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Sample records for rice varieties electronic

  1. Allelopathic potential of selected rice varieties

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl10

    2012-11-01

    Nov 1, 2012 ... 1Faculty of Agro Based Industry, Universiti Malaysia Kelantan, 17600 Jeli, Kelantan, Malaysia. ... experiment was laid out in completely randomized design. ..... Mixed-Cultures. PLoS ONE 7(5):e37201. Islam M (2010). Allelopathic effects of rice varieties on seed germination and seedling growth of lettuce.

  2. Rice varieties in relation to rice bread quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hye Min; Cho, Jun Hyeon; Kang, Hang Won; Koh, Bong Kyung

    2012-05-01

    It is difficult to predict rice bread quality only from the amylose content (AC) or dough characteristics of new lines produced by rice breeding programmes. This study investigated the AC relative to bread baking quality of rice varieties developed in Korea, and identified specific characteristics that contribute to rice bread quality. Manmibyeo, Jinsumi, Seolgaeng and Hanareumbyeo were classified as low AC, YR24088 Acp9, Suweon517, Chenmaai and Goamibyeo as intermediate AC and Milyang261 as high AC. Suweon517, Milyang261 and Manmibyeo had a high water absorption index (WAI), while Goamibyeo, YR24088 Acp9, Jinsumi, Seolgaeng, Hanareumbyeo and Chenmaai had a low WAI. The gelatinisation enthalpy of flour varied from 9.2 J g(-1) in Milyang261 to 14.8 J g(-1) in YR24088 Acp9. After 7 days of storage the rate of flour retrogradation and crumb firmness were weakly correlated, with the exception of Jinsumi. Bread volumes of Jinsumi, Chenmaai, YR24088 Acp9 and Goamibyeo were comparable to that of wheat flour, but the rest were unsuited to bread making because of their low volume and hard crumb texture. Based on volume, texture and crumb firmness ratio, Chenmaai and Goamibyeo were the most appropriate varieties for making bread. An intermediate AC and low WAI were the primary indicators of rice bread flour quality. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Physical and Chemical Properties of Some Selected Rice Varieties

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Physical and chemical properties of nine rice varieties grown and processed in Ebonyi .... Therefore, one tonne of a slender variety of rice will need more storage space than the ..... during washing and boiling of milled rice Starch 36:386-390.

  4. The export potential of traditional varieties of rice from Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Stringfellow, Rachel; Swetman, Tony

    1996-01-01

    This research is funded by the Overseas Development Administration's Crops Post Harvest Programme. The objective of the research is to bring together information on prevailing quality/price relationships for traditional varieties of rice in Bangladesh and for competing products on the world market in order to make a judgement about Bangladesh's ability to enter the export trade for speciality rices.

  5. Fat-soluble bioactive components in colored rice varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minatel, Igor Otavio; Han, Sang-Ik; Aldini, Giancarlo; Colzani, Mara; Matthan, Nirupa R; Correa, Camila Renata; Fecchio, Denise; Yeum, Kyung-Jin

    2014-10-01

    Bioactive components in rice vary depending on the variety and growing condition. Fat-soluble components such as γ-oryzanol, tocopherols, tocotrienols, carotenoids, and fatty acids were analyzed in brown, sugary brown, red, and black rice varieties using established high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and GC methodologies. In addition, these colored rice varieties were further analyzed using a high-resolution liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) (LTQ-Orbitrap XL) to identify the [M-H](-) ions of γ-oryzanol, ranging from m/z 573.3949 to 617.4211. The highest content of tocopherols (α-, 1.5; γ-, 0.5 mg/100 g) and carotenoids (lutein 244; trans-β carotene 25 μg/100 g) were observed in black rice; tocotrienols (α-, 0.07; γ-, 0.14 mg/100 g) in red rice, and γ-oryzanol (115 mg/100 g) in sugary brown rice. In all colored rice varieties, the major fatty acids were palmitic (16:0), oleic (18:1n-9), and linoleic (18:2n-6) acids. When the γ-oryzanol components were further analyzed by LC-MS/MS, 3, 10, 8, and 8 triterpene alcohols or sterol ferulates were identified in brown, sugary brown, red, and black rice varieties, respectively. Such structural identification can lead to the elucidation of biological function of each component at the molecular level. Consumption of colored rice rich in beneficial bioactive compounds may be a useful dietary strategy for achieving optimal health.

  6. Quantifying intrinsic quality of commercial varieties of Basmati rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagar, M.A.; Salim, M.; Siddiqui, H.

    2003-01-01

    Twelve quality-trait of five commercial varieties of Basmati rice viz: Basmati 370, Basmati 385, Basmati 198, Basmati 6129 and Super Basmati, were determined according to standard methods. Under existing conditions, it is very difficult to assess overall quality of Basmati rice-varieties, because if a variety is superior in one quality trait, it is inferior in another quality trait, to some other Basmati rice variety, which creates confusion. In order to determine the overall quality-status, we have made an effort to quantify the various quality-traits. Each quality-trait has been allotted a score, in terms of its importance, and the overall status of each variety is computed. Based on our estimation, Super Basmati is of highest quality (98.21%), followed by Basmati 6129 (96.46%), Basmati 370 (95.59%), Basmati 385 (95.26%) and Basmati 198 (92.95%). (author)

  7. Breeding of a new special rice variety Hangxiangnuo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Hanqin; Pang Dajian; Fan Zhilan; Liu Chuanguang; Li Chen; Chen Jianyou

    2011-01-01

    A new special rice variety Hangxiangnuo was bred by several generation selections of the progeny of the rice variety Nanfengnuo which was carried by the spacecraft Shenzhou No 4. Hangxiangnuo was permitted to release by the Crop Examination and Approval Committee of Guangdong Province in January, 2009. Compared with its parent variety Nanfengnuo, Hangxiangnuo has better resistance to blast, greater length-width ratio of grain, more panicles per plant, filled grains per panicle and fragrance. The efficiency of space mutation breeding and the generation at which mutant traits become homozygous were also discussed in the paper. (authors)

  8. Semi-dwarf rice varieties in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    Semi-dwarf rice varieties are grown extensively in California and are beginning to be adopted in the northern United States. Their background is varied. Some derive their semi-dwarf status from Asian ancestors. Use has been made of TN-1, IR8, IR659-10-8-3 and IR1318 (containing TN1). Other semi-dwarfs in California derive their short stature from induced mutants. The principal parent is Calrose 76 derived from an induced mutation in Calrose (released in 1976). The first US semi-dwarf variety was LA 110, developed at the Rice Experiment Station at Crowley, Louisiana from a cross TN-I x M4 (from Sri Lanka) released in 1974. The next group of semidwarf varieties was developed in cooperation between the California Coop. Rice Research Foundation, The California Agricultural Experiment Station and the USDA Agric. Research Service. These are listed. Semidwarf long grain varieties were developed in Texas: Bellemont (1981) and Lemont (1983), both using IR659-10-8-3 as source of semidwarf culm. Two other long grain varieties Leah (1982) and Toro-2 (1984) released by the Rice Research Station in Crowley, Louisiana, derive their short stature form C19902, a line developed at Crowley, but still reaching a height of 89-94 cm. There are other short statured varieties in the US which are not truly semidwarfs, such as Bond and Newbonnet in Arkansas, Skybonnet and Pecos in Texas. The general trend is towards shorter varieties. Calrose 76 and M7 are being replaced. M-201 and L-202 are the shortest and have excellent lodging resistance. Their background is IR8 or TN1. Too short varieties like Bellemont may have seedling emergence problems. The area of cultivated varieties can only be estimated based upon seed production. According to such estimates, total rice area in California 1984 was 184,100 ha, of which 178,100 (ca. 97%) were under semidwarf varieties. The total rice area in the US 1984 was 1.139,000 ha, of which 249,500 ha or 21,9% were under semidwarf varieties. The rice

  9. Breeding of new rice varieties by gamma-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toda, Masayuki

    1980-01-01

    The breeding procedure for and the agronomic characteristics of some new rice varieties are reported. The seeds of the non-waxy variety ''Toyonishiki'' were exposed to 20 kR of gamma-ray. Two out of 20,000 panicles produced on these plants had waxy grain, and one of these brought forth a new commercial variety, ''Miyuki-mochi''. The yield of the new variety was reduced by 8% as compared with the original variety, but the heading date, culm length, panicle length and the number of panicles of the new variety were almost the same as those of the original variety. If compared with the old leading waxy variety, ''Shinano-mochi'', ''Miyuki-mochi'' is superior in yield by 15% and has high resistance to lodging and to rice blast. Seven other rice varieties were irradiated to obtain waxy mutants, and the frequency of R 1 panicles carrying waxy grains was found to be 1/10,000. There was marked difference in the 1,000 grain weight of these mutants relative to those of the respective original varieties and in amylose content among the waxy mutant strains. A new Saka-mai variety (for Sake brewing), ''Miyamanishiki'', was obtained from ''Takanenishiki'' (30 kR exposure of dry seeds). The most important character for Saka-mai is to have white-core grains. An experiment with several rice varieties showed that the frequency of white core grains was about 0.15% in the control and about 0.21% in the R 1 plants after irradiation. A desirable large grain strain, ''Shinho No. 12'', from ''Todorokiwase'', and a desirable mutant strain suitable as feed for domestic animals, ''Shinho No. 38'', from ''Toyonishiki'' were also obtained by gamma-ray irradiation. (Kaihara, S.)

  10. Dwarf mutant of rice variety Seratus Malam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mugiono, P. S.; Soemanggono, A.M.R.

    1989-01-01

    Full text: Seeds of 'Seratus Malam', a local tall upland variety with long panicles and high yield potential were irradiated with 10-50 krad gamma rays in 1983. From 50,000 M 2 plants, 130 semidwarf mutants and 1 dwarf mutant were selected. The dwarf mutant M-362 was obtained from the 10 krad treatment. The mutant shows about 50% reduction in plant height, but also in number of productive tillers. Thus the yield per plant is also significantly less. However, the mutant gene is not allelic to DGWG and therefore may be useful in cross breeding. (author)

  11. Promising mutant variety of rice evolved through gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, S.C.; Sinha, S.K.

    1980-01-01

    Rice occupies a major share in crop production in the Chotanagpur plateau of Bihar State. Uplands are roughly 40% in area where traditional low yielding rice, known as ''gora'' is cultivated as directly sown crop. Despite introduction of high yielding rice varieties, gora group of rices continue to prevail. It is therefore desired to increase the productivity level of the gora rice by mutation breeding. One such mutant known as ''gora mutant'' was obtained through gamma irradiation (10 kR) of variety Brown gora. The maturity of both parent and mutant remaining constant (ie. 100 days), there is some improvement in other characteristics like plant height, tillering capacity and kernel character. The parent being tall, shy in tillering and red bold kernel, the mutant has dwarfish characteristics, profuse tillering habit and white kernel with fine grains. The yielding capacity of mutant derivative is 30-40% higher than the parent Brown gora. This variety is in pre-release stage, and the farmers have taken great liking for it. (author)

  12. Effects of Variety and Hydration of Rice Flour on Cake Making Properties

    OpenAIRE

    長沼, 誠子; NAGANUMA, Seiko

    1993-01-01

    The pysicochemical characteristics and sensory attributes of rice layer cake were investigated to study the effects of rice variety and rice flour treatment on cake making properties. The rice layer cake were made from rice flour ground from 4 rice varieties (Sasanishiki, Akitakomachi, Kiyonishiki and Akihikari), water, sugar, oil, and baking powder. The treatment of rice frour with water before adding other ingredients improved appearance, texture and palatability of the baking products. The...

  13. Determinants of adoption and productivity of improved rice varieties ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study employed adoption index, logit model and stochastic frontier model to assess the adoption status, its determinants and impact on farmers' productivity respectively. The results show that farmers have responded appreciably to intervention programme that promote the use of improved rice varieties with an adoption ...

  14. Allelopathic potential of selected rice varieties | Karim | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Average percent inhibition (API) in lettuce due to allelopathic effect of different rice varieties/lines was estimated. Under greenhouse conditions, double-pot technique was followed using barnyard grass (Echinochloa crusgalli L.) as indicator plant. The changes in barnyard grass plant charcters due to allelopathic effect of ...

  15. Agronomic performance of five rice varieties and nutritive value of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Exp. 1), chemical composition and in vitro gas production (Exp. 2) of five varieties of rice; Hybrid, Exbaika, Jasmine 85, IR841 and Long grain ordinary 2. Experiment 1 was conducted in a randomized complete block design with four replicates ...

  16. Factors Affecting the Adoption of Improved Rice Varieties in Borno ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    The study investigated the factors that affect adoption of improved rice varieties in the ... give a good results and also a threat to food security. Keywords: ..... decision of the farmers, however, inappropriate chain of supply/distributing the input or ...

  17. Potential of mutation breeding in improving Indonesian local rice varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobrizal

    2016-01-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is an important cereal crops for human nutrition, this species can be divided into sub-species i.e. Indica and Japonica. Japonica sub-species consists of Temprate and Tropical Japonica (it is called as Javanica) groups. Mostly Javanica group originated from Indonesia, the people mentioned as Indonesian local varieties, it was covering more than 8000 varieties. This paper aims is to discuss the potential of mutation breeding, success stories and on going activities improved genetically the local rice varieties. Indonesian local varieties have been tested naturally for resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses so that they become useful collections of genetic resources. They usually adapted well toa specific environment where they grow largely, having good aroma and eating quality, but they have some weakness such very long growth duration, susceptible to lodging, unresponsive to fertilizer, and low yield. Seed multiplication is usually conducted by collecting seeds from farmer's fields so that the seed quality, especially for seeds purity level is very low. Improvements of seed quality is usually conducted through purification of exciting varieties, then, the result is released as a new variety. Other ways, some new varieties were improved through mutation breeding, for example, an early maturing mutant variety of Pandan Putri derived from irradiated Pandan Wangi variety from Cianjur area. The success story to reduce harvest age of Pandan Wangi variety through mutation breeding, it was triggers other local governments to use nuclear technology in improving agronomic traits of their local rice varieties, without altered another good characters. (author)

  18. Different Aluminum Tolerance among Indica, Japonica and Hybrid Rice Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Chang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Hydroponic cultures were conducted to compare the aluminum (Al tolerance among different rice (Oryza sativa L. varieties, including indica, japonica and their hybrids. The results showed that the root growth of rice plant was inhibited in different degrees among Al treated varieties. The Al tolerance observed through relative root elongation indicated that five japonica varieties including Longjing 9, Dharial, LGC 1, Ribenyou and Koshihikari were relatively more tolerant than indica varieties. Most indica varieties in this study, such as Aus 373 and 9311 (awnless, were sensitive to Al toxicity. The Al tolerance of most progenies from japonica × indica or indica × japonica crosses was constantly consistent with indica parents. The differences of Al tolerance among Longjing 9 (japonica, Yangdao 6 (indica and Wuyunjing 7 (japonica were studied. Biomass and the malondial-dehyde content of Yangdao 6 under Al exposure decreased and increased, respectively, while there was no significant effect on those of Longjing 9 and Wuyunjing 7. Remarkable reduction of root activities was observed in all these three rice varieties. Significantly higher Al content in roots was found in Yangdao 6 compared to Longjing 9 or Wuyunjing 7.

  19. Isoenzymes performance of some rice varieties and their mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winarno, Ermin; Suliwarno, Ambyah; Ismachin, M.

    1992-01-01

    Isoenzymes performance of some rice varieties and their mutants. Genetics studies on alcohol dehydrogenase, malic enzyme, peroxidase, acid phosphase, and aminopeptidase isoenzymes were carried out on several groups of rice varieties and their mutant lines. The first groups consisted of Atomita I, Pelita I/1, A227/5, Mudgo, TN-1, and IR-26. The second group was Cisadane variety and its five mutants, namely OBS 18, OBS 208, OBS 297, OBS 306, and OBS 330. The third group was mutants line 627-10-3 and its mutants, namely 1063, 1066, 1067, 1076, and 1090. Isoenzymes extracts of the rice leaves were fractionated using polyacrylamide gel disc electrophoresis. The pattern of acid phosphate isoenzyme shows the specific character of rice mutants susceptible to brown plant hopper biotype 1. The gene(s) controlling malic enzyme in Cisadane's mutants is (are) estimated more resistant toward gamma irradiation than gene(s) responsible for controlling the other enzymes. Generally, the isoenzymes zymograms show that gene(s) controlling the mutants enzyme have undergone mutation. This case is shown by the changes of Rm value, as well as the amount and intensity of mutants bands. (authors). 7 refs., 7 figs

  20. IDENTIFICATION OF WIDE COMPATIBILITY VARIETIES IN SOME TROPICAL JAPONICA RICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hairmansis

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The F1 hybrid sterility in indica/japonica crosses is the major barrier in developing hybrid rice varieties between these two diverse germplasm. The sterility problem in japonica/indica hybrids can be overcome by using wide compatibility genes. The objective of this study was to identify wide compatibility varieties (WCVs in some tropical japonica rice. Twenty five tropical japonica varieties as male parents were crossed with indica (IR64 and japonica (Akitakomachi testers as female parents. The crosses were planted following a randomized complete block design with three replications. Varieties having average spikelet fertility of more than 70% with both the indica and japonica testers were rated as WCVs. Result from this study showed that six tropical japonica varieties were classified as WCVs, i.e., Cabacu, Grogol, Kencana Bali, Klemas, Lampung Lawer, and Napa. Hybrid sterility is caused by partial sterility of male and female gametes. The WCVs from the present study can be used in hybrid rice breeding program to solve hybrid sterility in indica/japonica hybrids.

  1. Somatic embryogenesis of East Kalimantan local upland rice varieties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurhasanah; Ramitha; Supriyanto, B.; Sunaryo, W.

    2018-04-01

    Somatic embryogenesis is the formation, growth and development of embryos from somatic cells. Somatic embryo induction is one of the in vitro plant propagation techniques that is very important for plant developmental purposes. Four local upland rice varieties of East Kalimantan, Mayas Pancing, Gedagai, Siam and Serai, were used in this study. A total of 200 explants (mature rice grains) for each varieties were inoculated on MS solid medium supplemented with 1 mg L-1 2,4 Dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D) and 0.5 mg L-1 6-Benzylaminopurine (BAP). The results showed that response of each variety differed to embryosomatic induction, indicated by callus induction rate and callus quality, in terms of callus color and structure. The fastest callus formation was sobserved in Gedagai variety (8 days) while Mayas Pancing (13 days) was the latest one. The rate of callus induction varied from 60 to 98.5 %, and Serai variety has the highest callus induction rate. The highest friable callus structure was found in Siam variety (89.1%) and the lowest was in Gedagai (62.5%). Callus color was dominated by the yellowish-white (transparent) on all varieties tested. Most of the callus was potential as embryogenic callus characterized from the nodular and globular of friable callus structure and its yellowish-white color.

  2. Role of varieties in sustainable rice production in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman Omar; Saad Abdullah

    2002-01-01

    Rice is the staple food of Malaysians. Rice production in Malaysia is concentrated in granary areas, which are provided with irrigation facilities. There is no plan to increase the size or the number of these granary areas, thus productivity per unit area must be increased to sustain the current level of self-sufficiency. Variety determines the potential productivity; environment and crop management determine how much of this potential is realized. Crop management is very important, as any drop in the level of management will effect productivity. However there are characteristics / factors that can be incorporated into varieties which can buffer the effect of environment and crop management. Pests and diseases can result in severe yield loss and lead to non-sustainable production. Varietal resistance to some of these diseases can be incorporated into rice varieties. Active breeding to incorporate rice resistance to blast, PMV (tungro), bacterial blight and brown planthopper is being currently carried out Factors that determine or justify the active breeding status are: importance of Oe pests diseases, resistance sources and the availability of efficient screening procedure. Sheath blight is also an important disease in direct seeded crops as it can cause severe yield loss, but good resistant sources are not available for incorporation and the screening procedure is also not very efficient. Biotechnologists are working hard to introduce resistance from other crops and also develop other resistance mechanisms for sheath blight. Water, shortage or excess, is a major cause of non-sustainable production. The breeding of short-term varieties can overcome water problems or shortages. Negative interaction between varietal characteristics and environment do occur. Finally farmers have to decide which factors of the environment cannot be easily controlled, and choose the correct varieties in order to achieve sustainable production. (Author)

  3. High yielding small grain mutant of rice variety Pankaj

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1987-07-01

    Full text: By treatment with EMS a mutant has been produced from the variety Pankaj which has better tillering, longer panicle and more grains per panicle. In multilocation trials at Burdwan, Suri and Rampurhat in West Bengal it yielded significantly more than Pankaj and Mahsuri at all locations, with a mean 5.2t. The mutant named BU 79 would be a suitable substitute for Pankaj and similar long-duration rices. (author)

  4. Water management, rice varieties and mycorrhizal inoculation influence arsenic concentration and speciation in rice grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Wu, Songlin; Ren, Baihui; Chen, Baodong

    2016-05-01

    A pot experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of water management and mycorrhizal inoculation on arsenic (As) uptake by two rice varieties, the As-resistant BRRI dhan 47 (B47) and As-sensitive BRRI dhan 29 (B29). Grain As concentration of B47 plants was significantly lower than that of B29, and grain As concentration of B47 was higher under flooding conditions than that under aerobic conditions. In general, mycorrhizal inoculation (Rhizophagus irregularis) had no significant effect on grain As concentrations, but decreased the proportion of inorganic arsenic (iAs) in grains of B47. The proportion of dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) in the total grain As was dramatically higher under flooding conditions. Results demonstrate that rice variety selection and appropriate water management along with mycorrhizal inoculation could be practical countermeasures to As accumulation and toxicity in rice grains, thus reducing health risks of As exposure in rice diets.

  5. Irradiation with protons in order to obtain new rice varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, Maria C.; Cristo, Elizabeth; Fuentes, Jorge L.

    2001-01-01

    In the Laboratory of Genetics and Improvement of the National Institute of Agricultural Sciences was developed a Program of Genetic Improvement using Biotechnical and Nuclear Techniques in order to obtain new rice varieties of high yield potential under drought stress condition. For them different explants types were used starting from seeds of the Cuban variety of rice Amistad 82 irradiated with protons in dose of 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90 and 100 Gy. The explants were cultivated in vitro in order to obtaining callus and later plant regenerate. The plant selected in vitro was multiplied being carried out several selection cycles under field conditions. A remarkable stimulation was observed from the regeneration of plants when using dose of 20 Gy and it was possible to select 4 promising lines that differ of the donor as for cycle, architecture of the plant and tolerance to drought. Tjis result demonstrates the potentialities of this radiation source for obtaining of new rice varieties

  6. The improvement of cisantana rice variety through induced mutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mugiono; Lilik Harsanti; Azri Kusuma Dewi

    2009-01-01

    The continuous improvement for rice through breeding is necessary to obtain new varieties with good quality and quantity. Cisantana variety hairy tips could be improved by mutation breeding. Seeds of Cisantana variety was irradiated by gamma rays ( 60 Co) at doses of 0.10, 0.20 and 0.30 kGy respectively at the Center for Application of Isotope and Radiation (CAIR) - Batan, Pasar Jumat, Jakarta. There after the irradiated seeds were planted as M1 plants at the CAIR’S experiment field in the dry season of 2000. Selection was carried out at the M2 generation and stressed on early maturity and bald spike. This was done at the experiment field at Pusakanegara - Subang in the Wet season of 2001/2002. From this population 19 mutants having early maturity and bald spike lets were selected. Purification in the next generation obtained 10 mutants which were homogeneous and without segregation. From these 10 mutants two mutant lines Obs-1688/PsJ and Obs-1692/PsJ were further tested. These two mutant lines showed good productivity and adaptability when tested at several locations. The resistance test for brown plant hopper and bacterial leaf blight disease showed that these two mutant lines are resistant to biotype 1 and 2, and medium resistant to biotype 3 of brown plant hopper, and also resistant to strain 3 and medium resistant to strain IV of bacterial leaf blight disease. These two mutant lines have good rice quality and were gelatinous. The Obs-1688/PsJ and Obs-1692/PsJ mutant lines were released as new rice varieties by the Minister of Agriculture and officially address as Mira-1 at 2006 and Bestari at 2008, respectively. (author)

  7. Chemometric classification of pigmented rice varieties based on antioxidative properties in relation to color

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phaiwan Pramai

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The pigmented Thai rice varieties including red and black color and non-pigmented rice (white collected from different growth sites in the north of Thailand and were determined for color and antioxidant properties. Anthocyanins were the major compound in group of black rice (21.15-441.96 mg/100 g rice. Total phenolic, flavonoid, and -tocopherol contents were highest in the black rice followed by red rice and antioxidant capacities were predominant in pigmented varieties. Black rice grown in mountainous area presented the highest antioxidant activity compared to the other growing locations. The color parameters, especially L* value presented the negative correlations with antioxidant parameters, while the antioxidant contents, excepted -oryzanol content had significant correlation with antioxidant capacities. Pigmented rice varieties could be clearly classified into 4 groups using PCA and HCA, which provided a good indicator to classify pigmented rice varieties based on color and antioxidative properties.

  8. Effect of germination on the physicochemical and antioxidant characteristics of rice flour from three rice varieties from Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinma, Chiemela Enyinnaya; Anuonye, Julian Chukwuemeka; Simon, Omotade Comfort; Ohiare, Raliat Ozavize; Danbaba, Nahemiah

    2015-10-15

    This study determined the effect of germination (48 h) on the physicochemical and antioxidant characteristics of rice flour from three rice varieties from Nigeria. Local rice varieties (Jamila, Jeep and Kwandala) were evaluated and compared to an improved variety (MR 219). Physicochemical and antioxidant properties of flours were determined using standard methods. Protein, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium and antioxidant properties of rice flours increased after germination while phytic acid and total starch contents decreased. Foaming capacity and stability of rice flours increased after germination. Germination resulted to changes in pasting and thermal characteristics of rice flours. Germinated rice flours had better physicochemical and antioxidant properties with reduced phytic acid and starch contents compared to MR 219, which can be utilized as functional ingredients in the preparation of rice-based products. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Glycaemic indices of different varieties of rice grown in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettiarachchi, P; Jiffry, M T; Jansz, E R; Wickramasinghe, A R; Fernando, D J

    2001-03-01

    Varieties of red raw rice are widely believed to have a better nutritional quality. The physiological effects of consuming different varieties of rice may not be so. The glycaemic index has been developed as an indicator of the physiological effect of foods. It is the glycaemic response of a 50 g carbohydrate portion of food expressed as a percentage of that of a standard. The objective of this study was to determine the glycaemic indices of different varieties of rice grown in Sri Lanka. Digestible carbohydrate content of 11 varieties of rice flour and bread were determined. Fasting blood samples followed by half-hourly samples for two hours were drawn after giving portions of either cooked rice or bread containing 50 g carbohydrate each. Fibre mill in Gampaha district. Twenty-two fibre mill workers aged between 25 and 50 years. The area under the blood glucose curve (AUC) for varieties of rice for a subject was calculated. Average AUC of 3 values for bread were calculated. Glycaemic index of each variety of rice was determined from the above variables. Glycaemic indices of varieties of rice differ. The glycaemic indices of varieties of red raw rice varied between 56 and 73 and the variety Bg 350 had the lowest glycaemic index. There was no significant difference between mean glycaemic index of varieties of white raw and some varieties of red raw rice (p = 0.2). Parboiled varieties of red raw rice had a significantly lower glycaemic index than white raw rice (p = 0.04) and some of the red raw rice (p = 0.005). The glycaemic index cannot be predicted from the colour of the rice grain. Red parboiled varieties of rice and Bg 350 can be recommended for patients with diabetes.

  10. Assessment of suitability of selected rice varieties for production of expanded rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayalaxmi Kamaraddi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Expanded rice, prepared from pre-gelatinized milled rice by sand roasting method, is a popular snack food of India. Five high-yielding rice varieties of Hill zone of Karnataka state, viz., IET-13901, KHP-2, KHP-5, KHP-10, and Intan were screened for puffing quality based on their physicochemical, functional, nutritional and organoleptic parameters with Rajamudi as local check. The effect of varietal differences on expansion/puffing quality parameters, in vitro digestibility of starch and protein as well as bioaccessibility of iron, zinc, and calcium were determined. Results indicated a strong positive correlation between amylose content and expansion ratio and a negative correlation between protein and amylose content, length expansion ratio and volume expansion ratio. Expansion characteristics showed that the varieties suitable for production of puffed rice were KHP-2, IET-13901 and Intan. Nutritional analysis showed following ranges of nutrient content in expanded rice: protein, 6.22–8.17%; fat, 0.06–0.14%; and as mg/100 g calcium, 20.5–23.5; iron, 2.01–2.72; zinc, 1.22–1.82; thiamine, 0.315–0.470; riboflavin, 0.051–0.069; and niacin, 3.18–4.68. Nearly 80.3–80.8% starch and 67.6–83.2% protein was digestible. Among all varieties, KHP-2 had lowest amount of rapidly digestible starch (61.4%. Mineral bioaccessibility ranged from 42.7 to 52.1%. Sensory analysis indicated that Intan and KHP-2 were superior and suited for production of expanded rice.

  11. Effects of Variety and Fermentation Time on the Quality of Rice Wine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to investigate the effect of variety and fermentation time on rice wine quality. Two rice varieties, X- Jigna and Gomera, and three fermentation times, 5, 6 and 7 days were used to study the physicochemical and sensory qualities of wine. Significant difference was observed at P<0.05 among the rice ...

  12. Physicochemical properties of brown rice as influenced by gamma irradiation, variety and storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabularse, V.C.

    1988-01-01

    Effects of gamma irradiation, variety and storage on physicochemical properties of brown rice from three Louisiana rice varieties: Mars, a medium grain variety, Lemont and Tebonnet, long grain varieties, were determined. Cooking time was significantly reduced in Mars and Lemont at doses of 200 and 300 Krads. Irradiation increased cooking rate, water uptake at 80 degree C, water uptake ratios, total solids content in residual cooking liquid and starch damage from 100 to 300 Krad samples. Water uptake at 96 degree C generally decreased with increasing dose levels. Evidence indicated alterations in the rice grain structures and composition. The component drastically affected by gamma irradiation was starch as shown by reduced cooking time, increased water uptake, increased amounts of starch and protein in residual cooking liquid, reduced volume expansion, increased damage starch and changes in amylographic pasting characteristics. Scanning electron microscopy showed more simple starch granules in irradiated samples than in nonirradiated samples. Structural changes in the bran layer due to gamma irradiation were not evident from electron micrographs

  13. Physicochemical and antioxidative properties of black, brown and red rice varieties of northern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noppawat Pengkumsri

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Rice, the seed of Oryza species, is the major cereal crop in most of the developing countries. Nearly 95% of global rice production is done in Asian countries, and about half of the world’s population consumes it. Some speciality rices are not commonly consumed. Colored rice is one of such variety. In these varieties, high amounts of anthocyanin pigment are deposited in the rice coat to form its black (also known as purple, brown and red colors. Minimum studies are there to explain the properties of these rice varieties of Thailand. Thus, the current study was aimed to assess the physicochemical and antioxidative properties of three rice varieties (Chiang Mai Black rice, Mali Red rice and Suphanburi-1 Brown rice of different cultivars of northern Thailand. Rice bran extracts of these three cultivars were prepared with different solvents (polar and non-polar for the evaluation of total phytochemical content and anti-oxidant free-radical-scavenging properties. Chiang Mai Black rice contained higher concentration of phenolic acid, flavonoids, and anthocyanins (Cyanidin 3-glucoside, peonidin 3-glucoside, cyanidin chloride. Chiang Mai Black rice is richer in free-radical-scavenging compounds and activities than the other tested varieties. Polar extractions of rice bran are high in anti-oxidative compounds and activities than non-polar extractions.

  14. Tocopherol and tocotrienol contents of different varieties of rice in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shammugasamy, Balakrishnan; Ramakrishnan, Yogeshini; Ghazali, Hasanah M; Muhammad, Kharidah

    2015-03-15

    The present study examined the contents of tocopherols and tocotrienols and their distribution in 58 different varieties of whole rice cultivated in Malaysia. The analytical method used was saponification of samples followed by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The total vitamin E contents of different varieties of whole rice ranged between 19.36 and 63.29 mg kg⁻¹. Contents of vitamin E isomers varied among rice varieties both within and between grain color groups. Black-pigmented rice showed significantly higher mean contents of α-tocopherol, β-tocopherol and α-tocotrienol than non-pigmented rice and red-pigmented rice. Red-pigmented rice had significantly lower mean contents of γ-tocotrienol and total vitamin E than non-pigmented rice. The mean contents of δ-tocotrienol and total vitamin E in non-pigmented rice, however, were similar to those in black-pigmented rice. γ-Tocotrienol was the predominant form of vitamin E isomer in all analyzed varieties. The Pearson correlations among vitamin E isomers and total vitamin E content of whole rice were also studied. This study provides information on vitamin E content of different rice varieties that would be beneficial for decision making in genetic breeding of bioactive compound-rich rice varieties. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. An early maturing rice mutant released as a variety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azam, M.A.; Imtiaz Uddin, Md.

    2001-01-01

    In the content of food grain production deficiency (about 1.0-1.5 million tons of rice per year according to the Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics, 1998) an induced mutation programme was undertaken in 1985. One moderate early maturing and high yielding rice mutant line (BINA6-84-4-115) has been developed by irradiating F 2 seeds of the cross 'BR4' x 'Iratom 38'. Three treatments viz., 250, 300 and 350 Gy were given to the F 2 seeds. Finally, this line was selected in M 6 generation for advanced yield trial. The line was evaluated in comparative trials with another mutant line BINA6-84-4-163. These two mutant lines had been selected earlier from 300 Gy originated lines. The two check varieties, 'BR 11' and 'BR 22' were also included in the trial, which was conducted in two consecutive T. aman seasons (July to December) during 1994 and 1995 at five locations in Bangladesh. From the results, it was evident that the mutant BINA6-84-4-115 did not differ much with the other mutant lines or check varieties in respect to plant height, number of effective tillers and panicle length but it was 10-18 days earlier than the other 3 entries. It produced a similar yield as the check BR 11 in 1994 and a higher yield than the check BR 11 and BR 22 in 1995. This mutant line gave the highest yield per day among all the entries. In addition to this, the grains are long, fine and possess a high L/B ratio, which are of high commercial value. This line has been released by the National Seed Board of Bangladesh in 1998 as a commercial variety under the name 'BINADHAN-4' for cultivation throughout Bangladesh

  16. Less adaption of newly approved variety Basmati 515 among aromatic basmati rice varieties in Kallar Tract of Punjab, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Tahir Latif

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A field survey was conducted after harvesting of rice crop 2016 to identify the reasons for less adaption of aromatic rice variety Basmati 515. The rice growers adopting rice-wheat cropping pattern in kallar tract were included in population of research study. Thirty male farmers from each selected district making a total of 180 respondent farmers were interviewed by convenience sampling method. The survey findings showed that the aromatic rice variety Basmati 515 was cultivated on only 2.7% rice area while maximum area (47.3% was under Super basmati variety. The comparison of Basmati 515 was made with Super basmati and PS 2 due to comparatively more cultivated area and declared yield potential of these varieties. Overall the farmers were applying under dosed phosphorus fertilizer (DAP as 0.25, 0.20 and 0.22 bag ha-1 respectively for basmati 515, super basmati and PS-2 varieties. The descriptive analysis showed that the less adaptability of basmati 515 was due to less yield and more attacks of borer (11%, BLB (10% and leaf roller (3.25% in comparison to other aromatic and fine rice varieties. Similarly maximum lodging (16% was recorded on basmati 515. Maximum yield was estimated for PS 2 variety (4.7 t ha-1 followed by super basmati (4.0 t ha-1 and basmati 515 (3.78 t ha-1. The market price of super basmati was still higher due to its natural aroma, long & thin grain and export demand. The research institutes should focus for development of new aromatic high yielding and more qualitative rice varieties to increase the rice production and export.

  17. Biophysical and Mechanical properties of rice varieties: attributes to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It requires about 25N for the rice grain (IITA306) to fail at 0.7mm at horizontal and 150N to crack the rice grain in vertical position at 21.0mm, it takes 60N for the rice grain (MAS) to fail at 1.4mm and 150N to crack the rice grain at 22.5mm as well as 58N for the rice grain (R18) to fail at 1.2mm and 125N to crack the rice grain ...

  18. [CH4 emission features of leading super-rice varieties and their relationships with the varieties growth characteristics in Yangtze Delta of China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiao-Jun; Wang, Li-Li; Jiang, Yu; Deng, Ai-Xing; Tian, Yun-Lu; Zhang, Wei-Jian

    2013-09-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to study the CH4 emission features of fourteen leading super-rice varieties (six Japonica rice varieties and eight Indica hybrid rice varieties) and their relationships with the varieties growth characteristics in Yangtze Delta. Two distinct peaks of CH4 emission were detected during the entire growth period of the varieties, one peak occurred at full-tillering stage, and the other appeared at booting stage. The average total CH4 emission of Japonica rice varieties was 37.6% higher than that of the Indica hybrid rice varieties (Price types occurred at the post-anthesis phase. For all the varieties, there was a significant positive correlation between the total CH4 emission and the maximum leaf area, but the correlations between the CH4 emission and the other growth characteristics varied with variety type. The total CH4 emission of Japonica rice varieties had a significant positive correlation with plant height, while the correlations between the total CH4 emission of Indica hybrid rice varieties and their plant height were not significant. The total CH4 emission of Indica hybrid rice varieties had significant negative correlations with the total aboveground biomass, grain yield, and harvest index, but the correlations were not significant for Japonica rice varieties. The lower CH4 emission of Indica hybrid rice varieties was likely due to their significantly higher root biomass, as compared with Japonica rice varieties.

  19. Resistance of Rice Varieties to the Stored-Product Insect, Sitophilus zeamais (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, Catarina; Mendes, Raquel; Lima, Arlindo; Barros, Graça; Fields, Paul; Da Costa, Luísa Beirão; Rodrigues, José Carlos; Silva, Maria José; Correia, Augusto Manuel; Carvalho, Maria Otilia

    2016-02-01

    Four common Portuguese rice varieties--Thaibonnet, Gladio, Albatros, and Eurosis--were tested for their relative susceptibility to Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky, a common pest of stored rice in Portugal and in tropical countries. Physical (moisture content, hardness, length, and width) and chemical (by attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy) properties of rice kernels were measured. Insect bioassays measured median developmental time, Dobie's index of susceptibility, percentage of damaged grains and weight loss, and progeny developed. This was done for paddy, brown rice, and polished rice for each variety. There were small, but significant, differences in insect resistance among the varieties. However, it was different for paddy and polished rice. In paddy, these differences were correlated with hull damage, and Eurosis was the most susceptible variety. In polished rice, resistance was correlated with hardness, and Thaibonnet was the most susceptible variety. In general, paddy rice was more resistant to insect attack, followed by polished rice and then brown rice. Paddy kernels selected with undamaged hull were completely resistant to attack. Implications for IPM and breeding for resistant varieties are discussed. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Consumer Acceptance and Preference Study (CAPS) on brown and undermilled Indian rice varieties in Chennai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudha, Vasudevan; Spiegelman, Donna; Hong, Biling; Malik, Vasanti; Jones, Clara; Wedick, Nicole M; Hu, Frank B; Willett, Walter; Bai, Mookambika Ramya; Ponnalagu, Muthu Mariyammal; Arumugam, Kokila; Mohan, Viswanathan

    2013-01-01

    To study consumer acceptance of unmilled brown and undermilled rice among urban south Indians. Overweight and normal weight adults living in slum and nonslum residences in Chennai participated (n = 82). Bapatla (BPT) and Uma (red pigmented) rice varieties were chosen. These rice varieties were dehusked (unmilled, 0% polish) and further milled to 2.3% and 4.4% polishing (undermilled). Thus, 9 rice samples in both raw and parboiled forms were provided for consumer tasting over a period of 3 days. A 7-point hedonic scale was used to rate consumer preferences. A validated questionnaire was used to collect demographic, anthropometric, medical history, physical activity, dietary intake data, and willingness of the consumers to switch over to brown rice. Consumers reported that the color, appearance, texture, taste, and overall quality of the 4.4% polished rice was strongly preferred in both varieties and forms. Ratings for 0% polished (brown rice) were substantially lower than those of 2.3% polished rice, which were intermediate in ratings between 0% and 4.4% polishing. However, most of the consumers (93%) expressed a willingness to substitute brown or 2.3% polished rice, if affordable, after the taste tests and education on nutritional and health benefits of whole grains. Though most consumers preferred polished white rice, education regarding health benefits may help this population switch to brown or undermilled rice. Cooking quality and appearance of the grains were perceived as the most important factors to consider when purchasing rice among Chennai urban adults.

  1. Screening for Osmotic Stress Responses in Rice Varieties under Drought Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Swapna

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Drought is the major abiotic stress factor that limits rice production worldwide. To evaluate the osmotic stress responses in rice varieties under drought condition, a total of 42 high-yielding rice varieties were collected from various research stations of Kerala Agricultural University in India. The experimental setup comprises of initial hydroponic treatments at different osmotic potentials, artificially induced by desired strengths of polyethylene glycol (PEG6000, and followed by the pot planted experiments in the rain-out-zone. The activities of antioxidant enzymes, relative water content, cell membrane stability, photosynthetic pigments, proline content, along with plant growth parameters of the varieties under drought condition were evaluated. Moreover, the standard scores of these rice varieties were assessed under stress and recovery conditions based on the scoring scale of the Standard Evaluation System for rice. Among the 42 rice varieties, we identified 2 rice varieties, Swarnaprabha and Kattamodan, with less leaf rolling, better drought recovery ability as well as relative water content, increased membrane stability index, osmolyte accumulation, and antioxidant enzyme activities pointed towards their degree of tolerance to drought stress. The positive adaptive responses of these rice varieties towards drought stress can be used in the genetic improvement of rice drought resistance breeding program.

  2. Identification of Striga hermonthica-Resistant Upland Rice Varieties in Sudan and Their Resistance Phenotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Samejima, Hiroaki; Babiker, Abdel G.; Mustafa, Ahmed; Sugimoto, Yukihiro

    2016-01-01

    Rice has become a major staple cereal in sub-Saharan Africa. Currently, upland rice cultivation is expanding particularly in rainfed areas where the root parasitic weed Striga hermonthica, a major constraint to cereal production, is endemic. Laboratory, pot, and semi-controlled open air experiments were performed to evaluate resistance of selected rice varieties in Sudan to a resident S. hermonthica population. In the laboratory, 27 varieties were screened for post-attachment resistance using...

  3. Screening for Osmotic Stress Responses in Rice Varieties under Drought Condition

    OpenAIRE

    Simon Swapna; Korukkanvilakath Samban Shylaraj

    2017-01-01

    Drought is the major abiotic stress factor that limits rice production worldwide. To evaluate the osmotic stress responses in rice varieties under drought condition, a total of 42 high-yielding rice varieties were collected from various research stations of Kerala Agricultural University in India. The experimental setup comprises of initial hydroponic treatments at different osmotic potentials, artificially induced by desired strengths of polyethylene glycol (PEG6000), and followed by the pot...

  4. Genetic diversity studies on selected rice varieties grown in Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rice grain quality is an important factor that has a great influence on its market value and consumer acceptance. It is determined by three parameters controlling the cooking and eating qualities of rice (amylose content, gelatinization temperature and gel consistency) and by the aroma, which becomes a criterion ...

  5. 'Hari', a mutant cross derived rice variety released In India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narahari, P [Nuclear Agriculture Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), Trombay, Bombay (India)

    1989-01-01

    Full text: TR-RNR-21 is a derivative from a cross between 'IR-8' and 'TR-5', the latter being a N{sub f}-induced dwarf mutant of the salt tolerant variety SR-26-B. In initial yield evaluations at BARC during 1972-78 it gave higher yields of 54% in monsoon season and 19% in dry season over 'Jaya' and compared favourably with 'IR-8' and 'Sona'. During 1975-80, trials were conducted by the Andhra Pradesh Agricultural University (APAU), Rajendranagar and the All India Co-ordinated Rice Improvement Project (AICRIP), at Rajendranagar, Hyderabad. In these trials TR-RNR-21 was compared with 'Pankaj', 'Jaya', RP-4-14, 'Sona', 'Surekha', RNR-323341 and 'Prabhat'. Compared with the highest yielding check and all the seven checks combined, overall average yields of TR-RNR-21 were higher by 10.1 and 19.8% respectively. Since 1981, TR-RNR-21 was included in minikit trials of Andhra Pradesh State. Results from over 90 locations of the Telangana region show that mean grain yield of 3843 kg/ha was 19% more than the yield of the local checks. In view of its consistently superior performance, TR-RNR-21 was released as 'Hari' in 1987 for general cultivation in the irrigated transplanted conditions of the Telangana region of Andhra Pradesh, excepting the endemic gall midge prone areas. 'Hari' is a medium duration variety maturing within 135-140 days. It is a semi-dwarf (93 cm), erect, compact and non-lodging type with dark green foliage; anthocyanin pigment absent; grain long (10.1 mm), slender with kernel length/breadth ratio of 3.54; kernel flinty, white, translucent and non-glutinous; white belly absent; TGW 25.2 g; protein content 7.1%; bulling, milling and head recovery - 80, 74.5 and 68% respectively; cooking quality good. It is not affected seriously by blast, tungro virus, sheath blight and brown leaf spot diseases and green leaf hopper, leaf folder and stem borer insect pests. A characteristic of this variety is that the flag leaf is long, stays far above the panicle and

  6. Impact of Improved Rice Variety on Productivity Among Smallholder Farmers in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Tsinigo

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Advancement in agricultural technologies is seen to result in the shift in production functions. The study was conducted to establish the impact of the improved rice variety on productivity in the Ejura-Sekyedumase and Atebubu-Amantin Municipalities of Ghana. The study was based on the survey of 208 rice farmers using a three-stage stratified sampling method. The study used a structured questionnaire to collect input-output data from the rice farmers. Data were analysed using the Cobb-Douglas production function. The study found that the technical change associated with the introduction of the improved rice variety was of the non-neutral type. Further, the adoption of the improved rice variety has increased rice productivity by about 46% for the adopters. The main determinants of productivity for the adopters were seed, land, fertiliser, herbicide, and education. Productivity among the non-adopters was positively influenced by seed, land, herbicide, and fertiliser. The study concluded that the improved rice variety has superior yield advantage. The study recommends for the simultaneous promotion of improved rice varieties and their recommended inputs to increase rice productivity.

  7. [Performance of rice varieties in making bread without gluten].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, R L; González, R J; Sánchez, H D; Osella, C A; de la Torre, M A

    1999-06-01

    The objective of this work was the evaluation of the technological behavior of seven rice genotypes, using a baking test for bread without gluten, and taking account the influence of particle size and physicochemical properties of the rice on the technological aptitude to produce the bread. Total and insoluble amylose content and hydration were used to make its relationship with bread quality. The genotypes Rico and H-144-7 have contributed to give the best results at baking test while waxy rices gave the lower quality bread. Also we emphasize that a certain relationships can be assumed between hydration and insoluble amylose content with the organoleptic evaluation of breads.

  8. DIFFUSION AND ADOPTION OF NEW RICE VARIETIES FOR AFRICA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    Saharan Africa (SSA). It is ranked ... cultivated, rice is the most rapidly growing food .... population. Another parameter of interest is the average treatment effect on the treated, commonly denoted as ATE1 or ATT (Wooldridge, 2002, chapter 18).

  9. Genetic diversity studies on selected rice varieties grown in Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tuoyo Aghomotsegin

    similarity was observed between traditional aromatic rice Basmati 370 and the landrace Gambiaka. Nigeria. .... inheritance, abundance and extensive genome coverage ... market value, 4 landraces Gambiaka well spread in Africa, TS2 a.

  10. Response of Transplanted Aman Rice Varieties to Herbicides in Strip-Tilled Non-Puddled Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taslima Zahan1

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sensitivity of crop cultivars may vary to commonly used herbicides resulting in potential yield loss and reduce farm profit. Transplanting of rice seedlings in strip-tilled non-puddled field is a new practice for which herbicide tolerant varieties need to select. Therefore, a study was executed at the Agronomy Field Laboratory of Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh during 2013 to evaluate the response of some popular transplanted aman rice varieties to different herbicides at their recommended rate and to select most tolerant aman rice variety or varieties for strip-tilled non-puddled transplanting. METHODOLOGY: Twelve aman rice varieties (BR11, BRRI dhan33, BRRI dhan39, BRRI dhan44, BRRI dhan46, BRRI dhan49, BRRI dhan51, BRRI dhan52, BRRI dhan56, BRRI dhan57, BRRI hybrid dhan-4 and BINA dhan7 were examined in the study against six herbicides (2 pre-emergence: pyrazosulfuron-ethyl and butachlor; 1 early post-emergence: orthosulfamuron and 3 late post-emergence: acetochlor + bensulfuron methyl, butachlor + propanil and 2,4-D amine along with one untreated manually weed-free control. KEY FINDINGS: The study revealed that aman rice varieties responded differentially to different herbicides. All rice varieties performed better in pyrazosulfuron-ethyl treated plots relative to the other herbicide treated plots and even than the control plots. Pyrazosulfuron-ethyl increased grain yield of all aman rice varieties by 0.6-32.6% over control and butachlor + propanil provided increased grain yield in all rice varieties by 2.0-25.5% except BRRI hybrid dhan-4. The study also disclosed that BRRI dhan57 and BRRI hybrid dhan-4 gone through the yield loss by application of 2,4-D amine and BRRI dhan56 by application of butachlor and orthosulfamuron. Moreover, acetochlor + bensulfuron methyl produced shorter plants and caused yield loss by 7.8-27.1% in all aman rice varieties compared to the control and BRRI dhan39 was the most susceptible

  11. Comparison study of genetic diversity between rice varieties from northeast China and Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Hongyu; Wang Haize; Zhang Longhai; Liu Menghong; Xu Zhengjin; Zhao Minghui; Xu Hai; Wang Jiayu; Si Yang

    2011-01-01

    The genetic diversity of 18 rice varieties from northeast China and 13 rice varieties from Japan were investigated by 20 phenotypic traits and SSR assay with 40 pairs of primers. The results showed that 82 phenotypic variation and 108 alleles were detected. With an average of 2.54 alleles on every locus the phenotypic variation and alleles in northeast China were 72 and 103, respectively, and 63 and 94 were respectively with an average of 2.32 alleles on every locus in Japanese varieties. Genetic variation among different varieties varied greatly and among different groups varied slightly. Genetic diversity of varieties in northeast China was much higher than those in Japan, and 94.7% of the alleles from Japanese varieties were included in the varieties from northeast China. The available specific alleles were already very limited in the varieties from Japan and can not meet the rice breeding requirements for northeastern China. (authors)

  12. Effect of fertiliser on functional properties of flour from four rice varieties grown in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunaratne, Anil; Sirisena, Nihal; Ratnayaka, Upul Kumari; Ratnayaka, Jennet; Kong, Xiangli; Vidhana Arachchi, Lal Peruma; Corke, Harold

    2011-05-01

    Fertiliser is an essential agro-chemical input in modern rice farming. Fertiliser affects the grain quality and yield of rice. Although much research has been carried out to investigate the influence of fertiliser (recommended NPK addition) on yield and quality of rice grain, little is known about the effect of fertiliser on thermal, pasting, gelling and retrogradation properties of rice flour. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of recommended fertilisation on functional properties of rice flour from four popular high yielding rice varieties grown in Sri Lanka. Fertiliser (recommended NPK addition) increased the protein content but reduced the apparent amylose content in rice flour except in BG 357. Swelling power and amylose leaching were decreased by fertilizer. [corrected] Pasting onset temperature, cold paste viscosity and setback were increased but peak viscosity and granular breakdown decreased. In response to the fertiliser application, gelatinisation peak temperature was reduced in all varieties except BG 300. However, compared to pasting properties, gelatinisation parameters were not much affected by fertilisation. The extent of amylopectin retrogradation was decreased by fertiliser in BG 305 and BG 352 but unchanged in the other two varieties. Except in BG 305, fertiliser reduced the gel hardness of rice flour but increased the gel cohesiveness. It is apparent that the increased protein and reduced amylose content caused by fertiliser affect the functional properties of rice flour. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Symbiont-mediated adaptation by planthoppers and leafhoppers to resistant rice varieties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferrater, J.B.; Jong, de P.W.; Dicke, M.; Chen, Y.H.; Horgan, F.G.

    2013-01-01

    For over 50 years, host plant resistance has been the principal focus of public research to reduce planthopper and leafhopper damage to rice in Asia. Several resistance genes have been identified from native varieties and wild rice species, and some of these have been incorporated into high-yielding

  14. Physicochemical and sensory analysis of USA rice varieties developed for the basmati and jasmine markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is a steady demand for imported basmati and jasmine rice in The USA. Rice varieties that can be domestically produced and compete with these imports, have been developed from basmati, jasmine, and other aromatic germplasm sources. This study evaluated differences among eight USA aromatic varie...

  15. Effect Of Shade Organic Materials And Varieties On Growth And Production Of Upland Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonatan Ginting

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There is a shade factor and low organic matter content of the soil is a problem that needs to be addressed in the development of upland rice cultivation as intercrops in the plantation area. Based on these considerations then one study that needs to be done is to conduct experiments on the effect of shade factor combined with the the provision of the organic material to the some varieties of upland rice that has been recommended nationally. The objective of experiment is to study the influence of shade organic materials and varieties on the growth and production of upland rice. This research using experimental design of Split - Split Plot Design with 3 treatment factors and 3 replications or blocks. The first factor is the treatment of shade with 3 levels shade percentage 0 20 and 40. The second factor is the dosage of organic material consists of 3 levels 0 g polybag 25 g polybag 50 g polybag and 75 g polybag. The third factor is the treatment of varieties consists of 4 types of upland rice varieties Si Kembiri Situ Patengggang Situ Bagendit and Tuwoti. The research results showed that the effect of shade on upland rice varieties decrease number of tillers number of panicles number of productive grains grain production per hill of uplnd rice plants and total sugar content of upland rice plants. Effect of organic matter increases number of panicles number of productive grains grain production per hill of upland rice plants and total sugar content of upland rice plants. It is known that the the variety of Situ Patenggang provides better growth and production compared with three other varieties Si Kembiri Situ Bagendit and Tuwoti in shaded conditions.

  16. Characterization of High-Value Bioactives in Some Selected Varieties of Pakistani Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubair, Muhammad; Anwar, Farooq; Ashraf, Muhammad; Uddin, Md. Kamal

    2012-01-01

    The present study reports the composition and variation of fatty acids, sterols, tocopherols and γ-oryzanol among selected varieties namely Basmati Super, Basmati 515, Basmati 198, Basmati 385, Basmati 2000, Basmati 370, Basmati Pak, KSK-139, KS-282 and Irri-6 of Pakistani rice (Oryza sativa L). Oil content extracted with n-hexane from different varieties of brown rice seed (unpolished rice) ranged from 1.92% to 2.72%. Total fatty acid contents among rice varieties tested varied between 18240 and 25840 mg/kg brown rice seed. The rice tested mainly contained oleic (6841–10952 mg/kg) linoleic (5453–7874 mg/kg) and palmitic acid (3613–5489 mg/kg). The amounts of total phytosterols (GC and GC-MS analysis), with main contribution from β-sitosterol (445–656 mg/kg), campesterol (116–242 mg/kg), Δ5-avenasterol (89–178 mg/kg) and stigmasterol (75–180 mg/kg) were established to be 739.4 to 1330.4 mg/kg rice seed. The content of α-, γ- and δ-tocopherols as analyzed by HPLC varied from 39.0–76.1, 21.6–28.1 and 6.5–16.5 mg/kg rice seed, respectively. The amounts of different γ-oryzanol components (HPLC data), identified as cycloartenyl ferulate, 24-methylene cycloartanyl ferulate, campesteryl ferulate and β-sitosteryl ferulate, were in the range of 65.5–103.6, 140.2–183.1, 29.8–45.5 and 8.6–10.4 mg/kg rice seed, respectively. Overall, the concentration of these bioactives was higher in the Basmati rice cultivars showing their functional food superiority. In conclusion, the tested varieties of Pakistani rice, especially the Basmati cultivars, can provide best ingredients for functional foods. PMID:22605998

  17. Characterization of High-Value Bioactives in Some Selected Varieties of Pakistani Rice (Oryza sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Kamal Uddin

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study reports the composition and variation of fatty acids, sterols, tocopherols and γ-oryzanol among selected varieties namely Basmati Super, Basmati 515, Basmati 198, Basmati 385, Basmati 2000, Basmati 370, Basmati Pak, KSK-139, KS-282 and Irri-6 of Pakistani rice (Oryza sativa L. Oil content extracted with n-hexane from different varieties of brown rice seed (unpolished rice ranged from 1.92% to 2.72%. Total fatty acid contents among rice varieties tested varied between 18240 and 25840 mg/kg brown rice seed. The rice tested mainly contained oleic (6841–10952 mg/kg linoleic (5453–7874 mg/kg and palmitic acid (3613–5489 mg/kg. The amounts of total phytosterols (GC and GC-MS analysis, with main contribution from β-sitosterol (445–656 mg/kg, campesterol (116–242 mg/kg, ∆5-avenasterol (89–178 mg/kg and stigmasterol (75–180 mg/kg were established to be 739.4 to 1330.4 mg/kg rice seed. The content of α-, γ- and δ-tocopherols as analyzed by HPLC varied from 39.0–76.1, 21.6–28.1 and 6.5–16.5 mg/kg rice seed, respectively. The amounts of different γ-oryzanol components (HPLC data, identified as cycloartenyl ferulate, 24-methylene cycloartanyl ferulate, campesteryl ferulate and β-sitosteryl ferulate, were in the range of 65.5–103.6, 140.2–183.1, 29.8–45.5 and 8.6–10.4 mg/kg rice seed, respectively. Overall, the concentration of these bioactives was higher in the Basmati rice cultivars showing their functional food superiority. In conclusion, the tested varieties of Pakistani rice, especially the Basmati cultivars, can provide best ingredients for functional foods.

  18. Improvement of traditional local rice varieties through induced mutations using nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pham Van Ro; Do Huu At

    2001-01-01

    'Improvement of local rice varieties for high yield, resistance to disease and insect pests (brown plant hopper and rice blast) and export quality through induced mutations for the Mekong Delta' started in 1993. After six years, it showed effecting on the field in the MD as well as at the south of Vietnam. TNDB-100 manifest very wide adaptation and yield stable variety. THDB is suitable for deepwater rice region, coastal area, where rice cultivation effected by acid sulphate and salinity conditions. Both varieties are good example for the method. Thank to good Co-operation from extension center from provinces, hundred classes of extension were organized to recommend to the farmers. And thank to the strongly supporting from IAEA so that nearly 400,000 ha of TNDB-100 occupied at the south of Vietnam as well as nearly 15,000 ha of THDB grown in the coastal as well as rainfed lowland rice areas at the South of Vietnam. To continue the rice improvement by this technique, seeds of six traditional local varieties were exposed under different dose of gamma rays to create new mutants. At present day hundred improved breeding lines were selected, a dozen of uniform lines were isolated and entranced the yield trail as well as regional testing program. From these improved varieties would be selected to contribute to the rice cultivation at the south of Vietnam in the next years. (author)

  19. Improvement of traditional local rice varieties through induced mutations using nuclear techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pham Van Ro; Do Huu At [Cuu Long Delta Rice Research Institute (Viet Nam)

    2001-03-01

    'Improvement of local rice varieties for high yield, resistance to disease and insect pests (brown plant hopper and rice blast) and export quality through induced mutations for the Mekong Delta' started in 1993. After six years, it showed effecting on the field in the MD as well as at the south of Vietnam. TNDB-100 manifest very wide adaptation and yield stable variety. THDB is suitable for deepwater rice region, coastal area, where rice cultivation effected by acid sulphate and salinity conditions. Both varieties are good example for the method. Thank to good Co-operation from extension center from provinces, hundred classes of extension were organized to recommend to the farmers. And thank to the strongly supporting from IAEA so that nearly 400,000 ha of TNDB-100 occupied at the south of Vietnam as well as nearly 15,000 ha of THDB grown in the coastal as well as rainfed lowland rice areas at the South of Vietnam. To continue the rice improvement by this technique, seeds of six traditional local varieties were exposed under different dose of gamma rays to create new mutants. At present day hundred improved breeding lines were selected, a dozen of uniform lines were isolated and entranced the yield trail as well as regional testing program. From these improved varieties would be selected to contribute to the rice cultivation at the south of Vietnam in the next years. (author)

  20. Comparative transcriptome analysis of two rice varieties in response to rice stripe virus and small brown planthoppers during early interaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjing Zheng

    Full Text Available Rice stripe, a virus disease, transmitted by a small brown planthopper (SBPH, has greatly reduced production of japonica rice in East Asia, especially in China. Although we have made great progress in mapping resistance genes, little is known about the mechanism of resistance. By de novo transcriptome assembling, we gained sufficient transcript data to analyze changes in gene expression of early interaction in response to SBPH and RSV infection in rice. Respectively 648 and 937 DEGs were detected from the disease-resistant (Liaonong 979 and the susceptible (Fengjin varieties, most of which were up-regulated. We found 37 genes related to insect resistance, which mainly included genes for jasmonate-induced protein, TIFY protein, lipoxygenase, as well as trypsin inhibitor genes and transcription factor genes. In the interaction process between RSV and rice, 87 genes were thought to be related to RSV resistance; these primarily included 12 peroxidase biosynthesis genes, 12 LRR receptor-like protein kinase genes, 6 genes coding pathogenesis-related proteins, 4 glycine-rich cell wall structural protein genes, 2 xyloglucan hydrolase genes and a cellulose synthase. The results indicate that the rice-pathogen interaction happened both in disease-resistant and susceptible varieties, and some genes related to JA biosynthesis played key roles in the interaction between SBPHs and rice. When rice was infected by RSV a hypersensitive reaction (HR in the disease-resistant variety was suppressed, which resulted from an increase in peroxidase expression and down-regulation of LRR receptor-like protein kinase and pathogenesis-related proteins, while, the changes of peroxidase biosynthesis, glycine-rich cell wall structural protein, cellulose synthase and xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase could lead to the strengthening of physical barriers of rice, which may be an important resistance mechanism to RSV in rice.

  1. Comparative transcriptome analysis of two rice varieties in response to rice stripe virus and small brown planthoppers during early interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wenjing; Ma, Li; Zhao, Jiaming; Li, Zhiqiang; Sun, Fuyu; Lu, Xiaochun

    2013-01-01

    Rice stripe, a virus disease, transmitted by a small brown planthopper (SBPH), has greatly reduced production of japonica rice in East Asia, especially in China. Although we have made great progress in mapping resistance genes, little is known about the mechanism of resistance. By de novo transcriptome assembling, we gained sufficient transcript data to analyze changes in gene expression of early interaction in response to SBPH and RSV infection in rice. Respectively 648 and 937 DEGs were detected from the disease-resistant (Liaonong 979) and the susceptible (Fengjin) varieties, most of which were up-regulated. We found 37 genes related to insect resistance, which mainly included genes for jasmonate-induced protein, TIFY protein, lipoxygenase, as well as trypsin inhibitor genes and transcription factor genes. In the interaction process between RSV and rice, 87 genes were thought to be related to RSV resistance; these primarily included 12 peroxidase biosynthesis genes, 12 LRR receptor-like protein kinase genes, 6 genes coding pathogenesis-related proteins, 4 glycine-rich cell wall structural protein genes, 2 xyloglucan hydrolase genes and a cellulose synthase. The results indicate that the rice-pathogen interaction happened both in disease-resistant and susceptible varieties, and some genes related to JA biosynthesis played key roles in the interaction between SBPHs and rice. When rice was infected by RSV a hypersensitive reaction (HR) in the disease-resistant variety was suppressed, which resulted from an increase in peroxidase expression and down-regulation of LRR receptor-like protein kinase and pathogenesis-related proteins, while, the changes of peroxidase biosynthesis, glycine-rich cell wall structural protein, cellulose synthase and xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase could lead to the strengthening of physical barriers of rice, which may be an important resistance mechanism to RSV in rice.

  2. Response of high yielding rice varieties to NaCl salinity in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to find resistant varieties and study the reaction of some newly released high yielding varieties to different levels of salinity of irrigation water an experiment was conducted at the Rice Research Institute of Iran-Amol station in a greenhouse. Eight varieties, cultivated in pots, were tested with three levels of salinity (2, ...

  3. Rice Varieties in Archaic East Asia: Reduction of Its Diversity from Past to Present Times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumagai, Masahiko; Kanehara, Masaaki; Shoda, Shin'ya; Fujita, Saburo; Onuki, Shizuo; Ueda, Shintaroh; Wang, Li

    2016-10-01

    The Asian cultivated rice, Oryza sativa, is one of the most important crops feeding more than a third of global population. In spite of the studies for several decades, the origin and domestication history of rice varietal groups, japonica and indica, have not been fully unveiled. Genetic information of ancient rice remains is essential for direct and exclusive insight into the domestication history of rice. We performed ancient DNA analysis of 950- to 2,800-year-old rice remains excavated from Japan and Korea. We found the presence of both japonica- and indica-type varieties in the Yayoi period and the middle ages of Japan and the middle part of Korea Peninsula 2,000 years ago. It is popularly considered that japonica has been exclusively cultivated in northern part of East Asia including Japan and Korea. Our result disclosed unexpectedly wide diversity of rice varieties in archaic East Asia. The present results from ancient rice DNA reveal an exclusive insight for the domestication history of rice which is not provided as far as contemporary rice. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Japonica rice variety Yangfujing 7 bred by mutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Zhentian; Chen Xiulan; Han Yuepeng; Wang Jinrong; Yang Hefeng; Wang Jianhua

    2006-01-01

    A japonica variety, Yangfujing 7, which possessing high yield potential, good quality and disease resistance was developed through cross breeding combined mutation breeding. The variety met the needs of agricultural environment in Jiangsu province. (authors)

  5. Morphological Variation of Six Pigmented Rice Local Varieties Grown in Organic Rice Field in Sengguruh Village, Kepanjen District, Malang Regency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinta

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia is the third richest country for pigmented rice source such as Wojalaka black rice of East Nusa Tenggara (NTT, Manggarai of NTT, Toraja of South Sulawesi, Cempo Ireng of Central Java and red rice of Aek Sibundong (leading variety and Baubau of Southeast Sulawesi. However, the morphological character of pigmented rice in Indonesia is less reported. The objective of research was to compare the morphological variation of root, stem, leaf, panicle, floret and the colour of milk mature grain and mature grain by observing the vegetative and generative parts of six local rice varieties. Research had been conducted from February 2012 to February 2014 in Sengguruh Village, Kepanjen District, Malang Regency. This study type was quasi-experiment with eleven replications. Group Random Design was used. The observation was given upon vegetative, reproductive and maturity phases as groups. Independent variables in this study were six rice varieties, while the dependent variable was morphological variation (root, stem, leaf, panicle, floret, milk mature grain and mature grain. The analysis of multivariate data in cluster and bip lot was carried out with PAST. The result of the study indicated that there was morphological difference on stem, leaf, panicle, floret, milk mature grain and mature grain. The colour of the stem in Aek Sibundong variety was purple, while that of other varieties was green. Toraja and Manggarai varieties had the highest height with 163-168 cm, followed by Cempo Ireng with 139 cm, Wojalaka and Baubau with 110-112 cm. Aek Sibundong Variety had the lowest height with 99 cm. Aek Sibundong and Wojalaka varieties had 6-7 internodes which were the greatest number of internode, while other varieties only had 4-5 internodes. Some varieties, such as Aek Sibundong, Wojalaka and Baubau had short and small leaf. The leaflet angle of Aek Sibundong and Baubau were 14o and it might be said as upright, while that of Wojalaka was 43o or moderate

  6. Assessment of the quality of bran and bran oil produced from some Egyptian rice varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Eglal G; El Hissewy, Ahmed; Agamy, Neveen F; Abd El Barry, Doaa

    2014-04-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is one of the leading food crops of the world, the staple food of over half the world's population. The bran, which is an important byproduct obtained during rice milling, constitutes about 1/10 of the weight of the rice grain. Rice bran is the outer brown layer including the rice germ that is removed during the milling process of brown grain. This milling byproduct is reported to be high in natural vitamins and minerals, particularly vitamin E. The present study was conducted to determine the chemical composition of bran and bran oil of 13 different rice varieties commonly produced in Egypt, to study the utilization of rice bran in bread production, and to assess the quality and acceptance of the rice bran edible oil produced. Rice bran was produced from 13 Egyptian varieties of recently harvested rice as well as from paddy rice stored for 1 year. The extracted bran was immediately stabilized then subjected to chemical analysis (such as moisture content, protein, fat, carbohydrates, fiber, and ash) as well as trace and heavy metals determination (P, K, Na, Ca, Fe, Zn, Cu, and Mg). Bread was produced by adding Giza172 rice bran at three different concentrations to wheat flour then subjected to chemical analysis, caloric content, and organoleptic examination. Bran oil was extracted from the different varieties of rice bran (recently harvested and stored) then subjected to chemical and organoleptic examinations as well as vitamin E and oryzanol determination. The percentage of rice bran of newly harvested Egyptian rice was 11.68% and was 10.97% in stored rice. The analysis showed mean values of 5.91 and 5.53% for moisture, 14.60 and 14.40% for crude protein, 14.83 and 15.20% for fat, 44.77 and 45.40% for carbohydrates, 6.55 and 7.06% for crude fiber, and 8.87 and 8.50% for ash for newly harvested and stored rice bran, respectively. Bread containing 15% rice bran showed the highest score percentages for organoleptic quality compared with the

  7. The yield and quality of black rice varieties in different altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purwanto, E.; Hidayati, W.; Nandariyah

    2018-03-01

    This study aims to determine the optimal environmental conditions and corresponding black rice varieties in order to produce high production and optimum quality rice. The study using nested design, first was location (2 levels: the highlands and lowland), second was varieties (3 levels: Cempo Ireng, IPB, and Gagak) the study was conducted from November 2015 until May 2016 in Karanglo and Gutanon village, Karanganyar. Anthocyanin analysis conducted in laboratory of Nutrition and Food, Faculty of Agriculture, Sebelas Maret University. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance and significant difference continued with DMRT (Duncan Multiple Range Test) level of 5%. Results showed that cultivation in highlands and use of diverse varieties showed different quantity of rice that can be seen on panicle length, and weight of grain crops. Improved quality of results showed same things, anthocyanin content and iron increased on black rice which cultivated in highlands.

