male and 12.3 female beetles), respectively than control. Similarly, field studies found that both 750 and 1000 mg pheromone dosage lures of red palm weevil and rhinoceros beetle trapped significantly higher numbers of weevils (695.80 and 789 weevils, respectively) and beetles (98 and 108 beetles, respectively) in traps (P rhinoceros beetle population got trapped. Observations indicated activity of red palm weevil throughout the year and of rhinoceros beetle from September to March around Bangalore, South India. Pheromone traps for red palm weevil can be placed in fields from June to August and October to December and September to February for rhinoceros beetle. Population reductions of the two coleopteran pests by pheromone traps are compatible with mechanical and cultural management tools with cumulative effects.

  16. Effect of dose fractionation of 60Co gamma radiation on longevity and reproduction of Sitophilus granarius (L., 1785) (Col., Curculionidae) in wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthur, V.; Walder, J.M.M.; Wiendl, F.M.; Domarco, R.E.; Haddad, S.S.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of fractionated doses of gamma radiation in different interval of time on longevity and reproductivity of Sitophilus granarius (L., 1785) are studied. Gamma radiation was provided at dose rate of 1.56 kGy/hour by a Cobalt 60 source (Gammabeam-650). The insects were divided in two sets: one was irradiated at acute doses and the other in fractionated doses, with interval of 48 hours. Both sets received doses of 0,40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90 and 100Gy. Mortality and and emergency were determined weekly. (M.A.C.) [pt

  17. Some recent developments in white-pine weevil research in the Northeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. A. Jaynes

    1958-01-01

    Eastern white pine is one of the most important sawtimber species in the Northeast. This species would have still greater potential value were it not for the white-pine weevil, Pissodes strobi (Peck), its most serious insect pest. This is a native insect that occurs throughout the range of eastern white pine. A large percentage of the white pines in...

  18. Host plant preference and performance of the vine weevil Otiorhynchus sulcatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, van R.W.H.M.; Dijk, van N.; Sabelis, M.W.

    2004-01-01

    1. The relationship between reproductive performance and preference for potential host plants of the vine weevil is investigated, as shown in tests on contact (or feeding) preference, presented herein, and tests on olfactory preference, published elsewhere. 2. Assessment of reproductive performance

  19. Preferential edge habitat colonization by a specialist weevil, Rhinoncomimus latipes (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.A. Hough-Goldstein; E. Lake; V. D' Amico; S.H. Berg

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the behavioral basis of dispersal and colonization is critical in biological control systems, where success of a natural enemy depends in part on its ability to find and move to new host patches. We studied behavior of the specialist weevil Rhinoncomimus latipes Korotyaev, a biological control agent of mile-a-minute weed, ...

  20. Boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis) population genomics as a tool for monitoring and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite the success of eradication efforts across most of the cotton-producing regions of the U.S., the cotton boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman) remains a major pest of cotton in much of the New World. The area along the Texas border with northern Mexico has been a particularly troub...

  1. Continued pheromone release by boll weevils (Coleoptera: curculionidae) following host removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pheromone traps are a key component of management and eradication programs directed against the boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis (Boheman), but trap data remain difficult to interpret because of the day-to-day variability in captures. Our prior observations suggested a substantial proportion of boll...

  2. Olfactory antennal responses of the black vine weevil (Otiorhynchus sulcatus) to plant volatiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, van R.W.H.M.; Visser, J.H.

    2002-01-01

    Electroantennograms (EAGs) were recorded from the vine weevil, Otiorhynchus sulcatus F. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) to a broad range of volatile plant compounds. The response profile is restricted to a small number of volatiles that evoke substantial EAGs. Large EAG responses were particularly found

  3. Quantification of dichlorvos released from kill strips used in boll weevil eradication programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two types of kill strips, Hercon Vaportape II and Plato Insecticide Strip, are used by boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis (Boheman), eradication programs in the U.S. Both types utilize dichlorvos as the killing agent and are marketed to last up to a month in traps. Consequently, programs typically re...

  4. Improving Cry8Ka toxin activity towards the cotton boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Gustavo R; Silva, Maria C M; Lucena, Wagner A; Nakasu, Erich Y T; Firmino, Alexandre A P; Beneventi, Magda A; Souza, Djair S L; Gomes, José E; de Souza, José D A; Rigden, Daniel J; Ramos, Hudson B; Soccol, Carlos R; Grossi-de-Sa, Maria F

    2011-09-09

    The cotton boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis) is a serious insect-pest in the Americas, particularly in Brazil. The use of chemical or biological insect control is not effective against the cotton boll weevil because of its endophytic life style. Therefore, the use of biotechnological tools to produce insect-resistant transgenic plants represents an important strategy to reduce the damage to cotton plants caused by the boll weevil. The present study focuses on the identification of novel molecules that show improved toxicity against the cotton boll weevil. In vitro directed molecular evolution through DNA shuffling and phage display screening was applied to enhance the insecticidal activity of variants of the Cry8Ka1 protein of Bacillus thuringiensis. Bioassays carried out with A. grandis larvae revealed that the LC50 of the screened mutant Cry8Ka5 toxin was 3.15-fold higher than the wild-type Cry8Ka1 toxin. Homology modelling of Cry8Ka1 and the Cry8Ka5 mutant suggested that both proteins retained the typical three-domain Cry family structure. The mutated residues were located mostly in loops and appeared unlikely to interfere with molecular stability. The improved toxicity of the Cry8Ka5 mutant obtained in this study will allow the generation of a transgenic cotton event with improved potential to control A. grandis.

  5. Effects of soybean Kunitz trypsin inhibitor on the cotton boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Octávio L; Dias, Simoni C; Magalhães, Claudio P; Monteiro, Ana C S; Bloch, Carlos; Melo, Francislete R; Oliveira-Neto, Osmundo B; Monnerat, Rose G; Grossi-de-Sá, Maria Fátima

    2004-01-01

    The cotton boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis, is an economically important pest of cotton in tropical and subtropical areas of several countries in the Americas, causing severe losses due to their damage in cotton floral buds. Enzymatic assays using gut extracts from larval and adult boll weevil have demonstrated the presence of digestive serine proteinase-like activities. Furthermore, in vitro assays showed that soybean Kunitz trypsin inhibitor (SKTI) was able to inhibit these enzymes. Previously, in vivo effects of black-eyed pea trypsin chymotrypsin inhibitor (BTCI) have been demonstrated towards the boll weevil pest. Here, when neonate larvae were reared on an artificial diet containing SKTI at three different concentrations, a reduction of larval weight of up to 64% was observed for highest SKTI concentration 500 microM. The presence of SKTI caused an increase in mortality and severe deformities of larvae, pupae and adult insects. This work therefore represents the first observation of a Kunitz trypsin inhibitor active in vivo and in vitro against A. grandis. Bioassays suggested that SKTI could be used as a tool in engineering crop plants, which might exhibit increased resistance against cotton boll weevil.

  6. Improving Cry8Ka toxin activity towards the cotton boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomes José E

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cotton boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis is a serious insect-pest in the Americas, particularly in Brazil. The use of chemical or biological insect control is not effective against the cotton boll weevil because of its endophytic life style. Therefore, the use of biotechnological tools to produce insect-resistant transgenic plants represents an important strategy to reduce the damage to cotton plants caused by the boll weevil. The present study focuses on the identification of novel molecules that show improved toxicity against the cotton boll weevil. In vitro directed molecular evolution through DNA shuffling and phage display screening was applied to enhance the insecticidal activity of variants of the Cry8Ka1 protein of Bacillus thuringiensis. Results Bioassays carried out with A. grandis larvae revealed that the LC50 of the screened mutant Cry8Ka5 toxin was 3.15-fold higher than the wild-type Cry8Ka1 toxin. Homology modelling of Cry8Ka1 and the Cry8Ka5 mutant suggested that both proteins retained the typical three-domain Cry family structure. The mutated residues were located mostly in loops and appeared unlikely to interfere with molecular stability. Conclusions The improved toxicity of the Cry8Ka5 mutant obtained in this study will allow the generation of a transgenic cotton event with improved potential to control A. grandis.

  7. Starvation-induced morphological responses of the boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Status of the boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman, as a pest of cotton (Gossypium spp.) in the United States has diminished because of progress by eradication programs. However, this pest remains of critical importance in South America, and intractable populations in extreme South Texas ...

  8. effect of age, female mating status and density on the banana weevil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    journal

    Laboratory bioassays were conducted using a double pitfall olfactometer, while a bucket pitfall trap was ... baited trap. The response of the weevils to the pheromone was not significantly (P>0.05) influenced by its previous density. Key Words: Cosmopolites sordidus, mating status, ...... evolutionary ecological perspective.

  9. New initiatives for managment of red palm weevil threats to historical Arabian date palms

    Science.gov (United States)

    The date palm is an important part of the religious, cultural, and economic heritage of the Arabian Peninsula. This heritage is threatened by the recent invasion of the red palm weevil(RPW) from Southeast Asia. In Saudi Arabia, a national campaign for control of RPW by containment/destruction of inf...

  10. Sensitivity of the quarantine pest rough sweetpotato weevil, Blosyrus asellus to postharvest irradiation treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rough sweetpotato weevil, Blosyrus asellus (Olivier), is a new quarantine pest of Hawaii sweetpotatoes. Currently, sweetpotatoes can be exported from Hawaii to the U.S. mainland using a postharvest irradiation treatment of 150 Gy to control three other regulated insect pests. Studies were conducted...

  11. Molecular Diagnostic for Boll Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Based on Amplification of Three Species-specific Microsatellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    The boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is a serious pest of cultivated cotton in the Americas, and reinfestation of zones from which they have been eradicated is of perpetual concern. Extensive arrays of pheromone traps monitor for reintroductions, but occasionally...

  12. effect of age, female mating status and density on the banana weevil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    journal

    volatiles and the synthetic pheromone. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata. 106:169-175. Tinzaara, W., Tushemereirwe, W. and Kashaija,. I. 2000. Efficiency of pheromones and trap types in the capture of the banana weevil. Cosmopolites sordidus Germar in Uganda. Uganda Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 5:91-97.

  13. Effects of combining microbial and chemical insecticides on mortality of the Pecan Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro-Ilan, David I; Cottrell, Ted E; Wood, Bruce W

    2011-02-01

    The pecan weevil, Curculio caryae (Horn), is a key pest of pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch]. Current control recommendations are based on chemical insecticide applications. Microbial control agents such as the entomopathogenic nematode, Steinernema carpocapsae (Weiser) and the fungus Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin occur naturally in southeastern U.S. pecan orchards and have shown promise as alternative control agents for C. caryjae. Conceivably, the chemical and microbial agents occur simultaneously within pecan orchards or might be applied concurrently. The objective of this study was to determine the interactions between two chemical insecticides that are used in commercial C. caryae control (i.e., carbaryl and cypermethrin applied below field rates) and the microbial agents B. bassiana and S. carpocapsae. In laboratory experiments, pecan weevil larval or adult mortality was assessed after application of microbial or chemical treatments applied singly or in combination (microbial + chemical agent). The nature of interactions (antagonism, additivity, or synergy) in terms of weevil mortality was evaluated over 9 d (larvae) or 5 d (adults). Results for B. bassiana indicated synergistic activity with carbaryl and antagonism with cypermethrin in C. caryae larvae and adults. For S. carpocapsae, synergy was detected with both chemicals in C. caryae larvae, but only additive effects were detected in adult weevils. Our results indicate that the chemical-microbial combinations tested are compatible with the exception of B. bassiana and cypermethrin. In addition, combinations that exhibited synergistic interactions may provide enhanced C. caryae control in commercial field applications; thus, their potential merits further exploration.

  14. Factors influencing pheromone trap effectiveness in attracting the banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tinzaara, W.; Gold, C.S.; Dicke, M.; Huis, van A.; Ragama, P.E.

    2005-01-01

    Studies were conducted in Uganda to evaluate the influence of distance, environmental factors, trap location and trap type on catches of Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in pheromone-baited traps. Marked weevils were released at recorded locations within plots. Trap

  15. Host plant odours enhance the responses of adult banana weevil to the synthetic aggregation pheromone Cosmolure+

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tinzaara, W.; Gold, C.S.; Dicke, M.; Huis, van A.; Ragama, P.E.

    2007-01-01

    Attraction of adult banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus to volatiles from banana pseudostem tissue and the synthetic pheromone Cosmolure+ presented singly or in combination, was studied in the laboratory and in the field. Olfactometric studies in the laboratory showed that 50 g of fermented banana

  16. Effect of crop sanitation on banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) populations and associated damage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masanza, M.

    2003-01-01

    The banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is a serious pest of bananas. However, its ecology is not well elucidated especially in East Africa where plantations are up to 50 years old and are under various management and cropping systems. No single

  17. Attractant compositions for weevils of the genus Otiorhynchus and uses thereof

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruck, D.J.; Tol, van R.W.H.M.; Griepink, F.C.

    2011-01-01

    The present invention relates to formulations of volatile organic compounds having effects on Otiorhynchus weevils e.g., Otiorhynchus sulcatus. In some embodiments, volatile organic compounds selected from (E)-2-hexenol, (Z)-2-pentenol, methyl eugenol and a combination thereof are effective for

  18. Preferential Edge Habitat Colonization by a Specialist Weevil, Rhinoncomimus latipes (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding the behavioral basis of dispersal and colonization is critical in biological control systems, where success of a natural enemy depends in part on its ability to find and move to new host patches. We studied behavior of the specialist weevil Rhinoncomimus latipes Korotyaev, a biological...

  19. Characterization and selection of Bacillus thuringiensis isolates effective against Sitophilus oryzae Caracterização e seleção de isolados de Bacillus thuringiensis efetivos contra Sitophilus oryzae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najara da Silva

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The entomopathogenic bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis is a control agent with toxic and environmental characteristics that allows the control of pest insects according to the Integrate Pest Management (IPM precepts. In order to find new strains, potentially toxic to Sitophilus oryzae L. 1763 (Coleoptera: Curculinidae, 1.073 strains of B. thuringiensis from parts of Brazil were used. Genetic material was extracted with InstaGene Matrix kit, used for the amplification of sequences in Polymerase chain reaction (PCR, and viewed in 1.5% agarose gel. The gene cry35Ba class was represented by 60 B. thuringiensis isolates (5.6%, which were then subjected to bioassays with S. oryzae larvae. Among the isolates studied, four caused more than 50% mortality in pathogenicity tests, and the isolates 544 and 622 were the most virulent, as determined by CL50 estimates. The four toxic isolates had spherical, bi-pyramidal and cuboid crystals, and a 44-kDa protein was found in sodium dodecyl sulphate - polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE, which coded for the product of cry35Ba genes. These data demonstrate the potential of B. thuringiensis for the management of S. oryzae larvae.A bactéria entomopatogênica Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt é um agente de controle com características tóxicas e ambientais que permitem o controle de insetos-praga de acordo com as premissas do Manejo integrado de pragas (MIP. Com o objetivo de buscar novas linhagens potencialmente tóxicas para Sitophilus oryzae L. 1763 (Coleoptera: Curculinidae, caracterizaram-se molecularmente 1,073 isolados de B. thuringiensis de regiões do Brasil. O material genético foi extraído através do kit InstaGene Matrix, utilizado para a amplificação das seqüências através da técnica de Polymerase chain reaction PCR, sendo os resultados visualizados em gel de agarose 1,5%. A classe do gene cry35Ba foi representada por 60 isolados (5,6% de Bt, os quais foram submetidos a bioensaio com larvas

  20. Argentine stem weevil ( Listronotus bonariensis, Coleoptera: Curculionidae) population dynamics in Canterbury, New Zealand dryland pasture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldson, S L; Barron, M C; Kean, J M; van Koten, C

    2011-06-01

    The Argentine stem weevil (Listronotus bonariensis) was an economically important pest in New Zealand pastures until the release of the parasitoid Microctonus hyperodae. This contribution uses historical data to investigate the regulation of the pest populations prior to, and somewhat during, the establishment of this parasitoid in dryland Canterbury, New Zealand. Thus, a significant goal of this study is to provide an L. bonariensis population dynamics baseline for any future work that aims to analyse the full effects of M. hyperodae on the weevil, now that equilibrium with the weevil host has been reached.The population dynamics of L. bonariensis, based on a life-table approach, were investigated using data collected regularly for eight years from populations in Canterbury, New Zealand. The key factor affecting end-of-season L. bonariensis density was found to be variation in second generation fourth instar prepupal and pupal mortality. This may have been caused by arrested development and ongoing mortality resulting from the onset of cooler autumnal conditions.A compensatory response was found in recruitment to the second summer weevil generation, whereby the realised fecundity of the emergent first summer generation of weevils was found to be negatively related to the density of adult weevils per ryegrass tiller. This is the first time that this has been found via long-term population analysis of L. bonariensis, although indications of this have been found elsewhere in caging, pot and small plot experiments.In this study, the effect of the parasitoid biocontrol agent Microctonus hyperodae on L. bonariensis population dynamics was unclear, as the analysis covered a period when the parasitoid Microctonus hyperodae was introduced and still establishing. It does, however, raise important questions for future analysis in terms of the interaction between parasitism and unrealised fecundity.The results in this contribution also highlighted regional differences

  1. Effects of photoperiod on boll weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) development, survival, and reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, S M; Sappington, T W; Adamczyk, J J; Liu, T-X; Setamou, M

    2008-12-01

    Effects of photoperiod on development, survival, feeding, and oviposition of boll weevils, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman, were assessed under five different photophases (24, 14, 12, 10, and 0 h) at a constant 27 degrees C temperature and 65% RH in the laboratory. Analyses of our results detected positive relationships between photoperiod and puncturing (mean numbers of oviposition and feeding punctures per day), and oviposition (oviposition punctures/oviposition+feeding punctures) activities, and the proportion of squares attacked by boll weevil females. When boll weevil females developed in light:darkness cycles, they produced a significantly higher percentage of eggs developing to adulthood than those developed in 24-h light or dark conditions. In long photoperiod (24:0 and 14:10 h), the number of female progeny was significantly higher and their development time was significantly shorter than those developed in short photoperiod (0:24 and 10:14 h). Lifetime oviposition was significantly highest at 12- and 14-h photophase, lowest at 0- and 10-h photophase, and intermediate at 24 h of light. Life table calculations indicated that boll weevil populations developed in a photoperiod of 14:10 and 12:12 (L:D) h will increase an average of two-fold each generation (Ro) compared with boll weevils developed in 24:0- and 10:14-h photoperiods and 15-fold compared with those at 0:24 h. Knowledge of the photoperiod-dependent population growth potential is critical for understanding population dynamics to better develop sampling protocols and timing insecticide applications.

  2. Feeding and oviposition deterrent activities of flower buds of globemallow,Sphaeralcea emoryi torrey, against boll weevil,Anthonomus grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, H; Bowers, W S

    1996-01-01

    The globemallow,Sphaeralcea emoryi Torrey, a plant native to Arizona was evaluated as a source of feeding or oviposition deterrents to the boll weevil,Anthonomus grandis Boheman. Feeding and oviposition responses of reproductive weevils to the flower buds and artificial diets spiked with dry powder or extracts of the globemallow buds were determined. Boll weevils were deterred from feeding and ovipositing in the flower buds unless the calyxes were removed. Male and virgin female weevils were discouraged from feeding as much as gravid weevils. Secondary chemicals in the flower buds served primarily as feeding deterrents but also prevented oviposition. The concentration of these chemicals was highest in the calyxes of the buds, and potent deterrent activity could be extracted from the calyxes with methanol. Boll weevils were able to perceive the deterrents by contact chemosensory organs on the antennae, maxillary palps and labial palps.

  3. Partial purification and characterization of {alpha}-amylases from one insecticide-resistant population of Sitophilus zeamais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, K.V.; Oliveira, M.G.A.; Paixao, G.P.; Visotto, L.E. [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Bioquimica e Biologia Molecular; Veloso, R.V.S.; Marinho, J.S.; Guedes, R.N.C. [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia Animal; Oliveira, J.A. [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2008-07-01

    Full text: {alpha}-Amylases (EC 3.2.1.1) constitute a family of endo-amylases that catalyze the hydrolysis of a-D- (1,4)-glucan linkages in st ach components and various other related carbohydrates. They play a central role in carbohydrate metabolism of animals, plants and microorganisms. Many insects, especially those that feed on grain products during larval and/or adult life, depend on their amylases for survival. This is particularly true for the Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky, a cosmopolitan pest of stored products. It is mainly controlled by insecticides. Amylases from adults of S.zeamais insecticide-resistant were purified by using a sequential procedure of glycogen-complex precipitation and ion exchange chromatography. Specific activity increased from 58,0454 AU/dL/mg protein in the crude homogenate to 2558,8720 AU/dL/mg protein in the final purified sample. Amylase unit (AU/dL) refers to the amount of amylase that hydrolysis 10 mg starch in 30 min at 37 deg C. The purified amylase ran as a single protein band on SDS-PAGE. From a plot of log molecular weight against relative mobility in 10% acrylamide gel, molecular weight was estimated to be 56 kDa. The enzyme had a K{sub m} of 0,2243 g/L for soluble starch and was most active at ph 5,0. The temperature of major activity was 40 deg C. The activity of enzyme was unaffected by presence or absence of Cl{sup -} and Ca{sup 2+}.

  4. Partial purification and characterization of α-amylases from one insecticide-resistant population of Sitophilus zeamais

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes, K.V.; Oliveira, M.G.A.; Paixao, G.P.; Visotto, L.E.; Veloso, R.V.S.; Marinho, J.S.; Guedes, R.N.C.; Oliveira, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: α-Amylases (EC 3.2.1.1) constitute a family of endo-amylases that catalyze the hydrolysis of a-D- (1,4)-glucan linkages in st ach components and various other related carbohydrates. They play a central role in carbohydrate metabolism of animals, plants and microorganisms. Many insects, especially those that feed on grain products during larval and/or adult life, depend on their amylases for survival. This is particularly true for the Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky, a cosmopolitan pest of stored products. It is mainly controlled by insecticides. Amylases from adults of S.zeamais insecticide-resistant were purified by using a sequential procedure of glycogen-complex precipitation and ion exchange chromatography. Specific activity increased from 58,0454 AU/dL/mg protein in the crude homogenate to 2558,8720 AU/dL/mg protein in the final purified sample. Amylase unit (AU/dL) refers to the amount of amylase that hydrolysis 10 mg starch in 30 min at 37 deg C. The purified amylase ran as a single protein band on SDS-PAGE. From a plot of log molecular weight against relative mobility in 10% acrylamide gel, molecular weight was estimated to be 56 kDa. The enzyme had a K m of 0,2243 g/L for soluble starch and was most active at ph 5,0. The temperature of major activity was 40 deg C. The activity of enzyme was unaffected by presence or absence of Cl - and Ca 2+

  5. Survival and development of a stored-product pest, Sitophilus zeamais (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), and its natural enemy, the parasitoid Lariophagus distinguendus (Hymenoptera. Pteromalidae), on transgenic Bt maize

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lise S.; Lövei, Gabor L; Székács, András

    2013-01-01

    Background The effect of transgenic maize (Zea mays L.) containing a lepidopteran-specific Bt toxin on a stored-product pest, Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky, and its parasitoid, Lariophagus distinguendus Förster, was examined in the laboratory to test the impact of transgenic maize on stored...

  6. Effects of gamma radiation and irradiated bean seeds on the dry bean weevil, Acanthoscelides obtectus say (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatowicz, S.; Brzostek, G.

    1988-01-01

    Low dosages of gamma radiation affected the development of immature stages of the bean weevil, Acanthoscelides obtectus Say. Radiosensitivity of the bean weevils decreased during their development, and adults seemed to be the most resistant stage for gamma radiation. There were no significant differences in mortality of immature stages of the pest during their development in beans treated with gamma radiation at dosages up to 1.06 kGy. Moreover, the females showed no ovipositional preference for untreated or irradiated beans

  7. Persistência de óleos essenciais em milho armazenado, submetido à infestação de gorgulho do milho Persistence of essential oils in stored maize submitted to infestation of maize weevil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Leandro Braga de Castro Coitinho

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Os óleos essenciais e os compostos constituintes têm sido pesquisados quanto a sua atividade inseticida contra pragas de grãos armazenados. Neste trabalho, avaliou-se a persistência de óleos essenciais em milho armazenado, submetido à infestação do gorgulho do milho, Sitophilus zeamais Mots. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae. A persistência dos óleos e do eugenol foi avaliada no período inicial (logo após a impregnação e aos 30, 60, 90 e 120 dias de armazenamento. As mortalidades de S. zeamais, no período inicial, variaram entre 93,8 (Piper hispidinervum, Melaleuca leucadendron e eugenol e 100% (Eugenia uniflora, frutos verdes de Schinus terebinthifolius e Piper marginatum. A partir dos 30 dias, as mortalidades, de modo geral, decresceram, com exceção de P. marginatum (92,2%, que alcançou 53,1% de mortalidade aos 120 dias de armazenamento. De acordo com as equações de regressão ajustadas para o número de S. zeamais emergidos em todo o período de armazenamento, apenas não houve significância para os óleos de S. terebinthifolius, P. marginatum e testemunha. Em relação à média geral, o óleo de P. marginatum foi o mais persistente, proporcionando emergência de apenas 0,30 insetos, diferindo dos óleos restantes, do eugenol e da testemunha. Os demais tratamentos só diferiram em relação à testemunha.The essential oils and constituent compounds have been studied for their insecticidal activity against stored grain pests. In this research, persistence of the essential oils in stored maize subject to infestation by maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais Mots. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae were evaluated. Persistence of oils and eugenol were evaluated in the initial period (after impregnation and at 30, 60, 90 and 120 days of storage. Mortalities of S. zeamais in the initial period ranged between 93.8 (Piper hispidinervum, Melaleuca leucadendron and eugenol to 100% (Eugenia uniflora, green fruits of Schinus terebinthifolius and Piper

  8. Dataset on the regulation of banana weevil abundance and corm damage associated with plant richness and the ground-dwelling arthropods’ food web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Poeydebat

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled ̎Plant richness enhances banana weevil regulation in a tropical agroecosystem by affecting a multitrophic food web ̎ [1]. It provides information about plant species richness, weevil corm damage and the abundance of different arthropod groups, including the banana weevil and its potential natural enemies and alternative preys.

  9. Partitioning of etofenprox under simulated California rice-growing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, Martice E; Gunasekara, Amrith S; Cahill, Thomas M; Tjeerdema, Ronald S

    2010-01-01

    The pyrethroid insecticide etofenprox is of current interest to rice farmers in the Sacramento Valley owing to its effectiveness against the rice water weevil, Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus Kuschel. This study aimed to describe the partitioning of etofenprox under simulated rice field conditions by determining its Henry's law constant (H) (an estimate of volatilization) and organic carbon-normalized soil-water distribution coefficient (K(oc)) at representative field temperatures. A comparison of etofenprox and lambda-cyhalothrin is presented using a level-1 fugacity model. Experimental determination of H revealed that etofenprox partitioned onto the apparatus walls and did not significantly volatilize; the maximum value of H was estimated to be 6.81 x 10(-1) Pa m(3) mol(-1) at 25 degrees C, based on its air and water method detection limits. Calculated values for H ranged from 5.6 x 10(-3) Pa m(3) mol(-1) at 5 degrees C to 2.9 x 10(-1) Pa m(3) mol(-1) at 40 degrees C, based on estimated solubility and vapor pressure values at various temperatures. Log K(oc) values (at 25 degrees C) were experimentally determined to be 6.0 and 6.4 for Princeton and Richvale rice field soils, respectively, and were very similar to the values for other pyrethroids. Finally, temperature appears to have little influence on etofenprox sorption, as the log K(oc) for the Princeton soil at 35 degrees C was 6.1. High sorption coefficients and relatively insignificant desorption and volatilization of etofenprox suggest that its insolubility drives it to partition from water by sorbing to soils with high affinity. Offsite movement is unlikely unless transported in a bound state on suspended sediments.

  10. Rice peasants and rice research in Colombia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spijkers, P.A.N.M.

    1983-01-01

    Rice has been grown as a food crop in Latin America from early colonial times. In Colombia rice became a prominent subsistence crop especially on the north coast where it has been grown since the 17th century, sometimes also as a commercial crop. During the last twenty years there has been a sharp

  11. Components of male aggregation pheromone of strawberry blossom weevil, Anthonomus rubi herbst. (Coleoptera:Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innocenzi, P J; Hall, D R; Cross, J V

    2001-06-01

    The strawberry blossom weevil, Anthonomus rubi, is a major pest of strawberries in the United Kingdom and continental Europe. As part of a project to develop noninsecticidal control methods, the pheromone system of this species was investigated. Comparison of volatiles produced by field-collected, overwintering individuals of each sex led to identification of three male-specific compounds--(Z)-2-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexylidene)ethanol, (cis)-1-methyl-2-(1-methylethenyl)cyclobutaneethanol, and 2-(1-methylethenyl)-5-methyl-4-hexen-1-ol (lavandulol)--in amounts of 6.1, 1.2, and 0.82 microg/day/ male. The first two compounds are components of the aggregation pheromone of the boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis, grandlure II and grandlure I, respectively. Grandlure I was the (1R,2S)-(+) enantiomer and lavandulol was a single enantiomer, although the absolute configuration was not determined. Trace amounts of the other two grandlure components (Z)-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexylidene)acetaldehyde (grandlure III) and (E)-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexylidene)acetaldehyde (grandlure IV) were also detected. (E,E)-1-(1-Methylethyl)-4-methylene-8-methyl-2,7-cyclo-decadiene (germacrene-D), a known volatile from strawberry plants, Fragaria ananassa, was collected in increased amounts in the presence of pheromone-producing weevils. Male weevils only produced pheromone on F. ananassa and not on scented mayweed, Matracaria recutita, or cow parsley, Anthriscus sylvestris, although these are known food sources. In field trials using various combinations of synthetic grandlures I, II, III, and IV and lavandulol, significantly more weevils were caught in traps baited with blends containing grandlure I and II and lavandulol than in those baited with blends without lavandulol or unbaited controls. Addition of grandlure III and IV had no significant effect on attractiveness. Horizontal sticky traps were found to be more effective than vertical sticky traps or standard boll weevil traps. In mid-season females

  12. Transcriptome analysis of Gossypium hirsutum flower buds infested by cotton boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis) larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artico, Sinara; Ribeiro-Alves, Marcelo; Oliveira-Neto, Osmundo Brilhante; de Macedo, Leonardo Lima Pepino; Silveira, Sylvia; Grossi-de-Sa, Maria Fátima; Martinelli, Adriana Pinheiro; Alves-Ferreira, Marcio

    2014-10-04

    Cotton is a major fibre crop grown worldwide that suffers extensive damage from chewing insects, including the cotton boll weevil larvae (Anthonomus grandis). Transcriptome analysis was performed to understand the molecular interactions between Gossypium hirsutum L. and cotton boll weevil larvae. The Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform was used to sequence the transcriptome of cotton flower buds infested with boll weevil larvae. The analysis generated a total of 327,489,418 sequence reads that were aligned to the G. hirsutum reference transcriptome. The total number of expressed genes was over 21,697 per sample with an average length of 1,063 bp. The DEGseq analysis identified 443 differentially expressed genes (DEG) in cotton flower buds infected with boll weevil larvae. Among them, 402 (90.7%) were up-regulated, 41 (9.3%) were down-regulated and 432 (97.5%) were identified as orthologues of A. thaliana genes using Blastx. Mapman analysis of DEG indicated that many genes were involved in the biotic stress response spanning a range of functions, from a gene encoding a receptor-like kinase to genes involved in triggering defensive responses such as MAPK, transcription factors (WRKY and ERF) and signalling by ethylene (ET) and jasmonic acid (JA) hormones. Furthermore, the spatial expression pattern of 32 of the genes responsive to boll weevil larvae feeding was determined by "in situ" qPCR analysis from RNA isolated from two flower structures, the stamen and the carpel, by laser microdissection (LMD). A large number of cotton transcripts were significantly altered upon infestation by larvae. Among the changes in gene expression, we highlighted the transcription of receptors/sensors that recognise chitin or insect oral secretions; the altered regulation of transcripts encoding enzymes related to kinase cascades, transcription factors, Ca2+ influxes, and reactive oxygen species; and the modulation of transcripts encoding enzymes from phytohormone signalling pathways. These

  13. Relative infestation of some local and developed chickpea genotypes by cowpea weevil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moustafa, R.A.K.; Abdelkawy, F.K.

    1993-01-01

    Six chickpea genotypes, half of them are local varieties (Giza 1, Giza 88 and Giza 2) and the other three were developed either by hybridization or through a mutation breeding programme L 1, L 2 and L 3) were evaluated for resistant to cowpea weevil callosobruchus maculatus (F.). Giza 1, Giza 88, L 1 and L 2 are large seeded type, while Giza 2 and L 3 have small seeds. Results indicated that L 1 was more resistant to cowpea weevil than the other large seeded genotypes. On the other hand, L 3 exhibited much more resistant to this pest than Giza 2. However L 1 and L 3 are characterized by high seed yield/plant and have rounded seeds with smooth cream test a. These traits are desirable for the common consumers in Egypt. This means that L 1 and L 3 as a new chickpea germplasm may be of value for the egyptian farmers planting this crop. 3 tab

  14. Sterilization of boll weevil pupae with fractionated doses of gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haynes, J.W.; Mitlin, N.; Davich, T.B.; Dawson, J.R.; McGovern, W.L.; McKibben, G.H.

    1977-01-01

    Fractionated doses of 6,250-8,000 rads of gamma irradiation administered to pupae of the boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis Boh., sexually sterilized both sexes. Mortality of males thus treated with 6,250 and 8,000 rads via fractionation was 14% and 27% respectively, by 5 days posttreatment compared with 46% mortality when an equivalent acute dose was administered to newly emerged adults. Pheromone production of males irradiated at 6,250 rads was one-third that of the control for the first 4 days, but equal that of the control during 5-11 days posttreatment. This procedure lends itself to the large-scale sterilization of weevils needed in an eradication program. This technique is applicable to other insects that are highly susceptible to acute doses

  15. Radiosensitivity studies on the different stages and ages of orchid weevil, orchidophilus aterrimus (waterhouse)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manoto, E.C.; Obra, G.B.; Reyes, M.R.; Resilva, S.R.

    1996-01-01

    The effect of different radiation doses on the different stages and ages of orchid weevil, Orchidophilus aterrimus (Waterhouse) was investigated. Among the different stages, the egg was found the most sensitive while the adult weevil was the most resistant to gamma radiation. The younger the insect within a stage, the more sensitive they are to the lethal effect of radiation. For instance, one-to three-day-old eggs were found most sensitive followed by four-to seven-day-old eggs, two- to four-day-old and 30-day-old larvae and early pupae. Late pupae and adults were the most radioresistant when irradiated with doses ranging from 150 to 450 Gy. Furthermore, young adults treated with 150 to 460 Gy did not lay any eggs while mature adults lay a few eggs but none of them hatched. Our data indicate that gamma radiation may be used as an alternative quarantine treatment for disinfestation of orchids. (author)

  16. Controle de Sitophilus zeamais Mots., 1855 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae com inseticidas empregados em frutíferas temperadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faria João Luiz

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available O gorgulho do milho Sitophilus zeamais Mots. tem sido relatado com freqüência atacando frutíferas temperadas em condições de campo, com destaque para o pessegueiro em Pelotas, RS, macieira em Fraiburgo, SC e videira na Serra Gaúcha, RS. Este trabalho avaliou, em laboratório, o efeito dos inseticidas deltametrina (Decis 25 CE, 40mL 100L-1, dimetoato (Dimetoato 400 CE, 150mL 100L-1, triclorfon (Dipterex 500 SNAqC, 300mL 100L-1, fosmet (Imidan 500 PM, 200g 100L-1, fention (Lebaycid 500 CE, 100mL 100L-1, clorpirifós (Lorsban 480 BR, 150mL 100L-1, malation (Malation 1000, 200mL 100L-1, carbaril (Sevin 480 SC, 360mL 100L-1, fenitrotion (Sumithion 500 CE, 150mL 100L-1 e metidation (Supracid 400 CE, 100mL 100L-1 atualmente empregados no controle de pragas em frutíferas temperadas e os novos inseticidas tiametoxam (Actara 250 WG, 15 e 30g 100L-1, benzoato de emamectina (Proclaim 5 SG, 10 e 20g 100L-1, imidacloprid (Provado 200 SC, 30 e 60mL 100L-1, spinosad (Tracer 480 CE, 10 e 20mL 100L-1 e etofenprox (Trebon 100 SC, 100 e 150mL 100L-1. No primeiro experimento, frutos de maçã foram mergulhados na calda inseticida por 10 segundos e oferecidos a adultos de S. zeamais sp (contato residual e, no segundo, os produtos foram aplicados diretamente sobre os insetos (contato direto em torre de pulverização. Os inseticidas triclorfon (150g 100L-1, fention (50g 100L-1, clorpirifós (72g 100L-1, malation (200g 100L-1, metidation (40g 100L-1 e tiametoxam (3,75 e 7,5g 100L-1 foram eficientes no controle do gorgulho do milho, via contato residual, enquanto fention (50g 100L-1, clorpirifós (72g 100L-1, malation (200g 100L-1, fenitrotion (75g 100L-1 e metidation (40g 100L-1 foram eficientes via contato direto.

