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Sample records for rice seed samples

  1. Proteomics of Rice Seed Germination

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    Dongli eHe

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Seed is a condensed form of plant. Under suitable environmental conditions, it can resume the metabolic activity from physiological quiescent status, and mobilize the reserves, biosynthesize new proteins, regenerate organelles and cell membrane, eventually protrude the radicle and enter into seedling establishment. So far, how these activities are regulated in a coordinated and sequential manner is largely unknown. With the availability of more and more genome sequence information and the development of mass spectrometry (MS technology, proteomics has been widely applied in analyzing the mechanisms of different biological processes, and proved to be very powerful. Regulation of rice seed germination is critical for rice cultivation. In recent years, a lot of proteomic studies have been conducted in exploring the gene expression regulation, reserves mobilization and metabolisms reactivation, which brings us new insights on the mechanisms of metabolism regulation during this process. Nevertheless, it also invokes a lot of questions. In this mini-review, we summarized the progress in the proteomic studies of rice seed germination. The current challenges and future perspectives were also discussed, which might be helpful for the following studies.

  2. Efficacy of Selected Insecticides Applied to Hybrid Rice Seed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, A.; Gore, J.; Musser, F.; Cook, D.; Walker, T.; Dobbins, C.

    2016-01-01

    Hybrid rice and insecticide seed treatments targeting rice water weevil, Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus Kuschel, have altered the landscape of rice production. The effect of reduced seeding rates on seed treatment efficacy in hybrid rice has not been studied. During 2011 and 2012, an experiment was conducted at seven locations to determine the relationship between low seeding rates used in hybrid rice and efficacy of selected insecticidal seed treatments as measured by rice water weevil densities and yield. Labeled rates of thiamethoxam, chlorantraniliprole, and clothianidin were compared with higher rates of these products to determine if labeled rates provide an acceptable level of control of the rice water weevil. Study locations were divided into low, moderate, and high groups based on rice water weevil larval densities. All seed treatments and seed treatment rates reduced rice water weevil densities. However, there was no observed yield or economic benefit from the use of an insecticidal seed treatment in areas of low pressure. Differences in yield were observed among seed treatments and seed treatment rates in moderate and high pressure locations, and all seed treatments yielded better than the untreated plots, but these differences were not always economical. All seed treatments showed an economic advantage in areas of high weevil pressure, and there were no differences among seed treatment products or rates, suggesting that currently labeled seed treatment rates in hybrid rice are effective for rice water weevil management. PMID:26537671

  3. Evidence for Non-Transmission of Rice Yellow Mottle Virus (RYMV through Rice Seed

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    Sy, AA.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available An indexing of the organs (radicle and plumule and components (husk, endosperm and embryo of rice seeds using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA was carried out to detect Rice yellow mottle virus (RYMV and establish the exact location of the virus in the rice seed. RYMV was detected only in the husk (seed coat but not in the endosperm, plumule, radicle, nor embryo. None of the seedlings raised from the seeds expressed RYMV symptoms. No virus particle was detected by the ELISA test in the leaves of the screenhouse-reared plants obtained from seeds of infected plants. The results indicate that RYMV is apparently not transmitted through rice seed probably because the virus is seed-borne in the husk (seed coat of mature rice seeds.

  4. Influence of Rice Seeding Rate on Efficacies of Neonicotinoid and Anthranilic Diamide Seed Treatments against Rice Water Weevil

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    Jason Hamm

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Rice in the U.S. is frequently seeded at low rates and treated before sowing with neonicotinoid or anthranilic diamide insecticides to target the rice water weevil. A previous study of the influence of seeding rate on rice water weevil densities showed an inverse relationship between seeding rates and immature weevil densities. This study investigated interactive effects of seeding rate and seed treatment on weevil densities and rice yields; in particular, experiments were designed to determine whether seed treatments were less effective at low seeding rates. Four experiments were conducted over three years by varying seeding rates of rice treated at constant per seed rates of insecticide. Larval suppression by chlorantraniliprole was superior to thiamethoxam or clothianidin, and infestations at low seeding rates were up to 47% higher than at high seeding rates. Little evidence was found for the hypothesis that seed treatments are less effective at low seeding rates; in only one of four experiments was the reduction in weevil densities by thiamethoxam greater at high than at low seeding rates. However, suppression of larvae by neonicotinoid seed treatments in plots seeded at low rates was generally poor, and caution must be exercised when using the neonicotioids at low seeding rates.

  5. Isolation and Identification of Burkholderia glumae from Symptomless Rice Seeds

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    Bo Zhu

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A survey on isolation and detection of the casual organism of bacterial grain rot of rice was conducted during 1997–2006. In 2006, six pathogenic bacterial strains were isolated from two symptomless seed samples of rice (Oryza sativa L. originally produced in Hainan Province and then planted in Zhejiang Province, China. They were identified as Burkholderia glumae which is the causal organism of bacterial grain rot of rice by physiological characteristics, colony morphology, pathogenicity test, Biolog, fatty acid methyl ester (FAME analysis and RAPD-PCR compared with the four standard reference strains. It is confirmed that there is the infection of B. glumae in so-called ‘health looking seeds’.

  6. Rapid assessment of rice seed availability for wildlife in harvested fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halstead, B.J.; Miller, M.R.; Casazza, Michael L.; Coates, P.S.; Farinha, M.A.; Benjamin, Gustafson K.; Yee, J.L.; Fleskes, J.P.

    2011-01-01

    Rice seed remaining in commercial fields after harvest (waste rice) is a critical food resource for wintering waterfowl in rice-growing regions of North America. Accurate and precise estimates of the seed mass density of waste rice are essential for planning waterfowl wintering habitat extents and management. In the Sacramento Valley of California, USA, the existing method for obtaining estimates of availability of waste rice in harvested fields produces relatively precise estimates, but the labor-, time-, and machineryintensive process is not practical for routine assessments needed to examine long-term trends in waste rice availability. We tested several experimental methods designed to rapidly derive estimates that would not be burdened with disadvantages of the existing method. We first conducted a simulation study of the efficiency of each method and then conducted field tests. For each approach, methods did not vary in root mean squared error, although some methods did exhibit bias for both simulations and field tests. Methods also varied substantially in the time to conduct each sample and in the number of samples required to detect a standard trend. Overall, modified line-intercept methods performed well for estimating the density of rice seeds. Waste rice in the straw, although not measured directly, can be accounted for by a positive relationship with density of rice on the ground. Rapid assessment of food availability is a useful tool to help waterfowl managers establish and implement wetland restoration and agricultural habitat-enhancement goals for wintering waterfowl. ?? 2011 The Wildlife Society.

  7. Adoption Study Of Seed Priming Technology In Upland Rice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adoption study was carried out during 2003 cropping season on randomly selected 83 farmers out of the 300 that participated in the upland rice seed priming technology transfer between year 2000 – 2002 to determine the impact of the technology on upland rice production in five States of Nigeria, through the use of ...

  8. Interspecific variation of total seed protein in wild rice germplasm using SDS-Page

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, S.M.A.; Hidayat-ur-Rahman; Abbasi, F.M.; Ashiq, M.; Rabbani, A.M.; Khan, I.A.; Shinwari, Z.K.; Shah, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Variation in seed protein of 14 wild rice species (Oryza spp.) along with cultivated rice species (O. sativa) was studied using sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) to assess genetic diversity in the rice germplasm. SDS bands were scored as present (1) or absent (0) for protein sample of each genotype. On the basis of cluster analysis, four clusters were identified at a similarity level of 0.85. O. nivara, O. rufipogon and O. sativa with AA genomes constituted the first cluster. The second cluster comprised O. punctata of BB genome and wild rice species of CC genome i.e., O. rhizomatis and O. officinalis. However, it also contained O. barthii and O. glumaepatula of AA genome. O. australiensis with EE genome, and O. latifolia, O. alta and O. grandiglumis having CCDD genomes comprised the third cluster. The fourth cluster consisted of wild rice species, O. brachyantha with EE genome along with two other wild rice species, O. longistaminata and O. meridionalis of AA genome. Overall, on the basis of total seed protein, the grouping pattern of rice genotypes was mostly compatible with their genome status. The results of the present work depicted considerable interspecific genetic variation in the investigated germplasm for total seed protein. Moreover, the results obtained in this study also suggest that analysis of seed protein can also provide a better understanding of genetic affinity of the germplasm. (author)

  9. Effect of acetic acid on rice seeds coated with rice husk ash

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    Lizandro Ciciliano Tavares

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Flooded rice cultivation promotes anaerobic conditions, favoring the formation of short chain organic acids such as acetic acid, which may be toxic to the crop. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of acetic acid on rice seeds coated with rice husk ash. The experiment was arranged in a 2 x 5 x 5 factorial randomized design, with two cultivars (IRGA 424 and BRS Querência, five doses of coating material (0, 2, 3,4 e 5 g kg-1 seed and five concentrations of acetic acid (0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 mM, with 4 replications, totaling 50 treatments. The variables first count of germination, germination, shoot and root length, dry weight of shoots and roots were recorded. The results showed that coating rice seeds with rice husk ash up to 5 g kg-1 seed does not influence the performance of rice seeds of cultivars IRGA 424 and BRS Querência when exposed to concentrations of 12 mM acetic acid. The presence of acetic acid in the substrates used for seed germination reduced the vigor and viability of seeds of cultivars IRGA 424 and BRS Querência, as well as seedling development, affecting mainly the roots of BRS Querência.

  10. Studies on optimum harvest time for hybrid rice seed.

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    Fu, Hong; Cao, Dong-Dong; Hu, Wei-Min; Guan, Ya-Jing; Fu, Yu-Ying; Fang, Yong-Feng; Hu, Jin

    2017-03-01

    Timely harvest is critical for hybrid rice to achieve maximum seed viability, vigor and yield. However, how to predict the optimum harvest time has been rarely reported so far. The seed vigor of Zhuliangyou 06 (ZLY06) increased and reached the highest level at 20 days after pollination (DAP), when seed moisture content had a lower value, which was maintained until final seed maturation. For Chunyou 84 (CY84), seed vigor, fresh and dry weight had relatively high values at 25 DAP, when seed moisture content reached the lowest value and changed slightly from 25 to 55 DAP. In both hybrid rice varieties, seed glume chlorophyll content declined rapidly from 10 to 30 DAP and remained at a very low level after 35 DAP. Starch content exhibited an increasing trend during seed maturation, while both soluble sugar content and amylase activity decreased significantly at the early stages of seed development. Moreover, correlation analyses showed that seed dry weight, starch content and superoxide dismutase activity were significantly positively correlated with seed vigor. In contrast, chlorophyll content, moisture content, soluble sugar, soluble protein, abscisic acid, gibberellin content, electrical conductivity, catalase and ascorbate peroxidase activities were significantly negatively correlated with seed vigor. Physiological and biochemical parameters were obviously more closely related with seed vigor than with seed germinability during seed development. Seed vigor could be better used as a comprehensive factor to predict the optimum seed harvest time. It is suggested that for ZLY06 seeds could be harvested as early as 20 DAP, whereas for CY84 the earliest optimum harvest time was 25 DAP. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Impact Of Different Time Planting In Soybeans And Neem Seed Extract Application To Insect Population On Rice Field

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    Tamrin Abdullah

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The purpose of research is to study impact of different time planting of soybean and neem seed extract application to pest insect population on rice field. The research was used Random Block Design in three treatment of insecticides application i.e neem seed extract together with rice planting neem seed extract on soybean 17 days after rice planting synthetic insecticides on 17 days after rice planting Delthametrin on soybean and Chlorpirifos on rice respectively. Research was conducted in rice fields with irrigation channels. The land area is 0.8 hectares with extensive experiments each rice terraces approximately 900 m2 with separate by rice terraces for every treatment. Each treatment consisted of three groups and using nine rice terraces. Samples of the rice plant population is 25 plants per sample unit. The results was showed treatment by neem seed extract with different time planting of soybeans able to reduce number of pest insects populations such as N. virescens 80.38 N. lugens 67.17 S. incertulas 66.5 and L. oratorius 93.46 when compared to treatment with synthetic insecticides Delthamethrin and Chlorpyrifos.

  12. Assessment of Rice Associated Bacterial Ability to Enhance Rice Seed Germination and Rice Growth Promotion

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    R. Gholamalizadeh

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The application of beneficial bacteria has recently been used for sustainable agriculture. In current research, 71 bacterial isolates were obtained from rice plant and the rhizosphere soil of different paddy fields in Guilan province, Iran. After primitive investigation, 40 bacteria with typical predominant characteristics were selected. By PCR-RFLP of their 16S r-DNA gene, 8 Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs totally consisted of 33 isolates were obtained. From all of them, 8 isolates were selected for rice seed germination experiment, then, effective isolates were used for pot experiment to evaluate their ability for promoting rice growth. All of them were able to increase rice growth and yield, but in different potential. These tested isolates were identified as Alcaligenes faecalis (DEp8, O1R4, Pantoea ananatis (AEn1, Bacillus vietnamensis (MR5, Bacillus idriensis (MR2 and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia by partial sequencing of their 16S r-DNA gene. Among them, AEn1 and MR5 produced indole-3- acetic acid (IAA in larger amounts than the other isolates and the isolates AEn1 and O1R4 were able to solubilize phosphate in higher amounts. According to the results obtained, it can be concluded that AEn1, O1R4 and MR5 can be considered as bacterial inoculants to use as alternatives for chemical fertilizers.

  13. Physiological quality of rice seed submitted to gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda, Helen Lucia da Cruz; Tillmann, Maria Angela Andre; Meneghello, Geri Eduardo

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of the gamma radiation ( 60 Co) on the physiological quality of rice seeds. The research was carried out through three tests; in the first test rice seeds were irradiated at dosages of 0; 1; 2.5 and 5Gy, while for the second and third tests the seeds were subjected to accelerated aging before being irradiated. For the second test the seeds were divided into wet and dry and both groups subjected to accelerated aging previous to irradiation at dosages of 0; 1; 2.5 and 5Gy. For the third test the seeds were dried after being subjected to accelerated aging, and then irradiated at dosages of 0, 10, 25 and 50Gy. To assess the physiological effects of the gamma radiation, all seeds were tested for germination and their germination speed index recorded. Seedling growth was graded through the measurement of the lengths of the first leaf and seminal root system and total seedling dry weight, across all tests. The enzymatic activity of acid phosphatase and alpha-amylase was measured on dry seeds from the second test. The results from all tests indicate that the applied gamma radiation dosages did not cause any changes to the physiological quality of rice seeds. (author)

  14. Induction of antioxidant enzyme activity and lipid peroxidation level in ion-beam-bombarded rice seeds

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    Semsang, Nuananong; Yu, LiangDeng

    2013-07-01

    Low-energy ion beam bombardment has been used to mutate a wide variety of plant species. To explore the indirect effects of low-energy ion beam on biological damage due to the free radical production in plant cells, the increase in antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation level was investigated in ion-bombarded rice seeds. Local rice seeds were bombarded with nitrogen or argon ion beams at energies of 29-60 keV and ion fluences of 1 × 1016 ions cm-2. The activities of the antioxidant enzymes; superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and lipid peroxidation level were assayed in the germinated rice seeds after ion bombardment. The results showed most of the enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation levels in both the argon and nitrogen bombarded samples were higher than those in the natural control. N-ion bombardment could induce higher levels of antioxidant enzyme activities in the rice samples than the Ar-ion bombardment. Additional effects due to the vacuum condition were found to affect activities of some antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation level. This study demonstrates that ion beam bombardment and vacuum condition could induce the antioxidant enzyme activity and lipid peroxidation level which might be due to free radical production in the bombarded rice seeds.

  15. Seed-vectored endophytic bacteria modulate development of rice seedlings.

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    Verma, S K; Kingsley, K; Irizarry, I; Bergen, M; Kharwar, R N; White, J F

    2017-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of the removal of indigenous bacteria from rice seeds on seedling growth and development. Here we report the presence of three indigenous endophytic bacteria in rice seeds that play important roles in modulating seedling development (shoot and root lengths, and formation of root hairs and secondary roots) and defence against pathogens. Seed-associated bacteria were removed using surface sterilization with NaOCl (bleach) followed by antibiotic treatment. When bacteria were absent, growth of seedlings in terms of root hair development and overall seedling size was less than that of seedlings that contained bacteria. Reactive oxygen staining of seedlings showed that endophytic bacteria became intracellular in root parenchyma cells and root hairs. Roots containing endophytic bacteria were seen to stain densely for reactive oxygen, while roots free of bacteria stained lightly for reactive oxygen. Bacteria were isolated and identified as Enterobacter asburiae (VWB1), Pantoea dispersa (VWB2) and Pseudomonas putida (VWB3) by 16S rDNA sequencing. Bacteria were found to produce indole acetic acid (auxins), inhibited the pathogen Fusarium oxysporum and solubilized phosphate. Reinoculation of bacteria onto seedlings derived from surface-disinfected rice and Bermuda grass seeds significantly restored seedling growth and development. Rice seeds harbour indigenous bacterial endophytes that greatly influence seedling growth and development, including root and shoot lengths, root hair formation and disease susceptibility of rice seedlings. This study shows that seeds of rice naturally harbour bacterial endophytes that play key roles in modulation of seedling development. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  16. Banco de sementes de arroz vermelho em sistemas de semeadura de arroz irrigado Red rice seed bank under seeding systems of flooded rice

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    Luis Antonio de Avila

    2000-10-01

    experiment. In order to estimate the seed bank, soil samples were colected using a cylinder with 10cm diameter. Twelve samples were obtained in each plot at two soil depths (0-1cm and 1-10cm and the seeds were submited to the tetrazolium test to assess its viability. The experiment was a bifatorial in a randomized block design with three replications, in which seeding systems were the main effect and sampling depth the secondary factor. The results indicated a greater number of viable red rice seeds under conventional system (1,994 seeds m², intermediate values for the no-tillage system (597 seeds m², and lower numbers under the water-seeded system (93 seeds m². Therefore, it was demonstrated that rice seeded in water-seeded system favors control of red rice, mantaining the quantity of red rice seeds in lower densities than under the conventinal or no-tillage systems.

  17. Induction of antioxidant enzyme activity and lipid peroxidation level in ion-beam-bombarded rice seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semsang, Nuananong, E-mail: nsemsang@gmail.com [Molecular Biology Laboratory, Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Yu, LiangDeng [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand)

    2013-07-15

    Highlights: ► Ion beam bombarded rice seeds in vacuum. ► Studied seed survival from the ion bombardment. ► Determined various antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation level. ► Discussed vacuum, ion species and ion energy effects. ► Attributed the changes to free radical formation due to ion bombardment. -- Abstract: Low-energy ion beam bombardment has been used to mutate a wide variety of plant species. To explore the indirect effects of low-energy ion beam on biological damage due to the free radical production in plant cells, the increase in antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation level was investigated in ion-bombarded rice seeds. Local rice seeds were bombarded with nitrogen or argon ion beams at energies of 29–60 keV and ion fluences of 1 × 10{sup 16} ions cm{sup −2}. The activities of the antioxidant enzymes; superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and lipid peroxidation level were assayed in the germinated rice seeds after ion bombardment. The results showed most of the enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation levels in both the argon and nitrogen bombarded samples were higher than those in the natural control. N-ion bombardment could induce higher levels of antioxidant enzyme activities in the rice samples than the Ar-ion bombardment. Additional effects due to the vacuum condition were found to affect activities of some antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation level. This study demonstrates that ion beam bombardment and vacuum condition could induce the antioxidant enzyme activity and lipid peroxidation level which might be due to free radical production in the bombarded rice seeds.

  18. Integrating Soil Silicon Amendment into Management Programs for Insect Pests of Drill-Seeded Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas, James M; Way, Michael O; Pearson, Rebecca A; Stout, Michael J

    2017-08-13

    Silicon soil amendment has been shown to enhance plant defenses against insect pests. Rice is a silicon-accumulating graminaceous plant. In the southern United States, the rice water weevil and stem borers are important pests of rice. Current management tactics for these pests rely heavily on the use of insecticides. This study evaluated the effects of silicon amendment when combined with current management tactics for these rice insect pests in the field. Field experiments were conducted from 2013 to 2015. Rice was drill-planted in plots subjected to factorial combinations of variety (conventional and hybrid), chlorantraniliprole seed treatment (treated and untreated), and silicon amendment (treated and untreated). Silicon amendment reduced densities of weevil larvae on a single sampling date in 2014, but did not affect densities of whiteheads caused by stem borers. In contrast, insecticidal seed treatment strongly reduced densities of both weevil larvae and whiteheads. Higher densities of weevil larvae were also observed in the hybrid variety in 2014, while higher incidences of whiteheads were observed in the conventional variety in 2014 and 2015. Silicon amendment improved rice yields, as did chlorantraniliprole seed treatment and use of the hybrid variety.

  19. Lack of Globulin Synthesis during Seed Development Alters Accumulation of Seed Storage Proteins in Rice

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    Hye-Jung Lee

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The major seed storage proteins (SSPs in rice seeds have been classified into three types, glutelins, prolamins, and globulin, and the proportion of each SSP varies. It has been shown in rice mutants that when either glutelins or prolamins are defective, the expression of another type of SSP is promoted to counterbalance the deficit. However, we observed reduced abundances of glutelins and prolamins in dry seeds of a globulin-deficient rice mutant (Glb-RNAi, which was generated with RNA interference (RNAi-induced suppression of globulin expression. The expression of the prolamin and glutelin subfamily genes was reduced in the immature seeds of Glb-RNAi lines compared with those in wild type. A proteomic analysis of Glb-RNAi seeds showed that the reductions in glutelin and prolamin were conserved at the protein level. The decreased pattern in glutelin was also significant in the presence of a reductant, suggesting that the polymerization of the glutelin proteins via intramolecular disulfide bonds could be interrupted in Glb-RNAi seeds. We also observed aberrant and loosely packed structures in the storage organelles of Glb-RNAi seeds, which may be attributable to the reductions in SSPs. In this study, we evaluated the role of rice globulin in seed development, showing that a deficiency in globulin could comprehensively reduce the expression of other SSPs.

  20. Water Productivity of Irrigated Rice under Transplanting, Wet Seeding and Dry Seeding Methods of Cultivation

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    Murali, NS.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Water productivity (WP of irrigated lowland rice was determined during the 1994 dry (January to May and wet (August to December seasons on a heavy clay acid sulphate soil. Treatments consisted of three cultivation methods : transplanted rice, pregerminated seeds broadcasted on puddled soil (wet seeding and dry seeds broadcasted on unpuddled soil (dry seeding. In wet and dry seeded plots, continuous standing water condition was initiated 17 days after sowing. Total water requirement for rice production was highest in transplanted plots (755 mm in wet season and 1154 mm in dry season and was lowest in dry seeded plots (505 mm in wet season and 1040 mm in dry season. Dry seeding required no water for land preparation but transplanting and wet seeding methods required 18 - 20 % of total water requirement in dry season and 27 - 29 % in wet season. Total percolation was maximum (99 mm in wet season and 215 mm in dry season in dry seeding method and was minimum (62 mm in wet season and 94 mm in dry season in transplanting method. In dry and wet seeding methods, daily percolation gradually decreased with the age of the crop. Total seepage loss did not show any significant difference between the cultivation methods in the two seasons. Grain yield was not affected by the three cultivation methods in both seasons. Water productivity (the ratio between grain yield and total amount of water used in production was 3.5 - 4.1 kg ha-1 mm-1, 3.8 - 4.4 kg ha-1 mm-1 and 4.1 - 5.5 kg ha-1 mm-1 in transplanted, wet seeded and dry seeded rice, respectively. Labour requirement for land preparation and sowing was maximum in transplanted (219 - 226 man-hours ha-1 followed by wet (104 -112 man-hours ha-1 and dry seeded (94 - 99 man-hours ha-1 methods. However, in wet season extra labour (77 man-hours ha-1 was required for weeding after crop establishment in dry and wet seeding methods. Crop maturity was 20 days earlier in wet and dry seeding methods compared to

  1. Accumulation and distribution of elements in rice (seed, brand layer, husk) by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran Van, L.; Teherani, D.K.

    1988-01-01

    Various rice samples (seed, brand layer, husk) from Vietnam were analyzed for Se, Hg, Cr, Ni, Sc, Rb, Fe, Zn and Co by neutron activation analysis. The concentration values found (seed) were as follows: Se 0.04-0.07 ppm, Hg 0.02-0.07 ppm, Cr 2.13-8.65 ppm, Ni 1.56-4.95 ppm, Sc 0.02-0.06 ppm, Rb 0.84-2.71 ppm, Fe 26.31-96.07 ppm, Zn 10.65-27.39 ppm and Co 0.02-0.15 ppm. The values were reported in ppm (dry weight). Statistical analysis showed that the content of elements varies in different parts of rice; the content of Rb, Fe, Ni, Cr of husk was significantly higher than in seed and brand layer. (author) 12 refs.; 2 figs.; 1 tab

  2. Glucose metabolism in gamma-irradiated rice seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, M.; Hasegawa, H.; Hori, S.

    1980-01-01

    Gamma-irradiation of 30 kR in rice seeds caused marked inhibition in seedling growth, and prevented the release of reduced sugar during the period of 25 to 76hr after soaking. The C 6 /C 1 ratio following irradiation continued to decrease up to the 76th hour of soaking; the control's ratio tended to increase with comparable soaking time. The percentage recovery of 14 C in carbon dioxide from glucose -1- 14 C was lower in irradiated than in control seeds. These results indicate that gamma-irradiation reduces the participation of the pentose phosphate pathway in glucose catabolism during an early period of germination. (author)

  3. Optimizing hill seeding density for high-yielding hybrid rice in a single rice cropping system in South China.

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    Danying Wang

    Full Text Available Mechanical hill direct seeding of hybrid rice could be the way to solve the problems of high seeding rates and uneven plant establishment now faced in direct seeded rice; however, it is not clear what the optimum hill seeding density should be for high-yielding hybrid rice in the single-season rice production system. Experiments were conducted in 2010 and 2011 to determine the effects of hill seeding density (25 cm×15 cm, 25 cm×17 cm, 25 cm×19 cm, 25 cm×21 cm, and 25 cm×23 cm; three to five seeds per hill on plant growth and grain yield of a hybrid variety, Nei2you6, in two fields with different fertility (soil fertility 1 and 2. In addition, in 2012 and 2013, comparisons among mechanical hill seeding, broadcasting, and transplanting were conducted with three hybrid varieties to evaluate the optimum seeding density. With increases in seeding spacing from 25 cm×15 cm to 25 cm×23 cm, productive tillers per hill increased by 34.2% and 50.0% in soil fertility 1 and 2. Panicles per m2 declined with increases in seeding spacing in soil fertility 1. In soil fertility 2, no difference in panicles per m2 was found at spacing ranging from 25 cm×17 cm to 25 cm×23 cm, while decreases in the area of the top three leaves and aboveground dry weight per shoot at flowering were observed. Grain yield was the maximum at 25 cm×17 cm spacing in both soil fertility fields. Our results suggest that a seeding density of 25 cm×17 cm was suitable for high-yielding hybrid rice. These results were verified through on-farm demonstration experiments, in which mechanical hill-seeded rice at this density had equal or higher grain yield than transplanted rice.

  4. Response of rice genotypes to weed competition in dry direct-seeded rice in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Gulshan; Ramesha, Mugalodi S; Chauhan, Bhagirath S

    2014-01-01

    The differential weed-competitive abilities of eight rice genotypes and the traits that may confer such attributes were investigated under partial weedy and weed-free conditions in naturally occurring weed flora in dry direct-seeded rice during the rainy seasons of 2011 and 2012 at Ludhiana, Punjab, India. The results showed genotypic differences in competitiveness against weeds. In weed-free plots, grain yield varied from 6.6 to 8.9 t ha(-1) across different genotypes; it was lowest for PR-115 and highest for the hybrid H-97158. In partial weedy plots, grain yield and weed biomass at flowering varied from 3.6 to 6.7 t ha(-1) and from 174 to 419 g m(-2), respectively. In partial weedy plots, grain yield was lowest for PR-115 and highest for PR-120. Average yield loss due to weed competition ranged from 21 to 46% in different rice genotypes. The study showed that early canopy closure, high leaf area index at early stage, and high root biomass and volume correlated positively with competitiveness. This study suggests that some traits (root biomass, leaf area index, and shoot biomass at the early stage) could play an important role in conferring weed competitiveness and these traits can be explored for dry-seeded rice.

