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Sample records for rice thermosensitive genic

  1. Plant Temperature and Its Simulation Model of Thermo-Sensitive Genic Male Sterile Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan-gen LU

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Plant temperature (Tp and its relations to the microclimate of rice colony and irrigation water were studied using a thermo-sensitive genic male sterile (TGMS rice line, Pei'ai 64S. Significant differences in the daily change of temperature were detected between Tpand air temperature at the height of 150 cm (TA. From 8:00 to 20:00, Tp was lower than TA, but they were similar during 21:00 to next 7:00. The maximum Tp occurred one hour earlier than the maximum TA, though they both reached the minimum at 6:00. Tp fluctuated less than TA. At the same height, during 6:00–13:00, Tp was higher than air temperature (Ta, and Tp reached the maximum one hour earlier than Ta. During the rest time on sunny day, Tpwas close to or even a little lower than Ta. On overcast day, Tpwas higher than Ta in the whole day, and both maximized at the same time. In addition, Tpwas regulated by solar radiation, cloudage and wind speed in daytime, and by irrigation water at night. The present study indicated that a TA of 29.6°C was the critical point, at which Tpwas increased or decreased by irrigation water. Tp and the difference between water and air temperatures showed a conic relation. Tp fluctuation was also regulated by the absorption or reflection of solar radiation by leaves during daytime and release of heat energy during nighttime. By analysis on correlation and regression simulation, two models of Tp were established.

  2. Mapping of a rice thermosensitive genic male sterility gene from a TGMS mutant line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vu Duc Quang; Nguyen Van Dong; Pham Ngoc Luong; Tran Duy Quy [Argicultural Genetics Institute, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Nguyen, Henry T. [Texas Tech Univ., Department of Plant and Soil Science, Lubbock TX (United States)

    2001-03-01

    At the Agricultural Genetics Institute (AGI), Hanoi, Vietnam, a number of thermo-sensitive genic male sterility (TGMS) homozygous rice lines have been developed by means of experimental mutagenesis followed by anther culture techniques. One of them (TGMS-1 indica mutant line) was used in this research. The critical temperature (at the period from pollen mother cell formation to the beginning of meiotic division) for TGMS-1 sterility was 24-25degC, below which the plants were fertile and above which the plants became sterile. Segregation analysis showed that the TGMS trait of the TGMS-1 mutant line was controlled by a single recessive gene. An F{sub 2} mapping population from a cross between TGMS-1 mutant line and CH1 (a fertile indica line) was developed for tagging and mapping the TGMS gene. From survey of 200 AFLP primer combinations in a bulked segregant analysis, 4 AFLP markers (E2/M5-200, E3/M16-400, E5/M12-600 and E5/M12-200) linked to TGMS-1 gene were identified and cloned. All except E2/M5-200 were found to be low-copy number sequences. The marker E5/M12-600 showed polymorphism in RFLP analysis and was closely linked to the TGMS gene at a distance of 3.3cM. This marker was subsequently mapped on chromosome 2 using doubled-haploid mapping populations derived from the crosses IR64xAzucena and CT9993xIR62666. Linkage of microsatellite marker RM27 with the TGMS gene further confirmed its location on chromosome 2. The closest marker, E5/M12-600, was sequenced so that a PCR marker can be developed for the use in marker-assisted breeding. The application of TGMS genes to the commercial two-line hybrid rice breeding system was discussed. (author)

  3. Improving Blast Resistance of a Thermo-Sensitive Genic Male Sterile Rice Line GD-8S by Molecular Marker-Assisted Selection

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    Wu-ge LIU

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The broad-spectrum blast resistance gene Pi-1, from donor line BL122, was introduced into a thermo-sensitive genic male sterile rice line GD-8S, which possessed good grain quality but high susceptibility to rice blast, by using backcross breeding and molecular marker-assisted selection. Five elite improved male sterile lines, RGD8S-1, RGD8S-2, RGD8S-3, RGD8S-4 and RGD8S-5, were selected based on the results of molecular marker analysis, spikelet sterility, recovery rate of genetic background and agronomic traits. Thirty-three representative blast isolates collected from Guangdong Province, China were used to inoculate the improved lines and the original line GD-8S artificially. The resistance frequencies of the improved lines ranged from 76.47% to 100%, much higher than that of the original line GD-8S (9.09%. On the agronomic characters, there were no significant differences between the improved lines and GD-8S except for flag leaf length and panicle number per plant. The improved lines could be used for breeding hybrid rice with high blast resistance.

  4. Mapping of quantitative trait loci for thermosensitive genic male sterility in indica rice Mapeamento de controladores de caracteres quantitativos de macho-esterilidade gênica termossensível em arroz indica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Alberto Neves de Alcochete

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to select and use microsatellite markers, to map genomic regions associated with the genetic control of thermosensitive genic male sterility (TGMS in rice. An F2 population, derived from the cross between fertile and TGMS indica lines, was used to construct a microsatellite-based genetic map of rice. The TGMS phenotype showed a continuous variation in the segregant population. A low level of segregation distortion was detected in the F2 (14.65%, whose cause was found to be zygotic selection. There was no evidence suggesting a cause-effect relationship between zygotic selection and the control of TGMS in this cross. A linkage map comprising 1,213.3 cM was constructed based on the segregation data of the F2 population. Ninety-five out of 116 microsatellite polymorphic markers were assembled into 11 linkage groups, with an average of 12.77 cM between two adjacent marker loci. The phenotypic and genotypic data allowed for the identification of three new quantitative trait loci (QTL for thermosensitive genic male sterility in indica rice. Two of the QTL were mapped on chromosomes that, so far, have not been associated with the genetic control of the TGMS trait (chromosomes 1 and 12. The third QTL was mapped on chromosome 7, where a TGMS locus (tms2 has recently been mapped. Allelic tests will have to be developed, in order to clarify if the two regions are the same or not.O objetivo deste estudo foi selecionar e utilizar marcadores microssatélites, para mapear as regi��es genômicas associadas ao controle genético de macho-esterilidade termossensível (TGMS em arroz. Uma popu- lação F2, derivada do cruzamento entre linhagens indica fértil e TGMS, foi usada para construir um mapa genético de arroz, baseado em marcadores microssatélites. O fenótipo TGMS analisado apresentou uma variação contínua na população segregante. Um baixo nível de distorção da segregação foi detectado na população segregante

  5. sensitive genic male sterile (PGMS) rice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-04-18

    Apr 18, 2011 ... Acta Genetica Sinica, 13(2): 107-112. Tamaru N, Kinoshita T (1985). Classification of induced genetic male sterile mutants based on histological observations of microsporogenesis. Rice Genetics Newsletter 2: p. 76. van der Meer IM, Stam ME, Tunen AJV, Mol JNM, Stuitje AR (1992). Antisense inhibition of ...

  6. Genetic and molecular characterization of photoperiod and thermo-sensitive male sterility in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yourong; Zhang, Qifa

    2017-11-02

    A review on photoperiod and temperature-sensitive genic male sterility in rice. Male sterility in plants, facilitating the development of hybrid crops, has made great contribution to crop productivity worldwide. Environment-sensitive genic male sterility (EGMS), including photoperiod-sensitive genic male sterility (PGMS) and temperature-sensitive genic male sterility (TGMS), has provided a special class of germplasms for the breeding of "two-line" hybrids in several crops. In rice, the finding of the PGMS NK58S mutant in 1973 started the journey of research and breeding of two-line hybrids. Genetic and molecular characterization of these germplasms demonstrated diverse genes and molecular mechanisms of male sterility regulation. Two loci identified from NK58S, PMS1 and PMS3, both encode long noncoding RNAs. A major TGMS locus, TMS5, found in the TGMS line Annong S-1, encodes an RNase Z. A reverse PGMS mutant carbon starved anther encodes an R2R3 MYB transcription factor. Breeding efforts in the last three decades have resulted in hundreds of EGMS lines and two-line hybrids released to rice production, which have greatly elevated the yield potential and grain quality of rice varieties. The enhanced molecular understanding will offer new strategies for the development of EGMS lines thus further improving two-line hybrid breeding of rice as well as other crops.

  7. Characterization of an RNase Z nonsense mutation identified exclusively in environment-conditioned genic male sterile rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two-line system that is becoming more and more important for development of rice hybrids depends on environmentally conditioned genic male sterility (EGMS) due to either photoperiod (PGMS), or temperature (TGMS), or both (PTGMS). Up to 18 EGMS genes have been mapped with two being cloned, but contro...

  8. Analysis of cytoplasmic effects and fine-mapping of a genic male sterile line in rice.

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    Peng Qin

    Full Text Available Cytoplasm has substantial genetic effects on progeny and is important for yield improvement in rice breeding. Studies on the cytoplasmic effects of cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS show that most types of CMS have negative effects on yield-related traits and that these negative effects vary among CMS. Some types of genic male sterility (GMS, including photo-thermo sensitive male sterility (PTMS, have been widely used in rice breeding, but the cytoplasmic effects of GMS remain unknown. Here, we identified a GMS mutant line, h2s, which exhibited small, white anthers and failed to produce mature pollen. Unlike CMS, the h2s had significant positive cytoplasmic effects on the seed set rate, weight per panicle, yield, and general combining ability (GCA for plant height, seed set rate, weight per panicle, and yield. These effects indicated that h2s cytoplasm may show promise for the improvement of rice yield. Genetic analysis suggested that the phenotype of h2s was controlled by a single recessive locus. We mapped h2s to a 152 kb region on chromosome 6, where 22 candidate genes were predicted. None of the 22 genes had previously been reported to be responsible for the phenotypes of h2s. Sequencing analysis showed a 12 bp deletion in the sixth exon of Loc_Os06g40550 in h2s in comparison to wild type, suggesting that Loc_Os06g40550 is the best candidate gene. These results lay a strong foundation for cloning of the H2S gene to elucidate the molecular mechanism of male reproduction.

  9. Phenology, sterility and inheritance of two environment genic male sterile (EGMS) lines for hybrid rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Namaky, R; van Oort, P A J

    2017-12-01

    There is still limited quantitative understanding of how environmental factors affect sterility of Environment-conditioned genic male sterility (EGMS) lines. A model was developed for this purpose and tested based on experimental data from Ndiaye (Senegal) in 2013-2015. For the two EGMS lines tested here, it was not clear if one or more recessive gene(s) were causing male sterility. This was tested by studying sterility segregation of the F2 populations. Daylength (photoperiod) and minimum temperatures during the period from panicle initiation to flowering had significant effects on male sterility. Results clearly showed that only one recessive gene was involved in causing male sterility. The model was applied to determine the set of sowing dates of two different EGMS lines such that both would flower at the same time the pollen would be completely sterile. In the same time the local popular variety (Sahel 108, the male pollen donor) being sufficiently fertile to produce the hybrid seeds. The model was applied to investigate the viability of the two line breeding system in the same location with climate change (+2oC) and in two other potential locations: in M'Be in Ivory Coast and in the Nile delta in Egypt. Apart from giving new insights in the relation between environment and EGMS, this study shows that these insights can be used to assess safe sowing windows and assess the suitability of sterility and fertility period of different environments for a two line hybrid rice production system.

  10. (TGMS) of rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    to possess higher magnitude of heterosis. TGMS system can be useful in tropical countries like India where substantial temperature variations are available between Rabi and Kharif. Keywords. rice; SSR markers; thermosensitive genic male sterility; morphological traits; genetic diversity. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 90, No.

  11. Phenology, sterility and inheritance of two environment genic male sterile (EGMS) lines for hybrid rice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El-Namaky, R.; Oort, van P.A.J.

    2017-01-01

    Background: There is still limited quantitative understanding of how environmental factors affect sterility of Environment-conditioned genic male sterility (EGMS) lines. A model was developed for this purpose and tested based on experimental data from Ndiaye (Senegal) in 2013-2015. For the two

  12. Uncovering Male Fertility Transition Responsive miRNA in a Wheat Photo-Thermosensitive Genic Male Sterile Line by Deep Sequencing and Degradome Analysis

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    Jian-Fang Bai

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are endogenous small RNAs which play important negative regulatory roles at both the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels in plants. Wheat is the most commonly cultivated plant species worldwide. In this study, RNA-seq analysis was used to examine the expression profiles of miRNA in the spikelets of photo-thermosenisitive genic male sterile (PTGMS wheat line BS366 during male fertility transition. Through mapping on their corresponding precursors, 917–7,762 novel miRNAs were found in six libraries. Six novel miRNAs were selected for examination of their secondary structures and confirmation by stem-loop RT-PCR. In a differential expression analysis, 20, 22, and 58 known miRNAs exhibited significant differential expression between developmental stages 1 (secondary sporogenous cells had formed, 2 (all cells layers were present and mitosis had ceased, and 3 (meiotic division stage, respectively, of fertile and sterile plants. Some of these differential expressed miRNAs, such as tae-miR156, tae-miR164, tae-miR171, and tae-miR172, were shown to be associated with their targets. These targets were previously reported to be related to pollen development and/or male sterility, indicating that these miRNAs and their targets may be involved in the regulation of male fertility transition in the PTGMS wheat line BS366. Furthermore, target genes of miRNA cleavage sites were validated by degradome sequencing. In this study, a possible signal model for the miRNA-mediated signaling pathway during the process of male fertility transition in the PTGMS wheat line BS366 was developed. This study provides a new perspective for understanding the roles of miRNAs in male fertility in PTGMS lines of wheat.

  13. Genic non-coding microsatellites in the rice genome: characterization, marker design and use in assessing genetic and evolutionary relationships among domesticated groups

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    Singh Nagendra

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Completely sequenced plant genomes provide scope for designing a large number of microsatellite markers, which are useful in various aspects of crop breeding and genetic analysis. With the objective of developing genic but non-coding microsatellite (GNMS markers for the rice (Oryza sativa L. genome, we characterized the frequency and relative distribution of microsatellite repeat-motifs in 18,935 predicted protein coding genes including 14,308 putative promoter sequences. Results We identified 19,555 perfect GNMS repeats with densities ranging from 306.7/Mb in chromosome 1 to 450/Mb in chromosome 12 with an average of 357.5 GNMS per Mb. The average microsatellite density was maximum in the 5' untranslated regions (UTRs followed by those in introns, promoters, 3'UTRs and minimum in the coding sequences (CDS. Primers were designed for 17,966 (92% GNMS repeats, including 4,288 (94% hypervariable class I types, which were bin-mapped on the rice genome. The GNMS markers were most polymorphic in the intronic region (73.3% followed by markers in the promoter region (53.3% and least in the CDS (26.6%. The robust polymerase chain reaction (PCR amplification efficiency and high polymorphic potential of GNMS markers over genic coding and random genomic microsatellite markers suggest their immediate use in efficient genotyping applications in rice. A set of these markers could assess genetic diversity and establish phylogenetic relationships among domesticated rice cultivar groups. We also demonstrated the usefulness of orthologous and paralogous conserved non-coding microsatellite (CNMS markers, identified in the putative rice promoter sequences, for comparative physical mapping and understanding of evolutionary and gene regulatory complexities among rice and other members of the grass family. The divergence between long-grained aromatics and subspecies japonica was estimated to be more recent (0.004 Mya compared to short

  14. Programmed cell death-like behavior in photoperiodsensitive genic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In photoperiod-sensitive genic male sterile rice (Oryza sativa L.) pollen abort in long day and high temperature, and revert to fertility in short day length and low temperature growth conditions. This type of control of rice plant fertility can facilitate production of hybrid rice using two lines (photoperiodsensitive genic male sterile ...

  15. Tracking the expression of photosensitive genic male sterility genes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Photoperiod sensitive genic male sterile rice lines contain genes that induce complete sterility in high temperature and long day light length period, and revert to fertility in optimum low temperature and short day light length period. These lines are good candidates for hybrid rice seed production. The main challenge limiting ...

  16. Thoughts and Practice on Some Problems about Research and Application of Two-Line Hybrid Rice

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    Li-yun CHEN

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The main problems about research and application of two-line hybrid rice were reviewed, including the confusing nomenclature and male sterile lines classification, the unclear characteristics of photoperiod and temperature responses and the unsuitable site selection for male sterile line and hybrid rice seed production. In order to efficiently and accurately use dual-purpose genic male sterile lines, four types, including PTGMS (photo-thermo-sensitive genic male sterile rice, TGMS (thermo-sensitive genic male sterile rice, reverse PTGMS and reverse TGMS, were proposed. A new idea for explaining the mechanism of sterility in dual-purpose hybrid rice was proposed. The transition from sterile to fertile was involved in the cooperative regulation of major-effect sterile genes and photoperiod and/or temperature sensitive ones. The minor-effect genes with accumulative effect on sterility were important factors that affected the critical temperature of sterility transfer. In order to make better use of dual-purpose lines, the characterization of responses to photoperiod and temperature of PTGMS should be made and the identification method for the characterization of photoperiod and temperature responses of PTGMS should also be put forward. The optimal ecological site for seed production could be determined according to the historical climate data and the requirements for the meteorological conditions during the different periods of seed production.

  17. sensitive genic male sterile (PGMS) rice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-04-18

    Apr 18, 2011 ... genes (Mariani et al., 1990), while in petunia, flavonoids whose biosynthesis is regulated by chalcone synthase. (chs) gene, are responsible (van der Meer et al., 1992). Evidence in these crops illustrates the relationship between sterility in CMS and in PGMS plants and the dysfunction of tapetal layer.

  18. Heparin release from thermosensitive hydrogels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutowska, Anna; Bae, You Han; Feijen, Jan; Kim, Sung Wan

    1992-01-01

    Thermosensitive hydrogels (TSH) were synthesized and investigated as heparin releasing polymers for the prevention of surface induced thrombosis. TSH were synthesized with N-isopropyl acrylamide (NiPAAm) copolymerized with butyl methacrylate (BMA) (hydrophobic) or acrylic acid (AAc) (hydrophilic)

  19. Influence of Genetic Drift of Restoring Gene (Rf on Seed Purity of Yuetai A, a Honglian-Type Cytoplasmic Male Sterile Line in Hybrid Rice

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    Ji-feng Wang

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The seed samples of Yuetai A, a Honglian (HL type cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS line in hybrid rice were investigated to assess the seed purity and to analyze the cause of off-type plants by imitating the biological contaminant to Yuetai A in Nanjing, Jiangsu Province and Lingshui, Hainan Province during 2004–2006. The seed impurity of Yuetai A mainly resulted from the genetic drift of restoring fertility gene (Rf after biological contamination but not from its sterility unstability. All of the ten maintainer lines, five restorer lines and three thermo-sensitive genic male sterile lines used in the study could pollinate Yuetai A and Yuetai B to produce F1 plants, directly or indirectly resulting in Rf-gene drifting into Yuetai A and generating ‘iso-cytoplasm restoring-generations’. Furthermore, high outcrossing rate and similar heading date of Yuetai A with many varieties used in rice production might easily result in the biological contamination. After removing all plants with Rf-gene mixed in Yuetai A and preventing Rf-gene drifting into Yuetai A, the seed purity of Yuetai A and Yuetai B had been raised to 100%.

  20. Evolutionary discrimination of mammalian conserved non-genic sequences (CNGs)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dermitzakis, ET; Reymond, A; Scamuffa, N; Ucla, C; Kirkness, E; Rossier, C; Antonarakis, SE

    2003-01-01

    Analysis of the human and mouse genomes identified an abundance of conserved non-genic sequences (CNGs). The significance and evolutionary depth of their conservation remain unanswered. We have quantified levels and patterns of conservation of 191 CNGs of human chromosome 21 in 14 mammalian species.

  1. GenIce: Hydrogen-Disordered Ice Generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Masakazu; Yagasaki, Takuma; Tanaka, Hideki

    2018-01-05

    GenIce is an efficient and user-friendly tool to generate hydrogen-disordered ice structures. It makes ice and clathrate hydrate structures in various file formats. More than 100 kinds of structures are preset. Users can install their own crystal structures, guest molecules, and file formats as plugins. The algorithm certifies that the generated structures are completely randomized hydrogen-disordered networks obeying the ice rule with zero net polarization. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Computational Chemistry Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Computational Chemistry Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Workable male sterility systems for hybrid rice: Genetics, biochemistry, molecular biology, and utilization

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Jian-Zhong; E, Zhi-guo; Zhang, Hua-Li; Shu, Qing-Yao

    2014-01-01

    The exploitation of male sterility systems has enabled the commercialization of heterosis in rice, with greatly increased yield and total production of this major staple food crop. Hybrid rice, which was adopted in the 1970s, now covers nearly 13.6 million hectares each year in China alone. Various types of cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) and environment-conditioned genic male sterility (EGMS) systems have been applied in hybrid rice production. In this paper, recent advances in genetics, bi...

  3. Flocculation of flotation tailings using thermosensitive polymers

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    Bogacz Wojciech

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The key feature of thermosensitive polymers is the reversible transition between the hydrophilic and hydrophopic forms depending on the temperature. Although the main research efforts are focused on their application in different kinds of drug delivery systems, this phenomenon also allows one to precisely control the stability of solid-liquid dispersions. In this paper research on the application of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide copolymers in processing of minerals is presented. In the experiments tailings from flotation plant of one of the coal mines of Jastrzębska Spółka Węglowa S.A. (Poland were used. A laser particle sizer Fritsch Analysette 22 was used in order to determine the Particle Size Distribution (PSD. It was proved that there are some substantial issues associated with the application of thermosensitive polymers in industrial practice which may exclude them from the common application. High salinity of suspension altered the value of Lower Critical Solution Temperature (LCST. Moreover, the co-polymers used in research proved to be efficient flocculating agents without any temperature rise. Finally, the dosage needed to achieve steric stabilization of suspension was greatly beyond economic justification.

  4. Macromolecular diffusion in self-assembling biodegradable thermosensitive hydrogels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermonden, T.; Jena, S.S.; Barriet, D.; Censi, R.; Gucht, van der J.; Hennink, W.E.; Siegel, R.A.

    2010-01-01

    Hydrogel formation triggered by a change in temperature is an attractive mechanism for in situ gelling biomaterials for pharmaceutical applications such as the delivery of therapeutic proteins. In this study, hydrogels were prepared from ABA triblock polymers having thermosensitive

  5. Dimensional stability of thermosensitive gutta-percha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C Q; Chang, Y; Cobb, C M; Robinson, S; Hellmuth, E M

    1997-09-01

    The expansion and shrinkage of four commercial brands of endodontic thermosensitive gutta-percha were evaluated. A modified volume dilatometry technique was used; the dilatometric system (DS) consisted of Pyrex glass capillary tubes and a specimen chamber. Each sample was weighed to 10(-4) mg, placed in the specimen chamber, and subjected to vacuum for 45 min to eliminate moisture or gases. The DS was gradually heated from 24 degrees C to 80 degrees C and then cooled to 24 degrees C using a well-agitated temperature-controlled water bath. In a parallel set of experiments, the DS was heated in the same manner but cooled to body temperature (37 degrees C) in the water bath and the temperature kept stable at 37 degrees C for 24 h. The level of the mercury meniscus within the DS was monitored to determine the percent volume change of each sample at 2 degrees C intervals. All samples expanded as the temperature was elevated and shrank during cooling. The percent volume change for each of the four gutta-percha products, as the temperature was raised to 80 degrees C, ranged from an expansion of +11.62 to +12.25. As the temperature was lowered from 80 degrees C to 24 degrees C, the percent volume change representing shrinkage ranged from -2.22 to -3.53. When the temperature was lowered from 80 degrees C to 37 degrees C, the products continued to exhibit shrinkage for a range of time between 45 min and 10 h before stabilizing at a fixed volume. The final percent volume change for each experiment, with each product, was positive, ranging from +5.50 to +7.20, with discernible differences between products.

  6. Journal of Genetics | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Determination of genetic relationships among elite thermosensitive genic male sterile lines (TGMS) of rice (Oryza sativa L.) employing morphological and simple sequence repeat (SSR) ... Marker-assisted improvement of the elite restorer line of rice, RPHR-1005 for resistance against bacterial blight and blast diseases.

  7. Investigation of particle accumulation, chemosensitivity and thermosensitivity for effective solid tumor therapy using thermosensitive liposomes and hyperthermia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.J.M. Lokerse (Wouter); M. Bolkestein (Michiel); T.L.M. ten Hagen (Timo); M. de Jong (Marcel); A.M.M. Eggermont (Alexander); Grüll, H. (Holger); G.A. Koning (Gerben)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractDoxorubicin (Dox) loaded thermosensitive liposomes (TSLs) have shown promising results for hyperthermia-induced local drug delivery to solid tumors. Typically, the tumor is heated to hyperthermic temperatures (41-42 °C), which induced intravascular drug release from TSLs within the tumor

  8. Development of Polymorphic Genic SSR Markers by Transcriptome Sequencing in the Welsh Onion (Allium fistulosum L.

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    Liuyi Yang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Transcriptome analysis is an efficient way to explore molecular markers in plant species, for which genome sequences have not been published. To address the limited number of markers published for the Welsh onion, this study found 6486 loci of genic simple sequence repeats (SSR, which consisted of 1–5 bp repeat motifs, based on next-generation sequencing (NGS technology and the RNA-Seq approach. The most abundant motif was mononucleotide (52.33%, followed by trinucleotide (31.96%, and dinucleotide (14.57%. A total of 2525 primer pairs were successfully designed, and 91 out of 311 tested primers were polymorphisms. Overall, 38 genic SSR markers were randomly selected to further validate the degree of genetic diversity, and 22 genic SSR markers (57.89% showed high levels of polymorphism. The average polymorphism information content (PIC value and the number of alleles (Na were 0.63 and 5.27, respectively, and the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic average (UPGMA cluster analysis grouped the 22 Allium accessions into three groups with Nei’s similarity coefficients ranging from 0.37 to 0.99. This result suggested that these genic SSR markers could be used to develop a higher resolution genetic map and/or to analyze the phylogenetic relationships among Allium plants in the near future.

  9. Thermosensitive hydrogels a versatile concept adapted to vaginal drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taurin, Sebastien; Almomen, Aliyah A; Pollak, Tatianna; Kim, Sun Jin; Maxwell, John; Peterson, C Matthew; Owen, Shawn C; Janát-Amsbury, Margit M

    2017-11-15

    Vaginal drug delivery represents an attractive strategy for local and systemic delivery of drugs otherwise poorly absorbed after oral administration. The rather dense vascular network, mucus permeability and the physiological phenomenon of the uterine first-pass effect can all be exploited for therapeutic benefit. However, several physiological factors such as an acidic pH, constant secretion, and turnover of mucus as well as varying thickness of the vaginal epithelium can impact sustained drug delivery. In recent years, polymers have been designed to tackle challenges mentioned above. In particular, thermosensitive hydrogels hold great promise due to their stability, biocompatibility, adhesion properties and adjustable drug release kinetics. Here, we discuss the physiological and anatomical uniqueness of the vaginal environment and how it impacts the safe and efficient vaginal delivery and also reviewed several thermosensitive hydrogels deemed suitable for vaginal drug delivery by addressing specific characteristics, which are essential to engage the vaginal environment successfully.

  10. Patterns of genic intolerance of rare copy number variation in 59,898 human exomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruderfer, Douglas M.; Hamamsy, Tymor; Lek, Monkol; Karczewski, Konrad J.; Kavanagh, David; Samocha, Kaitlin E.; Daly, Mark J.; MacArthur, Daniel G.; Fromer, Menachem; Purcell, Shaun M.

    2016-01-01

    Copy number variation (CNV) impacting protein-coding genes contributes significantly to human diversity and disease. Here we characterized the rates and properties of rare genic CNV (intolerance to CNVs that demonstrated moderate correlation with measures of genic constraint based on single-nucleotide variation (SNV) and was independently correlated with measures of evolutionary conservation. For individuals with schizophrenia, genes impacted by CNVs were more intolerant than in controls. ExAC CNV data constitutes a critical component of an integrated database spanning the spectrum of human genetic variation, aiding the interpretation of personal genomes as well as population-based disease studies. These data are freely available for download and visualization online. PMID:27533299

  11. Genic regions of a large salamander genome contain long introns and novel genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryant Susan V

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The basis of genome size variation remains an outstanding question because DNA sequence data are lacking for organisms with large genomes. Sixteen BAC clones from the Mexican axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum: c-value = 32 × 109 bp were isolated and sequenced to characterize the structure of genic regions. Results Annotation of genes within BACs showed that axolotl introns are on average 10× longer than orthologous vertebrate introns and they are predicted to contain more functional elements, including miRNAs and snoRNAs. Loci were discovered within BACs for two novel EST transcripts that are differentially expressed during spinal cord regeneration and skin metamorphosis. Unexpectedly, a third novel gene was also discovered while manually annotating BACs. Analysis of human-axolotl protein-coding sequences suggests there are 2% more lineage specific genes in the axolotl genome than the human genome, but the great majority (86% of genes between axolotl and human are predicted to be 1:1 orthologs. Considering that axolotl genes are on average 5× larger than human genes, the genic component of the salamander genome is estimated to be incredibly large, approximately 2.8 gigabases! Conclusion This study shows that a large salamander genome has a correspondingly large genic component, primarily because genes have incredibly long introns. These intronic sequences may harbor novel coding and non-coding sequences that regulate biological processes that are unique to salamanders.

  12. Selective enrichment and separation of phosphotyrosine peptides by thermosensitive molecularly imprinted polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoqing; Xia, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Novel thermosensitive molecularly imprinted polymers were successfully prepared using the epitope imprinting approach in the presence of the mimic template phenylphosphonic acid, the functional monomer vinylphosphonic acid-Ti(4+) , the temperature-sensitive monomer N-isopropylacrylamide and the crosslinker N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide. The ratio of the template/thermosensitive monomers/crosslinker was optimized, and when the ratio was 2:2:1, the prepared thermosensitive molecularly imprinted polymers had the highest imprinting factor. The synthetic thermosensitive molecularly imprinted polymers were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to reveal the combination and elution processes of the template. Then, the adsorption capacity and thermosensitivity was measured. When the temperature was 28°C, the imprinting factor was the highest. The selectivity and adsorption capacity of the thermosensitive molecularly imprinted polymers for phosphotyrosine peptides from a mixture of three tailor-made peptides were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. The results showed that the thermosensitive molecularly imprinted polymers have good selectivity for phosphotyrosine peptides. Finally, the imprinted hydrogels were applied to specifically adsorb phosphotyrosine peptides from a sample mixture containing phosphotyrosine and a tryptic digest of β-casein, which demonstrated high selectivity. After four rebinding cycles, 78.9% adsorption efficiency was still retained. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Isolation and Characterization of Novel EST-Derived Genic Markers in Pisum sativum (Fabaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalu Jain

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Novel markers were developed for pea (Pisum sativum from pea expressed sequence tags (ESTs having significant homology to Medicago truncatula gene sequences to investigate genetic diversity, linkage mapping, and cross-species transferability. Methods and Results: Seventy-seven EST-derived genic markers were developed through comparative mapping between M. truncatula and P. sativum in which 75 markers produced PCR products and 33 were polymorphic among 16 pea genotypes. Conclusions: The novel markers described here will be useful for future genetic studies of P. sativum; their amplification in lentil (Lens culinaris demonstrates their potential for use in closely related species.

  14. Influence of monomer and crosslinker molar ratio on the swelling behaviour of thermosensitive hydrogels

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ilić-Stojanović Snežana S; Nikolić Ljubiša; Nikolić Vesna; Stanković Mihajlo; Stamenković Jakov; Mladenović-Ranisavljević Ivana; Petrović Slobodan

    2012-01-01

    ... of monomer and crosslinker molar ratios on the swelling behaviour was investigated. Synthesis of thermosensitive hydrogel based on N-isopropylacrylamide was carried out with the molar ratios of 5, 10, 15 and 20 mol...

  15. Development of genic and genomic SSR markers of robusta coffee (Coffea canephora Pierre Ex A. Froehner).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendre, Prasad S; Aggarwal, Ramesh K

    2014-01-01

    Coffee breeding and improvement efforts can be greatly facilitated by availability of a large repository of simple sequence repeats (SSRs) based microsatellite markers, which provides efficiency and high-resolution in genetic analyses. This study was aimed to improve SSR availability in coffee by developing new genic-/genomic-SSR markers using in-silico bioinformatics and streptavidin-biotin based enrichment approach, respectively. The expressed sequence tag (EST) based genic microsatellite markers (EST-SSRs) were developed using the publicly available dataset of 13,175 unigene ESTs, which showed a distribution of 1 SSR/3.4 kb of coffee transcriptome. Genomic SSRs, on the other hand, were developed from an SSR-enriched small-insert partial genomic library of robusta coffee. In total, 69 new SSRs (44 EST-SSRs and 25 genomic SSRs) were developed and validated as suitable genetic markers. Diversity analysis of selected coffee genotypes revealed these to be highly informative in terms of allelic diversity and PIC values, and eighteen of these markers (∼ 27%) could be mapped on a robusta linkage map. Notably, the markers described here also revealed a very high cross-species transferability. In addition to the validated markers, we have also designed primer pairs for 270 putative EST-SSRs, which are expected to provide another ca. 200 useful genetic markers considering the high success rate (88%) of marker conversion of similar pairs tested/validated in this study.

  16. De novo assembly of pen shell ( Atrina pectinata) transcriptome and screening of its genic microsatellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiujun; Li, Dongming; Liu, Zhihong; Zhou, Liqing; Wu, Biao; Yang, Aiguo

    2017-10-01

    The pen shell ( Atrina pectinata) is a large wedge-shaped bivalve, which belongs to family Pinnidae. Due to its large and nutritious adductor muscle, it is the popular seafood with high commercial value in Asia-Pacific countries. However, limiting genomic and transcriptomic data have hampered its genetic investigations. In this study, the transcriptome of A. pectinata was deeply sequenced using Illumina pair-end sequencing technology. After assembling, a total of 127263 unigenes were obtained. Functional annotation indicated that the highest percentage of unigenes (18.60%) was annotated on GO database, followed by 18.44% on PFAM database and 17.04% on NR database. There were 270 biological pathways matched with those in KEGG database. Furthermore, a total of 23452 potential simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were identified, of them the most abundant type was mono-nucleotide repeats (12902, 55.01%), which was followed by di-nucleotide (8132, 34.68%), tri-nucleotide (2010, 8.57%), tetra-nucleotide (401, 1.71%), and penta-nucleotide (7, 0.03%) repeats. Sixty SSRs were selected for validating and developing genic SSR markers, of them 23 showed polymorphism in a cultured population with the average observed and expected heterozygosities of 0.412 and 0.579, respectively. In this study, we established the first comprehensive transcript dataset of A. pectinata genes. Our results demonstrated that RNA-Seq is a fast and cost-effective method for genic SSR development in non-model species.

  17. Development of Cymbidium ensifolium genic-SSR markers and their utility in genetic diversity and population structure analysis in cymbidiums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaobai; Jin, Feng; Jin, Liang; Jackson, Aaron; Huang, Cheng; Li, Kehu; Shu, Xiaoli

    2014-12-05

    Cymbidium is a genus of 68 species in the orchid family, with extremely high ornamental value. Marker-assisted selection has proven to be an effective strategy in accelerating plant breeding for many plant species. Analysis of cymbidiums genetic background by molecular markers can be of great value in assisting parental selection and breeding strategy design, however, in plants such as cymbidiums limited genomic resources exist. In order to obtain efficient markers, we deep sequenced the C. ensifolium transcriptome to identify simple sequence repeats derived from gene regions (genic-SSR). The 7,936 genic-SSR markers were identified. A total of 80 genic-SSRs were selected, and primers were designed according to their flanking sequences. Of the 80 genic-SSR primer sets, 62 were amplified in C. ensifolium successfully, and 55 showed polymorphism when cross-tested among 9 Cymbidium species comprising 59 accessions. Unigenes containing the 62 genic-SSRs were searched against Non-redundant (Nr), Gene Ontology database (GO), eukaryotic orthologous groups (KOGs) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database. The search resulted in 53 matching Nr sequences, of which 39 had GO terms, 18 were assigned to KOGs, and 15 were annotated with KEGG. Genetic diversity and population structure were analyzed based on 55 polymorphic genic-SSR data among 59 accessions. The genetic distance averaged 0.3911, ranging from 0.016 to 0.618. The polymorphic index content (PIC) of 55 polymorphic markers averaged 0.407, ranging from 0.033 to 0.863. A model-based clustering analysis revealed that five genetic groups existed in the collection. Accessions from the same species were typically grouped together; however, C. goeringii accessions did not always form a separate cluster, suggesting that C. goeringii accessions were polyphyletic. The genic-SSR identified in this study constitute a set of markers that can be applied across multiple Cymbidium species and used for the evaluation

  18. ‘‘Blind'' mapping of genic DNA sequence polymorphisms in Lolium perenne L. by high resolution melting curve analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Studer, Bruno; Jensen, Louise Bach; Fiil, Alice

    2009-01-01

    curves. In this study, HRM was used for simultaneous screening and genotyping of genic DNA sequence polymorphisms identified in the Lolium perenne F2 mapping population VrnA. Melting profiles of PCR products amplified from previously published gene loci and from a novel gene putatively involved...... knowledge of allelic sequences in the key grassland species perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.)....

  19. Development and validation of genic-SSR markers in sesame by RNA-seq

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) is one of the most important oil crops; however, a lack of useful molecular markers hinders current genetic research. We performed transcriptome sequencing of samples from different sesame growth and developmental stages, and mining of genic-SSR markers to identify valuable markers for sesame molecular genetics research. Results In this study, 75 bp and 100 bp paired-end RNA-seq was used to sequence 24 cDNA libraries, and 42,566 uni-transcripts were assembled from more than 260 million filtered reads. The total length of uni-transcript sequences was 47.99 Mb, and 7,324 SSRs (SSRs ≥15 bp) and 4,440 SSRs (SSRs ≥18 bp) were identified. On average, there was one genic-SSR per 6.55 kb (SSRs ≥15 bp) or 10.81 kb (SSRs ≥18 bp). Among perfect SSRs (≥18 bp), di-nucleotide motifs (48.01%) were the most abundant, followed by tri- (20.96%), hexa- (25.37%), penta- (2.97%), tetra- (2.12%), and mono-nucleotides (0.57%). The top four motif repeats were (AG/CT)n [1,268 (34.51%)], (CA/TG)n [281 (7.65%)], (AT/AT)n [215 (5.85%)], and (GAA/TTC)n [131 (3.57%)]. A total of 2,164 SSR primer pairs were identified in the 4,440 SSR-containing sequences (≥18 bp), and 300 SSR primer pairs were randomly chosen for validation. These SSR markers were amplified and validated in 25 sesame accessions (24 cultivated accessions, one wild species). 276 (92.0%) primer pairs yielded PCR amplification products in 24 cultivars. Thirty two primer pairs (11.59%) exhibited polymorphisms. Moreover, 203 primer pairs (67.67%) yielded PCR amplicons in the wild accession and 167 (60.51%) were polymorphic between species. A UPGMA dendrogram based on genetic similarity coefficients showed that the correlation between genotype and geographical source was low and that the genetic basis of sesame in China is narrow, as previously reported. The 32 polymorphic primer pairs were validated using an F2 mapping population; 18 primer pairs exhibited

  20. Identification and characterization of genic microsatellites in Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb. Hook (Taxodiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Genomic resources for conventional breeding programs are extremely limited for coniferous trees, and existing simple sequence repeat markers are usually identified through the laborious process of hybridization screening. Therefore, this study aimed to identify gene-based microsatellites in the Chinese fir, Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb. Hook by screening transcript data. We identified 5200 microsatellites. Trinucleotide motifs were most common (47.94% and were followed by tetranucleotide motifs (24.92%. The AG/CT motif (43.93% was the most abundant dinucleotide repeat, whereas AAG/CTT (25.07% was the most common trinucleotide repeat. A total of 411 microsatellite primer pairs were designed and 97 polymorphic loci were identified by 8 genotypes. The number of alleles per locus (Na in these polymorphic loci ranged from 2 to 5 (mean, 2.640, the Ho values were 0.000-1.000 (mean, 0.479, and the HE values were 0.125-0.775 (mean, 0.462. The polymorphic information content (PIC values were 0.110-0.715 (mean, 0.383. Seventy-two of the 97 polymorphic markers (74.23% were present within genes with predicted functions. In addition, in genetic diversity and segregation analyses of 16 genotypes, only 5.88% of the polymorphic loci displayed segregation distortion at the p<0.05 level. Transferable amplification of a randomly selected set of 30 genic microsatellites showed that transferability decreased with increasing evolutionary distance between C. lanceolata and target conifers. Thus, these 97 genic markers will be useful for genetic diversity analysis, germplasm characterization, genome mapping and marker-assisted breeding in C. lanceolata, and evolutionary genetic analysis in Taxodiaceae.

  1. Tremor-genic slow slip regions may be deeper and warmer and may slip slower than non-tremor-genic regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery-Brown, Emily; Syracuse, Ellen M.

    2015-01-01

    Slow slip events (SSEs) are observed worldwide and often coincide with tectonic tremor. Notable examples of SSEs lacking observed tectonic tremor, however, occur beneath Kīlauea Volcano, Hawaii, the Boso Peninsula, Japan, near San Juan Bautista on the San Andreas Fault, California, and recently in Central Ecuador. These SSEs are similar to other worldwide SSEs in many ways (e.g., size or duration), but lack the concurrent tectonic tremor observed elsewhere; instead, they trigger swarms of regular earthquakes. We investigate the physical conditions that may distinguish these non-tremor-genic SSEs from those associated with tectonic tremor, including slip velocity, pressure, temperature, fluids, and fault asperities, although we cannot eliminate the possibility that tectonic tremor may be obscured in highly attenuating regions. Slip velocities of SSEs at Kīlauea Volcano (∼10−6 m/s) and Boso Peninsula (∼10−7 m/s) are among the fastest SSEs worldwide. Kīlauea Volcano, the Boso Peninsula, and Central Ecuador are also among the shallowest SSEs worldwide, and thus have lower confining pressures and cooler temperatures in their respective slow slip zones. Fluids also likely contribute to tremor generation, and no corresponding zone of high vp/vs has been noted at Kīlauea or Boso. We suggest that the relatively faster slip velocities at Kīlauea Volcano and the Boso Peninsula result from specific physical conditions that may also be responsible for triggering swarms of regular earthquakes adjacent to the slow slip, while different conditions produce slower SSE velocities elsewhere and trigger tectonic tremor.

  2. Rice Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter presents the symptoms of deficiency and toxicity of the major and minor mineral nutrients in rice, as well as a current synopsis of nutrient transporters and their regulation. The availability of sequences from the recently completed rice genome has furthered the knowledge of how plants...

  3. Synthesis and characterization of partially biodegradable and thermosensitive hydrogel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xian-Zheng; Sun, Guo-Ming; Wu, Da-Qing; Chu, Chih-Chang

    2004-08-01

    A partially biodegradable and thermosensitive hybrid hydrogel network (DAN series) based on dextran-allylisocyanate (Dex-AI) and poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm) was synthesized via UV photocrosslinking. These hybrid hydrogels were characterized in terms of their chemical structure, thermal, mechanical, morphological and temperature-induced swelling properties. The effect of the composition ratio of Dex-AI to PNIPAAm on such properties were examined. The differential scanning calorimetry data show that this Dex-AI/PNIPAAm hybrid network has an increased lower critical solution temperature (LCST) and glass transition temperature (Tg) with an increase in the Dex-AI content. The interior morphology of these hybrid hydrogels revealed a decreased porous microstructure with an increase in the Dex-AI content in the hybrid network. Furthermore, if the Dex-AI composition became too high, a distinctive network structure with two different microporous structures appeared. The mechanical properties of these hybrid hydrogels also increased with an increase in the Dex-AI content. The temperature dependence of the swelling ratio, the deswelling kinetics as well as the reswelling kinetics was also characterized by gravimetric method. When comparing with a normal PNIPAAm hydrogel, these Dex-AI/PNIPAAm hybrid networks, due to the presence of Dex-AI moiety, also show improved temperature-induced intelligent properties, such as the faster and controllable response dynamics, which may find promising applications in a wide variety of fields, such as biomedical and bioengineering fields.

  4. Novel thermosensitive hydrogel for preventing formation of abdominal adhesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiang; Deng, Xiaohui; Wei, Xiawei; Shi, Huashan; Wang, Fengtian; Ye, Tinghong; Shao, Bin; Nie, Wen; Li, Yuli; Luo, Min; Gong, Changyang; Huang, Ning

    2013-01-01

    Adhesions can form after almost any type of abdominal surgery. Postoperative adhesions can be prevented by improved surgical techniques, such as reducing surgical trauma, preventing ischemia, and avoiding exposure of the peritoneal cavity to foreign materials. Although improved surgical techniques can potentially reduce formation of adhesions, they cannot be eliminated completely. Therefore, finding more effective methods to prevent postoperative adhesions is imperative. Recently, we found that a novel thermosensitive hydrogel, ie, poly(ε-caprolactone)-poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCEC) had the potential to prevent postoperative adhesions. Using the ring-opening polymerization method we prepared a PCEC copolymer which could be dissolved and assembled at 55°C into PCEC micelles with mean size of 25 nm. At body temperature, a solution containing PCEC micelles could convert into a hydrogel. The PCEC copolymer was biodegradable and had low toxicity in vitro and in vivo. We found that most animals in a hydrogel-treated group (n = 10) did not develop adhesions. In contrast, 10 untreated animals developed adhesions that could only be separated by sharp dissection (P hydrogel could adhere to peritoneal wounds and degraded gradually over 7-9 days, transforming into a viscous fuid that was completely absorbed within 12 days. The injured parietal and visceral peritoneum remesothelialized over about seven and nine days, respectively. This study confirms that PCEC hydrogel has potential application in the prevention of postoperative adhesions.

  5. Fabricating continuous electroconductive polyacrylonitrile fibers with thermosensitive property via wet-spinning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wanwan; Jin, Yang; Wang, Yangyi; Ge, Mingqiao; Gao, Qiang

    2017-12-01

    In this work, conductive polyacrylonitrile (PAN) composite fiber with thermosensitive property was successfully prepared via wet-spinning. Thermochromic pigment (TCP) microsphere capsules were applied to manufacture color-changing fibers. Meanwhile, light-colored conductive whiskers (ATO@TiO2) were employed to endow polyacrylonitrile fibers with conductivity without prejudicing their thermosensitive property. Interestingly, unlike other conductive fibers in dark color, this kind of conductive composite fiber can be dyed by thermosensitive pigment. The obtained composite fiber containing 20 vol% ATO@TiO2 whiskers shows a resistivity of 105 Ω · cm and could generate heat by Joule heating when being applied under a certain voltage. The composite fiber shows a red color at room temperature, while the color of the composite fiber fades gradually and finally becomes white as temperature rise. This simple and cost-effective approach is expected to inspire more research into the applications of multifunctional conductive fibers.

  6. Transcriptomic Profiling Reveals Complex Molecular Regulation in Cotton Genic Male Sterile Mutant Yu98-8A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiping Fang

    Full Text Available Although cotton genic male sterility (GMS plays an important role in the utilization of hybrid vigor, its precise molecular mechanism remains unclear. To characterize the molecular events of pollen abortion, transcriptome analysis, combined with histological observations, was conducted in the cotton GMS line, Yu98-8A. A total of 2,412 genes were identified as significant differentially expressed genes (DEGs before and during the critical pollen abortion stages. Bioinformatics and biochemical analysis showed that the DEGs mainly associated with sugars and starch metabolism, oxidative phosphorylation, and plant endogenous hormones play a critical and complicated role in pollen abortion. These findings extend a better understanding of the molecular events involved in the regulation of pollen abortion in genic male sterile cotton, which may provide a foundation for further research studies on cotton heterosis breeding.

  7. Microsatellite repeat dynamics in mitochondrial genomes of phytopathogenic fungi: frequency and distribution in the genic and intergenic regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahfooz, Sahil; Singh, Pallavi; Maurya, Deepak K; Yadav, Mahesh C; Tahoor, Azram; Sahay, Harmesh; Srivastava, Arpita; Prakash, Anil

    2012-01-01

    The frequency and distribution of microsatellites were analyzed in the 19 mitogenomes of phytopathogenic fungi covering five phyla. Our analysis revealed that in all the mitogenomes studied, the frequency and relative abundance varied, and it was neither influenced by genome size nor by GC content. SSRs were found to be differential distributed in genic and intergenic regions. An average of 5.14 (23.6%) SSRs were present in genic sequences and 21.7 (76.4%) SSRs were located in the intergenic sequences. Relative abundance of SSRs in mitogenomes was the highest in Aspergillus tubigensis, whereas, it was the least in Phaeosphaeria nodurum, the average being 0.45. Trinucleotide repeats were the most abundant motifs in the genic and intergenic regions of the mitogenomes of the phytopathogenic fungi. Among the genes, cox1 harbors the maximum SSRs, whereas cox3 and nad 7 contain the least. Based on the presence of SSRs in a particular gene, genetic relationships among individual organisms were also established.

  8. Nanoparticles in thermosensitive gel based composite nanosystem for ocular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrahari, Vibhuti; Patel, Sulabh P; Dhall, Nikhil; Aulgur, Zach; Thukral, Siddhant; Yang, Xiaoyan; Conley, Ryan; Mitra, Ashim K

    2017-11-27

    The pentablock (PB) copolymers based composite nanosystems were designed to provide a long-term delivery of macromolecules to the back of the eye. A unique arrangement of each block (polyethylene glycol, polylactic acid, and polycaprolactone) with various molecular weights (PB-A and PB-B) was selected for the synthesis of nanoparticles (NPs) and thermosensitive gel (PB-C) by sequential ring-opening bulk copolymerization reaction. PB copolymers were characterized for their molecular weight and purity by 1H-NMR spectroscopy and crystallinity by PXRD. The macromolecule model drugs [lysozyme (Lyz ~ 14.5 kDa), IgG-Fab (~ 50 kDa), and IgG (~ 150 kDa)] were selected to delineate the effect of molecular weights on in vitro release profile of nanoformulations. Lyz-, Fab-, and IgG-encapsulated NPs were prepared by double emulsion solvent evaporation method. The entrapment efficiency (EE%) and drug loading (DL%) of macromolecules was higher for PB-B copolymers due to its higher molecular weight and hydrophobicity compare to PB-A. The particle size range of NPs was ~ 200-270 nm. In vitro release profiles of Lyz-, Fab-, and IgG-encapsulated in NPs alone and NPs suspended in gel (composite nanosystem) demonstrated a minimal burst release and drug release over a long period. The effect of hydrodynamic diameter of macromolecules and hydrophobicity of PB copolymers was investigated on the release profile of nanosystems. In vitro biocompatibility study showed negligible cytokine (IL-1, IL-6, and TNF-α) release, which confirmed the safety of the PB copolymers. Based on the results, it is anticipated that long-term ocular delivery of macromolecules can be achieved through composite nanosystems.

  9. Synthesis of thermosensitive magnetic nanocarrier for controlled sorafenib delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heidarinasab, Amir [Department of Chemical Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ahmad Panahi, Homayon [Department of Chemistry, Central Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Faramarzi, Mehdi, E-mail: faramarzi.iaug@gmail.com [Department of Chemical Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Farjadian, Fatemeh [Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Faculty of Pharmacy, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-10-01

    Allyl glycidyl ether/N-isopropylacrylamide-grafted magnetic nanoparticles were prepared using silica-coated magnetic nanoparticles as a substrate for radical copolymerization of allyl glycidyl ether and N-isopropylacrylamide. Chitosan was coupled with the prepared nanoparticles by opening the epoxy ring of the allyl glycidyl ether. The thermosensitive magnetic nanocarrier (TSMNC) obtained can be applied as a potent drug carrier. The TSMNC structure was characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, vibrating sample magnetometer, and elemental analysis. Its morphology and size were investigated using field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. The feasibility of employing the TSMNC for adsorption and in vitro controlled release of the chemotherapeutic agent sorafenib was tested. The effect of the adsorption parameters of pH, temperature, and loading time of sorafenib onto TSMNC was evaluated. The adsorption data was fitted to the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms and the relevant parameters derived. The drug release profile indicated that 88% of the adsorbed drug was released within 35 h at 45 °C and drug release was Fickian diffusion-controlled. The results confirmed that the TSMNC has a high adsorption capacity at low temperature and good controlled release in a slow rate at a high temperature and could be developed for further application as a drug nanocarrier. - Graphical abstract: Magnetic nanoparticles were functionalized with chitosan and N-isopropylacrylamide. It was evaluated for sorafenib (SFB) adsorption and tested as a controlled-release system in response to changes in temperature. The TSMNC showed superparamagnetic properties with a high adsorption capacity and desirable controlled release at below and above LCST. Display Omitted - Highlights: • A TSMNC was synthesized for controlled

  10. Automated tools for comparative sequence analysis of genic regions using the GenePalette application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew F; Posakony, James W; Rebeiz, Mark

    2017-09-01

    Comparative sequence analysis methods, such as phylogenetic footprinting, represent one of the most effective ways to decode regulatory sequence functions based upon DNA sequence information alone. The laborious task of assembling orthologous sequences to perform these comparisons is a hurdle to these analyses, which is further aggravated by the relative paucity of tools for visualization of sequence comparisons in large genic regions. Here, we describe a second-generation implementation of the GenePalette DNA sequence analysis software to facilitate comparative studies of gene function and regulation. We have developed an automated module called OrthologGrabber (OG) that performs BLAT searches against the UC Santa Cruz genome database to identify and retrieve segments homologous to a region of interest. Upon acquisition, sequences are compared to identify high-confidence anchor-points, which are graphically displayed. The visualization of anchor-points alongside other DNA features, such as transcription factor binding sites, allows users to precisely examine whether a binding site of interest is conserved, even if the surrounding region exhibits poor sequence identity. This approach also aids in identifying orthologous segments of regulatory DNA, facilitating studies of regulatory sequence evolution. As with previous versions of the software, GenePalette 2.1 takes the form of a platform-independent, single-windowed interface that is simple to use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Structural, microrheological and kinetic properties of a ternary silica-Pluronic F127-starch thermosensitive system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkova-Olsson, Yana; Oelschlaeger, Claude; Ullsten, Henrik; Järnström, Lars

    2018-03-15

    The sol-gel transition in aqueous suspensions consisting of silica particles and thermosensitive polymer is controlled by inter-particle forces and solution properties of the polymer. Addition of a second non-thermosensitive polymer may affect the transition. The purpose of this work was to characterize the kinetics of the sol-gel transition and to understand the effects of a second non-thermosensitive polymer on the microstructure, using a combination of classical rheology and microrheology. Classical rotational rheology as well as two microrheology methods, Multiple Particle Tracking (MPT) and Diffusing Wave Spectroscopy (DWS), were used to investigate the sol-gel transition of a ternary silica-Pluronic F127-starch thermosensitive system. Classical rheometry and DWS indicated sol-gel transition temperature ∼25 °C at 1 wt% Pluronic, independently of the concentration of the other components. DWS showed a fast gelation process, less than two minutes for all samples, beside a second slow kinetic process. In the gel state, MPT indicated micro-structural and micro-viscoelastic differences compared to rotational rheology. This was explained by formation of an elastic matrix of silica and polymers in combination with assembly of silica particles in large macroporous agglomerates. Presence of starch led to breakdown of the macroporous network, leaving the homogeneous elastic network left. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Structural and biological properties of thermosensitive chitosan-graphene hybrid hydrogels for sustained drug delivery applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeednia, Leyla; Yao, Li; Berndt, Marcus; Cluff, Kim; Asmatulu, Ramazan

    2017-09-01

    Chitosan has the ability to make injectable thermosensitive hydrogels which has been highly investigated for drug delivery applications. The addition of nanoparticles is one way to increase the mechanical strength of thermosensitive chitosan hydrogel and subsequently and control the burst release of drug. Graphene nanoparticles have shown unique mechanical, optical and electrical properties which can be exploited for biomedical applications, especially in drug delivery. This study, have focused on the mechanical properties of a thermosensitive and injectable hybrid chitosan hydrogel incorporated with graphene nanoparticles. Scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) have been used for morphological and chemical characterization of graphene infused chitosan hydrogels. The cell viability and cytotoxicity of graphene-contained hydrogels were analyzed using the alamarBlue® technique. In-vitro methotrexate (MTX) release was investigated from MTX-loaded hybrid hydrogels as well. As a last step, to evaluate their efficiency as a cancer treatment delivery system, an in vitro anti-tumor test was also carried out using MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines. Results confirmed that a thermosensitive chitosan-graphene hybrid hydrogel can be used as a potential breast cancer therapy system for controlled delivery of methotrexate. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 105A: 2381-2390, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Membrane distillation with porous metal hollow fibers for the concentration of thermo-sensitive solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shukla, Sushumna

    2014-01-01

    This thesis presents an original approach for the concentration of thermo-sensitive solutions: the Sweep Gas Membrane Distillation (SGMD) process. A new membrane contactor with metallic hollow fibers has been designed and allows the distillation process to be operational at low temperature. Heat is

  14. Mechanical, rheological and release behaviors of a poloxamer 407/ poloxamer 188/carbopol 940 thermosensitive composite hydrogel

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chen, Jianping; Zhou, Rong; Li, Lin; Li, Bing; Zhang, Xia; Su, Jianyu

    2013-01-01

    The aims of this study were to prepare a thermosensitive composite hydrogel (TCH) by mixing 24% (w/v) poloxamer 407 (P407), 16% (w/v) poloxamer 188 (P188) and 0.1% (w/v) carbopol 940 (C940), and to determine the effect of natural borneol...

  15. A high-density SNP genotyping array for rice biology and molecular breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haodong; Xie, Weibo; He, Hang; Yu, Huihui; Chen, Wei; Li, Jing; Yu, Renbo; Yao, Yue; Zhang, Wenhui; He, Yuqing; Tang, Xiaoyan; Zhou, Fasong; Deng, Xing Wang; Zhang, Qifa

    2014-03-01

    A high-density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array is critically important for geneticists and molecular breeders. With the accumulation of huge amounts of genomic re-sequencing data and available technologies for accurate SNP detection, it is possible to design high-density and high-quality rice SNP arrays. Here we report the development of a high-density rice SNP array and its utility. SNP probes were designed by screening more than 10 000 000 SNP loci extracted from the re-sequencing data of 801 rice varieties and an array named RiceSNP50 was produced on the Illumina Infinium platform. The array contained 51 478 evenly distributed markers, 68% of which were within genic regions. Several hundred rice plants with parent/F1 relationships were used to generate a high-quality cluster file for accurate SNP calling. Application tests showed that this array had high genotyping accuracy, and could be used for different objectives. For example, a core collection of elite rice varieties was clustered with fine resolution. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) analysis correctly identified a characterized QTL. Further, this array was successfully used for variety verification and trait introgression. As an accurate high-throughput genotyping tool, RiceSNP50 will play an important role in both functional genomics studies and molecular breeding.

  16. Genic rather than genome-wide differences between sexually deceptive Ophrys orchids with different pollinators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedeek, Khalid E M; Scopece, Giovanni; Staedler, Yannick M; Schönenberger, Jürg; Cozzolino, Salvatore; Schiestl, Florian P; Schlüter, Philipp M

    2014-12-01

    High pollinator specificity and the potential for simple genetic changes to affect pollinator attraction make sexually deceptive orchids an ideal system for the study of ecological speciation, in which change of flower odour is likely important. This study surveys reproductive barriers and differences in floral phenotypes in a group of four closely related, coflowering sympatric Ophrys species and uses a genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) approach to obtain information on the proportion of the genome that is differentiated between species. Ophrys species were found to effectively lack postpollination barriers, but are strongly isolated by their different pollinators (floral isolation) and, to a smaller extent, by shifts in flowering time (temporal isolation). Although flower morphology and perhaps labellum coloration may contribute to floral isolation, reproductive barriers may largely be due to differences in flower odour chemistry. GBS revealed shared polymorphism throughout the Ophrys genome, with very little population structure between species. Genome scans for FST outliers identified few markers that are highly differentiated between species and repeatable in several populations. These genome scans also revealed highly differentiated polymorphisms in genes with putative involvement in floral odour production, including a previously identified candidate gene thought to be involved in the biosynthesis of pseudo-pheromones by the orchid flowers. Taken together, these data suggest that ecological speciation associated with different pollinators in sexually deceptive orchids has a genic rather than a genomic basis, placing these species at an early phase of genomic divergence within the 'speciation continuum'. © 2014 The Authors. Molecular Ecology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. The skeletal function of non-genic nuclear DNA: new evidence from ancient cell chimaeras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalier-Smith, T; Beaton, M J

    1999-01-01

    DNA can be divided functionally into three categories: (1) genes--which code for proteins or specify non-messenger RNAs; (2) semons--short specific sequences involved in the replication, segregation, recombination or specific attachments of chromosomes, or chromosome regions (e.g. loops or domains) or selfish genetic elements; (3) secondary DNA--which does not function by means of specific sequences. Probably more than 90% of DNA in the biosphere is secondary DNA present in the nuclei of plants and phytoplankton. The amount of genic DNA is related to the complexity of the organism, whereas the amount of secondary DNA increases proportionally with cell volume, and not with complexity. This correlation is most simply explained by the skeletal DNA hypothesis, according to which nuclear DNA functions as the basic framework for the assembly of the nucleus and the total genomic DNA content functions (together with relatively invariant folding rules) in determining nuclear volumes. Balanced growth during the cell cycle requires the cytonuclear ratio to be basically constant, irrespective of cell volume; thus nuclear volumes, and therefore the overall genome size, have to be evolutionarily adjusted to changing cell volumes for optimal function. Bacteria, mitochondria, chloroplasts and viruses have no nuclear envelope; and the skeletal DNA hypothesis simply explains why secondary DNA is essentially absent from them but present in large cell nuclei. Hitherto it has been difficult to refute the alternative hypothesis that nuclear secondary DNA (whether 'junk' or selfish DNA) accumulates merely by mutation pressure, and that selection for economy is not strong enough to eliminate it, whereas accumulation in mitochondria and plastids is prevented by intracellular replicative competition between their multiple genomes. New data that discriminate clearly between these explanations for secondary DNA come from cryptomonads and chlorarachneans, two groups of algae that originated

  18. Investigation of TiNi shape memory alloy for thermosensitive wire drive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ostropiko Eugene

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available TiNi shape memory alloys are nowadays widely used in engineering and medicine. The unique capabilities of this material are particularly apparent in applications for space technology. One of the actual present problems is the design of thermosensitive devices for space applications. In this work, we investigated a TiNi alloy as a working element material for the thermosensitive wire drive as an actuator. An optimum thermomechanical treatment of NiTi alloys was selected based on the analysis of functional and mechanical properties. It consists of a multi-cycle implementation of transformation plasticity under 220 MPa constant stress and a shape memory effect in the free state.

  19. Development of microbial resistant thermosensitive Ag nanocomposite (gelatin) hydrogels via green process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjula, Bandla; Varaprasad, Kokkarachedu; Sadiku, Rotimi; Ramam, Koduri; Reddy, G Venkata Subba; Raju, Konduru Mohana

    2014-04-01

    In this investigation, an ecofriendly method for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using biodegradable gelatin as a stabilizing agent is reported. Here, we prepared thermosensitive silver nanocomposite hydrogels composed of gelatin and N-isopropylacrylamide. In this green process AgNPs were formed from Ag(+) ions and reduced with leaf [Azadirachta indica (neem leaf)] extracts, resulting in a hydrogel network. The Ag(0) nanoparticles affect the hydrogel strength and improved the biological activity (inactivation effect of bacteria) of the biodegradable hydrogels. The resulted hydrogel structure, morphology, thermal, swelling behavior, degradation, and antibacterial properties were systematically investigated. The biodegradable thermosensitive silver nanocomposite hydrogels developed were tested for antibacterial activities. The results indicate that these biodegradable silver nanocomposite hydrogels are suitable potential candidates for antibacterial applications. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Characterizations and bioactivities of abendazole sulfoxide-loaded thermo-sensitive hydrogel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yi; Wang, Fen; Zhang, Xue-Wei; Bhutani, Harshit; Ye, Bin

    2017-03-01

    Albendazole (ABZ), a widely used anthelmintic, attributes its primary metabolite-albendazole sulfoxide (ABZSO)-as an effective agent against helminthes. For a purpose of long-lasting releasing ABZSO in a special lesion, the present study successfully manufactured ABZSO-loaded thermo-sensitive hydrogel, which was proved by FTIR and 1H NMR, in the interim; in vitro and in vivo behaviors of the thermo-sensitive hydrogel containing ABZSO were studied too. The in vivo pharmacokinetics parameters indicated ABZSO-loaded hydrogel as a better choice for sustained release compared with simple ABZSO. Additionally, the effect of the prepared hydrogels against helminth was investigated by the lethality of Caenorhabditis elegans, the results indicated that the lethality of ABZSO-loaded hydrogel (1, 2, and 4 mg/ml, respectively) on C. elegans was higher than that of PLGA-PEG-PLGA group (P hydrogels loaded with albendazole sulfoxide could be considered highly effective against the nematode C. elegans.