  17. Acorn fall and weeviling in a northern red oak seedling orchard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel R. Miller; Scott E. Schlarbaum

    2005-01-01

    In 2000, we determined levels of damage by acorn weevils (Curculio spp.) and patterns of acorn fall in a northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) seedling orchard in eastern Tennessee. The mean (±SE) production of acorns among 43 selected trees was 5,930 ± 586 acorns per tree with a maximum production level of 16,969 acorns for one tree...

  18. EFFECTS OF WEEVILS (INSECTA: COLEOPTERA: CURCULIONIDAE) CONTROL PRODUCTS, OVER THE GROWTH, DEVELOPMENT, AND PRODUCTION OF PLANTAIN

    OpenAIRE

    M. Muñoz, Liliana; Cañas, Guillermo L.; Urrea, Aura I.; Guarín, Juan H.

    2013-01-01

    In a farm in the municipality of Andes (Antioquia, Colombia), parcels were planted with Dominico Hartón plantain associated with Caturra-type coffee, where weevil damage (Insecta: Coleoptera: Curculionidae) occurred in 100% of the plantain plants, corms of approximately 2 kg were planted under the same association system. From the sowing until harvest, six types of products were applied every two months on these plantations: chemical of the region (Clorpirifos and Carboxin + Thiram), Carbofur...

  19. Field evaluation of Bt cotton crop impact on nontarget pests: cotton aphid and boll weevil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sujii, E R; Togni, P H B; de A Ribeiro, P; de A Bernardes, T; Milane, P V G N; Paula, D P; Pires, C S S; Fontes, E M G

    2013-02-01

    Bt cotton plants expressing Cry1Ac protein have high specificity for the control of lepidopteran larvae. However, studies conducted in several countries have shown these plants have a differential impact on nontarget herbivores. The aim of this study was to compare the colonization rates and population abundance of the cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and the boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), in plots of Bt (Nuopal) and non-Bt cotton (Delta Opal) in an experimental field in Brasilia, DF, Brazil. No difference was observed in the preference and colonization by winged aphids to plants from the two treatments. There was no significant difference in abundance of wingless aphids or in the production of winged aphids between treatments. Apparently, the parameters that control factors such as fecundity, survival, and dispersal were similar on both Bt and non-Bt plants. Monitoring of plants for coccinellids, a specialist predator of aphids, and ants that act on the dispersal of aphids among plants showed no significant difference between Bt and non-Bt plants, supporting the inference above. Regarding the effect on boll weevil, there was also no significant difference between treatments in the total number of fruiting structures attacked in each plot, the percentage of fruiting structures attacked per plant or on the number of weevils emerging from fruits with boll weevil damage from egg-laying, when damaged fruit samples were held in the laboratory. Based on these results, we conclude that there is no impact of Bt cotton crop expressing Cry1Ac on the nontarget herbivores tested under field conditions.

  20. Toxicity to cotton boll weevil Anthonomus grandis of a trypsin inhibitor from chickpea seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de P G Gomes, Angélica; Dias, Simoni C; Bloch, Carlos; Melo, Francislete R; Furtado, José R; Monnerat, Rose G; Grossi-de-Sá, Maria F; Franco, Octávio L

    2005-02-01

    Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is an important agricultural commodity, which is attacked by several pests such as the cotton boll weevil Anthonomus grandis. Adult A. grandis feed on fruits and leaf petioles, reducing drastically the crop production. The predominance of boll weevil digestive serine proteinases has motivated inhibitor screenings in order to discover new ones with the capability to reduce the digestion process. The present study describes a novel proteinase inhibitor from chickpea seeds (Cicer arietinum L.) and its effects against A. grandis. This inhibitor, named CaTI, was purified by using affinity Red-Sepharose Cl-6B chromatography, followed by reversed-phase HPLC (Vydac C18-TP). SDS-PAGE and MALDI-TOF analyses, showed a unique monomeric protein with a mass of 12,877 Da. Purified CaTI showed significant inhibitory activity against larval cotton boll weevil serine proteinases (78%) and against bovine pancreatic trypsin (73%), when analyzed by fluorimetric assays. Although the molecular mass of CaTI corresponded to alpha-amylase/trypsin bifunctional inhibitors masses, no inhibitory activity against insect and mammalian alpha-amylases was observed. In order to observe CaTI in vivo effects, an inhibitor rich fraction was added to an artificial diet at different concentrations. At 1.5% (w/w), CaTI caused severe development delay, several deformities and a mortality rate of approximately 45%. These results suggested that CaTI could be useful in the production of transgenic cotton plants with enhanced resistance toward cotton boll weevil.

  1. Relationships of abscised cotton fruit to boll weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) feeding, oviposition, and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showler, Allan T

    2008-02-01

    Abscised cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., fruit in field plots planted at different times were examined to assess adult boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), use of squares and bolls during 2002 and 2003 in the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas. Although boll abscission is not necessarily related to infestation, generally more bolls abscised than squares and abundances of fallen bolls were not related to the planting date treatments. During 2003, fallen squares were most abundant in the late-planted treatment. Although large squares (5.5-8-mm-diameter) on the plant are preferred for boll weevil oviposition, diameter of abscised squares is not a reliable measurement because of shrinkage resulting from desiccation and larval feeding. Fallen feeding-punctured squares and bolls were most abundant in late plantings but differences between fallen feeding-punctured squares versus fallen feeding-punctured bolls were found in only one treatment in 2003. During the same year, fallen oviposition-punctured squares were more numerous in the late-planted treatment than in the earlier treatments. Treatment effects were not found on numbers of oviposition-punctured bolls, but fallen oviposition-punctured squares were more common than bolls in the late-planted treatment compared with earlier treatments each year. Dead weevil eggs, larvae, and pupae inside fallen fruit were few and planting date treatment effects were not detected. Living third instars and pupae were more abundant in fallen squares of the late-planted treatment than in the earlier treatments and bolls of all three treatments. This study shows that fallen squares in late-planted cotton contribute more to adult boll weevil populations than bolls, or squares of earlier plantings.

  2. Proteolytic processing of the vitellogenin precursor in the boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilmann, L J; Trewitt, P M; Kumaran, A K

    1993-01-01

    The soluble proteins of the eggs of the coleopteran insect Anthonomus grandis Boheman, the cotton boll weevil, consist almost entirely of two vitellin types with M(r)s of 160,000 and 47,000. We sequenced their N-terminal ends and one internal cyanogen bromide fragment of the large vitellin and compared these sequences with the deduced amino acid sequence from the vitellogenin gene. The results suggest that both the boll weevil vitellin proteins are products of the proteolytic cleavage of a single precursor protein. The smaller 47,000 M(r) vitellin protein is derived from the N-terminal portion of the precursor adjacent to an 18 amino acid signal peptide. The cleavage site between the large and small vitellins at amino acid 362 is adjacent to a pentapeptide sequence containing two pairs of arginine residues. Comparison of the boll weevil sequences with limited known sequences from the single 180,000 M(r) honey bee protein show that the honey bee vitellin N-terminal exhibits sequence homology to the N-terminal of the 47,000 M(r) boll weevil vitellin. Treatment of the vitellins with an N-glycosidase results in a decrease in molecular weight of both proteins, from 47,000 to 39,000 and from 160,000 to 145,000, indicating that about 10-15% of the molecular weight of each vitellin consists of N-linked carbohydrate. The molecular weight of the deglycosylated large vitellin is smaller than that predicted from the gene sequence, indicating possible further proteolytic processing at the C-terminal of that protein.

  3. CHEMICAL CONTROL OF BEAN WEEVIL, ACANTHOSCELIDES OBTECTUS SAY IN STORAGE CONDITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M PORCA

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the positive results obtained by some pesticides applied against the bean weevil - Acanthoscelides obtectus Say, after a synthetic rewiew of the potential chemical methods which may be used in the chemical control of the insectes harmful to the stored bean seeds. The chemical control is realised treatments wits syntetic pyrethroid (permetrin, deltametrin and organophosphoric insecticides (malation, pirimifos metil, fenitrotion and chlrorpirifos-metil.

  4. The Reproductive Morphology and Physiological Age Grading of the Female Salvinia Weevil, Calder and Sands

    OpenAIRE

    Lee Eisenberg; Seth Johnson; Michael J Grodowitz

    2018-01-01

    The morphology of the female Cyrtobagous salviniae Calder and Sands reproductive system is similar to other weevil species being meroistic and telotrophic. The reproductive system is composed of 2 ovaries each containing 2 ovarioles where the follicles mature. A physiological age grading system was developed where the continuum of ovarium development was divided into 2 nulliparous and 3 parous classes. This was based on the differentiation of the ovarioles, presence, and appearance of follicu...

  5. New Approach of Beauveria bassiana to Control the Red Palm Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) by Trapping Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajjar, M J; Ajlan, A M; Al-Ahmad, M H

    2015-04-01

    This work is the first study to investigate the efficacy of the commercial formulation of Beauveria bassiana (Broadband) to control adults of red palm weevil (Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier)). This fungus could be applied as one of the biological tactics in controlling red palm weevil. Bioassay experiments for medium lethal concentrate and medium time to cause death of 50% of red palm weevil adults were carried out. The result showed that the LC50 of B. bassiana (Broadband) was 2.19×10(7) and 2.76×10(6) spores/ml at 9 and 23 d of treatment, respectively. The LT50 was 13.95 and 4.15 d for concentration of 1×10(7) and 1×10(8) spores/ml, respectively, whereas 1×10(9) spores/ml caused 100% mortality after 24 h. Additionally, a red palm weevil pheromone trap was designed to attract the adults to be contaminated with spores of Broadband, which was applied to the sackcloth fabric that coated the internal surfaces of the bucket trap. The mating behavior was studied to determine direct and indirect infection of the spores from male to female and vice versa. The results showed a high efficacy of Broadband suspension at 1×10(9) spores/ml; 40 ml of suspension at this concentration treated to cloth in a trap caused death of contaminated adults with B. bassiana spores directly and indirectly. The 100% mortality was obtained even after 13 d of traps treatment with 40 ml of the suspension at 1×10(9) spores/ml. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Olfactory cues are subordinate to visual stimuli in a neotropical generalist weevil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Otálora-Luna

    Full Text Available The tropical root weevil Diaprepes abbreviatus is a major pest of multiple crops in the Caribbean Islands and has become a serious constraint to citrus production in the United States. Recent work has identified host and conspecific volatiles that mediate host- and mate-finding by D. abbreviatus. The interaction of light, color, and odors has not been studied in this species. The responses of male and female D. abbreviatus to narrow bandwidths of visible light emitted by LEDs offered alone and in combination with olfactory stimuli were studied in a specially-designed multiple choice arena combined with a locomotion compensator. Weevils were more attracted to wavelengths close to green and yellow compared with blue or ultraviolet, but preferred red and darkness over green. Additionally, dim green light was preferred over brighter green. Adult weevils were also attracted to the odor of its citrus host + conspecifics. However, the attractiveness of citrus + conspecific odors disappeared in the presence of a green light. Photic stimulation induced males but not females to increase their speed. In the presence of light emitted by LEDs, turning speed decreased and path straightness increased, indicating that weevils tended to walk less tortuously. Diaprepes abbreviatus showed a hierarchy between chemo- and photo-taxis in the series of experiments presented herein, where the presence of the green light abolished upwind anemotaxis elicited by the pheromone + host plant odor. Insight into the strong responses to visual stimuli of chemically stimulated insects may be provided when the amount of information supplied by vision and olfaction is compared, as the information transmission capacity of compound eyes is estimated to be several orders of magnitude higher compared with the olfactory system. Subordination of olfactory responses by photic stimuli should be considered in the design of strategies aimed at management of such insects.

  7. Evaluation of the Weevil-damaged Sweet Potato as Substrate for Microbial Protein Obtaining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lic. Antonio Montes-de-Oca-Olivares

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The production of microbial protein from agricultural and agroindustrial wastes is an important way to supply the demand of this essential nutritional principle. Sweet potato (Ipomea batata tubercles damaged by weevil (Cylas formicarius are considered a waste due to their unpleasant flavor. This research deal in the characterization of sweet potato damaged by weevil, as an alternative substratefor the culture of the fodder yeast Candida utilis. It was found that the damaged tubercle had a similar composition that the healthy one, concerning dry matter, total reducing sugars, nitrogen and minerals; the high content of reducing sugars (30-40 % dry weight recommends the use of this waste as a substrate for single cell protein production. Several fungal strains were assayed to enzymatic degradation of sweet potato polysaccharides; from these ones, Aspergillus oryzae H/28-1 and Neurospora sp. were the more actives to release reducing sugars to the culture medium, being the last one the more prominent. Theyeast Candida utilis showed a satisfactory growth in media formulated in basis to weevil-damaged sweet potato, reaching reducing sugar consumptions over 80 % and biomass yields of 37-58 %; addition of urea as nitrogen source improved both parameters of the growth. The fermentation’s end-product acquired a pleasant flavor, which suggests a better palatability.

  8. Effects of High Carbon Dioxide Level on the Emergence of Oil Palm Pollinating Weevil, Elaeidobius Kamerunicus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amanina, N.S.; Hasnudin, M.Y.; Haniff, M.H.; Roslan, M.N.; A'fifah, A.R.; Ramle, M.

    2016-01-01

    Elaeidobius kamerunicus is the main pollinating insect of oil palm in Malaysia. The increase of ambient carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) may promote greater crop growth and yield of oil palm. However, E. kamerunicus' adaptability and survival under high CO 2 level are still unknown. An oil palm weevil emergence study was conducted in plant growth chambers with two CO 2 levels, 400 Parts Per Million and 800 Parts Per Million. The plant growth chambers were set at 27 degree celcius and 70% relative humidity for the entire study period. Spikelets were taken from apical, middle and basal regions of anthesising male inflorescences from 6-year old DxP palms under normal field conditions. The sampled spikelets were placed in clear plastic tubes with both open ends covered with muslin cloth. The emergence of adults was observed at two-day interval until 10 days after incubation. The total number of weevils which emerged from the spikelets at 400 Parts Per Million and 800 Parts Per Million CO 2 levels were 240 and 233 individuals, respectively. Doubling the ambient CO 2 level to 800 Parts Per Million had no effect on E. kamerunicus emergence in controlled condition. Further study on oil palm weevil adaptability and survival under high CO 2 level is needed to provide information on the effects of future climate change scenario and oil palm yield. (author)

  9. THE USE OF GRIGNARD REAGENT IN PHEROMONE SYNTHESIS FOR PALM WEEVIL (Rhynchorus, Sp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warsito Warsito

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In an integrated controlling system of palm weevil, using of synthetic feromoid is strickly needed. The research is aimed to synthesize pheromone which secreted by the weevil, e.g. 4-methyl-5-nonanol (R. ferrugineus and 3-methyl-4-octanol (R. schach through Grignard reagent which formed in situ. The synthesis was proceded by retrosynthesis to determine the precursor, valeraldehyde. The precursor was reacted with Grignard reagent of sec-amyl magnesium bromide (R. ferrugenieus and sec-butyl magnesium bromide (R. shach which made in situ. Characterization of the synthetic molecular pheromone was performed by Gas Chromatography-mass spectroscopy and Fourier Transformed Infra Red. The bioassay of the molecule was carried out by olfactometer. The result showed that the conversion of the reactions were 51.28% (4-methyl-5-nonanol and 85.90% (3-methyl-4-octanol. The character of physico-chemical and bioactivity of the synthetic pheromone are identic with natural pheromones.   Keywords: palm weevil, pheromone, grignard reagent

  10. Effects of the Diet on the Microbiota of the Red Palm Weevil (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae)

    KAUST Repository

    Montagna, Matteo

    2015-01-30

    Rhynchophorus ferrugineus, also known as the red palm weevil, is regarded as the major pest of palm trees. Although studies of the microbiota associated with this species have been performed in recent years, little attention has been dedicated to the influence of the diet in shaping the host bacterial community. Here, we investigated the influence of food sources (i.e. palm tissues vs apple based substrate) on the microbial diversity associated with RPW, which was compared with the microbiota associated with wild individuals of the sister species Rhynchophorus vulneratus. The bacterial characterization was performed using a culture independent approach, i.e. the 16S rRNA pyrotag, and a culture dependent approach for a subset of the samples, in order to obtain bacterial isolates from RPW tissues. The bacterial community appeared significantly influenced by diet. Proteobacteria resulted to be the most abundant clade and was present in all the specimens of the three examined weevil groups. Within Proteobacteria, Enterobacteriaceae were identified in all the organs analysed, including hemolymph and reproductive organs. The apple-fed RPWs and the wild R. vulneratus showed a second dominant taxon within Firmicutes that was scarcely present in the microbiota associated with palm-fed RPWs. A comparative analysis on the bacteria associated with the palm tissues highlighted that 12 bacterial genera out of the 13 identified in the plant tissues were also present in weevils, thus indicating that palm tissues may present a source for bacterial acquisition.

  11. Effects of the diet on the microbiota of the red palm weevil (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Montagna

    Full Text Available Rhynchophorus ferrugineus, also known as the red palm weevil, is regarded as the major pest of palm trees. Although studies of the microbiota associated with this species have been performed in recent years, little attention has been dedicated to the influence of the diet in shaping the host bacterial community. Here, we investigated the influence of food sources (i.e. palm tissues vs apple based substrate on the microbial diversity associated with RPW, which was compared with the microbiota associated with wild individuals of the sister species Rhynchophorus vulneratus. The bacterial characterization was performed using a culture independent approach, i.e. the 16S rRNA pyrotag, and a culture dependent approach for a subset of the samples, in order to obtain bacterial isolates from RPW tissues. The bacterial community appeared significantly influenced by diet. Proteobacteria resulted to be the most abundant clade and was present in all the specimens of the three examined weevil groups. Within Proteobacteria, Enterobacteriaceae were identified in all the organs analysed, including hemolymph and reproductive organs. The apple-fed RPWs and the wild R. vulneratus showed a second dominant taxon within Firmicutes that was scarcely present in the microbiota associated with palm-fed RPWs. A comparative analysis on the bacteria associated with the palm tissues highlighted that 12 bacterial genera out of the 13 identified in the plant tissues were also present in weevils, thus indicating that palm tissues may present a source for bacterial acquisition.

  12. Oleoresin crystallization in eastern white pine: relationships with chemical components of cortical oleoresin and resistance to the white-pine weevil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald C. Wilkinson

    1979-01-01

    Natural and weevil-larva-induced crystallization of oleoresin from 45 eastern white pine trees with known resin acid and monoterpene composition, and from 59 pairs of nonweeviled and heavily weeviled trees from the same seed sources, was examined in mid- and late spring. Very little difference was found between larva-induced and natural crystallization. Strobic acid-...

  13. Damage by the Sitka spruce weevil (Pissodes strobi) and growth patterns for 10 spruce species and hybrids over 26 years in the Pacific Northwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russel G. Mitchell; Kenneth H. Wright; Norman E. Johnson

    1990-01-01

    Ten species and hybrids of spruce (Picea spp.) were planted and observed annually for 26 years at three coastal locations in Oregon and Washington to evaluate growth rates and susceptibility to the Sitka spruce weevil (= white pine weevil), Pissodes strobi The 10 spruce were: Sitka spruce, Norway spruce, Lutz spruce, black...

  14. Radiation induced changes in the cuticular hydrocarbons of the granary weevil and their relationships to desiccation and adult mortality: Half yearly report, February 16 to August 15, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sriharan, S.

    1987-01-01

    This report outlines studies on the rate of moisture-loss in irradiated weevils and correlation loss of water with mortality. Further changes in the cuticular hydrocarbons of weevils as a result of gamma radiation were determined. 2 figs., 10 tabs

  15. Molecular and morphological tools to distinguish Scyphophorus acupunctatus Gyllenhal, 1838: a new weevil pest of the endangered Eggers Agave from St Croix, US Virgin Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Agave Snout Weevil (ASW) or Sisal Weevil, Scyphophorus acupunctatus Gyllenhal, is one of the most destructive pests of agave plants, capable of destroying up to 70% of commercial crops, costing millions of dollars in damage to global industries including tequila, mezcal, perfume, henequen, nardo...

  16. Replication of Chilo iridescent virus in the cotton boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis, and development of an infectivity assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, C W; Johnson, C L; Lodhi, S A; Bilimoria, S L

    2001-01-01

    The boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis Boheman, is a devastating pest of cotton. Chemical pesticides are problematic due to relative lack of target specificity and resistance. Microbial pesticides may provide viable alternatives because of their narrow host range. Chilo iridescent virus (CIV) is the type species for genus Iridovirus, family Iridoviridae: large, icosahedral cytoplasmic viruses containing a double-stranded DNA genome. Earlier work suggested that CIV replicated in the boll weevil; however, efficiency or production of infectious virus was not established. We showed that CIV undergoes a productive cycle in A. grandis. CIV DNA levels in boll weevil pupae increased significantly from 0 to 3 days post infection. Moreover, virogenic stromata and complete virus particles were observed in the cytoplasm by 7 days. An endpoint dilution assay using viral DNA replication as indicator suggested a 10(5)-fold increase in infectious virus titer over 7 days. This is the first such demonstration in larval infections with genus Iridovirus. Our study establishes that CIV undergoes a productive cycle in the boll weevil and provides an important and useful model system for replication at the organismal level. These results have important implications for the potential of CIV and its components in boll weevil control.

  17. Boll weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) response to and volatilization rates of grandlure when combined with varying doses of eugenol in the extended-life pheromone lure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, J S

    2010-04-01

    Boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), trapping and pheromone quantitative analysis of extended-life pheromone lures manufactured with 0, 10, 20, and 30 mg of eugenol was conducted in the Rio Grande Valley of Texas under spring and summer conditions. Boll weevils responded positively to eugenol on one of 12 trapping weeks when densities were high, but when densities were low (30 degrees C, accumulative grandlure loss per week may be too high, leaving too little residual grandlure to effectively attract boll weevils at the end of 3 wk of trapping. Eugenol plays no role in reserving or encouraging the release of grandlure, or in increasing boll weevil captures when boll weevil densities are low.

  18. Evaluation of irradiated essential oils to control of Sitophilus zeamais Mots. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Blatella germanica (L.) (Dictyopera: Blattellidae); Avaliacao de produtos naturais irradiados para o controle de Sitophilus zeamais Mots. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) e Blatella germanica (L.) (Dictyopera: Blattellidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potenza, Marcos Roberto

    2004-07-01

    This work aimed to evaluate the effect of irradiated essential oils of Eucalyptus citriodora, Eucalyptus globulus, Pinus sp., Azadirachta indica, Cymbopogon nardus, Cupressus sempervirens, Cymbopogons citratus and Juniperus communis and aqueous, hexanic and ethanolic irradiated extracts of Solanum paniculatum, Dahlia pinnata, Lycopersicon esculentum, Nephrolepis pectinata, Ruta graveolens, Ficus elastica, Lavandula angustifolia, Rhododendron simsii, Agave angustifolia, Ocimum basilicum, Allamanda cathartica, Dieffenbachia brasiliensis, Pennisetum purpureum, Annona squamosa, Coffea arabica and Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, in order to identify new substances to integrated pest management (IPM) and to observe possible effects of gamma radiation about extracts and essential oils efficiency such as increase, reduction, activation and inactivation of the same to the pest control. It evaluated the effect of contact on Sitophilus zeamais and by ingestion in Blattella germanica. To irradiation was used an experimental irradiator of Cobalt-60, type Gammacell 220. The essential oils were submitted increasing doses of gamma radiation: 2.5; 5.0; 7.5 and 10.0 kGy. The bioassay with B. germanica demonstrated efficiency between 22.0 e 30.0% and between 30.0 and 42.0%, respectively, to irradiated essential oils of E. citriodora and E. globulus and they demonstrated too repellency to the nymphs. The gamma radiation used promoted changes in essential oils of E. citriodora e E. globulus that they began to show efficiency on B. germanica nymphs besides a significant reduction of repellency. Essential oils of Pinus sp., A. indica, C. sempervirens and J. communis did not display efficiency. The essential oils of C. nardus, and C. citratus had low efficiency. The gamma radiation increased the efficiency of ethanolic extract of D. Pinnata with dose of 7.5 kGy, showing 48.0% of efficiency on B. germanica nymphs. The gamma radiation showed adverse effect on the aqueous extract of R. Graveolens

  19. Evaluation of irradiated essential oils to control of Sitophilus zeamais Mots. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Blatella germanica (L.) (Dictyopera: Blattellidae); Avaliacao de produtos naturais irradiados para o controle de Sitophilus zeamais Mots. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) e Blatella germanica (L.) (Dictyopera: Blattellidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potenza, Marcos Roberto

    2004-07-01

    This work aimed to evaluate the effect of irradiated essential oils of Eucalyptus citriodora, Eucalyptus globulus, Pinus sp., Azadirachta indica, Cymbopogon nardus, Cupressus sempervirens, Cymbopogons citratus and Juniperus communis and aqueous, hexanic and ethanolic irradiated extracts of Solanum paniculatum, Dahlia pinnata, Lycopersicon esculentum, Nephrolepis pectinata, Ruta graveolens, Ficus elastica, Lavandula angustifolia, Rhododendron simsii, Agave angustifolia, Ocimum basilicum, Allamanda cathartica, Dieffenbachia brasiliensis, Pennisetum purpureum, Annona squamosa, Coffea arabica and Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, in order to identify new substances to integrated pest management (IPM) and to observe possible effects of gamma radiation about extracts and essential oils efficiency such as increase, reduction, activation and inactivation of the same to the pest control. It evaluated the effect of contact on Sitophilus zeamais and by ingestion in Blattella germanica. To irradiation was used an experimental irradiator of Cobalt-60, type Gammacell 220. The essential oils were submitted increasing doses of gamma radiation: 2.5; 5.0; 7.5 and 10.0 kGy. The bioassay with B. germanica demonstrated efficiency between 22.0 e 30.0% and between 30.0 and 42.0%, respectively, to irradiated essential oils of E. citriodora and E. globulus and they demonstrated too repellency to the nymphs. The gamma radiation used promoted changes in essential oils of E. citriodora e E. globulus that they began to show efficiency on B. germanica nymphs besides a significant reduction of repellency. Essential oils of Pinus sp., A. indica, C. sempervirens and J. communis did not display efficiency. The essential oils of C. nardus, and C. citratus had low efficiency. The gamma radiation increased the efficiency of ethanolic extract of D. Pinnata with dose of 7.5 kGy, showing 48.0% of efficiency on B. germanica nymphs. The gamma radiation showed adverse effect on the aqueous extract of R. Graveolens

  20. Radiation effects evaluation for electrons sheaf in packages resistance in a Lasioderma serricorne, Plodia interpunctella and Sitophilus zeamais; Avaliacao dos efeitos da radiacao por feixe de eletrons na resistencia de embalagens a Lasioderma serricorne, Plodia interpunctella e Sitophilus zeamais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Juliana Nazare

    2011-07-01

    The plagues of stored products consist of a man problem, depreciating products and causing economical damages. Among these curses we have Lasioderma serricorne (F. 1792), Sitophilus zeamais (M. 1855) and Plodia interpunctella (H. 1813) known by infesting stored products as: grains, brans, flours, coffee, tobacco, dried fruits and spices. These curses perforate and penetrate the packages, ovipositing over the substratum. In this context the package plays a fundamental part, preventing the contact and curses' proliferation in the packed product. So, to protect the packed product and to prolong its shelf life, the package should have good mechanical resistance to tension and perforation, good sealing, good barrier properties and should not transfer odors nor strange flavors to the packed product. The ionizing radiation can cause structural changes in polymer packages, these changes are caused by the scission processes and reticulation of the polymers chains. These are concurrent processes and the predominance of one over the other depends on the chemical structure of the polymer, the irradiation conditions and specific factors of the material that will absorb the energy. This work had the objective to evaluate the changes in mechanical properties of package structures used to store granola, cereal bar and pasta, as well as its resistance to perforation by L. serricorne, P. interpunctella and S. zeamais, when submitted to electrons sheaf radiation. In this methodology were used five structures of commercially utilized packages to store granola, cereal bar and pasta composed by (Polypropylene bi-oriented metallic/Polypropylene bi-oriented coextruded - BOPPmet/BOPP 50 {mu}m), (Polypropylene bi-oriented/Polypropylene - BOPP/PP 50 {mu}m), Poli (ethylene terephthalate) metallic/Polypropylene bi-oriented coextruded - PETmet/BOPP 32 {mu}m), Poli (ethylene terephthalate) /Polypropylene - PET/PP1 72 {mu}m), Poli (ethylene terephthalate)/Polypropylene - PET/PP2 32 {mu

  1. Determination of the Heterotic groups of Maize inbred lines and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky) is a major maize (Zea mays L) storage insect pest in the tropics. Fifty-two inbred lines developed for weevil resistance were crossed to two testers, A and B, to determine their heterotic groups and inheritance of resistance to maize weevil. For 10 testcrosses selected for ...

  2. The protection of the poppy plant (Papaver somniferum L. against poppy weevil (Stenocarus ruficornis Stephens by foliar application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel Sikora

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Poppy seed (Papaver somniferum L. is an annual autumn or spring plant. This crop is cultivated generally for seed which is used as a foodstuff in food processing industry. The biological efficacy of different tested active ingredients (lambda-cyhalothrin, bifenthrin, aplha-cypermethrin, DE-225 and combination chlorpyrifos + cypermethrin on poppy weevil (Stenocarus ruficornis S. was evaluated in comparison with reference active ingredient (carbofuran used as a standard treatment. The active ingredients were applied against the mentioned pest once in the season and were used in doses which were similar to those used against stem weevils in winter oil seed rape. Reference active ingredient was used in the dose which was authorised in the Czech Republic as standard ones against the poppy weevil. All active ingredients revealed efficacy which was measured (as a size of injuries both on leaves and roots. Two trials were performed in 2001–2002 in which efficacy and selectivity were assessed.

  3. Rice (Oryza) hemoglobins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemoglobins (Hbs) corresponding to non-symbiotic (nsHb) and truncated (tHb) Hbs have been identified in rice (Oryza). This review discusses the major findings from the current studies on rice Hbs. At the molecular level, a family of the nshb genes, consisting of hb1, hb2, hb3, hb4 and hb5, and a sin...

  4. Radiation effects evaluation for electrons sheaf in packages resistance in a Lasioderma serricorne, Plodia interpunctella and Sitophilus zeamais

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, Juliana Nazare

    2011-01-01

    The plagues of stored products consist of a man problem, depreciating products and causing economical damages. Among these curses we have Lasioderma serricorne (F. 1792), Sitophilus zeamais (M. 1855) and Plodia interpunctella (H. 1813) known by infesting stored products as: grains, brans, flours, coffee, tobacco, dried fruits and spices. These curses perforate and penetrate the packages, ovipositing over the substratum. In this context the package plays a fundamental part, preventing the contact and curses' proliferation in the packed product. So, to protect the packed product and to prolong its shelf life, the package should have good mechanical resistance to tension and perforation, good sealing, good barrier properties and should not transfer odors nor strange flavors to the packed product. The ionizing radiation can cause structural changes in polymer packages, these changes are caused by the scission processes and reticulation of the polymers chains. These are concurrent processes and the predominance of one over the other depends on the chemical structure of the polymer, the irradiation conditions and specific factors of the material that will absorb the energy. This work had the objective to evaluate the changes in mechanical properties of package structures used to store granola, cereal bar and pasta, as well as its resistance to perforation by L. serricorne, P. interpunctella and S. zeamais, when submitted to electrons sheaf radiation. In this methodology were used five structures of commercially utilized packages to store granola, cereal bar and pasta composed by (Polypropylene bi-oriented metallic/Polypropylene bi-oriented coextruded - BOPPmet/BOPP 50 μm), (Polypropylene bi-oriented/Polypropylene - BOPP/PP 50 μm), Poli (ethylene terephthalate) metallic/Polypropylene bi-oriented coextruded - PETmet/BOPP 32 μm), Poli (ethylene terephthalate) /Polypropylene - PET/PP1 72 μm), Poli (ethylene terephthalate)/Polypropylene - PET/PP2 32 μm). The structures

  5. Evaluation of irradiated essential oils to control of Sitophilus zeamais Mots. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Blatella germanica (L.) (Dictyopera: Blattellidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potenza, Marcos Roberto

    2004-01-01

    This work aimed to evaluate the effect of irradiated essential oils of Eucalyptus citriodora, Eucalyptus globulus, Pinus sp., Azadirachta indica, Cymbopogon nardus, Cupressus sempervirens, Cymbopogons citratus and Juniperus communis and aqueous, hexanic and ethanolic irradiated extracts of Solanum paniculatum, Dahlia pinnata, Lycopersicon esculentum, Nephrolepis pectinata, Ruta graveolens, Ficus elastica, Lavandula angustifolia, Rhododendron simsii, Agave angustifolia, Ocimum basilicum, Allamanda cathartica, Dieffenbachia brasiliensis, Pennisetum purpureum, Annona squamosa, Coffea arabica and Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, in order to identify new substances to integrated pest management (IPM) and to observe possible effects of gamma radiation about extracts and essential oils efficiency such as increase, reduction, activation and inactivation of the same to the pest control. It evaluated the effect of contact on Sitophilus zeamais and by ingestion in Blattella germanica. To irradiation was used an experimental irradiator of Cobalt-60, type Gammacell 220. The essential oils were submitted increasing doses of gamma radiation: 2.5; 5.0; 7.5 and 10.0 kGy. The bioassay with B. germanica demonstrated efficiency between 22.0 e 30.0% and between 30.0 and 42.0%, respectively, to irradiated essential oils of E. citriodora and E. globulus and they demonstrated too repellency to the nymphs. The gamma radiation used promoted changes in essential oils of E. citriodora e E. globulus that they began to show efficiency on B. germanica nymphs besides a significant reduction of repellency. Essential oils of Pinus sp., A. indica, C. sempervirens and J. communis did not display efficiency. The essential oils of C. nardus, and C. citratus had low efficiency. The gamma radiation increased the efficiency of ethanolic extract of D. Pinnata with dose of 7.5 kGy, showing 48.0% of efficiency on B. germanica nymphs. The gamma radiation showed adverse effect on the aqueous extract of R. Graveolens

  6. Is the Invasive Species Listronotus bonariensis (Kuschel) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) (Argentine Stem Weevil) a Threat to New Zealand Natural Grassland Ecosystems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barratt, Barbara I P; Barton, Diane M; Philip, Bruce A; Ferguson, Colin M; Goldson, Stephen L

    2016-01-01

    Listronotus bonariensis (Argentine stem weevil) is a stem-boring weevil that has become a major pasture pest in New Zealand, and cool climate turf grass in Australia. This species is also frequently found in native tussock grassland in New Zealand. Laboratory and field trials were established to determine the risk posed to both seedlings and established plants of three native grass species compared to what happens with a common host of this species, hybrid ryegrass (L. perenne X L. multiflorum). Adult weevil feeding damage scores were higher on Poa colensoi and Festuca novae-zelandiae than Chionochloa rigida. Oviposition was lower on P. colensoi than hybrid ryegrass, and no eggs were laid on F. novae-zelandiae. In field trials using the same four species established as spaced plants L. bonariensis laid more eggs per tiller in ryegrass in a low altitude pasture site than in ryegrass in a higher altitude site. No eggs were found on the three native grass species at the tussock sites, and only low numbers were found on other grasses at the low altitude pasture site. Despite this, numbers of adult weevils were extracted from the plants in the field trials. These may have comprised survivors of the original weevils added to the plants, together with new generation weevils that had emerged during the experiment. Irrespective, higher numbers were recovered from the tussock site plants than from those from the pasture site. It was concluded that L. bonariensis is likely to have little overall impact, but a greater impact on native grass seedling survival than on established plants.

  7. Transfection of cultured cells of the cotton boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis, with a heat-shock-promoter-chloramphenicol-acetyltransferase construct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiles, B; Heilmann, J; Sparks, R B; Santoso, A; Leopold, R A

    1992-01-01

    Expression of heat shock proteins (hsp) in the BRL-AG-3C cell line from the cotton boll weevil was examined. It was determined that the maximal expression of endogenous hsp occurred at 41 degrees C. Various transfection methods were then compared using this cell line in conjunction with a transiently expressed bacterial gene marker (chloramphenicol acetyltransferase) which was under the control of the Drosophila hsp 70 gene promoter. The cationic lipid preparation Lipofectin was found to be very efficient at transfecting the boll weevil cells. Polylysine and 20-hydroxyecdysone-conjugated polylysine were moderately effective, whereas polybrene and electroporation, under the conditions reported herein, were ineffective at transfecting this cell line.