  5. Weed populations and their buried seeds in rice fields of the MUDA area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail Sahid; Noor Faezah Zainuddin; Ho Nai Kin

    2002-01-01

    A total of 25 weed species belonging to 15 families were found in rice fields near Kampung Tandop, in the Muda Irrigation Scheme, Kedah, Malaysia. The dominant weeds in dry-seeded rice were Utricularia aurea Lour., Fimbristylis miliacea (L.) vahl., Echinochloa crusgalli (L.) Beauv., Monochoria vaginalis (Burm. Q Presl. and Najas graminea (Del.) Redl. In wet-seeded rice, the dominant species were N. graminea, Lemna minor L., Sphenoclea zeylanica Gaertn., U. aured, and Sagittaria guayanensis H. B. K., while in volunteer seedling rice fields, the dominant species were Echinochloa colonum (L.) Link., Fimbristylis alboviridis C. B. Clarke, E miliacea, Cyperus babakan Steud. and Fuirena umbellata Rottb. Dry-seeded rice fields contained the highest number of weed seeds (930 910/m 2 in the top 15 cm of soil); volunteer seedling rice fields contained 793.162/m 2 and wet-seeded rice fields 712 228/m 2 . In general, the seed numbers declined with increasing soil depth. At 1015 cm depth, seeds of U aurea and S. zeylanica were the most abundant in dry and wet-seeded rice fields, whilst seeds of Scirpusjuncoides Roxb. and E miliacea were most abundant in volunteer seedling fields. (Author)

  6. Impact Of Different Time Planting In Soybeans And Neem Seed Extract Application To Insect Population On Rice Field

    OpenAIRE

    Tamrin Abdullah; Ahdin Gassa; Sri Nur Aminah Ngatimin; Nurariaty Agus And Abdul Fattah

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of research is to study impact of different time planting of soybean and neem seed extract application to pest insect population on rice field. The research was used Random Block Design in three treatment of insecticides application i.e neem seed extract together with rice planting neem seed extract on soybean 17 days after rice planting synthetic insecticides on 17 days after rice planting Delthametrin on soybean and Chlorpirifos on rice respectively. Research was conduc...

  7. Impact Of Different Time Planting In Soybeans And Neem Seed Extract Application To Insect Population On Rice Field

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullah, Tamrin; Gassa, Ahdin; Ngatimin, Sri Nur Aminah; Agus, Nurariaty; Fattah, Abdul

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of research is to study impact of different time planting of soybean and neem seed extract application to pest insect population on rice field. The research was used Random Block Design in three treatment of insecticides application i.e: neem seed extract together with rice planting, neem seed extract on soybean 17 days after rice planting, synthetic insecticides on 17 days after rice planting (Delthametrin on soybean and Chlorpirifos on rice), respectively. Research was conducted...

  8. Quantitative phosphoproteomic analysis of early seed development in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Jiehua; Hou, Yuxuan; Tong, Xiaohong; Wang, Yifeng; Lin, Haiyan; Liu, Qing; Zhang, Wen; Li, Zhiyong; Nallamilli, Babi R; Zhang, Jian

    2016-02-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) seed serves as a major food source for over half of the global population. Though it has been long recognized that phosphorylation plays an essential role in rice seed development, the phosphorylation events and dynamics in this process remain largely unknown so far. Here, we report the first large scale identification of rice seed phosphoproteins and phosphosites by using a quantitative phosphoproteomic approach. Thorough proteomic studies in pistils and seeds at 3, 7 days after pollination resulted in the successful identification of 3885, 4313 and 4135 phosphopeptides respectively. A total of 2487 proteins were differentially phosphorylated among the three stages, including Kip related protein 1, Rice basic leucine zipper factor 1, Rice prolamin box binding factor and numerous other master regulators of rice seed development. Moreover, differentially phosphorylated proteins may be extensively involved in the biosynthesis and signaling pathways of phytohormones such as auxin, gibberellin, abscisic acid and brassinosteroid. Our results strongly indicated that protein phosphorylation is a key mechanism regulating cell proliferation and enlargement, phytohormone biosynthesis and signaling, grain filling and grain quality during rice seed development. Overall, the current study enhanced our understanding of the rice phosphoproteome and shed novel insight into the regulatory mechanism of rice seed development.

  9. Effect of gamma-irradiation on rice seed DNA. Pt. 1. Yield and molecular size of DNA extracted from irradiated rice seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, Yoko; Konishi, Akihiro; Yamada, Takashi; Saito, Yukio

    1995-01-01

    The effect of gamma-irradiation on the DNA of hulled rice seeds was investigated. The cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) method was preferred for the extraction of DNA from rice seeds because of its high quality and good yield. The yield of DNA that was determined by gel electrophoresis, decreased as the irradiation dose increased from 1 kGy. DNA extracted from rice seeds irradiated with a 30 kGy dose showed a molecular size of less than 20 kb, while that from unirradiated rice showed more than 100 kb in electrophoretic profiles. It can be assumed that the decrease in yield was mainly induced by the crosslinking between protein and DNA, and the reduction in molecular size was induced by double-strand breaks. (J.P.N.)

  10. Organizational analysis of the seed sector of rice in Guinea: stakeholders, perception and institutional linkages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okry, F.; Mele, van P.; Nuijten, H.A.C.P.; Struik, P.C.; Mongbo, R.L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyses the organization of the rice seed sector in Guinea with the overall objectives to assess how organizational settings affect seed supply to small-scale farmers and to suggest institutional changes that would favour seed service and uptake of varieties. Data were collected in

  11. Simultaneous Detection of Three Bacterial Seed-Borne Diseases in Rice Using Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In Jeong Kang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Burkholderia glumae (bacterial grain rot, Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (bacterial leaf blight, and Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae (bacterial brown stripe are major seedborne pathogens of rice. Based on the 16S and 23S rDNA sequences for A. avenae subsp. avenae and B. glumae, and transposase A gene sequence for X. oryzae pv. oryzae, three sets of primers had been designed to produce 402 bp for B. glumae, 490 bp for X. oryzae, and 290 bp for A. avenae subsp. avenae with the 63°C as an optimum annealing temperature. Samples collected from naturally infected fields were detected with two bacteria, B. glumae and A. avenae subsp. avenae but X. oryzae pv. oryzae was not detected. This assay can be used to identify pathogens directly from infected seeds, and will be an effective tool for the identification of the three pathogens in rice plants.

  12. Simultaneous Detection of Three Bacterial Seed-Borne Diseases in Rice Using Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, In Jeong; Kang, Mi-Hyung; Noh, Tae-Hwan; Shim, Hyeong Kwon; Shin, Dong Bum; Heu, Suggi

    2016-12-01

    Burkholderia glumae (bacterial grain rot), Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (bacterial leaf blight), and Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae (bacterial brown stripe) are major seedborne pathogens of rice. Based on the 16S and 23S rDNA sequences for A. avenae subsp. avenae and B. glumae , and transposase A gene sequence for X. oryzae pv. oryzae , three sets of primers had been designed to produce 402 bp for B. glumae , 490 bp for X. oryzae , and 290 bp for A. avenae subsp. avenae with the 63°C as an optimum annealing temperature. Samples collected from naturally infected fields were detected with two bacteria, B. glumae and A. avenae subsp. avenae but X. oryzae pv. oryzae was not detected. This assay can be used to identify pathogens directly from infected seeds, and will be an effective tool for the identification of the three pathogens in rice plants.

  13. Gene interaction at seed-awning loci in the genetic background of wild rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikemoto, Mai; Otsuka, Mitsuharu; Thanh, Pham Thien; Phan, Phuong Dang Thai; Ishikawa, Ryo; Ishii, Takashige

    2017-09-12

    Seed awning is one of the important traits for successful propagation in wild rice. During the domestication of rice by ancient humans, plants with awnless seeds may have been selected because long awns hindered collection and handling activities. To investigate domestication of awnless rice, QTL analysis for seed awning was first carried out using backcross recombinant inbred lines between Oryza sativa Nipponbare (recurrent parent) and O. rufipogon W630 (donor parent). Two strong QTLs were detected in the same regions as known major seed-awning loci, An-1 and RAE2. Subsequent causal mutation surveying and fine mapping confirmed that O. rufipogon W630 has functional alleles at both loci. The gene effects and interactions at these loci were examined using two backcross populations with reciprocal genetic backgrounds of O. sativa Nipponbare and O. rufipogon W630. As awn length in wild rice varied among seeds even in the same plant, awn length was measured based on spikelet position. In the genetic background of cultivated rice, the wild alleles at An-1 and RAE2 had awning effects, and plants having both wild homozygous alleles produced awns whose length was about 70% of those of the wild parent. On the other hand, in the genetic background of wild rice, the substitution of cultivated alleles at An-1 and RAE2 contributed little to awn length reduction. These results indicate that the domestication process of awnless seeds was complicated because many genes are involved in awn formation in wild rice.

  14. Influence of Seed Priming on Performance and Water Productivity of Direct Seeded Rice in Alternating Wetting and Drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafeez Ur Rehman

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Direct seeded rice is promising alternative to traditional transplanting, but requires appropriate crop and water management to maintain yield performance and achieve high water productivity. Present study evaluated the effect of seed priming and irrigation on crop establishment, tillering, agronomic traits, paddy yield, grain quality and water productivity of direct seeded rice in alternate wetting and drying (DSR-AWD in comparison with direct seeded rice at field capacity (DSR-FC. Seed priming treatments were osmo-priming with KCl (2.2%, CaCl2 (2.2% and moringa leaf extracts (MLE, 3.3% including hydro-priming as control. Among the treatments, seed osmo-primed with MLE emerged earlier and had higher final emergence, followed by osmo-priming with CaCl2. Tillering emergence rate and number of tillers per plant were the highest for seed priming with CaCl2 in DSR-AWD. Total productive and non-productive tillers, panicle length, biological and grain yields, harvest index were highest for seed priming with MLE or CaCl2 in DSR-AWD. Similarly, grain quality, estimated in terms of normal grains, abortive and chalky grains, was also the highest in DSR-AWD with MLE osmo-priming. Benefit cost ratio and water productivity was also the highest in DSR-AWD for seed priming with MLE. In conclusion, seed priming with MLE or CaCl2 can be successfully employed to improve the direct seeded rice performance when practiced with alternate wetting and drying irrigation.

  15. Molecular Mechanisms Underlying γ-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA) Accumulation in Giant Embryo Rice Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guo-Chao; Xie, Mi-Xue; Wang, Ying-Cun; Li, Jian-Yue

    2017-06-21

    To uncover the molecular mechanisms underlying GABA accumulation in giant embryo rice seeds, we analyzed the expression levels of GABA metabolism genes and contents of GABA and GABA metabolic intermediates in developing grains and germinated brown rice of giant embryo rice 'Shangshida No. 5' and normal embryo rice 'Chao2-10' respectively. In developing grains, the higher GABA contents in 'Shangshida No. 5' were accompanied with upregulation of gene transcripts and intermediate contents in the polyamine pathway and downregulation of GABA catabolic gene transcripts, as compared with those in 'Chao2-10'. In germinated brown rice, the higher GABA contents in 'Shangshida No. 5' were parallel with upregulation of OsGAD and polyamine pathway gene transcripts and Glu and polyamine pathway intermediate contents and downregulation of GABA catabolic gene transcripts. These results are the first to indicate that polyamine pathway and GABA catabolic genes play a crucial role in GABA accumulation in giant embryo rice seeds.

  16. Effect of Neem Seed Kernel Extracts in the Management of Rice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    conducted to determine the comparative efficacy of neem seed kernel ... sustainable production of rice and are generally not affordable to African peasant farmers. ... system where the use of natural enemies are being emphasized as a major ...

  17. Seedling vigor and genetic variability for rice seed, seedling emergence and seedling traits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, S.S.; Jafri, S.J.H.; Jamil, M.; Ijaz, M.

    1994-01-01

    Eleven local rice cultivars including Basmati 370 were evaluated for seedling vigor. Three groups of traits were evaluated viz; seed traits (Seed density, seed volume see weight, paddy length and grain length), seed emergence traits (emergence %, emergence index and emergence rate index), and seedling traits (fresh root length, dry root weight, emergence percentage, root length, dry root weight, seed weight and relative root weight were observed significant, respectively. Seed density, relative root weight, emergence rate index and root to shoot ratio were relatively more amenable to improvement. Relative expected genetic advance was the function of heritability and coefficient of phenotypic variability, latter being more important. (author)

  18. Analysis of Recombinant Proteins in Transgenic Rice Seeds: Identity, Localization, Tolerance to Digestion, and Plant Stress Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakasa, Yuhya; Takaiwa, Fumio

    2016-01-01

    Rice seeds are an ideal production platform for high-value recombinant proteins in terms of economy, scalability, safety, and stability. Strategies for the expression of large amounts of recombinant proteins in rice seeds have been established in the past decade and transgenic rice seeds that accumulate recombinant products such as bioactive peptides and proteins, which promote the health and quality of life of humans, have been generated in many laboratories worldwide. One of the most important advantages is the potential for direct oral delivery of transgenic rice seeds without the need for recombinant protein purification (downstream processing), which has been attributed to the high expression levels of recombinant products. Transgenic rice will be beneficial as a delivery system for pharmaceuticals and nutraceuticals in the future. This chapter introduces the strategy for producing recombinant protein in the edible part (endosperm) of the rice grain and describes methods for the analysis of transgenic rice seeds in detail.

  19. A Quantitative Acetylomic Analysis of Early Seed Development in Rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yifeng; Hou, Yuxuan; Qiu, Jiehua; Li, Zhiyong; Zhao, Juan; Tong, Xiaohong; Zhang, Jian

    2017-06-27

    PKA (protein lysine acetylation) is a critical post-translational modification that regulates various developmental processes, including seed development. However, the acetylation events and dynamics on a proteomic scale in this process remain largely unknown, especially in rice early seed development. We report the first quantitative acetylproteomic study focused on rice early seed development by employing a mass spectral-based (MS-based), label-free approach. A total of 1817 acetylsites on 1688 acetylpeptides from 972 acetylproteins were identified in pistils and seeds at three and seven days after pollination, including 268 acetyproteins differentially acetylated among the three stages. Motif-X analysis revealed that six significantly enriched motifs, such as (DxkK), (kH) and (kY) around the acetylsites of the identified rice seed acetylproteins. Differentially acetylated proteins among the three stages, including adenosine diphosphate (ADP) -glucose pyrophosphorylases (AGPs), PDIL1-1 (protein disulfide isomerase like 1-1), hexokinases, pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) and numerous other regulators that are extensively involved in the starch and sucrose metabolism, glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and photosynthesis pathways during early seed development. This study greatly expanded the rice acetylome dataset, and shed novel insight into the regulatory roles of PKA in rice early seed development.

  20. Proteomic analysis of seed storage proteins in wild rice species of the Oryza genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chunmiao; Cheng, Zaiquan; Zhang, Cheng; Yu, Tengqiong; Zhong, Qiaofang; Shen, J Qingxi; Huang, Xingqi

    2014-01-01

    The total protein contents of rice seeds are significantly higher in the three wild rice species (Oryza rufipogon Grill., Oryza officinalis Wall. and Oryza meyeriana Baill.) than in the cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.). However, there is still no report regarding a systematic proteomic analysis of seed proteins in the wild rice species. Also, the relationship between the contents of seed total proteins and rice nutritional quality has not been thoroughly investigated. The total seed protein contents, especially the glutelin contents, of the three wild rice species were higher than those of the two cultivated rice materials. Based on the protein banding patterns of SDS-PAGE, O. rufipogon was similar to the two cultivated rice materials, followed by O. officinalis, while O. meyeriana exhibited notable differences. Interestingly, O. meyeriana had high contents of glutelin and low contents of prolamine, and lacked 26 kDa globulin band and appeared a new 28 kDa protein band. However, for O. officinali a 16 kDa protein band was absent and a row of unique 32 kDa proteins appeared. In addition, we found that 13 kDa prolamine band disappeared while special 14 kDa and 12 kDa protein bands were present in O. officinalis. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) analysis revealed remarkable differences in protein profiles of the wild rice species and the two cultivated rice materials. Also, the numbers of detected protein spots of the three wild rice species were significantly higher than those of two cultivated rice. A total of 35 differential protein spots were found for glutelin acidic subunits, glutelin precursors and glutelin basic subunits in wild rice species. Among those, 18 protein spots were specific and 17 major spots were elevated. Six differential protein spots for glutelin acidic subunits were identified, including a glutelin type-A 2 precursor and five hypothetical proteins. This was the first report on proteomic analysis of the three wild rice species

  1. Investigation of Hg uptake and transport between paddy soil and rice seeds combining Hg isotopic composition and speciation

    OpenAIRE

    C. Feng; Z. Pedrero; P. Li; B. Du; X. Feng; M. Monperrus; E. Tessier; S. Berail; D. Amouroux

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Human consumption of rice constitutes a potential toxicological risk in mercury (Hg) polluted areas such as Hg mining regions in China. It is recognized to be an important source of Hg for the local human diet considering the efficient bioaccumulation of methylmercury (MeHg) in rice seed. To assess Hg sources and uptake pathways to the rice plants, Hg speciation and isotopic composition were investigated in rice seeds and their corresponding paddy soils from different locations withi...

  2. Studies on changes in fatty acid composition and content of endogenous antioxidants during gamma irradiation of rice seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramarathnam, N.; Osawa, T.; Namiki, M.; Kawakishi, S.

    1989-01-01

    Accelerated aging effects, induced by y irradiation, were investigated on the fatty acid composition of lipids and on the content of endogenous antioxidants of four Indica and four Japonica rice seeds with and without intact hull. While the linoleic acid content of the phospholipids decreased gradually with the increase in irradiation doses, there was a corresponding increase in the linoleic acid content of the free fatty acids. Such changes were drastic, especially in the case of Japonica rice seeds irradiated without intact hull. However, the neutral lipids were found to be resistant to γ irradiation. The α-tocopherol content was found to decrease (markedly) in rice seeds irradiated with or without hull, especially in the Japonica rice seeds. At a dose of 15 kGy only traces of a-tocopherol could be detected in Japonica and Indica rice seeds irradiated with and without intact hull. Oryzanol, a relatively weaker anti-oxidant, was found to be more resistant to oxidative damage than a-tocopherol. At 15 kGy, the oryzanol content ranged from 59 μg to 170 μg/g lipid in rice seeds irradiated with intact hull, while the corresponding value for rice seeds irradiated without hull was 52 μg to 153 μg/g lipid. The overall susceptibility to oxidative damage was less in Indica rice seeds, indicating that the antioxidative defense system offered better protection in overcoming oxidative stress in Indica rice hull than in Japonica rice hull

  3. Mutagenic effects of heavy ion irradiation on rice seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Xue; Liu Binmei; Zhang Lili; Wu Yuejin

    2012-01-01

    Three varieties of rice seeds were subjected to irradiation using low-energy and medium-energy ions. The damage and mutations induced by the ions were examined. In addition, genetic analysis and gene mapping of spotted leaf (spl) mutants were performed. Low-energy ions had no significant influence on germination, survival or seedling height, except for the survival of Nipponbare. Medium-energy ions had a significant influence on germination and survival but had no significant effect on seedling height. In the low-energy group, among 60,000 M 2 plants, 2823 putative morphological mutants were found, and the mutation frequency was approximately 4.71%. In the medium-energy group, 3132 putative morphological mutants were found, and the mutation frequency was approximately 5.22%. Five spl mutants (spl29–spl33) were obtained by ion irradiation, and the heredity of the spl mutants was stable. The characteristics of the spl mutants were found, by genetic analysis and preliminary mapping, to be controlled by a single recessive gene, and spl30 and spl33 were found to be new lesion-mimic mutants.

  4. Mutagenic effects of heavy ion irradiation on rice seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Xue [School of Agronomy, Anhui Agricultural University, 130 Changjiang West Road, Hefei 230036 (China); Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bio-Engineering, Institute of Technical Biology and Agriculture Engineering, 350 Shushanhu Road, Hefei 230031 (China); Liu Binmei; Zhang Lili [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bio-Engineering, Institute of Technical Biology and Agriculture Engineering, 350 Shushanhu Road, Hefei 230031 (China); Wu Yuejin, E-mail: yjwu@ipp.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bio-Engineering, Institute of Technical Biology and Agriculture Engineering, 350 Shushanhu Road, Hefei 230031 (China)

    2012-11-01

    Three varieties of rice seeds were subjected to irradiation using low-energy and medium-energy ions. The damage and mutations induced by the ions were examined. In addition, genetic analysis and gene mapping of spotted leaf (spl) mutants were performed. Low-energy ions had no significant influence on germination, survival or seedling height, except for the survival of Nipponbare. Medium-energy ions had a significant influence on germination and survival but had no significant effect on seedling height. In the low-energy group, among 60,000 M{sub 2} plants, 2823 putative morphological mutants were found, and the mutation frequency was approximately 4.71%. In the medium-energy group, 3132 putative morphological mutants were found, and the mutation frequency was approximately 5.22%. Five spl mutants (spl29-spl33) were obtained by ion irradiation, and the heredity of the spl mutants was stable. The characteristics of the spl mutants were found, by genetic analysis and preliminary mapping, to be controlled by a single recessive gene, and spl30 and spl33 were found to be new lesion-mimic mutants.

  5. Utilization of wastewater on seed germination and physioogical parameters of rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huy, V.; Iwai, C. B.

    2018-03-01

    Due to increasing world population and demand, fresh water availability is becoming a limited resource. Reusing wastewater for agriculture has received attention since it contains nutrients, which are beneficial for growing crops. Even though wastewater can be used as the nutrient source for the plant, the toxicity of wastewater can still be a cause for concern and investigation. The main objective of this paper was to assess the effect of different sources of wastewater on the germination of Jasmine rice (KDML105), White rice (Phatum Thani 1), and Sticky rice (RD6) under laboratory conditions. Petri dish cultures were used with various concentrations (0, 50, and 100%) of wastewater collected from swine farm, aquaculture activity, and domestic. Seed germination, root length, shoot length, seed vigor index, fresh weight and dry weight were measured after each experiment. The results have shown that domestic wastewater and aquaculture activity wastewater did not decrease performance of Jasmine rice (KDML105), White rice (Phatum thani 1), and Sticky rice (RD6) while the germination of Jasmine rice (KDML105), White rice (Phatum thani 1), and Sticky rice (RD6) decreased when irrigated with swine farm wastewater. Therefore, using domestic and aquaculture activity wastewater for irrigation are suitable for growth of these crop.

  6. Genes controlling seed dormancy and pre-harvest sprouting in a rice-wheat-barley comparison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Chengdao; Ni, Peixiang; Francki, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Pre-harvest sprouting results in significant economic loss for the grain industry around the world. Lack of adequate seed dormancy is the major reason for pre-harvest sprouting in the field under wet weather conditions. Although this trait is governed by multiple genes it is also highly heritable....... A major QTL controlling both pre-harvest sprouting and seed dormancy has been identified on the long arm of barley chromosome 5H, and it explains over 70% of the phenotypic variation. Comparative genomics approaches among barley, wheat and rice were used to identify candidate gene(s) controlling seed...... dormancy and hence one aspect of pre-harvest sprouting. The barley seed dormancy/pre-harvest sprouting QTL was located in a region that showed good synteny with the terminal end of the long arm of rice chromosome 3. The rice DNA sequences were annotated and a gene encoding GA20-oxidase was identified...

  7. DNA comet assay for rice seeds treated with low energy electrons ('soft-electrons')

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todoriki, Setsuko; Hayashi, Toru

    1999-01-01

    As rice seeds are sometimes contaminated with phytopathogenic organisms such as blast disease fungi and nematodes, a novel non-chemical disinfection method for rice seeds is highly required. In order to develop a disinfection method, the effect of low energy electron ('soft-electrons') on seed DNA was examined by using the neutral comet assay. Rice seeds (whole grain) were treated with electrons of different acceleration voltages (180 kV to 1 MV) at a dose of 5 kGy. Nucleus suspensions were prepared from whole brown rice and subjected to electrophoresis. DNA from un-irradiated (control) seeds relaxed and produced comets with a short tail, most of the comets distributed within the range of comet length between 30 μm to 70 μm. In the case of seeds treated with electrons at acceleration voltages up to 190 kV, cells without seed coats were not damaged and the frequency histograms of comet length showed almost the same pattern as that for control. At acceleration voltages higher than 200 kV, the cells were distributed into two categories; DNA comets with a short tail (with little DNA damages, less than 70 μm in the comet length) and DNA comets with long tails (with sever strand breaks, more than 130 μm in the comet length). The ratios of damaged cells increased with increasing acceleration voltage. The growths of rice seedlings were not affected by the treatment with electrons at up to 200 kV. On the contrary, the cells of gamma-irradiated seed showed small variations in the comet length, and which were depending on radiation dose. The individual cells of gamma-irradiated seeds at 1 kGy showed shorter comet than the damaged cells with soft electron, seed treated with gamma rays (1-5 kGy) did not shoot nor root. (author)

  8. Comparison of Rice Direct Seeding Methods (Mechanical and Manual with Transplanting Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Eyvani

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The main method of rice planting in Iran is transplanting. Due to poor mechanization of rice production, this method is laborious and costly. The other method is direct seeding in wet lands which is performed in the one third of rice cultivation area of the world. The most important problem in this method is high labor requirement of weed control. In order to compare the different rice planting methods (direct drilling, transplanting, and seed broadcasting a manually operated rice direct seeder (drum seeder was designed and fabricated. The research was conducted using a randomized complete block design with three treatments and three replications. Required draft force, field efficiency, effective field capacity, yield, and yield components were measured and the treatments were compared economically. Results showed that there were significant differences among the treatments from the view point of rice yield at the confidence level of 95% i.e. the transplanting method had the maximum yield. A higher rice yield was obtained from the direct seeder compared to the manual broadcasting method but, the difference between these two methods for crop yield was not significant even at the confidence level of the 95%. The coefficient of variation of seed distribution with direct seeding was more than 20%. The labor and time requirements per hectare reduced to 7 and 20 times, respectively when comparing the newly designed direct seeder with the transplanting method. The direct seeding method had the highest benefit to cost ratio in spite of its lower yield. Therefore, this method could be recommended in the rice growing regions.

  9. Physiological and biochemical mechanisms of seed priming-induced chilling tolerance in rice cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saddam eHussain

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Rice belongs to tropical and subtropical environments and is extremely sensitive to chilling stress particularly during emergence and early stages of seedling development. Seed priming can be a good approach to enhance rice germination and stand establishment under chilling stress. The present study examined the role of different seed priming techniques viz., hydropriming, osmopriming, redox priming, chemical priming, and hormonal priming, in enhancing the chilling tolerance in rice. The most effective reagents and their pre-optimized concentrations based on preliminary experiments were used in this study. Two different rice cultivars were sown under chilling stress (18˚C and normal temperatures (28˚C in separate growth chambers. A non-primed control treatment was also maintained for comparison. Chilling stress caused erratic and delayed germination, poor seedling growth, reduced starch metabolism and lower respiration rate, while higher lipid peroxidation and hydrogen peroxide accumulation in rice seedlings of both cultivars. Nevertheless, all the seed priming treatments effectively alleviated the negative effects of chilling stress. In addition, seed priming treatments triggered the activities of superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, and catalase, and enhanced the accumulations of glutathione and free proline in rice seedlings, which suggests that these measures help prevent the rice seedlings from chilling induced oxidative stress. Chemical priming with selenium and hormonal priming with salicylic acid remained more effective treatments for both rice cultivars under chilling stress than all other priming treatments. The better performance and greater tolerance of primed rice seedlings was associated with enhanced starch metabolism, high respiration rate, lower lipid peroxidation, and strong antioxidative defense system under chilling stress.