  8. Absorption and translocation of 15N in Japonica (Hinohikari) and Indica (Hadsaduri) rice varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, N.; Inagaki, S.; Chishaki, N.; Horiguchi, T.

    1997-01-01

    The absorption and translocation of 15 N-labeled nitrogen (N) applied as three N levels of ammonium nitrate at the stages of panicle initiation (PI) and heading (HD) were compared between a japonica rice variety (var. Hinohikari) and a tall indica rice variety (var. Hadsaduri) by growing them hydroponically. With the supply of low N level, 15 N absorption by the japonica variety was larger, but at medium and high N levels, the tall indica variety absorbed larger amounts of 15 N at both stages. However, the amount of 15 N partitioned to the panicles at maturity was considerably smaller in the indica variety, since dry matter allocation to the panicles was also smaller in this variety. The tall indica variety showed a considerable loss of 15 N from heading to maturity at the high N-level unlike the japonica variety. (author)

  9. The improvement of rice varieties for major pest and diseases resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahi, I.; Silitonga, T.S.

    1988-01-01

    Since 1971, the rice breeding program in Indonesia has developed on intensive program to improve varieties for yield potential, resistancy to major pests and diseases, early maturity good grain and eating quality. In recent years, the attacks of insects and diseases are very severe in rice cultivation in Asia. Much of the losses were due to acontinuous planting or certain varieties. Between 1966 and 1973 tungro occured in epidemic proportions on separate occasions in Indonesia, Thailand, Nort East India, Bangladesh, and Philippine. Since 1973, investation of brown planthopper and green leafhopper several damaged rice crop in most parts of Indonesia. Presently, rice improvement are directed to develop high yielding rice varieties that are resistant to brown planthopper, ragged stunt virus, blast, green leafhopper, and gallmidge. Screening for pests and diseases are conducted in the laboratory as well as in the field. The adoption of those improved varieties by farmers has contributed greatly in our efforts to attain self sufficiency in rice production in Indonesia. GH 147 -M-40 krad-Pn-89 (irradiated Barito) showed resistant to brown planthopper biotype 1 and 2 and moderately resistant to biotype 3. Napa 40 krad-St-12 has resistant reaction to blast. (authors). 4 refs, 8 tabs

  10. 1 Agronomic performance of five rice varieties.cdr

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    growing food source in Africa (Nwanze et al., 2006). ... vitro gas production. The varieties differed (P < 0.05) in relation to plant height, maturity ... have appreciable levels of crude protein ..... saliva; the composition and output of sheep's saliva.

  11. Microsatellite Markers in and around Rice Genes: Applications in Variety Identification and DUS Testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonow, S.; Pinho, Von E.V.R.; Vieira, M.G.C.; Vosman, B.

    2009-01-01

    In Brazil, rice (Oryza sativa L.) varieties adapted to different ecological regions are available on the market. However, these varieties exhibit highly similar morphologies, which makes their identification difficult. In this study we identified microsatellites in and around genes that are useful

  12. Chemometrical characterization of four italian rice varieties based on genetic and chemical analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandolini, Vincenzo; Coïsson, Jean Daniel; Tedeschi, Paola; Barile, Daniela; Cereti, Elisabetta; Maietti, Annalisa; Vecchiati, Giorgio; Martelli, Aldo; Arlorio, Marco

    2006-12-27

    This paper describes a method for achieving qualitative identification of four rice varieties from two different Italian regions. To estimate the presence of genetic diversity among the four rice varieties, we used polymerase chain reaction-randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (PCR-RAPD) markers, and to elucidate whether a relationship exists between the ground and the specific characteristics of the product, we studied proximate composition, fatty acid composition, mineral content, and total antioxidant capacity. Using principal component analysis on genomic and compositional data, we were able to classify rice samples according to their variety and their district of production. This work also examined the discrimination ability of different parameters. It was found that genomic data give the best discrimination based on varieties, indicating that RAPD assays could be useful in discriminating among closely related species, while compositional analyses do not depend on the genetic characters only but are related to the production area.

  13. Characterization and quantification of γ-oryzanol in grains of 16 Korean rice varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Heon Woong; Kim, Jung Bong; Cho, Soo-Muk; Cho, Il Kyu; Li, Qing X; Jang, Hwan-Hee; Lee, Sung-Hyeon; Lee, Young-Min; Hwang, Kyung-A

    2015-03-01

    γ-Oryzanol, a mixture of ferulic acid esters of triterpene alcohols and sterols, is a nutritionally important group of rice secondary metabolites. A library of 27 γ-oryzanol was assembled from existing data and used to assist identification and quantification of γ-oryzanol isolated from 16 Korean rice varieties (11 white and 5 pigmented). γ-Oryzanol was analyzed with liquid chromatography with diode array detection and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Nineteen different γ-oryzanol were observed and identified as stigmasterol, campesterol and sitosterol or common and hydroxylated triterpene alcohols. In the 16 varieties, the total γ-oryzanol content averaged 43.8 mg/100 g (range, 26.7-61.6 mg/100 g), which Josaengheugchal exhibited the highest level (61.6 mg/100 g). The Korean rice varieties were classified based on qualitative and quantitative γ-oryzanol data by multivariate statistical analysis. Clusters of specialty rice varieties exhibited higher γ-oryzanol levels than those of common rice varieties.

  14. Induction of mutations in Thai rice varieties and subsequent selection and testing of beneficial mutant lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dasananda, S; Khambanonda, P [Ministry of Agriculture, Bangkok (Thailand)

    1970-03-01

    Ionizing radiations were first used in the Thailand Rice Breeding Program in 1955 when seeds of two recommended varieties were sent to the United States of America for treatment. As a result, five promising mutant lines are at present in regional yield tests where they are being considered for recommendation to rice growers. During the period 1960-1961 an unsuccessful attempt was made to induce resistance to blast in three susceptible varieties by exposing seeds to a local source of ionizing radiation In 1964, after an elapse of about 4 years, another attempt was made to utilize ionizing radiations in the breeding program by treating seeds of two recommended varieties. In 1965, a co-ordinated rice mutation breeding program was initiated under the auspices of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture which resulted in treating seeds of twelve different rice varieties with both ethyl methane sulphonate and gamma rays from a {sup 60}Co gamma cell. The results so far indicate that mutagenic agents have been successful in producing genetic variability. Differences in heading date, mature plant height and plant type are frequently observed in the M{sub 2} and M{sub 3} generations. Several lines obtained from two of the irradiated varieties have exhibited a higher degree of resistance to blast than the parental material. From 15-kR treatments of non-glutinous varieties, mutants with glutinous endosperm have been obtained. Not all varieties gave the same response to treatment. (author)

  15. Elucidating potential utilization of Portuguese common bean varieties in rice based processed foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbas, Bruna; Pathania, Shivani; Castanho, Ana; Lourenço, Diana; Veiga, Isabel Mota; Patto, Maria Carlota Vaz; Brites, Carla

    2018-03-01

    The present study was aimed at studying the physico-chemical and functional properties of 31 Portuguese common bean varieties. In addition, the whole bean flours (WBF) and starch isolates (SI) of three representative bean varieties and their rice: bean blends (70:30; 50:50) were assessed for amylose content, thermal and pasting properties in view of supplementation in rice based processed foods. Bean varieties showed significant differences in protein content (20.78-27.10%), fat content (1.16-2.18%), hydration capacity (95.90-149.30%), unhydrated seeds (4.00-40.00%), γ tocopherol (3.20-98.05 mg/100 g fat), δ tocopherol (0.06-4.72 mg/100 g fat) and pasting behavior. Amylose content of WBF (11.4-20.2%) was significantly lower than rice flour (23.51%) whereas SI of beans (40.00-47.26%) had significantly higher amylose content than SI of rice (28.13%). DSC results showed that WBF (11.4-20.2 °C) had significantly broader and lower gelatinization temperature range (∆Tr) than corresponding SI (20.9-23.1 °C). WBF had significantly lower pasting viscosity due to low starch content and compositional matrix effect as compared to SI. Setback viscosities of WBF and rice: bean blends was lower than rice flour. Low setback viscosities of rice:bean blends may be used to prevent syneresis and stabilizing the quality of frozen foods in rice based processed foods.

  16. Identification of Heading Date Six (Hd6 Gene Derived from Rice Mutant Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aryanti Aryanti

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Genes which were associated with flowering time to indicate the early maturity is known as heading date (Hd. Heading date six (Hd6 gene was identified from rice mutant varieties were Atomita 2, Atomita 3, Atomita 4, Bestari, Cilosari, Diah Suci, Sidenuk, Kahayan, Mayang, Meraoke, Mira-1, Pandan Putri, Superwin, Suluttan Unsrat 1, Suluttan Unsrat 2, Winongo, Woyla, Yuwono, while the rice var. Nipponbare was used as a positive control. All of rice mutant varieties derived from mutation induction by the dose of 0.2 kGy. The aim of this experiment was to find out the data base of mutant varieties which could be used as parent material with earlier maturity trait genetically. To obtain the DNA of plants, young leaves of each variety were extracted by liquid nitrogen, and then lysis and extracted by Kit Plant Genomic DNA. The amplification of DNA with 7 primers of Hd6 conducted of 40 cycles by PCR and were continues to separated by 1 % agarose. The results were shown that the rice Mira-1 and Bestari varieties obtained from mutation of Cisantana highly different from one to another on 7 primers of Hd6 used. Mayang variety from mutation of cross breeding between Cilosari and IR64, Pandan putri from Pandan wangi and Woyla from mutation of cross breeding from Atomita 2 and IR64 were highly different with those of their parents. Identification of Hd6 gene on Sidenuk variety was shown the same bands pattern with Nipponbare as control positive toward all primers used, this variety would be better for earlier maturity parent material compared to others. The information could be useful for breeding programs aiming to develop early maturing widely adaptive and high yielding rice cultivars.

  17. Genetic structure and diversity of indigenous rice (Oryza sativa) varieties in the Eastern Himalayan region of Northeast India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Baharul; Khan, Mohamed Latif; Dayanandan, Selvadurai

    2013-12-01

    The Eastern Himalayan region of Northeast (NE) India is home to a large number of indigenous rice varieties, which may serve as a valuable genetic resource for future crop improvement to meet the ever-increasing demand for food production. However, these varieties are rapidly being lost due to changes in land-use and agricultural practices, which favor agronomically improved varieties. A detailed understanding of the genetic structure and diversity of indigenous rice varieties is crucial for efficient utilization of rice genetic resources and for developing suitable conservation strategies. To explore the genetic structure and diversity of rice varieties in NE India, we genotyped 300 individuals of 24 indigenous rice varieties representing sali, boro, jum and glutinous types, 5 agronomically improved varieties, and one wild rice species (O. rufipogon) using seven SSR markers. A total of 85 alleles and a very high level of gene diversity (0.776) were detected among the indigenous rice varieties of the region. Considerable level of genetic variation was found within indigenous varieties whereas improved varieties were monoporphic across all loci. The comparison of genetic diversity among different types of rice revealed that sali type possessed the highest gene diversity (0.747) followed by jum (0.627), glutinous (0.602) and boro (0.596) types of indigenous rice varieties, while the lowest diversity was detected in agronomically improved varieties (0.459). The AMOVA results showed that 66% of the variation was distributed among varieties indicating a very high level of genetic differentiation in rice varieties in the region. Two major genetically defined clusters corresponding to indica and japonica groups were detected in rice varieties of the region. Overall, traditionally cultivated indigenous rice varieties in NE India showed high levels of genetic diversity comparable to levels of genetic diversity reported from wild rice populations in various parts of the

  18. Milling, Nutritional, Physical and Cooking Properties of Four Basmati Rice Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pravin Ojha

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Rice is one of the most popular staple foods produced contributing higher most in agriculture gross domestic production in Nepal. Thus, nutritional, physicochemical, and cooking properties of rice might interplay important roles in their production and farming practice, therefore, it is inevitable to understand these characteristic features. However, there has been only limited information available on such properties, therefore we aimed to examine nutritional, physicochemical and cooking properties of four Basmati varieties of rice namely Red Basmati, White Basmati, Black Basmati and Pokhareli Basmati. These rice varieties were purchased from different places in Nepal in paddy form. In this study various parameters associated with milling, nutritional, physical and cooking properties were evaluated. To measure protein contents in rice, Kjeldal method was implied. Among the varieties, the protein content was maximum in Red Basmati (7.74% and minimum in Black Basmati (6.51%. The milled rice percentage and head rice recovery were maximum in Pokhareli Basmati represented by 72.02±0.10 and 67.46±0.42, respectively, while and minimum in White Basmati represented by 68.17±0.50 and 65.11±0.28, respectively. The kernel elongation ratio and volume expansion ratio was maximum in Red Basmati represented by 1.62 and 2.85 respectively. Water uptake ratio was maximum 3.11 in Black Basmati and minimum of 2.18 in Red Basmati. Gruel loss was found lowest 1.05% in Red Basmati and highest represented by 2.40% in Black Basmati. The highest starch iodine blue value of 0.21 was observed in Red Basmati and lowest of 0.12 in Black Basmati. The Red Basmati was found to have the better cooking quality among all varieties.

  19. Breeding of Hangtian 36-an early-maturing variety of japonica rice by space mutation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Junmin; Luo Rongting; Bao Genliang; Zhang Mingxian; Xu Jianlong; Wu Wei

    2007-01-01

    Hangtian 36; an early-maturing late Japonica rice variety with high grain quality and disease resistance was developed from the mutagenesis progeny of Bing 1067 carried by the recoverable satellite. Hangtian 36 has advantages over the original variety Bing 1067 in mature duration, grain quality and blast resistance. It has strong tolerant ability to late sow, varying from sowing date of single cropping to the end of July. So it is an ideal variety suitable for the use of emergency situation, such as in the natural disaster year resulting from typhoon. This variety was officially registered by Zhejiang Committee on Variety Registration in 2006, and is adaptable in the region of Zhejiang province and the Yangtze River delta. The successful breeding of Hangtian 36 showed that space mutation is an effective method of simultaneous improvement for multiple traits of rice. (authors)

  20. Effect of microwave energy on grain quality of four Spanish rice varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osca, J.M.; Marzal, A.; Castell, V.; Martínez, J.; Benedito, C.; Balbastre, J.V.; Sánchez-Hernández, D.

    2005-01-01

    A microwave system can be used as an alternative method to methyl bromide to control rice storage pests. Four rice varieties (Oryza sativa L.) grown in Spain (‘Bomba’, ‘Senia’, ‘Puntal’ and ‘Thainato’) were irradiated with three levels of microwave energy (0, 70 and 100 J g –1 ). Rice quality attributes were analysed to establish hypothetical quality changes in order to use microwave energy as an alternative method to control pests. Results of the factorial analysis showed that the analysed attributes differed more within varieties than among microwave treatments of the varieties, except for ‘Thainato’ which, after applying microwave energy of 100 J g –1 , presented a different adhesiveness from the other two treatments determined by factor 1 and ‘Puntal’ treated with microwaves presented a different water uptake and loss of solids in cooking water determined by factor 3 than the control. The increase in hardness and decrease in adhesiveness as a consequence of the microwave treatment could possibly damage rice quality. This aspect must be taken into account with this method. In conclusion, microwave energy can be used as an alternative method of insect control because it does not seriously affect rice quality. Microwave treatments did not leave undesirable residues and could be as effective at controlling insect infestation as any procedure currently available. (author) [es

  1. Rice Bran Stabilization And G-Oryzanol Content Of Two Local Paddy Varieties Ir 64 And Cisadane Muncul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evy Damayanthi

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available An autoclaving procedure was developed to produce stable rice bran from two local paddy varieties IR 64 and Cisadane Muncul. The stable rice bran showed no significant increase in free fatty acid content for 144 hours at 37oC. In the optimum wet heating process, rice bran was heated at 121oC and held for 3 minutes before cooling for both varieties. Stable rice bran contained 3.8 % moisture and the content of total tocopherol was not much changed by heating process, i.e., 209.8 mg/100 g rice bran oil and 279.8 for control (without heating process of IR 64 variety and 227.4 mg/100 g rice bran oil and 248.8 for control of Cisadane Muncul variety, respectively. The content of g-oryzanol varied and was depended on the degree of milling ranged from 39.1 to 147.7 mg/100 g rice bran oil for both of IR 64 and Cisadane Muncul rice varieties. The content of soluble dietary fiber varied and was depended on the degree of milling which ranged from 3.56 to 8.76 % for both of IR 64 and Cisadane Muncul rice varieties. The content of insoluble dietary fiber varied and was depended on the degree of milling which ranged from 15.00 to 25.38 % for both of IR 64 and Cisadane Muncul rice varieties.

  2. Genetic diversity, identification, and certification of Chilean rice varieties using molecular markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana Becerra

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available It takes approximately 14 yr to produce a new rice (Oryza sativa L. variety, that is, from initial hybridization to its commercial release. Currently, new varieties are identified based on morphological descriptors, which have been efficient over time. However, due to the main constraints on seed type impose to other breeding objectives and the pressure of continuous release of varieties, high degree of parentage, and genetic and morphological uniformity has been observed in the breeding populations. The objectives of this study were: to determine the genetic variability of Chilean and foreign commercial rice varieties, and determine, identify, and certify the genetic relationships among varieties, using simple sequence repeat (SSR markers. A total of 16 commercial varieties, some of them closely related, were included in the study, which were genétically analyzed using 54 microsatellites. The 54 microsatellite loci allowed the discrimination among the 16 varieties. The number of alleles ranged between 2 and 8 with a mean of 3.54 alleles per locus, while the polymorphism information content (PIC presented a mean of 0.44. The genetic distance and diversity parameters between pairs of varieties indicate a limited diversity among these genotypes. The cluster analysis indicated that varieties were grouped according to their grain type and pedigree. Results demonstrate that the identification and certification of varieties using microsatellite markers could be a good complement to existing agro-morphological data when varieties are closed related.

  3. Morphological and starch structural characteristics of the Japonica rice mutant variety Seolgaeng for dry-milled flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Producing fine, good quality rice flour is more difficult than wheat flour because the rice grain is harder. In this study, we analyzed the relationship between the morphology and starch of kernels from genetically different rice varieties that can be used to make dry-milled flour. The non-glutinous...

  4. Genotypes analysis of ten genes related to eating quality of 22 Shanghai important rice varieties by molecular marker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XIE Mixue

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The improvement of rice eating quality is a very important direction of rice breeding.Clearing the different genotype of rice eating quality provides the basis for the parent selection on breeding good eating quality rice.Using molecular marker detection technology,genotypes of ten genes related to eating quality of 22 Shanghai important rice varieties,including conventional rice and hybrid parents were detected.The results showed that "Zixiangnuo 861" rice contained many poor genotypes which might affect rice eating quality.The genotypes of 3 male parents,"Xiangqin","R44" and "Fan14" for three kinds of hybrid rice,"Hannyouxiangqing","Qiuyoujinfeng" and "Huayou14",respectively,were not as good as their corresponding female parents,"HanfengA","JinfengA" and "Shen9A" and another conventional rice varieties.Wx polymorphism analysis showed that there were two glutinous rice,four soft rice japonica and 16 non-soft rice japonica."Baonong34","Jinfeng" and "Yinxiang18" had relatively better genotypes of the genes controlling eating quality among the 16 non-soft rice japonica.

  5. Introduction of a rice blight resistance gene, Xa21, into five Chinese rice varieties through an Agrobacterium-mediated system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A cloned gene, Xa21 was transferred into five widely-used Chinese rice varieties through an Agrobacterium-mediated system, and over 110 independent transgenic lines were obtained. PCR and Southern analysis of transgenic plants revealed the integration of the whole Xa21 gene into the host genomes. The integrated Xa21 gene was stably inherited, and segregated in a 3∶1 ratio in the selfed T1 generation when one copy of the gene was integrated in the transformants. Inoculation tests displayed that transgenic T0 plants and Xa21 PCR-positive T1 plants were highly resistant to bacterial blight disease. The selected Xa21 homozygous resistant transgenic lines with desirable qualities may be propagated as new varieties or utilized in hybrid rice breeding.

  6. Introduction of a rice blight resistance gene, Xa21, into five Chinese rice varieties through an Agrobacterium -mediated system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟文学; 李晓兵; 田文忠; 周永力; 潘学彪; 曹守云; 赵显峰; 赵彬; 章琦; 朱立煌

    2000-01-01

    A cloned gene, Xa21 was transferred into five widely-used Chinese rice varieties through an Agrobacterium-mediated system, and over 110 independent transgenic lines were obtained. PCR and Southern analysis of transgenic plants revealed the integration of the whole Xa21 gene into the host genomes. The integrated Xa21 gene was stably inherited, and segregated in a 3 : 1 ratio in the selfed T1 generation when one copy of the gene was integrated in the transfor-mants. Inoculation tests displayed that transgenic T0 plants and Xa21 PCR-positive T1 plants were highly resistant to bacterial blight disease. The selected Xa21 homozygous resistant transgenic lines with desirable qualities may be propagated as new varieties or utilized in hybrid rice breeding.

  7. Response to different rates of nitrogen by five varieties of swamp rice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A field experiment was conducted in 2011 and 2012 in Ini Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria; mainly to determine the optimum nitrogen fertilizer rate for the area as well as select the rice varieties that responded optimally. A split plot design was used with five N rates (0, 50, 100, 150and 200kg/ha) as the ...

  8. Aboveground herbivory by the brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens) affects soil nematode communities under different rice varieties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, M.; Huang, J.; Chen, X.; Wang, F.; Ge, C.; Su, Y.; Shao, B.; Tang, Y.; Li, H.

    2009-01-01

    Interactions between aboveground–belowground communities play an important role in regulating terrestrial ecological processes; however, the interactions between rice varieties, herbivory and the soil community are often ignored. A pot experiment with a full 2×2 factorial design was conducted to

  9. Comparative Analysis of ?-Oryzanol, ?-Glucan, Total Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Activity in Fermented Rice Bran of Different Varieties

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Tae-Dong; Shin, Gi-Hae; Kim, Jae-Min; Choi, Sun-Il; Lee, Jin-Ha; Lee, Sang Jong; Park, Seon Ju; Woo, Koan Sik; Oh, Sea Kwan; Lee, Ok-Hawn

    2017-01-01

    Rice bran, a by-product derived from processing rice, is a rich source of bioactive compounds. Recent studies have suggested that the fermentation can improve their biological activities. This study aimed to determined the level of γ-oryzanol, β-glucan and total phenol contents of fermented rice bran from 21 Korean varieties, as well as to evaluate their antioxidant activities. We also assessed the validation of the analytical method for determining γ-oryzanol content in fermented rice brans....

  10. Site Suitability Analysis for Dissemination of Salt-tolerant Rice Varieties in Southern Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, D. D.; Singh, A. N.; Singh, U. S.

    2014-11-01

    Bangladesh is a country of 14.4 million ha geographical area and has a population density of more than 1100 persons per sq. km. Rice is the staple food crop, growing on about 72 % of the total cultivated land and continues to be the most important crop for food security of the country. A project "Sustainable Rice Seed Production and Delivery Systems for Southern Bangladesh" has been executed by the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) in twenty southern districts of Bangladesh. These districts grow rice in about 2.9 million ha out of the country's total rice area of 11.3 million ha. The project aims at contributing to the Government of Bangladesh's efforts in improving national and household food security through enhanced and sustained productivity by using salinity-, submergence- and drought- tolerant and high yielding rice varieties. Out of the 20 project districts, 12 coastal districts are affected by the problem of soil salinity. The salt-affected area in Bangladesh has increased from about 0.83 million ha in 1973 to 1.02 million ha in 2000, and 1.05 million ha in 2009 due to the influence of cyclonic storms like "Sidr", "Laila" and others, leading to salt water intrusion in croplands. Three salinity-tolerant rice varieties have recently been bred by IRRI and field tested and released by the Bangladesh Rice Research Institute (BRRI) and Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture (BINA). These varieties are BRRI dhan- 47 and Bina dhan-8 and - 10. However, they can tolerate soil salinity level up to EC 8-10 dSm-1, whereas the EC of soils in several areas are much higher. Therefore, a large scale dissemination of these varieties can be done only when a site suitability analysis of the area is carried out. The present study was taken up with the objective of preparing the site suitability of the salt-tolerant varieties for the salinity-affected districts of southern Bangladesh. Soil salinity map prepared by Soil Resources Development Institute of

  11. Growth and production of new superior rice varieties in the shade intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alridiwirsah; Harahap, E. M.; Akoeb, E. N.; Hanum, H.

    2018-02-01

    Shade intensity is one of the most important requirements for plant growth, affecting growth, development, survival, and crop productivity. This study aims to evaluate the growth and productiom of New Superior Rice Varieties In The shade Intensity. This study was conducted in Balai Pengkajian Teknologi Pertanian, Pagar Merbau, Deli Serdang, North Sumatra. The research used completely randomized design with twofactors. The shade intensity (N) were 25%, 50% and no shade intensity as a control. Whereas new superior rice varieties were V1: Inpara 2, V2: Suluttan Unsrat 2, V3: Inpari Mugibat, V4: Inpari Sidenuk, V5: Mekongga, V6: Ciherang, V7:Inpari 10, V8: Inpari 3, V9: Inpari 4, V10: Inpari 30, dan V11: Cibogo. The result indicated that new superior rice varietiesshowedsignificant effectonthe growth and productionvariablesuch as leaf area, where Inpari Sidenuk variety was the highest among the varieties. Total chorophyll, the highest was found on Inpari variety. Number of tillers and plant height where the highest was found on Ciherang variety. The shade intensity showed significant effect on leaf area, where 25% shade intensity was the highest. Total chlorophyll, the highest was found on 50% shade intensity, number of tillers, the highest was found on no shade intensity.

  12. Heavy metal distribution frequency in Iranian and imported rice varieties marketed in central Iran, Yazd, 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Morekian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This study aimed to determine the concentration of heavy metals including lead (Pb, cadmium (Cd, and arsenic (As in rice samples in Yazd markets. Materials and Methods: In this study, 108 rice samples were collected from 36 different brands including 26 imported and 10 Iranian rice varieties from July-December 2011. Determination of heavy metals was carried out by wet ashing and digestion methods following graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry and hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry. Results: The average concentrations of lead in both Iranian and imported samples were 328.3 ± 81.44 and 254.55 ± 77.2 μg/kg, respectively, well above the safe limit set by Iranian standard, whereas mean concentrations of cadmium and arsenic were both below their permissible limit. In homemade rice samples, their concentration levels were shown to be 37.25 ± 23.39 and 33.5 ± 18.35 μg/kg, respectively. However, for imported products, their levels were 43.71 ± 13.74 and 87.55 ± 72.99 μg/kg, respectively. Conclusion: Deterministic estimation of exposure to heavy metals from rice showed that there was no health issue concerning exposure to toxic metals through rice intake in Iran when potential risk of each heavy metal is considered individually, cumulative risk assessment must be applied in future studies.

  13. Modified Application of Nitrogen Fertilizer for Increasing Rice Variety Tolerance toward Submergence Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gribaldi Gribaldi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted from July to October 2015, using Randomized Block Design with two treatment factors and three replications for each treatment. The first factor was rice varieties (V: V1 = IR 64; V2 = Inpara 5. The second factor was fertilizer (N: N0: without submergence, all N fertilizer was given during planting; N1: all N fertilizer dose was given during planting; and N2: 1/2 dose of N fertilizer was given during planting; the rest was given at 42 days after planting. The submergence was during 7–14 days after planting; N3 = the entire dose of N fertilizer that was given during planting, N4 = 1/2 the dose of N fertilizer that was given during planting, and the rest was given at 42 days after planting. The submergence was during 7–14 and 28–35 days after planting. The results showed that the management of nitrogen fertilizer application had effect on rice growth and production which experienced dirty water submergence stress; the application of 1/2 dose of N fertilizer given during planting had the best effect on rice growth and production; the longer the submergence period for rice variety, the higher the effect on rice growth and production.

  14. Effect of increased plant density and fertilizer dose on the yield of rice variety IR-6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amin, M.; Khan, M.A.; Khan, E.A.; Ramazan, M.

    2004-01-01

    An experiment to evaluate the effect of increased plant density and fertilizer dose on yield of rice variety IR-6 was conducted at the farm of Faculty of Agriculture, Gomal University Dera Ismail Khan. Increase plant density significantly increase number of panicles per square meter, sterility and straw yield while increased fertilizer dose of NPK increase plant height, sterility, normal kernels, and 1000 grain weight. Interaction of increased plant density and fertilizer dose was found to be non significant except sterility percentage and straw yield. However efforts are required for increasing yield per unit area of rice. (author)

  15. Elemental analysis of different varieties of rice samples using XRF technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaur, Jaspreet, E-mail: gillpreet05051812@gmail.com; Kumar, Anil, E-mail: gilljaspreet06@gmail.com [Department of Basic and Applied Physics, Punjabi University, Patiala 147002 (India)

    2016-05-06

    Rice is most consumed staple food in the world providing over 21% of the calorie intake of world’s population having high yielding capacity. Elements detected in rice are Al, As, Br, Cd, Cl, Co, Cs, Cu, Fe, Hg, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Rb, Se and Zn by using Instrumental Neutron Activation with k0 standardization (R. Jayasekera etal,2004). Some of these trace elements are C, H, O, N, S, Ca, P, K, Na, Cl, Mn, Ti, Mg, Cu, Fe, Ni, Si and Zn are essential for growth of human physique The deficiency or excess of these elements in food is known to cause a variety of malnutrition or health disorders in the world. Every year, various varieties of rice are launched by Punjab Agriculture University, Ludhiana. The main purpose of which is to increases the yield to attain the maximum profit. But this leads to changing the elemental concentration in them, which may affect the human health according to variation in the nutrition values. The main objective is to study the presence of elemental concentration in various varieties of rice using EDXRF technique.

  16. Elemental analysis of different varieties of rice samples using XRF technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaur, Jaspreet; Kumar, Anil

    2016-01-01

    Rice is most consumed staple food in the world providing over 21% of the calorie intake of world’s population having high yielding capacity. Elements detected in rice are Al, As, Br, Cd, Cl, Co, Cs, Cu, Fe, Hg, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Rb, Se and Zn by using Instrumental Neutron Activation with k0 standardization (R. Jayasekera etal,2004). Some of these trace elements are C, H, O, N, S, Ca, P, K, Na, Cl, Mn, Ti, Mg, Cu, Fe, Ni, Si and Zn are essential for growth of human physique The deficiency or excess of these elements in food is known to cause a variety of malnutrition or health disorders in the world. Every year, various varieties of rice are launched by Punjab Agriculture University, Ludhiana. The main purpose of which is to increases the yield to attain the maximum profit. But this leads to changing the elemental concentration in them, which may affect the human health according to variation in the nutrition values. The main objective is to study the presence of elemental concentration in various varieties of rice using EDXRF technique.

  17. Biochar amendment changes jasmonic acid levels in two rice varieties and alters their resistance to herbivory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waqas, Muhammad; Shahzad, Raheem; Hamayun, Muhammad; Asaf, Sajjad; Khan, Abdul Latif; Kang, Sang-Mo; Yun, Sopheap; Kim, Kyung-Min; Lee, In-Jung

    2018-01-01

    Biochar addition to soil not only sequesters carbon for the long-term but enhances agricultural productivity. Several well-known benefits arise from biochar amendment, including constant provision of nutrients, increased soil moisture retention, decreased soil bulk density, and sometimes the induction of systemic resistance against foliar and soil borne plant pathogens. However, no research has investigated the potential of biochar to increase resistance against herbivory. The white-backed plant hopper (WBPH) (Sogatella furcifera Horváth) is a serious agricultural pest that targets rice (Oryza sativa L.), a staple crop that feeds half of the world's human population. Therefore, we investigated the (1) optimization of biochar amendment levels for two rice varieties ('Cheongcheong' and 'Nagdong') and (2) subsequent effects of different biochar amendments on resistance and susceptibility of these two varieties to WBPH infestation. Initial screening results for the optimization level revealed that the application of biochar 10% (w/w) to the rooting media significantly improved plant physiological characteristics of both rice varieties. However, levels of biochar amendment, mainly 1, 2, 3, and 20%, resulted in negative effects on plant growth characteristics. Cheongcheong and Nagdong rice plants grown with the optimum biochar level showed contrasting reactions to WBPH infestation. Specifically, biochar application significantly increased plant growth characteristics of Nagdong when exposed to WBPH infestation and significantly decreased these characteristics in Cheongcheong. The amount of WBPH-induced damage to plants was significantly lower and higher in Nagdong and Cheongcheong, respectively, compared to that in the controls. Higher levels of jasmonic acid caused by the biochar priming effect could have accumulated in response to WBPH infestation, resulting in a maladaptive response to stress, negatively affecting growth and resistance to WBPH in Cheongcheong. This

  18. Morpho-physiological analysis of tolerance to aluminum toxicity in rice varieties of North East India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awasthi, Jay Prakash; Saha, Bedabrata; Regon, Preetom; Sahoo, Smita; Chowra, Umakanta; Pradhan, Amit; Roy, Anupam; Panda, Sanjib Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Aluminum (Al) is the third most abundant metal in earth crust, whose chemical form is mainly dependent on soil pH. The most toxic form of Al with respect to plants is Al3+, which exists in soil pH Eastern India 80% soil are acidic). Al3+ toxicity in plants ensues root growth inhibition leading to less nutrient and water uptake impacting crop productivity as a whole. Rice is one of the chief grains which constitutes the staple food of two-third of the world population including India and is not untouched by Al3+ toxicity. Al contamination is a critical constraint to plant production in agricultural soils of North East India. 24 indigenous Indica rice varieties (including Badshahbhog as tolerant check and Mashuri as sensitive check) were screened for Al stress tolerance in hydroponic plant growth system. Results show marked difference in growth parameters (relative growth rate, Root tolerance index, fresh and dry weight of root) of rice seedlings due to Al (100 μM) toxicity. Al3+ uptake and lipid peroxidation level also increased concomitantly under Al treatment. Histochemical assay were also performed to elucidate uptake of aluminum, loss of membrane integrity and lipid peroxidation, which were found to be more in sensitive genotypes at higher Al concentration. This study revealed that aluminum toxicity is a serious harmful problem for rice crop productivity in acid soil. Based on various parameters studied it's concluded that Disang is a comparatively tolerant variety whereas Joymati a sensitive variety. Western blot hybridization further strengthened the claim, as it demonstrated more accumulation of Glutathione reductase (GR) protein in Disang rice variety than Joymati under stressed condition. This study also observed that the emergence of lethal toxic symptoms occurs only after 48h irrespective of the dose used in the study.

  19. Morpho-physiological analysis of tolerance to aluminum toxicity in rice varieties of North East India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Prakash Awasthi

    Full Text Available Aluminum (Al is the third most abundant metal in earth crust, whose chemical form is mainly dependent on soil pH. The most toxic form of Al with respect to plants is Al3+, which exists in soil pH <5. Acidic soil significantly limits crop production mainly due to Al3+ toxicity worldwide, impacting approximately 50% of the world's arable land (in North-Eastern India 80% soil are acidic. Al3+ toxicity in plants ensues root growth inhibition leading to less nutrient and water uptake impacting crop productivity as a whole. Rice is one of the chief grains which constitutes the staple food of two-third of the world population including India and is not untouched by Al3+ toxicity. Al contamination is a critical constraint to plant production in agricultural soils of North East India. 24 indigenous Indica rice varieties (including Badshahbhog as tolerant check and Mashuri as sensitive check were screened for Al stress tolerance in hydroponic plant growth system. Results show marked difference in growth parameters (relative growth rate, Root tolerance index, fresh and dry weight of root of rice seedlings due to Al (100 μM toxicity. Al3+ uptake and lipid peroxidation level also increased concomitantly under Al treatment. Histochemical assay were also performed to elucidate uptake of aluminum, loss of membrane integrity and lipid peroxidation, which were found to be more in sensitive genotypes at higher Al concentration. This study revealed that aluminum toxicity is a serious harmful problem for rice crop productivity in acid soil. Based on various parameters studied it's concluded that Disang is a comparatively tolerant variety whereas Joymati a sensitive variety. Western blot hybridization further strengthened the claim, as it demonstrated more accumulation of Glutathione reductase (GR protein in Disang rice variety than Joymati under stressed condition. This study also observed that the emergence of lethal toxic symptoms occurs only after 48h

  20. Phosphorus utilization by three rice varieties at different stages of growth in a vertisol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rastogi, A.K.; Mahajan, J.P.; Sinha, S.B.

    1981-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted using labelled superphosphate to study the utilization of applied fertilizer phosphorus by three rice varieties, viz., Jaya, Ratna and Sona at tillering, flowering and harvesting stages. Total phosphorus uptake and phosphorus derived from fertilizer increased significantly with increasing level of phosphorus, but per cent utilization of applied phosphorus showed a reverse trend in all the three varieties at all the growth stages. Dry matter yield in general, increased significantly with increasing P levels in all the three varieties. Average soil-p uptake decreased with increasing levels of phosphorus at all the stages. (author)

  1. Value added products with popular low grade rice varieties of Andhra Pradesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anitha, G; Rajyalakshmi, P

    2014-12-01

    Eight Popular Low Grade Rice Varieties (PLRVs) MTU 3626, MTU 1001, MTU 1010, MTU 4870 and NLR 145, NLR 34242, NLR 30491, NLR 34449, (developed and released by ANGR agricultural University, Andhra Pradesh) having poor cooking quality were selected for the study. ANGRAU variety BPT 5204 popularly consumed as staple rice was used as check. Eight products of traditional/commercial importance were standardized incorporating PLRVs as a major ingredient in the form of rice flour (burfi, noodles and extruded snack product and vennaundalu (butter coated balls), palathalikalu (dough rolled into strips, steamed/cooked in milk); rice semolina (instant kheer mix and instant upma mix), and flaked rice (nutritious bar). The products were evaluated for nutritional, cooking quality characteristics, consumer acceptability and shelf-life. Consumer acceptability of the PLR products was carried out with 60 farm women based on 9 point hedonic scale. Shelf-life of the products (packed in both metalized PP and PE pouches) was evaluated monthly for chemical, microbiological and sensory parameters. Energy values of control and PLR products showed no significant difference. Upon cooking, PLR Noodles showed no significant difference with water absorption and volume but more (p instant kheer mix (92%) and extruded product (88%). As per sensory scores, all the PLR products were well accepted with no observable changes in flavor or taste upon storage. PLR products showed increased (P noodles and highest for burfi (though in safe limits). Extruded snacks (control and PLR) showed no microbial growth during the entire storage period. Considering the poor marketability of PLRVs for consumption as staple rice, the study signifies the utilitarian value of PLRVs in making products of convenience/commercial importance.

  2. PERFORMANCE OF UPLAND RICE PROMISING LINES AND VARIETIES AS INTERCROPPING OF PLANTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrizal Yusuf

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2008, introduction of upland rice promising lines and varieties as intercropping rubber plant had been done at Sibunga-Bunga Hilir village STM Hulu Sub District, Deli Serdang District, North Sumatra Province, there are two promise line and two pre-eminent upland rice varieties were planted among six until 18 mounths old rubber plants. Aim of this assessment was to improving productivity and farmers income through the utilization of land available under rubber plants by upland rice. The assessment was conducted using 2.0 ha upland done by three cooperator farmers and 1, 5 ha done by non-cooperator farmers. The activity was started in September 2008 and was completed January 2009. A field day was done on 13 January 2009. The result of the assessment showed that TB409-B-TB-14-3 promise lines gave the highest yield (4.32 t per ha, followed by TB490C-TB-1-2-1 (4, 28 t per ha, Situ Patenggang variety (3.66 t per ha and Limboto variety (3.17 t per ha. The financial analysis for TB409-B-TB-14-3 promise line showed that net profit of IDR 5.42 m per ha, with a B/C ratio of 0.63. Break event point was reached at IDR 1.989 per kg giving positive margin of IDR 1.211 per kg.

  3. Effects of Nitrogen Application Time on Caryopsis Development and Grain Quality of Rice Variety Yangdao 6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei XIONG

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A pot experiment was conducted to study the effects of different nitrogen application time (during the tillering or the booting stages with the same nitrogen rates on the caryopsis development and grain quality of rice variety Yangdao 6. The increased nitrogen fertilizer (urea, especially applied during the booting stage, could evidently increase the milled rice rate, head rice rate and protein content in rice grains compared with the control (no nitrogen application, and decrease chalky grain rate and amylose content. Moreover, the increased nitrogen fertilizer significantly affected the caryopsis development and enhanced the grain weight when nitrogen applied during the tillering and the booting stages, especially during the booting stage. During caryopsis development the increased nitrogen fertilizer applied during the tillering and booting stages could obviously decrease the total starch and amylose contents, but not obviously for the amylopectin content in rice grain. Increased topdressing of nitrogen fertilizer, especially applied during the booting stage, had significant effect on the development and structures of amyloplasts and proteinoplasts. That is, it could change the distribution, number and shape of amyloplasts and proteinoplasts in the endosperm cells especially in grain abdomen. Compared with the control the arrangements of amyloplasts and proteinoplasts were closer, with more numbers, higher density and less interspaces each ohter. Furthermore, most amyloplasts showed polyhedron under the increased nitrogen fertilizer level.

  4. Comparative studies on flour proximate compositions and functional properties of selected Pakistani rice varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamal, S.; Qazi, I.M.; Ahmed, I.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the proximate and functional properties of flours obtained from various rice varieties, i.e., Super Basmati Shaheen, Super Basmati Kainat, Super Fine, JP5, Basmati 385, Fakhr-e-Malakand grown in different areas of Pakistan. Moisture content, ash content, crude protein, crude fat, water absorption index, water solubility and swelling power varied significantly (P<0.05) from each other. Moisture content, ash content, crude protein and crude fat of rice flour ranged from 5.46-7.08 percentage, 0.48-1.23 percentage, 8.02-9.85 percentage and 0.43-1.5 percentage, respectively. While, functional properties such as water absorption index, water solubility index and swelling power were found in the range of 5.38-6.26 (g/g), 1.95-4.94 percentage and 5.74-7.64 (g/g), respectively. The results showed that the functional properties of rice flour were greatly influenced by the compositional variations of various rice varieties. (author)

  5. Radioactivity of long-lived gamma emitters in some rice varieties in the Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soriano, Jhon Cris N.

    2016-06-01

    This study measured the activity concentrations of Uranium-238 (U-238), Thorium-232 (Th-232), and Potassium-40 (K-40) in five of the widely consumed rice varieties in the Philippines using a NaI (Tl) scintillation detector. To determine the uptake of radionuclides of these varieties, the activity concentrations in soil were measured and the transfer factor was calculated. Results showed that the activity concentrations of rice ranged from Not Detected (ND) to 0.579 Bq/kg U-238, ND-1.575 BQ/kg for TH-232, and 44.66014526-106.0412811 Bq/kg for K-40. These values are lower than the activity concentration in soil (0.495-5.327 Bq/kg for U-238, 0.459-6.291 Bq/kg for Th-232, and 104.433-351.405 Bq/kg for K-40). These results show that the activity concentrations in the soil do not reflect the activity concentrations in rice. The transfer factors computed range from ND-1.021 for U-238, ND-0.384 for Th-232, 0.127090299- 0.926872575 for K-40. The Average Annual Committed Effective Doses (AACEDs) in this study were found to be lower than the worldwide average ingestion exposure (290 μSv) reported by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR). The results suggest that consumption of rice pose no radiological health risk to Filipinos. (author)

  6. Evaluating non-aromatic rice varieties for growth and yield different rates of soil applied boron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, J.A.; Abbas, M.; Memon, M.Y.; Raid, N.

    2016-01-01

    Balanced boron (B) fertilization has prime importance to obtain maximum paddy yield. The range between B deficiency and toxicity is smaller than most plant nutrients, though B requirement among different crops varies widely. The adequate dose of B for one genotype can either be insufficient or toxic to other. Hence, without knowing the actual requirements of crop varieties, B application can be risky due to the toxicity hazards. A field experiment was undertaken at experimental farm of Nuclear Institute of Agriculture (NIA), Tandojam during 2013, to evaluate the B requirement of two non-aromatic rice varieties.The experiment was arranged in split plot design with three repeats. Two rice varieties Sarshar and Shandar were grown in main plots with four rates of B: 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 kg ha/sup -1/ and control (0 kg ha/sup -1/) in sub plots. Both the varieties responded differently to B rates. Sarshar produced the highest paddy yield (5691 kg ha/sup -1/) at a rate of 1.5 kg B ha/sup -1/ and was 18% greater than control, Shandar produced the highest yield (6075 kg ha/sup -1/) at a rate of 1.0 kg B ha/sup -1/ and was 5% greater than control. B accumulation in paddy and straw of both varieties increased with the increasing B rates. Both varieties were also significantly (p<0.05) varied in B accumulations. Comparatively, rice variety Sarshar accumulated 9% and 22% more B in straw and paddy than the Shandar. Thus, the B requirement of Sarshar was relatively higher than the Shandar. Shandar can be grown without the additional B application, whereas, Sarshar requires additional B for its maximum harvest in B deficient soils. (author)

  7. Antioxidant potential of brans of twenty-nine red and white rice (Oryza sativa L. varieties of Sri Lanka

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    Walimuni Kanchana Subhashini Mendis Abeysekera

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate antioxidant properties of brans of twenty-nine red and white rice varieties of Sri Lanka. Methods: Brans of 21 new improved (NI, 2 old improved (OI and 6 traditional red and white rice varieties of Sri Lanka were studied for range of antioxidant properties. The studied antioxidant properties included total polyphenolic content (TPC, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC, 2,2’-azino-bis(3- ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS radical scavenging activity and 1,1-diphenyl- 2-picrylhydrazine (DPPH radical scavenging activity in vitro. Bran of black rice variety from Korea was also studied for the same antioxidant properties for comparison. Results: Results exhibited significantly high ABTS and DPPH radical scavenging activities and 10, 7 and 2.5 fold greater TPC, FRAP and ORAC activities in brans of red rices (BRRs compared to brans of white rices irrespective of NI, OI and traditional rice types. Among BRRs traditional varieties had greater ABTS and DPPH radical scavenging activities and 1.7, 1.3 and 1.2 fold respectively greater TPC, FRAP and ORAC in contrast to NI red rices. Traditional red rice varieties, Kalu Heeneti (TPC and ORAC, Pachchaperumal (TPC and DPPH and Kurulu Thuda (DPPH and OI red rice variety H4 (FRAP exhibited the highest activities for the antioxidant properties studied. Further, these varieties had significantly high activities compared to black rice. Conclusions: In conclusion, BRRs especially traditional red rices had greater antioxidant properties and consumption may be useful in managing various chronic diseases.

  8. Impact of Water Management on Rice Varieties, Yield, and Water Productivity under the System of Rice Intensification in Southern Taiwan

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    Victoriano Joseph Pascual

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The system of rice intensification (SRI uses less water and enhances rice yield through synergy among several agronomic management practices. This claim was investigated to determine the effects of crop growth, yield and irrigation water use, using two thirds of the recommended SRI practices and two rice varieties, namely Tainan11 (TN11 and Tidung30 (TD30. Irrigation regimes were (a intermittent irrigation with three-day intervals (TD303 and TN113; (b intermittent irrigation with seven-day intervals (TD307 and TN117 and (c continuous flooding (TD30F and TN11F. Results showed that intermittent irrigation of three- and seven-day intervals produced water savings of 55% and 74% compared with continuous flooding. Total water productivity was greater with intermittent irrigation at seven-day intervals producing 0.35 kg·grain/m3 (TN117 and 0.46 kg·grain/m3 (TD307. Average daily headed panicle reduced by 166% and 196% for TN113 and TN117 compared with TN11F, with similar reduction recorded for TD303 (150% and TD307 (156% compared with TD30F. Grain yield of TD30 was comparable among irrigation regimes; however, it reduced by 30.29% in TN117 compared to TN11F. Plant height and leaf area were greater in plants exposed to intermittent irrigation of three-day intervals.

  9. Identification of Striga hermonthica-resistant Upland Rice Varieties in Sudan and Their Resistance Phenotypes

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    Hiroaki eSamejima

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Rice has become a major staple cereal in sub-Saharan Africa. Currently, upland rice cultivation is expanding particularly in rainfed areas where the root parasitic weed Striga hermonthica, a major constraint to cereal production, is endemic. Laboratory, pot, and semi-controlled open air experiments were performed to evaluate resistance of selected rice varieties in Sudan to a resident S. hermonthica population. In the laboratory, 27 varieties were screened for post-attachment resistance using the rhizotron technique. Varieties displaying high post-attachment resistance, Umgar, NERICA5, and NERICA13 together with NERICA4, NERICA18, and Nipponbare, a lowland rice variety, were further evaluated for performance and Striga resistance in pot and semi-controlled open air experiments and for germination inducing activity in a laboratory. In addition, comparative studies on reaction of Umgar, Kosti1 and Kosti2, released varieties for commercial production in Sudan, to the parasite were performed in two pot experiments. In the pot experiments Umgar and NERICA5, consistently, sustained the lowest Striga emergence (< 2.2 Striga plants per pot, while NERICA13 and NERICA4 supported 1.8–5.7 and 8.7–16.4 Striga plants per pot, respectively. In an artificially Striga-infested field, number of emergent Striga plants per 10 rice hills, at harvest, was 2.0, 2.0, 4.8, 13.5, 13.3, and 18.3 on Umgar, NERICA5, NERICA13, NERICA4, NERICA18, and Nipponbare, respectively. Striga had no adverse effects on total above-ground parts and panicle dry weight (DW in Umgar and NERICA5. Germination-inducing activity of root exudates, at 14 days after sowing onwards, was markedly lower for Umgar than for NERICA5, NERICA13, NERICA4, and NERICA18. Based on these findings, Umgar has both pre and post-attachment resistance to a resident Striga population in Sudan. Kosti1 and Kosti2, did not exhibit Striga-resistance at the same level as Umgar. Further the resistance of NERICA5, a

  10. Identification of Striga hermonthica-Resistant Upland Rice Varieties in Sudan and Their Resistance Phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samejima, Hiroaki; Babiker, Abdel G; Mustafa, Ahmed; Sugimoto, Yukihiro

    2016-01-01

    Rice has become a major staple cereal in sub-Saharan Africa. Currently, upland rice cultivation is expanding particularly in rainfed areas where the root parasitic weed Striga hermonthica, a major constraint to cereal production, is endemic. Laboratory, pot, and semi-controlled open air experiments were performed to evaluate resistance of selected rice varieties in Sudan to a resident S. hermonthica population. In the laboratory, 27 varieties were screened for post-attachment resistance using the rhizotron technique. Varieties displaying high post-attachment resistance, Umgar, NERICA5, and NERICA13 together with NERICA4, NERICA18, and Nipponbare, a lowland rice variety, were further evaluated for performance and Striga resistance in pot and semi-controlled open air experiments and for germination inducing activity in a laboratory. In addition, comparative studies on reaction of Umgar, Kosti1 and Kosti2, released varieties for commercial production in Sudan, to the parasite were performed in two pot experiments. In the pot experiments Umgar and NERICA5, consistently, sustained the lowest Striga emergence (pot), while NERICA13 and NERICA4 supported 1.8-5.7 and 8.7-16.4 Striga plants per pot, respectively. In an artificially Striga-infested field, number of emergent Striga plants per 10 rice hills, at harvest, was 2.0, 2.0, 4.8, 13.5, 13.3, and 18.3 on Umgar, NERICA5, NERICA13, NERICA4, NERICA18, and Nipponbare, respectively. Striga had no adverse effects on total above-ground parts and panicle dry weight in Umgar and NERICA5. Germination-inducing activity of root exudates, at 14 days after sowing onward, was markedly lower for Umgar than for NERICA5, NERICA13, NERICA4, and NERICA18. Based on these findings, Umgar has both pre and post-attachment resistance to a resident Striga population in Sudan. Kosti1 and Kosti2 did not exhibit Striga-resistance at the same level as Umgar. Further the resistance of NERICA5, a variety reported to be endowed with a broad spectrum

  11. Physico-chemical changes in grains of some advance lines/ varieties of rice (oryza sativa l.) after parboiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhter, M.; Haider, Z.

    2014-01-01

    Some of the advance lines/varieties developed at Rice Research Institute, Kala Shah Kaku, including approved fragrant (Basmati) rice variety i.e., Basmati-2000, were used to assess interactive efficacy of parboiling on these varieties/lines and practical expediency of using standardized parboiling technique for improving nutritional, milling and cooking qualities of these lines/varieties. For this purpose, white milled and parboiled rice samples of ten lines/varieties were analyzed for nutritional quality parameters such as ash, dry matter, crude fat, crude protein, crude fiber, vitamin B6; milling quality parameters such as total milling recovery, head rice recovery, ratio of broken grains and cooking quality parameters such as curling, bursting and cooked grain length. The study showed significant variation in efficacy of parboiling to different varieties/lines. The results clearly showed average increase in mineral contents in terms of ash% increase, dry matter, longer cooked grain length and considerable rise in vitamin B6 contents, higher total milling recovery and head rice recovery in almost all the samples. While crude fiber, crude protein and crude fat decreased non-significantly. Furthermore, quality reducing factors such as number of broken grains, bursting and curling percentage of cooked rice were also reduced significantly in parboiled samples. It may, therefore, be suggested that parboiling offers a better alternative to conserve and increase nutritional, milling and cooking quality values of rice varieties/lines. Less percentage of broken, burst and curled grains may result in augmented net income. (author)

  12. Physical, milling, cooking, and pasting characteristics of different rice varieties grown in the valley of Kashmir India

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    Tanveer Ahmad Rather

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, three different rice varieties, namely frome chena (FC, safaid chena (SC, and barkat chena (BC, were evaluated for various quality aspects in terms of physical, milling, cooking, and pasting characteristics. Among the three rice varieties SC had the highest thousand kernel weight and length breadth ratio (L/B. While as, BC had the lowest thousand kernel weight and FC had lowest L/B. Bulk density was found to be highest for FC followed by SC and BC. FC had density of 769.01 kg/m3. Milling characteristic in terms of broken percentage and head rice yield showed non-significant difference between the varieties. Head rice yield was below 70% in all the three varieties. All the three varieties took similar time to cook and cooking time varied non-significantly between 23.66 and 25.83 min. L/B ratio after cooking was found to be highest for FC followed by BC and SC. Elongation ratio of rice after cooking did not varied significantly between varieties. Elongation ratio after cooking ranged from 1.60 to 1.70. Pasting profile of rice flour was determined using rapid visco analyzer. Significant difference was observed in pasting profile of studied rice varieties.

  13. Genetic relatedness among indigenous rice varieties in the Eastern Himalayan region based on nucleotide sequences of the Waxy gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Baharul I; Khan, Mohammed L; Dayanandan, Selvadurai

    2014-12-29

    Indigenous rice varieties in the Eastern Himalayan region of Northeast India are traditionally classified into sali, boro and jum ecotypes based on geographical locality and the season of cultivation. In this study, we used DNA sequence data from the Waxy (Wx) gene to infer the genetic relatedness among indigenous rice varieties in Northeast India and to assess the genetic distinctiveness of ecotypes. The results of all three analyses (Bayesian, Maximum Parsimony and Neighbor Joining) were congruent and revealed two genetically distinct clusters of rice varieties in the region. The large group comprised several varieties of sali and boro ecotypes, and all agronomically improved varieties. The small group consisted of only traditionally cultivated indigenous rice varieties, which included one boro, few sali and all jum varieties. The fixation index analysis revealed a very low level of differentiation between sali and boro (F(ST) = 0.005), moderate differentiation between sali and jum (F(ST) = 0.108) and high differentiation between jum and boro (F(ST) = 0.230) ecotypes. The genetic relatedness analyses revealed that sali, boro and jum ecotypes are genetically heterogeneous, and the current classification based on cultivation type is not congruent with the genetic background of rice varieties. Indigenous rice varieties chosen from genetically distinct clusters could be used in breeding programs to improve genetic gain through heterosis, while maintaining high genetic diversity.

  14. Glutinous rice variety R817 for good quality wine developed by radiation induced mutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Mingxian; Luo Rongting; Xu Baocai

    1987-01-01

    Full text: The variety has been developed by gamma irradiation of dry seeds of Ai Shang Nu' at Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences. The main characteristics are as follows: 1. It has higher yield: Average about 6000 kg/ha, maximum 7800 kg/ha in trials, about 10% above the control variety 'Shang Nuo No. 4'. 2. It is disease resistant: After artificial inoculation resistant to rice blast pathotypes A, A63, B1, B15, C3, C13, C15, D3, E1, G1. 3. The growing period of the variety is about 136 days in Hangzhou. 3 days earlier than the original variety. The seedling period could be long or short. 4. It has good grain quality suitable for making Xiang Xue, Shan Miang and other well known rice wines. The variety is being grown all over our province and in some neighbouring provinces. Its cultivation area was 2000 ha in 1984, more than 8000 ha in 1985 and is rapidly increasing. (author)

  15. Determination of genetic variability of traditional varieties of Brazilian rice using microsatellite markers

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    Claudio Brondani

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The rice (Oryza sativa breeding program of the Rice and Bean research center of the Brazilian agricultural company Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária (Embrapa is well established and provides new cultivars every year to attend the demand for improved high yielding varieties with tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses. However, the elite genitors used to compose new populations for selection are closely related, contributing to the yield plateau reached in the last 20 years. To overcome this limit, it is necessary to broaden the genetic basis of the cultivars using diverse germplasm such as wild relatives or traditional varieties, with the latter being more practical because they are more easily crossed with elite germplasm to accelerate the recovery of modern plant types in the breeding lines. The objective of our study was to characterize the allelic diversity of 192 traditional varieties of Brazilian rice using 12 simple sequence repeat (SSR or microsatellite markers. The germplasm was divided into 39 groups by common name similarity. A total of 176 alleles were detected, 30 of which (from 23 accessions were exclusive. The number of alleles per marker ranged from 6 to 22, with an average of 14.6 alleles per locus. We identified 16 accessions as a mixture of pure lines or heterozygous plants. Dendrogram analysis identified six clusters of identical accessions with different common names and just one cluster with identical accessions with the same common name, indicating that SSR markers are fundamental to determining the genetic relationship between landraces. A subset of 24 landraces, representatives of the 13 similarity groups plus the 11 accessions not grouped, was the most variable set of genotypes analyzed. These accessions can be used as genitors to increase the genetic variability available to rice breeding programs.

  16. Genetic diversity analysis of Cuban traditional rice (Oryza sativa L. varieties based on microsatellite markers

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    Alba Alvarez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Microsatellite polymorphism was studied in a sample of 39 traditional rice (Oryza sativa L. varieties and 11 improved varieties widely planted in Cuba. The study was aimed at assessing the extent of genetic variation in traditional and improved varieties and to establish their genetic relationship for breeding purposes. Heterozygosity was analyzed at each microsatellite loci and for each genotype using 10 microsatellite primer pairs. Between varieties genetic relationship was estimated. The number of alleles per microsatellite loci was 4 to 8, averaging 6.6 alleles per locus. Higher heterozygosity (H was found in traditional varieties (H TV = 0.72 than in improved varieties (H IV = 0.42, and 68% of the total microsatellite alleles were found exclusively in the traditional varieties. Genetic diversity, represented by cluster analysis, indicated three different genetic groups based on their origin. Genetic relationship estimates based on the proportion of microsatellite loci with shared alleles indicated that the majority of traditional varieties were poorly related to the improved varieties. We also discuss the more efficient use of the available genetic diversity in future programs involving genetic crosses.

  17. Evaluation of Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) rice varieties against stem borer (Chilo suppressalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiani, Ghaffar; Nematzadeh, Ghorban Ali; Ghareyazie, Behzad; Sattari, Majid

    2008-02-15

    Three transgenic rice varieties namely Khazar, Neda and Nemat, all containing a cry1Ab gene, were evaluated through PCR analysis and field examinations for their resistance at natural infestation of insect pests during 2007. The results showed that all transgenic varieties produced 1.2 kb PCR product derived from application of cry1Ab gene. In field conditions, transgenic varieties exhibited high levels of resistance against natural infestation of stem borer and the damaged plants based on dead heart or white heat for them were less than 1%. Moreover, in stem-cut bioassay 100% of released larvae died within four days after infestation. These results demonstrate that expression of cry1Ab gene in the genome of transgenic varieties provided season-long protection from the natural infestation of lepidopteran insects.

  18. Application of Azolla and intermittent irrigation to improve the productivity and nutrient contents of local black rice variety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulandjari; Yunindanova, M. B.

    2018-03-01

    Black rice is a local rice variety that contains a high level of anthocyanin pigment. Anthocyanin has been reported to be very effective in reducing cholesterol levels as well as cancer cell invasion. One of the main problems in rice cultivation is lack of water. System of Rice Intensification (SRI) has shown to be able to increase rice productivity by increasing the number of tillers. This system is known as a water-efficient cultivation. Other rice cultivation barrier is related to the use of nitrogen fertilizer. One of replacement of nitrogen fertilizer is by adding azolla. The objective of this research was identifying growth and yield of organic black rice with intermittent irrigation and application of azolla. The plant material used was black rice Cempo variety from Sleman, Yogyakarta. This experiment utilized 4 dosages of azolla as the first treatment: 100 gm-2, 200 gm-2 and 400 gm-2. The second treatment was water supply consisted of continuous flooded 2 cm; flooded 2 cm every 3 days; flooded 2 cm every 6 days. The results depicted that the application of azolla was able to increase the growth of black rice. Azolla of 200 gm-2 and 400 gm-2 and intermittent 3 days to 6 days generated higher dry grain, anthocyanin and antioxidant. Azolla 200 gm-2 with intermittent irrigation 3 days could be a good combination to improve plant growth, yield and properties of local black rice.

  19. Responses of Four Rice Varieties to Elevated CO2 and Different Salinity Levels

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    Sheidollah Kazemi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:: This study was carried out in 2014 at Isfahan University of Technology, Iran, to evaluate the responses of four rice varieties (Neda, Deylamani, Shiroudi and Domsorkh to ambient (360 ± 50 μmol/mol and elevated (700 ± 50 μmol/mol air carbon dioxide (CO2 concentrations under four salinity levels (0, 30, 60 and 90 mmol/L NaCl. There was significant variation among rice varieties in response to elevated CO2 concentration under the four salinity levels. Under non-saline condition, elevated CO2 increased the dry weight of Neda, Deylamani and Domsorkh by 8%, 50% and 8%, respectively, but reversely decreased that of Shiroudi by 34%. Increasing CO2 concentration significantly reduced the negative effects of salinity on Shiroudi, but these effects were even increased in Deylamani and Domsorkh under all the salinity levels and in Neda only under 30 and 60 mmol/L NaCl. Significant correlations were established between plant dry weight, SPAD value and leaf area under both CO2 levels. However, this trend was observed only at ambient CO2 concentration in the presence of soluble carbohydrates. The results revealed the genotype and salinity dependence of the effects of CO2 concentrations on the rice traits investigated. Key words: CO2 concentration, genetic diversity, salt tolerance, water soluble carbohydrate

  20. Root Associated Bacillus sp. Improves Growth, Yield and Zinc Translocation for Basmati Rice (Oryza sativa) Varieties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakeel, Muhammad; Rais, Afroz; Hassan, Muhammad Nadeem; Hafeez, Fauzia Yusuf

    2015-01-01

    Plant associated rhizobacteria prevailing in different agro-ecosystems exhibit multiple traits which could be utilized in various aspect of sustainable agriculture. Two hundred thirty four isolates were obtained from the roots of basmati-385 and basmati super rice varieties growing in clay loam and saline soil at different locations of Punjab (Pakistan). Out of 234 isolates, 27 were able to solubilize zinc (Zn) from different Zn ores like zinc phosphate [Zn3 (PO4)2], zinc carbonate (ZnCO3) and zinc oxide (ZnO). The strain SH-10 with maximum Zn solubilization zone of 24 mm on Zn3 (PO4)2ore and strain SH-17 with maximum Zn solubilization zone of 14–15 mm on ZnO and ZnCO3ores were selected for further studies. These two strains solubilized phosphorous (P) and potassium (K) in vitro with a solubilization zone of 38–46 mm and 47–55 mm respectively. The strains also suppressed economically important rice pathogens Pyricularia oryzae and Fusarium moniliforme by 22–29% and produced various biocontrol determinants in vitro. The strains enhanced Zn translocation toward grains and increased yield of basmati-385 and super basmati rice varieties by 22–49% and 18–47% respectively. The Zn solubilizing strains were identified as Bacillus sp. and Bacillus cereus by 16S rRNA gene analysis. PMID:26635754

  1. Engineering properties of high and low altitude rice varieties from Kashmir valley at different processing levels

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    Raees Haq

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of engineering properties such as gravimetrical properties (1,000 grain mass, bulk density, true density, and porosity, dimensional properties (length, width, thickness, aspect ratio, surface area, geometric mean diameter, and sphericity, frictional properties (angle of repose and coefficient of friction, and aerodynamic properties (drag coefficient and terminal velocity are necessary parameters related to machine design for different agricultural process operations such as handling, harvesting, threshing, cleaning, conveying, sorting, drying, processing, and storage. India is a vast country and contributes 20% of the total world’s rice production with cultivars ranging from the scented long grain ones to the sticky short grains. The Kashmir valley cultivates mainly short–medium bold varieties as temperate conditions in the valley are not suitable for the cultivation of long grain scented basmati rice. The most steps in cultivation and postharvest processing are manual and the aim of this work is to emphasize which variety sustains the processing steps to produce high yield quality rice for strengthening the economic conditions of the people.