  1. Genic Microsatellite Markers in Brassica rapa: Development, Characterization, Mapping, and Their Utility in Other Cultivated and Wild Brassica Relatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramchiary, Nirala; Nguyen, Van Dan; Li, Xiaonan; Hong, Chang Pyo; Dhandapani, Vignesh; Choi, Su Ryun; Yu, Ge; Piao, Zhong Yun; Lim, Yong Pyo

    2011-01-01

    Genic microsatellite markers, also known as functional markers, are preferred over anonymous markers as they reveal the variation in transcribed genes among individuals. In this study, we developed a total of 707 expressed sequence tag-derived simple sequence repeat markers (EST-SSRs) and used for development of a high-density integrated map using four individual mapping populations of B. rapa. This map contains a total of 1426 markers, consisting of 306 EST-SSRs, 153 intron polymorphic markers, 395 bacterial artificial chromosome-derived SSRs (BAC-SSRs), and 572 public SSRs and other markers covering a total distance of 1245.9 cM of the B. rapa genome. Analysis of allelic diversity in 24 B. rapa germplasm using 234 mapped EST-SSR markers showed amplification of 2 alleles by majority of EST-SSRs, although amplification of alleles ranging from 2 to 8 was found. Transferability analysis of 167 EST-SSRs in 35 species belonging to cultivated and wild brassica relatives showed 42.51% (Sysimprium leteum) to 100% (B. carinata, B. juncea, and B. napus) amplification. Our newly developed EST-SSRs and high-density linkage map based on highly transferable genic markers would facilitate the molecular mapping of quantitative trait loci and the positional cloning of specific genes, in addition to marker-assisted selection and comparative genomic studies of B. rapa with other related species. PMID:21768136

  2. Development of 15 genic-ssr markers in oil-tea tree (Camellia oleifera based on transcriptome sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Baoguang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Oil-tea tree is one of the most important woody edible oil plants; however, lack of useful molecular markers hinders current genetic research. We performed transcriptome sequencing of developing seeds and characterized microsatellites from transcriptome sequences to identify valuable markers for C. oleifera molecular genetics research. A total of 69,798 unigenes were identified, in which 6,949 putative SSR motifs from 6,042 SSR-containing unique putative transcripts were discovered. Twenty-nine primer pairs corresponding to 29 unigene loci were designed, of which 15 polymorphic genic-SSR markers were developed in 18 varieties and characterized by capillary electrophoresis. The number of alleles per locus (Na ranged from 2 to 14, the expected heterozygosity (He ranged from 0.374 to 0.876, and the polymorphism information content (PIC values ranged from 0.498 to 0.887, respectively. Cross-species amplification was also conducted in 15 varieties of C. japonica. All 15 markers successfully amplified PCR products with expected size in C. japonica and exhibited polymorphisms. The 15 polymorphic genic- SSR markers will have potential for applications in genetic diversity evaluation, molecular fingerprinting identification, comparative genome analysis, and genetic mapping in the C. oleifera and C. japonica.

  3. Thermosensitive PLA based nanodispersion for targeting brain tumor via intranasal route

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Darshana S., E-mail: darshanaj_cup@yahoo.com [C.U. Shah College of Pharmacy, S.N.D.T Women' s University, Juhu Tara Road, Santacruz (West), Mumbai 400 049 (India); Bajaj, Amrita N. [C.U. Shah College of Pharmacy, S.N.D.T Women' s University, Juhu Tara Road, Santacruz (West), Mumbai 400 049 (India); Athawale, Rajani B., E-mail: rajani.athawale@gmail.com [C.U. Shah College of Pharmacy, S.N.D.T Women' s University, Juhu Tara Road, Santacruz (West), Mumbai 400 049 (India); Shikhande, Shruti S. [C.U. Shah College of Pharmacy, S.N.D.T Women' s University, Juhu Tara Road, Santacruz (West), Mumbai 400 049 (India); Pandey, Abhijeet [H. R Patel Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Shirpur, Maharashtra (India); Goel, Peeyush N.; Gude, Rajiv P. [Gude Lab, Advanced Centre for Treatment, Research & Education in Cancer (ACTREC), Tata Memorial Centre, Kharghar, Navi Mumbai 410 210 (India); Patil, Satish; Raut, Preeti [Cipla Pvt. Ltd., Vikhroli (West), Mumbai (India)

    2016-06-01

    Delivery of drugs to the brain via nasal route has been studied by many researchers. However, low residence time, mucociliary clearance and enzymatically active environment of nasal cavity pose many challenges to successful nasal delivery of drugs. We aim to deliver methotrexate by designing thermosensitive nanodispersion exhibiting enhanced residence time in nasal cavity and bypassing the blood brain barrier (BBB). PLA nanoparticles were developed using solvent evaporation technique. The developed nanoparticles were further dispersed in prepared thermosensitive vehicle of poloxamer 188 and Carbopol 934 to impart the property of increased residence time. The formulated nanoparticles demonstrated no interaction with the simulated nasal fluids (SNF), mucin, serum proteins and erythrocytes which demonstrate the safety of developed formulation for nasal administration. The penetration property of nanoparticles though the nasal mucosa was higher than the pure drug due to low mucociliary clearance. The developed nanoparticles diffused though the membrane pores and rapidly distributed into the brain portions compared to the pure drug. There was detectable and quantifiable amount of drug seen in the brain as demonstrated by in vivo brain distribution studies with considerably low amount of drug deposition in the lungs. The pharmacokinetic parameters demonstrated the enhancement in circulation half life, area under curve (AUC) and Cmax of the drug when administered intranasal in encapsulated form. Thus, the thermosensitive nanodispersions are surely promising delivery systems for delivering anticancer agents though the nasal route for potential treatment of brain tumors. - Highlights: • The present investigation explores intra-nasal route as potential route for targeting brain tumor. • Thermosensitive nanodispersion has been formulated for enhancing nasal residence time. • PLA nanoparticles enhance penetration into the brain owing to hydrophobic nature and small size

  4. α-Tocopherol loaded thermosensitive polymer nanoparticles: preparation, in vitro release and antioxidant properties

    OpenAIRE

    Cirley Quintero; Ricardo Vera; Leon Dario Perez

    2016-01-01

    Abstract α-Tocopherol is the most bioavailable and active compound found in vitamin E with potential application in pharmaceutical, alimentary and cosmetic industries. However, its low solubility in aqueous medium and environmental instability limit its dosage. In this paper, we report the preparation of α-tocopherol loaded nanoparticles (TOC-NP) based on amphiphilic thermosensitive triblock copolymers PNIPAM-b-PCL-b-PNIPAM. The nanoparticles exhibited a core – shell structure...

  5. Oxide nanomembrane hybrids with enhanced mechano- and thermo-sensitivity for semitransparent epidermal electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Minjoon; Do, Kyungsik; Kim, Jaemin; Son, Donghee; Koo, Ja Hoon; Park, Jinkyung; Song, Jun-Kyul; Kim, Ji Hoon; Lee, Minbaek; Hyeon, Taeghwan; Kim, Dae-Hyeong

    2015-05-01

    Oxide nanomembrane hybrids with enhanced mechano- and thermo-sensitivity for semitransparent epidermal electronics are developed. The use of nanomaterials (single wall nanotubes and silver nanoparticles) embedded in the oxide nanomembranes significantly enhances mechanical and thermal sensitivities. These mechanical and thermal sensors are utilized in wheelchair control and hypothermia detection, which are useful for patients with strokes. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Synthesis and Thermosensitive Behavior of Polyacrylamide Copolymers and Their Applications in Smart Textiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Chen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We tuned the lower critical solution temperature (LCST of amphiphilic poly(N-isopropylacrylamide (PNIPAAm via copolymerization with a hydrophilic comonomer of N-hydroxymethyl acrylamide (NHMAAm. A series of copolymers P(NIPAAm-co-NHMAAm were synthesized by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP using CuBr/(N,N,N',N',N''-Pentamethyldiethylenetriamine (PMDETA as a catalyst system and 2-bromo ethyl isobutyrate (EBiB as an initiator. The copolymers were well characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, 1H Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR, and Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA. The copolymers followed a simple rule in their thermosensitive behaviors and have a linear increase in the LCST as a function of NHMAAm mol%. The thermosensitive properties of the copolymer films were investigated and demonstrated hydrophilic-hydrophobic transitions. Finally, the copolymer was grafted onto cotton fabrics using citric acid (CA as a crosslinking agent and sodium hypophosphite (SHP as a catalyst following a two dipping, two padding process. The large number of hydroxyl groups in the copolymer makes grafting convenient and firm. The grafted cotton fabrics show obvious thermosensitive behaviors. The results demonstrate that the cotton fabrics become more hydrophobic when the temperature is higher than the LCST. This study presents a valuable route towards temperature-responsive smart textiles and their potential applications.

  7. Control of genic DNA methylation by a jmjC domain-containing protein in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saze, Hidetoshi; Shiraishi, Akiko; Miura, Asuka; Kakutani, Tetsuji

    2008-01-25

    Differential cytosine methylation of repeats and genes is important for coordination of genome stability and proper gene expression. Through genetic screen of mutants showing ectopic cytosine methylation in a genic region, we identified a jmjC-domain gene, IBM1 (increase in bonsai methylation 1), in Arabidopsis thaliana. In addition to the ectopic cytosine methylation, the ibm1 mutations induced a variety of developmental phenotypes, which depend on methylation of histone H3 at lysine 9. Paradoxically, the developmental phenotypes of the ibm1 were enhanced by the mutation in the chromatin-remodeling gene DDM1 (decrease in DNA methylation 1), which is necessary for keeping methylation and silencing of repeated heterochromatin loci. Our results demonstrate the importance of chromatin remodeling and histone modifications in the differential epigenetic control of repeats and genes.

  8. Moderate Genetic Diversity and Genetic Differentiation in the Relict Tree Liquidambar formosana Hance Revealed by Genic Simple Sequence Repeat Markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Rongxi; Lin, Furong; Huang, Ping; Zheng, Yongqi

    2016-01-01

    Chinese sweetgum (Liquidambar formosana) is a relatively fast-growing ecological pioneer species. It is widely used for multiple purposes. To assess the genetic diversity and genetic differentiation of the species, genic SSR markers were mined from transcriptome data for subsequent analysis of the genetic diversity and population structure of natural populations. A total of 10645 potential genic SSR loci were identified in 80482 unigenes. The average frequency was one SSR per 5.12 kb, and the dinucleotide unit was the most abundant motif. A total of 67 alleles were found, with a mean of 6.091 alleles per locus and a mean polymorphism information content of 0.390. Moreover, the species exhibited a relatively moderate level of genetic diversity (He = 0.399), with the highest was found in population XY (He = 0.469). At the regional level, the southwestern region displayed the highest genetic diversity (He = 0.435) and the largest number of private alleles (n = 5), which indicated that the Southwestern region may be the diversity hot spot of L. formosana. The AMOVA results showed that variation within populations (94.02%) was significantly higher than among populations (5.98%), which was in agreement with the coefficient of genetic differentiation (Fst = 0.076). According to the UPGMA analysis and principal coordinate analysis and confirmed by the assignment test, 25 populations could be divided into three groups, and there were different degrees of introgression among populations. No correlation was found between genetic distance and geographic distance (P > 0.05). These results provided further evidence that geographic isolation was not the primary factor leading to the moderate genetic differentiation of L. formosana. As most of the genetic diversity of L. formosana exists among individuals within a population, individual plant selection would be an effective way to use natural variation in genetic improvement programs. This would be helpful to not only protect the

  9. Genic and Intergenic SSR Database Generation, SNPs Determination and Pathway Annotations, in Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtar, Morad M; Adawy, Sami S; El-Assal, Salah El-Din S; Hussein, Ebtissam H A

    2016-01-01

    The present investigation was carried out aiming to use the bioinformatics tools in order to identify and characterize, simple sequence repeats within the third Version of the date palm genome and develop a new SSR primers database. In addition single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are located within the SSR flanking regions were recognized. Moreover, the pathways for the sequences assigned by SSR primers, the biological functions and gene interaction were determined. A total of 172,075 SSR motifs was identified on date palm genome sequence with a frequency of 450.97 SSRs per Mb. Out of these, 130,014 SSRs (75.6%) were located within the intergenic regions with a frequency of 499 SSRs per Mb. While, only 42,061 SSRs (24.4%) were located within the genic regions with a frequency of 347.5 SSRs per Mb. A total of 111,403 of SSR primer pairs were designed, that represents 291.9 SSR primers per Mb. Out of the 111,403, only 31,380 SSR primers were in the genic regions, while 80,023 primers were in the intergenic regions. A number of 250,507 SNPs were recognized in 84,172 SSR flanking regions, which represents 75.55% of the total SSR flanking regions. Out of 12,274 genes only 463 genes comprising 896 SSR primers were mapped onto 111 pathways using KEGG data base. The most abundant enzymes were identified in the pathway related to the biosynthesis of antibiotics. We tested 1031 SSR primers using both publicly available date palm genome sequences as templates in the in silico PCR reactions. Concerning in vitro validation, 31 SSR primers among those used in the in silico PCR were synthesized and tested for their ability to detect polymorphism among six Egyptian date palm cultivars. All tested primers have successfully amplified products, but only 18 primers detected polymorphic amplicons among the studied date palm cultivars.

  10. Development of Gene-Based SSR Markers in Rice Bean (Vigna umbellata L. Based on Transcriptome Data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honglin Chen

    Full Text Available Rice bean (Vigna umbellata (Thunb. Ohwi & Ohashi is a warm season annual legume mainly grown in East Asia. Only scarce genomic resources are currently available for this legume crop species and no simple sequence repeat (SSR markers have been specifically developed for rice bean yet. In this study, approximately 26 million high quality cDNA sequence reads were obtained from rice bean using Illumina paired-end sequencing technology and assembled into 71,929 unigenes with an average length of 986 bp. Of these unigenes, 38,840 (33.2% showed significant similarity to proteins in the NCBI non-redundant protein and nucleotide sequence databases. Furthermore, 30,170 (76.3% could be classified into gene ontology categories, 25,451 (64.4% into Swiss-Prot categories and 21,982 (55.6% into KOG database categories (E-value < 1.0E-5. A total of 9,301 (23.5% were mapped onto 118 pathways using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genome (KEGG pathway database. A total of 3,011 genic SSRs were identified as potential molecular markers. AG/CT (30.3%, AAG/CTT (8.1% and AGAA/TTCT (20.0% are the three main repeat motifs. A total of 300 SSR loci were randomly selected for validation by using PCR amplification. Of these loci, 23 primer pairs were polymorphic among 32 rice bean accessions. A UPGMA dendrogram revealed three major clusters among 32 rice bean accessions. The large number of SSR-containing sequences and genic SSRs in this study will be valuable for the construction of high-resolution genetic linkage maps, association or comparative mapping and genetic analyses of various Vigna species.

  11. Using NGF heparin-poloxamer thermosensitive hydrogels to enhance the nerve regeneration for spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ying-Zheng; Jiang, Xi; Xiao, Jian; Lin, Qian; Yu, Wen-Ze; Tian, Fu-Rong; Mao, Kai-Li; Yang, Wei; Wong, Ho Lun; Lu, Cui-Tao

    2016-01-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) has potential in spinal cord injury (SCI) therapy, but limited by the poor physicochemical stability and low ability to cross the blood spinal cord barrier. Novel heparin-poloxamer (HP) thermo-sensitive hydrogel was constructed to enhance the NGF regeneration on SCI. NGF-HP thermo-sensitive hydrogel was prepared and related characteristics including gelation temperature, rheological behavior and micromorphology were measured. Local NGF delivery to the injured spinal cord was achieved by in situ injection in the injured space. The cellular uptake of NGF-HP hydrogel was evaluated with PC12 cells in vitro. Pathologic characteristics and neuron regeneration effects on the SCI rats were studied to evaluate the enhanced therapy of NGF-HP hydrogel. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced apoptosis was analyzed to explore the related mechanism in SCI regeneration. NGF-HP hydrogel showed good morphology and stable bioactivity of NGF in vitro. NGF-HP hydrogel combined treatment significantly enhanced the efficiency of NGF cellular uptake (Pregeneration. Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating condition that can lead to sudden loss of sensory and autonomic function. Current treatment includes decompression surgery, injury stabilization, secondary complications prevention and rehabilitation. However, neurological recovery is limited. Nerve growth factor (NGF) has potential in SCI therapy, but limited by the poor physicochemical stability and low ability to cross the blood spinal cord barrier. Hydrogels have good affinity and compatibility to biological tissue. In this study, we developed a novel heparin-poloxamer (HP) thermo-sensitive hydrogel to enhance the spinal cord regeneration of NGF. From SCI rat experiment, HP hydrogel combined with orthotopic injection technique showed best neuroprotective effects among experimental groups. This novel combined technique will provide an effective strategy for SCI regeneration. Copyright © 2015 Acta

  12. Increasing dwell time of mitomycin C in the upper tract with a reverse thermosensitive polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Agnes J; Goldsmith, Zachariah G; Neisius, Andreas; Astroza, Gaston M; Oredein-McCoy, Olugbemisola; Iqbal, Muhammad W; Simmons, W Neal; Madden, John F; Preminger, Glenn M; Inman, Brant A; Lipkin, Michael E; Ferrandino, Michael N

    2013-03-01

    Abstract Background and Purpose: Topical chemotherapy for urothelial cancer is dependent on adequate contact time of the chemotherapeutic agent with the urothelium. To date, there has not been a reliable method of maintaining this contact for renal or ureteral urothelial carcinoma. We evaluated the safety and feasibility of using a reverse thermosensitive polymer to improve dwell times of mitomycin C (MMC) in the upper tract. Using a porcine model, four animals were treated ureteroscopically with both upper urinary tracts receiving MMC mixed with iodinated contrast. One additional animal received MMC percutaneously. The treatment side had ureteral outflow blocked with a reverse thermosensitive polymer plug. MMC dwell time was monitored fluoroscopically and intrarenal pressures measured. Two animals were euthanized immediately, and three animals were euthanized 5 days afterward. In control kidneys, drainage occurred at a mean of 5.3±0.58 minutes. Intrarenal pressures stayed fairly stable: 9.7±14.0 cm H20. In treatment kidneys, dwell time was extended to 60 minutes, when the polymer was washed out. Intrarenal pressures in the treatment kidneys peaked at 75.0±14.7 cm H20 and reached steady state at 60 cm H20. Pressures normalized after washout of the polymer with cool saline. Average washout time was 11.8±9.6 minutes. No histopathologic differences were seen between the control and treatment kidneys, or with immediate compared with delayed euthanasia. A reverse thermosensitive polymer can retain MMC in the upper urinary tract and appears to be safe from our examination of intrarenal pressures and histopathology. This technique may improve the efficacy of topical chemotherapy in the management of upper tract urothelial carcinoma.

  13. α-Tocopherol loaded thermosensitive polymer nanoparticles: preparation, in vitro release and antioxidant properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cirley Quintero

    Full Text Available Abstract α-Tocopherol is the most bioavailable and active compound found in vitamin E with potential application in pharmaceutical, alimentary and cosmetic industries. However, its low solubility in aqueous medium and environmental instability limit its dosage. In this paper, we report the preparation of α-tocopherol loaded nanoparticles (TOC-NP based on amphiphilic thermosensitive triblock copolymers PNIPAM-b-PCL-b-PNIPAM. The nanoparticles exhibited a core – shell structure, were positively charged and presented average diameters below 300 nm. TOC-NP presented controlled release of α-tocopherol at room temperature along 140h, and exhibited antioxidant properties in aqueous medium.

  14. Suppression of a thermosensitive zipA cell division mutant by altering amino acid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Daniel Vega; Margolin, William

    2017-10-23

    ZipA is essential for cell division in Escherichia coli, acting early in the process to anchor polymers of FtsZ to the cytoplasmic membrane. Along with FtsA, FtsZ and ZipA form a proto-ring at midcell that recruits additional proteins to eventually build the division septum. Cells carrying the thermosensitive zipA1 allele divide fairly normally at 30°C in rich medium but cease dividing at temperatures above 34°C, forming long filaments. In a search for suppressors of zipA1, we found that deletions of specific genes involved in amino acid biosynthesis could partially cell rescue growth and division at 34°C or 37°C, but not at 42°C. Notably, although a diverse group of amino acid biosynthetic gene deletions could partially rescue growth of zipA1 cells at 34°C, only deletions of genes related to the biosynthesis of threonine, glycine, serine and methionine could rescue at 37°C. Adding exogenous pyridoxal 5-phosphate (PLP), a cofactor for many of the enzymes affected by this study, partially suppressed zipA1 thermosensitivity. For many of the deletions, PLP had an additive rescuing effect on zipA1 Moreover, added PLP partially suppressed the thermosensitivity of ftsQ and ftsK mutants, weakly suppressed an ftsI mutant, but failed to suppress ftsA or ftsZ thermosensitive mutants. Along with the ability of a deletion of metC to partially suppress ftsK, our results suggest that perturbations of amino acid metabolic pathways, particularly those that redirect the flow of carbon away from synthesis of threonine, glycine, or methionine, are able to partially rescue some cell division defects.IMPORTANCE Cell division of bacteria such as Escherichia coli is essential for their successful colonization. It is becoming increasingly clear that nutritional status and central metabolism can affect bacterial size and shape; for example, a metabolic enzyme (OpgH) can moonlight as a regulator of FtsZ, an essential cell division protein. Here, we demonstrate a link between amino

  15. Brain targeted delivery of mucoadhesive thermosensitive nasal gel of selegiline hydrochloride for treatment of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, Vinay; Wairkar, Sarika; Gaud, Ram; Bajaj, Amrita; Meshram, Pramod

    2017-07-18

    Selegiline hydrochloride (SL), is an anti-Parkinson's agent, has low-oral bioavailability due to its high first pass metabolism and scarce oral absorption. In the present study, SL mucoadhesive nasal thermosensitive gel (SNT-gel) was prepared to enhance the bioavailability and subsequently, its concentration in the brain. The SNT-gel was prepared using Poloxamer 407-Chitosan combination and optimised formulation was further evaluated for physicochemical parameters. The comparative pharmacodynamic studies including behavioural studies, biochemical testing and histopathology of the brain was carried out in rats for SNT-gel, SL-nasal solution and SL Marketed Tablets. The optimised SNT-gel formulation (SNT-V) revealed sol-gel transition at 33-34°C. In-vitro diffusion study of SNT-V showed 102.37 ± 2.1% diffusion at 12 h which reduced to 89.64 ± 1.2% in Ex-vivo diffusion. Comparative results of behavioural studies indicated an improved score of photoactometer and reduced motor deficit (catalepsy score) in SNT-gel treatment group as compared with other groups. Similarly, a significant increase in brain dopamine, reduction in monoamine oxidase B level, increase in catalase activity and level of reduced glutathione upon treatment with SNT-gel indicated its effectiveness which was also supported by histopathology results. Therefore, nasal thermosensitive gel holds better potential for brain targeting in Parkinson's disease over the conventional nasal or oral formulations.

  16. Thermosensitive In Situ Gel Based on Solid Dispersion for Rectal Delivery of Ibuprofen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yangdan; Wang, Xin; Liu, Youping; Di, Xin

    2017-07-21

    The objective of this study was to develop a thermosensitive in situ gel based on solid dispersions (SDs) for rectal delivery of ibuprofen (IBU). Thermosensitive (poloxamer 407) and mucoadhesive (hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose E5 and sodium alginate) polymers were used to prepare the in situ gel and the sol-gel transition temperature (T sol-gel) and gel strength were optimized. The in vitro release performance and in vivo pharmacokinetic properties of the in situ gel after their rectal administration to rabbits were investigated. Compared with the solid suppository, the cumulative release of the IBU SDs loaded in situ gel was significantly increased. The in vivo pharmacokinetics indicated that in situ gel had a higher peak plasma concentration (C max) and area under the curve (AUC(0-∞)) in plasma than the solid suppositories. Histopathology results showed that the IBU in situ gel given at a dose of 15 mg/kg did not produce any irritation. In conclusion, this study suggested that the in situ gel could be an effective rectal formulation for IBU.

  17. The thermosensitive potassium channel TREK-1 contributes to coolness-evoked responses of Grueneberg ganglion neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stebe, Sabrina; Schellig, Katharina; Lesage, Florian; Breer, Heinz; Fleischer, Joerg

    2014-01-01

    Neurons of the Grueneberg ganglion (GG) residing in the vestibule of the murine nose are activated by cool ambient temperatures. Activation of thermosensory neurons is usually mediated by thermosensitive ion channels of the transient receptor potential (TRP) family. However, there is no evidence for the expression of thermo-TRPs in the GG, suggesting that GG neurons utilize distinct mechanisms for their responsiveness to cool temperatures. In search for proteins that render GG neurons responsive to coolness, we have investigated whether TREK/TRAAK channels may play a role; in heterologous expression systems, these potassium channels have been previously found to close upon exposure to coolness, leading to a membrane depolarization. The results of the present study indicate that the thermosensitive potassium channel TREK-1 is expressed in those GG neurons that are responsive to cool temperatures. Studies analyzing TREK-deficient mice revealed that coolness-evoked responses of GG neurons were clearly attenuated in these animals compared with wild-type conspecifics. These data suggest that TREK-1 channels significantly contribute to the responsiveness of GG neurons to cool temperatures, further supporting the concept that TREK channels serve as thermoreceptors in sensory cells. Moreover, the present findings provide the first evidence of how thermosensory GG neurons are activated by given temperature stimuli in the absence of thermo-TRPs.

  18. Upconversion fluorescence metal-organic frameworks thermo-sensitive imprinted polymer for enrichment and sensing protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ting; Deng, Qiliang; Fang, Guozhen; Gu, Dahai; Yang, Yukun; Wang, Shuo

    2016-05-15

    A novel fluorescence material with thermo-sensitive for the enrichment and sensing of protein was successfully prepared by combining molecular imprinting technology with upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) and metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). Herein, the UCNPs acted as signal reporter for composite materials because of its excellent fluorescence property and chemical stability. MOFs were introduced to molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) due to its high specific surface area which increases the rate of mass transfer relative to that of traditional bulk MIP. The thermo-sensitive imprinted material which allows for swelling and shrinking with response to temperature changes was prepared by choosing Bovine hemoglobin (BHB) as the template, N-isopropyl acrylamide (NIPAAM) as the temperature-sensitive functional monomer and N,N-methylenebisacrylamide (MBA) as the cross-linker. The recognition characterizations of imprinted material-coated UCNPs/MOFs (UCNPs/MOFs/MIP) were evaluated, and the results showed that the fluorescence intensity of UCNPs/MOFs/MIP reduced gradually with the increase of BHB concentration. The fluorescence material was response to the temperature. The adsorption capacity was as much as 167.6 mg/g at 28°C and 101.2mg/g at 44°C, which was higher than that of traditional MIP. Therefore, this new fluorescence material for enrichment and sensing protein is very promising for future applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Thermo-sensitive polymer nanospheres as a smart plugging agent for shale gas drilling operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei-Ji; Qiu, Zheng-Song; Zhong, Han-Yi; Huang, Wei-An; Dai, Wen-Hao

    2017-01-01

    Emulsifier-free poly(methyl methacrylate-styrene) [P(MMA-St)] nanospheres with an average particle size of 100 nm were synthesized in an isopropyl alcohol-water medium by a solvothermal method. Then, through radical graft copolymerization of thermo-sensitive monomer N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAm) and hydrophilic monomer acrylic acid (AA) onto the surface of P(MMA-St) nanospheres at 80 °C, a series of thermo-sensitive polymer nanospheres, named SD-SEAL with different lower critical solution temperatures (LCST), were prepared by adjusting the mole ratio of NIPAm to AA. The products were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, particle size distribution, and specific surface area analysis. The temperature-sensitive behavior was studied by light transmittance tests, while the sealing performance was investigated by pressure transmission tests with Lungmachi Formation shales. The experimental results showed that the synthesized nanoparticles are sensitive to temperature and had apparent LCST values which increased with an increase in hydrophilic monomer AA. When the temperature was higher than its LCST value, SD-SEAL played a dual role of physical plugging and chemical inhibition, slowed down pressure transmission, and reduced shale permeability remarkably. The plugged layer of shale was changed to being hydrophobic, which greatly improved the shale stability.

  20. Antitumor activity of TNF-α after intratumoral injection using an in situ thermosensitive hydrogel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yourui; Shen, Yan; Ouahab, Ammar; Li, Chang; Xiong, Yerong; Tu, Jiasheng

    2015-03-01

    Local drug delivery strategies based on nanoparticles, gels, polymeric films, rods and wafers are increasingly used in cancer chemotherapy in order to enhance therapeutic effect and reduce systemic toxicity. Herein, a biodegradable and biocompatible in situ thermosensitive hydrogel was designed and employed to deliver tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) locally by intratumoral injection. The triblock copolymer was synthesized by ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of β-butyrolactone (β-BL) and lactide (LA) in bulk using polyethylene glycol (PEG) as an initiator and Sn(Oct)2 as the catalyst, the polymer was characterized by NMR, gel permeation chromatography and differential scanning calorimetry. Blood and tumor pharmacokinetics and in vivo antitumor activity of TNF-α after intratumoral administration in hydrogel or solution with the same dose were evaluated on S180 tumor-bearing mice. Compared with TNF-α solution, TNF-α hydrogel exhibited a longer T1/2 (4-fold) and higher AUCtumor (19-fold), but Cmax was lower (0.5-fold), which means that the hydrogel formulation improved the efficacy with a lower systhemic exposure than the solution formation. In addition, TNF-α hydrogel improved the antitumor activity and survival due to lower systemic exposure than the solution. These results demonstrate that the in situ thermosensitive hydrogel-based local delivery system by intratumoral injection is well suited for the administration of TNF-α.

  1. Synthesis and Formulation of Thermosensitive Drug Carrier for Temperature Triggered Delivery of Naproxen Sodium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Gasztych

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Nanospheres and microspheres are known as a multipurpose compounds and are used in various branches of science. Recent controlled delivery systems for drugs are also based on poly-micro and nanospheres. In our study we describe an investigation of the influence of thermosensitive polymer N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPA on the release of the drug naproxen sodium (NS with a hydrogel hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC base. The hydrodynamic diameter (DH of the obtained polymer was measured by using dynamic light scattering (DLS at a wavelength of 678 nm. Hydrogel formulations of NS were prepared in a specific way ex tempore. NS was sprinkled on the surface of a distilled water, then polymer soluted in water was added. Afterward, HPMC was affixed to the solution. Prepared samples were stored at room temperature for 24 h. Release tests showed that modification of thevcross-linker type influenced the properties of synthesized polymeric particles. The NIPA derivatives obtained via surfactant free precipitation polymerization (SFPP may be formulated as hydrogel preparations using HPMC. The obtained formulations presented varied half-release times, depending on the type of applied NIPA derivatives in hydrogel formulations. At 18 °C, the release rates were lower comparing to the reference HPMC hydrogel, whereas at 42 °C, the release rates were significantly higher. The synthesized thermosensitive polymers enabled temperature-triggered release of NS.

  2. Moderate genetic diversity and genetic differentiation in the relict tree Liquidambar formosana Hance revealed by genic simple sequence repeat markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong xi Sun

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Chinese sweetgum (Liquidambar formosana is a relatively fast-growing ecological pioneer species. It is widely used for multiple purposes. To assess the genetic diversity and genetic differentiation of the species, genic SSR markers were mined from transcriptome data for subsequent analysis of the genetic diversity and population structure of natural populations. A total of 10645 potential genic SSR loci were identified in 80482 unigenes. The average frequency was one SSR per 5.12 kb, and the dinucleotide unit was the most abundant motif. A total of 67 alleles were found, with a mean of 6.091 alleles per locus and a mean polymorphism information content of 0.390. Moreover, the species exhibited a relatively moderate level of genetic diversity (He=0.399, with the highest was found in population XY (He=0.469. At the regional level, the southwestern region displayed the highest genetic diversity (He=0.435 and the largest number of private alleles (n=5, which indicated that the Southwestern region may be the diversity hot spot of L. formosana. The AMOVA results showed that variation within populations (94.02% was significantly higher than among populations (5.98%, which was in agreement with the coefficient of genetic differentiation (Fst = 0.076. According to the UPGMA analysis and principal coordinate analysis and confirmed by the assignment test, 25 populations could be divided into three groups, and there were different degrees of introgression among populations. No correlation was found between genetic distance and geographic distance (P>0.05. These results provided further evidence that geographic isolation was not the primary factor leading to the moderate genetic differentiation of L. formosana. As most of the genetic diversity of L. formosana exists among individuals within a population, individual plant selection would be an effective way to use natural variation in genetic improvement programs. This would be helpful to not only protect the

  3. Rice peasants and rice research in Colombia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spijkers, P.A.N.M.

    1983-01-01

    Rice has been grown as a food crop in Latin America from early colonial times. In Colombia rice became a prominent subsistence crop especially on the north coast where it has been grown since the 17th century, sometimes also as a commercial crop. During the last twenty years there has been a sharp

  4. [Establishment of Genic Male Sterile Lines of Brassica napus by Wide Cross and Their Cytology and Morphology.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xing-Wu; Wu, Jian-Guo; Shi, Chun-Hai

    2005-05-01

    One and three male sterile plants were found in the progenies of the intergeneric hybrids by crossing Brassica napus and Brassica juncea to Orychophragmus violaceus, respectively. After interspecific cross and full-sib crosses, four genic male sterile lines were obtained. The results of cytological observations indicated that somatic chromosome number was 38 in all types of sterile lines, which were considered as the type of B. napus. Most of pollen mother cells (PMC) in all sterile plants were observed normally for chromosome behaviour. But abnormal phenomena of chromosome, which present for chromosome lagging and bridge, were still found at each stage of meiosis in these sterile lines. These lines belonged to complete sterile type. There were distinct differences between sterile plants and normal plants in the flower morphology. Bud death at different degrees was found on anthotaxies in sterile plants. Studies on the flower growth showed that the growths of the pistils in sterile plants were gradually accelerated along with pollen sterility. At the same time there were two slowly growth stages of the pistils growth in normal plants. The prospects of these sterile lines were discussed in this paper.

  5. Fine mapping of the epistatic suppressor gene (esp) of a recessive genic male sterility in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhenghua; Xie, Yanzhou; Hong, Dengfeng; Liu, Pingwu; Yang, Guangsheng

    2009-09-01

    9012AB, a recessive genic male sterility (RGMS) line derived from spontaneous mutation in Brassica napus, has been playing an important role in rapeseed hybrid production in China. The male sterility of 9012AB is controlled by two recessive genes (ms3 and ms4) interacting with one recessive epistatic suppressor gene (esp). The objective of this study was to develop PCR-based markers tightly linked to the esp gene and construct a high-resolution map surrounding the esp gene. From the survey of 512 AFLP primer combinations, 3 tightly linked AFLP markers were obtained and successfully converted to codominant or dominant SCAR markers. Furthermore, a codominant SSR marker (Ra2G08) associated with the esp gene was identified through genetic map integration. For fine mapping of the esp gene, these PCR-based markers were analyzed in a large BC1 population of 2545 plants. The esp gene was then genetically restricted to a region of 1.03 cM, 0.35 cM from SSR marker Ra2G08 and 0.68 cM from SCAR marker WSC6. The SCAR marker WSC5 co-segregated with the target gene. These results lay a solid foundation for map-based cloning of esp and will facilitate the selection of RGMS lines and their temporary maintainers.

  6. Cooked rice texture and rice flour pasting properties; impacted by rice temperature during milling

    OpenAIRE

    Saleh, Mohammed; Meullenet, Jean-Francois

    2013-01-01

    Rice milling plays a key factor in determining rice quality and value. Therefore accurate quality assessments are critical to the rice industry. This study was undertaken to assess the effect of exposing rice to elevated temperatures during milling, on cooked rice texture and rice flour pasting properties. Two long (Cybonnett and Francis) and one medium (Jupiter) rice (oryzae sativa L.) cultivars were milled using McGill laboratory mill for 30 and 40 s after warmed up the mill before milling....

  7. Electrospun thermosensitive hydrogel scaffold for enhanced chondrogenesis of human mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunelle, Alexander R; Horner, Christopher B; Low, Karen; Ico, Gerardo; Nam, Jin

    2017-11-08

    Hydrogels have shown great potential for cartilage tissue engineering applications due to their capability to encapsulate cells within biomimetic, 3-dimensional (3D) microenvironments. However, the multi-step fabrication process that is necessary to produce cell/scaffold constructs with defined dimensions, limits their off-the-shelf translational usage. In this study, we have developed a hybrid scaffolding system which combines a thermosensitive hydrogel, poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PEG-PNIPAAm), with a biodegradable polymer, poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL), into a composite, electrospun microfibrous structure. A judicious optimization of material composition and electrospinning process produced a structurally self-supporting hybrid scaffold. The reverse thermosensitivity of PEG-PNIPAAm allowed its dissolution/hydration upon cell seeding within a network of PCL microfibers while maintaining the overall scaffold shape at room temperature. A subsequent temperature elevation to 37 °C induced the hydrogel's phase transition to a gel state, effectively encapsulating cells in a 3D hydrogel without the use of a mold. We demonstrated that the hybrid scaffold enhanced chondrogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) based on chondrocytic gene and protein expression, which resulted in superior viscoelastic properties of the cell/scaffold constructs. The hybrid scaffold enables a facile, single-step cell seeding process to inoculate cells within a 3D hydrogel with the potential for cartilage tissue engineering. Hydrogels have demonstrated the excellent ability to enhance chondrogenesis of stem cells due to their hydrated fibrous nanostructure providing a cellular environment similar to native cartilage. However, the necessity for multi-step processes, including mixing of hydrogel precursor with cells and subsequent gelation in a mold to form a defined shape, limits their off-the-shelf usage. In this study, we developed a hybrid

  8. Correlation among thermosensitive period, estradiol response, and gonad differentiation in the sea turtle Lepidochelys olivacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant-Larios, H; Ruiz-Ramirez, S; Moreno-Mendoza, N; Marmolejo-Valencia, A

    1997-09-01

    Reptile embryos with temperature sex determination have a thermosensitive period (TSP). The finding that exogenous estradiol (E2) overcomes the effect of male-promoting temperature led to the idea that temperature may regulate estrogen concentration in the gonad during TSP. Since interspecific variations in TSP and in the effect of exogenous E2 exist, we undertook a study in the olive ridley Lepidochelys olivacea. Four parameters were correlated: the TSP (time dimension), the thermosensitive stages (rate of development), gonad development (histological aspect), and the estradiol response. Two kinds of experiments were performed: (1) Eggs were shifted once, at different stages of development, from a male-promoting temperature to a female-temperature (or vice versa) for the remainder of development. (2) Eggs at male-promoting temperature were treated once with 6 or 12 microg of estradiol (E2) at various times of incubation. Sex ratio was established around hatching in each experimental series. We found that the temporal dimension of the TSP was around 7 days (Days 20-27 of incubation) at a male-promoting or a female-promoting temperature. The rate of development of the whole embryo and gonadal growth was faster at female-promoting temperature than at male-promoting temperature. Formation of the genital ridge began at stage 21-22 and histological differentiation of the gonads occurred around stage 26-27. Although these stages coincided with the TSP, at male-promoting temperature the thermosensitive stages occurred earlier (from stages 20-21 to stages 23-24) than at female-promoting temperature (from stages 23-24 to stages 26-27). Thus, at male promoting-temperature, sex was determined in embryos with incipient or undifferentiated gonads. In contrast, E2 treatment continued to feminize the gonads of embryos at a male-promoting temperature beyond the TSP up to stage 25-26, but the E2-induced ovaries were significantly smaller than temperature-induced ovaries. It is

  9. Smart thermosensitive liposomes for effective solid tumor therapy and in vivo imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Affram

    Full Text Available In numerous studies, liposomes have been used to deliver anticancer drugs such as doxorubicin to local heat-triggered tumor. Here, we investigate: (i the ability of thermosensitive liposomal nanoparticle (TSLnp as a delivery system to deliver poorly membrane-permeable anticancer drug, gemcitabine (Gem to solid pancreatic tumor with the aid of local mild hyperthermia and, (ii the possibility of using gadolinium (Magnevist® loaded-TSLnps (Gd-TSLnps to increase magnetic resonance imaging (MRI contrast in solid tumor. In this study, we developed and tested gemcitabine-loaded thermosensitive liposomal nanoparticles (Gem-TSLnps and gadolinium-loaded thermosensitive liposomal nanoparticles (Gd-TSLnps both in in-vitro and in-vivo. The TSLnps exhibited temperature-dependent release of Gem, at 40-42°C, 65% of Gem was released within 10 min, whereas < 23% Gem leakage occurred at 37°C after a period of 2 h. The pharmacokinetic parameters and tissue distribution of both Gem-TSLnps and Gd-TSLnps were significantly greater compared with free Gem and Gd, while Gem-TSLnps plasma clearance was reduced by 17-fold and that of Gd-TSLpns was decreased by 2-fold. Area under the plasma concentration time curve (AUC of Gem-TSLnps (35.17± 0.04 μghr/mL was significantly higher than that of free Gem (2.09 ± 0.01 μghr/mL whereas, AUC of Gd-TSLnps was higher than free Gd by 3.9 fold high. TSLnps showed significant Gem accumulation in heated tumor relative to free Gem. Similar trend of increased Gd-TSLnps accumulation was observed in non-heated tumor compared to that of free Gd; however, no significant difference in MRI contrast enhancement between free Gd and Gd-TSLnps ex-vivo tumor images was observed. Despite Gem-TSLnps dose being half of free Gem dose, antitumor efficacy of Gem-TSLnps was comparable to that of free Gem(Gem-TSLnps 10 mg Gem/kg compared with free Gem 20 mg/kg. Overall, the findings suggest that TSLnps may be used to improve Gem delivery and enhance

  10. Tracer-based prediction of thermal reservoir lifetime: scope, limitations, and the role of thermosensitive tracers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghergut, I.; Behrens, H.; Karmakar, S.; Licha, T.; Nottebohm, M.; Sauter, M.

    2012-04-01

    Thermal-lifetime prediction is a traditional endeavour of inter-well tracer tests conducted in geothermal reservoirs. Early tracer test signals (detectable within the first few years of operation) are expected to correlate with late-time production temperature evolutions ('thermal breakthrough', supposed to not occur before some decades of operation) of a geothermal reservoir. Whenever a geothermal reservoir can be described as a single-fracture system, its thermal lifetime will, ideally, be determined by two parameters (say, fracture aperture and porosity), whose inversion from conservative-tracer test signals is straightforward and non-ambiguous (provided that the tracer tests, and their interpretation, are performed in accordance to the rules of the art). However, as soon as only 'few more' fractures are considered, this clear-cut correlation is broken. A given geothermal reservoir can simultaneously feature a single-fracture behaviour, in terms of heat transport, and a multiple-fracture behaviour, in terms of solute tracer transport (or vice-versa), whose effective values of fracture apertures, spacings, and porosities are essentially uncorrelated between heat and solute tracers. Solute transport parameters derived from conservative-tracer tests will no longer characterize the heat transport processes (and thus temperature evolutions) taking place in the same reservoir. Parameters determining its thermal lifetime will remain 'invisible' to conservative tracers in inter-well tests. We demonstrate this issue at the example of a five-fracture system, representing a deep-geothermal reservoir, with well-doublet placement inducing fluid flow 'obliquely' to the fractures. Thermal breakthrough in this system is found to strongly depend on fracture apertures, whereas conservative-solute tracer signals from inter-well tests in the same system do not show a clear-cut correlation with fracture apertures. Only by using thermosensitive substances as tracers, a reliable

  11. Combination of Natural and Thermosensitive Polymers in Flocculation of Fine Silica Dispersions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Licea-Claverie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel strategy for faster and better flocculation in solid-liquid separation processes is reported: the use of the natural polyelectrolyte chitosan (CH2500 in combination with the biocompatible thermosensitive polymer poly(N-vinylcaprolactam (PNVCL. Silica dispersions (Aerosil OX50 were used as model and evaluated by means of analytical centrifuge, laser diffraction, and turbidimetry studies. Results show that the sedimentation velocity is doubled by addition of PNVCL and that at 45°C the density of the sediment is 33% higher, as compared to the use of CH2500 only. This results from the temperature sensitive behavior of PNVCL that phase-separate expelling water at temperatures higher than its LCST (32–34°C leading to compaction of the flocs. By using this strategy the sediment is more compact, contains less water, and contains a very small amount of biodegradable CH2500 and biocompatible PNVCL.

  12. Thermosensitive Cu2O-PNIPAM core-shell nanoreactors with tunable photocatalytic activity

    CERN Document Server

    Jia, He; Angioletti-Uberti, Stefano; Henzler, Katja; Ott, Andreas; Lin, Xianzhong; Möser, Jannik; Kochovski, Zdravko; Schnegg, Alexander; Dzubiella, Joachim; Ballauff, Matthias; Lu, Yan

    2016-01-01

    We report a facile and novel method for the fabrication of Cu2O@PNIPAM core-shell nanoreactors using Cu2O nanocubes as the core. The PNIPAM shell not only effectively protects the Cu2O nanocubes from oxidation, but also improves the colloidal stability of the system. The Cu2O@PNIPAM core-shell microgels can work efficiently as photocatalyst for the decomposition of methyl orange under visible light. A significant enhancement in the catalytic activity has been observed for the core-shell microgels compared with the pure Cu2O nanocubes. Most importantly, the photocatalytic activity of the Cu2O nanocubes can be further tuned by the thermosensitive PNIPAM shell, as rationalized by our recent theory.

  13. Microencapsulation of probiotic bacteria using thermo-sensitive sol-gel polymers for powdered infant formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penhasi, Adel

    2015-01-01

    In this study the application of thermo-sensitive sol-gel polymers in microencapsulation formulation of probiotic bacteria, Bifidobacterium animalis spp lactis, for powdered infant formula (PIF), which is reconstituted at 70 °C, has been assessed. A double-layered microcapsule containing hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) as an inner layer and an outer layer, as the smart coating layer, based on a combination of hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) and poloxamer was designed. Generally, this specific microencapsulation provided superior protection against the reconstitution temperature. A high molecular weight of HPC and a greater thickness of the smart coating layer resulted in a delayed release of the bacteria from the microcapsules especially in the PIF composition. However, this was compensated by a high stability of the bacteria at 70 °C. Both the surface texture and particle size distribution of microcapsules have been respectively characterised by scanning electron microscopy and particle size analysis.

  14. Th he effe ect of e ethylen ne on t frui transg t quali genic m ity melon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    Mercado JA, Muñoz-Blanco J (2009). Antisense down-regulation of the FaPG1 gene reveals an unexpected central role for polygalacturonase in strawberry fruit softening. Plant Physiol. 150(2):1022-1032. Rice-Evans CA, Miller NJ, Papaganda G (1996). Structure antioxidant activity relationships of flavonoids and phenolic ...

  15. Electrically conductive gold nanoparticle-chitosan thermosensitive hydrogels for cardiac tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baei, Payam [Department of Stem Cells and Developmental Biology, Cell Science Research Center, Royan Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Technology, ACECR, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Cardiovascular Engineering Laboratory, Faculty of Biomedical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jalili-Firoozinezhad, Sasan [Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, University Hospital Basel, University of Basel, Hebelstrasse 20, CH-4031 Basel (Switzerland); Department of Bioengineeringand IBB - Institute for Bioengineering and Biosciences, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa (Portugal); Rajabi-Zeleti, Sareh [Department of Stem Cells and Developmental Biology, Cell Science Research Center, Royan Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Technology, ACECR, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Tafazzoli-Shadpour, Mohammad [Cardiovascular Engineering Laboratory, Faculty of Biomedical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Baharvand, Hossein, E-mail: Baharvand@royaninstitute.org [Department of Stem Cells and Developmental Biology, Cell Science Research Center, Royan Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Technology, ACECR, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Developmental Biology, University of Science and Culture, ACECR, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Aghdami, Nasser, E-mail: Nasser.Aghdami@royaninstitute.org [Department of Stem Cells and Developmental Biology, Cell Science Research Center, Royan Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Technology, ACECR, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-06-01

    Injectable hydrogels that resemble electromechanical properties of the myocardium are crucial for cardiac tissue engineering prospects. We have developed a facile approach that uses chitosan (CS) to generate a thermosensitive conductive hydrogel with a highly porous network of interconnected pores. Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) were evenly dispersed throughout the CS matrix in order to provide electrical cues. The gelation response and electrical conductivity of the hydrogel were controlled by different concentrations of GNPs. The CS-GNP hydrogels were seeded with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and cultivated for up to 14 days in the absence of electrical stimulations. CS-GNP scaffolds supported viability, metabolism, migration and proliferation of MSCs along with the development of uniform cellular constructs. Immunohistochemistry for early and mature cardiac markers showed enhanced cardiomyogenic differentiation of MSCs within the CS-GNP compared to the CS matrix alone. The results of this study demonstrate that incorporation of nanoscale electro-conductive GNPs into CS hydrogels enhances the properties of myocardial constructs. These constructs could find utilization for regeneration of other electroactive tissues. - Highlights: • Thermosensitive electro-conductive hydrogels were prepared from CS and GNPs. • Gelation time and conductivity were tuned by varying concentration of GNPs. • CS-2GNP with gelation time of 25.7 min and conductivity of 0.13 S·m{sup −1} was selected for in vitro studies. • CS-2GNP supported active metabolism, migration and proliferation of MSCs. • Expression of cardiac markers increased about two-fold in CS-2GNP compared to CS.

  16. Preparation of thermosensitive magnetic liposome encapsulated recombinant tissue plasminogen activator for targeted thrombolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, Hao-Lung [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Chang Gung University, Kwei-San, Taoyuan 33302, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chen, Jyh-Ping, E-mail: jpchen@mail.cgu.edu.tw [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Chang Gung University, Kwei-San, Taoyuan 33302, Taiwan, ROC (China); Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery and Craniofacial Research Center, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Kwei-San, Taoyuan 33305, Taiwan, ROC (China); Graduate Institute of Health Industry and Technology, Research Center for Industry of Human Ecology, Chang Gung University of Science and Technology, Kwei-San, Taoyuan 33302, Taiwan, ROC (China); Department of Materials Engineering, Ming Chi University of Technology, Tai-Shan, New Taipei City 24301, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2017-04-01

    Recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) was encapsulated in thermosensitive magnetic liposome (TML) prepared from 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, distearolyphosphatidyl ethanolamine-N-poly(ethylene glycol) 2000, cholesterol and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} magnetic nanoparticles by solvent evaporation/sonication and freeze-thaw cycles method. Response surface methodology was proved to be a powerful tool to predict the drug encapsulation efficiency and temperature-sensitive drug release. Validation experiments verified the accuracy of the model that provides a simple and effective method for fabricating TML with controllable encapsulation efficiency and predictable temperature-sensitive drug release behavior. The prepared samples were characterized for physico-chemical properties by dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry. Temperature-sensitive release of rtPA could be confirmed from in vitro thrombolysis experiments. A thrombolytic drug delivery system using TML could be proposed for magnetic targeted delivery of rtPA to the site of thrombus followed by temperature-triggered controlled drug release in an alternating magnetic field. - Highlights: • rtPA and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} MNP were encapsulated in thermosensitive magnetic liposome (TML). • RSM could predict the drug encapsulation efficiency and temperature-sensitive drug release from TML. • Temperature-sensitive release of rtPA was confirmed from in vitro thrombolysis experiments. • TML-rtPA will be useful as a magnetic targeted nanodrug to improve clinical thrombolytic therapy.

  17. CSGM Designer: a platform for designing cross-species intron-spanning genic markers linked with genome information of legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin-Hyun; Lee, Chaeyoung; Hyung, Daejin; Jo, Ye-Jin; Park, Joo-Seok; Cook, Douglas R; Choi, Hong-Kyu

    2015-01-01

    Genetic markers are tools that can facilitate molecular breeding, even in species lacking genomic resources. An important class of genetic markers is those based on orthologous genes, because they can guide hypotheses about conserved gene function, a situation that is well documented for a number of agronomic traits. For under-studied species a key bottleneck in gene-based marker development is the need to develop molecular tools (e.g., oligonucleotide primers) that reliably access genes with orthology to the genomes of well-characterized reference species. Here we report an efficient platform for the design of cross-species gene-derived markers in legumes. The automated platform, named CSGM Designer (URL: http://tgil.donga.ac.kr/CSGMdesigner), facilitates rapid and systematic design of cross-species genic markers. The underlying database is composed of genome data from five legume species whose genomes are substantially characterized. Use of CSGM is enhanced by graphical displays of query results, which we describe as "circular viewer" and "search-within-results" functions. CSGM provides a virtual PCR representation (eHT-PCR) that predicts the specificity of each primer pair simultaneously in multiple genomes. CSGM Designer output was experimentally validated for the amplification of orthologous genes using 16 genotypes representing 12 crop and model legume species, distributed among the galegoid and phaseoloid clades. Successful cross-species amplification was obtained for 85.3% of PCR primer combinations. CSGM Designer spans the divide between well-characterized crop and model legume species and their less well-characterized relatives. The outcome is PCR primers that target highly conserved genes for polymorphism discovery, enabling functional inferences and ultimately facilitating trait-associated molecular breeding.

  18. Development, inheritance and breeding potential of a recessive genic male sterile line D248A in Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongyan; Yang, Minmin; Wu, Kun; Zhou, Xinan; Zhao, Yingzhong

    2013-01-01

    Genic male sterility (GMS) has great potential for heterosis exploitation in sesame (Sesamum indicum L.). Two spontaneous male-sterile plants were discovered in a Chinese sesame cultivar (Zhuzhi 4) in 2006. By consecutive sib mating with fertile plants from Zhuzhi 4, a new sterile line, D248A, was developed. Anatomy studies showed that D248A has thin, small and greenish anthers on which there are no or little pollen grains. The pollens are irregularly shaped and completely aborted, resulting in no germination and no formation of pollen tubes as revealed by acetocarmine stain or semi-solid suspension culture. Furthermore, D248A has a better performance in growth vigor, bloom duration and yield per plant than the other GMS lines (i.e. 95 ms-2A and 95 ms-5A). To investigate the inheritance mode of fertility, D248A was crossed and backcrossed with six varieties, and a segregating ratio of 3:1 and 1:1 for fertile and sterile plants was observed in F2 and BC1 populations, respectively. These results suggested that D248A is controlled by a recessive GMS gene. The average yield of four D248A-derived F1 hybrids is as high as 1695 kg·ha(-1), which is almost twice of that of 95 ms-5A-derived F1 hybrids. These results indicated that this newly developed recessive GMS line has great potential in sesame hybrid breeding.

  19. Rice that Filipinos Grow and Eat

    OpenAIRE

    de Leon, John C.

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces rice to the reader and analyzes the changes it has gone through these past 100 years in the shaping hands of varietal improvement science. Here, the richness of the crop as a genetic material and resource is revealed. Landrace rice, pureline selection rice, crossbred rice, semidwarf rice, hybrid rice, new plant type rice, designer rice - from the traditional to modern to futuristic - rice becomes all of these while traversing time in the Philippines. There is rice for th...

  20. Effects of vigorous walking exercise on core body temperature and inhibitory control in thermosensitive persons with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandroff, Brian M; Motl, Robert W; Davis, Scott L

    2016-01-01

    Acute, moderate intensity aerobic exercise might improve cognition in multiple sclerosis (MS), but it is unknown if increases in core body temperature (Ctemp) that negates those effects in thermosensitive persons with MS. Fourteen fully ambulatory, thermosensitive persons with MS completed 20-min bouts of vigorous intensity treadmill walking exercise and seated quiet rest in a randomized, counterbalanced order. Ctemp was measured throughout each experimental condition. Inhibitory control (i.e., an executive function) was measured immediately prior to and following each condition. Ctemp was elevated (~0.6 °C) with vigorous exercise versus quiet rest (p exercise versus quiet rest (ηp(2) = 0.29). Exercise-related increases in Ctemp do not nullify the potential acute exercise benefits on inhibitory control in MS.

  1. Thermosensitive polymer-grafted iron oxide nanoparticles studied by in situ dynamic light backscattering under magnetic hyperthermia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemery, Gauvin; Garanger, Elisabeth; Lecommandoux, Sébastien; Wong, Andrew D.; Gillies, Elizabeth R.; Pedrono, Boris; Bayle, Thomas; Jacob, David; Sandre, Olivier

    2015-12-01

    Thermometry at the nanoscale is an emerging area fostered by intensive research on nanoparticles (NPs) that are capable of converting electromagnetic waves into heat. Recent results suggest that stationary gradients can be maintained between the surface of NPs and the bulk solvent, a phenomenon sometimes referred to as ‘cold hyperthermia’. However, the measurement of such highly localized temperatures is particularly challenging. We describe here a new approach to probing the temperature at the surface of iron oxide NPs and enhancing the understanding of this phenomenon. This approach involves the grafting of thermosensitive polymer chains to the NP surface followed by the measurement of macroscopic properties of the resulting NP suspension and comparison to a calibration curve built up by macroscopic heating. Superparamagnetic iron oxide NPs were prepared by the coprecipitation of ferrous and ferric salts and functionalized with amines, then azides using a sol-gel route followed by a dehydrative coupling reaction. Thermosensitive poly[2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate] (PDMAEMA) with an alkyne end-group was synthesized by controlled radical polymerization and was grafted using a copper assisted azide-alkyne cycloaddition reaction. Measurement of the colloidal properties by dynamic light scattering (DLS) indicated that the thermosensitive NPs exhibited changes in their Zeta potential and hydrodynamic diameter as a function of pH and temperature due to the grafted PDMAEMA chains. These changes were accompanied by changes in the relaxivities of the NPs, suggesting application as thermosensitive contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In addition, a new fibre-based backscattering setup enabled positioning of the DLS remote-head as close as possible to the coil of a magnetic heating inductor to afford in situ probing of the backscattered light intensity, hydrodynamic diameter, and temperature. This approach provides a promising platform for

  2. Genome-wide DNA polymorphisms in Kavuni, a traditional rice cultivar with nutritional and therapeutic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathinasabapathi, Pasupathi; Purushothaman, Natarajan; Parani, Madasamy

    2016-05-01

    Although rice genome was sequenced in the year 2002, efforts in resequencing the large number of available accessions, landraces, traditional cultivars, and improved varieties of this important food crop are limited. We have initiated resequencing of the traditional cultivars from India. Kavuni is an important traditional rice cultivar from South India that attracts premium price for its nutritional and therapeutic properties. Whole-genome sequencing of Kavuni using Illumina platform and SNPs analysis using Nipponbare reference genome identified 1 150 711 SNPs of which 377 381 SNPs were located in the genic regions. Non-synonymous SNPs (62 708) were distributed in 19 251 genes, and their number varied between 1 and 115 per gene. Large-effect DNA polymorphisms (7769) were present in 3475 genes. Pathway mapping of these polymorphisms revealed the involvement of genes related to carbohydrate metabolism, translation, protein-folding, and cell death. Analysis of the starch biosynthesis related genes revealed that the granule-bound starch synthase I gene had T/G SNPs at the first intron/exon junction and a two-nucleotide combination, which were reported to favour high amylose content and low glycemic index. The present study provided a valuable genomics resource to study the rice varieties with nutritional and medicinal properties.

  3. Hierarchical Sol-Gel Transition Induced by Thermosensitive Self-Assembly of an ABC Triblock Polymer in an Ionic Liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitazawa, Yuzo; Ueki, Takeshi; McIntosh, Lucas D.; Tamura, Saki; Niitsuma, Kazuyuki; Imaizumi, Satoru; Lodge, Timothy P.; Watanabe, Masayoshi (U of Tokyo); (UMM); (Yokohama)

    2016-04-29

    Here we investigate a hierarchical morphology change and accompanying sol–gel transition using a doubly thermosensitive ABC-triblock copolymer in an ionic liquid (IL). The triblock copolymer contains two different lower critical solution temperature (LCST) thermosensitive polymers, poly(benzyl methacrylate) (PBnMA) and poly(2-phenylethyl methacrylate) (PPhEtMA), as the end blocks and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) as the middle block (PBnMA-b-PMMA-b-PPhEtMA: BMP). BMP undergoes a hierarchical phase transition corresponding to the self-assembly of each of the thermosensitive blocks in the IL, and a sol–gel transition was observed in concentrated, above 10 wt %, polymer solutions. The gelation behavior was affected by polymer concentration, and at 20 wt %, the BMP/IL composite showed a phase transition, with increasing temperature, from solution through a jammed micelle suspension to a physically cross-linked gel. For each phase was formed reversibly and rapidly over the corresponding temperature range. Finally, the jammed micelle and cross-linked gel states were characterized using viscoelastic measurements and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS).

  4. Rapid Genome-wide Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Discovery in Soybean and Rice via Deep Resequencing of Reduced Representation Libraries with the Illumina Genome Analyzer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Deschamps

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Massively parallel sequencing platforms have allowed for the rapid discovery of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs among related genotypes within a species. We describe the creation of reduced representation libraries (RRLs using an initial digestion of nuclear genomic DNA with a methylation-sensitive restriction endonuclease followed by a secondary digestion with the 4bp-restriction endonuclease This strategy allows for the enrichment of hypomethylated genomic DNA, which has been shown to be rich in genic sequences, and the digestion with serves to increase the number of common loci resequenced between individuals. Deep resequencing of these RRLs performed with the Illumina Genome Analyzer led to the identification of 2618 SNPs in rice and 1682 SNPs in soybean for two representative genotypes in each of the species. A subset of these SNPs was validated via Sanger sequencing, exhibiting validation rates of 96.4 and 97.0%, in rice ( and soybean (, respectively. Comparative analysis of the read distribution relative to annotated genes in the reference genome assemblies indicated that the RRL strategy was primarily sampling within genic regions for both species. The massively parallel sequencing of methylation-sensitive RRLs for genome-wide SNP discovery can be applied across a wide range of plant species having sufficient reference genomic sequence.

  5. Determinants for grading Malaysian rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    ChePa, Noraziah; Yusoff, Nooraini; Ahmad, Norhayati

    2016-08-01

    Due to un-uniformity of rice grading practices in Malaysia, zones which actively producing rice in Malaysia are using their own way of grading rice. Rice grading is important in determining rice quality and its subsequent price in the market. It is an important process applied in the rice production industry with the purpose of ensuring that the rice produced for the market meets the quality requirements of consumer. Two important aspects that need to be considered in determining rice grades are grading technique and determinants to be used for grading (usually referred as rice attributes). This article proposes the list of determinants to be used in grading Malaysian rice. Determinants were explored through combination of extensive literature review and series of interview with the domain experts and practitioners. The proposed determinants are believed to be beneficial to BERNAS in improving the current Malaysian rice grading process.

  6. Comparative Analysis of Anther Transcriptome Profiles of Two Different Rice Male Sterile Lines Genotypes under Cold Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Bai

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Rice is highly sensitive to cold stress during reproductive developmental stages, and little is known about the mechanisms of cold responses in rice anther. Using the HiSeq™ 2000 sequencing platform, the anther transcriptome of photo thermo sensitive genic male sterile lines (PTGMS rice Y58S and P64S (Pei’ai64S were analyzed at the fertility sensitive stage under cold stress. Approximately 243 million clean reads were obtained from four libraries and aligned against the oryza indica genome and 1497 and 5652 differentially expressed genes (DEGs were identified in P64S and Y58S, respectively. Both gene ontology (GO and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG analyses were conducted for these DEGs. Functional classification of DEGs was also carried out. The DEGs common to both genotypes were mainly involved in signal transduction, metabolism, transport, and transcriptional regulation. Most of the DEGs were unique for each comparison group. We observed that there were more differentially expressed MYB (Myeloblastosis and zinc finger family transcription factors and signal transduction components such as calmodulin/calcium dependent protein kinases in the Y58S comparison group. It was also found that ribosome-related DEGs may play key roles in cold stress signal transduction. These results presented here would be particularly useful for further studies on investigating the molecular mechanisms of rice responses to cold stress.

  7. Rice (Oryza) hemoglobins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemoglobins (Hbs) corresponding to non-symbiotic (nsHb) and truncated (tHb) Hbs have been identified in rice (Oryza). This review discusses the major findings from the current studies on rice Hbs. At the molecular level, a family of the nshb genes, consisting of hb1, hb2, hb3, hb4 and hb5, and a sin...