  10. Estimation of loci involved in non-shattering of seeds in early rice domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Ryo; Nishimura, Akinori; Htun, Than Myint; Nishioka, Ryo; Oka, Yumi; Tsujimura, Yuki; Inoue, Chizuru; Ishii, Takashige

    2017-04-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is widely cultivated around the world and is known to be domesticated from its wild form, O. rufipogon. A loss of seed shattering is one of the most obvious phenotypic changes selected for during rice domestication. Previously, three seed-shattering loci, qSH1, sh4, and qSH3 were reported to be involved in non-shattering of seeds of Japonica-type cultivated rice, O. sativa cv. Nipponbare. In this study, we focused on non-shattering characteristics of O. sativa Indica cv. IR36 having functional allele at qSH1. We produced backcross recombinant inbred lines having chromosomal segments from IR36 in the genetic background of wild rice, O. rufipogon W630. Histological and quantitative trait loci analyses of abscission layer formation were conducted. In the analysis of quantitative trait loci, a strong peak was observed close to sh4. We, nevertheless, found that some lines showed complete abscission layer formation despite carrying the IR36 allele at sh4, implying that non-shattering of seeds of IR36 could be regulated by the combination of mutations at sh4 and other seed-shattering loci. We also genotyped qSH3, a recently identified seed-shattering locus. Lines that have the IR36 alleles at sh4 and qSH3 showed inhibition of abscission layer formation but the degree of seed shattering was different from that of IR36. On the basis of these results, we estimated that non-shattering of seeds in early rice domestication involved mutations in at least three loci, and these genetic materials produced in this study may help to identify novel seed-shattering loci.

  11. Production of Biologically Active Cecropin A Peptide in Rice Seed Oil Bodies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Montesinos

    Full Text Available Cecropin A is a natural antimicrobial peptide that exhibits fast and potent activity against a broad spectrum of pathogens and neoplastic cells, and that has important biotechnological applications. However, cecropin A exploitation, as for other antimicrobial peptides, is limited by their production and purification costs. Here, we report the efficient production of this bioactive peptide in rice bran using the rice oleosin 18 as a carrier protein. High cecropin A levels were reached in rice seeds driving the expression of the chimeric gene by the strong embryo-specific oleosin 18 own promoter, and targeting the peptide to the oil body organelle as an oleosin 18-cecropin A fusion protein. The accumulation of cecropin A in oil bodies had no deleterious effects on seed viability and seedling growth, as well as on seed yield. We also show that biologically active cecropin A can be easily purified from the transgenic rice seeds by homogenization and simple flotation centrifugation methods. Our results demonstrate that the oleosin fusion technology is suitable for the production of cecropin A in rice seeds, which can potentially be extended to other antimicrobial peptides to assist their exploitation.

  12. Genetic control of a transition from black to straw-white seed hull in rice domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Bo-Feng; Si, Lizhen; Wang, Zixuan; Zhou, Yan; Zhu, Jinjie; Shangguan, Yingying; Lu, Danfeng; Fan, Danlin; Li, Canyang; Lin, Hongxuan; Qian, Qian; Sang, Tao; Zhou, Bo; Minobe, Yuzo; Han, Bin

    2011-03-01

    The genetic mechanism involved in a transition from the black-colored seed hull of the ancestral wild rice (Oryza rufipogon and Oryza nivara) to the straw-white seed hull of cultivated rice (Oryza sativa) during grain ripening remains unknown. We report that the black hull of O. rufipogon was controlled by the Black hull4 (Bh4) gene, which was fine-mapped to an 8.8-kb region on rice chromosome 4 using a cross between O. rufipogon W1943 (black hull) and O. sativa indica cv Guangluai 4 (straw-white hull). Bh4 encodes an amino acid transporter. A 22-bp deletion within exon 3 of the bh4 variant disrupted the Bh4 function, leading to the straw-white hull in cultivated rice. Transgenic study indicated that Bh4 could restore the black pigment on hulls in cv Guangluai 4 and Kasalath. Bh4 sequence alignment of all taxa with the outgroup Oryza barthii showed that the wild rice maintained comparable levels of nucleotide diversity that were about 70 times higher than those in the cultivated rice. The results from the maximum likelihood Hudson-Kreitman-Aguade test suggested that the significant reduction in nucleotide diversity in rice cultivars could be caused by artificial selection. We propose that the straw-white hull was selected as an important visual phenotype of nonshattered grains during rice domestication.

  13. Effects of gamma rays and neutrons on the seedling and callus growth in rice seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baradjanegara, A.A.; Fujii, T.; Amano, E.

    1976-01-01

    Seeds of rice c.v. Norin-8 and two radiation induced dwarf mutants MGS-46 and -96 were used to investigate the effects of gamma and 14 MeV neutron-radiations in different culture systems. Seeding growth of irradiated seeds in soil, and in two types of synthetic media, modified White's (M-W) or modified Erickson's (M-E), as well as the callus growth on 2,4-D supplemented media were measured as an index radiation damage. Comparing the seeding height about two types of media, the M-E promoted the plant growth than the M-W in irradiated as well as non irradiated lots of the three strains studied. The callus growth on M-E surpassed by more 10 times that obtained on the M-W in all the lots. The M-E medium seems to be appropriate for both the seeding and callus growth of rice. (author)

  14. Effects of cobalt-60 low doses radiation on beam, rice and radish seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, O.K.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of cobalt-60 gamma radiation on seeds of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), rice (Oryza sativa L.) and radish (Raphanus sativus L.) were studied. Bean and rice seeds were irradiated with 3.5 and 7.7 Gy (32 Gy/h). There was an apparent acceleration on rice seed germination with 3.5 Gy when they were stored for 6 days after irradiation, but the same dose caused a delay when the store time was 1 day. Bean seeds germination was not modified by 3.5 and 7.7 Gy, but the fresh and dry weight of young plants showed an increase, mainly due the major quantity of water in the embryonic axis. Bean seeds were irradiated with 0.5 and 2.0 Gy (30 Gy/h). Seeds germination showed a slight delay irradiating with 0.5 Gy, while height, fresh and dry weight and primary leaves area of the young plants as well as number of nodes, leaves, flowers, beans and seeds were not modified after irradiation with 0.5 and 2.0 Gy. Radish seeds irradiated with 10 and 30 Gy at dose rates of 4.5, 22.5 and 45.0 Gy/h showed a germination delay and fresh and dry weight values for young plants leaves lower than control. Roots of totally developed plants showed no modifications in weight, volume, mean diameter, lenght and in the amount of soluble reducing sugar. (author)

  15. RICE SEED TREATMENT AND RECOATING WITH POLYMERS: PHYSIOLOGICAL QUALITY AND RETENTION OF CHEMICAL PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LOVANE KLEIN FAGUNDES

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of chemical seed treatment is an important tool in the protection of seedlings and has contributed to the increase of rice yield (Oryza sativa L.. The objective of this study was to evaluate the physiological quality and quantify the retention of chemical products in rice seeds treated with insecticide and fungicide coated with polymers. Six seed treatments were used: control, phytosanitary treatment and phytosanitary treatment and coating with the polymers, Florite 1127®, GV5® Solid Resin, Polyseed CF® and VermDynaseed®. The physiological quality was evaluated by the test of germination and vigor by first count tests, germination speed index, shoot length, radicle length, seedling dry mass and sand emergence. To determine the retention of the active ingredients metalaxyl-M and thiamethoxam, an equipment called extractor was used. The experiment was organized in a completely randomized design (DIC and the averages were separated by the Scott Knott test (p≤0.05. Seed treatment with the fungicide and insecticide, coated with the polymers, Florite 1127®, Solid Resin GV5®, Polyseed CF® and VermDynaseed®, did not affect the physiological quality of rice seeds. Solid Resin GV5®, Polyseed CF® and VermDynaseed® polymers were efficient at retaining thiamethoxam in the rice seeds, preventing some of the active ingredients of the insecticide from being leached through the sand columns immediately after the simulated pluvial precipitation.

  16. Laccase-13 Regulates Seed Setting Rate by Affecting Hydrogen Peroxide Dynamics and Mitochondrial Integrity in Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Seed setting rate is one of the most important components of rice grain yield. To date, only several genes regulating setting rate have been identified in plant. In this study, we showed that laccase-13 (OsLAC13, a member of laccase family genes which are known for their roles in modulating phenylpropanoid pathway and secondary lignification in cell wall, exerts a regulatory function in rice seed setting rate. OsLAC13 expressed in anthers and promotes hydrogen peroxide production both in vitro and in the filaments and anther connectives. Knock-out of OsLAC13 showed significantly increased seed setting rate, while overexpression of this gene exhibited induced mitochondrial damage and suppressed sugar transportation in anthers, which in turn affected seed setting rate. OsLAC13 also induced H2O2 production and mitochondrial damage in the root tip cells which caused the lethal phenotype. We also showed that high abundant of OsmiR397, the suppressor of OsLAC13 mRNA, increased the seed setting rate of rice plants, and restrains H2O2 accumulation in roots during oxidative stress. Our results suggested a novel regulatory role of OsLAC13 gene in regulating seed setting rate by affecting H2O2 dynamics and mitochondrial integrity in rice.

  17. Effect of Weed Management and Seed Rate on Crop Growth under Direct Dry Seeded Rice Systems in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Sharif; Salim, Muhammad; Chauhan, Bhagirath S.

    2014-01-01

    Weeds are a major constraint to the success of dry-seeded rice (DSR). The main means of managing these in a DSR system is through chemical weed control using herbicides. However, the use of herbicides alone may not be sustainable in the long term. Approaches that aim for high crop competitiveness therefore need to be exploited. One such approach is the use of high rice seeding rates. Experiments were conducted in the aman (wet) seasons of 2012 and 2013 in Bangladesh to evaluate the effect of weed infestation level (partially-weedy and weed-free) and rice seeding rate (20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 kg ha−1) on weed and crop growth in DSR. Under weed-free conditions, higher crop yields (5.1 and 5.2 t ha−1 in the 2012 and 2013 seasons, respectively) were obtained at the seeding rate of 40 kg ha−1 and thereafter, yield decreased slightly beyond 40 kg seed ha−1. Under partially-weedy conditions, yield increased by 30 to 33% (2.0–2.2 and 2.9–3.2 t ha−1 in the 2012 and 2013 seasons, respectively) with increase in seeding rate from 20 to 100 kg ha−1. In the partially-weedy plots, weed biomass decreased by 41–60% and 54–56% at 35 days after sowing and at crop anthesis, respectively, when seeding rate increased from 20 to 100 kg ha−1. Results from our study suggest that increasing seeding rates in DSR can suppress weed growth and reduce grain yield losses from weed competition. PMID:25000520

  18. Effect of weed management and seed rate on crop growth under direct dry seeded rice systems in Bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharif Ahmed

    Full Text Available Weeds are a major constraint to the success of dry-seeded rice (DSR. The main means of managing these in a DSR system is through chemical weed control using herbicides. However, the use of herbicides alone may not be sustainable in the long term. Approaches that aim for high crop competitiveness therefore need to be exploited. One such approach is the use of high rice seeding rates. Experiments were conducted in the aman (wet seasons of 2012 and 2013 in Bangladesh to evaluate the effect of weed infestation level (partially-weedy and weed-free and rice seeding rate (20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 kg ha(-1 on weed and crop growth in DSR. Under weed-free conditions, higher crop yields (5.1 and 5.2 t ha(-1 in the 2012 and 2013 seasons, respectively were obtained at the seeding rate of 40 kg ha(-1 and thereafter, yield decreased slightly beyond 40 kg seed ha(-1. Under partially-weedy conditions, yield increased by 30 to 33% (2.0-2.2 and 2.9-3.2 t ha(-1 in the 2012 and 2013 seasons, respectively with increase in seeding rate from 20 to 100 kg ha(-1. In the partially-weedy plots, weed biomass decreased by 41-60% and 54-56% at 35 days after sowing and at crop anthesis, respectively, when seeding rate increased from 20 to 100 kg ha(-1. Results from our study suggest that increasing seeding rates in DSR can suppress weed growth and reduce grain yield losses from weed competition.

  19. Effect of weed management and seed rate on crop growth under direct dry seeded rice systems in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Sharif; Salim, Muhammad; Chauhan, Bhagirath S

    2014-01-01

    Weeds are a major constraint to the success of dry-seeded rice (DSR). The main means of managing these in a DSR system is through chemical weed control using herbicides. However, the use of herbicides alone may not be sustainable in the long term. Approaches that aim for high crop competitiveness therefore need to be exploited. One such approach is the use of high rice seeding rates. Experiments were conducted in the aman (wet) seasons of 2012 and 2013 in Bangladesh to evaluate the effect of weed infestation level (partially-weedy and weed-free) and rice seeding rate (20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 kg ha(-1)) on weed and crop growth in DSR. Under weed-free conditions, higher crop yields (5.1 and 5.2 t ha(-1) in the 2012 and 2013 seasons, respectively) were obtained at the seeding rate of 40 kg ha(-1) and thereafter, yield decreased slightly beyond 40 kg seed ha(-1). Under partially-weedy conditions, yield increased by 30 to 33% (2.0-2.2 and 2.9-3.2 t ha(-1) in the 2012 and 2013 seasons, respectively) with increase in seeding rate from 20 to 100 kg ha(-1). In the partially-weedy plots, weed biomass decreased by 41-60% and 54-56% at 35 days after sowing and at crop anthesis, respectively, when seeding rate increased from 20 to 100 kg ha(-1). Results from our study suggest that increasing seeding rates in DSR can suppress weed growth and reduce grain yield losses from weed competition.

  20. Ammonia Volatilization from Urea-Application Influenced Germination and Early Seedling Growth of Dry Direct-Seeded Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoli Qi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Poor seed germination and early seedling growth associated with urea-induced soil ammonia volatilization are major constraints in the adoption of dry direct-seeded rice. To directly examine soil ammonia volatilization and its damage to seed germination and early seedling growth of dry direct-seeded rice when urea is applied at seeding, two Petri-dish incubation experiments and a field experiment were conducted. Ammonia volatilization due to urea application significantly reduced seed germination and early seedling growth of dry direct-seedling rice. NBPT significantly reduced ammonia volatilization following urea application. The application of ammonium sulfate, instead of urea at seeding, may mitigate poor crop establishment of dry direct-seeded rice. Root growth of dry direct-seeded rice was more seriously inhibited by soil ammonia volatilization than that of shoot. Results suggest that roots are more sensitive to soil ammonia toxicity than shoots in dry direct-seeded rice system when N is applied as urea at seeding.

  1. Rice and foxtail millet cultivation reconstructed from weed seed assemblages in the Chengtoushan site, central China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasu, H.; Yasuda, Y.; Momohara, A.; Jiejun, H.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Crop weeds have been successfully used for evaluation of farming practices in archaeological sites and reconstruction of the environmental condition. In rice agricultural sites in East Asia, however, a few studies of crop remains have been attempted. We evaluated the crop husbandry based on plant macrofossils including crop grains and weed seeds in the Chengtoushan site, Hunan Province, central China, which is one of the oldest rice agricultural site around the Yangtze River Basin. In the moat surrounding the site that is located on a loess plateau that juts out into the alluvial plain, we recognized three cultural layers during the Daxi Culture. Plant macrofossils in silty clay deposits in the moat consist of abundant rice and foxtail millet grains with many weed seeds. Radiocarbon age of these fossils shows that rice and foxtail millet cultivation dated back to 6400 cal. years B.P. The weed seed composition characterizes farmland and ruderal environments in the site surrounded by the moat. We assumed foxtail millet and rice cultivation practiced within the site on loess plateau, along with a paddy style rice cultivation in the alluvial lowland outside of the site. (author)

  2. Involvement of Polyamine Oxidase-Produced Hydrogen Peroxide during Coleorhiza-Limited Germination of Rice Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing-Xian Chen

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Seed germination is a complicated biological process that requires regulated enzymatic and non-enzymatic reactions. The action of polyamine oxidase (PAO produces hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, which promotes dicot seed germination. However, whether and, if so, how PAOs regulate monocot seed germination via H2O2 production is unclear. Herein, we report that the coleorhiza is the main physical barrier to radicle protrusion during germination of rice seed (a monocot seed and that it does so in a manner similar to that of dicot seed micropylar endosperm. We found that H2O2 specifically and steadily accumulated in the coleorhizae and radicles of germinating rice seeds and was accompanied by increased PAO activity as the germination percentage increased. These physiological indexes were strongly decreased in number by guazatine, a PAO inhibitor. We also identified 11 PAO homologs (OsPAO1–11 in the rice genome, which could be classified into four subfamilies (I, IIa, IIb, and III. The OsPAO genes in subfamilies I, IIa, and IIb (OsPAO1–7 encode PAOs, whereas those in subfamily III (OsPAO8–11 encode histone lysine-specific demethylases. In silico-characterized expression profiles of OsPAO1–7 and those determined by qPCR revealed that OsPAO5 is markedly upregulated in imbibed seeds compared with dry seeds and that its transcript accumulated to a higher level in embryos than in the endosperm. Moreover, its transcriptional abundance increased gradually during seed germination in water and was inhibited by 5 mM guazatine. Taken together, these results suggest that PAO-generated H2O2 is involved in coleorhiza-limited rice seed germination and that OsPAO5 expression accounts for most PAO expression and activity during rice seed germination. These findings should facilitate further study of PAOs and provide valuable information for functional validation of these proteins during seed germination of monocot cereals.

  3. The knockdown of OsVIT2 and MIT affects iron localization in rice seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashir, Khurram; Takahashi, Ryuichi; Akhtar, Shamim; Ishimaru, Yasuhiro; Nakanishi, Hiromi; Nishizawa, Naoko K

    2013-11-20

    The mechanism of iron (Fe) uptake in plants has been extensively characterized, but little is known about how Fe transport to different subcellular compartments affects Fe localization in rice seed. Here, we discuss the characterization of a rice vacuolar Fe transporter 2 (OsVIT2) T-DNA insertion line (osvit2) and report that the knockdown of OsVIT2 and mitochondrial Fe transporter (MIT) expression affects seed Fe localization. osvit2 plants accumulated less Fe in their shoots when grown under normal or excess Fe conditions, while the accumulation of Fe was comparable to that in wild-type (WT) plants under Fe-deficient conditions. The accumulation of zinc, copper, and manganese also changed significantly in the shoots of osvit2 plants. The growth of osvit2 plants was also slow compared to that of WT plants. The concentration of Fe increased in osvit2 polished seeds. Previously, we reported that the expression of OsVIT2 was higher in MIT knockdown (mit-2) plants, and in this study, the accumulation of Fe in mit-2 seeds decreased significantly. These results suggest that vacuolar Fe trafficking is important for plant Fe homeostasis and distribution, especially in plants grown in the presence of excess Fe. Moreover, changes in the expression of OsVIT2 and MIT affect the concentration and localization of metals in brown rice as well as in polished rice seeds.

  4. Enhancement of Salinity Tolerance during Rice Seed Germination by Presoaking with Hemoglobin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Xu

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Salinity stress is an important environmental constraint limiting the productivity of many crops worldwide. In this report, experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of seed presoaking by bovine hemoglobin, an inducer of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1, on salinity tolerance in rice (Oryza sativa plants. The results showed that different concentrations of the hemoglobin (0.01, 0.05, 0.2, 1.0, and 5.0 g/L differentially alleviated the inhibition of rice seed germination and thereafter seedling shoot growth caused by 100 mM NaCl stress, and the responses of 1.0 g/L hemoglobin was the most obvious. Further analyses showed that application of hemoglobin not only increased the HO-1 gene expression, but also differentially induced catalase (CAT, ascorbate peroxidase (APX, and superoxide dismutase (SOD activities or transcripts, thus decreasing the lipid peroxidation in germinating rice seeds subjected to salt stress. Compared with non-hemoglobin treatment, hemoglobin presoaking also increased the potassium (K to sodium (Na ratio both in the root and shoot parts after salinity stress. The effect is specific for HO-1 since the potent HO-1 inhibitor zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPPIX blocked the positive actions of hemoglobin on seed germination and seedling shoot growth. Overall, these results suggested that hemoglobin performs an advantageous role in enhancement of salinity tolerance during rice seed germination.

  5. M1 chimerism following mutagen treatment of seeds in rice and some other cereals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawai, T.

    1983-01-01

    Articles reporting on M 1 chimerism following treatment of seed with mutagen in cereals were mostly published in the 1960's. Rice is a good material for making such studies because of its relatively large number of seeds per panicle, rather easily identifiable tillering and panicle branching systems and uniform growth after seedling transplanting. The present article summarizes results of studies on M 1 chimerism in rice and some other cereals which may serve as reference information in discussing M 1 chimerism of those plant species showing different development patterns, as dicotyledonous plants, following treatment of seed with mutagen. Studies on M 1 chimerism provide not only knowledge of the sporophyte development but also basic information for developing methods of harvesting M 2 seed which provide the maximum numbers of mutants of different origins in a limited number of M 2 plants. (author)

  6. Salinity Inhibits Rice Seed Germination by Reducing α-Amylase Activity via Decreased Bioactive Gibberellin Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Liu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Seed germination plays important roles in the establishment of seedlings and their subsequent growth; however, seed germination is inhibited by salinity, and the inhibitory mechanism remains elusive. Our results indicate that NaCl treatment inhibits rice seed germination by decreasing the contents of bioactive gibberellins (GAs, such as GA1 and GA4, and that this inhibition can be rescued by exogenous bioactive GA application. To explore the mechanism of bioactive GA deficiency, the effect of NaCl on GA metabolic gene expression was investigated, revealing that expression of both GA biosynthetic genes and GA-inactivated genes was up-regulated by NaCl treatment. These results suggest that NaCl-induced bioactive GA deficiency is caused by up-regulated expression of GA-inactivated genes, and the up-regulated expression of GA biosynthetic genes might be a consequence of negative feedback regulation of the bioactive GA deficiency. Moreover, we provide evidence that NaCl-induced bioactive GA deficiency inhibits rice seed germination by decreasing α-amylase activity via down-regulation of α-amylase gene expression. Additionally, exogenous bioactive GA rescues NaCl-inhibited seed germination by enhancing α-amylase activity. Thus, NaCl treatment reduces bioactive GA content through promotion of bioactive GA inactivation, which in turn inhibits rice seed germination by decreasing α-amylase activity via down-regulation of α-amylase gene expression.

  7. Effect of 211At treating pollen and stigma on generative cells and seed setting of rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Jiannan; Mo Shangwu; Liu Ning; Zhou Maolun; Zhang Shuyuan; Chen Fang; Zhang Yizheng; Gao Maoguo

    1998-01-01

    Low specific radioactivity (7.4 kBq/ml) 211 At treating pollen and stigma can obviously affect morphological structures and physiological functions of pollen, stigma and ovule or embryo sac cells, and cause injury. Results showed that because of the radiation effects the seed setting rate of rice was decreased, and the development of some embryos were affected and others became abnormal

  8. Rice grain yield as affected by subsoiling, compaction on sowing furrow and seed treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veneraldo Pinheiro

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to determine the effects of subsoiling, compaction on sowing furrow and seed treatments with insecticides on the grain yield of upland rice cultivated under no-tillage. Two experiments were carried out, one in an area with and the other in an area without subsoiling, in which five seed treatments combined with five compaction pressures on the sowing furrow were compared in a randomized block design, in a factorial scheme, with three replicates. The seed treatments were: T0 - without treatment, T1 - imidacloprid + thiodicarb, T2 - thiamethoxam, T3 - carbofuran, and T4 - fipronil + pyraclostrobin + thiophanate methyl. The compaction pressures were: 25, 42, 126, 268 and 366 kPa. Subsoiling positively affected rice yield in the presence of higher compaction pressures on the sowing furrow. Seed treatment was effective at increasing rice grain yield only at the lowest compaction pressures. Rice yield showed quadratic response to compaction on the sowing furrow, with maximum values obtained at pressures ranging from 238.5 to 280.3 kPa.

  9. Salinity induced metabolic changes in rice (oryza sativa l.) seeds during germination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shereen, A.; Ansari, R.; Raza, A.; Mumtaz, S.; Khan, M.A.; Khan, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    Six inbred lines of rice exhibiting differential tolerance to salinity were exposed to 0, 50, 75, 100 and 200 mM NaCl for 24, 48, 72 and 96 h. The salinity induced metabolic changes (solute leakage, K efflux and a-amylase activity) were studied during germination. Germination of rice seeds was not affected by NaCl concentration less than 100 mM. At higher salinity levels (100 and 200 mM NaCl), a delay of 3-6 days in germination was observed. In the present study, comparatively higher values of solute leakage were observed in those lines in which germination was comparatively affected more adversely (sensitive). Sodium chloride reduced alpha-amylase activity in germinating rice seeds to varying degree even at low NaCl concentrations (50 and 75 mM), where germination was not affected greatly. The tolerant lines exhibited higher enzymatic activity than the sensitive ones. (author)

  10. Embryo-specific expression of soybean oleosin altered oil body morphogenesis and increased lipid content in transgenic rice seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wen Xian; Liu, Hua Liang; Qu, Le Qing

    2013-09-01

    Oleosin is the most abundant protein in the oil bodies of plant seeds, playing an important role in regulating oil body formation and lipid accumulation. To investigate whether lipid accumulation in transgenic rice seeds depends on the expression level of oleosin, we introduced two soybean oleosin genes encoding 24 kDa proteins into rice under the control of an embryo-specific rice promoter REG-2. Overexpression of soybean oleosin in transgenic rice leads to an increase of seed lipid content up to 36.93 and 46.06 % higher than that of the non-transgenic control, respectively, while the overall fatty acid profiles of triacylglycerols remained unchanged. The overexpression of soybean oleosin in transgenic rice seeds resulted in more numerous and smaller oil bodies compared with wild type, suggesting that an inverse relationship exists between oil body size and the total oleosin level. The increase in lipid content is accompanied by a reduction in the accumulation of total seed protein. Our results suggest that it is possible to increase rice seed oil content for food use and for use as a low-cost feedstock for biodiesel by overexpressing oleosin in rice seeds.

  11. Rice is the seed of the monocot plants Oryza sativa (Asian rice) or ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BIOTECH

    2013-10-16

    Oct 16, 2013 ... of culture. The regenerated plantlets were transferred to pots for acclimatization. About 80% of plants were survived in the greenhouse condition. Key words: Somatic embryogenesis, immature zygotic embryos, Indica rice, plant regeneration. INTRODUCTION. Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is one of the most ...

  12. Copper suppresses abscisic acid catabolism and catalase activity, and inhibits seed germination of rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Nenghui; Li, Haoxuan; Zhu, Guohui; Liu, Yinggao; Liu, Rui; Xu, Weifeng; Jing, Yu; Peng, Xinxiang; Zhang, Jianhua

    2014-11-01

    Although copper (Cu) is an essential micronutrient for plants, a slight excess of Cu in soil can be harmful to plants. Unfortunately, Cu contamination is a growing problem all over the world due to human activities, and poses a soil stress to plant development. As one of the most important biological processes, seed germination is sensitive to Cu stress. However, little is known about the mechanism of Cu-induced inhibition of seed germination. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between Cu and ABA which is the predominant regulator of seed germination. Cu at a concentration of 30 µM effectively inhibited germination of rice caryopsis. ABA content in germinating seeds under copper stress was also higher than that under control conditions. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) revealed that Cu treatment reduced the expression of OsABA8ox2, a key gene of ABA catabolism in rice seeds. In addition, both malondialdehyde (MDA) and H2O2 contents were increased by Cu stress in the germinating seeds. Antioxidant enzyme assays revealed that only catalase activity was reduced by excess Cu, which was consistent with the mRNA profile of OsCATa during seed germination under Cu stress. Together, our results demonstrate that suppression of ABA catabolism and catalase (CAT) activity by excess Cu leads to the inhibition of seed germination of rice. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Effect of atmospheric plasma treatment on seed germination of rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penado, Keith Nealson M.; Mahinay, Christian Lorenz S.; Culaba, Ivan B.

    2018-01-01

    Multiple methods of improving plant development have been utilized over the past decades. Despite these improvements, there still exists a need for better planting methods due to the increasing population of a global community. Studies have reported that plasma treatment affects the growth and germination of a variety of plant species, including a multitude of grains which often takes the bulk in the diet of the average human being. This study explores the effect of atmospheric air plasma jet treatment on the seed germination of rice (Oryza sativa L.). The seeds were treated using an atmospheric air plasma jet for 1, 2, and 3 s. The effect of plasma exposure shows a reduction of trichomes on the surface of the seed. This caused a possible increase in wettability which significantly affected the seed germ length but did not affect the seed germination count after the germination period of 72 h.