  2. Resistant Starch: Variation among High Amylose Rice Varieties and Its Relationship with Apparent Amylose Content, Pasting Properties and Cooking Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resistant starch (RS), which is not hydrolyzed in the small intestines, has proposed health benefits. We evaluated a set of 40 high amylose rice varieties for RS levels in cooked rice and approximately a 1.9-fold difference was found. The highest ones had more than two-fold greater RS concentration ...

  3. Development of New Submergence Tolerant Rice Variety for Bangladesh Using Marker-Assisted Backcrossing

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    Khandakar Md Iftekharuddaula

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Submergence tolerant high yielding rice variety was developed using BR11 as a recipient parent applying foreground, phenotypic and background selection approaches. Recombinant selection was found essential to minimize linkage drag by BC2F2 generation. Without recombinant selection, the introgression size in the backcross recombinant lines (BRLs was approximately 15 Mb on the carrier chromosome. The BRLs were found submergence tolerance compared to the check varieties under complete submergence for two weeks at Bangladesh Rice Research Institute, and produced higher yield compared to the isogenic Sub1-line under controlled submerged condition. The BRL IR85260-66-654-Gaz2 was released as BRRI dhan52 in 2010, which was the first high yielding submergence tolerant variety in Bangladesh. BRRI dhan52 produced grain yield ranging from 4.2 to 5.2 t/hm2 under different flash flood prone areas of Bangladesh in three consecutive seasons. The study demonstrated the efficiency of recombinant selection and better adaptability of the newly released submergence tolerant high yielding variety in flash flood prone different areas of the country with respect to submergence tolerance and yield potential.

  4. Factors Affecting Adoption of Improved Rice Varieties among Rural Farm Households in Central Nepal

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    Raju Ghimire

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of improved high yielding crop varieties is an important avenue for reducing hunger and food insecurity in developing countries. Using cross-sectional data obtained from a survey conducted during 2013 crop season, we performed a probit model (plot-level analysis to determine the probability of adopting new improved rice varieties (NIRVs by smallholder farmers particularly from two main agro-ecological regions (hills and tropical plain terai regions of Central Nepal. The results revealed that education, extension services and seed access play significant roles in adoption decisions. Additionally, farm and field characteristic variables such as farm size, endowment of favorable land type (e.g. lowlands, and animal power (e.g. oxen are the key factors influencing the probability of adopting NIRVs. The results showed that technology specific variables (e.g. yield potential and acceptability are significant for explaining adoption behavior, implying that it is important to take farmers’ preferences to varietal characteristics into consideration in the design of a research and development program. Given the significant role played by extension and access related variables, increased emphasis on information dissemination, field demonstration, and farmers’ participatory research and training programs to popularize new rice varieties and enhance their adoption rate are required. This also suggests that policy intervention should be made on improving the educational status of farming households, and developing programs on varietal package of rice seed which offer farmers a variety of choices among the appropriate pools of germplasm. Such programs ultimately help farmers develop more profit-oriented behavior which are necessary to enhance adoption rate, production and food security in the long run.

  5. Consumer Acceptance and Preference Study [CAPS] on Brown and Under Milled Indian Rice Varieties in Chennai, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudha, Vasudevan; Spiegelman, Donna; Hong, Biling; Malik, Vasanti; Jones, Clara; Wedick, Nicole M.; Hu, Frank B.; Willett, Walter; Bai, Mookambika Ramya; Ponnalagu, Muthu Mariyammal; Arumugam, Kokila; Mohan, Viswanathan

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To study consumer acceptance of unmilled brown and under milled rice among urban south Indians. Methods Overweight and normal weight adults living in slum and non-slum residences in Chennai participated (n=82). Bapatla (BPT) and Uma (red pigmented) rice varieties were chosen. These rice varieties were dehusked (unmilled, 0% polish) and further milled to 2.3% and 4.4% polishing (under milled). Thus nine rice samples in both raw and parboiled forms were provided for consumer tasting over a period of three days. A hedonic 7-point scale was used to rate the consumer preferences. A validated questionnaire was used to collect demographic, anthropometric, medical history, physical activity, dietary intake data and willingness of the consumers to switch over to brown rice. Results Consumers reported that the color, appearance, texture, taste and overall quality of the 4.4% polished rice was strongly preferred in both varieties and forms. Ratings for 0% polished (brown rice) were substantially lower than those of 2.3% polished rice, which were intermediate in ratings between 0% and 4.4% polishing. However, most of the consumers (93%) expressed willingness to substitute brown or 2.3% polished rice if affordable after the taste tests and education on nutritional and health benefits of whole grains. Conclusion While most consumers’ preferred polished white rice, education regarding health benefits may help this population switch to brown or under milled rice. Cooking quality and appearance of the grains were perceived as the most important factors to consider when purchasing rice among Chennai urban adults. PMID:24015699

  6. In vitro assessment on the impact of soil arsenic in the eight rice varieties of West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Piyal; Samal, Alok C; Majumdar, Jayjit; Banerjee, Satabdi; Santra, Subhas C

    2013-11-15

    Rice is an efficient accumulator of arsenic and thus irrigation with arsenic-contaminated groundwater and soil may induce human health hazard via water-soil-plant-human pathway. A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted on three high yielding, one hybrid and four local rice varieties to investigate the uptake, distribution and phytotoxicity of arsenic in rice plant. 5, 10, 20, 30 and 40 mg kg(-1) dry weights arsenic dosing was applied in pot soil and the results were compared with the control samples. All the studied high yielding and hybrid varieties (Ratna, IET 4094, IR 50 and Gangakaveri) were found to be higher accumulator of arsenic as compared to all but one local rice variety, Kerala Sundari. In these five rice varieties accumulation of arsenic in grain exceeded the WHO permissible limit (1.0 mg kg(-1)) at 20 mg kg(-1) arsenic dosing. Irrespective of variety, arsenic accumulation in different parts of rice plant was found to increase with increasing arsenic doses, but not at the same rate. A consistent negative correlation was established between soil arsenic and chlorophyll contents while carbohydrate accumulation depicted consistent positive correlation with increasing arsenic toxicity in rice plant. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Quantification of tocopherols, tocotrienols, and γ-oryzanol contents and their distribution in some commercial rice varieties in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shao-Hua; Ng, Lean-Teik

    2011-10-26

    The eight vitamin E isomers [α-, β-, γ-, and δ-tocopherols (T) and α-, β-, γ-, and δ-tocotrienols (T3)] and γ-oryzanol are known to possess diverse biological activities. This study examined the contents of these compounds and their distribution in 16 commercial rice varieties in Taiwan. Results showed that the order of vitamin E, total T, total T3, and γ-oryzanol contents was rice bran > brown rice > rice husk > polished rice. γ-T3 was the highest vitamin E isomer present in all rice samples, while β-T, β-T3, δ-T, and δ-T3 were present in trace amounts. The Japonica varieties contained a higher total T, total T3, and γ-oryzanol than the Indica varieties. They also have a higher level of α-T and α-T3 but a lower level of γ-T and γ-T3 than the Indica varieties. However, no obvious difference in total T, total T3, and γ-oryzanol content was noted between black- and red-colored rice varieties.

  8. Development of the variety for resistance against bacterial leaf-blight in rice with thermal neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakai, Hirokazu

    1990-01-01

    In search for the development of genes for resistance against bacterial leaf-blight in rice, thermal neutrons generated from the Research Reactor at the Kyoto University have been applied to the breeding. In this paper, the developmental outcome is described, and a potential application of thermal neutrons for breeding the variety of resistance against bacterial leaf-blight in rice is reviewed. When thermal neutrons were delivered to the rice, the ratio of absorbed doses by B-10, which is contained in a small quantity in the plant, was found to be larger than expected. This implies characteristic effects of thermal neutrons on the plant. When boric acid was incorporated into the plant before irradiation, the effect of thermal neutrons per irradiation time was considered to become great. The frequency of mutations for resistance was significantly higher by thermal neutron, as compared with that induced by other mutagens, such as gamma radiation, ethylene-imine, ethyl-methane-sulfonate, and nitroso-methyl-urea. Genetic analysis of mutants for resistance revealed recessive genes and polygenes. Finally, the application of thermal neutrons and other radiations would contribute greatly to a resolution of serious pollution problems in global food and environment. (N.K.)

  9. Robustness and Strategies of Adaptation among Farmer Varieties of African Rice (Oryza glaberrima) and Asian Rice (Oryza sativa) across West Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mokuwa, A.; Nuijten, H.A.C.P.; Okry, F.; Teeken, B.W.E.; Maat, H.; Richards, P.; Struik, P.C.

    2013-01-01

    This study offers evidence of the robustness of farmer rice varieties (Oryza glaberrima and O. sativa) in West Africa. Our experiments in five West African countries showed that farmer varieties were tolerant of sub-optimal conditions, but employed a range of strategies to cope with stress.

  10. Effect of Cold-Water Irrigation on Grain Quality Traits in japonica Rice Varieties from Yunnan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-zhen ZHAO

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The response of grain quality traits to cold-water irrigation and its correlation with cold tolerance were studied in 11 japonica rice varieties from Yunnan Province, China. The results indicated that the response of grain quality traits to the cold-water stress varied with rice varieties and grain quality traits. Under the cold-water stress, grain width, chalky rice rate, whiteness, 1000-grain weight, brown rice rate, taste meter value, peak viscosity, trough viscosity, breakdown viscosity and final viscosity significantly decreased, whereas grain length-width ratio, head rice rate, alkali digestion value, protein content and setback viscosity markedly increased. However, the other traits such as grain length, amylose content, milled rice rate, peak viscosity time and pasting temperature were not significantly affected by the cold-water stress. Significant correlations were discovered between phenotypic acceptability and cold response indices of taste meter value, protein content, peak viscosity and breakdown viscosity. Therefore, it would be very important to improve the cold tolerance of Yunnan rice varieties in order to stabilize and improve their eating quality.

  11. The estimation genetically effective call numbers of panicle formation of seratus malam anda cisadane rice varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwimahyani, I.; Suyono, G.

    1988-01-01

    An experiment has been carried out to estimate the genetically effective cell numbers on panicle formation of 2 rice varieties. Seeds of Seratus Malam were irradiated with gamma rays 60-Co with doses 0.2; 0.3; 0.4; 0.5 kGy, while Cisadane obtained doses 0.1; 0.2; 0.3; 0.4; and 0.5 kGy. Seeds then planted as M1 generation. Panicle form this M1 generation were observed and appeared as Albania and Xantha. Form this observation segregation ratio could be determined. It was showed that Cisadane was more sensitive than Seratus Malam variety. The genetically effective Cell Numbers value at low dose was 3 for both varieties. At high dose, the genetically effective cell numbers values was 2 for Seratus Malam and 1 for Cisadane varieties. Result indicate that high dose of irradiation could kill cell and therefore reduce effective cell numbers on panicle formation. (Authors). 6 refs, 3 tabs

  12. Study on the breeding of japonical gelatinous rice mutant variety Zhenuo 36 with high yield and good grain quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao Genliang; Zhang Xiaoming; Ye Shenghai; Zuo Xiaoxu; Feng Zuocheng; Lu Wenwu; Katsura Toomita; Asako Kobayasi

    2004-01-01

    The dry seeds of F 2 , which came from the crossing of japonical rice Bing 92-124 x japonical gelatinous rice Shaonuoxuan (SNX), was induced by 200 Gy 60 Co γ-irradiation. A japonical gelatinous rice mutant ZH206 with high yield, large grain size and good grain quality was obtained through several generation selections. It was demonstrated that the average yield was 9.4% higher than controls in two regional tests in successive two years. Its grain size was obviously large as compared with its original parents, 1000-grain weight was above 30 g, 4.1 g and 3.6 g higher than Bing 92-124 and SNX, respectively. Gelatinous characteristic of its rice was better than control Xianghu 84 and also much better than SNX. In 2003, the mutant was denominated as 'Zhenuo 36' by Crop Variety Identification Committee of Zhejiang Province. As an excellent japonical gelatinous variety, Zhenuo 36 had both the largest rate of increasing yield and the highest grain weight in Zhejiang provincial regional tests of japonical rice during last 20 years. The successful breeding of the variety showed that irradiation induction is an effective method to simultaneously improve some characteristics in rice. (authors)

  13. Agronomic evaluation of four improved rice varieties in different sowing periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genry Hernández Carrillo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A study to evaluate the agronomic performance of four rice varieties in different seasons, on flooded soil, using direct plantation, was developed at the Local Station for Grain Research, in the municipality of Vertientes, province of Camaguey, Cuba. A block random design was used in the study, with five replicas, through a bifactorial experiment with four treatments (Prosequisa 4, IA Cuba 31, IACuba 40, and Jucarito 104, as control, the sowing period included January, February, March, April, May, June, July, and August. The parameters evaluated were, cycle (days from germination to harvest, final plant height, fertile panicles per m2, filled grain per panicle, 1000-grain mass (14% humidity, crop yields and industrial quality. The highest yields were accomplished in February and June (pattern variety and Prosequisa 4, with 8.2 t/ha-1, in each month. Concerning industrial yields, the best results were achieved in IACuba 31 (66.4; 66.1; and 63.3% full white grain in February, June and July. The most profitable varieties were Prosequisa 4, Jucarito 104, and IACuba 31, in the different seasons evaluated.

  14. Postponed variety creation: case study in consumer electronics retail

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appelqvist, Patrik; Gubi, Ebbe

    2004-01-01

    Purpose – Postponement is known as a way to reduce risk and inventories while still providing high product variety and acceptable response times. The paper is a case study that uses simulation for quantifying these benefits for a consumer electronics company. Design/methodology/approach – Improve......Purpose – Postponement is known as a way to reduce risk and inventories while still providing high product variety and acceptable response times. The paper is a case study that uses simulation for quantifying these benefits for a consumer electronics company. Design...... is beneficial in retail. Findings – In the case company, shop inventory is necessary for high-volume and low-variety products. Postponing variety creation to shops has the potential to decrease inventories for these products by 40-80 per cent. The benefits of postponement depend on delivery speed requirement......, product value, product variety and shop size. Research limitations/implications – Many contributions on postponement have been conceptual. This study contains a quantitative test. The study considers both the spatial dimension (where) and the temporal dimension (when) of postponement. Practical...

  15. Postponed variety creation: case study in consumer electronics retail

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appelqvist, Patrik; Gubi, Ebbe

    2005-01-01

    Purpose – Postponement is known as a way to reduce risk and inventories while still providing high product variety and acceptable response times. The paper is a case study that uses simulation for quantifying these benefits for a consumer electronics company. Design/methodology/approach – Improve......Purpose – Postponement is known as a way to reduce risk and inventories while still providing high product variety and acceptable response times. The paper is a case study that uses simulation for quantifying these benefits for a consumer electronics company. Design...... is beneficial in retail. Findings – In the case company, shop inventory is necessary for high-volume and low-variety products. Postponing variety creation to shops has the potential to decrease inventories for these products by 40-80 per cent. The benefits of postponement depend on delivery speed requirement......, product value, product variety and shop size. Research limitations/implications – Many contributions on postponement have been conceptual. This study contains a quantitative test. The study considers both the spatial dimension (where) and the temporal dimension (when) of postponement. Practical...

  16. TECHNICAL ECONOMIC FEASIBILITY OF PADDY RICE FIELDS VARIETY OF APPROACH PTT SPECIFIC LOCATIONS IN PAPUA (Case Jayapura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afrizal Malik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Study aims to determine technical economically feasibility of irrigration rice in village of Sumbe, Namblong District, Jayapura on-farm research involving farmers with an area of 2.50 ha cooperators, July to November 2011. Technology introduced: PTT, 4:1 legowo systems, seed varieties Inpari labeled 1, 2, 4, 6, 7, 9, 10, and Sintanur. Fertilizer: urea 150 kg +100 kg +100 kg SP-36 Phonska KCl +50 kg per ha. Variables: height and number of tillers 35 and 65 dap, weight of 1000 seeds, productivity, input, and output. Data were analyzed descriptively. Highest productivity in varieties Inpari 7 (7.925 tonnes per ha Milled Rice (MR and lowest Sintanur varieties (4.625 tonnes per ha MR. Pest stand: rice leaffolder and stinky rice pest. Lowest expenditure on non-cooperators Ciherang farmers IDR 12.15 million per ha per Growing Season (GS and highest in varieties Inpari 7 (IDR 15,005,000 per ha per GS. Lowest Acceptance Ciherang farmers on non-cooperators, IDR 16.4 million per ha per GS and highest in varieties Inpari 7, IDR 27.7 million per ha per GS. If farmers apply recommendation technologies using Inpari 7 varieties, farmers receiving IDR 3,173,750 per month (greater than Regional Minimum Wage of Jayapura. Need government support in order to minimize dependence on outside

  17. Use of the p-SINE1-r2 in inferring evolutionary relationships of Thai rice varieties with AA genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preecha Prathepha

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In a previous study we described the prevalence and distribution in Thailand of the retroposon p- SINE1-r2, in the intron 10 of the waxy gene in cultivated and wild rice with the AA genome. In this study, additional varieties of rice were collected and sequencing was used to further characterize p-SINE1-r2. It was found that the length of the p-SINE1-r2 nucleotide sequences was about 125 bp, flanked by identical direct repeats of a 14 bp sequence. These sequences were compared and found to be similar to the sequences of p- SINE1-r2 found in Nipponbare, a rice strain discussed in a separate study. However, when compared the 48 DNA sequences identified in this study, much dissimilarity was found within the nucleotide sequences of p- SINE1-r2, in the form of base substitution mutations. Phylogenetic relationships inferred from the nucleotide sequences of these elements in cultivated rice (O. sativa and wild rice (O. nivara. It was found that rice accessions collected from the same geographical distribution have been placed in the same clade. The phylogenetic tree supports the origin and distribution of these rice strains.

  18. Postponed variety creation: case study in consumer electronics retail

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appelqvist, Patrik; Gubi, Ebbe

    2005-01-01

    Purpose – Postponement is known as a way to reduce risk and inventories while still providing high product variety and acceptable response times. The paper is a case study that uses simulation for quantifying these benefits for a consumer electronics company. Design/methodology/approach – Improve...... modular product architecture can be utilised to improve operational supply chain performance.......Purpose – Postponement is known as a way to reduce risk and inventories while still providing high product variety and acceptable response times. The paper is a case study that uses simulation for quantifying these benefits for a consumer electronics company. Design....../methodology/approach – Improvement potential is first evaluated qualitatively through interviews with dealers of the case company. Next, the benefit of postponement is evaluated quantitatively using discrete-event simulation with data from operational ERP systems. The conclusions identify conditions under which postponement...

  19. Effect of fluoride on photosynthesis, growth and accumulation of four widely cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.) varieties in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Naba Kumar

    2017-10-01

    Long-term use of fluoride contaminated groundwater to irrigate crops; especially paddy rice (Oryza sativa L.) has resulted in elevated soil fluoride levels in Eastern India. There is, therefore, growing concern regarding accumulation of fluoride in rice grown on these soils. A laboratory experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of F on germination and phytotoxicity of four varieties of rice (Orzya sativa L.) (MTU-1010; IET-4094; IET-4786 and GB-1) grown in petri dish in a green house with inorganic sodium fluoride (NaF). Three different levels (0, 5, 10 and 20mg/L) of NaF solution were applied. At the end of the experiment (28 days), biochemical analysis (pigment, sugar, protein, amino acid and phenol), lipid peroxidation, root ion leakage and catalase activity along with fluoride accumulation and fresh and dry weight of roots and shoots of four cultivars were measured. The results revealed that all the four studied varieties exhibited gradual decrease of germination pattern with increasing concentration of F. Pigment and growth morphological study clearly demonstrated that the variety IET-4094 was the least influenced by F compare to the other three varieties of rice. The translocation factor (TF) was recorded to be the highest for variety IET-4786 (0.215 ± 0.03) at 5mg/L F concentration. All the four varieties showed higher level of fluoride accumulation in root than in shoot. Variable results were recorded for biochemical parameters and lipid peroxidation. Catalase activity and relative conductivity (root ion leakage) gradually increased with increasing F concentration for all the four varieties. It is speculated that fluoride accumulation in rice straw at very high levels will affect the feeding cattle and such contaminated straw could be a direct threat to their health and also, indirectly, to human health via presumably contaminated meat and milk. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Mutation Breeding and Selection for Phenotypic Mutants in Standard Rice Varieties by Ion Beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puddhanon, Prawit; Pintanon, Prateep; Chaithep, Waree; Songjuntuke, Ksan

    2009-07-01

    Full text: Effects of 80 keV ion beam (10 16 ion/cm 2 on mutations of RD6 and Sanpatong 1 rice varieties were studied in 2006. In order to obtain the phenotypic mutants, each variety was sown in the laboratory and under field conditions at Maejo University in 2007 dry season. Seed germination noticeably declined. For RD6, only 45.1% germinated in the laboratory, and 18.1% were established under the field condition. Similarly, 62.3% of Sanpatong 1 germinated in the laboratory and 31.4% established in the field. No phenotypic mutants were observed in the first generation (M 1 ). The M2 seeds were harvested separately from 3 panicles of each M plant in RD6 and Sanpatong1, totaling 810 and 1,878 lines, respectively. In 2007 rainy season, they were planted on a panicle to row basis. It was found that more phenotypic mutants were observed in the M 2 for Sanpatong 1 than for RD6. The mutant characters included dwarf plants, early maturity, male sterility and larger panicle sizes. As a result, about 420 within line selections were collected and the M 3 seeds were harvested for further field condition and gene markers evaluations

  1. Application of space mutation on creation of rice new material and breeding of new variety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pu Zhigang; Zhang Zhiyong; Xiang Yuewu; Cai Pingzhong; Zhou Xianming; Zhang Zhixiong

    2008-01-01

    One rice material with quasi-aromatic and special color-glumes has been selected through space mutation. A new cytoplasmic male sterile line was transferred from the special rice material. The abortive fertility of sterility is stable, its restoring and combining ability is well. The rice quality of Huaxiang A reaches the third grade rice high-quality standard. A new high yielding hybrid rice cultivar (Huaxiang 7) was bred from the cytoplasmic male sterile line 'Huaxiang A' and restorer line 'Chuanhui 907', which already passed provincinal evaluation. (authors)

  2. Glycaemic index values and physicochemical properties of five brown rice varieties cooked by different domestic cooking methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madan Kumar Chapagai

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of diabetes has increased dramatically in recent decades in the regions where people excessively consume white rice. Due to higher nutritional values and bioactive components, low to medium glycaemic index (GI brown rice could be a potential alternative to white rice in these regions. Methods: Five varieties, Chiang (CH, Sungyod (SY, Lepnok (LP from Thailand, Long grain specialty 1 (LS 1 and Long grain specialty 2 (LS 2 from Malaysia were tested for GI. Ten test foods were prepared from 5 varieties by 2 cooking techniques (pressure cooker, PC and rice cooker, RC. Overnight fasted 10 healthy subjects were fed with 25 g glucose as a reference food (RF on 3 occasions and amount equivalent to 25 g available carbohydrate portion of test food (TF on 1 occasion in separate days. Fasting and post-prandial capillary blood glucose was measured via finger-prick methods at 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 min, and the incremental area under curve (iAUC was determined. The GI of each TF was calculated as percentage of incremental area under curve (iAUC of TF over RF. Results: The mean GI values of SY (72 – 81, high, CH and LP (59 – 65, medium and LS 1 and LS 2 (64 – 73, medium to high for cooking were discovered by PC and RC methods. The GI did not vary significantly (p>0.05 among varieties as well as between cooking methods. GI showed a significant negative correlation with the amylose content (r = –0.70, p<0.05 and significant positive correlation with cold peak viscosity (r = 0.80, p<0.01. Conclusions: All five rice varieties irrespectively of the cooking method used are classified as medium to high GI foods. Medium GI varieties could have potential of being used in diabetic diet. Cooking methods did not significantly alter the glycaemic characteristics of the studied varieties. Amylose content and pasting properties can be used for predicting GI of brown rice. It is urgent to explore low GI brown rice varieties in these

  3. Discrimination of Rice with Different Pretreatment Methods by Using a Voltammetric Electronic Tongue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an application of a voltammetric electronic tongue for discrimination and prediction of different varieties of rice was investigated. Different pretreatment methods were selected, which were subsequently used for the discrimination of different varieties of rice and prediction of unknown rice samples. To this aim, a voltammetric array of sensors based on metallic electrodes was used as the sensing part. The different samples were analyzed by cyclic voltammetry with two sample-pretreatment methods. Discriminant Factorial Analysis was used to visualize the different categories of rice samples; however, radial basis function (RBF artificial neural network with leave-one-out cross-validation method was employed for prediction modeling. The collected signal data were first compressed employing fast Fourier transform (FFT and then significant features were extracted from the voltammetric signals. The experimental results indicated that the sample solutions obtained by the non-crushed pretreatment method could efficiently meet the effect of discrimination and recognition. The satisfactory prediction results of voltammetric electronic tongue based on RBF artificial neural network were obtained with less than five-fold dilution of the sample solution. The main objective of this study was to develop primary research on the application of an electronic tongue system for the discrimination and prediction of solid foods and provide an objective assessment tool for the food industry.

  4. Robustness and strategies of adaptation among farmer varieties of African Rice (Oryza glaberrima) and Asian Rice (Oryza sativa) across West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokuwa, Alfred; Nuijten, Edwin; Okry, Florent; Teeken, Béla; Maat, Harro; Richards, Paul; Struik, Paul C

    2013-01-01

    This study offers evidence of the robustness of farmer rice varieties (Oryza glaberrima and O. sativa) in West Africa. Our experiments in five West African countries showed that farmer varieties were tolerant of sub-optimal conditions, but employed a range of strategies to cope with stress. Varieties belonging to the species Oryza glaberrima - solely the product of farmer agency - were the most successful in adapting to a range of adverse conditions. Some of the farmer selections from within the indica and japonica subspecies of O. sativa also performed well in a range of conditions, but other farmer selections from within these two subspecies were mainly limited to more specific niches. The results contradict the rather common belief that farmer varieties are only of local value. Farmer varieties should be considered by breeding programmes and used (alongside improved varieties) in dissemination projects for rural food security.

  5. Robustness and Strategies of Adaptation among Farmer Varieties of African Rice (Oryza glaberrima) and Asian Rice (Oryza sativa) across West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maat, Harro; Richards, Paul; Struik, Paul C.

    2013-01-01

    This study offers evidence of the robustness of farmer rice varieties (Oryza glaberrima and O. sativa) in West Africa. Our experiments in five West African countries showed that farmer varieties were tolerant of sub-optimal conditions, but employed a range of strategies to cope with stress. Varieties belonging to the species Oryza glaberrima – solely the product of farmer agency – were the most successful in adapting to a range of adverse conditions. Some of the farmer selections from within the indica and japonica subspecies of O. sativa also performed well in a range of conditions, but other farmer selections from within these two subspecies were mainly limited to more specific niches. The results contradict the rather common belief that farmer varieties are only of local value. Farmer varieties should be considered by breeding programmes and used (alongside improved varieties) in dissemination projects for rural food security. PMID:23536754

  6. Radiation effect in another culture rice (Oryza Sativa L.) variety Krispo-38

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montepeque, R.; Molina, L.G.; Lopez, J.J.; Pazos, W.; Ramirez, J.

    1993-01-01

    Seeds of the rice variety Krispo-38 were irradiated with 0, 100, 200, 300 and 400 Gray (Gy) and sown in the greenhouse. From each treatment, others containing uninucleate pollen grains were collected and cultured on a N6 agar medium with 5% sucrose concentration and supplemented with mg/l naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), 1 mg/l kinetin and 1 mg/l 2,4 dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). The pollen grains were induced to develop callus. The percentage of others that produced calli varied from 0.8 for the 400-Gy treatment to 3.3% for the control. The calli were transferred to N6 medium with 3% sucrose concentration, supplemented with 0.5 mg/l NAA and 1 mg/l kinetin. The percentage of calli that produced green plants varied from 1.9 for the 300-Gy treatment to 10.5 for the 200 Gy treatment. Plants developed in 2-5 weeks after callus transplant. A total of 101 green plants was obtained

  7. Breeding of a new early season indica rice variety Ganzaoxian 56 by irradiation, anther culture and hybridization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Yingjin; Liu Yibai; Kuang Huiyun; Xu Zhengjin

    2005-01-01

    Ganzaoxian 56 is a new early season indica rice variety, which was bred in the College of Agronomy of Jiangxi Agricultural University by the integrative breeding techniques of radiation, anther culture and hybridization. Its main characteristics were as follows: super quality, high yield, high tolerance to heat-forced maturity, suitable maturity and high resistance to rice blast. It was registered by Crop Cultivar Registration Committee of Jiangxi Province on March 19, 2004. The breeding process of Ganzaoxian 56, main characteristics and the value of its exploitation and application were described in this paper. (authors)

  8. Effect of NaCl-Stress on Metabolism of NO3-, NH4+ and NO2- at Several Rice Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Zulman Harja Utama

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of NaCl-stress on metabolism of NO3-, NH4+ and NO2- at several rice varieties. The results showed that an addition of NaCl had lesser effect on NaCl-tolerant varieties as compared to NaCl-sensitive in term of reduction in NO3-, NH4+, and NO2- uptake. Rice adaptation ability to NaCl stress occurred through the mechanism of NO3-, NH4+, and N02- metabolism physiology. It was indicated by the difference concentration of NO3-, NH4+ and N02- between the tolerant (Cisadane, moderate (Batang Lembang, Rendah Kuning, and Batang Piaman and sensitive (IR 66 varieties. Concentration of NH4+ and N02- of tolerant rice (Cisadane at NaCl treatment were about 1.16 and 2.6 times higher than that at control, respectively, while concentration of NO3- was only 0.03 times lower than control. In contrast, concentration of NO3-, NH4+, and N02- of sensitive rice (IR 66, were about 0.09, 0.27, and 0.41 times lower than that in control respecting at NaCl treatment, respectively.

  9. Data set from a comprehensive phosphoproteomic analysis of rice variety IRBB5 in response to bacterial blight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuxuan Hou

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial blight (BB caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo has become one of the most devastating diseases for rice, a major food source for over half of the world populations. To investigate the roles of protein phosphorylation in rice bacterial blight resistance, a quantitative phosphoproteomic study was conducted in rice variety IRBB5 at 0 h and 24 h after Xoo infection. 2367 and 2223 phosphosites on 1334 and 1297 representative proteins were identified in 0 h and 24 h after Xoo infection, respectively, out of which 762 proteins were found to be differentially phosphorylated. In associated with the published article “A comprehensive quantitative phosphoproteome analysis of rice in response to bacterial blight” in BMC Plant Biology (Hou et al., 2015 [1], this dataset article provided the detailed information of experimental designing, methods, features as well as the raw data of mass spectrometry (MS identification. The MS proteomics data could be fully accessed from the ProteomeXchange Consortium with the dataset identifier http://www.ebi.ac.uk/pride/archive/projects/PXD002222. Keywords: Rice (Oryza sativa L., Bacterial blight, Phosphoproteome

  10. Radiobiological response of fast neutrons on seedling growth of rice varieties with different amylose content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baradjanegara, A.A.; Sugiyanto, T.; Rahayu, S.

    1978-01-01

    Many studies are reported on radiation effects and on factors modifying the biological response of radiation in rice. However, little attention was directed towards studying effects of fast neutrons on seedling growth response of rice as a function of chemical constituents (e.g. amylose content). Experiments were conducted to investigate the dependency of amylose content in 4 rice cultivars on radiosensitivity to fast neutrons. From the results obtained a clear relationship between amylose content and sensitivity to fast neutrons could be shown. (author)

  11. Induced mutation studies with Brachiaria brizantha Stapf. and some indica rice varieties from Ceylon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganashan, P [Agricultural Research Station, Maha-Illuppallama, Ceylon (Sri Lanka)

    1970-03-01

    Non-imbibed seeds of Brachiaria brizantha were irradiated with doses of {sup 60}Co gamma rays ranging from 7.5 to 75 kR and fresh stem cuttings containing three nodes were irradiated with doses ranging from 7.5 to 45 kR. Chromosome counts were made using the Carnoy method. There was no germination at 75 kR, and 18% germination at 60 kR with no survival of the seedlings. At the other doses germination and seedling survival decreased from 56% and 100% respectively for the control to 42% and 46% respectively at 45 kR. There were no chlorophyll mutants at 7.5 kR, while a few were observed among seedlings at the higher doses. In the stem cuttings establishment was poor and morphological variations were observed at all doses above 15 kR. A mutant of desirable plant type was obtained from the 45-kR seed treatment with an erect growth habit, reduced pubescence, short internodes, profuse tillering and rapid regrowth compared with the parent. Four indica rice varieties, H-4, H-8, H-7 and Pachchaiperumal 2462/11 (PP 2462/11), were subjected to gamma rays, neutrons and ethyl methane sulphonate (EMS) treatments. The LD{sub 50} level for gamma rays was 50 to 60 kR, for neutrons 1600 R and for EMS 0.4%. Germination and final plant stand in the M{sub 1} generation were affected only slightly by the neutron treatments, but were greatly reduced by EMS, and gamma irradiation above 35 kR. The final plant stand of the variety PP 2462/11 was most reduced by all the mutagens. In the M{sub 2} generation there was segregation for chlorophyll mutants, of the albina, chlorina, xantha, virescens and zebrina types. Other macro-mutations observed were for grain size and shape, plant height, flowering date and sterility. Grass clump types were found occasionally. (author)

  12. Evaluating Non-Aromatic Rice Varieties for Growth and Yield under Different Rates of Soil Applied Boron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javaid Ahmed Shah

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Balanced boron (B fertilization has prime importance to obtain maximum paddy yield. The range between B deficiency and toxicity is smaller than most plant nutrients, though B requirement among different crops varies widely. The adequate dose of B for one genotype can either be insufficient or toxic to other. Hence, without knowing the actual requirements of crop varieties, B application can be risky due to the toxicity hazards. A field experiment was undertaken at experimental farm of Nuclear Institute of Agriculture (NIA Tandojam during 2013, to evaluate the B requirement of two non-aromatic rice varieties. The experiment was arranged in split plot design with three repeats. Two rice varieties Sarshar and Shandar were grown in main plots with four rates of B: 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 kg ha-1 and control (0 kg ha-1 in sub plots. Both the varieties responded differently to B rates. Sarshar produced the highest paddy yield (5691 kg ha-1 at a rate of 1.5 kg B ha-1 and was 18% greater than control, Shandar produced the highest yield (6075 kg ha-1 at a rate of 1.0 kg B ha-1and was 5% greater than control. B accumulation in paddy and straw of both varieties increased with the increasing B rates. Both varieties were also significantly (p<0.05 varied in B accumulations. Comparatively, rice variety Sarshar accumulated 9% and 22% more B in straw and paddy than the Shandar. Thus, the B requirement of Sarshar was relatively higher than the Shandar. Shandar can be grown without the additional B application, whereas, Sarshar requires additional B for its maximum harvest in B deficient soils.

  13. Effect of Intermittent Drying Conditions on Fissuring Percentage and Process Duration of Long and Medium Rough Rice Varieties

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    A. Ghasemi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the factors which affect the quality of rice during milling is internal fissures created during and after drying operation. In many industrial countries intermittent drying method is hired to reduce the moisture content of rough rice in order to reduce the drying time and maintain the quality of the final product. A high percentage of rice breakage during milling process, at least in Iran, necessitates performing the intermittent drying process and optimize it for Iranian varieties. In this study, the effect of this method (drying-tempering and continuous drying method (no tempering on fissuring percentage of Hashemi (long grain and Koohsar (medium grain varieties was investigated. The experiments were carried out at constant drying and tempering temperature of 60 °C, drying durations of 20, 40 and 60 min, and tempering durations of 0 (continuous drying, 40, 80, 120, 160, 200, 240 min. The results revealed that the tempering process significantly reduced the drying time and fissured kernels percentage. Moreover, for both varieties it was observed that the rice fissuring decreased significantly by continuing the tempering process until certain durations. Overall, for optimization of intermittent drying process in terms of the considered qualitative parameters, i.e. reducing energy consumption and losses, conducting 160 and 200 min tempering process after 40 min drying was found appropriate for Hashemi and Koohsar varieties, respectively. In addition, according to the higher fissuring for Koohsar (medium grain compared to Hashemi (long grain, it can be concluded that physical properties such as kernel slenderness ratio is effective on its fissuring.

  14. Evaluating Crossbred Red Rice Variants for Postprandial Glucometabolic Responses: A Comparison with Commercial Varieties

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    Chee-Hee Se

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Consumption of white rice predisposes some Asian populations to increased risk of type 2 diabetes. We compared the postprandial glucometabolic responses to three newly-developed crossbred red rice variants (UKMRC9, UKMRC10, UKMRC11 against three selected commercial rice types (Thai red, Basmati white, Jasmine white using 50-g carbohydrate equivalents provided to 12 normoglycaemic adults in a crossover design. Venous blood was drawn fasted and postprandially for three hours. Glycaemic (GI and insulin (II indices, incremental areas-under-the-curves for glucose and insulin (IAUCins, indices of insulin sensitivity and secretion, lactate and peptide hormones (motilin, neuropeptide-Y, orexin-A were analyzed. The lowest to highest trends for GI and II were similar i.e., UKMRC9 < Basmati < Thai red < UKMRC10 < UKMRC11 < Jasmine. Postprandial insulinaemia and IAUCins of only UKMRC9 were significantly the lowest compared to Jasmine. Crude protein and fiber content correlated negatively with the GI values of the test rice. Although peptide hormones were not associated with GI and II characteristics of test rice, early and late phases of prandial neuropeptide-Y changes were negatively correlated with postprandial insulinaemia. This study indicated that only UKMRC9 among the new rice crossbreeds could serve as an alternative cereal option to improve diet quality of Asians with its lowest glycaemic and insulinaemic burden.

  15. Intra lines uniformity and inter lines variation of rice mutants resulting from irradiation of South Kalimantan local varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raihani Wahdah; Gusti Rumayadi; Rahmi Zulhidiani

    2016-01-01

    The preference of farmer in tidal swamp on local rice varieties are quite high, but local varieties have a long life and low yield characters, so it needs to be improved for the trait. This study is part of activities of the local rice varieties improvement to generate promising lines were short-moderate aged, but the slimming and pera (high amylose content) grains maintained. The aims of this study were to determine the intra lines uniformity and the inter lines variation of M5 generation of rice mutant lines. The experiment was carried out in the Experimental Station of Agriculture Faculty, Lambung Mangkurat University from March to September 2014. The experiment used 150 earliest flowering lines of 300 M5 mutant lines that were planted. Intra lines uniformity were analysed by comparing the variance of each mutant lines with variance of its parent, while the variation among lines were analyzed by comparing the variance of all lines with variance of its parent. More than 85 % M5 mutant lines from Siam Harli as parent and > 79 % of Siam Kuatek as parent are uniform. The uniform character at all M5 mutant lines, both of Siam Harli or Siam Kuatek parent are the harvest age, the filled grains number, and the empty grains number. There is no variability between M5 mutant lines, but some of M5 mutant lines from Siam Harli and Siam Kuatek have some better characters than their parents, so there is an opportunity for selection. (author)

  16. Differences in Induced Volatile Emissions among Rice Varieties Result in Differential Attraction and Parasitism of Nilaparvata lugens Eggs by the Parasitoid Anagrus nilaparvatae in the Field

    OpenAIRE

    Lou , Yong-Gen; Hua, Xiaoyan; Turlings, Ted C. J.; Cheng, Jiaan; Chen, Xuexin; Ye, Gongyin

    2007-01-01

    We compared the volatiles of JA-treated plants of six rice varieties and then determined, in the laboratory and field, if they differed in attractiveness to Anagrus nilaparavate Pand et Wang, an egg parasitoid of rice planthoppers. Analyses of volatiles revealed significant differences among varieties, both in total quantity and quality of the blends emitted. On the basis of these differences, the six varieties could be roughly divided into three groups. In a Y-tube olfactometer, female wasps...

  17. Comparative Analysis of γ-Oryzanol, β-Glucan, Total Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Activity in Fermented Rice Bran of Different Varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Tae-Dong; Shin, Gi-Hae; Kim, Jae-Min; Choi, Sun-Il; Lee, Jin-Ha; Lee, Sang Jong; Park, Seon Ju; Woo, Koan Sik; Oh, Sea Kwan; Lee, Ok-Hawn

    2017-06-03

    Rice bran, a by-product derived from processing rice, is a rich source of bioactive compounds. Recent studies have suggested that the fermentation can improve their biological activities. This study aimed to determined the level of γ-oryzanol, β-glucan and total phenol contents of fermented rice bran from 21 Korean varieties, as well as to evaluate their antioxidant activities. We also assessed the validation of the analytical method for determining γ-oryzanol content in fermented rice brans. Among the fermented rice brans, the Haedam rice bran contained the highest level of total phenol content (156.08 mg gallic acid equivalents/g), DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging activity (71.30%) and ORAC (Oxygen radical absorbance capacity) value (1101.31 μM trolox equivalents/g). Furthermore, the fermented Migwang rice bran showed the highest level of γ-oryzanol content (294.77 ± 6.74 mg/100 g).

  18. Evolvement of transgenic male-sterility and fertility-restoration system in rice for production of hybrid varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Gundra Sivakrishna; Deveshwar, Priyanka; Sharma, Malini; Kapoor, Sanjay; Rao, Khareedu Venkateswara

    2018-01-01

    We have developed a unique male-sterility and fertility-restoration system in rice by combining Brassica napus cysteine-protease gene (BnCysP1) with anther-specific P12 promoter of rice for facilitating production of hybrid varieties. In diverse crop plants, male-sterility has been exploited as a useful approach for production of hybrid varieties to harness the benefits of hybrid vigour. The promoter region of Os12bglu38 gene of rice has been isolated from the developing panicles and was designated as P12. The promoter was fused with gusA reporter gene and was expressed in Arabidopsis and rice systems. Transgenic plants exhibited GUS activity in tapetal cells and pollen of the developing anthers indicating anther/pollen-specific expression of the promoter. For engineering nuclear male sterility, the coding region of Brassica napus cysteine protease1 (BnCysP1) was isolated from developing seeds and fused to P12 promoter. Transgenic rice plants obtained with P12-BnCysP1 failed to produce functional pollen grains. The F 1 seeds obtained from BnCysP1 male-sterile plants and untransformed controls showed 1:1 (tolerant:sensitive) ratio when germinated on the MS medium supplemented with phosphinothricin (5 mg/l), confirming that the male sterility has been successfully engineered in rice. For male fertility restoration, transgenic rice plants carrying BnCysP1Si silencing system were developed. The pollination of BnCysP1 male-sterile (female-fertile) plants with BnCysP1Si pollen resulted in normal grain filling. The F 1 seeds of BnCysP1 × BnCysP1Si when germinated on the MS basal medium containing PPT (5 mg/l) and hygromycin (70 mg/l) exhibited 1:1 (tolerant:sensitive) ratio and the tolerant plants invariably showed normal grain filling. The overall results clearly suggest that the customized male-sterility & fertility-restoration system can be exploited for quality hybrid seed production in various crops.

  19. Transgenerational variations in DNA methylation induced by drought stress in two rice varieties with distinguished difference to drought resistance.

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    Xiaoguo Zheng

    Full Text Available Adverse environmental conditions have large impacts on plant growth and crop production. One of the crucial mechanisms that plants use in variable and stressful natural environments is gene expression modulation through epigenetic modification. In this study, two rice varieties with different drought resistance levels were cultivated under drought stress from tilling stage to seed filling stage for six successive generations. The variations in DNA methylation of the original generation (G0 and the sixth generation (G6 of these two varieties in normal condition (CK and under drought stress (DT at seedling stage were assessed by using Methylation Sensitive Amplification Polymorphism (MSAP method. The results revealed that drought stress had a cumulative effect on the DNA methylation pattern of both varieties, but these two varieties had different responses to drought stress in DNA methylation. The DNA methylation levels of II-32B (sensitive and Huhan-3 (resistant were around 39% and 32%, respectively. Genome-wide DNA methylation variations among generations or treatments accounted for around 13.1% of total MSAP loci in II-32B, but was only approximately 1.3% in Huhan-3. In II-32B, 27.6% of total differentially methylated loci (DML were directly induced by drought stress and 3.2% of total DML stably transmitted their changed DNA methylation status to the next generation. In Huhan-3, the numbers were 48.8% and 29.8%, respectively. Therefore, entrainment had greater effect on Huhan-3 than on II-32B. Sequence analysis revealed that the DML were widely distributed on all 12 rice chromosomes and that it mainly occurred on the gene's promoter and exon region. Some genes with DML respond to environmental stresses. The inheritance of epigenetic variations induced by drought stress may provide a new way to develop drought resistant rice varieties.

  20. Studies on physico-chemical and cooking characteristics of rice bean varieties grown in NE region of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bepary, Rejaul Hoque; Wadikar, D D; Neog, Seuji Borah; Patki, P E

    2017-03-01

    Rice bean ( Vigna umbellata ) is grown in South and Southeast Asia, and the bean has gained importance due to its nutritional strength in terms of dietary fiber, quality protein and minerals. In current study, the nutritional and functional components, cooking and thermo-gravimetric properties of eleven rice bean varieties from NE India were investigated. Results revealed that the major nutrients among the varieties ranged as follows: 54.21-60.49% carbohydrates, 15.64-21.60% protein, 1.22-2.3% fat, 5.53-6.56% crude fibre, 3.34-3.8% ash; while the functional, anti-nutritional factors and mineral were present as 1189.32-1645.8 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/100 g polyphenols, 205.38-432.14 mg/100 g phytic acid, 23.14-34.12 mg/100 g oxalate, 690.7-1589.5 mg/100 g saponins, 49.90-158.17 μg/100 g hydrocyanide, 111.51-168 calcium, 5.50-10.44 zinc, 3.72-8.37 iron. Principal component analysis revealed that varieties with higher calcium, iron and ash content had lower cooking time, swelling ratio, and cooked grain hardness. It is also revealed that varieties with higher weight loss at sixth stage in thermogravimetric graph had lower carbohydrate and higher protein content. Nagadal variety had higher fat, potassium, magnesium, calcium, sodium, iron, copper and chromium content and better cooking quality as compared to the other varieties. The study revealed that Nagadal variety was superior to other varieties with respect to mineral content, cooking and thermal properties and hence have better potential in the development of value added products.

  1. New approach to increasing rice lodging resistance and biomass yield through the use of high gibberellin producing varieties.

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    Ayako Okuno

    Full Text Available Traditional breeding for high-yielding rice has been dependent on the widespread use of fertilizers and the cultivation of gibberellin (GA-deficient semi-dwarf varieties. The use of semi-dwarf plants facilitates high grain yield since these varieties possess high levels of lodging resistance, and thus could support the high grain weight. Although this approach has been successful in increasing grain yield, it is desirable to further improve grain production and also to breed for high biomass. In this study, we re-examined the effect of GA on rice lodging resistance and biomass yield using several GA-deficient mutants (e.g. having defects in the biosynthesis or perception of GA, and high-GA producing line or mutant. GA-deficient mutants displayed improved bending-type lodging resistance due to their short stature; however they showed reduced breaking-type lodging resistance and reduced total biomass. In plants producing high amounts of GA, the bending-type lodging resistance was inferior to the original cultivars. The breaking-type lodging resistance was improved due to increased lignin accumulation and/or larger culm diameters. Further, these lines had an increase in total biomass weight. These results show that the use of rice cultivars producing high levels of GA would be a novel approach to create higher lodging resistance and biomass.

  2. New approach to increasing rice lodging resistance and biomass yield through the use of high gibberellin producing varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuno, Ayako; Hirano, Ko; Asano, Kenji; Takase, Wakana; Masuda, Reiko; Morinaka, Yoichi; Ueguchi-Tanaka, Miyako; Kitano, Hidemi; Matsuoka, Makoto

    2014-01-01

    Traditional breeding for high-yielding rice has been dependent on the widespread use of fertilizers and the cultivation of gibberellin (GA)-deficient semi-dwarf varieties. The use of semi-dwarf plants facilitates high grain yield since these varieties possess high levels of lodging resistance, and thus could support the high grain weight. Although this approach has been successful in increasing grain yield, it is desirable to further improve grain production and also to breed for high biomass. In this study, we re-examined the effect of GA on rice lodging resistance and biomass yield using several GA-deficient mutants (e.g. having defects in the biosynthesis or perception of GA), and high-GA producing line or mutant. GA-deficient mutants displayed improved bending-type lodging resistance due to their short stature; however they showed reduced breaking-type lodging resistance and reduced total biomass. In plants producing high amounts of GA, the bending-type lodging resistance was inferior to the original cultivars. The breaking-type lodging resistance was improved due to increased lignin accumulation and/or larger culm diameters. Further, these lines had an increase in total biomass weight. These results show that the use of rice cultivars producing high levels of GA would be a novel approach to create higher lodging resistance and biomass.

  3. Effects of nitrogen on egg-laying inhibition and ovicidal response in planthopper-resistant rice varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horgan, Finbarr G; Srinivasan, Thanga Suja; Naik, Bhaskar S; Ramal, Angelee Fame; Bernal, Carmencita C; Almazan, Maria Liberty P

    2016-11-01

    A series of experiments was set up to examine the effects of nitrogen on rice ( Oryza sativa L.) resistance against Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) and Sogatella furcifera (Horváth). Egg laying by N. lugens was reduced on the indica variety IR60. Nymph biomass ( N. lugens and S. furcifera ) was also lower on IR60: this was associated with low honeydew production and a high proportion of xylem-derived honeydew in N. lugens but not in S. furcifera . Nitrogen increased egg-laying by S. furcifera and increased N. lugens nymph biomass on all varieties tested. Oviposition and egg mortality in both planthopper species were examined on plants at 15, 30 and 45 days after sowing (DAS). Sogatella furcifera laid more eggs on plants at 15 DAS, but laid few eggs during darkness; N. lugens continued to lay eggs on older rice plants (30 DAS) and during darkness. Egg mortality was high on cv. Asiminori, highest at 45 DAS, and higher for S. furcifera than for N. lugens . Mortality of S. furcifera eggs was associated with lesions around the egg clusters. These were more common around clusters laid during the day and suggested induction by Asiminori of an ovicidal response. Egg mortality declined under higher soil nitrogen levels. Results are discussed in the light of improving rice resistance against planthoppers and reducing rates of planthopper adaptation to resistance genes.

  4. Comparison of SSR and SNP markers in estimation of genetic diversity and population structure of Indian rice varieties.

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    Nivedita Singh

    Full Text Available Simple sequence repeat (SSR and Single Nucleotide Polymorphic (SNP, the two most robust markers for identifying rice varieties were compared for assessment of genetic diversity and population structure. Total 375 varieties of rice from various regions of India archived at the Indian National GeneBank, NBPGR, New Delhi, were analyzed using thirty six genetic markers, each of hypervariable SSR (HvSSR and SNP which were distributed across 12 rice chromosomes. A total of 80 alleles were amplified with the SSR markers with an average of 2.22 alleles per locus whereas, 72 alleles were amplified with SNP markers. Polymorphic information content (PIC values for HvSSR ranged from 0.04 to 0.5 with an average of 0.25. In the case of SNP markers, PIC values ranged from 0.03 to 0.37 with an average of 0.23. Genetic relatedness among the varieties was studied; utilizing an unrooted tree all the genotypes were grouped into three major clusters with both SSR and SNP markers. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA indicated that maximum diversity was partitioned between and within individual level but not between populations. Principal coordinate analysis (PCoA with SSR markers showed that genotypes were uniformly distributed across the two axes with 13.33% of cumulative variation whereas, in case of SNP markers varieties were grouped into three broad groups across two axes with 45.20% of cumulative variation. Population structure were tested using K values from 1 to 20, but there was no clear population structure, therefore Ln(PD derived Δk was plotted against the K to determine the number of populations. In case of SSR maximum Δk was at K=5 whereas, in case of SNP maximum Δk was found at K=15, suggesting that resolution of population was higher with SNP markers, but SSR were more efficient for diversity analysis.

  5. Comparison of SSR and SNP markers in estimation of genetic diversity and population structure of Indian rice varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nivedita; Choudhury, Debjani Roy; Singh, Amit Kumar; Kumar, Sundeep; Srinivasan, Kalyani; Tyagi, R K; Singh, N K; Singh, Rakesh

    2013-01-01

    Simple sequence repeat (SSR) and Single Nucleotide Polymorphic (SNP), the two most robust markers for identifying rice varieties were compared for assessment of genetic diversity and population structure. Total 375 varieties of rice from various regions of India archived at the Indian National GeneBank, NBPGR, New Delhi, were analyzed using thirty six genetic markers, each of hypervariable SSR (HvSSR) and SNP which were distributed across 12 rice chromosomes. A total of 80 alleles were amplified with the SSR markers with an average of 2.22 alleles per locus whereas, 72 alleles were amplified with SNP markers. Polymorphic information content (PIC) values for HvSSR ranged from 0.04 to 0.5 with an average of 0.25. In the case of SNP markers, PIC values ranged from 0.03 to 0.37 with an average of 0.23. Genetic relatedness among the varieties was studied; utilizing an unrooted tree all the genotypes were grouped into three major clusters with both SSR and SNP markers. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) indicated that maximum diversity was partitioned between and within individual level but not between populations. Principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) with SSR markers showed that genotypes were uniformly distributed across the two axes with 13.33% of cumulative variation whereas, in case of SNP markers varieties were grouped into three broad groups across two axes with 45.20% of cumulative variation. Population structure were tested using K values from 1 to 20, but there was no clear population structure, therefore Ln(PD) derived Δk was plotted against the K to determine the number of populations. In case of SSR maximum Δk was at K=5 whereas, in case of SNP maximum Δk was found at K=15, suggesting that resolution of population was higher with SNP markers, but SSR were more efficient for diversity analysis.

  6. Additional file 2: Figure S3. of Interactions between the oomycete Pythium arrhenomanes and the rice root-knot nematode Meloidogyne graminicola in aerobic Asian rice varieties

    OpenAIRE

    Verbeek, R.; Banaay, C.; Sikder, M.; De Waele, D.; Vera Cruz, C.; Gheysen, G.; Höfte, M.; Kyndt, Tina

    2016-01-01

    Pythium arrhenomanes DNA in rice roots expressed as picogram Pythium DNA per nanogram total DNA. Varieties Palawan (A) and IR81413-BB-75-4 (B) quantified with P. arrhenomanes specific and plant specific primers at 2, 10, 20, 45 and 60 days after transplanting in the raised bed experiment. ‘Natural infestation’ = soil taken from field B912 and ‘Natural infestation + P. arrhenomanes’ = B912 soil with additional P. arrhenomanes inoculation. Each treatment has two biological replicates (of three ...

  7. The variety mixture strategy assessed in a G × G experiment with rice and the blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallet, Romain; Bonnot, François; Milazzo, Joëlle; Tertois, Christophe; Adreit, Henri; Ravigné, Virginie; Tharreau, Didier; Fournier, Elisabeth

    2013-01-01

    Frequent and devastating epidemics of parasites are one of the major issues encountered by modern agriculture. To manage the impact of pathogens, resistant plant varieties have been selected. However, resistances are overcome by parasites requiring the use of pesticides and causing new economical and food safety issues. A promising strategy to maintain the epidemic at a low level and hamper pathogen's adaptation to varietal resistance is the use of mixtures of varieties such that the mix will form a heterogeneous environment for the parasite. A way to find the good combination of varieties that will actually constitute a heterogeneous environment for pathogens is to look for genotype × genotype (G × G) interactions between pathogens and plant varieties. A pattern in which pathogens have a high fitness on one variety and a poor fitness on other varieties guarantees the efficiency of the mixture strategy. In the present article, we inoculated 18 different genotypes of the fungus Magnaporthe oryzae on three rice plant varieties showing different levels of partial resistance in order to find a variety combination compatible with the requirements of the variety mixture strategy, i.e., showing appropriate G × G interactions. We estimated the success of each plant-fungus interaction by measuring fungal fitness and three fungal life history traits: infection success, within-host growth, sporulation capacity. Our results show the existence of G × G interactions between the two varieties Ariete and CO39 on all measured traits and fungal fitness. We also observed that these varieties have different resistance mechanisms; Ariete is good at controlling infection success of the parasite but is not able to control its growth when inside the leaf, while CO39 shows the opposite pattern. We also found that Maratelli's resistance has been eroded. Finally, correlation analyses demonstrated that not all infectious traits are positively correlated.

  8. The variety mixture strategy assessed in a GXG experiment with rice and the blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romain eGallet

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Frequent and devastating epidemics of parasites are one of the major issues encountered by modern agriculture. To manage the impact of pathogens, resistant plant varieties have been selected. However, resistances are overcome by parasites requiring the use of pesticides and causing new economical and food safety issues. A promising strategy to maintain the epidemic at a low level and hamper pathogen’s adaptation to varietal resistance is the use of mixtures of varieties such that the mix will form a heterogeneous environment for the parasite. A way to find the good combination of varieties that will actually constitute a heterogeneous environment for pathogens is to look for genotype x genotype (GxG interactions between pathogens and plant varieties. A pattern in which pathogens have a high fitness on one variety and a poor fitness on other varieties guarantees the efficiency of the mixture strategy.In the present article, we inoculated 18 different genotypes of the fungus Magnaporthe oryzae on three rice plant varieties showing different levels of partial resistance in order to find a variety combination compatible with the requirements of the variety mixture strategy, i.e. showing appropriate GxG interactions. We estimated the success of each plant-fungus interaction by measuring fungal fitness and three fungal life history traits: infection success, within-host growth, sporulation capacity. Our results show the existence of GxG interactions between the two varieties Ariete and CO39 on all measured traits and fungal fitness. We also observed that these varieties have different resistance mechanisms; Ariete is good at controlling infection success of the parasite but is not able to control its growth when inside the leaf, while CO39 show the opposite pattern. We also found that Maratelli’s resistance has been eroded. Finally, correlation analyses demonstrated that not all infectious traits are positively correlated.

  9. Free and bound phenolic profiles and antioxidant activity of milled fractions of different indica rice varieties cultivated in southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ti, Huihui; Li, Qing; Zhang, Ruifen; Zhang, Mingwei; Deng, Yuanyuan; Wei, Zhencheng; Chi, Jianwei; Zhang, Yan

    2014-09-15

    This study quantified free and bound phytochemicals and their antioxidant activity in the endosperm and bran/embryo of different indica rice varieties. Phytochemicals mainly existed as free form in the bran/embryo and as both free and bound forms in the endosperm. The average values of total phenolic content, flavonoid content, FRAP, ABTS and ORAC values in the bran/embryo were 3.1, 10.4, 8.2, 11.2 and 11.4 times higher than those in the endosperm, respectively. In whole brown rice, the bran contributed 59.2%, 53.7%, 47.7%, 55.5% and 56.9% of total phenolics, flavonoids, FRAP, ABTS and ORAC values, respectively. Seven individual phenolics (gallic, protocatechuic, chlorogenic, caffeic, syringic, coumaric and ferulic acids) were detected with most coumaric and ferulic acids in the bran. All measurements exhibited varietal differences. These findings provide important information for improving human health by encouraging the consumption of whole brown rice and its use in food product development. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Genetic parameters estimation on functional dryness traits of crossed black paddy rice "Baas Selem Cultivar X Situ Patenggang” variety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.G.P.M. Aryana

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to elucidate heritability and the role of drought traits genes of black paddy rice for determination base of the selection method to obtain drought tolerant and high yield potential of black paddy rice. The study was conducted through two experiments during February-November 2013. The first experiment was the establishment of populations from crosses carried out in the hybridization room. The second trial was evaluation of the genetic diversity of drought properties held in the greenhouse of the Faculty of Agriculture, University of Mataram. Planting was carried out in pots without experiment design. Population of P1 (parental-Situ Patenggang, P2 (parental-Baas Selem were 50 plants of each; population of F1, F1BC.1.2, and F1BC.1.1 were 25 plants of each, and 250 plants of F2, as well as control of drought susceptible variety (IR20 was 10 plants. To determine the heritability and the role of genes controlling drought traits were used index of bud dry and cure of IRRI standard. The results showed that crossing of black paddy rice "Baas Selem x Situ Patenggang” had relatively moderate heritability in broad sense and low heritability in narrow sense. In the crossed F1 population was found that gene action of drought trait was not perfectly dominant

  11. Marker-assisted introgression of broad-spectrum blast resistance genes into the cultivated MR219 rice variety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miah, Gous; Rafii, Mohd Y; Ismail, Mohd R; Puteh, Adam B; Rahim, Harun A; Latif, Mohammad A

    2017-07-01

    The rice cultivar MR219 is famous for its better yield and long and fine grain quality; however, it is susceptible to blast disease. The main objective of this study was to introgress blast resistance genes into MR219 through marker-assisted selection (MAS). The rice cultivar MR219 was used as the recurrent parent, and Pongsu Seribu 1 was used as the donor. Marker-assisted foreground selection was performed using RM6836 and RM8225 to identify plants possessing blast resistance genes. Seventy microsatellite markers were used to estimate recurrent parent genome (RPG) recovery. Our analysis led to the development of 13 improved blast resistant lines with Piz, Pi2 and Pi9 broad-spectrum blast resistance genes and an MR219 genetic background. The RPG recovery of the selected improved lines was up to 97.70% with an average value of 95.98%. Selected improved lines showed a resistance response against the most virulent blast pathogen pathotype, P7.2. The selected improved lines did not express any negative effect on agronomic traits in comparison with MR219. The research findings of this study will be a conducive approach for the application of different molecular techniques that may result in accelerating the development of new disease-resistant rice varieties, which in turn will match rising demand and food security worldwide. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Germination Response of MR 219 Rice Variety to Different Exposure Times and Periods of 2450 MHz Microwave Frequency

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    Daryush Talei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Germination is a key process in plants' phenological cycles. Accelerating this process could lead to improvment of the seedling growth as well as the cultivation efficiency. To achieve this, the effect of microwave frequency on the germination of rice seeds was examined. The physiological feedbacks of the MR 219 rice variety in terms of seed germination rate (GR, germination percentage (GP, and mean germination time (MGT were analyzed by exposing its seeds to 2450 MHz of microwave frequency for one, four, seven, and ten hours. It was revealed that exposing the seeds to the microwave frequency for 10 hours resulted in the highest GP. This treatment led to 100% of germination after three days with a mean germination time of 2.1 days. Although the other exposure times of microwave frequency caused the moderate effects on germination with a GPa3 ranged from 93% to 98%, they failed to reduce the MGTa3. The results showed that ten-hour exposure times of microwave frequency for six days significantly facilitated and improved the germination indices (primary shoot and root length. Therefore, the technique is expected to benefit the improvement of rice seed germination considering its simplicity and efficacy in increasing the germination percentage and rate as well as the primary shoot and root length without causing any environmental toxicity.

  13. Productivity of sodic soils can be enhanced through the use of salt tolerant rice varieties and proper agronomic practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Y P; Mishra, V K; Singh, Sudhanshu; Sharma, D K; Singh, D; Singh, U S; Singh, R K; Haefele, S M; Ismail, A M

    2016-04-01

    Regaining the agricultural potential of sodic soils in the Indo-Gangetic plains necessitates the development of suitable salt tolerant rice varieties to provide an entry for other affordable agronomic and soil manipulation measures. Thus selection of high yielding rice varieties across a range of sodic soils is central. Evaluation of breeding lines through on-station and on-farm farmers' participatory varietal selection (FPVS) resulted in the identification of a short duration (110-115 days), high yielding and disease resistant salt-tolerant rice genotype 'CSR-89IR-8', which was later released as 'CSR43' in 2011. Several agronomic traits coupled with good grain quality and market value contributed to commercialization and quick adoption of this variety in the sodic areas of the Indo-Gangetic plains of eastern India. Management practices required for rice production in salt affected soils are evidently different from those in normal soils and practices for a short duration salt tolerant variety differ from those for medium to long duration varieties. Experiments were conducted at the Indian Council of Agricultural Research-Central Soil Salinity Research Institute (ICAR-CSSRI), Regional Research Station, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India during 2011 and 2013 wet seasons, to test the hypothesis that combining matching management practices (Mmp) with an improved genotype would enhance productivity and profitability of rice in sodic soils. Mmp were developed on-station by optimizing existing best management practices (Bmp) recommended for the region to match the requirements of CSR43. The results revealed that transplanting 4 seedlings hill -1 at a spacing of 15 × 20 cm produced significantly higher yield over other treatments. The highest additional net gain was US$ 3.3 at 90 kg ha -1  N, and the lowest was US$ 0.4 at 150 kg ha -1  N. Above 150 kg ha -1 , the additional net gain became negative, indicating decreasing returns from additional N. Hence, 150

  14. Hybridization study of wild rice Oryza glumaepatula with varieties of cultivated rice (O. sativa) and wild (O. grandiglumis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villalobos Cascante, Eddier

    2015-01-01

    The process of interspecific hybridization of the wild species O. glumaepatula is studied with commercial varieties of the species O. sativa and O. grandiglumis, by morphological evaluation and hybrid flow cytometry. Hybrid plants were evaluated of cross between O. glumaepatula, located in the wetlands of Rio Medio Queso and two varieties of O. sativa, Puita Inta and CFX 18 resistant to a herbicide. The technique of Polymerase Chain Reaction Allele Specifies Oligonucleotide (PCR-ASO) was used to detect allelic mutations in the ALS gene conferring herbicide resistance, and it is confirmed the hybrid nature of the plants obtained at crossings. 68 hybrids were obtained: O. glumaepatula x P. Inta, 21 hybrids P. Inta x O. glumaepatula, 4 hybrids O. glumaepatula x CFX-18 and 15 hybrids CFX-18 x O. glumaepatula. 10 morphological descriptors of the genus Oryza were evaluated and determined that are indifferent to the direction and type of crossing, the hybrids resemble to the wild species O. glumaepatula for characters: height, panicle length and ligule length. All hybrids have showed similarity to commercial varieties in flag leaf length. Other characters evaluated in the hybrids have presented maternal effect, heterosis and intermediate values. The protocol of flow cytometry (FCM) is standardized species for Oryza genus analyzing nuclear DNA content of 106 samples of leaf tissue of wild species O. glumaepatula, O. grandiglumis; whose average has been of 0.73 picograms, and natural hybrids product of the cross of these species. The result has been intermediate compared with O. grandiglumis and O. glumaepatula that have made available to 1.0 picograms and 0.50 of DNA respectively. The molecular nature of the hybrids was confirmed in this way. (author) [es

  15. Characterization of total antioxidant capacity and (poly)phenolic compounds of differently pigmented rice varieties and their changes during domestic cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaupa, Maria; Calani, Luca; Del Rio, Daniele; Brighenti, Furio; Pellegrini, Nicoletta

    2015-11-15

    In the recent years, the pigmented rice varieties are becoming more popular due to their antioxidant properties and phenolic content. In this study, we characterized the antioxidant capacity (TAC) and the phenolic profile in white, red and black rice varieties, and evaluated the effect of two cooking methods (i.e. "risotto" and boiling) on these compounds. Before the cooking, all the varieties contained several phenolic acids, whereas anthocyanins and flavonols were peculiar of black rice and flavan-3-ols of red rice. Among the rice varieties, the black had the highest TAC value. The content of (poly)phenolic compounds and TAC decreased after cooking in all three varieties, but to a lesser extent after the risotto method. As a consequence, the risotto cooking, which allows a complete absorption of water, would be a good cooking method to retain (poly)phenolic compounds and TAC in pigmented and non-pigmented whole-meal rice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of parboiling on the formation of resistant starch, digestibility and functional properties of rice flour from different varieties grown in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunaratne, Anil; Kao, Wu; Ratnayaka, Jennet; Collado, Lilia; Corke, Harold

    2013-08-30

    Hydrothermal treatment used in parboiling could induce formation of novel starch properties having potential food applications. In the current work, functional, digestible and retrogradation properties of flour from non-parboiled and steamed parboiled six rice varieties with high amylose content of around 30% but differing in length and width ratio were investigated and compared. The parboiling process reduced swelling volume and amylose leaching in all tested varieties. Among the varieties studied, the resistant starch content ranged from 1.6% in AT 306 to 0.46% in BG 357. Parboiling reduced the resistant starch content in AT 306 by about 50%, but it did not significantly affect the resistant starch content of the other varieties. The amylose-lipid complex remained unchanged after parboiling. Amylopectin retrogradation was not observed in parboiled rice. Amylose retrogradation was not seen except for AT 306. Pasting behaviour of parboiled rice flours showed high pasting stability and low setback. Flours were more susceptible to enzymatic hydrolysis after parboiling. Partial gelatinisation during parboiling was sufficient to produce grains with excellent milling quality showing a head rice recovery that ranged from 98% to 100% among the varieties studied. Degree of gelatinisation is the most important factor that determines the high head rice recovery. High pasting stability and low setback of flour of parboiled rice indicate some potential food applications. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. A correlation study of proximate composition, physical and cooking properties of new high yielding and disease resistant rice varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuzhat Rasool

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed to compare proximate composition, physical, and cooking properties of locally cultivated rice varieties of Kashmir division viz.; SR-1, K-448, and K-39. Various physiochemical properties were studied. The relationship between physical, proximate composition, and cooking properties was determined using Pearson’s correlation. Length–breadth (L/B ratio showed a significant positive correlation with kernel length and negative correlation with thousand kernel weight, with a correlation coefficient (r of 0.893 and −0.855, respectively, (p  0.05. Solid loss in gruel was observed to have a negative correlation with L/B ratio (r = −0.432, p > 0.05, water uptake ratio (r = −0.742, p < 0.05, and cooking time (r = −0.678, p < 0.05. The rice cultivars with higher cooking time showed lower gruel solid loss and vice versa. Water uptake was observed to be positively correlated with L/B ratio (r = 0.768, p < 0.05. Among all the cultivars studied, K-448 variety has potential for consumers’ preference and it could be used for breeding programs for the improvement of valuable grain quality traits.