  8. economics of rice production

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. Local rice production is being promoted in Ghana to reduce the' dependence on im- ports, ensure stable low-prices food for the population and also create employment. This paper examines three rice production systems; Upland, Valley Bottom and Irri- gated, in the Upper East Region of Ghana with a view to ...

  9. Effects of lipid segregation and lysolipid dissociation on drug release from thermosensitive liposomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandström, Maria C; Ickenstein, Ludger M; Mayer, Lawrence D; Edwards, Katarina

    2005-09-20

    Lysolipid-containing thermosensitive liposomes (LTSL) release their contents instantly when heated to temperatures close to their gel to liquid-crystalline phase transition temperature (TC). We have recently shown that during the melting transition these liposomes undergo major morphology changes, including the formation of open liposomes, bilayer discs, and pore-like defects. The hyperthermia-induced release of liposomal contents appears to depend on the presence and accumulation of membrane additives in grain boundaries, which enhance packing defects and, in the case of micelle-forming membrane additives, stabilize the bilayer rim of open liposome structures and transient membrane pores. In the present study, we used the fluorescent label 1-pyrenehexadecanoicacid (PHDA) and a radiolabelled lysolipid as markers for lysolipid membrane distribution and retention, respectively. PHDA dimer formation indicated local PHDA accumulation in cholesterol-free liposomes but not in cholesterol-containing liposomes. When LTSL were incubated at a temperature of 37 degrees C together with egg-phosphatidylcholine (EPC) multilamellar vesicles (MLVs) approximately 50% of the lysolipids transferred rapidly from LTSL to EPC MLVs. This transfer led to a significant reduction in the amount of carboxyfluorescein released from LTSL upon heating. Our results imply that poor retention of lysolipids in the LTSL membrane could also affect drug release characteristics of LTSL in vivo.

  10. Thermosensitive Gel Containing Cellulose Acetate Phthalate-Efavirenz Combination Nanoparticles for Prevention of HIV-1 Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Date, Abhijit A; Shibata, Annemaria; McMullen, Emily; La Bruzzo, Krista; Bruck, Patrick; Belshan, Michael; Zhou, You; Destache, Christopher J

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this investigation was to develop and evaluate a nano-microbicide containing a combination of cellulose acetate phthalate (HIV-1 entry inhibitor) and efavirenz (anti-HIV agent) for HIV prophylaxis. Cellulose acetate phthalate-efavirenz combination nanoparticles (CAP-EFV-NPs) were fabricated by the nanoprecipitation method and were characterized for particle size, zeta potential and encapsulation efficiency of efavirenz. CAP-EFV-NPs were incorporated into a thermosensitive gel (CAP-EFV-NP-Gel). CAP-EFV-NPs, CAP-EFV-NP-Gel and efavirenz solution were evaluated for cytotoxicity to HeLa cells and for in vitro short-term (1-day) and long-term (3-day) prophylaxis against HIV-1 infection in TZM-bl cells. CAP-EFV-NPs had size 98%. CAP-EFV-NPs and CAP-EFV-NP-Gel were significantly less toxic (P EFV-NPs showed significantly higher prophylactic activity (P EFV-NP-Gel can be a promising nano-microbicide for long-term HIV prophylaxis.

  11. Potential application of thermo-sensitive hydrogels for controlled release of phenacetin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić-Stojanović Snežana S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past years, many scientific researches have been focused on thermo-sensitive hydrogels containing N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM as a monomer. The NIPAM based hydrogels with 20 mol% 2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate (HPMet were synthesized using ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as a cross-linker. The characterization of xerogel and phenacetin using FTIR spectra and SEM micrographs confirm the performed synthesis with satisfactory purity as well as loading of phenacetin into hydrogel. The swelling transport mechanism at simulated physiological conditions (pH 2.20 and 7.40 at 37°C is described by the time-independent kinetics. The potential application of synthesized hydrogels for the controlled release of phenacetin as a model drug was investigated at simulated physiological conditions by HPLC method. [Acknowledgement. This work is part of the project MNTR TR-34012 financed by the Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Serbia. The authors are grateful for the support provided by the Ministry.

  12. Influence of monomer and crosslinker molar ratio on the swelling behaviour of thermosensitive hydrogels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić-Stojanović Snežana S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of the poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-2-hydroxypropylmethacrylate hydrogel along with the analysis of the residual monomers content and influence of monomer and crosslinker molar ratios on the swelling behaviour was investigated. Synthesis of thermosensitive hydrogel based on N-isopropylacrylamide was carried out with the molar ratios of 5, 10, 15 and 20 mol. % of monomer 2- hydroxypropyl-methacrylate, in the presence of ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as a crosslinker (1, 1.5, 2 and 3 mol. % and 2,2'-azobis(2-methylpropionitril as an initiator in acetone. The quantities of residual monomers in the synthesized copolymers were determined by HPLC method, ranging from 0.19 to 0.49 % for N-isopropylacrylamide and from 0.13 to 0.63 % for 2-hydroxypropyl-methacrylate, counting the amount of xerogel. The hydrogels swelling ratio depending on time at 20 and 40°C was examined. It was found that hydrogel with 5 mol. % 2-hydroxypropyl-methacrylate and 1 mol. % ethylene glycol dimethacrylate had the highest degree of swelling (α = 29.59 at 20°C, and that hydrogel with 20 mol. % 2-hydroxypropyl-methacrylate and 3 mol. % ethylene glycol dimethacrylate had the lowest swelling degree (α = 2.17 at 40°C.

  13. Functional Loss of Bmsei Causes Thermosensitive Epilepsy in Contractile Mutant Silkworm, Bombyx mori

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Hongyi; Cheng, Tingcai; Huang, Xiaofeng; Zhou, Mengting; Zhang, Yinxia; Dai, Fangyin; Mita, Kazuei; Xia, Qingyou; Liu, Chun

    2015-01-01

    The thermoprotective mechanisms of insects remain largely unknown. We reported the Bombyx mori contractile (cot) behavioral mutant with thermo-sensitive seizures phenotype. At elevated temperatures, the cot mutant exhibit seizures associated with strong contractions, rolling, vomiting, and a temporary lack of movement. We narrowed a region containing cot to ~268 kb by positional cloning and identified the mutant gene as Bmsei which encoded a potassium channel protein. Bmsei was present in both the cell membrane and cytoplasm in wild-type ganglia but faint in cot. Furthermore, Bmsei was markedly decreased upon high temperature treatment in cot mutant. With the RNAi method and injecting potassium channel blockers, the wild type silkworm was induced the cot phenotype. These results demonstrated that Bmsei was responsible for the cot mutant phenotype and played an important role in thermoprotection in silkworm. Meanwhile, comparative proteomic approach was used to investigate the proteomic differences. The results showed that the protein of Hsp-1 and Tn1 were significantly decreased and increased on protein level in cot mutant after thermo-stimulus, respectively. Our data provide insights into the mechanism of thermoprotection in insect. As cot phenotype closely resembles human epilepsy, cot might be a potential model for the mechanism of epilepsy in future. PMID:26198671

  14. Low temperature plasma vapor treatment of thermo-sensitive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) and its application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y.; Tang, X. L.; Chen, B. T.; Qiu, G.

    2013-03-01

    In this study, the novel methods of depositing poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm) coatings on the surface of glass slides and PS petri dish by plasma polymerization are provided. PNIPAAm can be obtained by plasma polymerization of N-isopropylacrylamide by using the self-made equipment of plasma vapor treatment. The samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and water contact angle. SEM analysis has revealed that the poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm) coatings were formed on the surface of the smooth glass slides. Further evaluation by using XPS, it has shown the presence of PNIPAAm. The wettability can be significantly modified by changing of the temperatures at above and below of the lower critical solution temperature (LCST) from the data of the contact angle test. These results have advantage for further application on the thermo-sensitive textile materials. On the deposition of PNIPAAm onto Polybutylene Terephthalate (PBT) melt-blown nonwovens in atmospheric pressure plasma, water permeability was significantly modified at around LCST. Due to the LCST is close to the temperature of human body, it has advantage on application of PBT melt-blown nonwovens.

  15. Specific regulation of thermosensitive lipid droplet fusion by a nuclear hormone receptor pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shiwei; Li, Qi; Kong, Yuanyuan; Wu, Shuang; Cui, Qingpo; Zhang, Mingming; Zhang, Shaobing O

    2017-08-15

    Nuclear receptors play important roles in regulating fat metabolism and energy production in humans. The regulatory functions and endogenous ligands of many nuclear receptors are still unidentified, however. Here, we report that CYP-37A1 (ortholog of human cytochrome P450 CYP4V2), EMB-8 (ortholog of human P450 oxidoreductase POR), and DAF-12 (homolog of human nuclear receptors VDR/LXR) constitute a hormone synthesis and nuclear receptor pathway in Caenorhabditis elegans This pathway specifically regulates the thermosensitive fusion of fat-storing lipid droplets. CYP-37A1, together with EMB-8, synthesizes a lipophilic hormone not identical to Δ7-dafachronic acid, which represses the fusion-promoting function of DAF-12. CYP-37A1 also negatively regulates thermotolerance and lifespan at high temperature in a DAF-12-dependent manner. Human CYP4V2 can substitute for CYP-37A1 in C. elegans This finding suggests the existence of a conserved CYP4V2-POR-nuclear receptor pathway that functions in converting multilocular lipid droplets to unilocular ones in human cells; misregulation of this pathway may lead to pathogenic fat storage.

  16. Molecular dynamics simulation of the thermosensitivity of the human connexin 26 hemichannel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, Hadi; Davoodi, Jamal; Zeilinger, Carsten; Rafii-Tabar, Hashem

    2018-01-01

    Connexin hemichannels mediate cytoplasm and extracellular milieu communication by exchanging a variety of cytoplasmic molecules and ions. These hemichannels can be regulated by external stimuli such as mechanical stress, applied voltage, pH and temperature changes. Although there are many studies on structures and functions of connexin 26 in contexts of pH, ion concentration and voltage, employing computational methods, no such study has been performed so far involving temperature changes. In this study, using molecular dynamics simulation, we investigate thermosensitivity of the human Connexin 26 hemichannel. Our results show that the channel approaches a structurally closed state at lower temperature compared to higher temperature. This is in fair agreement with experimental results that indicate channel closure at lower temperature. Furthermore, our MD simulation results show that some regions of connexin 26 hemichannel are more sensitive to temperature compared to other regions. Whereas the intercellular half of the channel does not show any considerable response to temperature during the simulation time accessible in this study, the cytoplasmic half approaches a closed structural state at lower temperature compared to the higher temperature. Specifically, our results suggest that the cytoplasmic loop, the cytoplasmic half of the second transmembrane helix, and the N-terminus helix play a dominant role in temperature gating.

  17. Use of Arsenic Trioxide as an Antivascular and Thermosensitizing Agent in Solid Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Griffin

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic trioxide, As2O3 (ATO, has been found to be an effective chemotherapy drug for acute promyelocytic leukemia but its effect on solid tumors has not been fully explored. In the present report, we describe our observation that ATO is a potent antivascular agent and that it markedly enhances the effect of hyperthermia on tumors. The tumor blood perfusion in SCK tumors of A/J mice and FSall tumors of C3H mice was significantly suppressed for up to 24 hours after an i.p. injection of 8 mg/kg ATO. ATO was also found to be able to increase the thermosensitivity of tumor cells in vitro. As a probable consequence of these effects, ATO treatment markedly increased the tumor growth delay caused by hyperthermia at 41.5-42.5°C. Immunohistochemical staining of tumor tissue revealed that the expression levels of several adhesion molecules and TNFa are noticeably increased in tumors 2–6 hours after systemic ATO treatment. It is concluded that ATO is potentially useful to enhance the effect of hyperthermia on tumors at a clinically relevant temperature.

  18. Development of thermosensitive microgel-loaded cotton fabric for controlled drug release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiao-Zhu; Wang, Xiao; Wu, Jun-Zi; Li, Shu-De

    2017-05-01

    COS-g-PVCL copolymer was synthesized and infiltrated into CaCO3 particles to prepare thermosensitive porous microgels which exhibited phase transition behavior at the temperature that was similar to the lower critical solution temperature(LCST) of copolymer. The incorporation of microgel to cotton was done by pad-dry-cure method from aqueous microparticle dispersion that contained citric acid as a crosslinking agent. In vitro drug release experiments were performed at two different temperatures (25 and 37 °C) in PBS of pH 7.4 to study its drug release behavior with response to temperature. Due to the shrinkage of microgels, drug release profiles obtained were found to have enhanced release for aloin when the temperature was above LCST than other release conditions. Microgel-loaded fabrics proved to be in vivo biocompatible by skin irritation studies and displayed an obviously high water vapor permeability at 40 °C. The MTT assay showed no obvious cytotoxicity of microgel-loaded cotton against mouse fibroblast cells within 5 days. The results obtained demonstrated the potential use of the thermos-responsive microgel-loaded cotton fabrics as a textile-based drug delivery system for treating sunburn or skin care.

  19. Functional Loss of Bmsei Causes Thermosensitive Epilepsy in Contractile Mutant Silkworm, Bombyx mori

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Hongyi; Cheng, Tingcai; Huang, Xiaofeng; Zhou, Mengting; Zhang, Yinxia; Dai, Fangyin; Mita, Kazuei; Xia, Qingyou; Liu, Chun

    2015-07-01

    The thermoprotective mechanisms of insects remain largely unknown. We reported the Bombyx mori contractile (cot) behavioral mutant with thermo-sensitive seizures phenotype. At elevated temperatures, the cot mutant exhibit seizures associated with strong contractions, rolling, vomiting, and a temporary lack of movement. We narrowed a region containing cot to ~268 kb by positional cloning and identified the mutant gene as Bmsei which encoded a potassium channel protein. Bmsei was present in both the cell membrane and cytoplasm in wild-type ganglia but faint in cot. Furthermore, Bmsei was markedly decreased upon high temperature treatment in cot mutant. With the RNAi method and injecting potassium channel blockers, the wild type silkworm was induced the cot phenotype. These results demonstrated that Bmsei was responsible for the cot mutant phenotype and played an important role in thermoprotection in silkworm. Meanwhile, comparative proteomic approach was used to investigate the proteomic differences. The results showed that the protein of Hsp-1 and Tn1 were significantly decreased and increased on protein level in cot mutant after thermo-stimulus, respectively. Our data provide insights into the mechanism of thermoprotection in insect. As cot phenotype closely resembles human epilepsy, cot might be a potential model for the mechanism of epilepsy in future.

  20. Preparation of thermosensitive magnetic liposome encapsulated recombinant tissue plasminogen activator for targeted thrombolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Hao-Lung; Chen, Jyh-Ping

    2017-04-01

    Recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) was encapsulated in thermosensitive magnetic liposome (TML) prepared from 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, distearolyphosphatidyl ethanolamine-N-poly(ethylene glycol) 2000, cholesterol and Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles by solvent evaporation/sonication and freeze-thaw cycles method. Response surface methodology was proved to be a powerful tool to predict the drug encapsulation efficiency and temperature-sensitive drug release. Validation experiments verified the accuracy of the model that provides a simple and effective method for fabricating TML with controllable encapsulation efficiency and predictable temperature-sensitive drug release behavior. The prepared samples were characterized for physico-chemical properties by dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry. Temperature-sensitive release of rtPA could be confirmed from in vitro thrombolysis experiments. A thrombolytic drug delivery system using TML could be proposed for magnetic targeted delivery of rtPA to the site of thrombus followed by temperature-triggered controlled drug release in an alternating magnetic field.

  1. Enhanced mechanical properties of thermosensitive chitosan hydrogel by silk fibers for cartilage tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirahmadi, Fereshteh; Tafazzoli-Shadpour, Mohammad; Shokrgozar, Mohammad Ali; Bonakdar, Shahin

    2013-12-01

    Articular cartilage has limited repair capability following traumatic injuries and current methods of treatment remain inefficient. Reconstructing cartilage provides a new way for cartilage repair and natural polymers are often used as scaffold because of their biocompatibility and biofunctionality. In this study, we added degummed chopped silk fibers and electrospun silk fibers to the thermosensitive chitosan/glycerophosphate hydrogels to reinforce two hydrogel constructs which were used as scaffold for hyaline cartilage regeneration. The gelation temperature and gelation time of hydrogel were analyzed by the rheometer and vial tilting method. Mechanical characterization was measured by uniaxial compression, indentation and dynamic mechanical analysis assay. Chondrocytes were then harvested from the knee joint of the New Zealand white rabbits and cultured in constructs. The cell proliferation, viability, production of glycosaminoglycans and collagen type II were assessed. The results showed that mechanical properties of the hydrogel were significantly enhanced when a hybrid with two layers of electrospun silk fibers was made. The results of GAG and collagen type II in cell-seeded scaffolds indicate support of the chondrogenic phenotype for chondrocytes with a significant increase in degummed silk fiber-hydrogel composite for GAG content and in two-layer electrospun fiber-hydrogel composite for Col II. It was concluded that these two modified scaffolds could be employed for cartilage tissue engineering. © 2013.

  2. Sustained delivery of latanoprost by thermosensitive chitosan-gelatin-based hydrogel for controlling ocular hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yung-Hsin; Hung, Kuo-Hsuan; Tsai, Tung-Hu; Lee, Chia-Jung; Ku, Ruy-Yu; Chiu, Allen Wen-Hsiang; Chiou, Shih-Hwa; Liu, Catherine Jui-Ling

    2014-10-01

    Glaucoma is an irreversible ocular disease that may lead to progressive visual field loss and eventually to blindness with inadequately controlled intraocular pressure (IOP). Latanoprost is one of the most potent ocular hypotensive compounds, the current first-line therapy in glaucoma. However, the daily instillation required for efficacy and undesirable side-effects are major causes of treatment adherence failure and persistence in glaucoma therapy. In the present study, we developed an injectable thermosensitive chitosan/gelatin/glycerol phosphate (C/G/GP) hydrogel as a sustained-release system of latanoprost for glaucoma treatment. The latanoprost-loaded C/G/GP hydrogel can gel within 1min at 37°C. The results show a sustained release of latanoprost from C/G/GP hydrogel in vitro and in vivo. The latanoprost-loaded C/G/GP hydrogel showed a good in vitro and in vivo biocompatibility. A rabbit model of glaucoma was established by intravitreal injection of triamcinolone acetonide. After a single subconjunctival injection of latanoprost-loaded C/G/GP hydrogel, IOP was significantly decreased within 8days and then remained at a normal level. The results of the study suggest that latanoprost-loaded C/G/GP hydrogel may have a potential application in glaucoma therapy. Copyright © 2014 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The organelle genomes of Hassawi rice (Oryza sativa L.) and its hybrid in saudi arabia: genome variation, rearrangement, and origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tongwu; Hu, Songnian; Zhang, Guangyu; Pan, Linlin; Zhang, Xiaowei; Al-Mssallem, Ibrahim S; Yu, Jun

    2012-01-01

    Hassawi rice (Oryza sativa L.) is a landrace adapted to the climate of Saudi Arabia, characterized by its strong resistance to soil salinity and drought. Using high quality sequencing reads extracted from raw data of a whole genome sequencing project, we assembled both chloroplast (cp) and mitochondrial (mt) genomes of the wild-type Hassawi rice (Hassawi-1) and its dwarf hybrid (Hassawi-2). We discovered 16 InDels (insertions and deletions) but no SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) is present between the two Hassawi cp genomes. We identified 48 InDels and 26 SNPs in the two Hassawi mt genomes and a new type of sequence variation, termed reverse complementary variation (RCV) in the rice cp genomes. There are two and four RCVs identified in Hassawi-1 when compared to 93-11 (indica) and Nipponbare (japonica), respectively. Microsatellite sequence analysis showed there are more SSRs in the genic regions of both cp and mt genomes in the Hassawi rice than in the other rice varieties. There are also large repeats in the Hassawi mt genomes, with the longest length of 96,168 bp and 96,165 bp in Hassawi-1 and Hassawi-2, respectively. We believe that frequent DNA rearrangement in the Hassawi mt and cp genomes indicate ongoing dynamic processes to reach genetic stability under strong environmental pressures. Based on sequence variation analysis and the breeding history, we suggest that both Hassawi-1 and Hassawi-2 originated from the Indonesian variety Peta since genetic diversity between the two Hassawi cultivars is very low albeit an unknown historic origin of the wild-type Hassawi rice.

  4. The organelle genomes of Hassawi rice (Oryza sativa L. and its hybrid in saudi arabia: genome variation, rearrangement, and origins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tongwu Zhang

    Full Text Available Hassawi rice (Oryza sativa L. is a landrace adapted to the climate of Saudi Arabia, characterized by its strong resistance to soil salinity and drought. Using high quality sequencing reads extracted from raw data of a whole genome sequencing project, we assembled both chloroplast (cp and mitochondrial (mt genomes of the wild-type Hassawi rice (Hassawi-1 and its dwarf hybrid (Hassawi-2. We discovered 16 InDels (insertions and deletions but no SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism is present between the two Hassawi cp genomes. We identified 48 InDels and 26 SNPs in the two Hassawi mt genomes and a new type of sequence variation, termed reverse complementary variation (RCV in the rice cp genomes. There are two and four RCVs identified in Hassawi-1 when compared to 93-11 (indica and Nipponbare (japonica, respectively. Microsatellite sequence analysis showed there are more SSRs in the genic regions of both cp and mt genomes in the Hassawi rice than in the other rice varieties. There are also large repeats in the Hassawi mt genomes, with the longest length of 96,168 bp and 96,165 bp in Hassawi-1 and Hassawi-2, respectively. We believe that frequent DNA rearrangement in the Hassawi mt and cp genomes indicate ongoing dynamic processes to reach genetic stability under strong environmental pressures. Based on sequence variation analysis and the breeding history, we suggest that both Hassawi-1 and Hassawi-2 originated from the Indonesian variety Peta since genetic diversity between the two Hassawi cultivars is very low albeit an unknown historic origin of the wild-type Hassawi rice.

  5. Suppression of thermosensitive initiation of DNA replication in a dnaR mutant of Escherichia coli by a rifampin resistance mutation in the rpoB gene.

    OpenAIRE

    Sakakibara, Y

    1995-01-01

    The thermosensitivity of the Escherichia coli dnaR130 mutant in initiation of DNA replication was suppressed by a spontaneous rifampin resistance mutation in rpoB, the gene for the beta subunit of RNA polymerase. Among the dnaR-suppressing rpoB alleles obtained was rpoB22, which was able to suppress the thermosensitivity of the dnaA46 or dnaA167 mutant, but not that of the dnaA5 mutant, in initiation of replication. Some dnaA-suppressing rpoB alleles obtained from rifampin-resistant derivativ...

  6. A comparative study of thermo-sensitive hydrogels with water-insoluble paclitaxel in molecule, nanocrystal and microcrystal dispersions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhiqiang; Mei, Dong; Chen, Meiwan; Wang, Yitao; Chen, Xianhui; Wang, Zhaoyang; He, Bing; Zhang, Hua; Wang, Xueqing; Dai, Wenbing; Yin, Yuxin; Zhang, Qiang

    2015-09-01

    In situ thermo-sensitive hydrogels have attracted increasing attention for alternative cancer therapies due to their long-term and effective drug levels at local sites. Besides synthesizing new thermo-sensitive polymers, we can also fabricate this delivery system by combining a hydrogel with a thermo-response and drug in a different dispersion state, such as drug nanocrystals. However, the impact of the drug dispersion state or dimension on the quality of such a local injectable system is still unknown. So, here we developed and compared three types of F127 hydrogel systems with either paclitaxel or the near infra-red probe DiR in molecules (MOs), nanocrystals (NCs) and microcrystals (MCs), respectively. With 120 nm rod-shape nanocrystals, the NCs-Gel achieved a high drug loading, moderate drug release rate and gel erosion in vitro and in vivo, medium intratumoral drug residue but the best anti-tumor efficacy in 4T1 tumor bearing BALB/c mice. With the free drug solubilized in 20 nm micelles of the gel, the MOs-Gel system demonstrated the least drug loading and the fastest drug release and gel erosion, leading to the least intratumoral residue as well as the lowest anti-tumor effect. Finally, when dispersed in micron-grade rod-shape drug crystals, the MCs-Gel exhibited a high drug loading but poor stability, precipitating in vitro and in vivo, the highest intratumoral residue but the least drug release, resulting in moderate tumor inhibition. In conclusion, this study clarifies the effect of the drug dispersion state and scale on the behavior of a thermo-sensitive hydrogel, indicating the advantage of the NCs-Gel system, and it provides a basis for the future design of the local delivery of hydrophobic anti-cancer agents.

  7. Bridging the Gap between Macroscale Drug Delivery Systems and Nanomedicines: A Nanoparticle-Assembled Thermosensitive Hydrogel for Peritumoral Chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Pingsheng; Song, Huijuan; Zhang, Yumin; Liu, Jinjian; Zhang, Ju; Wang, Weiwei; Liu, Jianfeng; Li, Chen; Kong, Deling

    2016-11-02

    The objective of this study was to investigate the spatiotemporal delivery of nanomedicines by an injectable, thermosensitive, and nanoparticle-self-aggregated hydrogel for peritumoral chemotherapy. Doxorubicin (Dox) was taken as the model medicine, which was encapsulated into poly(ε-caprolactone-co-1,4,8-trioxa[4.6]spiro-9-undecanone)-poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(ε-caprolactone-co-1,4,8-trioxa[4.6]spiro-9-undecanone) (PECT) nanoparticles (PECT/Dox NPs). Macroscale hydrogel was formed by thermosensitive self-aggregation of PECT/Dox NPs in aqueous solution. Drug release from the hydrogel formulation was dominated by sustained shedding of PECT/Dox NPs and the following drug diffusion from these NPs. The hydrogel retention and release pattern of NPs in vivo was further confirmed by fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) imaging. A single treatment with the hydrogel formulation possessed similar cytotoxicity against HepG2 cells compared to triple administrations of free Dox or PECT/Dox NPs in vitro due to enhanced uptake of PECT/Dox NPs and sustained intracellular drug release. Importantly, single peritumoral injection of drug-encapsulated hydrogel in vivo showed advantages over multiple intravenous administrations of PECT/Dox NPs and free Dox, including preferential and prolonged local drug accumulation and retention in tumors, resulting in superior cancer chemotherapy efficiency. Collectively, such a unique thermosensitive and nanoparticle-shedding hydrogel could effectively combine the advantages of nanomedicines and macroscale drug delivery systems, demonstrating great potential in the local nanodrugs' delivery. It will open a new promising path for cancer chemotherapy with enhanced treatment efficacy and minimized side effects.

  8. Cambodia Rice Sector Review

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2015-01-01

    Cambodia’s rice harvests have been rising significantly since 2005, powered by improved and expanded irrigation and attractive farm gate prices. In 2010, the Cambodian government announced an export target of 1.0 million tons of milled rice by 2015. This analysis, which updates reports prepared in 2009 and 2011, seeks to identify short-term policy measures that can assist Cambodian exporte...

  9. Sustained release of adipose-derived stem cells by thermosensitive chitosan/gelatin hydrogel for therapeutic angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Nai-Chen; Lin, Wei-Jhih; Ling, Thai-Yen; Young, Tai-Horng

    2017-03-15

    Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) secrete several angiogenic growth factors and can be applied to treat ischemic tissue. However, transplantation of dissociated ASCs has frequently resulted in rapid cell death. Therefore, we aimed to develop a thermosensitive chitosan/gelatin hydrogel that is capable of ASC sustained release for therapeutic angiogenesis. By blending gelatin in the chitosan thermosensitive hydrogel, we significantly enhanced the viability of the encapsulated ASCs. During in vitro culturing, the gradual degradation of gelatin led to sustained release of ASCs from the chitosan/gelatin hydrogel. In vitro wound healing assays revealed significantly faster cell migration by co-culturing fibroblasts with ASCs encapsulated in chitosan/gelatin hydrogel compared to pure chitosan hydrogels. Additionally, significantly higher concentrations of vascular endothelial growth factor were found in the supernatant of ASC-encapsulated chitosan/gelatin hydrogels. Co-culturing SVEC4-10 endothelial cells with ASC-encapsulated chitosan/gelatin hydrogels resulted in significantly more tube-like structures, indicating the hydrogel's potential in promoting angiogenesis. Chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane assay and mice wound healing model showed significantly higher capillary density after applying ASC-encapsulated chitosan/gelatin hydrogel. Relative to ASC alone or ASC-encapsulated chitosan hydrogel, more ASCs were also found in the wound tissue on post-wounding day 5 after applying ASC-encapsulated chitosan/gelatin hydrogel. Therefore, chitosan/gelatin thermosensitive hydrogels not only maintain ASC survival, they also enable sustained release of ASCs for therapeutic angiogenesis applications, thereby exhibiting great clinical potential in treating ischemic diseases. Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) exhibit great potential to treat ischemic diseases. However, poor delivery methods lead to low cellular survival or dispersal of cells from target sites. In this study, we

  10. Human odontoblasts express functional thermo-sensitive TRP channels: implications for dentin sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Karim, Ikhlas A; Linden, Gerard J; Curtis, Timothy M; About, Imad; McGahon, Mary K; Irwin, Chris R; Lundy, Fionnuala T

    2011-10-01

    Odontoblasts form the outermost cellular layer of the dental pulp where they have been proposed to act as sensory receptor cells. Despite this suggestion, evidence supporting their direct role in mediating thermo-sensation and nociception is lacking. Transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels directly mediate nociceptive functions, but their functional expression in human odontoblasts has yet to be elucidated. In the present study, we have examined the molecular and functional expression of thermo-sensitive TRP channels in cultured odontoblast-like cells and in native human odontoblasts obtained from healthy wisdom teeth. PCR and western blotting confirmed gene and protein expression of TRPV1, TRPA1 and TRPM8 channels. Immunohistochemistry revealed that these channels were localised to odontoblast-like cells as determined by double staining with dentin sialoprotein (DSP) antibody. In functional assays, agonists of TRPV1, TRPA1 and TRPM8 channels elicited [Ca2+]i transients that could be blocked by relevant antagonists. Application of hot and cold stimuli to the cells also evoked rises in [Ca2+]i which could be blocked by TRP-channel antagonists. Using a gene silencing approached we further confirmed a role for TRPA1 in mediating noxious cold responses in odontoblasts. We conclude that human odontoblasts express functional TRP channels that may play a crucial role in mediating thermal sensation in teeth. Cultured and native human odontoblasts express functional TRP channels that may play a crucial role in mediating thermal sensation in teeth. Copyright © 2010 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Food Compounds Activating Thermosensitive TRP Channels in Asian Herbal and Medicinal Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Tatsuo; Terada, Yuko

    2015-01-01

    There are several thermosensitive transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels including capsaicin receptor, TRPV1. Food components activating TRPV1 inhibit body fat deposition through sympathetic nerve stimulation. TRPA1 is another pungency sensor for pungent compounds and is mainly coexpressed with TRPV1 in sensory nerve endings. Therefore, TRPA1 activation is expected to have an anti-obesity effect similar to TRPV1 activation. We have searched for agonists for TRPV1 and TRPA1 in vitro from Asian spices by the use of TRPV1- and TRPA1-expressing cells. Further, we performed food component addition tests to high-fat and high-sucrose diets in mice. We found capsiate, capsiconiate, capsainol from hot and sweet peppers, several piperine analogs from black pepper, gingeriols and shogaols from ginger, and sanshools and hydroxysanshools from sansho (Japanese pepper) to be TRPV1 agonists. We also identified several sulfides from garlic and durian, hydroxy fatty acids from royal jelly, miogadial and miogatrial from mioga (Zingiber mioga), piperine analogs from black pepper, and acetoxychavicol acetate (ACA) from galangal (Alpinia galanga) as TRPA1 agonists. Piperine addition to diets diminished visceral fats and increased the uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) in interscapular brown adipose tissue (IBAT), and black pepper extract showed stronger effects than piperine. Cinnamaldehyde and ACA as TRPA1 agonists inhibited fat deposition and increased UCP1. We found that several agonists of TRPV1 and TRPA1 and some agonists of TRPV1 and TRPA1 inhibit visceral fat deposition in mice. The effects of such compounds on humans remain to be clarified, but we expect that they will be helpful in the prevention of obesity.

  12. Evaluation of an injectable thermosensitive hydrogel as drug delivery implant for ocular glaucoma surgery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Xi

    Full Text Available In this study, a biodegradable thermo-sensitive hydrogel from poly(trimethylene carbonate15-F127-poly(trimethylene carbonate15 (PTMC15-F127-PTMC15 was designed and evaluated as an injectable implant during ocular glaucoma filtration surgery in vivo and in vitro. Mitomycin C (MMC was loaded into this hydrogel for controlled released to prolong the efficacy and to reduce the long-term toxicity. The properties of the hydrogel were confirmed using 1H NMR and gel permeation chromatography (GPC. Compared to the Pluronic F127 hydrogel, the PTMC15-F127-PTMC15 hydrogel showed a good solution-gel transition temperature at 37°C, a lower work concentration of 5% w/v and a longer mass loss time of more than 2 weeks. The in vitro study showed that the drug could be released from PTMC15-F127-PTMC15 (5% w/v hydrogel for up to 16 days with only 57% of drug released in the first day. Moreover, the cell toxicity, which was tested via LDH and ANNEXIN V/PI, decreased within 72 h in human tenon's fibroblast cells (HTFs. The in vivo behavior in a rabbit glaucoma filtration surgery model indicated that this hydrogel loaded with 0.1 mg/ml MMC led to a better functional bleb with a prolonged mean bleb survival time (25.5±2.9 days. The scar tissue formation, new collagen deposition and myofibroblast generation appeared to be reduced upon histological and immunohistochemistry examinations, with no obvious side effects and inflammatory reactions. The in vitro and in vivo results demonstrated that this novel hydrogel is a safe and effective drug delivery candidate in ocular glaucoma surgery.

  13. Mechanical, Rheological and Release Behaviors of a Poloxamer 407/ Poloxamer 188/Carbopol 940 Thermosensitive Composite Hydrogel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianyu Su

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to prepare a thermosensitive composite hydrogel (TCH by mixing 24% (w/v poloxamer 407 (P407, 16% (w/v poloxamer 188 (P188 and 0.1% (w/v carbopol 940 (C940, and to determine the effect of natural borneol/ (2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (NB/HP-β-CD inclusion complex on the phase transition temperature, mechanical, rheological properties, and release behaviors of the TCH using the tube inversion method, a texture analyzer, a rheometer, and in vitro release , respectively. The results showed that as the concentration of NB/HP-β-CD increased, the phase transition temperature of the TCH was increased from 37.26 to 38.34 °C and the mechanical properties of the TCH showed that the hardness, cohesiveness, strength, and adhesiveness were increased from 0.025 to 0.064 kg, 0.022 to 0.064 kg, 0.110 to 0.307 kg and 0.036 to 0.105 kg, respectively, but the rheological properties of the TCH showed that G′, G′′ and η were decreased from 7,760 to 157.50 Pa, 1,274 to 36.28 Pa and 1,252 to 25.37 Pas, respectively. The in vitro release showed that an increasing NB/HP-β-CD concentration decreased the release rate of NB from the TCH, but the amount of NB released was more than 96% at 60 min, which showed the TCH had good release behavior.

  14. Mechanical, rheological and release behaviors of a poloxamer 407/ poloxamer 188/carbopol 940 thermosensitive composite hydrogel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianping; Zhou, Rong; Li, Lin; Li, Bing; Zhang, Xia; Su, Jianyu

    2013-10-08

    The aims of this study were to prepare a thermosensitive composite hydrogel (TCH) by mixing 24% (w/v) poloxamer 407 (P407), 16% (w/v) poloxamer 188 (P188) and 0.1% (w/v) carbopol 940 (C940), and to determine the effect of natural borneol/ (2-hydroxypropyl)-β-cyclodextrin (NB/HP-β-CD) inclusion complex on the phase transition temperature, mechanical, rheological properties, and release behaviors of the TCH using the tube inversion method, a texture analyzer, a rheometer, and in vitro release , respectively. The results showed that as the concentration of NB/HP-β-CD increased, the phase transition temperature of the TCH was increased from 37.26 to 38.34 °C and the mechanical properties of the TCH showed that the hardness, cohesiveness, strength, and adhesiveness were increased from 0.025 to 0.064 kg, 0.022 to 0.064 kg, 0.110 to 0.307 kg and 0.036 to 0.105 kg, respectively, but the rheological properties of the TCH showed that G', G'' and η were decreased from 7,760 to 157.50 Pa, 1,274 to 36.28 Pa and 1,252 to 25.37 Pas, respectively. The in vitro release showed that an increasing NB/HP-β-CD concentration decreased the release rate of NB from the TCH, but the amount of NB released was more than 96% at 60 min, which showed the TCH had good release behavior.

  15. Effects of methylation-sensitive enzymes on the enrichment of genic SNPs and the degree of genome complexity reduction in a two-enzyme genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) approach: a case study in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pootakham, Wirulda; Sonthirod, Chutima; Naktang, Chaiwat; Jomchai, Nukoon; Sangsrakru, Duangjai; Tangphatsornruang, Sithichoke

    2016-01-01

    Advances in next generation sequencing have facilitated a large-scale single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) discovery in many crop species. Genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) approach couples next generation sequencing with genome complexity reduction techniques to simultaneously identify and genotype SNPs. Choice of enzymes used in GBS library preparation depends on several factors including the number of markers required, the desired level of multiplexing, and whether the enrichment of genic SNP is preferred. We evaluated various combinations of methylation-sensitive (AatII, PstI, MspI) and methylation-insensitive (SphI, MseI) enzymes for their effectiveness in genome complexity reduction and enrichment of genic SNPs. We discovered that the use of two methylation-sensitive enzymes effectively reduced genome complexity and did not require a size selection step. On the contrary, the genome coverage of libraries constructed with methylation-insensitive enzymes was quite high, and the additional size selection step may be required to increase the overall read depth. We also demonstrated the effectiveness of methylation-sensitive enzymes in enriching for SNPs located in genic regions. When two methylation-insensitive enzymes were used, only 16% of SNPs identified were located in genes and 18% in the vicinity (± 5 kb) of the genic regions, while most SNPs resided in the intergenic regions. In contrast, a remarkable degree of enrichment was observed when two methylation-sensitive enzymes were employed. Almost two thirds of the SNPs were located either inside (32-36%) or in the vicinity (28-31%) of the genic regions. These results provide useful information to help researchers choose appropriate GBS enzymes in oil palm and other crop species.

  16. Moderate Genetic Diversity and Genetic Differentiation in the Relict TreeLiquidambar formosanaHance Revealed by Genic Simple Sequence Repeat Markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Rongxi; Lin, Furong; Huang, Ping; Zheng, Yongqi

    2016-01-01

    Chinese sweetgum ( Liquidambar formosana ) is a relatively fast-growing ecological pioneer species. It is widely used for multiple purposes. To assess the genetic diversity and genetic differentiation of the species, genic SSR markers were mined from transcriptome data for subsequent analysis of the genetic diversity and population structure of natural populations. A total of 10645 potential genic SSR loci were identified in 80482 unigenes. The average frequency was one SSR per 5.12 kb, and the dinucleotide unit was the most abundant motif. A total of 67 alleles were found, with a mean of 6.091 alleles per locus and a mean polymorphism information content of 0.390. Moreover, the species exhibited a relatively moderate level of genetic diversity ( He = 0.399), with the highest was found in population XY ( He = 0.469). At the regional level, the southwestern region displayed the highest genetic diversity ( He = 0.435) and the largest number of private alleles (n = 5), which indicated that the Southwestern region may be the diversity hot spot of L. formosana. The AMOVA results showed that variation within populations (94.02%) was significantly higher than among populations (5.98%), which was in agreement with the coefficient of genetic differentiation ( Fst = 0.076). According to the UPGMA analysis and principal coordinate analysis and confirmed by the assignment test, 25 populations could be divided into three groups, and there were different degrees of introgression among populations. No correlation was found between genetic distance and geographic distance (P > 0.05). These results provided further evidence that geographic isolation was not the primary factor leading to the moderate genetic differentiation of L. formosana . As most of the genetic diversity of L. formosana exists among individuals within a population, individual plant selection would be an effective way to use natural variation in genetic improvement programs. This would be helpful to not only

  17. Divergence patterns of genic copy number variation in natural populations of the house mouse (Mus musculus domesticus) reveal three conserved genes with major population-specific expansions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezer, Željka; Harr, Bettina; Teschke, Meike; Babiker, Hiba; Tautz, Diethard

    2015-08-01

    Copy number variation represents a major source of genetic divergence, yet the evolutionary dynamics of genic copy number variation in natural populations during differentiation and adaptation remain unclear. We applied a read depth approach to genome resequencing data to detect copy number variants (CNVs) ≥1 kb in wild-caught mice belonging to four populations of Mus musculus domesticus. We complemented the bioinformatics analyses with experimental validation using droplet digital PCR. The specific focus of our analysis is CNVs that include complete genes, as these CNVs could be expected to contribute most directly to evolutionary divergence. In total, 1863 transcription units appear to be completely encompassed within CNVs in at least one individual when compared to the reference assembly. Further, 179 of these CNVs show population-specific copy number differences, and 325 are subject to complete deletion in multiple individuals. Among the most copy-number variable genes are three highly conserved genes that encode the splicing factor CWC22, the spindle protein SFI1, and the Holliday junction recognition protein HJURP. These genes exhibit population-specific expansion patterns that suggest involvement in local adaptations. We found that genes that overlap with large segmental duplications are generally more copy-number variable. These genes encode proteins that are relevant for environmental and behavioral interactions, such as vomeronasal and olfactory receptors, as well as major urinary proteins and several proteins of unknown function. The overall analysis shows that genic CNVs contribute more to population differentiation in mice than in humans and may promote and speed up population divergence. © 2015 Pezer et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  18. Thermosensitive Behavior and Antibacterial Activity of Cotton Fabric Modified with a Chitosan-poly(N-isopropylacrylamide Interpenetrating Polymer Network Hydrogel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boxiang Wang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available To increase the themosensitive behavior and antibacterial activity of cotton fabric, a series of poly (N-isopropylacrylamide/chitosan (PNIPAAm/Cs hydrogels was synthesized by interpenetrating polymer network (IPN technology using a redox initiator. The IPN PNIPAAm/Cs hydrogel was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA. The results indicated that the IPN PNIPAAm/Cs hydrogel has a lower critical solution temperature (LCST at 33 °C. The IPN hydrogel was then used to modify cotton fabric using glutaric dialdehyde (GA as a crosslinking agent following a double-dip-double-nip process. The results demonstrated that the modified cotton fabric showed obvious thermosensitive behavior and antibacterial activity. The contact angle of the modified cotton fabric has a sharp rise around 33 °C, and the modified cotton fabric showed an obvious thermosensitive behavior. The bacterial reduction of modified cotton fabric against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus and Escherichia coli (E. coli were more than 99%. This study presents a valuable route towards smart textiles and their applications in functional clothing.

  19. A novel vehicle for local protein delivery to the inner ear: injectable and biodegradable thermosensitive hydrogel loaded with PLGA nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Juan; Long, Wei; Liang, Zhongping; Wen, Lu; Yang, Fan; Chen, Gang

    2018-01-01

    Delivery of biomacromolecular drugs into the inner ear is challenging, mainly because of their inherent instability as well as physiological and anatomical barriers. Therefore, protein-friendly, hydrogel-based delivery systems following local administration are being developed for inner ear therapy. Herein, biodegradable poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs) containing interferon α-2 b (IFN α-2 b) were loaded in chitosan/glycerophosphate (CS/GP)-based thermosensitive hydrogel for IFN delivery by intratympanic injection. The injectable hydrogel possessed a physiological pH and formed semi-solid gel at 37 °C, with good swelling and deswelling properties. The CS/GP hydrogel could slowly degrade as visualized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The presence of NPs in CS/GP gel largely influenced in vitro drug release. In the guinea pig cochlea, a 1.5- to 3-fold increase in the drug exposure time of NPs-CS/GP was found than those of the solution, NPs and IFN-loaded hydrogel. Most importantly, a prolonged residence time was attained without obvious histological changes in the inner ear. This biodegradable, injectable, and thermosensitive NPs-CS/GP system may allow longer delivery of protein drugs to the inner ear, thus may be a potential novel vehicle for inner ear therapy.

  20. Effects of thermosensitive chitosan-gelatin based hydrogel containing glutathione on Cisd2-deficient chondrocytes under oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yung-Hsin; Chavez, Eddy; Tsai, Kun-Ling; Yang, Kai-Chiang; Kuo, Wei-Ting; Yang, Yi-Ping; Chiou, Shih-Hwa; Lin, Feng-Huei

    2017-10-01

    Aging is considered as a primary risk factor in the development of osteoarthritis (OA) which associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress. CDGSH iron sulfur domain 2 (Cisd2) deficiency causes mitochondrial dysfunction and drive premature aging. In the present study, thermosensitive chitosan-gelatin based hydrogel containing glutathione was developed as injectable drug delivery system for administration by minimal invasive surgery for the treatment of OA. Cisd2 deficiency (Cisd2-/-) mouse induced pluripotent stem cells-derived chondrocytes were established and characterized. The results suggested that 100μM of glutathione may be an optimal concentration to treat Cisd2-/- chondrocytes without cytotoxicity. The developed hydrogel showed sustained release profile of the glutathione and could decrease the reactive oxygen species level. Post-treatment of glutathione-loaded hydrogel could rescue Cisd2-/- chondrocytes from oxidative damage via increasing catalase activity, down-regulation of inflammation, and decreasing apoptosis. These results suggest that thermosensitive glutathione-loaded hydrogel may be a potential antioxidant therapeutic strategy for treating Cisd2-/- chondrocytes in the near future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Formulation optimization and in vivo proof-of-concept study of thermosensitive liposomes balanced by phospholipid, elastin-like polypeptide, and cholesterol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Min Park

    Full Text Available One application of nanotechnology in medicine that is presently being developed involves a drug delivery system (DDS employing nanoparticles to deliver drugs to diseased sites in the body avoiding damage of healthy tissue. Recently, the mild hyperthermia-triggered drug delivery combined with anticancer agent-loaded thermosensitive liposomes was widely investigated. In this study, thermosensitive liposomes (TSLs, composed of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC, 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-N-[methoxy(polyethyleneglycol-2000] (DSPE-PEG, cholesterol, and a fatty acid conjugated elastin-like polypeptide (ELP, were developed and optimized for triggered drug release, controlled by external heat stimuli. We introduced modified ELP, tunable for various biomedical purposes, to our thermosensitive liposome (e-TSL to convey a high thermoresponsive property. We modulated thermosensitivity and stability by varying the ratios of e-TSL components, such as phospholipid, ELP, and cholesterol. Experimental data obtained in this study corresponded to results from a simulation study that demonstrated, through the calculation of the lateral diffusion coefficient, increased permeation of the lipid bilayer with higher ELP concentrations, and decreased permeation in the presence of cholesterol. Finally, we identified effective drug accumulation in tumor tissues and antitumor efficacy with our optimized e-TSL, while adjusting lag-times for systemic accumulation.

  2. A study on the thermochemotherapy effect of nanosized As{sub 2}O{sub 3}/MZF thermosensitive magnetoliposomes on experimental hepatoma in vitro and in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Li; Zhang Jia; Wang Ziyu; Liu Jing; Li Yutao; Zhang Dongsheng [School of Medicine, Southeast University, NO. 87 Ding jia qiao, Nanjing 210009 (China); An Yanli, E-mail: wangli040418@163.com, E-mail: zdszds1222@163.com [Affiliated Zhong-Da Hospital of Southeast University, Nanjing 210009 (China)

    2011-08-05

    In this paper, we describe the synthesis and characterization of a nanosized, thermosensitive magnetoliposome encapsulating magnetic nanoparticles (MZFs) and antitumor drugs (As{sub 2}O{sub 3}). The nanoliposomes were spherical and mostly single volume, with an average diameter of 128.2 nm. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) showed a liposome phase transition temperature of 42.71 deg. C. After that, we studied the liposomes' anti-hepatoma effect in vitro and in vivo. The antitumor effect of the nanoliposomes on human hepatoma cells, SMMC-7721, and changes in expression of apoptosis-related proteins were examined in vitro. The results show that As{sub 2}O{sub 3}/MZF thermosensitive magnetoliposomes combined with hyperthermia had a great impact on the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, which increased to 1.914 and exhibited a rapid response to induce apoptosis of tumor cells. An in situ rabbit liver tumor model was established and used to evaluate the antitumor effect of combined hyperthermia and chemotherapy following transcatheter arterial embolization with As{sub 2}O{sub 3}/MZF thermosensitive magnetoliposomes. The results demonstrated a strong anti-hepatoma effect, with a tumor volume inhibition rate of up to 85.22%. Thus, As{sub 2}O{sub 3}/MZF thermosensitive magnetoliposomes may play a great role in the treatment of hepatocarcinoma.

  3. A study on the thermochemotherapy effect of nanosized As2O3/MZF thermosensitive magnetoliposomes on experimental hepatoma in vitro and in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Zhang, Jia; An, Yanli; Wang, Ziyu; Liu, Jing; Li, Yutao; Zhang, Dongsheng

    2011-08-01

    In this paper, we describe the synthesis and characterization of a nanosized, thermosensitive magnetoliposome encapsulating magnetic nanoparticles (MZFs) and antitumor drugs (As2O3). The nanoliposomes were spherical and mostly single volume, with an average diameter of 128.2 nm. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) showed a liposome phase transition temperature of 42.71 °C. After that, we studied the liposomes' anti-hepatoma effect in vitro and in vivo. The antitumor effect of the nanoliposomes on human hepatoma cells, SMMC-7721, and changes in expression of apoptosis-related proteins were examined in vitro. The results show that As2O3/MZF thermosensitive magnetoliposomes combined with hyperthermia had a great impact on the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, which increased to 1.914 and exhibited a rapid response to induce apoptosis of tumor cells. An in situ rabbit liver tumor model was established and used to evaluate the antitumor effect of combined hyperthermia and chemotherapy following transcatheter arterial embolization with As2O3/MZF thermosensitive magnetoliposomes. The results demonstrated a strong anti-hepatoma effect, with a tumor volume inhibition rate of up to 85.22%. Thus, As2O3/MZF thermosensitive magnetoliposomes may play a great role in the treatment of hepatocarcinoma.

  4. Enabling Junction Temperature Estimation via Collector-Side Thermo-Sensitive Electrical Parameters through Emitter Stray Inductance in High-Power IGBT Modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luo, Haoze; Li, Wuhua; Iannuzzo, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes the adoption of the inherent emitter stray inductance LeE in high-power insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) modules as a new dynamic thermo-sensitive electrical parameter (d-TSEP). Furthermore, a family of 14 derived dynamic TSEP candidates has been extracted and classified...

  5. scale rice farmers in nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    of world rice, with China and India accounting for over half of the world's output. Worldwide, rice production has ... reported that rice indeed is no longer a luxury food in. Nigeria, and that it has become a major source of ... declined in China and Japan but this trend is not observed in other Asian countries; instead, the share ...

  6. Genome-Wide Association Study for Traits Related to Plant and Grain Morphology, and Root Architecture in Temperate Rice Accessions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Biscarini

    Full Text Available In this study we carried out a genome-wide association analysis for plant and grain morphology and root architecture in a unique panel of temperate rice accessions adapted to European pedo-climatic conditions. This is the first study to assess the association of selected phenotypic traits to specific genomic regions in the narrow genetic pool of temperate japonica. A set of 391 rice accessions were GBS-genotyped yielding-after data editing-57000 polymorphic and informative SNPS, among which 54% were in genic regions.In total, 42 significant genotype-phenotype associations were detected: 21 for plant morphology traits, 11 for grain quality traits, 10 for root architecture traits. The FDR of detected associations ranged from 3 · 10-7 to 0.92 (median: 0.25. In most cases, the significant detected associations co-localised with QTLs and candidate genes controlling the phenotypic variation of single or multiple traits. The most significant associations were those for flag leaf width on chromosome 4 (FDR = 3 · 10-7 and for plant height on chromosome 6 (FDR = 0.011.We demonstrate the effectiveness and resolution of the developed platform for high-throughput phenotyping, genotyping and GWAS in detecting major QTLs for relevant traits in rice. We identified strong associations that may be used for selection in temperate irrigated rice breeding: e.g. associations for flag leaf width, plant height, root volume and length, grain length, grain width and their ratio. Our findings pave the way to successfully exploit the narrow genetic pool of European temperate rice and to pinpoint the most relevant genetic components contributing to the adaptability and high yield of this germplasm. The generated data could be of direct use in genomic-assisted breeding strategies.

  7. Genome-Wide Association Study for Traits Related to Plant and Grain Morphology, and Root Architecture in Temperate Rice Accessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biscarini, Filippo; Cozzi, Paolo; Casella, Laura; Riccardi, Paolo; Vattari, Alessandra; Orasen, Gabriele; Perrini, Rosaria; Tacconi, Gianni; Tondelli, Alessandro; Biselli, Chiara; Cattivelli, Luigi; Spindel, Jennifer; McCouch, Susan; Abbruscato, Pamela; Valé, Giampiero; Piffanelli, Pietro; Greco, Raffaella

    2016-01-01

    In this study we carried out a genome-wide association analysis for plant and grain morphology and root architecture in a unique panel of temperate rice accessions adapted to European pedo-climatic conditions. This is the first study to assess the association of selected phenotypic traits to specific genomic regions in the narrow genetic pool of temperate japonica. A set of 391 rice accessions were GBS-genotyped yielding-after data editing-57000 polymorphic and informative SNPS, among which 54% were in genic regions. In total, 42 significant genotype-phenotype associations were detected: 21 for plant morphology traits, 11 for grain quality traits, 10 for root architecture traits. The FDR of detected associations ranged from 3 · 10-7 to 0.92 (median: 0.25). In most cases, the significant detected associations co-localised with QTLs and candidate genes controlling the phenotypic variation of single or multiple traits. The most significant associations were those for flag leaf width on chromosome 4 (FDR = 3 · 10-7) and for plant height on chromosome 6 (FDR = 0.011). We demonstrate the effectiveness and resolution of the developed platform for high-throughput phenotyping, genotyping and GWAS in detecting major QTLs for relevant traits in rice. We identified strong associations that may be used for selection in temperate irrigated rice breeding: e.g. associations for flag leaf width, plant height, root volume and length, grain length, grain width and their ratio. Our findings pave the way to successfully exploit the narrow genetic pool of European temperate rice and to pinpoint the most relevant genetic components contributing to the adaptability and high yield of this germplasm. The generated data could be of direct use in genomic-assisted breeding strategies.

  8. Release of a Wound-Healing Agent from PLGA Microspheres in a Thermosensitive Gel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. A. Machado

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to develop a topical microsphere delivery system in a thermosensitive 20% poloxamer 407 gel (Pluronic F127 to control release of KSL-W, a cationic antimicrobial decapeptide, for a period of 4–7 days for potential application in combat related injuries. KSL-W loaded microsphere formulations were prepared by a solvent extraction-evaporation method (water-oil-water, with poly (D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA (50 : 50, low-weight, and hydrophilic end as the polymeric system. After optimization of the process, three formulations (A, B, and C were prepared with different organic to water ratio of the primary emulsion while maintaining other components and manufacturing parameters constant. Formulations were characterized for surface morphology, porous nature, drug loading, in vitro drug release, and antimicrobial activity. Microspheres containing 20% peptide with porous surfaces and internal structure were prepared in satisfactory yields and in sizes varying from 25 to 50 μm. Gels of 20% Pluronic F127, which were liquid at or below 24.6°C and formed transparent films at body temperature, were used as carriers for the microspheres. Rheological studies showed a gelation temperature of 24.6°C for the 20% Pluronic F127 gel alone. Gelation temperature and viscosity of formulations A, B, and C as a function of temperature were very close to those of the carrier. A Franz diffusion cell system was used to study the release of peptide from the microspheres suspended in both, phosphate-buffered saline (PBS and a 20% Pluronic F127 gel. In vitro release of greater than 50% peptide was found in all formulations in both PBS and the gel, and in one formulation there was a release of 75% in both PBS and the gel. Fractions collected from the release process were also tested for bactericidal activity against Staphylococcus epidermidis using the broth microdilution method and found to provide effective antimicrobial activity

  9. Biodegradable thermosensitive hydrogel for SAHA and DDP delivery: therapeutic effects on oral squamous cell carcinoma xenografts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: OSCC is one of the most common malignancies and numerous clinical agents currently applied in combinative chemotherapy. Here we reported a novel therapeutic strategy, SAHA and DDP-loaded PECE (SAHA-DDP/PECE, can improve the therapeutic effects of intratumorally chemotherapy on OSCC cell xenografts. OBJECTIVE/PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of the SAHA-DDP/PECE in situ controlled drug delivery system on OSCC cell xenografts. METHODS: A biodegradable and thermosensitive hydrogel was successfully developed to load SAHA and DDP. Tumor-beared mice were intratumorally administered with SAHA-DDP/PECE at 50 mg/kg (SAHA +2 mg/kg (DDP in 100 ul PECE hydrogel every two weeks, SAHA-DDP at 50 mg/kg(SAHA +2 mg/kg(DDP in NS, 2 mg/kg DDP solution, 50 mg/kg SAHA solution, equal volume of PECE hydrogel, or equal volume of NS on the same schedule, respectively. The antineoplastic actions of SAHA and DDP alone and in combination were evaluated using the determination of tumor volume, immunohistochemistry, western blot, and TUNEL analysis. RESULTS: The hydrogel system was a free-flowing sol at 10 °C, become gel at body temperature, and could sustain more than 14 days in situ. SAHA-DDP/PECE was subsequently injected into tumor OSCC tumor-beared mice. The results demonstrated that such a strategy as this allows the carrier system to show a sustained release of SAHA and DDP in vivo, and could improved therapeutic effects compared with a simple additive therapeutic effect of SAHA and DDP on mouse model. CONCLUSIONS: Our research indicated that the novel SAHA-DDP/PECE system based on biodegradable PECE copolymer enhanced the therapeutic effects and could diminished the side effects of SAHA/DDP. The present work might be of great importance to the further exploration of the potential application of SAHA/DDP-hydrogel controlled drug release system in the treatment of OSCC.

  10. Design and optimization of thermosensitive nanoemulsion hydrogel for sustained-release of praziquantel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Zhaotong; Shi, Yanbin; Peng, Xue; Wei, Bei; Wang, Yu; Li, Jincheng; Li, Jianyong; Li, Jiazhong

    2017-04-01

    This work aimed to develop an alternative sustained-release thermosensitive praziquantel-loaded nanoemulsion (PZQ-NE) hydrogel for better schistosomiasis treatment. PZQ-NE-dispersed chitosan/glycerol 2-phosphate disodium/HPMC (NE/CS/β-GP/HMPC) hydrogel was successfully prepared to improve bioavailability of PZQ. Solubility tests and pseudo-ternary phase diagrams were applied to screen optimal oils, surfactants and co-surfactants of NE. The hydrogels were characterized for gelling time, surface exudates, rheological properties and in vitro drug release. Formulation optimization of NE/CS/β-GP/HMPC hydrogel was conducted by Box-Behnken experimental design combined with response surface methodology. In vitro cytotoxicity of hydrogel was studied by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide method. The sustained-release property of PZQ in NE and optimized hydrogel was evaluated by pharmacokinetic study in rabbits. The formulation of PZQ-NE consisted of mass ratio of 12.5% capryol 90 containing PZQ (160 mg/g), 40% cremophor RH 40/tween 20 and transcutol HP (S/CoS = 2:1), 47.5% deionized water. PZQ releasing from NE/CS/β-GP/HMPC hydrogels was best fitted to Higuchi model and governed by diffusion. Rheological investigation evidenced the themosensitive gelation of different hydrogel systems and their gel-like character at 37 °C. The optimized hydrogel formulation consisted of HPMC solution (103.69 mg/g), 3.03% (w/v) chitosan and 14.1% (w/v) β-GP showed no cytotoxicity when the addition of NE was no more than 100 mg/g. Pharmacokinetic parameters indicated that NE/CS/β-GP/HMPC hydrogel can significantly slow down drug elimination, prolong mean residence time and improve bioavailability of PZQ. NE/CS/β-GP/HMPC hydrogel possessed sustained-release property and could be an alternative antischistosomal drug delivery system with improved therapeutic effect.

  11. Genome-wide generation and use of informative intron-spanning and intron-length polymorphism markers for high-throughput genetic analysis in rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badoni, Saurabh; Das, Sweta; Sayal, Yogesh K.; Gopalakrishnan, S.; Singh, Ashok K.; Rao, Atmakuri R.; Agarwal, Pinky; Parida, Swarup K.; Tyagi, Akhilesh K.

    2016-01-01

    We developed genome-wide 84634 ISM (intron-spanning marker) and 16510 InDel-fragment length polymorphism-based ILP (intron-length polymorphism) markers from genes physically mapped on 12 rice chromosomes. These genic markers revealed much higher amplification-efficiency (80%) and polymorphic-potential (66%) among rice accessions even by a cost-effective agarose gel-based assay. A wider level of functional molecular diversity (17–79%) and well-defined precise admixed genetic structure was assayed by 3052 genome-wide markers in a structured population of indica, japonica, aromatic and wild rice. Six major grain weight QTLs (11.9–21.6% phenotypic variation explained) were mapped on five rice chromosomes of a high-density (inter-marker distance: 0.98 cM) genetic linkage map (IR 64 x Sonasal) anchored with 2785 known/candidate gene-derived ISM and ILP markers. The designing of multiple ISM and ILP markers (2 to 4 markers/gene) in an individual gene will broaden the user-preference to select suitable primer combination for efficient assaying of functional allelic variation/diversity and realistic estimation of differential gene expression profiles among rice accessions. The genomic information generated in our study is made publicly accessible through a user-friendly web-resource, “Oryza ISM-ILP marker” database. The known/candidate gene-derived ISM and ILP markers can be enormously deployed to identify functionally relevant trait-associated molecular tags by optimal-resource expenses, leading towards genomics-assisted crop improvement in rice. PMID:27032371

  12. Comparative transcriptomes profiling of photoperiod-sensitive male sterile rice Nongken 58S during the male sterility transition between short-day and long-day.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Liu, Zhenwei; Guo, Zhibin; Song, Gaoyuan; Cheng, Qin; Jiang, Daiming; Zhu, Yingguo; Yang, Daichang

    2011-09-25

    Photoperiod-sensitive genic male sterile (PGMS) rice, Nongken 58S, was discovered in 1973. It has been widely used for the production of hybrid rice, and great achievements have been made in improving rice yields. However, the mechanism of the male sterility transition in PGMS rice remains to be determined. To investigate the transcriptome during the male sterility transition in PGMS rice, the transcriptome of Nongken 58S under short-day (SD) and long-day (LD) at the glume primordium differentiation and pistil/stamen primordium forming stages was compared. Seventy-three and 128 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified at the glume primordium differentiation and pistil/stamen primordium forming stages, respectively. Five and 22 genes were markedly up-regulated (≥ 5-fold), and two and five genes were considerably down-regulated (≥ 5-fold) under SD during the male sterility transition. Gene ontology annotation and pathway analysis revealed that four biological processes and the circadian rhythms and the flowering pathways coordinately regulated the male sterility transition. Further quantitative PCR analysis demonstrated that the circadian rhythms of OsPRR1, OsPRR37, OsGI, Hd1, OsLHY and OsDof in leaves were obviously different between Nongken 58S and Nongken 58 under LD conditions. Moreover, both OsPRR37 and Hd1 in the inflorescence displayed differences between Nongken 58S and Nongken 58 under both LD and SD conditions. The results presented here indicate that the transcriptome in Nongken 58S was significantly suppressed under LD conditions. Among these DEGs, the circadian rhythm and the flowering pathway were involved in the male sterility transition. Furthermore, these pathways were coordinately involved in the male sterility transition in PGMS rice.