  14. Timing is everything: early degradation of abscission layer is associated with increased seed shattering in U.S. weedy rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hepler Peter K

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Seed shattering, or shedding, is an important fitness trait for wild and weedy grasses. U.S. weedy rice (Oryza sativa is a highly shattering weed, thought to have evolved from non-shattering cultivated ancestors. All U.S. weedy rice individuals examined to date contain a mutation in the sh4 locus associated with loss of shattering during rice domestication. Weedy individuals also share the shattering trait with wild rice, but not the ancestral shattering mutation at sh4; thus, how weedy rice reacquired the shattering phenotype is unknown. To establish the morphological basis of the parallel evolution of seed shattering in weedy rice and wild, we examined the abscission layer at the flower-pedicel junction in weedy individuals in comparison with wild and cultivated relatives. Results Consistent with previous work, shattering wild rice individuals possess clear, defined abscission layers at flowering, whereas non-shattering cultivated rice individuals do not. Shattering weedy rice from two separately evolved populations in the U.S. (SH and BHA show patterns of abscission layer formation and degradation distinct from wild rice. Prior to flowering, the abscission layer has formed in all weedy individuals and by flowering it is already degrading. In contrast, wild O. rufipogon abscission layers have been shown not to degrade until after flowering has occurred. Conclusions Seed shattering in weedy rice involves the formation and degradation of an abscission layer in the flower-pedicel junction, as in wild Oryza, but is a developmentally different process from shattering in wild rice. Weedy rice abscission layers appear to break down earlier than wild abscission layers. The timing of weedy abscission layer degradation suggests that unidentified regulatory genes may play a critical role in the reacquisition of shattering in weedy rice, and sheds light on the morphological basis of parallel evolution for shattering in weedy and wild

  15. Combined Mass Spectrometry-Based Metabolite Profiling of Different Pigmented Rice (Oryza sativa L. Seeds and Correlation with Antioxidant Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ga Ryun Kim

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Nine varieties of pigmented rice (Oryza sativa L. seeds that were black, red, or white were used to perform metabolite profiling by using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS and gas chromatography (GC TOF-MS, to measure antioxidant activities. Clear grouping patterns determined by the color of the rice seeds were identified in principle component analysis (PCA derived from UPLC-Q-TOF-MS. Cyanidin-3-glucoside, peonidin-3-glucoside, proanthocyanidin dimer, proanthocyanidin trimer, apigenin-6-C-glugosyl-8-C-arabiboside, tricin-O-rhamnoside-O-hexoside, and lipids were identified as significantly different secondary metabolites. In PCA score plots derived from GC-TOF-MS, Jakwangdo (JKD and Ilpoom (IP species were discriminated from the other rice seeds by PC1 and PC2. Valine, phenylalanine, adenosine, pyruvate, nicotinic acid, succinic acid, maleic acid, malonic acid, gluconic acid, xylose, fructose, glucose, maltose, and myo-inositol were significantly different primary metabolites in JKD species, while GABA, asparagine, xylitol, and sucrose were significantly distributed in IP species. Analysis of antioxidant activities revealed that black and red rice seeds had higher activity than white rice seeds. Cyanidin-3-glucoside, peonidin-3-glucoside, proanthocyanidin dimers, proanthocyanidin trimers, and catechin were highly correlated with antioxidant activities, and were more plentiful in black and red rice seeds. These results are expected to provide valuable information that could help improve and develop rice-breeding techniques.

  16. DNA demethylation activates genes in seed maternal integument development in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yifeng; Lin, Haiyan; Tong, Xiaohong; Hou, Yuxuan; Chang, Yuxiao; Zhang, Jian

    2017-11-01

    DNA methylation is an important epigenetic modification that regulates various plant developmental processes. Rice seed integument determines the seed size. However, the role of DNA methylation in its development remains largely unknown. Here, we report the first dynamic DNA methylomic profiling of rice maternal integument before and after pollination by using a whole-genome bisulfite deep sequencing approach. Analysis of DNA methylation patterns identified 4238 differentially methylated regions underpin 4112 differentially methylated genes, including GW2, DEP1, RGB1 and numerous other regulators participated in maternal integument development. Bisulfite sanger sequencing and qRT-PCR of six differentially methylated genes revealed extensive occurrence of DNA hypomethylation triggered by double fertilization at IAP compared with IBP, suggesting that DNA demethylation might be a key mechanism to activate numerous maternal controlling genes. These results presented here not only greatly expanded the rice methylome dataset, but also shed novel insight into the regulatory roles of DNA methylation in rice seed maternal integument development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Waste rice seed in conventional and stripper-head harvested fields in California: Implications for wintering waterfowl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleskes, Joseph P.; Halstead, Brian J.; Casazza, Michael L.; Coates, Peter S.; Kohl, Jeffrey D.; Skalos, Daniel A.

    2012-01-01

    Waste rice seed is an important food for wintering waterfowl and current estimates of its availability are needed to determine the carrying capacity of rice fields and guide habitat conservation. We used a line-intercept method to estimate mass-density of rice seed remaining after harvest during 2010 in the Sacramento Valley (SACV) of California and compared results with estimates from previous studies in the SACV and Mississippi Alluvial Valley (MAV). Posterior mean (95% credible interval) estimates of total waste rice seed mass-density for the SACV in 2010 were 388 (336–449) kg/ha in conventionally harvested fields and 245 (198–307) kg/ha in stripper-head harvested fields; the 2010 mass-density is nearly identical to the mid-1980s estimate for conventionally harvested fields but 36% lower than the mid-1990s estimate for stripped fields. About 18% of SACV fields were stripper-head harvested in 2010 vs. 9–15% in the mid-1990s and 0% in the mid-1980s; but due to a 50% increase in planted rice area, total mass of waste rice seed in SACV remaining after harvest in 2010 was 43% greater than in the mid-1980s. However, total mass of seed-eating waterfowl also increased 82%, and the ratio of waste rice seed to seed-eating waterfowl mass was 21% smaller in 2010 than in the mid-1980s. Mass-densities of waste rice remaining after harvest in SACV fields are within the range reported for MAV fields. However, because there is a lag between harvest and waterfowl use in the MAV but not in the SACV, seed loss is greater in the MAV and estimated waste seed mass-density available to wintering waterfowl in SACV fields is about 5–30 times recent MAV estimates. Waste rice seed remains an abundant food source for waterfowl wintering in the SACV, but increased use of stripper-head harvesters would reduce this food. To provide accurate data on carrying capacities of rice fields necessary for conservation planning, trends in planted rice area, harvest method, and postharvest field

  18. Physiological changes and sHSPs genes relative transcription in relation to the acquisition of seed germination during maturation of hybrid rice seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Li-Wei; Cao, Dong-Dong; Hu, Qi-Juan; Guan, Ya-Jing; Hu, Wei-Min; Nawaz, Aamir; Hu, Jin

    2016-03-30

    During the production of early hybrid rice seed, the seeds dehydrated slowly and retained high moisture levels when rainy weather lasted for a couple of days, and the rice seeds easily occurred pre-harvest sprouting (PHS) along with high temperature. Therefore it is necessary to harvest the seeds before the PHS occurred. The seeds of hybrid rice (Oryza sativa L. subsp. indica) cv. Qianyou No1 that harvests from 19 to 28 days after pollination (DAP) all had high seed vigour. The seed moisture content at 10 DAP was 36.1%, and declined to 28.6% at 19 DAP; the contents of soluble sugar and total starch increased significantly with the development of seeds. The soluble protein content, the level of abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellin (GA3 ), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activity continued to decrease from 10 DAP to 19 DAP. The seeds at 19 DAP had the highest peroxidase (POD) activity and lowest catalase (CAT) activity while the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity had no significant difference among the different developing periods. The relative expressions of genes 64S Hsp18.0 and Os03g0267200 transcripts increased significantly from 10 to 19 DAP, and then decreased. However, no significant change was recorded in soluble protein, sugar and GA3 after 16 DAP, and they all significantly correlated with seed viability and vigour during the process of seed maturity. The seeds of hybrid rice Qianyou No1 had a higher viability and vigour when harvested from 19 DAP to 28 DAP, the transcription levels of 64S Hsp18.0 and Os03g0267200 increased significantly from 10 DAP to 19 DAP and the highest value was recorded at 19 DAP. The seeds could be harvested as early as 19 DAP without negative influence on seed vigour and viability. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Genome-wide association study of salt tolerance at the seed germination stage in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yingyao; Gao, Lingling; Wu, Zhichao; Zhang, Xiaojing; Wang, Mingming; Zhang, Congshun; Zhang, Fan; Zhou, Yongli; Li, Zhikang

    2017-05-30

    Improving the salt tolerance of direct-seeding rice at the seed germination stage is a major breeding goal in many Asian rice-growing countries, where seedlings must often establish in soils with a high salt content. Thus, it is important to understand the genetic mechanisms of salt tolerance in rice and to screen for germplasm with salt tolerance at the seed germination stage. Here, we investigated seven seed germination-related traits under control and salt-stress conditions and conducted a genome-wide association study based on the re-sequencing of 478 diverse rice accessions. The analysis used a mixed linear model and was based on 6,361,920 single nucleotide polymorphisms in 478 rice accessions grouped into whole, indica, and non-indica panels. Eleven loci containing 22 significant salt tolerance-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms were identified based on the stress-susceptibility indices (SSIs) of vigor index (VI) and mean germination time (MGT). From the SSI of VI, six major loci were identified, explaining 20.2% of the phenotypic variation. From the SSI of MGT, five major loci were detected, explaining 26.4% of the phenotypic variation. Of these, seven loci on chromosomes 1, 5, 6, 11, and 12 were close to six previously identified quantitative gene loci/genes related to tolerance to salinity or other abiotic stresses. The strongest association region for the SSI of MGT was identified in a ~ 13.3 kb interval (15450039-15,463,330) on chromosome 1, near salt-tolerance quantitative trait loci controlling the Na + : K + ratio, total Na + uptake, and total K + concentration. The strongest association region for the SSI of VI was detected in a ~ 164.2 kb interval (526662-690,854) on chromosome 2 harboring two nitrate transporter family genes (OsNRT2.1 and OsNRT2.2), which affect gene expression under salt stress. The haplotype analysis indicated that OsNRT2.2 was associated with subpopulation differentiation and its minor/rare tolerant haplotype was

  20. Weed control in organic rice using plastic mulch and water seeding methods in addition to cover crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeds are a major yield limiting factor in organic rice farming and are more problematic than in conventional production systems. Water seeding is a common method of reducing weed pressure in rice fields as many weeds connot tolerate flooded field conditions. The use of cover crops is another method...

  1. Foliar application of molybdenum reduces yield loss and pre-harvest sprouting in japonica rice seed subjected to simulated flooding during seed development and maturation

    OpenAIRE

    Tejakhod, Sujittra; Hammond, John P.; Ellis, Richard H.

    2018-01-01

    Flooding damages rice crops and its incidence is increasing. Foliar spray applications of molybdenum (100, 600 or 3000 mg Mo L-1), abscisic acid (ABA, 50 μM), or deionised water (control) were made to pot-grown plants of the Japonica rice cv. Gleva at flag leaf appearance to determine their effects on seed yield and pre-harvest sprouting after flooding. Plants were submerged , to simulate flooding, for four days from 20 or 30 days after anthesis (DAA). Seed yield per plant, seed weight, and p...

  2. Sustained expression of human cytomegalovirus glycoprotein B (UL55) in the seeds of homozygous rice plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tackaberry, Eilleen S; Prior, Fiona A; Rowlandson, Karen; Tocchi, Monika; Mehic, Jelica; Porter, Suzanne; Walsh, Mike; Schleiss, Mark R; Ganz, Peter R; Sardana, Ravinder K; Altosaar, Illimar; Dudani, Anil K

    2008-09-01

    Production of recombinant subunit vaccines in transgenic plants may be a means of reducing vaccine costs while increasing availability and safety. A plant-derived product found safe and effective for oral administration would provide additional advantages when used as a vaccine. Outstanding issues with the technology include transgene stability through successive generations and consistent bioproduction. We previously reported expression of glycoprotein B (gB) of human cytomegalovirus in seeds of transgenic tobacco. Here the goal was to determine if gB could be similarly expressed in rice, and if so, to examine expression over several plant generations. Results show that immunoreactive gB was successfully expressed in transgenic rice seeds, with sustained expression over three generations. The gB contained several neutralizing epitopes and was stable over 27 months.

  3. Effects of gamma-rays and neutrons on the seedling and callus growth in rice seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baradjanegara, A.A.; Fujii, Taro; Amano, Etsuo

    1976-01-01

    Seeds of rice c.v. Norin-8 and two radiation induced dwarf mutants MGS-46 and -96 were used to investigate the effects of gamma- and 14 MeV neutron-radiations in different culture systems. Seedling growth of irradiated seeds in soil, and in two types of synthetic media, modified White's (M-W) or modified Eriksson's (M-E), as well as the callus growth on 2.4-D supplemented media were measured as an index of radiation damage. Comparing the seedling height about two types of media, the M-E promoted the plant growth than the M-W in irradiated as well as non-irradiated lots of the three strains studied. The callus growth on M-E surpassed by more 10 times that obrained on the M-W in all the lots. The M-E medium seem to be appropriate for both the seedling and callus growth of rice. (auth.)

  4. Enhancement in seed germinability of rice (oryza sativa L.) by pre-sowing seed treatment with nitric oxide (NO) under salt stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habib, N.; Ashraf, M.; Ahmad, M.S.

    2010-01-01

    The seeds of two fine-rice (Shaheen and PB-95) and two coarse rice (IRRI-6 and KS-282) cultivars were soaked in varying levels of nitric oxide (NO) (0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5 mM) and then exposed to 80 mM NaCl in sand culture. Application of salt stress significantly reduced seed germinability parameters of all four rice cultivars in terms of percent seed germinated, germination index and seedling fresh and dry weights. The toxic effects of salt stress in reducing seed germinability were greater in fine rice cultivars (Shaheen and PB-95) as compared to those in coarse ones (IRRI-6 and KS-282). Although, the application of lower levels of nitric oxide (0.05, 0.1 and 0.2 mM) as pre-sowing seed treatment showed a significant improvement, 0.1 and 0.2 mM NO were found to be the most effective in improving seed germinability under salt stress. With a further increase in NO concentration (0.3 mM) as pre-sowing seed treatment, the seed germinability parameters differed non-significantly from those of control plants, while the highest levels (0.4 and 0.5 mM) showed significant inhibitory effects on seed germination and early seedling growth. It was concluded that lower levels of NO (0.1 and 0.2 mM) could be used to effectively enhance seed germination of rice plants under salt stress. (author)

  5. Method of phorbol ester degradation in Jatropha curcas L. seed cake using rice bran lipase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayat, Chusnul; Hastuti, Pudji; Wardhani, Avita Kusuma; Nadia, Lana Santika

    2014-03-01

    A novel enzymatic degradation of phorbol esters (PE) in the jatropha seed cake was developed using lipase. Cihera rice bran lipase had the highest ability to hydrolyze PE, and reduced PE to a safe level after 8 h of incubation. Enzymatic degradation may be a promising method for PE degradation. Copyright © 2013 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of Cadmium Stress on Seed Germination, Seedling Growth and Seed Amylase Activities in Rice (Oryza sativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-yu HE

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Two rice varieties, Xiushui 110 with high cadmium (Cd tolerance and Xiushui 11 with low Cd tolerance were used to study the effects of Cd stress on seed germination, seedling growth and amylase activities. The low cadmium concentration had little effect on seed germination rate. However, cadmium stress could significantly inhibit plumule and radicle growth, especially for radicle growth. Germination index, vigour index, radicle length and amylase activities of Xiushui 11 decreased more significantly with the increasing cadmium level compared with Xiushui 110. The cadmium content in seedlings of Xiushui 11 was higher than that in Xiushui 110 when the cadmium concentration exceeded 5 μmol/L, which caused lower mitotic index in root tips and amylase activities, and more serious cadmium toxicity in Xiushui 11.

  7. Physiological characteristics and related gene expression of after-ripening on seed dormancy release in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, W; Cheng, J; Cheng, Y; Wang, L; He, Y; Wang, Z; Zhang, H

    2015-11-01

    After-ripening is a common method used for dormancy release in rice. In this study, the rice variety Jiucaiqing (Oryza sativa L. subsp. japonica) was used to determine dormancy release following different after-ripening times (1, 2 and 3 months). Germination speed, germination percentage and seedling emergence increased with after-ripening; more than 95% germination and 85% seedling emergence were observed following 1 month of after-ripening within 10 days of imbibition, compared with rice dormancy release. Dormancy release by after-ripening is mainly correlated with a rapid decline in ABA content and increase in IAA content during imbibition. Subsequently, GA(1)/ABA, GA(7)/ABA, GA(12)/ABA, GA(20)/ABA and IAA/ABA ratios significantly increased, while GA(3)/ABA, GA(4)/ABA and GAs/IAA ratio significantly decreased in imbibed seeds following 3 months of after-ripening, thereby altering α-amylase activity during seed germination. Peak α-amylase activity occurred at an earlier germination stage in after-ripened seeds than in freshly harvested seeds. Expression of ABA, GA and IAA metabolism genes and dormancy-related genes was regulated by after-ripening time upon imbibition. Expression of OsCYP707A5, OsGA2ox1, OsGA2ox2, OsGA2ox3, OsILR1, OsGH3-2, qLTG3-1 and OsVP1 increased, while expression of Sdr4 decreased in imbibed seeds following 3 months of after-ripening. Dormancy release through after-ripening might be involved in weakening tissues covering the embryo via qLTG3-1 and decreased ABA signalling and sensitivity via Sdr4 and OsVP1. © 2015 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  8. Performance of super hybrid rice cultivars grown under no-tillage and direct seeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Huang

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Good progress has been made in the super hybrid rice (Oryza sativa L. breeding in China. However, rice yield not only depends on the genetic characteristics but also on the agronomic practices. No-tillage and direct seeding (NTDS is a simplified cultivation technology that greatly simplifies both land preparation and crop establishment. Aiming to determine the grain yield performance of super hybrid rice under NTDS and to identify critical factors that determine grain yield, field experiments were conducted in Nanxian, Hunan Province, China in 2009 and 2010. Two super hybrid cultivars, Liangyoupeijiu and Y-liangyou 1, were grown under conventional tillage and transplanting (CTTP and NTDS. Grain yield, yield components, biomass production, crop growth rate and biomass accumulation during sowing to heading (HD and HD to maturity were measured for each cultivar. There was no difference in grain yield under NTDS and CTTP. However, grain yield differed with cultivar and year. Y-liangyou 1 produced 4 % higher grain yield than Liangyoupeijiu in 2009, whereas in 2010 both cultivars yielded similarly. Grain yields of both cultivars were higher in 2009 than in 2010. Higher grain yield of Y-liangyou 1 in 2009 was associated with higher spikelet filling (spikelet filling percentage and grain weight, which resulted from higher biomass production. Crop growth rate after HD was critical for biomass production by the super hybrid rice. We suggest that increasing the crop growth rate after HD is an effective approach to increase grain yield of super hybrid rice under NTDS.

  9. Transgenic rice seed expressing flavonoid biosynthetic genes accumulate glycosylated and/or acylated flavonoids in protein bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogo, Yuko; Mori, Tetsuya; Nakabayashi, Ryo; Saito, Kazuki; Takaiwa, Fumio

    2016-01-01

    Plant-specialized (or secondary) metabolites represent an important source of high-value chemicals. In order to generate a new production platform for these metabolites, an attempt was made to produce flavonoids in rice seeds. Metabolome analysis of these transgenic rice seeds using liquid chromatography-photodiode array-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry was performed. A total of 4392 peaks were detected in both transgenic and non-transgenic rice, 20–40% of which were only detected in transgenic rice. Among these, 82 flavonoids, including 37 flavonols, 11 isoflavones, and 34 flavones, were chemically assigned. Most of the flavonols and isoflavones were O-glycosylated, while many flavones were O-glycosylated and/or C-glycosylated. Several flavonoids were acylated with malonyl, feruloyl, acetyl, and coumaroyl groups. These glycosylated/acylated flavonoids are thought to have been biosynthesized by endogenous rice enzymes using newly synthesized flavonoids whose biosynthesis was catalysed by exogenous enzymes. The subcellular localization of the flavonoids differed depending on the class of aglycone and the glycosylation/acylation pattern. Therefore, flavonoids with the intended aglycones were efficiently produced in rice seeds via the exogenous enzymes introduced, while the flavonoids were variously glycosylated/acylated by endogenous enzymes. The results suggest that rice seeds are useful not only as a production platform for plant-specialized metabolites such as flavonoids but also as a tool for expanding the diversity of flavonoid structures, providing novel, physiologically active substances. PMID:26438413

  10. Histones and their phosphorylation during germination of rice seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal Ahmed, C.M.; Padayatti, J.D.

    1980-01-01

    Histones from nuclei of rice embryos were identified by their mobilities on 15% acid-urea polyacrylamide gel electrophoreogram, incorporation of ( 3 H)lysine and ( 14 C) arginine and lack of incorporation of ( 3 H)tryptophan. The ratio of histone to DNA in ungerminated embryos was 2.7 which decreased during germination reaching unity by 48 hr. There was preferential phosphorylation of lysine-rich histones, which paralleled the synthesis of DNA. In the presence of cytosine arabinoside and mitomycin-C, which inhibited the synthesis of DNA to the extend of 75-80% the phosphorylation of lysine-rich histone was reduced by 50-60% suggesting the dependence of phosphorylation on the ongoing synthesis of DNA. (auth.)

  11. Reactive Oxygen Species Generated by NADPH Oxidases Promote Radicle Protrusion and Root Elongation during Rice Seed Germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Yan Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Seed germination is a complicated biological process that requires regulation through various enzymatic and non-enzymatic mechanisms. Although it has been recognized that reactive oxygen species (ROS regulate radicle emergence and root elongation in a non-enzymatic manner during dicot seed germination, the role of ROS in monocot seed germination remains unknown. NADPH oxidases (NOXs are the major ROS producers in plants; however, whether and how NOXs regulate rice seed germination through ROS generation remains unclear. Here, we report that diphenyleneiodinium (DPI, a specific NOX inhibitor, potently inhibited embryo and seedling growth—especially that of the radicle and of root elongation—in a dose-dependent manner. Notably, the DPI-mediated inhibition of radicle and root growth could be eliminated by transferring seedlings from DPI to water. Furthermore, ROS production/accumulation during rice seed germination was quantified via histochemistry. Superoxide radicals (O2−, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 and hydroxyl radicals (•OH accumulated steadily in the coleorhiza, radicle and seedling root of germinating rice seeds. Expression profiles of the nine typical NOX genes were also investigated. According to quantitative PCR, OsNOX5, 7 and 9 were expressed relatively higher. When seeds were incubated in water, OsNOX5 expression progressively increased in the embryo from 12 to 48 h, whereas OsNOX7 and 9 expressions increased from 12 to 24 h and decreased thereafter. As expected, DPI inhibits the expression at predetermined time points for each of these genes. Taken together, these results suggest that ROS produced by NOXs are involved in radicle and root elongation during rice seed germination, and OsNOX5, 7 and 9 could play crucial roles in rice seed germination. These findings will facilitate further studies of the roles of ROS generated by NOXs during seed germination and seedling establishment and also provide valuable information for the

  12. Seed vigor classification using analysis of mean radicle emergence time and single counts of radicle emergence in rice (Oryza sativa L. and mung bean (Vigna radiata (L. Wilczek

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damrongvudhi Onwimol

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The radicle emergence (RE test for seed vigor classification is an ingenious protocol that will lead to a fast and reliable automated procedure for verifying seed quality using image analysis. Nevertheless, the success of this protocol has never been described in rice and mung bean that are global staple foods. This experiment analyzed the correlation between RE (2 mm in length and normal seedlings (NS during a germination test of rice and mung bean. In total, 12 samples using four cultivars of each species were obtained from different locations and production years. In addition to the germination test, an accelerated ageing (AA test and an electrical conductivity (EC test were analyzed. The results revealed that the pattern of the cumulative germination curve of RE and NS coincided but the curve for NS was longer than for RE (p ≤ 0.05. There was no significant difference in the variance of the germination time between RE and NS of rice but there was a significant difference for mung bean. The vigor levels of the rice seed classified by single counts of RE at 110 h after set to germinate (HASG conformed to the result of single counts of NS at 200 HASG and the result of the AA test. However, these classifications disagreed with the result derived from the EC test. In contrast, the mung bean vigor level classified by single counts of RE, NS, the AA test and the EC test did not relate well with each other. In conclusion, it is possible to develop the automated procedure for verifying rice seed quality using image analysis via a single count of RE.

  13. A preliminary study on identification of Thai rice samples by INAA and statistical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongsri, S.; Kukusamude, C.

    2017-09-01

    This study aims to investigate the elemental compositions in 93 Thai rice samples using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and to identify rice according to their types and rice cultivars using statistical analysis. As, Mg, Cl, Al, Br, Mn, K, Rb and Zn in Thai jasmine rice and Sung Yod rice samples were successfully determined by INAA. The accuracy and precision of the INAA method were verified by SRM 1568a Rice Flour. All elements were found to be in a good agreement with the certified values. The precisions in term of %RSD were lower than 7%. The LODs were obtained in range of 0.01 to 29 mg kg-1. The concentration of 9 elements distributed in Thai rice samples was evaluated and used as chemical indicators to identify the type of rice samples. The result found that Mg, Cl, As, Br, Mn, K, Rb, and Zn concentrations in Thai jasmine rice samples are significantly different but there was no evidence that Al is significantly different from concentration in Sung Yod rice samples at 95% confidence interval. Our results may provide preliminary information for discrimination of rice samples and may be useful database of Thai rice.

  14. Construction of a male sterility system for hybrid rice breeding and seed production using a nuclear male sterility gene

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Zhenyi; Chen, Zhufeng; Wang, Na; Xie, Gang; Lu, Jiawei; Yan, Wei; Zhou, Junli; Tang, Xiaoyan; Deng, Xing Wang

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear male sterility is common in flowering plants, but its application in hybrid breeding and seed production is limited because of the inability to propagate a pure male sterile line for commercial hybrid seed production. Here, we characterized a rice nuclear gene essential for sporophytic male fertility and constructed a male sterility system that can propagate the pure male sterile seeds on a large scale. This system is fundamentally advantageous over the current cytoplasmic male steril...

  15. On the role of abscisic acid in seed dormancy of red rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianinetti, Alberto; Vernieri, Paolo

    2007-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is commonly assumed to be the primary effector of seed dormancy, but conclusive evidence for this role is lacking. This paper reports on the relationships occurring in red rice between ABA and seed dormancy. Content of free ABA in dry and imbibed caryopses, both dormant and after-ripened, the effects of inhibitors, and the ability of applied ABA to revert dormancy breakage were considered. The results indicate: (i) no direct correlation of ABA content with the dormancy status of the seed, either dry or imbibed; (ii) different sensitivity to ABA of non-dormant seed and seed that was forced to germinate by fluridone; and (iii) an inability of exogenous ABA to reinstate dormancy in fluridone-treated seed, even though applied at a pH which favoured high ABA accumulation. These considerations suggest that ABA is involved in regulating the first steps of germination, but unidentified developmental effectors that are specific to dormancy appear to stimulate ABA synthesis and to enforce the responsiveness to this phytohormone. These primary effectors appear physiologically to modulate dormancy and via ABA they effect the growth of the embryo. Therefore, it is suggested that ABA plays a key role in integrating the dormancy-specific developmental signals with the control of growth.

  16. The perspective effects of various seed coating substances on rice seed variety Khao Dawk Mali 105 storability II: the case study of chemical and biochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thobunluepop, P; Pan-in, W; Pawelzik, E; Vearasilp, S

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of seed coating substances; chemical fungicide (CA) and biological fungicide polymers [chitosan-lignosulphonate polymer (CL) and eugenol incorporated into chitosan-lignosulphonate polymer (E+CL)] on chemical and biochemical changes of rice seeds cv. KDML 105, which have been studied during storage for 12 months. CA significantly affected the rice seed chemical properties and the associated seed deterioration. After 12 months storage, protein content decreased accompanied by declined of lipid content, increased free fatty acids and activated lipoxygenase enzyme. In the case of biological fungicide coated seeds, the antioxidative scavenging enzymes were ascorbate peroxidase and superoxide dismutase and a high antioxidant activity protected them. Moreover, the sugar content was positive correlated with seed germination and vigor. The biological coated seeds were found to maintain high sugar contents inside the seeds, which resulted high seed storability significantly. In contrast, under fungicide stress (CA), those compounds were lost that directly affected seed vigor during storage.