  8. Eradication of the cotton boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis) in the United States - A successful multi-regional approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunningham, Gary L.; Grefenstette, William J.

    2000-01-01

    The cotton boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis Boheman, is believed to have entered the US from Mexico and was first detected in South Texas in 1892. Since that time, the pest has spread throughout most of the nation's cotton-producing areas and has become the industry's number one nemesis. More than US$13 billion in economic losses have occurred since its introduction, with recent annual expenditures of more than US$300 million for control costs alone. Although the weevil has been eradicated from over 4 million acres, its presence in non-programme areas continues to dictate production practices within the mid-south, Texas and Oklahoma

  9. Genetic profiling to determine potential origins of boll weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) captured in a Texas eradication zone: endemicity, immigration, or sabotage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung Seok; Sappington, Thomas W; Allen, Charles T

    2008-12-01

    Thirty-seven boll weevils, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), were captured in pheromone traps near Lubbock, TX, in the Southern High Plains/Caprock eradication zone during August-October 2006. No boll weevils had been captured in this zone or neighboring zones to the north earlier in the year, and only very low numbers had been captured in neighboring zones to the south and east. Therefore, the captures near Lubbock were unexpected. Five of the weevils captured the last week of August were preserved and genotyped at 10 microsatellite loci for comparison with a database of genotypes for 22 boll weevil populations sampled from eight U.S. states and four locations in Mexico. The Lubbock population itself is an unlikely source, suggesting that the captured weevils probably did not originate from a low-level endemic population. Populations from eastern states, Mexico, and Big Spring, TX, can be confidently excluded as potential source regions. Although the Weslaco and Kingsville, TX, areas cannot be statistically excluded, they are unlikely sources. The most likely sources are nearby areas in New Mexico, TX, or southwest Oklahoma, or from areas of eastern Texas represented by Waxahachie and El Campo populations. Together, genetic and circumstantial evidence suggest either that the trapped boll weevils are the offspring of alone mated female that immigrated from eastern Texas earlier in the summer or that weevils originally captured near Waxahachie but now long-dead were planted in the traps by a disgruntled employee of the eradication program.

  10. Deleterious effects of plant cystatins against the banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiggundu, Andrew; Muchwezi, Josephine; Van der Vyver, Christell; Viljoen, Altus; Vorster, Juan; Schlüter, Urte; Kunert, Karl; Michaud, Dominique

    2010-02-01

    The general potential of plant cystatins for the development of insect-resistant transgenic plants still remains to be established given the natural ability of several insects to compensate for the loss of digestive cysteine protease activities. Here we assessed the potential of cystatins for the development of banana lines resistant to the banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus, a major pest of banana and plantain in Africa. Protease inhibitory assays were conducted with protein and methylcoumarin (MCA) peptide substrates to measure the inhibitory efficiency of different cystatins in vitro, followed by a diet assay with cystatin-infiltrated banana stem disks to monitor the impact of two plant cystatins, oryzacystatin I (OC-I, or OsCYS1) and papaya cystatin (CpCYS1), on the overall growth rate of weevil larvae. As observed earlier for other Coleoptera, banana weevils produce a variety of proteases for dietary protein digestion, including in particular Z-Phe-Arg-MCA-hydrolyzing (cathepsin L-like) and Z-Arg-Arg-MCA-hydrolyzing (cathepsin B-like) proteases active in mildly acidic conditions. Both enzyme populations were sensitive to the cysteine protease inhibitor E-64 and to different plant cystatins including OsCYS1. In line with the broad inhibitory effects of cystatins, OsCYS1 and CpCYS1 caused an important growth delay in young larvae developing for 10 days in cystatin-infiltrated banana stem disks. These promising results, which illustrate the susceptibility of C. sordidus to plant cystatins, are discussed in the light of recent hypotheses suggesting a key role for cathepsin B-like enzymes as a determinant for resistance or susceptibility to plant cystatins in Coleoptera. 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Chitinolitic activity in proteic extracts of Bacillus thuringiensis toxic to boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, T.S; Rocha, T.L. [EMBRAPA Recursos Geneticos e Biotecnologia, DF (Brazil); Vasconcelos, E.A.R [Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), DF (Brazil); Grossi-de-Sa, M.F. [Universidade Catolica de Brasilia, DF (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Full text: Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is a spore forming bacteria, which produces Cry proteins toxic towards several insect orders. Bt S 811 strain produces at least three Cry toxins: Cry1Ab, Cry1Ia12, and Cry8, and shown toxicity to insects from Coleoptera order. In order to characterize the production of theses toxins, and check its activity against Boll weevil larvae, proteic extracts from Bt cells and supernatant proteins from the bacterial culture, were obtained at different stages of cell cycle; 8, 16, 24, and 32 hours after inoculation (HAI). Proteins from 32 HAI of the supernatant, and 8 HAI of the cellular fractions, shown highest activity towards the Boll weevil larvae. Western blotting assays using anti-Cry8 and anti-Cry1I were carried out to analyse these toxins in the Bt proteic extracts. The existence of a Cry8 was detected at 8 HAI in the cellular fraction, what allow associate this molecule with the toxicity of this fraction. However, toxicity observed at 32 HAI in the supernatant fraction, was not possible to be associated with Cry8 or Cry1Ia toxins, indicating that there are another protein(s) responsible for the toxicity. A protein homo log to Cry1Ab was identified by 'Peptide Mass Fingerprint' at 32 HAI of the supernatant fraction and a chitin binding protein was identified by 2DE/MS/MS in this same stage and chitinolitic activity was also observed by enzymatic assay. All our data suggest a possible synergism between Cry toxins and a chitinase in the activity of this strain towards Boll weevil.

  12. Radiobiological studies on eggs of the rice weevil (Tribolium confusum) after exposure to heavy primary particles of the cosmic radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geyer, B.

    1982-01-01

    The thesis explains the radiation effects observed during the holometabolism of Tribolium confusum after exposure of the eggs to heavy primary particles of cosmic radiation, i.e. to atomic nuclei of relatively high energy with a mass greater than helium atoms. The first section describes the technical layout of the BIOSTACK experiment and the fixation of the Tribolium eggs and the positioning of the nuclear track detectors. This part is followed by the description of methods used to detect the eggs hit by the heavy nuclei, and their isolation and subsequent growth. Terrestrial irradiation of eggs with x-rays served as a control, as well as unirradiated egg cultures. The amount of larvae produced from incubated eggs hit by heavy nuclei was 66%, that of eggs exposed to cosmic background radiation was 69%, and that produced by the control culture kept on the earth was 87%. Investigations of egg samples during various stages of embryogenesis showed differences in the histological findings of the various groups, especially between the two groups of the BIOSTACK experiment. The letality of larvae in the period from emergence up to pupal stage was relatively high (50%) in the group hit by heavy nuclei, especially when compared to the other BIOSTACK experimental group, where this percentage was 10%, and to the terrestrial control group (3%). Also, vitality of larvae of the first group was considerably reduced. In the pupal stage, the letality observed in all three test groups was relatively low with 2-4%. From the animals produced from eggs hit by heavy nuclei, only 25% were still alive after 4 months, from the other space flight group these were 75%, and from the terrestrial control group 93%. Also, the animals from the first group showed a significant increase in bodily anomalies. (orig./MG) [de

  13. A synergistic aggregation pheromone component in the banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus Germar 1824 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerda, H; Mori, K; Nakayama, T; Jaffe, K

    1998-01-01

    Cosmopolites sordidus is an important pest on banana plantations worldwide. The chemistry of the aggregation pheromone of this insect has been recently resolved and here we present the first evidence from field trails that sordidin, a compound from the male released aggregation pheromone, attracts significant number of weevils only if host plant odors are also present. Sordidin attracts few insects when it is presented without the host plant tissue. However, the attractiveness of host plant tissue increases more than tenfold when it is presented simultaneously with sordidin in field traps. We confirm experimentally that sordidin may be used as part of a system for mass trapping and monitoring this insect.

  14. The life history and immature stages of the weevil Anthonomus monostigma Champion (Coleoptera: Curculiondidae) on Miconia calvescens DC (Melastomataceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eduardo Chacón-Madrigal; M.Tracy Johnson; Paul. Hanson

    2012-01-01

    We describe and illustrate the life history and immature stages of Anthonomus monostigma Champion (Curculionidae: Curculioninae: Anthonomini). This weevil is a fruit borer in Miconia calvescens DC (Melastomataceae), a Neotropical tree that is invasive in Pacific islands. The larva has three instars, and development from egg to...

  15. Feeding deterrent compounds to the boll weevil,Anthonomus grandis Boheman in Rose-of-Sharon,Hibiscus syriacus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, T G; Hedin, P A; Burks, M L

    1987-05-01

    The Rose-of-Sharon,Hibiscus syriacus (L.), can be a significant alternate host plant for the boll weevil,Anthonomus gradis (Boh.). Boll weevils are known to be deterred from feeding and ovipositing in the buds unless the calyx is removed. This investigation was initiated to identify calyx allelochemicals that deter feeding with the eventual strategy of breeding for cotton lines high in these allelochemicals in the appropriate tissues. The feeding deterrency of calyx tissue from the buds of Rose-of-Sharon for the boll weevil was confirmed. The most active deterrent fraction was found to contain mostly fatty acids and their methyl esters. Saturated fatty acids and their methyl esters were generally found to be stimulatory, while the unsaturated species were found to be deterrent. Higher quantities of the fatty acids, particularly the unsaturated species, were found in Rose-of-Sharon calyx tissue than in the buds without calyx. This supports the hypothesis developed through the isolational work and testing of standards that the unsaturated fatty acids are significant deterrents of boll weevil feeding.

  16. Temporal changes in genetic variation of boll weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) populations, and implications for population assignment in eradication zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic differentiation among 10 populations of boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis, sampled in 2009, in Texas and Mexico, was determined using ten microsatellite loci. In addition, temporal changes in genetic composition were examined in the eight populations for which samples were available fr...

  17. Population structure and genetic diversity of the boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), on Gossypium in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    While the boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis, has been identified as one of the most devastating pests in U.S. history, its origin and activity in Mexico, both on wild and cultivated cotton hosts (genus Gossypium), is poorly understood. Three forms (geographical or host-associated races) of A. grandis ...

  18. Molecular cloning of a cysteine proteinase cDNA from the cotton boll weevil Anthonomus grandis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Oliveira Neto, Osmundo Brilhante; Batista, João Aguiar Nogueira; Rigden, Daniel John; Franco, Octávio Luiz; Fragoso, Rodrigo Rocha; Monteiro, Ana Carolina Santos; Monnerat, Rose Gomes; Grossi-De-Sa, Maria Fátima

    2004-06-01

    The cotton boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis) causes severe cotton crop losses in North and South America. This report describes the presence of cysteine proteinase activity in the cotton boll weevil. Cysteine proteinase inhibitors from different sources were assayed against total A. grandis proteinases but, unexpectedly, no inhibitor tested was particularly effective. In order to screen for active inhibitors against the boll weevil, a cysteine proteinase cDNA (Agcys1) was isolated from A. grandis larvae using degenerate primers and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) techniques. Sequence analysis showed significant homologies with other insect cysteine proteinases. Northern blot analysis indicated that the mRNA encoding the proteinase was transcribed mainly in the gut of larvae. No mRNA was detected in neonatal larvae, pupae, or in the gut of the adult insect, suggesting that Agcys1 is an important cysteine proteinase for larvae digestion. The isolated gene will facilitate the search for highly active inhibitors towards boll weevil larvae that may provide a new opportunity to control this important insect pest.

  19. Effects of crop sanitation on banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Coleoptera : Curculionidae), populations and crop damage in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masanza, M.; Gold, C.S.; Huis, van A.; Ragama, P.E.

    2006-01-01

    Crop sanitation, i.e. destruction of crop residues, has been hypothesized to lower banana weevil damage by removing adult refuges and breeding sites. Although it has been widely recommended to farmers, limited data are available to demonstrate the efficacy of this method. The effects of crop

  20. Distribution, timing of attack, and oviposition of the banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus, on banana crop residues in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masanza, M.; Gold, C.S.; Huis, van A.

    2005-01-01

    Crop sanitation (removal and chopping of residue corms and pseudostems following plant harvest) has been recommended as a 'best bet' means of reducing banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), populations. However, it has been unclear when such practices should be

  1. Enhancing dissemination of Beauveria bassiana with host plant base incision trapfor the management of the banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tinzaara, W.; Emudong, P.; Nankinga, C.; Tushemereirwe, W.; Kagezi, G.H.; Gold, C.S.; Dicke, M.; Huis, van A.; Karamura, E.

    2015-01-01

    The banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is an important pest of highland banana in East and central Africa. It causes yield loss of up to 100% in heavily infested fields. Studies were carried out in Uganda to evaluate the efficacy of the the plant base incision

  2. Influence of plant and residue age on attraction, acceptance and larval survival of the banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masanza, M.; Gold, C.S.; Huis, van A.; Ragama, P.E.

    2009-01-01

    Laboratory trials were conducted in Uganda at the Kawanda Agricultural Research Institute to determine attraction, eclosion success and larval survivorship of the banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) on crop residues of different ages. In the first experiment, studies focused on different

  3. Evidence for the presence of a female produced sex pheromone in the banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus Germar (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behavior-modifying chemicals such as pheromones and kairomones have great potential in pest management. Studies reported here investigated chemical cues involved in mating and aggregation behavior of banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus, a major insect pest of banana in every country where bananas a...

  4. Oviposition Decision of the Weevil Exapion ulicis on Ulex europaeus Depends on External and Internal Pod Cues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Sébastien Pierre

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Understanding mechanisms underlying insects’ host choice and plant susceptibility is important to the study of plant-insect interactions in general, and in the context of plant invasions. This study investigates the oviposition and feeding choices of the specialist weevil Exapion ulicis on the invasive plant species Ulex europaeus, gorse. To do so, we studied the oviposition and feeding preferences of the weevil in choice experiments, using pods and flowers, respectively, from gorses grown in a common garden. The plants used came from regions with different infestation histories: Brittany and Scotland belong to the native range, where the weevil is present, while Reunion and New Zealand belong to the invasive range, where the weevil was not initially introduced with gorse. Results of these experiments suggest that the oviposition choice of E. ulicis females is driven by cues located at the surface of pods and inside them, including pod size and pod seed content. Feeding-choice experiments showed a different pattern of preference compared to oviposition. Taken together with previous studies, our results reveal that E. ulicis uses several traits to choose its host, including whole-plant traits, flower traits and pod traits.

  5. Effects of entomopathogenic fungus species, and impact of fertilizers, on biological control of pecan weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The pecan weevil, Curculio caryae (Horn), is a key pest of pecan. Prior research indicated potential to use Hypocreales fungi for suppression of C. caryae. In this study, we first compared the efficacy of two fungal spp. Beauveria bassiana (GHA strain) and Metarhizium brunneum (F52) in ability to ...

  6. Olfaction in the boll weevil,Anthonomus grandis Boh. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae): Electroantennogram studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickens, J C

    1984-12-01

    Electroantennogram (EAG) techniques were utilized to measure the antennal olfactory responsiveness of adult boll weevils,Anthonomus grandis Boh. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), to 38 odorants, including both insect and host plant (Gossypium hirsutum L.) volatiles. EAGs of both sexes were indicative of at least two receptor populations: one receptor population primarily responsive to pheromone components and related compounds, the other receptor population primarily responsive to plant odors. Similar responses to male aggregation pheromone components (i.e., compounds I, II, and III + IV) were obtained from both sexes, but females were slightly more sensitive to I. Both sexes were highly responsive to components of the "green leaf volatile complex," especially the six-carbon saturated and monounsaturated primary alcohols. Heptanal was the most active aldehyde tested. More acceptors responded to oxygenated monoterpenes than to monoterpene hydrocarbons. β-Bisabolol, the major volatile of cotton, was the most active sesquiterpene. In general, males, which are responsible for host selection and pheromone production, were more sensitive to plant odors than were females. In fact, males were as sensitive to β-bisabolol and heptanal as to aggregation pheromone components. Electrophysiological data are discussed with regard to the role of insect and host plant volatiles in host selection and aggregation behavior of the boll weevil.

  7. Pathogenicity evaluation of native isolates of entomopathogenic fungí against andean weevil, Premnotrypes vorax (Hustache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giselle Rivera

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this study was pathogenicity evaluation of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae native isolates, obtained from natural habitats and stocked potato, against potato andean weevil, Premnotrypes vorax (Hustache (COLEOPTERA: Curculionidae, and important potato insect pest in Colombia and other Andean countries. Patogenicity was determined by laboratory bioassays, using either reared insects or field captured insects. Insect rearing data are presented. Pathogenicity evaluation was express as mortality against time, estimating LT50 and LT90 for all the fungal isolates, and mortality against spore concentration, estimating CL50 for two selected isolates. In all cases, total mortality percentils were above 45%. Differences between reared and field captured insects were evident. According to obtained data one of the fungal isolates: B. bassiana 9770, obtained from R vorax larva (TL50: 4.7 days - 9.8 days; TL90: 14.1 days - 20.8 days; CL50:7.03 x 104spores/ml appears as a promisory fungal isolate for further studies. Out of this study, differences in the andean weevil, P. vorax, adult mortality, with regard to entomopathogenic fungal isolate and insect origin were manifest.

  8. Local and neighboring patch conditions alter sex-specific movement in banana weevils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carval, Dominique; Perrin, Benjamin; Duyck, Pierre-François; Tixier, Philippe

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the mechanisms underlying the movements and spread of a species over time and space is a major concern of ecology. Here, we assessed the effects of an individual's sex and the density and sex ratio of conspecifics in the local and neighboring environment on the movement probability of the banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus. In a "two patches" experiment, we used radiofrequency identification tags to study the C. sordidus movement response to patch conditions. We showed that local and neighboring densities of conspecifics affect the movement rates of individuals but that the density-dependent effect can be either positive or negative depending on the relative densities of conspecifics in local and neighboring patches. We demonstrated that sex ratio also influences the movement of C. sordidus, that is, the weevil exhibits nonfixed sex-biased movement strategies. Sex-biased movement may be the consequence of intrasexual competition for resources (i.e., oviposition sites) in females and for mates in males. We also detected a high individual variability in the propensity to move. Finally, we discuss the role of demographic stochasticity, sex-biased movement, and individual heterogeneity in movement on the colonization process.

  9. Transfer of gaseous iodine from atmosphere to rough rice, brown rice and polished rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumiya, Misako; Uchida, Shigeo; Muramatsu, Yasuyuki; Ohmomo, Yoichiro; Yamaguchi, Shuho; Obata, Hitoshi.

    1987-01-01

    Experiments were carried out in order to obtain information required for establishing transfer coefficients of gaseous iodine (I 2 ) to rough rice, brown rice and polished rice. The gaseous iodine deposited on young rice plants before the heading period was scarcely found in the rough rice harvested at the full ripe stage. The biological half life of iodine in hull, however, was much slower than that in leaves of 14 days. The translocation of iodine from leaves and stalks to rough rice was not clearly recognized. Therefore, it was deduced that iodine found in brown rice mainly should originate from that deposited on the hull. The distribution ratios of iodine between rough rice and brown rice, and between brown rice and polished rice were 100:4 and 100:30 on 100 grains basis, respectively. If average normalized deposition velocity (V d(m) ) or derived deposition velocity (V s ) are given, the transfer coefficients of gaseous iodine to rough rice (TF r ), brown rice (TF b ) and polished rice (TF p ) could be calculated. (author)

  10. Systemic Insecticides Reduce Feeding, Survival and Fecundity of Adult Black Vine Weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) on a Variety of Ornamental Nursery Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    A series of bioassays were conducted to test the systemic activity of clothianidin, chlorantraniliprole, dinotefuran, and thiamethoxam against adult black vine weevils (Otiorhynchus sulcatus F.) on Taxus, Heuchera, Astilbe, Sedum, Euonymus, and Rhododendron grown in containers. The insecticides wer...

  11. Different bioassays for investigating orientation responses of the banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus, show additive effects of host plant volatiles and a synthetic male-produced aggregation pheromone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tinzaara, W.; Dicke, M.; Huis, van A.; Loon, van J.A.; Gold, C.S.

    2003-01-01

    Three different bioassay methods to investigate the orientation behaviour of the banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), to host plant volatiles and a synthetic pheromone (cosmolure+) were compared. A locomotion compensator was used to separately record walking

  12. Prevalence of Rice Yellow Mottle Virus (RYMV) on Rice Plants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Incidence of Rice yellow mottle virus (RYMV) on rice plants (ofada) grown in two local government areas (LGAs) of Ogun State had been evaluated during a two year field survey. Six month old rice plants were observed for symptom expression and leaf samples collected for serological indexing. Of the 60 leaf ...

  13. Data on the abundance of the banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus and of the earwig Euborellia caraibea in bare soil and cover crop plots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carval, Dominique; Resmond, Rémi; Achard, Raphaël; Tixier, Philippe

    2016-06-01

    The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled "Cover cropping reduces the abundance of the banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus but does not reduce its damage to the banana plants" (Carval et al., in press) [1]. This article describes how the abundance of the banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus, and the abundance of the earwig Euborellia caraibea were affected by the addition of a cover crop. The field data set is made publicly available to enable critical or extended analyzes.

  14. Data on the abundance of the banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus and of the earwig Euborellia caraibea in bare soil and cover crop plots

    OpenAIRE

    Carval, Dominique; Resmond, Rémi; Achard, Raphaël; Tixier, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled “Cover cropping reduces the abundance of the banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus but does not reduce its damage to the banana plants” (Carval et al., in press) [1]. This article describes how the abundance of the banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus, and the abundance of the earwig Euborellia caraibea were affected by the addition of a cover crop. The field data set is made publicly available to enable critical or...

  15. LABORATORY TESTS ON INSECTICIDAL EFFECTIVENESS OF DISODIUM OCTABORATE TETRAHYDRATE, DIATOMACEOUS EARTH AND AMORPHOUS SILICA GEL AGAINST Sitophilus oryzae (L. AND THEIR EFFECT ON WHEAT BULK DENSITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatko Korunić

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined insecticide effectiveness of three different inert dusts: disodium octaborate tetrahydrate (DOT and diatomaceous earth (DE Celatom® Mn 51 applied as powder and suspension, and silica gel Sipernat® 50 S applied as powder against Sitophilus oryzae (L. and their reduction of grain bulk density. Sipernat® 50 S was the most effective dust with a very fast initial effectiveness. DE and DOT generated similar effectiveness against S. oryzae. DOT generated low initial effectiveness but after prolonged exposure time of 8 and especially after 21 days, the mortality was very high (100%, similar to the effectiveness of DE. The similar order of dusts was obtained in the reduction of wheat bulk density. Applied at dose of 200 and 500 ppm, the lowest bulk density difference in regard to bulk density of untreated wheat had DOT (-1.1 and -1.9 kg hl-1, respectively, followed by Celatom® Mn 51 (-3.5 and -4.3 kg hl-1, respectively and Sipernat® 50 S (-5.2 and -5.5 kg hl-1, respectively. Due to the effect on wheat bulk density DOT belongs to the group with the least negative effect on bulk density and therefore, it is a promising dust to control stored grain insect pests.

  16. Rational Practices to Manage Boll Weevils Colonization and Population Growth on Family Farms in the Semiárido Region of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Robério C S; Colares, Felipe; Torres, Jorge B; Santos, Roberta L; Bastos, Cristina S

    2014-10-31

    Because boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis Boh. develops partially protected inside cotton fruiting structures, once they become established in a field, they are difficult to control, even with nearly continuous insecticide spray. During two cotton-growing seasons in the Semiárido region of Pernambuco State, Brazil, we tested the use of kaolin sprays to disrupt plant colonization through visual cue interference, combined with removal of fallen fruiting bodies to restrain boll weevil population growth after colonization. Kaolin spray under non-choice trials resulted in 2.2×, 4.4×, and 8.6× fewer weevils, oviposition and feeding punctures on kaolin-treated plants, respectively, despite demonstrating no statistical differences for colonization and population growth. Early season sprays in 2010 occurred during a period of rainfall, and hence, under our fixed spraying schedule no significant differences in boll weevil colonization were detected. In 2011, when kaolin sprays were not washed out by rain, delayed boll weevil colonization and reduction on attacked fruiting bodies were observed in eight out of 12 evaluations, and kaolin-treated plots had 2.7× fewer damaged fruiting bodies compared to untreated plots. Adoption of simple measures such as removal of fallen fruiting bodies and prompt reapplication of kaolin sprays after rainfall show promise in reducing boll weevil infestation.

  17. Rational Practices to Manage Boll Weevils Colonization and Population Growth on Family Farms in the Semiárido Region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robério C. S. Neves

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Because boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis Boh. develops partially protected inside cotton fruiting structures, once they become established in a field, they are difficult to control, even with nearly continuous insecticide spray. During two cotton-growing seasons in the Semiárido region of Pernambuco State, Brazil, we tested the use of kaolin sprays to disrupt plant colonization through visual cue interference, combined with removal of fallen fruiting bodies to restrain boll weevil population growth after colonization. Kaolin spray under non-choice trials resulted in 2.2×, 4.4×, and 8.6× fewer weevils, oviposition and feeding punctures on kaolin-treated plants, respectively, despite demonstrating no statistical differences for colonization and population growth. Early season sprays in 2010 occurred during a period of rainfall, and hence, under our fixed spraying schedule no significant differences in boll weevil colonization were detected. In 2011, when kaolin sprays were not washed out by rain, delayed boll weevil colonization and reduction on attacked fruiting bodies were observed in eight out of 12 evaluations, and kaolin-treated plots had 2.7× fewer damaged fruiting bodies compared to untreated plots. Adoption of simple measures such as removal of fallen fruiting bodies and prompt reapplication of kaolin sprays after rainfall show promise in reducing boll weevil infestation.

  18. Classical Biological Control of Water Hyacinth, Eichhornia Crassipes (Liliales: Pomteridiaeae), Using Neochentina Spp, Weevils (Curculionidae), During the Re-Inversion Period in the Lake victoria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochiel, G.R.S.

    2002-01-01

    The paper presents recent results from an ongoing classical biological control programme for water hyacinth, implemented by Kenya Agricultural Research Institute Under the Lake Environmental Project. After the successful control of the weed, a re-inversion in the lake was experienced in August 2000 in Nyakach Bay. Between november 2000 and June 2001, approximately 5600 adults Neochetina spp. (coleoptera: Curculionidae) weevils, biological control agents for water hyacinth Eichhornia crassipes (Liliales: Ponteridaceae) were harvested, from the Kibos rearing facility, Namba-Okana 'field security' and community weevil rearing units. Weevils were released on water hyacinth at thirteen sites in Berkeley, Nyakach, Osodo, Kendu, Homa and Karungu and Muhuru Bays, at Kuja-Migori river tributaries and upstream of Nzoia, Yala and Sondu-Miriu rivers. In general, reproductive and growth potential (number of daughter plants, petiole length and laminar area) and fresh weight of the weed was suppressed. there was a gradual increase in insect population levels (number of weevils plant -1 ) and damage to plants by weevil larvae. there is need to carry out an aerial survey to verify the visual estimates of water hyacinth cover and intensify mass rearing and releases of weevils in hotspot areas and to concentrate releases in riverine systems

  19. 7 CFR 868.310 - Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled Rice. (See also Â... Milled Rice Principles Governing Application of Standards § 868.310 Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled Rice...

  20. Extraction of rice bran oil from local rice husk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anwar, J.; Zaman, W.; Salman, M.; Jabeen, N.

    2006-01-01

    Rice Bran Oil is widely used in pharmaceutical, food and chemical industries due to its unique properties and high medicinal value. In the present work, extraction of rice bran oil from different samples of rice husk collected from local rice shellers by solvent extraction method has been studied. Experiments were conducted using a soxhelt apparatus, to extract rice bran oil using hexane, petroleum ether, ethanol and methanol as the solvents and the yields obtained under different conditions were compared. Batch extraction tests showed that the rate of extraction decreases with time and the solution approaches saturation at an exponential rate. (author)

  1. Gasification of rice husks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marzetti, P. (ENEA, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Fonti Alternative e Risparmio Energetico)

    The paper outlines the thermochemical processes and equipment involved in the gasification of rice husks. An assessment is made of the feasibility (availability, technology requirements, economics of production and marketing) of this renewable energy source. Results, reported here in tabular form, of experimental trials at an Italian pilot plant (producing, with the use of 165 kg/h of rice husks, 350,000 kcal/h of gas with a conversion yield of 70%) indicated good feasibility. More research is required to improve the combustion qualities of the final product.

  2. Effect of Irrigation on Within-Grove Distribution of Red Palm Weevil Rhynchophorous ferrugineus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Aldryhim

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The red palm weevil (RPW Rhynchophorous ferrugineus (Oliv. is the most important pest attacking date palm trees. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of drip and flood irrigation on the within-grove distribution of RPW. The current study was started with the first appearance of the infestation to almost disappearance of the infestation. Results showed that more infested trees were detected in plots with flood irrigation. The number of infested trees in these plots represented 89% of the total infested trees. This study suggested that irrigation management and soil moisture are key factors in the dispersion of the RPW infestation and could be used as one of the integrated pest management tools.

  3. Cholesterol oxidase interference on the emergence and viability of cotton boll weevil larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Roseane Cavalcanti

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of the enzyme cholesterol oxidase (Coase on emergence and viability of larvae of the cotton boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis Boheman, 1843. A series of bioassays was performed with eggs and neonate larvae exposed to different enzyme concentrations in artificial diet. Larval survival was affected at all enzyme concentrations tested, and the six-day LD50 was 53 mug/mL (CI 95%: 43-59. Coase also interfered with hatching of larvae after eggs were floated for 15 min in Coase solution at different concentrations. Observations at the light and electronic microscopic level of midguts from larvae fed on artificial diet containing 53 mug/mL of Coase and collected at six days revealed highly vacuolated regions in the epithelial cells as well as partial degradation of the basal membrane and microvilli.

  4. The Reproductive Morphology and Physiological Age Grading of the Female Salvinia Weevil, Calder and Sands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Eisenberg

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The morphology of the female Cyrtobagous salviniae Calder and Sands reproductive system is similar to other weevil species being meroistic and telotrophic. The reproductive system is composed of 2 ovaries each containing 2 ovarioles where the follicles mature. A physiological age grading system was developed where the continuum of ovarium development was divided into 2 nulliparous and 3 parous classes. This was based on the differentiation of the ovarioles, presence, and appearance of follicular relics, cuticle hardness/coloration, and fat body quantity/appearance. High correlation occurred between the parous classes and number of eggs produced where the P3 class had over 9-fold higher number of eggs in comparison with the P1 class. Mean number of eggs produced for each parous class was significantly different, however, overlap occurred. Such a system enables a determination of the past, present, and future reproductive status of field populations and mass-rearing colonies.

  5. Potential industrial uses and quality of oil of palm weevil, rhynchophorus phoenicis F. (coleoptera: curculionidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omotoso, O.T.; Adedire, C.O.

    2008-01-01

    The study of the industrial potentials of the palm weevil revealed the water absorption capacity to range from 53.33% in the late larval stage (LLS) to 113.33% in adult stage (ADS) while oil absorption capacity varied from 87.97% in LLS to 121.33% in ADS. The adult had the highest emulsion capacity while none of the samples formed foams. ADS gelled At 4% while LLS and ELS (early larval stage) gelled at 10% and 16%, respectively. The oil had a specific gravity of 0.8742. Iodine and unsaponifiable matter were the highest in ELS, while LLS had the highest saponification value. ADS recorded the highest values for acid, free fatty acid, peroxide, slip point, melting point, softening point, smoke point, flash point and fire point. The anti-nutrient contents were generally low. Phytic acid was the highest in LLS, whereas, ADS had the highest oxalate and tannin contents. (author)

  6. Multiple transgressions of Wallace's Line explain diversity of flightless Trigonopterus weevils on Bali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tänzler, Rene; Toussaint, Emmanuel F A; Suhardjono, Yayuk R; Balke, Michael; Riedel, Alexander

    2014-05-07

    The fauna of Bali, situated immediately west of Wallace's Line, is supposedly of recent Javanese origin and characterized by low levels of endemicity. In flightless Trigonopterus weevils, however, we find 100% endemism for the eight species here reported for Bali. Phylogeographic analyses show extensive in situ differentiation, including a local radiation of five species. A comprehensive molecular phylogeny and ancestral area reconstruction of Indo-Malayan-Melanesian species reveals a complex colonization pattern, where the three Balinese lineages all arrived from the East, i.e. all of them transgressed Wallace's Line. Although East Java possesses a rich fauna of Trigonopterus, no exchange can be observed with Bali. We assert that the biogeographic picture of Bali has been dominated by the influx of mobile organisms from Java, but different relationships may be discovered when flightless invertebrates are studied. Our results highlight the importance of in-depth analyses of spatial patterns of biodiversity.

  7. Ultrastructure Alterations in The Red Palm Weevil Antennal Sensilla Induced By Gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoud, E.A.; Mohamed, H.F.; El-Naggar, S.E.M.

    2011-01-01

    The antennal sensilla of non-irradiated and irradiated male red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Oliv.) (Coleoptera: urculionidae), were investigated by using a scanning electron microscope. The antenna is composed of three segments; scape, pedicel and flagellum (funicle, club). Four different sensillar types were distinguished. Also eleven subtypes were distinguished which are: three subtypes of sensilla coeloconica, four subtypes of sensilla trichodea, two subtypes of sensilla basiconica, and two subtypes of sensilla chaetica. The positions of these sensilla on the antenna are discussed. These types are used by insects as mechanoreceptor, chemoreceptor and thermo-hygroreceptor. Differences in lengths and diameters of some types of sensilla were recorded as a result of irradiated male adult with two doses of gamma rays (15 or 20 Gy). In the higher dose (20 Gy), more effects of sensilla were recorded, especially for the sensilla chaetica followed by sensilla coeloconica

  8. Nucleases as a barrier to gene silencing in the cotton boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida Garcia, Rayssa; Lima Pepino Macedo, Leonardo; Cabral do Nascimento, Danila; Gillet, François-Xavier; Moreira-Pinto, Clidia Eduarda; Faheem, Muhammad; Moreschi Basso, Angelina Maria; Mattar Silva, Maria Cristina; Grossi-de-Sa, Maria Fatima

    2017-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) approaches have been applied as a biotechnological tool for controlling plant insect pests via selective gene down regulation. However, the inefficiency of RNAi mechanism in insects is associated with several barriers, including dsRNA delivery and uptake by the cell, dsRNA interaction with the cellular membrane receptor and dsRNA exposure to insect gut nucleases during feeding. The cotton boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis) is a coleopteran in which RNAi-mediated gene silencing does not function efficiently through dsRNA feeding, and the factors involved in the mechanism remain unknown. Herein, we identified three nucleases in the cotton boll weevil transcriptome denoted AgraNuc1, AgraNuc2, and AgraNuc3, and the influences of these nucleases on the gene silencing of A. grandis chitin synthase II (AgraChSII) were evaluated through oral dsRNA feeding trials. A phylogenetic analysis showed that all three nucleases share high similarity with the DNA/RNA non-specific endonuclease family of other insects. These nucleases were found to be mainly expressed in the posterior midgut region of the insect. Two days after nuclease RNAi-mediated gene silencing, dsRNA degradation by the gut juice was substantially reduced. Notably, after nucleases gene silencing, the orally delivered dsRNA against the AgraChSII gene resulted in improved gene silencing efficiency when compared to the control (non-silenced nucleases). The data presented here demonstrates that A. grandis midgut nucleases are effectively one of the main barriers to dsRNA delivery and emphasize the need to develop novel RNAi delivery strategies focusing on protecting the dsRNA from gut nucleases and enhancing its oral delivery and uptake to crop insect pests.

  9. Qualitative evaluation of the DNA degradation in plague insects exposed to gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortega, Yuriko; Agapito, Juan; Vargas, Johnny; Vivanco, Monica; Martinez, Norberta

    2014-01-01

    Insects produce large losses in stored grain depending on the type of cereal and storage time and other factors. The rice weevil Sitophilus oryzae L and the false flour beetle Tribolium confusum are important pests of stored grain. The study aimed to qualitatively evaluate the effect of gamma radiation on the DNA of two species of insect pests from samples stored Chullpi and white corn infested with adult weevils. Samples were treated with radiation doses of 100, 400, 1000 and 2000 Gy and DNA extraction was obtained by three methods: TNES-urea, CTAB and NaOH. The DNA damage induced by gamma radiation in weevils was determined by gel electrophoresis. As a result, it was found that exposure of adult weevils to a radiation dose of 100 Gy and 400 caused an average mortality of the insects, showing a degree of resistance to gamma radiation. However, radiation doses of 1000 and 2000 Gy caused 100 % mortality of insects. Preliminary results show that DNA damage is proportional to the amount of gamma radiation. (authors).