  13. Comparative Transcriptomes Profiling of Photoperiod-sensitive Male Sterile Rice Nongken 58S During the Male Sterility Transition between Short-day and Long-day

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Yingguo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Photoperiod-sensitive genic male sterile (PGMS rice, Nongken 58S, was discovered in 1973. It has been widely used for the production of hybrid rice, and great achievements have been made in improving rice yields. However, the mechanism of the male sterility transition in PGMS rice remains to be determined. Results To investigate the transcriptome during the male sterility transition in PGMS rice, the transcriptome of Nongken 58S under short-day (SD and long-day (LD at the glume primordium differentiation and pistil/stamen primordium forming stages was compared. Seventy-three and 128 differentially expressed genes (DEGs were identified at the glume primordium differentiation and pistil/stamen primordium forming stages, respectively. Five and 22 genes were markedly up-regulated (≥ 5-fold, and two and five genes were considerably down-regulated (≥ 5-fold under SD during the male sterility transition. Gene ontology annotation and pathway analysis revealed that four biological processes and the circadian rhythms and the flowering pathways coordinately regulated the male sterility transition. Further quantitative PCR analysis demonstrated that the circadian rhythms of OsPRR1, OsPRR37, OsGI, Hd1, OsLHY and OsDof in leaves were obviously different between Nongken 58S and Nongken 58 under LD conditions. Moreover, both OsPRR37 and Hd1 in the inflorescence displayed differences between Nongken 58S and Nongken 58 under both LD and SD conditions. Conclusion The results presented here indicate that the transcriptome in Nongken 58S was significantly suppressed under LD conditions. Among these DEGs, the circadian rhythm and the flowering pathway were involved in the male sterility transition. Furthermore, these pathways were coordinately involved in the male sterility transition in PGMS rice.

  14. Bioinformatic analysis of epigenetic and microRNA mediated regulation of drought responsive genes in rice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafi Shaik

    Full Text Available Drought stress response is a complex trait regulated at multiple levels. Changes in the epigenetic and miRNA regulatory landscape can dramatically alter the outcome of a stress response. However, little is known about the scope and extent of these regulatory factors on drought related cellular processes and functions. To this end, we selected a list of 5468 drought responsive genes (DRGs of rice identified in multiple microarray studies and mapped the DNA methylation regions found in a genome wide methylcytosine immunoprecipitation and sequencing (mCIP-Seq study to their genic and promoter regions, identified the chromatin remodeling genes and the genes that are targets of miRNAs. We found statistically significant enrichment of DNA methylation reads and miRNA target sequences in DRGs compared to a random set of genes. About 75% of the DRGs annotated to be involved in chromatin remodeling were downregulated. We found one-third of the DRGs are targeted by two-thirds of all known/predicted miRNAs in rice which include many transcription factors targeted by more than five miRNAs. Clustering analysis of the DRGs with epigenetic and miRNA features revealed, upregulated cluster was enriched in drought tolerance mechanisms while the downregulated cluster was enriched in drought resistance mechanisms evident by their unique gene ontologies (GOs, protein-protein interactions (PPIs, specific transcription factors, protein domains and metabolic pathways. Further, we analyzed the proteome of two weeks old young rice plants treated with a global demethylating agent, 5-azacytidine (5-azaC, subjected to drought stress and identified 56 protein spots that are differentially expressed. Out of the 56 spots, 35 were differently expressed in the sample with both demethylation and drought stress treatments and 28 (50% were part of DRGs considered in the bioinformatic analysis.

  15. Functional significance of thermosensitive transient receptor potential melastatin channel 8 (TRPM8) expression in immortalized human corneal endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mergler, Stefan; Mertens, Charlotte; Valtink, Monika; Reinach, Peter S; Székely, Violeta Castelo; Slavi, Nefeli; Garreis, Fabian; Abdelmessih, Suzette; Türker, Ersal; Fels, Gabriele; Pleyer, Uwe

    2013-11-01

    Human corneal endothelial cells (HCEC) maintain appropriate tissue hydration and transparency by eliciting net ion transport coupled to fluid egress from the stroma into the anterior chamber. Such activity offsets tissue swelling caused by stromal imbibition of fluid. As corneal endothelial (HCE) transport function is modulated by temperature changes, we probed for thermosensitive transient receptor potential melastatin 8 (TRPM8) functional activity in immortalized human corneal endothelial cells (HCEC-12) and freshly isolated human corneal endothelial cells (HCEC) as a control. This channel is either activated upon lowering to 28 °C or by menthol, eucalyptol and icilin. RT-PCR and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) verified TRPM8 gene expression. Ca(2+) transients induced by either menthol (500 μmol/l), eucalyptol (3 mmol/l), or icilin (2-60 μmol/l) were identified using cell fluorescence imaging. The TRP channel blocker lanthanum III chloride (La(3+), 100 μmol/l) as well as the TRPM8 blockers BCTC (10 μmol/l) and capsazepine (CPZ, 10 μmol/l) suppressed icilin-induced Ca(2+) increases. In and outward currents induced by application of menthol (500 μmol/l) or icilin (50 μmol/l) were detected using the planar patch-clamp technique. A thermal transition from room temperature to ≈ 18 °C led to Ca(2+) increases that were inhibited by a TRPM8 blocker BCTC (10 μmol/l). Other thermosensitive TRP pathways whose heterogeneous Ca(2+) response patterns are suggestive of other Ca(2+) handling pathways were also detected upon strong cooling (≈10 °C). Taken together, functional TRPM8 expression in HCEC-12 and freshly dissociated HCEC suggests that HCE function can adapt to thermal variations through activation of this channel subtype. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Accelerated Solvent Extraction of Insecticides from Rice Hulls, Rice Bran, and Polished Rice Grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teló, Gustavo Mack; Senseman, Scott Allen; Marchesan, Enio; Camargo, Edinalvo Rabaioli; Carson, Katherine

    2017-03-01

    Analysis of pesticide residues in irrigated rice grains is important for food security. In this study, we analyzed accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) conditions for the extraction of thiamethoxam and chlorantraniliprole insecticides from rice hulls, rice bran, and polished rice grains. Several variables, including extraction solvent, extraction temperature, extraction pressure, cell size, static extraction time, and sample concentration, were investigated. The average recoveries of the three matrixes were between 89.7 and 109.7% at the fortification level of 0.75 mg/kg. The optimum ASE operating conditions were acetonitrile (100%) as extraction solvent, extraction temperature of 75°C for rice hulls and 100°C for rice bran and polished rice grains, extraction cell pressure of 10.3 MPa, 22 mL cell size, and two extraction cycles. The total extraction time was approximately 25 min. The extracted volume was evaporated to dryness and the residues were redissolved in 2 mL acetonitrile after 1 min of vortex-shaking. Thiamethoxam and chlorantraniliprole were analyzed by ultra-HPLC with tandem MS. In conclusion, ASE in rice hulls, rice bran, and polished rice grains offers the possibility of a fast and simple method for obtaining a quantitative extraction of the studied pesticides.

  17. Nicaragua - Rice and Banana Farmers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — This report is an impact evaluation of two components of the Rural Business Development Program (RBD) in Nicaragua, specifically the components benefitting rice and...

  18. Prevalence of Rice Yellow Mottle Virus (RYMV) on Rice Plants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Z. variegatus 1. 0.688. 1.037. Locust. L. migratoides. 1. 1.023. 1.037. Discussion. Viral disease due to RYMV had been a major challenge in rice production in Nigeria since 1976 when it was reported by Rossel et al. (1982). Areas of rice production in Nigeria where the virus had been detected included. Badeggi, Ibadan ...

  19. The Haitian Rice Tariff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mats Lundahl

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Se ha argumentado que los problemas agríco-las de Haití derivan de la tarifa del arroz de a mediados de los años noventa. Antes, supues-tamente, Haití fue autosuficiente, abastecida por su producción doméstica. Después de la reducción, el mercado haitiano se inundó en importaciones de arroz barato de los EEUU, lo cual despojó a los campesinos de sus fincas, convirtiendolos en migrantes internos, hacia los empleos de bajo pago de las ciudades. El artículo rechaza ese argumento y demuestra que es falso. La malnutrición fue un fenómeno extendido en Haití mucho antes de la reducción de la tarifa del arroz, la cual tampoco tuvo un gran impacto en la importación y la producción doméstica del arroz. Lo que sí impulsó el aumento de las importaciones fue el crecimiento de la población. También el artículo argumenta que un aumento de la tarifa del arroz no solucionará el problema de la alimentación que sufre Haití. English: It has been argued that Haiti’s agricultural problems derive from the reduction of the rice tariff in the mid-1990s. Before that Haiti was allegedly able to meet its food needs by domestic production. After the reduction the Haitian market was swamped by imports of cheap American rice which drove the farmers off their lands and forced them to migrate to low-wage industrial jobs in the cities. The article demonstrates that the argument is false. Malnutrition was widespread in Haiti long before the rice tariff reduction, and the latter did not have much of an impact on rice imports and domestic production. Instead, the main driving force behind imports appears to be population growth. It is also shown that an increase of the rice tariff will not solve Haiti’s food problem.

  20. Localized delivery of doxorubicin in vivo from polymer-modified thermosensitive liposomes with MR-guided focused ultrasound-mediated heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ta, Terence; Bartolak-Suki, Elizabeth; Park, Eun-Joo; Karrobi, Kavon; McDannold, Nathan J; Porter, Tyrone M

    2014-11-28

    Thermosensitive liposomes have emerged as a viable strategy for localized delivery and triggered release of chemotherapy. MR-guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) has the capability of heating tumors in a controlled manner, and when combined with thermosensitive liposomes can potentially reduce tumor burden in vivo. However, the impact of this drug delivery strategy has rarely been investigated. We have developed a unique liposome formulation modified with p(NIPAAm-co-PAA), a polymer that confers sensitivity to both temperature and pH. These polymer-modified thermosensitive liposomes (PTSL) demonstrated sensitivity to focused ultrasound, and required lower thermal doses and were more cytotoxic than traditional formulations in vitro. A set of acoustic parameters characterizing optimal release from PTSL in vitro was applied in the design of a combined MRgFUS/PTSL delivery platform. This platform more effectively reduced tumor burden in vivo when compared to free drug and traditional formulations. Histological analysis indicated greater tumor penetration, more extensive ECM remodeling, and greater cell destruction in tumors administered PTSL, correlating with improved response to the therapy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Impact of volunteer rice infestation on yield and grain quality of rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vijay; Burgos, Nilda R; Singh, Shilpa; Gealy, David R; Gbur, Edward E; Caicedo, Ana L

    2017-03-01

    Volunteer rice (Oryza sativa L.) grains may differ in physicochemical traits from cultivated rice, which may reduce the quality of harvested rice grain. To evaluate the effect of volunteer rice on cultivated rice, fields were surveyed in Arkansas in 2012. Cropping history that included hybrid cultivars in the previous two years (2010 and 2011) had higher volunteer rice infestation (20%) compared with fields planted previously with inbred rice (5.5%). The total grain yield of rice was reduced by 0.4% for every 1% increase in volunteer rice density. The grain quality did not change in fields planted with the same cultivar for three years. Volunteer rice density of at least 7.6% negatively impacted the head rice and when infestation reached 17.7%, it also reduced the rice grain yield. The protein and amylose contents of rice were not affected until volunteer rice infestation exceeded 30%. Crop rotation systems that include hybrid rice are expected to have higher volunteer rice infestation than systems without hybrid rice. It is predicted that, at 8% infestation, volunteer rice will start to impact head rice yield and will reduce total yield at 18% infestation. It could alter the chemical quality of rice grain at >30% infestation. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Red yeast rice for dysipidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamim, Shariq; Al Badarin, Firas J; DiNicolantonio, James J; Lavie, Carl J; O'Keefe, James H

    2013-01-01

    Red yeast rice is an ancient Chinese food product that contains monacolins, chemical substances that are similar to statins in their mechanisms of action and lipid lowering properties. Several studies have found red yeast rice to be moderately effective at improving the lipid profile, particularly for lowering the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. One large randomized controlled study from China found that red yeast rice significantly improved risk of major adverse cardiovascular events and overall survival in patients following myocardial infarction. Thus, red yeast rice is a potentially useful over-the-counter cholesterol-lowering agent. However, many red yeast rice formulations are non-standardized and unregulated food supplements, and there is a need for further research and regulation of production.

  3. Differential DNA methylation at conserved non-genic elements and evidence for transgenerational inheritance following developmental exposure to mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and 5-azacytidine in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamstra, Jorke H; Sales, Liana Bastos; Aleström, Peter; Legler, Juliette

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to environmental stressors during development may lead to latent and transgenerational adverse health effects. To understand the role of DNA methylation in these effects, we used zebrafish as a vertebrate model to investigate heritable changes in DNA methylation following chemical-induced stress during early development. We exposed zebrafish embryos to non-embryotoxic concentrations of the biologically active phthalate metabolite mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP, 30 µM) and the DNA methyltransferase 1 inhibitor 5-azacytidine (5AC, 10 µM). Direct, latent and transgenerational effects on DNA methylation were assessed using global, genome-wide and locus-specific DNA methylation analyses. Following direct exposure in zebrafish embryos from 0 to 6 days post-fertilization, genome-wide analysis revealed a multitude of differentially methylated regions, strongly enriched at conserved non-genic elements for both compounds. Pathways involved in adipogenesis were enriched with the putative obesogenic compound MEHP. Exposure to 5AC resulted in enrichment of pathways involved in embryonic development and transgenerational effects on larval body length. Locus-specific methylation analysis of 10 differentially methylated sites revealed six of these loci differentially methylated in sperm sampled from adult zebrafish exposed during development to 5AC, and in first and second generation larvae. With MEHP, consistent changes were found at 2 specific loci in first and second generation larvae. Our results suggest a functional role for DNA methylation on cis-regulatory conserved elements following developmental exposure to compounds. Effects on these regions are potentially transferred to subsequent generations.

  4. Comprehensive analysis of genic male sterility-related genes in Brassica rapa using a newly developed Br300K oligomeric chip.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangshu Dong

    Full Text Available To identify genes associated with genic male sterility (GMS that could be useful for hybrid breeding in Chinese cabbage (Brassicarapa ssp. pekinensis, floral bud transcriptome analysis was carried out using a B. rapa microarray with 300,000 probes (Br300K. Among 47,548 clones deposited on a Br300K microarray with seven probes of 60 nt length within the 3' 150 bp region, a total of 10,622 genes were differentially expressed between fertile and sterile floral buds; 4,774 and 5,848 genes were up-regulated over 2-fold in fertile and sterile buds, respectively. However, the expression of 1,413 and 199 genes showed fertile and sterile bud-specific features, respectively. Genes expressed specifically in fertile buds, possibly GMS-related genes, included homologs of several Arabidopsis male sterility-related genes, genes associated with the cell wall and synthesis of its surface proteins, pollen wall and coat components, signaling components, and nutrient supplies. However, most early genes for pollen development, genes for primexine and callose formation, and genes for pollen maturation and anther dehiscence showed no difference in expression between fertile and sterile buds. Some of the known genes associated with Arabidopsis pollen development showed similar expression patterns to those seen in this study, while others did not. BrbHLH89 and BrMYP99 are putative GMS genes. Additionally, 17 novel genes identified only in B. rapa were specifically and highly expressed only in fertile buds, implying the possible involvement in male fertility. All data suggest that Chinese cabbage GMS might be controlled by genes acting in post-meiotic tapetal development that are different from those known to be associated with Arabidopsis male sterility.

  5. Non-nutritive mineral effects on rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    The study of the responses of rice to non-nutritive minerals has numerous benefits. Rice is the current model plant for genomic studies of crops and with the sequencing of the rice genome, information obtained from rice can be extended to other organisms, which has been particularly valuable regard...

  6. New technique of stereolithography to local curing in thermosensitive resins using CO2 laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munhoz, A. L. J.

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available A theoretical and experimental study of thermosensitive resins used in thermal stereolithography is presented. The process of local curing through the application of infrared radiation, which has proved to be useful in a new technique for the making of prototypes by means of selective heating with CO2 laser (10.6μm, is studied. The ideal composition of the thermosensitive resins has proved to be 10 parts epoxy, 1.4 part diethylene triamine (the curing agent and 0.7 part silica powder. A physical theoretical model is applied for control of the parameters which influence the confinement of the curing in the irradiated bulk. A mathematical model is applied too; it was developed through the resolution of the heat conduction equation dependent on time in cylindrical co-ordinates, which enables to determine the behaviour of curing in terms of irradiation conditions.

    Se presenta un estudio teórico y experimental, sobre resinas termosensibles usadas en estereolitografía térmica. Se estudia el proceso de cura local mediante la aplicación de radiación infrarroja producida por el láser de CO2 (10.6 μm, el cual mostró ser útil en técnicas nuevas, para la fabricación de prototipos por medio de calentamiento selectivo. La composición ideal para cura local de las resinas termosensibles, está en la proporción de 10.0 partes de epoxi, 1.4 partes de dietilentriamina y 0.7 partes de sílice. Para controlar los parámetros que influyen en el confinamiento de la cura a través de la irradiación, se utiliza un modelo teórico-físico. Se utiliza un modelo matemático en coordenadas cilíndricas basado en la ecuación de conducción de calor dependiente del tiempo, que permite determinar el comportamiento de cura en función de las condiciones de irradiación.

  7. Purifying Selection Bias against Microsatellites in Gene Rich Segmental Duplications in the Rice Genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. C. Sharma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Little data is available on microsatellite dynamics in the duplicated regions of the rice genome, even though efforts have been made in the past to align genome sequences of its two sub-species. Based on the coordinates of duplicated sequences in the indica genome as available in the public domain, we identified microsatellites in these regions. CCG and GAAAA repeats occurred most frequently. In all, 259 microsatellites could be identified in the duplicated sequences using the criteria of minimum 90% alignability spread over a minimum of 1 Kb sequence. More than 25% of the repeats in duplicated regions occurred in the genic sequences. Only 45 (17% of these 259 microsatellites were found conserved in the duplicated paralogues. Among these repeats, 40% maintained both sequence and length conservation. The effect of mutability of nearby regions could also be clearly seen in microsatellite regions. The overall purpose of this study was to investigate, whether microsatellites follow an independent course of evolutionary dynamics subsequent to events like genome reshuffling that simply drives these elements to different locations in the genome. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive analysis of microsatellite conservation in the duplicated regions of any genome.

  8. The rice genome project in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Sasaki, Takuji

    1998-01-01

    Since 1991, the Rice Genome Research Program in Japan has carried out rice genomics, such as large-scale cDNA analysis, construction of a fine-scale restriction fragment length polymorphism map, and physical mapping of the rice genome with yeast artificial chromosome clones. These studies have made a great impact on research into grass genomes and made rice a model plant for other cereal crop research. Starting in 1998, the Rice Genome Research Program will step in...

  9. Protein-based emulsion electrosprayed micro- and submicroparticles for the encapsulation and stabilization of thermosensitive hydrophobic bioactives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Mascaraque, Laura G; López-Rubio, Amparo

    2016-03-01

    This work shows the potential of emulsion electrospraying of proteins using food-grade emulsions for the microencapsulation and enhanced protection of a model thermosensitive hydrophobic bioactive. Specifically, gelatin, a whey protein concentrate (WPC) and a soy protein isolate (SPI) were compared as emulsion stabilizers and wall matrices for encapsulation of α-linolenic acid. In a preliminary stage, soy bean oil was used as the hydrophobic component for the implementation of the emulsion electrospraying process, investigating the effect of protein type and emulsion protocol used (i.e. with or without ultrasound treatment) on colloidal stability. This oil was then substituted by the ω-3 fatty acid and the emulsions were processed by electrospraying and spray-drying, comparing both techniques. While the latter resulted in massive bioactive degradation, electrospraying proved to be a suitable alternative, achieving microencapsulation efficiencies (MEE) of up to ∼70%. Although gelatin yielded low MEEs due to the need of employing acetic acid for its processing by electrospraying, SPI and WPC achieved MEEs over 60% for the non-sonicated emulsions. Moreover, the degradation of α-linolenic acid at 80°C was significantly delayed when encapsulated within both matrices. Whilst less than an 8% of its alkene groups were detected after 27h of thermal treatment for free α-linolenic acid, up to 43% and 67% still remained intact within the electrosprayed SPI and WPC capsules, respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Thermo-sensitive TRP channels in peripheral nerve injury: a review of their role in cold intolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambiz, S; Duraku, L S; Holstege, J C; Hovius, S E R; Ruigrok, T J H; Walbeehm, E T

    2014-05-01

    One of the sensory complications of traumatic peripheral nerve injury is thermal intolerance, which manifests in humans mainly as cold intolerance. It has a major effect on the quality of life, and adequate therapy is not yet available. In order to better understand the pathophysiological background of thermal intolerance, we focus first on the various transient receptor potential (TRP) channels that are involved in temperature sensation, including their presence in peripheral nerves and in keratinocytes. Second, the role of thermo-sensitive TRP channels in cold and heat intolerance is described showing three different mechanisms that contribute to thermal intolerance in the skin: (a) an increased expression of TRP channels on nerve fibres and on keratinocytes, (b) a lower activation threshold of TRP channels and (c) the sprouting of non-injured nerve fibres. Finally, the data that are available on the effects of TRP channel agonists and antagonists and their clinical use are discussed. In conclusion, TRP channels play a major role in temperature sensation and in cold and heat intolerance. Unfortunately, the available pharmaceutical agents that successfully target TRP channels and counteract thermal intolerance are still very limited. Yet, our focus should remain on TRP channels since it is difficult to imagine a reliable treatment for thermal intolerance that will not involve TRP channels. Copyright © 2013 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Additional stabilization of stem bromelain coupled to a thermosensitive polymer by uniform orientation and using polyclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Rubab; Saleemuddin, M

    2007-03-01

    Stem bromelain was covalently coupled to a thermosensitive polymer of N-isopropylacrylamide (p(NIPAm)) either through the amino groups of the enzyme (randomly coupled) or via the lone oligosaccharide chain (uniformly coupled). The enzyme coupled via the oligosaccharide chain exhibited better access to the substrate casein as compared to the preparation in which the amino groups formed the point of contact between the enzyme and the polymer. Native bromelain exhibited a pH optimum of 8.0 and a broad pH-activity profile. The polymer-coupled preparations exhibited broader pH-activity profiles and shifting of pH optimum to 10.0 at 35 degrees C. At 25 degrees C, the shifting of pH optimum was observed for the randomly coupled enzyme only. The temperature-activity profiles of bromelain coupled to p(NIPAm) also showed appreciable broadening and the preparations retained greater fraction of maximum activity above the temperature optimum. The optimum temperature of the uniformly oriented preparation also rose to 70 degrees C. Inactivation rates of the polymer-coupled bromelain were remarkably low at 60 degrees C as compared to the native protease, and binding of antibromelain antibodies improved the resistance to inactivation of the polymer-coupled preparations. The cleavage patterns of hemoglobin and IgG by the native bromelain and the polymer-coupled preparations were comparable.

  12. Biphasic Equilibrium Dialysis of Poly(N-Isopropyl Acrylamide Nanogels Synthesized at Decreased Temperatures for Targeted Delivery of Thermosensitive Bioactives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witold Musial

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogel nanoparticles, referred to also as nanogels, are of special interest for medical and pharmaceutical applications. Due to small size in the range below the diameter of the capillaries, they are proposed as drug delivery carriers. The aim of the study was to estimate the influence of composition and reaction conditions during synthesis of poly-N-isopropyl acrylamide cross-linked by polyethylene glycol diacrylate on the purification rates of the polymer. Six types of thermosensitive nanogels were prepared by surfactant-free dispersion polymerization and assessed in terms of process yield, composition, and size at temperatures below and over volume phase temperature. During the diffusion of impurities, in the course of dialysis, assessed by the conductometric method, the remarkable influence of temperature and initiator concentration on the process was revealed. The release rates varied in the range between 9.63 · 10−2 and 1.39 · 10−1 h−1 in the first stage of the process, whereas in the second stage they were between 2.09 · 10−2 and 6.28 · 10−2 h−1. The evaluated time to obtain acceptable purity of the preparation was estimated to be in the range of 18 days. More detailed research should be directed towards the influence of the structure of obtained material on the purification process.

  13. Utilization of a thermosensitive episome bearing transposon TN10 to isolate Hfr donor strains of Erwinia carotovora subsp. chrysanthemi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotoujansky, A; Lemattre, M; Boistard, P

    1982-04-01

    A thermosensitive episome bearing the transposon Tn10, F(Ts)::Tn10 Lac+, has been successfully transferred from Escherichia coli to several wild strains of the enterobacteria Erwinia carotovora subsp. chrysanthemi, which are pathogenic on Saintpaulia ionantha. In one of these strains, all of the characters controlled by this episome (Lac+, Tetr, Tra+) were expressed, and its replication was stopped at 40 degrees C and above. At 30 degrees C, the episome was easily transferred between strains derived from E. carotovora subsp. chrysanthemi 3937j and to E coli. Hfr donor strains were obtained from a F' strain of 3937j by selecting clones which grew at 40 degrees C on plates containing tetracycline. One of these strains, Hfrq, was examined in more detail: the characters Lac+ and Tetr were stabilized and did not segregate higher than its parental F' strain. The mating was most efficient at 37 degrees C on a membrane. Hfrq transferred its chromosome to recipient strains at high frequency and in a polarized fashion, as evidenced by the gradient of transfer frequencies, the kinetics of marker entry (in interrupted mating experiments), and the analysis of linkage between different markers. The chromosome of Hfrq was most probably transferred in the following sequence: origin...met...xyl...arg...ile...leu...thr...cys...pan...ura...gal...trp...his. ..pur... Moreover, this genetic transfer system proved to be efficient in strain construction.

  14. Activation and inhibition of thermosensitive TRP channels by voacangine, an alkaloid present in Voacanga africana, an African tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terada, Yuko; Horie, Syunji; Takayama, Hiromitsu; Uchida, Kunitoshi; Tominaga, Makoto; Watanabe, Tatsuo

    2014-02-28

    Voacangine (1) is an alkaloid found in the root bark of Voacanga africana. Our previous work has suggested that 1 is a novel transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) antagonist. In this study, the agonist and antagonist activities of 1 were examined against thermosensitive TRP channels. Channel activity was evaluated mainly using TRP channel-expressing HEK cells and calcium imaging. Herein, it was shown that 1 acts as an antagonist for TRPV1 and TRPM8 but as an agonist for TRPA1 (EC50, 8 μM). The compound competitively blocked capsaicin binding to TRPV1 (IC50, 50 μM). Voacangine (1) competitively inhibited the binding of menthol to TRPM8 (IC50, 9 μM), but it showed noncompetitive inhibition against icilin (IC50, 7 μM). Moreover, the compound selectively abrogated chemical agonist-induced TRPM8 activation and did not affect cold-induced activation. Among these effects, the TRPM8 inhibition profile is unique and noteworthy, because to date no studies have reported a menthol competitive inhibitor of TRPM8 derived from a natural source. Furthermore, this is the first report of a stimulus-selective TRPM8 antagonist. Accordingly, 1 may contribute to the development of a novel class of stimulus-selective TRPM8 blockers.

  15. Thermosensitive block copolymer [(PNIPAM)-b-(Glycine)] thin film as protective layer for drug loaded mesoporous silica nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amgoth, Chander; Joshi, Suman

    2017-10-01

    Synthesis and characterization of [(PNIPAM)-b-(Gly)] and mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MP-SiO2 NPs) were carried out separately and used to develop [(PNIPAM)-b-(Gly)]-(MP-SiO2 NPs). The synthesized MP-SiO2 NPs were meso porous in nature. The size of SiO2 NPs is in the range of ~180–250 nm (in diameter) with an average pore size of 2.8 nm within the particles. Interestingly, these mesoporous SiO2 NPs were loaded with anticancer drug (ITM-imatinib mesylate) fallow by the incubation for 24 h at RT. However, ITM loaded MP-SiO2 NPs were capped or covered with synthesized [(PNIPAM)-b-(Gly)] thin film. Here, thin film acts as protective layer for drug loaded MP-SiO2 NPs, with that leakage of drug molecules throughout its transport pathway can be avoided. Significantly, thermosensitive [(PNIPAM)-b-(Gly)] polymer thin film depletes at body temperature (~37 °C) and drug molecules come out from the pores of SiO2 NPs. However, developed [(PNIPAM)-b-(Gly)]-(MP-SiO2 NPs) is compatible and used for cell inhibition studies. After 24 h treatment, drug ITM released from [(PNIPAM)-b-(Gly)]-(MP-SiO2 NPs) shows significant (>90%) inhibition on leukemia blood cancer (K562) cells.

  16. Extraction Separation of Am(III) and Eu(III) with Thermo-sensitive Gel introducing TPEN Derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenji Takeshita [Chemical Resources Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8503 (Japan); Yoshio Nakano [Department of Environment Chemistry and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan); Tatsuro Matsumura [Nuclear Science and Engineering Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaragi, 319-1195 (Japan); Atsunori Mori [Department of Chemical Science and Engineering, Kobe University Rokkodai-cho, Nada-ku, Kobe, 657-8501 (Japan)

    2008-07-01

    A thermal-swing chromatographic process using a thermo-sensitive gel co-polymerized with NIPA (N-isopropyl-acrylamide) and TPPEN (N,N,N',N'-tetrakis(4-propenyl-oxy-2-pyridyl-methyl)ethylenediamine) was studied for the separation of Am(III) from Eu(III). First, the radiolysis of the TPPEN-NIPA gel was tested by the {gamma}-ray irradiation and the {alpha} nuclide adsorption. The extraction separation of Am(III) was not influenced in the radioactive environment of the proposed process. Next, the TPPEN-NIPA gel was immobilized in porous silica particles and the applicability of the gel-immobilized silica to the proposed process was tested. Am(III) was extracted selectively in the gel-immobilized silica at 5 deg. C and the separation factor of Am(III) over Eu(III) was evaluated to be 3.7. The distribution ratio of Am(III) was reduced to less than 1/20 by increasing temperature from 5 deg. C to 40 deg. C. These results indicate that the TPPEN-NIPA gel is applicable to the thermal-swing chromatographic process for the minor actinide recovery. (authors)

  17. Against the grain: safeguarding rice from rice blast disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skamnioti, Pari; Gurr, Sarah J

    2009-03-01

    Rice is the staple diet of more than three billion people. Yields must double over the next 40 years if we are to sustain the nutritional needs of the ever-expanding global population. Between 10% and 30% of the annual rice harvest is lost due to infection by the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae. Evaluation of genetic and virulence diversity of blast populations with diagnostic markers will aid disease management. We review the M. oryzae species-specific and cultivar-specific avirulence determinants and evaluate efforts towards generating durable and broad-spectrum resistance in single resistant cultivars or mixtures. We consider modern usage of fungicides and plant defence activators, assess the usefulness of biological control and categorize current approaches towards blast-tolerant genetically modified rice.

  18. The Rice TCM5 Gene Encoding a Novel Deg Protease Protein is Essential for Chloroplast Development under High Temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Kailun; Zhao, Jian; Lin, Dongzhi; Chen, Jiaying; Xu, Jianlong; Zhou, Hua; Teng, Sheng; Dong, Yanjun

    2016-12-01

    High temperature affects a broad spectrum of cellular components and metabolism in plants. The Deg/HtrA family of ATP-independent serine endopeptidases is present in nearly all organisms. Deg proteases are required for the survival of Escherichia coli at high temperatures. However, it is still unclear whether rice Deg proteases are required for chloroplast development under high temperatures. In this study, we reported the first rice deg mutant tcm5 (thermo-sensitive chlorophyll-deficient mutant 5) that has an albino phenotype, defective chloroplasts and could not survive after the 4-5 leaf seedling stage when grown at high temperature (32 °C). However, when grown at low temperatures (20 °C), tcm5 has a normal phenotype. Map-based cloning showed that TCM5 encoding a chloroplast-targeted Deg protease protein. The TCM5 transcripts were highly expressed in all green tissues and undetectable in other tissues, showing the tissue-specific expression. In tcm5 mutants grown at high temperatures, the transcript levels of certain genes associated with chloroplast development especially PSII-associated genes were severely affected, but recovered to normal levels at low temperatures. These results showed important role of TCM5 for chloroplast development under high temperatures. The TCM5 encodes chloroplast-targeted Deg protease protein which is important for chloroplast development and the maintenance of PSII function and its disruption would lead to a defective chloroplast and affected expression levels of genes associated with chloroplast development and photosynthesis at early rice seedling stage under high temperatures.

  19. Rice Husk Filled Polymer Composites

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Arjmandi, Reza; Hassan, Azman; Majeed, Khaliq; Zakaria, Zainoha

    2015-01-01

      Natural fibers from agricultural wastes are finding their importance in the polymer industry due to the many advantages such as their light weight, low cost and being environmentally friendly. Rice husk (RH...

  20. Red Yeast Rice: An Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mg twice daily) in patients with previous statin intolerance . American Journal of Cardiology . 2010;105:198–204. ... to Avoid Red Yeast Rice Products Promoted on Internet as Treatments for High Cholesterol: Products Found to ...

  1. Rice vaikib salavanglaist / Tõnis Erilaid

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Erilaid, Tõnis, 1943-

    2005-01-01

    Euroopasse visiidile sõitev USA välisminister Condoleezza Rice külastab Saksamaad, Rumeeniat, Ukrainat ja Belgiat. Süüdistusi CIA lennukite maandumiste ja salavanglate kohta ei olevat tal kavas kommenteerida

  2. Patterns of sequence divergence and evolution of the S orthologous regions between Asian and African cultivated rice species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romain Guyot

    Full Text Available A strong postzygotic reproductive barrier separates the recently diverged Asian and African cultivated rice species, Oryza sativa and O. glaberrima. Recently a model of genetic incompatibilities between three adjacent loci: S(1A, S(1 and S(1B (called together the S(1 regions interacting epistatically, was postulated to cause the allelic elimination of female gametes in interspecific hybrids. Two candidate factors for the S(1 locus (including a putative F-box gene were proposed, but candidates for S(1A and S(1B remained undetermined. Here, to better understand the basis of the evolution of regions involved in reproductive isolation, we studied the genic and structural changes accumulated in the S(1 regions between orthologous sequences. First, we established an 813 kb genomic sequence in O. glaberrima, covering completely the S(1A, S(1 and the majority of the S(1B regions, and compared it with the orthologous regions of O. sativa. An overall strong structural conservation was observed, with the exception of three isolated regions of disturbed collinearity: (1 a local invasion of transposable elements around a putative F-box gene within S(1, (2 the multiple duplication and subsequent divergence of the same F-box gene within S(1A, (3 an interspecific chromosomal inversion in S(1B, which restricts recombination in our O. sativa×O. glaberrima crosses. Beside these few structural variations, a uniform conservative pattern of coding sequence divergence was found all along the S(1 regions. Hence, the S(1 regions have undergone no drastic variation in their recent divergence and evolution between O. sativa and O. glaberrima, suggesting that a small accumulation of genic changes, following a Bateson-Dobzhansky-Muller (BDM model, might be involved in the establishment of the sterility barrier. In this context, genetic incompatibilities involving the duplicated F-box genes as putative candidates, and a possible strengthening step involving the chromosomal

  3. Comparative transcriptome profiling of the fertile and sterile flower buds of a dominant genic male sterile line in sesame (Sesamum indicum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongyan; Tan, Mingpu; Yu, Haijuan; Li, Liang; Zhou, Fang; Yang, Minmin; Zhou, Ting; Zhao, Yingzhong

    2016-11-10

    Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) is a globally important oilseed crop with highly-valued oil. Strong hybrid vigor is frequently observed within this crop, which can be exploited by the means of genic male sterility (GMS). We have previously developed a dominant GMS (DGMS) line W1098A that has great potential for the breeding of F 1 hybrids. Although it has been genetically and anatomically characterized, the underlying molecular mechanism for male sterility remains unclear and therefore limits the full utilization of such GMS line. In this study, RNA-seq based transcriptome profiling was carried out in two near-isogenic DGMS lines (W1098A and its fertile counterpart, W1098B) to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) related to male sterility. A total of 1,502 significant DEGs were detected, among which 751 were up-regulated and 751 were down-regulated in sterile flower buds. A number of DEGs were implicated in both ethylene and JA synthesis & signaling pathway; the expression of which were either up- or down-regulated in the sterile buds, respectively. Moreover, the majority of NAC and WRKY transcription factors implicated from the DEGs were up-regulated in sterile buds. By querying the Plant Male Reproduction Database, 49 sesame homologous genes were obtained; several of these encode transcription factors (bHLH089, MYB99, and AMS) that showed reduced expression in sterile buds, thus implying the possible role in specifying or determining tapetal fate and development. The predicted effect of allelic variants on the function of their corresponding DEGs highlighted several Insertions/Deletions (InDels), which might be responsible for the phenotype of sterility/fertility in DGMS lines. The present comparative transcriptome study suggested that both hormone signaling pathway and transcription factors control the male sterility of DGMS in sesame. The results also revealed that several InDels located in DEGs prone to cause loss of function, which might contribute to

  4. Soil Incorporation of Silica-Rich Rice Husk Decreases Inorganic Arsenic in Rice Grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyfferth, Angelia L; Morris, Andrew H; Gill, Rattandeep; Kearns, Kelli A; Mann, Jessica N; Paukett, Michelle; Leskanic, Corey

    2016-05-18

    Arsenic decreases rice yield, and inorganic grain As threatens human health; thus, strategies to decrease rice As are critically needed. Increased plant-available silica (Si) can decrease rice As, yet the source of Si matters. Rice husk, an underutilized and Si-rich byproduct of rice production that contains less labile C and an order of magnitude less As than rice straw, may be an economically viable Si resource to decrease rice As, yet the impact of rice husk incorporation on As in the rice-soil nexus has not been reported. This proof-of-concept study shows that rice husk incorporation to soil (1% w/w) decreases inorganic grain As by 25-50% without negatively affecting grain Cd, yield, or dissolved CH4 levels. Rice husk is a critical yet perhaps overlooked resource to improve soil quality through enhanced nutrient availability and attenuate human health risks through consumption of As-laden grain.

  5. Highly asymmetric rice genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Jian-Qun

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Individuals in the same species are assumed to share the same genomic set. However, it is not unusual to find an orthologous gene only in small subset of the species, and recent genomic studies suggest that structural rearrangements are very frequent between genomes in the same species. Two recently sequenced rice genomes Oryza sativa L. var. Nipponbare and O. sativa L. var. 93-11 provide an opportunity to systematically investigate the extent of the gene repertoire polymorphism, even though the genomic data of 93-11 derived from whole-short-gun sequencing is not yet as complete as that of Nipponbare. Results We compared gene contents and the genomic locations between two rice genomes. Our conservative estimates suggest that at least 10% of the genes in the genomes were either under presence/absence polymorphism (5.2% or asymmetrically located between genomes (4.7%. The proportion of these "asymmetric genes" varied largely among gene groups, in which disease resistance (R genes and the RLK kinase gene group had 11.6 and 7.8 times higher proportion of asymmetric genes than housekeeping genes (Myb and MADS. The significant difference in the proportion of asymmetric genes among gene groups suggests that natural selection is responsible for maintaining genomic asymmetry. On the other hand, the nucleotide diversity in 17 R genes under presence/absence polymorphism was generally low (average nucleotide diversity = 0.0051. Conclusion The genomic symmetry was disrupted by 10% of asymmetric genes, which could cause genetic variation through more unequal crossing over, because these genes had no allelic counterparts to pair and then they were free to pair with homologues at non-allelic loci, during meiosis in heterozygotes. It might be a consequence of diversifying selection that increased the structural divergence among genomes, and of purifying selection that decreased nucleotide divergence in each R gene locus.

  6. Realistic Simulation of Rice Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-long DING

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The existing research results of virtual modeling of rice plant, however, is far from perfect compared to that of other crops due to its complex structure and growth process. Techniques to visually simulate the architecture of rice plant and its growth process are presented based on the analysis of the morphological characteristics at different stages. Firstly, the simulations of geometrical shape, the bending status and the structural distortion of rice leaves are conducted. Then, by using an improved model for bending deformation, the curved patterns of panicle axis and various types of panicle branches are generated, and the spatial shape of rice panicle is therefore created. Parametric L-system is employed to generate its topological structures, and finite-state automaton is adopted to describe the development of geometrical structures. Finally, the computer visualization of three-dimensional morphologies of rice plant at both organ and individual levels is achieved. The experimental results showed that the proposed methods of modeling the three-dimensional shapes of organs and simulating the growth of rice plant are feasible and effective, and the generated three-dimensional images are realistic.

  7. Junction temperature measurements via thermo-sensitive electrical parameters and their application to condition monitoring and active thermal control of power converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Nick; Liserre, Marco; Dupont, L.

    2013-01-01

    implementation of active thermal control to reduce losses and increase lifetime can be performed given an accurate knowledge of temperature. Temperature measurements via thermo-sensitive electrical parameters (TSEP) are one way to carry out immediate temperature readings on fully packaged devices. However......, successful implementation of these techniques during the actual operation of a device has not yet been achieved. This paper provides an overview of literature where the usage of TSEPs has been hypothesised or realised in realistic power electronic converter setups. Barriers and limitations preventing wider...

  8. 7 CFR 868.310 - Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... and objectionable seeds (number in 500 grams) Red rice and damaged kernels (singly or combined... Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled Rice. (See also Â... Milled Rice Principles Governing Application of Standards § 868.310 Grades and grade requirements for the...

  9. Influence of additives on a thermosensitive hydrogel for buccal delivery of salbutamol: relation between micellization, gelation, mechanic and release properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Ni; Dumortier, Gilles; Maury, Marc; Mignet, Nathalie; Boudy, Vincent

    2014-06-05

    Thermosensitive hydrogels developed for buccal delivery of salbutamol were prepared using poloxamer analogs (Kolliphor(®) P407/P188), xanthan gum (Satiaxane(®) UCX930) and NaCl. P188 increased gelation temperature (Tsol-gel) by 2.5-5°C, micellization temperature (3s. To obtain a suitable Tsol-gel at 28-34°C, P407 and P188 concentrations were set to 18-19% and 1%. NaCl reduced Tsol-gel (>2°C) out of the optimal range. Six formulations containing 0.05-0.1% Satiaxane(®) fulfilled the temperature criteria. Concerning the gel strength, 1% P188 had no significant effect, NaCl increased it at 20°C, and Satiaxane(®) enhanced it at 20°C and 37°C. The release study using membrane-less (to mimic oral cavity) and membrane (to mimic buccal mucosa side) methods allowed a complete investigation showing that erosion and diffusion both contributed to the drug release but differed according to the formulation. In the membraneless method, simple P407 formulations had weak ability to retain salbutamol (T80=35 min). P188 accelerated drug release. NaCl accelerated release in the membraneless method by 5-11 min but slightly reduced it in the membrane method. The hydrogels containing Satiaxane(®) exhibited the slowest release. In the membrane method, combination of P407/P188/Satiaxane(®) provided a sustained diffusion with a burst effect (T25=9.6 min, T80=97.8 min), which provides potential clinical interests. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Development of thermosensitive poly(n-isopropylacrylamide-co-((2-dimethylamino) ethyl methacrylate))-based nanoparticles for controlled drug release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Cheng-Liang; Tsai, Han-Min; Yang, Shu-Jyuan; Luo, Tsai-Yueh; Lin, Chia-Fu; Lin, Wuu-Jyh; Shieh, Ming-Jium

    2011-07-01

    Thermosensitive nanoparticles based on poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-((2-dimethylamino)ethylmethacrylate)) (poly(NIPA-co-DMAEMA)) copolymers were successfully fabricated by free radical polymerization. The lower critical solution temperature (LCST) of the synthesized nanoparticles was 41 °C and a temperature above which would cause the nanoparticles to undergo a volume phase transition from 140 to 100 nm, which could result in the expulsion of encapsulated drugs. Therefore, we used the poly(NIPA-co-DMAEMA) nanoparticles as a carrier for the controlled release of a hydrophobic anticancer agent, 7-ethyl-10-hydroxy-camptothecin (SN-38). The encapsulation efficiency and loading content of SN-38-loaded nanoparticles at an SN-38/poly(NIPA-co-DMAEMA) ratio of 1/10 (D/P = 1/10) were about 80% and 6.293%, respectively. Moreover, the release profile of SN-38-loaded nanoparticles revealed that the release rate at 42 °C (above LCST) was higher than that at 37 °C (below LCST), which demonstrated that the release of SN-38 could be controlled by increasing the temperature. The cytotoxicity of the SN-38-loaded poly(NIPA-co-DMAEMA) nanoparticles was investigated in human colon cancer cells (HT-29) to compare with the treatment of an anticancer drug, Irinotecan® (CPT-11). The antitumor efficacy evaluated in a C26 murine colon tumor model showed that the SN-38-loaded nanoparticles in combination with hyperthermia therapy efficiently suppressed tumor growth. The results indicate that these thermo-responsive nanoparticles are potential carriers for controlled drug delivery.

  11. A novel thermosensitive in-situ gel of gabexate mesilate for treatment of traumatic pancreatitis: An experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Han-jing; Song, Qing; Lv, Fa-qin; Wang, Shan; Wang, Yi-ru; Luo, Yu-kun; Mei, Xing-guo; Tang, Jie

    2015-10-01

    Gabexate mesilate (GM) is a trypsin inhibitor, and mainly used for treatment of various acute pancreatitis, including traumatic pancreatitis (TP), edematous pancreatitis, and acute necrotizing pancreatitis. However, due to the characteristics of pharmacokinetics, the clinical application of GM still needs frequently intravenous administration to keep the blood drug concentration, which is difficult to manage. Specially, when the blood supply of pancreas is directly damaged, intravenous administration is difficult to exert the optimum therapy effect. To address it, a novel thermosensitive in-situ gel of gabexate mesilate (GMTI) was developed, and the optimum formulation of GMTI containing 20.6% (w/w) P-407 and 5.79% (w/w) P188 with different concentrations of GM was used as a gelling solvent. The effective drug concentration on trypsin inhibition was examined after treatment with different concentrations of GMTI in vitro, and GM served as a positive control. The security of GMTI was evaluated by hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining, and its curative effect on grade II pancreas injury was also evaluated by testing amylase (AMS), C-reactive protein (CRP) and trypsinogen activation peptide (TAP), and pathological analysis of the pancreas. The trypsin activity was slightly inhibited at 1.0 and 5.0 mg/mL in GM group and GMTI group, respectively (Ptreatment as compared with TP group (Ptreatment as compared with TP group (Ptreatment, pancreas cells were gradually restored to tight distribution, with slightly stained nuclei. This preliminary study indicated that GMTI could effectively inhibit pancreatic enzymes, and alleviate the severity of trauma-induced pancreatitis, and had a potential drug developing and clinic application value.

  12. Polymer Nanocomposites Based Thermo-Sensitive Gel for Paclitaxel and Temozolomide Co-Delivery to Glioblastoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yuanyuan; Shen, Ming; Sun, Ying; Gao, Pei; Duan, Yourong

    2015-12-01

    In this work, we have reported the preparation and optimization of paclitaxel (PTX) and temozolomide (TMZ) loaded monomethoxy (polyethylene glycol)-poly(D, L-lactide-co-glycolide) (mPEG-PLGA) nanocomposite which is a thermo-sensitive gel delivery system to glioblastoma. We utilized the orthogonal design and homogeneous design for the optimal drug-loaded nanoparticles (NPs) and composite gel prescription, respectively. The physicochemical characteristics of NPs and rheological properties of the gel were analyzed. Then the in vitro release of the gel was determined with a membrane-less diffusion system. Finally, the cytotoxic and apoptosis-inducing effects of the gel on the human malignant glioblastoma cell line U87 and C6 rat glioblastoma cell line were evaluated by MTT and flow cytometry apoptosis assay, respectively. The transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis revealed the optimized NPs with a relatively uniform diameter and distribution. The homogeneous design and rheological determination showed that the optimized gel prescription was 250 mg/mL Pluronic F127 (F127), 0.5% hydroxy propyl methylcellulose (HPMC-100M), 0.5% Pluronic F68 (F68), 0.5% sodium alginate (SA) and suitable NPs, which possessed the appropriate gelation behaviors: gelation temperature 28.01 degrees C, gelation time 127.1 s and corrosion speed 0.1892 g/cm2 x hr; and rheological properties: suitable elasticity modulus, viscosity modulus and low phase angle. The in vitro results suggested that the PTX and TMZ were sustainedly released from nanoparticles or the composite gel, and the release and elimination time greatly prolonged; and the composite gel possessed much higher growth-inhibiting effect and apoptosis-inducing rate in U87 and C6 cells than other formulations. These findings demonstrated that the optimal gel was a promising delivery system for the interstitial chemotherapy to glioblastoma.

  13. Cloud Point and Liquid-Liquid Equilibrium Behavior of Thermosensitive Polymer L61 and Salt Aqueous Two-Phase System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Wenwei; Wang, Yun; Han, Juan; Wang, Lei; Chen, Tong; Liu, Yan; Ni, Liang

    2015-06-25

    The cloud point of thermosensitive triblock polymer L61, poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO-PPO-PEO), was determined in the presence of various electrolytes (K2HPO4, (NH4)3C6H5O7, and K3C6H5O7). The cloud point of L61 was lowered by the addition of electrolytes, and the cloud point of L61 decreased linearly with increasing electrolyte concentration. The efficacy of electrolytes on reducing cloud point followed the order: K3C6H5O7 > (NH4)3C6H5O7 > K2HPO4. With the increase in salt concentration, aqueous two-phase systems exhibited a phase inversion. In addition, increasing the temperature reduced the concentration of salt needed that could promote phase inversion. The phase diagrams and liquid-liquid equilibrium data of the L61-K2HPO4/(NH4)3C6H5O7/K3C6H5O7 aqueous two-phase systems (before the phase inversion but also after phase inversion) were determined at T = (25, 30, and 35) °C. Phase diagrams of aqueous two-phase systems were fitted to a four-parameter empirical nonlinear expression. Moreover, the slopes of the tie-lines and the area of two-phase region in the diagram have a tendency to rise with increasing temperature. The capacity of different salts to induce aqueous two-phase system formation was the same order as the ability of salts to reduce the cloud point.

  14. Therapeutic Efficacy of Cisplatin Thermosensitive Liposomes upon Mild Hyperthermia in C26 Tumor Bearing BALB/c Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavizadeh, Seyedeh Hoda; Gheybi, Fatemeh; Nikpoor, Amin Reza; Badiee, Ali; Golmohammadzadeh, Shiva; Jaafari, Mahmoud Reza

    2017-03-06

    This study reports on the activity of thermosensitive liposomes (TSLs) incorporating different HSPC ratios in DPPC/MSPC/PEG2000-DSPE matrix (90/10/4) plus mild hyperthermia (HT) (42 °C). TSLs were loaded with a poorly membrane permeable anticancer drug, cisplatin, through the passive equilibration method. The addition of HSPC to the corresponding DPPC lipid matrix increased the transition temperature. In vitro data demonstrated >90% cisplatin leakage from nanosized DPPC 90-lyso-TSL (LTSL) within 10 min at 42 °C, while other TSLs bearing HSPC showed greater stability. The plasma kinetics of cisplatin demonstrated higher cisplatin leakage from DPPC 90-LTSL in the first 4 h (from 17.4 to 0.4 μg/mL) compared to other formulations. Indeed, increasing HSPC fraction in liposome bilayers significantly improved drug retention in blood. Though DPPC 90-LTSL plus one-step HT was expected to provide a unique drug release, the premature drug leakage as well as the likely wash-back of a great portion of drug into the blood circulation resulted in reduced survival. On the other hand, stabilized DPPC 30/HSPC 60/MSPC 10/PEG2000-DSPE 4 liposomes plus two-step HT greatly enhanced the survival of animals. In particular, the improved delivery of cisplatin through stabilized DPPC 30/HSPC 60/MSPC 10/PEG2000-DSPE 4 liposomes in two-step mild HT enhanced antitumor efficacy compared to other formulations. Thus, prolonged exposure of cancer cells to cisplatin through stabilized liposomes would be an efficient approach in improving the survival of animals.

  15. Elemental composition of Malawian rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joy, Edward J M; Louise Ander, E; Broadley, Martin R; Young, Scott D; Chilimba, Allan D C; Hamilton, Elliott M; Watts, Michael J

    2017-08-01

    Widespread potential dietary deficiencies of calcium (Ca), iron (Fe), iodine (I), selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn) have been identified in Malawi. Several deficiencies are likely to be compounded by high phytic acid (PA) consumption. Rice (Oryza sativa) is commonly consumed in some Malawian populations, and its mineral micronutrient content is important for food security. The considerable irrigation requirements and flooded conditions of paddy soils can also introduce or mobilise potentially toxic elements including arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb). The aim of this study was to determine the mineral composition of rice sampled from farmers' fields and markets in Malawi. Rice was sampled from 18 extension planning areas across Malawi with 21 white (i.e. polished) and 33 brown samples collected. Elemental composition was determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Arsenic speciation was performed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-ICP-MS. Concentration of PA was determined using a PA-total phosphorus assay. Median total concentrations (mg kg-1, dry weight) of elements important for human nutrition in brown and white rice, respectively, were: Ca = 66.5 and 37.8; Cu = 3.65 and 2.49; Fe = 22.1 and 7.2; I = 0.006 and elements (mg kg-1, dry weight) in brown and white rice samples, respectively, were: As = 0.030 and 0.006; Cd  ≤ 0.002 and 0.006; Pb = 0.008 and 0.008. Approximately 95 % of As was found to be inorganic As, where this could be quantified. Malawian rice, like the more widely consumed staple grain maize, contains inadequate Ca, I, Se or Zn to meet dietary requirements. Biofortification strategies could significantly increase Se and Zn concentrations and require further investigation. Concentrations of Fe in rice grain varied greatly, and this was likely due to contamination of rice samples with soil. Risk of As, Cd or Pb toxicity due to rice consumption in Malawi appears to be minimal.

  16. Red Yeast Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thu Nguyen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Red yeast rice (RYR, produced by the fermentation of the Monascus purpureus mold, has been used for a long time in Asian cuisine and traditional medicine. It consists of multiple bioactive substances, including monacolins, which potentially can be used as a nutraceutical. Monacolin K, which is chemically identical to lovastatin, has been recognized as responsible for the cholesterolreducing effect of this compound. While the European Food Safety Authority maintains that the use of monacolin K from RYR preparations of at least 10 mg can produce a normal blood cholesterol level, the United States Food and Drug Administration considers monacolin K, due to its similarity with lovastatin, an unapproved drug, and therefore marketing of products that label the monacolin content is prohibited. This mini-review summarizes the benefit of RYR in hyperlipidemia, maintains RYR use as a food, and addresses the importance of regulation regarding RYR and the need for clinical data and clear label information for consumers with reference to a toxin-free, nonaugmented, standardized amount of monacolins.

  17. Red Yeast Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thu; Karl, Mitchell; Santini, Antonello

    2017-03-01

    Red yeast rice (RYR), produced by the fermentation of the Monascus purpureus mold, has been used for a long time in Asian cuisine and traditional medicine. It consists of multiple bioactive substances, including monacolins, which potentially can be used as a nutraceutical. Monacolin K, which is chemically identical to lovastatin, has been recognized as responsible for the cholesterolreducing effect of this compound. While the European Food Safety Authority maintains that the use of monacolin K from RYR preparations of at least 10 mg can produce a normal blood cholesterol level, the United States Food and Drug Administration considers monacolin K, due to its similarity with lovastatin, an unapproved drug, and therefore marketing of products that label the monacolin content is prohibited. This mini-review summarizes the benefit of RYR in hyperlipidemia, maintains RYR use as a food, and addresses the importance of regulation regarding RYR and the need for clinical data and clear label information for consumers with reference to a toxin-free, nonaugmented, standardized amount of monacolins.

  18. Arsenic in rice: A cause for concern

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hojsak, Iva; Braegger, Christian; Bronsky, Jiri

    2015-01-01

    Inorganic arsenic intake is likely to affect long-term health. High concentrations are found in some rice-based foods and drinks widely used in infants and young children. In order to reduce exposure we recommend avoidance of rice drinks for infants and young children. For all rice products, strict...

  19. implications for smallholder rice production in

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    backdrop of macro-economic policy framework of free market where trade liberalization allows for the free flow of goods and services will severe implication for the rice industry. This paper discusses trade liberalization policy effects on rice imports in. Ghana and the implications for smallholder rice. farmers in North-.

  20. 21 CFR 137.350 - Enriched rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 1,000 milligrams of calcium (Ca). Calcium carbonate derived from the use of this substance in milling rice, when present in quantities that furnish less than 500 milligrams of calcium (Ca) per pound... enriched rice unless such enriched rice is labeled to show it contains the optional ingredient calcium...

  1. Structural and functional analysis of rice genome

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Volume 83; Issue 1. Structural and functional analysis of rice genome ... Abstract. Rice is an excellent system for plant genomics as it represents a modest size genome of 430 Mb. It feeds more than half the population of the world. Draft sequences of the rice genome, derived by ...

  2. Arsenic in rice: a cause for concern

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hojsak, Iva; Braegger, Christian; Bronsky, Jiri; Campoy, Cristina; Colomb, Virginie; Decsi, Tamas; Domellöf, Magnus; Fewtrell, Mary; Mis, Nataša Fidler; Mihatsch, Walter; Molgaard, Christian; van Goudoever, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Inorganic arsenic intake is likely to affect long-term health. High concentrations are found in some rice-based foods and drinks widely used in infants and young children. In order to reduce exposure, we recommend avoidance of rice drinks for infants and young children. For all of the rice products,

  3. Improvement in Ocular Bioavailability and Prolonged Delivery of Tobramycin Sulfate Following Topical Ophthalmic Administration of Drug-Loaded Mucoadhesive Microparticles Incorporated in Thermosensitive In Situ Gel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Shagufta; Warade, Sonali; Singhavi, Dilesh J

    2017-12-06

    Conventional topical delivery in hyperacute bacterial conjunctivitis and endophthalmitis is associated with low drug bioavailability due to rapid precorneal clearance. Hence, in the present investigation, an attempt has been made to enhance ocular bioavailability of tobramycin sulfate by formulating drug-loaded microparticles dispersed in thermosensitive in situ gel. Microparticles prepared by emulsion-ionic gelation technique were characterized for drug loading, entrapment efficiency, particle size, surface morphology, and in vitro drug release. Consequently microparticles (F2 prepared with 1.5%w/v chitosan, 0.2%w/v tripolyphosphate, and drug, 30%w/w of polymer) with high drug loading and encapsulation efficiency were dispersed in thermosensitive in situ gel containing poloxamer 407 and varying percentage of chitosan. In situ gel containing drug-loaded microparticles were evaluated for gelation temperature, rheological behavior, mucoadhesive strength, in vitro drug release, in vitro permeation, ocular irritation, and bioavailability in aqueous humor of rabbits. Formulation containing 17%w/v poloxamer 407 and 0.5%w/v chitosan (P2) gelled at 32°C ± 1.5°C gave pseudoplastic behavior. In vitro permeability of tobramycin from the formulation P2 was found 2-folds greater than eye drops. It also gave significantly higher aqueous humor concentration of tobramycin compared with eye drops with no signs of ocular irritation. Thus, the formulation possesses high potential for treating ocular infections.

  4. Iron biofortification of Myanmar rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    May Sann Aung

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Iron (Fe deficiency causes elevates human mortality rates, especially in developing countries. In Myanmar, the prevalence of Fe-deficient anemia in children and pregnant women are 75% and 71%, respectively. Myanmar people have one of the highest per capita rice consumption rates globally. Consequently, production of Fe-biofortified rice would likely contribute to solving the Fe-deficiency problem in this human population. To produce Fe-biofortified Myanmar rice by transgenic methods, we first analyzed callus induction and regeneration efficiencies in 15 varieties that are presently popular because of their high yields and/or qualities. Callus formation and regeneration efficiency in each variety was strongly influenced by types of culture media containing a range of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid concentrations. The Paw San Yin variety, which has a high Fe content in polished seeds, performed well in callus induction and regeneration trials. Thus, we transformed this variety using a gene expression cassette that enhanced Fe transport within rice plants through overexpression of the nicotianamine synthase gene HvNAS1, Fe flow to the endosperm through the Fe(II-nicotianamine transporter gene OsYSL2, and Fe accumulation in endosperm by the Fe storage protein gene SoyferH2. A line with a transgene insertion was successfully obtained. Enhanced expressions of the introduced genes OsYSL2, HvNAS1, and SoyferH2 occurred in immature T2 seeds. The transformants accumulated 3.4-fold higher Fe concentrations, and also 1.3-fold higher zinc concentrations in T2 polished seeds compared to levels in non-transgenic rice. This Fe-biofortified rice has the potential to reduce Fe-deficiency anemia in millions of Myanmar people without changing food habits and without introducing additional costs.

  5. Objective evaluation of whiteness of cooked rice and rice cakes using a portable spectrophotometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Hajime; Asanome, Noriyuki; Suzuki, Keitaro; Sano, Tomoyoshi; Saito, Hiroshi; Abe, Yohei; Chuba, Masaru; Nishio, Takeshi

    2014-03-01

    The whiteness of cooked rice and rice cakes was evaluated using a portable spectrophotometer with a whiteness index (WI). Also, by using boiled rice for measurement of Mido values by Mido Meter, it was possible to infer the whiteness of cooked rice without rice cooking. In the analysis of varietal differences of cooked rice, 'Tsuyahime', 'Koshihikari' and 'Koshinokaori' showed high whiteness, while 'Satonoyuki' had inferior whiteness. The whiteness of rice cakes made from 'Koyukimochi' and 'Dewanomochi' was higher than the whiteness of those made from 'Himenomochi' and 'Koganemochi'. While there was a significant correlation (r = 0.84) between WI values and whiteness scores of cooked rice by the sensory test, no correlation was detected between the whiteness scores and Mido values, indicating that the values obtained by a spectrophotometer differ from those obtained by a Mido Meter. Thus, a spectrophotometer may be a novel device for measurement of rice eating quality.

  6. RiceAtlas, a spatial database of global rice calendars and production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laborte, Alice G; Gutierrez, Mary Anne; Balanza, Jane Girly; Saito, Kazuki; Zwart, Sander J; Boschetti, Mirco; Murty, M V R; Villano, Lorena; Aunario, Jorrel Khalil; Reinke, Russell; Koo, Jawoo; Hijmans, Robert J; Nelson, Andrew

    2017-05-30

    Knowing where, when, and how much rice is planted and harvested is crucial information for understanding the effects of policy, trade, and global and technological change on food security. We developed RiceAtlas, a spatial database on the seasonal distribution of the world's rice production. It consists of data on rice planting and harvesting dates by growing season and estimates of monthly production for all rice-producing countries. Sources used for planting and harvesting dates include global and regional databases, national publications, online reports, and expert knowledge. Monthly production data were estimated based on annual or seasonal production statistics, and planting and harvesting dates. RiceAtlas has 2,725 spatial units. Compared with available global crop calendars, RiceAtlas is nearly ten times more spatially detailed and has nearly seven times more spatial units, with at least two seasons of calendar data, making RiceAtlas the most comprehensive and detailed spatial database on rice calendar and production.

  7. The Glycemic Index of Rice and Rice Products: A Review, and Table of GI Values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Bhupinder; Ranawana, Viren; Henry, Jeyakumar

    2016-01-01

    Rice is the principle staple and energy source for nearly half the world's population and therefore has significant nutrition and health implications. Rice is generally considered a high glycemic index (GI) food, however, this depends on varietal, compositional, processing, and accompaniment factors. Being a major contributor to the glycemic load in rice eating populations, there is increasing concern that the rising prevalence of insulin resistance is as a result of the consumption of large amounts of rice. Devising ways and means of reducing the glycemic impact of rice is therefore imperative. This review gathers studies examining the GI of rice and rice products and provides a critical overview of the current state of the art. A table collating published GI values for rice and rice products is also included.

  8. Weedy (red) rice: an emerging constraint to global rice production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ziska, L.H.; Gealy, D.R.; Burgos, N.; Caicedo, A.L.; Gressel, J.; Lawton-Rauh, A.L.; Avila, L.A.; Theisen, Giovani; Norsworthy, J.; Ferrero, A.; Vidotto, F.; Johnson, D.E.; Ferreira, F.G.; Marchesan, E.; Menezes, V.; Cohn, M.A.; Linscombe, S.; Carmona, L.; Tang, R.; Merotto, A.