  17. Genomic DNA sequence and cytosine methylation changes of adult rice leaves after seeds space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jinming

    In this study, cytosine methylation on CCGG site and genomic DNA sequence changes of adult leaves of rice after seeds space flight were detected by methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism (MSAP) and Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) technique respectively. Rice seeds were planted in the trial field after 4 days space flight on the shenzhou-6 Spaceship of China. Adult leaves of space-treated rice including 8 plants chosen randomly and 2 plants with phenotypic mutation were used for AFLP and MSAP analysis. Polymorphism of both DNA sequence and cytosine methylation were detected. For MSAP analysis, the average polymorphic frequency of the on-ground controls, space-treated plants and mutants are 1.3%, 3.1% and 11% respectively. For AFLP analysis, the average polymorphic frequencies are 1.4%, 2.9%and 8%respectively. Total 27 and 22 polymorphic fragments were cloned sequenced from MSAP and AFLP analysis respectively. Nine of the 27 fragments from MSAP analysis show homology to coding sequence. For the 22 polymorphic fragments from AFLP analysis, no one shows homology to mRNA sequence and eight fragments show homology to repeat region or retrotransposon sequence. These results suggest that although both genomic DNA sequence and cytosine methylation status can be effected by space flight, the genomic region homology to the fragments from genome DNA and cytosine methylation analysis were different.

  18. [Impact of low temperature in young ear formation stage on rice seed setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shu Qing; Liu, Xiao Hang; Deng, Kui Cai; Quan, Hu Jie; Tong, Li Yuan; Xi, Zhu Xiang; Chai, Qing Rong; Yang, Jun

    2018-01-01

    A low temperature treatment in rice booting key period was executed on the north slope of Changbai Mountains to construct the impact model of low temperature on rice shell rate, and to reveal the effects of low temperature at different stages of rice young panicle on seed setting. The results showed that effects of low temperature in the young ear formation stage on rice shell rate generally followed the logarithmic function, the lower the temperature was, the greater the temperature influence coefficient was, and the longer the low temperature duration was, the higher rice shell rate was. The seed setting rate was most sensitive to low temperature in the middle time of booting stage (the period from formation to meiosis of the pollen mother cell), followed by the early and later stages. During the booting stage, with 1 ℃ decrease of daily temperature under 2-, 3- and 5-day low temperature treatments, the shell rate increased by 0.5, 1.7 and 4.3 percentage, respectively, and with 1 ℃ decrease of daily minimum temperature, the shell rate increased by 0.4,1.8 and 4.5 percentage, respectively. The impact of 2-day low temperature was smaller than that of 3 days or more. The impact of accumulative cold-temperature on the shell rate followed exponential function. In the range of harmful low temperature, rice shell rate increased about 8.5 percentage with the accumulative cold-temperature increasing 10 ℃·d. When the 3 days average temperature dropped to 21.6, 18.0 and 15.0 ℃, or the 5 days average temperature dropped to 22.0, 20.4 and 18.5 ℃, or the accumulative cold-temperature was more than 8, 19, 26 ℃·d, the light, moderate and severe booting stage chilling injury would occur, respectively. In Northeast China, low temperature within 2 d in rice booting stage might not cause moderate and severe chilling injury.

  19. Development and appraisal of economical and sustainable approach for weed management in drill seeded aerobic rice (oryza sativa l.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saqib, M.; Akbar, N.; Ehsanullah, A.; Ghafoor, A.

    2012-01-01

    Conventional rice cultivation by puddling and transplanting is a labor intensive activity. Water scarcity is a threat for the sustain ability of transplanted rice. In many areas of Asia, rice transplantation of rice is being replaced by direct seeding as farmers tried to solve the problems of labor cost and water scarcity but weed control is one of the major constraints to direct seeding. So, to control weeds in direct seeded rice present studies were designed. A two years study was conducted to develop sustainable and economical methods for managing weeds in aerobic rice grown by dry direct-seeding at Student's Farm, Department of Agronomy, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad during the years 2008 and 2009. Experiment was laid out in RCBD with five weed management strategies: hand weeding, hoeing with kasula, inter-row cultivation with tine cultivator, inter-row cultivation with spike hoe and chemical control with Nominee 100 SC along with control (no weeding). Weed dry weight was 300 g m/sup -2/, 257 g m/sup -2/, 225 g m/sup -2/ and 157 g m/sup -2/ less in hand weeding, hoeing, tine cultivator and Nominee 100 SC respectively than no weeding. Paddy yield was 221%, 203%, 181% and 105% more in hand weeding, hoeing, tine cultivator and Nominee 100 SC respectively than no weeding. (author)

  20. The perspective effects of various seed coating substances on rice seed variety Khao DAWK Mali 105 storability I: the case study of physiological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thobunluepop, P; Pawelzik, E; Vearasilp, S

    2008-10-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the perspective changes of several physiological performances of rice seeds cv. KDML 105 which were coated with various seed coating substances [chemical fungicide, captan (CA) and biological coating polymers; chitosan-lignosulphonate polymer (CL) and eugenol incorporated into chitosan-lignosulphonate polymer (E + CL)] during storage (12 months). CA significantly increased seed moisture content and seed water activity through out the storage period. The qualities and viability of the seeds were seriously declined by this treatment. Moreover, CA inhibited the shoot and root development, seedling dry weight accumulation, delayed the seed germination and seedling growth rate. CA treated seeds were susceptible to stress conditions that declined the seed germination potential under cold, high moisture and temperature stress conditions. Nevertheless, CL and E + CL coating polymer could maintain seed storability, which significantly improved seed germination and seedling performances. These improvements were attributed to maintain the nutritive reserve and dehydrogenase activity in seeds. Moreover, the biological seed treatment stimulated the embryo growth and so speeding up the seedling emergence when compared untreated seeds.

  1. Improvement of seed protein in rice through mutation breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monyo, J.H.; Sugiyama, T.

    1978-01-01

    Mutants selected from an M 4 generation on the basis of high yield potential and high grain protein content were grown in a preliminary yield trial. The two parent varieties, Faya Theresa and Kihogo Red, were grown as controls. Thirteen mutants originating from Faya Theresa and three mutants derived from Kihogo Red were found to be equal or superior in yield to the controls. The best improvement in protein content through mutagen treatment was 44% increase in a Faya Theresa mutant and 35% increase in a Kihogo Red mutant. The protein values obtained for the same mutants in the M 3 , M 4 and M 5 generations were found to be consistently higher than in the check varieties. Correlations between grain yield and yield attributes including seed protein per cent and protein per grain showed that these were mutagen-dependent. Grain yield showed negative correlations with protein per cent and protein per grain. However, a few mutants were found which combined high grain yield and high protein per cent. The correlation between protein per cent and protein per grain was positive and very highly significant. It was concluded that despite the high negative correlations between grain protein per cent and grain yield screening for high protein per cent in high-yielding mutants provides a great scope for the identification of the correlation breakers which combine high grain yield potential and high protein content. (author)

  2. Effects of mutagen application of sodium azide and gamma radiation in rice seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guimaraes, E.P.

    1980-01-01

    Effects of mutagen application of sodium azide and gamma radiation in rice seeds. Upland rice seeds, variety Dourado Precoce, were treated with gamma-rays and sodium azide(SA). Biological effects of these treatments were studied in the M 1 and M 2 generations. Survival number, seedling height, plant fertility and chlorophyill mutation frequencies based on mutations per 100 M 1 panicles and mutants per 100 M 2 seedlings were analysed. Among these characters, plant fertility was the most sensitive for mutagen treatments, and higher doses of gamma-rays or higher concentrations of sodium azide reduced significantly fertility of M 1 plants. The same effect as increase of concentration of sodium azide was observed when the acidity of buffer solution was increased, or when seeds were pre-treated in distilled water. The maximum chlorophyll mutation frequencies were obtained in sodium azide treatments: 40.74% in the M 1 panicles and 10.67% in the M 2 seedlings, in comparison with the maximum frequenies in gamma-irradiation of 10.39% in the M 1 panicles and 1.73% in the M 2 seedlings. (Author) [pt

  3. Rice Seed Priming with Picomolar Rutin Enhances Rhizospheric Bacillus subtilis CIM Colonization and Plant Growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akanksha Singh

    Full Text Available The effect of rutin, a bioflavonoid on the growth and biofilm formation of Bacillus subtilis strain CIM was investigated. In addition to swimming, swarming, and twitching potentials of B. subtilis CIM (BS, one picomolar (1 pM of rutin was also observed to boost the biofilm forming ability of the bacterium. Bio-priming of rice seeds with BS and rutin not only augmented root and shoot lengths but also the photosynthetic pigments like chlorophyll and carotenoid. Similarly, high accumulation of phenolic and flavonoid contents was observed in the leaves. Fluorescent microscopic images revealed that BS plus rutin enhanced callose deposition in the leaves. It was also established that the least formation of reactive oxygen species in BS plus rutin treated rice plants was due to higher free radicals scavenging activity and total antioxidant potential. The results highlight chemo attractant nature of BS towards rutin, which by enhancing biofilm formation and root colonization indirectly strengthened the plants' defensive state.

  4. Antagonism between abscisic acid and gibberellins is partially mediated by ascorbic acid during seed germination in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Nenghui; Zhang, Jianhua

    2012-05-01

    The antagonism between abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellin (GA) plays a key role in controlling seed germination, but the mechanism of antagonism during this process is not known. In the associated study, we investigated the relationship among ABA, reactive oxygen species (ROS), ascorbic acid (ASC) and GA during rice seed germination. ROS production is reduced by ABA, which hence results in decreasing ASC accumulation during imbibition. GA accumulation was also suppressed by a reduced ROS and ASC level, whereas application of exogenous ASC can partially rescue seed germination from ABA treatment. Further results show that production of ASC, which acts as a substrate in GA biosynthesis, was significantly inhibited by lycorine which thus suppressed the accumulation of GA. Consequently, expression of GA biosynthesis genes was suppressed by the low levels of ROS and ASC in ABA-treated seeds. These studies reveal a new role for ASC in mediating the antagonism between ABA and GA during seed germination in rice.

  5. Physiological quality of rice seed submitted to gamma radiation; Qualidade fisiologica de sementes de arroz submetidas a radiacao gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, Helen Lucia da Cruz; Tillmann, Maria Angela Andre; Meneghello, Geri Eduardo, E-mail: helenllc@gmail.co [Universidade Federal de Pelotas (UFPel), RS (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Ciencia e Tecnologia de Sementes; Bobrowski, Vera Lucia [Universidade Federal de Pelotas (UFPel), RS (Brazil). Dept. de Genetica; Dode, Luciana Bicca [Universidade Catolica de Pelotas (UCPel), RS (Brazil)

    2009-08-15

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of the gamma radiation ({sup 60}Co) on the physiological quality of rice seeds. The research was carried out through three tests; in the first test rice seeds were irradiated at dosages of 0; 1; 2.5 and 5Gy, while for the second and third tests the seeds were subjected to accelerated aging before being irradiated. For the second test the seeds were divided into wet and dry and both groups subjected to accelerated aging previous to irradiation at dosages of 0; 1; 2.5 and 5Gy. For the third test the seeds were dried after being subjected to accelerated aging, and then irradiated at dosages of 0, 10, 25 and 50Gy. To assess the physiological effects of the gamma radiation, all seeds were tested for germination and their germination speed index recorded. Seedling growth was graded through the measurement of the lengths of the first leaf and seminal root system and total seedling dry weight, across all tests. The enzymatic activity of acid phosphatase and alpha-amylase was measured on dry seeds from the second test. The results from all tests indicate that the applied gamma radiation dosages did not cause any changes to the physiological quality of rice seeds. (author)

  6. Study on the contents of trace rare earth elements and their distribution in wheat and rice samples by RNAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Jingxin; Zhao Hang; Wang Yuqi

    1994-01-01

    The concentrations of 8 REE (La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb and Lu) in wheat and rice samples have been determined by RNAA. The contents and distributions of REE in each part of the plants (i.e. root, leaf, stem, husk and seed) and their host soils were studied, which included samples applied with rare earth elements in farming and control samples. The effects of applying rare earth on the uptake of REE by the plants and the REE accumulation in the grains of human health were also discussed. (author) 9 refs.; 4 figs.; 4 tabs

  7. Genetic Control of Seed Shattering in Rice by the APETALA2 Transcription Factor SHATTERING ABORTION1[C][W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yan; Lu, Danfeng; Li, Canyang; Luo, Jianghong; Zhu, Bo-Feng; Zhu, Jingjie; Shangguan, Yingying; Wang, Zixuan; Sang, Tao; Zhou, Bo; Han, Bin

    2012-01-01

    Seed shattering is an important agricultural trait in crop domestication. SH4 (for grain shattering quantitative trait locus on chromosome 4) and qSH1 (for quantitative trait locus of seed shattering on chromosome 1) genes have been identified as required for reduced seed shattering during rice (Oryza sativa) domestication. However, the regulatory pathways of seed shattering in rice remain unknown. Here, we identified a seed shattering abortion1 (shat1) mutant in a wild rice introgression line. The SHAT1 gene, which encodes an APETALA2 transcription factor, is required for seed shattering through specifying abscission zone (AZ) development in rice. Genetic analyses revealed that the expression of SHAT1 in AZ was positively regulated by the trihelix transcription factor SH4. We also identified a frameshift mutant of SH4 that completely eliminated AZs and showed nonshattering. Our results suggest a genetic model in which the persistent and concentrated expression of active SHAT1 and SH4 in the AZ during early spikelet developmental stages is required for conferring AZ identification. qSH1 functioned downstream of SHAT1 and SH4, through maintaining SHAT1 and SH4 expression in AZ, thus promoting AZ differentiation. PMID:22408071

  8. Characterization of seeds of selected wild species of rice (Oryza) stored under high temperature and humidity conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Smruti; Nayak, Monalisa; Patra, B C; Ramakrishnan, B; Krishnan, P

    2010-06-01

    Wild progenitors of rice (Oryza) are an invaluable resource for restoring genetic diversity and incorporating useful traits back into cultivars. Studies were conducted to characterize the biochemical changes, including SDS-PAGE banding pattern of storage proteins in seeds of six wild species (Oryza alta, O. grandiglumis, O. meridionalis, O. nivara, O. officinalis and O. rhizomatis) of rice stored under high temperature (45 degrees C) and humidity (approixmately 100%) for 15 days, which facilitated accelerated deterioration. Under the treated conditions, seeds of different wild rice species showed decrease in per cent germination and concentrations of protein and starch, but increase in conductivity of leachate and content of sugar. The SDS-PAGE analysis of seed proteins showed that not only the total number of bands, but also their intensity in terms of thickness differed for each species under storage. The total number of bands ranged from 11 to 22, but none of the species showed all the bands. Similarity index for protein bands between the control and treated seeds was observed to be least in O. rhizomatis and O. alta, while the indices were 0.7 and 0.625 for O. officinalis and O. nivara, respectively. This study clearly showed that seed deterioration led to distinctive biochemical changes, including the presence or absence as well as altered levels of intensity of proteins. Hence, SDS-PAGE protein banding pattern can be used effectively to characterize deterioration of seeds of different wild species of rice.

  9. Provenance validation of polished rice samples using nuclear and isotopic analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pabroa, P.C.B.; Sucgang, R.J.; Mendoza, N.D.S.; Ebihara, M.; Peña, M.

    2015-01-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa) has been considered the best staple food among all cereals and is the staple food for over 3 billion people, constituting over half of the world’s population. Elemental and isotopic analysis revealed variance between Philippine and Japanese rice. Rice samples collected in Japan and in the Philippines (market survey samples from Metro Manila, and farm harvests from Aklan province and Central Luzon) were washed, dried and ground to fine powder. Elemental analyses of the samples were carried out using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) while isotopic signatures of the samples were determined using the isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS). Results show that compared with the unpolished rice standard NIES CRM10b, the polished Japanese and Philippine rice sampled show reduced concentrations of elements by as much as 1/10. 1/4 , 1/5 and 1/3 for Mg, Mn, K and Na, respectively. Levels of Ca and Zn are not greatly affected. Arsenic, probably introduced from fertilizers used in rice fields is found in all the Japanese rice tested at an average concentration of 0.103 μg/g and three out of four of the Philippine rice at an average concentration of 0.70μg/g. Higher levels of Br seen in two of the Philippine rice at 14 and 34μg/g indicated probable contamination source from the pesticide methyl bromide during quarantine. Good correlation of isotopic signatures with geographical location of polished, but not for unpolished, rice samples from Central Luzon and Aklan indicated that provenance studies are best done on polished rice samples. Isotopic with of ω’”13C show signature that of a C3 plant with possible narrow distinguishable signature with Japanese rice falling within -27.5 to -28.5 while Philippine rice within -29 to -30. Rice provenance can be ascertained using elemental analysis and isotopic abundance determination as shown by the study.(author)

  10. Mapping QTL for Seed Germinability under Low Temperature Using a New High-Density Genetic Map of Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ningfei Jiang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Mapping major quantitative trait loci (QTL responsible for rice seed germinability under low temperature (GULT can provide valuable genetic source for improving cold tolerance in rice breeding. In this study, 124 rice backcross recombinant inbred lines (BRILs derived from a cross indica cv. Changhui 891 and japonica cv. 02428 were genotyped through re-sequencing technology. A bin map was generated which includes 3057 bins covering distance of 1266.5 cM with an average of 0.41 cM between markers. On the basis of newly constructed high-density genetic map, six QTL were detected ranging from 40 to 140 kb on Nipponbare genome. Among these, two QTL qCGR8 and qGRR11 alleles shared by 02428 could increase GULT and seed germination recovery rate after cold stress, respectively. However, qNGR1 and qNGR4 may be two major QTL affecting indica Changhui 891germination under normal condition. QTL qGRR1 and qGRR8 affected the seed germination recovery rate after cold stress and the alleles with increasing effects were shared by the Changhui 891 could improve seed germination rate after cold stress dramatically. These QTL could be a highly valuable genetic factors for cold tolerance improvement in rice lines. Moreover, the BRILs developed in this study will serve as an appropriate choice for mapping and studying genetic basis of rice complex traits.

  11. Determination of Mineral Contents in Unpolished Rice and Bean Samples by Neutron Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, J. H.; Kim, S. H.; Baek, S. Y.; Chung, Y. S.

    2012-01-01

    As scientists have focused their researches on the health impacts caused by mineral nutrient deficiencies and hazardous elements, public concern regarding mineral intake from dietary food is rising. In this reason, the dietary habits of Koreans have been shifted from white rice to more nutrient rice like unpolished rice and rice mixed with beans. It is known that unpolished rice and beans contain more protein, vitamin and mineral contents than white rice and are more beneficial to human health, even though they sometimes cause indigestion or allergy. The objectives of this study were to determine the mineral contents in unpolished rice and bean samples by a neutron activation analysis (NAA) and to compare the level of mineral contents between the samples

  12. Determination of Mineral Contents in Unpolished Rice and Bean Samples by Neutron Activation Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, J. H.; Kim, S. H.; Baek, S. Y.; Chung, Y. S. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    As scientists have focused their researches on the health impacts caused by mineral nutrient deficiencies and hazardous elements, public concern regarding mineral intake from dietary food is rising. In this reason, the dietary habits of Koreans have been shifted from white rice to more nutrient rice like unpolished rice and rice mixed with beans. It is known that unpolished rice and beans contain more protein, vitamin and mineral contents than white rice and are more beneficial to human health, even though they sometimes cause indigestion or allergy. The objectives of this study were to determine the mineral contents in unpolished rice and bean samples by a neutron activation analysis (NAA) and to compare the level of mineral contents between the samples

  13. Métodos para avaliar a qualidade fisiológica de sementes de arroz Methods to evaluate physiological quality of rice seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.L. de Menezes

    1995-08-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar a eficiência de diferentes métodos para a determinação da qualidade fisiológica de sementes de arroz, foram utilizados dois grupos de dez lotes de sementes, das variedades BR-IRGA 409 e BR-IRGA 410. A qualidade dos lotes foi determinada através do teor de água, peso de mil sementes, teste de germinação e dos testes de vigor: primeira contagem de germinação, classificação do vigor de plântulas, envelhecimento acelerado, teste de frio modificado, tamanho e massa seca de plântulas e emergência no campo. Concluiu-se que os testes de frio modificado e classificação do vigor de plântulas são capazes de estratificar diferentes lotes de arroz pelo vigor e se correlacionam positivamente com a emergência no campo. O teste de envelhecimento acelerado, sob as condições de 42'C e 100% de umidade relativa do ar, durante 120 horas, estratifica lotes de arroz , em função do vigor das sementes. Os testes de tamanho e massa seca de plântulas, quando eliminam as plântulas anormais e sementes não germinadas, não são capazes de estratificar lotes de sementes de arroz, em função do vigor.Aiming to evaluate the efficiency of different methods to determine the physiological quality of rice seeds, two groups of 10 lots each of the varieties BR-IRGA 409 and BR-IRGA 410 were used. Seed quality was determined through seed water content, weight of 1,000 seeds, germination and vigor tests: first germination counting, classification of seedling vigor, accelerated aging, modified cold test, seedling growth and weight and field emergence. It was concluded that the modified cold test and classification of seedling vigor are capable of stratifying different rice samples according to their vigor and are positively correlated with field emergence. The accelerated aging, under 42'C and 100% relative humidity of air conditions stratifies the samples in relation to seed vigor. The tests of seedling growth and weight, when

  14. Effects of sodium chloride on radiation protection and modification of gamma-ray treated rice seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Cailian; Zhao Kongnan; Shen Mei; Xu Gang; Chen Qiufang

    1992-11-01

    The radiation protection effect of sodium chloride on dormant and germinating rice seeds treated with gamma-rays, and modification effect of sodium chloride on mutation were studied. Results show that the radiation-damage effect on seedling growth, percentage of seedling growth, percentage of seedling growth and fertility in M 1 generation is significantly enhanced with the increasing of dose. However, the seedling growth, percentage of seedling growth and fertility can be improved if the irradiated seeds are pre-treated with sodium chloride solution having concentrations of 0.05, 0.10 and 0.20 mol/L. The difference between treated group and control group is very significant. Results also show that pre-treatment and post-treatment by sodium chloride can raise the mutation frequencies of chlorophyll deficient seedlings, especially, the mutation frequency of early heading date and height is more considerably. The conclusion is that the sodium chloride, as a radiation protection agent, combined with gamma-ray treatment could reduce the effect of radiation-damage on M 1 generation and raise the mutation frequency in M 2 generation, and this result will be helpful in rice breeding

  15. Water culture of the rice containing Cs-137

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Yong Ho; Keum, Dong Kwon; Lim, Kwang Muk; Jun, In; Park, Doo Won

    2008-10-01

    Pot experiments were carried out in a greenhouse in order to produce Cs-137-containing rice seeds as a source material for use in manufacturing reference rice samples of a high Cs-137 activity. Two kinds of soil were used and two pots were prepared for each kind of soil. Rice plants were water-cultured in the pots and Cs-137 was applied to the surface water to induce a Cs-137 contamination of rice seeds via a plant uptake of Cs-137. Mature rice plants were harvested and Cs-137-containing rice seeds were obtained after some treatment of the harvested plants. These produced rice seeds are going to be provided for the KRISS so as to be used in manufacturing reference rice samples for Cs-137

  16. Posttranscriptional regulation of alpha-amylase II-4 expression by gibberellin in germinating rice seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanjo, Yohei; Asatsuma, Satoru; Itoh, Kimiko; Hori, Hidetaka; Mitsui, Toshiaki; Fujisawa, Yukiko

    2004-06-01

    Hormonal regulation of expression of alpha-amylase II-4 that lacks the gibberellin-response cis-element (GARE) in the promoter region of the gene was studied in germinating rice (Oryza sativa L.) seeds. Temporal and spatial expression of alpha-amylase II-4 in the aleurone layer were essentially identical to those of alpha-amylase I-1 whose gene contains GARE, although these were distinguishable in the embryo tissues at the early stage of germination. The gibberellin-responsible expression of alpha-amylase II-4 was also similar to that of alpha-amylase I-1. However, the level of alpha-amylase II-4 mRNA was not increased by gibberellin, indicating that the transcriptional enhancement of alpha-amylase II-4 expression did not occur in the aleurone. Gibberellin stimulated the accumulation of 45Ca2+ into the intracellular secretory membrane system. In addition, several inhibitors for Ca2+ signaling, such as EGTA, neomycin, ruthenium red (RuR), and W-7 prevented the gibberellin-induced expression of alpha-amylase II-4 effectively. While the gibberellin-induced expression of alpha-amylase II-4 occurred normally in the aleurone layer of a rice dwarf mutant d1 which is defective in the alpha subunit of the heterotrimeric G protein. Based on these results, it was concluded that the posttranscriptional regulation of alpha-amylase II-4 expression by gibberellin operates in the aleurone layer of germinating rice seed, which is mediated by Ca2+ but not the G protein.

  17. Influence of Genetic Drift of Restoring Gene (Rf on Seed Purity of Yuetai A, a Honglian-Type Cytoplasmic Male Sterile Line in Hybrid Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-feng Wang

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The seed samples of Yuetai A, a Honglian (HL type cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS line in hybrid rice were investigated to assess the seed purity and to analyze the cause of off-type plants by imitating the biological contaminant to Yuetai A in Nanjing, Jiangsu Province and Lingshui, Hainan Province during 2004–2006. The seed impurity of Yuetai A mainly resulted from the genetic drift of restoring fertility gene (Rf after biological contamination but not from its sterility unstability. All of the ten maintainer lines, five restorer lines and three thermo-sensitive genic male sterile lines used in the study could pollinate Yuetai A and Yuetai B to produce F1 plants, directly or indirectly resulting in Rf-gene drifting into Yuetai A and generating ‘iso-cytoplasm restoring-generations’. Furthermore, high outcrossing rate and similar heading date of Yuetai A with many varieties used in rice production might easily result in the biological contamination. After removing all plants with Rf-gene mixed in Yuetai A and preventing Rf-gene drifting into Yuetai A, the seed purity of Yuetai A and Yuetai B had been raised to 100%.

  18. Total Arsenic, Cadmium, and Lead Determination in Brazilian Rice Samples Using ICP-MS

    OpenAIRE

    Mataveli, Lidiane Raquel Verola; Buzzo, Márcia Liane; Arauz, Luciana Juncioni de; Carvalho, Maria de Fátima Henriques; Arakaki, Edna Emy Kumagai; Matsuzaki, Richard; Tiglea, Paulo

    2016-01-01

    This study is aimed at investigating a suitable method for rice sample preparation as well as validating and applying the method for monitoring the concentration of total arsenic, cadmium, and lead in rice by using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Various rice sample preparation procedures were evaluated. The analytical method was validated by measuring several parameters including limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), linearity, relative bias, and rep...

  19. The Role of University Partners in the Innovation Adoption Process to Rice Seed Farmers in Aceh Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setia Budi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The role of university partners in the innovation adoption process in the implementation of agricultural extension is very necessary to get attention to realize the success of empowering rice seed farmers. The purpose of this research is (1 to know the role of universities in the process of adopting innovation in IPB 3S seedling in Aceh Province, (2 to know the perception of farmers toward the characteristics of the innovation of IPB 3S varieties, and (3 to know the role of universities in the implementation process of extension agriculture to rice seed farmers. This research uses qualitative descriptive approach with data measurement using Likert scale. The results showed that in general the universities play significant role in innovation adoption process to rice seed farmers. The role is arranged by sequence; (1 implementing cultivation skill (2 strengthening farmer institution, (3 liaison with the government (4 guidance of transfer of technology, and (5 liaison with production market. Farmers perception on the characteristics of innovation optimum production technology package (IPB-Prima IPB 3S (1 has a relative profitability, (2 easy to try, (3 conformity, (4 observable, and (5 innovation subtly level. The role of partners in the implementation of agricultural extension in sequence (1 conformity of extension materials, (2 intensity of extension, (3 appropriateness of extension method and (4 accuracy of media usage. The university should pay attention on the mechanism of facilitating technology transfer with the use of media and appropriate extension methods to rice seed farmers. The university also should build good communication with private organizations to help farmers in terms of seed price certainty produced by rice seed farmers in Aceh Province, Indonesia.