  10. EVALUATION OF NATURAL ENEMIES IN CONTROLLING OF THE BANANA WEEVIL BORER Cosmopolites sordidus Germar IN WEST SUMATRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahsol Hasyim

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus Germar, is an important pest of highland banana and plantain in Africa, but it exists in low densities in presumed area of origin in Southeast Asia such as in Indonesia. This suggests a possible existence of effective co-evolved natural enemies in the origin area of Indonesia, especially West Sumatra. The objectives of this study were: (1 to evaluate banana weevil pest status at selected sites in West Sumatra, (2 to survey parasitoids and predators, and (3 to determine the control potential of the most important natural enemies. Surveys were undertaken in March 2002-August 2003 in five locations in West Sumatra, i.e., Bukittinggi, Sitiung, Pariaman, Pasaman, and Batusangkar. Five farms per site were selected randomly among all farms that contained banana stands of > 0.5 ha. Sampling for banana weevil adults and damage, and for predators was done throughout small banana stands and within a 20 m x 40 m (0.08 ha subplot on larger farms. Field-collected larvae were taken to the laboratory and reared on corm pieces (3 cm x 3 cm x 3 cm until pupation. Larvae were collected from pseudostem as well as corm residues. To estimate the abundance of non-social predators, i.e., those other than ants, 10 residues each on each farm were examined from plants that had been harvested 1-4 weeks, 5-8 weeks or 9 or more weeks before our visit to the site. Samples of the different morphospecies were saved in alcohol for later identification. The result showed that the banana weevil incidence was found to be low,  0.6-1.7 adults per trap. Plant damage indices were below 2.2%. We collected and reared 24,360 eggs and 3118 larvae, but no parasitism was detected. Phorids (Megaselia sp. and drosophilids were recovered from larval rearings, but most likely were scavengers. A complex of predators was detected, the most important of which was the histerid beetles,  Plaesius javanus Erichson. In laboratory tests, adults and larvae

  11. A simple method for preparing artificial larval diet of the West Indian sweetpotato weevil, Euscepes postfasciatus (Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uesato, T.; Kohama, T.

    2008-01-01

    The method for preparing ordinary larval artificial diet for Euscepes postfasciatus (old diet) was complicated and time consuming. Some ingredients (casein, saccharose, salt mixture, etc.) of the diet were added to boiled agar solution, others (vitamin mixture, sweetpotato powder, etc.) were added after the solution was cooled to 55degC. To simplify the diet preparation, we combined all ingredients before mixing with water, and then boiled the solution (new diet). There were no significant differences of survival rate (from egg hatching to adult eclosion) and right elytron length between the weevils reared on the old and new diets, but the development period (from egg to adult) of the weevils fed the new diet was significantly (1.3 days) longer than that of those fed the old diet. Preparation time of the new diet was half that of the old diet. These results suggest that simplified diet preparation can be introduced into the mass-rearing of E. postfasciatus

  12. Rice as commodity and anti-commodity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richards, P.

    2016-01-01

    On the Upper West Africa coast rice belongs to two species — African rice (Oryza glaberrima Steud.) and Asian rice (Oryza sativa L.). African rice was domesticated in the region, perhaps three millennia ago, from a presumed wild ancestor, O. barthii. Asian rice was introduced via trans-Saharan

  13. Diseases of wild rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diseases are much more pronounced in cultivated wild rice than in natural stands, most likely due to the narrower genetic base of the populations, plant stress due to high planting density and floodwater removal prior to harvest, and high relative humidity in the plant canopy. Yield losses occur as ...

  14. Promising rice mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakim, L.; Azam, M.A.; Miah, A.J.; Mansur, M.A.; Akanda, H.R.

    1988-01-01

    Two induced mutants namely, Mut NS 1 (tall) and Mut NS 5 (semi-dwarf) derived from rice variety Nizersail were evaluated for various agronomic characters at four locations in Bangladesh. Both the mutants matured about three weeks earlier and yielded significantly higher than the parent variety Nizersail. (author). 3 tabs., 9 refs

  15. Evaluation of the Boll Weevil Anthonomus grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) suppression program in the state of Goiás, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, I S; Degrande, P E; Miranda, J E; dos Santos, W J

    2013-02-01

    The boll weevil Anthonomus grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is the most important cotton pest in Brazil. A large-scale field-testing of a Boll Weevil Suppression Program (BWSP) was implemented to assess its technical and operational feasibility for boll weevil suppression in the state of Goiás, Brazil. The pilot plan focused on 3,608 ha of cotton during the 2006/2007 and 6,011 ha in the 2007/2008 growing seasons; the areas were divided into four inner zones with an outer buffer zone. We analyzed data on boll weevil captures using pheromone traps installed in the BWSP fields, on the detection of the first insect and the first damaged floral bud, greatest damage, and number of insecticide applications. The nonparametric Mann-Whitney U test was used to evaluate the differences between presuppression and suppression years. Fourteen pheromone-baited trapping evaluations were used to compare the weevil populations from 2006/2007 and 2007/2008 growing seasons. The BWSP regime reduced in-season boll weevil captures from 15- to 500-fold compared to presuppression levels in the preceding year. The low capture rates were related to delays in infestation and damage by weevils. The smaller population size measured by trapping and field monitoring reduced the number of required insecticide treatments. The BWSP strategy was efficient in suppressing populations of this pest and is a viable program for cotton production in subtropical and tropical regions, with long-term economic and environmental benefits.

  16. Effect of Light Availability on the Interaction between Maritime Pine and the Pine Weevil: Light Drives Insect Feeding Behavior But Also the Defensive Capabilities of the Host

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estefanía Suárez-Vidal

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Light is a major environmental factor that may determine the interaction between plants and herbivores in several ways, including top-down effects through changes in herbivore behavior and bottom-up effects mediated by alterations of plant physiology. Here we explored the relative contribution of these two regulation processes to the outcome of the interaction of pine trees with a major forest pest, the pine weevil (Hylobius abietis. We studied to what extent light availability influence insect feeding behavior and/or the ability of pines to produce induced defenses in response to herbivory. For this purpose, 3-year old Pinus pinaster plants from three contrasting populations were subjected to 6 days of experimental herbivory by the pine weevil under two levels of light availability (complete darkness or natural sunlight independently applied to the plant and to the insect in a fully factorial design. Light availability strongly affected the pine weevil feeding behavior. The pine weevil fed more and caused larger feeding scars in darkness than under natural sunlight. Besides, under the more intense levels of weevil damage (i.e., those registered with insects in darkness, light availability also affected the pine’s ability to respond to insect feeding by producing induced resin defenses. These results were consistent across the three studied populations despite they differed in weevil susceptibility and inducibility of defenses. Morocco was the most damaged population and the one that induced more defensive compounds. Overall, results indicate that light availability modulates the outcome of the pine–weevil interactions through both bottom-up and top-down regulation mechanisms.

  17. Residues of Malathion and Metabolites in and on the Cotton Leaf vs. Toxicity to the Boll Weevil

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.A. Wolfenbarger

    2002-01-01

    Malathion was applied at 12 and 16 oz [A.l.]/a to cotton near Mercedes, TX, in 1995 and sampled on 0, 2, 4 and 6 d posttreatment to determine residues of malathion, malaoxon, and iso-malathion. Residues were then compared to determine toxicity to boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis Boheman. Residues of malathion comprised 99% of the leaf washes and 100% of the leaf...

  18. Prediction model for cabbage stem weevil ceutorhynchus pallidactylus Mrsh. occurrence on winther rape based on an artificial neural network

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klem, Karel; Spitzer, T.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 3 (2017), s. 302-308 ISSN 1461-9555 R&D Projects: GA MZe QJ1530373 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Brassica napus L * cabbage stem weevil * Ceutorhynchus pallidactylus * model * neural network * oilseed rape * weather conditions Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7) Impact factor: 1.726, year: 2016

  19. Insecticidal activity of floral, foliar, and root extracts of Tagetes minuta (Asterales: Asteraceae) against adult mexican bean weevils (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    David K. Weaver; Carl D. Wells; Florence V. Dunkel; Wolfgang Bertsch; Sharlene E. Sing; Shobha Sriharan

    1994-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine speed of action and toxicities of extracts of Tagetes minuta L., a source of naturally occurring insecticidal compounds. LC50 values for male and female Mexican bean weevils, Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boheman), were determined for floral, foliar, and root extracts of T. minuta. The 24-h LC50 values ranged from 138 μ g/cm2 for males...

  20. Preliminary field studies on the control of the red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Oliv., using radiosterilized males

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahalkar, G.W.; Harwalkar, M.R.; Rananavare, H.D.

    1977-01-01

    Feasibility of using sterile male release method for the control of red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrungineus Oliv., a serious pest of coconut and other cultivated palms in India was investigated. A total of over 5000 radiosterilized males were released in an 800 acre coconut plantation near Kayangulam in Kerala. Data on the fertility pattern of native females is presented and the factors affecting the efficacy of sterile male release for control of this insect are discussed. (author)

  1. Investigating differences in light stable isotopes between Thai jasmine rice and Sungyod rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukusamude, C.; Kongsri, S.

    2017-10-01

    We report the differences in light stable isotopes between two kinds of Thai rice (Thai jasmine and Sungyod rice). Thai jasmine rice and Sungyod rice were cultivated in the northeast and the south of Thailand. Light isotopes including 13C, 15N and 18O of Thai jasmine rice and Sungyod rice samples were carried out using isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS). Thai jasmine rice (Khao Dawk Mali 105) was cultivated from Thung Kula Rong Hai area, whereas Sungyod rice was cultivated from Phathalung province. Hypothesis testing of difference of each isotope between Thai jasmine rice and Sungyod rice was also studied. The study was the feasibility test whether the light stable isotopes can be the variables to identify Thai jasmine rice and Sungyod rice. The result shows that there was difference in the isotope patterns of Thai jasmine rice and Sungyod rice. Our results may provide the useful information in term of stable isotope profiles of Thai rice.

  2. Receptor chirality and behavioral specificity of the boll weevil,Anthonomus grandis Boh. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), for its pheromone, (+)-grandisol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickens, J C; Mori, K

    1989-02-01

    Electrophysiological recordings from antennal olfactory receptors and field behavioral experiments showed both male and female boll weevils,Anthonomus grandis Boh. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), to respond specifically to (+)-grandisol, an enantiomer of compound I of the boll weevil aggregation pheromone. Single-cell recordings revealed antennal olfactory neurons in both male and female weevils keyed to (+)-grandisol. Electroantennograms in response to serial dilutions of the grandisol enaniiomers showed a threshold 100 to 1000 times lower for (+)-grandisol relative to its antipode. In field behavioral experiments, both sexes were significantly more attracted to (+)-grandisol in combination with the three other pheromone components than the combination with (-)-grandisol. When (-)-grandisol was placed with the (+)-enantiomer at equal dosages, a slight although statistically insignificant inhibition occurred. Subsequent field tests showed that the low level of attraction exhibited by (-)-grandisol in combination with the other three pheromone components could be attributed to the other three components alone. These results are in contrast with an earlier study, which found (-)-grandisol to be as attractive as the (+)-enantiomer.

  3. Between-season attraction of cotton boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis Boh. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae adults by its aggregation pheromone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernandes Wedson Desidério

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to investigate the attractiveness of boll weevil adults by its aggregation pheromone under winter field conditions. Two experimental fields were utilized at "Casa Branca", SP, Brazil. For each one, three areas were established near the refuge vegetation, sparated 500 m from each other. Each area was divided in three sub-areas or blocks of 100 m² to receive pheromone applications (2.5 g per block. In addition to the pre-application counting, five additional evaluations were carried out after the pheromone applicaton. Ten randomized sampling points per block were considered in each evaluation process. A. grandis adults responded immediately to the pheromone applications, and were captured for 14 days . The highest level of attractiveness was observed 24 hours after application. The application of the boll weevil aggregation pheromone during winter could increase the predation by natural enemies, due to the increase of prey availability. Chemical control can be recommended 24 hours after pheromone applications in small plots as a between-season strategy for the suppression of boll weevil adults.

  4. Genetic variability and resistance of cultivars of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp] to cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus Fabr.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila Nova, M X; Leite, N G A; Houllou, L M; Medeiros, L V; Lira Neto, A C; Hsie, B S; Borges-Paluch, L R; Santos, B S; Araujo, C S F; Rocha, A A; Costa, A F

    2014-03-31

    The cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus Fabr.) is the most destructive pest of the cowpea bean; it reduces seed quality. To control this pest, resistance testing combined with genetic analysis using molecular markers has been widely applied in research. Among the markers that show reliable results, the inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSRs) (microsatellites) are noteworthy. This study was performed to evaluate the resistance of 27 cultivars of cowpea bean to cowpea weevil. We tested the resistance related to the genetic variability of these cultivars using ISSR markers. To analyze the resistance of cultivars to weevil, a completely randomized test design with 4 replicates and 27 treatments was adopted. Five pairs of the insect were placed in 30 grains per replicate. Analysis of variance showed that the number of eggs and emerged insects were significantly different in the treatments, and the means were compared by statistical tests. The analysis of the large genetic variability in all cultivars resulted in the formation of different groups. The test of resistance showed that the cultivar Inhuma was the most sensitive to both number of eggs and number of emerged adults, while the TE96-290-12-G and MNC99-537-F4 (BRS Tumucumaque) cultivars were the least sensitive to the number of eggs and the number of emerged insects, respectively.

  5. Use of the entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis atacamensis CIA- NE07 in the control of banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianela Amador

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Among the species of banana borers, black weevil (Cosmopolites sordidus is the most economically important pest in Costa Rica and worldwide. The control of C. sordidus in intensive production systems is mainly based on application of insecticides; therefore the search for biological alternatives, such as the use of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN, is needed. The susceptibility of Cosmopolites sordidus to Heterorhabditis atacamensis CIANE07 was evaluated. The effect of inoculating H. atacamensis on larvae and adults of C. sordidus, in vitro and in artificially infected corms, was evaluated. Larvae inoculated with EPN had a mortality of 88% on the second day and 100% on the third day; no mortality was observed in adults. The treatments of 100, 500 and 1000 IJ.larvae-1 showed statistically significant differences from the control and theLD50 was 52 IJ.larvae-1. When the larvae were placed within the corms the LD50 increased to 375 IJ.larvae-1. The results indicate that the strain H. atacamensis CIA-NE07 is capable of locating and infecting weevil larvae within the banana corm and reach infection levels over 80%, 10 days after inoculation at doses of 1000 and 2000 IJ.larvae-1. The entomopathogenic nematodes are a viable alternative to be considered in the Integrated Pest Management programs of black weevil, in crops such us banana and plantain.

  6. Irradiation as a potential phytosanitary treatment for the mango pulp weevil sternochetus frigidus (Fabr.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Philippine sugar mango

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obra, Glenda B.; Resilva, Sotero S.; Lorenzana, Louella Rowena J.

    2013-01-01

    Irradiation was explored as a method of quarantine disinfestation treatment for the mango pulp weevil Sternochetus frigidus (Fabr.) S. frigidus is an important quarantine pest preventing the export of mangoes from the Philippines to countries with strict quarantine regulations. Mangoes obtained from Guimaras Island are exempt from this ban as they are certified to be free from seed weevil and pulp weevil infestation. In the dose-response tests, S. frigidus larvae, pupae and adults in mangoes were irradiated at target doses of 25, 50, 75, 100, 150, 300 and 400 Gy. The number of eggs laid by adult females decreased with increasing dose. Treatment with irradiation doses ≥75 Gy resulted in sterility in adults developing from larvae and pupae while doses of ≥100 Gy resulted in sterility in irradiated adults. The adult was the most tolerant stage based on sterility or prevention of adult reproduction. Significant differences were observed in adult longevity among treatment doses in S. frigidus, but none between sexes and in the interaction between dose and sex. (author)

  7. Radiation disinfestation of Basmati rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, V.S.; Gholap, A.S.; Adhikari, H.R.; Nair, P.M.

    1994-01-01

    Effect of low dose γ-radiation on prepackaged Basmati rice was studied in order to achieve disinfestation of rice. Basmati rice procured from local market was repacked in 1 kg pouches made from high density polyethylene (HDP) and biaxially oriented polypropylene: low density polyethylene (BOPP/LDP) laminate and irradiated at doses from 0.25-1.0 kGy. Within one month of storage at room temperature, unirradiated (control) Basmati rice developed heavy infestation. No infestation was observed in any of the irradiated samples even at 0.25 kGy and the rice could be stored for 6 months in a clean state. Irradiation (at 0.25 kGy) did not alter the moisture content of the rice. Likewise, no significant change was noted due to irradiation in the functional properties of rice such as swelling index and water absorption and in total volatile components responsible for flavour of Basmati rice. In organoleptic evaluation, no significant difference was found between the acceptability of irradiated (0.25 kGy) and control rice. These results are significant in view of the high export potential of Basmati rice and the transit losses at present due to infestation. (author). 24 refs., 5 tabs., 1 fig

  8. Avaliação de inseticidas no controle de Sitophilus oryzae (Linnaeus (Coleoptera, Curculionidae e Rhyzopertha dominica (Fabricius (Coleoptera, Bostrichidae em trigo armazenado Efficacy of insecticides to control Sitophilus oryzae (Linnaeus (Coleoptera, Curculionidae and Rhyzopertha dominica (Fabricius (Coleoptera, Bostrichidae in stored wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui S. Furiatti

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of insecticides against Sitophilus oryzae (Linnaeus, 1763 (Coleoptera, Curculionidae and Rhyzopertha dominica (Fabricius, 1792 (Coleoptera, Bostrichidae was determined exposing them to treated wheat in laboratory. Each plot, which was composed by 1.2 kg of wheat grain, was treated with 5 ml of the concentration/kg of wheat using a propelling air atomizer. Fifteen days after treatment 50 g samples of the grain were taken, from each plot, placed in plastic jars into which 10 adult insects of each species were released. This was repeated every 30 days until 165 days after treatment. The number of dead insects was counted 15 days after each infestation thus the evaluations were made at 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 days after the insecticide application. Esfenvalerate+fenitrothion+pyperonil butoxide (0,375+7,5+3,0 and 0,5+10,0+4,0 g a.i./t, fenitrothion+esfen-valerate (7,5+0,375 and 10,0+0,375 g a.i./t, fenitrothion+synergised deltamethrin (7,5+0,375 g a.i./t and fenitrothion (7,5 g a.i./t were effective against Sitophilus oryzae until 180 days after treatment. Esfenvalerate+fenitrothion+pyperonil butoxide (0,5+10,0+4,0 g a.i./t, fenitrothion+esfenvalerate (7,5+0,375 and 10,0+0,375 g a.i./t, fenitrothion+synergised deltamethrin (7,5+0,375 g a.i./t were effective against R. dominica until 180 days after treatment. Synergised deltamethrin (0,375 g a.i./t was effective against S. oryzae until 150 days and against R. dominica until 120 days after treatment. Esfenvalerate (0,5 g a.i./t was ineffective against S. oryzae and effective until 60 days after treatment against R. dominica. Fenitrothion (7,5 g a.i./t was ineffective against R. dominica. The use of mixtures of organophosphorus plus pyrethroids were more effective against S. oryzae and R. dominica when compared with these insecticides used alone.

  9. Study of Rice Marketing System in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Feizabadi, Yaser

    2011-01-01

    Rice comes second after wheat in Iran`s food consumption economy. Rising population and recent growth in GDP has made Iran one of the greatest rice importer countries all over the world. That is why rice marketing has always been a controversial issue in Iran`s agricultural economics. To study rice marketing system in Iran, this paper aims to calculate rice marketing margin, market efficiency and marketing cost coefficient in seaside Mazandaran province( where 70 percent of domestic rice prod...

  10. Alternative food sources and over wintering feeding behavior of the boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis boheman (coleoptera: curculionidae) under the tropical conditions of central Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, Paulina de A.; Sujii, Edison R.; Pires, Carmen S.S.; Fontes, Eliana M.G.; Diniz, Ivone R.; Salgado-Labouriau, Maria L.

    2010-01-01

    The boll weevil causes serious damage to the cotton crop in South America. Several studies have been published on this pest, but its phenology and behavior under the tropical conditions prevailing in Brazil are not well-known. In this study the feeding behavior and main food sources of adult boll weevils throughout the year in Central Brazil was investigated. The digestive tract contents of insects captured in pheromone traps in two cotton fields and two areas of native vegetation (gallery forest and cerrado sensu stricto) were analyzed. The insect was captured all through the year only in the cerrado. It fed on pollen of 19 different plant families, on Pteridophyta and fungi spores and algae cysts. Simpson Index test showed that the cerrado provided greater diversity of pollen sources. In the beginning of the cotton cycle, the plant families used for pollen feeding were varied: in cotton area 1, the weevil fed on Poaceae (50%), Malvaceae and Smilacaceae (25% each); in cotton area 2 the pollen sources were Malvaceae (50%), Asteraceae (25%) and Fabaceae and Clusiaceae (25% each); in the cerrado they were Chenopodiaceae (67%) and Scheuchzeriaceae (33%). No weevils were collected in the gallery forest in this period. After cotton was harvested, the family Smilacaceae was predominant among the food plants exploited in all the study areas. These results help to explain the survivorship of adult boll weevil during cotton fallow season in Central Brazil and they are discussed in the context of behavioral adaptations to the prevailing tropical environmental conditions. (author)

  11. Alternative food sources and over wintering feeding behavior of the boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis boheman (coleoptera: curculionidae) under the tropical conditions of central Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Paulina de A.; Sujii, Edison R.; Pires, Carmen S.S.; Fontes, Eliana M.G. [EMBRAPA Recursos Geneticos e Biotecnologia (CENARGEN), Brasilia, DF (Brazil)], e-mail: paulina723@hotmail.com, e-mail: sujii@cenargen.embrapa.br, e-mail: cpires@cenargen.embrapa.br, e-mail: eliana@cenargen.embrapa.br; Diniz, Ivone R. [Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), DF (Brazil). Dept. de Zoologia], e-mail: irdiniz@unb.br; Medeiros, Maria A. de; Branco, Marina C. [EMBRAPA Hortalicas, Brasilia, DF (Brazil)], e-mail: medeiros@cnph.embrapa.br, e-mail: marina@cnph.embrapa.br; Salgado-Labouriau, Maria L. [Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), DF (Brazil). Dept. de Geologia], e-mail: mlea@unb.br

    2010-01-15

    The boll weevil causes serious damage to the cotton crop in South America. Several studies have been published on this pest, but its phenology and behavior under the tropical conditions prevailing in Brazil are not well-known. In this study the feeding behavior and main food sources of adult boll weevils throughout the year in Central Brazil was investigated. The digestive tract contents of insects captured in pheromone traps in two cotton fields and two areas of native vegetation (gallery forest and cerrado sensu stricto) were analyzed. The insect was captured all through the year only in the cerrado. It fed on pollen of 19 different plant families, on Pteridophyta and fungi spores and algae cysts. Simpson Index test showed that the cerrado provided greater diversity of pollen sources. In the beginning of the cotton cycle, the plant families used for pollen feeding were varied: in cotton area 1, the weevil fed on Poaceae (50%), Malvaceae and Smilacaceae (25% each); in cotton area 2 the pollen sources were Malvaceae (50%), Asteraceae (25%) and Fabaceae and Clusiaceae (25% each); in the cerrado they were Chenopodiaceae (67%) and Scheuchzeriaceae (33%). No weevils were collected in the gallery forest in this period. After cotton was harvested, the family Smilacaceae was predominant among the food plants exploited in all the study areas. These results help to explain the survivorship of adult boll weevil during cotton fallow season in Central Brazil and they are discussed in the context of behavioral adaptations to the prevailing tropical environmental conditions. (author)

  12. Stable integration and expression of a cry1Ia gene conferring resistance to fall armyworm and boll weevil in cotton plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Carliane Rc; Monnerat, Rose; Lima, Liziane M; Martins, Érica S; Melo Filho, Péricles A; Pinheiro, Morganna Pn; Santos, Roseane C

    2016-08-01

    Boll weevil is a serious pest of cotton crop. Effective control involves applications of chemical insecticides, increasing the cost of production and environmental pollution. The current genetically modified Bt crops have allowed great benefits to farmers but show activity limited to lepidopteran pests. This work reports on procedures adopted for integration and expression of a cry transgene conferring resistance to boll weevil and fall armyworm by using molecular tools. Four Brazilian cotton cultivars were microinjected with a minimal linear cassette generating 1248 putative lines. Complete gene integration was found in only one line (T0-34) containing one copy of cry1Ia detected by Southern blot. Protein was expressed in high concentration at 45 days after emergence (dae), decreasing by approximately 50% at 90 dae. Toxicity of the cry protein was demonstrated in feeding bioassays revealing 56.7% mortality to boll weevil fed buds and 88.1% mortality to fall armyworm fed leaves. A binding of cry1Ia antibody was found in the midgut of boll weevils fed on T0-34 buds in an immunodetection assay. The gene introduced into plants confers resistance to boll weevil and fall armyworm. Transmission of the transgene occurred normally to T1 progeny. All plants showed phenotypically normal growth, with fertile flowers and abundant seeds. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Alternative food sources and overwintering feeding behavior of the boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) under the tropical conditions of Central Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Paulina de A; Sujii, Edison R; Diniz, Ivone R; Medeiros, Maria A de; Salgado-Labouriau, Maria L; Branco, Marina C; Pires, Carmen S S; Fontes, Eliana M G

    2010-01-01

    The boll weevil causes serious damage to the cotton crop in South America. Several studies have been published on this pest, but its phenology and behavior under the tropical conditions prevailing in Brazil are not well-known. In this study the feeding behavior and main food sources of adult boll weevils throughout the year in Central Brazil was investigated. The digestive tract contents of insects captured in pheromone traps in two cotton fields and two areas of native vegetation (gallery forest and cerrado sensu stricto) were analyzed. The insect was captured all through the year only in the cerrado. It fed on pollen of 19 different plant families, on Pteridophyta and fungi spores and algae cysts. Simpson Index test showed that the cerrado provided greater diversity of pollen sources. In the beginning of the cotton cycle, the plant families used for pollen feeding were varied: in cotton area 1, the weevil fed on Poaceae(50%), Malvaceae and Smilacaceae (25% each); in cotton area 2 the pollen sources were Malvaceae (50%), Asteraceae (25%) and Fabaceae and Clusiaceae (25% each); in the cerrado they were Chenopodiaceae (67%) and Scheuchzeriaceae (33%). No weevils were collected in the gallery forest in this period. After cotton was harvested, the family Smilacaceae was predominant among the food plants exploited in all the study areas. These results help to explain the survivorship of adult boll weevil during cotton fallow season in Central Brazil and they are discussed in the context of behavioral adaptations to the prevailing tropical environmental conditions.

  14. Nicaragua - Rice and Banana Farmers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — This report is an impact evaluation of two components of the Rural Business Development Program (RBD) in Nicaragua, specifically the components benefitting rice and...

  15. Sorghum and rice: Mali

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Agriculture is the mainstay of the Malian economy and yet cereal imports absorb 6.5% of GDP. Food self-sufficiency is therefore a national priority. The Joint FAO/IAEA Division is supporting a programme to improve local varieties of sorghum and rice by using nuclear techniques to develop new cultivars that will produce higher yields under Mali's semi-arid climatic conditions. (IAEA)

  16. Diversity of some endophytic fungi associated with rice black bug Paraeucosmetus pallicornis on rice plant

    OpenAIRE

    Nur, Amin; La Daha; Nurariaty, Agus; Ade, Rosmana; Muh., Fadlan

    2015-01-01

    A new rice insect pest was sighted in some rice producing areas of South Sulawesi Province, Indonesia. This pest is rice black bugs Paraeucosmetus pallicornis. The research aimed to isolation of fungi associated with rice black bugs Paraeucosmetus pallicornis, so as to know the cause of a bitter taste to the rice. The isolation of the fungi consist of three kinds of treatment, namely rice black bugs without sterilization, with sterilization and rice black bugs cut and sterilized. The resul...

  17. Insecticidal activity of 2-tridecanone against the cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yussef F.B. Braga

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of 2-tridecanone vapor on the cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus development was determined. Seeds of cowpea were infested with adults and exposed to different doses of 2-tridecanone isolated from Pilocarpus microphyllus Stapf ex Holm, a plant species native from northeastern Brazil. The pure monoterpene was evaluated both undiluted as well as in the dilutions 1:10, 1:100 and 1:1,000 (v/v. The following parameters of the cowpea weevil life cycle were analyzed in response to decreasing doses of 2-tridecanone: number of eggs laid, percentage of egg hatching on seeds, percentage of adult emergence, adult weight at emergence, mean developmental time and number of adults emerged. Vapor of 2-tridecanone caused a significant (P O efeito dos vapores da 2-tridecanona sobre o caruncho do feijão-de-corda (Callosobruchus maculatus foi avaliado. Sementes de feijão-de-corda infestados com insetos adultos foram expostas a diferentes doses de 2-tridecanona isolada de Pilocarpus microphyllus, uma espécie nativa do Nordeste do Brasil. O monoterpeno puro foi utilizado nas diluições 1:10, 1:100 e 1:1000 (v/v. Os parâmetros da biologia do inseto foram analisados em função da resposta a doses decrescentes de 2-tridecanona: número de ovos postos por fêmea, percentagem de eclosão de ovos, percentagem de emergência de adultos, peso dos adultos recém-emergidos, tempo médio de desenvolvimento e número total de ovos emergidos. Diferenças significativas (P < 0.05 entre as doses de 2-tridecanona testadas foram observadas, para quatro dos seis parâmetros biológicos analisados. Os resultados obtidos indicaram que a 2-tridecanona é tóxica para C. maculatus, reduzindo significativamente (P < 0.05 o número de insetos emergidos após a infestação. Esse efeito foi causado principalmente pela significativa redução observada na eclosão dos ovos expostos ao vapor da substância.

  18. Identification and field evaluation of attractants for the cranberry weevil, Anthonomus musculus Say.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szendrei, Zsofia; Averill, Anne; Alborn, Hans; Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar

    2011-04-01

    Studies were conducted to develop an attractant for the cranberry weevil, Anthonomus musculus, a pest of blueberry and cranberry flower buds and flowers in the northeastern United States. In previous studies, we showed that cinnamyl alcohol, the most abundant blueberry floral volatile, and the green leaf volatiles (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate and hexyl acetate, emitted from both flowers and flower buds, elicit strong antennal responses from A. musculus. Here, we found that cinnamyl alcohol did not increase capture of A. musculus adults on yellow sticky traps compared with unbaited controls; however, weevils were highly attracted to traps baited with the Anthonomus eugenii Cano aggregation pheromone, indicating that these congeners share common pheromone components. To identify the A. musculus aggregation pheromone, headspace volatiles were collected from adults feeding on blueberry or cranberry flower buds and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Three male-specific compounds were identified: (Z)-2-(3,3-dimethyl-cyclohexylidene) ethanol (Z grandlure II); (Z)-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexylidene) acetaldehyde (grandlure III); and (E)-(3,3- dimethylcyclohexylidene) acetaldehyde (grandlure IV). A fourth component, (E)-3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadien-1-ol (geraniol), was emitted in similar quantities by males and females. The emission rates of these volatiles were about 2.8, 1.8, 1.3, and 0.9 ng/adult/d, respectively. Field experiments in highbush blueberry (New Jersey) and cranberry (Massachusetts) examined the attraction of A. musculus to traps baited with the male-produced compounds and geraniol presented alone and combined with (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate and hexyl acetate, and to traps baited with the pheromones of A. eugenii and A. grandis. In both states and crops, traps baited with the A. musculus male-produced compounds attracted the highest number of adults. Addition of the green leaf volatiles did not affect A. musculus attraction to its pheromone but skewed the sex ratio

  19. Broken rice kernels and the kinetics of rice hydration and texture during cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Mohammed; Meullenet, Jean-Francois

    2013-05-01

    During rice milling and processing, broken kernels are inevitably present, although to date it has been unclear as to how the presence of broken kernels affects rice hydration and cooked rice texture. Therefore, this work intended to study the effect of broken kernels in a rice sample on rice hydration and texture during cooking. Two medium-grain and two long-grain rice cultivars were harvested, dried and milled, and the broken kernels were separated from unbroken kernels. Broken rice kernels were subsequently combined with unbroken rice kernels forming treatments of 0, 40, 150, 350 or 1000 g kg(-1) broken kernels ratio. Rice samples were then cooked and the moisture content of the cooked rice, the moisture uptake rate, and rice hardness and stickiness were measured. As the amount of broken rice kernels increased, rice sample texture became increasingly softer (P hardness was negatively correlated to the percentage of broken kernels in rice samples. Differences in the proportions of broken rice in a milled rice sample play a major role in determining the texture properties of cooked rice. Variations in the moisture migration kinetics between broken and unbroken kernels caused faster hydration of the cores of broken rice kernels, with greater starch leach-out during cooking affecting the texture of the cooked rice. The texture of cooked rice can be controlled, to some extent, by varying the proportion of broken kernels in milled rice. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. The Haitian Rice Tariff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mats Lundahl

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Se ha argumentado que los problemas agríco-las de Haití derivan de la tarifa del arroz de a mediados de los años noventa. Antes, supues-tamente, Haití fue autosuficiente, abastecida por su producción doméstica. Después de la reducción, el mercado haitiano se inundó en importaciones de arroz barato de los EEUU, lo cual despojó a los campesinos de sus fincas, convirtiendolos en migrantes internos, hacia los empleos de bajo pago de las ciudades. El artículo rechaza ese argumento y demuestra que es falso. La malnutrición fue un fenómeno extendido en Haití mucho antes de la reducción de la tarifa del arroz, la cual tampoco tuvo un gran impacto en la importación y la producción doméstica del arroz. Lo que sí impulsó el aumento de las importaciones fue el crecimiento de la población. También el artículo argumenta que un aumento de la tarifa del arroz no solucionará el problema de la alimentación que sufre Haití. English: It has been argued that Haiti’s agricultural problems derive from the reduction of the rice tariff in the mid-1990s. Before that Haiti was allegedly able to meet its food needs by domestic production. After the reduction the Haitian market was swamped by imports of cheap American rice which drove the farmers off their lands and forced them to migrate to low-wage industrial jobs in the cities. The article demonstrates that the argument is false. Malnutrition was widespread in Haiti long before the rice tariff reduction, and the latter did not have much of an impact on rice imports and domestic production. Instead, the main driving force behind imports appears to be population growth. It is also shown that an increase of the rice tariff will not solve Haiti’s food problem.

  1. Nutritional test of rice in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horii, Masaji; Yoshikawa, Seiji

    1980-01-01

    Behaviors on N derived from rice were followed up by means of 15 N-labeled rice. In the first test, the single unpolished rice diet and the diet of rice and bean lecithin (4.5%) produced urinary excretion of 10 - 12% of 15 N, and that of rice and mannan from devil's tongue (3%), 16 - 20%. The single unpolished rice diet showed slightly more urinary excretion of 15 N, and the other 2 diets showed a similar proportion of 15 N in 3 days. The results indicated that the diet containing mannan from devil's tongue resulted in a poor N absorption by rice, a large quantity of N being excreted over a long period of time. This suggested differences and time lags in the excretion of rice N into the stool and urine depending on the diet constitution. With the unpolished rice diet, a small quantity of rice protein was not absorbed, but was excreted. In the 2nd test with 15 N-polished rice, the urinary excretion rate was 11.44% for a single rice diet, 11.16% for a mixed diet of rice and bean (1:1 in protein), 10.99% for rice and egg yolk, 9.66% for rice, bean and egg yolk and 8.10% for rice and bean lecithin. This decrease in urinary excretion indicated a corresponding increase in absorption of rice protein. (Chiba, N.)

  2. The effects of island forest restoration on open habitat specialists: the endangered weevil Hadramphus spinipennis Broun and its host-plant Aciphylla dieffenbachii Kirk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily D. Fountain

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Human alteration of islands has made restoration a key part of conservation management. As islands are restored to their original state, species interactions change and some populations may be impacted. In this study we examine the coxella weevil, (Hadramphus spinipennis Broun and its host-plant Dieffenbach’s speargrass (Aciphylla dieffenbachii Kirk, which are both open habitat specialists with populations on Mangere and Rangatira Islands, Chathams, New Zealand. Both of these islands were heavily impacted by the introduction of livestock; the majority of the forest was removed and the weevil populations declined due to the palatability of their host-plant to livestock. An intensive reforestation program was established on both islands over 50 years ago but the potential impacts of this restoration project on the already endangered H. spinipennis are poorly understood. We combined genetic and population data from 1995 and 2010–2011 to determine the health and status of these species on both islands. There was some genetic variation between the weevil populations on each island but little variation within the species as a whole. The interactions between the weevil and its host-plant populations appear to remain intact on Mangere, despite forest regeneration. A decline in weevils and host-plant on Rangatira does not appear to be caused by canopy regrowth. We recommend that (1 these populations be monitored for ongoing effects of long-term reforestation, (2 the cause of the decline on Rangatira be investigated, and (3 the two populations of weevils be conserved as separate evolutionarily significant units.