    2015-01-01

    Ongoing increases in the human population necessitate that rice will continue to be a critical aspect of food security for the twenty-first century. While production must increase in the coming decades to meet demand, such increases will be accompanied by diminished natural resources and rising

  9. Can herbicide safeners allow selective control of weedy rice infesting rice crops?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busi, Roberto; Nguyen, Nghia K; Chauhan, Bhagirath S; Vidotto, Francesco; Tabacchi, Maurizio; Powles, Stephen B

    2017-01-01

    Rice is a major field crop of paramount importance for global food security. However, the increased adoption of more profitable and resource-efficient direct-seeded rice (DSR) systems has contributed to greater weed infestations, including weedy rice, which has become a severe problem in several Asian regions. In this study we have developed a conceptually novel method to protect rice plants at high doses of clomazone and triallate. The insecticide phorate applied to rice seeds provided a substantial level of protection against the herbicides clomazone or triallate. A quantity of 15 kg phorate ha(-1) significantly increased the LD50 values, which were more than twofold greater than for rice plants treated only with clomazone. A quantity of 20 kg phorate ha(-1) in combination with 2000 g triallate ha(-1) safened rice plants (80% survival) with LD50 >3.4-fold greater than in phorate-untreated rice. Weed control efficacy was not lowered by the presence of phorate-treated rice seeds. Weedy rice is one of the most damaging global weeds and a major threat to DSR systems. In this study we have developed a proof-of-concept method to allow selective weedy rice control in rice crops. We call for herbicide discovery programmes and research to identify candidate safener and herbicide combinations to achieve selective herbicide control of weedy rice and alleviate weed infestations in global rice crops. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Rice brans, rice bran oils, and rice hulls: composition, food and industrial uses, and bioactivities in humans, animals, and cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Mendel

    2013-11-13

    Rice plants produce bioactive rice brans and hulls that have been reported to have numerous health-promoting effects in cells, animals, and humans. The main objective of this review is to consolidate and integrate the widely scattered information on the composition and the antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and immunostimulating effects of rice brans from different rice cultivars, rice bran oils derived from rice brans, rice hulls, liquid rice hull smoke derived from rice hulls, and some of their bioactive compounds. As part of this effort, this paper also presents brief summaries on the preparation of health-promoting foods including bread, corn flakes, frankfurters, ice cream, noodles, pasta, tortillas, and zero-trans-fat shortening as well as industrial products such bioethanol and biodiesel fuels. Also covered are antibiotic, antiallergic, anticarcinogenic, antidiabetic, cardiovascular, allelochemical, and other beneficial effects and the mechanisms of the bioactivities. The results show that food-compatible and safe formulations with desirable nutritional and biological properties can be used to develop new multifunctional foods as well as bioethanol and biodiesel fuel. The overlapping aspects are expected to contribute to a better understanding of the potential impact of the described health-promoting potential of the rice-derived brans, oils, and hulls in food and medicine. Such an understanding will enhance nutrition and health and benefit the agricultural and industrial economies.

  11. Agriculture Education. Soybeans and Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuttgart Public Schools, AR.

    This curriculum guide is designed for group instruction of secondary students enrolled in one or two semester-long courses in agricultural education. The guide presents units of study in the following areas: (1) soybeans, (2) rice, and (3) orientation. Each of the 17 units of instruction follows a typical format: terminal objective, specific…

  12. A comparative study of competitiveness between different genotypes of weedy rice (Oryza sativa) and cultivated rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Lei; Dai, Weimin; Song, Xiaoling; Lu, Baorong; Qiang, Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Competition from weedy rice can cause serious yield losses to cultivated rice. However, key traits that facilitate competitiveness are still not well understood. To explore the mechanisms behind the strong growth and competitive ability, replacement series experiments were established with six genotypes of weedy rice from different regions and one cultivated rice cultivar. (1) Weedy rice from southern China had the greatest impact on growth and yield of cultivated rice throughout the entire growing season. Weedy rice from the northeast was very competitive during the early vegetative stage while the competitive effects of eastern weedy rice were more detrimental at later crop-growth stages. (2) As the proportion of weedy rice increased, plant height, tillers, above-ground biomass, and yield of cultivated rice significantly declined; the crop always being at disadvantage regardless of proportion. (3) Weedy biotypes with greater diversity as estimated by their Shannon indexes were more detrimental to the growth and yield of cultivated rice. Geographic origin (latitude) of weedy rice biotype, its mixture proportion under competition with the crop and its genetic diversity are determinant factors of the outcome of competition and the associated decline in the rice crop yield. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Rice production in relation to soil quality under different rice-based cropping systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran Ba, Linh; Sleutel, Steven; Nguyen Van, Qui; Thi, Guong Vo; Le Van, Khoa; Cornelis, Wim

    2016-04-01

    Soil quality of shallow paddy soils may be improved by introducing upland crops and thus a more diverse crop cultivation pattern. Yet, the causal relationship between crop performance and enhanced soil traits in rice-upland crop rotations remains elusive. The objectives of this study were to (i) find correlations among soil properties under different rice-upland crop systems and link selected soil properties to rice growth and yield, (ii) present appropriate values of soil parameters for sustainable rice productivity in heavy clay soil, (iii) evaluate the effect of rotating rice with upland crops on rice yield and economic benefit in a long-term experiment. A rice-upland crop rotational field experiment in the Vietnamese Mekong delta was conducted for 10 years using a randomized complete block design with four treatments and four replications. Treatments were: (i) rice-rice-rice (control - conventional system as farmers' practice), (ii) rice-maize-rice, (iii) rice-mung bean-rice, and (iv) rice-mung bean-maize. Soil and plant sampling were performed after harvest of the rice crop at the end of the final winter-spring cropping season (i.e. year 10). Results show differences in rice growth and yield, and economic benefit as an effect of the crop rotation system. These differences were linked with changes in bulk density, soil porosity, soil aggregate stability index, soil penetration resistance, soil macro-porosity, soil organic carbon, acid hydrolysable soil C and soil nutrient elements, especially at soil depth of 20-30 cm. This is evidenced by the strong correlation (P < 0.01) between rice plant parameters, rice yield and soil properties such as bulk density, porosity, penetration resistance, soil organic carbon and Chydrolysable. It turned out that good rice root growth and rice yield corresponded to bulk density values lower than 1.3 Mg m-3, soil porosity higher than 50%, penetration resistance below 1.0 MPa, and soil organic carbon above 25 g kg-1. The optimal

  14. Tier I Rice Model - Version 1.0 - Guidance for Estimating Pesticide Concentrations in Rice Paddies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Describes a Tier I Rice Model (Version 1.0) for estimating surface water exposure from the use of pesticides in rice paddies. The concentration calculated can be used for aquatic ecological risk and drinking water exposure assessments.

  15. The TIGR Rice Genome Annotation Resource: improvements and new features

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ouyang, Shu; Zhu, Wei; Hamilton, John; Lin, Haining; Campbell, Matthew; Childs, Kevin; Thibaud-Nissen, Françoise; Malek, Renae L; Lee, Yuandan; Zheng, Li; Orvis, Joshua; Haas, Brian; Wortman, Jennifer; Buell, C Robin

    2007-01-01

    In The Institute for Genomic Research Rice Genome Annotation project (http://rice.tigr.org), we have continued to update the rice genome sequence with new data and improve the quality of the annotation...

  16. Grafting of allylimidazole and n-vinylcaprolactam as a thermosensitive polymer onto magnetic nano-particles for the extraction and determination of celecoxib in biological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morovati, Atefeh; Ahmad Panahi, Homayon; Yazdani, Farzaneh

    2016-11-20

    In this research, a novel method is reported for the surface grafting of n-vinylcaprolactam as a thermosensitive agent and allylimidazole with affinity toward celecoxib onto magnetic nano-particles. The grafted nano-particles were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, elemental analysis, and thermogravimetric analysis. The surface morphology was studied using Scanning Electron Microscopy. The resulting grafted nano-particles were used for the determination of trace celecoxib in biological human fluids and pharmaceutical samples. The profile of celecoxib uptake by the modified magnetic nano-particles indicated good accessibility of the active sites in the grafted copolymer. It was found that the adsorption behavior could be fitted by the Langmuir adsorption isotherm model. Solid phase extraction for biological fluids such as urine and serum were investigated. In this study, urine extraction recovery of more than 95% was obtained. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Unmarked gene deletion mutagenesis of gtfB and gtfC in Streptococcus mutans using a targeted hit-and-run strategy with a thermosensitive plasmid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atlagic, D; Kiliç, A O; Tao, L

    2006-04-01

    Unmarked gene deletion of the Streptococcus mutans gtfB-gtfC locus was achieved using a thermosensitive plasmid. DNA fragments flanking the locus were amplified by polymerase chain reaction and jointly ligated into pG+host5, which was transformed into S. mutans at 37 degrees C to facilitate integration. A transformant was then grown at 28 degrees C for 60 generations without antibiotics to facilitate excision. Antibiotic sensitive clones appeared at a frequency of about 99% and were analyzed for deletions of gtfB, gtfC and a part of mbrA by the lack of insoluble glucan synthesis, sensitivity to bacitracin, and polymerase chain reaction. Targeted gene deletions occurred at a frequency of 2.5%.

  18. Dual targeting of a thermosensitive nanogel conjugated with transferrin and RGD-containing peptide for effective cell uptake and drug release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quan Changyun; Chang Cong; Wei Hua; Chen Changsheng; Xu Xiaoding; Cheng Sixue; Zhang Xianzheng; Zhuo Renxi, E-mail: xz-zhang@whu.edu.c [Key Laboratory of Biomedical Polymers of Ministry of Education and Department of Chemistry, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China)

    2009-08-19

    In this paper, both arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD)-containing peptide and transferrin (Tf) were conjugated to the thermosensitive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-propyl acrylic acid) (poly(NIPAAm-co-PAAc)) nanogel to prepare a dual-targeting drug carrier. The obtained nanogel was characterized in terms of fluorescence spectroscopy, UV-vis spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In order to track the dual-ligand conjugated nanogel, fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) was further conjugated to the nanogel. A cell internalization experiment showed that the dual-ligand conjugated nanogel exhibited obviously enhanced endocytosis by HeLa cells as compared with non-tumorous cells (COS-7 cells). The drug-loaded dual-ligand conjugated nanogel could be transported efficiently into the target tumor cells and the anti-tumor effect was enhanced significantly, suggesting that the dual-ligand conjugated nanogel has great potential as a tumor targeting drug carrier.

  19. Dual targeting of a thermosensitive nanogel conjugated with transferrin and RGD-containing peptide for effective cell uptake and drug release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Chang-Yun; Chang, Cong; Wei, Hua; Chen, Chang-Sheng; Xu, Xiao-Ding; Cheng, Si-Xue; Zhang, Xian-Zheng; Zhuo, Ren-Xi

    2009-08-01

    In this paper, both arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD)-containing peptide and transferrin (Tf) were conjugated to the thermosensitive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-propyl acrylic acid) (poly(NIPAAm-co-PAAc)) nanogel to prepare a dual-targeting drug carrier. The obtained nanogel was characterized in terms of fluorescence spectroscopy, UV-vis spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In order to track the dual-ligand conjugated nanogel, fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) was further conjugated to the nanogel. A cell internalization experiment showed that the dual-ligand conjugated nanogel exhibited obviously enhanced endocytosis by HeLa cells as compared with non-tumorous cells (COS-7 cells). The drug-loaded dual-ligand conjugated nanogel could be transported efficiently into the target tumor cells and the anti-tumor effect was enhanced significantly, suggesting that the dual-ligand conjugated nanogel has great potential as a tumor targeting drug carrier.

  20. The role of momilactones in rice allelopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato-Noguchi, Hisashi; Peters, Reuben J

    2013-02-01

    Large field screening programs and laboratory experiments in many countries have indicated that rice is allelopathic and releases allelochemical(s) into its environment. A number of compounds, such as phenolic acids, fatty acids, phenylalkanoic acids, hydroxamic acids, terpenes, and indoles, have been identified as potential rice allelochemicals. However, the studies reviewed here demonstrate that the labdane-related diterpenoid momilactones are the most important, with momilactone B playing a particularly critical role. Rice plants secrete momilactone B from their roots into the neighboring environments over their entire life cycle at phytotoxic levels, and momilactone B seems to account for the majority of the observed rice allelopathy. In addition, genetic studies have shown that selective removal of the momilactones only from the complex mixture found in rice root exudates significantly reduces allelopathy, demonstrating that these serve as allelochemicals, the importance of which is reflected in the presence of a dedicated momilactone biosynthetic gene cluster in the rice genome.

  1. Novel transgenic rice-based vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azegami, Tatsuhiko; Itoh, Hiroshi; Kiyono, Hiroshi; Yuki, Yoshikazu

    2015-04-01

    Oral vaccination can induce both systemic and mucosal antigen-specific immune responses. To control rampant mucosal infectious diseases, the development of new effective oral vaccines is needed. Plant-based vaccines are new candidates for oral vaccines, and have some advantages over the traditional vaccines in cost, safety, and scalability. Rice seeds are attractive for vaccine production because of their stability and resistance to digestion in the stomach. The efficacy of some rice-based vaccines for infectious, autoimmune, and other diseases has been already demonstrated in animal models. We reported the efficacy in mice, safety, and stability of a rice-based cholera toxin B subunit vaccine called MucoRice-CTB. To advance MucoRice-CTB for use in humans, we also examined its efficacy and safety in primates. The potential of transgenic rice production as a new mucosal vaccine delivery system is reviewed from the perspective of future development of effective oral vaccines.

  2. Thermosensitive bioadhesive gels for the vaginal delivery of sildenafil citrate: in vitro characterization and clinical evaluation in women using clomiphene citrate for induction of ovulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, Ghareb M; Fetih, Gihan; Abbas, Ahmed M

    2017-03-01

    The objective of this study is to develop and characterize in situ thermosensitive gels for the vaginal administration of sildenafil as a potential treatment of endometrial thinning occurring as a result of using clomiphene citrate for ovulation induction in women with type II eugonadotrophic anovulation. While sildenafil has shown promising results in the treatment of infertility in women, the lack of vaginal pharmaceutical preparation and the side effects associated with oral sildenafil limit its clinical effectiveness. Sildenafil citrate in situ forming gels were prepared using different grades of Pluronic® (PF-68 and PF-127). Mucoadhesive polymers as sodium alginate and hydroxyethyl cellulose were added to the gels in different concentrations and the effect on gel properties was studied. The formulations were evaluated in terms of viscosity, gelation temperature (Tsol-gel), mucoadhesion properties, and in vitro drug release characteristics. Selected formulations were evaluated in women with clomiphene citrate failure due to thin endometrium (Clinicaltrial.gov identifier NCT02766725). The Tsol-gel decreased with increasing PF-127 concentration and it was modulated by addition of PF-68 to be within the acceptable range of 28-37 °C. Increasing Pluronic® concentration increased gel viscosity and mucoadhesive force but decreased drug release rate. Clinical results showed that the in situ sildenafil vaginal gel significantly increased endometrial thickness and uterine blood flow with no reported side effects. Further, these results were achieved at lower frequency and duration of drug administration. Sildenafil thermosensitive vaginal gels might result in improved potential of pregnancy in anovulatory patients with clomiphene citrate failure due to thin endometrium.

  3. Poly (N-isopropylacrylamide)-functionalized dendrimer as a thermosensitive nanoplatform for delivering malloapelta B against HepG2 cancer cell proliferation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngan Le, Phung; Chuong Pham, Dinh; Hai Nguyen, Dai; Quyen Tran, Ngoc; Dimitrov, Vladimir; Ivanov, Petko; Nguyen Xuan, Cuong; Nguyen, Hoai Nam; Khoa Nguyen, Cuu

    2017-06-01

    In recent years, nanocarriers have emerged as effective platforms for delivering several kinds of herbal medicine and naturally bioactive compounds. In this study we developed an outstanding thermosensitive dendritic nanocarrier to efficiently deliver malloapelta B (Mall B), which is a water insoluble bioactive compound isolated from leaves of Mallotus apelta—Vietnamese medicinal plant. The thermosensitive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) polymer-conjugated polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimer copolymer was prepared via Michael reaction. The copolymer structures were confirmed by proton nuclear magnectic resonance (1H NMR). Morphology of the nanocarrier was observered around 70-120 nm by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Size distributions were measured by dynamic light scattering (DLS) of the nanocarrier and its Mall B-loaded performed at 146.8 nm and 194.5 nm, respectively. The PNIPAM-g-PAMAM-based nanocarrier exhibited higher Mall B loading efficiency (DL  =  59.93  ±  0.19%) and entrapment efficiency (EE  =  89.98  ±  2.06%) as compared to PNIPAM (DL  =  52.54  ±  0.45% and EE  =  66.45  ±  2.78%). In vitro release indicated that approximately 30% amount of the loaded Mall B released at pH 5.5 after 54 h tracking. At the same time, 12.5% amount of the molecules released at pH 7.4.Cytotoxicity assay results showed that the Mall B-loaded nanocarrier significantly inhibited HepG2 cancer cell proliferation. These obtained results indicated that the nanocarrier could solve hydrophobic property of Mall B for further medicine applications.

  4. DETERMINATION OF SPATIAL INTEGRATION AND SUBSTITUTION OF FOREIGN RICE FOR LOCAL RICE IN GHANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Kofi ADOM

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study tested for spatial integration in the rice market and the substitution of imported rice for local rice in Ghana. It is established that the markets for domestic imported rice are well-integrated, but not complete. The imperfect spatial integration of domestic foreign rice markets implies that the market provides opportunities for arbitrage. Price leadership roles are found to be determined by the kind of sub-inter-regional-trade network defined. However, in all, the Accra market emerged as a dominant market leader in the domestic foreign rice market. There is evidence of significant regional substitution of foreign rice for local rice in the long run, but the result is mixed in the short run. The result that local rice is not a perfect substitute for imported rice implies that price disincentive measures such as increasing the import tariffs on foreign rice will only produce a mild effect on increasing the producer price faced by local rice farmers, but aggravate the burden on households’ budget.

  5. Relative competitive ability of rice with strawhull and blackhull red rice biotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weed interference depends largely upon the species composition of the weed community and an ability to compete with the cultured crop. Weedy red rice is a major weed pest of rice in the southern U.S. The focus of this study was to evaluate the competitive ability of rice against common, genetically ...

  6. Characterizing irrigation water requirements for rice production from the Arkansas Rice Research Verification Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study investigated rice irrigation water use in the University of Arkansas Rice Research Verification Program between the years of 2003 and 2011. Irrigation water use averaged 747 mm (29.4 inches) over the nine years. A significant 40% water savings was reported for rice grown under a zero gr...

  7. Reaction of rice cultivars to a virulent Rice Yellow Mottle Virus strain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    has long been an important food staple for many traditional rice growing communities. Key developments in efforts to improve rice ... Appropriate sources of resistance to RYMV should be identified and characterised in order to pyramid genes for both complete and partial resistance. In this study, reaction of nine (9) rice ...

  8. RiceAtlas, a spatial database of global rice calendars and production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laborte, Alice G.; Gutierrez, Mary Anne; Balanza, Jane Girly; Saito, Kazuki; Zwart, Sander J.; Boschetti, Mirco; Murty, M. V.R.; Villano, Lorena; Aunario, Jorrel Khalil; Reinke, Russell; Koo, Jawoo; Hijmans, Robert J.; Nelson, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Knowing where, when, and how much rice is planted and harvested is crucial information for understanding the effects of policy, trade, and global and technological change on food security. We developed RiceAtlas, a spatial database on the seasonal distribution of the world's rice production. It

  9. Effect of volunteer rice infestation on grain quality and yield of rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volunteer rice (Oryza sativa L.) plants arise from shattered seeds of the previous crop, which could reduce the yield of cultivated rice and the commercial value of harvested grain. Volunteer rice plants from a cultivar other than the current crop produce grains that may differ in physico-chemical t...

  10. Mycotoxin Contamination of Rice in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiang Dong; Su, Ping; Shan, Hong

    2017-03-01

    Mycotoxin contamination in rice is generally lower than in other cereals such as corn or wheat. However, over 65% of the population in China consumes rice as a staple food. Due to the diversity of the climate across China, the southern region is characterized by high temperatures and humidities, especially in rainy season. Such conditions are optimal for the growth of fungi. The accumulative and transferrable characteristics of fungi mycotoxins pose a great potential threat as confirmed by high incidences of liver cancer in the Yangtze delta region. Major mycotoxins identified in China are aflatoxins and ochratoxin A, as well as fumonisins. The contents of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 ) in rice are varied among different provinces and regions and generally less than 5 μg/kg. Although high incidences of positive aflatoxins samples have widely been detected, few samples were detected as exceeding the national's maximum residue limit (10 μg/kg). Limited information is available on risk assessment of human health hazards of mycotoxins in rice, children should be paid more attention to due to their having the highest mycotoxins exposure level, although the risks are generally at low levels from rice. Mycotoxins are mainly distributed in the outer layer of the paddy rice (also called rough rice, referring to whole rice grain with the hulls), and the AFB1 content in bran is 8.4 times greater than that in brown rice (hulled rice). Further investigation should focus on isolation and identification of mycotoxins-producing fungal strains, especially unknown mycotoxigenic fungal strains determination. Infection resistant rice breeding of mycotoxigenic fungal species may be a fundamental approach to guaranteeing rice safety in China. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  11. Guyana Rice Supply Chain Risk Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2011-01-01

    This report is the outcome of assessment and is intended as an advisory note to the Ministry of Agriculture (MoA) and Guyana Rice Development Board (GRDB) to enable them to identify a strategy and potential public investments to improve current risk-management practices in the rice supply chain. This report identifies the major risks facing the rice supply chain, ranks them in terms of the...

  12. Cropping system diversification for food production in Mindanao rubber plantations: a rice cultivar mixture and rice intercropped with mungbean

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rosa Fe Hondrade; Edwin Hondrade; Lianqing Zheng; Francisco Elazegui; Jo-Anne Lynne Joy E Duque; Christopher C Mundt; Casiana M Vera Cruz; Karen A Garrett

    2017-01-01

    .... We evaluated the potential for planting rice, mungbean, rice cultivar mixtures, and rice intercropped with mungbean in young rubber plantations in experiments in the Arakan Valley of Mindanao in the Philippines...

  13. Study of rice. gamma. -irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lien, J.J.; Chau, R.S.; Chen, S.C.; Chu, S.L.; Fu, Y.K.; Fang, C.K.; Fu, Y.H.

    1981-03-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to investigate whether the /sup 60/Co gamma-irradiated milled rice packed in economic and practical sealed bags could be preserved in common granaries in Taiwan for more than one year rather than slightly over one month without quality deterioration. As a result of this experiment we found that during the preservation of over a period of 18 months, the contents, such as moisture, ash, protein and fiber, of Tainan-5 Bon-Lai (Japonica Type) rice irradiated with 20 and 40 krad doses were quite stable, whereas reducing sugar showed slight fluctuations but did not vary significantly either. The fat, vitamin B/sub 1/ and niacin contents were found being reduced, while the increase in fatty acid content was an inevitable phenomenon along with the proceeding of the preservation.

  14. Bioethanol production from rice straw residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsayed B. Belal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A rice straw -cellulose utilizing mold was isolated from rotted rice straw residues. The efficient rice straw degrading microorganism was identified as Trichoderma reesei. The results showed that different carbon sources in liquid culture such as rice straw, carboxymethyl cellulose, filter paper, sugar cane bagasse, cotton stalk and banana stalk induced T. reesei cellulase production whereas glucose or Potato Dextrose repressed the synthesis of cellulase. T. reesei cellulase was produced by the solid state culture on rice straw medium. The optimal pH and temperature for T. reesei cellulase production were 6 and 25 ºC, respectively. Rice straw exhibited different susceptibilities towards cellulase to their conversion to reducing sugars. The present study showed also that, the general trend of rice straw bioconversion with cellulase was more than the general trend by T. reesei. This enzyme effectively led to enzymatic conversion of acid, alkali and ultrasonic pretreated cellulose from rice straw into glucose, followed by fermentation into ethanol. The combined method of acid pretreatment with ultrasound and subsequent enzyme treatment resulted the highest conversion of lignocellulose in rice straw to sugar and consequently, highest ethanol concentration after 7 days fermentation with S. cerevisae yeast. The ethanol yield in this study was about 10 and 11 g.L-1.

  15. Wheat products as acceptable substitutes for rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, B H; Kies, C

    1993-07-01

    The objective of the study was to compare the acceptability to semi-trained US American and Asian palatability panelist, of four wheat products processed to be possible replacers of rice in human diets. Products evaluated using rice as the control standard of excellence were steamed whole wheat, couscous (steamed, extracted wheat flour semolina), rosamarina (rice shaped, extracted wheat flour pasta), and bulgar (steamed, pre-cooked partly debranned, cracked wheat). Using a ten point hedonic rating scale, both groups of panelists gave rosamarina closely followed by couscous, most favorable ratings although these ratings were somewhat lower than that of the positive control, steamed polished rice. Bulgar wheat was given the lowest evaluation and was, in general, found to be an unacceptable replacement for rice by both American and Asian judges because of its dark, 'greasy' color and distinctive flavor. In their personal dietaries, judges included rice from 0.25 to 18 times per week with the Asian judges consuming rice significantly more times per week than did the American judges (10.8 +/- 4.71 vs 1.75 +/- 1.65, p < 0.01). However, rice consumption patterns, nationality, race, or sex of the judges was not demonstrated to affect scoring of the wheat products as rice replacers.

  16. Rice Multi-Gene Analysis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    gdyang

    Maps of all the intronic MIR genes analyzed using MPSS database in rice. Click here for a legend that explains the icons and colors in the image below. Click here to jump in the page below to the specific gene. osa-MIR159f osa-MIR399i osa-MIR418 osa-MIR437 osa-MIR439b osa-MIR439j osa-MIR440 osa-MIR442.

  17. Proteomics of Rice Seed Germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongli eHe

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Seed is a condensed form of plant. Under suitable environmental conditions, it can resume the metabolic activity from physiological quiescent status, and mobilize the reserves, biosynthesize new proteins, regenerate organelles and cell membrane, eventually protrude the radicle and enter into seedling establishment. So far, how these activities are regulated in a coordinated and sequential manner is largely unknown. With the availability of more and more genome sequence information and the development of mass spectrometry (MS technology, proteomics has been widely applied in analyzing the mechanisms of different biological processes, and proved to be very powerful. Regulation of rice seed germination is critical for rice cultivation. In recent years, a lot of proteomic studies have been conducted in exploring the gene expression regulation, reserves mobilization and metabolisms reactivation, which brings us new insights on the mechanisms of metabolism regulation during this process. Nevertheless, it also invokes a lot of questions. In this mini-review, we summarized the progress in the proteomic studies of rice seed germination. The current challenges and future perspectives were also discussed, which might be helpful for the following studies.

  18. Variability in contents of thiamine and riboflavin in brown rice, crude oil in brown rice and bran-polish, and silicon in hull of IR rices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villareal, C P; Juliano, B O

    1989-09-01

    Among 30 IR varieties, variety had greater effect on thiamine content of brown rice than season. Both season and variety affected riboflavin content. Purple- and red-pericarped Philippines rices had higher riboflavin and crude protein contents than IR rices. Crude oil contents of brown rice and bran-polish of 19 IR rices were significantly affected by variety, but only brown rice oil content was significantly affected by season. Bran-polish of waxy rice IR29 had the highest oil content. Silicon content of hull of 16 IR rices showed significant variation due to variety and season and tended to be higher in the dry season crop. Variety rankings in nutrient composition were not consistent for the two crops. The levels of nutrients of IR rices were within the range of values reported for other rices.

  19. Benthic macroinvertebrates in Italian rice fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Lupi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Rice fields can be considered man-managed temporary wetlands. Five rice fields handled with different management strategies, their adjacent channels, and a spring were analysed by their benthic macroinvertebrate community to i evaluate the role of rice agroe- cosystem in biodiversity conservation; ii find indicator species which can be used to compare the ecological status of natural wetlands with rice agroecosystems; and iii find the influence of environmental variables on biodiversity. Different methods of data analysis with increasing degree of complexity – from diversity index up to sophisticated multivariate analysis – were used. The investigation provided a picture of benthic macroinvertebrates inhabiting rice agroecosystems where 173 taxa were identified, 89 of which detected in rice paddies. Among them, 4 phyla (Mollusca, Annelida, Nematomorpha, and Arthropoda, 8 classes (Bivalvia, Gastropoda, Oligochaeta, Hirudinea, Gordioida, Insecta, Branchiopoda, and Malacostraca, 24 orders, 68 families, 127 genera and 159 species have been found. Ten threatened and 3 invasive species were detected in the habitats examined. The information obtained by the different methods of data analysis allowed a more comprehensive view on the value of the components of rice agroecosystems. Data analyses highlighted significant differences between habitats (feeding channel and rice field, with higher diversity observed in channels, and emphasised the role of the water chemical-physical parameters. The period of water permanence in rice fields resulted to be only one of the factors influencing the community of benthic macroinvertebrates. The presence of rare/endangered species allowed characterising some stations, but it was less informative about management strategies in rice paddies because most of these species were absent in rice fields.

  20. Feasibility study on estimation of rice weevil quantity in rice stock using near-infrared spectroscopy technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puttinun Jarruwat

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Thai rice is favored by large numbers of consumers of all continents because of its excellent taste, fragrant aroma and fine texture. Among all Thai rice varieties, Thai Hommali rice is the most preferred. Classification of rice as premium quality requires that almost all grain kernels of the rice be perfectly whole with only a small quantity of foreign particles. Of all the foreign particles found in rice, rice weevils can wreck severest havoc on the quality and quantity of rice such that premium grade rice is transformed into low grade rice. It is widely known that rice millers adopt the "overdose" fumigation practice to control the birth and propagation of rice weevils, the practice of which inevitably gives rise to pesticide residues on rice which end up in the body of consumers. However, if population concentration of rice weevils could be approximated, right amounts of chemicals for fumigation would be applied and thereby no overdose is required. The objective of this study is thus to estimate the quantity of rice weevils in both milled rice and brown rice of Thai Hommali rice variety using the near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS technique. Fourier transforms near infrared (FT-NIR spectrometer was used in this research and the near-infrared wavelength range was 780–2500 nm. A total of 20 levels of rice weevil infestation with an increment of 10 from 10 to 200 mature rice weevils were applied to 1680 rice samples. The spectral data and quantity of weevils are analyzed by partial least square regression (PLSR to establish the model for prediction. The results show that the model is able to estimate the quantity of weevils in milled Hommali rice and brown Hommali rice with high $R_{\\rm val}^{2}$ of 0.96 and 0.90, high RPD of 6.07 and 3.26 and small bias of 2.93 and 2.94, respectively.

  1. Rice Blast Resistance of Transgenic Rice Plants with Pi-d2 Gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De-xi CHEN

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Resistance to rice blast of transgenic rice lines harboring rice blast resistance gene Pi-d2 transformed from three different expression vectors of pCB6.3kb, pCB5.3kb and pZH01-2.72kb were analyzed. Nine advanced-generation transgenic rice lines with Pi-d2 gene displayed various resistance to 39 rice blast strains, and the highest disease-resistant frequency reached 91.7%. Four early-generation homozygous transgenic lines with Pi-d2 gene exhibited resistance to more than 81.5% of 58 rice blast strains, showing the characteristic of wide-spectrum resistance. The transgenic embryonic calli selected by the crude toxin of rice blast fungus showed that the callus induction rate of immature embryo from transgenic rice plants decreased as the concentration of crude toxin in the culture medium increased. When the concentration of crude toxin reached 40%, the callus induction rate of immature embryo from transgenic lines was 49.3%, and that of the receptor control was 5%. The disease incidence of neck blast of the transgenic rice lines in fields under induction was 0% to 50%, indicating that the rice blast resistance of transgenic rice lines is much higher than that of the receptor control.

  2. Australian wild rice reveals pre-domestication origin of polymorphism deserts in rice genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan S, Gopala; Waters, Daniel L E; Henry, Robert J

    2014-01-01

    Rice is a major source of human food with a predominantly Asian production base. Domestication involved selection of traits that are desirable for agriculture and to human consumers. Wild relatives of crop plants are a source of useful variation which is of immense value for crop improvement. Australian wild rices have been isolated from the impacts of domestication in Asia and represents a source of novel diversity for global rice improvement. Oryza rufipogon is a perennial wild progenitor of cultivated rice. Oryza meridionalis is a related annual species in Australia. We have examined the sequence of the genomes of AA genome wild rices from Australia that are close relatives of cultivated rice through whole genome re-sequencing. Assembly of the resequencing data to the O. sativa ssp. japonica cv. Nipponbare shows that Australian wild rices possess 2.5 times more single nucleotide polymorphisms than in the Asian wild rice and cultivated O. sativa ssp. indica. Analysis of the genome of domesticated rice reveals regions of low diversity that show very little variation (polymorphism deserts). Both the perennial and annual wild rice from Australia show a high degree of conservation of sequence with that found in cultivated rice in the same 4.58 Mbp region on chromosome 5, which suggests that some of the 'polymorphism deserts' in this and other parts of the rice genome may have originated prior to domestication due to natural selection. Analysis of genes in the 'polymorphism deserts' indicates that this selection may have been due to biotic or abiotic stress in the environment of early rice relatives. Despite having closely related sequences in these genome regions, the Australian wild populations represent an invaluable source of diversity supporting rice food security.

  3. Functional genomics strategies with transposons in rice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greco, R.

    2003-01-01

    Rice is a major staple food crop and a recognizedmonocotylenedousmodel plant from which gene function discovery is projected to contribute to improvements in a variety of cereals like wheat and maize. The recent release of rough drafts of the rice genome sequence for public

  4. PICTORIAL INTERLUDES Flake-shaped rice bodies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1. Cheung HS, Ryan LM, Kozin F, McCarty DJ. Synovial origins of rice bodies in joint fluid. Arthritis. Rheum 1980;23:72-76. 2. Popert AJ, Scott DL, Wainwright AC, Walton KW, Williamson N, Chapman JH. Frequency of occur- rence, mode of development, and significance of rice bodies in rheumatoid joints. Ann Rheum Dis.

  5. Influence of intermittent irrigation, red rice biotype, and rice grain type on outcrossing between red rice and imidazolinone-resistant rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whether outcrossing rates between red rice and imazethapyr resistant rice are affected as a function of irrigation management is unclear. Potentially, differences between conventionally-flooded (CNV) and intermittently flooded (INT) systems could affect plant water deficits, as well as vegetative a...

  6. Transgenic strategies for improving rice disease resistance

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-05-04

    May 4, 2009 ... Review. Transgenic strategies for improving rice disease resistance. Huijuan Zhang, Guojun Li, Wei Li and Fengming Song*. State Key Laboratory for Rice Biology, Institute of Biotechnology, Zhejiang University-Huajiachi Campus, Hangzhou,. Zhejiang 310029, P.R. .... In RTBV-ODs2 line, RTBV DNA.

  7. Adoption of Recommended Rice Production Practices among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    influenced adoption of recommended rice production practices by women rice farmers in the study area. Constraints hindering adoption of. RRPPs were unavailability of credit facilities, poor marketing system and unstable price, and inadequate extension contacts. It was recommended that government should ensure that ...

  8. Novel gene expression tools for rice biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biotechnology is an effective and important method of improving both quality and agronomic traits in rice. We are developing novel molecular tools for genetic engineering, with a focus on developing novel transgene expression control elements (i.e. promoters) for rice. A suite of monocot grass promo...

  9. FLUORIDE LEVELS IN COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE RICE IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    2013-05-05

    May 5, 2013 ... shattering-prone Oryza glaberrima. It contains 2% more protein than their African or Asian parents. It is taller than most rice, making harvesting easier, pest resistant and tolerant to drought and infertile soils better than Asian varieties [18]. Rice is a cereal foodstuff which forms an important part of the diet of ...

  10. Grain Unloading Of Arsenic Species In Rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice (Oryza sativa) is the staple food for over half the world's population yet may represent a significant dietary source of inorganic arsenic (As), a nonthreshold, class 1 human carcinogen. Rice grain As is dominated by the inorganic species, and the organic species dim...

  11. Rice aroma and flavor: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descriptive sensory analysis has identified over a dozen different aromas and flavors in rice. Instrumental analyses have found over 200 volatile compounds present in rice. However, after over 30 years of research, little is known about the relationships between the numerous volatile compounds and a...

  12. Soil quality assessment in rice production systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodrigues de Lima, A.C.

    2007-01-01

    In the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, rice production is one of the most important regional activities. Farmers are concerned that the land use practices for rice production in the Camaquã region may not be sustainable because of detrimental effects on soil quality. The study presented in this

  13. Bioethanol production from rice straw: An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binod, Parameswaran; Sindhu, Raveendran; Singhania, Reeta Rani; Vikram, Surender; Devi, Lalitha; Nagalakshmi, Satya; Kurien, Noble; Sukumaran, Rajeev K; Pandey, Ashok

    2010-07-01

    Rice straw is an attractive lignocellulosic material for bioethanol production since it is one of the most abundant renewable resources. It has several characteristics, such as high cellulose and hemicelluloses content that can be readily hydrolyzed into fermentable sugars. But there occur several challenges and limitations in the process of converting rice straw to ethanol. The presence of high ash and silica content in rice straw makes it an inferior feedstock for ethanol production. One of the major challenges in developing technology for bioethanol production from rice straw is selection of an appropriate pretreatment technique. The choice of pretreatment methods plays an important role to increase the efficiency of enzymatic saccharification thereby making the whole process economically viable. The present review discusses the available technologies for bioethanol production using rice straw. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Dinitrogen fixation of rice-Klebsiella associations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, I.D.; Fujii, T.; Sano, Y.; Komagata, K.; Yoneyama, T.; Iyama, S.; Hirota, Y.

    N/sub 2/ fixation by Klebsiella oxytoca strain NG13, isolated from the rhizosphere of a rice (Oryza sativa L.) plant, in association with Indica type rice strain, C5444 is reported. The C/sub 2/H/sub 2/-reduction assays, biomass measurements, N content determinations, and /sup 15/N isotopic dilution assays indicated that inoculation of C5444 with NG13 resulted in a 6% increase of total plant+soil N content, and a 19% /sup 15/N isotopic dilution of plant N after 120 days of cultivation. Our results demonstrated significant levels of N/sub 2/ fixation by K. oxytoca when associated with rice. By optimizing such rice plant-bacterial N/sub 2/ fixation capacity, the N uptake by rice could be enhanced.

  15. Rice epigenomics and epigenetics: challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiangsong; Zhou, Dao-Xiu

    2013-05-01

    During recent years rice genome-wide epigenomic information such as DNA methylation and histone modifications, which are important for genome activity has been accumulated. The function of a number of rice epigenetic regulators has been studied, many of which are found to be involved in a diverse range of developmental and stress-responsive pathways. Analysis of epigenetic variations among different rice varieties indicates that epigenetic modification may lead to inheritable phenotypic variation. Characterizing phenotypic consequences of rice epigenomic variations and the underlining chromatin mechanism and identifying epialleles related to important agronomic traits may provide novel strategies to enhance agronomically favorable traits and grain productivity in rice. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Rice water in treatment of infantile gastroenteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, H B

    1981-07-11

    In Singapore the World Health Organization's (WHO's) oral electrolyte solution for the treatment of infantile gastroenteritis has been used for 6 years and rice water has been used for 8 years. The rice water is the water used in preparing boiled rice or congee and is a slightly starchy solution. As the impression was that rice water was as effective as or even better than the oral electrolyte solution, a trial was conducted of the 2 solutions in babies with gastroenteritis admitted to the Department of Pediatrics of the National University of Singapore. Alternate cases were assigned consecutively to the oral electrolyte solution or to rice water. There were 63 patients on oral electrolyte and 67 on rice water. Milk was totally withdrawn for 24 hours after admission and the babies were put on 1 or the other oral solution. Intravenous 3.75% glucose and 0.23% saline was given at the same time to babies considered to be more dehydrated. On day 2, quarter strength powdered milk was given, followed by half strength on day 3, three-quarters strength on day 4, and full strength on day 5. Electrolyte and urea values were compared, both for "drip" versus "no drip" within oral treatment groups and between electrolyte solution and rice water groups (20 comparisons altogether). There were only 3 significant differences, and these might be explained by the intravenous drip and by the better water absorption from rice water than from the oral electrolyte solution. The most obvious difference in the 2 groups was in the effect on diarrhea (stools/day). Rice water cut down the number of stools more effectively than did oral electrolyte solution. No patient died, and there were no pathological sequelae in any of the 130 patients. Rice water can be tried as a more practical alternative to oral electrolyte solutions since there are problems with providing oral elecrolyte solutions to all babies with diarrhea in the developing countries and ensuring sterility.

  17. Determinants of adoption and productivity of improved rice varieties ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examines the status of adoption of improved rice varieties and its impact on rice production among smallholder farmers in southwestern Nigeria. Data for this study were generated from a farm survey of rice farmers selected by multi-stage sampling technique in two of the rice producing states of the region.

  18. Signatures of adaptation in the weedy rice genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weedy rice is a common problem of by product of domestication that has evolved multiple times from cultivated and wild rice relatives. Here we use whole genome sequences to examine the origin and adaptation of the two major US weedy red rice strains, with a comparison to Chinese weedy red rice. We f...

  19. Rice Genome Research: Current Status and Future Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Bin Han; Qifa Zhang

    2008-01-01

    Rice ( L.) is the leading genomics system among the crop plants. The sequence of the rice genome, the first cereal plant genome, was published in 2005. This review summarizes progress made in rice genome annotations, comparative genomics, and functional genomics researches. It also maps out the status of rice genomics globally and provides a vision of future research directions and resource building.

  20. Cooking and Eating Quality of Rice Yellow Mottle Virus Resistant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    physico-chemical behaviour of the rice grain. Physical characteristics .... combined influence of the different rating parameters of the seven rice ... Cooking and Eating Quantity of Rice Yellow Mottle 197. Table 1: Grain quality characteristics of the tested rice genotypes. Line / Parent. Grain. Length/. Opacity. Amylose. Gel. Gel.

  1. Does African catfish ( Clarias gariepinus ) affect rice in integrated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted for 98 days in the Lake Victoria Basin to investigate the interactions of fish and rice growth performance in rice paddies. The experiment was laid out in a split-plot design, with rice cultivar as the main plot and method of rice-fish culture as the sub-plot. Treatments consisted of two levels of ...

  2. Economic survey of rice marketing in Anambra state, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results of the analysis show that old people who are mostly illiterate but highly experienced engaged in rice marketing business. Furthermore, there is a significant difference in the marketing prices of processed and unprocessed rice as well as stored and unstored rice. However, a greater percentage of rice marketers ...

  3. Significance of rice sheath photosynthesis: Yield determination by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using high-yielding hybrid rice Liangyopeijiu (LYP9), its male parent 9311 and hybrid rice Shanyou 63 (SY63) as the experimental materials, the photosynthesis of rice sheath was studied by 14C radio-autography. The results showed that rice sheath could trap sunlight and produce photosynthates, and these ...

  4. Golden Rice is an effective source for vitamin A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetically engineered "Golden Rice" contains up to 35 ug Beta-carotene per gram of rice. It is important to determine the vitamin A equivalency of Golden Rice Beta-carotene to project the potential effect of this biofortified grain in rice-consuming populations that commonly exhibit low vitamin A s...

  5. Identification of Some Degradation Products of Golden Rice Beta- carotene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden Rice (GR2) is genetically modified rice, which can contain as high as 37 ug of beta-carotene per g of dry rice. It was developed to combat vitamin A deficiency (VAD), a major malnutrition problem in many parts of the developing world, especially in South and South Eastern Asia, where rice is ...

  6. The economic power of the Golden Rice opposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesseler, J.H.H.; Zilberman, D.

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin A enriched rice (Golden Rice) is a cost-efficient solution that can substantially reduce health costs. Despite Golden Rice being available since early 2000, this rice has not been introduced in any country. Governments must perceive additional costs that overcompensate the benefits of the

  7. Rice field for the treatment of pond aquaculture effluents | Wang ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We conducted an experiment to evaluate the efficiency of rice fields in treating pond aquaculture effluent and its responses to different fertilizer treatments. Four treatments was considered in the experiment: no rice planted as the control (CT); rice planted and no fertilizer input (RE); rice planted and a rate of approximately ...

  8. genetic analysis of resistance to rice bacterial blight in uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    Advances in rice genetics. Supplement to rice genetics IV. Proceedings of the Fourth. International Rice Genetics Symposium, 22-. 27 October 2000. IRRI. Los Baños, Philippines. Lee, K.S., Rasabandith, S., Angeles, E.R. and. Khush, G.S. 2003. Inheritance of resistance to bacterial blight in 21cultivars of rice. Phytopathology ...

  9. RPAN: rice pan-genome browser for ∼3000 rice genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chen; Hu, Zhiqiang; Zheng, Tianqing; Lu, Kuangchen; Zhao, Yue; Wang, Wensheng; Shi, Jianxin; Wang, Chunchao; Lu, Jinyuan; Zhang, Dabing; Li, Zhikang; Wei, Chaochun

    2017-01-25

    A pan-genome is the union of the gene sets of all the individuals of a clade or a species and it provides a new dimension of genome complexity with the presence/absence variations (PAVs) of genes among these genomes. With the progress of sequencing technologies, pan-genome study is becoming affordable for eukaryotes with large-sized genomes. The Asian cultivated rice, Oryza sativa L., is one of the major food sources for the world and a model organism in plant biology. Recently, the 3000 Rice Genome Project (3K RGP) sequenced more than 3000 rice genomes with a mean sequencing depth of 14.3×, which provided a tremendous resource for rice research. In this paper, we present a genome browser, Rice Pan-genome Browser (RPAN), as a tool to search and visualize the rice pan-genome derived from 3K RGP. RPAN contains a database of the basic information of 3010 rice accessions, including genomic sequences, gene annotations, PAV information and gene expression data of the rice pan-genome. At least 12 000 novel genes absent in the reference genome were included. RPAN also provides multiple search and visualization functions. RPAN can be a rich resource for rice biology and rice breeding. It is available at http://cgm.sjtu.edu.cn/3kricedb/ or http://www.rmbreeding.cn/pan3k. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  10. Can the co-cultivation of rice and fish help sustain rice production?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Liangliang; Zhang, Jian; Ren, Weizheng; Guo, Liang; Cheng, Yongxu; Li, Jiayao; Li, Kexin; Zhu, Zewen; Zhang, Jiaen; Luo, Shiming; Cheng, Lei; Tang, Jianjun; Chen, Xin

    2016-06-01

    Because rice feeds half of the world’s population, a secure global food supply depends on sustainable rice production. Here we test whether the co-cultivation of rice and fish into one “rice-fish system” (RFS; fish refers to aquatic animals in this article) could help sustain rice production. We examined intensive and traditional RFSs that have been widely practiced in China. We found that rice yields did not decrease when fish yield was below a threshold value in each intensive RFS. Below the thresholds, moreover, fish yields in intensive RFSs can be substantially higher than those in traditional RFS without reducing rice yield. Relative to rice monoculture, the use of fertilizer-nitrogen and pesticides decreased, and the farmers’ net income increased in RFSs. The results suggest that RFSs can help sustain rice production, and suggest that development of co-culture technologies (i.e. proper field configuration for fish and rice) is necessary to achieve the sustainability.

  11. Physicochemical and Antioxidant Properties of Rice Bran Oils Produced from Colored Rice Using Different Extraction Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingyai, Sukanya; Kettawan, Aikkarach; Srikaeo, Khongsak; Singanusong, Riantong

    2017-06-01

    This study investigated the physicochemical and antioxidant properties of rice bran oil (RBO) produced from the bran of three rice varities; Khao Dawk Mali 105 (white rice), Red Jasmine rice (red rice) and Hom-nin rice (black rice) using three extraction methods including cold-press extraction (CPE), solvent extraction (SE) and supercritical CO2 extraction (SC-CO2). Yields, color, acid value (AV), free fatty acid (FFA), peroxide value (PV), iodine value (IV), total phenolic compound (TPC), γ-oryzanol, α-tocopherol and fatty acid profile were analyzed. It was found that the yields obtained from SE, SC-CO2 and CPE extractions were 17.35-20.19%, 14.76-18.16% and 3.22-6.22%, respectively. The RBO from the bran of red and black rice samples exhibited high antioxidant activities. They also contained higher amount of γ-oryzanol and α-tocopherol than those of white rice sample. In terms of extraction methods, SC-CO2 provided better qualities of RBO as evidenced by their physicochemical and antioxidant properties. This study found that RBO produced from the bran of black rice samples using SC-CO2 extraction method showed the best physicochemical and antioxidant properties.

  12. Consumer Preferences and Buying Criteria in Rice: A Study to Identify Market Strategy for Thailand Jasmine Rice Export

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suwannaporn, P.; Linnemann, A.R.

    2008-01-01

    Rice consumption per capita in many Asian countries decreased, but it is consumed more in non-rice-eating countries. This study aimed to investigate consumer preferences and attitudes toward Jasmine rice among consumers in target rice export countries to identify opportunities and strategic

  13. Seed wintering and deterioration characteristics between weedy and cultivated rice

    OpenAIRE

    Baek, Jung-Sun; Chung, Nam-Jin

    2012-01-01

    Background Incidences of weedy rice continuously occurred in paddy fields because its shattering seeds were able to over-winter. In this research, the seed deterioration of weedy rice was investigated compared with cultivated rice, and the wintering characteristics of these two types of rice were investigated with the field wintering test, freezing resistance test, and accelerated aging test. Results For the wintering test, the seeds of weedy rice were placed on the soil surface of a paddy wi...

  14. COMPARATIVE PERFORMANCE OF A LOCALLY DEVELOPED VOTEX RICE FAN THRESHER

    OpenAIRE

    Dauda, S.M.; A. U. Dzivama

    2008-01-01

    The efforts to discover and make optimal and effective use of locally developed rice thresher as substitute for imported rice threshers form the focus of this paper. A locally developed rice thresher was compared with an imported Votex rice fan fromHolland.  The study was based on threshing efficiency, cleaning efficiency, total grain losses, grain recovery range, capacity utilization and threshing intensity. Three popular rice varieties, Faro 51, Faro 29 and Faro 21 were used to evaluate the...

  15. [Safety of rice grains and mycotoxins - a historical review of yellow rice mycotoxicoses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udagawa, Shun-ichi; Tatsuno, Takashi

    2004-01-01

    Aflatoxins, the most powerful mycotoxins, were brought to the attention fo the people in the early 1960s with the outbreak of the turkey "X" disease in England. However, the history of mycotoxin research in Japan began 100 years ago. In 1891, Sakaki demonstrated that moldy, unpolished rice was fatal to experimental animals, with symptoms indicating paralysis of the central nervous system (Shoshin-kakke). In 1920, Prof. I. Miyake and Dr. Takada first reported that Penicillium commune, which was known as a causal agent of "Mossy diseased rice" was found to be toxic to experimental animals by feeding the moldy rice to rabbits and rats.With such a historical background, taking the idea of "rice, fungus and toxin" as a working hypothesis, Miyake and his co-workers discovered the first sample of yellow rice grains from Taiwanese and domestic rice, from which was isolated a species of Penicillium and later identified it with P. citreonigrum (=P. toxicarium). The fungus produced a highly toxic metabolite, citreoviridin. Unfortunately because this study was published during wartime, it failed to alert the world to the potential or actual dangers of the toxicity of common molds. After World War II, Japanese people suffered for some years from a shortage in domestic rice production and depended on foreign countries to supply rice, which led to the toxicological screening on fungal isolates from polluted rice grains by Dr. Tsunoda and his co-workers. AMong the isolates from imported rice, there were two species of Penicillium which were particularly associated with high toxicity; P. islandicum responsible for brownish discolored rice, and P. citrinum responsible for yellowish rice. P. islandicum produces two hepatotoxic metabolites: luteoskyrin and cyclochlorotine, while a nephrotoxic of P. citrinum is citrinin. These toxicological characters, including the induction of cancer and chemical structures, were studied by Profs. uraguchi, Saito, Shibata, Tatsuno and their co

  16. In vitro proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of human dental pulp stem cells in injectable thermo-sensitive chitosan/β-glycerophosphate/hydroxyapatite hydrogel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yantian; Zhang, Fengli; Fu, Qiang; Liu, Yong; Wang, Zejian; Qi, Nianmin

    2016-09-01

    Injectable thermo-sensitive hydrogels have a potential application in bone tissue engineering for their sensitivities and minimal invasive properties. Human dental pulp stem cells have been considered a promising tool for tissue reconstruction. The objective of this study was to investigate the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of dental pulp stem cells in injectable thermo-sensitive chitosan/β-glycerophosphate/hydroxyapatite hydrogel in vitro. The chitosan /β-glycerophosphate hydrogel and chitosan/β-glycerophosphate/hydroxyapatite hydrogel were prepared using the sol-gel method. The injectability of chitosan /β-glycerophosphate hydrogel and chitosan/β-glycerophosphate/hydroxyapatite hydrogel was measured using a commercial disposable syringe. Scanning electron microscopy was used to observe the inner structure of hydrogels. Then dental pulp stem cells were seeded in chitosan /β-glycerophosphate hydrogel and chitosan/β-glycerophosphate/hydroxyapatite hydrogel, respectively. The growth of dental pulp stem cells was periodically observed under an inverted microscope. The proliferation of dental pulp stem cells was detected by using an Alamar Blue kit, while cell apoptosis was determined by using a Live/Dead Viability/Cytotoxicity kit. The osteogenic differentiations of dental pulp stem cells in chitosan /β-glycerophosphate hydrogel and chitosan/β-glycerophosphate/hydroxyapatite hydrogel were evaluated by alkaline phosphatase activity assay and mRNA expression of osteogenesis gene for 21 days in osteogenic medium. The results indicated that there was no significant difference between chitosan /β-glycerophosphate hydrogel and chitosan/β-glycerophosphate/hydroxyapatite hydrogel in injectability. Cells within the chitosan/β-glycerophosphate/hydroxyapatite hydrogel displayed a typical adherent cell morphology and rapid proliferation with high cellular viability after 14 days of culture. Dental pulp stem cells seeded in chitosan

  17. Evaluation of Heavy Metals Contamination from Environment to Food Matrix by TXRF: The Case of Rice and Rice Husk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabjola Bilo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to the chemical analysis of contaminated soils of India and the rice grown in the same area. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy is a well-established technique for elemental chemical analysis of environmental samples, and it can be a useful tool to assess food safety. Metals uptake in rice crop grown in soils from different areas was studied. In this work soil, rice husk and rice samples were analyzed after complete solubilization of samples by microwave acid digestion. Heavy metals concentration detected in rice samples decreases in the following order: Mn > Zn > Cu > Ni > Pb > Cr. The metal content in rice husk was higher than in rice. This study suggests, for the first time, a possible role of heavy metals filter played by rice husk. The knowledge of metals sequestration capability of rice husk may promote some new management practices for rice cultivation to preserve it from pollution.

  18. Rice Husk Filled Polymer Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Arjmandi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural fibers from agricultural wastes are finding their importance in the polymer industry due to the many advantages such as their light weight, low cost and being environmentally friendly. Rice husk (RH is a natural sheath that forms around rice grains during their growth. As a type of natural fiber obtained from agroindustrial waste, RH can be used as filler in composites materials in various polymer matrices. This review paper is aimed at highlighting previous works of RH filled polymer composites to provide information for applications and further research in this area. Based on the information gathered, application of RH filled composites as alternative materials in building and construction is highly plausible with both light weight and low cost being their main driving forces. However, further investigations on physical and chemical treatment to further improve the interfacial adhesion with polymeric matrix are needed as fiber-polymer interaction is crucial in determining the final composite properties. Better understanding on how the used polymer blends as the matrix and secondary fillers may affect the properties would provide interesting areas to be explored.

  19. Response of aerobic rice to Piriformospora indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Joy; Ramesh, K V; Maithri, U; Mutangana, D; Suresh, C K

    2014-03-01

    Rice cultivation under aerobic condition not only saves water but also opens up a splendid scope for effective application of beneficial root symbionts in rice crop unlike conventional puddled rice cultivation where water logged condition acts as constraint for easy proliferation of various beneficial soil microorganisms like arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. Keeping these in view, an in silico investigation were carried out to explore the interaction of hydrogen phosphate with phosphate transporter protein (PTP) from P. indica. This was followed by greenhouse investigation to study the response of aerobic rice to Glomusfasciculatum, a conventional P biofertilizer and P. indica, an alternative to AM fungi. Computational studies using ClustalW tool revealed several conserved motifs between the phosphate transporters from Piriformospora indica and 8 other Glomus species. The 3D model of PTP from P. indica resembling "Mayan temple" was successfully docked onto hydrogen phosphate, indicating the affinity of this protein for inorganic phosphorus. Greenhouse studies revealed inoculation of aerobic rice either with P. indica, G. fasciculatum or both significantly enhanced the plant growth, biomass and yield with higher NPK, chlorophyll and sugar compared to uninoculated ones, P. indica inoculated plants being superior. A significantly enhanced activity of acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase were noticed in the rhizosphere soil of rice plants inoculated either with P. indica, G. fasciculatum or both, contributing to higher P uptake. Further, inoculation of aerobic rice plants with P. indica proved to be a better choice as a potential biofertilizer over mycorrhiza.

  20. Using rice straw to manufacture ceramic bricks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorbunov German Ivanovich

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the co-authors offer their advanced and efficient methodologies for the recycling of the rice straw, as well as the novel approaches to the ceramic brick quality improvement through the application of the rice straw as the combustible additive and through the formation of amorphous silica in the course of the rice straw combustion. The co-authors provide characteristics of the raw materials, production techniques used to manufacture ceramic bricks, and their basic properties in the article. The co-authors describe the simulated process of formation of amorphous silica. The process in question has two independent steps (or options: 1 rice straw combustion and ash formation outside the oven (in the oxidizing medium, and further application of ash as the additive in the process of burning clay mixtures; 2 adding pre-treated rice straw as the combustible additive into the clay mixture, and its further burning in compliance with the pre-set temperature mode. The findings have proven that the most rational pre-requisite of the rice straw application in the manufacturing of ceramic bricks consists in feeding milled straw into the clay mixture to be followed by molding, drying and burning. Brick samples are highly porous, and they also demonstrate sufficient compressive strength. The co-authors have also identified optimal values of rice straw and ash content in the mixtures under research.

  1. A convenient method for rapid determination of proteins in rices and rice products

    OpenAIRE

    光永, 俊郎; 安藤, ひとみ

    1990-01-01

    [Author abstract]In the biuret determination of protein in rices and rice products, starch and lipids extractable with an alkaline solution such as biuret reagent were found to interfere with the biuret method. Comparative evaluation of their effects revealed that starch, a major component of rice, has the most significant effect on the biuret method. In the presence of starch, the correlation between Kjeldahl protein and the optical density of biuret was poor. It was found that several perha...

  2. Chemical Looping Combustion of Rice Husk

    OpenAIRE

    Rashmeet Singh Monga; Ganesh R. Kale

    2015-01-01

    A thermodynamic investigation of direct chemical looping combustion (CLC) of rice husk is presented in this paper. Both steam and CO2 are used for gasification within the temperature range of 500–1200˚C and different amounts of oxygen carriers. Chemical equilibrium model was considered for the CLC fuel reactor. The trends in product compositions of the fuel reactor, were determined. Rice husk gasification using 3 moles H2O and 0 moles CO2 per mole carbon (in rice husk) at 1 bar pr...

  3. Feeding behavior of rice bug Leptocorisa chinensis (Dallas) (Heteroptera: Alydidae) nymphs on rice panicles and rice plant extract

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ishizaki, Mami; Yasuda, Tetsuya; Watanabe, Tomonari

    2007-01-01

    .... The nymphs showed typical behavioral phases towards the rice panicles: antennation, extension of the rostrum, repeated dabbing with the labium, rostrum placing on the plant surface, stylet penetration and continuous sucking...

  4. Impact of milling and water-to-rice ratio on cooked rice and wastewater properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altheide, M C; Morawicki, R O; Hager, T J

    2012-06-01

    Due to the environmental concerns and expense associated with the disposal of wastewater after industrial cooking of rice, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the extent of leaching, water uptake and volumetric expansion of rice during cooking at various milling durations and water-to-rice ratios. Two cultivars of Arkansas rice, a long grain (Francis) and a medium grain (Jupiter), were milled for 10, 20, and 30 s with a laboratory mill. Samples were cooked in aluminum foil covered beakers at water-to-rice ratios of 10:1, 15:1, and 20:1. After 20 min, rice was weighed for water uptake and measured for volumetric expansion using hexane displacement. The excess cooking water was evaluated for total solids, amylose, and protein to determine the extent of leaching. Water uptake and volumetric expansion significantly increased with milling duration in both cultivars. Leached solids increased as the water-to-rice ratio increased in Francis and increased with milling duration in Jupiter; however, the amylose content of leached solids was unaffected by the water-to-rice ratio in both cultivars. Thus, shorter milling durations may limit the extent of leaching during cooking, as observed with Jupiter, while a lower water-to-rice ratio may reduce wastewater contamination for cultivars similar to Francis.

  5. Characterization of Volatile Flavor Compounds in Chinese Rice Wine Fermented from Enzymatic Extruded Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Enbo; Long, Jie; Wu, Zhengzong; Li, Hongyan; Wang, Fang; Xu, Xueming; Jin, Zhengyu; Jiao, Aiquan

    2015-07-01

    Enzymatic extrusion, instead of traditional steam cooking, to treat rice is an efficient and alternative pretreatment for Chinese rice wine fermentation. In order to determine the formation of volatiles in enzymatic extrusion-processed rice wine (EE), and to confirm its characteristic flavor compounds, headspace solid-phase micro-extraction followed by GC-MS was used. A total of 66 volatile compounds were identified in EE. During fermentation, most volatiles generated from enzymatic extruded rice had the similar trends with those from steam-cooked rice, but the differences in the concentration of volatiles indicated a changed balance of flavors release caused by enzymatic extrusion. Besides, the concentrations and sorts of volatiles in EEs fermented from different rice particle sizes, were not dramatically different. By principal component analysis, EE could be distinctly separated from other traditional Chinese rice wines according to its characteristic volatiles, namely, 2-heptanol, 1-octen-3-ol, ethyl 4-hydroxybenzoate, methylpentyl 2-propenoate, γ-hexalactone, and 4-vinylguaiacol. Enzymatic extrusion liquefaction has been a popular thermal treatment for cereals, and gradually being applied in fermentation and liquor-making industry all over the world. The characterization of volatile flavor compounds in Chinese rice wine processed by enzymatic extrusion liquefaction pretreatment, might be made use not only for a better understanding of this new-type rice wine, but for the further utilization of enzymatic extrusion in other wine or alcohol production as well. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  6. Topotecan hydrochloride liposomes incorporated into thermosensitive hydrogel for sustained and efficient in situ therapy of H22 tumor in Kunming mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Jiayu; Qi, Xiaole; Jiang, Yingchun; Zhu, Xuehua; Zhang, Ziwei; Qin, Xiaoxue; Wu, Zhenghong

    2014-06-09

    Abstract Topotecan hydrochloride (TPT) has potential for the treatment of ovarian cancer, but the activity of TPT tends to decrease due to the ring-opening at physiological pH. In this study, we proposed to incorporate TPT liposomes into injectable thermosensitive in situ hydrogel, consisting of chitosan (CS) and β-glycerophosphate (β-GP), for sustained release and preservation of active lactone form of TPT. The rheology studies were carried out to investigate the sol-gel temperature, flow behavior and viscosity of these CS/β-GP systems. The optimized formulation exhibited sol-gel transition at 40.2 ± 0.4 °C, with pseudoplastic flow behavior. The drug release rate of TPT liposomes loaded CS/β-GP hydrogel in phosphate buffer saline (pH = 7.4) was found to be slowed down, and the lactone fraction of TPT in the hydrogel matrix was maintaining 40% after 50 h. In addition, the antitumor efficacy in Kunming mice bearing Hepatoma-22 tumor, after intratumoral injection of TPT liposomes loaded CS/β-GP hydrogel, was higher than that of TPT in saline and TPT in CS/β-GP hydrogel. Those results demonstrated that TPT liposomes loaded CS/β-GP hydrogel could become a potential formulation for improving the antitumor efficacy of TPT and suggested an important technology platform for intratumoral administration of derivative of camptothecin-family drugs.