  20. Seed Priming Improves Agronomic Trait Performance under Flooding and Non-flooding Conditions in Rice with QTL SUB1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramni Kumar SARKAR

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Farmers in South East Asia are adopting rice crop establishment methods from transplanting to direct wet or dry seeding as it requires less labour and time and comparatively less energy than transplanting. In contrast to irrigated condition, in rainfed lowland, direct seeding is a common practice. Early flooding controls weeds but decreases seedling establishment in direct seeded rice. Anaerobic germination is an important trait to counteract damages caused by early flooding. Management options which can help in crop establishment and improve crop growth under flooding might remove the constraints related to direct seeding. The investigation was carried out with two near isogenic lines Swarna and Swarna-Sub1. Swarna-Sub1 is tolerant to submergence whereas Swarna is susceptible. Seed priming was done with water and 2% Jamun (Syzygium cumini leaf extract, and it improved seedling establishment under flooding. Acceleration of growth occurred due to seed pretreatment, which resulted longer seedling and greater accumulation of biomass. Seed priming greatly hastened the activities of total amylase and alcohol dehydrogenase in Swarna-Sub1 than in Swarna. Swarna-Sub1 outperformed Swarna when the plants were cultivated under flooding. Weed biomass decreased significantly under flooding compared to non-flooding conditions. Seed priming had positive effects on yield and yield attributing parameters both under non-flooding and early flooding conditions.

  1. Expression patterns of ABA and GA metabolism genes and hormone levels during rice seed development and imbibition: a comparison of dormant and non-dormant rice cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Fang, Jun; Xu, Fan; Chu, Jinfang; Yan, Cunyu; Schläppi, Michael R; Wang, Youping; Chu, Chengcai

    2014-06-20

    Seed dormancy is an important agronomic trait in cereals. Using deep dormant (N22), medium dormant (ZH11), and non-dormant (G46B) rice cultivars, we correlated seed dormancy phenotypes with abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellin (GA) metabolism gene expression profiles and phytohormone levels during seed development and imbibition. A time course analysis of ABA and GA content during seed development showed that N22 had a high ABA level at early and middle seed developmental stages, while at late developmental stage it declined to the level of ZH11; however, its ABA/GA ratio maintained at a high level throughout seed development. By contrast, G46B had the lowest ABA content during seed development though at early developmental stage its ABA level was close to that of ZH11, and its ABA/GA ratio peaked at late developmental stage that was at the same level of ZH11. Compared with N22 and G46B, ZH11 had an even and medium ABA level during seed development and its ABA/GA ratio peaked at the middle developmental stage. Moreover, the seed development time-point having high ABA/GA ratio also had relatively high transcript levels for key genes in ABA and GA metabolism pathways across three cultivars. These indicated that the embryo-imposed dormancy has been induced before the late developmental stage and is determined by ABA/GA ratio. A similar analysis during seed imbibition showed that ABA was synthesized in different degrees for the three cultivars. In addition, water uptake assay for intact mature seeds suggested that water could permeate through husk barrier into seed embryo for all three cultivars; however, all three cultivars showed distinct colors by vanillin-staining indicative of the existence of flavans in their husks, which are dormancy inhibition compounds responsible for the husk-imposed dormancy. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Characterization of 140 Japanese and world rice collections cultivated in Nihonmatsu-city in Fukushima in terms of radiocesium activity concentrations in seed grains and straws to explore rice cultivars with low radiocesium accumulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsuhiro Kojima; Djedidi Salem

    2017-01-01

    We studied varietal difference in radiocesium accumulation by using Japanese and World rice collection for future development of low accumulation varieties. As a result, the radiocesium activity concentration varied by 12- and 22-fold in seed grains and straws, respectively. When we examined the seed grain to straw ratio of radiocesium activity concentration, paddy rice cultivars of Japonica sub-species showed a lower result than Indica and Javanica paddy rice cultivars. These observations suggest that the Japonica paddy rice cultivars may have the property of repressing radioactive cesium translocation to edible parts. (author)

  3. TALEN-Based Mutagenesis of Lipoxygenase LOX3 Enhances the Storage Tolerance of Rice (Oryza sativa Seeds.

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    Lei Ma

    Full Text Available The deterioration of rice grain reduces the quality of rice, resulting in serious economic losses for farmers. Lipoxygenases (LOXs catalyze the dioxygenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids with at least one cis,cis-1,4-pentadiene to form hydroperoxide, which is a major factor influencing seed longevity and viability. Recently, genome editing, an essential tool employed in reverse genetics, has been used experimentally to investigate basic plant biology or to modify crop plants for the improvement of important agricultural traits. In this study, we performed targeted mutagenesis in rice using transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs to improve seed storability. A modified ligation-independent cloning method (LIC was employed to allow for the quick and efficient directional insertion of TALEN monomer modules into destination vectors used in plants. We demonstrated the feasibility and flexibility of the technology by developing a set of modular vectors for genome editing. After construction and validation, the TALEN pairs were used to create stable transgenic rice lines via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. One heterozygous mutant (4% was recovered from 25 transgenic NPTII-resistant lines, and the mutation was transmitted to the next generation. Further molecular and protein level experiments verified LOX3 deficiency and demonstrated the improvement of seed storability. Our work provides a flexible genome editing tool for improving important agronomic traits, as well as direct evidence that Lox3 has only a limited impact on seed longevity.

  4. TALEN-Based Mutagenesis of Lipoxygenase LOX3 Enhances the Storage Tolerance of Rice (Oryza sativa) Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lei; Zhu, Fugui; Li, Zhenwei; Zhang, Jianfu; Li, Xin; Dong, Jiangli; Wang, Tao

    2015-01-01

    The deterioration of rice grain reduces the quality of rice, resulting in serious economic losses for farmers. Lipoxygenases (LOXs) catalyze the dioxygenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids with at least one cis,cis-1,4-pentadiene to form hydroperoxide, which is a major factor influencing seed longevity and viability. Recently, genome editing, an essential tool employed in reverse genetics, has been used experimentally to investigate basic plant biology or to modify crop plants for the improvement of important agricultural traits. In this study, we performed targeted mutagenesis in rice using transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) to improve seed storability. A modified ligation-independent cloning method (LIC) was employed to allow for the quick and efficient directional insertion of TALEN monomer modules into destination vectors used in plants. We demonstrated the feasibility and flexibility of the technology by developing a set of modular vectors for genome editing. After construction and validation, the TALEN pairs were used to create stable transgenic rice lines via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. One heterozygous mutant (4%) was recovered from 25 transgenic NPTII-resistant lines, and the mutation was transmitted to the next generation. Further molecular and protein level experiments verified LOX3 deficiency and demonstrated the improvement of seed storability. Our work provides a flexible genome editing tool for improving important agronomic traits, as well as direct evidence that Lox3 has only a limited impact on seed longevity.

  5. Do rice suspension-cultured cells treated with abscisic acid mimic developing seeds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuno, Koya; Fujimura, Tatsuhito

    2015-08-01

    Starch synthesis is activated in the endosperm during seed development and also in rice suspension cells cultured with abscisic acid. In the anticipation that the mechanisms of starch synthesis are similar between the endosperm and the suspension cells cultured with abscisic acid, expression of genes involved in starch synthesis was evaluated in the suspension cells after abscisic acid treatment. However, it was found that the regulatory mechanism of starch synthesis in the suspension cells cultured with abscisic acid was different from that in developing seeds. Expression analyses of genes involved in oil bodies, which accumulate in the embryo and aleurone layer, and seed storage proteins, which accumulate mainly in the endosperm, showed that the former were activated in the suspension cells cultured with abscisic acid, but the latter were not. Master regulators for embryogenesis, OsVP1 (homologue of AtABI3) and OsLFL1 (homologue of AtFUS3 or AtLFL2), were expressed in the suspension cells at levels comparable to those in the embryo. From these results, it is suggested that interactions between regulators and abscisic acid control the synthesis of phytic acid and oil bodies in the cultured cells and embryo. We suggest that the system of suspension cells cultured with abscisic acid helps to reveal the mechanisms of phytic acid and oil body synthesis in embryo.

  6. Absence of storage effects on radiation damage after thermal neutron irradiation of dry rice seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kowyama, Y. [Mie Univ., Tsu (Japan); Saito, M.; Kawase, T.

    1987-09-15

    Storage effects on dry rice seeds equilibrated to 6.8% moisture content were examined after irradiation with X-rays of 5, 10, 20 and 40 kR and with thermal neutrons of 2.1, 4.2, 6.3 and 8.4×10{sup 13}N{sub th}/cm{sup 2}. Reduction in root growth was estimated from dose response curves after storage periods of 1 hr to 21 days. The longer the storage period, the greater enhancement of radiation damages in X-irradiated seeds. There were two components in the storage effect, i. e., a rapid increase of radiosensitivity within the first 24 hr and a slow increase up to 21 days. An almost complete absence of a storage effect was observed after thermal neutron exposure, in spite of considerably high radioactivities of the induced nuclides, {sup 56}Mn, {sup 42}K and {sup 24}Na, which were detected from gamma-ray spectrometry of the irradiated seeds. The present results suggest that the contributions of gamma-rays from the activated nuclides and of inherent contaminating gamma-rays are little or negligible against the neutron-induced damage, and that the main radiobiological effects of thermal neutrons are ascribed to in situ radiations, i, e., heavy particles resulting from neutron-capture reaction of atom. A mechanism underlying the absence of storage effect after thermal neutron irradiation was briefly discussed on the basis of radical formation and decay. (author)

  7. Influence of rice sample preparation and milling procedures on milling quality appraisals

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this research was to investigate the effect of sample preparation and milling procedure on milling quality appraisals of rough rice. Samples of freshly harvested medium-grain rice (M202) with different initial moisture contents (MCs) ranging from 20.2% to 25.1% (w.b.) were used for...

  8. Long-Term No-Tillage Direct Seeding Mode for Water-Saving and Drought-Resistance Rice Production in Rice-Rapeseed Rotation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing-bin DU

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available To study the effects of long-term no-tillage direct seeding mode on rice yield and the soil physiochemical property in a rice-rapeseed rotation system, a comparative experiment with a water-saving and drought-resistance rice (WDR variety and a double low rapeseed variety as materials was conducted under no-tillage direct seeding (NTDS mode and conventional tillage direct seeding (CTDS mode for four years, using the CTDS mode as the control. Compared with the CTDS mode, the actual rice yield of WDR decreased by 8.10% at the first year, whereas the plant height, spikelet number per panicle, spikelet fertility, 1000-grain weight, grain yield, actual yield, and harvest index increased with no-tillage years, which led to the actual yield increase by 6.49% at the fourth year. Correlation analysis showed that the panicle length was significantly related to the actual yield of WDR. Compared with the CTDS mode in terms of the soil properties, the pH value of the NTDS mode decreased every year, whereas the contents of soil organic matter and total N of the NTDS mode increased. In the 0–5 cm layer of the NTDS mode, the soil bulk decreased, whereas the contents of soil organic matter, total N, and available N increased. In the 5–20 cm layer of the NTDS mode, the available N and K decreased, whereas the soil bulk, contents of soil organic matter, and total N increased. In summary, the NTDS mode increased the rice yield, and could improve the paddy soil fertility of the top layer.

  9. Yield and size of oyster mushroom grown on rice/wheat straw basal substrate supplemented with cotton seed hull.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wenjie; Guo, Fengling; Wan, Zhengjie

    2013-10-01

    Oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) was cultivated on rice straw basal substrate, wheat straw basal substrate, cotton seed hull basal substrate, and wheat straw or rice straw supplemented with different proportions (15%, 30%, and 45% in rice straw substrate, 20%, 30%, and 40% in wheat straw substrate) of cotton seed hull to find a cost effective substrate. The effect of autoclaved sterilized and non-sterilized substrate on growth and yield of oyster mushroom was also examined. Results indicated that for both sterilized substrate and non-sterilized substrate, oyster mushroom on rice straw and wheat basal substrate have faster mycelial growth rate, comparatively poor surface mycelial density, shorter total colonization period and days from bag opening to primordia formation, lower yield and biological efficiency, lower mushroom weight, longer stipe length and smaller cap diameter than that on cotton seed hull basal substrate. The addition of cotton seed hull to rice straw and wheat straw substrate slowed spawn running, primordial development and fruit body formation. However, increasing the amount of cotton seed hull can increase the uniformity and white of mycelium, yield and biological efficiency, and increase mushroom weight, enlarge cap diameter and shorten stipe length. Compared to the sterilized substrate, the non-sterilized substrate had comparatively higher mycelial growth rate, shorter total colonization period and days from bag opening to primordia formation. However, the non-sterilized substrate did not gave significantly higher mushroom yield and biological efficiency than the sterilized substrate, but some undesirable characteristics, i.e. smaller mushroom cap diameter and relatively long stipe length.

  10. Enrichment of rice-based extrudates with Cactus Opuntia dillenii seed powder: a novel source of fiber and antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayan, Ahmed M; Morsy, Noha E; Youssef, Khaled M

    2018-02-01

    The present study investigated the effects of adding the powder of cactus Opuntia dillenii ( O. dillenii ) seeds on the functional properties, fiber, antioxidants and acceptability of rice-based extrudates. The control blend consisting basically of rice flour was replaced with O. dillenii seed powder at 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 15 and 20% then extruded at the optimum processing conditions. The extruded products were evaluated for their chemical composition, functional properties, color attributes, antioxidant activity and sensory characteristics. The results revealed that adding O. dillenii seeds powder enhanced the fiber, phenolics, flavonoid contents and antioxidant activity of extrudates. Expansion, bulk density and breaking strength were significantly decreased, while water absorption index, water solubility index and oil absorption index were significantly increased compared to the control. Furthermore, the mean scores of sensory evaluation indicated clear improvements in all tested sensory attributes, which significantly increased by increasing the level of O. dillenii seed powder up to 15%. The results confirmed that O. dillenii seed powder could be incorporated in rice to develop snack products of acceptable functional, nutritional and sensory properties.

  11. Seed Germination Behaviors Of Some Aerobic Rice Cultivars Oryza Sativa L After Priming With Polyethylene Glycol-8000 Peg-8000

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    Elkheir H.A

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Seed Priming Is Famous Technique To Accelerate Seed Germination Behaviors. This Experiment Was Conducted To Study The Effect Of Polyethylene Glycol-8000 Peg-8000 As Priming Agent On Seed Germination Behavior Of Some Aerobic Rice Cultivars Oryza Sativa L. Experiment Was Carried Out By Using Two-Factor Three Aerobic Rice Cultivars And Peg With Four Replications Which Arranged In Factorial System Design And Conducted With Completely Randomized Design. The Factor Was Varieties Which Were Inpago 8 V1 Ir64 V2 And Situbagendit V3 Combine With 4 Levels Of Peg Concentrations 0100 And 200 Gl-1 And Control With No Treatment. Experiment Was Repeated 4 Times So Total Number Of Experimental Units Were 48. Germination Parameters Measured Were Germination Percentage Germination Index Days Of 50 Germination Seedling Fresh Weight Mg Seedling Shoot Fresh Weight And Root Fresh Weight Mg Seedling Dry Weigh Mg Seedling Shoot Dry Weight And Root Dry Weight Mg ShootRoot Ratio Seedling Length Cm Seedling Root Length Cm And Shoot Length Cm And Seed Vigor Index. The Results Indicated That Seed Priming Significantly Affected Germination Behaviors Compared With Control Depending Upon Varieties. The Highest Germination Was Obtained Under Laboratory And Greenhouse Condition By The Treatment Of Peg 200 G L-1 On The Situbagendit And Ir-64 Variety 90.25 And 93.33 Respectively Compared To Control In Inpago-8 In Both Laboratory 75.75 And Greenhouse 80 . As Implementation To Increase Seed And Seedling Vigor Of Rice It Is A Best Practice To Use Peg Priming With 200 Gl-1 Solutions Depend Upon Varietal Response And We Suggest That More Research About The Effect Of Peg As Seed Priming Techniques On Seed Germination Behavior Of Many Grain Crops Is Needed To Confirm The Methodology.

  12. Effects of silicon on seed setting rate of rice intersubspecific hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W-C; Zhang, L; Wang, J; Wang, D; Wang, T-X; Duan, C-X

    2015-09-01

    The present study found semi-sterility in rice intersubspecific hybrids of 'Taichung 65' x 'Guangluai 4' and 'Ludao' x 'Qiuguang'. Embryo sac fertility was evaluated using the overall staining transparent method. The results showed that the embryo sac contained a normal egg cell, normal synergid cells, polar nuclei cells, and antipodal cells, indicating that semi-sterility was caused mainly by pollen semi-sterility. In the pot experiment, the effects of silicon on the seed-setting rate of the two intersubspecific hybrids were examined. The results showed that the rate of anther dehiscence, number of pollen per stigma of Fl plants, potential of pollen grain germination, and fertility of the spikelet were significantly improved by the utilization of silicon fertilizer.

  13. Synthesis of geopolymer from rice husk ash for biodiesel production of Calophyllum inophyllum seed oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saputra, E.; Nugraha, M. W.; Helwani, Z.; Olivia, M.; Wang, S.

    2018-04-01

    In this work, geopolymer was prepared from rice husk ash (RHA) made into sodium silicate then synthesized by reacting metakaolin, NaOH, and water. The catalyst was characterized using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy-dispersive X-Ray analysis (EDX), Brunaeur Emmet Teller (BET), and basic strength. Then, the catalyst used for transesterification of Calophyllum inophyllum seed oil in order to produce biodiesel. The variation of process variables conducted to assess the effect on the yield of biodiesel. The highest yield obtained 87.68% biodiesel with alkyl ester content 99.29%, density 866 kg/m3, viscosity 4.13 mm2/s, the acid number of 0.42 mg-KOH/g biodiesel and the flash point 140 °C. Generally, variations of %w/w catalyst provides a dominant influence on the yield response of biodiesel. The physicochemical properties of the produced biodiesel comply with ASTM standard specifications.

  14. Toxicity evaluation of natural samples from the vicinity of rice fields using two trophic levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Catarina R; Pereira, Ruth; Gonçalves, Fernando

    2011-09-01

    An ecotoxicological screening of environmental samples collected in the vicinity of rice fields followed a combination of physical and chemical measurements and chronic bioassays with two freshwater trophic levels (microalgae: Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and Chlorella vulgaris; daphnids: Daphnia longispina and Daphnia magna). As so, water and sediment/soil elutriate samples were obtained from three sites: (1) in a canal reach crossing a protected wetland upstream, (2) in a canal reach surrounded by rice fields and (3) in a rice paddy. The sampling was performed before and during the rice culture. During the rice cropping, the whole system quality decreased comparatively to the situation before that period (e.g. nutrient overload, the presence of pesticides in elutriates from sites L2 and L3). This was reinforced by a significant inhibition of both microalgae growth, especially under elutriates. Contrary, the life-history traits of daphnids were significantly stimulated with increasing concentrations of water and elutriates, for both sampling periods.

  15. EPR spin probe investigation of irradiated wheat, rice and sunflower seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paktas, Dilek Dadayl [Department of Physics, Faculty of Art and Science, Zonguldak Karaelmas University, 67100 Zonguldak (Turkey)]. E-mail: dadayli@karaelmas.edu.tr; Suennetcioglu, M. Maral [Department of Physics Engineering, Hacettepe University, 06532 Beytepe, Ankara (Turkey)

    2007-01-15

    TEMPO and 4-nitro-TEMPO spin probes were used to monitor dose-dependent changes in the EPR spectra of irradiated wheat and rice embryos and sunflower embryo parts. Rice embryos were studied in the 233-293 K temperature range using 4-nitro-TEMPO. TEMPAMINE, TEMPYO and DTBN spin probes were also studied for their applicability in the determination of irradiated seeds. All the recorded spectra were simulated, and spectral parameters and partition of the probes among various domains were determined. Despite the contribution of the signal from extracellular regions, it was possible to detect the changes in the water/lipid ratios with dose. The hydrophilic character of the probe alone was not sufficient to distinguish the different doses of irradiation. Line widths and rotational correlation times of various domains within embryo also play an important role. Partition after dehydration was another measure in the selection of the suitable probes for irradiation studies. Better results were obtained in dehydrated embryos for the probes preferring lipid bodies.

  16. Effects of lanthanum and acid rain stress on the bio-sequestration of lanthanum in phytoliths in germinated rice seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Yong; Wang, Lihong; Huang, Xiaohua

    2018-01-01

    REEs in the environment can be absorbed by plants and sequestered by plant phytoliths. Acid rain can directly or indirectly affect plant physiological functions. Currently, the effects of REEs and acid rain on phytolith-REEs complex in plants are not yet fully understood. In this study, a high-silicon accumulation crop, rice (Oryza sativa L.), was selected as a representative of plants, and orthogonal experiments were conducted under various levels of lanthanum [La(III)] and pH. The results showed that various La(III) concentrations could significantly improve the efficiency and sequestration of phytolith La(III) in germinated rice seeds. A pH of 4.5 promoted phytolith La(III) sequestration, while a pH of 3.5 inhibited sequestration. Compared with the single treatment with La(III), the combination of La(III) and acid rain inhibited the efficiency and sequestration of phytolith La(III). Correlation analysis showed that the efficiency of phytolith La(III) sequestration had no correlation with the production of phytolith but was closely correlated with the sequestration of phytolith La(III) and the physiological changes of germinated rice seeds. Phytolith morphology was an important factor affecting phytolith La(III) sequestration in germinated rice seeds, and the effect of tubes on sequestration was more significant than that of dumbbells. This study demonstrated that the formation of the phytolith and La(III) complex could be affected by exogenous La(III) and acid rain in germinated rice seeds. PMID:29763463

  17. Evaluation of metal ions in rice samples: extraction and direct determination by ICP OES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Andrea; Cadore, Solange; Baccan, Nivaldo

    2012-01-01

    A method for extraction of metal ions present in rice samples using ammoniacal EDTA solution, pH = 10, as extractor agent is proposed under the following optimized conditions: 0.20 g of rice sample and 5.00 mL of ammoniacal EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) solution, with 5 min of ultrasound exposure time. Using robust ICP OES (inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry) conditions, direct analysis of the extraction solution was allowed, and the recovery values obtained were above 90% for most of the studied elements (P, K, Mg, Ca, Zn, Mn, Cu and Mo) with RSD -1 (Mn) - 48.68 mg kg -1 (K), showing adequate detectability for the determination of the analytes. The analysis of different samples indicated that Brazilian 'integral' rice contains higher contents of the constituents studied, followed by 'parboiled' rice, and the 'agulhinha' rice a long and thin grain type. (author)

  18. Dwarf Rice Mutant Derived from 0.2 kGy Gamma Rays Irradiated Seeds of Atomita 4 Variety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobrizal; Sutisna Sanjaya; Carkum; Mohamad Ismachin

    2004-01-01

    Dwarf rice mutant was obtained when Atomita 4 seeds were irradiated by 0.2 kGy gamma rays. The results of segregation analyses in F2 populations and F3 lines derived from reciprocal crosses of mutant and Atomita 4 suggested that the dwarf was controlled by a single recessive gene. This gene was not located on rice cytoplasmic genome but on nuclear genome. The gene for dwarf obtained in this study tentatively could be assumed as a new finding until the allelic relationships with other dwarf genes are verified. (author)

  19. Genotypic Differences in Growth and Physiological Responses to Transplanting and Direct Seeding Cultivation in Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Chen

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The field experiments were conducted to investigate the growth and physiological responses of six super hybrid rice combinations to two planting methods, transplanting (TP and direct seeding (DS during 2006–2007 and 2007–2008. The 1000-grain weight and number of tillers per plant at the early growth stage, the maximum quantum yield of PSII (Fv/Fm and transpiration rate (Tr were higher in DS plants than in TP ones, whereas the grain yield, number of panicles per square meter, seed setting rate, net photosynthetic rate (Pn and stomatal conductance were lower in DS plants. However, little difference was detected in number of grains per panicle, stem (shoot and leaf weight between the combinations in the two planting methods. The responses of plant growth and physiological traits to planting method differed greatly among the six combinations. In both planting methods, Chouyou 58 and Yongyou 6 had the highest and lowest panicle biomass and Pn, respectively. The higher yield of Chunyou 58 was associated with more numbers of panicles per square meter and grains per panicle in both planting methods. The results indicate that lower grain yield in DS relative to TP is attributed to more excessive tillers at the early stage, lower leaf biomass and photosynthetic rate at the late stage.

  20. Prokaryotic Expression, Purification and Characterization of a Novel Rice Seed Lipoxygenase Gene OsLOX1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren Wang

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Lipoxygenase (LOX, EC1.13.11.12 is a key enzyme during the degradation of lipids in animals and even plants, and also the first key enzyme responsible for the biosynthesis of jasmonate. To purify and characterize the OsLOX1 gene from rice seeds, the entire coding region of the OsLOX1 gene was inserted into an expression vector pET30a(+ and transformed into Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3. Expression of the fusion protein was successfully induced by isopropyl-β-D- thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG and the purified recombinant protein was obtained by His·Bind® Kits. Further assay showed that the purified recombinant protein exhibited the LOX activity. The optimum pH was 4.8 (acetate buffer and the optimum temperature was 30°C for the above enzyme. Thus, the recombinant might confer an available usage for the synthesis of jasmonate in vitro, and also provides a possibility for elucidating the inter-relationship between the primary structure of the plant seed lipoxygenase protein and its physiological functions.

  1. Construction of a male sterility system for hybrid rice breeding and seed production using a nuclear male sterility gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Zhenyi; Chen, Zhufeng; Wang, Na; Xie, Gang; Lu, Jiawei; Yan, Wei; Zhou, Junli; Tang, Xiaoyan; Deng, Xing Wang

    2016-12-06

    The breeding and large-scale adoption of hybrid seeds is an important achievement in agriculture. Rice hybrid seed production uses cytoplasmic male sterile lines or photoperiod/thermo-sensitive genic male sterile lines (PTGMS) as female parent. Cytoplasmic male sterile lines are propagated via cross-pollination by corresponding maintainer lines, whereas PTGMS lines are propagated via self-pollination under environmental conditions restoring male fertility. Despite huge successes, both systems have their intrinsic drawbacks. Here, we constructed a rice male sterility system using a nuclear gene named Oryza sativa No Pollen 1 (OsNP1). OsNP1 encodes a putative glucose-methanol-choline oxidoreductase regulating tapetum degeneration and pollen exine formation; it is specifically expressed in the tapetum and miscrospores. The osnp1 mutant plant displays normal vegetative growth but complete male sterility insensitive to environmental conditions. OsNP1 was coupled with an α-amylase gene to devitalize transgenic pollen and the red fluorescence protein (DsRed) gene to mark transgenic seed and transformed into the osnp1 mutant. Self-pollination of the transgenic plant carrying a single hemizygous transgene produced nontransgenic male sterile and transgenic fertile seeds in 1:1 ratio that can be sorted out based on the red fluorescence coded by DsRed Cross-pollination of the fertile transgenic plants to the nontransgenic male sterile plants propagated the male sterile seeds of high purity. The male sterile line was crossed with ∼1,200 individual rice germplasms available. Approximately 85% of the F1s outperformed their parents in per plant yield, and 10% out-yielded the best local cultivars, indicating that the technology is promising in hybrid rice breeding and production.

  2. The inhibitory effect of the various seed coating substances against rice seed borne fungi and their shelf-life during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thobunluepop, Pitipong

    2009-08-15

    Presently, chemical seed treatments are in discussion due to their directly or indirectly impacts on human health or other living organisms. They may also negatively affect the ecosystem and the food chain. In rice seeds, chemicals may cause phytotoxic effects including seed degradation. Eugenol is the main component of clove (Eugenia caryophillis) oil, which was proved to act simultaneously as bactericide, virocide and especially fungicide. The in vitro study was aimed to compare the inhibitory effect of the following seed treatment substances against seed borne fungi and their shelf-life during 12 months of storage; conventional captan (CA), chitosan-lignosulphonate polymer (CL), eugenol incorporated into chitosan-lignosulphonate polymer (E+CL) and control (CO). The obtained results of fungi inhibition were classified in three groups, which showed at first that CA treatment led to a better, i.e., longer, inhibitory effect on Alternaria padwickii, Rhizoctonia solani, Curvularia sp., Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus niger than E+CL. Secondly, E+CL coating polymer showed the longest inhibitory effect against Bipolaris oryzae and Nigrospora oryzae compared to CA and CL coating polymer. Finally, both CA and E+CL coating polymer had non-significant difference inhibitory effect on Fusarium moniliforme. The variant of CL coating polymer for seed coating was only during the first 6 months of storage able to inhibit all species of the observed seed borne fungi, whereas CA and E+CL coating polymer were capable to inhibit most of the fungi until 9 months of storage.