  3. Morphometric assessment of the red stripe weevils, Rhynchophorus vulneratus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) from several localities in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sazali, Siti Nurlydia; Hazmi, Izfa Riza; Rahim, Faszly; Abang, Fatimah; Jemain, Abdul Aziz

    2018-04-01

    The recognition of intraspecific variation could enhance knowledge and understanding on the population divergence that might be resulted from different geographical areas. To study the possible effect derived from different locations, a morphometric study of the red stripe weevils, Rhynchophorus vulneratus from different localities in Malaysia was conducted using field and voucher specimens. A total of twenty-three morphological characters were examined from 108 individuals of R. vulneratus representing population of Kota Samarahan, Mukah and central of Peninsular Malaysia. The data were subjected to univariate one-way single factor analysis of variance (ANOVA) and analysed in factor analysis using SPSS version 22.0 software. Univariate ANOVA showed that all tested variables were significantly different (panalysis, the first three factors with eigenvalues greater than 1.0 were successfully extracted, resulting in a high variation of 82.687%. For factor 1, 39.213% of total variation was recorded, factor 2 accounted for 34.096% and factor 3 contributing to 9.377%, respectively. The mixed plotting among the twenty-three morphological characters suggests a strong correlation among the parameters examined and further statistical analysis should be conducted to include environmental factors such as habitat types, food availability and predation effect.

  4. Isolation and characterization of farnesyl diphosphate synthase from the cotton boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taban, A Huma; Tittiger, Claus; Blomquist, Gary J; Welch, William H

    2009-06-01

    Farnesyl diphosphate synthase (FPPS) catalyzes the consecutive condensation of two molecules of isopentenyl diphosphate with dimethylallyl diphosphate to form farnesyl diphosphate (FPP). In insects, FPP is used for the synthesis of ubiquinones, dolicols, protein prenyl groups, and juvenile hormone. A full-length cDNA of FPPS was cloned from the cotton boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis (AgFPPS). AgFPPS cDNA consists of 1,835 nucleotides and encodes a protein of 438 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence has high similarity to previously isolated insect FPPSs and other known FPPSs. Recombinant AgFPPS expressed in E. coli converted labeled isopentenyl diphosphate in the presence of dimethylallyl diphosphate to FPP. Southern blot analysis indicated the presence of a single copy gene. Using molecular modeling, the three-dimensional structure of coleopteran FPPS was determined and compared to the X-ray crystal structure of avian FPPS. The alpha-helical fold is conserved in AgFPPS and the size of the active site cavity is consistent with the enzyme being a FPPS. (c) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Effects of gamma radiation on the kola nut weevil, Balanogastris kolae (Desbr. ) (Coleopera: Curculionidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivbijaro, M F [Ibadan Univ. (Nigeria)

    1977-09-01

    Studies on the kola nut weevil, Balanogastris kolae (Desbr.) with gamma radiation showed that 20 krad effectively caused high larval mortality and prevented pupation. Dead larvae became soft and bluishblack and, occasionally, dry and brown. Percentage adult emergence from irradiated pupae, longevity and fecundity of emerging adults provided the basis for evaluating the effectiveness of the ionizing radiation. Mean survival and adult emergence from young pupae irradiated with 20 krad was 6 and 2 percent, respectively, in contrast to 86 and 8 percent, respectively, in old pupae given the same dosage. Old pupae (3-5 days old) showed some tolerance to gamma radiation and over 20 krad was required to prevent adult emergence. Gamma radiation seriously reduced longevity to an average of 6 and 15 days, respectively, in pre- and post-emergence irradiated adults in contrast to 44 days in the control. Distortion of the membranous hind wings were some of the adverse effects observed in adults that emerged from irradiated pupae. Reproduction and oviposition was seriously impaired by irradiation before or immediately after emergence. The opinion of a panel of experienced kola nut testers was that gamma irradiation did not alter the taste or flavour of the kola nuts and no change was observed in the colour or texture of the irradiated nuts.

  6. Blueberry Cultivars Differ in Susceptibility to the Elephant Weevil, Orthorhinus cylindrirostris (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdoch, Gregory; Clift, Alan D; Mansfield, Sarah

    2017-10-01

    The accumulated damage from elephant weevil larvae, Orthorhinus cylindrirostris (F.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), reduces blueberry yield and shortens the productive lifespan of blueberry plants by several years. Selective breeding to develop pest-resistant blueberry cultivars is a possible control option, but the relationship between O. cylindrirostris populations, plant damage, and blueberry yield has not been described. A field survey of 17 blueberry cultivars was conducted on a commercial farm to measure O. cylindrirostris populations (emergence holes and adult numbers) and yield from plants of different ages (2-12 yr). Blueberry plants accumulated damage over time, that is, older plants tended to have more O. cylindrirostris emergence holes than younger plants. All cultivars received some level of O. cylindrirostris attack but this did not always lead to yield losses. Newer cultivars that have been in production since 2000 were less susceptible to O. cylindrirostris than older cultivars. Removal of highly susceptible cultivars from commercial blueberry farms may reduce O. cylindrirostris populations. There is potential for selective breeding to increase plant resistance to O. cylindrirostris if the specific resistance mechanisms can be identified in blueberry. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Cryptic iridescence in a fossil weevil generated by single diamond photonic crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Maria E; Saranathan, Vinod; Locatelli, Emma R; Noh, Heeso; Briggs, Derek E G; Orr, Patrick J; Cao, Hui

    2014-11-06

    Nature's most spectacular colours originate in integumentary tissue architectures that scatter light via nanoscale modulations of the refractive index. The most intricate biophotonic nanostructures are three-dimensional crystals with opal, single diamond or single gyroid lattices. Despite intense interest in their optical and structural properties, the evolution of such nanostructures is poorly understood, due in part to a lack of data from the fossil record. Here, we report preservation of single diamond (Fd-3m) three-dimensional photonic crystals in scales of a 735,000 year old specimen of the brown Nearctic weevil Hypera diversipunctata from Gold Run, Canada, and in extant conspecifics. The preserved red to green structural colours exhibit near-field brilliancy yet are inconspicuous from afar; they most likely had cryptic functions in substrate matching. The discovery of pristine fossil examples indicates that the fossil record is likely to yield further data on the evolution of three-dimensional photonic nanostructures and their biological functions. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  8. Wood digestion in Pselactus spadix Herbst--a weevil attacking marine timber structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oevering, Pascal; Pitman, Andrew J; Pandey, Krishna K

    2003-04-01

    Pselactus spadix tunnels timber structures in the marine environment. Recent studies reported a cosmopolitan distribution for this weevil, which is frequently found in harbour and port areas. P. spadix feeds on timber (hardwood and softwood) in immature and adult life stages, but its digestion of wood components had not been investigated. Using dry weight analyses of tunnel walls and frass produced, P. spadix adults consumed Scots pine with soft rot decay at a rate of 1.59 +/- 0.37 mg d-1 and the digestibility of this substrate was 57.96 +/- 5.89 (i.e. for 100 mg consumed SR-pine, 58 mg was digested). Using gravimetric analysis to quantify structural wood components in tunnel walls and frass, P. spadix adults were found to digest cellulose, lignin and hemicellulose with digestibility coefficients of 82.2, 41.2 and 14.5 respectively. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy analyses of tunnel walls and frass of adults and larvae from soft rotted pine also indicated digestion of all structural components, with larvae digesting cellulose and lignin more efficiently than adults. When FTIR was employed to analyse adult tunnel walls and frass from undecayed pine, cellulose and hemicellulose were digested, but no evidence of lignin digestion was found. This study shows that adults digest lignin when soft rot is present and suggests a symbiotic function of wood degrading microorganisms.

  9. New Initiatives for Management of Red Palm Weevil Threats to Historical Arabian Date Palms *

    KAUST Repository

    Mukhtar, Muhammad

    2011-12-01

    The date palm is an important part of the religious, cultural, and economic heritage of the Arabian Peninsula. This heritage is threatened by the recent invasion of the red palm weevil (RPW) from Southeast Asia. In Saudi Arabia, a national campaign for control of RPW by containment/destruction of infested plants, injection and spraying of biochemical and chemical pesticide treatments in heavily infested and newly infested areas, and the use of pheromone/ kairomone traps for monitoring and reduction of RPW populations has been only partially successful in controlling its spread. New methods are needed to help manage the RPW populations. At a workshop in Riyadh in March 2010, plans were recommended to 1) devise and test new biological, chemical, and biotechnological methods to manage RPW in farms and urban palms; 2) compare the economic and logistic feasibility of acoustic and other detection methods against RPW larvae; and 3) develop biosensor indicators of RPW infestation in date palms. If these initiatives are successful, they will be of great assistance to landscape and orchard managers dealing with such a challenging pest of a highly valuable tree.

  10. Data on the abundance of the banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus and of the earwig Euborellia caraibea in bare soil and cover crop plots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Carval

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled “Cover cropping reduces the abundance of the banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus but does not reduce its damage to the banana plants” (Carval et al., in press [1]. This article describes how the abundance of the banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus, and the abundance of the earwig Euborellia caraibea were affected by the addition of a cover crop. The field data set is made publicly available to enable critical or extended analyzes.

  11. 21 CFR 137.350 - Enriched rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Enriched rice. 137.350 Section 137.350 Food and... Related Products § 137.350 Enriched rice. (a) The foods for which definitions and standards of identity are prescribed by this section are forms of milled rice (except rice coated with talc and glucose and...

  12. Semiochemicals from herbivory induced cotton plants enhance the foraging behavior of the cotton boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, D M; Borges, M; Laumann, R A; Sujii, E R; Mayon, P; Caulfield, J C; Midega, C A O; Khan, Z R; Pickett, J A; Birkett, M A; Blassioli-Moraes, M C

    2012-12-01

    The boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis, has been monitored through deployment of traps baited with aggregation pheromone components. However, field studies have shown that the number of insects caught in these traps is significantly reduced during cotton squaring, suggesting that volatiles produced by plants at this phenological stage may be involved in attraction. Here, we evaluated the chemical profile of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by undamaged or damaged cotton plants at different phenological stages, under different infestation conditions, and determined the attractiveness of these VOCs to adults of A. grandis. In addition, we investigated whether or not VOCs released by cotton plants enhanced the attractiveness of the aggregation pheromone emitted by male boll weevils. Behavioral responses of A. grandis to VOCs from conspecific-damaged, heterospecific-damaged (Spodoptera frugiperda and Euschistus heros) and undamaged cotton plants, at different phenological stages, were assessed in Y-tube olfactometers. The results showed that volatiles emitted from reproductive cotton plants damaged by conspecifics were attractive to adults boll weevils, whereas volatiles induced by heterospecific herbivores were not as attractive. Additionally, addition of boll weevil-induced volatiles from reproductive cotton plants to aggregation pheromone gave increased attraction, relative to the pheromone alone. The VOC profiles of undamaged and mechanically damaged cotton plants, in both phenological stages, were not different. Chemical analysis showed that cotton plants produced qualitatively similar volatile profiles regardless of damage type, but the quantities produced differed according to the plant's phenological stage and the herbivore species. Notably, vegetative cotton plants released higher amounts of VOCs compared to reproductive plants. At both stages, the highest rate of VOC release was observed in A. grandis-damaged plants. Results show that A. grandis uses

  13. ECOLOGICAL-FAUNISTIC AND ZOOGEOGRAPHICAL CHARACTERISTIC OF BEETLE-WEEVILS OF ISLAND CHECHEN OF THE CASPIAN SEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. G. Arsanov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Ecological-faunistic investigations of island Chechen are great interest for understanding the law of formation of island biotas and reconstruction of zoogeological history of the Caspian Sea. Faunistic investigations of islands and coastal areas , habitats and others chorologic aspects illuminate the ways of their probable settlement,explains the paradoxes of propagation of some species. Study of relationships with host plants appear the crucial stage of ecological-faunistic investigathions of the weevils.Location. Materials of the work were expeditionary duties of the authors, as well as staff and the students of ecologo-geografical faculty of Dagistan State University and the Institute for Applied Ecology ( Makhachkala from 2009 to 2013 year for the island Chechen.Methods. Charges were made with the help of light traps, soil traps, including trap, enhanced light source .Geografpical coordinates of all locations were recorded using GPS- navigator: T1 - 43°57’58” N 47°38’35” E; T2 - 43°58’17” N 47°42’55”; T3 - 43°59’08” N 47°44’39” E; T4 - 43°57’27” N 47°45’05” E; T5 - 43°58’11” N47°38’46” E.Results. As a result of studies were set the species composition of the faun of the beetle-weevils of the island Chechen, the analyses of the distribution of species by locality; mounted forage plants of the beetles and quantitative distribution of the beetls for families forage plants; conduct the zoogeographical analysis of studied fauna.Main conclusions. The studies on the island of Chechen were collected 187 specimens belonging to 16 species and 14 geniuse; the most common type was Coniatus splendidulus. The food base of the weevil beetles in the island of Chechen are 10 plant families,thelargest number of species focused on Chenopodiаceae, then followed Polygonaceae, Poaceae, Fabaceae. Analysis of fauna habitats of the beetle- weevils of the island Chechen allowed to allocate 7

  14. SPECIES COMPOSITION AND ECOLOGICAL-ZOOGEOGRAPHICAL ANALYSIS OF THE WEEVILS (CURCULIONIDAE IN THE INNER-MOUNTAINOUS DAGESTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gul'nara Magomedovna Mukhtarova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The purpose of this research study is to determine the species composition of the study area, ecological and zoogeographical analysis, identification of trophic specialization, showing the dependence of the weevils to certain life forms of plants. Location. The work is based on observations and contributions received as a result of complex expeditions Ecological-geographical faculty of the Dagestan State University and the Institute of Applied Ecology in the territory of Inner Mountainous Dagestan.Methods. Materials presented of collection: of assistant professor of the Department Biology and Biodiversity Dagestan State University - Gul'nara Mukhtarova (Magomedova 1995 – 2002; of professor of the Department Biology and Biodiversity Dagestan State University - Madina Ismailova 1990, 1992, 1995 – 2002; of professor of the Department Biology and Biodiversity Dagestan State University - Gaiirbeg Abdurakhmanov 1985, 1986, 1987, 1996 – 2002. Analysis ranges of species of the studied fauna carried out using the classical works on zoogeography.Results. As a result of faunal studies for the study area recorded 415 species of the weevils. Conducted research and analysis of published data identified food connections for 94 % species of the fauna of weevils in the study area. Zoogeographical analysis of the faunal showed that the Palaearctic complex are most numerous and presented by 109 species (26%, the Caucasian complex – 83 (20%, the Steppe complex – 47 (11.3%, the European complex – 36 (8,67%, the Euro-Mediterranean complex – 30, the Turan complex – 28, the European-Siberian complex – 28, the Eastern Mediterranean complex 19, the Mediterranean complex – 17 (4.1%, the Persian complex – 10, the Holarctic complex – 5, the Cosmopolitan complex – 2, and the Paleotropics complex – 1. Main conclusions. Analysis of the findings shows a great similarity in the composition of the forage base of weevils for the different areas

  15. Toxicidade por fumigação, contato e ingestão de óleos essenciais para Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky, 1885 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae Toxicity by fumigation, contact and ingestion of essential oils in Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky, 1885 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Leandro Braga de Castro Coitinho

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A espécie Sitophilus zeamais é uma das principais pragas do milho armazenado no Brasil. O controle é feito, comumente, utilizando-se medidas de higienização e limpeza, bem como inseticidas sintéticos fumigantes e protetores. A busca por produtos menos tóxicos, biodegradáveis e seguros do ponto de vista ecológico, é muito bem aceita pela sociedade. Assim, os objetivos do presente trabalho foram testar a toxicidade de contato e ingestão e fumigante de óleos essenciais e do composto orgânico natural eugenol para adultos de S. zeamais. Os valores de CL50 dos óleos essenciais provenientes de folhas de Piper hispidinervum, Eugenia uniflora, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, P. marginatum, Schinus terebinthifolius, Melaleuca leucadendron, dos frutos verdes de S terebinthifolius e do composto eugenol, nos testes de contato e ingestão, foram estimados em 1,0; 11,6; 14,2; 21,1; 57,7; 75,8; 98,8 e 14,8 µL/40 g de milho, respectivamente. As razões de toxicidade (RT variaram entre 1,3 e 98,8. Na fumigação em adultos, as concentrações letais dos óleos variaram de 0,53 a 94,7 µL/L de ar, obedecendo à seguinte ordem decrescente de toxicidade: P. hispidinervum > P. aduncum > S. terebinthifolius > frutos verdes de S. terebinthifolius > P. marginatum > eugenol e as RT variaram entre 2,0 a 178,7.The Sitophilus zeamais species is a major pest of stored maize in Brazil. The control is made, usually, using measures of hygiene and cleanliness, synthetic insecticides and fumigant protectors. The search for less toxic products, biodegradable and safe from an ecological point of view is very well accepted by society. the objective of this study was to test the toxicity by contact and ingestion and fumigant of essential oils and eugenol natural organic compound for adults of S. zeamais. The values of LC50 in oil from leaves of Piper hispidinervum, Eugenia uniflora, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, P. marginatum, Schinus terebinthifolius, Melaleuca leucadendron, green

  16. Asian wild rice is a hybrid swarm with extensive gene flow and feralization from domesticated rice

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Hongru; Garrett Vieira, Filipe Jorge; Crawford, Jacob E.; Chu, Chengcai; Nielsen, Rasmus

    2017-01-01

    The domestication history of rice remains controversial, with multiple studies reaching different conclusions regarding its origin(s). These studies have generally assumed that populations of living wild rice, O. rufipogon, are descendants of the ancestral population that gave rise to domesticated rice, but relatively little attention has been paid to the origins and history of wild rice itself. Here, we investigate the genetic ancestry of wild rice by analyzing a diverse panel of rice genome...

  17. Zinc fertilization of flooded rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-02-01

    Local scientists studied Zn fertilization of flooded rice soils in Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, the Republic of Korea, Egypt, the Philippines, Thailand and Turkey. Diagnosis of Zn deficiency was carried out for submerged rice soils. Soil maps were prepared, designating areas as low, medium and high in Zn, based on Zn extraction with DTPA and HCl solutions and on rice leaf analysis. The effectiveness of various Zn fertilizer sources and methods of application in field and greenhouse experiments was measured, using 65 Zn. The percent Zn derived from fertilizer was shown to be a much more sensitive measure of efficiency than yield or total uptake

  18. Transcriptome analysis in cotton boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis and RNA interference in insect pests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Augusto Pereira Firmino

    Full Text Available Cotton plants are subjected to the attack of several insect pests. In Brazil, the cotton boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis, is the most important cotton pest. The use of insecticidal proteins and gene silencing by interference RNA (RNAi as techniques for insect control are promising strategies, which has been applied in the last few years. For this insect, there are not much available molecular information on databases. Using 454-pyrosequencing methodology, the transcriptome of all developmental stages of the insect pest, A. grandis, was analyzed. The A. grandis transcriptome analysis resulted in more than 500.000 reads and a data set of high quality 20,841 contigs. After sequence assembly and annotation, around 10,600 contigs had at least one BLAST hit against NCBI non-redundant protein database and 65.7% was similar to Tribolium castaneum sequences. A comparison of A. grandis, Drosophila melanogaster and Bombyx mori protein families' data showed higher similarity to dipteran than to lepidopteran sequences. Several contigs of genes encoding proteins involved in RNAi mechanism were found. PAZ Domains sequences extracted from the transcriptome showed high similarity and conservation for the most important functional and structural motifs when compared to PAZ Domains from 5 species. Two SID-like contigs were phylogenetically analyzed and grouped with T. castaneum SID-like proteins. No RdRP gene was found. A contig matching chitin synthase 1 was mined from the transcriptome. dsRNA microinjection of a chitin synthase gene to A. grandis female adults resulted in normal oviposition of unviable eggs and malformed alive larvae that were unable to develop in artificial diet. This is the first study that characterizes the transcriptome of the coleopteran, A. grandis. A new and representative transcriptome database for this insect pest is now available. All data support the state of the art of RNAi mechanism in insects.

  19. Transcriptome analysis in cotton boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis) and RNA interference in insect pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firmino, Alexandre Augusto Pereira; Fonseca, Fernando Campos de Assis; de Macedo, Leonardo Lima Pepino; Coelho, Roberta Ramos; Antonino de Souza, José Dijair; Togawa, Roberto Coiti; Silva-Junior, Orzenil Bonfim; Pappas, Georgios Joannis; da Silva, Maria Cristina Mattar; Engler, Gilbert; Grossi-de-Sa, Maria Fatima

    2013-01-01

    Cotton plants are subjected to the attack of several insect pests. In Brazil, the cotton boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis, is the most important cotton pest. The use of insecticidal proteins and gene silencing by interference RNA (RNAi) as techniques for insect control are promising strategies, which has been applied in the last few years. For this insect, there are not much available molecular information on databases. Using 454-pyrosequencing methodology, the transcriptome of all developmental stages of the insect pest, A. grandis, was analyzed. The A. grandis transcriptome analysis resulted in more than 500.000 reads and a data set of high quality 20,841 contigs. After sequence assembly and annotation, around 10,600 contigs had at least one BLAST hit against NCBI non-redundant protein database and 65.7% was similar to Tribolium castaneum sequences. A comparison of A. grandis, Drosophila melanogaster and Bombyx mori protein families' data showed higher similarity to dipteran than to lepidopteran sequences. Several contigs of genes encoding proteins involved in RNAi mechanism were found. PAZ Domains sequences extracted from the transcriptome showed high similarity and conservation for the most important functional and structural motifs when compared to PAZ Domains from 5 species. Two SID-like contigs were phylogenetically analyzed and grouped with T. castaneum SID-like proteins. No RdRP gene was found. A contig matching chitin synthase 1 was mined from the transcriptome. dsRNA microinjection of a chitin synthase gene to A. grandis female adults resulted in normal oviposition of unviable eggs and malformed alive larvae that were unable to develop in artificial diet. This is the first study that characterizes the transcriptome of the coleopteran, A. grandis. A new and representative transcriptome database for this insect pest is now available. All data support the state of the art of RNAi mechanism in insects.

  20. Transgenic cotton expressing Cry10Aa toxin confers high resistance to the cotton boll weevil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Thuanne Pires; Arraes, Fabricio Barbosa Monteiro; Lourenço-Tessutti, Isabela Tristan; Silva, Marilia Santos; Lisei-de-Sá, Maria Eugênia; Lucena, Wagner Alexandre; Macedo, Leonardo Lima Pepino; Lima, Janaina Nascimento; Santos Amorim, Regina Maria; Artico, Sinara; Alves-Ferreira, Márcio; Mattar Silva, Maria Cristina; Grossi-de-Sa, Maria Fatima

    2017-08-01

    Genetically modified (GM) cotton plants that effectively control cotton boll weevil (CBW), which is the most destructive cotton insect pest in South America, are reported here for the first time. This work presents the successful development of a new GM cotton with high resistance to CBW conferred by Cry10Aa toxin, a protein encoded by entomopathogenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) gene. The plant transformation vector harbouring cry10Aa gene driven by the cotton ubiquitination-related promoter uceA1.7 was introduced into a Brazilian cotton cultivar by biolistic transformation. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays revealed high transcription levels of cry10Aa in both T 0 GM cotton leaf and flower bud tissues. Southern blot and qPCR-based 2 -ΔΔCt analyses revealed that T 0 GM plants had either one or two transgene copies. Quantitative and qualitative analyses of Cry10Aa protein expression showed variable protein expression levels in both flower buds and leaves tissues of T 0 GM cotton plants, ranging from approximately 3.0 to 14.0 μg g -1 fresh tissue. CBW susceptibility bioassays, performed by feeding adults and larvae with T 0 GM cotton leaves and flower buds, respectively, demonstrated a significant entomotoxic effect and a high level of CBW mortality (up to 100%). Molecular analysis revealed that transgene stability and entomotoxic effect to CBW were maintained in T 1 generation as the Cry10Aa toxin expression levels remained high in both tissues, ranging from 4.05 to 19.57 μg g -1 fresh tissue, and the CBW mortality rate remained around 100%. In conclusion, these Cry10Aa GM cotton plants represent a great advance in the control of the devastating CBW insect pest and can substantially impact cotton agribusiness. © 2017 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Evaluation of toxicity of biorational insecticides against larvae of the alfalfa weevil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gadi V.P. Reddy

    Full Text Available The alfalfa weevil, Hypera postica (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, is a major pest of alfalfa Medicago sativa L. (Fabaceae. While H. postica usually causes the most damage before the first cutting, in summer of 2015 damaging levels of the pest persisted in Montana well after the first harvest of alfalfa. Although conventional insecticides can control H. postica, these chemicals have adverse effects on non-target organisms including pollinators and natural enemy insects. In this context, use of biorational insecticides would be the best alternative options, as they are known to pose less risk to non-target organisms. We therefore examined the six commercially available biorational insecticides against H. postica under laboratory condition: Mycotrol® ESO (Beauveria bassiana GHA, Aza-Direct® (Azadirachtin, Met52® EC (Metarhizium brunneum F52, Xpectro OD® (B. bassiana GHA + pyrethrins, Xpulse OD® (B. bassiana GHA + Azadirachtin and Entrust WP® (spinosad 80%. Concentrations of 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 times the lowest labelled rates were tested for all products. However, in the case of Entrust WP, additional concentrations of 0.001 and 0.01 times the lowest label rate were also assessed. Mortality rates were determined at 1–9 days post treatment. Based on lethal concentrations and relative potencies, this study clearly showed that Entrust was the most effective, causing 100% mortality within 3 days after treatment among all the tested materials. With regard to other biorational, Xpectro was the second most effective insecticide followed by Xpulse, Aza-Direct, Met52, and Mycotrol. Our results strongly suggested that these biorational insecticides could potentially be applied for H. postica control. Keywords: Low risk insecticides, Insect pathogenic fungi, Efficacy, Lethal concentration, Mortality rate

  2. Effects of gamma irradiation on some major elements and mating competitiveness of the red Palm Weevil, Rhynchophorus Ferrugineus (OLIVIER), Coleoptera : Curculionidae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, H.F.; EL-Naggar, S.M.; EL-Kkoly, E.M.S.

    2006-01-01

    In the present study, effects of three gamma doses (5, 10 and 15 Gray) applied to adult male and female weevils of the red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier), were investigated. The concentration levels of sodium, potassium, calcium and phosphorous were determined in the haemolymph treated and untreated F1 progeny (males or females) at the 4th instar larvae descendants from irradiated parents male and female weevils. Results indicated that gamma irradiation might have an effect on most investigated elements. No clear relationship could be detected among the applied doses and effect on the level of any of the studied elements. Male mating competitiveness was determined from the egg infertility resulting from F1 males originating from irradiated parental male weevils confined in various ratios with unirradiated adults. Studies comparing mating performance of irradiated males with that of normal males revealed that the mating competitiveness of the irradiated males was increased as the ratio of irradiated to unirradiated males increased from 1 : 1 to 3 : 1 , except at the lesser dose 5 Gy .The results also showed that the infertility was increased as the ratios increased except at the dose rate 10 Gy . The irradiated males were not fully competitive with normal males at the dose 5 Gy among the two ratios 1 : 1 and 3 : 1 and also among the ratio 1:1 at the doses 10 and 15 Gy. The irradiated males were fully competitive with normal males at the doses 10 and 15 Gy among the ratio 3 : 1

  3. Effects of insecticides and defoliants applied alone and in combination for control of overwintering boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis; Coleoptera: Curculionidae)--laboratory and field studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Shoil M; Sappington, Thomas W; Elzen, Gary W; Norman, John W; Sparks, Alton N

    2004-09-01

    In laboratory, greenhouse and field tests, we determined the effects of combining full rates of the defoliants tribufos and thidiazuron and the herbicide thifensulfuron-methyl with half rates of the insecticides lambda-cyhalothrin or azinphos-methyl, and the combination of tribufos and thidiazuron, both in half rates, on mortality of the boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman and on the quality of defoliation. Tribufos, 0.47 kg ha(-1) and tribufos, 0.235 kg ha(-1) + thidiazuron, 0.125 kg ha(-1) exhibited a slightly toxic effect to boll weevil, while tribufos, 0.47 kg ha(-1) + lambda-cyhalothrin, 0.019 kg ha(-1), tribufos, 0.47 kg ha(-1) + azinphos-methyl, 0.14 kg ha(-1), and tribufos, 0.235 kg ha(-1) + thidiazuron, 0.125 kg ha(-1) + azinphos-methyl, 0.14 kg ha(-l), provided control of boll weevil as good as or better than full-rate azinphos-methyl or lambda-cyhalothrin alone owing to synergistic effects. Thidiazuron or thifensulfuron-methyl alone or in combination with insecticides did not affect boll weevil mortality. Treatment with tribufos + thidiazuron, both at half rate, significantly increased defoliation compared to full rates of tribufos or thidiazuron alone, and provided adequate defoliation for approximately the same cost per hectare.

  4. Employing in vitro directed molecular evolution for the selection of α-amylase variant inhibitors with activity toward cotton boll weevil enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Maria Cristina Mattar; Del Sarto, Rafael Perseghini; Lucena, Wagner Alexandre; Rigden, Daniel John; Teixeira, Fabíola Rodrigues; Bezerra, Caroline de Andrade; Albuquerque, Erika Valéria Saliba; Grossi-de-Sa, Maria Fatima

    2013-09-20

    Numerous species of insect pests attack cotton plants, out of which the cotton boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis) is the main insect in Brazil and must be controlled to avert large economic losses. Like other insect pests, A. grandis secretes a high level of α-amylases in the midgut lumen, which are required for digestion of carbohydrates. Thus, α-amylase inhibitors (α-AIs) represent a powerful tool to apply in the control of insect pests. Here, we applied DNA shuffling and phage display techniques and obtained a combinatorial library containing 10⁸ α-AI variant forms. From this library, variants were selected exhibiting in vitro affinity for cotton boll weevil α-amylases. Twenty-six variant sequences were cloned into plant expression vectors and expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana. Transformed plant extracts were assayed in vitro to select specific and potent α-amylase inhibitors against boll weevil amylases. While the wild type inhibitors, used to create the shuffled library, did not inhibit the A. grandis α-amylases, three α-AI mutants, named α-AIC3, α-AIA11 and α-AIG4 revealed high inhibitory activities against A. grandis α-amylases in an in vitro assay. In summary, data reported here shown the potential biotechnology of new α-AI variant genes for cotton boll weevil control. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of crop sanitation on banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Coleoptera : Curculionidae) populations and crop damage in farmers' fields in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masanza, M.; Gold, C.S.; Huis, van A.; Ragama, P.E.; Okech, S.H.O.

    2005-01-01

    An on-farm study of the effect of crop sanitation on the banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) populations and corm damage was conducted through farmer participatory trials in Ntungamo district, Uganda. Farmers practiced sanitation levels that were broadly defined as low, moderate and high,

  6. New records of Paracrias Ashmead (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae as parasitoids on weevil larvae (Coleoptera, Curculionidae in Brazil, with the description of a new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Palmieri

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Paracrias strii Schauff, 1985 and P. ceratophaga Palmieri & Hansson sp. nov. are first record in Brazil and both are associated with Ceratopus Schoenherr larvae (Coleoptera, Curculionidae reared from syconia of two species of fig-trees. Both Paracrias species are diagnosed and illustrated. Males of P. ceratophaga sp. nov. are described. The association of Paracrias with weevil larvae is briefly discussed.

  7. Composition and seasonal phenology of a nonindigenous root-feeding weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) complex in northern hardwood forests in the Great Lakes Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. A. Pinski; W. J. Mattson; K. F. Raffa

    2005-01-01

    Phyllobius oblongus (L.), Polydrusus sericeus (Schaller), and Sciaphilus asperatus (Bonsdorff) comprise a complex of nonindigenous root-feeding weevils in northern hardwood forests of the Great Lakes region. Little is known about their detailed biology, seasonality, relative abundance, and distribution patterns....

  8. Loss of phytotelmata due to an invasive bromeliad-eating weevil and its potential effects on faunal diversity and biogeochemical cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Teresa M.; Frank, J. Howard; Cave, Ronald D.

    2014-01-01

    Epiphytic tank bromeliads are important ecosystem engineers because they form phytotelmata that create habitat, increase species richness and abundance, create water sources and nutrient reservoirs in the canopy, and collect and redirect nutrients in forest ecosystems. Native bromeliad populations have been devastated in Florida (USA) because an invasive bromeliad-eating weevil (Metamasius callizona) has been destroying the plants. Tillandsia utriculata is a tank bromeliad that was once widespread from central to south Florida. Its populations have been hit hard by the weevil and are declining rapidly. This study quantifies the mortality rate caused by the weevil in a population of T. utriculata at the Enchanted Forest Sanctuary in central Florida and estimates the associated loss of phytotelmata. Estimations of phytotelmata were calculated for the T. utriculata baseline population, the population at 6 months into the study when 87% of the population was destroyed, and at the end of the study when less than 3% of the bromeliad population remained (99% of all deaths were caused by the weevil). The baseline population contained 16,758 L of water. At six months, there were 3180 L, and at the end of the study, there were 408 L. The loss of phytotelmata results in the loss of habitat, a decrease in biological diversity, and altered water and nutrient cycles and availability.

  9. Rice vaikib salavanglaist / Tõnis Erilaid

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Erilaid, Tõnis, 1943-

    2005-01-01

    Euroopasse visiidile sõitev USA välisminister Condoleezza Rice külastab Saksamaad, Rumeeniat, Ukrainat ja Belgiat. Süüdistusi CIA lennukite maandumiste ja salavanglate kohta ei olevat tal kavas kommenteerida

  10. Red Yeast Rice: An Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rice are used in food products in Chinese cuisine, including Peking duck. Others have been sold as ... Medicine . 2010;170(19):1722–1727. Halbert SC, French B, Gordon RY, et al. Tolerability of red ...

  11. indica rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-18

    Jul 18, 2011 ... fresh weight, regeneration, proline level and total protein content in salt sensitive indica rice cv. IR 64. For callus ... INTRODUCTION. Salinity is one of the ... Proline is reported to reduce the enzyme denaturation caused due.

  12. Mutant heterosis in rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    In the variety TKM6 a high yielding semidwarf mutant has been induced. This TKM6 mutant was used in test crosses with a number of other varieties and mutants to examine the extent of heterosis of dwarfs in rice and to select superior crosses. An excerpt of the published data is given. It appears from the backcross of the mutant with its original variety, that an increase in number of productive tillers occurs in the hybrid, leading to a striking grain yield increase, while the semi-dwarf culm length (the main mutant character) reverts to the normal phenotype. In the cross with IR8 on the other hand, there is only a minimal increase in tiller number but a substantial increase in TGW leading to more than 30% yield increase over the better parent

  13. Realistic Simulation of Rice Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-long DING

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The existing research results of virtual modeling of rice plant, however, is far from perfect compared to that of other crops due to its complex structure and growth process. Techniques to visually simulate the architecture of rice plant and its growth process are presented based on the analysis of the morphological characteristics at different stages. Firstly, the simulations of geometrical shape, the bending status and the structural distortion of rice leaves are conducted. Then, by using an improved model for bending deformation, the curved patterns of panicle axis and various types of panicle branches are generated, and the spatial shape of rice panicle is therefore created. Parametric L-system is employed to generate its topological structures, and finite-state automaton is adopted to describe the development of geometrical structures. Finally, the computer visualization of three-dimensional morphologies of rice plant at both organ and individual levels is achieved. The experimental results showed that the proposed methods of modeling the three-dimensional shapes of organs and simulating the growth of rice plant are feasible and effective, and the generated three-dimensional images are realistic.

  14. Increasing rice plant growth by Trichoderma sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doni, Febri; Isahak, Anizan; Zain, Che Radziah Che Mohd; Sulaiman, Norela; Fathurahman, F.; Zain, Wan Nur Syazana Wan Mohd.; Kadhimi, Ahsan A.; Alhasnawi, Arshad Naji; Anhar, Azwir; Yusoff, Wan Mohtar Wan

    2016-11-01

    Trichoderma sp. is a plant growth promoting fungi in many crops. Initial observation on the ability to enhance rice germination and vigor have been reported. In this study, the effectiveness of a local isolate Trichoderma asprellum SL2 to enhance rice seedling growth was assessed experimentally under greenhouse condition using a completely randomized design. Results showed that inoculation of rice plants with Trichoderma asprellum SL2 significantly increase rice plants height, root length, wet weight, leaf number and biomass compared to untreated rice plants (control). The result of this study can serve as a reference for further work on the application of beneficial microorganisms to enhance rice production.