  7. Injectable and Self-Healing Thermosensitive Magnetic Hydrogel for Asynchronous Control Release of Doxorubicin and Docetaxel to Treat Triple-Negative Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Wensheng; Gao, Qin; Guo, Zhenhu; Wang, Dan; Gao, Fei; Wang, Xiumei; Wei, Yen; Zhao, Lingyun

    2017-10-04

    Integration of two or more drugs into a multiagent delivery system has been considered to have profound impact on both in vitro and in vivo cancer treatment due to their efficient synergistic effect. This study presents a cheap and simple chitosan hydrogel cross-linked with telechelic difunctional poly(ethylene glycol) (DF-PEG-DF) for synthesis of an injectable and self-healing thermosensitive dual-drug-loaded magnetic hydrogel (DDMH), which contains both doxorubicin (DOX) and docetaxel (DTX) for chemotherapy and iron oxide for magnetic hyperthermia induced stimuli responsive drug release. The as-prepared DDMH not only have good biocompatibility but also exhibit unique self-healing, injectable, asynchronous control release properties. Meanwhile, it shows an excellent magnetic field responsive heat-inducing property, which means that DDMH will produce a large amount of heat to control the surrounding temperature under the alternative magnetic field (AMF). A remarkably improved synergistic effect to triple negative breast cancer cell line is obtained by comparing the therapeutic effect of codelivery of DOX and DTX/PLGA nanoparticles (DTX/PLGA NPs) with DOX or DTX/PLGA NPs alone. In vivo results showed that DDMH exhibited significant higher antitumor efficacy of reducing tumor size compared to single drug-loaded hydrogel. Meanwhile, the AMF-trigger control release of drugs in codelivery system has a more efficient antitumor effect of cancer chemotherapy, indicating that DDMH was a promising multiagent codelivery system for synergistic chemotherapy in the cancer treatment field.

  8. Kinetic and theoretical studies of novel biodegradable thermo-sensitive xerogels based on PEG/PVP/silica for sustained release of enrofloxacin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebadi, Azra; Rafati, Amir Abbas; Bavafa, Sadeghali; Mohammadi, Masoumah

    2017-12-01

    This study involves the synthesis of a new silica-based colloidal hybrid system. In this new hybrid system, poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG) and thermo-sensitive amphiphilic biocompatible poly (vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) were used to create suitable storage for hydrophobic drugs. The possibility of using variable PVP/PEG molar ratios to modulate drug release rate from silica nanoparticles was a primary goal of the current research. In addition, an investigation of the drug release kinetic was conducted. To achieve this, silica nanoparticles were synthesized in poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG) and poly (vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) solution incorporated with enrofloxacin (EFX) (as a model hydrophobic drug), using a simple synthetic strategy of hybrid materials which avoided waste and multi-step processes. The impacts of PVP/PEG molar ratios, temperature, and pH of the release medium on release kinetic were investigated. The physicochemical properties of the drug-loaded composites were studied by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). In vitro drug release studies demonstrated that the drug release rate, which was evaluated by analyzing the experimental data with seven kinetic models in a primarily non-Fickian diffusion-controlled process, aligned well with both Ritger-Peppas and Sahlin-Peppas equations.

  9. Rice saabus Euroopat taltsutama / Tõnu Prei

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Prei, Tõnu, 1950-

    2005-01-01

    USA välisminister Condolezza Rice alustas ringreisi Euroopas, eesmärgiks anda vastulöök USA-d tabanud kriitikale sõjavangide kohtlemise ja teistes riikides oma luuretalituse salavanglate pidamise pärast

  10. Hunting Plan : Rice Lake National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The objectives of this hunting plan for Rice Lake NWR are to: provide a method of removing white-tailed deer from the area population to maintain the general health...

  11. Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines (RICE) | New ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-25

    RICE use pistons that alternatively move back and forth to convert pressure into rotating motion. They're commonly used at power and manufacturing plants to generate electricity and to power pumps and compressors.

  12. [Red yeast rice: An unsafe food supplement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffen, Christian

    2017-03-01

    Red yeast rice is the fermentation product of the mould Monascus ruber and is traditionally used in East Asia to dye and conserve food. Its main pharmacologically active compound, monakolin K, was isolated from red yeast rice and is used as an inhibitor of cholesterol synthesis under the INN lovastatin. Lovastatin and several other statins are marketed as drugs whereas red yeast rice is offered as a food supplement. As statins can cause severe side effects, such as muscle damage and kidney failure, the dosing and information about interactions with drugs and food is essential for the use of these products. Furthermore, red yeast rice can contain the mycotoxin citrinin and several other substances that are not yet toxicologically evaluated.

  13. USING RICE BRAN IN LAYING HEN DIETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H ERSIN SAMLI

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Rice bran is an energy and protein rich ingredient used in poultry feeding. To balance energy and protein requirements. The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of rice bran on performance and egg quality during peak production of a commercial White laying strain of 22 week of age. Dietary treatments were consisted by inclusion of rice bran at 0, 5, 10 and 15% levels. Each treatment had 6 reps in which 12 birds were randomly assigned in wired fl oor battery cages equipped with nipple drinkers and through feeders. Layers accessed to feed and water freely. Lighting regimen was adjusted to 16h light/8h dark. The experiment lasted for 10 weeks. Overall results of the present experiment indicated that rice bran could be included up to 10% without any adverse affect on laying performance, egg quality and digestive organs.

  14. The Origin of Flooded Rice Cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi IKEHASHI

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Rice cultivation has long been considered to have originated from seeding of annual types of wild rice somewhere in subtropics, tropics or in the Yangtze River basin. That idea, however, contains a fatally weak point, when we consider the tremendous difficulty for primitive human to seed any cereal crop in the warm and humid climate, where weed thrives all year round. Instead of the accepted theory, we have to see a reality that vegetative propagation of edible plants is a dominant form of agriculture in such regions. The possibility is discussed that Job's tears and rice, two cereal crops unique to the region, might have been developed via vegetative propagation to obtain materials for medicine or herb tea in backyard gardens prior to cereal production. This idea is supported by the fact that rice in temperate regions is still perennial in its growth habit and that such backyard gardens with transplanted taro can still be seen from Yunnan Province of China to Laos. Thanks to detailed survey of wild rice throughout China for 1970–1980, it is now confirmed that a set of clones of wild rice exist in shallow swamps in Jiangxi Province, an area with severe winter cold. In early summer ancient farmers may have divided the sprouting buds and spread them by transplanting into flooded shallow marsh. Such way of propagation might have faster improved less productive rice through a better genetic potential for response to human interference than quick fixation in seed propagation, because vegetative parts are heterogeneous. Obviously, such a primitive manner of rice cultivation did include the essential parts of rice farming, i.e., nursery bed, transplanting in flooded field of shallow marsh like. Transfer from the primitive nursery to true nursery by seed may have later allowed rice cultivation to be extended to northern regions. In thus devised flooded cultivation there were a series of unique advantages, i.e.; continuous cropping of rice in a same

  15. Characterization of paralogous protein families in rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Wei

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High gene numbers in plant genomes reflect polyploidy and major gene duplication events. Oryza sativa, cultivated rice, is a diploid monocotyledonous species with a ~390 Mb genome that has undergone segmental duplication of a substantial portion of its genome. This, coupled with other genetic events such as tandem duplications, has resulted in a substantial number of its genes, and resulting proteins, occurring in paralogous families. Results Using a computational pipeline that utilizes Pfam and novel protein domains, we characterized paralogous families in rice and compared these with paralogous families in the model dicotyledonous diploid species, Arabidopsis thaliana. Arabidopsis, which has undergone genome duplication as well, has a substantially smaller genome (~120 Mb and gene complement compared to rice. Overall, 53% and 68% of the non-transposable element-related rice and Arabidopsis proteins could be classified into paralogous protein families, respectively. Singleton and paralogous family genes differed substantially in their likelihood of encoding a protein of known or putative function; 26% and 66% of singleton genes compared to 73% and 96% of the paralogous family genes encode a known or putative protein in rice and Arabidopsis, respectively. Furthermore, a major skew in the distribution of specific gene function was observed; a total of 17 Gene Ontology categories in both rice and Arabidopsis were statistically significant in their differential distribution between paralogous family and singleton proteins. In contrast to mammalian organisms, we found that duplicated genes in rice and Arabidopsis tend to have more alternative splice forms. Using data from Massively Parallel Signature Sequencing, we show that a significant portion of the duplicated genes in rice show divergent expression although a correlation between sequence divergence and correlation of expression could be seen in very young genes. Conclusion

  16. Mycotoxin production on rice, pulses and oilseeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begum, Fouzia; Samajpati, N.

    Mycotoxin-producing fungi were isolated from contaminated grains of rice, pulses and oilseeds sold in the local markets of Calcutta for human consumption. It was found that aflatoxin B1 was produced by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, aflatoxin G1 by A. flavus, ochratoxin by Aspergillus ochraceous, sterigmatocystin by Aspergillus japonicus and citrinin by Penicillium citrinum. Aflatoxin B1 (333-10416μg/kg) was produced by Aspergillus spp. in rice, pulses and oilseeds.

  17. Polyamines and Anaerobic Elongation of Rice Coleoptile

    OpenAIRE

    Remo, Reggiani; Alejandro, Hochkoeppler; Alcide, Bertani; Istituto Biosintesi Vegetali, C. N. R.; Istituto Biosintesi Vegetali, C. N. R.; Istituto Biosintesi Vegetali, C. N. R.

    1989-01-01

    The role of polyamines in the anaerobic elongation of rice (Oryza sativa L.) coleoptiles was studied. The reduced growth of rice coleoptiles under anoxic conditions was accompanied by a massive accumulation of free putrescine. Putrescine was synthesized from arginine in a reaction catalyzed by arginine decarboxylase (ADC). The anoxic titer of putrescine was closely correlated with elongation of coleoptiles. In experiments in which putrescine and inhibitors [a-difluoromethylarginine (DFMA) and...

  18. The Potency of White Rice (Oryza sativa), Black Rice (Oryza sativa L. indica), and Red Rice (Oryza nivara) as Antioxidant and Tyrosinase Inhibitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batubara, I.; Maharni, M.; Sadiah, S.

    2017-04-01

    Rice is known to have many beneficial biological activities and is often used as “bedak dingin”, a face powder. The content of vitamins, minerals, fiber, and several types of antioxidants, such as ferulic acid, phytic acid, tocopherol, and oryzanols [1-2] are predicted to be potential as a tyrosinase inhibitor. The purpose of this study is to determine the potency of extracts from there types of rice, namely white, red, and black rice as an antioxidant and tyrosinase inhibitor. The rice was extracted with three different solvents, n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol. The results showed that the highest antioxidant activity using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl method was found in the methanol extract of black rice (IC50 290 μg/mL). Meanwhile, ethyl acetate extract of white rice has the highest antioxidant activity withphosphomolybdic acid method (41 mmol α-tocopherol equivalents/g sample). Thus, methanol extract of black rice and ethyl acetate extract of white rice are potential as an antioxidant. For tyrosinase inhibitor, n-hexane extract of red rice (IC50 3156 μg/mL) was the most active extract. The active component for radical scavenging is polar compound and for antioxidant by phosphomolybdate method is less polar compounds in black rice methanol extract based on TLC bioautogram. In conclusion, the black rice is the most potent in antioxidant while red rice is for tyrosinase inhibition.

  19. Transcriptional profiling of rice early response to Magnaporthe oryzae identified OsWRKYs as important regulators in rice blast resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Wei

    Full Text Available Rice blast disease is a major threat to rice production worldwide, but the mechanisms underlying rice resistance to the causal agent Magnaporthe oryzae remain elusive. Therefore, we carried out a transcriptome study on rice early defense response to M. oryzae. We found that the transcriptional profiles of rice compatible and incompatible interactions with M. oryzae were mostly similar, with genes regulated more prominently in the incompatible interactions. The functional analysis showed that the genes involved in signaling and secondary metabolism were extensively up-regulated. In particular, WRKY transcription factor genes were significantly enriched among the up-regulated genes. Overexpressing one of these WRKY genes, OsWRKY47, in transgenic rice plants conferred enhanced resistance against rice blast fungus. Our results revealed the sophisticated transcriptional reprogramming of signaling and metabolic pathways during rice early response to M. oryzae and demonstrated the critical roles of WRKY transcription factors in rice blast resistance.

  20. Three geographically separate domestications of Asian rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civáň, Peter; Craig, Hayley; Cox, Cymon J; Brown, Terence A

    2015-11-02

    Domesticated rice (Oryza sativa L.) accompanied the dawn of Asian civilization(1) and has become one of world's staple crops. From archaeological and genetic evidence various contradictory scenarios for the origin of different varieties of cultivated rice have been proposed, the most recent based on a single domestication(2,3). By examining the footprints of selection in the genomes of different cultivated rice types, we show that there were three independent domestications in different parts of Asia. We identify wild populations in southern China and the Yangtze valley as the source of the japonica gene pool, and populations in Indochina and the Brahmaputra valley as the source of the indica gene pool. We reveal a hitherto unrecognized origin for the aus variety in central India or Bangladesh. We also conclude that aromatic rice is a result of a hybridization between japonica and aus, and that the tropical and temperate versions of japonica are later adaptations of one crop. Our conclusions are in accord with archaeological evidence that suggests widespread origins of rice cultivation(1,4). We therefore anticipate that our results will stimulate a more productive collaboration between genetic and archaeological studies of rice domestication, and guide utilization of genetic resources in breeding programmes aimed at crop improvement.

  1. Drought Monitoring for Rice Production in Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyda Chhinh

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Rice production underpins the national economy and the most rural livelihoods in Cambodia, but it is negatively impacted by repeated droughts. The research reported on in this paper focuses on relationships between drought occurrences in Cambodia’s most drought-prone province (Kampong Speu and (i damage to the annual rice harvest between 1994 and 2011, and (ii the Niño 3.4 index. Droughts were identified using the Standardised Precipitation Index (SPI. In seven of the years between 1994 and 2006 droughts damaged >1000 ha of rice in the Kampong Speu province. Furthermore, in 11 years >200 ha of rice were damaged. A critical success index of 0.66 obtained for an analysis of SPI-defined drought and area rice damage in the province indicates a strong statistical relationship. A statistically significant correlation (r = −0.455 was achieved between Niño 3.4 and 12-month SPI values lagged by three months, this indicates the importance of ENSO linkages in explaining drought in this region. Late season droughts lead to greater rice damage than early- and mid-season droughts.

  2. Rice bran oil an alternate bakery shortening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Amarjeet; Jassal, Vishaldeep; Thind, S S; Aggarwal, Poonam

    2012-02-01

    Studies were carried out to replace bakery shortening with refined rice bran oil in bread preparation. Physico-chemical properties of bakery shortening and rice bran oil were studied. Rice bran oil was found to have a higher content of essential fatty acid linoleic acid (34.98%) as compared to that of bakery shortening (5.14%). Chemical composition of wheat flour used was also evaluation. Bread samples were prepared by replacing bakery shortening with rice bran oil at 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% levels. Breads were examined for bread making quality i.e. loaf weight, loaf height, loaf volume and specific volume and organoleptic quality i.e. appearance, crust colour, crumb colour, aroma, texture, taste and overall acceptability on a 9 point hedonic scale. Statistical analysis regarding bread making quality and organoleptic quality of bread revealed that bread making and organoleptic quality of breads prepared after replacing bakery shortening with rice bran oil at 50% level varied significantly from that of control. Statistically significant variations were observed in the texture of breads prepared with shortening from that prepared after replacing bakery shortening with rice bran oil at 50% level.

  3. The structure of rice weevil pectin methylesterase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teller, David C; Behnke, Craig A; Pappan, Kirk; Shen, Zicheng; Reese, John C; Reeck, Gerald R; Stenkamp, Ronald E

    2014-11-01

    Rice weevils (Sitophilus oryzae) use a pectin methylesterase (EC 3.1.1.11), along with other enzymes, to digest cell walls in cereal grains. The enzyme is a right-handed β-helix protein, but is circularly permuted relative to plant and bacterial pectin methylesterases, as shown by the crystal structure determination reported here. This is the first structure of an animal pectin methylesterase. Diffraction data were collected to 1.8 Å resolution some time ago for this crystal form, but structure solution required the use of molecular-replacement techniques that have been developed and similar structures that have been deposited in the last 15 years. Comparison of the structure of the rice weevil pectin methylesterase with that from Dickeya dandantii (formerly Erwinia chrysanthemi) indicates that the reaction mechanisms are the same for the insect, plant and bacterial pectin methylesterases. The similarity of the structure of the rice weevil enzyme to the Escherichia coli lipoprotein YbhC suggests that the evolutionary origin of the rice weevil enzyme was a bacterial lipoprotein, the gene for which was transferred to a primitive ancestor of modern weevils and other Curculionidae. Structural comparison of the rice weevil pectin methylesterase with plant and bacterial enzymes demonstrates that the rice weevil protein is circularly permuted relative to the plant and bacterial molecules.

  4. Fungicide and insecticide residues in rice grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Mack Teló

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyse residues of fungicides and insecticides in rice grains that were subjected to different forms of processing. Field work was conducted during three crop seasons, and fungicides and insecticides were applied at different crop growth stages on the aerial portion of the rice plants. Azoxystrobin, difenoconazole, propiconazole, tebuconazole, and trifloxystrobin fungicides were sprayed only once at the R2 growth stage or twice at the R2 and R4 growth stages; cypermethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, permethrin, and thiamethoxam insecticides were sprayed at the R2 growth stage; and permethrin was sprayed at 5-day intervals from the R4 growth stage up to one day prior to harvest. Pesticide residues were analysed in uncooked, cooked, parboiled, polished and brown rice grains as well as rice hulls during the three crop seasons, for a total of 1458 samples. The samples were analysed by gas chromatography with electron capture detection (GC-ECD using modified QuEChERS as the extraction method. No fungicide or insecticide residues were detected in rice grain samples; however, azoxystrobin and cypermethrin residues were detected in rice hull samples.

  5. Pathways of Rice Diversification across Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorian Q Fuller

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The archaeology of rice has made important methodological advances over the past decade that have contributed new data on the domestication process, spread and ecology of cultivation. Growing evidence from spikelet bases indicates that non-shattering, domesticated forms evolved gradually in the Yangtze basin and that there were at least two distinct processes around the Middle Yangtze region pre-dating 6000 BC, and the in the Lower Yangtze region between 6000 and 4000 BC. Early rice cultivation in these areas was based on wet field ecologies, in contrast to rainfed rice that is indicated among the earliest systems in India. When rice first spread north it was not entirely suited to shorter temperate summer growth seasons, and we are able to infer from high levels of apparently green-harvested spikelets that genetic adaptations to temperate conditions evolved after 2000 BC. When rice first spread south, to mainland Southeast Asia, after 2500 BC, it was grown in rainfed, dry ecologies that were less labour- demanding and less-productive. More productive and intensive irrigated rice then redeveloped in Southeast Asia around 2000 years ago, supporting growing population densities and social complexity.

  6. Effect of red rice interference in fourth densities of commercial rice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge García de la Osa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Field trials were carried out in The Regional Research Grain Station “Sur del Jíbaro”, Sancti Spíritus, in order to study the infestation effect of 0, 12, 25, 50, 100 and 200 red rice plants per square meter (m2 on growth and yields of commercial variety J-104, seeded at 50, 100, 200 and 300 plants/m². Yield of J-104 rice variety decreased with the increase in red rice density. Crop yield decrease in the dry season ranged from 10.7 to 94.8% with infestations of 12 and 200 red rice plants /m², respectively; while in the wet season changed from 11.4 to 91.5 % with similar level in infestations. In both seasons 12 red rice plants were enough to cause a significant reduction in commercial rice yields in relation to the control treatment (without red rice infestation. The lost in crop yield was due to the decreased in panicles/ m² and filled grains per panicle, caused by the interference with red rice.

  7. evaluation of rice cultivars for resistance to rice yellow mottle virus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    2018-02-08

    Feb 8, 2018 ... H. KAM, M.-N. NDJIONDJOP1, N. OUEDRAOGO, M.D. LAING2 and A. GHESQUIERE3. Environmental and Agricultural Research Institute (INERA), 01 910 Bobo - Dioulasso, Burkina Faso. 1Africa Rice Center (AfricaRice), 01 BP 2551 Bouaké, Côte d'Ivoire. 2University of KwaZulu-Natal (UKZN), School of ...

  8. Rice-eating quality among consumers in different rice grain preference countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suwannaporn, P.; Linnemann, A.R.

    2008-01-01

    More rice is eaten nowadays in traditionally nonrice-eating countries. This study investigated consumer eating quality preferences among consumers in target rice export countries to identify opportunities and strategic implications. A quantitative study with 1,128 consumers of target nationalities

  9. The Potential of System of Rice Intensification (SRI) to Increase Rice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SRI practice for planting space of 25x25 to 30x30 cm, wetting and drying interval of three days, and younger seedling of 8-12 days are recommended as good combinations for SRI practice in Mkindo area, Morogoro region. Key words: Climate change, rice productivity, System of Rice Intensification (SRI), alternate wetting ...

  10. Complexity of rice Hsp100 gene family: lessons from rice genome ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2007-03-29

    Mar 29, 2007 ... Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 32; Issue 3. Complexity of rice Hsp100 gene family: lessons from rice genome sequence data. Gaurav Batra ... Elucidation of genome sequence provides an excellent platform to understand detailed complexity of the various gene families. Hsp100 is an ...

  11. Development and characterization of emulsions containing purple rice bran and brown rice oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aims of this study were to characterize purple rice bran oil (PRBO) as extracted from the bran, and to produce and characterize a nano-emulsion containing purple rice bran oil. An emulsion was prepared using PRBO (10%), sodium caseinate (5%) and water (85%). The mixture was sonicated followed ...

  12. Simultaneous rough rice drying and rice bran stabilization using infrared radiation heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to develop a new rice drying method by using IR heating followed by tempering. Freshly harvested medium grain rice (M206) samples with different initial moisture contents (IMCs) were used in this study. The samples were dried for one- and two-passes by using a catalyt...

  13. Rice bran: a novel functional ingredient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, Mian Kamran; Butt, Masood Sadiq; Anjum, Faqir Muhammad; Khan, Saima Hafiz

    2014-01-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa) is the most important staple food for a large part of the world's human population, especially in East and South Asia, the Middle East, Latin America, and the West Indies. It provides more than one fifth of the calories consumed worldwide by the human. It is the second leading cereal crop and staple food of half of the world's population. It is grown in at least 114 countries with global production of 645 million tons; share of Asian farmers is about 90% of the total produce. Rice bran, brown outer layer of rice kernel, is mainly composed of pericarp, aleurone, subaleurone layer, and germ. It contains appreciable quantities of nutrients like protein, fat, and dietary fiber. Furthermore, it contains substantial amount of minerals like K, Ca, Mg, and Fe. Presence of antioxidants like tocopherols, tocotrienols, and γ-oryzanol also brighten prospects of rice bran utilization for humans as functional ingredient to mitigate the life-threatening disorders. Moreover, in the developing countries, budding dilemma of food crisis, arising due to lower crop yields and escalating population, needs to utilize each pent of available resources. To provide enough food to all people, there is the holistic approach of using the by-products generated during food processing and preparations. Rice is being processed in well-established industry, but the major apprehension is the utilization of its by-products; rice bran (5-8%) and polishing (2-3%) that are going as waste. Rice processing or milling produces several streams of materials including milled rice, bran, and husk. In developing countries, rice bran is considered as a by-product of the milling process and commonly used in animal feed or discarded as a waste. The potential of producing rice bran at the global level is 29.3 million tons annually, whereas the share of Pakistan is worked out to be 0.5 million tons. In present paper, attempt has been made to highlight the significance of these valuable but

  14. Effect of Temperature on Chinese Rice Wine Brewing with High Concentration Presteamed Whole Sticky Rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong-Tao; Xiong, Weili; Hu, Jianhua; Xu, Baoguo; Lin, Chi-Chung; Xu, Ling; Jiang, Lihua

    2014-01-01

    Production of high quality Chinese rice wine largely depends on fermentation temperature. However, there is no report on the ethanol, sugars, and acids kinetics in the fermentation mash of Chinese rice wine treated at various temperatures. The effects of fermentation temperatures on Chinese rice wine quality were investigated. The compositions and concentrations of ethanol, sugars, glycerol, and organic acids in the mash of Chinese rice wine samples were determined by HPLC method. The highest ethanol concentration and the highest glycerol concentration both were attained at the fermentation mash treated at 23°C. The highest peak value of maltose (90 g/L) was obtained at 18°C. Lactic acid and acetic acid both achieved maximum values at 33°C. The experimental results indicated that temperature contributed significantly to the ethanol production, acid flavor contents, and sugar contents in the fermentation broth of the Chinese rice wines. PMID:24672788

  15. Development of Ozone Technology Rice Storage Systems (OTRISS) for Quality Improvement of Rice Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nur, M.; Kusdiyantini, E.; Wuryanti, W.; Winarni, T. A.; Widyanto, S. A.; Muharam, H.

    2015-06-01

    This research has been carried out by using ozone to address the rapidly declining quality of rice in storage. In the first year, research has focused on the rice storage with ozone technology for small capacity (e.g., household) and the medium capacity (e.g., dormitories, hospitals). Ozone was produced by an ozone generator with Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma (DBDP). Ozone technology rice storage system (OTRISS) is using ozone charateristic which is a strong oxidizer. Ozone have a short endurance of existence and then decompose, as a result produce oxygen and radicals of oxygen. These characteristics could kill microorganisms and pests, reduce air humidity and enrich oxygen. All components used in SPBTO assembled using raw materials available in the big cities in Indonesia. Provider of high voltage (High Voltage Power Supply, 40-70 kV, 23 KH, AC) is one of components that have been assembled and tested. Ozone generator is assembled with 7 reactors of Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma (DBDP). Rice container that have been prepared for OTRISS have adjusted so can be integrated with generator, power supply and blower to blow air. OTRISS with a capacity of 75 kg and 100 kg have been made and tested. The ability of ozone to eliminate bacteria and fungi have been tested and resulted in a decrease of microorganisms at 3 log CFU/g. Testing in food chemistry showed that ozone treatment of rice had not changed the chemical content that still meet the standard of chemical content and nutritional applicable to ISO standard milled rice. The results of this study are very likely to be used as an alternative to rice storage systems in warehouse. Test and scale-up is being carried out in a mini warehouse whose condition is mimicked to rice in National Rice Storage of Indonesia (Bulog) to ensure quality. Next adaptations would be installed in the rice storage system in the Bulog.

  16. Integrated rice-duck farming mitigates the global warming potential in rice season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guochun; Liu, Xin; Wang, Qiangsheng; Yu, Xichen; Hang, Yuhao

    2017-01-01

    Integrated rice-duck farming (IRDF), as a mode of ecological agriculture, is an important way to realize sustainable development of agriculture. A 2-year split-plot field experiment was performed to evaluate the effects of IRDF on methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions and its ecological mechanism in rice season. This experiment was conducted with two rice farming systems (FS) of IRDF and conventional farming (CF) under four paddy-upland rotation systems (PUR): rice-fallow (RF), annual straw incorporating in rice-wheat rotation system (RWS), annual straw-based biogas residues incorporating in rice-wheat rotation system (RWB), and rice-green manure (RGM). During the rice growing seasons, IRDF decreased the CH4 emission by 8.80-16.68%, while increased the N2O emission by 4.23-15.20%, when compared to CF. Given that CH4 emission contributed to 85.83-96.22% of global warming potential (GWP), the strong reduction in CH4 emission led to a significantly lower GWP of IRDF as compared to CF. The reason for this trend was because IRDF has significant effect on dissolved oxygen (DO) and soil redox potential (Eh), which were two pivotal factors for CH4 and N2O emissions in this study. The IRDF not only mitigates the GWP, but also increases the rice yield by 0.76-2.43% compared to CF. Moreover, compared to RWS system, RF, RWB and RGM systems significantly reduced CH4 emission by 50.17%, 44.89% and 39.51%, respectively, while increased N2O emission by 10.58%, 14.60% and 23.90%, respectively. And RWS system had the highest GWP. These findings suggest that mitigating GWP and improving rice yield could be simultaneously achieved by the IRDF, and employing suitable PUR would benefit for relieving greenhouse effect. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Genome-wide analysis of Dongxiang wild rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff.) to investigate lost/acquired genes during rice domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fantao; Xu, Tao; Mao, Linyong; Yan, Shuangyong; Chen, Xiwen; Wu, Zhenfeng; Chen, Rui; Luo, Xiangdong; Xie, Jiankun; Gao, Shan

    2016-04-26

    It is widely accepted that cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.) was domesticated from common wild rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff.). Compared to other studies which concentrate on rice origin, this study is to genetically elucidate the substantially phenotypic and physiological changes from wild rice to cultivated rice at the whole genome level. Instead of comparing two assembled genomes, this study directly compared the Dongxiang wild rice (DXWR) Illumina sequencing reads with the Nipponbare (O. sativa) complete genome without assembly of the DXWR genome. Based on the results from the comparative genomics analysis, structural variations (SVs) between DXWR and Nipponbare were determined to locate deleted genes which could have been acquired by Nipponbare during rice domestication. To overcome the limit of the SV detection, the DXWR transcriptome was also sequenced and compared with the Nipponbare transcriptome to discover the genes which could have been lost in DXWR during domestication. Both 1591 Nipponbare-acquired genes and 206 DXWR-lost transcripts were further analyzed using annotations from multiple sources. The NGS data are available in the NCBI SRA database with ID SRP070627. These results help better understanding the domestication from wild rice to cultivated rice at the whole genome level and provide a genomic data resource for rice genetic research or breeding. One finding confirmed transposable elements contribute greatly to the genome evolution from wild rice to cultivated rice. Another finding suggested the photophosphorylation and oxidative phosphorylation system in cultivated rice could have adapted to environmental changes simultaneously during domestication.

  18. Evaluating Welfare Effects of Rice Import Quota in Japan: Based on Measuring Non-Tariff Barriers of SBS Rice Imports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianhui Gao

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The principal objective of this study is to analyze welfare effects of Japan’s rice import quota focusing on the simultaneous buy and sell (SBS of the rice importation minimum access (MA policy. Based on the utility function specified in this study, the constructed model is adopted to measure consumption patterns through estimating elasticity of substitution between imported rice and Japan’s domestic rice, and consumers’ preference parameters for different kinds of rice. The results showed that Japanese households prefer domestic rice to the imported rice. Besides, three scenarios of adjusting rice quota volumes were carried out to examine the changes in consumer prices of imported rice and Japanese consumers’ welfares. The results revealed that tariff equivalents of the SBS import quota almost doubled the scale of the mark-up, and the intervention by the Ministry of Agriculture of Japan did cause non-tariff barriers to trade (NTBs. Finally, if the SBS rice quota quantity was fixed at or larger than 180 thousand tons every fiscal year, the consumer prices of imported rice in Japan’s market would decrease to be less than the prices of Japan’s domestic rice, and therefore the imported rice would have more price advantages in this scenario.

  19. Decreasing Rice Supply as the Impact Of The Government’s Policy on Rice Grain Purchasing Price

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Retno Lantarsih

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed at examining: (1 rice supply adjustment for the long-term equilibrium (2 the impact of the government’s policies on rice grain purchasing price to the rice supply, (3 and factors influencing the long-term and short-term rice supply in the rice-producing regions in Indonesia. This research used the panel data regression with the error correction model approach. The data were the yearly time series data of 1987 through 2008. The results showed that (1 the rice supply adjustment for the long-term equilibrium was at 68%, (2 in the long term, the government’s policies on rice grain purchasing price reduced the rice supply, (3 in the long term, the rice retail price, the rain fall, and the technology had a positive influence on the rice supply, while the cassava and soybean prices had a negative influence. In the short term, the rice retail price and technology had a positive influence, while the cassava and soybean prices and the monetary crisis dummy had a negative influence to the rice supply in the rice-producing regions in Indonesia.

  20. Mutant Resources for the Functional Analysis of the Rice Genome

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nili Wang Tuan Long Wen Yao Lizhong Xiong Qifa Zhang Changyin Wu

    2013-01-01

    .... In order to systematically assign functions to all predicted genes in the rice genome, a large number of rice mutant lines, including those created by T-DNA insertion, Ds/dSpm tagging, Tos17 tagging...

  1. Analysis of Energy Characteristics of Rice and Coffee Husks Blends

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cuthbert F. Mhilu

    2014-01-01

    .... This paper reports work done to determine energy characteristics of rice and coffee husks. The results show that coffee husks have better energy quality than rice husks, while heating values of coffee are 18.34 MJ/kg...

  2. Phylogenetic diversity and relationships among 40 rice accessions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    , there is the need to diversify the genetic base of improved rice varieties, and the first step towards this is to evaluate and characterise available rice germplasm or genotypes at both the morphological and molecular levels. This is because the.

  3. Why Is Golden Rice Golden (Yellow) Instead of Red?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Patrick Schaub; Salim Al-Babili; Rachel Drake; Peter Beyer

    2005-01-01

    The endosperm of Golden Rice (Oryza sativa) is yellow due to the accumulation of β-carotene (provitamin A) and xanthophylls. The product of the two carotenoid biosynthesis transgenes used in Golden Rice, phytoene synthase...

  4. Fisheries Management Plan: Rice Lake National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Rice Lake National Wildlife Refuge provides a sport fishery on three of the four refuge lakes. Fishing is restricted to designated areas. Rice Lake, though not open...

  5. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES OF RICE PROTEIN CONCENTRATES

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    V. V. Kolpakova; D. N. Lukin; L. V. Chumikina; L. V. Shevyakova

    2015-01-01

    .... The task of this study was a comparative research of nutrition and biological value and functional properties of protein and protein-calcium concentrates produced from rice flour milled from white and brown rice...

  6. 7 CFR 457.141 - Rice crop insurance provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... (Appropriate title for insurance provider) Both FCIC and Reinsured Policies Rice Crop Provisions If a conflict... Standards for Rice including, but not limited to, protein and oil content or milling quality will not be...

  7. THE BENTHIC COMMUNITIES COMPARISON BETWEEN ORGANIC AND CONVENTIONAL RICE FIELDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasamesiri, P; Thaimuangphol, W

    2015-01-01

    Rice fields are temporary wetlands prone to contamination from agricultural chemicals which affect their ecotoxicology and benthic community composition. The diversity of benthic fauna in both organic and conventional rice fields in Kalasin Province, Thailand was investigated. Benthos samples were collected by grab sampling from 20 stations in organic and conventional rice fields during one successive crop in August 2014. The number of benthic organisms found at each sampling station ranged from 16-518 and 24-137 individuals for organic and conventional rice fields, respectively. The benthic fauna in organic rice fields were dominated by crustaceans 41%, insects 31%, annelids 26%, and gastropods 2%. The conventional rice fields benthic fauna was composed of insects 51%, annelids 41%, and gastropods 8%. The abundance and composition of the benthic fauna demonstrated that organic rice farming practices are beneficial to sustaining the biodiversity in rice field ecosystems.

  8. Simulating rice yields under climate change scenarios using the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    %. Simulations demonstrate that the effects of planting dates cannot be overlooked in finding measures to increase rice yield under climate change mitigations. The effects of climate change on rice yield of will depend on the actual patterns of ...

  9. Comparative Economic Analysis of Rice Production by Adopters and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    adopters of improved rice varieties among farmers in Paikoro Local Area of Niger State. Primary data were collected using a structured questionnaire administered to 90 respondents, which consist of 45 adopters of improved rice variety and 45 ...

  10. Assessment of protection and comparative advantage in rice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    added rice as well as analyze the comparative advantage and competitiveness of rice processing in Nigeria. The extent of policy distortion and agricultural protection was also determined by the study. The data were collected from Ebonyi State, ...

  11. Rice Genome Research: Current Status and Future Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Han

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Rice ( L. is the leading genomics system among the crop plants. The sequence of the rice genome, the first cereal plant genome, was published in 2005. This review summarizes progress made in rice genome annotations, comparative genomics, and functional genomics researches. It also maps out the status of rice genomics globally and provides a vision of future research directions and resource building.

  12. HEAVY METAL LEVELS IN PADDY SOILS AND RICE (ORYZA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mgina

    metals in O. sativa grains harvested locally as well as to set the baseline levels of some heavy ... Machiwa – Heavy Metal Levels in Paddy Soils and Rice … .... where 0.5 g of dried soil or rice (polished rice and paddy rice) samples were weighed in 50 ml volumetric flasks. De-ionized water. (1 ml) was added, the flasks were ...

  13. Genetic improvement of rice for biotic and abiotic stress tolerance

    OpenAIRE

    ANSARI, MAHMOOD UR RAHMAN; Shaheen, Tayyaba; BUKHARI, SHAZAI; Husnain, Tayyab

    2015-01-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is among the most important food crops that provide a staple food for nearly half of the world's population. Rice crops are prone to various types of stresses, both biotic and abiotic. Biotic stresses include insect pests, fungus, bacteria, viruses, and herbicide toxicity. Among abiotic stresses, drought, cold, and salinity are also well studied in rice. Various genes have been identified, cloned, and characterized to combat these stresses and protect rice crop...

  14. Development and evaluation of an isolated limb infusion model for investigation of drug delivery kinetics to solid tumors by thermosensitive liposomes and hyperthermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokerse, Wouter J M; Eggermont, Alexander M M; Grüll, Holger; Koning, Gerben A

    2017-12-18

    The combined administration of thermosensitive liposomes (TSLs) and hyperthermia (HT) has been increasingly shown to be a powerful tool for the treatment of solid tumors. At present, it is hypothesized that the circulation of TSLs through the vasculature of a heated tumor results in the rapid release of the entrapped drug, followed by its uptake and distribution within the tumor microenvironment. However, simple questions on the transport kinetics of TSLs through the heated tumor and how much drug is retained upon passage of TSLs through the tumor microcirculation have not been investigated in an experimental setting to-date. The present work describes a novel methodology for investigating these parameters by isolated limb infusion (ILI), developed in a rat model of sarcoma. This approach was used to assess the efficacy of Doxorubicin (Dox) delivery by TSL in a heated (42°C) tumor following a single passage of TSL through the tumor vasculature. Analysis of the effluent post-ILI, whole-tumor histological sections, and tissue homogenates revealed that upon a single passage, Dox delivery by TSL at 42°C did not exceed delivery under conventional (i.e. free Dox) or physiological (i.e. TSL at 37°C, or normothermia; NT) conditions. In fact, mathematical modeling demonstrated that at least thirteen passages are required to obtain the intratumoral Dox levels typically achieved using TSL (i.e. ~5%ID/g). Overall, this work investigates TSL-based determinants for achieving efficacious drug delivery using a model of ILI in tumor-bearing rats and the results bear important implications for TSL disposition in vivo. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. UCST-like hybrid PAAm-AA/Fe3O4 microgels. Effect of Fe3O4 nanoparticles on morphology, thermosensitivity and elasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echeverria, Coro; Mijangos, Carmen

    2011-07-05

    The incorporation of metal oxide nanoparticles into microgels forming hybrid systems gives additional functionalities to the system and widens the field of potential application in biomedicine, biotechnology, and other fields. In particular, there have been very few investigations regarding UCST-like hybrid microgels. In connection with this, we report the preparation of UCST-like hybrid microgels of magnetite nanoparticles (Fe(3)O(4)) encapsulated in poly(acrylamide-acrylic acid) microgel matrix via an inverse emulsion polymerization method. The key factor in the preparation of hybrid microgels is the need to divide in two the aqueous phase of the emulsion and feed them separately in order to avoid the aggregation of magnetic nanoparticles prior to polymerization reaction. The morphology, size, and spherical shape of hybrid microgels are determined by scanning electron microscopy. The encapsulation of magnetite nanoparticles within the polymer matrix is confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. Dynamic light scattering is employed to study both the swelling UCST-like behavior and the surface charge of the hybrid microgels. Swelling measurements confirm that the incorporation of magnetite does not affect the thermosensitivity of the system. In order to highlight the rheological behavior that can affect the final potential applications of these hybrid systems, a deep study of the viscoelastic properties is carried out by means of an oscillatory rheometer. The dependence of G' and G'' of the microgel dispersions with the frequency suggests a gel-like behavior and hence the occurrence of structural organization. In order to understand this structure formation and the influence of the magnetite in the interaction between hybrid microgels, scaling theory was applied. In terms of rheology, the addition of magnetite leads to a change in the interaction between hybrid microgels giving rise to an increase in the elasticity of the system. © 2011 American Chemical

  16. The politics of Golden Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubock, Adrian

    2014-07-03

    Genetic knowledge applicable to crop improvement has erupted over the past 60 years, and the techniques of introducing genes from one organism to another have enabled new varieties of crops not achievable by previously available methodologies of crop breeding. Research and particularly development of these GMO-crops to a point where they are useful for growers and consumers in most countries is subject to complex national and international rules arising out of the UN's Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety to the Convention on Biological Diversity, with 167 country signatories. (The USA and Canada are not signatories.) The Protocol was developed based on concerns initially expressed in the 1970's that such technology presented unusual risks to man and the environment. Those ideas have comprehensively and authoritatively been proven to be wrong. The Protocol has nevertheless spawned significant regulatory obstacles to the development of GMO-crop technology at great cost to global society and in conflict with many other UN objectives. The suspicion induced by the Protocol is also widely used, overtly or covertly, for political purposes. These points are illustrated by reference to the not-for-profit Golden Rice project.

  17. Effect of germination on the physicochemical and antioxidant characteristics of rice flour from three rice varieties from Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinma, Chiemela Enyinnaya; Anuonye, Julian Chukwuemeka; Simon, Omotade Comfort; Ohiare, Raliat Ozavize; Danbaba, Nahemiah

    2015-10-15

    This study determined the effect of germination (48 h) on the physicochemical and antioxidant characteristics of rice flour from three rice varieties from Nigeria. Local rice varieties (Jamila, Jeep and Kwandala) were evaluated and compared to an improved variety (MR 219). Physicochemical and antioxidant properties of flours were determined using standard methods. Protein, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium and antioxidant properties of rice flours increased after germination while phytic acid and total starch contents decreased. Foaming capacity and stability of rice flours increased after germination. Germination resulted to changes in pasting and thermal characteristics of rice flours. Germinated rice flours had better physicochemical and antioxidant properties with reduced phytic acid and starch contents compared to MR 219, which can be utilized as functional ingredients in the preparation of rice-based products. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Persistence and metabolism of imidacloprid in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akoijam, Romila; Singh, Balwinder

    2014-05-01

    Imidacloprid is a systemic insecticide which gives effective control of plant and leaf hoppers in rice. The persistence and metabolism of imidacloprid in paddy leaves, rice grains, bran, straw and husk were studied following two applications of imidacloprid (Confidor 17.8 SL) @ 20 and 80 g a.i. ha(-1) at an interval of 10 days. Samples of paddy leaves were collected at various time intervals. The samples of rice grains, bran, straw and husk were collected at the time of harvest. The limit of quantification of imidacloprid and its metabolites was worked out to be 0.01 mg kg(-1). The maximum residues of imidacloprid and its metabolites in paddy leaves after 0 day (1 h after last spray) of its application @ 20 and 80 g a.i. ha(-1) were found to be 4.57 and 13.94 mg kg(-1), respectively. These residues could not be detected after 60 and 90 days following last application of imidacloprid at lower and higher dosages, respectively. In rice, olefin metabolite was found to be the main constituent, followed by nitroguanidine, urea, 5-hydroxy, chloronicotinic acid and nitrosimine. The samples of rice grains, bran, straw and husk did not reveal the presence of imidacloprid or its metabolites following its application at both the dosages at harvest.

  19. Making Rice Production More Environmentally-Friendly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman Uphoff

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Irrigated rice production is one of the most essential agricultural activities for sustaining our global population, and at the same time, one of the agricultural sectors considered most eco-unfriendly. This is because it consumes a larger share of available freshwater resources, competing with varied ecosystems as well as other economic sectors; its paddy fields are responsible for significant emission of greenhouse gases; and the reliance on chemical fertilizers and various agrochemicals contributes to pollution of soils and water systems. These stresses on soils, hydrology and atmosphere are actually not necessary for rice production, which can be increased by modifying agronomic practices though more agroecologically-sound management practices. These, combined under the rubric of the System of Rice Intensification (SRI, can reduce requirements of irrigation water, chemical fertilizer and agrochemicals while increasing paddy yields and farmer’s net incomes. Here we discuss how irrigated rice production can be made more eco-friendly for the benefit of farmers, consumers and the environment. This is achieved by introducing practices that improve the growth and functioning of rice plants’ root systems and enhance the abundance, diversity and activity of beneficial soil organisms that live around plant roots and within the plants themselves as symbiotic endophytes.

  20. The gymnastics of epigenomics in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Aditya; Roychoudhury, Aryadeep

    2017-09-02

    Epigenomics is represented by the high-throughput investigations of genome-wide epigenetic alterations, which ultimately dictate genomic, transcriptomic, proteomic and metabolomic dynamism. Rice has been accepted as the global staple crop. As a result, this model crop deserves significant importance in the rapidly emerging field of plant epigenomics. A large number of recently available data reveal the immense flexibility and potential of variable epigenomic landscapes. Such epigenomic impacts and variability are determined by a number of epigenetic regulators and several crucial inheritable epialleles, respectively. This article highlights the correlation of the epigenomic landscape with growth, flowering, reproduction, non-coding RNA-mediated post-transcriptional regulation, transposon mobility and even heterosis in rice. We have also discussed the drastic epigenetic alterations which are reported in rice plants grown from seeds exposed to the extraterrestrial environment. Such abiotic conditions impose stress on the plants leading to epigenomic modifications in a genotype-specific manner. Some significant bioinformatic databases and in silico approaches have also been explained in this article. These softwares provide important interfaces for comparative epigenomics. The discussion concludes with a unified goal of developing epigenome editing to promote biological hacking of the rice epigenome. Such a cutting-edge technology if properly standardized, can integrate genomics and epigenomics together with the generation of high-yielding trait in several cultivars of rice.

  1. A feasibility study on identification of Basmati (aromatic) rice using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    basis of characterization of rice crop into two different varieties namely aromatic and non-aromatic. Multitemporal HH polarization data along with rate of change of cross polarization ratio (HH/HV) from. July to September 2011 was used. The aromatic rice could be separated from normal rice with 91% accuracy. 1.

  2. Feasiblity of collecting naturally leached rice straw for thermal conversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, R.R.; Jenkins, B.M.

    2003-01-01

    The practical application of field or natural leaching to rice straw was evaluated with the goal of improving biomass fuel value. Observations on three rice farms in the Sacramento Valley, California indicated that potassium, chlorine and total ash are leached from rice straw by rainfall regardless

  3. Genomic diversity among Basmati rice ( Oryza sativa L) mutants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genomic diversity among Basmati rice ( Oryza sativa L) mutants obtained through 60 Co gamma radiations using AFLP markers. ... In order to obtain new varieties of rice with improved agronomic and grain characteristics, gamma radiation (60Co) has been used to generate novel mutants of the Basmati rice. In this study ...

  4. Land Evaluation for improved Rice Production in Watari Irrigation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed at raising irrigated rice production in Watari Irrigation scheme, in Kano state, as to bridge the gap between the demand for rice and its supply. The food and Agricultural Organization FAO, (1985) frame work for land evaluation for irrigated rice production was employed, and the soil map of the study area has ...

  5. Agromorphological characterization of some rice species in the main ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rice is the basic cereal of the populations of the areas of Tandjilé and Western Mayo Kebbi, in the south of Chad. The rice productivity is, however, low: less than 1 t/ha. This is related to several factors, of which the strong infestation of rice plantation into adventitious and lack of improved varieties with high productivity.

  6. Quality characteristics of rice inoculated with Inonotus obliquus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    latif

    2013-08-14

    Aug 14, 2013 ... This study was performed to investigate the quality characteristics of Inonotus obliquus mycelia rice incubated with I. obliquus (KCTC 256152). Different volumes of mycelial culture of I. obliquus were used for production of I. obliquus mycelia rice. Twenty percent of the mycelial culture was added to rice and.

  7. Genetic analysis of Resistance to Rice Bacterial blight in Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rice bacterial blight (Xanthomonas oryzae pv.oryzae) is a major constraint to rice (Oryza sativa L.) production in Uganda and as part of strategies to develop resistant cultivars, it is important to evaluate resistance of commonly used cultivars. A full-diallel mating design involving three resistant and three susceptible rice ...

  8. Physiology and productivity of rice crop influenced by drought stress ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rice is sensitive to moisture stress and in view of the water scarcity in the coming years, it is imperative to evaluate the performance of rice cultivar under moisture deficit. The present study aimed to evaluate the physiological responses of two rice cultivars under drought stress induced at panicle initiation and soft dough ...

  9. Perceived Factors Limiting Rice Production in Patigi Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the perceived factors limiting rice production in five selected villages in Patigi Local Government Area of Kwara State, Nigeria. The study area was purposively selected based on their known potentials for rice production. One Hundred and Ten (110) rice farmers were selected for the study.

  10. Developing technology options for rice integrated crop management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    Developing technology options for rice integrated crop management in the. Sahel Zone of West Africa: Case of irrigated rice production the Senegal River. Valley. M. Kebbeh, K. Miezan and M. Camara1. Production Economist, Breeder and Visiting Scientist in Agronomy at The Africa Rice Center (WARDA). Address: BP 96 ...

  11. Genetic diversity in grain quality and nutrition of aromatic rices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted at Bangladesh Rice Research Institute (BRRI), Gazipur in 2005 to assess the genetic divergence of aromatic rices for grain quality and nutrition aspects. Forty genotypes composed of 32 local aromatic, five exotic aromatic and three non-aromatic rice varieties were used. Univariate and multivariate ...

  12. Utilization of Rice Offal in Practical Ration of Broilers. | Maikano ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... two (finisher phase), broilers were fed with the finisher diets from 5-8 weeks and tolerated 15% rice offal inclusion in their diets with significant growth. In all experiments there was increase in feed intake as the level of rice offal increased. Keywords: Rice offal, chicken diets, starter phase, finisher phase. The Zoologist Vol.

  13. Ghanaian Consumers' Attitudes toward Cisgenic Rice: Are all ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Employing an interval regression on the survey data showed that consumers were willing to pay a premium for environmentally beneficial rice and a discount for GM and cisgenic rice. In addition, a Likert scale and simple t test was used to show that respondents had a less negative attitude towards cisgenic rice relative to ...

  14. Dietary effect of rice milling waste and supplementary enzyme on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2013-08-21

    Aug 21, 2013 ... to low level of animal protein production and high cost of animal products and suggested the intensification of ... hulls or husk, rice bran and bravery's rice. Rice husks, the major part of RMW contains ..... cereals and vegetable proteins, thereby decreasing gut viscosity, and thus improve nutrient absorption.

  15. Perceived factors limiting rice production in Pategi Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    ABSTRACT. The study examined the perceived factors limiting rice production in five selected villages in Patigi Local Government Area of Kwara State, Nigeria. The study area was purposively selected based on their known potentials for rice production. One Hundred and Ten (110) rice farmers were selected for the study.

  16. Genetic analysis of some Egyptian rice genotypes using RAPD, SSR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    nformation of genetic similarities and diversity among superior Egyptian rice genotypes is necessary for future rice breeding programs and derivation of plant lines. Genetic variability and relationships among seven Egyptian rice genotypes namely Giza 178, Giza177, Giza 175, Giza171 Giza 172, Sakha 102, and Sakha 101 ...

  17. Storage behaviour of two contrasting upland rice genotypes | Bam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated complaints by upland rice farmers in Ghana that their local rice cultivar "Kawomo" (Oryza glaberrima) stored better than an improved upland rice cultivar, IDSA 85 (Oryza sativa subsp. japonica), tested and selected in a Participatory Varietal Selection programme. One seed lot of "Kawomo" and two ...

  18. Genetic diversity in grain quality and nutrition of aromatic rices

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-04-06

    Apr 6, 2009 ... Genetic divergence in scented and fine genotypes of rice (Oryza sativa L). Ann. Agric. Res. 17(2):. 163-166. Singh RK, Gautam PL, Sanjeev S, Singh S (2000). Scented rice germplasm: Consevation, evaluation and utilization. p. 107-133 In: Aromatic rices. Ed: Singh RK, Singh US, Khush GS. Oxford and IBH.

  19. Rice methylmercury exposure and mitigation: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothenberg, Sarah E; Windham-Myers, Lisamarie; Creswell, Joel E

    2014-08-01

    Rice cultivation practices from field preparation to post-harvest transform rice paddies into hot spots for microbial mercury methylation, converting less-toxic inorganic mercury to more-toxic methylmercury, which is likely translocated to rice grain. This review includes 51 studies reporting rice total mercury and/or methylmercury concentrations, based on rice (Orzya sativa) cultivated or purchased in 15 countries. Not surprisingly, both rice total mercury and methylmercury levels were significantly higher in polluted sites compared to non-polluted sites (Wilcoxon rank sum, p<0.001). However, rice percent methylmercury (of total mercury) did not differ statistically between polluted and non-polluted sites (Wilcoxon rank sum, p=0.35), suggesting comparable mercury methylation rates in paddy soil across these sites and/or similar accumulation of mercury species for these rice cultivars. Studies characterizing the effects of rice cultivation under more aerobic conditions were reviewed to determine the mitigation potential of this practice. Rice management practices utilizing alternating wetting and drying (instead of continuous flooding) caused soil methylmercury levels to spike, resulting in a strong methylmercury pulse after fields were dried and reflooded; however, it is uncertain whether this led to increased translocation of methylmercury from paddy soil to rice grain. Due to the potential health risks, it is advisable to investigate this issue further, and to develop separate water management strategies for mercury polluted and non-polluted sites, in order to minimize methylmercury exposure through rice ingestion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Enhancing Performance of Farmers' Cooperative in Rice Innovation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The state has witnessed proliferation of farmers' cooperative; and while new ones are emerging in their numbers, some old ones are becoming less functional and others going into extinct The study examined factors for enhancing performance of rice farmers' cooperative in rice innovation system. Seventy members of rice ...

  1. Efficiency in rice production : evidence from gogounou district in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These different results suggest that the role that must be played project agents to improve management skills of rice producers throughout their visit and training is important. Finally, it's necessary to promote a wideness of rice growing areas for a real rice production development and a sustainable food security in Benin.

  2. Rice value chain analysis in Tanzania: identification of constraints ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The importance of rice (Oryza sativa L.) as a food and cash crop in Eastern Africa, is increasing, but its value chain is becoming complex. In 2012/13, rice value chain analysis was conducted in rice farming systems of Lake, Eastern and Southern-Highlands zones of Tanzania. A sample of 240 producers, 60 traders and 30 ...

  3. Effects of Aqueous Extract of Unpolished Dark Purple Glutinous Rice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These data suggest that LP antagonizes the effect of scopolamine on memory. Conclusion: LP extract has anti-oxidative and memory-enhancing effects in cell culture and mice. The rice may be a nutraceutical helpful for promoting brain health. Keywords: Dark purple rice, Leum Pua rice, Reactive oxygen species, Memory, ...

  4. Upland rice yield as affected by Brachiaria coverage management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano S. Nascente

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An important point in no-tillage system is the time between cover crop glyphosate desiccation and rice sowing. This study aimed to verify the effect of Brachiaria ruziziensis management time before rice sowing on rice yield and its components. The experiment was conducted under greenhouse conditions and consisted of four types of B. ruziziensis management: with Brachiaria and with herbicide (WBWH, without Brachiaria shoots and with herbicide (NBWH, without Brachiaria shoots and without herbicide (NBNH, and with Brachiaria and without herbicide (WBNH, at four times: 30, 20, 10, and 0 days, preceding the rice sowing. The amount of B. ruziziensis dry matter increased as the management was done closer to the rice sowing date. The WBWH and WBNH managements (this one causes the lowest rice grain yield must be done 30 days before rice sowing; while NBWH management must be done ten or more days before rice sowing. On the other hand, NBNH management (this one favors the best rice grain yield can be done until rice sowing day. Despite some reduction in rice yield caused by the B. ruziziensis management, when it was done at the proper time the rice grain yield was similar to the control (without Brachiaria sowing and without herbicide application.

  5. physico-chemical and grain cooking characteristics of selected rice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mgina

    Antarctica, extending from 50º North to. South Latitude. Rice is an important crop in Tanzania, with. 60% of the population eating rice. Annual per capital consumption has risen from less than 15 kg in the 1970s (IRRI 2006) to more than 35-40 kg in 2005. Annual rice production in Tanzania decreased from. 782,300 MT 2000 ...

  6. Preferences of Ugandan consumers for rice varieties and brands on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The demand for rice Oryza sativa in Uganda has exceeded local supply resulting into importation of several other rice varieties and brands to meet the deficit. Lack of information on consumer preferences hinders decision-making to invest in the rice sub sector. This study seeks to provide information on consumer ...

  7. influence of addition of rice husk ash on porcelain composition

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. Rice husk ash (RHA) has long been known to possess high silica content. The abundance of rice husk as agricultural waste makes it the most promising to be used as a supplementary cementations and ceramic material. In this study RHA was used as an additive material on porcelain body. The rice husk was ...

  8. Influence of Addition of Rice Husk Ash on Porcelain Composition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rice husk ash (RHA) has long been known to possess high silica content. The abundance of rice husk as agricultural waste makes it the most promising to be used as a supplementary cementations and ceramic material. In this study RHA was used as an additive material on porcelain body. The rice husk was subjected to ...

  9. Golden Rice is an effective source of vitamin A1234

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Guangwen; QIN, Jian; Dolnikowski, Gregory G.; Russell, Robert M.; Grusak, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Genetically engineered “Golden Rice” contains up to 35 μg β-carotene per gram of rice. It is important to determine the vitamin A equivalency of Golden Rice β-carotene to project the potential effect of this biofortified grain in rice-consuming populations that commonly exhibit low vitamin A status.

  10. Technical efficiency of upland and lowland rice production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper examined the efficiency of upland and lowland rice production systems in a prominent rice producing State (Niger State) in Nigeria using descriptive statistics, stochastic production frontier model as well as inefficiency model. The data used were generated from a farm survey involving 240 rice farmers' randomly ...

  11. Yield differentials among participating and non-participating rice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The shortfall in domestic rice production in Nigeria has been attributed to inadequate provision of productivity-enhancing agricultural support services to rice farmers. Input supply and guaranteed market that entrenched the shortfall are the focus of the Public-Private Partnership (PPP) arrangement in rice production.

  12. Global Rice Atlas: Disaggregated seasonal crop calendar and production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balanza, Jane Girly; Gutierrez, Mary Anne; Villano, Lorena; Nelson, A.D.; Zwart, S.J.; Boschetti, Mirco; Koo, Jawoo; Reinke, Russell; Murty, M. V.R.; Laborte, Alice G.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Rice is an important staple crop cultivated in more than 163 million ha globally. Although information on the distribution of global rice production is available by country and, at times, at subnational level, information on its distribution within a year is often lacking in different rice

  13. Fluoride levels in commercially available rice in Ethiopia | Tegegne ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alkaline fusion was used for sample preparation of six varieties for both the raw rice and rice cooked with tap water and fluoridated water. Fluoride levels ... A statistical analysis of variance at 95% confidence level for fluoride determination indicated significant difference between the mean of each variety of rice samples.

  14. Physicochemical properties of germinated brown rice ( Oryza sativa L.)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physicochemical properties of white rice (WR), brown rice (BR) and germinated brown rice (GBR) starches from a mixed variety of MR219 and MR220, commonly consumed Malaysian varieties, were compared in this study. The granular size of the starch particles, measured using scanning electron microscope (SEM), ...

  15. Determinants of rice output among ADP contact farmers in mining ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study analyzed factors affecting rice output among Agricultural Development Programme (ADP) contact farmers in the mining and non mining locations of IVO LGA of Ebonyi State, Nigeria. Multistage random sampling technique was used to select agricultural circles and rice farmers. The sample size was 120 rice ...

  16. Scaling up Intermittent Rice Irrigation for Malaria Control on the ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Scaling up Intermittent Rice Irrigation for Malaria Control on the North Coast of Peru. New research aims to help control malaria in one watershed in northern Peru. Malaria is widespread in Peru's arid North Coast because of the extensive irrigation required to support rice paddies. Rice growing in the region accounts for ...

  17. Developing selection protocols for weed competitiveness in aerobic rice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, D.L.; Atlin, G.N.; Bastiaans, L.; Spiertz, J.H.J.

    2006-01-01

    Aerobic rice production systems, wherein rice is dry-sown in non-puddled soil and grown as an upland crop, offer large water savings but are subject to severe weed infestation. Weed-competitive cultivars will be critical to the adoption of aerobic rice production by farmers. Breeding

  18. Soil Management Methods under Rice Cultivation in Ndokwa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examines the soil management methods under rice cultivation in. Ndokwa grassland soils with the aim of determining the most effective soil management measures for rice cultivation. Soil samples were collected at three locations where rice is presently cultivated in the area. Five plots of 20m x 20m were ...

  19. Biosorption studies on copper (II) and cadmium (II) using pretreated rice straw and rice husk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W C; Law, F Y; Chan, Y H M

    2017-04-01

    This study investigated the adsorption and removal behaviour of copper (Cu) (II) and cadmium (Cd) (II) ions using rice husk and rice straw in aqueous solutions. Different parameters were used to investigate their adsorption performance in saline conditions and the optimal level of biosorption at different pH levels. The main parameters were pH (3, 6 and 9), initial concentration level of heavy metals (Cu (II) 5, 10, 20, 40 and 60 mg/L and Cd (II) 0.5, 1, 2, 4 and 8 mg/L, respectively), salinity (0, 50 and 100 mM NaCl) and contact time (ranging from 3 to 60 min). Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models were applied to analyse the removal efficiency and sorption capacity of the pretreated rice husk and rice straw. The removal efficiency and adsorption capacity generally increased with the pH and reached a plateau in alkaline conditions. The percentage removal of Cu (II) by rice husk reached 97 % at pH 9 and 95 % by rice straw at pH 6. Biosorption performance increased in the absence of NaCl. Kinetic studies for both metals revealed that the biosorption of Cu (II) and Cd (II) onto rice straw and husk was pseudo-second order.

  20. Manually Curated Database of Rice Proteins (MCDRP, a database of digitized experimental data on rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Raghuvanshi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available MCDRP or ‘Manually Curated Database of Rice Proteins’ is a database of digitized experimental datasets on rice proteins. Every aspect of the experimental data published in peer-reviewed research articles on rice biology has been digitized with the help of novel data curation models. These models use a semantic and structured arrangement of alpha-numeric notation, including several well known ontologies, to represent various aspect of the data. As a result data from more than 15,000 different experiments pertaining to about 2400 rice proteins has been digitized from over 540 published and peer-reviewed research articles. The database portal provides access to the digitized experimental data via search or browse functions. In essence, one can instantly access data from even a single data-point from a collection of thousands of the experimental datasets. On the other hand, one can easily access the digitized experimental data from multiple research articles on a rice protein. Based on the analysis and integration of the digitized experimental data, more than 800 different traits (molecular, biochemical or phenotypic have been precisely mapped onto the rice proteins along with the underlying experimental evidences. Similarly, over 4370 associations, based on experimental evidence, have been established between the rice proteins and various gene ontology terms. The database is being continuously updated and is freely available at www.genomeindia.org.in/biocuration.

  1. [Effect of ridge & terraced ecological rice farming on rice photosynthetic characteristics and yield].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hua-Bin; Liu, Jian-Xia; Yao, Lin; He, Hui; Huang, Huang

    2014-09-01

    Taking super hybrid rice Y-liangyou 1, and hybrid rice Xianyou 63 and conventional rice Huanghuazhan as test materials, a field experiment was conducted in Changsha City of Hunan Province in 2011 and 2012 to investigate the effects of ridge & terraced ecological rice farming (RT) and bed ecological rice farming (B) on rice grain yield and photosynthetic characteristics. Compared with conventional rice farming (CK) , yield of Y-liangyou 1 in the RT was increased significantly by 28.7%, the effective panicles per unit area and spikelets per panicle were increased by 16.1% and 6.8%, respectively. Yields of Xianyou 63 and Huanghuazhan in the RT and B were 24.3% and 19.7%, 12.0% and 16.2% higher than those of CK, respectively. Leaf area index, dry matter accumulation before and after full-heading, total dry matter accumulation of Y-liangyou 1 in the RT was higher than that of CK. Number of spikelets/leaf area, number of filled grains/leaf area, grain mass/leaf area of Y-liangyou 1 in the RT were 8.1%, 14.8% and 15.8% higher than those of CK, respectively, the photosynthetic potential was increased by 32.2% while the net assimilation rate was declined by 9.3%.

  2. Specific Effects of Carbofuran on Rice Agrosystem in Yogyakarta Plant Growth and Rice Stem Borer Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eddy Mahrub

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of carbofuran in controlling lowland rice stem borers in traditional farming systems was studied by looking at its impact on the whole rice agroecosystem. Levels of infestation, rice yield, damage to the plant, parasitism rates, and distribution of damage were compared after medium, high, and no (control dosages were applied to lowland rice fields near Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Although larvae were found to be more numerous in control plots, the damage attributable to them was not significantly different. Their spatial distribution, however, differed radically. The authors concluded that carbofuran might affect pest populations at two different levels: by discouraging or preventing rice stem borers from laying their eggs on rice, and by delaying or eliminating natural enemies attacks on rice stem borers. Both levels were determined by comparing the distribution of damage in treated fields with untreated fields. In the treated fields, distributions of larvae seemed to reflect initial grouping of eggs, producing a random distribution of groups, while in the control fields larvae were found in random distribution of individuals.