  18. The Sequences of 1504 Mutants in the Model Rice Variety Kitaake Facilitate Rapid Functional Genomic Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guotian; Jain, Rashmi; Chern, Mawsheng; Pham, Nikki T; Martin, Joel A; Wei, Tong; Schackwitz, Wendy S; Lipzen, Anna M; Duong, Phat Q; Jones, Kyle C; Jiang, Liangrong; Ruan, Deling; Bauer, Diane; Peng, Yi; Barry, Kerrie W; Schmutz, Jeremy; Ronald, Pamela C

    2017-06-01

    The availability of a whole-genome sequenced mutant population and the cataloging of mutations of each line at a single-nucleotide resolution facilitate functional genomic analysis. To this end, we generated and sequenced a fast-neutron-induced mutant population in the model rice cultivar Kitaake ( Oryza sativa ssp japonica ), which completes its life cycle in 9 weeks. We sequenced 1504 mutant lines at 45-fold coverage and identified 91,513 mutations affecting 32,307 genes, i.e., 58% of all rice genes. We detected an average of 61 mutations per line. Mutation types include single-base substitutions, deletions, insertions, inversions, translocations, and tandem duplications. We observed a high proportion of loss-of-function mutations. We identified an inversion affecting a single gene as the causative mutation for the short-grain phenotype in one mutant line. This result reveals the usefulness of the resource for efficient, cost-effective identification of genes conferring specific phenotypes. To facilitate public access to this genetic resource, we established an open access database called KitBase that provides access to sequence data and seed stocks. This population complements other available mutant collections and gene-editing technologies. This work demonstrates how inexpensive next-generation sequencing can be applied to generate a high-density catalog of mutations. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  19. Genetic variability for water deficiency tolerance in upland and lowland rice germplasm and prospects of its transfer to basmati rice varieties (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farooq, S.; Iqbal, N.; Arshad, R.

    2005-01-01

    Rice germplasm consisting of five local basmati (fine grain aromatic) rice cultivars. IR-6, CP-1 (Chinese variety), 19 lines/landraces from WARDA, and 7 varieties/lines from CUBA were tested for tolerance to water deficiency. Material was directly sown in the field blocks maintained at normal flooded conditions (Control) and at 75%, 50% and 25% less water. Fertilizer was applied at the normal recommended doze. Data are collected with reference to plant height, number of leaves and productive tillers, and grain yield. Presence (or otherwise) of any stress protein in selected water deficiency tolerant lines was also studied. Significant variations were observed for all the parameters and in all the material. In 19 (57.6%) entries comprising IR-6, CP-I, material from WARDA and Cuba, number of tillers and leaves were the highest at 50% water compared to the control. In 10 (30.3%) and 8 (24%) entries, plant height increased by 31.7% and 61.3 %, respectively at 25% and 50% water. Only 5 out of 33 entries performed the best with respect to all the three parameters at 25% water. Grain yield in most of the entries (17 out of 33) also increased under 50% water with 9 entries (27.4) simply out yielded the rest under 25% reduced water. Promising among them were WAB 56-104, WAB-56-50 and OS-6. Appearance of some LMW protein fractions of about 40 and 20 kDa was also noticed in these genotypes for the first time. Crossing these genotypes with Basmati varieties, that showed reduction in all the 4 parameters under water deficient conditions, resulted in production of fertile hybrids. Selections in F2 population were made from the plants growing under 50% less water and for plants like of Basmati with early maturity and reduced height. One of the selections also exhibited LMW fractions of 20 kDa stress protein. The association of this fraction with water deficiency tolerance would be tested in M3 generation. We believe that if during this process we are able to reduce 50 % of water

  20. Improvement of local varieties of rice (Oryza glaberrima) for resistance to shattering and grain quality by induced mutations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cisse, F; Dione, M; Kelly, S [Institute d` Economie Rurale, Station de Recherche Agronomique, Mopti (Mali)

    1997-12-01

    In Mali, a large area of rice is planted with the local rice, O. glaberrima which under conditions of low rainfall and flood water is more hardy to stress than the introduced O. sativa cultivars. A program to improve the local varieties of O. glaberrima by induced mutations was started in 1988. Ten local varieties were irradiated with 20 and 30 krad. In M{sub 4} of cv. `Gorbal`, irradiated with 20 krads, 13 variants were selected. Five of these were evaluated in M{sub 5} for their agronomic performance. The induced mutants in the remaining 9 varieties were highly sterile with 90% or more sterility in the M{sub 2} and M{sub 3}. Irradiation with 20-30 krad gave high survival (70-95%), and several mutants with white kernel were obtained from the red seeded types. Nearly two-third of the identified mutants had white caryopsis. There is better consumer acceptance of the white seeded type of rice than the red seeded varieties in Mali and the white seeded mutants may have an added premium in the market. The field performance of the M{sub 5} mutants was investigated. Preliminary results showed that some of mutants derived from cv. `Gorbal` were early in maturity and had more panicles per plant, but had a lower 1000-kernel weight, and did not differ from the parent in grain yield. Additional trials are planned to establish potential of the mutants for yield and quality. Three more cultivars of O. glaberrima - `Haira`, `Tombo` and `Yele` - were irradiated with 20 and 60 krads, and gave 75, 81 and 72% seed viability, respectively. M{sub 1} showed reduced plant height. Selection for non-shattering of grains shall be carried out in M{sub 2}. Any plants which are non-shattering but sterile shall be crossed with the parent to recover the mutant types. The taxonomic status of cv. `Gorbal` is not very clear. Isozyme patterns suggest that this cultivar may belong to O. sativa and not to O. glaberrima. To establish its taxonomic status, crosses shall be made with O. sativa and O

  1. Improvement of local varieties of rice (Oryza glaberrima) for resistance to shattering and grain quality by induced mutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cisse, F.; Dione, M.; Kelly, S.

    1997-01-01

    In Mali, a large area of rice is planted with the local rice, O. glaberrima which under conditions of low rainfall and flood water is more hardy to stress than the introduced O. sativa cultivars. A program to improve the local varieties of O. glaberrima by induced mutations was started in 1988. Ten local varieties were irradiated with 20 and 30 krad. In M 4 of cv. 'Gorbal', irradiated with 20 krads, 13 variants were selected. Five of these were evaluated in M 5 for their agronomic performance. The induced mutants in the remaining 9 varieties were highly sterile with 90% or more sterility in the M 2 and M 3 . Irradiation with 20-30 krad gave high survival (70-95%), and several mutants with white kernel were obtained from the red seeded types. Nearly two-third of the identified mutants had white caryopsis. There is better consumer acceptance of the white seeded type of rice than the red seeded varieties in Mali and the white seeded mutants may have an added premium in the market. The field performance of the M 5 mutants was investigated. Preliminary results showed that some of mutants derived from cv. 'Gorbal' were early in maturity and had more panicles per plant, but had a lower 1000-kernel weight, and did not differ from the parent in grain yield. Additional trials are planned to establish potential of the mutants for yield and quality. Three more cultivars of O. glaberrima - 'Haira', 'Tombo' and 'Yele' - were irradiated with 20 and 60 krads, and gave 75, 81 and 72% seed viability, respectively. M 1 showed reduced plant height. Selection for non-shattering of grains shall be carried out in M 2 . Any plants which are non-shattering but sterile shall be crossed with the parent to recover the mutant types. The taxonomic status of cv. 'Gorbal' is not very clear. Isozyme patterns suggest that this cultivar may belong to O. sativa and not to O. glaberrima. To establish its taxonomic status, crosses shall be made with O. sativa and O. glaberrima. (author). 2 tabs

  2. Uptake of fertilizer phosphorus by three rice varieties in a vertisol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, S.B.; Rastogi, A.K.; Mahajan, J.P.

    1980-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted using labelled super-phosphate to study the utilization of fertilizer phosphorus by three paddy varieties, viz, Jaya, Ratna and Sona. Total P uptake and P derived from fertilizer, increased significantly with increasing levels of P applied (0 to 90 kg P 2 O 5 /ha), while the percent utilization of applied P showed a reverse trend. Straw and grain yield, in general, increased significantly with increasing P levels in all the three varieties. Average soil P uptake in grain and straw decreased with increasing levels of applied phosphorus. (author)

  3. Variability, heritability and genetic advance in F2 populations of aromatic rice involving induced mutants and Basmati varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasib, K.M.; Ganguli, P.K.; Kole, P.C.

    2000-01-01

    The F 2 generation of five cross-combinations of aromatic rice involving two induced mutants 124-17-4 and 21-6-1 of aromatic tall Indica cultivar Gobindabhog and three basmati varieties was studied for mean performance, variability, heritability and genetic advance. The cross 21-6-1/Pakistan Basmati showed higher mean values for grain yield plant, and several yield components. Wide variability was observed for panicle number plant, filled grains panicle, test weight, dry matter production plant, harvest index and grain yield plant. Among the traits, filled grains panicle and test weight in all the crosses, grain yield plant, in five crosses and harvest index in two crosses had high heritability coupled with high genetic advance indicating predominant role of additive gene action. The crosses 21-6-1/Pakistan Basmati and 124-17-4/Pusa Basmati I could be exploited for isolation of promising aromatic recombinants. (author)

  4. Studies on the physiological and ecological characteristics of high yielding rice variety with high fertilizer response, (3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayami, Kazuhiko

    1983-01-01

    As the characteristics of this rice variety, in order to heighten the efficiency of receiving and supplying systems and to maintain balance between them, it is necessary to increase the nitrogen-absorbing ability in the latter period of growth. For the purpose, it is important to clarify the relation among the distribution of root population, respiration activity and nutrient absorption, and the distribution and movement in the plants. As the results of investigation made from this viewpoit, clear difference was observed about the distribution of root population and activity among the varieties. It was confirmed that these facts were based on the amount of root development and extending angle in close relation to the nutrition of nitrogen and carbon hydrate in the parts above ground. The distribution of root population of lower layer distribution and activity type in improved varieties, the control of the respiration activity of root population by the photosynthesis ability of plant population through the supply of assimilated products and so on were clarified. The improvement of plants has been advanced so as to increase the distribution of root population and activity. (Kako, I.)

  5. Evolution of new rice varieties by induced mutations to increase yield and resistance to diseases and to improve seed quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miah, A.J.; Bhatti, I.M.

    1968-01-01

    Seeds of two indica rice varieties namely, Kangni-27 (a coarse variety) and Dokri Basmati (a fine variety) were irradiated with 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45 and 50 kR of gamma rays from a 13,000-Ci 60 Co source. In the M 1 generation (1964), germination percentage, seedling height and seed fertility were studied. The data indicated that Kangni-27 is more radioresistant than Dokri Basmati. In the M 2 generation (1965) two polygenic traits, i.e. leaf size and grains per unit length were studied. From the analysis of the data it was found that variability was greater in the irradiated populations than in the non-irradiated controls. Apart from the study of the polygenic traits, several mutants which appeared to be useful to the breeder (e.g. dwarf, short-culm and early flowering) were isolated form the irradiated populations of Kangni-27. In the M 3 generation (1966) several agronomically important characters were studied in all the mutants isolated in the M 2 generation. It was noticed that the mean values of most of the characters of all the mutants deviated from the mean values of the respective controls. These deviations were both negative and positive. Further analysis is in progress. Three more experiments were started, two in the year 1965 on the effects of gamma rays and one in 1966 to compare the effects of EMS and gamma rays. (author). 31 refs, 3 figs, 6 tabs

  6. SSR allelic variation of rice variety Hangxiangnuo bred by space mutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Tifeng; Liu Chuanguang; Pan Dajian; Fan Zhilan; Li Chen; Chen Jianyou; Liu Bin; Jiang Yijun; Gao Yun; Zhou Hanqin

    2011-01-01

    Hangxiangnuo, an indica fragrant glutinous rice mutant, was induced by space environment. Comparing with its wild type Nanfengnuo, the yield and blast resistance of Hangxiangnuo are improved significantly and the grain shape became slender and with fragrance. To understand the mechanisms of space mutation and identify the changes at molecular level associated with phenotypic variations, SSR allelic variation analysis were performed on Hangxiangnuo and Nanfengnuo in this study. The results showed that 45 loci were polymorphic among the 156 SSR loci tested throughout the genome, the frequency of variation was 28.85%. Among the polymorphic loci, 42 loci only showed variations in the molecular weight of the amplified bands, only on locus increased the number of amplification bands in Hangxiangnuo and two loci were differed by heterozygous loci (with two amplification bands at one locus) detected in Nanfengnuo and homozygous loci in Hangxiangnuo. It suggests that the change of some loci in mutants was due to the normal segregation and recombination of heterozygous loci of the wild type. The variation frequencies among different chromosomes were quite different, with the highest one at 50.00% detected on chromosomes 7, 8 and 12, and the lowest at 6.25% on chromosome 6. The polymorphic loci were clustered on chromosomes throughout the genome indicating that large DNA segments mutation is one of the major variation patterns induced by space environment. Some of reported QTLs involved in grain shape, yield, fragrance and blast resistance were found to be located exactly in the mutated regions. Therefore, further study is needed to confirm that these QTLs are responsible for the trait variations. (authors)

  7. DNA comet assay for rice seeds treated with low energy electrons ('soft-electrons')

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todoriki, Setsuko; Hayashi, Toru

    1999-01-01

    As rice seeds are sometimes contaminated with phytopathogenic organisms such as blast disease fungi and nematodes, a novel non-chemical disinfection method for rice seeds is highly required. In order to develop a disinfection method, the effect of low energy electron ('soft-electrons') on seed DNA was examined by using the neutral comet assay. Rice seeds (whole grain) were treated with electrons of different acceleration voltages (180 kV to 1 MV) at a dose of 5 kGy. Nucleus suspensions were prepared from whole brown rice and subjected to electrophoresis. DNA from un-irradiated (control) seeds relaxed and produced comets with a short tail, most of the comets distributed within the range of comet length between 30 μm to 70 μm. In the case of seeds treated with electrons at acceleration voltages up to 190 kV, cells without seed coats were not damaged and the frequency histograms of comet length showed almost the same pattern as that for control. At acceleration voltages higher than 200 kV, the cells were distributed into two categories; DNA comets with a short tail (with little DNA damages, less than 70 μm in the comet length) and DNA comets with long tails (with sever strand breaks, more than 130 μm in the comet length). The ratios of damaged cells increased with increasing acceleration voltage. The growths of rice seedlings were not affected by the treatment with electrons at up to 200 kV. On the contrary, the cells of gamma-irradiated seed showed small variations in the comet length, and which were depending on radiation dose. The individual cells of gamma-irradiated seeds at 1 kGy showed shorter comet than the damaged cells with soft electron, seed treated with gamma rays (1-5 kGy) did not shoot nor root. (author)

  8. Comparative Analysis of γ-Oryzanol, β-Glucan, Total Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Activity in Fermented Rice Bran of Different Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Dong Jung

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Rice bran, a by-product derived from processing rice, is a rich source of bioactive compounds. Recent studies have suggested that the fermentation can improve their biological activities. This study aimed to determined the level of γ-oryzanol, β-glucan and total phenol contents of fermented rice bran from 21 Korean varieties, as well as to evaluate their antioxidant activities. We also assessed the validation of the analytical method for determining γ-oryzanol content in fermented rice brans. Among the fermented rice brans, the Haedam rice bran contained the highest level of total phenol content (156.08 mg gallic acid equivalents/g, DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity (71.30% and ORAC (Oxygen radical absorbance capacity value (1101.31 μM trolox equivalents/g. Furthermore, the fermented Migwang rice bran showed the highest level of γ-oryzanol content (294.77 ± 6.74 mg/100 g.

  9. Characteristics and genetic mapping of a lesion mimic mutant pl(t) in japonica rice variety zhejing 22

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Pingping; Zhang Xiaoming; Ye Shenghai; Zhao Ningchun; Lu Yanting; Liu Heqin; Jin Qingsheng; Yang Ling

    2010-01-01

    A lesion mimic mutant,obtained by radiation mutagenesis on the seeds of a japonica rice variety Zhejing 22, exhibited a lesion mimic phenotype during the whole growth stage under different environments. Genetic analysis indicated that the mutant trait was controlled by a single recessive gene named spl (t). Relying on simple sequence repeat (SSR) and recessive class analysis method to map the spl (t) gene with a F 2 population was constructed by crossing the mutant spl (t) with Zhenshan 97B.spl (t) was mapped in the interval of 0.8cM between RM7195 and RM27929 near centromere region on the short arm of chromosome 12.Blue trypan dye analyses indicated that the lesion mimic trait of the mutant was caused by the programmer cell death. Further study showed that the programmer cell death was caused by H 2 O 2 oxidative burst. By inoculation of bacterial leaf blight and blast strains, the resistances of the mutant were similar to the wild variety Zhejing 22. (authors)

  10. Improved algorithms for the classification of rough rice using a bionic electronic nose based on PCA and the Wilks distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Sai; Zhou, Zhiyan; Lu, Huazhong; Luo, Xiwen; Lan, Yubin

    2014-03-19

    Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is one of the main methods used for electronic nose pattern recognition. However, poor classification performance is common in classification and recognition when using regular PCA. This paper aims to improve the classification performance of regular PCA based on the existing Wilks Λ-statistic (i.e., combined PCA with the Wilks distribution). The improved algorithms, which combine regular PCA with the Wilks Λ-statistic, were developed after analysing the functionality and defects of PCA. Verification tests were conducted using a PEN3 electronic nose. The collected samples consisted of the volatiles of six varieties of rough rice (Zhongxiang1, Xiangwan13, Yaopingxiang, WufengyouT025, Pin 36, and Youyou122), grown in same area and season. The first two principal components used as analysis vectors cannot perform the rough rice varieties classification task based on a regular PCA. Using the improved algorithms, which combine the regular PCA with the Wilks Λ-statistic, many different principal components were selected as analysis vectors. The set of data points of the Mahalanobis distance between each of the varieties of rough rice was selected to estimate the performance of the classification. The result illustrates that the rough rice varieties classification task is achieved well using the improved algorithm. A Probabilistic Neural Networks (PNN) was also established to test the effectiveness of the improved algorithms. The first two principal components (namely PC1 and PC2) and the first and fifth principal component (namely PC1 and PC5) were selected as the inputs of PNN for the classification of the six rough rice varieties. The results indicate that the classification accuracy based on the improved algorithm was improved by 6.67% compared to the results of the regular method. These results prove the effectiveness of using the Wilks Λ-statistic to improve the classification accuracy of the regular PCA approach. The results

  11. Characterization of QTL for unique agronomic traits of new-plant-type rice varieties using introgression lines of IR64

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Analiza G. Tagle

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available To enhance the yield potential of an elite indica rice cultivar, an introgression (BC3-derived line of IR64, YTH288, was developed using a new-plant-type cultivar, IR66215-44-2-3, as a donor parent. YTH288 has agronomically valuable characteristics such as large panicles, few unproductive tillers, and large leaves inherited from NPT. To identify the genetic basis of these traits, we used 167 F2 plants derived from a cross between IR64 and YTH288 to conduct QTL analysis for five agronomic traits: days to heading (DTH, culm length (CL, flag leaf length (FLL, flag leaf width (FLW, and filled spikelet number per panicle (FSN. Six putative QTL were detected: four on chromosome 4 (for CL, FLL, FLW, and FSN and two on chromosome 2 (for DTH and FLL. All QTL with the IR66215-44-2-3 allele, except that for FLL on chromosome 2, had positive effects on each trait. To confirm the effects of these putative QTL, we developed NILs with the IR64 genetic background by marker-assisted selection. We observed significant differences in several agronomic traits between IR64 and NILs that carried these QTL on chromosomes 2 and 4. Additionally, four IR64-NILs carrying chromosomal segments derived from different NPT varieties on the long arm of chromosome 4 exhibited similar pleiotropic effects for unique agronomic traits. These NILs can be used as research materials for studying each trait and as breeding materials for yield improvement of indica rice cultivars.

  12. Cadmium accumulation in and tolerance of rice (Oryza sativa L.) varieties with different rates of radial oxygen loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, M.Y.; Chen, A.K.; Wong, M.H.; Qiu, R.L.; Cheng, H.; Ye, Z.H.

    2011-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) uptake and tolerance were investigated among 20 rice cultivars based on a field experiment (1.2 mg Cd kg -1 in soil) and a soil pot trial (control, 100 mg Cd kg -1 ), and rates of radial oxygen loss (ROL) were measured under a deoxygenated solution. Significant differences were found among the cultivars in: (1) brown rice Cd concentrations (0.11-0.29 mg kg -1 ) in a field soil, (2) grain Cd tolerance (34-113%) and concentrations (2.1-6.5 mg kg -1 ) in a pot trial, and (3) rates of ROL (15-31 mmol O 2 kg -1 root d.w. h -1 ). Target hazard quotients were calculated for the field experiment to assess potential Cd risk. Significant negative relationships were found between rates of ROL and concentrations of Cd in brown rice or straw under field and greenhouse conditions, indicating that rice cultivars with higher rates of ROL had higher capacities for limiting the transfer of Cd to rice and straw. - Highlights: → There are significant differences in brown rice Cd concentrations and rates of ROL among the rice cultivars. → The rates of ROL are significantly correlated with concentrations of Cd in brown rice. → Rice cultivars with higher rates of ROL have higher capacities for limiting the transfer of Cd to rice and straw. - Rice cultivars with high rates of ROL tended to accumulate low Cd in grains.

  13. Effects of water-saving irrigation practices and drought resistant rice variety on greenhouse gas emissions from a no-till paddy in the central lowlands of China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Ying; Ge, Junzhu; Tian, Shaoyang; Li, Shuya [MOA Key Laboratory of Crop Physiology, Ecology and Cultivation (The Middle Reaches of Yangtze River), Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, Hubei 430070 (China); College of Plant Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Nguy-Robertson, Anthony L. [Center for Advanced Land Management Information Technologies, School of Natural Resources, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68583-0973 (United States); Zhan, Ming, E-mail: zhanming@mail.hzau.edu.cn [MOA Key Laboratory of Crop Physiology, Ecology and Cultivation (The Middle Reaches of Yangtze River), Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, Hubei 430070 (China); College of Plant Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Cao, Cougui, E-mail: ccgui@mail.hzau.edu.cn [MOA Key Laboratory of Crop Physiology, Ecology and Cultivation (The Middle Reaches of Yangtze River), Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, Hubei 430070 (China); College of Plant Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China)

    2015-02-01

    As pressure on water resources increases, alternative practices to conserve water in paddies have been developed. Few studies have simultaneously examined the effectiveness of different water regimes on conserving water, mitigating greenhouse gases (GHG), and maintaining yields in rice production. This study, which was conducted during the drought of 2013, examined all three factors using a split-plot experiment with two rice varieties in a no-till paddy managed under three different water regimes: 1) continuous flooding (CF), 2) flooded and wet intermittent irrigation (FWI), and 3) flooded and dry intermittent irrigation (FDI). The Methane (CH{sub 4}) and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) emissions were measured using static chamber-gas measurements, and the carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions were monitored using a soil CO{sub 2} flux system (LI-8100). Compared with CF, FWI and FDI irrigation strategies reduced CH{sub 4} emissions by 60% and 83%, respectively. In contrast, CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O fluxes increased by 65% and 9%, respectively, under FWI watering regime and by 104% and 11%, respectively, under FDI managed plots. Although CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O emissions increased, the global warming potential (GWP) and greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI) of all three GHG decreased by up to 25% and 29% (p < 0.01), respectively, using water-saving irrigation strategies. The rice variety also affected yields and GHG emissions in response to different water regimes. The drought-resistance rice variety (HY3) was observed to maintain yields, conserve water, and reduce GHG under the FWI irrigation management compared with the typical variety (FYY299) planted in the region. The FYY299 only had significantly lower GWP and GHGI when the yield was reduced under FDI water regime. In conclusion, FWI irrigation strategy could be an effective option for simultaneously saving water and mitigating GWP without reducing rice yields using drought-resistant rice varieties, such as HY3

  14. Induced micro-mutations in rice - the frequency and spectrum of gamma ray induced height variations in rice variety-Jaya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, N.K.; Ninan, C.A.

    1975-01-01

    Seeds of rice variety, Jaya, treated with moderate doses of (10, 20 and 30 kR) gamma rays were subjected to study the relative magnitude of induced variability and the type of mutations induced for height of plant in M 2 and M 3 generations. Progenies of 3352 M 1 spikes, totalling to 35691 M 2 plants and their subsequent progenies in M 3 were analysed. To get wider variability, very large populations in all the generations were studied. The mean value, genetic variance and phenotypic frequency distribution with and between generations were studied. The treated population showed no significant shift in mean values from that of control. The variance was greater in the irradiated material compared to control. The variability was found to shift in both plus and minus direction from that of control with a higher frequency in the minus direction in M 2 . A high frequency of dwarf mutants was observed in 20 kR treated population in the M 2 generation. The segregation ratio was higher in M 2 compared to M 3 generation. (author)

  15. Nutrient uptake of NPK and result of some rice varieties in tidal land by using combination of organic and inorganic fertilizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlina, Neni; Rompas, Joni Phillep; Marlina, Musbik

    2017-09-01

    Rice planting in tidal land has two main problems: iron (Fe) which has the potential to poison rice and low nutrient availability. Azospirillum enriched chicken manure and phosphate solvent bacteria (Biological Organic Fertilizer = BOF) is an option to overcome iron toxicity and as a source of nutrition. The objective of the study was to obtain a combination of biological organic fertilizers and balanced inorganic fertilizers in reducing doses of inorganic fertilizers, increasing NPK nutrient uptake and yield of several rice varieties in tidal land. This research used Factorial RAK with 25 treatment combinations that were repeated three times. Factor I is a combination of BOF and anorganic fertilizer with 5 levels of treatment (no inorganic fertilizers, BOF 400 kg / ha with inorganic fertilizer 25% NPK, BOF 400 kg / ha with inorganic fertilizer 50% NPK and BOF 400 kg / ha with fertilizer Inorganic 75% NPK). Factor II is several rice varieties (IPB 4S, Martapura, Margasari, Inpara 5, Inpara 7). The results showed that organic fertilizer 400 kg / ha can reduce the use of inorganic fertilizer by 75% of NPK fertilizer. The highest NPK nutrient absorption is in the treatment of organic fertilizer 400 kg / ha and inorganic fertilizer 25% of NPK fertilizer. Production of biological organic fertilizer 400 kg / ha with inorganic fertilizer 25% NPK and 4B IPB varieties 727.77% higher when compared with without the provision of organic fertilizer with Inpara 5 varieties.

  16. The effect of mixed liming and NPK fertilizer to yield of some rice varieties on new openings of acid sulfate tidal swamp land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhmad, A.; Dewi, W. S.; Sagiman, S.; Suntoro

    2018-03-01

    The strategies to meet the staple food needs in Indonesia is to open new paddy fields in the sub-optimal land. The research aims to get adaptive rice varieties with the highest yield on new openings of the acid sulfate tidal swamp applying mixed liming and NPK fertilizer. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse at the Faculty of Agriculture, Tanjungpura University, Pontianak. The trials used a factorial completely randomized block design consisting of two factors. The first factor is a mixture of dolomite with NPK fertilizer, consisting of 3 levels (1 ton/ha dolomite and 60 kg/ha NPK; 2 ton/ha dolomite and 90 kg/ha of NPK, and 3 ton/ha dolomite and 120 kg/ha NPK). The second factor is rice varieties, consisting of 6 levels (Ciherang, Situ Bagendit, Inpara, Mira, Si Randah and Ringkak Janggut). Each treatment replicated four times. The results showed that the application of a mixture of 3 ton/ha dolomite and 120 kg/ha of NPK fertilizer showed the best results to improve rice yield on new opening of the acid sulfate tidal swap. Local rice varieties, Ringkak Janggut, applied 3 ton/ha dolomite and 120 kg/ha NPK fertilizer showed the best result of 1000 seed weight, i.e., 28.19 g, and total grain amount per panicle is 110.75 grains, with the lowest number of empty grains. Local rice varieties Ringkak Janggut potential to be developed as superior varieties on new opening acid sulfate tidal swamps by applying liming and fertilizer.

  17. K concentration in seven rice varieties and two infusions (coffee and tea) determined by 40K-40Ar radioactive decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarrete, J.M.; Cabrera, L.; Martinez, T.

    2005-01-01

    As a result of the event occurred in Mexico about 20 years ago, by which milk powder contaminated with 137 CS was imported from an European country after the Chernobyl accident, a legal disposition was set up in the country in order to certify the absence of radioactive contamination by gamma emitters, performing gamma spectroscopy to every foodstuff sample either imported or to be exported. In this process is always detected the X rays (1461 KeV) natural radiation emitted by 11% of 40 K nucleus decaying to 40 Ar by EC. So, when the counts accumulated during a detection time from 12 to 24 hours in a low background scintillation detection system are expressed as cps, corrected for background and divided by the sample weight (g), detection efficiency (%), decay yielding (0.11) and constant specific activity of elementary K(31.19 Bq/gK), the K concentration in the sample .is obtained. This paper reports the results found in seven rice varieties and two more vegetables, coffee and tea, including the K fractions passing to infusions, as well as are discussed similarities and differences related to K concentration and the advantages of the method.

  18. Bran data of total flavonoid and total phenolic contents, oxygen radical absorbance capacity, and profiles of proanthocyanidins and whole grain physical traits of 32 red and purple rice varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Hsuan Chen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemicals in red and purple bran rice have potential health benefit to humans. We determined the phytochemicals in brans of 32 red and purple global rice varieties. The description of the origin and physical traits of the whole grain (color, length, width, thickness and 100-kernel weight of this germplasm collection are provided along with data of total flavonoid and total phenolic contents, oxygen radical absorbance capacity and total proanthocyanidin contents. The contents and proportions of individual oligomers, from degree of polymerization of monomers to 14-mers, and polymers in bran of these 32 rice varieties are presented (DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2016.04.004 [1]. Keywords: Purple rice, Red rice, Black rice, Proanthocyanidins, Tannins, Flavonoids, Rice bran

  19. Assessment of arsenic in Australian grown and imported rice varieties on sale in Australia and potential links with irrigation practises and soil geochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fransisca, Yunnita; Small, Darryl M; Morrison, Paul D; Spencer, Michelle J S; Ball, Andrew S; Jones, Oliver A H

    2015-11-01

    Chronic dietary exposure to arsenic, particularly the inorganic forms (defined as elemental arsenic, predominantly As(3+) and As(5+), and all its inorganic compounds except arsine), is a matter of concern for human health. Ingestion of arsenic usually occurs via contaminated water but recent studies show there is also a risk of exposure from food, particularly Asian rice (Oryza sativa). Australia is a rice growing country, contributing around 2% of the world rice trade, and a large proportion of the population consumes rice regularly. In the present study we investigated concentrations of arsenic in both Australian grown and imported rice on sale in Australia and examined the potential links with irrigation practises and soil geochemistry. The results indicated a wide spread of arsenic levels of 0.09-0.33 mg kg(-1), with Australian grown Arborio and sushi varieties of O. sativa containing the highest mean value of ∼0.22 mg kg(-1). Arsenic levels in all samples were below the 1 mg kg(-1) limit set by Food Standards Australia New Zealand. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The influence of plant spacing in the early stages of selection of rice (Oryza sativa L.) varieties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torró, I.; Bretó, P.; García-Yzaguirre, A.

    2016-11-01

    The cultural practices of the early generations in a pedigree breeding programme may influence its success. The main objective of this study was to compare two selection environments in rice: Widely spaced planting in the field and dense planting in concrete basins. Both methods had yielded commercial varieties in the past. Two F2 populations (J and MS), derived from two crosses sharing the same female parent, were transplanted to both environments. Phenotypic traits were evaluated and their narrow sense heritabilities (h2) estimated in the F3 and in the F4 progenies of selected plants, all grown in the field. Growth potential was more apparent in the field for most traits, especially those related to yield, but broad sense heritabilities were higher in the basins for ten traits, being higher in the field for the other five. In population F2MS, field selection resulted in F3 plants which retained a higher tillering ability than those derived from basins selection. Most traits showed low h2 values: Additive variance was only relevant in panicle length (in both populations), plant height and mean panicle weight (in the J population). However, response to one generation of selection (from F3 to F4) also showed fixable variation in panicle number. In addition, this selection reduced plant height, increased culm diameter and internode length (in both populations), and improved pulling resistance (against lodging) in population J. It may be concluded that both practices can be used for selection in the F2, although different responses might be expected in yield related traits. (Author)

  1. Determination of Optimal Harvest Time of Chuchung Variety Green Rice(®) (Oryza sativa L.) with High Contents of GABA, γ-Oryzanol, and α-Tocopherol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hoon; Kim, Oui-Woung; Ha, Ae Wha; Park, Soojin

    2016-06-01

    In our previous study, an early-maturing variety of rice (Oryza sativa L.), Jinbu can have feature with unique green color, various phytochemicals as well as nutritive components by the optimal early harvesting, called Green Rice(®) (GR). The aims of the present field experiments were to evaluate the changes in the weight of 1,000 kernels, yield, and contents of proximate and bioactive compounds in Chuchung, a mid-late maturing variety, during the pre-harvest maturation of rough rice and to research the appropriate harvest time and potent bioactivity of Chuchung GR. The weights of 1,000 kernels of Chuchung GR dramatically increased until 27 days after heading (DAH). The yields of Chuchung GR declined after 27 DAH and significantly declined to 0.0% after 45 DAH. The caloric value and total mineral contents were higher in the GR than in the full ripe stage, the brown rice (BR). In the GR, the contents of bioactive compounds, such as γ-aminobutyric acid, γ-oryzanol, and α-tocopherol, were much higher (P<0.05) than those in the BR, specifically during 24~27 DAH. Therefore, bioactive Chuchung GR can be produced with a reasonable yield at 24~27 DAH and it could be useful for applications in various nutritive and functional food products.

  2. Determination of Optimal Harvest Time of Chuchung Variety Green Rice® (Oryza sativa L.) with High Contents of GABA, γ-Oryzanol, and α-Tocopherol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hoon; Kim, Oui-Woung; Ha, Ae Wha; Park, Soojin

    2016-01-01

    In our previous study, an early-maturing variety of rice (Oryza sativa L.), Jinbu can have feature with unique green color, various phytochemicals as well as nutritive components by the optimal early harvesting, called Green Rice® (GR). The aims of the present field experiments were to evaluate the changes in the weight of 1,000 kernels, yield, and contents of proximate and bioactive compounds in Chuchung, a mid-late maturing variety, during the pre-harvest maturation of rough rice and to research the appropriate harvest time and potent bioactivity of Chuchung GR. The weights of 1,000 kernels of Chuchung GR dramatically increased until 27 days after heading (DAH). The yields of Chuchung GR declined after 27 DAH and significantly declined to 0.0% after 45 DAH. The caloric value and total mineral contents were higher in the GR than in the full ripe stage, the brown rice (BR). In the GR, the contents of bioactive compounds, such as γ-aminobutyric acid, γ-oryzanol, and α-tocopherol, were much higher (P<0.05) than those in the BR, specifically during 24~27 DAH. Therefore, bioactive Chuchung GR can be produced with a reasonable yield at 24~27 DAH and it could be useful for applications in various nutritive and functional food products. PMID:27390725

  3. Evolution of rice and pulse varieties with improved quality through induced mutations. Part of a coordinated programme on the use of nuclear techniques for seed protein improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mia, M.M.

    1980-03-01

    Three mutant varieties, 16 hybrids of advanced generation, 6 recommended varieties and many local collections of rice in Bangladesh were screened for protein content. The 25 varieties or strains showed a variation of protein content between 8.9 - 11.7% and also wide ranges of variation in amylose content, starch-iodine-blue value and water absorption by grain. Amino acid compositions of some promising varieties were also investigated. 60 rice germplasms tested also showed a wide range of variation in protein content (6-13%) and variations of other seed characteristics. 3000 local collections showed a variation range of 5-13% protein content. Mutation breedings were carried out on chickpeas and lentils on a large scale. Dry seed was treated with 60 Co gamma ray and mutants were detected, selected, particularly for high protein content, and evaluated in M 2 -M 8 generations. Of the 10 selected mutant lines of each of the pulses, variations of various agronomic characters were observed. However, induced variation in protein content was only remarkable in chickpea. The most promising chickpea mutant showed 19% higher yield and 12% higher protein content than the mother variety, and was proposed to be released as a variety

  4. Grain Yield, Dry Weight and Phosphorus Accumulation and Translocation in Two Rice (Oryza sativa L. Varieties as Affected by Salt-Alkali and Phosphorus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijie Tian

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Salt-alkali is the main threat to global crop production. The functioning of phosphorus (P in alleviating damage to crops from saline-alkaline stress may be dependent on the variety of crop but there is little published research on the topic. This pot experiment was conducted to study if P has any effect on rice (Oryza sativa L. yield, dry matter and P accumulation and translocation in salt-alkaline soils. Plant dry weight and P content at heading and harvest stages of two contrasting saline-alkaline tolerant (Dongdao-4 and sensitive (Tongyu-315 rice varieties were examined under two saline-alkaline (light versus severe soils and five P supplements (P0, P50, P100, P150 and P200 kg ha−1. The results were: in light saline-alkaline soil, the optimal P levels were found for P150 for Dongdao-4 and for P100 for Tongyu-315 with the greatest grain dry weight and P content. Two rice varieties obtained relatively higher dry weight and P accumulation and translocation in P0. In severe saline-alkaline soil, however, dry weight and P accumulation and translocation, 1000-grain weight, seed-setting rate and grain yield significantly decreased, but effectively increased with P application for Dongdao-4. Tongyu-315 showed lower sensitivity to P nutrition. Thus, a more tolerant variety could have a stronger capacity to absorb and translocate P for grain filling, especially in severe salt-alkaline soils. This should be helpful for consideration in rice breeding and deciding a reasonable P application in saline-alkaline soil.

  5. Effect of nano packaging on preservation quality of Nanjing 9108 rice variety at high temperature and humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fan; Hu, Qiuhui; Mugambi Mariga, Alfred; Cao, Chongjiang; Yang, Wenjian

    2018-01-15

    A nano packaging material containing nano Ag, nano TiO 2 , nano attapulgite and SiO 2 was prepared, and its impact on quality of Nanjing 9108 rice at 37°C and 85% relative humidity was studied. Effects of the packaging on ambient gases and chromatic aberration of rice were determined. Moreover, oxidation level, molds growth and flavor of rice were also analyzed. Results showed that nano packaging material had antimicrobial effects and maintained low O 2 and high CO 2 content in the packages. The packages thereby inhibited the growth of molds and the production of fatty acids, restrained the increase of lipase activity, and reduced the oxidation of fats and proteins. As a result, the production of yellow and white-belly rice were inhibited. Furthermore, the color and flavor of rice were maintained. Therefore, the nano-packing material could be applied for preservation of rice to improve preservation quality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Cadmium accumulation in and tolerance of rice (Oryza sativa L.) varieties with different rates of radial oxygen loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, M Y; Chen, A K; Wong, M H; Qiu, R L; Cheng, H; Ye, Z H

    2011-06-01

    Cadmium (Cd) uptake and tolerance were investigated among 20 rice cultivars based on a field experiment (1.2 mg Cd kg⁻¹ in soil) and a soil pot trial (control, 100 mg Cd kg⁻¹), and rates of radial oxygen loss (ROL) were measured under a deoxygenated solution. Significant differences were found among the cultivars in: (1) brown rice Cd concentrations (0.11-0.29 mg kg⁻¹) in a field soil, (2) grain Cd tolerance (34-113%) and concentrations (2.1-6.5 mg kg⁻¹) in a pot trial, and (3) rates of ROL (15-31 mmol O₂ kg⁻¹ root d.w. h⁻¹). Target hazard quotients were calculated for the field experiment to assess potential Cd risk. Significant negative relationships were found between rates of ROL and concentrations of Cd in brown rice or straw under field and greenhouse conditions, indicating that rice cultivars with higher rates of ROL had higher capacities for limiting the transfer of Cd to rice and straw. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Conventional steaming retains tocols and γ-oryzanol better than boiling and frying in the jasmine rice variety Khao dok mali 105.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srichamnong, Warangkana; Thiyajai, Parunya; Charoenkiatkul, Somsri

    2016-01-15

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of various cooking methods on the white rice (WR), brown rice (BR) and parboiled geminated brown rice (PGBR) of the same variety, focusing on γ-oryzanol and tocols. The methods used for analysis of γ-oryzanol and tocols included solvent extraction and HPLC. The results indicated that PGBR had a higher content of γ-oryzanol and tocols compared to BR and WR, when different cooking methods (raw, steamed, boiled and fried) were used. Steaming method retained the higher γ-oryzanol content (53.6-62.2mg/100g) in both PGBR and BR, in comparison with boiling (53.0-60.6mg/100g) and frying (23.4-31.5mg/100g) methods. Frying reduced the γ-oryzanol content significantly regardless of the rice type. Regarding tocols, a similar trend was noticed in all the methods studied. Tocotrienol was the most abundant tocol found in PGBR and BR. Therefore, steaming is the best cooking method to preserved most of the bioactive compounds; however, a slight increase in total tocols was observed after frying. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Dwarf Rice Mutant Derived from 0.2 kGy Gamma Rays Irradiated Seeds of Atomita 4 Variety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobrizal; Sutisna Sanjaya; Carkum; Mohamad Ismachin

    2004-01-01

    Dwarf rice mutant was obtained when Atomita 4 seeds were irradiated by 0.2 kGy gamma rays. The results of segregation analyses in F2 populations and F3 lines derived from reciprocal crosses of mutant and Atomita 4 suggested that the dwarf was controlled by a single recessive gene. This gene was not located on rice cytoplasmic genome but on nuclear genome. The gene for dwarf obtained in this study tentatively could be assumed as a new finding until the allelic relationships with other dwarf genes are verified. (author)

  9. Detection of genetic variability in Basmati and non-Basmati rice varieties and their radiation induced mutants through random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farooq, S; Iqbal, N; Arif, M [Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology (NIAB), Faisalabad (Pakistan)

    1998-03-01

    Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPDs) markers were utilized to detect polymorphism between pure lines and commercially available Basmati rice varieties to assess variation which may be helpful in quality control and varietal identification (Basmati-370 and derived radiation induced mutants), differentiation of mutants and parents, and identification of RAPD markers co-segregating with important agronomic traits including plant height, days to flower and grain quality. Basmati varieties were distinguished from non-Basmati varieties with the help of five diagnostic markers which will be useful for detecting mixing of non-Basmati and Basmati rices, currently a serious marketing problem. Different Basmati cultivars were identified with the help of diagnostic RAPD markers which can be used in quality control as well as for ``fingerprinting`` of cultivars. Different radiation induced mutants were also successfully distinguished from the parents on the basis of variety specific and mutant specific markers which will be useful for varietal identification. In addition to this, other markers were also identified which can differentiate mutants from each other and are being, used for the fingerprinting of different mutants, particularly the dwarf mutants having similar appearance but different parentage. For identification of RAPD markers co-segregating with plant height and days to flower, 50 F{sub 2} plants and four F{sub 3} families were studied from a reciprocal cross made between Kashmir Basmati (tall and early) and Basmati-198 (dwarf and late). Segregating bands were observed within these populations, and indicating the possible use of RAPD markers for tagging gene(s) of agronomic importance in rice. (author). 38 refs, 6 figs, 3 tabs.

  10. Detection of genetic variability in Basmati and non-Basmati rice varieties and their radiation induced mutants through random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farooq, S.; Iqbal, N.; Arif, M.

    1998-01-01

    Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPDs) markers were utilized to detect polymorphism between pure lines and commercially available Basmati rice varieties to assess variation which may be helpful in quality control and varietal identification (Basmati-370 and derived radiation induced mutants), differentiation of mutants and parents, and identification of RAPD markers co-segregating with important agronomic traits including plant height, days to flower and grain quality. Basmati varieties were distinguished from non-Basmati varieties with the help of five diagnostic markers which will be useful for detecting mixing of non-Basmati and Basmati rices, currently a serious marketing problem. Different Basmati cultivars were identified with the help of diagnostic RAPD markers which can be used in quality control as well as for ''fingerprinting'' of cultivars. Different radiation induced mutants were also successfully distinguished from the parents on the basis of variety specific and mutant specific markers which will be useful for varietal identification. In addition to this, other markers were also identified which can differentiate mutants from each other and are being, used for the fingerprinting of different mutants, particularly the dwarf mutants having similar appearance but different parentage. For identification of RAPD markers co-segregating with plant height and days to flower, 50 F 2 plants and four F 3 families were studied from a reciprocal cross made between Kashmir Basmati (tall and early) and Basmati-198 (dwarf and late). Segregating bands were observed within these populations, and indicating the possible use of RAPD markers for tagging gene(s) of agronomic importance in rice. (author)

  11. Patterns of nucleotide diversity and phenotypes of two domestication related genes (OsC1 and Wx) in indigenous rice varieties in Northeast India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Baharul Islam; Khan, Mohammed Latif; Dayanandan, Selvadurai

    2014-06-16

    During the domestication of crops, individual plants with traits desirable for human needs have been selected from their wild progenitors. Consequently, genetic and nucleotide diversity of genes associated with these selected traits in crop plants are expected to be lower than their wild progenitors. In the present study, we surveyed the pattern of nucleotide diversity of two selected trait specific genes, Wx and OsC1, which regulate amylose content and apiculus coloration respectively in cultivated rice varieties. The analyzed samples were collected from a wide geographic area in Northeast (NE) India, and included contrasting phenotypes considered to be associated with selected genes, namely glutinous and nonglutinous grains and colored and colorless apiculus. No statistically significant selection signatures were detected in both Wx and OsC1gene sequences. However, low level of selection that varied across the length of each gene was evident. The glutinous type varieties showed higher levels of nucleotide diversity at the Wx locus (πtot = 0.0053) than nonglutinous type varieties (πtot = 0.0043). The OsC1 gene revealed low levels of selection among the colorless apiculus varieties with lower nucleotide diversity (πtot = 0.0010) than in the colored apiculus varieties (πtot = 0.0023). The results revealed that functional mutations at Wx and OsC1genes considered to be associated with specific phenotypes do not necessarily correspond to the phenotypes in indigenous rice varieties in NE India. This suggests that other than previously reported genomic regions may also be involved in determination of these phenotypes.

  12. Effect of methyl salicylate (MeSA), an elicitor on growth, physiology and pathology of resistant and susceptible rice varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaivani, Kandaswamy; Kalaiselvi, Marimuthu Maruthi; Senthil-Nathan, Sengottayan

    2016-10-11

    Methyl salicylate (MeSA) is a volatile organic compound synthesized from salicylic acid (SA) a plant hormone that helps to fight against plant disease. Seed treatment with MeSA, is an encouraging method to the seed industry to produce more growth and yield. The aim of our study is to find out the growth, development and disease tolerance of rice seed treated with different concentrations of MeSA. Also the seed treatments were studied to determine whether they directly influenced seedling emergence and growth in rice (Oryza sativa L) cultivars 'IR 20, IR 50, IR 64, ASD 16, ASD 19 and ADT 46' under greenhouse condition. MeSA seed treatments at 25, 50, 75 and 100 mg/L significantly increased seedling emergence. Effects were stronger in IR 50, and IR 64 and the effects were dose dependent, although the relationship between dose and effect was not always linear. MeSA seed treated rice plant against bacterial blight were analyzed. Bacterial blight was more effectively controlled by the seed treated with 100 mg/L than others. These results suggest that seed treatment with MeSA alters plant physiology in ways that may be useful for crop production as well as protection.

  13. Molecular and Functional Characterization of GR2-R1 Event Based Backcross Derived Lines of Golden Rice in the Genetic Background of a Mega Rice Variety Swarna.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haritha Bollinedi

    Full Text Available Homozygous Golden Rice lines developed in the background of Swarna through marker assisted backcross breeding (MABB using transgenic GR2-R1 event as a donor for the provitamin A trait have high levels of provitamin A (up to 20 ppm but are dwarf with pale green leaves and drastically reduced panicle size, grain number and yield as compared to the recurrent parent, Swarna. In this study, we carried out detailed morphological, biochemical and molecular characterization of these lines in a quest to identify the probable reasons for their abnormal phenotype. Nucleotide blast analysis with the primer sequences used to amplify the transgene revealed that the integration of transgene disrupted the native OsAux1 gene, which codes for an auxin transmembrane transporter protein. Real time expression analysis of the transgenes (ZmPsy and CrtI driven by endosperm-specific promoter revealed the leaky expression of the transgene in the vegetative tissues. We propose that the disruption of OsAux1 disturbed the fine balance of plant growth regulators viz., auxins, gibberellic acid and abscisic acid, leading to the abnormalities in the growth and development of the lines homozygous for the transgene. The study demonstrates the conserved roles of OsAux1 gene in rice and Arabidopsis.

  14. Hydraulic conductance as well as nitrogen accumulation plays a role in the higher rate of leaf photosynthesis of the most productive variety of rice in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylaran, Renante D; Adachi, Shunsuke; Ookawa, Taiichiro; Usuda, Hideaki; Hirasawa, Tadashi

    2011-07-01

    An indica variety Takanari is known as one of the most productive rice varieties in Japan and consistently produces 20-30% heavier dry matter during ripening than Japanese commercial varieties in the field. The higher rate of photosynthesis of individual leaves during ripening has been recognized in Takanari. By using pot-grown plants under conditions of minimal mutual shading, it was confirmed that the higher rate of leaf photosynthesis is responsible for the higher dry matter production after heading in Takanari as compared with a japonica variety, Koshihikari. The rate of leaf photosynthesis and shoot dry weight became larger in Takanari after the panicle formation and heading stages, respectively, than in Koshihikari. Roots grew rapidly in the panicle formation stage until heading in Takanari compared with Koshihikari. The higher rate of leaf photosynthesis in Takanari resulted not only from the higher content of leaf nitrogen, which was caused by its elevated capacity for nitrogen accumulation, but also from higher stomatal conductance. When measured under light-saturated conditions, stomatal conductance was already decreased due to the reduction in leaf water potential in Koshihikari even under conditions of a relatively small difference in leaf-air vapour pressure difference. In contrast, the higher stomatal conductance was supported by the maintenance of higher leaf water potential through the higher hydraulic conductance in Takanari with the larger area of root surface. However, no increase in root hydraulic conductivity was expected in Takanari. The larger root surface area of Takanari might be a target trait in future rice breeding for increasing dry matter production.

  15. Nitrogen and azolla response on growth of rice plant of Mitra-I variety with SRI method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurmayulis; Putra Utama; Dewi Firnia; Hasnan Yani; Ania Citraresmini

    2011-01-01

    The research was conducted in Cisadap, Bunter Village, District of Sukadana, Ciamis Regency, West Java Province from January to May 2011. This study was carried out to know the response of growth of rice plant which was fertilized by nitrogen fertilizer and Azolla michrophylla using the system of rice intensification. This research used five dozes of nitrogen fertilizer (0 %, 25 %, 50 %, 75 %, 100 %) from N 92 kg ha -1 as a recommended nitrogen fertilizer (urea 200 kg ha -1 ), and also 1,13 ton ha -1 Azolla michrophylla. The result obtained from this research showed that the application of N fertilizer at 50 % of the recommend dose (100 kg ha -1 ) with adding Azolla at a rate of 1.13 t ha -1 gave good result in the terms of plant height at 2-6 weeks after planting and number of tillers at 2-7 weeks after planting. Interaction of the 50 % N fertilizer from the recommended dose planting 1,13 t ha -1 give the highest dry weight of Azolla of plants at seven weeks after planting. (author)

  16. Phylogenetic analysis of TCE-dechlorinating consortia enriched on a variety of electron donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeborn, Ryan A; West, Kimberlee A; Bhupathiraju, Vishvesh K; Chauhan, Sadhana; Rahm, Brian G; Richardson, Ruth E; Alvarez-Cohen, Lisa

    2005-11-01

    Two rapidly fermented electron donors, lactate and methanol, and two slowly fermented electron donors, propionate and butyrate, were selected for enrichment studies to evaluate the characteristics of anaerobic microbial consortia that reductively dechlorinate TCE to ethene. Each electron donor enrichment subculture demonstrated the ability to dechlorinate TCE to ethene through several serial transfers. Microbial community analyses based upon 16S rDNA, including terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and clone library/sequencing, were performed to assess major changes in microbial community structure associated with electron donors capable of stimulating reductive dechlorination. Results demonstrated that five phylogenic subgroups or genera of bacteria were present in all consortia, including Dehalococcoides sp., low G+C Gram-positives (mostly Clostridium and Eubacterium sp.), Bacteroides sp., Citrobacter sp., and delta Proteobacteria (mostly Desulfovibrio sp.). Phylogenetic association indicates that only minor shifts in the microbial community structure occurred between the four alternate electron donor enrichments and the parent consortium. Inconsistent detection of Dehalococcoides spp. in clone libraries and T-RFLP of enrichment subcultures was resolved using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR). Q-PCR with primers specific to Dehalococcoides 16S rDNA resulted in positive detection of this species in all enrichments. Our results suggest that TCE-dechlorinating consortia can be stably maintained on a variety of electron donors and that quantities of Dehalococcoides cells detected with Dehalococcoides specific 16S rDNA primer/probe sets do not necessarily correlate well with solvent degradation rates.

  17. Haplotype Diversity at Sub1 Locus and Allelic Distribution Among Rice Varieties of Tide and Flood Prone Areas of South-East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S.M. Masuduzzaman

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Single nucleotide polymorphisms and restriction digestion-based haplotype variations among 160 flood prone rice varieties were analyzed with enzymes Alu I and Cac8 I to generate polymorphisms at Sub1A and Sub1C loci (conferring submergence tolerance, respectively. Haplotype associated with phenotype was used to study the haplotype variations at Sub1A and Sub1C loci and to determine their functional influence on submergence tolerance and stem elongation. Three patterns at Sub1A locus, Sub1A0 (null allele, Sub1A1 (does not cut and Sub1A2 (one SNP, and four patterns at Sub1C locus, Sub1C1, Sub1C2, Sub1C3 and Sub1C4, were generated. Both tolerant Sub1A1 and intolerant Sub1A2 had the same length, but the difference was presence of a restriction site in the Sub1A2, but absent at the Sub1A1. Further, two types of polymorphism were detected at the Sub1C, one included major length polymorphisms (165, 170 and 175 bp and the other was a single restriction site at different position. Eight haplotypes (different combinations of the two loci, A1C1, A1C2, A1C4, A2C2, A2C4, A0C2, A0C3 and A0C4, were detected among 160 varieties. Haplotype A1C1 was comparatively more related to haplotypes A1C2 and A1C4, having the same Sub1A allele, and these haplotypes were found only in Bangladeshi, Sri Lankan and Indian varieties. Most tolerant varieties in A1C1 haplotype showed slow elongation, having tolerant specific Sub1A1 and Sub1C1 alleles. Further, the varieties Madabaru and Kottamali (A2C2 also showed moderate level of tolerance without Sub1A1 allele. These varieties were different with FR13A and also suspected to carry different novel tolerant genes at other loci. These materials could be used for hybridization with Sub1 varieties for pyramiding additional tolerant specific alleles into a single genotype for improving submergence tolerance in rice.

  18. The Improvement of Atomita-4 Rice Variety Through Gamma Rays Irradiation of F1 Seeds from Atomita-4/Ir-64 Crossing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lilik Harsanti; Mugiono

    2004-01-01

    Atom ita-4 rice variety was crossed with IR-64 variety in the greenhouse at the Center for Application of Isotopes and Radiation-Batan, Pasar jumat in the wet season of 1994/1995. F 1 Seeds derived from Atomita-4/IR-64 crossing were irradiated by gamma rays at of 0.2 kGy dose. F 1 seeds were grown to obtain F 2 M 2 seed, and then selection of pedigree were carried out at F 2 generation. Six mutants lines were obtained purified and screened on biotypes 1, 2 and 3 brown plant hopper and bacterial leaf blight resistance by IRRI standard screening methods. The six mutant lines were tested for their potential yield at Pusakanegara and then continued tested in yield multi location test at several locations in Indonesia. Results of the screening test to brown plant hopper showed that two mutant lines Obs-1653/PsJ and Obs-1656/PsJ were resistant to biotype 1, biotype 2 and medium resistant to biotype 3. Obs-1653/PsJ and Obs-1656/PsJ also showed resistance to bacterial leaf blight strain 3 and medium resistance to strain 4. Results in the yield multi location test showed that Obs-1653/PsJ and Obs-1656/PsJ have highest yielding potential compared to IR-64 and Memberamo varieties. Those two mutant lines were released as new varieties under the name Merauke and Kahayan in 2001 and 2003 respectively. (author)

  19. Cloning and Sequence Analysis of the Amylase Gene from the Rice Pest Walker and its Inhibitor from Wheat (Variety MP Sehore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poonam Sharma

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Scirpophaga incertulas Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralideae, commonly known as yellow stem borer, is a predominant monophagous pest of rice, which causes 5% to 30% loss of the rice crop. We report for the first time, the cloning and sequence analysis of the amylase gene of this pest. The cloned gene translates into a protein of 487 amino acids having a predicted molecular weight of 54,955 daltons and a theoretical pI of 5.9. The 3D structure of the amylase is predicted from its amino acid sequence by homology modeling using the structure of the amylase from Tenebrio molitor L (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae. We also report the purification of a dimeric α-amylase inhibitor from a local variety of wheat MP Sehore that is specific for the amylase of this pest and does not inhibit human salivary amylase or porcine pancreatic amylase. The gene encoding this inhibitor has been cloned and its sequence has been analysed to find a possible explanation for this specificity.

  20. Contrasting effects of elevated CO2 on Cu and Cd uptake by different rice varieties grown on contaminated soils with two levels of metals: Implication for phytoextraction and food safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zhongyang; Tang Shirong; Deng Xiaofang; Wang Ruigang; Song Zhengguo

    2010-01-01

    A pot experiment in six open-top chambers with two levels of CO 2 and two multi-metal contaminated soils was conducted to investigate combined effects of elevated CO 2 levels and metals (Cu and Cd) on rice. Elevated CO 2 significantly increased the total dry weight biomass of six Chinese rice by 20-108 and 32-142% for low and high levels of contaminated soils, respectively. We observed dilution/little varied phenomena in grain Cu concentration in six rice varieties grown on both contaminated soils under elevated CO 2 . We found significantly higher Cd concentrations in the parts of three rice varieties under elevated CO 2 , but lower levels for the others. Two major conclusions can be drawn from our study: (1) rice varieties with significantly increased biomass and metal uptake under elevated CO 2 exhibit greater potential for phytoextraction and (2) given expected global increases in CO 2 concentration, CO 2 -induced accumulation of metals in rice might be a component contributing to the potential health risk in the future, with Cd being a more important threat to human health than Cu.

  1. Contrasting effects of elevated CO{sub 2} on Cu and Cd uptake by different rice varieties grown on contaminated soils with two levels of metals: Implication for phytoextraction and food safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Zhongyang [Centre for Research in Ecotoxicology and Environmental Remediation, Agro-Environmental Protection Institute, Ministry of Agriculture, Tianjin 300191 (China); Open Key Laboratory of Agro-environment and Agro-product Safety of Ministry of Agriculture, Tianjin (China); Tang Shirong, E-mail: tangshir@hotmail.com [Centre for Research in Ecotoxicology and Environmental Remediation, Agro-Environmental Protection Institute, Ministry of Agriculture, Tianjin 300191 (China); Open Key Laboratory of Agro-environment and Agro-product Safety of Ministry of Agriculture, Tianjin (China); Deng Xiaofang; Wang Ruigang; Song Zhengguo [Centre for Research in Ecotoxicology and Environmental Remediation, Agro-Environmental Protection Institute, Ministry of Agriculture, Tianjin 300191 (China); Open Key Laboratory of Agro-environment and Agro-product Safety of Ministry of Agriculture, Tianjin (China)

    2010-05-15

    A pot experiment in six open-top chambers with two levels of CO{sub 2} and two multi-metal contaminated soils was conducted to investigate combined effects of elevated CO{sub 2} levels and metals (Cu and Cd) on rice. Elevated CO{sub 2} significantly increased the total dry weight biomass of six Chinese rice by 20-108 and 32-142% for low and high levels of contaminated soils, respectively. We observed dilution/little varied phenomena in grain Cu concentration in six rice varieties grown on both contaminated soils under elevated CO{sub 2}. We found significantly higher Cd concentrations in the parts of three rice varieties under elevated CO{sub 2}, but lower levels for the others. Two major conclusions can be drawn from our study: (1) rice varieties with significantly increased biomass and metal uptake under elevated CO{sub 2} exhibit greater potential for phytoextraction and (2) given expected global increases in CO{sub 2} concentration, CO{sub 2}-induced accumulation of metals in rice might be a component contributing to the potential health risk in the future, with Cd being a more important threat to human health than Cu.

  2. In silico analysis, mapping of regulatory elements and corresponding dna-protein interaction in polyphenol oxidase gene promoter from different rice varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmood, T.; Rehman, M.; Aziz, E.

    2015-01-01

    Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) is an important enzyme that has positive impact regarding plant resistance against different biotic and abiotic stresses. In the present study PPO promoter from six different rice varieties was amplified and then analyzed for cis- and trans-acting elements. The study revealed a total of 79 different cis-acting regulatory elements including 11 elements restricted to only one or other variety. Among six varieties Pakhal-Basmati had highest number (5) of these elements, whereas C-622 and Rachna-Basmati have no such sequences. Rachna-Basmati, IR-36-Basmati and Kashmir- Basmati had 1, 2 and 3 unique elements, respectively. Different elementsrelated to pathogen, salt and water stresses were found, which may be helpful in controlling PPO activity according to changing environment. Moreover, HADDOCK was used to understand molecular mechanism of PPO regulation and it was found that DNA-protein interactions are stabilized by many potential hydrogen bonds. Adenine and arginine were the most reactive residues in DNA and proteins respectively.Structural comparison of different protein-DNA complexes show that even a highly conserved transcriptional factor can adopt different conformations when they contact a different DNA binding sequence, however their stable interactions depend on the number of hydrogen bonds formed and distance. (author)

  3. Field performance of thirty mutant lines of the rice (Oryza sativa L.) varieties ICTA-Virginia and Precoz-ICTA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montepeque, R.; Molina, L. G.; Lopez, J. J.; Pazos, W.; Ramirez, J.

    1993-01-01

    Fifteen mutant lines from the variety ICTA-Virginia and fifteen from the variety Precozicta were evaluated according to their agronomic characteristics under conditions of the Motagua river valley during 1992. The objective was to select genotypes showing resistance to disease caused by Pyricularia grisea. The analysis of variance did not show significative differences among ICTA-Virginia mutants. The highest yield was form MV-860, 8.17 TM/ha and the lowest 5.31 TM/ha for MV-411. Significant differences were found among mutant lines from Precozicta. The highest yields were 6.06, 5.80 and 5.52 TM/ha for MPI-1189, MPI-1664 and MPI-1346 respectively. Inoculation with Pyricularia was made spraying it over the crop. However, it was not possible the evaluation of the disease in the neck (neck blast) due to absence of the pathogen. 5 tabs.(Author)

  4. Effect of temperature of 32P uptake and translocation in varieties and a cross of japonica and indica rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, P.R.; Madhusudhan Rao, L.