  15. Storage stability of flour-blasted brown rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown rice was blasted with rice flour rather than sand in a sand blaster to make microscopic nicks and cuts so that water can easily penetrate into the brown rice endosperm and cook the rice in a shorter time. The flour-blasted American Basmati brown rice, long grain brown rice, and parboiled long...

  16. Processing Conditions, Rice Properties, Health and Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobutaka Nakamura

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Rice is the staple food for nearly two-thirds of the world’s population. Food components and environmental load of rice depends on the rice form that is resulted by different processing conditions. Brown rice (BR, germinated brown rice (GBR and partially-milled rice (PMR contains more health beneficial food components compared to the well milled rice (WMR. Although the arsenic concentration in cooked rice depends on the cooking methods, parboiled rice (PBR seems to be relatively prone to arsenic contamination compared to that of untreated rice, if contaminated water is used for parboiling and cooking. A change in consumption patterns from PBR to untreated rice (non-parboiled, and WMR to PMR or BR may conserve about 43–54 million tons of rice and reduce the risk from arsenic contamination in the arsenic prone area. This study also reveals that a change in rice consumption patterns not only supply more food components but also reduces environmental loads. A switch in production and consumption patterns would improve food security where food grains are scarce, and provide more health beneficial food components, may prevent some diseases and ease the burden on the Earth. However, motivation and awareness of the environment and health, and even a nominal incentive may require for a method switching which may help in building a sustainable society.

  17. Elemental composition of Malawian rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joy, Edward J M; Louise Ander, E; Broadley, Martin R; Young, Scott D; Chilimba, Allan D C; Hamilton, Elliott M; Watts, Michael J

    2017-08-01

    Widespread potential dietary deficiencies of calcium (Ca), iron (Fe), iodine (I), selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn) have been identified in Malawi. Several deficiencies are likely to be compounded by high phytic acid (PA) consumption. Rice (Oryza sativa) is commonly consumed in some Malawian populations, and its mineral micronutrient content is important for food security. The considerable irrigation requirements and flooded conditions of paddy soils can also introduce or mobilise potentially toxic elements including arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb). The aim of this study was to determine the mineral composition of rice sampled from farmers' fields and markets in Malawi. Rice was sampled from 18 extension planning areas across Malawi with 21 white (i.e. polished) and 33 brown samples collected. Elemental composition was determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Arsenic speciation was performed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-ICP-MS. Concentration of PA was determined using a PA-total phosphorus assay. Median total concentrations (mg kg -1 , dry weight) of elements important for human nutrition in brown and white rice, respectively, were: Ca = 66.5 and 37.8; Cu = 3.65 and 2.49; Fe = 22.1 and 7.2; I = 0.006 and rice samples, respectively, median PA concentrations were 5438 and 1906 mg kg -1 , and median PA:Zn molar ratios were 29 and 13. Concentrations of potentially toxic elements (mg kg -1 , dry weight) in brown and white rice samples, respectively, were: As = 0.030 and 0.006; Cd  ≤ 0.002 and 0.006; Pb = 0.008 and 0.008. Approximately 95 % of As was found to be inorganic As, where this could be quantified. Malawian rice, like the more widely consumed staple grain maize, contains inadequate Ca, I, Se or Zn to meet dietary requirements. Biofortification strategies could significantly increase Se and Zn concentrations and require further investigation. Concentrations of Fe in rice grain varied

  18. 75 FR 56911 - Request for Public Comment on the United States Standards for Rough Rice, Brown Rice for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-17

    ... for Rough Rice, Brown Rice for Processing, and Milled Rice AGENCY: Grain Inspection, Packers and... reviewing the United States Standards and grading procedures for Rough Rice, Brown Rice for Processing, and Milled Rice under the Agriculture Marketing Act of 1946 (AMA). Since the standards were last revised...

  19. Effects of White Rice, Brown Rice and Germinated Brown Rice on Antioxidant Status of Type 2 Diabetic Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Imam, Mustapha Umar; Musa, Siti Nor Asma; Azmi, Nur Hanisah; Ismail, Maznah

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative stress is implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications, and can be increased by diet like white rice (WR). Though brown rice (BR) and germinated brown rice (GBR) have high antioxidant potentials as a result of their bioactive compounds, reports of their effects on oxidative stress-related conditions such as type 2 diabetes are lacking. We hypothesized therefore that if BR and GBR were to improve antioxidant status, they would be better for rice consuming populations inst...

  20. Diversity of global rice markets and the science required for consumer-targeted rice breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    With the ever-increasing global demand for high quality rice in both local production regions and with Western consumers, we have a strong desire to understand better the importance of different quality traits that make up the rice grain and obtain a full picture of rice quality demographics. Rice ...

  1. as Sitophilus zeamais (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-10-20

    Oct 20, 2008 ... Full Length Research Paper ... and GC co-injections with authentic samples showed the presence of the following ... traces of water. .... y = aLn(x) + b ..... Tipping PW, Mikalajczak EL, Rudringuez JG, Poneleit CG, Legg DE.

  2. Rice varieties in relation to rice bread quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hye Min; Cho, Jun Hyeon; Kang, Hang Won; Koh, Bong Kyung

    2012-05-01

    It is difficult to predict rice bread quality only from the amylose content (AC) or dough characteristics of new lines produced by rice breeding programmes. This study investigated the AC relative to bread baking quality of rice varieties developed in Korea, and identified specific characteristics that contribute to rice bread quality. Manmibyeo, Jinsumi, Seolgaeng and Hanareumbyeo were classified as low AC, YR24088 Acp9, Suweon517, Chenmaai and Goamibyeo as intermediate AC and Milyang261 as high AC. Suweon517, Milyang261 and Manmibyeo had a high water absorption index (WAI), while Goamibyeo, YR24088 Acp9, Jinsumi, Seolgaeng, Hanareumbyeo and Chenmaai had a low WAI. The gelatinisation enthalpy of flour varied from 9.2 J g(-1) in Milyang261 to 14.8 J g(-1) in YR24088 Acp9. After 7 days of storage the rate of flour retrogradation and crumb firmness were weakly correlated, with the exception of Jinsumi. Bread volumes of Jinsumi, Chenmaai, YR24088 Acp9 and Goamibyeo were comparable to that of wheat flour, but the rest were unsuited to bread making because of their low volume and hard crumb texture. Based on volume, texture and crumb firmness ratio, Chenmaai and Goamibyeo were the most appropriate varieties for making bread. An intermediate AC and low WAI were the primary indicators of rice bread flour quality. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. EFFECTIVNESS OF PURE DIATOMACEUS EARTH AND DIFFERENT MIXTURES OF DIATOMACEUS EARTH WITH PYRETHRINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma Kalinović

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study shows results of laboratory experiments on stored soft white wheat infested with two stored pest species: rice weevil - Sitophilus oryzae (L., and red flour beetle - Tribolium castaneum (Herbst, treated with different mixtures of Diatomaceus earth (DE and pyrethrins (Diatect V, Diatect II, Bug-B-Gon, Perma-Guard D-20 , and DE without pyrethrins (Protect-It, Perma-Guard and DE from Croatia. The obtained results confirmed that the mixture of DE and pyrethrin and PBO is useful against test-insects and generated significantly higher effectiveness when compared with the results obtained with DE without pyrethrins. Due to the fact that Croatia has the sources of good DE and indigenous Dalmatian pyrethrum, it is possible to develop and produce safe, natural and ecologically acceptable Croatian insecticide by using mixture of DE and pyrethrins, for domestic market and export.

  4. A Non-destructive and Continuous Measurement of Gelatinization of Rice in Rice Cooking Process

    OpenAIRE

    Hagura, Yoshio; Suzuki, Kanichi

    2002-01-01

    A non-destructive and continuous method to measure gelatinization of rice samples in a rice-water system during rice cooking process was examined. An aluminum pot and a lid of a rice cooker were used as two electrode plates, and changes in dielectric properties (capacitance : C, and dielectric dissipation factor : tan δ) of the samples in the rice cooking process were measured by a capacitance meter. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to measure gelatinization enthalpy and to de...

  5. Effect of Rice bran on the Quality of Rice Flour Breads (Gluten-free)

    OpenAIRE

    仲上, 晴世; 矢部, えん; Haruyo, Nakagami; En, Yabe

    2016-01-01

    Over recent years progress has been made in the development of substitute foods for allergy patients. One such is rice flour bread. However, typically rice flour bread uses polysaccharide thickener in substitution for the gluten in wheat. Most polysaccharide thickeners are of dietary fiber origin, and the nutritive value is poor. Therefore, in this study, I made rice flour bread adding rice bran in place of polysaccharide thickener. Various nutrients are included in rice bran, including vitam...

  6. FLUORIDE LEVELS IN COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE RICE IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    2013-05-05

    May 5, 2013 ... Rice is one of the commonly consumed cereals for more than half of the ... also used as flour, for making rice wine, as ingredient for beer and liquor, ... Fluoride is a necessary element to human health, and a moderate amount of fluoride intake ... For Ethiopian red rice (ERR) Fogera was selected to collect.

  7. Impact of bio-processing on rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANCA NICOLAU

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The usual way of preparing rice is boiling, thermal process that gives it a lower digestibility as compared to instantiation, extrusion or expandation. Having in view this fact, the possibility to biotechnologically improve the boiled rice digestibility was investigated in a laboratory study. In this respect, boiled rice wassolid state fermented using a strain of Saccharomycopsis fibuligera, an amylase producing yeast originating from ragi. Fermented rice was then analyzed from the point of view of its content in easily assimilable sugars, protein, amino-acids, phosphorus and vitamins from B group. Biochemical analyses revealed that the fermented rice has a ten times higher content of reducing sugars than boiled rice, due to starch hydrolysis, while chromatographic studies proved that the fermented rice contains glucose, maltose, maltotriose and maltotetrose that are easily assimilable carbohydrates.Fermented rice has a protein content that is two times higher than that of boiled rice because it contains the yeast biomass, and is enriched in vitamins from B group (B1, B2, and B6 that are synthesized by the yeast. Inorganic phosphorus present in rice doubles its concentration in fermented rice, which means thatphosphorus bioavailability is increased.The sensorial profile of boiled rice is also improved by fermentation.This study proves the possibility to have a processing method which is relatively cheap, practical and of which the resulting product has good nutritive qualities and does not pose safety problems due to pure culture utilization as starter.

  8. PICTORIAL INTERLUDES Flake-shaped rice bodies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    removing the rice bodies and the bursa.3. In summary: rice bodies can occur without underlying systemic disorder, have different shapes and sizes, and have specific signal characteristics on. MRI that allow discrimination from synovial chondromatosis. 1. Cheung HS, Ryan LM, Kozin F, McCarty DJ. Synovial origins of rice ...

  9. New market opportunities for rice grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breeding efforts for rice have been focusing on increasing yield and improving quality (milling yield and grain quality), while maintaining cooked rice sensory properties to meet consumer preferences. These breeding targets will no doubt continue as the main foci for the rice industry. However, the ...

  10. Arsenic in rice: A cause for concern

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hojsak, Iva; Braegger, Christian; Bronsky, Jiri

    2015-01-01

    Inorganic arsenic intake is likely to affect long-term health. High concentrations are found in some rice-based foods and drinks widely used in infants and young children. In order to reduce exposure we recommend avoidance of rice drinks for infants and young children. For all rice products, stri...

  11. Consumer preference mapping for rice product concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suwannaporn, P.; Linnemann, A.R.; Chaveesuk, R.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose - Rice consumption per capita in many Asian countries is decreasing constantly, but American and European citizens are eating more rice nowadays. A preference study among consumers was carried out with the aim of determining new rice product characteristics in order to support export of Thai

  12. Asian wild rice is a hybrid swarm with extensive gene flow and feralization from domesticated rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongru; Vieira, Filipe G; Crawford, Jacob E; Chu, Chengcai; Nielsen, Rasmus

    2017-06-01

    The domestication history of rice remains controversial, with multiple studies reaching different conclusions regarding its origin(s). These studies have generally assumed that populations of living wild rice, O. rufipogon , are descendants of the ancestral population that gave rise to domesticated rice, but relatively little attention has been paid to the origins and history of wild rice itself. Here, we investigate the genetic ancestry of wild rice by analyzing a diverse panel of rice genomes consisting of 203 domesticated and 435 wild rice accessions. We show that most modern wild rice is heavily admixed with domesticated rice through both pollen- and seed-mediated gene flow. In fact, much presumed wild rice may simply represent different stages of feralized domesticated rice. In line with this hypothesis, many presumed wild rice varieties show remnants of the effects of selective sweeps in previously identified domestication genes, as well as evidence of recent selection in flowering genes possibly associated with the feralization process. Furthermore, there is a distinct geographical pattern of gene flow from aus , indica , and japonica varieties into colocated wild rice. We also show that admixture from aus and indica is more recent than gene flow from japonica , possibly consistent with an earlier spread of japonica varieties. We argue that wild rice populations should be considered a hybrid swarm, connected to domesticated rice by continuous and extensive gene flow. © 2017 Wang et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  13. Effects of Extraction Methods on Phytochemicals of Rice Bran Oils Produced from Colored Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingyai, Sukanya; Srikaeo, Khongsak; Kettawan, Aikkarach; Singanusong, Riantong; Nakagawa, Kiyotaka; Kimura, Fumiko; Ito, Junya

    2018-02-01

    Rice bran oil (RBO) especially from colored rice is rich in phytochemicals and has become popular in food, cosmetic, nutraceutical and pharmaceutical applications owing to its offering health benefits. This study determined the contents of phytochemicals including oryzanols, phytosterols, tocopherols (Toc) and tocotrienols (T3) in RBOs extracted using different methods namely cold-press extraction (CPE), solvent extraction (SE) and supercritical CO 2 extraction (SC-CO 2 ). Two colored rice, Red Jasmine rice (RJM, red rice) and Hom-nin rice (HN, black rice), were studied in comparison with the popular Thai fragrant rice Khao Dawk Mali 105 (KDML 105, white rice). RBOs were found to be the rich source of oryzanols, phytosterols, Toc and T3. Rice varieties had a greater effect on the phytochemicals concentrations than extraction methods. HN rice showed the significantly highest concentration of all phytochemicals, followed by RJM and KDML 105 rice, indicating that colored rice contained high concentration of phytochemicals in the oil than non-colored rice. The RBO samples extracted by the CPE method had a greater concentration of the phytochemicals than those extracted by the SC-CO 2 and SE methods, respectively. In terms of phytochemical contents, HN rice extracted using CPE method was found to be the best.

  14. Activity of a Brazilian strain of Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis against the cotton Boll Weevil Anthonomus grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnerat, R; Martins, E; Praça, L; Dumas, V; Berry, C

    2012-02-01

    A Brazilian Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies israelensis, toxic to Diptera, including mosquitoes, was found also to show toxicity to the coleopteran boll weevil Anthonomus grandis Boheman at an equivalent level to that of the standard coleopteran-active B. thuringiensis subspecies tenebrionis T08017. Recombinant B. thuringiensis strains expressing the individual Cyt1Aa, Cry4Aa, Cry4Ba and Cry11Aa toxins from this strain were assessed to evaluate their potential contribution to the activity against A. grandis, either alone or in combination. Whilst individual toxins produced mortality, none was sufficiently potent to allow calculation of LC50 values. Combinations of toxins were unable to attain the same potency as the parental B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis, suggesting a major role for other factors produced by this strain.

  15. Orientation of boll weevil,Anthonomus grandis boh. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), to pheromone and volatile host compound in the laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickens, J C

    1986-01-01

    Behavioral responses of male and female boll weevils to the aggregation pheromone, grandlure, and the major volatile of cotton, β-bisabolol, were investigated using a new dual-choice olfactometer. Dosage-response experiments revealed both males and females to be attracted by the aggregation pheromone at the 1.0 μg dosage. However, only males were attracted to β-bisabolol (1.0 μg). Both sexes were repelled by the highest dosage ofβ-bisabolol tested (10 μg). In preference experiment, males chose grandlure over β-bisabolol, while both sexes chose the combination of grandlure + β-bisabolol over β-bisabolol alone. There was some evidence for synergism between pheromone and plant odor for the females. The results correlate well with previous electrophysiological and behavioral experiments.

  16. Translocation of radiocesium released by the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident in Japanese chestnut and chestnut weevil larvae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Yoshito; Ishii, Yasuo; Abe, Hironobu; Mitachi, Katsuaki; Watanabe, Takayoshi; Niizato, Tadafumi

    2016-01-01

    To examine the translocation of radiocesium scattered by the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident that occurred in March 2011 to the Japanese chestnut, we investigated the autoradiography and radiocesium concentration in each part of Japanese chestnuts. The Japanese chestnut fruit has a thin skin between the kernel (cotyledons) and shell; the kernel of the fruit is edible. The 137 Cs concentration in each part of the fruit was found to be almost the same at about 1.0 × 10 4 Bq·kg -1 DW, as well as leaves. The radiocesium concentration in chestnut weevil larvae found on the fruit was approximately one-seventh of that in the kernel. (author)

  17. Isotope studies on rice fertilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The aim of the report is to provide practical information on the efficient utilization of nitrogen fertilizers in rice production. Results obtained from field investigations during the years 1970 to 1974 in ten countries (Bangladesh, Burma, Indonesia, Republic of Korea, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam, India, Philippines), using 15 N-labelled nitrogen fertilizers (ammonium sulfate, urea) are given. The experiments, which were conducted both during the dry and wet seasons, included comparison of varieties, effect of placement, source and time of nitrogen fertilizer application on the yield and quality of rice. The data from the project is presented in table form. In most of the experiments, the addition of nitrogen increased the rice grain yield. The role of soil nitrogen vs. fertilizer nitrogen is compared, and it is concluded that the physiological growth stage at which fertilizer-derived nitrogen is absorbed is of great importance

  18. Iron biofortification of Myanmar rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    May Sann Aung

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Iron (Fe deficiency causes elevates human mortality rates, especially in developing countries. In Myanmar, the prevalence of Fe-deficient anemia in children and pregnant women are 75% and 71%, respectively. Myanmar people have one of the highest per capita rice consumption rates globally. Consequently, production of Fe-biofortified rice would likely contribute to solving the Fe-deficiency problem in this human population. To produce Fe-biofortified Myanmar rice by transgenic methods, we first analyzed callus induction and regeneration efficiencies in 15 varieties that are presently popular because of their high yields and/or qualities. Callus formation and regeneration efficiency in each variety was strongly influenced by types of culture media containing a range of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid concentrations. The Paw San Yin variety, which has a high Fe content in polished seeds, performed well in callus induction and regeneration trials. Thus, we transformed this variety using a gene expression cassette that enhanced Fe transport within rice plants through overexpression of the nicotianamine synthase gene HvNAS1, Fe flow to the endosperm through the Fe(II-nicotianamine transporter gene OsYSL2, and Fe accumulation in endosperm by the Fe storage protein gene SoyferH2. A line with a transgene insertion was successfully obtained. Enhanced expressions of the introduced genes OsYSL2, HvNAS1, and SoyferH2 occurred in immature T2 seeds. The transformants accumulated 3.4-fold higher Fe concentrations, and also 1.3-fold higher zinc concentrations in T2 polished seeds compared to levels in non-transgenic rice. This Fe-biofortified rice has the potential to reduce Fe-deficiency anemia in millions of Myanmar people without changing food habits and without introducing additional costs.

  19. Effect of temperature on the reproduction of Bracon vulgaris Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a parasitoid of the cotton boll weevil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalho, Francisco S; Wanderley, Paulo A; Malaquias, José B; Fernandes, Francisco S; Nascimento, Antônio R B; Zanuncio, José C

    2011-09-01

    This research studied the effect of temperature on the reproduction of Bracon vulgaris Ashmead, an ectoparasitoid of cotton boll weevil ( Anthonomus grandis Boheman) at constant temperatures of 20, 25 and 30ºC, 70 ± 10% RH and a photophase of 14 h. Females of the parasitoid produced a greater number of eggs when exposed to 25ºC (124.65 eggs) in relation to those exposed to 20 (43.40 eggs) and 30ºC (49.60 eggs). The number of parasitized larvae per female of B. vulgaris at 25ºC (71.75) was greater than at 20ºC (31.40) and 30ºC (25.15). The daily intrinsic rates of increase (r m) were - 0.007 at 20ºC, 0.07 at 25ºC and 0.03 at 30ºC, revealing that the temperature of 25ºC produced increases of 1,100 and 133% in the value r m in relation to temperatures of 20 and 30ºC, respectively. In programs of biological control of the boll weevil using innoculative releases, adult females of B. vulgaris with approximately five (at 25 or 30ºC) or 20 day old (at 20ºC) should be used; when using innundative releases, adult females of B. vulgaris , with ages between 11 and 31; 9 and 29 or 3 and 14 days, respectively, at 20, 25 or 30ºC should be used.

  20. Effects of entomopathogenic fungus species, and impact of fertilizers, on biological control of pecan weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro-Ilan, David I; Gardner, Wayne A; Wells, Lenny; Cottrell, Ted E; Behle, Robert W; Wood, Bruce W

    2013-04-01

    The pecan weevil, Curculio caryae (Horn), is a key pest of pecan, Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch. Prior research indicated the potential for use of Hypocreales fungi to suppress C. caryae. We compared the efficacy of two fungal spp., Beauveria bassiana (GHA strain) and Metarhizium brunneum (F52), in their ability to cause C. caryae mortality. The fungus, B. bassiana, was applied to trunks of pecan trees (a method previously shown to be effective in C. caryae suppression) and efficacy was compared with M. brunneum applied to the ground or to the trunk with or without SoyScreen Oil as an ultraviolet protecting agent. Results indicated B. bassiana to be superior to M. brunneum regardless of application method; consequently, the potential for applying B. bassiana to control C. caryae was explored further. Specifically, the impact of different fertilizer regimes (as used by pecan growers) on the persistence of B. bassiana (GHA) in soil was determined. B. bassiana was applied to soil in a pecan orchard after one of several fertilizer treatments--i.e., ammonium nitrate, crimson clover, poultry litter, clover plus poultry litter, and a no-fertilizer control. B. bassiana persistence up to 49 d in 2009 and 2010 was assessed by plating soil onto selective media and determining the number of colony forming units, and by baiting soil with a susceptible host, Galleria mellonella (L.). Fertilizer treatments did not impact B. bassiana persistence. We conclude that standard fertilizers for nitrogen management, when applied according to recommended practices, are unlikely to negatively impact survival of B. bassiana in pecan orchards when the fungus is applied for C. caryae suppression during weevil emergence. Additional research on interactions between entomopathogenic fungi and fertilizer amendments (or other tree nutrition or soil management practices) is merited.

  1. Biological Control Against the Cowpea Weevil (Callosobruchus Chinensis L., Coleoptera: Bruchidae Using Essential Oils of Some Medicinal Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatiha Righi Assia

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. is a valuable foodstuff but unfortunately this legume is prone to insect attacks from the chick pea weevil (Callosobruchus chinensis L.. This serious pest damages the chickpea and causes decreases in the yield and in the nutritional quality. Biological control is being used to deal with this problem. We tried different doses of the essential oils of three new medicinal plants, namely Salvia verbenaca L., Scilla maritima L., and Artemisia herba-alba Asso to limit the damage of the chick pea weevil pest, and to protect consumer’s health. To determine the effect and efficiency of the oil, the tests were conducted using the different biological parameters of fertility, longevity, and fecundity, under controlled temperature and relative humidity (28°C and 75%. The effectiveness of organic oils was demonstrated. We tested these oils on the germination of seeds. The obtained results showed that the tested plant oils have a real organic insecticide effect. The essential oil of Artemisia proved most effective as a biocide; achieving a mortality rate of 100%. A significant reduction in longevity was observed under the effect of 30 μl of S. maritima (1.3 days and S. verbenaca (2.8, 4.6 days, respectively, for males and females compared to 8 and 15 days for the control. For fecundity, an inhibition of oviposition was obtained using 30 μl of Salvia and Scilla essential oils. The test on the seed germination using different essential oils, showed no damage to the germinating seeds. The germination rate was 99%. These findings suggest that the tested plants can be used as a bioinsecticide for control of the C. chinensis pest of stored products.

  2. Dolce Vita in the Rice Paddy - Characterization of weedy rice groups in Northern Italy and investigation of their evolutionary origins

    OpenAIRE

    Grimm, Annabelle

    2014-01-01

    The thesis deals with the topic of the invasive rice form called weedy rice or red rice. Studies focused on the geographical area of Italy. Different populations of weedy rice in Italy were genetically characterized. The evolutionary origins of different weedy rice groups were investigated using molecular, morphological and physiological methods. Invasion of wild rice as well as de-domestication of cultivars could be identified as evolutionary sources of weedy rice in Northern Italy.

  3. Objective evaluation of whiteness of cooked rice and rice cakes using a portable spectrophotometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Hajime; Asanome, Noriyuki; Suzuki, Keitaro; Sano, Tomoyoshi; Saito, Hiroshi; Abe, Yohei; Chuba, Masaru; Nishio, Takeshi

    2014-03-01

    The whiteness of cooked rice and rice cakes was evaluated using a portable spectrophotometer with a whiteness index (WI). Also, by using boiled rice for measurement of Mido values by Mido Meter, it was possible to infer the whiteness of cooked rice without rice cooking. In the analysis of varietal differences of cooked rice, 'Tsuyahime', 'Koshihikari' and 'Koshinokaori' showed high whiteness, while 'Satonoyuki' had inferior whiteness. The whiteness of rice cakes made from 'Koyukimochi' and 'Dewanomochi' was higher than the whiteness of those made from 'Himenomochi' and 'Koganemochi'. While there was a significant correlation (r = 0.84) between WI values and whiteness scores of cooked rice by the sensory test, no correlation was detected between the whiteness scores and Mido values, indicating that the values obtained by a spectrophotometer differ from those obtained by a Mido Meter. Thus, a spectrophotometer may be a novel device for measurement of rice eating quality.

  4. RiceAtlas, a spatial database of global rice calendars and production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laborte, Alice G; Gutierrez, Mary Anne; Balanza, Jane Girly; Saito, Kazuki; Zwart, Sander J; Boschetti, Mirco; Murty, M V R; Villano, Lorena; Aunario, Jorrel Khalil; Reinke, Russell; Koo, Jawoo; Hijmans, Robert J; Nelson, Andrew

    2017-05-30

    Knowing where, when, and how much rice is planted and harvested is crucial information for understanding the effects of policy, trade, and global and technological change on food security. We developed RiceAtlas, a spatial database on the seasonal distribution of the world's rice production. It consists of data on rice planting and harvesting dates by growing season and estimates of monthly production for all rice-producing countries. Sources used for planting and harvesting dates include global and regional databases, national publications, online reports, and expert knowledge. Monthly production data were estimated based on annual or seasonal production statistics, and planting and harvesting dates. RiceAtlas has 2,725 spatial units. Compared with available global crop calendars, RiceAtlas is nearly ten times more spatially detailed and has nearly seven times more spatial units, with at least two seasons of calendar data, making RiceAtlas the most comprehensive and detailed spatial database on rice calendar and production.

  5. Labelling of rice seedlings and rice plants with 32P

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achmad Nasroh, K.

    1989-01-01

    Labelling of rice seedlings and rice plants with 32 P. Labelled rice seedlings can be used to tag insect pests that feed on. Radioactivity counting of 32 P in the endosperm and in the shoot of rice seeds that soaked for 72 hours in KH 2 32 PO 4 solution of 1 μCi/ml were 29,300 and 9,500 cpm respectively. When these labelled seedlings were grown in unlabelled medium the radioactivity in the shoot increased. It was due to the 32 P that was translocated to the shoot from the endosperm. The 32 P translocation reached maximum about one week after the seedling were grown in the unlabelled medium. Labelled seedlings could also be produced by growing 5, 10 and 15 days old seedlings hydroponically in Kimura B solution containing 32 P. Ten days after growing, the radioactivity concentration of the seedlings stem reached about 115,000; 85,000 and 170,000 cpm/mg dry weight for the 5, 10 and 15 days old seedlings respectively. For the implementation of this method, 20 ml labelled Kimura B was needed for labelling of one seedling. The seedlings should be prepared in tap water. During the growth the 32 P in the labelled seedlings was distributed throughout the plant, so that new leaves and tillers became also radioactive. (author). 5 refs

  6. Sustainable rice production in Malaysia beyond 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nashriyah Mat; Ho Nai Kin; Ismail Sahid; Ahyaudin Ali; Lum Keng Yeang; Mashhor Mansor

    2002-01-01

    This book is a compendium of works carried out by various institutions on subjects related to sustainable rice production. The institutions comprise Department of Agriculture, Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute, Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research, Muda Agricultural Development Authority, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Universiti Sains Malaysia, International Islamic University of Malaysia and the Agrochemical Company Mosanto. Integrated Biodiversity Management parallel with the Integrated Weed / Pest / Disease Management, rice-fish farming networking, agrochemical residue monitoring in rice and marine ecosystems, and application of biotechnology in rice productivity are taken as the future direction towards achieving sustainable rice production beyond 2000. Challenges from social and technical agroecosystem constraints, agricultural input management and maintenance of agroecosystem biodiversity are highlighted. It is imperative that the challenges are surmounted to attain the target that would be reflected by tangible rice output of 10 t/ha, and at the same time maintaining the well-being of rice-farmers. (Author)

  7. Estimation of the adult male population of sweet potato weevil, Cylas formicarius (Fabricius) at its low-density period on Kikai Island in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, T.; Hatono, T.; Izumi, S.; Nishihara, S.; Kimura, K.; Torigoe, H.; Tanaka, T.; Miyaji, K.; Hara, Y.; Ueda, A.; Shigei, F.

    2008-01-01

    The sweet potato weevil, Cylas formicarius (Fabricius) is a major insect pest of the sweet potato, Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam. throughout the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. We estimated the entire adult male population of C. formicarius at its low-density period on Kikai Island, Kagoshima Pref., Japan. The population of adult males at the high-density period in September was about 5 times larger than that at its low-density period in May, both of which were estimated by Yamamura's method. Using this calculation in combination with an estimate of the maximal population size (4 x 10E6) by Sugimoto et al. in 1994, the total number of male weevils at their low-density period can be assumed to be less than 8 x 10E5

  8. A revision of the New Zealand weevil genus Irenimus Pascoe, 1876 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Entiminae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Samuel D J

    2017-05-08

    The taxonomy of the New Zealand weevil genus Irenimus Pascoe, 1876 is revised, resulting in a narrower concept of the genus than has been considered in recent decades. In total, the genus now contains only seven species. In addition to the type species, I. parilis Pascoe, 1876, the genus contains I. duplex (Broun, 1904) and five newly described species: I. aniptus new species (type locality, Oamaru, DN), I. crinitus new species (type locality, Hakataramea Valley, SC), I. minimus new species (type locality, Alexandra, CO), I. stichus new species (type locality, Tekapo, MK) and I. thoracicus new species (type locality, Oamaru, DN). The genus Chalepistes new genus is established to contain the majority of species previously described in the genus Catoptes Schönherr, 1842, but also including species described in Brachyolus White, 1846; Irenimus Pascoe, 1876; Inophloeus Pascoe, 1875; and Nicaeana Pascoe, 1877. A total of 27 valid described species are new combinations with Chalepistes: C. aequalis (Broun, 1895) (from Irenimus), C. albosparsus (Broun, 1917) (from Irenimus), C. apicalis (Broun, 1923) (from Catoptes), C. asperatus (Broun, 1914) (from Brachyolus), C. compressus (Broun, 1880) (from Irenimus), C. costifer (Broun, 1886) (from Inophloeus), C. curvus (Barratt & Kuschel, 1996) (from Irenimus), C. dehiscens (Broun, 1917) (from Catoptes), C. dugdalei (Barratt & Kuschel, 1996) (from Irenimus), C. egens (Broun, 1904) (from Irenimus), C. inaequalis (Sharp, 1886) (from Brachyolus), C. instabilis (Marshall, 1931) (from Catoptes), C. latipennis (Broun, 1893) (from Catoptes), C. limbatus (Broun, 1909) (from Catoptes), C. lobatus (Broun, 1921) (from Catoptes), C. patricki (Barratt & Kuschel, 1996) (from Irenimus), C. pensus (Broun, 1914) (from Inophloeus), C. placidus (Broun, 1914) (from Nicaeana), C. posticalis (Broun, 1893) (from Irenimus), C. rhesus (Pascoe, 1875) (from Inophloeus), C. rubidus (Broun, 1881) (from Inophloeus), C. similis (Barratt & Kuschel, 1996) (from

  9. Susceptibility of Anthonomus grandis (cotton boll weevil) and Spodoptera frugiperda (fall armyworm) to a cry1ia-type toxin from a Brazilian Bacillus thuringiensis strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossi-de-Sa, Maria Fatima; Quezado de Magalhaes, Mariana; Silva, Marilia Santos; Silva, Shirley Margareth Buffon; Dias, Simoni Campos; Nakasu, Erich Yukio Tempel; Brunetta, Patricia Sanglard Felipe; Oliveira, Gustavo Ramos; Neto, Osmundo Brilhante de Oliveira; Sampaio de Oliveira, Raquel; Soares, Luis Henrique Barros; Ayub, Marco Antonio Zachia; Siqueira, Herbert Alvaro Abreu; Figueira, Edson L Z

    2007-09-30

    Different isolates of the soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis produce multiple crystal (Cry) proteins toxic to a variety of insects, nematodes and protozoans. These insecticidal Cry toxins are known to be active against specific insect orders, being harmless to mammals, birds, amphibians, and reptiles. Due to these characteristics, genes encoding several Cry toxins have been engineered in order to be expressed by a variety of crop plants to control insectpests. The cotton boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis, and the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, are the major economically devastating pests of cotton crop in Brazil, causing severe losses, mainly due to their endophytic habit, which results in damages to the cotton boll and floral bud structures. A cry1Ia-type gene, designated cry1Ia12, was isolated and cloned from the Bt S811 strain. Nucleotide sequencing of the cry1Ia12 gene revealed an open reading frame of 2160 bp, encoding a protein of 719 amino acid residues in length, with a predicted molecular mass of 81 kDa. The amino acid sequence of Cry1Ia12 is 99% identical to the known Cry1Ia proteins and differs from them only in one or two amino acid residues positioned along the three domains involved in the insecticidal activity of the toxin. The recombinant Cry1Ia12 protein, corresponding to the cry1Ia12 gene expressed in Escherichia coli cells, showed moderate toxicity towards first instar larvae of both cotton boll weevil and fall armyworm. The highest concentration of the recombinant Cry1Ia12 tested to achieve the maximum toxicities against cotton boll weevil larvae and fall armyworm larvae were 230 microg/mL and 5 microg/mL, respectively. The herein demonstrated insecticidal activity of the recombinant Cry1Ia12 toxin against cotton boll weevil and fall armyworm larvae opens promising perspectives for the genetic engineering of cotton crop resistant to both these devastating pests in Brazil.

  10. Cotton harvest at 40% versus 75% boll-splitting on yield and economic return under standard and proactive boll weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) spray regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showler, A T; Robinson, J R C

    2008-10-01

    The standard practice of two or three preemptive insecticide applications at the start of pinhead (1-2-mm-diameter) squaring followed by threshold-triggered (when 10% of randomly selected squares have oviposition punctures) insecticide applications for boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), control does not provide reliable protection of cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., lint production. This study, conducted during 2004 and 2005, showed that three to six fewer spray applications in a "proactive" approach, in which spraying began at the start of large (5.5-8-mm-diameter) square formation and continued at approximately 7-d intervals while large squares were abundant, resulted in fewer infested squares and 1.4- to 1.7-fold more lint than the standard treatment. Fewer sprays and increased yield made proactive spraying significantly more profitable than the standard approach, which resulted in relatively low or negative economic returns. Harvest at 75% boll-split in the proactive spray regime of 2005 resulted in four-fold greater economic return than cotton harvested at 40% boll-split because of improved protection of large squares and the elimination of late-season sprays inherent to standard spray regime despite the cost of an extra irrigation in the 75% boll-split treatments. The earlier, 40% harvest trigger does not avoid high late-season boll weevil pressure, which exerts less impact on bolls, the predominant form of fruiting body at that time, than on squares. Proactive spraying and harvest timing are based on an important relationship between nutrition, boll weevil reproduction, and economic inputs; therefore, the tactic of combining proaction with harvest at 75% boll-split is applicable where boll weevils are problematic regardless of climate or region, or whether an eradication program is ongoing.