  3. Functions of the CCCH type zinc finger protein OsGZF1 in regulation of the seed storage protein GluB-1 from rice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Y.; Sun, A.; Wang, M.; Zhu, Z.; Ouwerkerk, P.B.F.

    2014-01-01

    Glutelins are the most abundant storage proteins in rice grain and can make up to 80 % of total protein content. The promoter region of GluB-1, one of the glutelin genes in rice, has been intensively used as a model to understand regulation of seed-storage protein accumulation. In this study, we

  4. Chemical modification of a phenoxyfuranone-type strigolactone mimic for selective effects on rice tillering or Striga hermonthica seed germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Ikuo; Fukui, Kosuke; Asami, Tadao

    2016-11-01

    We previously reported that a series of phenoxyfuranone compounds, designated 'debranones', mimic strigolactone (SL) activity. 4-Bromodebranone (4BD) is a functionally selective SL mimic that reduces the number of shoot branches on rice more potently than GR24, a typical synthetic SL analogue, but does not induce seed germination in the root-parasitic plant Striga hermonthica. To enhance the selective activity of debranones in stimulating the seed germination of root-parasitic plants, we prepared several analogues of 4BD in which the chlorine atom was substituted with an H atom at the o-, m- or p-position on the phenyl ring (designated 2-, 3-, or 4-chlorodebranone, respectively) or had a bicyclic group instead of the phenyl ring. We evaluated the biological activities of the compounds with rice tillering assays and S. hermonthica seed germination assays. Both assays showed that the substituent position affected debranone efficiency, and among the monochlorodebranones, 2-chlorodebranone was more effective than the other two isomers in both assays. When the activities of the bicyclic debranones were compared in the same two assays, one was more active than GR24 in the rice tillering assay. This debranone also stimulated the germination of S. hermonthica seeds. Thus, some debranone derivatives induced the germination of S. hermonthica seeds, although their activities were still ∼1/20 that of GR24. These results strongly suggest that further and rigorous structure-activity relationship studies of the debranones will identify derivatives that more potently stimulate the suicidal germination of S. hermonthica seeds. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Effects of Pig Slurry as Basal and Panicle Fertilizer on Trace Element Content and Grain Quality in Direct-Seeding Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lifen Huang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Direct-seeding rice has grown in popularity in recent years and is widespread in China. This study focused on the effects of pig slurry (PS on grain quality and safety in direct-seeding rice. Application of more than 210 m3·hm−2 increased rice yield and dry matter accumulation, compared with conventional chemical fertilizer treatment (CK2. At the heading and maturing stage, a high dosage of PS (T6, T8 and T9 treatments promoted uptake of Pb, Cu, Zn, Fe and Mn by rice plants and grain, but retarded uptake of Cr, Co and Ni, indicating an ability to alleviate toxicity of some heavy metals. Compared with CK2, PS alleviated the transfer of Pb, Cr, Co, Ni and Cu from straw to grain, but enhanced the transport of Zn, Fe and Mn. Although PS application slightly diminished the processing quality, including brown rice, milled rice and head milled rice, it significantly decreased the amylose content, optimized the starch profile, and improved the overall quality. The results confirmed the feasibility and safety of PS application to direct-seeding rice, and determined that PS basal and panicle fertilizer could increase yield and improve the rice quality when applied between 210 and 240 m3·hm−2.

  6. Genetic and Physiological Characterization of Two Clusters of Quantitative Trait Loci Associated With Seed Dormancy and Plant Height in Rice

    OpenAIRE

    Ye, Heng; Beighley, Donn H.; Feng, Jiuhuan; Gu, Xing-You

    2013-01-01

    Seed dormancy and plant height have been well-studied in plant genetics, but their relatedness and shared regulatory mechanisms in natural variants remain unclear. The introgression of chromosomal segments from weedy into cultivated rice (Oryza sativa) prompted the detection of two clusters (qSD1-2/qPH1 and qSD7-2/qPH7) of quantitative trait loci both associated with seed dormancy and plant height. Together, these two clusters accounted for >96% of the variances for plant height and ~71% of t...

  7. Floristic diversity of the soil weed seed bank in a rice-growing area of Brazil: in situ and ex situ evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Luiz Ribeiro Mesquita

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the ex situ and in situ floristic diversity of the soil weed seed bank of a rice field in northeastern Brazil. In a rice field in the county of Bacabal, located in the state of Maranhão, thirty 25-m² plots were laid out. From 15 plots, soil samples (6/plot; n = 90 were taken with a soil probe (25 × 16 × 3 cm and placed in aluminum trays in the greenhouse. From the remaining 15 plots, weed samples (6/plot; n = 90 were taken with the same soil probe. The number of seeds was estimated by germination. We evaluated the numbers of species and individuals, as well as the density, frequency, abundance and importance value (IV for each species. Diversity was computed by the Shannon index (H'. We recorded 13,892 individuals (among 20 families, 40 genera and 60 species, of which 11,530 (among 50 species germinated ex situ and 2,362 (among 34 species germinated in situ. The family Cyperaceae had the highest number of species (16, followed by Poaceae (10. The dominant species, in situ and ex situ, were Schoenoplectus juncoides (IV=47.4% and Ludwigia octovalvis (IV=34.8%, respectively. Floristic diversity was higher ex situ (H'=2.66. The information obtained here could help determine the infestation potential of these species, which could lead to improved management strategies.

  8. Uncertainty measurement in the homogenization and sample reduction in the physical classification of rice and beans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieisson Pivoto

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The study aimed to i quantify the measurement uncertainty in the physical tests of rice and beans for a hypothetical defect, ii verify whether homogenization and sample reduction in the physical classification tests of rice and beans is effective to reduce the measurement uncertainty of the process and iii determine whether the increase in size of beans sample increases accuracy and reduces measurement uncertainty in a significant way. Hypothetical defects in rice and beans with different damage levels were simulated according to the testing methodology determined by the Normative Ruling of each product. The homogenization and sample reduction in the physical classification of rice and beans are not effective, transferring to the final test result a high measurement uncertainty. The sample size indicated by the Normative Ruling did not allow an appropriate homogenization and should be increased.

  9. Effect of combined treatments of neutron radiation and plant growth regulator (GA) on seed germination and growth of rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Chonghua; Wang Dan; Chen Yongjun; Wang Ying; Luo Jie; Liao Wei; Zheng Chun

    2007-01-01

    Rice seeds were irradiated with fast-neutron impulse pile and then were treated with different concentration of GA 3 . The effect of combined treatments on seeds germination and seedling growth were studied. The results showed that lethal pouring dose of neutron radiation on Hongai B and CB was 486 x 10 10 /cm 2 , Mianhui 2009 was 900 x 10 10 /cm 2 and Mianhui 2095 and Minghui 63 were 1350 x 10 10 /cm 2 . Semi-lethal pouring dose (LD 50 ) of neutron radiation on Hongai Band CB was 198-486 x 10 10 /cm 2 , Mianhui 2009 was about 486 x 10 10 /cm 2 , Minghui 63 was 629.49 x 10 10 /cm 2 and Mianhui 2095 is 774.69 x 10 10 /cm 2 . Radiation sensitivity of rice is Hongai B, CB>Mianhui 2009>Minghui 63>Mianhui 2095. GA 3 is a kind of efficient chemical radiation protection. 40 and 80 mg/L are the proper GA 3 concentrations of neutron irradiated rice seeds. (authors)

  10. Determination of trace concentrations of aluminium in rice samples by INAA and PIGE methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanda, B.B.; Biswal, R.R.; Acharya, R.; Pujari, P.K.

    2015-01-01

    Aluminium is one of the toxic elements entering human body mainly through food and food products. Though its bioavailability is very less, it is necessary to evaluate its total concentrations in food and food products entering to the body through. In order to evaluate total aluminium contents in various food items for daily dietary intake of aluminum, authors have systematically planned to carry out experiments in various food items including rice. Rice is the main food in many parts of India as well as in Odisha. Rice samples under study belong to three categories; (i) various rice samples from local market, (ii) various rice samples grown in similar irrigation (soil and water) conditions and (iii) same variety of rice with different irrigation conditions. Solid samples (pre-cleaned) were powdered, homogenized and taken for analysis by two nuclear analytical techniques (NATs) namely instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) using reactor neutrons at BARC and particle induced gamma ray emission (PIGE) using 4 MeV proton beam (20 nA current) from 3 MV Tandetron at IOP, Bhubaneswar in conjunction with high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. Samples of 10-50 mg for INAA and 250 mg (pelletized in cellulose) for PIGE were used for experiments. For INAA, samples were irradiated at PCF, Dhruva reactor for 1 minute

  11. Reliability of different methods used for forming of working samples in the laboratory for seed testing

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    Opra Branislava

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The testing of seed quality starts from the moment a sample is formed in a warehouse during processing or packaging of the seed. The seed sampling as the process of obtaining the working sample also assumes each step undertaken during its testing in the laboratory. With the aim of appropriate forming of a seed sample in the laboratory, the usage of seed divider is prescribed for large seeded species (such as seed the size of wheat or larger (ISTA Rules, 1999. The aim of this paper was the comparison of different methods used for obtaining the working samples of maize and wheat seeds using conical, soil and centrifugal dividers. The number of seed of added admixtures confirmed the reliability of working samples formation. To each maize sample (1000 g 10 seeds of the following admixtures were added: Zea mays L. (red pericarp, Hordeum vulgäre L., Triticum aestivum L., and Glycine max (L. Merr. Two methods were used for formation of maze seed working sample. To wheat samples (1000 g 10 seeds of each of the following species were added: Avena saliva (hulled seeds, Hordeum vulgäre L., Galium tricorne Stokes, and Polygonum lapatifolmm L. For formation of wheat seed working samples four methods were used. Optimum of 9, but not less than 7 seeds of admixture were due to be determined in the maize seed working sample, while for wheat, at least one seed of admixture was expected to be found in the working sample. The obtained results confirmed that the formation of the maize seed working samples was the most reliable when centrifugal divider, the first method was used (average of admixture - 9.37. From the observed admixtures the seed of Triticum aestivum L. was the most uniformly distributed, the first method also being used (6.93. The second method gains high average values satisfying the given criterion, but it should be used with previous homogenization of the sample being tested. The forming of wheat seed working samples is the most reliable if the

  12. The effectiveness of preplant seed bio-invigoration techniques using Bacillus sp. CKD061 to improving seed viability and vigor of several local upland rice cultivars of Southeast Sulawesi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutariati, G. A. K.; Bande, L. O. S.; Khaeruni, A.; Muhidin; Mudi, L.; Savitri, R. M.

    2018-02-01

    Research was aimed to evaluate the bio-invigoration techniques using Bacillus sp. CKD061 in improving seed viability and vigor of local upland rice. The research is arranged in factorial with completely randomized design (CRD). The different upland rice cultivars as first factor that consists of 11 cultivars, namely: Pae Tinangge, Pae Rowu, Pae Uwa, Pae Tanta, Pae Waburi-Buri, Pae Mornene, Pae Indalibana, Pae Lawarangka, Pae Huko, Pae Wagamba and Pae Momea. The second factor is the seed bio-invigoration technique, consists of 5 treatments, namely: without seed bio-invigoration (B0), NaCl + Bacillus sp. CKD061 (B1), KNO3 + Bacillus sp. CKD061 (B2), Ground burned-rice husk + Bacillus sp. CKD061 (B3), and Ground brick + Bacillus sp. CKD061 (B4). The results showed that seed bio-invigoration using Bacillus sp. CKD061 gave effect on the seed viability and vigor. Interaction of the seed bio-invigoration and upland rice cultivars were able to improve seed viability and vigor. Seed bio-invigoration ttreatment using ground brick + Bacillus sp. CKD061 was the best treatment, which could improve the viability and vigor of Pae Waburi-Buri, Pae Mornene and Pae Indalibana. The treatment increased vigor index by 133% in Pae Waburi-Buri and 127% in Pae Mornene, and Pae Indalibana compared with control.

  13. Performance of Different Herbicides in Dry-Seeded Rice in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Sharif; Chauhan, Bhagirath Singh

    2014-01-01

    A field study was conducted in the boro season of 2011-12 and aman season of 2012 at Jessore, Bangladesh, to evaluate the performance of sequential applications of preemergence herbicides (oxadiargyl 80 g ai ha−1, pendimethalin 850 g ai ha−1, acetachlor + bensulfuranmethyl 240 g ai ha−1, and pyrazosulfuron 15 g ai ha−1) followed by a postemergence herbicide (ethoxysulfuron 18 g ai ha−1) in dry-seeded rice. All evaluated herbicides reduced weed density and biomass by a significant amount. Among herbicides, pendimethalin, oxadiargyl, and acetachlor + bensulfuranmethyl performed very well against grasses; pyrazosulfuron, on the other hand, was not effective. The best herbicide for broadleaf weed control was oxadiargyl (65–85% control); pendimethalin and acetachlor + bensulfuraonmethyl were not effective for this purpose. The best combination for weed control was oxadiargyl followed by ethoxysulfuron in the boro season and oxadiargyl followed by a one-time hand weeding in the aman season. Compared with the partial weedy plots (hand weeded once), oxadiargyl followed by ethoxysulfuron (4.13 t ha−1) provided a 62% higher yield in the boro season while oxadiargyl followed by a one-time hand weeding (4.08 t ha−1) provided a 37% higher yield in the aman season. PMID:24688423

  14. Vacuolar processing enzyme plays an essential role in the crystalline structure of glutelin in rice seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumamaru, Toshihiro; Uemura, Yuji; Inoue, Yoshimi; Takemoto, Yoko; Siddiqui, Sadar Uddin; Ogawa, Masahiro; Hara-Nishimura, Ikuko; Satoh, Hikaru

    2010-01-01

    To identify the function of genes that regulate the processing of proglutelin, we performed an analysis of glup3 mutants, which accumulates excess amounts of proglutelin and lack the vacuolar processing enzyme (VPE). VPE activity in developing seeds from glup3 lines was reduced remarkably compared with the wild type. DNA sequencing of the VPE gene in glup3 mutants revealed either amino acid substitutions or the appearance of a stop codon within the coding region. Microscopic observations showed that alpha-globulin and proglutelin were distributed homogeneously within glup3 protein storage vacuoles (PSVs), and that glup3 PSVs lacked the crystalline lattice structure typical of wild-type PSVs. This suggests that the processing of proglutelin by VPE in rice is essential for proper PSV structure and compartmentalization of storage proteins. Growth retardation in glup3 seedlings was also observed, indicating that the processing of proglutelin influences early seedling development. These findings indicate that storage of glutelin in its mature form as a crystalline structure in PSVs is required for the rapid use of glutelin as a source of amino acids during early seedling development. In conclusion, VPE plays an important role in the formation of protein crystalline structures in PSVs.

  15. Determination of lead in rice grains by solid sampling HR-CS GFAAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunduz, Sema; Akman, Suleyman

    2013-12-01

    A study was performed for the determination of lead in rice grains directly by solid sampling high resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (HR-CS GFAAS) without digesting sample. The effects of sample amount, pyrolysis/atomization temperatures on the determination of lead in rice were investigated and optimized using a certificated rice flour. The lead concentrations were determined applying 800 °C of pyrolysis and 1800 °C of atomization temperatures without modifier. LOD (N=10, 3σ) and characteristic mass were 2.3 μg kg(-1) and 8.1 pg, respectively. The certified lead value of a rice flour CRM was found in its uncertainity limits. The lead contents of various rice samples obtained from markets in Turkey were between 0.009 and 0.162 mg kg(-1) which are in acceptable range. The average lead concentrations in various rice grains taken from the same package were significantly different from each other. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. EFFECT OF DIFFERENT INSECTICIDES UPON GERMINATION AND VIGOR OF RICE SEEDS EFEITO DE DIFERENTES INSETICIDAS NA GERMINAÇÃO E NO VIGOR DE SEMENTES DE ARROZ

    OpenAIRE

    Antônio Lopes da Silva; Valquíria da Rocha Santos Veloso; Noga Neve Ribeiro Guimarães

    2007-01-01

    A laboratory test was conducted, aiming to verify the effect of different insecticides upon germinating power and vigor of rice seeds, cultivars IAC - 25 and Rio-Paranaíba, stored at 0, 7,15, 30, 60 and 90 days, after treatments. Germination tests were settled according routine analysis and evaluated after seven days by counting number of normal and abnormal plantules and dead seeds. For vigor test, the seeds were ...

  17. An Integrated “Multi-Omics” Comparison of Embryo and Endosperm Tissue-Specific Features and Their Impact on Rice Seed Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Galland

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Although rice is a key crop species, few studies have addressed both rice seed physiological and nutritional quality, especially at the tissue level. In this study, an exhaustive “multi-omics” dataset on the mature rice seed was obtained by combining transcriptomics, label-free shotgun proteomics and metabolomics from embryo and endosperm, independently. These high-throughput analyses provide a new insight on the tissue-specificity related to rice seed quality. Foremost, we pinpointed that extensive post-transcriptional regulations occur at the end of rice seed development such that the embryo proteome becomes much more diversified than the endosperm proteome. Secondly, we observed that survival in the dry state in each seed compartment depends on contrasted metabolic and enzymatic apparatus in the embryo and the endosperm, respectively. Thirdly, it was remarkable to identify two different sets of starch biosynthesis enzymes as well as seed storage proteins (glutelins in both embryo and endosperm consistently with the supernumerary embryo hypothesis origin of the endosperm. The presence of a putative new glutelin with a possible embryonic favored abundance is described here for the first time. Finally, we quantified the rate of mRNA translation into proteins. Consistently, the embryonic panel of protein translation initiation factors is much more diverse than that of the endosperm. This work emphasizes the value of tissue-specificity-centered “multi-omics” study in the seed to highlight new features even from well-characterized pathways. It paves the way for future studies of critical genetic determinants of rice seed physiological and nutritional quality.

  18. Determination of stable cesium and strontium in rice samples by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinuttrakul, W.; Yoshida, S.

    2017-06-01

    For long-term radiation dose assessment models, food ingestion is one of the major exposure pathways to human. In general, the stable isotopes can serve as analogues of radioisotopes. In this study, rice samples were collected from 30 paddy fields in Si Sa Ket, Yasothon and Roi Et in the northeast of Thailand in November 2014. The concentrations of stable cesium (Cs-133) and strontium (Sr-88) in polished rice were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The standard reference material of rice flour (NIST 1568a) with spiked Cs and Sr was used to validate the analytical method. The concentration of Cs in polished rice from Si Sa Ket, Yasothon and Roi Et was 0.158 ± 0.167 mg kg-1, 0.090 ± 0.117 mg kg-1 and 0.054 ± 0.031 mg kg-1, respectively. The concentration of Sr in polished rice from Si Sa Ket, Yasothon and Roi Et was 0.351 ± 0.108 mg kg-1, 0.364 ± 0.215 mg kg-1 and 0.287 ± 0.102 mg kg-1, respectively. Comparison of the results with Japanese data before the Fukushima Di-ichi nuclear power plant accident showed that the concentrations of both Cs and Sr for Thai rice were higher than those for Japanese rice.

  19. Determination of stable cesium and strontium in rice samples by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinuttrakul, W; Yoshida, S

    2017-01-01

    For long-term radiation dose assessment models, food ingestion is one of the major exposure pathways to human. In general, the stable isotopes can serve as analogues of radioisotopes. In this study, rice samples were collected from 30 paddy fields in Si Sa Ket, Yasothon and Roi Et in the northeast of Thailand in November 2014. The concentrations of stable cesium (Cs-133) and strontium (Sr-88) in polished rice were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The standard reference material of rice flour (NIST 1568a) with spiked Cs and Sr was used to validate the analytical method. The concentration of Cs in polished rice from Si Sa Ket, Yasothon and Roi Et was 0.158 ± 0.167 mg kg -1 , 0.090 ± 0.117 mg kg -1 and 0.054 ± 0.031 mg kg -1 , respectively. The concentration of Sr in polished rice from Si Sa Ket, Yasothon and Roi Et was 0.351 ± 0.108 mg kg -1 , 0.364 ± 0.215 mg kg -1 and 0.287 ± 0.102 mg kg -1 , respectively. Comparison of the results with Japanese data before the Fukushima Di-ichi nuclear power plant accident showed that the concentrations of both Cs and Sr for Thai rice were higher than those for Japanese rice. (paper)

  20. Influence of Crop Nutrition on Grain Yield, Seed Quality and Water Productivity under Two Rice Cultivation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.V. SINGH

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The system of rice intensification (SRI is reported to have advantages like lower seed requirement, less pest attack, shorter crop duration, higher water use efficiency and the ability to withstand higher degree of moisture stress than traditional method of rice cultivation. With this background, SRI was compared with traditional transplanting technique at Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, India during two wet seasons (2009–2011. In the experiment laid out in a factorial randomized block design, two methods of rice cultivation [conventional transplanting (CT and SRI] and two rice varieties (Pusa Basmati 1 and Pusa 44 were used under seven crop nutrition treatments, viz. T1, 120 kg/hm2 N, 26.2 kg/hm2 P and 33 kg/hm2 K; T2, 20 t/hm2 farmyard manure (FYM; T3, 10 t/hm2 FYM + 60 kg/hm2 N; T4, 5 t/hm2 FYM + 90 kg/hm2 N; T5, 5 t/hm2 FYM + 60 kg/hm2 N + 1.5 kg/hm2 blue green algae (BGA; T6, 5 t/hm2 FYM + 60 kg/hm2 N + 1.0 t/hm2 Azolla, and T7, N0P0K0 (control, no NPK application to study the effect on seed quality, yield and water use. In SRI, soil was kept at saturated moisture condition throughout vegetative phase and thin layer of water (2–3 cm was maintained during the reproductive phase of rice, however, in CT, standing water was maintained in crop growing season. Results revealed that CT and SRI gave statistically at par grain yield but straw yield was significantly higher in CT as compared to SRI. Seed quality was superior in SRI as compared to CT. Integrated nutrient management (INM resulted in higher plant height with longer leaves than chemical fertilizer alone in both the rice varieties. Grain yield attributes such as number of effective tillers per hill, panicle length and panicle weight of rice in both the varieties were significantly higher in INM as compared to chemical fertilizer alone. Grain yields of both the varieties were the highest in INM followed by the recommended doses of chemical fertilizer. The grain yield

  1. Seed longevity of red rice ecotypes buried in soil Longevidade de sementes de arroz-vermelho enterradas no solo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A. Noldin

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Red rice is a troublesome weed in irrigated rice production and is spread through contaminated commercial rice seed and machinery. Seed dormancy is a major trait for red rice. Studies were carried out at two locations to determine red rice seed longevity in the soil of several ecotypes from four US states. Five months after burial near Beaumont, Texas only three ecotypes had viable seed (O arroz-vermelho constitui-se na principal planta daninha infestante de lavouras de arroz irrigado e a sua disseminação ocorre, principalmente, pelo uso de sementes comerciais contaminadas e equipamentos agrícolas. A ocorrência de dormência nas sementes é uma das principais características que dificultam o controle do arroz-vermelho em lavouras. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estimar a longevidade no solo de ecótipos de arroz-vermelho provenientes de diferentes áreas de produção de arroz nos Estados Unidos. O estudo foi conduzido em dois locais: Beaumont e College Station, no estado do Texas (TX. Para sementes enterradas a 5 cm de profundidade em Beaumont, apenas três ecótipos apresentaram sementes viáveis (<1%. No entanto, quando as sementes foram enterradas em maior profundidade (25 cm, nove ecótipos tinham sementes viáveis após 2 anos. Trinta e seis meses após o enterrio, cinco ecótipos apresentavam sementes com alguma viabilidade, mas todos inferiores a 1%. Sementes de arroz-vermelho produzidas e enterradas em College Station na profundidade de 12 cm, um dia após a colheita, apresentaram maior longevidade que aquelas mantidas na superfície do solo. Após 17 meses, um dos ecótipos de arroz-preto (TX 4, enterrado a 12 cm, foi o que apresentou maior percentual de viabilidade (2%. Nos dois experimentos, observou-se que os cultivares comerciais, Lemont e Mars, não apresentaram sementes viáveis após cinco meses, independentemente da localização no solo. Os resultados deste estudo sugerem que em áreas com arroz-vermelho deve-se evitar o

  2. Evolução do banco de sementes de arroz vermelho em diferentes sistemas de utilização do solo de várzeas Red rice seed bank evolution under different systems of lowland utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis A. de Avila

    2000-08-01

    /97 and 1997/98 growing seasons in Santa Maria, RS in Albaqualf soil with an average infestation of 556 viable seeds per square meter. The assessement of the seed bank was conducted by ten samplings using a cylinder with 10cm of diameter and 10cm depth. After each sampling the seeds were separated and the number of viable seeds was determinated by tetrazolium test. The sampling were carried out before establishing the experiment (September 1996 after the first harvest (May 1997 and after the second harvest (May 1998. The results showed that the traditional rice cropping method increases the red rice seed bank, whereas the systems in which the rice is seeded in flooded soil (no tillage water seeded, water seeded and transplanted seedlings are as efficient in reducing the red rice seed bank as the system that applies crop rotation with sorghum or fallow without the presence of grazing animals or soil tillage during summer.

  3. Total Arsenic, Cadmium, and Lead Determination in Brazilian Rice Samples Using ICP-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mataveli, Lidiane Raquel Verola; Buzzo, Márcia Liane; de Arauz, Luciana Juncioni; Carvalho, Maria de Fátima Henriques; Arakaki, Edna Emy Kumagai; Matsuzaki, Richard; Tiglea, Paulo

    2016-01-01

    This study is aimed at investigating a suitable method for rice sample preparation as well as validating and applying the method for monitoring the concentration of total arsenic, cadmium, and lead in rice by using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Various rice sample preparation procedures were evaluated. The analytical method was validated by measuring several parameters including limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), linearity, relative bias, and repeatability. Regarding the sample preparation, recoveries of spiked samples were within the acceptable range from 89.3 to 98.2% for muffle furnace, 94.2 to 103.3% for heating block, 81.0 to 115.0% for hot plate, and 92.8 to 108.2% for microwave. Validation parameters showed that the method fits for its purpose, being the total arsenic, cadmium, and lead within the Brazilian Legislation limits. The method was applied for analyzing 37 rice samples (including polished, brown, and parboiled), consumed by the Brazilian population. The total arsenic, cadmium, and lead contents were lower than the established legislative values, except for total arsenic in one brown rice sample. This study indicated the need to establish monitoring programs for emphasizing the study on this type of cereal, aiming at promoting the Public Health.

  4. Total Arsenic, Cadmium, and Lead Determination in Brazilian Rice Samples Using ICP-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidiane Raquel Verola Mataveli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed at investigating a suitable method for rice sample preparation as well as validating and applying the method for monitoring the concentration of total arsenic, cadmium, and lead in rice by using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS. Various rice sample preparation procedures were evaluated. The analytical method was validated by measuring several parameters including limit of detection (LOD, limit of quantification (LOQ, linearity, relative bias, and repeatability. Regarding the sample preparation, recoveries of spiked samples were within the acceptable range from 89.3 to 98.2% for muffle furnace, 94.2 to 103.3% for heating block, 81.0 to 115.0% for hot plate, and 92.8 to 108.2% for microwave. Validation parameters showed that the method fits for its purpose, being the total arsenic, cadmium, and lead within the Brazilian Legislation limits. The method was applied for analyzing 37 rice samples (including polished, brown, and parboiled, consumed by the Brazilian population. The total arsenic, cadmium, and lead contents were lower than the established legislative values, except for total arsenic in one brown rice sample. This study indicated the need to establish monitoring programs for emphasizing the study on this type of cereal, aiming at promoting the Public Health.