    1976-01-01

    Three genotypes of rice, one in each of japonica, indica, and a japonica-indica cross were grown in half-Hoagland culture solution. 32 P (40 μCi/I) was added to each of these culture jars and placed at 10,20,30 and 40degC in growth chamber for a period of 1,5 and 10 h at each temperature. The actual uptake of 32 P in plant was very low at 10 and 20degC; moderately low at 40degC and very low at 30degC in japonica and the cross. The uptake was higher at 30 and 40degC in indica. This indicates their ability in uptake of fertilizer at these temperatures. The percentage of absorbed ions decreased at 10 and 20degC and increased at 30 and 40degC with increased duration in all the genotypes. The actual uptake of ions was in proportion to the absorbed ions at higher temperatures and inversely proportional at lower temperatures. The percentage of translocation of 32 P to shoot increased with time between 20 and 50degC in indica, whereas it was high only at 30 and 40degC in japonica and the cross. The translocation was low at 10degC in all the genotypes. The uptake of 32 P at different concentrations under different diurnal temperatures (20/10, 30/20 and 40/30degC) was also studied. (author)

  5. Effects of Population Density and Host Availability on The Migration Process of Brown Planthopper Fed Using Susceptible and Resistant Rice Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam Habibi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens Stal. (Hemiptera: Delphacidae, is an important pest of rice. This pest can cause hopperburn and field failure. This research aimed to determine the effects of population density and host availability on migration of N. lugens. The criteria used to justify the effects of host availability and population density on migration of N. lugens were based the hardness and tannin tests of the rice stems, fecundity of N. lugens, and the life cycle of N. lugens. The research was conducted under the temperature of 29.42°C with relative humidity of 61% and Light 12: Dark 12 times, using ten pairs of N. lugens brachypterous (F0 constant and then was added with five male adults on fifth days after the first infestation (F0 changed. The varieties used were IR64, as a resistant variety, and Ketan Lusi, as a susceptible variety. The results showed that the adding of the macropterous males did not affect the number of macropterous, because of that has been preplanned by the F0. Therefore, the percentage of existing macropterous was 51−52%.   INTISARI   Wereng Batang Cokelat (WBC merupakan salah satu hama tanaman padi yang sangat penting. Kerusakan parah dapat menyebabkan hopperburn dan puso (gagal panen. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengetahui pengaruh kepadatan populasi dan tanaman inang sebagai tempat migrasi WBC. Parameter yang dikaji untuk mengetahui pengaruh kepadatan populasi WBC dan tanaman inang tempat migrasi WBC berdasarkan tingkat kekerasan dan kandungan tanin batang tanaman padi, fekunditas WBC, dan siklus hidup WBC. Penelitian ini dilakukan pada temperatur 29.42˚C dengan kelembapan relatif 61% dan durasi siang hari 12 jam: durasi malam hari 12 jam. Metode yang dilakukan adalah dengan menggunakan 10 pasang imago WBC brakhiptera (F0 konstan, kemudian dilakukan penambahan 5 ekor imago jantan pada hari kelima setelah infestasi awal (F0 diubah. Varietas padi yang digunakan yaitu padi varietas IR64 sebagai varietas

  6. Proteomic Analysis of Copper-Binding Proteins in Excess Copper-Stressed Roots of Two Rice (Oryza sativa L. Varieties with Different Cu Tolerances.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Chen

    Full Text Available To better understand the mechanisms involved in the heavy metal stress response and tolerance in plants, a proteomic approach was used to investigate the differences in Cu-binding protein expression in Cu-tolerant and Cu-sensitive rice varieties. Cu-binding proteins from Cu-treated rice roots were separated using a new IMAC method in which an IDA-sepharose column was applied prior to the Cu-IMAC column to remove metal ions from protein samples. More than 300 protein spots were reproducibly detected in the 2D gel. Thirty-five protein spots exhibited changes greater than 1.5-fold in intensity compared to the control. Twenty-four proteins contained one or more of nine putative metal-binding motifs reported by Smith et al., and 19 proteins (spots contained one to three of the top six motifs reported by Kung et al. The intensities of seven protein spots were increased in the Cu-tolerant variety B1139 compared to the Cu-sensitive variety B1195 (p<0.05 and six protein spots were markedly up-regulated in B1139, but not detectable in B1195. Four protein spots were significantly up-regulated in B1139, but unchanged in B1195 under Cu stress. In contrast, two protein spots were significantly down-regulated in B1195, but unchanged in B1139. These Cu-responsive proteins included those involved in antioxidant defense and detoxification (spots 5, 16, 21, 22, 28, 29 and 33, pathogenesis (spots 5, 16, 21, 22, 28, 29 and 33, regulation of gene transcription (spots 8 and 34, amino acid synthesis (spots 8 and 34, protein synthesis, modification, transport and degradation (spots 1, 2, 4, 10, 15, 19, 30, 31, 32 and 35, cell wall synthesis (spot 14, molecular signaling (spot 3, and salt stress (spots 7, 9 and 27; together with other proteins, such as a putative glyoxylate induced protein, proteins containing dimeric alpha-beta barrel domains, and adenosine kinase-like proteins. Our results suggest that these proteins, together with related physiological processes, play

  7. Visualized attribute analysis approach for characterization and quantification of rice taste flavor using electronic tongue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Lin; Hu, Xianqiao [Rice Product Quality Supervision and Inspection Center, Ministry of Agriculture, China National Rice Research Institute, Hangzhou 310006 (China); Tian, Shiyi; Deng, Shaoping [College of Food Science and Biotechnology, Zhejiang Gongshang University, Hangzhou 310035 (China); Zhu, Zhiwei, E-mail: 615834652@qq.com [Rice Product Quality Supervision and Inspection Center, Ministry of Agriculture, China National Rice Research Institute, Hangzhou 310006 (China)

    2016-05-05

    This paper deals with a novel visualized attributive analysis approach for characterization and quantification of rice taste flavor attributes (softness, stickiness, sweetness and aroma) employing a multifrequency large-amplitude pulse voltammetric electronic tongue. Data preprocessing methods including Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) were provided. An attribute characterization graph was represented for visualization of the interactive response in which each attribute responded by specific electrodes and frequencies. The model was trained using signal data from electronic tongue and attribute scores from artificial evaluation. The correlation coefficients for all attributes were over 0.9, resulting in good predictive ability of attributive analysis model preprocessed by FFT. This approach extracted more effective information about linear relationship between electronic tongue and taste flavor attribute. Results indicated that this approach can accurately quantify taste flavor attributes, and can be an efficient tool for data processing in a voltammetric electronic tongue system. - Graphical abstract: Schematic process for visualized attributive analysis approach using multifrequency large-amplitude pulse voltammetric electronic tongue for determination of rice taste flavor attribute. (a) sample; (b) sensors in electronic tongue; (c) excitation voltage program and response current signal from MLAPS; (d) similarity data matrix by data preprocessing and similarity extraction; (e) feature data matrix of attribute; (f) attribute characterization graph; (g) attribute scores predicted by the model. - Highlights: • Multifrequency large-amplitude pulse voltammetric electronic tongue was used. • A visualized attributive analysis approach was created as an efficient tool for data processing. • Rice taste flavor attribute was determined and predicted. • The attribute characterization graph was represented for visualization of the

  8. Genome-wide DNA polymorphism in the indica rice varieties RGD-7S and Taifeng B as revealed by whole genome re-sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Chong-Yun; Liu, Wu-Ge; Liu, Di-Lin; Li, Ji-Hua; Zhu, Man-Shan; Liao, Yi-Long; Liu, Zhen-Rong; Zeng, Xue-Qin; Wang, Feng

    2016-03-01

    Next-generation sequencing technologies provide opportunities to further understand genetic variation, even within closely related cultivars. We performed whole genome resequencing of two elite indica rice varieties, RGD-7S and Taifeng B, whose F1 progeny showed hybrid weakness and hybrid vigor when grown in the early- and late-cropping seasons, respectively. Approximately 150 million 100-bp pair-end reads were generated, which covered ∼86% of the rice (Oryza sativa L. japonica 'Nipponbare') reference genome. A total of 2,758,740 polymorphic sites including 2,408,845 SNPs and 349,895 InDels were detected in RGD-7S and Taifeng B, respectively. Applying stringent parameters, we identified 961,791 SNPs and 46,640 InDels between RGD-7S and Taifeng B (RGD-7S/Taifeng B). The density of DNA polymorphisms was 256.8 SNPs and 12.5 InDels per 100 kb for RGD-7S/Taifeng B. Copy number variations (CNVs) were also investigated. In RGD-7S, 1989 of 2727 CNVs were overlapped in 218 genes, and 1231 of 2010 CNVs were annotated in 175 genes in Taifeng B. In addition, we verified a subset of InDels in the interval of hybrid weakness genes, Hw3 and Hw4, and obtained some polymorphic InDel markers, which will provide a sound foundation for cloning hybrid weakness genes. Analysis of genomic variations will also contribute to understanding the genetic basis of hybrid weakness and heterosis.

  9. Marker-assisted introgression of drought tolerance from wild ancestors into popular Indian rice varieties using a 7K Infinium SNP array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravindra Donde

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in the area of genomics have led to the development of high throughput genotyping platforms that have immensely contributed to molecular breeding programs. Custom-designed single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP arrays provide an efficient, cost effective, high throughput genotyping tool for QTL/gene mapping, variety identification, marker-assisted selection, etc. In the current study, two interspecific libraries of Chromosome Segment Substitution Lines (CSSLs were evaluated under both drought and control conditions to identify lines with superior yield under drought. The CSSL libraries consisted of 48 BC4F3 lines derived from O. sativa cv. Curinga (tropical japonica x O. rufipogon, and 32 BC4F3 lines derived from O. sativa cv. Curinga (tropical japonica x O. meridionalis. The phenotypic screening of these 80 CSSLs led to the identification of three lines, MER-20, RUF-16, and RUF-44, that yielded well under drought stress. This line was backcrossed with popular rice variety of India, Swarna-Sub1 to introgress wild chromosome segments responsible for reproductive stage drought tolerance. During backcrossing, tracking of wild introgressions and monitoring of recurrent parent genome recovery was facilitated by the use of the Cornell 6K and 7K Infinium rice SNP arrays. The 6K and 7K SNP arrays assayed 5275 SNPs and 7099 SNPs, respectively, distributed across the 12 chromosomes. In our populations of (MER-20X Swarna sub1 BC2F1 lines, 1775 SNPs were polymorphic using the 6K array. The percentage of recurrent parent genome in these backcrossed lines ranged from 33-92% and the percentage of wild donor genome ranged from 8-67%. Using genotypic selection, 5% of plants were identified for further marker assisted backcrossing, based on the presence of the target donor (wild segment and maximum recovery of recurrent parent background. In the next generation, BC3F1 lines were genotyped using the 7K SNP array, which identified 2521 polymorphic SNPs

  10. Determination of contents and antioxidant activity of free and bound phenolics compounds and in vitro digestibility of commercial black and red rice (Oryza sativa L.) varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumczynski, Daniela; Kotásková, Eva; Družbíková, Helena; Mlček, Jiří

    2016-11-15

    Black and red rices (Oryza sativa L.) were analysed for total flavonoids and phenolics and the HPLC profile including both free and bound phenolic fractions. Moreover, antioxidant activity and in vitro digestibility was determined. Content of flavonoids and polyphenols as well as antioxidant activity was higher in free phenolic fractions. Bound flavonoids in black rices were not significant contributors to antioxidant activity. The main free phenolics in black rices were ferulic, protocatechuic and trans-p-coumaric acids, while the major free phenolics in red rices were catechin, protocatechuic and caffeic acids. The main bound phenolics in black rices were ferulic and vanillic acids and quercetin, in red rice types, they were ferulic, syringic, trans-p-coumaric acids and quercetin. Newly, the presence of m-coumaric acid in red rices was detected. Steam cooked rices showed very high levels of organic matter digestibility, whereas red rices were significantly more digestible than black rices (p<0.05). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Characterization of Chinese rice wine taste attributes using liquid chromatographic analysis, sensory evaluation, and an electronic tongue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, HaiYan; Zhao, Jie; Li, Fenghua; Tian, Huaixiang; Ma, Xia

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the taste characteristics of Chinese rice wine, wine samples sourced from different vintage years were analyzed using liquid chromatographic analysis, sensory evaluation, and an electronic tongue. Six organic acids and seventeen amino acids were measured using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Five monosaccharides were measured using anion-exchange chromatography. The global taste attributes were analyzed using an electronic tongue (E-tongue). The correlations between the 28 taste-active compounds and the sensory attributes, and the correlations between the E-tongue response and the sensory attributes were established via partial least square discriminant analysis (PLSDA). E-tongue response data combined with linear discriminant analysis (LDA) were used to discriminate the Chinese rice wine samples sourced from different vintage years. Sensory evaluation indicated significant differences in the Chinese rice wine samples sourced from 2003, 2005, 2008, and 2010 vintage years in the sensory attributes of harmony and mellow. The PLSDA model for the taste-active compounds and the sensory attributes showed that proline, fucose, arabinose, lactic acid, glutamic acid, arginine, isoleucine, valine, threonine, and lysine had an influence on the taste characteristic of Chinese rice wine. The Chinese rice wine samples were all correctly classified using the E-tongue and LDA. The electronic tongue was an effective tool for rapid discrimination of Chinese rice wine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Changes in DNA Methylation Pattern at Two Seedling Stages in Water Saving and Drought-Resistant Rice Variety after Drought Stress Domestication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-guo ZHENG

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies revealed that DNA methylation plays an important role in plant growth and development. In this study, a water-saving and drought-resistant rice variety Huhan 3 was subjected to drought stress from tillering to grain-filling stages in six successive growth cycles. The variations in DNA methylation pattern between the original generation (G0 and the sixth generation (G6 were analyzed by using methylation sensitive amplification polymorphism method. The results revealed that the methylated loci accounted for 34.3% to 34.8% of the total loci. Among these methylated loci, 83.1% to 84.8% were full- and hyper-methylated and 15.2% to 16.9% were hemi-methylated. The DNA methylation level decreased from the three-leaf to four-leaf stages in Huhan 3. Differentially methylated loci (DML between generations or/and between different developmental stages accounted for 4.0% of the total loci, most of which were only related to plant development (57.9%. Compared to G0, the DNA methylation pattern of G6 changed after drought domestication, at the three-leaf stage, de-methylation accounting for 59.1%, while at the four-leaf stage, re-methylation for 47.9%. Genome-wide alternations of DNA methylation were observed between the two seedling stages, and DML mainly occurred on the gene's promoter and exon region. The genes related to DML involved in a wide range of functional biology and participated in many important biological processes.

  13. Classification of Malaysia aromatic rice using multivariate statistical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdullah, A. H.; Adom, A. H.; Shakaff, A. Y. Md; Masnan, M. J.; Zakaria, A.; Rahim, N. A.; Omar, O.

    2015-01-01

    Aromatic rice (Oryza sativa L.) is considered as the best quality premium rice. The varieties are preferred by consumers because of its preference criteria such as shape, colour, distinctive aroma and flavour. The price of aromatic rice is higher than ordinary rice due to its special needed growth condition for instance specific climate and soil. Presently, the aromatic rice quality is identified by using its key elements and isotopic variables. The rice can also be classified via Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) or human sensory panels. However, the uses of human sensory panels have significant drawbacks such as lengthy training time, and prone to fatigue as the number of sample increased and inconsistent. The GC–MS analysis techniques on the other hand, require detailed procedures, lengthy analysis and quite costly. This paper presents the application of in-house developed Electronic Nose (e-nose) to classify new aromatic rice varieties. The e-nose is used to classify the variety of aromatic rice based on the samples odour. The samples were taken from the variety of rice. The instrument utilizes multivariate statistical data analysis, including Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) and K-Nearest Neighbours (KNN) to classify the unknown rice samples. The Leave-One-Out (LOO) validation approach is applied to evaluate the ability of KNN to perform recognition and classification of the unspecified samples. The visual observation of the PCA and LDA plots of the rice proves that the instrument was able to separate the samples into different clusters accordingly. The results of LDA and KNN with low misclassification error support the above findings and we may conclude that the e-nose is successfully applied to the classification of the aromatic rice varieties

  14. Classification of Malaysia aromatic rice using multivariate statistical analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdullah, A. H.; Adom, A. H.; Shakaff, A. Y. Md; Masnan, M. J.; Zakaria, A.; Rahim, N. A. [School of Mechatronic Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, Kampus Pauh Putra, 02600 Arau, Perlis (Malaysia); Omar, O. [Malaysian Agriculture Research and Development Institute (MARDI), Persiaran MARDI-UPM, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2015-05-15

    Aromatic rice (Oryza sativa L.) is considered as the best quality premium rice. The varieties are preferred by consumers because of its preference criteria such as shape, colour, distinctive aroma and flavour. The price of aromatic rice is higher than ordinary rice due to its special needed growth condition for instance specific climate and soil. Presently, the aromatic rice quality is identified by using its key elements and isotopic variables. The rice can also be classified via Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) or human sensory panels. However, the uses of human sensory panels have significant drawbacks such as lengthy training time, and prone to fatigue as the number of sample increased and inconsistent. The GC–MS analysis techniques on the other hand, require detailed procedures, lengthy analysis and quite costly. This paper presents the application of in-house developed Electronic Nose (e-nose) to classify new aromatic rice varieties. The e-nose is used to classify the variety of aromatic rice based on the samples odour. The samples were taken from the variety of rice. The instrument utilizes multivariate statistical data analysis, including Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) and K-Nearest Neighbours (KNN) to classify the unknown rice samples. The Leave-One-Out (LOO) validation approach is applied to evaluate the ability of KNN to perform recognition and classification of the unspecified samples. The visual observation of the PCA and LDA plots of the rice proves that the instrument was able to separate the samples into different clusters accordingly. The results of LDA and KNN with low misclassification error support the above findings and we may conclude that the e-nose is successfully applied to the classification of the aromatic rice varieties.

  15. Classification of Malaysia aromatic rice using multivariate statistical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, A. H.; Adom, A. H.; Shakaff, A. Y. Md; Masnan, M. J.; Zakaria, A.; Rahim, N. A.; Omar, O.

    2015-05-01

    Aromatic rice (Oryza sativa L.) is considered as the best quality premium rice. The varieties are preferred by consumers because of its preference criteria such as shape, colour, distinctive aroma and flavour. The price of aromatic rice is higher than ordinary rice due to its special needed growth condition for instance specific climate and soil. Presently, the aromatic rice quality is identified by using its key elements and isotopic variables. The rice can also be classified via Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) or human sensory panels. However, the uses of human sensory panels have significant drawbacks such as lengthy training time, and prone to fatigue as the number of sample increased and inconsistent. The GC-MS analysis techniques on the other hand, require detailed procedures, lengthy analysis and quite costly. This paper presents the application of in-house developed Electronic Nose (e-nose) to classify new aromatic rice varieties. The e-nose is used to classify the variety of aromatic rice based on the samples odour. The samples were taken from the variety of rice. The instrument utilizes multivariate statistical data analysis, including Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) and K-Nearest Neighbours (KNN) to classify the unknown rice samples. The Leave-One-Out (LOO) validation approach is applied to evaluate the ability of KNN to perform recognition and classification of the unspecified samples. The visual observation of the PCA and LDA plots of the rice proves that the instrument was able to separate the samples into different clusters accordingly. The results of LDA and KNN with low misclassification error support the above findings and we may conclude that the e-nose is successfully applied to the classification of the aromatic rice varieties.

  16. A resistance locus in the American heirloom rice variety Carolina Gold Select is triggered by TAL effectors with diverse predicted targets and is effective against African strains of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triplett, Lindsay R; Cohen, Stephen P; Heffelfinger, Christopher; Schmidt, Clarice L; Huerta, Alejandra I; Tekete, Cheick; Verdier, Valerie; Bogdanove, Adam J; Leach, Jan E

    2016-09-01

    The rice pathogens Xanthomonas oryzae pathovar (pv.) oryzae and pv. oryzicola produce numerous transcription activator-like (TAL) effectors that increase bacterial virulence by activating expression of host susceptibility genes. Rice resistance mechanisms against TAL effectors include polymorphisms that prevent effector binding to susceptibility gene promoters, or that allow effector activation of resistance genes. This study identifies, in the heirloom variety Carolina Gold Select, a third mechanism of rice resistance involving TAL effectors. This resistance manifests through strong suppression of disease development in response to diverse TAL effectors from both X. oryzae pathovars. The resistance can be triggered by an effector with only 3.5 central repeats, is independent of the composition of the repeat variable di-residues that determine TAL effector binding specificity, and is independent of the transcriptional activation domain. We determined that the resistance is conferred by a single dominant locus, designated Xo1, that maps to a 1.09 Mbp fragment on chromosome 4. The Xo1 interval also confers complete resistance to the strains in the African clade of X. oryzae pv. oryzicola, representing the first dominant resistance locus against bacterial leaf streak in rice. The strong phenotypic similarity between the TAL effector-triggered resistance conferred by Xo1 and that conferred by the tomato resistance gene Bs4 suggests that monocots and dicots share an ancient or convergently evolved mechanism to recognize analogous TAL effector epitopes. © 2016 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. A Wireless and Portable Electronic Nose to Differentiate Musts of Different Ripeness Degree and Grape Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Aleixandre

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Two novel applications using a portable and wireless sensor system (e-nose for the wine producing industry—The recognition and classification of musts coming from different grape ripening times and from different grape varieties—Are reported in this paper. These applications are very interesting because a lot of varieties of grapes produce musts with low and similar aromatic intensities so they are very difficult to distinguish using a sensory panel. Therefore the system could be used to monitor the ripening evolution of the different types of grapes and to assess some useful characteristics, such as the identification of the grape variety origin and to prediction of the wine quality. Ripening grade of collected samples have been also evaluated by classical analytical techniques, measuring physicochemical parameters, such as, pH, Brix, Total Acidity (TA and Probable Grade Alcoholic (PGA. The measurements were carried out for two different harvests, using different red (Barbera, Petit Verdot, Tempranillo, and Touriga and white (Malvar, Malvasía, Chenin Blanc, and Sauvignon Blanc grape musts coming from the experimental cellar of the IMIDRA at Madrid. Principal Component Analysis (PCA and Probabilistic Neural Networks (PNN have been used to analyse the obtained data by e-nose. In addition, and the Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA method has been carried out to correlate the results obtained by both technologies.

  18. Induced Mutations in Thai Rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klakhaeng, Kanchana

    2014-01-01

    Rice is the primary source of food for more than half of the world's population. It benefits greatly from technological inputs in the area of breeding such as induced mutation. Induced mutation can produce mutants with significant improvement in plant type, maturity, yields and protein ratio when compared to the parent. These improved traits enable the mutants to fit into farming systems with either shorter or longer growing seasons. Three induced mutant rice varieties, including RD6, RD10 and RD15, are well accepted by farmers and consumers in Thailand. RD6 and RD15 were aromatic, photosensitive varieties which were derived from KDML105 by acute irradiation of 20 and 15 kilorad gamma ray, respectively. After induced mutation, pedigree selection was applied. RD6 showed drought tolerance and also good grain quality including softness and good aroma with a higher average yield than the famous glutinous variety, San-Pah-Tong. Additionally, it was resistant to blast and brown spot diseases with an average yield of 4.19 tons/ha. RD15 showed drought tolerance and resistance to brown spot disease with the highest yield of 3.5 tons/ha. These two mutant varieties are currently the most famous aromatic rice varieties in Thailand. On the other hand, RD10 is a glutinous, photoperiod insensitive rice variety which was derived from RD1 by irradiation of 1 kilorad fast neutrons. RD10 showed good grain quality such as softness and stickiness with the yield of 4.25 tons/ha. As an on-going project, recommended rice varieties were irradiated with electron beam for anaerobic germination ability, submergence tolerance, stagnant-flood tolerance and also internode elongation.

  19. Effect of Stewing in Cooking Step on Textural and Morphological Properties of Cooked Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. GHASEMI

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Stewing of rice grains by steam after boiling in excess water can be used for cooking rice perfectly. The effects of this procedure in cooking of three varieties of Iranian rice (Sang Tarom, Domsiyah and Fajr on textural and morphological properties of cooked rice grains were investigated. The results showed that this step in rice cooking reduced the hardness and increased the adhesiveness of rice grains significantly. By the use of the scanning electron microscopy, it was shown that the outer surface of cooked rice stewed by steam had less porosity and closer pores due to the modification during cooking, and better gelatinization and more expansion of starch granules compared to non-stewed samples. The use of this procedure in rice cooking to provide a fully cooked and gelatinized, softer and stickier final product is recommended.

  20. Effect of organic fertiliser residues from rice production on nitrogen fixation of soya (Glycine max L. Merrill, Chiang Mai 60 variety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nattida Luangmaka

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A field study was undertaken on the residual effect of organic fertilisers applied to the preceding rice cropping on nitrogen fixation of soya in a rice-soya cropping system. The experiment was conducted on a farmer’s lowland paddy in Mae Rim district, Chiang Mai province, Thailand. Organic fertiliser treatments assigned were: 1 control (no fertiliser, 2 animal manure of cattle (AM, 3 compost (CP, 4 azolla (AZ, 5 AM + CP, 6 AM + AZ, 7 CP + AZ and 8 AM + CP + AZ. Soya seeds were planted without rhizobial inoculation in December 2011, four months after the application of organic fertilisers. Nodule weight, total shoot nitrogen accumulation and relative ureide index at various growth stages were recorded as the indices of nitrogen fixation. Results of the study demonstrate that the residues from the application the organic fertilisers of narrow C/N ratios during the land preparation for rice cropping four months before soya cultivation promoted nitrogen fixation by native rhizobia.

  1. Efficiency for solar energy conversion in rice population estimated from crop photosynthesis and respiration under field conditions (Part 1). Ratio of respiration to photosynthesis during the ripening stage. [Effect of planting data, heading time, variety, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imaki, Tadashi; Ishizuka, Hitoshi; Hayakawa, Junji

    1987-12-21

    According to the results of measuring crop photosynthesis and respiration of rice population, a comparative experiment on the variations of the ratio of respiration to photosynthesis (R/P ratio) due to the difference of the rice planting time or the heading time was carried out using extremely early-maturing and early or medium-maturing varieties. On the measured data of photosynthesis and respiration which were observed with change of the growth, the R/P ratio were obtained twenty days before to thirty days after the heading time. As the results, it was found that the R/P ratio of the group with the heading time at the end of July was about 10 to 20 % higher than that of another group with the heading time after middle of August. This means that the apparent energy conversion efficiency may be affected by the differences of the planting time, the heading time and the temperature condition. Hitherto, in determination of the rice-planting time, quantity of solar radiation in the growth and ripening stages was apt to be regarded as important. However, in consideration of true suitable planting time, the study from the aspect of the energy conversion efficiency is also required. (7 figs, 9 tabs, 8 refs)

  2. Improvement of rice varieties by induced mutations to increase yield per acre and resistance to diseases and to improve seed quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miah, A J; Bhatti, I M; Awan, A; Bari, G [Atomic Energy Agricultural Research Centre, Tandojam (Pakistan)

    1970-03-01

    Mutagen treatments of the variety Kangni-27 have given rise to short culm and early ripening strains. Experiments have been started with the varieties Dokri Basmati, Jajai-77, IR-8 and 370 Basmati using fast neutrons, gamma rays, EMS and dES as mutagens. Results obtained so far show a differential response of the varieties in their radiosensitivity and frequency of leaf colour mutations. (author)

  3. Odor Profile of Different Varieties of Extra-Virgin Olive Oil During Deep Frying Using an Electronic Nose and SPME-GC-FID

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messina, Valeria; Biolatto, Andrea; Sancho, Ana; Descalzo, Adriana; Grigioni, Gabriela; de Reca, Noemí Walsöe

    2011-09-01

    The aim of the performed work was to evaluate with an electronic nose changes in odor profile of Arauco and Arbequina varieties of extra-virgin olive oil during deep-frying. Changes in odor were analyzed using an electronic nose composed of 16 sensors. Volatile compounds were analyzed by SPME-GC-FID. Principal Component Analysis was applied for electronic results. Arauco variety showed the highest response for sensors. Statistical analysis for volatile compounds indicated a significant (P<0.001) interaction between variety and time of frying processes. Arauco variety showed the highest production of volatile compounds at 60 min of deep frying. The two varieties presented distinct patterns of volatile products, being clearly identified with the electronic nose.

  4. Evaluation of the tolerance to Finale® in the germination and regeneration of Cuban rice varieties (IACuba-17 and IACuba-19

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daymí Abreu

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Selection agent used during the shoot selection has an important role on the transgenic plant generation efficiency. In this work, the tolerance to the herbicide Finale® in two Cuban rice cultivars, IACuba17 and IACuba-19 was evaluated, and determined that 10 days exposure to 5 and 10 mg.l-1 of Finale® were enough to avoid seedlings of IAC-17 and IAC-19, respectively. Cultivated calluses (0, 2, 4 and 6 days in the absence of Finale®in the regeneration medium were used to evaluate the minimal concentration of Finale®that totally inhibits shoot regeneration. Pre-induced calluses cultured during two days and 3 mg.l-1 of Finale® in the regeneration medium was the most efficient combination to select shoots during the generation of transgenic plants resistant to the herbicide. Our shoot selection procedure reduces to 3 weeks the time to obtain shoots during the generation of transgenic rice plants. Key words: germination, mature seeds, Oryza, phosphinothricin, regeneration, selection markers

  5. The perspective effects of various seed coating substances on rice seed variety Khao Dawk Mali 105 storability II: the case study of chemical and biochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thobunluepop, P; Pan-in, W; Pawelzik, E; Vearasilp, S

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of seed coating substances; chemical fungicide (CA) and biological fungicide polymers [chitosan-lignosulphonate polymer (CL) and eugenol incorporated into chitosan-lignosulphonate polymer (E+CL)] on chemical and biochemical changes of rice seeds cv. KDML 105, which have been studied during storage for 12 months. CA significantly affected the rice seed chemical properties and the associated seed deterioration. After 12 months storage, protein content decreased accompanied by declined of lipid content, increased free fatty acids and activated lipoxygenase enzyme. In the case of biological fungicide coated seeds, the antioxidative scavenging enzymes were ascorbate peroxidase and superoxide dismutase and a high antioxidant activity protected them. Moreover, the sugar content was positive correlated with seed germination and vigor. The biological coated seeds were found to maintain high sugar contents inside the seeds, which resulted high seed storability significantly. In contrast, under fungicide stress (CA), those compounds were lost that directly affected seed vigor during storage.

  6. Fate of 15N-Urea and 15N-Ammonia sulfate applied in different times to rice crops, variety CICA-8, under greenhouse conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastidas, O.G.; Alvarez, A.L.; Victoria, R.L.; Muraoka, T.; Urquiaga, S.

    1986-01-01

    This research project deals with the end use of two nitrogen fertilizers applied to a rice crop. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse, using Urea(1.973% N 15 atom content)and Ammonia Sulfate(1.826% N 15 atom content). Fertilizers were applied in four levels (0 to 300 Kg/ha) at sowing and 30 days after budding on flower pots containing 30 Kg. of soil. Results indicate that production of dry vegetable material presents no significant differences in regard to application time or nitrogen source, but it does in relation to applied levels the efficiency in fertilizers use changed between 16 and 54%, showing differences highly significant, in relation to source, level and specially time of application. At the end of the experiment, in the plant-soil system, about 39% to 81% of the applied nitrogen was recuperated, given higher losses when Urea was as a source, and depending on the time of application. (author)

  7. Transcriptome Analysis of Two Rice Varieties Contrasting for Nitrogen Use Efficiency under Chronic N Starvation Reveals Differences in Chloroplast and Starch Metabolism-Related Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subodh Kumar Sinha

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The nitrogen use efficiency (NUE of crop plants is limited and enhancing it in rice, a major cereal crop, would be beneficial for farmers and the environment alike. Here we report the genome-wide transcriptome analysis of two rice genotypes, IR 64 (IR64 and Nagina 22 (N22 under optimal (+N and chronic starvation (-N of nitrogen (N from 15-day-old root and shoot tissues. The two genotypes were found to be contrasting in their response to -N; IR64 root architecture and root dry weight remained almost equivalent to that under +N conditions, while N22 showed high foraging ability but a substantial reduction in biomass under -N. Similarly, the photosynthetic pigments showed a drastic reduction in N22 under low N, while IR64 was more resilient. Nitrate reductase showed significantly low specific activity under -N in both genotypes. Glutamate synthase (GOGAT and citrate synthase CS activity were highly reduced in N22 but not in IR64. Transcriptome analysis of these genotypes revealed nearly double the number of genes to be differentially expressed (DEGs in roots (1016 compared to shoots (571. The response of the two genotypes to N starvation was distinctly different reflecting their morphological/biochemical response with just two and eight common DEGs in the root and shoot tissues. There were a total of 385 nitrogen-responsive DEGs (106 in shoots and 279 in roots between the two genotypes. Fifty-two of the 89 DEGs identified as specific to N22 root tissues were also found to be differentially expressed between the two genotypes under -N. Most of these DEGs belonged to starch and chloroplast metabolism, followed by membrane and signaling proteins. Physical mapping of DEGs revealed 95 DEGs in roots and 76 in shoots to be present in quantitative trait loci (QTL known for NUE.

  8. Determinación de la Infección de Burkholderia glumae en Semillas de Variedades Comerciales Colombianas de Arroz Determination of the Infeccion of Burkholderia glumae in Comercial Colombian Rice Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalia María Vanesa Flórez Zapata

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El añublo bacterial de la panícula del arroz, ocasionado por Burkholderia glumae, es una enfermedad cada vez más difundida en Colombia. Por tal motivo es importante implementar un sistema de evaluación de la infección de este agente fitopatógeno en semilla, ya que ésta es una de las posibles fuentes de la enfermedad en campo. Semillas previamente desinfectadas, fueron sumergidas en suspensiones bacterianas y colocadas en cámara húmeda por siete días, luego de los cuales fueron evaluadas. Este sistema fue validado a través del análisis de la severidad de la infección en siete variedades de arroz y tres concentraciones del patógeno. El análisis reveló que las variedades F60, Panorama y F174, presentaron la menor severidad de la infección, aunque estadísticamente similar entre sí; mientras que, las variedades F369 y F733 presentaron niveles de severidad significativamente mayores y similares entre sí. Todas las variedades, con excepción de F60, presentaron diferencias entre las concentraciones del patógeno evaluadas, encontrándose una relación positiva entre concentración del inóculo y la severidad, la cual osciló según la variedad en la que fue estimada. Se concluyó que el modelo de evaluación de la infección fue exitoso dado que permitió encontrar diferencias en la severidad de la infección entre las variedades de arroz y las concentraciones de inóculo.The bacterial panicle blight of rice caused by Burkholderia glumae, is a disease that has gained increasing distribution in Colombia. Therefore it is important to implement an assessment system of infection of this phytopathogen in seeds, since this is one of the possible disease sources on the field. Thus, previously disinfected seeds were dipped in the bacterial suspension and placed in a moist chamber for 7 days, after which they were assessed. This assessment system, was validated by analyzing the infection severity level on seven rice varieties and three

  9. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic analysis of rice kernels and flours: Measurement of surface chemical composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawaz, Malik A; Gaiani, Claire; Fukai, Shu; Bhandari, Bhesh

    2016-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the ability of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to differentiate rice macromolecules and to calculate the surface composition of rice kernels and flours. The uncooked kernels and flours surface composition of the two selected rice varieties, Thadokkham-11 (TDK11) and Doongara (DG) demonstrated an over-expression of lipids and proteins and an under-expression of starch compared to the bulk composition. The results of the study showed that XPS was able to differentiate rice polysaccharides (mainly starch), proteins and lipids in uncooked rice kernels and flours. Nevertheless, it was unable to distinguish components in cooked rice samples possibly due to complex interactions between gelatinized starch, denatured proteins and lipids. High resolution imaging methods (Scanning Electron Microscopy and Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy) were employed to obtain complementary information about the properties and location of starch, proteins and lipids in rice kernels and flours. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Fate of /sup 15/N-Urea and /sup 15/N-Ammonia sulfate applied in different times to rice crops, variety CICA-8, under greenhouse conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastidas, O G; Alvarez, A L; Victoria, R L; Muraoka, T; Urquiaga, S

    1986-01-01

    This research project deals with the end use of two nitrogen fertilizers applied to a rice crop. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse, using urea (1.973% N/sup 15/ atom content) and ammonia sulfate (1.826% N/sup 15/atom content). Fertilizers were applied in four levels (0 to 300 Kg/ha) at sowing and 30 days after budding on flower pots containing 30 Kg. of soil. Results indicate that production of dry vegetable material presents no significant differences in regard to application time or nitrogen source, but it does in relation to applied levels. The efficiency in fertilizers use changed between 16 and 54%, showing highly significant differences, in relation to source, level and time of application. At the end of the experiment, in the plant-soil system, about 39% to 81% of the applied nitrogen was recovered, given higher losses when urea was as a source, and depending on the time of application.

  11. The perspective effects of various seed coating substances on rice seed variety Khao DAWK Mali 105 storability I: the case study of physiological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thobunluepop, P; Pawelzik, E; Vearasilp, S

    2008-10-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the perspective changes of several physiological performances of rice seeds cv. KDML 105 which were coated with various seed coating substances [chemical fungicide, captan (CA) and biological coating polymers; chitosan-lignosulphonate polymer (CL) and eugenol incorporated into chitosan-lignosulphonate polymer (E + CL)] during storage (12 months). CA significantly increased seed moisture content and seed water activity through out the storage period. The qualities and viability of the seeds were seriously declined by this treatment. Moreover, CA inhibited the shoot and root development, seedling dry weight accumulation, delayed the seed germination and seedling growth rate. CA treated seeds were susceptible to stress conditions that declined the seed germination potential under cold, high moisture and temperature stress conditions. Nevertheless, CL and E + CL coating polymer could maintain seed storability, which significantly improved seed germination and seedling performances. These improvements were attributed to maintain the nutritive reserve and dehydrogenase activity in seeds. Moreover, the biological seed treatment stimulated the embryo growth and so speeding up the seedling emergence when compared untreated seeds.

  12. Effects of Rice Husk Modification with Liquid Natural Rubber and Exposure to Electron Beam Radiation on the Mechanical Properties of NR/ HDPE/ Rice Husk Composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lane, C.E.; Ishak Ahmad; Ibrahim Abdullah; Dahlan Mohd

    2011-01-01

    Rice husk (RH) powder is a natural fibre capable of reinforcing natural rubber thermoplastic (TPNR) NR/ HDPE composites on specific modification of the particle surface. In this study the modification of RH powder involved pre-treatment with 5 % sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution, soaking in LNR solution and exposure of LNR coated RH to electron beam (EB) irradiation. Preparation of NR/ HDPE/ RH composites was via melt-mixing in an internal mixer at predetermined conditions. Morphology study of the composites using scanning electron microscope (SEM) showed a homogeneous distribution of modified RH particles and particle-matrix interaction in the composite. Modified RH filled composites exhibited a significant change in mechanical properties. The maximum stress and impact strength were 6.7 MPa and 13.2 kJ/ m 2 , respectively at 20 kGy radiation, while the tensile modulus was 79 MPa at 30 kGy dose. The interfacial RH-TPNR interaction for the LNR-EB treated RH particles had improved in the EB dosage range of 20-30 kGy. However, over exposure to radiation caused degradation of rubber coat and interaction between particles to increase. Agglomeration of filler particles would occur and caused inhomogeneous distribution of filler in the composite. (author)

  13. Preparation and characterization of electron-beam treated HDPE composites reinforced with rice husk ash and Brazilian clay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz, A.V., E-mail: angelortiz@ipen.br [Nuclear and Energy Research Institute, IPEN-CNEN/SP Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 2242, São Paulo, SP 05508-000 (Brazil); Teixeira, J.G.; Gomes, M.G.; Oliveira, R.R. [Nuclear and Energy Research Institute, IPEN-CNEN/SP Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 2242, São Paulo, SP 05508-000 (Brazil); Díaz, F.R.V. [Metallurgical and Materials Engineering Department, Polytechnic School, University of São Paulo Av. Prof. Mello de Morais 2463, São Paulo, SP 05508-900 (Brazil); Moura, E.A.B. [Nuclear and Energy Research Institute, IPEN-CNEN/SP Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 2242, São Paulo, SP 05508-000 (Brazil)

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • We examine changes in HDPE properties when waste and clay are used as reinforcement. • The addition of only 3% of clay leads to important gains in HDPE properties. • The use of electron-beam contributes to greater improvements in material properties. • We observe 85% of cross-linking degree for the HDPE when treated with e-beam. - Abstract: This work evaluates the morphology, mechanical and thermo-mechanical properties of high density polyethylene (HDPE) composites. HDPE reinforced with rice husk ashes (80:20 wt%), HDPE reinforced with clay (97:3 wt%) and HDPE reinforced with both rice husk ashes and clay(77:20:3 wt%) were obtained. The Brazilian bentonite chocolate clay was used in this study. This Brazilian smectitic clay is commonly used to produce nanocomposites. The composites were produced by melting extrusion process and then irradiation was carried out in a 1.5 MeV electron-beam accelerator (room temperature, presence of air). Comparisons using the irradiated and non-irradiated neat polymer, and the irradiated and non-irradiated composites were made. The materials obtained were submitted to tensile, flexural and impact tests. Additionally HDT, SEM and XRD analyses were carried out along with the sol–gel analysis which aimed to assess the cross-linking degree of the irradiated materials. Results showed great improvement in most HDPE properties and a high cross-linking degree of 85% as a result of electron-beam irradiation of the material.

  14. Linkage analysis for the gametic lethal gene of a rice variety 'Koshihikari' and the semi-dwarfing gene induced in 'Koshihikari'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomita, M.; Tanisaka, T.; Okumoto, Y.; Yamagata, H.

    1990-01-01

    Full text: 'Koshihikari', a Japanese tall variety, is now most widely cultivated in Japan because of its good quality and taste, but is extremely poor in lodging resistance. In order to create a semi-dwarf 'Koshihikari', large scale mutation breeding was carried out at Hokuriku Agricultural Experiment Station, resulting in the production of an excellent semi-dwarf mutant strain 'Hokuriku 100'. It has extensively been used as cross parent. Genetic analyses revealed that the semi-dwarfness of 'Hokuriku 100' is controlled by two mutant genes, a recessive semi-dwarfness gene sd(t) and a non-gametic lethal gene lt m mutated from the genetic lethal gene of 'Koshihikari' lt, which would cause abortion of both male and female gametes when it occurs together with sd(t). Further analyses led to conclude that It is located on chromosome 9, sd(t) on chromosome 10. (author)

  15. Endophytic Colonization and In Planta Nitrogen Fixation by a Herbaspirillum sp. Isolated from Wild Rice Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbeltagy, Adel; Nishioka, Kiyo; Sato, Tadashi; Suzuki, Hisa; Ye, Bin; Hamada, Toru; Isawa, Tsuyoshi; Mitsui, Hisayuki; Minamisawa, Kiwamu

    2001-01-01

    Nitrogen-fixing bacteria were isolated from the stems of wild and cultivated rice on a modified Rennie medium. Based on 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequences, the diazotrophic isolates were phylogenetically close to four genera: Herbaspirillum, Ideonella, Enterobacter, and Azospirillum. Phenotypic properties and signature sequences of 16S rDNA indicated that three isolates (B65, B501, and B512) belong to the Herbaspirillum genus. To examine whether Herbaspirillum sp. strain B501 isolated from wild rice, Oryza officinalis, endophytically colonizes rice plants, the gfp gene encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP) was introduced into the bacteria. Observations by fluorescence stereomicroscopy showed that the GFP-tagged bacteria colonized shoots and seeds of aseptically grown seedlings of the original wild rice after inoculation of the seeds. Conversely, for cultivated rice Oryza sativa, no GFP fluorescence was observed for shoots and only weak signals were observed for seeds. Observations by fluorescence and electron microscopy revealed that Herbaspirillum sp. strain B501 colonized mainly intercellular spaces in the leaves of wild rice. Colony counts of surface-sterilized rice seedlings inoculated with the GFP-tagged bacteria indicated significantly more bacterial populations inside the original wild rice than in cultivated rice varieties. Moreover, after bacterial inoculation, in planta nitrogen fixation in young seedlings of wild rice, O. officinalis, was detected by the acetylene reduction and 15N2 gas incorporation assays. Therefore, we conclude that Herbaspirillum sp. strain B501 is a diazotrophic endophyte compatible with wild rice, particularly O. officinalis. PMID:11679357

  16. Identification of the Rice Wines with Different Marked Ages by Electronic Nose Coupled with Smartphone and Cloud Storage Platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zhebo; Xiao, Xize; Wang, Jun; Wang, Hui

    2017-10-31

    In this study, a portable electronic nose (E-nose) was self-developed to identify rice wines with different marked ages-all the operations of the E-nose were controlled by a special Smartphone Application. The sensor array of the E-nose was comprised of 12 MOS sensors and the obtained response values were transmitted to the Smartphone thorough a wireless communication module. Then, Aliyun worked as a cloud storage platform for the storage of responses and identification models. The measurement of the E-nose was composed of the taste information obtained phase (TIOP) and the aftertaste information obtained phase (AIOP). The area feature data obtained from the TIOP and the feature data obtained from the TIOP-AIOP were applied to identify rice wines by using pattern recognition methods. Principal component analysis (PCA), locally linear embedding (LLE) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) were applied for the classification of those wine samples. LDA based on the area feature data obtained from the TIOP-AIOP proved a powerful tool and showed the best classification results. Partial least-squares regression (PLSR) and support vector machine (SVM) were applied for the predictions of marked ages and SVM (R² = 0.9942) worked much better than PLSR.

  17. Identification of the Rice Wines with Different Marked Ages by Electronic Nose Coupled with Smartphone and Cloud Storage Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhebo Wei

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a portable electronic nose (E-nose was self-developed to identify rice wines with different marked ages—all the operations of the E-nose were controlled by a special Smartphone Application. The sensor array of the E-nose was comprised of 12 MOS sensors and the obtained response values were transmitted to the Smartphone thorough a wireless communication module. Then, Aliyun worked as a cloud storage platform for the storage of responses and identification models. The measurement of the E-nose was composed of the taste information obtained phase (TIOP and the aftertaste information obtained phase (AIOP. The area feature data obtained from the TIOP and the feature data obtained from the TIOP-AIOP were applied to identify rice wines by using pattern recognition methods. Principal component analysis (PCA, locally linear embedding (LLE and linear discriminant analysis (LDA were applied for the classification of those wine samples. LDA based on the area feature data obtained from the TIOP-AIOP proved a powerful tool and showed the best classification results. Partial least-squares regression (PLSR and support vector machine (SVM were applied for the predictions of marked ages and SVM (R2 = 0.9942 worked much better than PLSR.

  18. Study of radio-restoration by various mineral salts and silice wich products (Tuf and Pouzzolane) of rice embryos (oryza-sativa L, Cigalon variety) exposed to cobalt 60 gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mouthia-Khadija.

    1981-12-01

    Mutagenic treatments produce a large number of mutants per unit time and are used for plant improvement. However these treatments cause damage to cells. To counteract this radio-induced damage 2 methods are being tried: - Protection, which consists in the supply of an active product before application of mutagenic agents; - Restoration, which tries to repair the damage after mutagenic treatment. This work is devoted to restoration processes. Technique for the isolation and culture on a suitable nutrient of rice embryos (oryza sativa L, Cigalon variety) separated from non-irradiated caryopses were developed first. By separating out the embryo in this way it is possible to study in vitro the interactions between the embryo and the rest of the caryopsis (albumin + pericarp). The effects of radiations on embryos from caryopses exposed to cobalt 60 gamma rays were measured next, then the action of certain inorganic elements contained in the caryopsis tissues was analysed. On the basis of the first results obtained the differences in response between plantlets from embryos irradiated or otherwise treated or not either by zinc sulphate or by very silice-rich volcanic products (Tuf and Pouzzolane), were examined by chemical analysis techniques. These tests have allowed the detection of ionic changes induced by irradiation during the different stages of plant development and led to a better estimate of the radio-restoration mechanisms brought about by the various chemical compounds used [fr

  19. Períodos de interferência das plantas daninhas na cultura do arroz de terras altas. II - cultivar Caiapó Interference periods of weeds in the upland rice - Caiapó variety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Rosangela Malheiros Silva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Os experimentos foram desenvolvidos nos anos agrícolas 2003/2004 e 2004/2005, em área experimental da Universidade Estadual Paulista, Campus de Jaboticabal (SP, com o objetivo de se determinarem os períodos de interferência das plantas daninhas na cultura do arroz de terras altas, cultivar Caiapó. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso com quatro repetições e 16 tratamentos. Os tratamentos foram constituídos por períodos crescentes de controle ou de convivência das plantas daninhas após a emergência da cultura: 0-10, 0-20, 0-30, 0-40, 0-50, 0-60, 0-70 dias e 0-colheita. Nos dois anos, as famílias predominantes eram Poaceae, Asteraceae, Amaranthaceae e Malvaceae e as principais plantas daninhas presentes foram: Cyperus rotundus L., Cenchrus echinatus L., Digitaria spp Heist., Echinochloa crus-galli (L. P. Beauv., Brachiaria decumbens Stapf., Eleusine indica Gaertn e Alternanthera tenella Colla. A cultivar de arroz de terras altas Caiapó deve ser mantida sem plantas daninhas nos 30 dias após a emergência.The experiments were carried out in two growing seasons (2003/04 and 2004/05 in an experimental area at São Paulo State University - UNESP, Jaboticabal Campus, to evaluate the weed interference periods on the upland Caiapó rice variety. The experimental design was randomized blocks with 4 replicates and 16 treatments. The treatments consisted of increasing periods of control or coexistence after emergence of the culture: 0-10; 0-20; 0-30; 0-40; 0-50; 0-60; 0-70 days; 0-harvest. The predominant families were Poaceae, Asteraceae, Amaranthaceae and Malvaceae, and the main weeds present were Cyperus rotundus L., Cenchrus echinatus L., Digitaria spp Heist., Echinochloa crus-galli (L. P. Beauv., Brachiaria decumbens Stapf., Eleusine indica Gaertn e Alternanthera tenella Colla for both years. The upland rice cultivar Caiapó is to be kept free of weeds for 30 days after emergence.

  20. Reinforcement of natural rubber/high density polyethylene blends with electron beam irradiated liquid natural rubber-coated rice husk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chong, E.L.; Ahmad, Ishak [Polymer Research Center (PORCE), School of Chemical Science and Food Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia 4, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia); Dahlan, H.M. [Radiation Processing Technology Division, Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia), Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia); Abdullah, Ibrahim, E-mail: dia@ukm.m [Polymer Research Center (PORCE), School of Chemical Science and Food Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia 4, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia)

    2010-08-15

    Coating of rice husk (RH) surface with liquid natural rubber (LNR) and exposure to electron beam irradiation in air were studied. FTIR analysis on the LNR-coated RH (RHR) exposed to electron beam (EB) showed a decrease in the double bonds and an increase in hydroxyl and hydrogen bonded carbonyl groups arising from the chemical interaction between the active groups on RH surface with LNR. The scanning electron micrograph showed that the LNR formed a coating on the RH particles which transformed to a fine and clear fibrous layer at 20 kGy irradiation. The LNR film appeared as patches at 50 kGy irradiation due to degradation of rubber. Composites of natural rubber (NR)/high density polyethylene (HDPE)/RHR showed an optimum at 20-30 kGy dosage with the maximum stress, tensile modulus and impact strength of 6.5, 79 and 13.2 kJ/m{sup 2}, respectively. The interfacial interaction between the modified RH and TPNR matrix had improved on exposure of RHR to e-beam at 20-30 kGy dosage.

  1. Determining the level of awareness of the physicians in using the variety of electronic information resources and the effecting factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papi, Ahmad; Ghazavi, Roghayeh; Moradi, Salimeh

    2015-01-01

    Understanding of the medical society's from the types of information resources for quick and easy access to information is an imperative task in medical researches and management of the treatment. The present study was aimed to determine the level of awareness of the physicians in using various electronic information resources and the factors affecting it. This study was a descriptive survey. The data collection tool was a researcher-made questionnaire. The study population included all the physicians and specialty physicians of the teaching hospitals affiliated to Isfahan University of Medical Sciences and numbered 350. The sample size based on Morgan's formula was set at 180. The content validity of the tool was confirmed by the library and information professionals and the reliability was 95%. Descriptive statistics were used including the SPSS software version 19. On reviewing the need of the physicians to obtain the information on several occasions, the need for information in conducting the researches was reported by the maximum number of physicians (91.9%) and the usage of information resources, especially the electronic resources, formed 65.4% as the highest rate with regard to meeting the information needs of the physicians. Among the electronic information databases, the maximum awareness was related to Medline with 86.5%. Among the various electronic information resources, the highest awareness (43.3%) was related to the E-journals. The highest usage (36%) was also from the same source. The studied physicians considered the most effective deterrent in the use of electronic information resources as being too busy and lack of time. Despite the importance of electronic information resources for the physician's community, there was no comprehensive knowledge of these resources. This can lead to less usage of these resources. Therefore, careful planning is necessary in the hospital libraries in order to introduce the facilities and full capabilities of the

  2. Cyclic electron flow may provide some protection against PSII photoinhibition in rice (Oryza sativa L.) leaves under heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essemine, Jemaa; Xiao, Yi; Qu, Mingnan; Mi, Hualing; Zhu, Xin-Guang

    2017-04-01

    Previously we have shown that a quick down-regulation in PSI activity compares to that of PSII following short-term heat stress for two rice groups including C4023 and Q4149, studied herein. These accessions were identified to have different natural capacities in driving cyclic electron flow (CEF) around PSI; i.e., low CEF (lcef) and high CEF (hcef) for C4023 and Q4149, respectively. The aim of this study was to investigate whether these two lines have different mechanisms of protecting photosystem II from photodamage under heat stress. We observed a stepwise alteration in the shape of Chl a fluorescence induction (OJIP) with increasing temperature treatment. The effect of 44°C treatment on the damping in Chl a fluorescence was more pronounced in C4023 than in Q4149. Likewise, we noted a disruption in the I-step, a decline in the F v due to a strong damping in the F m , and a slight increase in the F 0 . Normalized data demonstrated that the I-step seems more susceptible to 44°C in C4023 than in Q4149. We also measured the redox states of plastocyanin (PC) and P 700 by monitoring the transmission changes at 820nm (I 820 ), and observed a disturbance in the oxidation/reduction kinetics of PC and P 700 . The decline in the amplitude of their oxidation was shown to be about 29% and 13% for C4023 and Q4149, respectively. The electropotential component (Δφ) of ms-DLE appeared more sensitive to temperature stress than the chemical component (ΔpH), and the impact of heat was more evident and drastic in C4023 than in Q4149. Under heat stress, we noticed a concomitant decline in the primary photochemistry of PSII as well as in both the membrane energization process and the lumen protonation for both accessions, and it is evident that heat affects these parameters more in C4023 than in Q4149. All these data suggest that higher CET can confer higher photoprotection to PSII in rice lines, which can be a desirable trait during rice breeding, especially in the context of a

  3. Seleção de inoculantes à base de turfa contendo bactérias diazotróficas em duas variedades de arroz = Selection of peats inoculants with diazotrophic bacteria in two rice varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Lúcia Divan Baldani

    2010-01-01

    inoculants, grown in pots containing soil and maintained outside a greenhouse. The dry mass accumulation, Npercent, N-total and yield were determined during the plant cycle. The humidity content varied with storage period. The survival measurement showed that only Burkholderia sp. M130 maintained the number of viable cells around 108 g-1 of peat, while there was a reduction in population of other strains. An increase of yield and total N of 13 and 19.4%, respectively in comparison to treatment fertilized with 40 kg N ha-1 was observed for variety IAC4440,inoculated with strain ZAE94. There was no difference in yield of the IR42 inoculated with either ZAE94 or M130, as compared to N control treatment. No significant difference in development of both rice varieties was observed for both peat used. The results suggest that peat can be used as a carrier for production of an inoculant based on diazotrophic bacteria, since it allowed maintenance of a bacterial population up to 108 cells g-1 peat during the storage period of up to100 days. The results obtained encourage the practice of inoculation of non-leguminous plants.

  4. Promising rice mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakim, L.; Azam, M.A.; Miah, A.J.; Mansur, M.A.; Akanda, H.R.

    1988-01-01

    Two induced mutants namely, Mut NS 1 (tall) and Mut NS 5 (semi-dwarf) derived from rice variety Nizersail were evaluated for various agronomic characters at four locations in Bangladesh. Both the mutants matured about three weeks earlier and yielded significantly higher than the parent variety Nizersail. (author). 3 tabs., 9 refs

  5. Asian wild rice is a hybrid swarm with extensive gene flow and feralization from domesticated rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongru; Vieira, Filipe G; Crawford, Jacob E; Chu, Chengcai; Nielsen, Rasmus

    2017-06-01

    The domestication history of rice remains controversial, with multiple studies reaching different conclusions regarding its origin(s). These studies have generally assumed that populations of living wild rice, O. rufipogon , are descendants of the ancestral population that gave rise to domesticated rice, but relatively little attention has been paid to the origins and history of wild rice itself. Here, we investigate the genetic ancestry of wild rice by analyzing a diverse panel of rice genomes consisting of 203 domesticated and 435 wild rice accessions. We show that most modern wild rice is heavily admixed with domesticated rice through both pollen- and seed-mediated gene flow. In fact, much presumed wild rice may simply represent different stages of feralized domesticated rice. In line with this hypothesis, many presumed wild rice varieties show remnants of the effects of selective sweeps in previously identified domestication genes, as well as evidence of recent selection in flowering genes possibly associated with the feralization process. Furthermore, there is a distinct geographical pattern of gene flow from aus , indica , and japonica varieties into colocated wild rice. We also show that admixture from aus and indica is more recent than gene flow from japonica , possibly consistent with an earlier spread of japonica varieties. We argue that wild rice populations should be considered a hybrid swarm, connected to domesticated rice by continuous and extensive gene flow. © 2017 Wang et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  6. Fluoride levels in commercially available rice in Ethiopia | Tegegne ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alkaline fusion was used for sample preparation of six varieties for both the raw rice and rice cooked with tap water and fluoridated water. Fluoride levels ranged from 0.1-5.5 mg/kg in raw rice sample. Rice which was cooked with different fluoride levels of water showed increment depending on the method of cooking.

  7. Genomic diversity among Basmati rice ( Oryza sativa L) mutants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mutation breeding can be considered successful in obtaining new cultivars and broadening the genetic base of rice crop. In order to obtain new varieties of rice with improved agronomic and grain characteristics, gamma radiation (60Co) has been used to generate novel mutants of the Basmati rice. In this study rice cultivars ...

  8. Ambit determination method in estimating rice plant population density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Bakar, B.,

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Rice plant population density is a key indicator in determining the crop setting and fertilizer application rate. It is therefore essential that the population density is monitored to ensure that a correct crop management decision is taken. The conventional method of determining plant population is by manually counting the total number of rice plant tillers in a 25 cm x 25 cm square frame. Sampling is done by randomly choosing several different locations within a plot to perform tiller counting. This sampling method is time consuming, labour intensive and costly. An alternative fast estimating method was developed to overcome this issue. The method relies on measuring the outer circumference or ambit of the contained rice plants in a 25 cm x 25 cm square frame to determine the number of tillers within that square frame. Data samples of rice variety MR219 were collected from rice plots in the Muda granary area, Sungai Limau Dalam, Kedah. The data were taken at 50 days and 70 days after seeding (DAS. A total of 100 data samples were collected for each sampling day. A good correlation was obtained for the variety of 50 DAS and 70 DAS. The model was then verified by taking 100 samples with the latching strap for 50 DAS and 70 DAS. As a result, this technique can be used as a fast, economical and practical alternative to manual tiller counting. The technique can potentially be used in the development of an electronic sensing system to estimate paddy plant population density.

  9. Rice microstructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    An understanding of plant structure is desirable to obtain a clear idea of the overall impact of a crop. A mature rice plant consists of leafy components (left in the field post-harvest) and paddy rice (collected). The rice plant is supported by a hollow stem (culm) with leaf sheaths attached to nod...

  10. Effects of Extraction Methods on Phytochemicals of Rice Bran Oils Produced from Colored Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingyai, Sukanya; Srikaeo, Khongsak; Kettawan, Aikkarach; Singanusong, Riantong; Nakagawa, Kiyotaka; Kimura, Fumiko; Ito, Junya

    2018-02-01

    Rice bran oil (RBO) especially from colored rice is rich in phytochemicals and has become popular in food, cosmetic, nutraceutical and pharmaceutical applications owing to its offering health benefits. This study determined the contents of phytochemicals including oryzanols, phytosterols, tocopherols (Toc) and tocotrienols (T3) in RBOs extracted using different methods namely cold-press extraction (CPE), solvent extraction (SE) and supercritical CO 2 extraction (SC-CO 2 ). Two colored rice, Red Jasmine rice (RJM, red rice) and Hom-nin rice (HN, black rice), were studied in comparison with the popular Thai fragrant rice Khao Dawk Mali 105 (KDML 105, white rice). RBOs were found to be the rich source of oryzanols, phytosterols, Toc and T3. Rice varieties had a greater effect on the phytochemicals concentrations than extraction methods. HN rice showed the significantly highest concentration of all phytochemicals, followed by RJM and KDML 105 rice, indicating that colored rice contained high concentration of phytochemicals in the oil than non-colored rice. The RBO samples extracted by the CPE method had a greater concentration of the phytochemicals than those extracted by the SC-CO 2 and SE methods, respectively. In terms of phytochemical contents, HN rice extracted using CPE method was found to be the best.

  11. 8155 Volume 13 No. 4 September 2013 EFFECT OF VARIETY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BABAWURO

    2013-09-04

    Sep 4, 2013 ... EFFECT OF VARIETY, SEED RATE AND ROW SPACING ON THE. GROWTH ... Over the past decades, rice has shifted from a luxury to a staple food crop in Nigeria, produced .... factor that facilitates good rice yield. With the ...

  12. A Variety of Activation Methods Employed in 'Activated-Ion' Electron Capture Dissociation Mass Spectrometry: A Test against Bovine Ubiquitin 7+ Ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Han Bin; McLafferty, Fred W.

    2006-01-01

    Fragmentation efficiencies of various 'activated-ion' electron capture dissociation (AI-ECD) methods are compared for a model system of bovine ubiquitin 7+ cations. In AI-ECD studies, sufficient internal energy was given to protein cations prior to ECD application using IR laser radiation, collisions, blackbody radiation, or in-beam collisions, in turn. The added energy was utilized in increasing the population of the precursor ions with less intra-molecular noncovalent bonds or enhancing thermal fluctuations of the protein cations. Removal of noncovalent bonds resulted in extended structures, which are ECD friendly. Under their best conditions, a variety of activation methods showed a similar effectiveness in ECD fragmentation. In terms of the number of fragmented inter-residue bonds, IR laser/blackbody infrared radiation and 'in-beam' activation were almost equally efficient with ∼70% sequence coverage, while collisions were less productive. In particular, 'in-beam' activation showed an excellent effectiveness in characterizing a pre-fractionated single kind of protein species. However, its inherent procedure did not allow for isolation of the protein cations of interest

  13. Response Of Lowland Rice To Soil Compaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idawati; Haryanto

    2000-01-01

    Soil compaction, as a new tillage practice for paddy soil, is to substitute pudding in order to reduce land preparation cost. To study response of lowland rice to soil compaction, a pot experiment has been conducted which took place in the greenhouse of P3TIR-BATAN. Soil for experiment was taken from pusakanegara. Two factors (degree of soil compaction and rice variety) were combined. Degree of compaction was split into 3 levels (DI = normal; D215% more compact than normal; 30 % more compact than normal), and rice variety into 2 levels (IR64 and Atomita IV). KH 2 32 PO 4 solution was injected into the soil surrounding rice clump to test the root activity at blooming stage of rice plant. Data resulted from this experiment is presented together with additional data from some other experiments of fertilization in the research s erie to study soil compaction. Some information's from experiment results are as following. Both rice varieties tested gave the same response to soil compaction. Root activity, according to data of 32 P absorbed by plant, was not harmed by soil compaction at the degree tested in the experiment. This prediction is supported by the growth by rice observed at generative growth stage, in pot experiment as well as in field experiment, which showed that soil compaction tested did not decrease rice yield but in opposite in tended to increase the yield. In practising soil compaction in land preparation, fertilizers should be applied by deep placement to have higher increasing is rice yield

  14. Sorghum and rice: Mali

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Agriculture is the mainstay of the Malian economy and yet cereal imports absorb 6.5% of GDP. Food self-sufficiency is therefore a national priority. The Joint FAO/IAEA Division is supporting a programme to improve local varieties of sorghum and rice by using nuclear techniques to develop new cultivars that will produce higher yields under Mali's semi-arid climatic conditions. (IAEA)

  15. The puzzle of Italian rice origin and evolution: determining genetic divergence and affinity of rice germplasm from Italy and Asia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingxing Cai

    Full Text Available The characterization of genetic divergence and relationships of a set of germplasm is essential for its efficient applications in crop breeding and understanding of the origin/evolution of crop varieties from a given geographical region. As the largest rice producing country in Europe, Italy holds rice germplasm with abundant genetic diversity. Although Italian rice varieties and the traditional ones in particular have played important roles in rice production and breeding, knowledge concerning the origin and evolution of Italian traditional varieties is still limited. To solve the puzzle of Italian rice origin, we characterized genetic divergence and relationships of 348 rice varieties from Italy and Asia based on the polymorphisms of microsatellite fingerprints. We also included common wild rice O. rufipogon as a reference in the characterization. Results indicated relatively rich genetic diversity (H(e = 0.63-0.65 in Italian rice varieties. Further analyses revealed a close genetic relationship of the Italian traditional varieties with those from northern China, which provides strong genetic evidence for tracing the possible origin of early established rice varieties in Italy. These findings have significant implications for the rice breeding programs, in which appropriate germplasm can be selected from a given region and utilized for transferring unique genetic traits based on its genetic diversity and evolutionary relationships.

  16. Functional genomics strategies with transposons in rice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greco, R.

    2003-01-01

    Rice is a major staple food crop and a recognizedmonocotylenedousmodel plant from which gene function discovery is projected to contribute to improvements in a variety of cereals like wheat and maize. The recent release of rough drafts of the rice genome sequence for public

  17. Genetic analysis of rice blast disease resistance genes using USDA rice mini-core and a mapping population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice blast disease caused by the fungal pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae (M. oryzae) is one of the most destructive diseases of cultivated rice, resulting in significant yield loss each year all over the world. Developing and utilizing blast resistant rice varieties is the most economical and effective m...

  18. Effect of gamma irradiation on rice and its food products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, W.-C.

    2005-01-01

    Two milled indica rice varieties were exposed to gamma radiation with doses ranging from 0 to 1.0 kGy. The effects of gamma irradiation on rice flour pasting properties and the qualities of its food product, rice curd, were compared to the effects of storage. A dose of 1 kGy can decrease the flour paste viscosity and tenderize the texture of the rice curd to similar levels as those obtained after 12 months of storage. It was thus shown that gamma irradiation could shorten the indica rice aging time and improve the processing stability and quality of rice products

  19. Effect of gamma irradiation on rice and its food products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, W.-C. [Department of Hotel and Restaurant Management, Chia Nan University of Pharmacy and Science, 60 Erh-Jen Road, Sec. 1, Pao-An, Jen-Te Hsiang, Tainan 717, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: sungwilliam2001@yahoo.com.tw

    2005-07-01

    Two milled indica rice varieties were exposed to gamma radiation with doses ranging from 0 to 1.0 kGy. The effects of gamma irradiation on rice flour pasting properties and the qualities of its food product, rice curd, were compared to the effects of storage. A dose of 1 kGy can decrease the flour paste viscosity and tenderize the texture of the rice curd to similar levels as those obtained after 12 months of storage. It was thus shown that gamma irradiation could shorten the indica rice aging time and improve the processing stability and quality of rice products.

  20. Laboratory Screening for Resistance in Rice to Rice Stem Borer Chilo Suppressalis Walker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singgih Sutrisno

    2004-01-01

    Rice stem borer Chilo suppressalis Walker is one of the major insect pests in rice in Indonesia. The use of insect pest resistant variety of rice is one of the effective techniques against pests. Breeding of resistance to insect pests rice crops often faced difficulties in obtaining a lot of insect amounts due to the unavailability of enough number insects pests in the field so that a laboratory bioassay is needed. In this experiments five rice varieties were used: a Pelita I/1, Atomita I, Cisadane, Cisanggarung, and IR 36. Rice seedling 7 days of age were put in 1 liter plastic vials for rice resistance test against the attack of insect pest C. suppressalis. The parameters observed were larval and pupal viability, pupal weight, and eggs production. The larval and pupal viability which were reared on of Pelita I/1 and Atomita I rice seedlings were 68.5 % - 55.5 % and 57.3 % - 46.7 % respectively. The respective lowest percentages were found in IR 36 which was about 41.3 % - 29.8 % .The experiment results on the parameters of pupal weight and egg production showed similar results to that on the parameters of larval and pupal viability. Rice variety of IR 36 showed more resistance to the other varieties, while Pelita I/1 and Atomita I showed the most susceptible to the attack of insect pest C. suppressalis. (author)

  1. Association mapping of stigma and spikelet characteristics in rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hybrid rice exhibits a yield advantage of 15 to 20 percent (or more than one ton of paddy rice per hectare) over the best traditional varieties. Because rice plants are self-pollinating, commercial production of hybrid seed plays a key role in successful implementation of hybrid rice. Stigma exserti...

  2. Compressive Load Resistance Characteristics of Rice Grain

    OpenAIRE

    Sumpun Chaitep; Chaiy R. Metha Pathawee; Pipatpong Watanawanyoo

    2008-01-01

    Investigation was made to observe the compressive load property of rice gain both rough rice and brown grain. Six rice varieties (indica and japonica) were examined with the moisture content at 10-12%. A compressive load with reference to a principal axis normal to the thickness of the grain were conducted at selected inclined angles of 0°, 15°, 30°, 45°, 60° and 70°. The result showed the compressive load resistance of rice grain based on its characteristic of yield s...