  11. Transgene Flow from Glufosinate-Resistant Rice to Improved and Weedy Rice in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-liang LU

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The development of transgenic rice with novel traits in China can increase rice productivity, but transgene flow to improved or weedy rice has become a major concern. We aimed to evaluate the potential maximum frequencies of transgene flow from glufosinate-resistant rice to improved rice cultivars and weedy rice. Treatments were arranged in randomized complete blocks with three replicates. Experiments were conducted between 2009 and 2010 at the Center for Environmental Safety Supervision and Inspection for Genetically Modified Plants, China National Rice Research Institute, Hangzhou, China. Glufosinate-resistant japonica rice 99-1 was the pollen donor. The pollen recipients were two inbred japonica rice (Chunjiang 016 and Xiushui 09, two inbred indica rice (Zhongzu 14 and Zhongzao 22, two indica hybrid rice (Zhongzheyou 1 and Guodao 1, and one weedy indica rice (Taizhou weedy rice. The offspring of recipients were planted in the field and sprayed with a commercial dose of glufosinate. Leaf tissues of survivors were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction to detect the presence of the transgene. The frequency of gene flow ranged from 0 to 0.488%. In 2009, the order of gene flow frequency was as follows: weedy rice > Chunjiang 016 > Xiushui 09 and Zhongzu 14 > Guodao 1, Zhongzheyou 1 and Zhongzao 22. Gene flow frequencies were generally higher in 2009 than in 2010, but did not differ significantly among rice materials. Gene flow frequency was the highest in weedy rice followed by the inbred japonica rice. The risk of gene flow differed significantly between years and year-to-year variance could mask risk differences among pollen recipients. Gene flow was generally lesser in taller pollen recipients than in shorter ones, but plant height only accounted for about 30% of variation in gene flow. When flowering synchrony was maximized, as in this study, low frequencies of gene flow occurred from herbicide-resistant japonica rice to other cultivars and

  12. Evaluation of tall rice mutant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakim, L.; Azam, M.A.; Miah, A.J.; Mansur, M.A.; Akanda, H.R.

    1989-01-01

    One tall mutant (Mut NS1) of rice variety Nizersail was put to multilocation on-farm trial. It showed improvement over the parent in respect of by earlier maturity and higher grain yield at all locations and thus it appears as an improved mutant of Nizersail. (author). 6 refs

  13. Pine weevil feeding on Norway spruce bark has a stronger impact on needle VOC emissions than enhanced ultraviolet-B radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blande, James D.; Turunen, Katariina; Holopainen, Jarmo K.

    2009-01-01

    Plants can respond physiologically to damaging ultraviolet-B radiation by altering leaf chemistry, especially UV absorbing phenolic compounds. However, the effects on terpene emissions have received little attention. We conducted two field trials in plots with supplemented UV-B radiation and assessed the influence of feeding by pine weevils, Hylobius abietis L., on volatile emissions from 3-year old Norway spruce trees (Picea abies L. Karst.). We collected emissions from branch tips distal to the feeding weevils, and from whole branches including the damage sites. Weevil feeding clearly induced the emission of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, particularly linalool and (E)-β-farnesene, from branch tips, and the sums of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes emitted by whole branches were substantially increased. We discovered little effect of UV-B radiation up to 30% above the ambient level on volatile emissions from branch tips distal to damage sites, but there was a possible effect on bark emissions from damage sites. - Chronic exposure to enhanced UV-B radiation has little effect on volatile emissions of Norway spruce

  14. Selection of Beauveria bassiana sensu lato and Metarhizium anisopliae sensu lato isolates as microbial control agents against the boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis) in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nussenbaum, A L; Lecuona, R E

    2012-05-01

    The boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis) is the main pest of cotton in the Americas. The aim of this work was to evaluate isolates of the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana sensu lato and Metarhizium anisopliae sensu lato virulent against A. grandis. Screening was performed to evaluate the pathogenicity of 28 isolates of M. anisopliae s.l. and 66 isolates of B. bassiana s.l. against boll weevil adults. To select the isolates, LC(50) values of the most virulent isolates were calculated, and compatibility between the fungi and insecticides was studied. In addition, the effects of these isolates on the feeding behavior of the adults were evaluated. Isolates Ma 50 and Ma 20 were the most virulent against A. grandis and their LC(50) values were 1.13×10(7) and 1.20×10(7) conidia/ml, respectively. In addition, these isolates were compatible with pyrethroid insecticides, but none with endosulfan. On the other hand, infected females reduced the damage caused by feeding on the cotton squares and their weight gain. This shows that entomopathogenic fungi cause mortality in the insects, but also these fungi could influence the feeding behavior of the females. In summary, these results indicate the possibility of the use of M. anisopliae s.l. as a microbiological control agent against boll weevils. Also, this species could be included in an Integrated Pest Management program. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Responses of the cabbage seedpod weevil, Ceutorhynchus obstrictus (Marsham) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), to seed treatments of canola (Brassica napus L.) with the neonicotinoid compounds clothianidin and imidacloprid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosdall, Lloyd M

    2009-12-01

    The cabbage seedpod weevil, Ceutorhynchus obstrictus (Marsham), is a major pest in the production of canola (Brassica napus L.) in North America and Europe, and effective population control is often essential for economical crop production. In North America, neonicotinoid insecticides have been used for several years in canola as seed treatments for reducing herbivory by flea beetles. The neonicotinoids clothianidin and imidacloprid were investigated to determine their effects on preimaginal development and on emergence of new-generation adults of C. obstrictus in comparison with effects of lindane, a chlorinated hydrocarbon seed treatment. Mean numbers of second- and third-instar larvae were significantly higher in plants seed-treated with lindane than in plants treated with the neonicotinoid compounds, even though weevil oviposition was similar for all treatments. Emergence of new-generation adults was reduced by 52 and 39% for plants seed-treated with clothianidin and imidacloprid, respectively, compared with emergence from plants treated with lindane. Seed treatment with both clothianidin and imidacloprid produced systemic insecticidal effects on larvae of C. obstrictus, with clothianidin slightly more effective than imidacloprid. Use of clothianidin or imidacloprid as seed treatments can comprise an important component in the integrated management of cabbage seedpod weevil in canola. (c) 2009 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Induced Mutations in Thai Rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klakhaeng, Kanchana

    2014-01-01

    Rice is the primary source of food for more than half of the world's population. It benefits greatly from technological inputs in the area of breeding such as induced mutation. Induced mutation can produce mutants with significant improvement in plant type, maturity, yields and protein ratio when compared to the parent. These improved traits enable the mutants to fit into farming systems with either shorter or longer growing seasons. Three induced mutant rice varieties, including RD6, RD10 and RD15, are well accepted by farmers and consumers in Thailand. RD6 and RD15 were aromatic, photosensitive varieties which were derived from KDML105 by acute irradiation of 20 and 15 kilorad gamma ray, respectively. After induced mutation, pedigree selection was applied. RD6 showed drought tolerance and also good grain quality including softness and good aroma with a higher average yield than the famous glutinous variety, San-Pah-Tong. Additionally, it was resistant to blast and brown spot diseases with an average yield of 4.19 tons/ha. RD15 showed drought tolerance and resistance to brown spot disease with the highest yield of 3.5 tons/ha. These two mutant varieties are currently the most famous aromatic rice varieties in Thailand. On the other hand, RD10 is a glutinous, photoperiod insensitive rice variety which was derived from RD1 by irradiation of 1 kilorad fast neutrons. RD10 showed good grain quality such as softness and stickiness with the yield of 4.25 tons/ha. As an on-going project, recommended rice varieties were irradiated with electron beam for anaerobic germination ability, submergence tolerance, stagnant-flood tolerance and also internode elongation.

  17. [Effects of fish on field resource utilization and rice growth in rice-fish coculture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian; Hu, Liang Liang; Ren, Wei Zheng; Guo, Liang; Wu, Min Fang; Tang, Jian Jun; Chen, Xin

    2017-01-01

    Rice field can provide habitat for fish and other aquatic animals. Rice-fish coculture can increase rice yield and simultaneously reduce the use of chemicals through reducing rice pest occurrence and nutrient complementary use. However, how fish uses food sources (e.g. phytoplankton, weeds, duckweed, macro-algal and snail) from rice field, and whether the nutrients releasing from those food sources due to fish transforming can improve rice growth are still unknown. Here, we conducted two field experiments to address these questions. One was to investigate the pattern of fish activity in the field using the method of video recording. The other was to examine the utilization of field resources by fish using stable isotope technology. Rice growth and rice yield were also exa-mined. Results showed that fish tended to be more active and significantly expanded the activity range in the rice-fish coculture compared to fish monoculture (fish not living together with rice plants). The contributions of 3 potential aquatic organisms (duckweed, phytoplankton and snail) to fish dietary were 22.7%, 34.8% and 30.0% respectively under rice-fish coculture without feed. Under the treatment with feed, however, the contributions of these 3 aquatic organisms to the fish die-tary were 8.9%, 5.9% and 1.6% respectively. The feed contribution was 71.0%. Rice-fish coculture significantly increased the nitrogen concentration in rice leaves, prolonged tillering stage by 10-12 days and increased rice spike rate and yield. The results suggested that raising fish in paddy field may transform the nutrients contained in field resources to bioavailable for rice plants through fish feeding activity, which can improve rice growth and rice yield.

  18. [Nitrogen cycling in rice-duck mutual ecosystem during double cropping rice growth season].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Chen, Yuan-Quan; Sui, Peng; Gao, Wang-Sheng

    2012-01-01

    Raising duck in paddy rice field is an evolution of Chinese traditional agriculture. In May-October 2010, a field experiment was conducted in a double cropping rice region of Hunan Province, South-central China to study the nitrogen (N) cycling in rice-duck mutual ecosystem during early rice and late rice growth periods, taking a conventional paddy rice field as the control. Input-output analysis method was adopted. The N output in the early rice-duck mutual ecosystem was 239.5 kg x hm(-2), in which, 12.77 kg x hm(-2) were from ducks, and the N output in the late rice-duck mutual ecosystem was 338.7 kg x hm(-2), in which, 23.35 kg x hm(-2) were from ducks. At the present N input level, there existed soil N deficit during the growth seasons of both early rice and late rice. The N input from duck sub-system was mainly from the feed N, and the cycling rate of the duck feces N recycled within the system was 2.5% during early rice growth season and 3.5% during late rice growth season. After late rice harvested, the soil N sequestration was 178.6 kg x hm(-2).

  19. A comparative study of competitiveness between different genotypes of weedy rice (Oryza sativa) and cultivated rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Lei; Dai, Weimin; Song, Xiaoling; Lu, Baorong; Qiang, Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Competition from weedy rice can cause serious yield losses to cultivated rice. However, key traits that facilitate competitiveness are still not well understood. To explore the mechanisms behind the strong growth and competitive ability, replacement series experiments were established with six genotypes of weedy rice from different regions and one cultivated rice cultivar. (1) Weedy rice from southern China had the greatest impact on growth and yield of cultivated rice throughout the entire growing season. Weedy rice from the northeast was very competitive during the early vegetative stage while the competitive effects of eastern weedy rice were more detrimental at later crop-growth stages. (2) As the proportion of weedy rice increased, plant height, tillers, above-ground biomass, and yield of cultivated rice significantly declined; the crop always being at disadvantage regardless of proportion. (3) Weedy biotypes with greater diversity as estimated by their Shannon indexes were more detrimental to the growth and yield of cultivated rice. Geographic origin (latitude) of weedy rice biotype, its mixture proportion under competition with the crop and its genetic diversity are determinant factors of the outcome of competition and the associated decline in the rice crop yield. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Rice production in relation to soil quality under different rice-based cropping systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran Ba, Linh; Sleutel, Steven; Nguyen Van, Qui; Thi, Guong Vo; Le Van, Khoa; Cornelis, Wim

    2016-04-01

    Soil quality of shallow paddy soils may be improved by introducing upland crops and thus a more diverse crop cultivation pattern. Yet, the causal relationship between crop performance and enhanced soil traits in rice-upland crop rotations remains elusive. The objectives of this study were to (i) find correlations among soil properties under different rice-upland crop systems and link selected soil properties to rice growth and yield, (ii) present appropriate values of soil parameters for sustainable rice productivity in heavy clay soil, (iii) evaluate the effect of rotating rice with upland crops on rice yield and economic benefit in a long-term experiment. A rice-upland crop rotational field experiment in the Vietnamese Mekong delta was conducted for 10 years using a randomized complete block design with four treatments and four replications. Treatments were: (i) rice-rice-rice (control - conventional system as farmers' practice), (ii) rice-maize-rice, (iii) rice-mung bean-rice, and (iv) rice-mung bean-maize. Soil and plant sampling were performed after harvest of the rice crop at the end of the final winter-spring cropping season (i.e. year 10). Results show differences in rice growth and yield, and economic benefit as an effect of the crop rotation system. These differences were linked with changes in bulk density, soil porosity, soil aggregate stability index, soil penetration resistance, soil macro-porosity, soil organic carbon, acid hydrolysable soil C and soil nutrient elements, especially at soil depth of 20-30 cm. This is evidenced by the strong correlation (P < 0.01) between rice plant parameters, rice yield and soil properties such as bulk density, porosity, penetration resistance, soil organic carbon and Chydrolysable. It turned out that good rice root growth and rice yield corresponded to bulk density values lower than 1.3 Mg m-3, soil porosity higher than 50%, penetration resistance below 1.0 MPa, and soil organic carbon above 25 g kg-1. The optimal

  1. Aerobic rice mechanization: techniques for crop establishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khusairy, K. M.; Ayob, H.; Chan, C. S.; Fauzi, M. I. Mohamed; Mohamad Fakhrul, Z. O.; Shahril Shah, G. S. M.; Azlan, O.; Rasad, M. A.; Hashim, A. M.; Arshad, Z.; E, E. Ibrahim; Saifulizan, M. N.

    2015-12-01

    Rice being the staple food crops, hundreds of land races in it makes the diversity of rice crops. Aerobic rice production was introduced which requires much less water input to safeguard and sustain the rice production and conserve water due to decreasing water resources, climatic changes and competition from urban and industrial users. Mechanization system plays an important role for the success of aerobic rice cultivation. All farming activities for aerobic rice production are run on aerobic soil conditions. Row seeder mechanization system is developed to replace conventional seeding technique on the aerobic rice field. It is targeted for small and the large scale aerobic rice farmers. The aero - seeder machine is used for the small scale aerobic rice field, while the accord - seeder is used for the large scale aerobic rice field. The use of this mechanization machine can eliminate the tedious and inaccurate seeding operations reduce labour costs and increases work rate. The machine is easy to operate and it can increase crop establishment rate. It reduce missing hill, increasing planting and crop with high yield can be produce. This machine is designed for low costs maintenance and it is easy to dismantle and assemble during maintenance and it is safe to be used.

  2. Rice agroecosystem and the maintenance of biodiversity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahyaudin Ali

    2002-01-01

    Rice fields are a special type of wetland. They are shallow, constantly disturbed and experience extremes in temperature and dissolved oxygen content. They receive nutrients in the form of fertilizers during rice cultivation. Rice fields; support a variety of flora and fauna that have adapted and adjusted themselves to the extreme conditions. Since rice fields also support populations of wild fish, rice?fish integration should be done in order to optimize land use and provide supplementary income to farmers. Rice?fish farming encourages farmers to judiciously apply pesticides and herbicides in their fields thus helping to control excessive and unwarranted use of these chemicals. Rice fields also support many migratory and nonmigratory bird species and provides habitat for small mammals. Thus the rice agroecosystem helps to maintain aquatic biodiversity. The Muda rice agroecosystem consists of a troika of interconnected ecosystems. The troika consisting of reservoirs, the connecting network of canals and the rice fields; should be investigated further. This data is needed for informed decision-making concerning development and management of the system so that productivity and biodiversity can be maintained and sustained. (Author)

  3. Assessment of Rice Associated Bacterial Ability to Enhance Rice Seed Germination and Rice Growth Promotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Gholamalizadeh

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The application of beneficial bacteria has recently been used for sustainable agriculture. In current research, 71 bacterial isolates were obtained from rice plant and the rhizosphere soil of different paddy fields in Guilan province, Iran. After primitive investigation, 40 bacteria with typical predominant characteristics were selected. By PCR-RFLP of their 16S r-DNA gene, 8 Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs totally consisted of 33 isolates were obtained. From all of them, 8 isolates were selected for rice seed germination experiment, then, effective isolates were used for pot experiment to evaluate their ability for promoting rice growth. All of them were able to increase rice growth and yield, but in different potential. These tested isolates were identified as Alcaligenes faecalis (DEp8, O1R4, Pantoea ananatis (AEn1, Bacillus vietnamensis (MR5, Bacillus idriensis (MR2 and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia by partial sequencing of their 16S r-DNA gene. Among them, AEn1 and MR5 produced indole-3- acetic acid (IAA in larger amounts than the other isolates and the isolates AEn1 and O1R4 were able to solubilize phosphate in higher amounts. According to the results obtained, it can be concluded that AEn1, O1R4 and MR5 can be considered as bacterial inoculants to use as alternatives for chemical fertilizers.

  4. Tier I Rice Model - Version 1.0 - Guidance for Estimating Pesticide Concentrations in Rice Paddies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Describes a Tier I Rice Model (Version 1.0) for estimating surface water exposure from the use of pesticides in rice paddies. The concentration calculated can be used for aquatic ecological risk and drinking water exposure assessments.

  5. significance of rice sheath photosynthesis: yield determination by c ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    1State Key Laboratory of Hybrid Rice, Hunan Hybrid Rice Research Center, Changsha 410125, P.R. China. 2School of ... for contribution rates of sheath photosynthesis to economical yield. ..... related processes during ripening in rice plants.

  6. Perceived factors limiting rice production in Pategi Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    perceived limiting factors in rice production include lack of rice processing ... This production increase has not been enough to meet the consumption demand of ... of Kwara State, Nigeria seeks to determine some of the factors limiting rice ...

  7. potential for biological control of rice yellow mottle virus vectors

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Insect pests and disease infestations are the primary constraints in rice (Oryza sativa) production .... Asia. Of all the rice diseases, the one caused by the rice yellow mottle virus (RYMV), first reported ..... yellow mottle virus in Central Africa.

  8. Effect of Interplanting with Zero Tillage and Straw Manure on Rice Growth and Rice Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-ping LIU

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The interplanting with zero-tillage of rice, i.e. direct sowing rice 10–20 days before wheat harvesting, and remaining about 30-cm high stubble after cutting wheat or rice with no tillage, is a new cultivation technology in wheat-rice rotation system. To study the effects of interplanting with zero tillage and straw manure on rice growth and quality, an experiment was conducted in a wheat-rotation rotation system. Four treatments, i.e. ZIS (Zero-tillage, straw manure and rice interplanting, ZI (Zero-tillage, no straw manure and rice interplanting, PTS (Plowing tillage, straw manure and rice transplanting, and PT (Plowing tillage, no straw manure and rice transplanting, were used. ZIS reduced plant height, leaf area per plant and the biomass of rice plants, but the biomass accumulation of rice at the late stage was quicker than that under conventional transplanting cultivation. In the first year (2002, there was no significant difference in rice yield among the four treatments. However, rice yield decreased in interplanting with zero-tillage in the second year (2003. Compared with the transplanting treatments, the number of filled grains per panicle decreased but 1000-grain weight increased in interplanting with zero-tillage, which were the main factors resulting in higher yield. Interplanting with zero-tillage improved the milling and appearance qualities of rice. The rates of milled and head rice increased while chalky rice rate and chalkiness decreased in interplanting with zero-tillage. Zero-tillage and interplanting also affected rice nutritional and cooking qualities. In 2002, ZIS showed raised protein content, decreased amylose content, softer gel consistency, resulting in improved rice quality. In 2003, zero-tillage and interplanting decreased protein content and showed similar amylose content as compared with transplanting treatments. Moreover, protein content in PTS was obviously increased in comparison with the other three treatments

  9. Assessing the impacts of climate change on rice yields in the main rice areas of China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Fengmei [College of Earth Sciences, The Graduate University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19A, Yuquan Road, Beijing, 100049 (China); Xu, Yinglong; Lin, Erda [Agricultural Environment and Sustainable Development Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, 100081 (China); Yokozawa, Masayuki [National Institute for Agro-environmental Sciences, Tsukuba 305-8604 (Japan); Zhang, Jiahua [Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, Beijing, 100081 (China)

    2007-02-15

    This paper assesses the impact of climate change on irrigated rice yield using B2 climate change scenario from the Regional Climate Model (RCM) and CERES-rice model during 2071--2090. Eight typical rice stations ranging in latitude, longitude, and elevation that are located in the main rice ecological zones of China are selected for impact assessment. First, Crop Estimation through Resource and Environment Synthesis (CERES)-rice model is validated using farm experiment data in selected stations. The simulated results represent satisfactorily the trend of flowering duration and yields. The deviation of simulation within {+-} 10% of observed flowering duration and {+-} 15% of observed yield. Second, the errors of the outputs of RCM due to the difference of topography between station point and grid point is corrected. The corrected output of the RCM used for simulating rice flowering duration and yield is more reliable than the not corrected. Without CO2 direct effect on crop, the results from the assessment explore that B2 climate change scenario would have a negative impact on rice yield at most rice stations and have little impacts at Fuzhou and Kunming. To find the change of inter-annual rice yield, a preliminary assessment is made based on comparative cumulative probability at low and high yield and the coefficient variable of yield between the B2 scenario and baseline. Without the CO2 direct effect on rice yield, the result indicates that frequency for low yield would increase and it reverses for high yield, and the variance for rice yield would increase. It is concluded that high frequency at low yield and high variances of rice yield could pose a threat to rice yield at most selected stations in the main rice areas of China. With the CO2 direct effect on rice yield, rice yield increase in all selected stations.

  10. Assessing the impacts of climate change on rice yields in the main rice areas of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Fengmei; Xu, Yinglong; Lin, Erda; Yokozawa, Masayuki; Zhang, Jiahua

    2007-01-01

    This paper assesses the impact of climate change on irrigated rice yield using B2 climate change scenario from the Regional Climate Model (RCM) and CERES-rice model during 2071--2090. Eight typical rice stations ranging in latitude, longitude, and elevation that are located in the main rice ecological zones of China are selected for impact assessment. First, Crop Estimation through Resource and Environment Synthesis (CERES)-rice model is validated using farm experiment data in selected stations. The simulated results represent satisfactorily the trend of flowering duration and yields. The deviation of simulation within ± 10% of observed flowering duration and ± 15% of observed yield. Second, the errors of the outputs of RCM due to the difference of topography between station point and grid point is corrected. The corrected output of the RCM used for simulating rice flowering duration and yield is more reliable than the not corrected. Without CO2 direct effect on crop, the results from the assessment explore that B2 climate change scenario would have a negative impact on rice yield at most rice stations and have little impacts at Fuzhou and Kunming. To find the change of inter-annual rice yield, a preliminary assessment is made based on comparative cumulative probability at low and high yield and the coefficient variable of yield between the B2 scenario and baseline. Without the CO2 direct effect on rice yield, the result indicates that frequency for low yield would increase and it reverses for high yield, and the variance for rice yield would increase. It is concluded that high frequency at low yield and high variances of rice yield could pose a threat to rice yield at most selected stations in the main rice areas of China. With the CO2 direct effect on rice yield, rice yield increase in all selected stations

  11. Rice Seedling Substrate Produced by Coal Gangue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHAO Yu-fei

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Peats are the mostly used material in making rice seedling substrate. However, mining peats could cause environmental problems. In order to reduce or replace peats in rice seedling substrate industry, this paper studied suitable way to configure rice seedling. The coal gangue was used to experiment cultivating rice. Four rice seeding experiments were carried out based on physical and chemical properties of materials attributes. The results showed:(1 Coal gangue was feasible for rice seedling; (2 The maximum adding amount of coal gangue was 80%(volume ratio though the coal gangue need to be activated; (3 In the case of no activated treatment only 38%(volume ratio of coal gangue could be added to the substrate.

  12. Improvement of rice starch by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan Zhiying; Wu Dianxing; Shen Shengquan; Han Juanying; Xia Yingwu

    2003-01-01

    Three types of rice cultivars, Indica, Japonica and hybrid rice, with similar intermediate apparent amylose content (AAC) as well as early Indica rice cultivars with different amounts of AAC were selected for studying the effects of gamma irradiation on starch viscosity, physico-chemical properties and starch granule structure. Four major parameters of RVA profile, peak viscosity (PKV), hot paste viscosity (HPV), cool paste viscosity (CPV), setback viscosity (SBV) and consistence viscosity (CSV) were considerably decreased with increasing dose levels. Gamma irradiation reduced the amylose contents in the cultivars with low AAC, intermediate AAC, and glutinous rice, but had no effects on the high AAC cultivar. No visible changes in alkali spreading value (ASV) were detected after irradiation, but the peak time (PKT) were reduced with the dose level. Gel consistency (GC) were significantly increased in the tested cultivars, especially in the high AAC Indica rice, suggesting that it is promising to use gamma irradiation to improve eating and cooking quality of rice

  13. RiceAtlas, a spatial database of global rice calendars and production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laborte, Alice G.; Gutierrez, Mary Anne; Balanza, Jane Girly; Saito, Kazuki; Zwart, Sander; Boschetti, Mirco; Murty, M. V.R.; Villano, Lorena; Aunario, Jorrel Khalil; Reinke, Russell; Koo, Jawoo; Hijmans, Robert J.; Nelson, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Knowing where, when, and how much rice is planted and harvested is crucial information for understanding the effects of policy, trade, and global and technological change on food security. We developed RiceAtlas, a spatial database on the seasonal distribution of the world's rice production. It

  14. DETERMINATION OF SPATIAL INTEGRATION AND SUBSTITUTION OF FOREIGN RICE FOR LOCAL RICE IN GHANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Kofi ADOM

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study tested for spatial integration in the rice market and the substitution of imported rice for local rice in Ghana. It is established that the markets for domestic imported rice are well-integrated, but not complete. The imperfect spatial integration of domestic foreign rice markets implies that the market provides opportunities for arbitrage. Price leadership roles are found to be determined by the kind of sub-inter-regional-trade network defined. However, in all, the Accra market emerged as a dominant market leader in the domestic foreign rice market. There is evidence of significant regional substitution of foreign rice for local rice in the long run, but the result is mixed in the short run. The result that local rice is not a perfect substitute for imported rice implies that price disincentive measures such as increasing the import tariffs on foreign rice will only produce a mild effect on increasing the producer price faced by local rice farmers, but aggravate the burden on households’ budget.

  15. Soil to rice transfer factors for 210Pb: a study on rice grown in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karunakara, N.; Rao, Chetan; Ujwal, P.; Yashodhara, I.; Sudeep Kumara; Somashekarappa, H.M.; Bhaskara Shenoy, K.; Ravi, P.M.

    2013-01-01

    India is the second largest producer of rice (Oryza sativa L.) in the world and rice is the essential component of the diet for the majority of the population of India. However, detailed studies aimed at evaluation of radionuclide transfer factors (F v ) for rice grown in India are almost non-existent. This paper presents soil to rice transfer factors for 210 Pb for rice grown in natural field conditions on the West Coast of India. A rice field was developed very close to the Kaiga nuclear power plant for the field studies. For a comparative study of radionuclide transfer factors, rice samples were also collected from the rice fields of nearby villages. The soil to un-hulled rice grain 210 Pb varied in the range <1.2 x10 -2 to 8.1 x 10 -1 with a mean of 1.4 x 10 -1 . The mean values of un-hulled grain to white rice processing retention factors (F r ) was 0.03 for 210 Pb. Using the processing retention factors the soil to white rice transfer factor was estimated and found to have the mean value of 4.2 x 10 -3 . The study has shown that the transfer of 210 Pb was retained in the root and its transfer to above ground organs of rice plant is significantly lower. (author)

  16. An Economic Risk Analysis of Weed Suppressive Rice Cultivars in Rice Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeds are a major constraint to rice production. In the United States, most rice cultivars are not inherently weed-suppressive and require substantial herbicide inputs to achieve agronomic and economic viability. Intensive herbicide application in rice also has many potential drawbacks, resulting in...

  17. Salinity alters the protein composition of rice endosperm and the physicochemical properties of rice flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Graeme; Zhao, Jian; Blanchard, Christopher

    2011-09-01

    Salinity is one of the major threats to production of rice and other agricultural crops worldwide. Although numerous studies have shown that salinity can severely reduce rice yield, little is known about its impact on the chemical composition, processing and sensory characteristics of rice. The objective of the current study was to investigate the effect of salinity on the pasting and textural properties of rice flour as well as on the protein content and composition of rice endosperm. Rice grown under saline conditions had significantly lower yields but substantially higher protein content. The increase in protein content was mainly attributed to increases in the amount of glutelin, with lesser contributions from albumin. Salinity also altered the relative proportions of the individual peptides within the glutelin fraction. Flours obtained from rice grown under saline conditions showed significantly higher pasting temperatures, but lower peak and breakdown viscosities. Rice gels prepared from the flour showed significantly higher hardness and adhesiveness values, compared to the freshwater controls. Salinity can significantly affect the pasting and textural characteristics of rice flour. Although some of the effects could be attributed to changes in protein content of the rice flour, especially the increased glutelin level, the impact of salinity on the physicochemical properties of rice is rather complex and may involve the interrelated effects of other rice components such as starch and lipids. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Medicinal and nutritional importance of rice bran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, R.; Salim, M.; Rauf, R.; Baloach, M.K.

    2005-01-01

    Rice-bran is produced from the outer layer of brown rice and is stabilized through steam-heating. The rice-bran and its products are safe for human and animal consumption. The microbiological safety and rigorous quality-control practices merits its use as nutritional and dietary supplement for overall health-maintenance and as a part of a healthy diet and life-style, as it contributes to the reduction of certain diseases and health-related conditions. Stabilized rice-barn contain 15% of high nutritional- value protein, 20% of high-quality fat with Omega-3 and Omega-6 fatty acids, and nutritional dietary fiber. In addition to several phytonutrients, rice-bran contains vitamins and minerals, while over 100 potent antioxidants have been identified to date. Several scientific papers have reported the analysis and bioavailibility of rice-bran nutrients. Various chemical studies demonstrated the biological effects of the nutrients found in rice-bran. So far, more than 250 scientific publications are available on rice-bran, establishing the striking medicinal properties of rice-bran products. The oil-fraction of rice-bran has concentrated all tire fat-soluble phytonutrient in it, making itself an excellent health-promoting edible oil, as well as message oil The fiber-fraction of rice-bran has a profound effect on the gastrointestinal health, and improves bowel function. Rice-bran fiber along with phytonutrients was found to reduce cholesterol and lipid levels and maintain cardiovascular function. It has beneficial effect on tire kidney and urinary tract health and is helpful in weight-management and fiber replacement diets. (author)

  19. Rice breeding with induced mutations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1968-06-01

    The Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture decided in 1964 to organize a co-ordinated research programme on the use of induced mutations in rice breeding. The programme was organized within the framework of activities of the International Rice Commission. This is a report of the Third Co-ordination Meeting of the participants, which was held in Taipei, 5-9 June 1967. As the projects, which together make up the co-ordinated programme, are at different stages of progress, the report contains a variety of papers including completed studies, field and progress reports, and highlights of the discussions with some additional recommendations prepared by the participants. Refs, figs and tabs.

  20. Bioethanol production from rice straw residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsayed B. Belal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A rice straw -cellulose utilizing mold was isolated from rotted rice straw residues. The efficient rice straw degrading microorganism was identified as Trichoderma reesei. The results showed that different carbon sources in liquid culture such as rice straw, carboxymethyl cellulose, filter paper, sugar cane bagasse, cotton stalk and banana stalk induced T. reesei cellulase production whereas glucose or Potato Dextrose repressed the synthesis of cellulase. T. reesei cellulase was produced by the solid state culture on rice straw medium. The optimal pH and temperature for T. reesei cellulase production were 6 and 25 ºC, respectively. Rice straw exhibited different susceptibilities towards cellulase to their conversion to reducing sugars. The present study showed also that, the general trend of rice straw bioconversion with cellulase was more than the general trend by T. reesei. This enzyme effectively led to enzymatic conversion of acid, alkali and ultrasonic pretreated cellulose from rice straw into glucose, followed by fermentation into ethanol. The combined method of acid pretreatment with ultrasound and subsequent enzyme treatment resulted the highest conversion of lignocellulose in rice straw to sugar and consequently, highest ethanol concentration after 7 days fermentation with S. cerevisae yeast. The ethanol yield in this study was about 10 and 11 g.L-1.

  1. Response Of Lowland Rice To Soil Compaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idawati; Haryanto

    2000-01-01

    Soil compaction, as a new tillage practice for paddy soil, is to substitute pudding in order to reduce land preparation cost. To study response of lowland rice to soil compaction, a pot experiment has been conducted which took place in the greenhouse of P3TIR-BATAN. Soil for experiment was taken from pusakanegara. Two factors (degree of soil compaction and rice variety) were combined. Degree of compaction was split into 3 levels (DI = normal; D215% more compact than normal; 30 % more compact than normal), and rice variety into 2 levels (IR64 and Atomita IV). KH 2 32 PO 4 solution was injected into the soil surrounding rice clump to test the root activity at blooming stage of rice plant. Data resulted from this experiment is presented together with additional data from some other experiments of fertilization in the research s erie to study soil compaction. Some information's from experiment results are as following. Both rice varieties tested gave the same response to soil compaction. Root activity, according to data of 32 P absorbed by plant, was not harmed by soil compaction at the degree tested in the experiment. This prediction is supported by the growth by rice observed at generative growth stage, in pot experiment as well as in field experiment, which showed that soil compaction tested did not decrease rice yield but in opposite in tended to increase the yield. In practising soil compaction in land preparation, fertilizers should be applied by deep placement to have higher increasing is rice yield

  2. Enzymatic hydrolsis of pretreated rice straw

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vlasenko, E.Y.; Shoemaker, S.P. [California Inst. of Food and Agricultural Research, Davis, CA (United States); Ding, H. [California Univ., Davis (Canada). Dept. of Food Science and Technology; Labavitch, J.M. [California Univ., Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Pomology

    1997-02-01

    California rice straw is being evaluated as a feedstock for production of power and fuel. This paper examines the initial steps in the process: pretreatment of rice straw and enzymatic hydrolysis of the polysaccharides in the pretreated material to soluble sugars. Rice straw was subjected to three distinct pretreatment procedures: acid-catalyzed steam explosion (Swan Biomass Company), acid hydrolysis (U.S. DOE National Renewable Energy Laboratory), and ammonia fiber explosion or AFEX (Texas A and M University). Standard conditions for each pretreatment were used, but none was optimized for rice straw specifically. Six commercial cellulases, products of Genencor International (USA), Novo (Denmark), Iogen (Canada) and Fermtech (Russia) were used for hydrolysis. The Swan- and the acid-pretreatments effectively removed hemicellulose from rice straw, providing high yields of fermentable sugars. The AFEX-pretreatment was distinctly different from other pretreatments in that it did not significantly solubilize hemicellulose. All three pretreatment procedures substantially increased enzymatic digestibility of rice straw. Three commercial Trichoderma-reesei-derived enzyme preparations: Cellulase 100L (Iogen), Spezyme CP (Genencor), and Al (Fermtech), were more active on pretreated rice straw compared than others tested. Conditions for hydrolysis of rice straw using Cellulase 100L were evaluated. The supplementation of this enzyme preparation with cellobiase (Novozyme 188) significantly improved the parameters of hydrolysis for the Swan- and the acid-pretreated materials, but did not affect the hydrolysis of the AFEX-pretreated rice straw. (Author)

  3. Compressive Load Resistance Characteristics of Rice Grain

    OpenAIRE

    Sumpun Chaitep; Chaiy R. Metha Pathawee; Pipatpong Watanawanyoo

    2008-01-01

    Investigation was made to observe the compressive load property of rice gain both rough rice and brown grain. Six rice varieties (indica and japonica) were examined with the moisture content at 10-12%. A compressive load with reference to a principal axis normal to the thickness of the grain were conducted at selected inclined angles of 0°, 15°, 30°, 45°, 60° and 70°. The result showed the compressive load resistance of rice grain based on its characteristic of yield s...

  4. Elemental composition of Malawian rice.

    OpenAIRE

    Joy, EJM; Louise Ander, E; Broadley, MR; Young, SD; Chilimba, AD; Hamilton, EM; Watts, MJ

    2016-01-01

    Widespread potential dietary deficiencies of calcium (Ca), iron (Fe), iodine (I), selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn) have been identified in Malawi. Several deficiencies are likely to be compounded by high phytic acid (PA) consumption. Rice (Oryza sativa) is commonly consumed in some Malawian populations, and its mineral micronutrient content is important for food security. The considerable irrigation requirements and flooded conditions of paddy soils can also introduce or mobilise potentially toxic...