  3. Delivering golden rice to developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Jorge E

    2007-01-01

    Micronutrient deficiencies create a vicious circle of malnutrition, poverty, and economic dependency that we must strive to break. Golden Rice offers a sustainable solution to reduce the prevalence of vitamin A deficiency-related diseases and mortality, a problem that affects the health of millions of children in all developing countries. The technology is based on the reconstitution of the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway by addition of 2 transgenes. The outcome of this high-tech approach will be provided to end users as nutrient-dense rice varieties that are agronomically identical to their own, locally adapted varieties. This intervention has the potential to reach remote rural populations without access to fortification and supplementation programs. As part of our delivery strategy, we are partnering with government and nongovernment, national and international agricultural institutions to navigate through cumbersome and expensive regulatory regimes that affect the release of genetically modified crops, and to create local demand for the biofortified rice varieties.

  4. Evolutionary and social consequences of introgression of nontransgenic herbicide resistance from rice to weedy rice in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merotto, Aldo; Goulart, Ives C G R; Nunes, Anderson L; Kalsing, Augusto; Markus, Catarine; Menezes, Valmir G; Wander, Alcido E

    2016-08-01

    Several studies have expressed concerns about the effects of gene flow from transgenic herbicide-resistant crops to their wild relatives, but no major problems have been observed. This review describes a case study in which what has been feared in transgenics regarding gene flow has actually changed biodiversity and people's lives. Nontransgenic imidazolinone-resistant rice (IMI-rice) cultivars increased the rice grain yield by 50% in southern Brazil. This increase was beneficial for life quality of the farmers and also improved the regional economy. However, weedy rice resistant to imidazolinone herbicides started to evolve three years after the first use of IMI-rice cultivars. Population genetic studies indicate that the herbicide-resistant weedy rice was mainly originated from gene flow from resistant cultivars and distributed by seed migration. The problems related with herbicide-resistant weedy rice increased the production costs of rice that forced farmers to sell or rent their land. Gene flow from cultivated rice to weedy rice has proven to be a large agricultural, economic, and social constraint in the use of herbicide-resistant technologies in rice. This problem must be taken into account for the development of new transgenic or nontransgenic rice technologies.

  5. Recognition of Paddy, Brown Rice and White Rice Cultivars Based on Textural Features of Images and Artificial Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Golpour

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Identification of rice cultivars is very important in modern agriculture. Texture properties could be used to identify of rice cultivars among of the various factors. The digital images processing can be used as a new approach to extract texture features. The objective of this research was to identify rice cultivars using of texture features with using image processing and back propagation artificial neural networks. To identify rice cultivars, five rice cultivars Fajr, Shiroodi, Neda, Tarom mahalli and Khazar were selected. Finally, 108 textural features were extracted from rice images using gray level co-occurrence matrix. Then cultivar identification was carried out using Back Propagation Artificial Neural Network. After evaluation of the network with one hidden layer using texture features, the highest classification accuracy for paddy cultivars, brown rice and white rice were obtained 92.2%, 97.8% and 98.9%, respectively. After evaluation of the network with two hidden layers, the average accuracy for classification of paddy cultivars was obtained to be 96.67%, for brown rice it was 97.78% and for white rice the classification accuracy was 98.88%. The highest mean classification accuracy acquired for paddy cultivars with 45 features was achieved to be 98.9%, for brown rice cultivars with 11 selected features it was 93.3% and it was 96.7% with 18 selected features for rice cultivars.

  6. 76 FR 78021 - Notice of Availability of the Record of Decision for the Rice Solar Energy, LLC, Rice Solar...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-15

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Availability of the Record of Decision for the Rice Solar Energy, LLC, Rice Solar Energy Project (RSEP) and California Desert Conservation Area Plan Amendment, California...: Rice Solar Energy, LLC, a subsidiary of SolarReserve, LLC plans to construct a 150 megawatt (MW) solar...

  7. Genetic Variation and Association Mapping of Protein Concentration in Brown Rice Using a Diverse Rice Germplasm Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protein is the second most abundant constituent in the rice grain next to starch. Association analysis for protein concentration in brown rice was performed using a “Mini-Core” collection, which represents the germplasm diversity found in the USDA world rice collection. Protein concentration was det...

  8. Production of transgenic rice with agronomically useful genes: an assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, C C; Vijaya Laxmi, G

    2000-12-01

    Rice is the most important food crop in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Yield enhancement to increase rice production is one of the essential strategies to meet the demand for food of the growing population. Both abiotic and biotic features limit adversely the productivity of rice growing areas. Conventional breeding has been an effective means for developing high yielding varieties, however; it is associated with its own limitations. It is envisaged that recent trends in biotechnology can contribute to the agronomic improvement of rice in terms of yield and nutritional quality as a supplement to traditional breeding methods. Genetic transformation of rice has demonstrated numerous important opportunities resulting in the genetic improvement of existing elite rice varieties and production of new plant types. Significant advances have been made in the genetic engineering of rice since the first transgenic rice plant production in the late 1980s. Several gene transfer protocols have been employed successfully for the introduction of foreign genes to rice. In more than 60 rice cultivars belonging to indica, japonica, javanica, and elite African cultivars, the protocol has been standardized for transgenic rice production. Selection and use of appropriate promoters, selectable markers, and reporter genes has been helpful for development of efficient protocols for transgenic rice in a number of rice cultivars. The present review is an attempt to assess the current state of development in transgenic rice for the transfer of agronomically useful genes, emphasizing the application and future prospects of transgenic rice production for the genetic improvement of this food crop.

  9. Barnyard grass-induced rice allelopathy and momilactone B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato-Noguchi, Hisashi

    2011-07-01

    Here, we investigated chemical-mediated interaction between crop and weeds. Allelopathic activity of rice seedlings exhibited 5.3-6.3-fold increases when rice and barnyard grass seedlings were grown together, where there may be the competitive interference between rice and barnyard grass for nutrients. Barnyard grass is one of the most noxious weeds in rice cultivation. The momilactone B concentration in rice seedlings incubated with barnyard grass seedlings was 6.9-fold greater than that in rice seedlings incubated independently. Low nutrient growth conditions also increased allelopathic activity and momilactone B concentrations in rice seedlings. However, the increases in the low nutrient-induced allelopathic activity and momilactone B concentration were much lower than those in barnyard grass-induced allelopathic activity and momilactone B concentration. Root exudates of barnyard grass seedlings increased allelopathic activity and momilactone B concentration in rice seedlings at concentrations greater than 30 mg/L of the root exudates, and increasing the exudate concentration increased the activity and momilactone B concentration. Therefore, barnyard grass-induced allelopathic activity of rice seedlings may be caused not only by nutrient competition between two species, but also by components in barnyard grass root exudates. As momilactone B shows strong allelopathic activities, barnyard grass-induced allelopathic activity of rice may be due to the increased concentration of momilactone B in rice seedlings. The present research suggests that rice may respond to the presence of neighboring barnyard grass by sensing the components in barnyard grass root exudates and increasing allelopathic activity by production of elevated concentration of momilactone B. Thus, rice allelopathy may be one of the inducible defense mechanisms by chemical-mediated plant interaction between rice and barnyard grass, and the induced-allelopathy may provide a competitive advantage for

  10. Gene conversion in the rice genome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Shuqing; Clark, Terry; Zheng, Hongkun

    2008-01-01

    than ten percent. Pseudogenes in the rice genome with low similarity to Arabidopsis genes showed greater likelihood for gene conversion than those with high similarity to Arabidopsis genes. Functional annotations suggest that at least 14 multigene families related to disease or bacteria resistance were......BACKGROUND: Gene conversion causes a non-reciprocal transfer of genetic information between similar sequences. Gene conversion can both homogenize genes and recruit point mutations thereby shaping the evolution of multigene families. In the rice genome, the large number of duplicated genes......-chromosomal conversions distributed between chromosome 1 and 5, 2 and 6, and 3 and 5 are more frequent than genome average (Z-test, P

  11. Databases and bioinformatics tools for rice research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Garg

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Rice is one of the most important agricultural crop in the world and widely studied model plant. The completion of whole genome sequence of rice (Oryza sativa and high-throughput experimental platforms have led to the generation of the tremendous amount of data, and development of the specialized databases and bioinformatics tools for data processing, efficient organization, analysis, and visualization. In this article, we discuss a collection of biological databases that host genomics data on sequence, gene expression, genetic variation, gene-interactomes, and pathways, and facilitate data analysis and visualization.

  12. Drought Monitoring for Rice Production in Cambodia

    OpenAIRE

    Nyda Chhinh; Andrew Millington

    2015-01-01

    Rice production underpins the national economy and the most rural livelihoods in Cambodia, but it is negatively impacted by repeated droughts. The research reported on in this paper focuses on relationships between drought occurrences in Cambodia’s most drought-prone province (Kampong Speu) and (i) damage to the annual rice harvest between 1994 and 2011, and (ii) the Niño 3.4 index. Droughts were identified using the Standardised Precipitation Index (SPI). In seven of the years between 1994 ...

  13. Sugarcane rice residue biochars and their applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J. J.

    2014-12-01

    Sugarcane production in U.S. involves either pre-harvest burning or after-harvest burning of the residue. Approximately 70-90% of the dry matter of harvested sugarcane trash is lost through open field burning. This practice has caused considerable concerns over air quality and soil sustainability. We propose an alternative conservation approach to convert the sugarcane residue to biochar and used as soil amendment to conserve carbon and potentially improve soil fertility. In this study, fundamental properties of biochars made from sugarcane residue along with rice residues were tested for agronomic and environmental benefits. Sugarcane and rice harvest residues and milling processing byproducts bagasse and rice husk were converted to biochars at different pyrolysis temperatures and characterized. In general, sugarcane leave biochar contained more P, K, Ca and Mg than sugarcane bagasse biochar. Rice straw biochar had more S, K Ca but less P than rice husk biochar. Both biochars had higher available fraction of total P than that of total K. Sugarcane leave biochar converted at 450oC was dominated with various lignin derived phenols as well as non-specific aromatic compounds whereas bagasse biochar was with both lignin derived phenol and poly aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH). Rice straw char was dominated with non-specific aromatic compounds. At 750oC, charred material was dominated with aromatic ethers while losing the aromatic C=C structures. These molecular and surface property differences likely contributed to the difference in water holding capacities observed with these biochars. On the other hand, rice straw biochars produced at different pyrolysis temperatures had no significant effect on rice germination. Soils treated with sugarcane leave/trash biochar significantly enhanced sugarcane growth especially the root length. Treating soil with either sugarcane leave or bagasse char also enhanced soil adsorption capacity of atrazine; a common herbicide used in sugarcane

  14. Effects of Cadmium Stress on the Quality of Rice Seeds

    OpenAIRE

    CHEN, Juan; FANG, Hui; ZHANG, Ying; FAN, Yuanyuan

    2013-01-01

    Germination and hydroponic experiments are performed on rice seeds growing in soils treated with Cd stress, with rice seeds of the same variety that is not treated with Cd stress as a control, to study the effects of Cd stress on quality of rice seeds. The results have shown that: (1) Cd stress reduces the thousand grain weight of rice seeds, and higher Cd content means lower thousand grain weight; (2) The germination vigor and germination percentage of rice seeds under Cd stress as well as t...

  15. Development of Polyspermic Rice Zygotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toda, Erika; Ohnishi, Yukinosuke; Okamoto, Takashi

    2016-05-01

    Fertilization is a general feature of eukaryotic uni- and multicellular organisms to restore a diploid genome from female and male gamete haploid genomes. In most animals and fucoid algae, polyspermy block occurs at the plasmogamy step. Because the polyspermy barrier in animals and in fucoid algae is incomplete, polyspermic zygotes are generated by multiple fertilization events. However, these polyspermic zygotes with extra centrioles from multiple sperms show aberrant nuclear and cell division. In angiosperms, polyspermy block functions in the egg cell and the central cell to promote faithful double fertilization, although the mechanism of polyspermy block remains unclear. In contrast to the case in animals and fucoid algae, polyspermic zygotes formed in angiosperms are not expected to die because angiosperms lack centrosomes. However, there have been no reports on the developmental profiles of polyspermic zygotes at cellular level in angiosperms. In this study, we produced polyspermic rice zygotes by electric fusion of an egg cell with two sperm cells, and monitored their developmental profiles. Two sperm nuclei and an egg nucleus fused into a zygotic nucleus, and the triploid zygote divided into a two-celled embryo via mitotic division with a typical bipolar microtubule spindle, as observed during mitosis of a diploid zygote. The two-celled proembryos further developed and regenerated into triploid plants. These findings suggest that polyspermic plant zygotes have the potential to form triploid embryos. Polyspermy in angiosperms might be a pathway for the formation of triploid plants, which can contribute significantly to the formation of autopolyploids. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  16. Silicon sources for rice crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira Hamilton Seron

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Although silicon is not an essential nutrient, its application is beneficial for plant growth and development. To evaluate silicon sources in relation to agronomic efficiency and economic viability in rice crops (Oryza sativa L., a greenhouse experiment was conducted, Quartzipsamment soil, in a completely randomized experimental design (n = 4. Treatments were 12 silicon sources and a control. Silicon was applied at the rate of 125 kg Si ha-1. Data were compared to a standard response curve for Si using the standard source Wollastonite at rates of 0, 125, 250, 375, and 500 kg Si ha-1. All treatments received CaCO3 and MgCO3 to balance pH, Ca and Mg. One hundred and fifty days after sowing, evaluations on dry matter yield in the above-ground part of plants, grain yield, and Si contents in the soil and plant tissues were performed. Wollastonite had linear response, increasing silicon in the soil and plants with increasing application rates. Differences between silicon sources in relation to Si uptake were observed. Phosphate slag provided the highest Si uptake, followed by Wollastonite and electric furnace silicates which however, did not show differed among themselves. The highest Si accumulation in grain was observed for stainless steel, which significantly differed from the control, silicate clay, Wollastonite, and AF2 (blast furnace of the company 2 slag. Silicate clay showed the lowest Si accumulation in grain and did not differ from the control, AF2 slag, AF1 slag, schist ash, schist, and LD4 (furnace steel type LD of the company 4 slag.

  17. Effect of Red Yeast Rice and Coconut, Rice Bran or Sunflower Oil Combination in Rats on Hypercholesterolemic Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, Sumitra; Vellingiri, Kishore

    2016-04-01

    Dietary supplements provide a novel population based health approach for treating hyperlipidemias. Red yeast rice is known to have lipid lowering effects. Combination of red yeast rice with various oils is taken by different population around the world. In this present work, we aimed to compare the effects of red yeast rice with different oil (coconut, rice bran and sunflower oil) supplementations on lipid levels and oxidative stress in rats fed on hypercholesterolemic diet. A Randomized controlled study was conducted on 28 male Sprague Dawley rats. It included 4 arms-Control arm (hypercholesterolemic diet), Test arm A (hypercholesterolemic diet +Red yeast rice + Rice bran oil), arm B (hypercholesterolemic diet +Red yeast rice + Coconut oil) and arm C (hypercholesterolemic diet +Red yeast rice + Sunflower oil). At the end of one month, serum cholesterol, triglycerides, MDA and paraoxonase was measured. The mean values of analytes between the different groups were compared using student 't-' test. The rats fed with red yeast rice and rice bran oil combination showed significantly lower levels of serum cholesterol, triglycerides and MDA when compared to the controls. The serum paraoxonase levels were significantly higher in this group when compared to the controls. The rats fed with red yeast rice and coconut oil combination showed significantly lower serum cholesterol and MDA levels when compared to the controls. The mean triglyceride and paraoxonase levels did not show any statistically significant difference from the controls. The rats on red yeast rice and sunflower oil combination did not show any statistically significant difference in the lipid levels and oxidative stress parameters. The food combination which had best outcome in preventing the development of hyperlipidemia and oxidative stress in rats fed with hypercholesterolemic diet was red yeast rice and rice bran oil. Combining red yeast rice with coconut oil and sunflower oil gave suboptimal benefits.

  18. Effect of Red Yeast Rice and Coconut, Rice Bran or Sunflower Oil Combination in Rats on Hypercholesterolemic Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vellingiri, Kishore

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Dietary supplements provide a novel population based health approach for treating hyperlipidemias. Red yeast rice is known to have lipid lowering effects. Combination of red yeast rice with various oils is taken by different population around the world. Aim In this present work, we aimed to compare the effects of red yeast rice with different oil (coconut, rice bran and sunflower oil) supplementations on lipid levels and oxidative stress in rats fed on hypercholesterolemic diet. Materials and Methods A Randomized controlled study was conducted on 28 male Sprague Dawley rats. It included 4 arms-Control arm (hypercholesterolemic diet), Test arm A (hypercholesterolemic diet +Red yeast rice + Rice bran oil), arm B (hypercholesterolemic diet +Red yeast rice + Coconut oil) and arm C (hypercholesterolemic diet +Red yeast rice + Sunflower oil). At the end of one month, serum cholesterol, triglycerides, MDA and paraoxonase was measured. The mean values of analytes between the different groups were compared using student ‘t-’ test. Results The rats fed with red yeast rice and rice bran oil combination showed significantly lower levels of serum cholesterol, triglycerides and MDA when compared to the controls. The serum paraoxonase levels were significantly higher in this group when compared to the controls. The rats fed with red yeast rice and coconut oil combination showed significantly lower serum cholesterol and MDA levels when compared to the controls. The mean triglyceride and paraoxonase levels did not show any statistically significant difference from the controls. The rats on red yeast rice and sunflower oil combination did not show any statistically significant difference in the lipid levels and oxidative stress parameters. Conclusion The food combination which had best outcome in preventing the development of hyperlipidemia and oxidative stress in rats fed with hypercholesterolemic diet was red yeast rice and rice bran oil. Combining red yeast rice

  19. Antimicrobial Activity of UV-Induced Phenylamides from Rice Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye Lin Park

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Rice produces a wide array of phytoalexins in response to pathogen attacks and UV-irradiation. Except for the flavonoid sakuranetin, most phytoalexins identified in rice are diterpenoid compounds. Analysis of phenolic-enriched fractions from UV-treated rice leaves showed that several phenolic compounds in addition to sakuranetin accumulated remarkably in rice leaves. We isolated two compounds from UV-treated rice leaves using silica gel column chromatography and preparative HPLC. The isolated phenolic compounds were identified as phenylamide compounds: N-trans-cinnamoyltryptamine and N-p-coumaroylserotonin. Expression analysis of biosynthetic genes demonstrated that genes for arylamine biosynthesis were upregulated by UV irradiation. This result suggested that phenylamide biosynthetic pathways are activated in rice leaves by UV treatment. To unravel the role of UV-induced phenylamides as phytoalexins, we examined their antimicrobial activity against rice fungal and bacterial pathogens. N-trans-Cinnamoyltryptamine inhibited the growth of rice brown spot fungus (Bipolaris oryzae. In addition to the known antifungal activity to the blast fungus, sakuranetin had antimicrobial activity toward B. oryzae and Rhizoctonia solani (rice sheath blight fungus. UV-induced phenylamides and sakuranetin also had antimicrobial activity against rice bacterial pathogens for grain rot (Burkholderia glumae, blight (Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae and leaf streak (X. oryzae pv. oryzicola diseases. These findings suggested that the UV-induced phenylamides in rice are phytoalexins against a diverse array of pathogens.

  20. Survey of Rice Cropping Systems in Kampong Chhnang Province, Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volker KLEINHENZ

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Although Cambodia might have achieved self-sufficiency and an exported surplus in rice production, its rice-based farming systems are widely associated with low productivity, low farmer income and rural poverty. The study is based on a questionnaire village survey in 14 communes containing 97 villages of Kampong Chhnang Province from March to June, 2011. It analyzes the prevailing rice-based cropping systems and evaluates options for their improvement. Differences in cropping systems depend on the distance from the Tonle Sap water bodies. At distances greater than 10 km, transplanted wet-season rice cropping system with low productivity of about 1.6 t/hm2 prevails. This deficiency can be primarily attributed to soils with high coarse sand fractions and low pH ( 4.0. Farmers predominantly cultivate dry-season recession rice between January and April. Seventy-nine percent of the area is sown directly and harvested by combines. Adoption ratio of commercial rice seeds is 59% and yields average 3.2 t/hm2. Introduction of the second dry-season rice between April and July may double annual yields in this rice cropping system. Besides upgrading other cultivation technologies, using seeds from commercial sources will improve yield and rice quality. Along with rice, farmers grow non-rice crops at different intensities ranging from single annual crops to intensive sequences at low yields.

  1. Avian foods, foraging and habitat conservation in world rice fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafford, J.D.; Kaminski, R.M.; Reinecke, K.J.

    2010-01-01

    Worldwide, rice (Oryza sativa) agriculture typically involves seasonal flooding and soil tillage, which provides a variety of microhabitats and potential food for birds. Water management in rice fields creates conditions ranging from saturated mud flats to shallow (waste rice) is typically the most abundant potential food of birds in rice fields, with estimates of seed mass from North America ranging from 66672 kg/ha. Although initially abundant after harvest, waste rice availability can be temporally limited. Few abundance estimates for other foods, such as vertebrate prey or forage vegetation, exist for rice fields. Outside North America, Europe and Japan, little is known about abundance and importance of any avian food in rice fields. Currently, flooding rice fields after harvest is the best known management practice to attract and benefit birds. Studies from North America indicate specific agricultural practices (e.g. burning stubble) may increase use and improve access to food resources. Evaluating and implementing management practices that are ecologically sustainable, increase food for birds and are agronomically beneficial should be global priorities to integrate rice production and avian conservation. Finally, land area devoted to rice agriculture appears to be stable in the USA, declining in China, and largely unquantified in many regions. Monitoring trends in riceland area may provide information to guide avian conservation planning in rice-agriculture ecosystems.

  2. African Rice in the History of the New World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Carney

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Rice was introduced to multiple regions of the Americas during the colonial period. Rice plantations flourished in the U.S. southeast and eighteenth-century Brazil. Long attributed to European initiative, recent scholarship suggests that enslaved Africans provided more than labor to the emergence of rice as a food crop in the western hemisphere. This emerges from scholarly consensus that rice was independently domesticated in West Africa 3,000 years ago and further recognition of its role as provisions on transatlantic slave ships. This article summarizes the research findings in support of African agency in New World rice cultivation. A comparative historical approach to Atlantic rice culture suggests African cultural antecedents. The discussion examines the role of enslaved rice-growing Africans in transferring the seed and cultivation skills critical for pioneering the crop’s establishment in the Americas.

  3. Recycling rice husks for high-capacity lithium battery anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Dae Soo; Ryou, Myung-Hyun; Sung, Yong Joo; Park, Seung Bin; Choi, Jang Wook

    2013-07-23

    The rice husk is the outer covering of a rice kernel and protects the inner ingredients from external attack by insects and bacteria. To perform this function while ventilating air and moisture, rice plants have developed unique nanoporous silica layers in their husks through years of natural evolution. Despite the massive amount of annual production near 10(8) tons worldwide, so far rice husks have been recycled only for low-value agricultural items. In an effort to recycle rice husks for high-value applications, we convert the silica to silicon and use it for high-capacity lithium battery anodes. Taking advantage of the interconnected nanoporous structure naturally existing in rice husks, the converted silicon exhibits excellent electrochemical performance as a lithium battery anode, suggesting that rice husks can be a massive resource for use in high-capacity lithium battery negative electrodes.

  4. Adaptive genic evolution in the Drosophila genomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shapiro, Joshua A; Huang, Wei; Zhang, Chenhui

    2007-01-01

    . melanogaster and its close relatives were adaptive. (iv) This signature of adaptive evolution is observable only in regions of normal recombination. Hence, the low level of polymorphism observed in regions of reduced recombination may not be driven primarily by positive selection. Finally, we discuss......Determining the extent of adaptive evolution at the genomic level is central to our understanding of molecular evolution. A suitable observation for this purpose would consist of polymorphic data on a large and unbiased collection of genes from two closely related species, each having a large...... sites than expected, hinting at the action of selective sweeps. (ii) The level of polymorphism is negatively correlated with the rate of nonsynonymous divergence across loci. Thus, even under strict neutrality, the ratio of amino acid to silent nucleotide changes (A:S) between Drosophila species...

  5. Comparison of saccharification and fermentation of steam exploded rice straw and rice husk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Ian P; Cao, Huong-Giang; Tran, Long; Cook, Nicola; Ryden, Peter; Wilson, David R; Moates, Graham K; Collins, Samuel R A; Elliston, Adam; Waldron, Keith W

    2016-01-01

    Rice cultivation produces two waste streams, straw and husk, which could be exploited more effectively. Chemical pretreatment studies using rice residues have largely focussed on straw exploitation alone, and often at low substrate concentrations. Moreover, it is currently not known how rice husk, the more recalcitrant residue, responds to steam explosion without the addition of chemicals. The aim of this study has been to systematically compare the effects of steam explosion severity on the enzymatic saccharification and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of rice straw and husk produced from a variety widely grown in Vietnam (Oryza sativa, cv. KhangDan18). Rice straw and husk were steam exploded (180-230 °C for 10 min) into hot water and washed to remove fermentation inhibitors. In both cases, pretreatment at 210 °C and above removed most of the noncellulosic sugars. Prolonged saccharification at high cellulase doses showed that rice straw could be saccharified most effectively after steam explosion at 210 °C for 10 min. In contrast, rice husk required more severe pretreatment conditions (220 °C for 10 min), and achieved a much lower yield (75 %), even at optimal conditions. Rice husk also required a higher cellulase dose for optimal saccharification (10 instead of 6 FPU/g DM). Hemicellulase addition failed to improve saccharification. Small pilot scale saccharification at 20 % (w/v) substrate loading in a 10 L high torque bioreactor resulted in similarly high glucose yields for straw (reaching 9 % w/v), but much less for husk. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation under optimal pretreatment and saccharification conditions showed similar trends, but the ethanol yield from the rice husk was less than 40 % of the theoretical yield. Despite having similar carbohydrate compositions, pretreated rice husk is much less amenable to saccharification than pretreated rice straw. This is likely to attenuate its use as a biorefinery

  6. Nutrient Removal by Rice Cultivated in Newly Opened Wetland Rice in Bulungan District, East Kalimantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukristiyonubowo

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Highly weathered Indonesian soils and potential acid sulphate soils are mainly granted for developing newlyopened wetland rice field to meet rice growing demand in Indonesia. Nutrient removal by rice harvest product ofCiliwung variety planted in newly opened wetland rice was studied in Bulungan District, in 2009. The aims were toexamine the nutrient taken out by rice harvest product and to properly manage its fertility status to sustain ricefarming. Six treatments were studied including T0: farmers practices, T1: farmer practices + compost + dolomite, T2:NPK recommended rate, N and K were split two times, T3: NPK recommended rate, N and K were split three times,T4: NPK recommended rate, N and K were split three times + compost + dolomite and T5: NPK recommended rate,N and K were split two times + compost + dolomite. The results indicated that the highest concentrations of N, P,and K in rice grain and rice straw were observed at NPK with recommendation rate in which N and K were split threetimes + straw compost + dolomite (T4. The T4 (NPK with recommendation rate in which N and K were split threetimes + straw compost + dolomite also showed the highest nutrient removal by harvest product. Depending on thetreatments, total nutrients removal through rice grains and rice straw varied from 61.81 to 101.71 kg N, 4.31 to13.69 kg P and from 95.77 to 171.16 kg K ha-1 season-1, meaning that at least about 137 to 225 kg urea, 50 to 160kg SP-36 and 190 to 339 kg KCl ha-1 season-1 should be given to replace nutrient removed by harvest product andto avoid any nutrients depletion. When all rice straws were returned to the field as compost, about 55 to 133 kg urea,25 to 110 kg SP-36 and 10 to 19 kg KCl ha-1 season-1 should be added to substitute nutrient removed by rice grain.

  7. METHANE EMISSION FROM DIRECT SEEDED RICE UNDER THE INFLUENCES OF RICE STRAW AND NITRIFICATION INHIBITOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Wihardjaka

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Incorporation of rice straw into soil is a common practice to improve soil productivity and increase inorganic fertilizer availability. However, this practice could contribute to methane (CH4 emission; one of the greenhouse gases that causes global warming. Nitrification inhibitors such as neem cake and carbofuran may reduce methane emission following application of rice straw. The study aimed to evaluate the application of rice straw and nitrification inhibitor to methane emission in rainfed lowland rice system. A factorial randomized block design was used with three replications. The first factor was rice straw incorporation (5 t ha-1 fresh straw, 5 t ha-1 composted straw, and the second factor was nitrification inhibitor application (20 kg ha-1 neem cake, 20 kg ha-1 carbofuran. The experiment was conducted at rainfed lowland in Pati, Central Java, during 2009/2010 wet season. Ciherang variety was planted as direct seeded rice with spacing of 20 cm x 20 cm in each plot of 4 m x 5 m. The rice straw was treated together with soil tillage, whereas nitrification inhibitor was applied together with urea application. Parameters observed were methane flux, plant height, plant biomass, grain yield, organic C content, and bacterial population in soil. The methane flux and soil organic C were measured at 25, 45, 60, 75, and 95 days after emergence. The results showed that composted rice straw incorporation significantly emitted methane lower (73.2 ± 6.6 kg CH4 ha-1 season-1 compared to the fresh rice straw (93.5 ± 4.0 CH4 ha-1 season-1. Application of nitrification inhibitors neem cake and carbofuran reduced methane emission as much as 20.7 and 15.4 kg CH4 ha-1 season-1, respectively. Under direct seeded rice system, methane flux level correlated with plant biomass as shown by linear regression of Y = 0.0015 X + 0.0575 (R2 = 0.2305, n = 27. This means that higher plant biomass produced more methane flux. The study indicates that application of

  8. Diversity of Global Rice Markets and the Science Required for Consumer-Targeted Rice Breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calingacion, Mariafe; Laborte, Alice; Nelson, Andrew; Resurreccion, Adoracion; Concepcion, Jeanaflor Crystal; Daygon, Venea Dara; Mumm, Roland; Reinke, Russell; Dipti, Sharifa; Bassinello, Priscila Zaczuk; Manful, John; Sophany, Sakhan; Lara, Karla Cordero; Bao, Jinsong; Xie, Lihong; Loaiza, Katerine; El-hissewy, Ahmad; Gayin, Joseph; Sharma, Neerja; Rajeswari, Sivakami; Manonmani, Swaminathan; Rani, N. Shobha; Kota, Suneetha; Indrasari, Siti Dewi; Habibi, Fatemeh; Hosseini, Maryam; Tavasoli, Fatemeh; Suzuki, Keitaro; Umemoto, Takayuki; Boualaphanh, Chanthkone; Lee, Huei Hong; Hung, Yiu Pang; Ramli, Asfaliza; Aung, Pa Pa; Ahmad, Rauf; Wattoo, Javed Iqbal; Bandonill, Evelyn; Romero, Marissa; Brites, Carla Moita; Hafeel, Roshni; Lur, Huu-Sheng; Cheaupun, Kunya; Jongdee, Supanee; Blanco, Pedro; Bryant, Rolfe; Thi Lang, Nguyen; Hall, Robert D.; Fitzgerald, Melissa

    2014-01-01

    With the ever-increasing global demand for high quality rice in both local production regions and with Western consumers, we have a strong desire to understand better the importance of the different traits that make up the quality of the rice grain and obtain a full picture of rice quality demographics. Rice is by no means a ‘one size fits all’ crop. Regional preferences are not only striking, they drive the market and hence are of major economic importance in any rice breeding / improvement strategy. In this analysis, we have engaged local experts across the world to perform a full assessment of all the major rice quality trait characteristics and importantly, to determine how these are combined in the most preferred varieties for each of their regions. Physical as well as biochemical characteristics have been monitored and this has resulted in the identification of no less than 18 quality trait combinations. This complexity immediately reveals the extent of the specificity of consumer preference. Nevertheless, further assessment of these combinations at the variety level reveals that several groups still comprise varieties which consumers can readily identify as being different. This emphasises the shortcomings in the current tools we have available to assess rice quality and raises the issue of how we might correct for this in the future. Only with additional tools and research will we be able to define directed strategies for rice breeding which are able to combine important agronomic features with the demands of local consumers for specific quality attributes and hence, design new, improved crop varieties which will be awarded success in the global market. PMID:24454799

  9. New Cytotoxic Azaphilones from Monascus purpureus-Fermented Rice (Red Yeast Rice)

    OpenAIRE

    Zong-Lian Jin; Jian-Quan Zheng; Ming-Tao Liu; Ling-Ling Li; Xiao-Ya Shang; Jin-Jie Li

    2010-01-01

    Using a cell-based cytotoxicity assay three new cytotoxic azaphilones, including two stereoisomers and designated monapurones A-C (1-3), were isolated from the extract of Monascus purpureus-fermented rice (red yeast rice). Their structures were elucidated by detailed interpretation of spectroscopic and chemical data. The relative configurations were assigned on the basis of analysis of NOE data, and the absolute configurations were determined by direct comparison of their CD spectra with thos...

  10. The Design of Rice Powder Production Vessel and the Pulverization of the Rice Using Numerical Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Shibuta

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the food self-support rate of Japan is 40%, and this value is the lowest level of major advanced country. The stable supply of food is a big subject that Japan has. Therefore, rice powder attracts attention for improvement of the food self-support rate in Japan. Previously, the rice powder is produced by two methods. One is dry type, and the other is wet type. However, these systems have a fault of the heat damage of the starch and the consumption of a large quantity of water. In our laboratory, as solution of those problems, production of the rice powder by using the underwater shock wave is considered. Shock wave is the pressure wave which is over velocity of sound by discharging high energy in short time. Propagating shock wave in water is the underwater shock wave. This food processing using an underwater shock wave has little influence of heat and its processing time is very short, preventing the loss of nutrients. In this research optical observation experiment and the numerical simulation were performed using trial vessel, in order to understand the behavior of the underwater shock wave in the development of the rice powder production vessel using an underwater shock wave at the factory. In addition, in order to understand the rice powder production and to develop it, the numerical simulation about pulverization of rice is performed. By this method, the pressure which takes for rice at the time of pulverization, and its pulverization phenomenon are solved. Analysis soft LS-DYNA was used for these numerical simulations. The comparative study of the experiment and the numerical simulation was investigated. The behavior of the shock wave in the device and transformation of rice were able to be clarified.

  11. Golden Rice is an effective source of vitamin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Guangwen; Qin, Jian; Dolnikowski, Gregory G; Russell, Robert M; Grusak, Michael A

    2009-06-01

    Genetically engineered "Golden Rice" contains up to 35 microg beta-carotene per gram of rice. It is important to determine the vitamin A equivalency of Golden Rice beta-carotene to project the potential effect of this biofortified grain in rice-consuming populations that commonly exhibit low vitamin A status. The objective was to determine the vitamin A value of intrinsically labeled dietary Golden Rice in humans. Golden Rice plants were grown hydroponically with heavy water (deuterium oxide) to generate deuterium-labeled [2H]beta-carotene in the rice grains. Golden Rice servings of 65-98 g (130-200 g cooked rice) containing 0.99-1.53 mg beta-carotene were fed to 5 healthy adult volunteers (3 women and 2 men) with 10 g butter. A reference dose of [13C10]retinyl acetate (0.4-1.0 mg) in oil was given to each volunteer 1 wk before ingestion of the Golden Rice dose. Blood samples were collected over 36 d. Our results showed that the mean (+/-SD) area under the curve for the total serum response to [2H]retinol was 39.9 +/- 20.7 microg x d after the Golden Rice dose. Compared with that of the [13C10]retinyl acetate reference dose (84.7 +/- 34.6 microg x d), Golden Rice beta-carotene provided 0.24-0.94 mg retinol. Thus, the conversion factor of Golden Rice beta-carotene to retinol is 3.8 +/- 1.7 to 1 with a range of 1.9-6.4 to 1 by weight, or 2.0 +/- 0.9 to 1 with a range of 1.0-3.4 to 1 by moles. Beta-carotene derived from Golden Rice is effectively converted to vitamin A in humans. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00680355.

  12. Application of Rice Straw Compost with Different Bioactivators on the Growth and Yield of Rice Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunita Barus

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Turnover of organic matters to the soil can increase the efficiency of chemical fertilizers, improve the plant growthand sustain the environment. Field experiment was carried out in the Buyut Udik Village, Gunung Sugih District,Central Lampung from May to August 2009. Rice straw was composted by three kinds of decomposer (bioactivatorA, B, and C. Rice straw compost (2 Mg ha-1 was applied to the paddy-field soil that was planted by rice (Oryzasativa of Ciherang Variety. The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design with three replicates. Theresults showed that application of rice straw compost reduced the numbers of empty grain per tiller compared tocontrol (without compost in which control had the highest percentage of empty grain (15.9%. The application ofrice straw compost that was decomposed by bioactivator A gave the highest numbers of grain per panicle and yieldper plot as followed 162.5 seed and 33 kg plot-1, respectively. Application of various rice straw composts that weredecomposed by three kinds of bioactivator increased the rice grain up to 13-26% compared to control.

  13. Innovation Chinese rice wine brewing technology by bi-acidification to exclude rice soaking process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiao Lu; Liu, Shuang Ping; Yu, Jian Shen; Yu, Yong Jian; Zhu, Sheng Hu; Zhou, Zhi Lei; Hu, Jian; Mao, Jian

    2017-04-01

    As a traditional fermented alcoholic beverage of China, Chinese rice wine (CRW) had a long history of more than 5000 years. Rice soaking process was the most crucial step during CRW brewing process, because rice soaking quality directly determined the quality of CRW. However, rice soaking water would cause the eutrophication of water bodies and waste of water. The longer time of rice soaking, the higher the content of biogenic amine, and it would have a huge impact on human health. An innovation brewing technology was carried out to exclude the rice soaking process and the Lactobacillus was added to make up for the total acid. Compared to the traditional brewing technology, the new technology saved water resources and reduced environmental pollution. The concentration of biogenic amine was also decreased by 27.16%, which improving the security of the CRW. The esters increased led to more soft-tasted CRW and less aging time; the quality of CRW would be improved with less alcohol. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of acetic acid on rice seeds coated with rice husk ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizandro Ciciliano Tavares

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Flooded rice cultivation promotes anaerobic conditions, favoring the formation of short chain organic acids such as acetic acid, which may be toxic to the crop. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of acetic acid on rice seeds coated with rice husk ash. The experiment was arranged in a 2 x 5 x 5 factorial randomized design, with two cultivars (IRGA 424 and BRS Querência, five doses of coating material (0, 2, 3,4 e 5 g kg-1 seed and five concentrations of acetic acid (0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 mM, with 4 replications, totaling 50 treatments. The variables first count of germination, germination, shoot and root length, dry weight of shoots and roots were recorded. The results showed that coating rice seeds with rice husk ash up to 5 g kg-1 seed does not influence the performance of rice seeds of cultivars IRGA 424 and BRS Querência when exposed to concentrations of 12 mM acetic acid. The presence of acetic acid in the substrates used for seed germination reduced the vigor and viability of seeds of cultivars IRGA 424 and BRS Querência, as well as seedling development, affecting mainly the roots of BRS Querência.

  15. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of broken rice: an enzymatic extrusion liquefaction pretreatment for Chinese rice wine production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongyan; Jiao, Aiquan; Xu, Xueming; Wu, Chunsen; Wei, Benxi; Hu, Xiuting; Jin, Zhengyu; Tian, Yaoqi

    2013-08-01

    Broken rice, pretreated by enzymatic extrusion liquefaction, was used to produce Chinese rice wine by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process in this study. The study compared the novel process and traditional process for Chinese rice wine fermentation utilizing broken rice and head rice, respectively. With the optimum extrusion parameters (barrel temperature, 98 °C; moisture content, 42% and amylase concentration, 1‰), 18% (v/v at 20 °C) alcoholic degree, 37.66% fermentation recovery and 93.63% fermentation efficiency were achieved, indicating enzymatic extrusion-processed rice wine from broken rice exhibited much higher fermentation rate and efficiency than traditional-processed rice wine from head rice during SSF. The starch molecule distribution data indicated that the alcoholic degree was related to the oligosaccharides' formation during enzymatic extrusion. Sum of amino acid (AA) in the extrusion-processed wine was 53.7% higher than that in the traditional one. These results suggest that the enzymatic extrusion pretreatment for broken rice is a feasible and alternative process in the fermentation of Chinese rice wine.

  16. allocative efficiency, employment and rice production risk

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2004-12-02

    Dec 2, 2004 ... Horowitz and Litchtenberg ( 1994) and Torkamani and Ha'rdaker. (1996) have also addressed the impact of farmer risk aversion on production practices. Studies that'focused on tropical rice produc- tion by Brosen et. al. (1987) and Sasmal (1993) show that risk aver- sion is not an impediment to resource ...

  17. (SRI) to Increase Rice Water Productivity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , and 40x40 for T5 were ... cultivation by changing the management of plants, ..... Sustainability of. System of Rice Intensification: Benefits of SRI focusing on effects of intermittent irrigation on yield increase and water savings. In: Proceeding of ...

  18. Methane emission from wetland rice fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Denier van der Gon, H.A.C.

    1996-01-01


    Methane (CH 4 ) is an important greenhouse gas and plays a key role in tropospheric and stratospheric chemistry. Wetland rice fields are an important source of methane, accounting for approximately 20% of the global anthropogenic

  19. Factor affecting Agrobacterium -mediated transformation of rice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Potato is a very important food crop and is adversely affected by fungus. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation can play an important role in the ... The putative transgenic plants were analyzed through PCR by using RCG-3 specific primers. Key words: Agrobacterium, potato, transformation, rice chitinase gene, factors.

  20. Unpolished Thai Rice Strain of Leum Phua

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Additionally, phenolic content and anthocyanin pigment were also assayed. Results: Oryza sativa, unpolished Thai rice strain of Leum Phua showed the highest antioxidant activity. It was also highest in anthocyanin pigment. The strains of Leum Phua, Klam, Hawm Nil and Black Rose showed high levels of phenolic content: ...

  1. Rice weevil response to basil oil fumigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basil oil, Ocimum basilicum L., is a volatile plant essential oil that is known to have insecticidal activity against stored product pests such as rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (L.). Basil oil was diluted in acetone and applied to a sponge held inside a tea strainer for fumigations in containers wi...

  2. AN ASSESSMENT OF LAND SUITABILITY FOR RICE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    Abstract. This study examined the suitability of the soil in Dobi, Gwagwalada Area Council, FCT, Nigeria for rice cultivation. Soil samples were collected from the plot using systematic sampling procedure, at two standard depths of 0-15cm (top soil) and 16-30cm (sub soil). Standard procedures as applied to tropical soils ...

  3. Organogenesis induction in rice callus by cyanobacterial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The endosperm of three rice varieties, IR 50, ASD 16 and ADT 36, were used as explants. IR 50 showed earlier and good callus induction response in MS medium. For root induction, cyanobaterial extracellular product was added instead of 2,4-D. The result showed that the number of days taken for root initiation and root ...

  4. Rice varietal screening: Relationship between certain Agronomic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One of the limitations to the development of rice cuktivars which are tolerant to iron toxicity has been the lack of efficient screening techniques. Field and screenhouse experiments were carried out in Cote d'Ivoire between September 1994 and June 1996 to study the relationship between iron toxicity and some agronomic ...

  5. Structure, Function, and Evolution of Rice Centromeres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Jiming

    2010-02-04

    The centromere is the most characteristic landmark of eukaryotic chromosomes. Centromeres function as the site for kinetochore assembly and spindle attachment, allowing for the faithful pairing and segregation of sister chromatids during cell division. Characterization of centromeric DNA is not only essential to understand the structure and organization of plant genomes, but it is also a critical step in the development of plant artificial chromosomes. The centromeres of most model eukaryotic species, consist predominantly of long arrays of satellite DNA. Determining the precise DNA boundary of a centromere has proven to be a difficult task in multicellular eukaryotes. We have successfully cloned and sequenced the centromere of rice chromosome 8 (Cen8), representing the first fully sequenced centromere from any multicellular eukaryotes. The functional core of Cen8 spans ~800 kb of DNA, which was determined by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) using an antibody against the rice centromere-specific H3 histone. We discovered 16 actively transcribed genes distributed throughout the Cen8 region. In addition to Cen8, we have characterized eight additional rice centromeres using the next generation sequencing technology. We discovered four subfamilies of the CRR retrotransposon that is highly enriched in rice centromeres. CRR elements are constitutively transcribed and different CRR subfamilies are differentially processed by RNAi. These results suggest that different CRR subfamilies may play different roles in the RNAi-mediated pathway for formation and maintenance of centromeric chromatin.

  6. Tulekul naiste duell : Rice - Clinton? / Aadu Hiietamm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hiietamm, Aadu, 1954-

    2005-01-01

    Kui intervjuus Washington Postile ei välistanud USA välisminister Condoleezza Rice võimalust kandideerida presidendivalimistel, siis hilisemas intervjuus telekanalile ABC ütles ta, et tal puudub soov saada presidendiks. Samal ajal arutavad demokraadid Hillary Clintoni võimalusi saavutada edu järgmistel presidendivalimistel

  7. mediated transformation in two indica rice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA 105 carrying binary vector pCAMBIA 1301 was used for transformation in two economically important highly recalcitrant indica rice cultivars HKR-46 and HKR-126. High concentrations of acetosyringone in the agrobacterium culture and co-cultivation medium proved to be ...

  8. Production of Nanocellulose from Rice Husk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaghayegh Rezanezhad

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, nanocellulose was produced from rice husk, as a lignocellulosic waste of rice. Initially, purified cellulose was produced with chemo-mechanical and soda-anthraquinone (soda/AQ pulping and bleaching. The purified cellulose was then sonicated for 15 min using an ultrasonic processor, resulted in nanocellulose. The nanocellulose obtained by sonification has been characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM, X-ray diffraction (XRD and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA. Diameter of nanocellulose from rice husk by chemical method was 30-40 nm and that of produced by soda-AQ pulping method were 10-20 nm. The nanocellulose crystallinity for chemical method obtained 60% and for that of produced with soda-AQ pulping method was 66%. The degradation onset temperature for nanocellulose from rice husk by chemical method was 165°C and that of produced with soda-AQ pulping method were 188°c. The thermal behaviors of nanocellulose and purified cellulose were almost the same, suggesting the ultrasonic treatment had minor effect on the thermal decomposition of the nanocellulose.

  9. Degradation of chlorpyrifos in tropical rice soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Subhasis; Adhya, Tapan K

    2015-04-01

    Chlorpyrifos [O,O-diethyl O-(3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol) phosphorothioate] is used worldwide as an agricultural insecticide against a broad spectrum of insect pests of economically important crops including rice, and soil application to control termites. The insecticide mostly undergoes hydrolysis to diethyl thiophosphoric acid (DETP) and 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP), and negligible amounts of other intermediate products. In a laboratory-cum-greenhouse study, chlorpyrifos, applied at a rate of 10 mg kg(-1) soil to five tropical rice soils of wide physico-chemical variability, degraded with a half-life ranging from 27.07 to 3.82 days. TCP was the major metabolite under both non-flooded and flooded conditions. Chlorpyrifos degradation had significant negative relationship with electrical conductivity (EC), cation exchange capacity (CEC), clay and sand contents of the soils under non-flooded conditions. Results indicate that degradation of chlorpyrifos was accelerated with increase in its application frequency, across the representative rice soils. Management regimes including moisture content and presence or absence of rice plants also influenced the process. Biotic factors also play an important role in the degradation of chlorpyrifos as demonstrated by its convincing degradation in mineral salts medium inoculated with non-sterile soil suspension. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Allelopathic potential of selected rice varieties

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl10

    2012-11-01

    Nov 1, 2012 ... Azania AAPM, Azania CAMP, Alives LCA, Palaniraj R, Kadian HS, Sati. SC, Rawat LS, Dahiya DS, Narwal SS (2003). Allelopathic plants. 7. Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Allelopathy J. 11:1–20. Azmi M, Abdullah MZ, Fuji Y (2000). Exploratory study on allelopathic effect of selected Malaysian rice varieties ...

  11. Rice Production under Different Weed Management Technologies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    This study investigated the adoption and profitability of weed management technologies for rice production, namely; oxidiaxon, pendimethalin, hoe weeding and farmers' practice which comprised recycling of paddy previous harvest as seeds, use of hoe for land preparation, fertilizer broadcasting and use of family labour, ...

  12. Interaction of genotype x management on vegetative growth and weed suppression of aerobic rice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, D.L.; Bastiaans, L.; Atlin, G.N.; Spiertz, J.H.J.

    2007-01-01

    Water shortage in drought-prone rice-growing areas of the world is threatening conventional irrigated rice production systems, in which rice is transplanted into fields where standing water is maintained until harvest. Aerobic rice production systems, in which rice is grown as a direct-seeded upland

  13. Protective and Heat Retention Effects of Thermo-sensitive Basement Membrane Extract (Matrigel) in Hepatic Radiofrequency Ablation in an Experimental Animal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jing-Jing; Wang, Song; Yang, Wei; Gong, Wei; Jiang, An-Na; Yan, Kun; Chen, Min-Hua

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate the protective effect of using thermo-sensitive basement membrane extract (Matrigel) for hydrodissection to minimize thermal injury to nearby structures and to evaluate its heat sink effect on the ablation zone in radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of the liver. First, the viscosity profile and heat sink effect of Matrigel were assessed during RFA in vitro and ex vivo. Fresh pig liver tissue was used, and the temperature changes in Matrigel and in 5% dextrose in water (D5W) during RFA were recorded. Then, the size of the ablation zone in the peripheral liver after RFA was measured. Second, in an in vivo study, 45 Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups of 15 rats each (Matrigel, D5W and control). In the experimental groups, artificial ascites with 10 ml of Matrigel or D5W were injected using ultrasound guidance prior to RFA. The frequency of thermal injury to the nearby organs was compared among the three groups, with assessments of several locations: near the diaphragm, the abdominal wall and the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Finally, the biological degradation of Matrigel by ultrasound was evaluated over 60 days. First, Matrigel produced a greater heat retention (less heat sink) effect than D5W during ex vivo ablation (63 ± 9 vs. 26 ± 6 °C at 1 min on the surface of the liver, P structures was found in 14 of 15 cases (93.3%) in the control group, 8 of 15 cases (53.3%) in the D5W group, and 1 of 15 cases (6.7%) in the Matrigel group. Significant differences in the thermal injury rates for nearby structures were detected among the three groups (P structures, especially in locations close to the GI tract, compared to conventional D5W. Additionally, Matrigel did not increase the heat sink effect on the ablation zone during ablation and was degraded over time in vivo.

  14. Warm hands, cold heart: progressive whole-body cooling increases warm thermosensitivity of human hands and feet in a dose-dependent fashion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filingeri, Davide; Morris, Nathan B; Jay, Ollie

    2017-01-01

    What is the central question of this study? Investigations on inhibitory/facilitatory modulation of vision, touch and pain show that conditioning stimuli outside the receptive field of testing stimuli modulate the central processing of visual, touch and painful stimuli. We asked whether contextual modulation also exists in human temperature integration. What is the main finding and its importance? Progressive decreases in whole-body mean skin temperature (the conditioning stimulus) significantly increased local thermosensitivity to skin warming but not cooling (the testing stimuli) in a dose-dependent fashion. In resembling the central mechanisms underlying endogenous analgesia, our findings point to the existence of an endogenous thermosensory system in humans that could modulate local skin thermal sensitivity to facilitate thermal behaviour. Although inhibitory/facilitatory central modulation of vision and pain has been investigated, contextual modulation of skin temperature integration has not been explored. Hence, we tested whether progressive decreases in whole-body mean skin temperature (Tsk ; a large conditioning stimulus) alter the magnitude estimation of local warming and cooling stimuli applied to hairy and glabrous skin. On four separate occasions, eight men (27 ± 5 years old) underwent a 30 min whole-body cooling protocol (water-perfused suit; temperature, 5°C), during which a quantitative thermosensory test, consisting of reporting the perceived magnitude of warming and cooling stimuli (±8°C from 30°C baseline) applied to the hand (palm/dorsum) and foot (sole/dorsum), was performed before cooling and every 10 min thereafter. The cooling protocol resulted in large progressive reductions in Tsk [10 min, -3.36°C (95% confidence interval -2.62 to -4.10); 20 min, -5.21°C (-4.47 to -5.95); and 30 min, -6.32°C (-5.58 to -7.05); P fashion. In highlighting a novel feature of human temperature integration, these findings point to the existence of

  15. Synthesis of PNVP-Based Copolymers with Tunable Thermosensitivity by Sequential Reversible Addition–Fragmentation Chain Transfer Copolymerization and Ring-Opening Polymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Shen Huang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Through the reversible addition–fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT copolymerization of 3-ethyl-1-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone (C2NVP and N-vinylpyrrolidone (NVP, a series of well-defined P(C2NVP-co-NVP copolymers were synthesized (Mn = ca. 8000 to 16,000 and Mw/Mn <1.5 by using a difunctional chain transfer agent, S-(1-methyl-4-hydroxyethyl acetate O-ethyl xanthate (MHEX. Copolymerizing kinetics and different monomer ratio in feeds were conducted to study the apparent monomer reaction rate and reactivity ratios of NVP and C2NVP, which indicated similar reaction rates and predominantly ideal random copolymers for the two monomers. The Tgs of the obtaining P(C2NVP-co-NVP copolymers significantly corresponded to not only molecular weights MWs but also copolymer compositions. These copolymers presented characteristic lower critical solution temperatures (LCST behavior. We then studied the cloud points (CPs of the copolymers with varying MWs and compositions. With different MWs, the CPs were linearly decreased from ca. 51 to 45 °C. With different compositions, the CPs of the copolymers decreased from ca. 48 to 29 °C with C2NVP content (i.e., from 60.8 to 89.9 mol %. Fitting the CPs by the theoretical equation, the result illustrated that the introduction of more hydrophobic units of C2NVP suppressed the hydrophilic interaction between the polymer chain and water. We then successfully proceeded the chain extension through the ring-opening polymerization (ROP of ε-caprolactone (CL to the synthesis of a novel P(C2NVP-co-NVP-b-PCL amphiphilic block copolymer (Mn,NMR = 14,730 and Mw/Mn = 1.59. The critical micelle concentration (CMC of the block copolymer had a value of ca. 1.46 × 10−4 g/L. The block copolymer micelle was traced by dynamic light scattering (DLS, obtaining thermosensitive behaviors with a particle size of ca. 240 nm at 25 °C and ca. 140 nm at 55 °C, respectively.

  16. Co-exposure to methylmercury and inorganic arsenic in baby rice cereals and rice-containing teething biscuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothenberg, Sarah E; Jackson, Brian P; Carly McCalla, G; Donohue, Alexis; Emmons, Alison M

    2017-11-01

    Rice is an important dietary source for methylmercury (MeHg), a potent neurotoxin, and inorganic arsenic (As), a human carcinogen. Rice baby cereals are a dietary source of inorganic As; however, less is known concerning MeHg concentrations in rice baby cereals and rice teething biscuits. MeHg concentrations were measured in 36 rice baby cereals, eight rice teething biscuits, and four baby cereals manufactured with oats/wheat (n = 48 total). Arsenic (As) species, including inorganic As, were determined in rice baby cereals and rice teething biscuits (n = 44/48), while total As was determined in all products (n = 48). Rice baby cereals and rice teething biscuits were on average 61 and 92 times higher in MeHg, respectively, and 9.4 and 4.7 times higher in total As, respectively, compared to wheat/oat baby cereals. For a 15-g serving of rice baby cereal, average MeHg intake was 0.0092μgday-1 (range: 0.0013-0.034μgday-1), while average inorganic As intake was 1.3μgday-1 (range: 0.37-2.3μgday-1). Inorganic As concentrations in two brands of rice baby cereal (n = 12/36 boxes of rice cereal) exceeded 100ng/g, the proposed action level from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Log10 MeHg and inorganic As concentrations in rice baby cereals were strongly, positively correlated (Pearson's rho = 0.60, p inorganic As. Studies concerning the cumulative impacts of MeHg and inorganic As on offspring development are warranted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Sheath rot of rice in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeimi, S; Okhovvat, S M; Hedjaroude, G A; Khosravi, V

    2003-01-01

    Sheath rot of rice occurs in most rice-growing regions of the world. It usually causes yield losses from 20 to 85%. Sheath rot was reported from Iran in 1993. Year after year, the number of diseased plants increased in the Northern Iran. In summer of 2001, these symptoms were observed in most fields: lesions occur on the upper leaf sheaths, especially the flag leaf sheath. As the disease progresses, lesions enlarge and coalesce and may cover most of the leaf sheath. Panicle may fail to completely or at all. Brown or partially brown not filled or partially filled grain is also associated with infection of the panicle. A whitish powdery growth may be found inside affected sheaths. Infected plants were collected and trasferred to laboratory. Small pieces of diseased tissues were washed under tap water for one hour. Then tissues were placed on WA and incubated at 25 degrees C. These isolates were purified and identified as: Sarocladium oryzae, Fusarium udum, F. semitectum, F. avenaceum, F. flocciferum, F. graminearum, Bipolaris oryzae, Alternaria padwickii, Rhizoctonia solani, Paecilomyces sp., Nigrospora sp. and Trichoderma sp. This is the first report of F. udum in Iran. Also this is the first report that rice is the host for F. semitectum, F. avenaceum and F. flocciferum in Iran. Pathogenicity tests were conducted in glass house. Following species were found to be associated with sheath rot of rice: S. oryzae, F. graminearum, F. udum, F. avenaceum, B. oryzae, A. padwickii. This is the first report in the world that F. udum and A. padwickii are the causal agents of the sheath rot on rice plants.

  18. Arsenic, organic foods, and brown rice syrup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Brian P; Taylor, Vivien F; Karagas, Margaret R; Punshon, Tracy; Cottingham, Kathryn L

    2012-05-01

    Rice can be a major source of inorganic arsenic (Asi) for many sub-populations. Rice products are also used as ingredients in prepared foods, some of which may not be obviously rice based. Organic brown rice syrup (OBRS) is used as a sweetener in organic food products as an alternative to high-fructose corn syrup. We hypothesized that OBRS introduces As into these products. We determined the concentration and speciation of As in commercially available brown rice syrups and in products containing OBRS, including toddler formula, cereal/energy bars, and high-energy foods used by endurance athletes. We used inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and ion chromatography coupled to ICP-MS to determine total As (Astotal) concentrations and As speciation in products purchased via the Internet or in stores in the Hanover, New Hampshire, area. We found that OBRS can contain high concentrations of Asi and dimethyl-arsenate (DMA). An "organic" toddler milk formula containing OBRS as the primary ingredient had Astotal concentrations up to six times the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency safe drinking water limit. Cereal bars and high-energy foods containing OBRS also had higher As concentrations than equivalent products that did not contain OBRS. Asi was the main As species in most food products tested in this study. There are currently no U.S. regulations applicable to As in food, but our findings suggest that the OBRS products we evaluated may introduce significant concentrations of Asi into an individual's diet. Thus, we conclude that there is an urgent need for regulatory limits on As in food.

  19. Chemical Safety of Unpolished Nigerian Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinsola Francis Awopetu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Levels of arsenic (As, lead (Pb, cadmium (Cd, calcium (Ca, chromium (Cr, potassium (K, sodium (Na, and zinc (Zn in locally cultivated rice consumed in Ondo and Ekiti States of Nigeria were investigated. The rice samples were obtained from six different rice-producing towns; Akure, Ondo, Ado, Igbemo, Ikole and Erinjiyan. The estimated dietary intake (EDI of these elements were determined and compared with the provisional tolerable daily intake (PTDI and dietary reference intake (DRI values for toxic and essential elements respectively. The measured mean levels of Pb, As, Cr, Cd, Zn, Na, Ca and K were 0.047 ± 0.007, 0.041 ± 0.004, 0.570 ± 0.032, 0.026 ± 0.003, 7.856 ± 0.659, 42.15 ± 0.191, 337.11 ± 0.315, and 2650.09 ± 0.337 µg/g respectively while the average EDI were 00.101 ± 0.042 µg/day, 0.088 ± 0.14µg/day, 1.234 ± 0.045 µg/day, 0.057 ± 0.002 µg/day, 0.017 ± 0.071 mg/day, 0.091 ± 0.013 mg/day, 0.73 ± 0.018 mg/day and 5.742 ± 0.337 mg/day respectively. The EDIs were not significantly higher than the reference values for the elements except Cr. Also the rice samples were not rich enough in sodium, calcium and potassium compared to the dietary reference intakes for these elements. It is recommended that rice diets should be supplemented with other food items such as meat, fruits and vegetables.

  20. Mechanical properties of rough and dehulled rice during drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo Resende

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 Normal 0 21 false false false PT-BR X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 This work aimed to determine the mechanical properties of rough and dehulled rice grains, for different moisture contents, by obtaining their rupture force, deformation, maximum compression force and proportional deformity modulus under a compression test. Rice grains, with moisture content varying from 0.12 to 0.30 (d.b., were subject to an uniaxial compression in order to analyze these properties. On reducting moisture content the rupture force increased from 37.2 to 70.6 N for dehulled rice and 48.0 to 79.5 N for rough rice. The average compression force varied from 131 to 171 N for dehulled rice and 203 to 283 N for rough rice. The value range of proportional deformity modulus was from 5.5 x 109 to 7.4 x 109 Pa for dehulled rice and 9.5 x 109 to 12.3 x 109 Pa for rough rice. Rough rice presented more resistance to compression compared to dehulled rice.

  1. Higher yields and lower methane emissions with new rice cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yu; van Groenigen, Kees Jan; Huang, Shan; Hungate, Bruce A; van Kessel, Chris; Hu, Shuijin; Zhang, Jun; Wu, Lianhai; Yan, Xiaojun; Wang, Lili; Chen, Jin; Hang, Xiaoning; Zhang, Yi; Horwath, William R; Ye, Rongzhong; Linquist, Bruce A; Song, Zhenwei; Zheng, Chengyan; Deng, Aixing; Zhang, Weijian

    2017-11-01

    Breeding high-yielding rice cultivars through increasing biomass is a key strategy to meet rising global food demands. Yet, increasing rice growth can stimulate methane (CH4 ) emissions, exacerbating global climate change, as rice cultivation is a major source of this powerful greenhouse gas. Here, we show in a series of experiments that high-yielding rice cultivars actually reduce CH4 emissions from typical paddy soils. Averaged across 33 rice cultivars, a biomass increase of 10% resulted in a 10.3% decrease in CH4 emissions in a soil with a high carbon (C) content. Compared to a low-yielding cultivar, a high-yielding cultivar significantly increased root porosity and the abundance of methane-consuming microorganisms, suggesting that the larger and more porous root systems of high-yielding cultivars facilitated CH4 oxidation by promoting O2 transport to soils. Our results were further supported by a meta-analysis, showing that high-yielding rice cultivars strongly decrease CH4 emissions from paddy soils with high organic C contents. Based on our results, increasing rice biomass by 10% could reduce annual CH4 emissions from Chinese rice agriculture by 7.1%. Our findings suggest that modern rice breeding strategies for high-yielding cultivars can substantially mitigate paddy CH4 emission in China and other rice growing regions. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Rice production model based on the concept of ecological footprint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faiz, S. A.; Wicaksono, A. D.; Dinanti, D.

    2017-06-01

    Pursuant to what had been stated in Region Spatial Planning (RTRW) of Malang Regency for period 2010-2030, Malang Regency was considered as the center of agricultural development, including districts bordered with Malang City. To protect the region functioning as the provider of rice production, then the policy of sustainable food farming-land (LP2B) was made which its implementation aims to protect rice-land. In the existing condition, LP2B system was not maximally executed, and it caused a limited extend of rice-land to deliver rice production output. One cause related with the development of settlements and industries due to the effect of Malang City that converted land-function. Location of research focused on 30 villages with direct border with Malang City. Review was conducted to develop a model of relation between farming production output and ecological footprint variables. These variables include rice-land area (X1), built land percentage (X2), and number of farmers (X3). Analysis technique was regression. Result of regression indicated that the model of rice production output Y=-207,983 + 10.246X1. Rice-land area (X1) was the most influential independent variable. It was concluded that of villages directly bordered with Malang City, there were 11 villages with higher production potential because their rice production yield was more than 1,000 tons/year, while 12 villages were threatened with low production output because its rice production yield only attained 500 tons/year. Based on the model and the spatial direction of RTRW, it can be said that the direction for the farming development policy must be redesigned to maintain rice-land area on the regions on which agricultural activity was still dominant. Because rice-land area was the most influential factor to farming production. Therefore, the wider the rice-land is, the higher rice production output is on each village.