  3. The use of induced mutation combined with crossing in high quality rice breeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Do Huu At; Bui Huy Thuy; Nguyen Van Bich; Tran Duy Quy [Agricultural Genetics Institute, Division of Genetics and Hybrid Rice Technology, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Nguyen Minh Cong [Hanoi No. 1 Teacher Training Univ., Department of Genetics (Viet Nam)

    2001-03-01

    The high quality rice varieties: Tam thom mutant rice Var., DT17 rice Var, DT21 glutinous rice Var were formed by induced mutation combined with crossing. Tam thom mutant rice Var. lost photosensitivity, could be planted 2 crops/year. DT17 rice Var with high yielding capacity, suitable for growth on lowland in summer crop, is replacing step-by-step Moctuyen rice Var. in North Vietnam. DT21 glutinous rice Var. could be planted 2 crops/year and had short growth duration, average yield was 4.0-4.5 tons/ha. These three ones had good quality, soft and scent cooked rice, suitable for customers and export requirements. Tam thom mutant rice Var. DT17 rice Var., DT21 and glutinous rice Var. were adopted for regional production by Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development and allowed to be in trial production. (author)

  4. The use of induced mutation combined with crossing in high quality rice breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Do Huu At; Bui Huy Thuy; Nguyen Van Bich; Tran Duy Quy; Nguyen Minh Cong

    2001-01-01

    The high quality rice varieties: Tam thom mutant rice Var., DT17 rice Var, DT21 glutinous rice Var were formed by induced mutation combined with crossing. Tam thom mutant rice Var. lost photosensitivity, could be planted 2 crops/year. DT17 rice Var with high yielding capacity, suitable for growth on lowland in summer crop, is replacing step-by-step Moctuyen rice Var. in North Vietnam. DT21 glutinous rice Var. could be planted 2 crops/year and had short growth duration, average yield was 4.0-4.5 tons/ha. These three ones had good quality, soft and scent cooked rice, suitable for customers and export requirements. Tam thom mutant rice Var. DT17 rice Var., DT21 and glutinous rice Var. were adopted for regional production by Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development and allowed to be in trial production. (author)

  5. Birationally rigid varieties. I. Fano varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pukhlikov, A V

    2007-01-01

    The theory of birational rigidity of rationally connected varieties generalises the classical rationality problem. This paper gives a survey of the current state of this theory and traces its history from Noether's theorem and the Lueroth problem to the latest results on the birational superrigidity of higher-dimensional Fano varieties. The main components of the method of maximal singularities are considered.

  6. Status of Agricultural Production and Crop Variety Improvement in Thailand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIAO Chun-hai; GUO Ying; YAO Ming-hua; WAN Zheng-huang

    2012-01-01

    We introduced basic conditions of agricultural production in Thailand, and variety improvement of major crops, including rice, cassava, rubber, and vegetable, in the hope of providing reference for agricultural production and crop variety improvement in Hubei Province and even in the whole country.

  7. Genetic analysis of rice semidwarf mutant Tad-M-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Naiyuan; Yang Rencui

    1995-01-01

    This paper dealed with the inheritance of the rice semidwarf of Tad-M-,a mutant line bred from traditional indica rice Variety Tadukan by radiation. The results indicated that semidwarf of Tad-M-1 was controlled by one pair of recessive gene, which was nonallelic to sd-1 gene of variety Aijiaonante and sd-g gene of variety Xinguiai and allelic to the semidwarf gene of Yunnan japonica variety Xueheaizao and Sichuan indica variety Yizila.The possible uses of Tad-M-1 in rice breeding was also discussed

  8. Rice agroecosystem and the maintenance of biodiversity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahyaudin Ali

    2002-01-01

    Rice fields are a special type of wetland. They are shallow, constantly disturbed and experience extremes in temperature and dissolved oxygen content. They receive nutrients in the form of fertilizers during rice cultivation. Rice fields; support a variety of flora and fauna that have adapted and adjusted themselves to the extreme conditions. Since rice fields also support populations of wild fish, rice?fish integration should be done in order to optimize land use and provide supplementary income to farmers. Rice?fish farming encourages farmers to judiciously apply pesticides and herbicides in their fields thus helping to control excessive and unwarranted use of these chemicals. Rice fields also support many migratory and nonmigratory bird species and provides habitat for small mammals. Thus the rice agroecosystem helps to maintain aquatic biodiversity. The Muda rice agroecosystem consists of a troika of interconnected ecosystems. The troika consisting of reservoirs, the connecting network of canals and the rice fields; should be investigated further. This data is needed for informed decision-making concerning development and management of the system so that productivity and biodiversity can be maintained and sustained. (Author)

  9. Decrease in catalase activity of Folsomia candida fed a Bt rice diet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan Yiyang, E-mail: yuanyy@ioz.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Integrated Management of Pest and Rodents, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1 Beichen West Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100101 (China); Graduate School, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Ke Xin, E-mail: xinke@sibs.ac.cn [Shanghai Institute of Plant Physiology and Ecology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 300 Fenglin Road, Shanghai 200032 (China); Chen Fajun, E-mail: fajunchen@njau.edu.cn [College of Plant Protection, Department of Entomology, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Krogh, Paul Henning, E-mail: phk@dmu.dk [Department of Bioscience, University of Aarhus, P.O. Box 314, Vejlsoevej 25, DK-8600 Silkeborg (Denmark); Ge Feng, E-mail: gef@ioz.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Integrated Management of Pest and Rodents, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1 Beichen West Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100101 (China)

    2011-12-15

    Here we report the effects of three Bt-rice varieties and their non-Bt conventional isolines on biological traits including survival, reproduction, and the activities of three antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase and peroxidase, in the Collembolan, Folsomia candida. The reproduction was significantly lower when fed Kemingdao and Huahui1 than those feeding on their non-GM near-isogenic varieties Xiushui and Minghui63 respectively, this can be explained by the differences of plant compositions depended on variety of rice. The catalase activity of F. candida was significantly lower when fed the Bt-rice variety Kemingdao compared to the near-isogenic non-Bt-rice variety Xiushui. This suggests that some Bt-rice varieties may impose environmental stress to collembolans. We emphasize that changes in activity of antioxidant enzymes of non-target organisms are important in understanding the ecological consequences for organisms inhabiting transgenic Bt-rice plantations. - Highlights: > We examine the effects of Bt-rice on Folsomia candida with laboratory test. > The reproduction of F. candida was decreased by two Bt-rice varieties. > Decreased reproduction caused by the differences of varieties or C/N ratio of rice. > The catalase activity was decreased by Bt-rice Kemingdao. > Some Bt-rice may impose environmental stress on NTOs. - The catalase of the collembolan (Folsomia candida) was decreased when fed Bt-rice, Kemingdao.

  10. Decrease in catalase activity of Folsomia candida fed a Bt rice diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Yiyang; Ke Xin; Chen Fajun; Krogh, Paul Henning; Ge Feng

    2011-01-01

    Here we report the effects of three Bt-rice varieties and their non-Bt conventional isolines on biological traits including survival, reproduction, and the activities of three antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase and peroxidase, in the Collembolan, Folsomia candida. The reproduction was significantly lower when fed Kemingdao and Huahui1 than those feeding on their non-GM near-isogenic varieties Xiushui and Minghui63 respectively, this can be explained by the differences of plant compositions depended on variety of rice. The catalase activity of F. candida was significantly lower when fed the Bt-rice variety Kemingdao compared to the near-isogenic non-Bt-rice variety Xiushui. This suggests that some Bt-rice varieties may impose environmental stress to collembolans. We emphasize that changes in activity of antioxidant enzymes of non-target organisms are important in understanding the ecological consequences for organisms inhabiting transgenic Bt-rice plantations. - Highlights: → We examine the effects of Bt-rice on Folsomia candida with laboratory test. → The reproduction of F. candida was decreased by two Bt-rice varieties. → Decreased reproduction caused by the differences of varieties or C/N ratio of rice. → The catalase activity was decreased by Bt-rice Kemingdao. → Some Bt-rice may impose environmental stress on NTOs. - The catalase of the collembolan (Folsomia candida) was decreased when fed Bt-rice, Kemingdao.

  11. Iron biofortification of Myanmar rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    May Sann Aung

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Iron (Fe deficiency causes elevates human mortality rates, especially in developing countries. In Myanmar, the prevalence of Fe-deficient anemia in children and pregnant women are 75% and 71%, respectively. Myanmar people have one of the highest per capita rice consumption rates globally. Consequently, production of Fe-biofortified rice would likely contribute to solving the Fe-deficiency problem in this human population. To produce Fe-biofortified Myanmar rice by transgenic methods, we first analyzed callus induction and regeneration efficiencies in 15 varieties that are presently popular because of their high yields and/or qualities. Callus formation and regeneration efficiency in each variety was strongly influenced by types of culture media containing a range of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid concentrations. The Paw San Yin variety, which has a high Fe content in polished seeds, performed well in callus induction and regeneration trials. Thus, we transformed this variety using a gene expression cassette that enhanced Fe transport within rice plants through overexpression of the nicotianamine synthase gene HvNAS1, Fe flow to the endosperm through the Fe(II-nicotianamine transporter gene OsYSL2, and Fe accumulation in endosperm by the Fe storage protein gene SoyferH2. A line with a transgene insertion was successfully obtained. Enhanced expressions of the introduced genes OsYSL2, HvNAS1, and SoyferH2 occurred in immature T2 seeds. The transformants accumulated 3.4-fold higher Fe concentrations, and also 1.3-fold higher zinc concentrations in T2 polished seeds compared to levels in non-transgenic rice. This Fe-biofortified rice has the potential to reduce Fe-deficiency anemia in millions of Myanmar people without changing food habits and without introducing additional costs.

  12. GINES: first rice mutant obtained from proton irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, Maria C; Perez, Noraida; Cristo, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    A new rice variety of a good productive potential and salinity tolerance was obtained at the National Institute of Agricultural Sciences (INCA), starting from in vitro culture of J-104 rice seeds irradiated with protons. This is the first report of a variety achieved by proton irradiation

  13. A comparison of rice chloroplast genomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Jiabin; Xia, Hong'ai; Cao, Mengliang

    2004-01-01

    Using high quality sequence reads extracted from our whole genome shotgun repository, we assembled two chloroplast genome sequences from two rice (Oryza sativa) varieties, one from 93-11 (a typical indica variety) and the other from PA64S (an indica-like variety with maternal origin of japonica......), which are both parental varieties of the super-hybrid rice, LYP9. Based on the patterns of high sequence coverage, we partitioned chloroplast sequence variations into two classes, intravarietal and intersubspecific polymorphisms. Intravarietal polymorphisms refer to variations within 93-11 or PA64S...

  14. Evaluation of tall rice mutant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakim, L.; Azam, M.A.; Miah, A.J.; Mansur, M.A.; Akanda, H.R.

    1989-01-01

    One tall mutant (Mut NS1) of rice variety Nizersail was put to multilocation on-farm trial. It showed improvement over the parent in respect of by earlier maturity and higher grain yield at all locations and thus it appears as an improved mutant of Nizersail. (author). 6 refs

  15. Registration of Plant Varieties

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethiopia, the production of black pepper is only about 150 metric tons per annum from an area of .... and cosmetic industries. Ethiopia is self ..... bananas are the world‟s fourth most important food crop after rice, wheat and maize. As a staple ...

  16. Arsenic accumulation in rice: Consequences of rice genotypes and management practices to reduce human health risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Shofiqul; Rahman, Mohammad Mahmudur; Islam, M R; Naidu, Ravi

    2016-11-01

    Rice is an essential staple food and feeds over half of the world's population. Consumption of rice has increased from limited intake in Western countries some 50years ago to major dietary intake now. Rice consumption represents a major route for inorganic arsenic (As) exposure in many countries, especially for people with a large proportion of rice in their daily diet as much as 60%. Rice plants are more efficient in assimilating As into its grains than other cereal crops and the accumulation may also adversely affect the quality of rice and their nutrition. Rice is generally grown as a lowland crop in flooded soils under reducing conditions. Under these conditions the bioavailability of As is greatly enhanced leading to excessive As bioaccumulation compared to that under oxidizing upland conditions. Inorganic As species are carcinogenic to humans and even at low levels in the diet pose a considerable risk to humans. There is a substantial genetic variation among the rice genotypes in grain-As accumulation as well as speciation. Identifying the extent of genetic variation in grain-As concentration and speciation of As compounds are crucial to determining the rice varieties which accumulate low inorganic As. Varietal selection, irrigation water management, use of fertilizer and soil amendments, cooking practices etc. play a vital role in reducing As exposure from rice grains. In the meantime assessing the bioavailability of As from rice is crucial to understanding human health exposure and reducing the risk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Mutant heterosis in rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    In the variety TKM6 a high yielding semidwarf mutant has been induced. This TKM6 mutant was used in test crosses with a number of other varieties and mutants to examine the extent of heterosis of dwarfs in rice and to select superior crosses. An excerpt of the published data is given. It appears from the backcross of the mutant with its original variety, that an increase in number of productive tillers occurs in the hybrid, leading to a striking grain yield increase, while the semi-dwarf culm length (the main mutant character) reverts to the normal phenotype. In the cross with IR8 on the other hand, there is only a minimal increase in tiller number but a substantial increase in TGW leading to more than 30% yield increase over the better parent

  18. Effective gamma radiation dose for rice genetic improvement by means of mutation radioinduction in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Talavera, S.; Labrada Remon, A.; Gonzalez, L.M.

    1993-01-01

    Determination of the useful radiation dosages for its employment in rice breeding in Cuban conditions was made; for this the radio sensibility of three commercial rice varieties was investigated using plant height in laboratory condition as criterion

  19. efficacy of rice husk ash against rice weevil and lesser grain borer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    2017-05-05

    May 5, 2017 ... this study was to determine efficacy of RHA from “Mr. Harry” rice variety against Rhyzopertha dominica and. Sitophilus oryzae. ..... Spectroscopy, following lithium metaborate/ ..... feasibility of using RHA to treat grains meant.

  20. Understanding the evolution of rice technology in China - from traditional agriculture to GM rice today.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiaobai

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides an historical survey of the evolution of rice technology in China, from the traditional farming system to genetically modified rice today. Using sociotechnological analytical framework, it analyses rice technology as a socio-technical ensemble - a complex interaction of material and social elements, and discusses the specificity of technology development and its socio-technical outcomes. It points to two imperatives in rice variety development: wholesale transporting agricultural technology and social mechanism to developing countries are likely lead to negative consequences; indigenous innovation including deploying GM technology for seed varietal development and capturing/cultivating local knowledge will provide better solutions.

  1. (PGMS) rice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-04-18

    Apr 18, 2011 ... tics, led us to predict that pollen cell abortion in this type of rice when ... averages of natural day-light-lengths and temperatures were used. A natural long ... blocks were allowed to grow under natural growth conditions (which.

  2. Radiation induced chlorophyll mutations in rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bari, G.; Mustafa, G.; Soomro, A.M.; Baloch, A.W.

    1985-01-01

    Air dried grains of four local varieties of rice were treated with gamma-rays and fast neutrons for determining their mutagenic effectiveness through the occurence of chlorophyll mutations. Fast neutrons were more effective in inducing chlorophyll mutations and the rice variety Basmati 370 produced maximum number of mutations followed by varieties Sonahri Sugdasi, Jajai 77 and Sada Gulab. The highest frequency of chlorophyll mutations was that of albina types followed by striata types. The xantha, viridis and tigrina types of mutations were less frequent. (authors)

  3. Rice epigenomics and epigenetics: challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiangsong; Zhou, Dao-Xiu

    2013-05-01

    During recent years rice genome-wide epigenomic information such as DNA methylation and histone modifications, which are important for genome activity has been accumulated. The function of a number of rice epigenetic regulators has been studied, many of which are found to be involved in a diverse range of developmental and stress-responsive pathways. Analysis of epigenetic variations among different rice varieties indicates that epigenetic modification may lead to inheritable phenotypic variation. Characterizing phenotypic consequences of rice epigenomic variations and the underlining chromatin mechanism and identifying epialleles related to important agronomic traits may provide novel strategies to enhance agronomically favorable traits and grain productivity in rice. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Breeding of ozone resistant rice: Relevance, approaches and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frei, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Tropospheric ozone concentrations have been rising across Asia, and will continue to rise during the 21st century. Ozone affects rice yields through reductions in spikelet number, spikelet fertility, and grain size. Moreover, ozone leads to changes in rice grain and straw quality. Therefore the breeding of ozone tolerant rice varieties is warranted. The mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL) using bi-parental populations identified several tolerance QTL mitigating symptom formation, grain yield losses, or the degradation of straw quality. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) demonstrated substantial natural genotypic variation in ozone tolerance in rice, and revealed that the genetic architecture of ozone tolerance in rice is dominated by multiple medium and small effect loci. Transgenic approaches targeting tolerance mechanisms such as antioxidant capacity are also discussed. It is concluded that the breeding of ozone tolerant rice can contribute substantially to the global food security, and is feasible using different breeding approaches. - Highlights: • Tropospheric ozone affects millions of hectares of rice land. • Ozone affects rice yield and quality. • Breeding approaches to adapt rice to high ozone are discussed. • Challenges in the breeding of ozone resistant rice are discussed. - This review summarizes the effects of tropospheric ozone on rice and outlines approaches and challenges in the breeding of adapted varieties

  5. Isotope studies on rice fertilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The aim of the report is to provide practical information on the efficient utilization of nitrogen fertilizers in rice production. Results obtained from field investigations during the years 1970 to 1974 in ten countries (Bangladesh, Burma, Indonesia, Republic of Korea, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam, India, Philippines), using 15 N-labelled nitrogen fertilizers (ammonium sulfate, urea) are given. The experiments, which were conducted both during the dry and wet seasons, included comparison of varieties, effect of placement, source and time of nitrogen fertilizer application on the yield and quality of rice. The data from the project is presented in table form. In most of the experiments, the addition of nitrogen increased the rice grain yield. The role of soil nitrogen vs. fertilizer nitrogen is compared, and it is concluded that the physiological growth stage at which fertilizer-derived nitrogen is absorbed is of great importance

  6. Engineered Dwarf Male-Sterile Rice: A Promising Genetic Tool for Facilitating Recurrent Selection in Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Afsana; Wang, Chunlian; Wang, Jian; Wang, Fujun; Liu, Piqing; Gao, Ying; Tang, Yongchao; Zhao, Kaijun

    2017-01-01

    Rice is a crop feeding half of the world's population. With the continuous raise of yield potential via genetic improvement, rice breeding has entered an era where multiple genes conferring complex traits must be efficiently manipulated to increase rice yield further. Recurrent selection is a sound strategy for manipulating multiple genes and it has been successfully performed in allogamous crops. However, the difficulties in emasculation and hand pollination had obstructed efficient use of recurrent selection in autogamous rice. Here, we report development of the dwarf male-sterile rice that can facilitate recurrent selection in rice breeding. We adopted RNAi technology to synergistically regulate rice plant height and male fertility to create the dwarf male-sterile rice. The RNAi construct pTCK-EGGE, targeting the OsGA20ox2 and OsEAT1 genes, was constructed and used to transform rice via Agrobacterium -mediated transformation. The transgenic T0 plants showing largely reduced plant height and complete male-sterile phenotypes were designated as the dwarf male-sterile plants. Progenies of the dwarf male-sterile plants were obtained by pollinating them with pollens from the wild-type. In the T1 and T2 populations, half of the plants were still dwarf male-sterile; the other half displayed normal plant height and male fertility which were designated as tall and male-fertile plants. The tall and male-fertile plants are transgene-free and can be self-pollinated to generate new varieties. Since emasculation and hand pollination for dwarf male-sterile rice plants is no longer needed, the dwarf male-sterile rice can be used to perform recurrent selection in rice. A dwarf male-sterile rice-based recurrent selection model has been proposed.

  7. Rice antioxidants: phenolic acids, flavonoids, anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, tocopherols, tocotrienols, γ-oryzanol, and phytic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goufo, Piebiep; Trindade, Henrique

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological studies suggested that the low incidence of certain chronic diseases in rice-consuming regions of the world might be associated with the antioxidant compound contents of rice. The molecules with antioxidant activity contained in rice include phenolic acids, flavonoids, anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, tocopherols, tocotrienols, γ-oryzanol, and phytic acid. This review provides information on the contents of these compounds in rice using a food composition database built from compiling data from 316 papers. The database provides access to information that would have otherwise remained hidden in the literature. For example, among the four types of rice ranked by color, black rice varieties emerged as those exhibiting the highest antioxidant activities, followed by purple, red, and brown rice varieties. Furthermore, insoluble compounds appear to constitute the major fraction of phenolic acids and proanthocyanidins in rice, but not of flavonoids and anthocyanins. It is clear that to maximize the intake of antioxidant compounds, rice should be preferentially consumed in the form of bran or as whole grain. With respect to breeding, japonica rice varieties were found to be richer in antioxidant compounds compared with indica rice varieties. Overall, rice grain fractions appear to be rich sources of antioxidant compounds. However, on a whole grain basis and with the exception of γ-oryzanol and anthocyanins, the contents of antioxidants in other cereals appear to be higher than those in rice. PMID:24804068

  8. Rice antioxidants: phenolic acids, flavonoids, anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, tocopherols, tocotrienols, γ-oryzanol, and phytic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goufo, Piebiep; Trindade, Henrique

    2014-03-01

    Epidemiological studies suggested that the low incidence of certain chronic diseases in rice-consuming regions of the world might be associated with the antioxidant compound contents of rice. The molecules with antioxidant activity contained in rice include phenolic acids, flavonoids, anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, tocopherols, tocotrienols, γ-oryzanol, and phytic acid. This review provides information on the contents of these compounds in rice using a food composition database built from compiling data from 316 papers. The database provides access to information that would have otherwise remained hidden in the literature. For example, among the four types of rice ranked by color, black rice varieties emerged as those exhibiting the highest antioxidant activities, followed by purple, red, and brown rice varieties. Furthermore, insoluble compounds appear to constitute the major fraction of phenolic acids and proanthocyanidins in rice, but not of flavonoids and anthocyanins. It is clear that to maximize the intake of antioxidant compounds, rice should be preferentially consumed in the form of bran or as whole grain. With respect to breeding, japonica rice varieties were found to be richer in antioxidant compounds compared with indica rice varieties. Overall, rice grain fractions appear to be rich sources of antioxidant compounds. However, on a whole grain basis and with the exception of γ-oryzanol and anthocyanins, the contents of antioxidants in other cereals appear to be higher than those in rice.

  9. Varieties of English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, G. L.

    The English language is not a monolithic entity but an amalgam of many different varieties that can be associated respectively with groups of speakers, with individuals, and with the occasion. Among such varieties are slang, regional and class dialects, the language of children, and the language used by public speakers, journalists, lawyers,…

  10. Computing Tropical Varieties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Speyer, D.; Jensen, Anders Nedergaard; Bogart, T.

    2005-01-01

    The tropical variety of a d-dimensional prime ideal in a polynomial ring with complex coefficients is a pure d-dimensional polyhedral fan. This fan is shown to be connected in codimension one. We present algorithmic tools for computing the tropical variety, and we discuss our implementation...

  11. Different patterns of gene expression in rice varieties undergoing a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some genes specifically up-regulated in infected 9804-Rxo1 were defenserelated, including the genes encoding pathogenesis-related protein, terpene synthase family, transcription factors (TFs) AP2 domain containing protein, myb-like deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)- binding domain containing protein, and C2H2-type ...

  12. Screening lowland rice varieties for resistance to brown spot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PAT

    gradual build up of inoculum load in the creek resulting ... Regrettably, no work has been done previously in the area to ... of water stress, the use of disease-free seeds for planting and ... fungicides, time and labour (Gustafon, 1984). The. 5.

  13. Ontogenetic changes in vitamin C in selected rice varieties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitamin C (L-ascorbic acid, AsA) is a key antioxidant for both plants and animals. In plants, AsA is involved in several key physiological processes including photosynthesis, cell expansion, cell division, growth, flowering, and senescence. In addition, AsA is an enzyme cofactor and a regulator of...

  14. Different patterns of gene expression in rice varieties undergoing a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-24

    Oct 24, 2011 ... The messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) levels for each gene in different tissue ...... mechanical wounding, and salicylic acid and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) signaling (He et al., 1999; Li et al.,. 2009). All OsSAPK family ...

  15. Volatile aromatic components of two varieties of parboiled Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The compounds were extracted using the solvent extraction method and the concentrated extract was analysed with Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. Some of the volatile compounds varied with the varieties. The classification of components in Caroline rice are organic acids, alcohols, aldehydes, esters, alkenes, ...

  16. Inheritance of Plant Height in two Ethiopian Castor Varieties

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The green revolution in Asia was led by the semi dwarf varieties of wheat and rice ... Castor (Racinnus communis L.) is an industrial non edible oil seed that originated in East ... At the fourth generation single plants from each inbred line were.

  17. Effect of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis rice lines on mortality and feeding behavior of rice stem borers (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hao; Zhang, Guoan; Zhang, Qifa; Lin, Yongjun

    2008-02-01

    Ten transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis Bt rice, Oryza sativa L., lines with different Bt genes (two Cry1Ac lines, three Cry2A lines, and five Cry9C lines) derived from the same variety Minghui 63 were evaluated in both the laboratory and the field. Bioassays were conducted by using the first instars of two main rice lepidopteran insect species: yellow stem borer, Scirpophaga incertulas (Walker) and Asiatic rice borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker). All transgenic lines exhibited high toxicity to these two rice borers. Field evaluation results also showed that all transgenic lines were highly insect resistant with both natural infestation and manual infestation of the neonate larvae of S. incertulas compared with the nontransformed Minghui63. Bt protein concentrations in leaves of 10 transgenic rice lines were estimated by the sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The cry9C gene had the highest expression level, next was cry2A gene, and the cry1Ac gene expressed at the lowest level. The feeding behavior of 7-d-old Asiatic rice borer to three classes of Bt transgenic rice lines also was detected by using rice culm cuttings. The results showed that 7-d-old larvae of Asiatic rice borer have the capacity to distinguish Bt and non-Bt culm cuttings and preferentially fed on non-Bt cuttings. When only Bt culm cuttings with three classes of different Bt proteins (CrylAc, Cry2A, and Cry9C) were fed, significant distribution difference of 7-d-old Asiatic rice borer in culm cuttings of different Bt proteins also was found. In the current study, we evaluate different Bt genes in the same rice variety in both the laboratory and the field, and also tested feeding behavior of rice insect to these Bt rice. These data are valuable for the further development of two-toxin Bt rice and establishment of appropriate insect resistance management in the future.

  18. Replenishment of Plant Varieties Market: Sown Rise (Oryza sativa L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Безручко, О. І.; Довгий, Ю. М.

    2010-01-01

    There discussed directions of use for the valuable groats crop, namely Rice, growth rates of its production in Ukraine, options and necessity of creation new verities by breeders, that favors not just the improved nutrition of people, but improves their health, too. And also a full description is provided for new varieties of soybean listed in the Sate Register of Plant Varieties Suitable for Dissemination in Ukraine.

  19. Curves and Abelian varieties

    CERN Document Server

    Alexeev, Valery; Clemens, C Herbert; Beauville, Arnaud

    2008-01-01

    This book is devoted to recent progress in the study of curves and abelian varieties. It discusses both classical aspects of this deep and beautiful subject as well as two important new developments, tropical geometry and the theory of log schemes. In addition to original research articles, this book contains three surveys devoted to singularities of theta divisors, of compactified Jacobians of singular curves, and of "strange duality" among moduli spaces of vector bundles on algebraic varieties.

  20. Impacts of climate change on rice production in Africa and causes of simulated yield changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oort, Van Pepijn A.J.; Zwart, Sander J.

    2018-01-01

    This study is the first of its kind to quantify possible effects of climate change on rice production in Africa. We simulated impacts on rice in irrigated systems (dry season and wet season) and rainfed systems (upland and lowland). We simulated the use of rice varieties with a higher temperature

  1. Spectroscopic determination of essential elements in unpolished rice (oryza sativa l.), grown at rri, Dokri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shar, G.Q.; Arain, S.A.; Shar, L.A.; Kazi, T.G.; Sahito, S.

    2005-01-01

    seven rice varieties collected from, Rice Research institute (RRI) Dokri, Sindh in Pakistan. Agricultural soil samples was also collected to evaluate the bioavailability of eight essential elements to seven varieties of rice grown in the same agricultural plot. The agricultural soil and rice varieties were digested by wet acid digestion method. Homogeneity of the prepared materials was evaluated through the determination of eight essential elements i.e., Na, K, Mg, Ca, Fe, Mn, Zn, using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The unpolished rice varieties contained high amount of essential micro nutrients such as Na, K, Mg, Ca, Fe, Mn, Zn, and Cu (616.01, 4097.15, 626.20, 73.90, 1829.88, 50.34, 42.72 and 7.21 mg/kg) in seven different varieties of rice i.e. DR-82, DR83, DR92, Kanwal-95, Lateefi, Sadahayat and Sarshar respectively. (author)

  2. Isozyme and RAPD Variation on important Rice genotypes of India

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MR AVWIOROKO JO

    2013-03-06

    Mar 6, 2013 ... Ayurvedic literature (Indian Materia Media) from the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries A.D. describes different rices, particularly scented varieties with medicinal and curative properties. As far back as 400 B.C., Susruta, the great Indian pioneer in medicine, described the medicinal properties of rice. India is a ...

  3. Lead enrichment in different genotypes of rice grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gang; Sun, Guo-rong; Liu, Ai-ping; Zhou, Wei-dong

    2008-03-01

    Using environmental scanning electron microscopy and X-ray electron probe microanalysis, the lead content was studied in inner and outer surface of rice glume, surface of caryopsis, center of caryopsis, near aleuronic layer and aleuronic layer in 21 genotypes of rice grains. The results showed that the lead content in different part of 21 genotypes of rice grains changed as inner surface of rice glume > aleuronic layer > near aleuronic layer > surface of caryopsis > outer surface of rice glume > center of caryopsis. There were genetic differences in lead enrichment in different genotypes of rice grains, which reflected as the differences of lead content in the same part and different part of rice grains. In different genotypes of rice grains, there were significant non-linear correlations between lead content in the inner surface of rice glume, center of caryopsis, aleuronic layer and that in the other parts of rice grain. The results also indicated that the lead enrichment in the center of caryopsis regulated by glume and aleuronic layer. In addition, in different genotypes of rice grains, there were differences in regulation of lead enrichment among different parts, which changed non-linearly.

  4. Complex Algebraic Varieties

    CERN Document Server

    Peternell, Thomas; Schneider, Michael; Schreyer, Frank-Olaf

    1992-01-01

    The Bayreuth meeting on "Complex Algebraic Varieties" focussed on the classification of algebraic varieties and topics such as vector bundles, Hodge theory and hermitian differential geometry. Most of the articles in this volume are closely related to talks given at the conference: all are original, fully refereed research articles. CONTENTS: A. Beauville: Annulation du H(1) pour les fibres en droites plats.- M. Beltrametti, A.J. Sommese, J.A. Wisniewski: Results on varieties with many lines and their applications to adjunction theory.- G. Bohnhorst, H. Spindler: The stability of certain vector bundles on P(n) .- F. Catanese, F. Tovena: Vector bundles, linear systems and extensions of (1).- O. Debarre: Vers uns stratification de l'espace des modules des varietes abeliennes principalement polarisees.- J.P. Demailly: Singular hermitian metrics on positive line bundles.- T. Fujita: On adjoint bundles of ample vector bundles.- Y. Kawamata: Moderate degenerations of algebraic surfaces.- U. Persson: Genus two fibra...

  5. Exploring the possibility of using digital image processing technique to detect diseases of rice leaf

    OpenAIRE

    S. H Peyman; A Bakhshipour Ziaratgahi; A Jafari

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Rice is a very important staple food crop provides more than half of the world caloric supply. Rice diseases lead to significant annual crop losses, have negative impacts on quality of the final product and destroy plant variety. Rice Blast is one of the most widespread and most destructive fungal diseases in tropical and subtropical humid areas, which causes significant decrease in the amount of paddy yield and quality of milled rice. Brown spot disease is another important ...

  6. Diversity of global rice markets and the science required for consumer-targeted rice breeding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariafe Calingacion

    Full Text Available With the ever-increasing global demand for high quality rice in both local production regions and with Western consumers, we have a strong desire to understand better the importance of the different traits that make up the quality of the rice grain and obtain a full picture of rice quality demographics. Rice is by no means a 'one size fits all' crop. Regional preferences are not only striking, they drive the market and hence are of major economic importance in any rice breeding / improvement strategy. In this analysis, we have engaged local experts across the world to perform a full assessment of all the major rice quality trait characteristics and importantly, to determine how these are combined in the most preferred varieties for each of their regions. Physical as well as biochemical characteristics have been monitored and this has resulted in the identification of no less than 18 quality trait combinations. This complexity immediately reveals the extent of the specificity of consumer preference. Nevertheless, further assessment of these combinations at the variety level reveals that several groups still comprise varieties which consumers can readily identify as being different. This emphasises the shortcomings in the current tools we have available to assess rice quality and raises the issue of how we might correct for this in the future. Only with additional tools and research will we be able to define directed strategies for rice breeding which are able to combine important agronomic features with the demands of local consumers for specific quality attributes and hence, design new, improved crop varieties which will be awarded success in the global market.

  7. Diversity of Global Rice Markets and the Science Required for Consumer-Targeted Rice Breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calingacion, Mariafe; Laborte, Alice; Nelson, Andrew; Resurreccion, Adoracion; Concepcion, Jeanaflor Crystal; Daygon, Venea Dara; Mumm, Roland; Reinke, Russell; Dipti, Sharifa; Bassinello, Priscila Zaczuk; Manful, John; Sophany, Sakhan; Lara, Karla Cordero; Bao, Jinsong; Xie, Lihong; Loaiza, Katerine; El-hissewy, Ahmad; Gayin, Joseph; Sharma, Neerja; Rajeswari, Sivakami; Manonmani, Swaminathan; Rani, N. Shobha; Kota, Suneetha; Indrasari, Siti Dewi; Habibi, Fatemeh; Hosseini, Maryam; Tavasoli, Fatemeh; Suzuki, Keitaro; Umemoto, Takayuki; Boualaphanh, Chanthkone; Lee, Huei Hong; Hung, Yiu Pang; Ramli, Asfaliza; Aung, Pa Pa; Ahmad, Rauf; Wattoo, Javed Iqbal; Bandonill, Evelyn; Romero, Marissa; Brites, Carla Moita; Hafeel, Roshni; Lur, Huu-Sheng; Cheaupun, Kunya; Jongdee, Supanee; Blanco, Pedro; Bryant, Rolfe; Thi Lang, Nguyen; Hall, Robert D.; Fitzgerald, Melissa

    2014-01-01

    With the ever-increasing global demand for high quality rice in both local production regions and with Western consumers, we have a strong desire to understand better the importance of the different traits that make up the quality of the rice grain and obtain a full picture of rice quality demographics. Rice is by no means a ‘one size fits all’ crop. Regional preferences are not only striking, they drive the market and hence are of major economic importance in any rice breeding / improvement strategy. In this analysis, we have engaged local experts across the world to perform a full assessment of all the major rice quality trait characteristics and importantly, to determine how these are combined in the most preferred varieties for each of their regions. Physical as well as biochemical characteristics have been monitored and this has resulted in the identification of no less than 18 quality trait combinations. This complexity immediately reveals the extent of the specificity of consumer preference. Nevertheless, further assessment of these combinations at the variety level reveals that several groups still comprise varieties which consumers can readily identify as being different. This emphasises the shortcomings in the current tools we have available to assess rice quality and raises the issue of how we might correct for this in the future. Only with additional tools and research will we be able to define directed strategies for rice breeding which are able to combine important agronomic features with the demands of local consumers for specific quality attributes and hence, design new, improved crop varieties which will be awarded success in the global market. PMID:24454799

  8. Improvement of Salinity Stress Tolerance in Rice: Challenges and Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thi My Linh Hoang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Rice (Oryza sativa L. is an important staple crop that feeds more than one half of the world’s population and is the model system for monocotyledonous plants. However, rice is very sensitive to salinity and is the most salt sensitive cereal crop with a threshold of 3 dSm−1 for most cultivated varieties. Despite many attempts using different strategies to improve salinity tolerance in rice, the achievements so far are quite modest. This review aims to discuss challenges that hinder the improvement of salinity stress tolerance in rice as well as potential opportunities for enhancing salinity stress tolerance in this important crop.

  9. Heavy metals in Australian grown and imported rice and vegetables on sale in Australia: health hazard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M Azizur; Rahman, Mohammad Mahmudur; Reichman, Suzie M; Lim, Richard P; Naidu, Ravi

    2014-02-01

    Dietary exposure to heavy metals is a matter of concern for human health risk through the consumption of rice, vegetables and other major foodstuffs. In the present study, we investigated concentrations of cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) in Australian grown and imported rice and vegetables on sale in Australia. The mean concentrations of Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn in Australian grown rice were 7.5 µg kg(-1), 21 µg kg(-1), 144 µg kg(-1), 2.9 mg kg(-1), 24.4 mg kg(-1), 166 µg kg(-1), 375 µg kg(-1), and 17.1 mg kg(-1) dry weight (d. wt.), respectively. Except Cd, heavy metal concentrations in Australian grown rice were higher than Bangladeshi rice on sale in Australia. However, the concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, and Ni in Indian rice on sale in Australia were higher than Australian grown rice. The concentrations of Cu and Ni in Vietnamese rice, and that of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Pb in Thai rice on sale in Australia were also higher than Australian grown rice. Heavy metal concentrations in Pakistani rice on sale in Australia were substantially lower than that in Australian grown rice. In Australian grown rice varieties, the concentrations of heavy metals were considerably higher in brown rice varieties than white rice varieties, indicating Australian brown rice as a potential source of dietary heavy metals for Australian consumers. The mean concentrations of heavy metals in Australian grown and Bangladeshi vegetables on sale in Australia were also determined. Some of the Australian grown and Bangladeshi vegetables contained heavy metals higher than Australian standard maximum limits indicating them as potential sources of dietary heavy metals for Australian consumers. Further investigation is required to estimate health risks of heavy metals from rice and vegetables consumption for Australian consumers. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Cooking and Eating Quality of Rice Yellow Mottle Virus Resistant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cooking and Eating Quantity of Rice Yellow Mottle 195 varieties often out compete introduced varieties on local markets; even though the former have lower yield potential. Breeding work incorporating grain quality was started in 1972 with the aim of developing varieties which combine high grain yield and grain quality ...

  11. Rice DB: an Oryza Information Portal linking annotation, subcellular location, function, expression, regulation, and evolutionary information for rice and Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narsai, Reena; Devenish, James; Castleden, Ian; Narsai, Kabir; Xu, Lin; Shou, Huixia; Whelan, James

    2013-12-01

    Omics research in Oryza sativa (rice) relies on the use of multiple databases to obtain different types of information to define gene function. We present Rice DB, an Oryza information portal that is a functional genomics database, linking gene loci to comprehensive annotations, expression data and the subcellular location of encoded proteins. Rice DB has been designed to integrate the direct comparison of rice with Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), based on orthology or 'expressology', thus using and combining available information from two pre-eminent plant models. To establish Rice DB, gene identifiers (more than 40 types) and annotations from a variety of sources were compiled, functional information based on large-scale and individual studies was manually collated, hundreds of microarrays were analysed to generate expression annotations, and the occurrences of potential functional regulatory motifs in promoter regions were calculated. A range of computational subcellular localization predictions were also run for all putative proteins encoded in the rice genome, and experimentally confirmed protein localizations have been collated, curated and linked to functional studies in rice. A single search box allows anything from gene identifiers (for rice and/or Arabidopsis), motif sequences, subcellular location, to keyword searches to be entered, with the capability of Boolean searches (such as AND/OR). To demonstrate the utility of Rice DB, several examples are presented including a rice mitochondrial proteome, which draws on a variety of sources for subcellular location data within Rice DB. Comparisons of subcellular location, functional annotations, as well as transcript expression in parallel with Arabidopsis reveals examples of conservation between rice and Arabidopsis, using Rice DB (http://ricedb.plantenergy.uwa.edu.au). © 2013 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. The Varieties of Ignorance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nottelmann, Nikolaj

    2016-01-01

    This chapter discusses varieties of ignorance divided according to kind (what the subject is ignorant of), degree, and order (e.g. ignorance of ignorance equals second-order ignorance). It provides analyses of notions such as factual ignorance, erotetic ignorance (ignorance of answers to question...

  13. Morphism of Varieties

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nagaraj, D. S. (IMSc, Chennai)

    2011-11-20

    Nov 20, 2011 ... a notion of nearness of points in the set is defined. The maps are set maps .... of same degree. X6 + 17X is a degree 6 polynomial in one variable. ..... My current area of research is to study of morphisms of varieties: Given two ...

  14. Linkage Mapping of Stem Saccharification Digestibility in Rice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohan Liu

    Full Text Available Rice is the staple food of almost half of the world population, and in excess 90% of it is grown and consumed in Asia, but the disposal of rice straw poses a problem for farmers, who often burn it in the fields, causing health and environmental problems. However, with increased focus on the development of sustainable biofuel production, rice straw has been recognized as a potential feedstock for non-food derived biofuel production. Currently, the commercial realization of rice as a biofuel feedstock is constrained by the high cost of industrial saccharification processes needed to release sugar for fermentation. This study is focused on the alteration of lignin content, and cell wall chemotypes and structures, and their effects on the saccharification potential of rice lignocellulosic biomass. A recombinant inbred lines (RILs population derived from a cross between the lowland rice variety IR1552 and the upland rice variety Azucena with 271 molecular markers for quantitative trait SNP (QTS analyses was used. After association analysis of 271 markers for saccharification potential, 1 locus and 4 pairs of epistatic loci were found to contribute to the enzymatic digestibility phenotype, and an inverse relationship between reducing sugar and lignin content in these recombinant inbred lines was identified. As a result of QTS analyses, several cell-wall associated candidate genes are proposed that may be useful for marker-assisted breeding and may aid breeders to produce potential high saccharification rice varieties.

  15. Diversity Analysis in Selected Non-basmati Scented Rice Collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarika MATHURE

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Diversity analysis among 23 rice varieties including 16 non-basmati scented accessions, 5 basmati accessions and 2 non-scented accessions was performed by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD and inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR marker systems. The varieties analyzed by 11 RAPD and 8 ISSR primers yielded an average of 65% and 80% polymorphism, respectively. The average number of polymorphic bands generated per RAPD primer was 6 and per ISSR primer was 5.87. RAPD and ISSR data analysis individually could not segregate basmati and non-basmati scented rice accessions. However, the analysis using a combined data could group basmati and non-basmati scented rice accessions separately. The bands present specifically among three accessions of non-basmati scented rice were also identified. The study revealed a high genetic diversity among non-basmati scented rice accessions.

  16. Quiver Varieties and Branching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiraku Nakajima

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Braverman and Finkelberg recently proposed the geometric Satake correspondence for the affine Kac-Moody group Gaff [Braverman A., Finkelberg M., arXiv:0711.2083]. They conjecture that intersection cohomology sheaves on the Uhlenbeck compactification of the framed moduli space of Gcpt-instantons on $R^4/Z_r$ correspond to weight spaces of representations of the Langlands dual group $G_{aff}^{vee}$ at level $r$. When $G = SL(l$, the Uhlenbeck compactification is the quiver variety of type $sl(r_{aff}$, and their conjecture follows from the author's earlier result and I. Frenkel's level-rank duality. They further introduce a convolution diagram which conjecturally gives the tensor product multiplicity [Braverman A., Finkelberg M., Private communication, 2008]. In this paper, we develop the theory for the branching in quiver varieties and check this conjecture for $G = SL(l$.

  17. Birationally rigid varieties

    CERN Document Server

    Pukhlikov, Aleksandr

    2013-01-01

    Birational rigidity is a striking and mysterious phenomenon in higher-dimensional algebraic geometry. It turns out that certain natural families of algebraic varieties (for example, three-dimensional quartics) belong to the same classification type as the projective space but have radically different birational geometric properties. In particular, they admit no non-trivial birational self-maps and cannot be fibred into rational varieties by a rational map. The origins of the theory of birational rigidity are in the work of Max Noether and Fano; however, it was only in 1970 that Iskovskikh and Manin proved birational superrigidity of quartic three-folds. This book gives a systematic exposition of, and a comprehensive introduction to, the theory of birational rigidity, presenting in a uniform way, ideas, techniques, and results that so far could only be found in journal papers. The recent rapid progress in birational geometry and the widening interaction with the neighboring areas generate the growing interest ...

  18. VARIETIES OF VIOLENT BEHAVOR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widom, Cathy Spatz

    2014-08-01

    There is an implicit assumption of homogeneity across violent behaviors and offenders in the criminology literature. Arguing against this assumption, I draw on three distinct literatures [child abuse and neglect (CAN) and violence, violence and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and CAN and PTSD] to provide a rationale for an examination of varieties of violent behaviors. I use data from my prospective cohort design study of the long-term consequences of CAN to define three varieties of violent offenders using age of documented cases of CAN, onset of PTSD, and first violent arrest in a temporally correct manner [CAN → to violence, CAN → PTSD → violence (PTSD first), and CAN → violence → PTSD (violence first)], and a fourth variety, violence only. The results illustrate meaningful heterogeneity in violent behavior and different developmental patterns and characteristics. There are three major implications: First, programs and policies that target violence need to recognize the heterogeneity and move away from a "one-size-fits-all" approach. Second, violence prevention policies and programs that target abused and neglected children are warranted, given the prominent role of CAN in the backgrounds of these violent offenders. Third, criminologists and others interested in violence need to attend to the role of PTSD, which is present in about one fifth (21 percent) of these violent offenders, and not relegate the study of these offenders to the psychiatric and psychological literatures.

  19. VARIETIES OF VIOLENT BEHAVOR*

    Science.gov (United States)

    WIDOM, CATHY SPATZ

    2014-01-01

    There is an implicit assumption of homogeneity across violent behaviors and offenders in the criminology literature. Arguing against this assumption, I draw on three distinct literatures [child abuse and neglect (CAN) and violence, violence and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and CAN and PTSD] to provide a rationale for an examination of varieties of violent behaviors. I use data from my prospective cohort design study of the long-term consequences of CAN to define three varieties of violent offenders using age of documented cases of CAN, onset of PTSD, and first violent arrest in a temporally correct manner [CAN → to violence, CAN → PTSD → violence (PTSD first), and CAN → violence → PTSD (violence first)], and a fourth variety, violence only. The results illustrate meaningful heterogeneity in violent behavior and different developmental patterns and characteristics. There are three major implications: First, programs and policies that target violence need to recognize the heterogeneity and move away from a “one-size-fits-all” approach. Second, violence prevention policies and programs that target abused and neglected children are warranted, given the prominent role of CAN in the backgrounds of these violent offenders. Third, criminologists and others interested in violence need to attend to the role of PTSD, which is present in about one fifth (21 percent) of these violent offenders, and not relegate the study of these offenders to the psychiatric and psychological literatures. PMID:25505799

  20. Rice breeding with induced mutations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1968-06-01

    The Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture decided in 1964 to organize a co-ordinated research programme on the use of induced mutations in rice breeding. The programme was organized within the framework of activities of the International Rice Commission. This is a report of the Third Co-ordination Meeting of the participants, which was held in Taipei, 5-9 June 1967. As the projects, which together make up the co-ordinated programme, are at different stages of progress, the report contains a variety of papers including completed studies, field and progress reports, and highlights of the discussions with some additional recommendations prepared by the participants. Refs, figs and tabs.

  1. Radiosensitivity study in rice (Oriza Sativa Lin.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, M.; Santana, N.; Diaz, R.

    1987-01-01

    Four rice varieties (J-104, Amistad-82, 6066 and IR-1529) were irradiated at doses of 10,15,20,25,30,35,40,45,50 and 55 Krad of gamma rays so as to determine radiosensitivity curves for each of the varieties for the following factors; seed germination percentage; survival percentage; height of the plant; length of roots. It was determined that IR-1529 variety is the one with the highest sensitivity and that radiations over 35 Krad should not be used for none of the varieties above mentioned

  2. Rice breeding with induced mutations in France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marie, R [Station d' Amelioration des Plantes, Institut National de Recherches Agronomiques, Montpellier (France)

    1970-03-01

    Mutation experiments with rice at Montpellier yielded strains with improved lodging resistance, grain size, maturing time, milling quality and other characters. The general performance of these mutant strains was tested in field trials. Further mutagenic treatments were made to improve the high-yielding short grain varieties with regard to grain quality and seed dormancy. (author)

  3. Possible contribution of induced mutations on breaking the rice yield barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobrizal and Moch Ismachin

    2006-01-01

    At The World Rice Research Conference in Tsukuba, Japan, on 4 — 7 November 2004, there was an active discussion on how to increase the world rice yield production. Breeders agreed that after IR8, the yield potential of rice varieties could not increase drastically. From the breeding point of view, there were two approaches that already started in three to one decade ago, but it is still unfinished yet. These two approaches were to do breeding for hybrid rice varieties or breeding for new plant idiotype varieties. The idea to produce hybrid rice was stimulated by the success of hybrid corn, onion, and sorghum on commercial basis. Among the countries that are working for producing hybrid rice varieties, China was the leading one. China produced hybrid rice varieties and which are planted already in very large area. This success influenced other countries to do the same, including Indonesia. Now Indonesia has already released 11 hybrid rice varieties. Knowing so many characters that are already present in the rice collection, the idea to produce new plant idiotype appears. It seems not difficult to unite selected characters to become a new plant idiotype. In fact, however, up to now there are still a lot of obstacles that make those two approaches could not reach the real goal. This paper will discuss the possible contribution of induced mutations toward the success of these two approaches. (author)

  4. Rice peasants and rice research in Colombia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spijkers, P.A.N.M.

    1983-01-01

    Rice has been grown as a food crop in Latin America from early colonial times. In Colombia rice became a prominent subsistence crop especially on the north coast where it has been grown since the 17th century, sometimes also as a commercial crop. During the last twenty years there has been a sharp

  5. RICD: A rice indica cDNA database resource for rice functional genomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Qifa

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Oryza sativa L. indica subspecies is the most widely cultivated rice. During the last few years, we have collected over 20,000 putative full-length cDNAs and over 40,000 ESTs isolated from various cDNA libraries of two indica varieties Guangluai 4 and Minghui 63. A database of the rice indica cDNAs was therefore built to provide a comprehensive web data source for searching and retrieving the indica cDNA clones. Results Rice Indica cDNA Database (RICD is an online MySQL-PHP driven database with a user-friendly web interface. It allows investigators to query the cDNA clones by keyword, genome position, nucleotide or protein sequence, and putative function. It also provides a series of information, including sequences, protein domain annotations, similarity search results, SNPs and InDels information, and hyperlinks to gene annotation in both The Rice Annotation Project Database (RAP-DB and The TIGR Rice Genome Annotation Resource, expression atlas in RiceGE and variation report in Gramene of each cDNA. Conclusion The online rice indica cDNA database provides cDNA resource with comprehensive information to researchers for functional analysis of indica subspecies and for comparative genomics. The RICD database is available through our website http://www.ncgr.ac.cn/ricd.

  6. Introduction to Abelian varieties

    CERN Document Server

    Murty, V Kumar

    1993-01-01

    The book represents an introduction to the theory of abelian varieties with a view to arithmetic. The aim is to introduce some of the basics of the theory as well as some recent arithmetic applications to graduate students and researchers in other fields. The first part contains proofs of the Abel-Jacobi theorem, Riemann's relations and the Lefschetz theorem on projective embeddings over the complex numbers in the spirit of S. Lang's book Introduction to algebraic and abelian functions. Then the Jacobians of Fermat curves as well as some modular curves are discussed. Finally, as an application, Faltings' proof of the Mordell conjecture and its intermediate steps, the Tate conjecture and the Shafarevich conjecture, are sketched. - H. Lange for MathSciNet.

  7. Varieties of online gatekeeping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Kleis

    News media organizations like newspapers and broadcasters have long functioned as gatekeepers between news and audiences, but with the rise of digital media, the search engines and social networking sites that are central to how most people find news online increasingly complement news media...... in different ways and for different purposes. The three varieties are (1) editorially-based gatekeeping processes (typically defining what information is displayed as news on news media websites), (2) link-based gatekeeping processes (the core of how search engines like Google select what information......). I show that news media websites remain amongst the most important gateways to news online, but also demonstrate how they are supplemented by other “second-order gatekeepers” (Singer, 2013) like search engines and social networking sites. While these rarely produce original content defined as “news...

  8. Acetylated starch of Ofada rice as a sustained polymer in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To formulate and evaluate repaglinide microspheres using acetylated starch of the indigenous rice species Oryza glaberrima Steud (Ofada) as polymer. Materials and Methods: Ofada rice starch was acetylated with acetic anhydride in pyridine (DS 2.68) and characterized for morphology (Scanning electron ...

  9. Effects of cooking methods and starch structures on starch hydrolysis rates of rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Michael O; Ai, Yongfeng; Leutcher, Josh L; Jane, Jay-lin

    2013-07-01

    This study aimed to understand effects of different cooking methods, including steamed, pilaf, and traditional stir-fried, on starch hydrolysis rates of rice. Rice grains of 3 varieties, japonica, indica, and waxy, were used for the study. Rice starch was isolated from the grain and characterized. Amylose contents of starches from japonica, indica, and waxy rice were 13.5%, 18.0%, and 0.9%, respectively. The onset gelatinization temperature of indica starch (71.6 °C) was higher than that of the japonica and waxy starch (56.0 and 56.8 °C, respectively). The difference was attributed to longer amylopectin branch chains of the indica starch. Starch hydrolysis rates and resistant starch (RS) contents of the rice varieties differed after they were cooked using different methods. Stir-fried rice displayed the least starch hydrolysis rate followed by pilaf rice and steamed rice for each rice variety. RS contents of freshly steamed japonica, indica, and waxy rice were 0.7%, 6.6%, and 1.3%, respectively; those of rice pilaf were 12.1%, 13.2%, and 3.4%, respectively; and the stir-fried rice displayed the largest RS contents of 15.8%, 16.6%, and 12.1%, respectively. Mechanisms of the large RS contents of the stir-fried rice were studied. With the least starch hydrolysis rate and the largest RS content, stir-fried rice would be a desirable way of preparing rice for food to reduce postprandial blood glucose and insulin responses and to improve colon health of humans. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  10. Performance of different rice cultivars and insecticides against tryporyza incertulas (walker) and cnaphalocrocis medinalis (guenee)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashid, M.M.U.; Khattak, M.K.; Momin, A.; Amir, M.; Latif, A.

    2013-01-01

    Studies were conducted to determine the toxicity of Roll Up (7.2% G), Furadan (3G), Solomon (300-0-Teq), Belt (48% SC), Karuz (4% GR) and Shark Super (6% G) and relative resistance of rice varieties IRRI-6, KSK-282, DR-83, Basmati-370, Basmati-385 and Super Basmati against rice stem borer and rice leaf folder and their effect on yield ha/sup -1/. Roll Up and Shark Super ranked first in their efficacy against rice stem borer; as 0.64% and 0.63% dead hearts and 0.32 and 0.33% white heads were recorded, respectively, and which were significantly (P < 0.05) lower than control. Solomon with 0.73% infestation was the most effective insecticide against rice leaf folder. Rice varieties IRRI-6 and KSK-282 were the most resistant varieties against rice stem borer; as 14.73% and 18.34% dead hearts, and 4.33% and 4.77% white heads were significantly (P < 0.05) lower than the other tested varieties. Similarly IRRI-6, KSK-282 and DR-83 also showed resistance to rice leaf folder. Basmati-385 was the most susceptible variety against rice leaf folder. KSK-282 with 5656 kg ha/sup -1/ yield ranked first. Plots treated with shark super resulted in to highest (7014 kg ha/sup -1/) yield whereas; plots treated with Karuz resulted into lowest (5984 kg ha/sup -1/) yield. (author)

  11. Hormonal regulation of floret closure of rice (Oryza sativa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Youming; Zeng, Xiaochun

    2018-01-01

    Plant hormones play important roles in regulating every aspect of growth, development, and metabolism of plants. We are interested in understanding hormonal regulation of floret opening and closure in plants. This is a particularly important problem for hybrid rice because regulation of flowering time is vitally important in hybrid rice seed production. However, little was known about the effects of plant hormones on rice flowering. We have shown that jasmonate and methyl jasmonate play significant roles in promoting rice floret opening. In this study, we investigated the effects of auxins including indole-3-acidic acid (IAA), indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), 1-naphthalene-acetic acid (NAA), 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D) and 3,6-dichloro-2-methoxybenzoic acid (DIC) and abscisic acid (ABA) on floret closure of four fertile and three sterile varieties of rice. The results from field studies in three growing seasons in 2013–2015 showed that the percentages of closed florets were significantly lower in plants treated with IAA, IBA, 2,4-D, DIC and NAA and that the durations of floret opening were significantly longer in plants treated with the same auxins. The auxins exhibited time- and concentration-dependant effects on floret closure. ABA displayed opposite effects of auxins because it increased the percentages of floret closure and decreased the length of floret opening of rice varieties. The degree of auxin-inhibiting and ABA-promoting effects on floret closure was varied somewhat but not significantly different among the rice varieties. Endogenous IAA levels were the highest in florets collected shortly before opening followed by a sharp decline in florets with maximal angles of opening and a significant jump of IAA levels shortly after floret closure in both fertile and sterile rice plants. ABA levels showed an opposite trend in the same samples. Our results showed that auxins delayed but ABA promoted the closure of rice floret regardless of the varieties

  12. Hormonal regulation of floret closure of rice (Oryza sativa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youming Huang

    Full Text Available Plant hormones play important roles in regulating every aspect of growth, development, and metabolism of plants. We are interested in understanding hormonal regulation of floret opening and closure in plants. This is a particularly important problem for hybrid rice because regulation of flowering time is vitally important in hybrid rice seed production. However, little was known about the effects of plant hormones on rice flowering. We have shown that jasmonate and methyl jasmonate play significant roles in promoting rice floret opening. In this study, we investigated the effects of auxins including indole-3-acidic acid (IAA, indole-3-butyric acid (IBA, 1-naphthalene-acetic acid (NAA, 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D and 3,6-dichloro-2-methoxybenzoic acid (DIC and abscisic acid (ABA on floret closure of four fertile and three sterile varieties of rice. The results from field studies in three growing seasons in 2013-2015 showed that the percentages of closed florets were significantly lower in plants treated with IAA, IBA, 2,4-D, DIC and NAA and that the durations of floret opening were significantly longer in plants treated with the same auxins. The auxins exhibited time- and concentration-dependant effects on floret closure. ABA displayed opposite effects of auxins because it increased the percentages of floret closure and decreased the length of floret opening of rice varieties. The degree of auxin-inhibiting and ABA-promoting effects on floret closure was varied somewhat but not significantly different among the rice varieties. Endogenous IAA levels were the highest in florets collected shortly before opening followed by a sharp decline in florets with maximal angles of opening and a significant jump of IAA levels shortly after floret closure in both fertile and sterile rice plants. ABA levels showed an opposite trend in the same samples. Our results showed that auxins delayed but ABA promoted the closure of rice floret regardless of

  13. In vitro sterilization technique on embryo of black Toraja rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haring, F.; Riadi, M.; Rafiuddin; Sjahril, R.; Muchlis, A. R.

    2018-05-01

    Toraja black rice has a high anthocyanin content, a water-soluble pigments, with antioxidant activity. Toraja black rice has a variety of seeds colour in one panicles such as full black (the outside and inside the rice), medium black (the outside and slightly inside rice) and a little black (only the outside of rice). Embryo culture in vitro is one way to grow plants in sterile conditions. The presence of contamination and the death of the embryo require in vitro embryo culture. The sterilization technique is a very important first step to eliminate contamination and the death of embryos. This research aims to determine the right material composition for sterilization of black rice’s embryo. The experiment was done by growing black rice on half strength MS media with the treatment of three method of sterilization, i.e.: S1 (70% alcohol for 5 minutes, 3% and 2% Chlorox each for 10 minutes,), S2 (70% alcohol for 3 minutes, 2% Clorox for 10 minutes) and S3 (70% alcohol for 3 minutes and 1% Clorox for 15 minutes). The materials used are rice seedlings that have been cut in two and opened the pericarp of paddy grain, leaving a piece of rice that has a complete embryo. The best sterilization for Toraja black rice embryo culture was using the S3 composition. Best germination was seen on the seeds with full and medium black color.

  14. Elemental content of Vietnamese rice. Part 2. Multivariate data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokot, S; Phuong, T D

    1999-04-01

    Rice samples were obtained from the Red River region and some other parts of Vietnam as well as from Yanco, Australia. These samples were analysed for 14 elements (P, K, Mg, Ca, Mn, Zn, Fe, Cu, Al, Na, Ni, As, Mo and Cd) by ICP-AES, ICP-MS and FAAS as described in Part 1. This data matrix was then submitted to multivariate data analysis by principal component analysis to investigate the influences of environmental and crop cultivation variables on the elemental content of rice. Results revealed that geographical location, grain variety, seasons and soil conditions are the most likely significant factors causing changes in the elemental content between the rice samples. To assess rice quality according to its elemental content and physio-biological properties, a multicriteria decision making method (PROMETHEE) was applied. With the Vietnamese rice, the sticky rice appeared to contain somewhat higher levels of nutritionally significant elements such as P, K and Mg than the non-sticky rice. Also, rice samples grown during the wet season have better levels of nutritionally significant mineral elements than those of the dry season, but in general, the wet season seemed to provide better overall elemental and physio-biological rice quality.

  15. Avian foods, foraging and habitat conservation in world rice fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafford, J.D.; Kaminski, R.M.; Reinecke, K.J.

    2010-01-01

    Worldwide, rice (Oryza sativa) agriculture typically involves seasonal flooding and soil tillage, which provides a variety of microhabitats and potential food for birds. Water management in rice fields creates conditions ranging from saturated mud flats to shallow (seed mass from North America ranging from 66672 kg/ha. Although initially abundant after harvest, waste rice availability can be temporally limited. Few abundance estimates for other foods, such as vertebrate prey or forage vegetation, exist for rice fields. Outside North America, Europe and Japan, little is known about abundance and importance of any avian food in rice fields. Currently, flooding rice fields after harvest is the best known management practice to attract and benefit birds. Studies from North America indicate specific agricultural practices (e.g. burning stubble) may increase use and improve access to food resources. Evaluating and implementing management practices that are ecologically sustainable, increase food for birds and are agronomically beneficial should be global priorities to integrate rice production and avian conservation. Finally, land area devoted to rice agriculture appears to be stable in the USA, declining in China, and largely unquantified in many regions. Monitoring trends in riceland area may provide information to guide avian conservation planning in rice-agriculture ecosystems.

  16. Drought resistant rice mutants, characteristics and discussions on possibilities for planting them in some Arab Countries which import rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abo-Hegazi, A.M.T.

    1994-01-01

    A number of drought resistant mutants of rice were produced from ordinary rice varieties being planted in several parts of Egypt through utilization of gamma rays as a mutagen. The mutants have water requirements less than one half of that of their mother varieties. According to official data, authorities in Egypt insure about 18000 M 3 of irrigation water for every hectare (10000 M 2 ) of rice and about 6700 M 3 , 6900 M 3 for every hectare of corn and ground nuts, respectively. Peanuts and corn are summer crops like the drought resistant rice mutants. The mentioned mutants can produce good yield under water requirements very near to that of corn and peanuts. The wide gap in agricultural food stuffs for the Arab Countries (more than 20000 million US $ annually) includes rice imports usually exceeds 700 million US $ per year> Rice imports of Arab Countries such as Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Syria, Libya and the Sudan, reached 180, 47, 21, 16 and 14 million US $ in 1988 as an example. Such countries could make use of the drought resistant rice mutants for plantation on water requirements very near to those of usual summer crops such as corn and peanuts which is significantly less than one half of water requirements of their mother varieties. Some characteristics of such mutants as well as discussions on possibilities for planting them in some of the nominated Arab Countries are presented. However, arrangements for ensuring the minimum water requirements during the growing period irrespective to rain which in many cases did not accord the growing period of the mutants should be taken if such countries wants to make use of the drought resistant rice mutants. The author believe that most if not all requirements of rice of such countries could locally be ensured through planting of the above mentioned rice mutants. In this case, maximizing the efficiency of utilizing the limited water resources of such countries could also be counted as another cause for presenting this

  17. Obtaining high purity silica from rice hulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José da Silva Júnior

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Many routes for extracting silica from rice hulls are based on direct calcining. These methods, though, often produce silica contaminated with inorganic impurities. This work presents the study of a strategy for obtaining silica from rice hulls with a purity level adequate for applications in electronics. The technique is based on two leaching steps, using respectively aqua regia and Piranha solutions, which extract the organic matrix and inorganic impurities. The material was characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, powder x-ray diffraction (XRD, x-ray fluorescence (XRF, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, particle size analysis by laser diffraction (LPSA and thermal analysis.

  18. Rational points on varieties

    CERN Document Server

    Poonen, Bjorn

    2017-01-01

    This book is motivated by the problem of determining the set of rational points on a variety, but its true goal is to equip readers with a broad range of tools essential for current research in algebraic geometry and number theory. The book is unconventional in that it provides concise accounts of many topics instead of a comprehensive account of just one-this is intentionally designed to bring readers up to speed rapidly. Among the topics included are Brauer groups, faithfully flat descent, algebraic groups, torsors, étale and fppf cohomology, the Weil conjectures, and the Brauer-Manin and descent obstructions. A final chapter applies all these to study the arithmetic of surfaces. The down-to-earth explanations and the over 100 exercises make the book suitable for use as a graduate-level textbook, but even experts will appreciate having a single source covering many aspects of geometry over an unrestricted ground field and containing some material that cannot be found elsewhere. The origins of arithmetic (o...

  19. Varieties of clinical reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, Jonathan W

    2015-06-01

    Clinical reasoning comprises a variety of different modes of inference. The modes that are practiced will be influenced by the sociological characteristics of the clinical settings and the tasks to be performed by the clinician. This article presents C.S. Peirce's typology of modes of inference: deduction, induction and abduction. It describes their differences and their roles as stages in scientific argument. The article applies the typology to reasoning in clinical settings. The article describes their differences, and their roles as stages in scientific argument. It then applies the typology to reasoning in typical clinical settings. Abduction is less commonly taught or discussed than induction and deduction. However, it is a common mode of inference in clinical settings, especially when the clinician must try to make sense of a surprising phenomenon. Whether abduction is followed up with deductive and inductive verification is strongly influenced by situational constraints and the cognitive and psychological stamina of the clinician. Recognizing the inevitability of abduction in clinical practice and its value to discovery is important to an accurate understanding of clinical reasoning. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Influence of Climate Factors on Rice Yields in Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dek Vimean Pheakdey

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Temperature and precipitation have been known as the key determinant factors to affect rice production in climate change. In this study, the relationship between climate variables and rice yields during 1993–2012 in Cambodia was analyzed and evaluated. The Ordinary Least Squares analysis was applied to examine the relationship of three climate variables (TCV including maximum temperature, minimum temperature and rainfall against seasonal rice yields. By this period, a remarkable increasing trend of annual temperature was observed whilst rainfall was not significantly changed. The TCV explains approximately 63% and 56% of the variability of rice yields in wet and dry seasons, respectively. It is found that in Cambodia, non-climate factors such as fertilizers, water, cultivars, and soil fertility cause 40% variation to rice yields, whereas the remaining 60% can be influenced by climate variability. The levels of temperature difference (LTD between maximum and minimum temperatures of the wet season (WS and dry season (DS were 7.0 and 8.6 oC, respectively. The lower value of LTD may cause the reduction of rice in WS (2.2 tons/ha as compared to that of DS (3.0 tons/ha. Rice yield has increased 50.5% and 33.8% in DS and WS, respectively, may due to the improvement of rice cultivation practices in Cambodia such as the better use of fertilizers, pest and weed control, and irrigation, and more effective rice cultivated protocol, as the increased trend of temperature may detrimentally affect rice yield. The breeding of heat and drought tolerance rice varieties and development of irrigation system are effective to reduce the negative influence from climate change to rice production in Cambodia.