  5. Operational note effects of fipronil and lambda-cyhalothrin against larval Anopheles quadrimaculatus and nontarget aquatic mosquito predators in Arkansas small rice plots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennett, James A; Bernhardt, John L; Meisch, Max V

    2003-06-01

    The effects of fipronil and lambda-cyhalothrin, applied at rates labeled for control of the rice water weevil, Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus, on 3 nontarget indigenous insect species in Arkansas rice are described. Three replicates of untreated control checks and fipronil- and lambda-cyhalothrin-treated plots containing 3 sentinel cages each were performed. Ten 4th-stage larvae of Anopheles quadrimaculatus, 10 adult Tropisternus lateralis, or 10 adult Notonecta indica were placed within individual cages in small rice plots treated with ICON 6.2 FS (fipronil) at 0.025 lb active ingredient (AI)/acre (0.028 kg/ha) or KARATEZ 2.08 CS (lambda-cyhalothrin) at 0.03 lb AI/acre (0.033 kg/ha) applied over vegetation and water with a single-boom sprayer. At 24 h after treatment in fipronil plots, significantly higher control of An. quadrimaculatus and T. lateralis (69 and 48% control, respectively) was achieved, compared to N. indica (18%). In lambda-cyhalothrin plots 24 h after treatment, 100% reductions of both T. lateralis and N. indica were highly significant (P lambda-cyhalothrin plots 48 h after treatment, with 93 and 53% control of T. lateralis and N. indica, respectively, compared to 7% control of An. quadrimaculatus. A marked difference in susceptibility was found between selected nontarget organisms used in this study. When using lambda-cyhalothrin to control adult L. oryzophilus, populations of nontarget beneficial insects, such as T. lateralis and N. indica, could be adversely affected, whereas nontarget pestilent species, such as An. quadrimaculatus, could proliferate. Fipronil achieved higher percentages of control against An. quadrimaculatus, compared to lambda-cyhalothrin, and was less harmful to both nontarget predators.

  6. Gamma irradiation of rice grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, M.K.; Ghosh, S.K.; Chatterjee, S.R.

    1991-01-01

    Rice grains of the variety, Pusa-33, at 12.0% moisture, were irradiated with doses of 0-150 kGy. The crystallinity of starch, soluble amylose and yellowness of treated grains increased with increment in the dose of radiation but water absorption and volume expansion on cooling decreased. irradiation at doses of 3-5 kGy increased imperceptibly the hardening of rice cooled after cooking, but had no effect on edibility. The off-aroma in irradiated grains was perceptible at doses higher than 5 kGy. The changes in colour and aroma persisted also on cooking. Upto a dose of 5 kGy, the sensory scores of rice, both cooked and uncooked, were at or above acceptable limit of score (5,5). The doses of 3 and 5 kGy were highly effective in reducing fungal population in irradiated grains, but in view of the changes in colour and cooking qualities, 3 kGy is the preferred dose-limit of irradiation. (author). 17 refs., 5 tabs., 1 fig

  7. Proteomics of Rice Seed Germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongli eHe

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Seed is a condensed form of plant. Under suitable environmental conditions, it can resume the metabolic activity from physiological quiescent status, and mobilize the reserves, biosynthesize new proteins, regenerate organelles and cell membrane, eventually protrude the radicle and enter into seedling establishment. So far, how these activities are regulated in a coordinated and sequential manner is largely unknown. With the availability of more and more genome sequence information and the development of mass spectrometry (MS technology, proteomics has been widely applied in analyzing the mechanisms of different biological processes, and proved to be very powerful. Regulation of rice seed germination is critical for rice cultivation. In recent years, a lot of proteomic studies have been conducted in exploring the gene expression regulation, reserves mobilization and metabolisms reactivation, which brings us new insights on the mechanisms of metabolism regulation during this process. Nevertheless, it also invokes a lot of questions. In this mini-review, we summarized the progress in the proteomic studies of rice seed germination. The current challenges and future perspectives were also discussed, which might be helpful for the following studies.

  8. Clustering of 18 Local Black Rice Base on Total Anthocyanin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristamtini Kristamtini

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Black rice has a high anthocyanin content in the pericarp layer, which provides a dark purple color. Anthocyanin serve as an antioxidant that control cholesterol level in the blood, prevent anemia, potentially improve the body's resistance to disease, improve damage to liver cells (hepatitis and chirrosis, prevent impaired kidney function, prevent cancer/tumors, slows down antiaging, and prevent atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. Exploration results at AIAT Yogyakarta, Indonesia from 2011 to 2014 obtained 18 cultivar of local black rice Indonesia. The names of the rice are related to the color (black, red or purple formed by anthocyanin deposits in the pericarp layer, seed coat or aleuron. The objective of the study was to classify several types of local black rice from explorations based on the total anthocyanin content. The study was conducted by clustering analyzing the total anthocyanin content of 18 local black rice cultivars in Indonesia. Cluster analysis of total anthocyanin content were done using SAS ver. 9.2. Clustering dendogram shows that there were 4 groups of black rice cultivars based on the total anthocyanin content. Group I consists of Melik black rice, Patalan black rice, Yunianto black rice, Muharjo black rice, Ngatijo black rice, short life of Tugiyo black rice, Andel hitam 1, Jlitheng, and Sragen black rice. Group II consists of Pari ireng, Magelang black hairy rice, Banjarnegara-Wonosobo black rice, and Banjarnegara black rice. Group III consists of NTT black rice, Magelang non hairy black rice, Sembada hitam, and longevity Tugiyo black rice. Group IV consist only one type of black rice namely Cempo ireng. The grouping result indicate the existence of duplicate names among the black rice namely Patalan with Yunianto black rice, and short life Tugiyo with Andel hitam 1 black rice.

  9. Leaf development of cultivated rice and weedy red rice under elevated temperature scenarios

    OpenAIRE

    Streck,Nereu A.; Uhlmann,Lilian O.; Gabriel,Luana F.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to simulate leaf development of cultivated rice genotypes and weedy red rice biotypes in climate change scenarios at Santa Maria, RS, Brazil. A leaf appearance (LAR) model adapted for rice was used to simulate the accumulated leaf number, represented by the Haun Stage, from crop emergence to flag leaf appearance (EM-FL). Three cultivated rice genotypes and two weedy red rice biotypes in six emergence dates were used. The LAR model was run for each emergence dat...

  10. Micronutrient-fortified rice can increase hookworm infection risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Gier, Brechje; Campos Ponce, Maiza; Perignon, Marlene

    2016-01-01

    or inflammation after iron supplementation. OBJECTIVE: To study effects of micronutrient-fortified rice on hookworm infection in Cambodian schoolchildren. METHODS: A double-blinded, cluster-randomized trial was conducted in 16 Cambodian primary schools partaking in the World Food Program school meal program....... Three types of multi-micronutrient fortified rice were tested against placebo rice within the school meal program: UltraRice_original, UltraRice_improved and NutriRice. Four schools were randomly assigned to each study group (placebo n = 492, UltraRice_original n = 479, UltraRice_improved n = 500, NutriRice.......6%, but differed considerably among schools (range 0%- 48.1%).Micronutrient-fortified rice significantly increased risk of new hookworm infection. This effect was modified by baseline hookworm prevalence at the school; hookworm infection risk was increased by all three types of fortified rice in schools where...

  11. Nutrient management for rice production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.R.; Chandra, D.; Nanda, P.; Singh, S.S.; Singh, S.R.; Ghorai, A.K.

    2002-06-01

    The nutrient removed by the crops far exceeds the amounts replenished through fertilizer, causing a much greater strain on the native soil reserves. The situation is further aggravated in countries like India, where sub-optimal fertilizer used by the farmers is a common phenomenon rather than an exception. The total consumption of nutrients of all crops in India, even though reached 15 million tons in 1997, remains much below the estimated nutrient removal of 25 million tons (Swarup and Goneshamurthy, 1998). The gap between nutrient removal supplied through fertilizer has widened further in 2000 to 34 million tons of plant nutrients from the soil against an estimated fertilizer availability of 18 million tons (Singh and Dwivedi, 1996). Nitrogen is the nutrient which limits the most the rice production worldwide. In Asia, where more than 90 percent of the world's rice is produced, about 60 percent of the N fertilizer consumed is used on rice (Stangel and De Dutta, 1985). Conjunctive use of organic material along with fertilizer has been proved an efficient source of nitrogen. Organic residue recycling is becoming an increasingly important aspect of environmentally sound sustainable agriculture. Returning residues like green manure to the soil is necessary for maintaining soil organic matter, which is important for favourable soil structure, soil water retention and soil microbial flora and fauna activities. Use of organic manures in conjunction or as an alternative to chemical fertilizer is receiving attention. Green manure, addition to some extent, helps not only in enhancing the yield but also in improving the physical and chemical nature of soils. The excessive application of chemical fertilizers made it imperative that a part of inorganic fertilizer may be substituted with the recycling of organic wastes. Organic manure has been recorded to enhance the efficiency and reduce the requirement of chemical fertilizers. Partial nitrogen substitution through organic

  12. Benthic macroinvertebrates in Italian rice fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Lupi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Rice fields can be considered man-managed temporary wetlands. Five rice fields handled with different management strategies, their adjacent channels, and a spring were analysed by their benthic macroinvertebrate community to i evaluate the role of rice agroe- cosystem in biodiversity conservation; ii find indicator species which can be used to compare the ecological status of natural wetlands with rice agroecosystems; and iii find the influence of environmental variables on biodiversity. Different methods of data analysis with increasing degree of complexity – from diversity index up to sophisticated multivariate analysis – were used. The investigation provided a picture of benthic macroinvertebrates inhabiting rice agroecosystems where 173 taxa were identified, 89 of which detected in rice paddies. Among them, 4 phyla (Mollusca, Annelida, Nematomorpha, and Arthropoda, 8 classes (Bivalvia, Gastropoda, Oligochaeta, Hirudinea, Gordioida, Insecta, Branchiopoda, and Malacostraca, 24 orders, 68 families, 127 genera and 159 species have been found. Ten threatened and 3 invasive species were detected in the habitats examined. The information obtained by the different methods of data analysis allowed a more comprehensive view on the value of the components of rice agroecosystems. Data analyses highlighted significant differences between habitats (feeding channel and rice field, with higher diversity observed in channels, and emphasised the role of the water chemical-physical parameters. The period of water permanence in rice fields resulted to be only one of the factors influencing the community of benthic macroinvertebrates. The presence of rare/endangered species allowed characterising some stations, but it was less informative about management strategies in rice paddies because most of these species were absent in rice fields.

  13. Arsenic accumulation in rice: Consequences of rice genotypes and management practices to reduce human health risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Shofiqul; Rahman, Mohammad Mahmudur; Islam, M R; Naidu, Ravi

    2016-11-01

    Rice is an essential staple food and feeds over half of the world's population. Consumption of rice has increased from limited intake in Western countries some 50years ago to major dietary intake now. Rice consumption represents a major route for inorganic arsenic (As) exposure in many countries, especially for people with a large proportion of rice in their daily diet as much as 60%. Rice plants are more efficient in assimilating As into its grains than other cereal crops and the accumulation may also adversely affect the quality of rice and their nutrition. Rice is generally grown as a lowland crop in flooded soils under reducing conditions. Under these conditions the bioavailability of As is greatly enhanced leading to excessive As bioaccumulation compared to that under oxidizing upland conditions. Inorganic As species are carcinogenic to humans and even at low levels in the diet pose a considerable risk to humans. There is a substantial genetic variation among the rice genotypes in grain-As accumulation as well as speciation. Identifying the extent of genetic variation in grain-As concentration and speciation of As compounds are crucial to determining the rice varieties which accumulate low inorganic As. Varietal selection, irrigation water management, use of fertilizer and soil amendments, cooking practices etc. play a vital role in reducing As exposure from rice grains. In the meantime assessing the bioavailability of As from rice is crucial to understanding human health exposure and reducing the risk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. An overview of the sustainability of rice agroecosystem through rice-fish integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahyaudin Ali

    2002-01-01

    Rice-fish integration in the rice agroecosystem has been introduced and is expanding in Malaysia. This type of farm integration has resulted in land optimization, thus enabling farmers to grow both fish and rice in one farming system. Introducing fish into the ricefield has also increased seasonal income as well as reduced pesticide use. Although basic ecological knowledge on rice-fish integration has allowed rice-fish integration to be introduced, further research is required to allow for fine tuning of the methodologies used. Thus research on the ecology, management, production methods and the characterization of rice-fish farming system of Malaysia is needed. Further characterization and description is needed on the ecology of the rice-fish farming system of Malaysia in terms of production, food webs, nutrient flow and system diversity. To increase the sustainability efficiency and productivity of the system, implementation of management techniques formulated through research is required. (Author)

  15. Residues and accumulation of molinate in rice crops and aquatic weeds in the MUDA rice agroecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nashriyah Mat; Sabri Junoh; Nuriati Nurdin; Ramli Ishak

    2002-01-01

    Plant and soil residue levels and its accumulation in rice crops and rice aquatic weed plants were studied. Molinate residue levels in rice, weeds and soil were not significantly different between the recycled and the non-recycled area, even though they were higher in the non-recycled area. In the rice plant, the residue level at 10 DAT (days after treatment) was significantly higher than 30 DAT in the recycled area. In rice aquatic weed plants, the residue level was significantly higher at 10 DAT as compared to 30 DAT in the non-recycled area. Molinate residue levels in soil at 10 DAT and 30 DAT were similar. Molinate accumulated (ratio of molinate concentration in plant over soil) more in the rice crop as compared to rice aquatic weeds at 10 DAT, in both the recycled and the non-recycled areas. (Author)

  16. The Gut Entomotype of Red Palm Weevil Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae and Their Effect on Host Nutrition Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abrar Muhammad

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available For invasive insects, the potential roles of gut microbiota in exploiting new food resources and spreading remain elusive. Red palm weevil (RPW, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier, is an invasive destructive pest which feeds on nutrient-poor tender tissues and has caused extensive mortality of palm trees. The microbes associated with insects can improve their nutrition assimilation. However, experimental evidence on the interactions between RPW and its gut microbiota is still absent. The aim of this study is to determine the dynamics changes and the bacterial entomotype in the RPW gut and its potential physiological roles. Here, we confirmed RPW harbors a complex gut microbiota mainly constituted by bacteria in the families Enterobacteriaceae, Lactobacillaceae, Entomoplasmataceae, and Streptococcaceae. RPW gut microbiota exhibited a highly stable microbial community with low variance in abundance across different life stages and host plants. Furthermore, the abundance of Enterobacteriaceae was markedly increased but that of Acetobacteraceae was reduced significantly after administration of antibiotics. Although no significant effects were found on the body weight gain of RPW larvae, these alterations dramatically decreased the concentration of hemolymph protein and glucose while that of hemolymph triglyceride increased. In the gut of wild-caught RPW larvae, seven bacterial species in the genera Klebsiella, Serratia, Enterobacter, and Citrobacter were shown to have an ability to degrade cellulose. Together, RPW accommodate a stable gut microbiota which can degrade plant polysaccharides and confer their host optimal adaptation to its environment by modulating its metabolism.

  17. Pyrosequencing the Midgut Transcriptome of the Banana Weevil Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar (Coleoptera: Curculionidae Reveals Multiple Protease-Like Transcripts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnubio Valencia

    Full Text Available The banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus is an important and serious insect pest in most banana and plantain-growing areas of the world. In spite of the economic importance of this insect pest very little genomic and transcriptomic information exists for this species. In the present study, we characterized the midgut transcriptome of C. sordidus using massive 454-pyrosequencing. We generated over 590,000 sequencing reads that assembled into 30,840 contigs with more than 400 bp, representing a significant expansion of existing sequences available for this insect pest. Among them, 16,427 contigs contained one or more GO terms. In addition, 15,263 contigs were assigned an EC number. In-depth transcriptome analysis identified genes potentially involved in insecticide resistance, peritrophic membrane biosynthesis, immunity-related function and defense against pathogens, and Bacillus thuringiensis toxins binding proteins as well as multiple enzymes involved with protein digestion. This transcriptome will provide a valuable resource for understanding larval physiology and for identifying novel target sites and management approaches for this important insect pest.

  18. Vitellogenin knockdown strongly affects cotton boll weevil egg viability but not the number of eggs laid by females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Roberta R; de Souza Júnior, José Dijair Antonino; Firmino, Alexandre A P; de Macedo, Leonardo L P; Fonseca, Fernando C A; Terra, Walter R; Engler, Gilbert; de Almeida Engler, Janice; da Silva, Maria Cristina M; Grossi-de-Sa, Maria Fatima

    2016-09-01

    Vitellogenin (Vg), a yolk protein precursor, is the primary egg nutrient source involved in insect reproduction and embryo development. The Cotton Boll weevil (CBW) Anthonomus grandis Boheman, the most important cotton pest in Americas, accumulates large amounts of Vg during reproduction. However, the precise role of this protein during embryo development in this insect remains unknown. Herein, we investigated the effects of vitellogenin (AgraVg) knockdown on the egg-laying and egg viability in A. grandis females, and also characterized morphologically the unviable eggs. AgraVg transcripts were found during all developmental stages of A. grandis, with highest abundance in females. Silencing of AgraVg culminated in a significant reduction in transcript amount, around 90%. Despite this transcriptional reduction, egg-laying was not affected in dsRNA-treated females but almost 100% of the eggs lost their viability. Eggs from dsRNA-treated females showed aberrant embryos phenotype suggesting interference at different stages of embryonic development. Unlike for other insects, the AgraVg knockdown did not affect the egg-laying ability of A. grandis, but hampered A. grandis reproduction by perturbing embryo development. We concluded that the Vg protein is essential for A. grandis reproduction and a good candidate to bio-engineer the resistance against this devastating cotton pest.

  19. Histone and ribosomal RNA repetitive gene clusters of the boll weevil are linked in a tandem array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roehrdanz, R; Heilmann, L; Senechal, P; Sears, S; Evenson, P

    2010-08-01

    Histones are the major protein component of chromatin structure. The histone family is made up of a quintet of proteins, four core histones (H2A, H2B, H3 & H4) and the linker histones (H1). Spacers are found between the coding regions. Among insects this quintet of genes is usually clustered and the clusters are tandemly repeated. Ribosomal DNA contains a cluster of the rRNA sequences 18S, 5.8S and 28S. The rRNA genes are separated by the spacers ITS1, ITS2 and IGS. This cluster is also tandemly repeated. We found that the ribosomal RNA repeat unit of at least two species of Anthonomine weevils, Anthonomus grandis and Anthonomus texanus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is interspersed with a block containing the histone gene quintet. The histone genes are situated between the rRNA 18S and 28S genes in what is known as the intergenic spacer region (IGS). The complete reiterated Anthonomus grandis histone-ribosomal sequence is 16,248 bp.

  20. Evaluation of Pathogenicity of the Fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana in Hazelnut Weevil (Curculio nucum L., Coleoptera, Curculionidae) Larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yunqing; Liu, Ting; Zhao, Yixin; Geng, Wanting; Chen, Longtao; Liu, Jianfeng

    2016-12-01

    The nut weevil ( Curculio nucum ) is one of the most important and widespread pests in hazelnut orchards. In order to screen entomopathogenic fungal strains with high virulence against C. nucum , the growth rate, sporulation, and cumulative mortality of different Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana strains were investigated, and the process by which M. anisopliae CoM 02 infects C. nucum larvae was observed using scanning electron microscopy. The results indicated that the growth rate and sporulation of different fungal strains significantly differed. Thirteen days after inoculation with M. anisopliae CoM 02, the cumulative mortality of C. nucum larvae reached 100 %, which was considerably higher than that of the other five strains. As the most virulent of the six test strains, the cadaver rate, LT 50 , and LT 90 of M. anisopliae CoM 02 were 93.4 %, 7.05 and 11.90 days, respectively. Analysis of the infection process by scanning electron microscopy showed that the spore attachment, hyphal germination, hyphal rapid growth, and sporulation of M. anisopliae CoM 02 occurred on the 3rd, 5th, 7th, and 11th day after inoculation, respectively, indicating that the infection cycle takes approximately 11 days. This finding suggests that the highly virulent M. anisopliae plays an important role in the biocontrol of C. nucum in China.

  1. Evaluation of pseudostem trapping as a control measure against banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, C S; Gold, C S; Okech, S H; Nokoe, S

    2002-02-01

    Controlled studies to determine the efficacy of pseudostem trapping in reducing adult populations of the banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar), were conducted under farmer conditions in Ntungamo district, Uganda. Twenty-seven farms were stratified on the basis of C. sordidus population density (estimated by mark and recapture methods) and divided among three treatments: (i) researcher-managed trapping (one trap per mat per month): (ii) farmer-managed trapping (trap intensity at discretion of farmer); and (iii) controls (no trapping). Intensive trapping (managed by researchers) resulted in significantly lower C. sordidus damage after one year. Over the same period, C. sordidus numbers declined by 61% on farms where trapping was managed by researchers, 53% where farmers managed trapping and 38% on farms without trapping; however, results varied greatly among farms and, overall, there was no significant effect of trapping on C. sordidus numbers. Moreover, there was only a weak relationship between the number of C. sordidus removed and the change in population density. Trapping success appeared to be affected by management levels and immigration from neighbouring farms. Although farmers were convinced that trapping was beneficial, adoption has been low due to resource requirements.

  2. Population structure of the banana weevil, an introduced pest in the Canary Islands, studied by RAPD analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magaña, C; Beroiz, B; Hernández-Crespo, P; Montes de Oca, M; Carnero, A; Ortego, F; Castañera, P

    2007-12-01

    The banana weevil (BW), Cosmopolites sordidus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is one of the most important insect pests of bananas and plantains. The mobility and the origin of BW infestations at the Canary Islands (Tenerife, La Gomera and La Palma) have been analysed using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) as molecular markers. Populations from Costa Rica, Colombia, Uganda and Madeira were also included for comparison. One hundred and fifteen reproducible bands from eight primers were obtained. The level of polymorphism in the populations from the Canary Islands (40-62%) was in the range of those found in other populations. Nei's genetic distances, pair-wise fixation index (FST) values indicate that the closest populations are Tenerife populations among themselves (Nei's genetic distance=0.054-0.100; FST=0.091-0.157) and Costa Rica and Colombia populations (Nei's genetic distance=0.049; FST=0.113). Our results indicate the existence of BW local biotypes with limited gene flow and affected by genetic drift. These results are compatible with a unique event of colonization at Tenerife; whereas, the outbreaks in La Gomera and La Palma may come from independent introductions. The Madeira population is phylogenetically and geographically closer to the Canary Islands populations, suggesting that it is the most likely source of the insects introduced in the Canary Islands.

  3. Pyrosequencing the Midgut Transcriptome of the Banana Weevil Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Reveals Multiple Protease-Like Transcripts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia, Arnubio; Wang, Haichuan; Soto, Alberto; Aristizabal, Manuel; Arboleda, Jorge W; Eyun, Seong-Il; Noriega, Daniel D; Siegfried, Blair

    2016-01-01

    The banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus is an important and serious insect pest in most banana and plantain-growing areas of the world. In spite of the economic importance of this insect pest very little genomic and transcriptomic information exists for this species. In the present study, we characterized the midgut transcriptome of C. sordidus using massive 454-pyrosequencing. We generated over 590,000 sequencing reads that assembled into 30,840 contigs with more than 400 bp, representing a significant expansion of existing sequences available for this insect pest. Among them, 16,427 contigs contained one or more GO terms. In addition, 15,263 contigs were assigned an EC number. In-depth transcriptome analysis identified genes potentially involved in insecticide resistance, peritrophic membrane biosynthesis, immunity-related function and defense against pathogens, and Bacillus thuringiensis toxins binding proteins as well as multiple enzymes involved with protein digestion. This transcriptome will provide a valuable resource for understanding larval physiology and for identifying novel target sites and management approaches for this important insect pest.

  4. Ultra Morphological Structure of Sensory Sensillae on the Legs and External Genitalia of the Red Palm Weevil Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Oliv.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharaby, Aziz M.; AlDosary, Mona M.

    2007-01-01

    The Red Palm Weevil (RPW) is a major pest infesting date trees in the Gulf region. Chemoreceptors play an important role for insects behaviour in detecting their defined host for feeding, egg laying or mating. The present study is aimed to study morphological structure of sensillae on different legs and external genitalia of both sexes. Three kinds of sensillae are found on the different parts of the three pairs of fore, mid and hind legs, these sensillae are identified as ( Trichoid in three types, coeloconic in two types and one type of Basiconic sensillae). Fore legs bear the highest number of different forms of sensillae, males contained realatively greater number than females. Mid femur only in female bears a dense hair of trichoid sensillae, while they are found on fore- mid and hind femur of males, this may be used for differentiating two sexes. Female ovipositor contained trichoid sensilla can be subdivided into three distinct type1,2, and 3 in addition placoid sensillae, it could be identified four types of trichoid sensilla on the male external genitalia and numerous of placoid sensillae.These may be for hygroreception. (author)

  5. Application of Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy in Early Detection of Red Palm Weevil: (Rhynchophorus ferrugineus) Infestation in Date Palm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farooq, W. A.; Tawfik, Walid; Rasool, K. G.; Aldawood, A. S.

    2015-01-01

    The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is one of the leading date producing countries. Unfortunately, this important fruit crop is under great threat from the red palm weevil (RPW) (Rhynchophorus ferrugineus), which is a highly invasive pest. Several techniques, including visual inspection, acoustic sensors, sniffer dogs, and pheromone traps have been tried to detect the early stages of a RPW infestation; however, each method has suffered certain logistical and implementation issues. We have applied laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) for the early detection of RPW infestation. Through the analysis of the observed LIBS spectra of different infested and healthy samples, we have found presence of Ca, Mg, Na, C, K elements and OH, CN molecules. The spectra also reveal that with the population growth of the pest, the intensity of Mg and Ca atomic lines in LIBS spectra increases rapidly. Similar behavior is observed in the molecular lines of LIBS spectra. The obtained results indicate that the LIBS technique can be used for the early detection of RPW infestation without damaging the date palms. (paper)

  6. Application of Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy in Early Detection of Red Palm Weevil: (Rhynchophorus ferrugineus) Infestation in Date Palm

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Farooq, W.; G. Rasool, K.; Walid, Tawfik; S. Aldawood, A.

    2015-11-01

    The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is one of the leading date producing countries. Unfortunately, this important fruit crop is under great threat from the red palm weevil (RPW) (Rhynchophorus ferrugineus), which is a highly invasive pest. Several techniques, including visual inspection, acoustic sensors, sniffer dogs, and pheromone traps have been tried to detect the early stages of a RPW infestation; however, each method has suffered certain logistical and implementation issues. We have applied laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) for the early detection of RPW infestation. Through the analysis of the observed LIBS spectra of different infested and healthy samples, we have found presence of Ca, Mg, Na, C, K elements and OH, CN molecules. The spectra also reveal that with the population growth of the pest, the intensity of Mg and Ca atomic lines in LIBS spectra increases rapidly. Similar behavior is observed in the molecular lines of LIBS spectra. The obtained results indicate that the LIBS technique can be used for the early detection of RPW infestation without damaging the date palms.

  7. An Exploration of Edible Palm Weevil Larvae (Akokono) as a Source of Nutrition and Livelihood: Perspectives From Ghanaian Stakeholders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laar, Amos; Kotoh, Agnes; Parker, Megan; Milani, Peiman; Tawiah, Charlotte; Soor, Shobhita; Anankware, Jacob P; Kalra, Nikhila; Manu, Grace; Tandoh, Akua; Zobrist, Stephanie; Engmann, Cyril; Pelto, Gretel

    2017-12-01

    Meeting the nutritive needs of infants and young children is a challenge in Ghana. Alternative animal source foods, including insects, could enhance infant and young child dietary quality while also improving livelihoods. To investigate the perspectives of Ghanaian stakeholders on the acceptability of the palm weevil larvae ( akokono) as a food source and the feasibility of micro-farming this local edible insect as a complementary food for infants and young children. We conducted an ethnographic study in the Brong-Ahafo Region of Ghana. First, 48 caregivers were asked questions about feeding and care practices, including attitudes toward production and consumption of akokono. Then, a selection of previously interviewed respondents joined 1 of 8 focus group discussions to provide further insight on key themes that emerged from earlier interviews. Concurrently, interviews with 25 other key local stakeholders were conducted. Respondents generally had favorable perceptions of akokono as a nutritious food. A small minority would not consume akokono for religious reasons. Key factors positively influencing the acceptability of akokono as a complementary food were familiarity with the consumption of akokono by the primary caregiver and health worker endorsement of akokono. Stakeholders consider the larvae farmable and were open to its domestication. Anticipated barriers to scaling up akokono micro-farming include a need for greater familiarity with and acceptance of the insect as food for infants and young children and creation of a sustainable market. Engagement with stakeholders, including health workers, will facilitate use of akokono as a complementary food.

  8. Australian wild rice reveals pre-domestication origin of polymorphism deserts in rice genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopala Krishnan S

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rice is a major source of human food with a predominantly Asian production base. Domestication involved selection of traits that are desirable for agriculture and to human consumers. Wild relatives of crop plants are a source of useful variation which is of immense value for crop improvement. Australian wild rices have been isolated from the impacts of domestication in Asia and represents a source of novel diversity for global rice improvement. Oryza rufipogon is a perennial wild progenitor of cultivated rice. Oryza meridionalis is a related annual species in Australia. RESULTS: We have examined the sequence of the genomes of AA genome wild rices from Australia that are close relatives of cultivated rice through whole genome re-sequencing. Assembly of the resequencing data to the O. sativa ssp. japonica cv. Nipponbare shows that Australian wild rices possess 2.5 times more single nucleotide polymorphisms than in the Asian wild rice and cultivated O. sativa ssp. indica. Analysis of the genome of domesticated rice reveals regions of low diversity that show very little variation (polymorphism deserts. Both the perennial and annual wild rice from Australia show a high degree of conservation of sequence with that found in cultivated rice in the same 4.58 Mbp region on chromosome 5, which suggests that some of the 'polymorphism deserts' in this and other parts of the rice genome may have originated prior to domestication due to natural selection. CONCLUSIONS: Analysis of genes in the 'polymorphism deserts' indicates that this selection may have been due to biotic or abiotic stress in the environment of early rice relatives. Despite having closely related sequences in these genome regions, the Australian wild populations represent an invaluable source of diversity supporting rice food security.

  9. Australian wild rice reveals pre-domestication origin of polymorphism deserts in rice genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan S, Gopala; Waters, Daniel L E; Henry, Robert J

    2014-01-01

    Rice is a major source of human food with a predominantly Asian production base. Domestication involved selection of traits that are desirable for agriculture and to human consumers. Wild relatives of crop plants are a source of useful variation which is of immense value for crop improvement. Australian wild rices have been isolated from the impacts of domestication in Asia and represents a source of novel diversity for global rice improvement. Oryza rufipogon is a perennial wild progenitor of cultivated rice. Oryza meridionalis is a related annual species in Australia. We have examined the sequence of the genomes of AA genome wild rices from Australia that are close relatives of cultivated rice through whole genome re-sequencing. Assembly of the resequencing data to the O. sativa ssp. japonica cv. Nipponbare shows that Australian wild rices possess 2.5 times more single nucleotide polymorphisms than in the Asian wild rice and cultivated O. sativa ssp. indica. Analysis of the genome of domesticated rice reveals regions of low diversity that show very little variation (polymorphism deserts). Both the perennial and annual wild rice from Australia show a high degree of conservation of sequence with that found in cultivated rice in the same 4.58 Mbp region on chromosome 5, which suggests that some of the 'polymorphism deserts' in this and other parts of the rice genome may have originated prior to domestication due to natural selection. Analysis of genes in the 'polymorphism deserts' indicates that this selection may have been due to biotic or abiotic stress in the environment of early rice relatives. Despite having closely related sequences in these genome regions, the Australian wild populations represent an invaluable source of diversity supporting rice food security.

  10. Novel gene expression tools for rice biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biotechnology is an effective and important method of improving both quality and agronomic traits in rice. We are developing novel molecular tools for genetic engineering, with a focus on developing novel transgene expression control elements (i.e. promoters) for rice. A suite of monocot grass promo...

  11. Recent advances on bioactivities of black rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Aécio L de S; Pachikian, Barbara; Larondelle, Yvan; Quetin-Leclercq, Joëlle

    2017-11-01

    Black rice has been consumed for centuries in Asian countries such as China, Korea or Japan. Nowadays, extracts and derivatives are considered as beneficial functional foods because of their high content in several bioactive molecules such as anthocyanins, other phenolics and terpenoids. The purpose of this review is to summarize and discuss recent developments on black rice bioactivities. Some sterols and triterpenoids with potential anticancer properties already tested in vitro and in vivo have been isolated and identified from bran extracts of black rice. Protection against osteoporosis has been suggested for the first time for black rice extracts. Because of its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, black rice also protects liver and kidney from injuries. One clinical study reported the interest of black rice in case of alcohol withdrawal. Several advances have been recently achieved on the understanding of the potential biological effects of black rice and its derivatives. They further confirm that black rice should be considered as a promising source of health-promoting functional foods targeting a large set of noninfectious diseases. However, more clinical studies are needed to support the findings highlighted in this review.

  12. Functional genomics strategies with transposons in rice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greco, R.

    2003-01-01

    Rice is a major staple food crop and a recognizedmonocotylenedousmodel plant from which gene function discovery is projected to contribute to improvements in a variety of cereals like wheat and maize. The recent release of rough drafts of the rice genome sequence for public

  13. Grain Unloading Of Arsenic Species In Rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice (Oryza sativa) is the staple food for over half the world's population yet may represent a significant dietary source of inorganic arsenic (As), a nonthreshold, class 1 human carcinogen. Rice grain As is dominated by the inorganic species, and the organic species dim...

  14. 33 CFR 117.324 - Rice Creek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rice Creek. 117.324 Section 117.324 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.324 Rice Creek. The CSX Railroad Swingbridge, mile...

  15. Soil quality assessment in rice production systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodrigues de Lima, A.C.

    2007-01-01

    In the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, rice production is one of the most important regional activities. Farmers are concerned that the land use practices for rice production in the Camaquã region may not be sustainable because of detrimental effects on soil quality. The study presented in this

  16. Land Titles and Rice Production in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Den Broeck, Katleen; Newman, Carol; Tarp, Finn

    analysis of plot level rice yields that land titles are indeed important. Only exclusively held titles have the expected positive effects, and the positive effect on yields is found in male headed households. Furthermore, a household level rice yield function reveals that exclusive user rights...

  17. Adoption of Recommended Rice Production Practices among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    rice production practices by women farmers in Nasarawa State. A total of 203 women rice farmers were selected for the study using multi- ... RRPPs were unavailability of credit facilities, poor marketing system and ... economy which provides employment opportunity for about 70-80 percent of the total ..... shown in Table 1.

  18. Tillering and panicle branching genes in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Wei-hong; Shang, Fei; Lin, Qun-ting; Lou, Chen; Zhang, Jing

    2014-03-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is one of the most important staple food crops in the world, and rice tillering and panicle branching are important traits determining grain yield. Since the gene MONOCULM 1 (MOC 1) was first characterized as a key regulator in controlling rice tillering and branching, great progress has been achieved in identifying important genes associated with grain yield, elucidating the genetic basis of yield-related traits. Some of these important genes were shown to be applicable for molecular breeding of high-yielding rice. This review focuses on recent advances, with emphasis on rice tillering and panicle branching genes, and their regulatory networks. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. A spectral analysis of rice grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIlvaine, M.S.; Cua, F.T.; Navarro, E.F.

    1976-06-01

    With the advent of extensive nuclear testing and the development and use of highly potent pesticides and fertilizers, the hazardous threats of radioactive contamination due to fallout and to the absorption of pesticide residues have been given due consideration. Among the many forms of life exposed to these threats are food crops and among these is rice. Several rice grain samples - Japanese rice samples ''A'' and ''B'' submitted by the National Grains Authority (NGA) for analysis, random samples of rice being sold to the public at local markets, and ''black rice'' which were picked from along the shores of a Mindoro town were subjected to spectral analysis. Results revealed the presence of trace elements normally found in plants, such as; K-42, I-124, Cl-38, Na-24, Br-82, and Mn-56. No mercury was detected in the sample specimen analyzed

  20. Rice epigenomics and epigenetics: challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiangsong; Zhou, Dao-Xiu

    2013-05-01

    During recent years rice genome-wide epigenomic information such as DNA methylation and histone modifications, which are important for genome activity has been accumulated. The function of a number of rice epigenetic regulators has been studied, many of which are found to be involved in a diverse range of developmental and stress-responsive pathways. Analysis of epigenetic variations among different rice varieties indicates that epigenetic modification may lead to inheritable phenotypic variation. Characterizing phenotypic consequences of rice epigenomic variations and the underlining chromatin mechanism and identifying epialleles related to important agronomic traits may provide novel strategies to enhance agronomically favorable traits and grain productivity in rice. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.