  3. Tungsten (W) bioavailability in paddy rice soils and its accumulation in rice (Oryza sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Blessing; Zhang, Weili; Sun, Pei; Wu, Mingyan; Li, Hong Hong; Khaliq, Muhammad Athar; Jayasuriya, Pathmamali; James, Swithin; Wang, Guo

    2017-10-10

    The aim of this study was to investigate the accumulation characteristics of tungsten (W) by different indica rice cultivars from the soil and to assess the potential risks to human health via dietary intake of W in rice consumption. A total of 153 rice (ear) samples of 15 cultivars and the corresponding surface soil samples were collected from 7 cities in Fujian Province of southeastern China. The available soil W were extracted using H2C2O4·2H2O-(NH4)2C2O4·H2O at pH 3.3). Results showed that the total soil W ranged from 2.03 mg kg(-1) to 15.34 mg kg(-1 )and available soil W ranged from 0.03 mg kg(-1) to 1.61 mg kg(-1). The W concentration in brown rice varied from 7 μg kg(-1) to 283 μg kg(-1) and was significantly correlated with the available soil W. The highest mean TFavail (transfer factor based on available soil W) was 0.91 for Te-you 627 (hybrid, indica rice), whereas the lowest was 0.08 for Yi-you 673 (hybrid, indica rice). The TFavail decreased with the increase in available soil W, clay content, and cation exchange capacity. The consumption of the brown rice produced from the investigated areas in some cultivars by the present study may cause risks to human health.

  4. Estimation of rice yield affected by drought and relation between rice yield and TVDI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongo, C.; Tamura, E.; Sigit, G.

    2016-12-01

    Impact of climate change is not only seen on food production but also on food security and sustainable development of society. Adaptation to climate change is a pressing issue throughout the world to reduce the risks along with the plans and strategies for food security and sustainable development. As a key adaptation to the climate change, agricultural insurance is expected to play an important role in stabilizing agricultural production through compensating the losses caused by the climate change. As the adaptation, the Government of Indonesia has launched agricultural insurance program for damage of rice by drought, flood and pest and disease. The Government started a pilot project in 2013 and this year the pilot project has been extended to 22 provinces. Having the above as background, we conducted research on development of new damage assessment method for rice using remote sensing data which could be used for evaluation of damage ratio caused by drought in West Java, Indonesia. For assessment of the damage ratio, estimation of rice yield is a key. As the result of our study, rice yield affected by drought in dry season could be estimated at level of 1 % significance using SPOT 7 data taken in 2015, and the validation result was 0.8t/ha. Then, the decrease ratio in rice yield about each individual paddy field was calculated using data of the estimated result and the average yield of the past 10 years. In addition, TVDI (Temperature Vegetation Dryness Index) which was calculated from Landsat8 data in heading season indicated the dryness in low yield area. The result suggests that rice yield was affected by irrigation water shortage around heading season as a result of the decreased precipitation by El Nino. Through our study, it becomes clear that the utilization of remote sensing data can be promising for assessment of the damage ratio of rice production precisely, quickly and quantitatively, and also it can be incorporated into the insurance procedures.

  5. Emissions Of Greenhouse Gases From Rice Agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Aslam K. Khalil

    2009-07-16

    This project produced detailed data on the processes that affect methane and nitrous oxide emissions from rice agriculture and their inter-relationships. It defines the shifting roles and potential future of these gases in causing global warming and the benefits and tradeoffs of reducing emissions. The major results include: 1). Mechanisms and Processes Leading to Methane Emissions are Delineated. Our experiments have tested the standard model of methane emissions from rice fields and found new results on the processes that control the flux. A mathematical mass balance model was used to unravel the production, oxidation and transport of methane from rice. The results suggested that when large amounts of organic matter are applied, the additional flux that is observed is due to both greater production and reduced oxidation of methane. 2). Methane Emissions From China Have Been Decreasing Over the Last Two Decades. We have calculated that methane emissions from rice fields have been falling in recent decades. This decrease is particularly large in China. While some of this is due to reduced area of rice agriculture, the bigger effect is from the reduction in the emission factor which is the annual amount of methane emitted per hectare of rice. The two most important changes that cause this decreasing emission from China are the reduced use of organic amendments which have been replaced by commercial nitrogen fertilizers, and the increased practice of intermittent flooding as greater demands are placed on water resources. 3). Global Methane Emissions Have Been Constant For More Than 20 Years. While the concentrations of methane in the atmosphere have been leveling off in recent years, our studies show that this is caused by a near constant total global source of methane for the last 20 years or more. This is probably because as some anthropogenic sources have increased, others, such as the rice agriculture source, have fallen. Changes in natural emissions appear small

  6. Allelopathic effects of jungle rice (Echinochloa colona (L.Link extract on seed germination and seedling growth of rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pimjai Sitthinoi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The allelopathic effects of jungle rice were investigated on the seed germination and seedling growth of the two rice cultivars, Khao Dawk Mali 105 and RD41. Jungle rice extract with varying concentrations (0 mg/mL, 1 mg/mL, 5 mg/mL and 10 mg/mL was prepared using three solvents (hexane, dichloromethane and methanol from shoots and roots separately. The jungle rice extracts from the shoot part showed a higher inhibitory effect on the root length and seedling dry weight of rice compared to the extracts from the root part. Different extraction solvents caused differences in the inhibitory effect on the germination and seedling growth of rice and had an interaction with the extract concentration in all parameters measured. Methanol extraction solvent severely inhibited the seed germination of both cultivars regardless of the extract concentrations, whereas the jungle rice extracts using dichloromethane and hexane showed moderate inhibitory effects depending on the concentrations of 1–10 mg/mL, respectively. It can be concluded that jungle rice extracts contain allelopathic compounds and can inhibit the seed germination and seedling growth of rice. Methanol should be used as an extraction solvent if the inhibitory effect of the jungle rice extract is required.

  7. The puzzle of Italian rice origin and evolution: determining genetic divergence and affinity of rice germplasm from Italy and Asia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingxing Cai

    Full Text Available The characterization of genetic divergence and relationships of a set of germplasm is essential for its efficient applications in crop breeding and understanding of the origin/evolution of crop varieties from a given geographical region. As the largest rice producing country in Europe, Italy holds rice germplasm with abundant genetic diversity. Although Italian rice varieties and the traditional ones in particular have played important roles in rice production and breeding, knowledge concerning the origin and evolution of Italian traditional varieties is still limited. To solve the puzzle of Italian rice origin, we characterized genetic divergence and relationships of 348 rice varieties from Italy and Asia based on the polymorphisms of microsatellite fingerprints. We also included common wild rice O. rufipogon as a reference in the characterization. Results indicated relatively rich genetic diversity (H(e = 0.63-0.65 in Italian rice varieties. Further analyses revealed a close genetic relationship of the Italian traditional varieties with those from northern China, which provides strong genetic evidence for tracing the possible origin of early established rice varieties in Italy. These findings have significant implications for the rice breeding programs, in which appropriate germplasm can be selected from a given region and utilized for transferring unique genetic traits based on its genetic diversity and evolutionary relationships.

  8. The use of induced mutation combined with crossing in high quality rice breeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Do Huu At; Bui Huy Thuy; Nguyen Van Bich; Tran Duy Quy [Agricultural Genetics Institute, Division of Genetics and Hybrid Rice Technology, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Nguyen Minh Cong [Hanoi No. 1 Teacher Training Univ., Department of Genetics (Viet Nam)

    2001-03-01

    The high quality rice varieties: Tam thom mutant rice Var., DT17 rice Var, DT21 glutinous rice Var were formed by induced mutation combined with crossing. Tam thom mutant rice Var. lost photosensitivity, could be planted 2 crops/year. DT17 rice Var with high yielding capacity, suitable for growth on lowland in summer crop, is replacing step-by-step Moctuyen rice Var. in North Vietnam. DT21 glutinous rice Var. could be planted 2 crops/year and had short growth duration, average yield was 4.0-4.5 tons/ha. These three ones had good quality, soft and scent cooked rice, suitable for customers and export requirements. Tam thom mutant rice Var. DT17 rice Var., DT21 and glutinous rice Var. were adopted for regional production by Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development and allowed to be in trial production. (author)

  9. Dispersal distance of rice (Oryza Sativa L.) pollen at the Tana River ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-05-18

    May 18, 2009 ... chances of gene flow from transgenic rice to conventional or wild rices. Key words: Pollen dispersal, gene ... However, cultivation of GM rice may have agronomic and environmental ..... Taxonomy of Zea (Gramineae). I. A sub-.

  10. Molecular Evolution of the Rice Blast Resistance Gene Pi-ta in Invasive Weedy Rice in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seonghee; Jia, Yulin; Jia, Melissa; Gealy, David R.; Olsen, Kenneth M.; Caicedo, Ana L.

    2011-01-01

    The Pi-ta gene in rice has been effectively used to control rice blast disease caused by Magnaporthe oryzae worldwide. Despite a number of studies that reported the Pi-ta gene in domesticated rice and wild species, little is known about how the Pi-ta gene has evolved in US weedy rice, a major weed of rice. To investigate the genome organization of the Pi-ta gene in weedy rice and its relationship to gene flow between cultivated and weedy rice in the US, we analyzed nucleotide sequence variation at the Pi-ta gene and its surrounding 2 Mb region in 156 weedy, domesticated and wild rice relatives. We found that the region at and around the Pi-ta gene shows very low genetic diversity in US weedy rice. The patterns of molecular diversity in weeds are more similar to cultivated rice (indica and aus), which have never been cultivated in the US, rather than the wild rice species, Oryza rufipogon. In addition, the resistant Pi-ta allele (Pi-ta) found in the majority of US weedy rice belongs to the weedy group strawhull awnless (SH), suggesting a single source of origin for Pi-ta. Weeds with Pi-ta were resistant to two M. oryzae races, IC17 and IB49, except for three accessions, suggesting that component(s) required for the Pi-ta mediated resistance may be missing in these accessions. Signatures of flanking sequences of the Pi-ta gene and SSR markers on chromosome 12 suggest that the susceptible pi-ta allele (pi-ta), not Pi-ta, has been introgressed from cultivated to weedy rice by out-crossing. PMID:22043312

  11. Rice DB: an Oryza Information Portal linking annotation, subcellular location, function, expression, regulation, and evolutionary information for rice and Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narsai, Reena; Devenish, James; Castleden, Ian; Narsai, Kabir; Xu, Lin; Shou, Huixia; Whelan, James

    2013-12-01

    Omics research in Oryza sativa (rice) relies on the use of multiple databases to obtain different types of information to define gene function. We present Rice DB, an Oryza information portal that is a functional genomics database, linking gene loci to comprehensive annotations, expression data and the subcellular location of encoded proteins. Rice DB has been designed to integrate the direct comparison of rice with Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), based on orthology or 'expressology', thus using and combining available information from two pre-eminent plant models. To establish Rice DB, gene identifiers (more than 40 types) and annotations from a variety of sources were compiled, functional information based on large-scale and individual studies was manually collated, hundreds of microarrays were analysed to generate expression annotations, and the occurrences of potential functional regulatory motifs in promoter regions were calculated. A range of computational subcellular localization predictions were also run for all putative proteins encoded in the rice genome, and experimentally confirmed protein localizations have been collated, curated and linked to functional studies in rice. A single search box allows anything from gene identifiers (for rice and/or Arabidopsis), motif sequences, subcellular location, to keyword searches to be entered, with the capability of Boolean searches (such as AND/OR). To demonstrate the utility of Rice DB, several examples are presented including a rice mitochondrial proteome, which draws on a variety of sources for subcellular location data within Rice DB. Comparisons of subcellular location, functional annotations, as well as transcript expression in parallel with Arabidopsis reveals examples of conservation between rice and Arabidopsis, using Rice DB (http://ricedb.plantenergy.uwa.edu.au). © 2013 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Molecular evolution of the rice blast resistance gene Pi-ta in invasive weedy rice in the USA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seonghee Lee

    Full Text Available The Pi-ta gene in rice has been effectively used to control rice blast disease caused by Magnaporthe oryzae worldwide. Despite a number of studies that reported the Pi-ta gene in domesticated rice and wild species, little is known about how the Pi-ta gene has evolved in US weedy rice, a major weed of rice. To investigate the genome organization of the Pi-ta gene in weedy rice and its relationship to gene flow between cultivated and weedy rice in the US, we analyzed nucleotide sequence variation at the Pi-ta gene and its surrounding 2 Mb region in 156 weedy, domesticated and wild rice relatives. We found that the region at and around the Pi-ta gene shows very low genetic diversity in US weedy rice. The patterns of molecular diversity in weeds are more similar to cultivated rice (indica and aus, which have never been cultivated in the US, rather than the wild rice species, Oryza rufipogon. In addition, the resistant Pi-ta allele (Pi-ta found in the majority of US weedy rice belongs to the weedy group strawhull awnless (SH, suggesting a single source of origin for Pi-ta. Weeds with Pi-ta were resistant to two M. oryzae races, IC17 and IB49, except for three accessions, suggesting that component(s required for the Pi-ta mediated resistance may be missing in these accessions. Signatures of flanking sequences of the Pi-ta gene and SSR markers on chromosome 12 suggest that the susceptible pi-ta allele (pi-ta, not Pi-ta, has been introgressed from cultivated to weedy rice by out-crossing.

  13. Lower weight gain and hepatic lipid content in hamsters fed high fat diets supplemented with white rice protein, brown rice protein, and soy protein and their hydrolysates

    Science.gov (United States)

    The physiological effects of the hydrolysates from white rice, brown rice, and soy isolate were compared to the original protein source. White rice, brown rice, and soy protein were hydrolyzed with the food grade enzyme, alcalase2.4 L®. Male Syrian hamsters were fed high-fat diets containing eithe...

  14. The rice growth image files - The Rice Growth Monitoring for The Phenotypic Functional Analysis | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us The Rice Growth Monitoring for The Phenotypic Functional Analysis The rice growth image file...ite Policy | Contact Us The rice growth image files - The Rice Growth Monitoring for The Phenotypic Functional Analysis | LSDB Archive ...

  15. Use of SSR markers to discern reciprocal outcrossing rates between weedy red rice types and rice cultivars having different degrees of flowering synchronization

    Science.gov (United States)

    A broad range of flowering synchronization between red rice and rice was established by planting rice cultivars that flowered earlier, similar to, or later than red rice. Five SSR markers were used to identify hybrids. Outcrossing rates differed greatly depending on the degree of synchronization a...

  16. Rice Yellow Mottle Virus stress responsive genes from susceptible and tolerant rice genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siré Christelle

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effects of viral infection involve concomitant plant gene variations and cellular changes. A simple system is required to assess the complexity of host responses to viral infection. The genome of the Rice yellow mottle virus (RYMV is a single-stranded RNA with a simple organisation. It is the most well-known monocotyledon virus model. Several studies on its biology, structure and phylogeography have provided a suitable background for further genetic studies. 12 rice chromosome sequences are now available and provide strong support for genomic studies, particularly physical mapping and gene identification. Results The present data, obtained through the cDNA-AFLP technique, demonstrate differential responses to RYMV of two different rice cultivars, i.e. susceptible IR64 (Oryza sativa indica, and partially resistant Azucena (O. s. japonica. This RNA profiling provides a new original dataset that will enable us to gain greater insight into the RYMV/rice interaction and the specificity of the host response. Using the SIM4 subroutine, we took the intron/exon structure of the gene into account and mapped 281 RYMV stress responsive (RSR transcripts on 12 rice chromosomes corresponding to 234 RSR genes. We also mapped previously identified deregulated proteins and genes involved in partial resistance and thus constructed the first global physical map of the RYMV/rice interaction. RSR transcripts on rice chromosomes 4 and 10 were found to be not randomly distributed. Seven genes were identified in the susceptible and partially resistant cultivars, and transcripts were colocalized for these seven genes in both cultivars. During virus infection, many concomitant plant gene expression changes may be associated with host changes caused by the infection process, general stress or defence responses. We noted that some genes (e.g. ABC transporters were regulated throughout the kinetics of infection and differentiated susceptible and

  17. Modified broken rice starch as fat substitute in sausages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Maria Limberger

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The demand for low-fat beef products has led the food industry to use fat substitutes such as modified starch. About 14% of broken rice is generated during processing. Nevertheless, this by-product contains high levels of starch; being therefore, great raw material for fat substitution. This study evaluated the applicability of chemically and physically modified broken rice starch as fat substitute in sausages. Extruded and phosphorylated broken rice was used in low-fat sausage formulation. All low-fat sausages presented about 55% reduction in the fat content and around 28% reduction in the total caloric value. Fat replacement with phosphorylated and extruded broken rice starch increased the texture acceptability of low-fat sausages, when compared to low-fat sausages with no modified broken rice. Results suggest that modified broken rice can be used as fat substitute in sausage formulations, yielding lower caloric value products with acceptable sensory characteristics.

  18. Research Progress on Functional Analysis of Rice WRKY Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu SONG

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Rice is a model plant for genomic study of grass species. Functional identification and definition of rice genes becomes the object of its functional genomics research. WRKY gene superfamily, one of the transcription factor gene families, was recently suggested to play important roles in plant development and stress response. In rice, the results of analyses of expression pattern and ectopic overexpressor lines also support this viewpoint, and the evidences implicate rice WRKY proteins in transcriptional reprogramming during biotic or abiotic stresses, senescence, sugar metabolites, and morphological architecture. In this paper, we review the advance in study of rice WRKY gene family and also propose unified nomenclature for rice WRKY factors to eliminate confusion.

  19. Harvest season and head rice yield of upland rice cultivars submitted to parboiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diva Mendonça Garcia

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false PT-BR X-NONE X-NONE This work aimed to evaluate the effects of parboiling on the yield of upland rice cultivars harvested at different times. The cultivars were BRS Primavera and BRS Sertaneja, harvested at 30 and 47 days after flowering (DAF. For parboiling, samples were soaked in water bath at 65 °C in grain: water ratio of 1:1.6 in order to reach 25% and 30% moisture, and then were autoclaved for 10 minutes at 120 °C and 1.1 kg/cm2 of pressure. After drying up to 13% moisture in a greenhouse with forced air at 40 °C, samples were benefited, followed by separation using the trieur equipment and weighing to obtain the head rice yield. The results showed a higher yield for head rice harvested at 30 DAF than at 47 DAF (BRS Primavera 63.2 and 38.7%; BRS Sertaneja 68.5 and 55.7%, respectively. Parboiling increased the head rice yield, regardless of harvest season, but partly reflected the potential of the cultivar origin: BRS Primavera 70.06%, BRS Sertaneja 74.94%. It is concluded that the harvest season is one of the factors that most influence the quality of industrial rice and the effect of parboiling also depends on the potential of the material source.

  20. Comparative nutritional compositions and proteomics analysis of transgenic Xa21 rice seeds compared to conventional rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayen, Dipak; Paul, Soumitra; Sarkar, Sailendra Nath; Datta, Swapan K; Datta, Karabi

    2016-07-15

    Transgenic rice expressing the Xa21 gene have enhanced resistant to most devastating bacterial blight diseases caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo). However, identification of unintended modifications, owing to the genetic modification, is an important aspect of transgenic crop safety assessment. In this study, the nutritional compositions of seeds from transgenic rice plants expressing the Xa21 gene were compared against non-transgenic rice seeds. In addition, to detect any changes in protein translation levels as a result of Xa21 gene expression, rice seed proteome analyses were also performed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. No significant differences were found in the nutritional compositions (proximate components, amino acids, minerals, vitamins and anti-nutrients) of the transgenic and non-transgenic rice seeds. Although gel electrophoresis identified 11 proteins that were differentially expressed between the transgenic and non-transgenic seed, only one of these (with a 20-fold up-regulation in the transgenic seed) shows nutrient reservoir activity. No new toxins or allergens were detected in the transgenic seeds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Simple and rapid detection of Tilletia horrida causing rice kernel smut in rice seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu; Yang, Xue; Yao, Jian; Kyaw, Ei Phyu; Zhang, Ai-Fang; Li, Yun-Fei; Gu, Chun-Yan; Zang, Hao-Yu; Gao, Tong-Chun

    2016-09-14

    A simple and rapid method for the detection of Tilletia horrida, the causal agent of rice kernel smut, in rice seeds is developed based on specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR). To design the specific primers for the detection of T. horrida, partial sequences of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) DNA region of T. horrida, T. controversa, T. walkeri, T. ehrhartae, T. indica and T. caries were analyzed and compared. A 503-bp fragment was amplified with the designed primers from the T. horrida genomic DNA. However, no PCR product was obtained from the DNA of other five Tilletia species and 22 fungal plant pathogens tested in the present work indicating the specificity of the primers for the detection of T. horrida. The PCR was performed by directly using the spores, isolated from the 21 different rice seed samples, as template DNA. The T. horrida was detected in 6 of the samples, indicating that 28.6% of the rice samples were contaminated with the kernel smut pathogen. This simple PCR based diagnostic assay can be applied for the direct and rapid detection and identification of T. horrida to screen large numbers of rice seed samples.

  2. Classification of Malaysia aromatic rice using multivariate statistical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, A. H.; Adom, A. H.; Shakaff, A. Y. Md; Masnan, M. J.; Zakaria, A.; Rahim, N. A.; Omar, O.

    2015-05-01

    Aromatic rice (Oryza sativa L.) is considered as the best quality premium rice. The varieties are preferred by consumers because of its preference criteria such as shape, colour, distinctive aroma and flavour. The price of aromatic rice is higher than ordinary rice due to its special needed growth condition for instance specific climate and soil. Presently, the aromatic rice quality is identified by using its key elements and isotopic variables. The rice can also be classified via Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) or human sensory panels. However, the uses of human sensory panels have significant drawbacks such as lengthy training time, and prone to fatigue as the number of sample increased and inconsistent. The GC-MS analysis techniques on the other hand, require detailed procedures, lengthy analysis and quite costly. This paper presents the application of in-house developed Electronic Nose (e-nose) to classify new aromatic rice varieties. The e-nose is used to classify the variety of aromatic rice based on the samples odour. The samples were taken from the variety of rice. The instrument utilizes multivariate statistical data analysis, including Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) and K-Nearest Neighbours (KNN) to classify the unknown rice samples. The Leave-One-Out (LOO) validation approach is applied to evaluate the ability of KNN to perform recognition and classification of the unspecified samples. The visual observation of the PCA and LDA plots of the rice proves that the instrument was able to separate the samples into different clusters accordingly. The results of LDA and KNN with low misclassification error support the above findings and we may conclude that the e-nose is successfully applied to the classification of the aromatic rice varieties.

  3. Aerobic rice: crop performance and water use efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Grassi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Rice (Oryza sativa production largely depends on traditional flooded rice systems whose sustainability is threatened by a progressive decrease in water availability and a constant increase in rice demand due to strong demographic boom in world population. A newly developed water-saving rice system is aerobic rice in which rice grows in nonflooded and unsaturated soil. From 2001, at the International Rice Research Institute in the Philippines, this system has been monitored to identify potentially promising varieties of rice able to grow as an irrigated upland crop and quantify yield potential and water use efficiency. This study reports on the results of cultivating the upland rice variety Apo under different water conditions in 2004-2005 at the IRRI farm in both the dry and wet seasons. The water treatments considered were: aerobic and flooded conditions, alternated flooded and aerobic conditions and aerobic after fallow. Yield and water productivity were compared between aerobic and flooded treatment in both seasons, with the objective of analysing the differences between water treatments. In the experiment the effect of different nitrogen (N application is also considered. The results indicate that the aerobic rice yield was lower than rice production under flood treatment, confirming that observed over past years. Nevertheless, when the aerobic condition is alternated with the anaerobic condition, or a fallow period, the production under aerobic treatment provides good yields (respectively 4.2 and 4.4 ha-1. The fallow period was introduced to observe the response of rice grown under this management. Water productivity was higher in aerobic fields, especially after fallow (0.88 g kg-1. The nitrogen application induced an increase in yield and water productivity, partially compensating for the lack of water in aerobic fields.

  4. Origin of rice (Oryza sativa L.) domestication genes

    OpenAIRE

    Civ??, Peter; Brown, Terence A.

    2017-01-01

    A number of genes that contribute to the domestication traits of cultivated rice have been identified. These include Sh4, Rc, PROG1 and LABA1, which are associated with non-shattering rachis, white pericarp, erect growth and barbless awns, respectively. The mutations giving rise to the ?domestication alleles? of these genes are either invariable in cultivated rice, or have variability that is strictly associated with the phenotypic trait. This observation forms the basis to those current rice...

  5. Classification of Malaysia aromatic rice using multivariate statistical analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdullah, A. H.; Adom, A. H.; Shakaff, A. Y. Md; Masnan, M. J.; Zakaria, A.; Rahim, N. A. [School of Mechatronic Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, Kampus Pauh Putra, 02600 Arau, Perlis (Malaysia); Omar, O. [Malaysian Agriculture Research and Development Institute (MARDI), Persiaran MARDI-UPM, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2015-05-15

    Aromatic rice (Oryza sativa L.) is considered as the best quality premium rice. The varieties are preferred by consumers because of its preference criteria such as shape, colour, distinctive aroma and flavour. The price of aromatic rice is higher than ordinary rice due to its special needed growth condition for instance specific climate and soil. Presently, the aromatic rice quality is identified by using its key elements and isotopic variables. The rice can also be classified via Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) or human sensory panels. However, the uses of human sensory panels have significant drawbacks such as lengthy training time, and prone to fatigue as the number of sample increased and inconsistent. The GC–MS analysis techniques on the other hand, require detailed procedures, lengthy analysis and quite costly. This paper presents the application of in-house developed Electronic Nose (e-nose) to classify new aromatic rice varieties. The e-nose is used to classify the variety of aromatic rice based on the samples odour. The samples were taken from the variety of rice. The instrument utilizes multivariate statistical data analysis, including Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) and K-Nearest Neighbours (KNN) to classify the unknown rice samples. The Leave-One-Out (LOO) validation approach is applied to evaluate the ability of KNN to perform recognition and classification of the unspecified samples. The visual observation of the PCA and LDA plots of the rice proves that the instrument was able to separate the samples into different clusters accordingly. The results of LDA and KNN with low misclassification error support the above findings and we may conclude that the e-nose is successfully applied to the classification of the aromatic rice varieties.

  6. Determinants of Yield Gap in Lowland Rice Production in North ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results indicated that rice farmers in the area cultivated four improved rice varieties WITA 4, FARO 15, FARO 35 and FARO 44 with average yield gaps of 1.48, 2.85, 3.03 and 3.20 tons per hectare respectively. This makes these rice varieties under-exploited as farmers operate at levels where they obtain an average of 49% ...

  7. Red Yeast Rice Preparations: Are They Suitable Substitutions for Statins?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dujovne, Carlos A

    2017-10-01

    Red yeast rice, a commercially available food supplement known to reduce serum cholesterol, has been repeatedly advocated as alternative therapy for hypercholesterolemic patients that refuse statins, cannot tolerate statin therapy's side effects, or request a "naturopathic" medicine. Red yeast rice contains a fungus (Monascus purpureus), which was utilized in the original production of lovastatin (MEVACOR, Merck & Co, Whitehouse Station, NJ), the first marketed pharmaceutical statin, and is chemically identical to such product. Their identical properties account for the similarity in therapeutic and side effects of red yeast rice and lovastatin. The red yeast rice ingredient that blocks cholesterol production is monacolin K. Because red yeast rice preparations have large variability in monacolin K content, predicting or understanding dose-related efficacy and side-effect risks of red yeast rice is practically impossible. The lipid-regulating potency of red yeast rice in commercial preparations was found to be extensively different according to the number or concentration of monacolin K they possess. Furthermore, more than one type of monacolin was found in different preparations (or batches) of red yeast rice. Other ingredients found in red yeast rice are also known to be potentially toxic. The US Food and Drug Administration issued warnings to consumers in 2007 and in 2013 against taking red yeast rice products due to the lack of assurance about its efficacy, safety, and lack of standardized preparation methods. This article discusses my clinical trial results with red yeast rice, reviews the literature on its therapeutic and side effects, and discusses why red yeast rice is not an acceptable substitution for statins. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Investigation of Mechanical Properties of Rice Straw Fibre Polypropylene Composites

    OpenAIRE

    K Sudhakar,; Ch Srinivas

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of present work is to investigate the mechanical properties of rice straw fibre reinforced polypropylene composites at different weight fractions (0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 25%) of rice straw fibre. Rice straw fibre reinforced polypropylene composites were manufactured according to ASTM standards using injection moulding technique. The developed composites were then tested for their tensile, bending and impact properties. The standard test methods ASTM-D638M...

  9. Nutritionally enhanced rice to combat malnutrition disorders of the poor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potrykus, Ingo

    2003-06-01

    Major deficiency disorders, including vitamin A deficiency, are especially common in countries in which rice is the staple food. In response to the devastating effects of vitamin A deficiency, which may include blindness and, even death, "Golden Rice" has been developed to deliver this nutrient to those populations who need it most. The case of Golden Rice is used to demonstrate the challenges of radical GMO opposition, consumer acceptance, and regulation of biotechnology-derived foods.

  10. Genome-wide analysis of rice ClpB/HSP100, ClpC and ClpD genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mittal Dheeraj

    2010-02-01

    imparted appreciably high level tolerance to the mutant yeast cells. Conclusions Rice class I Clp ATPase gene family is constituted of 9 members. Of these 9, only 3 belonging to ClpB group are heat stress regulated. Distribution of ClpB proteins to different cell organelles indicates that their functioning might be critical in different cell locations. From the complementation assays, OsClpD1 appears to be more effective than OsClpB-cyt protein in rescuing the thermosensitive defect of the yeast ScΔhsp104 mutant cells.

  11. Land Titles and Rice Production in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Den Broeck, Katleen; Newman, Carol; Tarp, Finn

    In most of the empirical literature on land titling, the household is regarded as unitary, and land rights are found to have ambiguous effects on land allocation, investment and productivity. Using data from 12 provinces in Vietnam, we diversify land titles, and show in a household fixed effects...... analysis of plot level rice yields that land titles are indeed important. Only exclusively held titles have the expected positive effects, and the positive effect on yields is found in male headed households. Furthermore, a household level rice yield function reveals that exclusive user rights...... are inefficiency decreasing, while jointly held user rights have no efficiency effects. Finally, once the gender of the head of household is controlled for, exclusively held female titles have a greater positive effect on the efficiency of the household than that of male held titles....

  12. Genetic base of Brazilian irrigated rice cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hudson de Oliveira Rabelo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to estimate the genetic base of Brazilian irrigated rice cultivars released in the period from 1965 to 2012. The genealogies of the cultivars were obtained based on information from marketing folders, websites, crossings records, and scientific articles. The following factors were calculated: relative genetic contribution (RGC, accumulated genetic contribution (AGC, frequency (in percentage of each ancestor in the genealogy (FAG, number of ancestors that constitute each cultivar (NAC,number of ancestors responsible for 60%, 70%, 80% and 90% of the genetic base (NAGB, and average number of ancestor per cultivar (ANAC. The cultivars were also grouped based on the period of release (1965-1980, 1981-1990, 1991-2000 and 2001-2012. For each grouping, the previously described factors were also estimated. A total of 110 cultivars were studied and it was concluded that the genetic base of Brazilian irrigated rice cultivars is narrow.

  13. Microstructure and tensile properties of various varieties of rice husk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ziyong; Xu, Yangzi; Shivkumar, Satya

    2017-07-19

    Rice husk is a complex hierarchical assembly of hollow fibers consisting of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. In addition, it can also contain pectin and significant amounts of silica. Rice husk can be used in diverse applications and generally in the form of rice husk powder. This study aimed to investigate the structural features and mechanical properties of various varieties of whole rice husks. Rice husk consists of three sections: epidermis, sub-hypodermis and hypodermis. The thickness of these layers, the diameters of the hollow fibers and the wall thickness vary with the variety of rice husk. The elastic modulus is typically between 0.3 and 2.6 GPa, and the ultimate tensile strength varies from 19 to 135 MPa depending on the variety of rice husk. Rice husk has a unique hierarchical structure in which the fibers exhibit a staggered perpendicular arrangement and the entire fiber sections are covered by an external shell. The tensile properties vary with the variety of rice husk. The wide range in these tensile properties may be attributed to the size and orientation of the fibers. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Measuring efficiency of rice growing farmers using data envelopment analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaibidi, Nerda Zura; Kasim, Maznah Mat; Ramli, Razamin; Baten, Md. Azizul; Khan, Sahubar Ali Nadhar

    2015-12-01

    Self-sufficiency in rice production has been the main issue in Malaysia agriculture. It is significantly low and does not comply with the current average rice yield of 3.7 tons per ha per season. One of the best options and the most effective way to improve rice productivity is through more efficient utilization of paddy farmers. Getting farmers to grow rice is indeed a challenge when they could very well be making better money doing something else. This paper attempts to study the efficiency of rice growing farmers in Kubang Pasu using Data Envelopment Analysis model. For comparative analysis, three scenarios are considered in this study in measuring efficiency of rice growing farmers. The first scenario considers only fertilizer factor as an input while for the second, the land size is added as another factor. The third scenario considers more details about the inputs such as the type of fertilizer, NPK and mixed and also land tenureship and size. In all scenarios, the outputs are rice yield (tons) and the profit (RM). As expected, the findings show that the third scenario establishes the highest number of efficient rice growing farmers. It reveals that the combination of outputs and inputs chosen has significant contribution in measuring efficiency of rice growing farmers.

  15. Breeding strategies for increasing yield potential in super hybrid rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shihua CHENG,Xiaodeng ZHAN,Liyong CAO

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Super hybrid rice breeding is a new breeding method combining semi-dwarf breeding and heterosis breeding using germplasm and gene-environment interactions. This paper reviews the breeding strategies of super hybrid rice breeding in China, focusing on the utilization of heterosis of indica and japonica subspecies, construction of ideal plant architecture and pyramiding of disease resistant genes in restorer lines. To develop super hybrid rice, considerable effort should be made to explore genes related with high yield, good quality, resistance to pests and diseases, tolerance to stresses. Molecular breeding methods in combination with crossing techniques should be adopted in super hybrid rice breeding.

  16. The dynamics of rice production in Indonesia 1961–2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah R. Panuju

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rice is one of the important agricultural products in Indonesia. The production has been fully supported by infrastructure including research and development as well as government regulations in pricing. Its vulnerability to climate change requires adaptation strategies on irrigation, biotechnology and selection of alternative crops. The primary goal of this paper was to evaluate the historical perspective of the dynamics of rice production, technologies particularly in seed inventions, labour in farming and consumption of rice from 1961 to 2009 in conjunction with land capability. The study of historical rice production could be a benefit for future agricultural planning in Indonesia.

  17. Improvement of Salinity Stress Tolerance in Rice: Challenges and Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thi My Linh Hoang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Rice (Oryza sativa L. is an important staple crop that feeds more than one half of the world’s population and is the model system for monocotyledonous plants. However, rice is very sensitive to salinity and is the most salt sensitive cereal crop with a threshold of 3 dSm−1 for most cultivated varieties. Despite many attempts using different strategies to improve salinity tolerance in rice, the achievements so far are quite modest. This review aims to discuss challenges that hinder the improvement of salinity stress tolerance in rice as well as potential opportunities for enhancing salinity stress tolerance in this important crop.

  18. An SNP caused loss of seed shattering during rice domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Saeko; Izawa, Takeshi; Lin, Shao Yang; Ebana, Kaworu; Fukuta, Yoshimichi; Sasaki, Takuji; Yano, Masahiro

    2006-06-02

    Loss of seed shattering was a key event in the domestication of major cereals. We revealed that the qSH1 gene, a major quantitative trait locus of seed shattering in rice, encodes a BEL1-type homeobox gene and demonstrated that a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the 5' regulatory region of the qSH1 gene caused loss of seed shattering owing to the absence of abscission layer formation. Haplotype analysis and association analysis in various rice collections revealed that the SNP was highly associated with shattering among japonica subspecies of rice, implying that it was a target of artificial selection during rice domestication.

  19. Preparation and Evaluation of Alcohol-Alkaline-Treated Rice Starch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preparation and Evaluation of Alcohol-Alkaline-Treated Rice Starch as a Tablet Disintegrant. Yanisa Boonwatcharapan, Pathomthat Srisuk, Pasquale Palladino, Saengrawee Sutthiparinyanont, Padungkwan Chitropas ...

  20. Morphological variation of 20 local rice cultivars of East Kalimantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FITRI HANDAYANI

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Handayani F, Sumarmiyati, Ahmadi NR. 2016. Morphological variation of 20 local rice cultivars of East Kalimantan. Pros Sem Nas Masy Biodiv Indon 3: 88-93. High diversity of local rice is very important in rice breeding program as a gene pool for valuable traits such as resistance to specific disease and tolerance against environmental stresses (Al, Fe, acidity, etc. East Kalimantan is a province which has so many local rice cultivars either lowland, upland or tidal swamp rice. Unfortunately, there is still limited scientific information about local rice genetic diversity in East Kalimantan, whereas it is an important basic information for rice breeding program. The aim of this research was to study the morphological variation of 20 local rice cultivars from some regions in East Kalimantan. The research was conducted at Lempake trial field, Samarinda in April-September 2016. The result showed that the cultivars had variability in morphological characters. Plant profile was medium to high while some tillers were little and very little. The color of lemma and palea was yellowish straw in 17 cultivars while the rest had brown lines in yellowish straw background. Seed length ranged between 7.3-9.6 mm, while seed width ranged between 1.9-3.3 mm, and seed thickness ranged between 1.5-2.1 mm. The shape of the rice grain varied between medium grain (length: width = 2.1-3.0 or long grain (length: width > 3.0.

  1. Interactions between the oomycete Pythium arrhenomanes and the rice root-knot nematode Meloidogyne graminicola in aerobic Asian rice varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeek, R E M; Banaay, C G B; Sikder, M; De Waele, D; Vera Cruz, C M; Gheysen, G; Höfte, M; Kyndt, Tina

    2016-12-01

    Aerobic rice fields are frequently infested by pathogenic oomycetes (Pythium spp.) and the rice root-knot nematode Meloidogyne graminicola. Here, the interaction between Pythium arrhenomanes and Meloidogyne graminicola was studied in rice roots of two aerobic rice varieties. In different experimental set-ups and infection regimes, plant growth, rice yield, Pythium colonization, as well as establishment, development and reproduction of M. graminicola were studied. In this study, it is shown that the presence of P. arrhenomanes delays the establishment, development and reproduction of M. graminicola compared to single nematode infected plants. The delay in establishment and development of M. graminicola becomes stronger with higher P. arrhenomanes infection pressure. Our data indicate that P. arrhenomanes antagonizes M. graminicola in the rice root and that the plant benefits from this antagonism as shown by the yield data, especially when either of the pathogens is present in high levels.

  2. Efficiency of nitrogen fertilizers for rice

    OpenAIRE

    Roger, Pierre-Armand; Grant, I. F.; Reddy, P. M.; Watanabe, I

    1987-01-01

    The photosynthetic biomass that develops in the floodwater of wetland rice fields affects nitrogen dynamics in the ecosystem. This review summarizes available data on the nature, productivity, and composition of the photosynthetic aquatic biomass, and its major activities regarding the nitrogen cycle, i.e., nitrogen fixation by free living blue-green algae and #Azolla$, nitrogen trapping, nitrogen accumulation at the soil surface, its effect on nitrogen losses by ammonia volatilization, nitro...

  3. Grain Unloading of Arsenic Species in Rice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carey, Anne-Marie; Scheckel, Kirk G.; Lombi, Enzo; Newville, Matt; Choi, Yongseong; Norton, Gareth J.; Charnock, John M.; Feldmann, Joerg; Price, Adam H.; Meharg, Andrew A. (EPA); (U. South Australia); (Manchester); (Aberdeen); (UC)

    2010-01-11

    Rice (Oryza sativa) is the staple food for over half the world's population yet may represent a significant dietary source of inorganic arsenic (As), a nonthreshold, class 1 human carcinogen. Rice grain As is dominated by the inorganic species, and the organic species dimethylarsinic acid (DMA). To investigate how As species are unloaded into grain rice, panicles were excised during grain filling and hydroponically pulsed with arsenite, arsenate, glutathione-complexed As, or DMA. Total As concentrations in flag leaf, grain, and husk, were quantified by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy and As speciation in the fresh grain was determined by x-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy. The roles of phloem and xylem transport were investigated by applying a {+-} stem-girdling treatment to a second set of panicles, limiting phloem transport to the grain in panicles pulsed with arsenite or DMA. The results demonstrate that DMA is translocated to the rice grain with over an order magnitude greater efficiency than inorganic species and is more mobile than arsenite in both the phloem and the xylem. Phloem transport accounted for 90% of arsenite, and 55% of DMA, transport to the grain. Synchrotron x-ray fluorescence mapping and fluorescence microtomography revealed marked differences in the pattern of As unloading into the grain between DMA and arsenite-challenged grain. Arsenite was retained in the ovular vascular trace and DMA dispersed throughout the external grain parts and into the endosperm. This study also demonstrates that DMA speciation is altered in planta, potentially through complexation with thiols.

  4. Transcriptome response to nitrogen starvation in rice

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Relative expression analysis of osa-miR399i and osa-miR530 in rice plant by qRT-PCR. CK: no N starvation treatment; -N: 7d after N starvation. Y-axis means the relative expression levels, values are ... Supplementary table 5C. Target genes of osa-miR399 and osa-miR530 and their expression details under N starvation.

  5. Transmission of Rice Black-Streaked Dwarf Virus from Frozen Infected Leaves to Healthy Rice Plants by Small Brown Planthopper (Laodelphax striatellus)

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Tong; Wu, Li-juan; Wang, Ying; Cheng, Zhao-Bang; Ji, Ying-Hua; Yong-jian FAN; Zhou, Yi-Jun

    2011-01-01

    In order to preserve virus for identifying the resistance of rice varieties against rice black-streaked dwarf disease, a simple and reliable method was developed, through which virus-free small brown planthopper (SBPH) acquired rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV) from frozen infected leaves and the virus was transmitted to healthy rice plants. The experimental results showed that SBPH could obtain RBSDV from frozen infected rice leaves and the virus could be transmitted to a susceptible r...

  6. Manually curated database of rice proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gour, Pratibha; Garg, Priyanka; Jain, Rashmi; Joseph, Shaji V; Tyagi, Akhilesh K; Raghuvanshi, Saurabh

    2014-01-01

    'Manually Curated Database of Rice Proteins' (MCDRP) available at http://www.genomeindia.org/biocuration is a unique curated database based on published experimental data. Semantic integration of scientific data is essential to gain a higher level of understanding of biological systems. Since the majority of scientific data is available as published literature, text mining is an essential step before the data can be integrated and made available for computer-based search in various databases. However, text mining is a tedious exercise and thus, there is a large gap in the data available in curated databases and published literature. Moreover, data in an experiment can be perceived from several perspectives, which may not reflect in the text-based curation. In order to address such issues, we have demonstrated the feasibility of digitizing the experimental data itself by creating a database on rice proteins based on in-house developed data curation models. Using these models data of individual experiments have been digitized with the help of universal ontologies. Currently, the database has data for over 1800 rice proteins curated from >4000 different experiments of over 400 research articles. Since every aspect of the experiment such as gene name, plant type, tissue and developmental stage has been digitized, experimental data can be rapidly accessed and integrated.

  7. Malaysian weedy rice shows its true stripes: wild Oryza and elite rice cultivars shape agricultural weed evolution in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Beng-Kah; Chuah, Tse-Seng; Tam, Sheh May; Olsen, Kenneth M

    2014-10-01

    Weedy rice is a close relative of domesticated rice (Oryza sativa) that competes aggressively with the crop and limits rice productivity worldwide. Most genetic studies of weedy rice have focused on populations in regions where no reproductively compatible wild Oryza species occur (North America, Europe and northern Asia). Here, we examined the population genetics of weedy rice in Malaysia, where wild rice (O. rufipogon) can be found growing in close proximity to cultivated and weedy rice. Using 375 accessions and a combined analysis of 24 neutral SSR loci and two rice domestication genes (sh4, controlling seed shattering, and Bh4, controlling hull colour), we addressed the following questions: (i) What is the relationship of Malaysian weedy rice to domesticated and wild rice, and to weedy rice strains in the USA? (ii) To what extent does the presence of O. rufipogon influence the genetic and phenotypic diversity of Malaysian weeds? (iii) What do the distributions of sh4 and Bh4 alleles and associated phenotypes reveal about the origin and contemporary evolution of Malaysian weedy rice? Our results reveal the following: independent evolutionary origins for Malaysian weeds and US strains, despite their very close phenotypic resemblance; wild-to-weed gene flow in Malaysian weed populations, including apparent adaptive introgression of seed-shattering alleles; and a prominent role for modern Malaysian cultivars in the origin and recent proliferation of Malaysian weeds. These findings suggest that the genetic complexity and adaptability of weedy crop relatives can be profoundly influenced by proximity to reproductively compatible wild and domesticated populations. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Intratumoral Delivery of Doxorubicin on Folate-Conjugated Graphene Oxide by In-Situ Forming Thermo-Sensitive Hydrogel for Breast Cancer Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Teng Fong

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available By taking advantage of the pH-sensitive drug release property of graphene oxide (GO after intracellular uptake, we prepared folic acid (FA-conjugated GO (GOFA for targeted delivery of the chemotherapeutic drug doxorubicin (DOX. GOFA-DOX was further encapsulated in an injectable in-situ forming thermo-sensitive hyaluronic acid-chitosan-g-poly(N-isopropylacrylamide (HACPN hydrogel for intratumoral delivery of DOX. As the degradation time of HACPN could be extended up to 3 weeks, intratumoral delivery of GOFA-DOX/HACPN could provide controlled and targeted delivery of DOX through slow degradation HACPN and subsequent cellular uptake of released GOFA-DOX by tumor cells through interactions of GOFA with folate receptors on the tumor cell’s surface. GOFA nano-carrier and HACPN hydrogel were first characterized for the physico-chemical properties. The drug loading experiments indicated the best preparation condition of GOFA-DOX was by reacting 0.1 mg GOFA with 2 mg DOX. GOFA-DOX showed pH-responsive drug release with ~5 times more DOX released at pH 5.5 than at pH 7.4 while only limited DOX was released from GOFA-DOX/HACPN at pH 7.4. Intracellular uptake of GOFA by endocytosis and release of DOX from GOFA-DOX in vitro could be confirmed from transmission electron microscopic and confocal laser scanning microscopic analysis with MCF-7 breast cancer cells. The targeting effect of FA was revealed when intracellular uptake of GOFA was blocked by excess FA. This resulted in enhanced in vitro cytotoxicity as revealed from the lower half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50 value of GOFA-DOX (7.3 μg/mL compared with that of DOX (32.5 μg/mL and GO-DOX (10 μg/mL. The flow cytometry analysis indicated higher apoptosis rates for cells treated with GOFA-DOX (30% compared with DOX (8% and GO-DOX (11%. Animal studies were carried out with subcutaneously implanted MCF-7 cells in BALB/c nude mice and subject to intratumoral administration of drugs. The relative

  9. Intratumoral Delivery of Doxorubicin on Folate-Conjugated Graphene Oxide by In-Situ Forming Thermo-Sensitive Hydrogel for Breast Cancer Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Yi Teng; Chen, Chih-Hao; Chen, Jyh-Ping

    2017-11-14

    By taking advantage of the pH-sensitive drug release property of graphene oxide (GO) after intracellular uptake, we prepared folic acid (FA)-conjugated GO (GOFA) for targeted delivery of the chemotherapeutic drug doxorubicin (DOX). GOFA-DOX was further encapsulated in an injectable in-situ forming thermo-sensitive hyaluronic acid-chitosan-g-poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (HACPN) hydrogel for intratumoral delivery of DOX. As the degradation time of HACPN could be extended up to 3 weeks, intratumoral delivery of GOFA-DOX/HACPN could provide controlled and targeted delivery of DOX through slow degradation HACPN and subsequent cellular uptake of released GOFA-DOX by tumor cells through interactions of GOFA with folate receptors on the tumor cell's surface. GOFA nano-carrier and HACPN hydrogel were first characterized for the physico-chemical properties. The drug loading experiments indicated the best preparation condition of GOFA-DOX was by reacting 0.1 mg GOFA with 2 mg DOX. GOFA-DOX showed pH-responsive drug release with ~5 times more DOX released at pH 5.5 than at pH 7.4 while only limited DOX was released from GOFA-DOX/HACPN at pH 7.4. Intracellular uptake of GOFA by endocytosis and release of DOX from GOFA-DOX in vitro could be confirmed from transmission electron microscopic and confocal laser scanning microscopic analysis with MCF-7 breast cancer cells. The targeting effect of FA was revealed when intracellular uptake of GOFA was blocked by excess FA. This resulted in enhanced in vitro cytotoxicity as revealed from the lower half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of GOFA-DOX (7.3 μg/mL) compared with that of DOX (32.5 μg/mL) and GO-DOX (10 μg/mL). The flow cytometry analysis indicated higher apoptosis rates for cells treated with GOFA-DOX (30%) compared with DOX (8%) and GO-DOX (11%). Animal studies were carried out with subcutaneously implanted MCF-7 cells in BALB/c nude mice and subject to intratumoral administration of drugs. The relative tumor

  10. Cropping system diversification for food production in Mindanao rubber plantations: a rice cultivar mixture and rice intercropped with mungbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hondrade, Rosa Fe; Hondrade, Edwin; Zheng, Lianqing; Elazegui, Francisco; Duque, Jo-Anne Lynne Joy E; Mundt, Christopher C; Vera Cruz, Casiana M; Garrett, Karen A

    2017-01-01

    Including food production in non-food systems, such as rubber plantations and biofuel or bioenergy crops, may contribute to household food security. We evaluated the potential for planting rice, mungbean, rice cultivar mixtures, and rice intercropped with mungbean in young rubber plantations in experiments in the Arakan Valley of Mindanao in the Philippines. Rice mixtures consisted of two- or three-row strips of cultivar Dinorado, a cultivar with higher value but lower yield, and high-yielding cultivar UPL Ri-5. Rice and mungbean intercropping treatments consisted of different combinations of two- or three-row strips of rice and mungbean. We used generalized linear mixed models to evaluate the yield of each crop alone and in the mixture or intercropping treatments. We also evaluated a land equivalent ratio for yield, along with weed biomass (where Ageratum conyzoides was particularly abundant), the severity of disease caused by Magnaporthe oryzae and Cochliobolus miyabeanus, and rice bug (Leptocorisa acuta) abundance. We analyzed the yield ranking of each cropping system across site-year combinations to determine mean relative performance and yield stability. When weighted by their relative economic value, UPL Ri-5 had the highest mean performance, but with decreasing performance in low-yielding environments. A rice and mungbean intercropping system had the second highest performance, tied with high-value Dinorado but without decreasing relative performance in low-yielding environments. Rice and mungbean intercropped with rubber have been adopted by farmers in the Arakan Valley.

  11. Cropping system diversification for food production in Mindanao rubber plantations: a rice cultivar mixture and rice intercropped with mungbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Fe Hondrade

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Including food production in non-food systems, such as rubber plantations and biofuel or bioenergy crops, may contribute to household food security. We evaluated the potential for planting rice, mungbean, rice cultivar mixtures, and rice intercropped with mungbean in young rubber plantations in experiments in the Arakan Valley of Mindanao in the Philippines. Rice mixtures consisted of two- or three-row strips of cultivar Dinorado, a cultivar with higher value but lower yield, and high-yielding cultivar UPL Ri-5. Rice and mungbean intercropping treatments consisted of different combinations of two- or three-row strips of rice and mungbean. We used generalized linear mixed models to evaluate the yield of each crop alone and in the mixture or intercropping treatments. We also evaluated a land equivalent ratio for yield, along with weed biomass (where Ageratum conyzoides was particularly abundant, the severity of disease caused by Magnaporthe oryzae and Cochliobolus miyabeanus, and rice bug (Leptocorisa acuta abundance. We analyzed the yield ranking of each cropping system across site-year combinations to determine mean relative performance and yield stability. When weighted by their relative economic value, UPL Ri-5 had the highest mean performance, but with decreasing performance in low-yielding environments. A rice and mungbean intercropping system had the second highest performance, tied with high-value Dinorado but without decreasing relative performance in low-yielding environments. Rice and mungbean intercropped with rubber have been adopted by farmers in the Arakan Valley.

  12. Molecular and Biochemical Analysis of Two Rice Flavonoid 3'-Hydroxylase to Evaluate Their Roles in Flavonoid Biosynthesis in Rice Grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sangkyu; Choi, Min Ji; Lee, Jong Yeol; Kim, Jae Kwang; Ha, Sun-Hwa; Lim, Sun-Hyung

    2016-09-13

    Anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins, the major flavonoids in black and red rice grains, respectively, are mainly derived from 3',4'-dihydroxylated leucocyanidin. 3'-Hydroxylation of flavonoids in rice is catalyzed by flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase (F3'H: EC 1.14.13.21). We isolated cDNA clones of the two rice F3'H genes (CYP75B3 and CYP75B4) from Korean varieties of white, black, and red rice. Sequence analysis revealed allelic variants of each gene containing one or two amino acid substitutions. Heterologous expression in yeast demonstrated that CYP75B3 preferred kaempferol to other substrates, and had a low preference for dihydrokaempferol. CYP75B4 exhibited a higher preference for apigenin than for other substrates. CYP75B3 from black rice showed an approximately two-fold increase in catalytic efficiencies for naringenin and dihydrokaempferol compared to CYP75B3s from white and red rice. The F3'H activity of CYP75B3 was much higher than that of CYP75B4. Gene expression analysis showed that CYP75B3, CYP75B4, and most other flavonoid pathway genes were predominantly expressed in the developing seeds of black rice, but not in those of white and red rice, which is consistent with the pigmentation patterns of the seeds. The expression levels of CYP75B4 were relatively higher than those of CYP75B3 in the developing seeds, leaves, and roots of white rice.

  13. International tourist preference of Lodok Rice Field natural elements, the cultural rice field from Manggarai – Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    March Syahadat, Ray; Trie Putra, Priambudi; Nuraini; Nailufar, Balqis; Fatmala Makhmud, Desy

    2017-10-01

    Lodok Rice Field or usually known as spiderweb rice field is a system of land division. It cultural rice field only found on Manggarai, Province of East Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia. The landscape of Lodok Rice Field was aesthetic and it has big potential for tourism development. The aim of this study was to know the perception of natural elements of Lodok Rice Field landscape that could influence international tourist to visited Lodok Rice Field. If we know the elements that could influenced the international tourist, we could used the landscape image for tourism media promotion. The methods of this study used scenic beauty estimation (SBE) by 85 respondents from 34 countries and Kruskal Wallis H test. The countries grouped by five continents (Asia, America, Europe, Africa, and Oceania). The result showed that the Asian respondents liked the elements of sky, mountain, and the rice field. Then, the other respondent from another continent liked the elements of sunshine, mountain, and the rice field. Although the Asian had different perception about landscape elements of rice field’s good view, it’s not differ significantly by Kruskal Wallis H test.

  14. Development of instant noodles from high-iron rice and iron-fortified rice flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suparat Reungmaneepaitoon

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Instant high-iron noodles, prepared from wheat flour and high iron brown rice flour, were developed. Three varieties of rice flour, Suphan Buri 90 (SB, Homnin 313 (HW and Homnin 1000 (HP, containing amylose content of 30.40, 19.10 and 15.74% (w/w and iron content of 1.24, 2.04 and 2.22 (mg/100 g respectively, were used to replace wheat flour for instant fried noodle production. To determine the physicochemical properties and acceptability of instant fried noodles,different percentages (30, 40, 50% (w/w of each rice flour sample were used. The instant fried noodles were fortified with ferrous sulphate at levels of 0, 32, 64% iron of RDI per serving. Increasing amount of iron content in the mixtures decreased the L* value, b* value and increased a* value for the color of the instant fried noodle with brown rice flour. The texture characteristic of the noodles with 30, 40, 50% replacement with each variety of brown rice flour were significantly different from those of wheat noodle. Tensile force of the noodles decreased from 11.57±1.30 g to 6.38±1.45 g (SB, 8.36±0.96 g to 5.71±0.57 g (HP and 10.09±1.20 g to 5.46±1.31 g (HW as the rice flour content increased from 30 to 50%. The sensoryacceptability of the noodles made from each variety of 30% brown rice flour fortified with 32% iron of RDI had higher preference scores for elasticity, firmness, color and overall acceptability, than those with 64% iron of RDI. Instant fried noodles with HW and HP brown rice flour were subjected to consumer test using 100 rural primary school children. The frequency percent of the acceptability scores of the noodle with HP and HW were 88 and 84% respectively. Shelf life studyrevealed that the developed products were still acceptable up to 4 months. These products were claimed to be high iron noodle.

  15. Effects of Chalkiness on Cooking, Eating and Nutritional Qualities of Rice in Two indica Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi-hua Liu

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of chalkiness on cooking, eating and nutrition qualities of rice using Gangyou 527 (indica hybrid rice and Zhaiyeqing 8 (conventional indica rice as materials. Compared with the milled rice without chalkiness, amylose content, final viscosity, setback and consistence increased significantly, while gel consistence, peak viscosity and breakdown decreased remarkably and other RVA values did not have significant changes in the chalky rice of Gangyou 527. The differences in the above indices between the chalky and non-chalky rice was not remarkable in Zhaiyeqing 8. The crude protein content of chalky rice in Zhaiyeqing 8 was significantly lower than that of non-chalky rice, but there was no remarkable change between the chalky and non-chalky rice in Gangyou 527. Glutelin content fell significantly, and albumin, globulin, prolamine and lysine contents did not change significantly in chalky rice compared with non-chalky rice in the two varieties.

  16. Effects of Soil Veterinary Antibiotics Pollution on Rice Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XU Qiu-tong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To understand the potential effect of soil veterinary antibiotics pollution on the growth of rice, a main food crop in China, oxytetracycline which was used widely in livestock and poultry breeding was selected to test the effects of different levels of soil antibiotics pollution on growth and yield of rice plant at both seedling and growth periods. Relationship between oxytetracycline accumulated in different organs of rice plant and oxytetracycline pollution levels in the soil was characterized. The results showed that the effects of soil oxytetracycline pollution on rice growth mainly occurred at the seedling stage, and the effect on the underground part was obviously greater than the above-ground part of rice. Significant negative effects on biomass of the underground part of rice, root activity, and chlorophyll content and oxidase activity of the leave at the seedling stage were found when soil oxytetracycline pollution concentrations was over 30 mg·kg-1. The consequence from the impact of soil oxytetracycline pollution on rice seedling could be extended to the whole growth period of the plant, which could reduce the number of tiller and rice yield. Oxytetracycline accumulated in various organs of rice plant was in the sequence of root> leaf> stem> grain. Rice roots had low capacity to uptake oxytetracycline from the soil, the transfer capacity of oxytetracycline from the roots to leaf, stem, and grain was also weak. Considering the low oxytetracycline pollution levels in most of current actual farmland soils (less than 10 mg·kg-1 and lower accumulation character of oxytetracycline in the grain, it is thought that the direct damage of soil oxytetracycline pollution on rice production is small.

  17. Environmental profile of paddy rice cultivation with different straw management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusi, Alessandra; Bacenetti, Jacopo; González-García, Sara; Vercesi, Annamaria; Bocchi, Stefano; Fiala, Marco

    2014-10-01

    Italy is the most important European country in terms of paddy rice production. North Italian districts such as Vercelli, Pavia, Novara, and Milano are known as some of the world's most advanced rice cultivation sites. In 2013 Italian rice cultivation represented about 50% of all European rice production by area, and paddy fields extended for over 216,000 ha. Cultivation of rice involves different agricultural activities which have environmental impacts mainly due to fossil fuels and agrochemical requirements as well as the methane emission associated with the fermentation of organic material in the flooded rice fields. In order to assess the environmental consequences of rice production in the District of Vercelli, the cultivation practices most frequently carried out were inventoried and evaluated. The general approach of this study was not only to gather the inventory data for rice production and quantify their environmental impacts, but also to identify the key environmental factors where special attention must be paid. Life Cycle Assessment methodology was applied in this study from a cradle-to-farm gate perspective. The environmental profile was analyzed in terms of seven different impact categories: climate change, ozone depletion, human toxicity, terrestrial acidification, freshwater eutrophication, marine eutrophication, and fossil depletion. Regarding straw management, two different scenarios (burial into the soil of the straw versus harvesting) were compared. The analysis showed that the environmental impact was mainly due to field emissions, the fuel consumption needed for the mechanization of field operations, and the drying of the paddy rice. The comparison between the two scenarios highlighted that the collection of the straw improves the environmental performance of rice production except that for freshwater eutrophication. To improve the environmental performance of rice production, solutions to save fossil fuel and reduce the emissions from

  18. Rice consumption and cancer incidence in US men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ran; Zhang, Xuehong; Wu, Kana; Wu, Hongyu; Sun, Qi; Hu, Frank B; Han, Jiali; Willett, Walter C; Giovannucci, Edward L

    2016-02-01

    While both the 2012 and 2014 Consumer Reports concerned arsenic levels in US rice, no previous study has evaluated long-term consumption of total rice, white rice and brown rice in relation to risk of developing cancers. We investigated this in the female Nurses' Health Study (1984-2010), and Nurses' Health Study II (1989-2009), and the male Health Professionals Follow-up Study (1986-2008), which included a total of 45,231 men and 160,408 women, free of cancer at baseline. Validated food frequency questionnaires were used to measure rice consumption at baseline and repeated almost every 4 years thereafter. We employed Cox proportional hazards regression model to estimate multivariable relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). During up to 26 years of follow-up, we documented 31,655 incident cancer cases (10,833 in men and 20,822 in women). Age-adjusted results were similar to multivariable-adjusted results. Compared to participants with less than one serving per week, the multivariable RRs of overall cancer for individuals who ate at least five servings per week were 0.97 for total rice (95% CI: 0.85-1.07), 0.87 for white rice (95% CI: 0.75-1.01), and 1.17 for brown rice (95% CI: 0.90-1.26). Similar non-significant associations were observed for specific sites of cancers including prostate, breast, colon and rectum, melanoma, bladder, kidney, and lung. Additionally, the null associations were observed among European Americans and non-smokers, and were not modified by BMI. Long-term consumption of total rice, white rice or brown rice was not associated with risk of developing cancer in US men and women. © 2015 UICC.

  19. Molecular separation by thermosensitive hydrogelmembranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feil, H.; Feil, Herman; Bae, You Han; Feijen, Jan; Kim, Sung Wan

    1991-01-01

    A new method for separation of molecules of different size is presented. The method is a useful addition to conventional separation methods which depend mainly on gel permeation chromatography using size exclusion. In the new method, hydrogel membranes are used which swelling level can be thermally

  20. Changes in Rice Grain Quality of Indica and Japonica Type Varieties Released in China from 2000 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Fan; Li, Yajun; Qin, Xiaoliang; Liao, Yuncheng; Siddique, Kadambot H M

    2017-01-01

    China is the first country to use heterosis successfully for commercial rice production. This study compared the main quality characteristics (head rice rate, chalky rice rate, chalkiness degree, gel consistency, amylose content, and length-to-width ratio) of 635 rice varieties (not including upland and glutinous rice) released from 2000 to 2014 to establish the quality status and offer suggestions for future rice breeding for grain quality in China. In the past 15 years, grain quality in japonica rice and indica hybrid rice has improved. In japonica rice, inbred varieties have increased head rice rates and decreased chalkiness degree over time, while hybrid rice varieties have decreased chalky rice rates and chalkiness degree. In indica hybrid rice, the chalkiness degree and amylose contents have decreased and gel consistency has increased. Improvements in grain quality in indica inbred rice have been limited, with some increases in head rice rate and decreases in chalky rice rate and amylose content. From 2010 to 2014, the percentage of indica varieties meeting the Grade III national standard of rice quality for different quality traits was low, especially for chalky rice rate and chalkiness degree. Japonica varieties have more superior grain quality than indica rice in terms of higher head rice rates and gel consistency, lower chalky rice rates and chalkiness degree, and lower amylose contents, which may explain why the Chinese prefer japonica rice. The japonica rice varieties, both hybrid and inbred, had similar grain qualities, but this varied in indica rice with the hybrid varieties having higher grain quality than inbred varieties due to significantly better head rice rates and lower chalkiness degree. For better quality rice in future, the chalky rice rate and chalkiness degree should be improved in japonica rice along with most of the quality traits in indica rice.