  1. Marker-assisted backcrossing: a useful method for rice improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Muhammad Mahmudul; Rafii, Mohd Y; Ismail, Mohd R; Mahmood, Maziah; Rahim, Harun A; Alam, Md Amirul; Ashkani, Sadegh; Malek, Md Abdul; Latif, Mohammad Abdul

    2015-03-04

    The world's population is increasing very rapidly, reducing the cultivable land of rice, decreasing table water, emerging new diseases and pests, and the climate changes are major issues that must be addressed to researchers to develop sustainable crop varieties with resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. However, recent scientific discoveries and advances particularly in genetics, genomics and crop physiology have opened up new opportunities to reduce the impact of these stresses which would have been difficult if not impossible as recently as the turn of the century. Marker assisted backcrossing (MABC) is one of the most promising approaches is the use of molecular markers to identify and select genes controlling resistance to those factors. Regarding this, MABC can contribute to develop resistant or high-yielding or quality rice varieties by incorporating a gene of interest into an elite variety which is already well adapted by the farmers. MABC is newly developed efficient tool by which using large population sizes (400 or more plants) for the backcross F 1 generations, it is possible to recover the recurrent parent genotype using only two or three backcrosses. So far, many high yielding, biotic and abiotic stresses tolerance, quality and fragrance rice varieties have been developed in rice growing countries through MABC within the shortest timeframe. Nowadays, MABC is being used widely in plant breeding programmes to develop new variety/lines especially in rice. This paper reviews recent literature on some examples of variety/ line development using MABC strategy.

  2. Radiation disinfection of rice-straw products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Hitoshi; Ishigaki, Isao; Ohki, Yumi.

    1991-01-01

    For the quarantine treatment of rice-straw products from foreign countries, irradiation effects of gamma-rays and electron beams on plant pathogenic microorganisms especially on fungi were investigated. The total aerobic bacteria in rice-straw was determined to be 3x10 7 - 3x10 8 per gram which consisted mainly of Pseudomonas, Flavobacterium, Arthrobacter and Erwinia. The principal bacteria in rice-straw could be eliminated with 5 kGy of gamma irradiation. Deinococcus proteolyticus and Pseudomonas radiora were the main survivors at 5 to 12 kGy of irradiation. Saprophytic fungus which belongs to Dimorphospora also survived up to 8 kGy of irradiation. The D 10 values of 26 strains of fungi isolated from rice-straw were 1.1 to 2.5 times higher in the dry condition compared to the values when irradiated in 0.067 M phosphate buffer solution. The induction dose in the dry condition also increased from 1.5 to 10 times than that in the wet condition. In the case of electron beam irradiation of fungi under dry conditions, D 10 values were about 1.3 times higher than that of gamma irradiation. From this study, the dose necessary to reduce the plant pathogenic fungi in rice-straw at a level below 10 -4 per gram was estimated to be as 7-8 kGy for gamma-irradiation and 10 kGy for electron beam irradiation. (author)

  3. Characterization and evaluation of rice blast resistance of Chinese indica hybrid rice parental lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunyu Wu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of resistant varieties and hybrid combinations has been the most effective and economical strategy to control blast disease caused by Magnaporthe oryzae. However, the distribution of major R genes and blast resistance characterization in hybrid rice parents has not been well investigated, resulting in their limited use in hybrid rice blast-resistance breeding. In the present study, 88 elite indica hybrid rice parental lines were evaluated with 30 isolates of M. oryzae collected from the main planting area of indica hybrid rice in China and were characterized for the presence of 11 major resistance genes using molecular markers. The pathogenicity assays showed that four types of hybrid rice parent line showed some resistance to M. oryzae. However, the proportions of highly resistant lines and the mean resistance frequency (RF varied among the four types, with resistance in decreasing order shown by three-line restorer lines, three-line maintainer lines, two-line sterile lines, and two-line restorer lines. All 88 hybrid rice parental lines carried more than one R gene, but none carried the R genes Pi1 and Pi2. Although Pid3 and Pi9 were present only in three-line restorer lines and Pigm only in three-line maintainer lines, the remaining six R genes (Pib, Pid2, Pi5, Pia, Pi54, and Pita were present in the four types of hybrid rice parent with significantly different distribution frequencies. The correlation between R genes and resistance reactions was investigated. The results are expected to provide useful information for rational utilization of major R genes in hybrid rice breeding programs. Keywords: Hybrid rice parental lines, Magnaporthe oryzae, Pi genes, Resistance evaluation, Molecular markers

  4. Gamma irradiation of rice grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, M.K.; Ghosh, S.K.; Chatterjee, S.R.

    1991-01-01

    Rice grains of the variety, Pusa-33, at 12.0% moisture, were irradiated with doses of 0-150 kGy. The crystallinity of starch, soluble amylose and yellowness of treated grains increased with increment in the dose of radiation but water absorption and volume expansion on cooling decreased. irradiation at doses of 3-5 kGy increased imperceptibly the hardening of rice cooled after cooking, but had no effect on edibility. The off-aroma in irradiated grains was perceptible at doses higher than 5 kGy. The changes in colour and aroma persisted also on cooking. Upto a dose of 5 kGy, the sensory scores of rice, both cooked and uncooked, were at or above acceptable limit of score (5,5). The doses of 3 and 5 kGy were highly effective in reducing fungal population in irradiated grains, but in view of the changes in colour and cooking qualities, 3 kGy is the preferred dose-limit of irradiation. (author). 17 refs., 5 tabs., 1 fig

  5. Introduction and Utilization of INGER Rice Germplasm in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANGSheng-xiang; WEIXing-hua; ELJavier

    2004-01-01

    The International Network for Genetic Evaluation of Rice (INGER) is a global partnership between international and national agricultural research institutions. INGER focuses on worldwide exchange, evaluation and utilization of improved varieties and elite breeding lines of rice. China has actively participated in the activities of INGER since 1980.During the pasted years, 26 500 INGER entries with diversity genetic background have been introduced and evaluated by Chinese scientists. Among of them, 37 commercial varieties directly from elite INGER entries and 27 rice hybrids using INGER lines as their restorer lines/donors have been released to farmers in China. About 1 900 INGER entries were indirectly utilized as cross parents or pest resistant donors in various national and provincial rice breeding programs. Based on the incomplete statistics, there were 14.5 million cumulated hectares planting these varieties and hybrids, from which 5.44 MT of increased rough rice has been received by farmers. INGER accelerates the transfer of adapted varieties and hybrids to farmers, and increases the diversity of rice germplasm in cultivation. Therefore, INGER cooperation has made great benefit both in economy and society in China.

  6. Introduction and Utilization of INGER Rice Germplasm in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Sheng-xiang; WEI Xing-hua; E L Javier

    2004-01-01

    The International Network for Genetic Evaluation of Rice (INGER) is a global partnership between international and national agricultural research institutions. INGER focuses on worldwide exchange, evaluation and utilization of improved varieties and elite breeding lines of rice. China has actively participated in the activities of INGER since 1980.During the pasted years, 26 500 INGER entries with diversity genetic background have been introduced and evaluated by Chinese scientists. Among of them, 37 commercial varieties directly from elite INGER entries and 27 rice hybrids using INGER lines as their restorer lines/donors have been released to farmers in China. About 1 900 INGER entries were indirectly utilized as cross parents or pest resistant donors in various national and provincial rice breeding programs. Based on the incomplete statistics, there were 14.5million cumulated hectares planting these varieties and hybrids, from which 5.44 MT of increased rough rice has been received by farmers. INGER accelerates the transfer of adapted varieties and hybrids to farmers, and increases the diversity of rice germplasm in cultivation. Therefore, INGER cooperation has made great benefit both in economy and society in China.

  7. Molecular mapping of qBK1 WD , a major QTL for bakanae disease resistance in rice

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Sais-Beul; Hur, Yeon-Jae; Cho, Jun-Hyeon; Lee, Jong-Hee; Kim, Tae-Heon; Cho, Soo-Min; Song, You-Chun; Seo, Young-Su; Lee, Jungkwan; Kim, Tae-sung; Park, Yong-Jin; Oh, Myung-Kyu; Park, Dong-Soo

    2018-01-01

    Background Bakanae or foot rot disease is a prominent disease of rice caused by Gibberella fujikuroi. This disease may infect rice plants from the pre-emergence stage to the mature stage. In recent years, raising rice seedlings in seed boxes for mechanical transplanting has increased the incidence of many seedling diseases; only a few rice varieties have been reported to exhibit resistance to bakanae disease. In this study, we attempted to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) conferring ba...

  8. "Tinni" Rice ( Oryza rufipogon Griff.) Production: An Integrated Sociocultural Agroecosystem in Eastern Uttar Pradesh of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ranjay K.; Turner, Nancy J.; Pandey, C. B.

    2012-01-01

    This study reports how Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK) and informal cultural institutions have conserved key varieties of the wildgrowing rice, ` tinni' (red rice, or brownbeard rice, Oriza rufipogon Griff.), within the Bhar community of eastern Uttar Pradesh, India. The study was conducted, using conventional and participatory methods, in 10 purposively selected Bhar villages. Two distinct varieties of tinni (` tinni patali' and ` tinni moti') with differing habitats and phenotypic characters were identified. Seven microecosystems (Kari, Badaila, Chammo, Karmol, Bhainsiki, Bhainsala and Khodailia) were found to support these varieties in differing proportions. Tinni rice can withstand more extreme weather conditions (the highest as well as lowest temperatures and rainfall regimes) than the `genetically improved' varieties of rice ( Oriza sativa L.) grown in the region. Both tinni varieties are important bioresources for the Bhar's subsistence livelihoods, and they use distinctive conservation approaches in their maintenance. Bhar women are the main custodians of tinni rice agrobiodiversity, conserving tinni through an institution called Sajha. Democratic decision-making at meetings organized by village elders determines the market price of the tinni varieties. Overall, the indigenous institutions and women's participation seem to have provided safeguards from excessive exploitation of tinni rice varieties. The maintenance of tinni through cultural knowledge and institutions serves as an example of the importance of locally maintained crop varieties in contributing to people's resilience and food security in times of rapid social and environmental change.

  9. Contractions of affine spherical varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arzhantsev, I V

    1999-01-01

    The language of filtrations and contractions is used to describe the class of G-varieties obtainable as the total spaces of the construction of contraction applied to affine spherical varieties, which is well-known in invariant theory. These varieties are local models for arbitrary affine G-varieties of complexity 1 with a one-dimensional categorical quotient. As examples, reductive algebraic semigroups and three-dimensional SL 2 -varieties are considered

  10. Some Physco-thermal properties of Rice Bran | Obetta | Global ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some of these properties were combined for study on their effect on thermal conductivity which was one of the thermal properties studied. Mean values of the thermal conductivity determined ranged from 0.2456 to 0.5764 W/m oC depending on the moisture content of the raw rice bran and the variety. The two major varieties ...

  11. Evaluation of Rice Resistance to Southern Rice Black-Streaked Dwarf Virus and Rice Ragged Stunt Virus through Combined Field Tests, Quantitative Real-Time PCR, and Proteome Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenchao; Yu, Lu; Jin, Linhong; Wang, Wenli; Zhao, Qi; Ran, Longlu; Li, Xiangyang; Chen, Zhuo; Guo, Rong; Wei, Yongtian; Yang, Zhongcheng; Liu, Enlong; Hu, Deyu; Song, Baoan

    2017-02-22

    Diseases caused by southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV) and rice ragged stunt virus (RRSV) considerably decrease grain yield. Therefore, determining rice cultivars with high resistance to SRBSDV and RRSV is necessary. In this study, rice cultivars with high resistance to SRBSDV and RRSV were evaluated through field trials in Shidian and Mangshi county, Yunnan province, China. SYBR Green I-based quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis was used to quantitatively detect virus gene expression levels in different rice varieties. The following parameters were applied to evaluate rice resistance: acre yield (A.Y.), incidence of infected plants (I.I.P.), virus load (V.L.), disease index (D.I.), and insect quantity (I.Q.) per 100 clusters. Zhongzheyou1 (Z1) and Liangyou2186 (L2186) were considered the most suitable varieties with integrated higher A.Y., lower I.I.P., V.L., D.I. and I.Q. In order to investigate the mechanism of rice resistance, comparative label-free shotgun liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) proteomic approaches were applied to comprehensively describe the proteomics of rice varieties' SRBSDV tolerance. Systemic acquired resistance (SAR)-related proteins in Z1 and L2186 may result in the superior resistance of these varieties compared with Fengyouxiangzhan (FYXZ).

  12. Rice Bran Fermented with Saccharomyces boulardii Generates Novel Metabolite Profiles with Bioactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Emerging evidence supporting chronic disease fighting properties of rice bran has advanced the development of stabilized rice bran for human use as a functional food and dietary supplement. A global and targeted metabolomic investigation of stabilized rice bran fermented with Saccharomyces boulardii was performed in three rice varieties. Metabolites from S. boulardii-fermented rice bran were detected by gas chromatography−mass spectrometry (GC−MS) and assessed for bioactivity compared to nonfermented rice bran in normal and malignant lymphocytes. Global metabolite profiling revealed significant differences in the metabolome that led to discovery of candidate compounds modulated by S. boulardii fermentation. Fermented rice bran extracts from three rice varieties reduced growth of human B lymphomas compared to each variety’s nonfermented control and revealed that fermentation differentially altered bioactive compounds. These data support that integration of global and targeted metabolite analysis can be utilized for assessing health properties of rice bran phytochemicals that are enhanced by yeast fermentation and that differ across rice varieties. PMID:21306106

  13. Open-pit coal-mining effects on rice paddy soil composition and metal bioavailability to Oryza sativa L. plants in Cam Pha, northeastern Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Raul E; Marquez, J Eduardo; Hòa, Hoàng Thị Bích; Gieré, Reto

    2013-11-01

    This study quantified Cd, Pb, and Cu content, and the soil-plant transfer factors of these elements in rice paddies within Cam Pha, Quang Ninh province, northeastern Vietnam. The rice paddies are located at a distance of 2 km from the large Coc Sau open-pit coal mine. Electron microprobe analysis combined with backscattered electron imaging and energy-dispersive spectroscopy revealed a relatively high proportion of carbon particles rimmed by an iron sulfide mineral (probably pyrite) in the quartz-clay matrix of rice paddy soils at 20-30 cm depth. Bulk chemical analysis of these soils revealed the presence of Cd, Cu, and Pb at concentrations of 0.146±0.004, 23.3±0.1, and 23.5±0.1 mg/kg which exceeded calculated background concentrations of 0.006±0.004, 1.9±0.5, and 2.4±1.5 mg/kg respectively at one of the sites. Metals and metalloids in Cam Pha rice paddy soils, including As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn, were found in concentrations ranging from 0.2±0.1 to 140±3 mg/kg, which were in close agreement with toxic metal contents in mine tailings and Coc Sau coal samples, suggesting mining operations as a major cause of paddy soil contamination. Native and model Oryza sativa L. rice plants were grown in the laboratory in a growth medium to which up to 1.5 mg/kg of paddy soil from Cam Pha was added to investigate the effects on plant growth. A decrease in growth by up to 60% with respect to a control sample was found for model plants, whereas a decrease of only 10% was observed for native (Nep cai hoa vang variety) rice plants. This result suggests an adaptation of native Cam Pha rice plants to toxic metals in the agricultural lands. The Cd, Cu, and Pb contents of the native rice plants from Cam Pha paddies exceeded permitted levels in foods. Cadmium and Pb were highest in the rice plant roots with concentrations of 0.84±0.02 and 7.7±0.3 mg/kg, suggesting an intake of these metals into the rice plant as shown, for example, by Cd and Pb concentrations of 0

  14. Endophytic Colonization of Rice by a Diazotrophic Strain of Serratia marcescens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyaneshwar, Prasad; James, Euan K.; Mathan, Natarajan; Reddy, Pallavolu M.; Reinhold-Hurek, Barbara; Ladha, Jagdish K.

    2001-01-01

    Six closely related N2-fixing bacterial strains were isolated from surface-sterilized roots and stems of four different rice varieties. The strains were identified as Serratia marcescens by 16S rRNA gene analysis. One strain, IRBG500, chosen for further analysis showed acetylene reduction activity (ARA) only when inoculated into media containing low levels of fixed nitrogen (yeast extract). Diazotrophy of IRBG500 was confirmed by measurement of 15N2 incorporation and by sequence analysis of the PCR-amplified fragment of nifH. To examine its interaction with rice, strain IRBG500 was marked with gusA fused to a constitutive promoter, and the marked strain was inoculated onto rice seedlings under axenic conditions. At 3 days after inoculation, the roots showed blue staining, which was most intense at the points of lateral root emergence and at the root tip. At 6 days, the blue precipitate also appeared in the leaves and stems. More detailed studies using light and transmission electron microscopy combined with immunogold labeling confirmed that IRBG500 was endophytically established within roots, stems, and leaves. Large numbers of bacteria were observed within intercellular spaces, senescing root cortical cells, aerenchyma, and xylem vessels. They were not observed within intact host cells. Inoculation of IRBG500 resulted in a significant increase in root length and root dry weight but not in total N content of rice variety IR72. The inoculated plants showed ARA, but only when external carbon (e.g., malate, succinate, or sucrose) was added to the rooting medium. PMID:11274124

  15. Geographic and research center origins of rice resistance to asian planthoppers and leafhoppers: implications for rice breeding and gene deployment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horgan, F.G.; Srinivasan, Thanga Suja; Bentur, Jagadish S.; Kumar, R.; Bhanu, K.V.; Singh Sarao, Preetinder; Chien, Ho Van; Almazan, M.L.P.; Bernal, Carmencita C.; Ramal, Angelee Fame; Ferrater, J.B.; Huang, Shou Horng

    2017-01-01

    This study examines aspects of virulence to resistant rice varieties among planthoppers and leafhoppers. Using a series of resistant varieties, brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens, virulence was assessed in seedlings and early-tillering plants at seven research centers in South and East Asia.

  16. Application of gamma-ray irradiation technique to select, create and develop super rice with high quality to substitute the imported hybrid rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran Duy Quy; Tran Duy Vuong; Tran Duy Duong; Bui Huy Thuc

    2015-01-01

    Three varieties NPT3, BQ and TQ14 were selected by irradiation ray source Gamma Co-60 with dry seed, 13% grain moisture and created at 25-30 krad. NPT3 is super rice varieties with characteristics such as: extremely short growing period (105-110 day crop; 130- 135 days in the spring, the average yield of 9-10 tones/ha), quality, stem, leaf stand, suitable for intensive capability, able to resist pests and unfavorable conditions especially the elements of productivity (amylase from 15-16%) and mass produced including hybrid rice as Nhi Uu 868, Thien Nguyen Uu 9, HYT100, etc. BQ rice varieties were high quality, average productivity gain of 7.5- 8.0 ton/ha, equivalent to hybrid rice, short growth period (105-110 days in summer season; 120- 130 days in spring season), and quality rice: content 18-20% amylose, rice delicious, supple as BC15. TQ14 varieties was planted in 2 seasons/ year, with agricultural and biological characteristics as Khang-Dan18 mutant with wide adaptation, high yield potential, the average gain from 5.9 to 6.2 tones/ha, short growth period (105-110 days in summer season, 130-135 days in spring season), insect resistance, quality of rice suitable for manufacturing technology like noodles, instant noodles, rice noodles, Ethanol. (author)

  17. Effects of the components in rice flour on thermal radical generation under microwave irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lufen; Huang, Luelue; Fan, Daming; Hu, Bo; Gao, Yishu; Lian, Huizhang; Zhao, Jianxin; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Wei

    2016-12-01

    The relationships between radical generation under microwave irradiation and the components of various types of rice flour were investigated. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy was used to characterize the radicals found in rice flour samples. The EPR spectra revealed that several types of radical (carbon-centered, tyrosyl and semiquinone) were localized in the starch and protein fractions of the rice flour. The signal intensity of the free radicals was observed to increase exponentially with increasing microwave power and residence time. The rice bran samples exhibited the greatest free radical signal intensity, followed by the brown rice samples and the white rice samples. This finding was consistent for both the native and the microwaved samples. The ratio of rice starch to rice protein also played an important role in the generation of radicals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Rice improvement through radiation-induced mutation for cultivation in South Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Do Khac Thinh; Hung Phi Oanh; Nguyen Thi Cuc; Nguyen Ngoc Quynh

    2001-01-01

    For past years, rice varieties cultivated in South Vietnam originated from domestic hybridisation or from IRRI. Rice mutation breeding has been initiated for recent years. To meet the requirement of rice production diversification in different agro-ecological areas and rice genetic resources, from 1993 Institute of Agricultural Science of South Vietnam has carried out rice improvement by induced mutation of radiation. The mutagen was gamma rays of 60 Co. The goal is to create inherited variations, which cannot be obtained from other breeding methods, specially important characters of rice varieties (high tolerance to acid sulfate soil, lodging resistance combined with early maturity), which were difficult to gain by hybridisation. With 60 Co gamma rays, doses of 10-20 krad, dose rate of 280 krad/h, dry and germinated seeds of introduced and local rice varieties (IR 64, IR 9729, IR 50404, IR 59606, Jasmine 85, Nang Huong, Tam Xoan) were irradiated. The irradiated seeds were immediately sown within 24 and 94 hrs for wet seeds and dry seeds after treatment, respectively. Population of 10,000-15,000 plants were established and evaluated by IRRI evaluation standard from M2-M7 generations. 365 lines, varieties were selected with better behaviours than original varieties as lodging resistance, earliness, potential yield, leaf characters, tolerant ability to adverse conditions etc. Some good varieties (VND95-19, VND95-20) have been approved as leading national varieties and released for large-scale production in South Vietnam. (author)

  19. Rice improvement through radiation-induced mutation for cultivation in South Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Do Khac Thinh; Hung Phi Oanh; Nguyen Thi Cuc; Nguyen Ngoc Quynh [Institute of Agricultural Science of South Vietnam, Ho Chi Minh (Viet Nam)

    2001-03-01

    For past years, rice varieties cultivated in South Vietnam originated from domestic hybridisation or from IRRI. Rice mutation breeding has been initiated for recent years. To meet the requirement of rice production diversification in different agro-ecological areas and rice genetic resources, from 1993 Institute of Agricultural Science of South Vietnam has carried out rice improvement by induced mutation of radiation. The mutagen was gamma rays of {sup 60}Co. The goal is to create inherited variations, which cannot be obtained from other breeding methods, specially important characters of rice varieties (high tolerance to acid sulfate soil, lodging resistance combined with early maturity), which were difficult to gain by hybridisation. With {sup 60}Co gamma rays, doses of 10-20 krad, dose rate of 280 krad/h, dry and germinated seeds of introduced and local rice varieties (IR 64, IR 9729, IR 50404, IR 59606, Jasmine 85, Nang Huong, Tam Xoan) were irradiated. The irradiated seeds were immediately sown within 24 and 94 hrs for wet seeds and dry seeds after treatment, respectively. Population of 10,000-15,000 plants were established and evaluated by IRRI evaluation standard from M2-M7 generations. 365 lines, varieties were selected with better behaviours than original varieties as lodging resistance, earliness, potential yield, leaf characters, tolerant ability to adverse conditions etc. Some good varieties (VND95-19, VND95-20) have been approved as leading national varieties and released for large-scale production in South Vietnam. (author)

  20. Mutation direction by irradiation in rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Cailian; Chen Qiufang; Jin Wei; Lu Yimei

    2001-01-01

    The mutation directions of rice were studied. The results indicated that the mutation directions of rice induced by 14 C were invert correlation to their genetic backgrounds of tested rice varieties, i.e. early mature and short stem varieties produced later mature and higher stem mutation; late mature and high stem varieties produced earlier mature and shorter stem mutation; the varieties of middle maturity and height produced both direction mutations of earlier and later maturity or shorter and higher stem. The mutation directions induced by 14 C were also related to treated doses and stages. Frequency of earlier maturity mutation by protons treatment were higher than those induced by other mutagens. Frequency of later maturity by γ-rays were higher than those induced by other mutagens. Frequency of short stem mutation by synchronous irradiation (soft X-rays) were higher than those induced by other mutagens. Frequency of beneficial mutation induced by proton treatment were higher than those induced by γ-rays

  1. Photoluminescence and thermally stimulated luminescence characteristics of rice flour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murthy, K.V.R.; Rey, L.; Belon, P.

    2007-01-01

    The present paper reports the photoluminescence (PL) and the thermoluminescence (TL) characteristics of rice flour. This study is undertaken to consider storage of rice at low temperature and irradiation for disinfection. From the Indian market a few varieties of rice was bought. All the samples of rice was ground using an agate motor and pestle. Thereafter, the powder was sieved to the size of 140 μm using appropriate sieves. When comparing the PL characteristics of the different rice powders studied, it is interesting to note that the PL emission wavelength (around 445 nm) is nearly same for all the rice varieties studied even though the excitation wave length is different. TL characteristics are studied in the temperature range 77-230 K as well as 300-700 K. TL is recorded for the virgin samples and also on irradiation of the same by exposing it to X-ray at 77 K, beta at 300 K and gamma at 77 K. The two varieties are given an X-ray dose of 1 kGy. The TL is recorded for 200 mg rice powder. The TL displayed for the as-received 1 kGy X- ray dose peak is around 160 K with a broad shoulder around 120 K. Basmati variety is given a gamma dose of 12.5 kGy and the TL and TL emission is recorded. It is seen that a well-defined low-temperature TL peak around 119 K and a hump around 145 K are observed in the sample. The TL emission is around 430 nm.The TL peak observed in most of the rice samples above room temperature is around 558 K

  2. Gene, protein, and network of male sterility in rice

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Kun; Peng, Xiaojue; Ji, Yanxiao; Yang, Pingfang; Zhu, Yingguo; Li, Shaoqing

    2013-01-01

    Rice is one of the most important model crop plants whose heterosis has been well-exploited in commercial hybrid seed production via a variety of types of male-sterile lines. Hybrid rice cultivation area is steadily expanding around the world, especially in Southern Asia. Characterization of genes and proteins related to male sterility aims to understand how and why the male sterility occurs, and which proteins are the key players for microspores abortion. Recently, a series of genes and prot...

  3. Arsenic biotransformation and volatilization in transgenic rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xiang-Yan; Qin, Jie; Wang, Li-Hong; Duan, Gui-Lan; Sun, Guo-Xin; Wu, Hui-Lan; Chu, Cheng-Cai; Ling, Hong-Qing; Rosen, Barry P.; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2011-01-01

    Summary Biotransformation of arsenic includes oxidation, reduction, methylation and conversion to more complex organic arsenicals. Members of the class of arsenite [As(III)] S-adenosylmethyltransferase enzymes catalyze As(III) methylation to a variety of mono-, di- and trimethylated species, some of which are less toxic than As(III) itself. However, no methyltransferase gene has been identified in plants. Here, an arsM gene from the soil bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris was expressed in Japonica rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivar Nipponbare, and the transgenic rice produced methylated arsenic species, which were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and high performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS). Both monomethylarsenate [MAs(V)] and dimethylarsenate [DMAs(V)] were detected in the root and shoot of transgenic rice. After 12-d exposure to As(III), the transgenic rice gave off 10-fold more volatile arsenicals. The present study demonstrates that expression of an arsM gene in rice induces arsenic methylation and volatilization, providing a potential stratagem for phytoremediation theoretically. PMID:21517874

  4. Pure homology of algebraic varieties

    OpenAIRE

    Weber, Andrzej

    2003-01-01

    We show that for a complete complex algebraic variety the pure component of homology coincides with the image of intersection homology. Therefore pure homology is topologically invariant. To obtain slightly more general results we introduce "image homology" for noncomplete varieties.

  5. Current Insights into Research on Rice stripe virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won Kyong Cho

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Rice stripe virus (RSV is one of the most destructive viruses of rice, and greatly reduces rice production in China, Japan, and Korea, where mostly japonica cultivars of rice are grown. RSV is transmitted by the small brown plant-hopper (SBPH in a persistent and circulative-propagative manner. Several methods have been developed for detection of RSV, which is composed of four single-stranded RNAs that encode seven proteins. Genome sequence data and comparative phylogenetic analysis have been used to identify the origin and diversity of RSV isolates. Several rice varieties resistant to RSV have been selected and QTL analysis and fine mapping have been intensively performed to map RSV resistance loci or genes. RSV genes have been used to generate several genetically modified transgenic rice plants with RSV resistance. Recently, genome-wide transcriptome analyses and deep sequencing have been used to identify mRNAs and small RNAs involved in RSV infection; several rice host factors that interact with RSV proteins have also been identified. In this article, we review the current statues of RSV research and propose integrated approaches for the study of interactions among RSV, rice, and the SBPH.

  6. On singularities of lattice varieties

    OpenAIRE

    Mukherjee, Himadri

    2013-01-01

    Toric varieties associated with distributive lattices arise as a fibre of a flat degeneration of a Schubert variety in a minuscule. The singular locus of these varieties has been studied by various authors. In this article we prove that the number of diamonds incident on a lattice point $\\a$ in a product of chain lattices is more than or equal to the codimension of the lattice. Using this we also show that the lattice varieties associated with product of chain lattices is smooth.

  7. Defensive Responses of Rice Genotypes for Resistance Against Rice Leaffolder Cnaphalocrocis medinalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. PUNITHAVALLI

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was carried out to assess the reaction of different categories of rice genotypes viz., resistant, susceptible, hybrid, scented, popular and wild in response to the infestation by rice leaffolder (RLF, Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Guenee and to explore the possible use of these genotypes in developing RLF-resistant rice varieties. The changes of various biochemical constituents such as leaf soluble protein, phenol, ortho-dihydroxy phenol, tannin and enzymes viz., peroxidase, phenyl alanine ammonia lyase (PAL were assessed spectrophotometrically in all the rice genotypes before and after RLF infestation. The protein profile was analyzed using sodium dodecyl sulphate-poly acrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE method. A significant constituent of biochemical content such as tannin, phenol and ortho-dihydroxy phenol has been increased along with enzyme activities of peroxidase and PAL in the infested resistant (Ptb 33, TKM6 and LFR831311 and wild rice genotypes (Oryza minuta and O. rhizomatis. A decrease in leaf protein content was evident invariably in all the infested rice genotypes. It is also evident that the contents of biochemicals such as phenol, ortho-dihydroxy phenol and tannin were negatively correlated with leaffolder damage. However, leaf protein content was positively correlated with the damage by rice leaffolder. SDS-PAGE analysis for total protein profiling of healthy and C. medinalis-infested genotypes revealed the enhanced expression of a high molecular weight (> 97 kDa protein in all the genotypes. Besides, there was also an increased induction of a 38 kDa protein in C. medinalis infested resistant genotypes, which was absent in uninfested plants. The present investigation proved that the elevated levels of biochemicals and enzymes may play a vital role in rice plants resistance to RLF.

  8. Studies on mineral nutrition and safety of wild rice (Oryza L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shuli; Shi, Chunhai; Wu, Jianguo

    2009-01-01

    Mineral element contents of five wild rice were analyzed, including mineral nutrient elements such as phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), sodium (Na), magnesium (Mg), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn) and selenium (Se), and the potential toxic elements arsenic (As), mercury (Hg), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd). The results showed that the contents of K, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn and Se in five wild rice materials were much higher than the cultivate variety Zhou 903 in both brown and milled rice. Wild rice also had lower potential toxic element contents of Hg, Pb and Cd compared with Zhou 903 in brown rice and milled rice, respectively. Among five wild rice samples, WR-3 from Uganda had the highest level of P, K, Ca, Na, Mg, Fe, Zn, Mn and Se, and the lowest contents of Hg, Pb and Cd.

  9. Response of Chloroplast NAD(PH Dehydrogenase-Mediated Cyclic Electron Flow to a Shortage or Lack in Ferredoxin-Quinone Oxidoreductase-Dependent Pathway in Rice Following Short-Term Heat Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jemaa eEssemine

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Cyclic electron flow around PSI can protect photosynthetic electron carriers under conditions of stromal over-reduction. The goal of the research reported in this paper was to investigate the responses of both PSI and PSII to a short-term heat stress in two rice lines with different capacities of cyclic electron transfer, i.e. Q4149 with a high capacity (hcef and C4023 with a low capacity (lcef. The absorbance change at 820 nm (ΔA820 was used here to assess the charge separation in the photosystem I (PSI reaction center (P700. The results obtained show that short-term heat stress abolishes the FQR-dependent CEF in rice and accelerates the initial rate of P700+ re-reduction. The P700+ amplitude was slightly increased at a moderate heat-stress (35°C because of a partial restriction of FQR but it was decreased following high heat-stress (42°C. Assessment of PSI and PSII activities shows that PSI is more susceptible to heat stress than photosystem II (PSII. Under high temperature, FQR-dependent CEF was completely removed and NDH-dependent CEF was up-regulated and strengthened to a higher extent in C4023 than in Q4149. Specifically, under normal growth temperature, hcef (Q4149 was characterized by higher FQR- and NDH-dependent CEF rates than lcef (C4023. Following thermal stress, the activation of NDH-pathway was 130% and 10% for C4023 and Q4149, respectively. Thus, the NDH-dependent CEF may constitute the second layer of plant protection and defence against heat stress after the main route, i.e. FQR-dependent CEF, reaches its capacity. We discuss the possibility that under high heat stress, the NDH pathway serves as a safety valve to dissipate excess energy by cyclic photophosphorylation and overcome the stroma over-reduction following inhibition of CO2 assimilation and any shortage or lack in the FQR pathway. The potential role of the NDH-dependent pathway during the evolution of C4 photosynthesis is briefly discussed.

  10. Genetic mapping of the rice resistance-breaking gene of the brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens

    OpenAIRE

    Kobayashi, Tetsuya; Yamamoto, Kimiko; Suetsugu, Yoshitaka; Kuwazaki, Seigo; Hattori, Makoto; Jairin, Jirapong; Sanada-Morimura, Sachiyo; Matsumura, Masaya

    2014-01-01

    Host plant resistance has been widely used for controlling the major rice pest brown planthopper (BPH, Nilaparvata lugens). However, adaptation of the wild BPH population to resistance limits the effective use of resistant rice varieties. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis was conducted to identify resistance-breaking genes against the anti-feeding mechanism mediated by the rice resistance gene Bph1. QTL analysis in iso-female BPH lines with single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers d...

  11. Improvement results of rice (Oryza glaberima) by induced mutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cisse, F.

    1994-01-01

    In Mali, rice (Orzya glaberima) is still largely cultivated under conditions of natural semi-controlled submersion. To improve productivity the local varieties have been gradually replaced by new varieties, but the yields of these became lower because of the irregularity of the rain and the comparative weakness of the strain. For this reason a programme to improve the local varieties by means of gamma radiation has been undertaken. This document presents the results obtained to date

  12. Thermoplastic starch materials prepared from rice starch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pontes, Barbara R.B.; Curvelo, Antonio A.S.

    2009-01-01

    Rice starch is a source still little studied for the preparation of thermoplastic materials. However, its characteristics, such as the presence of proteins, fats and fibers may turn into thermoplastics with a better performance. The present study intends the evaluation of the viability of making starch thermoplastic from rice starch and glycerol as plasticizer. The results of X-ray diffraction and scanning electronic microscopy demonstrate the thermoplastic acquisition. The increase of plasticizer content brings on more hydrophilic thermoplastics with less resistance to tension and elongation at break. (author)

  13. Rice (Oryza) hemoglobins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemoglobins (Hbs) corresponding to non-symbiotic (nsHb) and truncated (tHb) Hbs have been identified in rice (Oryza). This review discusses the major findings from the current studies on rice Hbs. At the molecular level, a family of the nshb genes, consisting of hb1, hb2, hb3, hb4 and hb5, and a sin...

  14. Genetic Diversity of Aromatic Rice Germplasm Revealed By SSR Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saba Jasim Aljumaili

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Aromatic rice cultivars constitute a small but special group of rice and are considered the best in terms of quality and aroma. Aroma is one of the most significant quality traits of rice, and variety with aroma has a higher price in the market. This research was carried out to study the genetic diversity among the 50 aromatic rice accessions from three regions (Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah, and Sarawak with 3 released varieties as a control using the 32 simple sequence repeat (SSR markers. The objectives of this research were to quantify the genetic divergence of aromatic rice accessions using SSR markers and to identify the potential accessions for introgression into the existing rice breeding program. Genetic diversity index among the three populations such as Shannon information index (I ranged from 0.25 in control to 0.98 in Sabah population. The mean numbers of effective alleles and Shannon’s information index were 0.36 and 64.90%, respectively. Similarly, the allelic diversity was very high with mean expected heterozygosity (He of 0.60 and mean Nei’s gene diversity index of 0.36. The dendrogram based on UPGMA and Nei’s genetic distance classified the 53 rice accessions into 10 clusters. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA revealed that 89% of the total variation observed in this germplasm came from within the populations, while 11% of the variation emanated among the populations. These results reflect the high genetic differentiation existing in this aromatic rice germplasm. Using all these criteria and indices, seven accessions (Acc9993, Acc6288, Acc6893, Acc7580, Acc6009, Acc9956, and Acc11816 from three populations have been identified and selected for further evaluation before introgression into the existing breeding program and for future aromatic rice varietal development.

  15. Genetic Diversity of Aromatic Rice Germplasm Revealed By SSR Markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasim Aljumaili, Saba; Rafii, M Y; Latif, M A; Sakimin, Siti Zaharah; Arolu, Ibrahim Wasiu; Miah, Gous

    2018-01-01

    Aromatic rice cultivars constitute a small but special group of rice and are considered the best in terms of quality and aroma. Aroma is one of the most significant quality traits of rice, and variety with aroma has a higher price in the market. This research was carried out to study the genetic diversity among the 50 aromatic rice accessions from three regions (Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah, and Sarawak) with 3 released varieties as a control using the 32 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. The objectives of this research were to quantify the genetic divergence of aromatic rice accessions using SSR markers and to identify the potential accessions for introgression into the existing rice breeding program. Genetic diversity index among the three populations such as Shannon information index ( I ) ranged from 0.25 in control to 0.98 in Sabah population. The mean numbers of effective alleles and Shannon's information index were 0.36 and 64.90%, respectively. Similarly, the allelic diversity was very high with mean expected heterozygosity ( H e ) of 0.60 and mean Nei's gene diversity index of 0.36. The dendrogram based on UPGMA and Nei's genetic distance classified the 53 rice accessions into 10 clusters. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed that 89% of the total variation observed in this germplasm came from within the populations, while 11% of the variation emanated among the populations. These results reflect the high genetic differentiation existing in this aromatic rice germplasm. Using all these criteria and indices, seven accessions (Acc9993, Acc6288, Acc6893, Acc7580, Acc6009, Acc9956, and Acc11816) from three populations have been identified and selected for further evaluation before introgression into the existing breeding program and for future aromatic rice varietal development.

  16. Genetic Diversity of Aromatic Rice Germplasm Revealed By SSR Markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasim Aljumaili, Saba; Sakimin, Siti Zaharah; Arolu, Ibrahim Wasiu; Miah, Gous

    2018-01-01

    Aromatic rice cultivars constitute a small but special group of rice and are considered the best in terms of quality and aroma. Aroma is one of the most significant quality traits of rice, and variety with aroma has a higher price in the market. This research was carried out to study the genetic diversity among the 50 aromatic rice accessions from three regions (Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah, and Sarawak) with 3 released varieties as a control using the 32 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. The objectives of this research were to quantify the genetic divergence of aromatic rice accessions using SSR markers and to identify the potential accessions for introgression into the existing rice breeding program. Genetic diversity index among the three populations such as Shannon information index (I) ranged from 0.25 in control to 0.98 in Sabah population. The mean numbers of effective alleles and Shannon's information index were 0.36 and 64.90%, respectively. Similarly, the allelic diversity was very high with mean expected heterozygosity (He) of 0.60 and mean Nei's gene diversity index of 0.36. The dendrogram based on UPGMA and Nei's genetic distance classified the 53 rice accessions into 10 clusters. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed that 89% of the total variation observed in this germplasm came from within the populations, while 11% of the variation emanated among the populations. These results reflect the high genetic differentiation existing in this aromatic rice germplasm. Using all these criteria and indices, seven accessions (Acc9993, Acc6288, Acc6893, Acc7580, Acc6009, Acc9956, and Acc11816) from three populations have been identified and selected for further evaluation before introgression into the existing breeding program and for future aromatic rice varietal development. PMID:29736396

  17. Geographic and research center origins of rice resistance to asian planthoppers and leafhoppers: implications for rice breeding and gene deployment

    OpenAIRE

    Horgan, F.G.; Srinivasan, Thanga Suja; Bentur, Jagadish S.; Kumar, R.; Bhanu, K.V.; Singh Sarao, Preetinder; Chien, Ho Van; Almazan, M.L.P.; Bernal, Carmencita C.; Ramal, Angelee Fame; Ferrater, J.B.; Huang, Shou Horng

    2017-01-01

    This study examines aspects of virulence to resistant rice varieties among planthoppers and leafhoppers. Using a series of resistant varieties, brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens, virulence was assessed in seedlings and early-tillering plants at seven research centers in South and East Asia. Virulence of the whitebacked planthopper, Sogatella furcifera, in Taiwan and the Philippines was also assessed. Phylogenetic analysis of the varieties using single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) indic...

  18. Application of induced mutations and modern technologies for rice improvement at the Philippine Rice Research Institute (PhilRice)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padolina, Thelma F.

    2015-01-01

    The application of mutation techniques, i.e. gamma rays and other physical and chemical mutagens has generated a vast amount of genetic variability and has played a significant role in plant breeding and genetics. The widespread use of mutation techniques in plant breeding programs throughout the world has led to the official release of more than 3000 mutant varieties from different plant species. These varieties provide higher yields, better quality, resistance to diseases and resilience to climate change and variability. In the Philippine Rice Research Institute (PhilRice), classical induced mutagenesis and/or in combination with modern technologies as an important tool in rice breeding have been widely utilized by breeders. These recent advances offered new and exciting challenges for the development of new varieties. Moreover, it has the advantage of free regulatory restrictions imposed on genetically modified organisms. To date, high generation of new varieties, elite lines and pre-breeding materials have been derived from chemical and physical mutagenesis, another culture, in vitro mutagenesis, and molecular marker technologies. Directly benefitting the farmers are three Philippine released varieties: PSB Rc78 developed through gamma ray induction in year 2000; and NSIC Rc272 (2011) and Rc346 (2013) developed by combination of Co60 induction and another culture technology. These varieties are intended for the lowlands. In the current works, diverse mutant lines and pre-breeding materials of different target traits were generated and are now under evaluation as potential varieties and/or for use in the inbred and hybrid breeding programs. These genetic materials are in the background of traditional and modern rice varieties. Accordingly, for inbreds, mutated traits ranged from changes in morphological traits, yield, maturity, grain quality, nutritional traits, abiotic resistance such as heat, salinity, and drought tolerance, biotic resistance such as bacterial

  19. Induction of drought tolerant mutants of rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Hissewy, A.A.; Abd Allah, A.

    2001-01-01

    The ultimate goal of crop breeding is to develop varieties with a high yield potential and desirable agronomic characteristics. In Egypt, the most important qualities sought by breeders have been high yield potential, resistance to major diseases and insects, and improved grain and eating quality. However, breeding efforts should concentrate on varieties with the potential to minimize yield losses under unfavorable conditions such as drought, and to maximize yields when conditions are favorable. Rice (Oryza sativa L.) in Egypt is completely irrigated and a significant portion of the rice cultivated area is subject to water deficit resulting from an inadequate or insufficient irrigation supply. Drought tolerance is a complex trait in that it results from the interaction of histological and physiological characters of plant with environmental factors, both above-ground and under-ground. Accordingly, root characters are closely related to drought tolerance. Little attention has been paid in Egyptian breeding programs to root characters and their relation to shoot characters. Furthermore, induced mutations are considered as one of the most important methods to induce useful mutants, especially with improved root characters, to overcome the drought problem. The present investigation aimed to study the effect of different doses of gamma rays on several characters of three Egyptian rice varieties, i.e. 'Giza 171', 'Giza 175' and 'Giza 176' and to induce one or more mutants possessing drought tolerance

  20. Molecular screening of rice ( Oryza sativa L.) germplasm for Xa4 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DNA fingerprinting results indicated the presence of Xa4 gene in 41 entries, while 14 lines were positive for xa5 gene. Only one local line was carrying Xa21 gene along with Xa4. Thus, the present study will not only be helpful for rice breeders to develop new rice varieties carrying disease resistant genes, but will also ...

  1. Effect of soaking and phytase treatment on phytic acid, calcium, iron and zinc in rice fractions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liang, J.; Han, B.Z.; Nout, M.J.R.; Hamer, R.J.

    2009-01-01

    With the aim to maximise phytic acid removal and minimise losses of dry matter and minerals (Ca, Fe, Zn) in rice, three products (whole kernels and flour milled from white and brown rice; and bran, all from the same batch of variety Kenjian 90-31) were soaked in demineralized water at 10 °C (SDW),

  2. [Effects of Rice Cultivar and Typical Soil Improvement Measures on the Uptake of Cd in Rice Grains].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mei-e; Peng, Chi; Chen, Wei-ping

    2015-11-01

    Cadmium pollution of rice is a big problem in agricultural food safety. The accident "Cd rice" occurred last year in Youxian County, Hunan Province caused serious social panic. In this study, trials on "Cd rice" controlling techniques specific to the Cd pollution in paddy soil in Youxian were investigated. It was suggested that the average Cd contents in rice grains of the rice variety "Zhu Liang You 06" in Datongqiao and Wangling were 0.167 and 0.127 mg x kg(-1), respectively, which were only equal to 20% of the contents of other varieties. The trials for stabilizing agents revealed that treatments of lime and mineral fertilizer decreased Cd contents in rice grains to 20-30% of the control. Plastic film-mulched treatment decreased the rice grain Cd to 50%. And combined treatment of plastic film-mulched and biochar and silicon foliar-fertilizer decreased 80% of rice Cd content. Single treatments of silicon foliar-fertilizer and combined treatment of silicon foliar-fertilizer and topdressing fertilizer decreased more than 90% of Cd content. Results of BCR revealed that the percentage of cationic exchangeable and/or carbonate associated Cd fraction was more than 55% for most of the soil samples. Lime treatment significantly decreased the percentage of cationic exchangeable and/or carbonate and oxides of Fe and Mn associated Cd and increased the crystalline structure of clay minerals associated Cd. The change rate reached about 20%. Our results suggested concentration of soil Cd and pH were the two significant factors impacting the uptake of Cd by rice grains.

  3. Nuclear analytical methods on ancient Thai rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Won-in, K.; Thongleurm, C.; Dararutana, P.

    2013-01-01

    For more than half of humanity, rice is life. Rice is a grain which has shaped the history, culture, diet and economy of billions of people in Asia. In Thailand, it is the essence of life. Archaeological evidence revealed that rice had been planted in northeastern area of Thailand more than 5,500 years ago which is earlier than in China and India. The ancient rice grains were found in various archaeological sites in Thailand such as Nakhon Nayok, Suphan Buri and Prachin Buri Provinces. In this work, the ancient black rice from Nakhon Nayok Province was elementally analyzed using scanning electron microscope coupled with energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, proton induced X-ray emission spectroscopy and micro-beam energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. Infrared (IR) spectroscopy was also used to study the chemical composition and bio-molecular structure. The grains were oblique in shape with a rough surface. Three major elements (Si, Ca and Al) and other trace elements were detected. The IR spectra provided some information about the presence of molecular bonds. (author)

  4. Lucerne varieties for continuous grazing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søegaard, Karen

    2012-01-01

    severe grazing with heifers in two cutting/grazing managements. Two new varieties, Verbena and Camporegio, and an older variety Luzelle were established in 2009 in pure stands and in two different mixtures with perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne). Camporegio had the lowest yield, the lowest competitive...... strength, the lowest plant density in spring, and the density was most reduced during grazing. The results could not confirm significant differences between the new and the older varieties. The results for Luzelle were generally between Verbena and Camporegio. The varieties did not differ in herbage...

  5. Geographic and Research Center Origins of Rice Resistance to Asian Planthoppers and Leafhoppers: Implications for Rice Breeding and Gene Deployment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finbarr G. Horgan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examines aspects of virulence to resistant rice varieties among planthoppers and leafhoppers. Using a series of resistant varieties, brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens, virulence was assessed in seedlings and early-tillering plants at seven research centers in South and East Asia. Virulence of the whitebacked planthopper, Sogatella furcifera, in Taiwan and the Philippines was also assessed. Phylogenetic analysis of the varieties using single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs indicated a clade of highly resistant varieties from South Asia with two further South Asian clades of moderate resistance. Greenhouse bioassays indicated that planthoppers can develop virulence against multiple resistance genes including genes introgressed from wild rice species. Nilaparvata lugens populations from Punjab (India and the Mekong Delta (Vietnam were highly virulent to a range of key resistance donors irrespective of variety origin. Sogatella furcifera populations were less virulent to donors than N. lugens; however, several genes for resistance to S. furcifera are now ineffective in East Asia. A clade of International Rice Research Institute (IRRI-bred varieties and breeding lines, without identified leafhopper-resistance genes, were highly resistant to the green leafhopper, Nephotettix virescens. Routine phenotyping during breeding programs likely maintains high levels of quantitative resistance to leafhoppers. We discuss these results in the light of breeding and deploying resistant rice in Asia.

  6. Study on homologous series of induced early mutants in Indica rice Ⅱ. the relationship between the homologous series of early mutants induced and the ecotype in Indica rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xiulan; Yang Hefeng; He Zhentian; Han Yuepeng; Liu Xueyu

    2001-01-01

    The induced mutation in light sensitivity of the Indica rice leads to induction of the homologous series of early mutants along with the variation of ecological character and the ecoclimate. The induction of mutants was closely related to the ecotype of Indica rice, the homologous series of early mutants in different level were derived from the different ecotype of the Indica rice, otherwise, the similar homologous series of early mutants were derived from the same ecotypic variety. The induction of the early ecotypic variety derived from the homologous series of early mutants provides the basis and possibility for accelerating the development of the new cultivars. (authors)

  7. Induced mutation for tungro resistance in rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, R.; Yumol, R.R.; Taura, S.

    2001-01-01

    Tungro is the most serious virus disease of rice in South and Southeast Asia. It is a composite disease of two kinds of viruses, rice tungro bacilliform virus (RTBV) and rice tungro spherical virus (RTSV). Damage to the plant is mostly caused by RTBV, while RTSV acts to facilitate RTBV acquisition and transmission by insect vector. Both viruses are transmitted mainly by green leafhopper (GLH). Resistance to GLH is common in rice germplasm but extremely rare for the two viruses. To induce mutations for tungro resistance, a susceptible variety IR22 was treated with N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNH) following the procedure of Satoh and Omura. The panicles of rice variety 'IR22' were soaked in 1 mM MNH solution for 45 minutes at 16 to 18 hours after flowering. Two thousand six hundred and forty fertile M 1 plants were produced. From these plants M 2 lines with 10 or more seedlings were planted in the field to evaluate their reaction against tungro under natural conditions in the 1990 dry season on the IRRI central research farm, Los Banos, the Philippines. Of these, 124 M 2 lines were selected by visual evaluation. Five plants were harvested individually from each selected line. A bulk was also made from all the remaining plants in the line. In the M 3 generation, each family consisted of five sister lines and one bulked line. One line (M 3 -723) showed no tungro symptoms and its related bulk segregated for resistance but all other M 3 lines from the same family were susceptible to tungro. The resistant line, M 3 -723, showed low infection with RTBV and RTSV when leaves were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to diagnose tungro infection. All M 4 lines from M 3 -723 showed uniform resistance in the field. They were not infected with RTBV and were resistant to RTSV infection

  8. Development of instant noodles from high-iron rice and iron-fortified rice flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suparat Reungmaneepaitoon

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Instant high-iron noodles, prepared from wheat flour and high iron brown rice flour, were developed. Three varieties of rice flour, Suphan Buri 90 (SB, Homnin 313 (HW and Homnin 1000 (HP, containing amylose content of 30.40, 19.10 and 15.74% (w/w and iron content of 1.24, 2.04 and 2.22 (mg/100 g respectively, were used to replace wheat flour for instant fried noodle production. To determine the physicochemical properties and acceptability of instant fried noodles,different percentages (30, 40, 50% (w/w of each rice flour sample were used. The instant fried noodles were fortified with ferrous sulphate at levels of 0, 32, 64% iron of RDI per serving. Increasing amount of iron content in the mixtures decreased the L* value, b* value and increased a* value for the color of the instant fried noodle with brown rice flour. The texture characteristic of the noodles with 30, 40, 50% replacement with each variety of brown rice flour were significantly different from those of wheat noodle. Tensile force of the noodles decreased from 11.57±1.30 g to 6.38±1.45 g (SB, 8.36±0.96 g to 5.71±0.57 g (HP and 10.09±1.20 g to 5.46±1.31 g (HW as the rice flour content increased from 30 to 50%. The sensoryacceptability of the noodles made from each variety of 30% brown rice flour fortified with 32% iron of RDI had higher preference scores for elasticity, firmness, color and overall acceptability, than those with 64% iron of RDI. Instant fried noodles with HW and HP brown rice flour were subjected to consumer test using 100 rural primary school children. The frequency percent of the acceptability scores of the noodle with HP and HW were 88 and 84% respectively. Shelf life studyrevealed that the developed products were still acceptable up to 4 months. These products were claimed to be high iron noodle.

  9. Tropical varieties, maps and gossip

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frenk, B.J.

    2013-01-01

    Tropical geometry is a relatively new field of mathematics that studies the tropicalization map: a map that assigns a certain type of polyhedral complex, called a tropical variety, to an embedded algebraic variety. In a sense, it translates algebraic geometric statements into combinatorial ones. An

  10. Mutation breeding in rice in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swaminathan, M S; Siddiq, E A; Singh, C B; Pai, R A [Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi (India)

    1970-03-01

    Mutation research was continued in rice with the following aims; (a) to enhance the frequency and spectrum of mutations in indica and japonica rice varieties; (b) to change the grain quality of the japonica variety, Tainan-3, into the indica type; (c) to improve the grain quality of the indica variety, IR-8; (d) to increase the recombination frequency in japonica-indica hybrids. Both nitrosoguanidine and 5-MeV fast neutrons gave a high mutation frequency. The japonica variety was more sensitive to all mutagens than the indica types. Chemical mutagens had no particular advantage over ionizing radiations with reference to either mutation frequency or spectrum. Mutants with indica type of grain occurred readily in Tainan-3 in all treatments. Such mutants had a larger grain length/width ratio and were more resistant to alkali digestion. Fine grain types with better cooking quality occurred in the M{sub 2} populations of IR-8. These mutants are likely to render this high-yielding variety more popular. A wide range of chlorophyll and viable mutations occurred in IR-8 and Tainan-3. Some of these, like those involving dwarfing and slow senescence, are of economic interest, besides those affecting grain quality. Recombination frequency can be influenced in japonica x indica hybrids through the irradiation of F{sub 1} sporocytes. The precise influence varies with the stage at which the plant is irradiated, the dose given and the loci involved. (author)

  11. Effects of shading on starch pasting characteristics of indica hybrid rice (Oryza sativa L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wang

    Full Text Available Rice is an important staple crop throughout the world, but environmental stress like low-light conditions can negatively impact crop yield and quality. Using pot experiments and field experiments, we studied the effects of shading on starch pasting viscosity and starch content with six rice varieties for three years, using the Rapid Visco Analyser to measure starch pasting viscosity. Shading at different growth stages and in different rice varieties all affected the starch pasting characteristics of rice. The effects of shading on starch pasting viscosity at middle and later growth stages were greater than those at earlier stages. Shading enhanced breakdown but reduced hold viscosity and setback at tillering-elongation stage. Most pasting parameters changed significantly with shading after elongation stage. Furthermore, the responses of different varieties to shading differed markedly. The change scope of starch pasting viscosity in Dexiang 4103 was rather small after heading, while that in IIyou 498 and Gangyou 906 was small before heading. We observed clear tendencies in peak viscosity, breakdown, and pasting temperature of the five rice varieties with shading in 2010 and 2011. Correlation analysis indicated that the rice amylose content was negatively correlated with breakdown, but was positively correlated with setback. Based on our results, IIyou 498, Gangyou 906, and Dexiang 4103 had higher shade endurance, making these varieties most suitable for high-quality rice cultivation in low-light regions.

  12. Effects of shading on starch pasting characteristics of indica hybrid rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Deng, Fei; Ren, Wan-Jun; Yang, Wen-Yu

    2013-01-01

    Rice is an important staple crop throughout the world, but environmental stress like low-light conditions can negatively impact crop yield and quality. Using pot experiments and field experiments, we studied the effects of shading on starch pasting viscosity and starch content with six rice varieties for three years, using the Rapid Visco Analyser to measure starch pasting viscosity. Shading at different growth stages and in different rice varieties all affected the starch pasting characteristics of rice. The effects of shading on starch pasting viscosity at middle and later growth stages were greater than those at earlier stages. Shading enhanced breakdown but reduced hold viscosity and setback at tillering-elongation stage. Most pasting parameters changed significantly with shading after elongation stage. Furthermore, the responses of different varieties to shading differed markedly. The change scope of starch pasting viscosity in Dexiang 4103 was rather small after heading, while that in IIyou 498 and Gangyou 906 was small before heading. We observed clear tendencies in peak viscosity, breakdown, and pasting temperature of the five rice varieties with shading in 2010 and 2011. Correlation analysis indicated that the rice amylose content was negatively correlated with breakdown, but was positively correlated with setback. Based on our results, IIyou 498, Gangyou 906, and Dexiang 4103 had higher shade endurance, making these varieties most suitable for high-quality rice cultivation in low-light regions.

  13. Degree of Milling Effect on Cold Water Rice Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ujjwol Subedi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the effects of degree of milling on various rice parameters such as proximate composition, and cooking properties using mathematical model. The experiments were performed in the laboratory of Food Research Division, Nepal Agricultural Research Council. The three different medium type rice varieties of Nepal (Lumle-2, Chhomrong and Machhapuchre-3 were exposed to five different degrees of milling (0%, 6%, 8%, 10% and 12%. The degree of milling (DM level significantly (P≤0.05 affected the milling recovery; head rice yield, nutrient content as well as cooking properties of the rice. Increase in DM resulted in further reduction of protein content, fat content, minerals, milled rice and head rice yield after bran layer was further removed. A positive correlation between DM used in present model, amylose content, kernel elongation and gruel solid loss was observed, however, with an increase in DM; amylose content, kernel elongation and gruel solid loss were found to be increased. Adopting 6 to 8% DM for commercial milling of rice might help to prevent quantitative, qualitative and nutritional loss along with retention of good cooking characteristics.

  14. Climate variability impacts on rice crop production in pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakoor, U.; Saboor, A.; Baig, I.

    2015-01-01

    The climate variability has affected the agriculture production all over the globe. This concern has motivated important changes in the field of research during the last decade. Climate changes are believed to have declining effects towards crop production in Pakistan. This study carries an empirical investigation of the effects of climate change on rice crop of Pakistan by employing Vector Auto Regression (VAR) model. Annual seasonal data of the climatic variables from 1980 to 2013 has been used. Results confirmed that rising mean maximum temperature would lead to reduction in rice production while increase in mean minimum temperature would be advantageous towards rice production. Variation in mean minimum temperature brought about seven percent increase in rice productivity as shown by Variance Decomposition. Mean precipitation and mean temperature would increase rice production but simulations scenarios for 2030 confirmed that much increase in rainfall and mean temperature in long run will negatively affect rice production in future. It is therefore important to follow adequate policy action to safeguard crop productions from disastrous effects. Development of varieties resistant to high temperatures as well as droughts will definitely enhance resilience of rice crop in Pakistan. (author)

  15. Effect of salt stress on germination and early seedling growth of rice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-03-29

    Mar 29, 2010 ... planting in saline soil or in areas inundated by sea water or irrigated with brackish ... Nutritional imbalance caused by such ions leads to reduction in ... rice varieties showed a great variation in germination due to salinity effect.

  16. Genome-wide patterns of nucleotide polymorphism in domesticated rice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caicedo, Ana L; Williamson, Scott H; Hernandez, Ryan D

    2007-01-01

    Domesticated Asian rice (Oryza sativa) is one of the oldest domesticated crop species in the world, having fed more people than any other plant in human history. We report the patterns of DNA sequence variation in rice and its wild ancestor, O. rufipogon, across 111 randomly chosen gene fragments......, and use these to infer the evolutionary dynamics that led to the origins of rice. There is a genome-wide excess of high-frequency derived single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in O. sativa varieties, a pattern that has not been reported for other crop species. We developed several alternative models...... to explain contemporary patterns of polymorphisms in rice, including a (i) selectively neutral population bottleneck model, (ii) bottleneck plus migration model, (iii) multiple selective sweeps model, and (iv) bottleneck plus selective sweeps model. We find that a simple bottleneck model, which has been...

  17. Response of Nerica Rice to Nitrogen Fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Shultana

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted during T. Aman season, 2014 at the Agronomy Research Field, Bangladesh Rice Research Institute, Gazipur to determine the optimum rate of nitrogen fertilizer for higher yield in nerica rice. The experiment comprised of three rice varieties viz. NERICA1, NERICA10 and BRRI dhan57; and five nitrogen levels viz. 0, 23, 46, 69 and 92 kg ha-1. The rice var. BRRI dhan57 with 69 and 92 kg N ha-1 produced significantly identical with higher panicles m-2. But NERICA1 and NERICA10 produced higher number of panicles with 46 and 69 kg N ha-1, respectively. However, BRRI dhan57 with 46 kg N ha-1 produced highest grains panicle-1 but NERICA1 and NERICA10 produced higher number of grains panicle-1 with 23 kg N ha-1. The highest percentage of sterility was recorded in NERICA10 with 69 kg N ha-1. The regression analysis gave the optimum dose of nitrogen for NERICA1, NERICA10 and BRRI dhan57 which were 69.25, 74.25 and 85.75 kg N ha-1, respectively.

  18. Burkholderia glumae: next major pathogen of rice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Jong Hyun; Melanson, Rebecca A; Rush, Milton C

    2011-05-01

    Burkholderia glumae causes bacterial panicle blight of rice, which is an increasingly important disease problem in global rice production. Toxoflavin and lipase are known to be major virulence factors of this pathogen, and their production is dependent on the TofI/TofR quorum-sensing system, which is mediated by N-octanoyl homoserine lactone. Flagellar biogenesis and a type III secretion system are also required for full virulence of B. glumae. Bacterial panicle blight is thought to be caused by seed-borne B. glumae; however, its disease cycle is not fully understood. In spite of its economic importance, neither effective control measures for bacterial panicle blight nor rice varieties showing complete resistance to the disease are currently available. A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying B. glumae virulence and of the rice defence mechanisms against the pathogen would lead to the development of better methods of disease control for bacterial panicle blight. Bacteria; Proteobacteria; Betaproteobacteria; Burkholderiales; Burkholderiaceae; Burkholderia. Gram-negative, capsulated, motile, lophotrichous flagella, pectolytic. Aborted seed, empty grains as a result of failure of grain filling, brown spots on panicles, seedling rot. Seed sterilization, planting partially resistant lines (no completely resistant line is available). KNOWN VIRULENCE FACTORS: Toxoflavin, lipase, type III effectors. © 2010 LSU AGCENTER. MOLECULAR PLANT PATHOLOGY © 2010 BSPP AND BLACKWELL PUBLISHING LTD.

  19. Radiation disinfection of rice-straw products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Hitoshi; Ishigaki, Isao (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment); Ohki, Yumi

    1991-11-01

    For the quarantine treatment of rice-straw products from foreign countries, irradiation effects of gamma-rays and electron beams on plant pathogenic microorganisms especially on fungi were investigated. The total aerobic bacteria in rice-straw was determined to be 3x10{sup 7} - 3x10{sup 8} per gram which consisted mainly of Pseudomonas, Flavobacterium, Arthrobacter and Erwinia. The principal bacteria in rice-straw could be eliminated with 5 kGy of gamma irradiation. Deinococcus proteolyticus and Pseudomonas radiora were the main survivors at 5 to 12 kGy of irradiation. Saprophytic fungus which belongs to Dimorphospora also survived up to 8 kGy of irradiation. The D{sub 10} values of 26 strains of fungi isolated from rice-straw were 1.1 to 2.5 times higher in the dry condition compared to the values when irradiated in 0.067 M phosphate buffer solution. The induction dose in the dry condition also increased from 1.5 to 10 times than that in the wet condition. In the case of electron beam irradiation of fungi under dry conditions, D{sub 10} values were about 1.3 times higher than that of gamma irradiation. From this study, the dose necessary to reduce the plant pathogenic fungi in rice-straw at a level below 10{sup -4} per gram was estimated to be as 7-8 kGy for gamma-irradiation and 10 kGy for electron beam irradiation. (author).

  20. [Impacts of climate warming on growth period and yield of rice in Northeast China during recent two decades].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Wen-jia; Geng, Ting; Chen, Qun; Chen, Chang-qing

    2015-01-01

    By using rice growth period, yield and climate observation data during the recent two decades, the impact of climate warming on rice in Northeast China was investigated by mathematical statistics methods. The results indicated that in the three provinces of Northeast China, the average, maximum and minimum temperatures in rice growing season were on the. rise, and the rainfall presented a downward trend during 1989-2009. Compared to 1990s, the rice whole growth periods of Heilongjiang, Jilin and Liaoning provinces in 2000s were prolonged 14 d, 4.5 d and 5.1 d, respectively. The increase of temperature in May, June and September could extend the rice growth period, while that in July would shorten the growth duration. The rice growth duration of registered varieties and experiment sites had a similar increasing trend in Northeast China except for the Heilongjiang Province, and the extension of registered varieties growth period was the main factor causing the prolonged growth period of rice at experiment sites. The change in daily average, minimum and maximum temperatures all could affect the rice yield in Northeast China. The increasing temperature significantly increased the rice yield in Heilongjiang Province, especially in the west region of Sanjiang Plain. Except for the south of Liaoning Province, rice yields in other regions of Northeast China were promoted by increasing temperature. Proper measures for breeding, cultivation and farming, could be adopted to fully improve the adaptation of rice to climate warming in Northeast China.

  1. CORRELATION ANALYSIS OF AGRONOMIC CHARACTERS AND GRAIN YIELD OF RICE FOR TIDAL SWAMP AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aris Hairmansis

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Development of rice varieties for tidal swamp areas is emphasized on the improvement of rice yield potential in specific environment. However, grain yield is a complex trait and highly dependent on the other agronomic characters; while information related to the relationship between agronomic characters and grain yield in the breeding program particularly for tidal swamp areas is very limited. The objective of this study was to investigate relationship between agronomic characters and grain yield of rice as a basis for selection of high yielding rice varieties for tidal swamp areas. Agronomic characters and grain yield of nine advanced rice breeding lines and two rice varieties were evaluated in a series of experiments in tidal swamp areas, Karang Agung Ulu Village, Banyuasin, South Sumatra, for four cropping seasons in dry season (DS 2005, wet season (WS 2005/2006, DS 2006, and DS 2007. Result from path analysis revealed that the following characters had positive direct effect on grain yield, i.e. number of productive tillers per hill (p = 0.356, number of filled grains per panicle (p = 0.544, and spikelet fertility (p = 0.215. Plant height had negative direct effect (p = -0.332 on grain yield, while maturity, number of spikelets per panicle, and 1000-grain weight showed negligible effect on rice grain yield. Present study suggests that indirect selection of high yielding tidal swamp rice can be done by selecting breeding lines which have many product tive tillers, dense filled grains, and high spikelet fertility.

  2. Phloem-exudate proteome analysis of response to insect brown plant-hopper in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Ba; Wei, Zhe; Wang, Zhanqi; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Peng, Xinxin; Du, Bo; Chen, Rongzhi; Zhu, Lili; He, Guangcun

    2015-07-01

    Brown plant-hopper (Nilaparvata lugens Stål, BPH), one of the most devastating agricultural insect pests of rice throughout Asia, ingests nutrients from rice sieve tubes and causes a dramatic yield loss. Planting resistant variety is an efficient and economical way to control this pest. Understanding the mechanisms of host resistance is extremely valuable for molecular design of resistant rice variety. Here, we used an iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomics approach to perform analysis of protein expression profiles in the phloem exudates of BPH-resistant and susceptible rice plants following BPH infestation. A total of 238 proteins were identified, most of which were previously described to be present in the phloem of rice and other plants. The expression of genes for selected proteins was confirmed using a laser capture micro-dissection method and RT-PCR. The mRNAs for three proteins, RGAP, TCTP, and TRXH, were further analyzed by using in situ mRNA hybridization and localized in the phloem cells. Our results showed that BPH feeding induced significant changes in the abundance of proteins in phloem sap of rice involved in multiple pathways, including defense signal transduction, redox regulation, and carbohydrate and protein metabolism, as well as cell structural proteins. The results presented provide new insights into rice resistance mechanisms and should facilitate the breeding of novel elite BPH-resistant rice varieties. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. SALINITY TOLERANCE OF SEVERAL RICE GENOTYPES AT SEEDLING STAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heni Safitri

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Salinity is one of the most serious problems in rice cultivation. Salinity drastically reduced plant growth and yield, especially at seedling stage. Several rice genotypes have been produced, but their tolerance to salinity has not yet been evaluated. The study aimed to evaluate salinity tolerance of rice genotypes at seedling stage. The glasshouse experiment was conducted at Cimanggu Experimental Station, Bogor, from April to May 2013. Thirteen rice genotypes and two check varieties, namely Pokkali (salt tolerant and IR29 (salt sensitive were tested at seedling stage. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design with three replications and two factors, namely the levels of NaCl (0 and 120 mM and 13 genotypes of rice. Rice seedlings were grown in the nutrient culture (hydroponic supplemented with NaCl at different levels. The growth and salinity injury levels of the genotypes were recorded periodically. The results showed that salinity level of 120 mM NaCl reduced seedling growth of all rice genotypes, but the tolerant ones were survived after 14 days or until the sensitive check variety died. Based on the visual injury symptoms on the leaves, five genotypes, i.e. Dendang, Inpara 5, Inpari 29, IR77674-3B-8-2-2-14-4-AJY2, and IR81493-BBB-6-B- 2-1-2 were tolerant to 120 mM salinity level, while Inpara 4 was comparable to salt sensitive IR29. Hence, Inpara 4 could be used as a salinity sensitive genotype for future research of testing tolerant variety. Further evaluation is needed to confirm their salinity tolerance under field conditions. 

  4. Cucumis sativus L, Nasim variety

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... practice for reducing water consumption and improving product quality. ... Since cucumbers (Cucumis sativus L, Nasim variety) is considered as the main and ... to a significant yield increase (P<0.001), while MAD of 50% had the least yield.

  5. Rice (Oryza sativa L.) containing the bar gene is compositionally equivalent to the nontransgenic counterpart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberdoerfer, Regina B; Shillito, Raymond D; de Beuckeleer, Marc; Mitten, Donna H

    2005-03-09

    This publication presents an approach to assessing compositional equivalence between grain derived from glufosinate-tolerant rice grain, genetic event LLRICE62, and its nontransgenic counterpart. Rice was grown in the same manner as is common for commercial production, using either conventional weed control practices or glufosinate-ammonium herbicide. A two-season multisite trial design provided a robust data set to evaluate environmental effects between the sites. Statistical comparisons to test for equivalence were made between glufosinate-tolerant rice and a conventional counterpart variety. The key nutrients, carbohydrates, protein, iron, calcium, thiamin, riboflavin, and niacin, for which rice can be the principal dietary source, were investigated. The data demonstrate that rice containing the genetic locus LLRICE62 has the same nutritional value as its nontransgenic counterpart, and most results for nutritional components fall within the range of values reported for rice commodities in commerce.

  6. Transgenic rice plants harboring an introduced potato proteinase inhibitor II gene are insect resistant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, X; Li, X; Xue, Q; Abo-el-Saad, M; Xu, D; Wu, R

    1996-04-01

    We introduced the potato proteinase inhibitor II (PINII) gene (pin2) into several Japonica rice varieties, and regenerated a large number of transgenic rice plants. Wound-inducible expression of the pin2 gene driven by its own promoter, together with the first intron of the rice actin 1 gene (act1), resulted in high-level accumulation of the PINII protein in the transgenic plants. The introduced pin2 gene was stably inherited in the second, third, and fourth generations, as shown by molecular analyses. Based on data from the molecular analyses, several homozygous transgenic lines were obtained. Bioassay for insect resistance with the fifth-generation transgenic rice plants showed that transgenic rice plants had increased resistance to a major rice insect pest, pink stem borer (Sesamia inferens). Thus, introduction of an insecticidal proteinase inhibitor gene into cereal plants can be used as a general strategy for control of insect pests.

  7. Export Variety and Country Productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Feenstra, Robert; Looi Kee, Hiau

    2004-01-01

    The authors study the link between export product variety and country productivity based on data from 34 industrial and developing countries, from 1982 to 1997. They measure export product variety by the share of U.S. imports on the set of goods exported by each sampled country relative to the world. It is a theoretically sound index which is consistent with within-country GDP maximization...

  8. Transfer of gaseous iodine from atmosphere to rough rice, brown rice and polished rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumiya, Misako; Uchida, Shigeo; Muramatsu, Yasuyuki; Ohmomo, Yoichiro; Yamaguchi, Shuho; Obata, Hitoshi.

    1987-01-01

    Experiments were carried out in order to obtain information required for establishing transfer coefficients of gaseous iodine (I 2 ) to rough rice, brown rice and polished rice. The gaseous iodine deposited on young rice plants before the heading period was scarcely found in the rough rice harvested at the full ripe stage. The biological half life of iodine in hull, however, was much slower than that in leaves of 14 days. The translocation of iodine from leaves and stalks to rough rice was not clearly recognized. Therefore, it was deduced that iodine found in brown rice mainly should originate from that deposited on the hull. The distribution ratios of iodine between rough rice and brown rice, and between brown rice and polished rice were 100:4 and 100:30 on 100 grains basis, respectively. If average normalized deposition velocity (V d(m) ) or derived deposition velocity (V s ) are given, the transfer coefficients of gaseous iodine to rough rice (TF r ), brown rice (TF b ) and polished rice (TF p ) could be calculated. (author)

  9. A major QTL controlling deep rooting on rice chromosome 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uga, Yusaku; Yamamoto, Eiji; Kanno, Noriko; Kawai, Sawako; Mizubayashi, Tatsumi; Fukuoka, Shuichi

    2013-10-24

    Drought is the most serious abiotic stress that hinders rice production under rainfed conditions. Breeding for deep rooting is a promising strategy to improve the root system architecture in shallow-rooting rice cultivars to avoid drought stress. We analysed the quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for the ratio of deep rooting (RDR) in three F₂ mapping populations derived from crosses between each of three shallow-rooting varieties ('ARC5955', 'Pinulupot1', and 'Tupa729') and a deep-rooting variety, 'Kinandang Patong'. In total, we detected five RDR QTLs on chromosomes 2, 4, and 6. In all three populations, QTLs on chromosome 4 were found to be located at similar positions; they explained from 32.0% to 56.6% of the total RDR phenotypic variance. This suggests that one or more key genetic factors controlling the root growth angle in rice is located in this region of chromosome 4.

  10. Blood glucose lowering effects of brown rice in normal and diabetic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panlasigui, Leonora N; Thompson, Lilian U

    2006-01-01

    Carbohydrate foods, which produce low glycemic responses, have been shown to be beneficial in the dietary management of chronic diseases such as diabetes and hyperlipidemia. This study determined the starch digestion rate in vitro and, in a randomised crossover design, the postprandial blood glucose response of 10 healthy and nine type 2 diabetic volunteers to brown rice compared to milled rice from the same batch and variety. The total sugar released in vitro was 23.7% lower in brown rice than in milled rice. In healthy volunteers, the glycemic area and glycemic index were, respectively, 19.8% and 12.1% lower (p brown rice than milled rice, while in diabetics, the respective values were 35.2% and 35.6% lower. The effect was partly due to the higher amounts of phytic acid, polyphenols, dietary fiber and oil in brown compared to milled rice and the difference in some physicochemical properties of the rice samples such as minimum cooking time and degree of gelatinisation. In conclusion, brown rice is a more health beneficial food for diabetics and hyperglycemic individuals than milled rice.

  11. Water management practices affect arsenic and cadmium accumulation in rice grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Liming; Zheng, Manman; Liu, Hongyan; Peng, Shaobing; Huang, Jianliang; Cui, Kehui; Nie, Lixiao

    2014-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) and arsenic (As) accumulation in rice grains is a great threat to its productivity, grain quality, and thus human health. Pot and field studies were carried out to unravel the effect of different water management practices (aerobic, aerobic-flooded, and flooded) on Cd and As accumulation in rice grains of two different varieties. In pot experiment, Cd or As was also added into the soil as treatment. Pots without Cd or As addition were maintained as control. Results indicated that water management practices significantly influenced the Cd and As concentration in rice grains and aerobic cultivation of rice furnished less As concentration in its grains. Nonetheless, Cd concentration in this treatment was higher than the grains of flooded rice. Likewise, in field study, aerobic and flooded rice cultivation recorded higher Cd and As concentration, respectively. However, growing of rice in aerobic-flooded conditions decreased the Cd concentration by 9.38 times on average basis as compared to aerobic rice. Furthermore, this treatment showed 28% less As concentration than that recorded in flooded rice cultivation. The results suggested that aerobic-flooded cultivation may be a promising strategy to reduce the Cd and As accumulations in rice grains simultaneously.

  12. Exploring the possibility of using Agroplus Biodecomposer for boosting up rice productivity under Bangladesh condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dulaly Sarker

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Over dependence on chemical fertilizers is a threat to the sustainability of rice ecosystem. Application of organic and biofertilizers might reduce reliance on chemical fertilizers and thus can play a vital role to boost up rice productivity in an eco-friendly way. An experiment was conducted at Mymensingh (24°10'0'' N latitude and 90°25'0" E longitude at 15 m above the sea level, Bangladesh during November 2015 to April 2016 to evaluate the effect of different dosages of Agroplus Biodecomposer, an organic biofertilizer containing Streptomycetes bacteria, on the growth and yield performance of some rice. The experiment included four winter rice varieties viz. (i Hybrid rice Hira and (ii Hybrid rice Tej (iii BRRI dhan28 and (iv BRRI dhan29; and four concentrations of Agroplus Biodecomposer viz. (i no Agroplus Biodecomposer (Control, (ii 2% Agroplus Biodecomposer (iii 3% Agroplus Biodecomposer and (iv 4% Agroplus Biodecomposer. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD with three replications. Agroplus Biodecomposer positively influenced growth and productivity of winter rice. It was evident that both plant height and tillering ability of winter rice were increased gradually with increased concentration of Agroplus Biodecomposer at all the growth stages of rice. All the yield contributing characters of rice were enhanced due to Agroplus Biodecomposer application which resulted in increased grain yield. Compared to control, rice grain yield was increased by 14, 20 and 28%, respectively due to application of Agroplus Biodecomposer at 2, 3 and 4% concentration. Rice variety also differed significantly in terms of growth and yield performance among themselves. Hybrid varieties performed better than inbred ones. Hybrid variety Hira appeared as the best performer followed by another hybrid Tej. Hybrid variety Hira interacted favorably with 4% Agroplus Biodecomposer to produce the highest grain yield of rice (7 t ha-1

  13. Comparison of NH4+-N and NO3--N nutrition in hybrid and conventional rice at the late growth stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xiaoe; Sun Xi

    1990-01-01

    The difference of NH 4 + -N/NO 3 - -N nutrition between hybrid and conventional rice varieties at the late growth stage was studied by using 15 N-tracer technique. The results showed that the nitrate fertilizer utilization efficiency by the hybrid rice after anthesis was 7.8% higher than that by the ordinary rice variety, and the nitrate fertilizer recovery fraction by the former was 13.2% greater than that by the latter. The varietal difference in NO 3 - -N uptake and utilization was almost twice as that in NH 4 + -N. It was also showed that 15 N distribution in ear of the hybrid rice was about 20% greater than that of the conventional variety, but there were no obvious differences between NO 3 - -N and NH 4 + -N. However, 15 N distribution in the lower node leaves and root was found to be significant higher with NO 3 - -N than that with NH 4 + -N in both rice varieties, particularly in the hybrid rice. Compared with NH 4 + -N, NO 3 - -N top-dressing before anthesis was observed to have much greater positive effects on the uptake of calcium and magnesium and the growth of the superficial root and the grain yield of the tested rice varieties, especially of the hybrid rice

  14. The effects of chilling stress after anthesis on the physicochemical properties of rice (Oryza sativa L) starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dawei; Wei, Haiyan; Guo, Baowei; Dai, Qigen; Wei, Cunxu; Gao, Hui; Hu, Yajie; Cui, Peiyuan; Li, Min; Huo, Zhongyang; Xu, Ke; Zhang, Hongcheng

    2017-12-15

    This study investigates the effect of chilling stress, over a period of three days after anthesis, on the physicochemical properties of starches derived from six rice cultivars. Chilling stress significantly affected the grain characteristics and physicochemical properties of rice starches, except for those of two varieties, NJ 9108 and ZD 18. In the other four rice cultivars subjected to chilling stress, the content of medium, and large sized granules showed a decrease, and an increase, respectively. Amylose content increased as a result of chilling stress, thereby resulting in starch with a lower swelling power, water solubility, and higher retrogradation enthalpy and gelatinization temperature. Chilling stress led to deterioration of cooked rice quality as determined by the pasting properties of starch. This study indicated that among the cultivars studied, the two rice varieties most resistant to chilling stress after rice anthesis were NJ 9108 and ZD 18. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Semi-dwarf mutants for rice improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, Ramli; Osman, Mohammad; Ibrahim, Rusli

    1990-01-01

    Full text: MARDI and the National University of Malaysia embarked on a programme to induce resistance against blast in rice in 1978. MARDI also obtained semi dwarf mutants of cvs 'Mahsuri', 'Muda', 'Pongsu seribu' and 'Jarum Mas', which are under evaluation. The popular local rice variety 'Manik' was subjected to gamma irradiation (15-40 krad) and 101 promising semidwarf mutants have been obtained following selection in M 2 -M 6 . 29 of them show grain yields of 6.0-7.3 t/ha, compared with 5.7t for 'Manik'. Other valuable mutants were found showing long grain, less shattering, earlier maturity, and glutinous endosperm. One mutant, resistant to brown plant hopper yields 6.3t/ha. (author)

  16. Radiation induced mutant crop varieties: accomplishment and societal deployment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Souza, S.F.

    2009-01-01

    One of the peaceful applications of atomic energy is in the field of agriculture. It finds application in crop improvement, crop nutrition, crop protection and food preservation. Genetic improvement of crop plants is a continuous endeavor. Success of a crop improvement programme depends on the availability of large genetic variability, which a plant breeder can combine to generate new varieties. In nature, occurrence of natural variability in the form of spontaneous mutations is extremely low (roughly 10 -6 ), which can be enhanced to several fold (approximately 10 -3 ) by using ionizing radiations or chemical mutagens. Radiation induced genetic variability in crop plants is a valuable resource from which plant breeder can select and combine different desired characteristics to produce better crop varieties. Crop improvement programmes at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) envisage radiation based induced mutagenesis along with recombination breeding in country's important cereals (rice and wheat), oilseeds (groundnut, mustard, soybean and sunflower), grain legumes (blackgram, mungbean, pigeonpea and cowpea), banana and sugarcane

  17. Prevalence of Rice Yellow Mottle Virus (RYMV) on Rice Plants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Incidence of Rice yellow mottle virus (RYMV) on rice plants (ofada) grown in two local government areas (LGAs) of Ogun State had been evaluated during a two year field survey. Six month old rice plants were observed for symptom expression and leaf samples collected for serological indexing. Of the 60 leaf ...

  18. Production Efficiency of Swamp Rice Production in Cross River ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study compares profit maximization, output optimization and resource use efficiency in ... of two varieties of swamp rice by farmers in Cross River State of Nigeria. ... The result of the finding also shows that small-scale farmers were more ...

  19. Genetically Modified Rice Adoption: Implications for Welfare and Poverty Alleviation

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Kym; Jackson, Lee Ann; Nielsen, Chantal Pohl

    2004-01-01

    The first generation of genetically modified (GM) crop varieties sought to increase producer profitability through cost reductions or higher yields, while the next generation of GM food research is focusing on breeding for attributes of interest to consumers. Golden Rice, for example, has been genetically engineered to contain a higher level of vitamin A and thereby boost the health of po...

  20. The Cost of Delaying Approval of Golden Rice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesseler, J.H.H.; Kaplan, S.; Zilberman, D.

    2014-01-01

    More than 250,000 children go blind every year because of Vitamin A deficiency. Vitamin A intake can be enhanced by consuming Golden Rice—a genetically engineered variety of rice. It was available for commercialization in 2002, but approval has been delayed. We estimate that this delay has resulted

  1. Integrated analysis for genotypic adaptation in rice | Das | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Integrated analysis for genotypic adaptation in rice. S Das, RC Misra, MC Pattnaik, SK Sinha. Abstract. Development of varieties with high yield potential coupled with wide adaptability is an important plant breeding objective. The presence of genotype by environment (GxE) interaction plays a crucial role in determining the ...

  2. Some aspects of photoperiodism in rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Best, R.

    1961-01-01

    Photoperiodism was studied in 417 rice varieties of which 28, selected by differences in photoperiodic response, were studied in more detail. The plants were usually grown under 16 different photoperiods ranging from 5 to 24 h. In detailed experiments the types of response to short and long days

  3. Estimation of genetic diversity in rice ( Oryza sativa L. ) genotypes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thirty rice genotypes comprising land races, pure lines, somaclones, breeding lines and varieties specifically adapted to costal saline environments were characterized by SSR markers and morphological characters in this study. Out of 35 primers of SSR markers, 28 were found to be polymorphic. The PIC value ranged ...

  4. Trace elements in native and improved paddy rice from different climatic regions of Sri Lanka: implications for public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diyabalanage, Saranga; Navarathna, Thamara; Abeysundara, Hemalika T K; Rajapakse, Sanath; Chandrajith, Rohana

    2016-01-01

    Samples of 226 new improved and 21 indigenous rice ( Oryza sativa L.) varieties were collected from the rice fields in three climatic zones of Sri Lanka and concentrations of 18 trace elements (Li, B, Al, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Sr, Mo, Cd, Ba, Pb and Bi) were measured giving particular emphasis on Se, Cd and As using ICP-MS. The two way multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) method was employed to identify the differences in composition among rice from different climatic zones. The mean values obtained for both white and red rice were Se (36; 25 µg/kg), As (42; 45 µg/kg) and Cd (70; 123 µg/kg) on dry weight basis. However mean content of Se, As and Cd of native rice varieties were 69, 74 and 33 µg/kg, respectively. Statistical interpretations showed that in the majority of cases, there was a significant difference in Cd content among climatic zones whereas Se and Pb show differences between white and red rice varieties. Arsenic did not indicate any significant difference either between rice types or among climatic regions. Notably Se and As contents in indigenous rice were higher than that of improved rice types. To assess the safety of dietary of intake, daily intake of Se, Cd and As by rice were calculated. Non-gender specific Estimated Daily Intake (EDI) of Se, Cd and As consuming improved rice are 9.31, 24.1 and 12.2 µg day -1 , respectively. Since over 50 % of daily meals of people contain rice or rice based products, Se intake is expected to be deficient among the Sri Lankan population.

  5. The Varieties of Good Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ylirisku, Salu; Arvola, Mattias

    2018-01-01

    This chapter explores the philosopher and logician Georg Henrik von Wright’s metaethical treatise of the varieties of goodness in the context of design. von Wright investigated the use of notion of ‘good’ in language, and he identified six kinds of goodness: namely utilitarian goodness, instrumen......This chapter explores the philosopher and logician Georg Henrik von Wright’s metaethical treatise of the varieties of goodness in the context of design. von Wright investigated the use of notion of ‘good’ in language, and he identified six kinds of goodness: namely utilitarian goodness...

  6. Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    International Acer Incorporated, Hsin Chu, Taiwan Aerospace Industrial Development Corporation, Taichung, Taiwan American Institute of Taiwan, Taipei, Taiwan...Singapore and Malaysia .5 - 4 - The largest market for semiconductor products is the high technology consumer electronics industry that consumes up...Singapore, and Malaysia . A new semiconductor facility costs around $3 billion to build and takes about two years to become operational

  7. 7 CFR 868.310 - Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled Rice. (See also Â... Milled Rice Principles Governing Application of Standards § 868.310 Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled Rice...

  8. Investigating the roles of MicroRNAs in biotic stress response induced by Rhizoctonia solani in rice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syuhada, O. Nurfarahana; Kalaivani, N. [School of Environmental and Natural Resource Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2014-09-03

    Sheath blight disease, caused by Rhizoctonia solani 1802/KB was screened on two rice varieties, Oryza sativaindica cultivar MR219 and Oryza sativa indica cultivar UKMRC9. The disease symptom was severe in MR219 compared to UKMRC9. Total RNA from R. solani 1802/KB, infected rice leaves of MR219 and infected rice leaves of UKMRC9 were extracted using TRIzol reagent, purified and sent for small RNA sequencing. Three miRNA libraries were generated and analyzed. The libraries generated 65 805, 78 512 and 81 325 known miRNAs respectively. The structure of miRNA of these samples was predicted. The up-regulated and down-regulated of miRNAs target gene prediction and its target functions were discovered and were mainly related to the growth and development of metabolism, protein transport, transcriptional regulation, stress response, and hormone signaling and electron transfer. Sheath blight-induced differential expression of known miRNAs tends to targetMYB transcription factor, F-box proteins, NBS-LRR, leucine-rich repeat receptor protein kinases and zinc finger proteins. Detecting new miRNAs and measuring the expression profiles of known miRNAs is an important tasks required for a better understanding of various biological conditions. Therefore, further analysis using Gene Ontology Slim will be conducted to deduce some biological information from the datasets obtained.

  9. Extraction of rice bran oil from local rice husk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anwar, J.; Zaman, W.; Salman, M.; Jabeen, N.

    2006-01-01

    Rice Bran Oil is widely used in pharmaceutical, food and chemical industries due to its unique properties and high medicinal value. In the present work, extraction of rice bran oil from different samples of rice husk collected from local rice shellers by solvent extraction method has been studied. Experiments were conducted using a soxhelt apparatus, to extract rice bran oil using hexane, petroleum ether, ethanol and methanol as the solvents and the yields obtained under different conditions were compared. Batch extraction tests showed that the rate of extraction decreases with time and the solution approaches saturation at an exponential rate. (author)

  10. Black rice as a functional food in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rarastoeti Pratiwi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available There are many local black rice cultivars in Indonesia, yet only a few of these are formally describedin the literature.It has been reportedthat black rice has many phytochemicalvariants which may contribute to its use as a functional food, including nutraceuticals andsecondary metabolites such as anthocyanin, oryzanol,and more.The purpose of this article wasto review literature describing black rice cultivars from Indonesia, with a particular focuson its potential use as a functional food.Our literature search revealed several articles that describe black rice in relation to its nutraceuticalproperties and its role in reducing non-communicable diseases. Other studies describe the diversity of local pigmented rice and its potentialfor lowering the risk of hyperlipidemia,hyperglycemia,and for cancer prevention. Black rice has been described as a functional food in several countries;however,there is great diversity among cultivars and further research on Indonesian varieties will determine whether local variants are candidates as well for the development of functional foods.

  11. Allelopathic Responses of Rice Seedlings under Some Different Stresses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran Dang Khanh

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the allelopathic responses of rice seedlings under submergence stress at different temperatures (10, 25, 32, and 37 °C. The results showed that a wide range of allelopathic responses of rice seedlings depended on varieties and stress conditions, with temperature was being a key factor. It showed that the extracts of rice seedlings induced significant suppression on lettuce and radish seedling germination, but had negligible allelopathic effects on growth of barnyardgrass, whilst the emergence and growth of natural weeds was stimulated. In contrast, the root exudates of Koshihikari rice seedlings (K32 at 32 °C reduced the number of total weeds by ≈60.0% and the total dry weight of weeds by 93.0%; i.e., to a greater extent than other root exudates. Among the 13 identified phenolic acids, p-hydroxybenzoic, vanillic, syringic, sinapic and benzoic acids—at concentrations of 0.360, 0.045, 3.052, 1.309 and 5.543 μg/mL might be involved in allelopathic responses of K32, inhibiting the growth of barnyardgrass and natural weeds. Findings of the present study may provide useful information on allelopathic responses of rice under environmental stresses and thus further understand of the competitive relationships between rice and weeds under natural conditions.

  12. New Developments in Forage Varieties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forage crops harvested for hay or haylage or grazed support dairy, beef, sheep and horse production. Additional livestock production from reduced forage acreage supports the need for forage variety improvement. The Consortium for Alfalfa Improvement is a partnership model of government, private no...

  13. Adelic divisors on arithmetic varieties

    CERN Document Server

    Moriwaki, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the author generalizes several fundamental results for arithmetic divisors, such as the continuity of the volume function, the generalized Hodge index theorem, Fujita's approximation theorem for arithmetic divisors, Zariski decompositions for arithmetic divisors on arithmetic surfaces and a special case of Dirichlet's unit theorem on arithmetic varieties, to the case of the adelic arithmetic divisors.

  14. Varieties of capitalism in crisis?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruff, Ian; Horn, Laura

    2012-01-01

    In this introduction to the special issue, we provide a brief overview of the two distinct but connected meanings of the phrase ‘varieties of capitalism in crisis’: (1) the crisis of empirical political economies under conditions of capitalist diversity; and (2) the crisis of the institutionalist...

  15. Add Variety of Production Typewriting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clippinger, Dorinda A.

    1974-01-01

    To encourage and motivate students and to provide variety in the advanced typewriting class, the following suggestions are offered: have the introduction to production lessons on tape, teach desk organization, have students maintain carbon copy files, dictate instructions, and keep a typewriting reference manual. (AG)

  16. Antioxidant Defense Mechanisms of Salinity Tolerance in Rice Genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Golam Kibria

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to elucidate the role of antioxidant responses in salinity tolerance in rice genotypes under salt stress, experiments were conducted using four rice varieties, including salt-sensitive BRRI dhan 28 and three salt-tolerant varieties BRRI dhan 47, BINA dhan 8 and BINA dhan 10. Thirty-day-old rice seedlings were transplanted into pots. At the active tillering stage (35 d after transplanting, plants were exposed to different salinity levels (0, 20, 40 and 60 mmol/L NaCl. Salt stress caused a significant reduction in growth for all the rice genotypes. Growth reduction was higher in the salt-sensitive genotype than in the salt-tolerant ones, and BINA dhan 10 showed higher salt tolerance in all measured physiological parameters. The reduction in shoot and root biomass was found to be minimal in BINA dhan 10. Chlorophyll content significantly decreased under salt stress except for BINA dhan 10. Proline content significantly increased in salt-tolerant rice genotypes with increased salt concentration, and the highest proline content was obtained from BINA dhan 10 under salt stress. Catalase and ascorbate peroxidase activities significantly decreased in salt-sensitive genotype whereas significantly increased in salt-tolerant ones with increasing salt concentration. However, salt stress significantly decreased guaiacol peroxidase activity in all the rice genotypes irrespective of salt tolerance. K+/Na+ ratio also significantly decreased in shoots and roots of all the rice genotypes. The salt-tolerant genotype BINA dhan 10 maintained higher levels of chlorophyll and proline contents as well as catalase and ascorbate peroxidase activities under salt stress, thus, this might be the underlying mechanism for salt tolerance.

  17. Influence of rice straw-based polyols on the morphology, thermal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    replacement of rice straw-based polyols produced closed cell structures suitable for insulation material as revealed in Scanning electron microscope images. Higher percentage of rice straw-based polyols replacement will trigger cell wall structure rapturing that will deteriorate the properties of polyurethane foam.

  18. High-zinc rice as a breakthrough for high nutritional rice breeding program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barokah, U.; Susanto, U.; Swamy, M.; Djoar, D. W.; Parjanto

    2018-03-01

    WHO reported climate change already takes 150,000 casualties annually, due to the emergence of various diseases and malnutrition caused by food shortages and disasters. Rice is the staple food for almost all of Indonesian citizens, therefore Zn biofortification on rice is expected to be effective, efficient, massive, and sustainable to overcome the Zn nutritional deficiency. This study aims to identify rice with high Zn content and yield for further effort in releasing this variety. Ten lines along with two varieties as a comparison (Ciherang and Inpari 5 Merawu) were tested in Plumbon Village, Mojolaban Subdistrict, Sukoharjo Regency during February-May 2017. The experiment was designed in a Randomized Completely Block Design with four replications on a 4 m x 5 m area, with 25 cm x 25 cm plant spacing using seedling transplanting techniques of 21 days old seeds. The results showed that the plant genotypes treated had differences in yield characteristics, heading date, harvest age, panicle number, filled and un-filled grain per panicle, seed set, 1000 grains weight, Zn and Iron (Fe) content in rice grain. B13884-MR-29-1-1 line (30.94 ppm Zn, 15.84 ppm Fe, 4.11 ton/ha yield) and IR 97477- 115-1-CRB-0-SKI-1-SKI-0-2 (29.61 ppm Zn, 13.49 ppm Zn, 4.4 ton/ha yield) are prospective variety to be released. Ciherang had Zn content of 23.04 ppm, 11.93 ppm Fe, and yield of 4.07 t/ha.

  19. Super Rice Cropping Will Enhance Rice Yield and Reduce CH4 Emission: A Case Study in Nanjing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu JIANG

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A pot experiment was performed to learn the differences in plant productivity and CH4 emission between two rice cultivars, super rice variety Ningjing 1 and traditional variety Zhendao 11, which were currently commercially applied in Nanjing, China. Similar seasonal changes of CH4 emission fluxes and soil solution CH4 contents were found between the tested cultivars. Although there was no significant difference in plant biomass production between the cultivars, the grain yield of Ningjing 1 was significantly higher by 35.0% (P < 0.05 than that of Zhendao 11, whereas the total CH4 emission from Ningjing 1 was 35.2% lower (P < 0.05. The main difference in the amounts of CH4 emission between the cultivars occurred in the period from the tillering stage to the heading stage. The biomass-scaled and yield-scaled CH4 emissions were respectively 3.8 and 5.2 mg/g for Ningjing 1, significantly lower than those for Zhendao 11 (7.4 and 12.8 mg/g, respectively. According to the relationships between the plant growth characteristics and the CH4 emission, a stronger root system contributed mainly to the lower CH4 emission of Ningjing 1, as compared with Zhendao 11. Our results demonstrated that super rice has advantages not only in grain productivity but also in CH4 emission mitigation. Further expansion of super rice cropping will enhance rice yield and reduce greenhouse gas emission in China.

  20. Preparation and characterization of rice hull silica products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quirit, Leni L.; Llaguno, Elma C.; Pagdanganan, Fernando C.; Hernandez, Karen N.

    2008-01-01

    Rice hull is an abundant agricultural waste material which could be a renewable energy source when combusted. The combustion residue (called rice hull ash or RHA) contains a significant amount (20% of the hull) of potentially high grade silica. Silica gels prepared from rice hull were found to have properties comparable to two commercial desiccant silica gels (Blue Merck and FNG-A) in terms of chemical and amorphous structure, surface area, desiccant characteristics, microstructure and heats of adsorption. These properties were determined from water vapor adsorption measurements, electron microscopy, and from infrared and x-ray diffraction spectra. The acid treated rice hull gels were found to have fewer elemental impurities detected by qualitative x-ray fluorescence, compared to the commercial gels. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) data showed that this technique can also be used to indirectly compare impurity levels in the samples, in terms of the amorphous to crystalline phase transition. Using an improved acid treatment method, a silica gel sample was prepared from rice hull and compared to three commercial chromatographic silica gels using quantitative elemental x-ray fluorescence analysis. Elemental levels in the rice hull gel were within the range of levels or close to the detection limits of corresponding elements in the chromatographic gels. Water vapor adsorption, x-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy showed that the rice hull gel was similar to the commercial chromatographic silica gel Davison 12. Zeolites are crystalline aluminosilicates used as molecular sieves for purification and catalytic purposes. Zeolites X and Y were synthesized from rice hull silica gel and aluminum hydroxide. For comparison, controls were synthesized from commercial silica gel. The samples and controls exhibited characteristics infrared peaks corresponding to the vibrations of the TO 4 (T=Si, Al) of the zeolite framework. The x

  1. Conserved Transcriptional Regulatory Programs Underlying Rice and Barley Germination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Li; Tian, Shulan; Kaeppler, Shawn; Liu, Zongrang; An, Yong-Qiang (Charles)

    2014-01-01

    Germination is a biological process important to plant development and agricultural production. Barley and rice diverged 50 million years ago, but share a similar germination process. To gain insight into the conservation of their underlying gene regulatory programs, we compared transcriptomes of barley and rice at start, middle and end points of germination, and revealed that germination regulated barley and rice genes (BRs) diverged significantly in expression patterns and/or protein sequences. However, BRs with higher protein sequence similarity tended to have more conserved expression patterns. We identified and characterized 316 sets of conserved barley and rice genes (cBRs) with high similarity in both protein sequences and expression patterns, and provided a comprehensive depiction of the transcriptional regulatory program conserved in barley and rice germination at gene, pathway and systems levels. The cBRs encoded proteins involved in a variety of biological pathways and had a wide range of expression patterns. The cBRs encoding key regulatory components in signaling pathways often had diverse expression patterns. Early germination up-regulation of cell wall metabolic pathway and peroxidases, and late germination up-regulation of chromatin structure and remodeling pathways were conserved in both barley and rice. Protein sequence and expression pattern of a gene change quickly if it is not subjected to a functional constraint. Preserving germination-regulated expression patterns and protein sequences of those cBRs for 50 million years strongly suggests that the cBRs are functionally significant and equivalent in germination, and contribute to the ancient characteristics of germination preserved in barley and rice. The functional significance and equivalence of the cBR genes predicted here can serve as a foundation to further characterize their biological functions and facilitate bridging rice and barley germination research with greater confidence. PMID

  2. Processes underpinning development and maintenance of diversity in rice in West Africa: Evidence from combining morphological and molecular markers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mokuwa, G.A.; Nuijten, H.A.C.P.; Okry, F.; Teeken, B.W.E.; Maat, H.; Richards, P.; Struik, P.C.

    2014-01-01

    We assessed the interplay of artificial and natural selection in rice adaptation in low-input farming systems in West Africa. Using 20 morphological traits and 176 molecular markers, 182 farmer varieties of rice (Oryza spp.) from 6 West African countries were characterized. Principal component

  3. Gasification of rice husks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marzetti, P. (ENEA, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Fonti Alternative e Risparmio Energetico)

    The paper outlines the thermochemical processes and equipment involved in the gasification of rice husks. An assessment is made of the feasibility (availability, technology requirements, economics of production and marketing) of this renewable energy source. Results, reported here in tabular form, of experimental trials at an Italian pilot plant (producing, with the use of 165 kg/h of rice husks, 350,000 kcal/h of gas with a conversion yield of 70%) indicated good feasibility. More research is required to improve the combustion qualities of the final product.

  4. Optimizing hill seeding density for high-yielding hybrid rice in a single rice cropping system in South China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danying Wang

    Full Text Available Mechanical hill direct seeding of hybrid rice could be the way to solve the problems of high seeding rates and uneven plant establishment now faced in direct seeded rice; however, it is not clear what the optimum hill seeding density should be for high-yielding hybrid rice in the single-season rice production system. Experiments were conducted in 2010 and 2011 to determine the effects of hill seeding density (25 cm×15 cm, 25 cm×17 cm, 25 cm×19 cm, 25 cm×21 cm, and 25 cm×23 cm; three to five seeds per hill on plant growth and grain yield of a hybrid variety, Nei2you6, in two fields with different fertility (soil fertility 1 and 2. In addition, in 2012 and 2013, comparisons among mechanical hill seeding, broadcasting, and transplanting were conducted with three hybrid varieties to evaluate the optimum seeding density. With increases in seeding spacing from 25 cm×15 cm to 25 cm×23 cm, productive tillers per hill increased by 34.2% and 50.0% in soil fertility 1 and 2. Panicles per m2 declined with increases in seeding spacing in soil fertility 1. In soil fertility 2, no difference in panicles per m2 was found at spacing ranging from 25 cm×17 cm to 25 cm×23 cm, while decreases in the area of the top three leaves and aboveground dry weight per shoot at flowering were observed. Grain yield was the maximum at 25 cm×17 cm spacing in both soil fertility fields. Our results suggest that a seeding density of 25 cm×17 cm was suitable for high-yielding hybrid rice. These results were verified through on-farm demonstration experiments, in which mechanical hill-seeded rice at this density had equal or higher grain yield than transplanted rice.

  5. Global value of GM rice: a review of expected agronomic and consumer benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demont, Matty; Stein, Alexander J

    2013-06-25

    Unlike the other major crops, no genetically modified (GM) varieties of rice have been commercialized at a large scale. Within the next 2-3 years new transgenic rice varieties could be ready for regulatory approval and subsequent commercialization, though. Given the importance of rice as staple crop for many of the world's poorest people, this will have implications for the alleviation of poverty, hunger and malnutrition. Thus, policy-makers need to be aware of the potential benefits of GM rice. We provide an overview of the literature and discuss the evidence on expected agronomic and consumer benefits of genetically engineered rice. We find that while GM rice with improved agronomic traits could deliver benefits similar to already commercialized biotechnology crops, expected benefits of consumer traits could be higher by an order of magnitude. By aggregating the expected annual benefits, we estimate the global value of GM rice to be US$64 billion per year. This is only an indicative value, as more GM varieties will become available in future. Nevertheless, such a figure can help guide policy-makers when deciding on the approval or funding of biotechnology crops and it may also raise awareness among consumers about what is at stake for their societies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Research Advances in High-Yielding Cultivation and Physiology of Super Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing FU

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In 1996, China launched a program to breed super rice or super hybrid rice by combining intersubspecific heterosis with ideal plant types. Today, approximately 80 super rice varieties have been released and some of them show high grain yields of 12–21 t/hm2 in field experiments. The main reasons for the high yields of super rice varieties, compared with those of conventional varieties, can be summarized as follows: more spikelets per panicle and larger sink size (number of spikelets per square meter; larger leaf area index, longer duration of green leaf, greater photosynthetic rate, higher lodging resistance, greater dry matter accumulation before the heading stage, greater remobilization of pre-stored carbohydrates from stems and leaves to grains during the grain-filling period; and larger root system and greater root activity. However, there are two main problems in super rice production: poor grain-filling of the later-flowering inferior spikelets (in contrast to earlier-flowering superior spikelets, and low and unstable seed-setting rate. Here, we review recent research advances in the crop physiology of super rice, focusing on biological features, formation of yield components, and population quality. Finally, we suggest further research on crop physiology of super rice.

  7. Effect of 60Co γ-rays irradiation on rice straw fibre structure and enzyme hydrolyzation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jingping; Li Wenge; Peng Ling; Wang Keqin; Xiong Xingyao

    2008-01-01

    The effect of improving enzyme hydrolyze of rice straw was estimated with treating dry rice straw and raw fiber by 60 Co γ-rays irradiation. the water-soluble deoxidize carbohydrate and total carbohydrate of 60 Co γ-rays irradiated rice straw and raw fibres were measured by DNS method and vitrol-phenol method. The changes of deoxidize carbohydrate groups of irradiated hydrolyzing rice straw were analyzed by gas chromatography. The organism structures of irradiated rice straw were scanned by electron microscope, the results showed that 1000-1500 kGy 60 Co γ-irradiation doses effectively destroyed rice straw's organism structures, especially the silicon crystal structures, and along with irradiation doses increased the breakage degree enlarged significantly. The contents of the water-soluble deoxidize carbohydrate and total carbohydrate of rice straw increased significantly. treated by both irradiation and enzyme, the cellulose transform rate of rice straw was 88.7%, which is better than that only treated by 60 Co γ-irradiation or enzyme. The content of water-solubility deoxidize carbohydrate of the treated rice straw was 214.4 mg/g and the total carbohydrate of straw was 758.5 mg/g. The contents of mannose, galactose, glucose, arabinose and xylose increased significantly, among those carbohydrate, the glucose's increment was the largest and account for 62.64%, and mannose's increments was the second. The contents of lignin of the rice straw were not influenced obviously by irradiation treatment. (authors)

  8. Using NOAA/AVHRR based remote sensing data and PCR method for estimation of Aus rice yield in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizamuddin, Mohammad; Akhand, Kawsar; Roytman, Leonid; Kogan, Felix; Goldberg, Mitch

    2015-06-01

    Rice is a dominant food crop of Bangladesh accounting about 75 percent of agricultural land use for rice cultivation and currently Bangladesh is the world's fourth largest rice producing country. Rice provides about two-third of total calorie supply and about one-half of the agricultural GDP and one-sixth of the national income in Bangladesh. Aus is one of the main rice varieties in Bangladesh. Crop production, especially rice, the main food staple, is the most susceptible to climate change and variability. Any change in climate will, thus, increase uncertainty regarding rice production as climate is major cause year-to-year variability in rice productivity. This paper shows the application of remote sensing data for estimating Aus rice yield in Bangladesh using official statistics of rice yield with real time acquired satellite data from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) sensor and Principal Component Regression (PCR) method was used to construct a model. The simulated result was compared with official agricultural statistics showing that the error of estimation of Aus rice yield was less than 10%. Remote sensing, therefore, is a valuable tool for estimating crop yields well in advance of harvest, and at a low cost.

  9. Proposal of a growth chamber for growing Super-Dwarf Rice in Space Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirai, Hiroaki; Kitaya, Yoshiaki; Tsukamoto, Koya; Yamashita, Youichirou; Hirai, Takehiro

    Space agriculture needs to be considered to supply food for space crew who stay in space over an extended time period. So far crops such as wheat, onion, oat, pea and lettuce grew to explore the possibility of space agriculture. Although rice is a staple food for most of the world, research on rice cultivation in space has not been done much. Rice grains are nutrient-rich with carbohydrate, protein and dietary fiber. Moreover, rice is a high yield crop and harvested grains have a long shelf life. However, the plant height of standard rice cultivars is relatively long, requiring much space. In addition, rice plants require higher light intensities for greater yield. For these reasons, it is difficult to establish facilities for rice culture in a limited space with a low cost. We propose to employee a super-dwarf cultivar and a small growth chamber with a new type of LEDs. The super-dwarf rice is a short-grain japonica variety and the plant height is approximately 20 cm that is one-fifth as tall as standard cultivars. The LED light used as a light source for this study can provide full spectrum of 380 nm to 750 nm. Air temperature and humidity were controlled by a Peltier device equipped in the chamber. The characteristics of the new type of LEDs and other equipments of the chamber and the ground based performance of super-dwarf rice plants grown in the chamber will be reported.

  10. Quiver representations and quiver varieties

    CERN Document Server

    Jr, Alexander Kirillov

    2016-01-01

    This book is an introduction to the theory of quiver representations and quiver varieties, starting with basic definitions and ending with Nakajima's work on quiver varieties and the geometric realization of Kac-Moody Lie algebras. The first part of the book is devoted to the classical theory of quivers of finite type. Here the exposition is mostly self-contained and all important proofs are presented in detail. The second part contains the more recent topics of quiver theory that are related to quivers of infinite type: Coxeter functor, tame and wild quivers, McKay correspondence, and representations of Euclidean quivers. In the third part, topics related to geometric aspects of quiver theory are discussed, such as quiver varieties, Hilbert schemes, and the geometric realization of Kac-Moody algebras. Here some of the more technical proofs are omitted; instead only the statements and some ideas of the proofs are given, and the reader is referred to original papers for details. The exposition in the book requ...

  11. Soybean-Enriched Snacks Based on African Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Marengo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Snacks were produced by extruding blends of partially-defatted soybean flour with flours from milled or parboiled African-grown rice. The interplay between composition and processing in producing snacks with a satisfactory sensory profile was addressed by e-sensing, and by molecular and rheological approaches. Soybean proteins play a main role in defining the properties of the protein network in the products. At the same content in soybean flour, use of parboiled rice flour increases the snack’s hardness. Electronic nose and electronic tongue discriminated samples containing a higher amount of soybean flour from those with a lower soybean flour content.

  12. Soybean-Enriched Snacks Based on African Rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marengo, Mauro; Akoto, Hannah F.; Zanoletti, Miriam; Carpen, Aristodemo; Buratti, Simona; Benedetti, Simona; Barbiroli, Alberto; Johnson, Paa-Nii T.; Sakyi-Dawson, Esther O.; Saalia, Firibu K.; Bonomi, Francesco; Pagani, Maria Ambrogina; Manful, John; Iametti, Stefania

    2016-01-01

    Snacks were produced by extruding blends of partially-defatted soybean flour with flours from milled or parboiled African-grown rice. The interplay between composition and processing in producing snacks with a satisfactory sensory profile was addressed by e-sensing, and by molecular and rheological approaches. Soybean proteins play a main role in defining the properties of the protein network in the products. At the same content in soybean flour, use of parboiled rice flour increases the snack’s hardness. Electronic nose and electronic tongue discriminated samples containing a higher amount of soybean flour from those with a lower soybean flour content. PMID:28231133

  13. Improving the phenotypic expression of rice genotypes: Rethinking “intensification” for production systems and selection practices for rice breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman Uphoff

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Intensification in rice crop production is generally understood as requiring increased use of material inputs: water, inorganic fertilizers, and agrochemicals. However, this is not the only kind of intensification available. More productive crop phenotypes, with traits such as more resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses and shorter crop cycles, are possible through modifications in the management of rice plants, soil, water, and nutrients, reducing rather than increasing material inputs. Greater factor productivity can be achieved through the application of new knowledge and more skill, and (initially more labor, as seen from the System of Rice Intensification (SRI, whose practices are used in various combinations by as many as 10 million farmers on about 4 million hectares in over 50 countries. The highest yields achieved with these management methods have come from hybrids and improved rice varieties, confirming the importance of making genetic improvements. However, unimproved varieties are also responsive to these changes, which induce better growth and functioning of rice root systems and more abundance, diversity, and activity of beneficial soil organisms. Some of these organisms as symbiotic endophytes can affect and enhance the expression of rice plants' genetic potential as well as their phenotypic resilience to multiple stresses, including those of climate change. SRI experience and data suggest that decades of plant breeding have been selecting for the best crop genetic endowments under suboptimal growing conditions, with crowding of plants that impedes their photosynthesis and growth, flooding of rice paddies that causes roots to degenerate and forgoes benefits derived from aerobic soil organisms, and overuse of agrochemicals that adversely affect these organisms as well as soil and human health. This review paper reports evidence from research in India and Indonesia that changes in crop and water management can improve the

  14. Delving deeper into technological innovations to understand differences in rice quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calingacion, Mariafe; Fang, Lu; Quiatchon-Baeza, Lenie; Mumm, Roland; Riedel, Arthur; Hall, Robert D; Fitzgerald, Melissa

    2015-12-01

    Increasing demand for better quality rice varieties, which are also more suited to growth under sub-optimal cultivation conditions, is driving innovation in rice research. Here we have used a multi-disciplinary approach, involving SNP-based genotyping together with phenotyping based on yield analysis, metabolomic analysis of grain volatiles, and sensory panel analysis to determine differences between two contrasting rice varieties, Apo and IR64. Plants were grown under standard and drought-induced conditions. Results revealed important differences between the volatile profiles of the two rice varieties and we relate these differences to those perceived by the sensory panel. Apo, which is the more drought tolerant variety, was less affected by the drought condition concerning both sensory profile and yield; IR64, which has higher quality but is drought sensitive, showed greater differences in these characteristics in response to the two growth conditions. Metabolomics analyses using GCxGC-MS, followed by multivariate statistical analyses of the data, revealed a number of discriminatory compounds between the varieties, but also effects of the difference in cultivation conditions. Results indicate the complexity of rice volatile profile, even of non-aromatic varieties, and how metabolomics can be used to help link changes in aroma profile with the sensory phenotype. Our outcomes also suggest valuable multi-disciplinary approaches which can be used to help define the aroma profile in rice, and its underlying genetic background, in order to support breeders in the generation of improved rice varieties combining high yield with high quality, and tolerance of both these traits to climate change.

  15. Genetic improvement of rice (oryza sativa l.) by induced mutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez, E.; Deus, J. E.; Perez, R.; Alfonso, R.; Hernandez, R.; Avila, J.; Hernandez, J. L.; Puldon, Violeta; Duany, A.; Reinoso, J.; Mesa, H.; Rodriguez, S.

    2001-01-01

    In 1989 was initiated at Rice Research Institute of Cuba, a mutation breeding programme, in order to obtain new germoplasm with improved characters such as milling quality, earliness, resistance to the Hoja Blanca virus disease and salt tolerance. Seven varieties has been irradiated and two different sources of radiation were used: gamma rays from 60Co and fast neutrons of a 14 MeV neutron generator. In 1995, was released the variety IACuba 23 for low inputs conditions. Another four varieties IACuba 21, IACuba 22, IACuba 27 and IACuba 28 are in validation trials in rice production areas under irrigated condition. The last two have showed resistance to Steneotarsonemus spinki. Also, a group of mutants was selected to be used as parents. These mutants have been used in 953 crosses

  16. Study on creation and utilization of induced mutation rice materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pang Aijun; Peng Weizheng; Pang Boliang; Peng Xuanming; Yang Zhen; Zhang Xianxin; Zhang Yuanhai

    2011-01-01

    60 Co γ-ray, spaceflight, laser were respectively or combinedly used to treat rice lines or hybrid materials. Many special type of seed breed lines, including high yielding ones, top quality ones, stunt stem ones, disease/pest resistent ones, colourful rices, big size of grain ones etc. were selected from the mutation materials, some were directly used as new varieties and some were indirectly used to breed hybrid varieties. All the new varieties such as 'xiangzaonuo No.1', 'xiangzaoxian No.20', 'xiangzaoxian No.21', 'xiangfu 994', 'peiliangyou 721', 'zhuliangyou 124' were popularly planted and great social and economical benefit was obtained. (authors)

  17. Neglecting rice milling yield and quality underestimates economic losses from high-temperature stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathaniel B Lyman

    Full Text Available Future increases in global surface temperature threaten those worldwide who depend on rice production for their livelihoods and food security. Past analyses of high-temperature stress on rice production have focused on paddy yield and have failed to account for the detrimental impact of high temperatures on milling quality outcomes, which ultimately determine edible (marketable rice yield and market value. Using genotype specific rice yield and milling quality data on six common rice varieties from Arkansas, USA, combined with on-site, half-hourly and daily temperature observations, we show a nonlinear effect of high-temperature stress exposure on yield and milling quality. A 1 °C increase in average growing season temperature reduces paddy yield by 6.2%, total milled rice yield by 7.1% to 8.0%, head rice yield by 9.0% to 13.8%, and total milling revenue by 8.1% to 11.0%, across genotypes. Our results indicate that failure to account for changes in milling quality leads to understatement of the impacts of high temperatures on rice production outcomes. These dramatic losses result from reduced paddy yield and increased percentages of chalky and broken kernels, which together decrease the quantity and market value of milled rice. Recently published estimates show paddy yield reductions of up to 10% across the major rice-producing regions of South and Southeast Asia due to rising temperatures. The results of our study suggest that the often-cited 10% figure underestimates the economic implications of climate change for rice producers, thus potentially threatening future food security for global rice producers and consumers.

  18. Sorbents based on carbonized rice peel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansurova, R. M.; Taipova, R. A.; Zhylybaeva, N. K.; Mansurov, Z. A.; Bijsenbaev, M. A.

    2004-01-01

    The process receiving of sorbents based on carbonized rice peel (RP) was received and their sorption properties were investigated. Processing carbonization of samples leading on station, this was developed in laboratory of hybrid technology. Carbonization of samples was realized in nitric atmosphere on 400-8000 deg. C. On raising temperature of carbonization content of carbon in samples is rice, hydrogen and oxygen is reduce as a result isolation of volatility products is discover. The samples carbonized on 650 deg. C (910 m 2 /g) owners with maximum removed surface is discover. On carbonization temperature 600-800 deh. C the sorption of ions, which carbonized by sorbents based on rice peel is run to 95-100 %. Electron-microscopic investigation of samples leaded on EM-125 mechanism by accelerating pressure 100 kV. From electron-microscopic print of original samples of RP it is evident, that sample consists of carbonic fractions of different species: carbonic fiber of rounded fractions, fractions of ellipsoid form and of more thickly carbonic structure. Increasing sizes of pores and modification structure of synthesized sorbent is occur during carbonization process. The RP-samples, which carbonized by 650 deg. C has the higher specific surface. Samples consist of thin carbonic scum and reducing specific surface, by higher temperature

  19. Characterization of 140 Japanese and world rice collections cultivated in Nihonmatsu-city in Fukushima in terms of radiocesium activity concentrations in seed grains and straws to explore rice cultivars with low radiocesium accumulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsuhiro Kojima; Djedidi Salem

    2017-01-01

    We studied varietal difference in radiocesium accumulation by using Japanese and World rice collection for future development of low accumulation varieties. As a result, the radiocesium activity concentration varied by 12- and 22-fold in seed grains and straws, respectively. When we examined the seed grain to straw ratio of radiocesium activity concentration, paddy rice cultivars of Japonica sub-species showed a lower result than Indica and Javanica paddy rice cultivars. These observations suggest that the Japonica paddy rice cultivars may have the property of repressing radioactive cesium translocation to edible parts. (author)

  20. Rice as commodity and anti-commodity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richards, P.

    2016-01-01

    On the Upper West Africa coast rice belongs to two species — African rice (Oryza glaberrima Steud.) and Asian rice (Oryza sativa L.). African rice was domesticated in the region, perhaps three millennia ago, from a presumed wild ancestor, O. barthii. Asian rice was introduced via trans-Saharan

  1. Diseases of wild rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diseases are much more pronounced in cultivated wild rice than in natural stands, most likely due to the narrower genetic base of the populations, plant stress due to high planting density and floodwater removal prior to harvest, and high relative humidity in the plant canopy. Yield losses occur as ...

  2. Integrating Soil Silicon Amendment into Management Programs for Insect Pests of Drill-Seeded Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas, James M; Way, Michael O; Pearson, Rebecca A; Stout, Michael J

    2017-08-13

    Silicon soil amendment has been shown to enhance plant defenses against insect pests. Rice is a silicon-accumulating graminaceous plant. In the southern United States, the rice water weevil and stem borers are important pests of rice. Current management tactics for these pests rely heavily on the use of insecticides. This study evaluated the effects of silicon amendment when combined with current management tactics for these rice insect pests in the field. Field experiments were conducted from 2013 to 2015. Rice was drill-planted in plots subjected to factorial combinations of variety (conventional and hybrid), chlorantraniliprole seed treatment (treated and untreated), and silicon amendment (treated and untreated). Silicon amendment reduced densities of weevil larvae on a single sampling date in 2014, but did not affect densities of whiteheads caused by stem borers. In contrast, insecticidal seed treatment strongly reduced densities of both weevil larvae and whiteheads. Higher densities of weevil larvae were also observed in the hybrid variety in 2014, while higher incidences of whiteheads were observed in the conventional variety in 2014 and 2015. Silicon amendment improved rice yields, as did chlorantraniliprole seed treatment and use of the hybrid variety.

  3. The Birth of a Black Rice Gene and Its Local Spread by Introgression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oikawa, Tetsuo; Maeda, Hiroaki; Oguchi, Taichi; Yamaguchi, Takuya; Tanabe, Noriko; Ebana, Kaworu; Yano, Masahiro; Ebitani, Takeshi; Izawa, Takeshi

    2015-09-01

    The origin and spread of novel agronomic traits during crop domestication are complex events in plant evolution. Wild rice (Oryza rufipogon) has red grains due to the accumulation of proanthocyanidins, whereas most cultivated rice (Oryza sativa) varieties have white grains induced by a defective allele in the Rc basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) gene. Although the events surrounding the origin and spread of black rice traits remain unknown, varieties with black grains due to anthocyanin accumulation are distributed in various locations throughout Asia. Here, we show that the black grain trait originated from ectopic expression of the Kala4 bHLH gene due to rearrangement in the promoter region. Both the Rc and Kala4 genes activate upstream flavonol biosynthesis genes, such as chalcone synthase and dihydroflavonol-4-reductase, and downstream genes, such as leucoanthocyanidin reductase and leucoanthocyanidin dioxygenase, to produce the respective specific pigments. Genome analysis of 21 black rice varieties as well as red- and white-grained landraces demonstrated that black rice arose in tropical japonica and its subsequent spread to the indica subspecies can be attributed to the causal alleles of Kala4. The relatively small size of genomic fragments of tropical japonica origin in some indica varieties indicates that refined introgression must have occurred by natural crossbreeding in the course of evolution of the black trait in rice. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  4. Dynamical roguing model for controlling the spread of tungro virus via Nephotettix Virescens in a rice field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blas, Nikki; David, Guido

    2017-10-01

    Rice tungro disease is described as a cancer due to its major impact on the livelihood of farmers and the difficulty of controlling it. Tungro is a semi-persistent virus transmitted by green leafhoppers called Nephotettix Virescens. In this paper, we presented a compartmental plant-vector model of the Nephotettix Virescens - rice plant interaction based on a system of ordinary differential equations to simulate the effects of roguing in controlling the spread of Tungro virus in a model rice field of susceptible rice variety (Taichung Native 1).

  5. Investigating differences in light stable isotopes between Thai jasmine rice and Sungyod rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukusamude, C.; Kongsri, S.

    2017-10-01

    We report the differences in light stable isotopes between two kinds of Thai rice (Thai jasmine and Sungyod rice). Thai jasmine rice and Sungyod rice were cultivated in the northeast and the south of Thailand. Light isotopes including 13C, 15N and 18O of Thai jasmine rice and Sungyod rice samples were carried out using isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS). Thai jasmine rice (Khao Dawk Mali 105) was cultivated from Thung Kula Rong Hai area, whereas Sungyod rice was cultivated from Phathalung province. Hypothesis testing of difference of each isotope between Thai jasmine rice and Sungyod rice was also studied. The study was the feasibility test whether the light stable isotopes can be the variables to identify Thai jasmine rice and Sungyod rice. The result shows that there was difference in the isotope patterns of Thai jasmine rice and Sungyod rice. Our results may provide the useful information in term of stable isotope profiles of Thai rice.

  6. Decrease in catalase activity of Folsomia candida fed a Bt rice diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Yiyang; Ke, Xin; Chen, Fajun

    2011-01-01

    Here we report the effects of three Bt-rice varieties and their non-Bt conventional isolines on biological traits including survival, reproduction, and the activities of three antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase and peroxidase, in the Collembolan, Folsomia candida. The reproduction...... was significantly lower when fed Kemingdao and Huahui1 than those feeding on their non-GM near-isogenic varieties Xiushui and Minghui63 respectively, this can be explained by the differences of plant compositions depended on variety of rice. The catalase activity of F. candida was significantly lower when fed...

  7. Radiation disinfestation of Basmati rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, V.S.; Gholap, A.S.; Adhikari, H.R.; Nair, P.M.

    1994-01-01

    Effect of low dose γ-radiation on prepackaged Basmati rice was studied in order to achieve disinfestation of rice. Basmati rice procured from local market was repacked in 1 kg pouches made from high density polyethylene (HDP) and biaxially oriented polypropylene: low density polyethylene (BOPP/LDP) laminate and irradiated at doses from 0.25-1.0 kGy. Within one month of storage at room temperature, unirradiated (control) Basmati rice developed heavy infestation. No infestation was observed in any of the irradiated samples even at 0.25 kGy and the rice could be stored for 6 months in a clean state. Irradiation (at 0.25 kGy) did not alter the moisture content of the rice. Likewise, no significant change was noted due to irradiation in the functional properties of rice such as swelling index and water absorption and in total volatile components responsible for flavour of Basmati rice. In organoleptic evaluation, no significant difference was found between the acceptability of irradiated (0.25 kGy) and control rice. These results are significant in view of the high export potential of Basmati rice and the transit losses at present due to infestation. (author). 24 refs., 5 tabs., 1 fig

  8. Safety assessment of lepidopteran insect-protected transgenic rice with cry2A* gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Shiying; Huang, Kunlun; Xu, Wentao; Luo, Yunbo; He, Xiaoyun

    2016-04-01

    Numerous genetically modified (GM) crops expressing proteins for insect resistance have been commercialized following extensive testing demonstrating that the foods obtained from them are as safe as that obtained from their corresponding non-GM varieties. In this paper, we report the outcome of safety studies conducted on a newly developed insect-resistant GM rice expressing the cry2A* gene by a subchronic oral toxicity study on rats. GM rice and non-GM rice were incorporated into the diet at levels of 30, 50, and 70% (w/w), No treatment-related adverse or toxic effects were observed based on an examination of the daily clinical signs, body weight, food consumption, hematology, serum biochemistry, and organ weight or based on gross and histopathological examination. These results demonstrate that the GM rice with cry2A* gene is as safe for food as conventional non-GM rice.

  9. Effect of Biochar on Relieving Cadmium Stress and Reducing Accumulation in Super japonica Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhen-yu; MENG Jun; DANG Shu; CHEN Wen-fu

    2014-01-01

    It is of great importance to solve the threats induced by cadmium pollution on crops. This paper examined the effect of biochar on cadmium accumulation in japonica rice and revealed the mechanism underlying the response of protective enzyme system to cadmium stress. Biochar derived from rice straw was applied at two application rates under three cadmium concentrations. Shennong 265, super japonica rice variety, was selected as the test crop. The results indicated that cadmium content in above-ground biomass of rice increased with increasing soil cadmium concentrations, but the biochar application could suppress the accumulation of cadmium to some extent. Under high concentrations of cadmium, content of free proline and MDA (malondialdehyde) were high, so did the SOD (superoxide dismutase), POD (peroxidase) and CAT (catalase) activity in the lfag leaf of rice. However, the protective enzyme activities remained at low level when biochar was added.

  10. Role of LOX3 Gene in Alleviating Adverse Effects of Drought and Pathogens in Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Nan-nan; JIANG Ling; ZHANG Wen-wei; LIU Ling-long; ZHAI Hu-qu; WAN Jian-min

    2008-01-01

    Lipoxygenase 3 (LOX3) is a major component of the LOX isozymes in mature rice seeds. To investigate the role of LOX3 gene under stresses, a plant expression vector containing antisense cDNA of LOX3 was constructed. Rice varieties Wuyunjing 7 and Kasalath were transformed by the Agrobacterium-mediated method and transgenic rice plants were generated. PCR and Southern blot results showed that the antisense LOX3 gene was integrated into the rice genome. Analyses of embryo LOX3 deletion and semi-quantitative RT-PCR confirmed the antisense suppression of LOX3 gene in transgenic plants. The T2 antisense plants of LOX3 were sensitive to drought stress, rice blast and bacterial blight compared with non-transgenic plants. These results suggest that the LOX3 gene might function in response to stresses.

  11. Root Transcriptomic Analysis Revealing the Importance of Energy Metabolism to the Development of Deep Roots in Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Lou, Qiaojun; Chen, Liang; Mei, Hanwei; Xu, Kai; Wei, Haibin; Feng, Fangjun; Li, Tiemei; Pang, Xiaomeng; Shi, Caiping; Luo, Lijun; Zhong, Yang

    2017-01-01

    Drought is the most serious abiotic stress limiting rice production, and deep root is the key contributor to drought avoidance. However, the genetic mechanism regulating the development of deep roots is largely unknown. In this study, the transcriptomes of 74 root samples from 37 rice varieties, representing the extreme genotypes of shallow or deep rooting, were surveyed by RNA-seq. The 13,242 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between deep rooting and shallow rooting varieties (H vs. L) w...

  12. Physicochemical characteristics of brown rice as influenced by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabularse, V.C.; Liuzzo, J.A.; Rao, R.M.; Grodner, R.M.

    1992-01-01

    Brown rice samples prepared from medium grain (Mars) and long grain (Lemont and Tebonnet) varieties were irradiated at 0, 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 kGy and analyzed. The amount of solids leached upon cooking increased with increased dose levels indicating the degradation off the rice grain structure. Damaged starch for Mars decreased to the 1.0 kGy level and increased thereafter. Moisture content remained constant between 13% and 14%. Amylose content was not greatly affected by irradiation. Peak viscosity, setback values, final viscosity, viscosity at 50 degrees C, and consistency all decreased with increasing levels of irradiation. As radiation increased, an increase in the yellow color of the rice samples was noted

  13. Analysis on Factors Affecting Seedling Establishment in Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju LUO

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Elongations of coleoptile and mesocotyl are related directly to rice seedling establishment in soil and height of plant is related to lodging in rice production. Twelve typical rice cultivars with different lengths of coleoptile and mesocotyl (long, medium and short were selected by screening the lengths of coleoptile and mesocotyl in 1500 accessions. The seedling establishments of these typical cultivars were compared under the combinations of different sowing depths and flooding durations, and two semi-dwarf varieties (G140, Zhong 96–21 with good seedling establishments and optimum mesocotyl lengths were found. The length of mesocotyl was completely fitted negative binomial distribution and the length of coleoptile was nearly fitted lognormal distribution. Analysis of the relationships among mesocotyl, coleoptile, seeding depth, flooding duration, and their interactions to seedling establishment percentage showed that there existed significant relations among mesocotyl, coleoptile, mesocotyl × coleoptile, seeding depth, flooding duration and mesocotyl × sowing depth in the experiment for seedling establishment.

  14. Major QTL Conferring Resistance to Rice Bacterial Leaf Streak

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Bacterial leaf streak (BLS) is one of the important limiting factors to rice production in southern China and other tropical and sub-tropical areas in Asia. Resistance to BLS was found to be a quantitative trait and no major resistant gene was located in rice until date. In the present study, a new major quantitative trait locus (QTL) conferring resistance to BLS was identified from a highly resistant variety Dular by the employment of Dular/Balilla (DB) and Dular/IR24 (DI) segregation populations and was designated qBLSR-11-1. This QTL was located between the simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers RM120 and RM441 on chromosome 11 and could account for 18.1-21.7% and 36.3% of the variance in DB and DI populations, respectively. The genetic pattern of rice resistance to BLS was discussed.

  15. Quantitative Trait Loci Analysis of Allelopathy in Rice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, L B; Courtois, B; Olofsdotter, M

    2008-01-01

    The allelopathic potential of rice (Oryza sativa L.) against Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) Beauv. was investigated under both laboratory and greenhouse conditions. A population of 150 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) was derived through single-seed descent from a cross between the indica cultivar AC...... the population phenotype was normally distributed. Two quantitative trait loci (QTLs) were located on chromosomes 4 and 7, explaining 20% of the phenotypic variation. A second relay seeding experiment was set up, this time including charcoal in the perlite. This