  5. Optimal sample size for predicting viability of cabbage and radish seeds based on near infrared spectra of single seeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shetty, Nisha; Min, Tai-Gi; Gislum, René

    2011-01-01

    The effects of the number of seeds in a training sample set on the ability to predict the viability of cabbage or radish seeds are presented and discussed. The supervised classification method extended canonical variates analysis (ECVA) was used to develop a classification model. Calibration sub......-sets of different sizes were chosen randomly with several iterations and using the spectral-based sample selection algorithms DUPLEX and CADEX. An independent test set was used to validate the developed classification models. The results showed that 200 seeds were optimal in a calibration set for both cabbage...... using all 600 seeds in the calibration set. Thus, the number of seeds in the calibration set can be reduced by up to 67% without significant loss of classification accuracy, which will effectively enhance the cost-effectiveness of NIR spectral analysis. Wavelength regions important...

  6. Patatin-related phospholipase A, pPLAIIIα, modulates the longitudinal growth of vegetative tissues and seeds in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guangmeng; Zhang, Ke; Ai, Jun; Deng, Xianjun; Hong, Yueyun; Wang, Xuemin

    2015-11-01

    Patatin-related phospholipase A (pPLA) hydrolyses glycerolipids to produce fatty acids and lysoglycerolipids. The Oryza sativa genome has 21 putative pPLAs that are grouped into five subfamilies. Overexpression of OspPLAIIIα resulted in a dwarf phenotype with decreased length of rice stems, roots, leaves, seeds, panicles, and seeds, whereas OspPLAIIIα-knockout plants had longer panicles and seeds. OspPLAIIIα-overexpressing plants were less sensitive than wild-type and knockout plants to gibberellin-promoted seedling elongation. OspPLAIIIα overexpression and knockout had an opposite effect on the expression of the growth repressor SLENDER1 in the gibberellin signalling process. OspPLAIIIα-overexpressing plants had decreased mechanical strength and cellulose content, but exhibited increases in the expression of several cellulose synthase genes. These results indicate that OspPLAIIIα plays a role in rice vegetative and reproductive growth and that the constitutive, high activity of OspPLAIIIα suppresses cell elongation. The decreased gibberellin response in overexpressing plants is probably a result of the decreased ability to make cellulose for anisotropic cell expansion. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  7. Specific roles of tocopherols and tocotrienols in seed longevity and germination tolerance to abiotic stress in transgenic rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Defu; Li, Yanlan; Fang, Tao; Shi, Xiaoli; Chen, Xiwen

    2016-03-01

    Tocopherols and tocotrienols are lipophilic antioxidants that are abundant in plant seeds. Although their roles have been extensively studied, our understanding of their functions in rice seeds is still limited. In this study, on the basis of available RNAi rice plants constitutively silenced for homogentisate phytyltransferase (HPT) and tocopherol cyclase (TC), we developed transgenic plants that silenced homogentisate geranylgeranyl transferase (HGGT). All the RNAi plants showed significantly reduced germination percentages and a higher proportion of abnormal seedlings than the control plants, with HGGT transgenics showing the most severe phenotype. The accelerated aging phenotype corresponded well with the amount of H2O2 accumulated in the embryo, glucose level, and ion leakage, but not with the amount of O(2-) accumulated in the embryo and lipid hydroperoxides levels in these genotypes. Under abiotic stress conditions, HPT and TC transgenics showed lower germination percentage and seedling growth than HGGT transgenics, while HGGT transgenics showed almost the same status as the wild type. Therefore, we proposed that tocopherols in the germ may protect the embryo from reactive oxygen species under both accelerated aging and stress conditions, whereas tocotrienols in the pericarp may exclusively help in reducing the metabolic activity of the seed during accelerated aging. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Accumulation of long-lived mRNAs associated with germination in embryos during seed development of rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Naoto; Ono, Hanako; Murata, Kazumasa; Yamada, Tetsuya; Hirasawa, Tadashi; Kanekatsu, Motoki

    2015-01-01

    Mature dry seeds contain translatable mRNAs called long-lived mRNAs. Early studies have shown that protein synthesis during the initial phase of seed germination occurs from long-lived mRNAs, without de novo transcription. However, the gene expression systems that generate long-lived mRNAs in seeds are not well understood. To examine the accumulation of long-lived mRNAs in developing rice embryos, germination tests using the transcriptional inhibitor actinomycin D (Act D) were performed with the Japonica rice cultivar Nipponbare. Although over 70% of embryos at 10 days after flowering (DAF) germinated in the absence of the inhibitor, germination was remarkably impaired in embryos treated with Act D. In contrast, more than 70% of embryos at 20, 25, 30 and 40 DAF germinated in the presence of Act D. The same results were obtained when another cultivar, Koshihikari, was used, indicating that the long-lived mRNAs required for germination predominantly accumulate in embryos between 10 and 20 DAF during seed development. RNA-Seq identified 529 long-lived mRNA candidates, encoding proteins such as ABA, calcium ion and phospholipid signalling-related proteins, and HSP DNA J, increased from 10 to 20 DAF and were highly abundant in 40 DAF embryos of Nipponbare and Koshihikari. We also revealed that these long-lived mRNA candidates are clearly up-regulated in 10 DAF germinating embryos after imbibition, suggesting that the accumulation of these mRNAs in embryos is indispensable for the induction of germination. The findings presented here may facilitate in overcoming irregular seed germination or producing more vigorous seedlings. PMID:25941326

  9. Genetic Control of a Transition from Black to Straw-White Seed Hull in Rice Domestication1[C][W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Bo-Feng; Si, Lizhen; Wang, Zixuan; Jingjie Zhu, Yan Zhou; Shangguan, Yingying; Lu, Danfeng; Fan, Danlin; Li, Canyang; Lin, Hongxuan; Qian, Qian; Sang, Tao; Zhou, Bo; Minobe, Yuzo; Han, Bin

    2011-01-01

    The genetic mechanism involved in a transition from the black-colored seed hull of the ancestral wild rice (Oryza rufipogon and Oryza nivara) to the straw-white seed hull of cultivated rice (Oryza sativa) during grain ripening remains unknown. We report that the black hull of O. rufipogon was controlled by the Black hull4 (Bh4) gene, which was fine-mapped to an 8.8-kb region on rice chromosome 4 using a cross between O. rufipogon W1943 (black hull) and O. sativa indica cv Guangluai 4 (straw-white hull). Bh4 encodes an amino acid transporter. A 22-bp deletion within exon 3 of the bh4 variant disrupted the Bh4 function, leading to the straw-white hull in cultivated rice. Transgenic study indicated that Bh4 could restore the black pigment on hulls in cv Guangluai 4 and Kasalath. Bh4 sequence alignment of all taxa with the outgroup Oryza barthii showed that the wild rice maintained comparable levels of nucleotide diversity that were about 70 times higher than those in the cultivated rice. The results from the maximum likelihood Hudson-Kreitman-Aguade test suggested that the significant reduction in nucleotide diversity in rice cultivars could be caused by artificial selection. We propose that the straw-white hull was selected as an important visual phenotype of nonshattered grains during rice domestication. PMID:21263038

  10. Comparative Phosphoproteomic Analysis of the Developing Seeds in Two Indica Rice ( Oryza sativa L.) Cultivars with Different Starch Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Yuehan; Zhou, Xin; Chen, Yaling; Bao, Jinsong

    2018-03-21

    Protein phosphorylation plays important roles in regulation of various molecular events such as plant growth and seed development. However, its involvement in starch biosynthesis is less understood. Here, a comparative phosphoproteomic analysis of two indica rice cultivars during grain development was performed. A total of 2079 and 2434 phosphopeptides from 1273 and 1442 phosphoproteins were identified, covering 2441 and 2808 phosphosites in indica rice 9311 and Guangluai4 (GLA4), respectively. Comparative analysis identified 303 differentially phosphorylated peptides, and 120 and 258 specifically phosphorylated peptides in 9311 and GLA4, respectively. Phosphopeptides in starch biosynthesis related enzymes such as AGPase, SSIIa, SSIIIa, BEI, BEIIb, PUL, and Pho1were identified. GLA4 and 9311 had different amylose content, pasting viscosities, and gelatinization temperature, suggesting subtle difference in starch biosynthesis and regulation between GLA4 and 9311. Our study will give added impetus to further understanding the regulatory mechanism of starch biosynthesis at the phosphorylation level.

  11. Seeds of Camargue rice (Oryza Sativa L. Var Cigalon) and their responses to exposure to 60-Co gamma radiations. Study of the natural phenomenon of radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayonove-Barthelemy, Jacqueline

    1978-01-01

    Within the frame of a project aiming at improving a technique of experimental mutagenesis (seed processing by cobalt-60 gamma rays), this research thesis reports the radiobiological characterization of Cigalon rice seeds, the adjustment of techniques of radiation protection, and the definition of processing and irradiation conditions which could reduce the undesirable physiological effects of cobalt-60 gamma radiation on rice seeds. The author reports the study of variations of physiological radio-sensitivity. Damages are assessed by comparing the growth of irradiated seeds with that of non-irradiated seeds. The mechanism of radiation natural protection is studied by comparing an inhibition in distilled water at two temperatures (5 and 24 C) with that obtained with cysteamine (an efficient radiation protection compound)

  12. Comparative proteomic analysis of rice after seed ground simulated radiation and spaceflight explains the radiation effects of space environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Shi, Jinming; Liang, Shujian; Lei, Huang; Shenyi, Zhang; Sun, Yeqing

    In previous work, we compared the proteomic profiles of rice plants growing after seed space-flights with ground controls by two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2-D DIGE) and found that the protein expression profiles were changed after seed space environment exposures. Spaceflight represents a complex environmental condition in which several interacting factors such as cosmic radiation, microgravity and space magnetic fields are involved. Rice seed is in the process of dormant of plant development, showing high resistance against stresses, so the highly ionizing radiation (HZE) in space is considered as main factor causing biological effects to seeds. To further investigate the radiation effects of space environment, we performed on-ground simulated HZE particle radiation and compared between the proteomes of seed irra-diated plants and seed spaceflight (20th recoverable satellite) plants from the same rice variety. Space ionization shows low-dose but high energy particle effects, for searching the particle effects, ground radiations with the same low-dose (2mGy) but different liner energy transfer (LET) values (13.3KeV/µm-C, 30KeV/µm-C, 31KeV/µm-Ne, 62.2KeV/µm-C, 500Kev/µm-Fe) were performed; using 2-D DIGE coupled with clustering and principle component analysis (PCA) for data process and comparison, we found that the holistic protein expression patterns of plants irradiated by LET-62.2KeV/µm carbon particles were most similar to spaceflight. In addition, although space environment presents a low-dose radiation (0.177 mGy/day on the satellite), the equivalent simulated radiation dose effects should still be evaluated: radiations of LET-62.2KeV/µm carbon particles with different cumulative doses (2mGy, 20mGy, 200mGy, 2000mGy) were further carried out and resulted that the 2mGy radiation still shared most similar proteomic profiles with spaceflight, confirming the low-dose effects of space radiation. Therefore, in the protein expression level

  13. Índice de intensidade de infecção adaptado ao estudo de manchas de sementes de arroz Index of infection intensity adapted for the study of spotted rice seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaciro Soave

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available A avaliação de manchas em amostras de sementes de arroz (Oryza sativa L. tem sido feita mediante o cálculo de porcentagem de sementes manchadas, o que não dá informação quantitativa sobre sua incidência. Com o objetivo de obter dados quantitativos de manchas de sementes de arroz, procurou-se adaptar o índice de intensidade de infecção proposto por Amaral e exemplificado por Silva, comparando-se os dois métodos. Foram utilizadas 128 amostras de 5g de sementes provenientes de ensaios conduzidos nos municípios paulistas de Jaboticabal e Pindorama, no ano agrícola de 1982/83, e compostos de 16 cultivares de arroz-de-sequeiro, com quatro repetições. Para calcular o índice de intensidade de infecção, cada amostra foi separada visualmente em quatro categorias: n0 = sem manchas; n1 = poucas manchas (até 5%; n2 = muitas manchas (6-25%, e n3 = extremamente manchadas (acima de 25% da superfície com manchas. A mesma amostra foi separada em sementes com e sem manchas, independente da quantidade de manchas que cada semente apresentasse, calculando-se a porcentagem das manchadas. A comparação da análise da variância e da correlação entre ambas as avaliações revelou que o índice de intensidade de infecção, denominado pelos autores de índice de intensidade de manchas, proporcionou maior discriminação entre os tratamentos que a porcentagem de sementes manchadas, sugerindo-o para a avaliação quantitativa de manchas de sementes de arroz.The evaluation of spots in rice seeds has been performed through the calculation of the percentage of spotted seeds. However this measurement is not quantitative. The objective of this experiment was to compare the percentage of spotted seeds with an index of infection intensity, which gives a more precise quantitative information about the extension of the seed surface area infected. For this comparison, 5g-rice-seed samples from two field trials, carried out in Jaboticabal and Pindorama, in the

  14. Levels of Crotonaldehyde and 4-hydroxy-(E-2-nonenal and Expression of Genes Encoding Carbonyl-Scavenging Enzyme at Critical Node During Rice Seed Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Shenzao

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:: The critical node (CN is an important stage during seed aging, which is related to effective genebank conservation. Previous studies have demonstrated that proteins undergo carbonylated modification at the CN in rice, indicating oxidative damage. However, the levels of reactive carbonyl species (RCS and the associated scavenging system at the CN are largely unknown. In this study, we optimized methods for the extraction and analysis of RCS from dry rice embryos. In order to acquire seeds at the CN, rice seeds were subjected to natural conditions for 7, 9, 11 and 13 months, and the seed germination rates were reduced to 90%, 82%, 71% and 57%, respectively. We chose the stage with seed germination rate of 82% as the CN according to the rice seed vigor loss curve. The levels of crotonaldehyde and 4-hydroxy-(E-2-nonenal (HNE were significantly increased at the CN. In addition, genes encoding carbonyl-scavenging enzyme, including OsALDHs and OsAKRs, were significantly down-regulated at the CN, and reductions in the expression of OsALDH2-2, OsALDH2-5, OsALDH3-4, OsALDH7, OsAKR1 and OsAKR2 in particular could be responsible for RCS accumulation. Thus, the accumulations of crotonaldehyde and HNE and down-regulation of genes encoding carbonyl-scavenging enzyme might be related to an accelerating loss of seed viability at the CN. Key words: carbonyl-scavenging system, reactive carbonyl species, seed aging, crotonaldehyde, critical node, rice storage

  15. Dynamic changes in the distribution of minerals in relation to phytic acid accumulation during rice seed development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwai, Toru; Takahashi, Michiko; Oda, Koshiro; Terada, Yasuko; Yoshida, Kaoru T

    2012-12-01

    Phytic acid (inositol hexakisphosphate [InsP(6)]) is the storage compound of phosphorus in seeds. As phytic acid binds strongly to metallic cations, it also acts as a storage compound of metals. To understand the mechanisms underlying metal accumulation and localization in relation to phytic acid storage, we applied synchrotron-based x-ray microfluorescence imaging analysis to characterize the simultaneous subcellular distribution of some mineral elements (phosphorus, calcium, potassium, iron, zinc, and copper) in immature and mature rice (Oryza sativa) seeds. This fine-imaging method can reveal whether these elements colocalize. We also determined their accumulation patterns and the changes in phosphate and InsP(6) contents during seed development. While the InsP(6) content in the outer parts of seeds rapidly increased during seed development, the phosphate contents of both the outer and inner parts of seeds remained low. Phosphorus, calcium, potassium, and iron were most abundant in the aleurone layer, and they colocalized throughout seed development. Zinc was broadly distributed from the aleurone layer to the inner endosperm. Copper localized outside the aleurone layer and did not colocalize with phosphorus. From these results, we suggest that phosphorus translocated from source organs was immediately converted to InsP(6) and accumulated in aleurone layer cells and that calcium, potassium, and iron accumulated as phytic acid salt (phytate) in the aleurone layer, whereas zinc bound loosely to InsP(6) and accumulated not only in phytate but also in another storage form. Copper accumulated in the endosperm and may exhibit a storage form other than phytate.

  16. Identification of QTLs for seed germination capability after various storage periods using two RIL populations in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wenzhu; Lee, Joohyun; Jin, Yong-Mei; Qiao, Yongli; Piao, Rihua; Jang, Sun Mi; Woo, Mi-Ok; Kwon, Soon-Wook; Liu, Xianhu; Pan, Hong-Yu; Du, Xinglin; Koh, Hee-Jong

    2011-04-01

    Seed germination capability of rice is one of the important traits in the production and storage of seeds. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with seed germination capability in various storage periods was identified using two sets of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) which derived from crosses between Milyang 23 and Tong 88-7 (MT-RILs) and between Dasanbyeo and TR22183 (DT-RILs). A total of five and three main additive effects (QTLs) associated with seed germination capability were identified in MT-RILs and DT-RILs, respectively. Among them, six QTLs were identified repeatedly in various seed storage periods designated as qMT-SGC5.1, qMT-SGC7.2, and qMT-SGC9.1 on chromosomes 5, 7, and 9 in MT-RILs, and qDT-SGC2.1, qDT-SGC3.1, and qDT-SGC9.1 on chromosomes 2, 3, and 9 in DT-RILs, respectively. The QTL on chromosome 9 was identified in both RIL populations under all three storage periods, explaining up to 40% of the phenotypic variation. Eight and eighteen pairs additive × additive epistatic effect (epistatic QTL) were identified in MT-RILs and DT-RILs, respectively. In addition, several near isogenic lines (NILs) were developed to confirm six repeatable QTL effects using controlled deterioration test (CDT). The identified QTLs will be further studied to elucidate the mechanisms controlling seed germination capability, which have important implications for long-term seed storage.

  17. Effects of seed mixture sowing with transgenic Bt rice and its parental line on the population dynamics of target stemborers and leafrollers, and non-target planthoppers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhuo; Li, Li-Kun; Liu, Bin; Wang, Long; Parajulee, Megha N; Chen, Fa-Jun

    2018-01-24

    The widespread planting of insect-resistant crops has caused a dramatic shift in agricultural landscapes, thus raising concerns about the potential impacts on both target and non-target pests. In this study, we examined the potential effects of intra-specific seed mixture sowing with transgenic Bt rice (Bt) and its parental non-transgenic line (Nt) (100% Bt rice [Bt 100 ], 5% Nt+95% Bt [Nt 05 Bt 95 ], 10% Nt+90% Bt [Nt 10 Bt 90 ], 20% Nt+80% Bt [Nt 20 Bt 80 ], 40% Nt+60% Bt [Nt 40 Bt 60 ] and 100% Nt rice [Nt 100 ]) on target and non-target pests in a 2-year field trial in southern China. The occurrence of target pests, Sesamia inferens, Chilo suppressalis and Cnaphalocrocis medinalis, decreased with the increased ratio of Bt rice, and the mixture ratios with more than 90% Bt rice (Bt 100 and Nt 05 Bt 95 ) significantly increased the pest suppression efficiency, with the lowest occurrences of non-target planthoppers, Nilaparvata lugens and Sogatella furcifera in Nt 100 and Nt 05 Bt 95 . Furthermore, there were no significant differences in 1000-grain dry weight and grain dry weight per 100 plants between Bt 100 and Nt 05 Bt 95 . Seed mixture sowing of Bt rice with ≤10% (especially 5%) of its parent line was sufficient to overcome potential compliance issues that exist with the use of block or structured refuge to provide most effective control of both target and non-target pests without compromising the grain yield. It is also expected that the strategy of seed mixture sowing with transgenic Bt rice and the non-transgenic parental line would provide rice yield stability while decreasing the insecticide use frequency in rice production. © 2018 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  18. Comparison of physicochemical characteristics and consumer perception of rice samples with different countries of origin and prices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Eun-Hee; Lim, Seung-Taik; Kim, Sang Sook

    2012-06-01

    Rice is the only food item which is not liberalized in Korea. To prepare for future liberalization of the rice market in Korea, the physicochemical characteristics and consumer perception of four domestic rice samples were compared with those of 11 foreign rice samples. Additionally, the influences of country of origin (CO) and price on purchase intent (PI) and willingness to pay (WTP) were investigated. Consumer acceptance of rice samples from Japan was generally higher than that of rice samples from other countries. In an informed test, PI was affected by price and CO, while WTP was affected mostly by price. The PI decreased with the price provided while the WTP increased. In a blind test, consumers evaluated PI and WTP according to sensory liking. The PI was higher in the informed test than in the blind test in all domestic samples. Generally, consumer acceptance was highly correlated with fat acidity (r = - 0.76), protein content (r = - 0.72), and b value (r = - 0.64) of the rice samples. Further efforts to increase the quality of rice are recommended for survival in the global market after liberalization of rice, even though consumers showed loyalty for PI of domestic samples. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. 15N tracer technique for studying efficiency of deep placed fertilizer through nutriseed holder in direct seeded rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asha, V.S.; Arulmozhiselvan, K.

    2006-01-01

    In order to estimate N use efficiency in deep placement of NPK straight fertilizers, two pot experiments were conducted in high clay soil with direct seeded rice. 15 N urea was used as a tracer. A newly designed 'Nutriseed Holder' was used for simultaneous deep placement of fertilizers and sowing of seeds. Each holder had two cavities, one on top for holding seed and another one at bottom for holding fertilizer material. By implanting a holder in puddled soil, a rice hill was established. The length (5 or 10 cm) and width (8 or 12 mm) of nutriseed holder was standardized while evaluating the effect of Azolla, neem and seed inoculants. Appreciably, deep placement of plain NPK fertilizer in 12 mm holder placed at 5 cm depth recorded the highest grain yield with a yield increase of 81.8 per cent during rabi 2002 (cv CO 43) and 84.8 per cent during summer 2003 (cv CO 47) over broadcast application. Further, it increased recovery of added JSN in grain + straw to the tune of 57.1 per cent in rabi and 54.7 per cent in summer as compared to broadcast application (26.1% in rabi, 34.2 in summer). Deep placement enhanced more retention in soil (up to 9.0% in rabi, 14.6% in summer) whereas broadcast application enhanced more retention in Azolla biomass that was grown in floodwater (up to 2.3 % in rabi, 4.3 % in summer). Use of 12 mm width nutriseed holder aiding deep placement at 5 cm depth was found suitable for deriving high yield and N use efficiency. (author)

  20. Low-energy N-ion beam biotechnology application in the induction of Thai jasmine rice mutant with improved seed storability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semsang, Nuananong; Techarang, Jiranat; Yu, Liangdeng; Phanchaisri, Boonrak

    2018-06-01

    Low-energy heavy-ion beam is a novel biotechnology used for mutation induction in plants. We used a low-energy N-ion beam to induce mutations in Thai jasmine rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. KDML 105) to improve the yield and seed quality. Seeds of BKOS6, a Thai jasmine rice mutant previously induced by ion beams, were re-bombarded with 60-kV-accelerated N-ions (N++N2+) to fluences of 1-2 × 1016 ions/cm2. The resulting mutant, named HyKOS21, exhibited photoperiod insensitivity, semi-dwarfness, and high yield potential. Seed storability of the mutant was studied in natural and accelerated ageing conditions and compared to that of KDML 105 and six other Thai rice varieties. In both testing conditions, HyKOS21 mutant had the highest seed storability among the tested varieties. After storage in the natural condition for 18 months, HyKOS21 had a seed germination percentage nearly two times as that of the original KDML 105. Biochemical analysis showed that the lipid peroxidation level of the mutant seeds was the lowest among those of the tested varieties. Furthermore, an expression analysis of genes encoding lipoxygenase isoenzyme (lox1, lox2, and lox3) revealed that the mutant lacked expression of lox1 and lox2 and expressed only lox3 in seeds. These results may explain the improved seed longevity of the mutant after storage. This work provides further evidence of the modification of biological materials using a low-energy ion beam to produce rice mutants with improved yield and seed storability. The benefits of this technology, to create new varieties with improved values, could serve for local economic development.

  1. Differential activity of Striga hermonthica seed germination stimulants and Gigaspora rosea hyphal branching factors in rice and their contribution to underground communication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina Cardoso

    Full Text Available Strigolactones (SLs trigger germination of parasitic plant seeds and hyphal branching of symbiotic arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM fungi. There is extensive structural variation in SLs and plants usually produce blends of different SLs. The structural variation among natural SLs has been shown to impact their biological activity as hyphal branching and parasitic plant seed germination stimulants. In this study, rice root exudates were fractioned by HPLC. The resulting fractions were analyzed by MRM-LC-MS to investigate the presence of SLs and tested using bioassays to assess their Striga hermonthica seed germination and Gigaspora rosea hyphal branching stimulatory activities. A substantial number of active fractions were revealed often with very different effect on seed germination and hyphal branching. Fractions containing (--orobanchol and ent-2'-epi-5-deoxystrigol contributed little to the induction of S. hermonthica seed germination but strongly stimulated AM fungal hyphal branching. Three SLs in one fraction, putative methoxy-5-deoxystrigol isomers, had moderate seed germination and hyphal branching inducing activity. Two fractions contained strong germination stimulants but displayed only modest hyphal branching activity. We provide evidence that these stimulants are likely SLs although no SL-representative masses could be detected using MRM-LC-MS. Our results show that seed germination and hyphal branching are induced to very different extents by the various SLs (or other stimulants present in rice root exudates. We propose that the development of rice varieties with different SL composition is a promising strategy to reduce parasitic plant infestation while maintaining symbiosis with AM fungi.

  2. Development and Validation of a TaqMan Real-Time PCR Assay for the Specific Detection and Quantification of Fusarium fujikuroi in Rice Plants and Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, Greice Amaral; Matić, Slavica; Ortu, Giuseppe; Garibaldi, Angelo; Spadaro, Davide; Gullino, Maria Lodovica

    2017-07-01

    Bakanae disease, which is caused by the seedborne pathogen Fusarium fujikuroi, is found throughout the world on rice. A TaqMan real-time PCR has been developed on the TEF 1-α gene to detect F. fujikuroi in different rice tissues. Three primer/probe sets were tested. The selected set produced an amplicon of 84 bp and was specific for F. fujikuroi with respect to eight Fusarium species of rice and six other rice common pathogens. The assay was validated for specificity, selectivity, sensitivity, repeatability, and reproducibility. The detection limit was set at 27.5 fg of DNA, which is approximately equivalent to one haploid genome of F. fujikuroi. The developed TaqMan real-time assay was able to efficiently detect and quantify F. fujikuroi from rice culms, leaves, roots, and seeds. At 1 week post-germination (wpg), the pathogen was more diffused in the green tissues, while at 3 wpg it was uniformly spread also in the roots. The highest concentration of F. fujikuroi was measured in the M6 cultivar, which showed around 1,450 fungal cells/g. The assay was sufficiently sensitive to detect a few genomic equivalents in the rice seeds, corresponding to 9.89 F. fujikuroi cells/g. The assay permitted bakanae disease to be detected in asymptomatic tissues at the early rice development stages.

  3. Pengaruh pemberian abu sekam padi sebagai bahan desikan pada penyimpanan benih terhadap daya tumbuh dan pertumbuhan bibit kakao (The effects of rice husk ash as desiccation material of seed storage on viability and cocoa seedling growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pudji Rahardjo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Rice husk ash as desiccation material can be used to maintain seed viability in storage through its ability to absorb humidity during its storage. High relative humidity caused seed moisture content to increase so the respiration rate of seed increases and uses faster food stock. Finally the viability of seed is lost. A research on use of rice husk ash as desiccation material of cocoa seed storage was conducted in Agronomy Laboratory and Kaliwining Experimental Station, Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute. Completely Randomized Design was used in this research with treatment of rice husk ash application on cocoa seed as follows: 0 g/100 seeds (A, 5 g/100 seeds (B, 10 g/100 seeds (C, 15 g/100 seeds (D, and 20 g/100 seeds (E. This experiment used four replications. Cocoa seeds were stored in plastic bag within carton box in ambient temperature. The storage periods were 1, 2, and 3 weeks, and parameters of observation consisted of electrical conductivity of dipped water of cocoa seeds, percentage of seed germination, percentage of seed emergence, early growth parameters at one month old including seedlings height of seedling, diameter, leaf number, root length, and dry weight. The result of the experiment showed that the use of rice husk ash at 5-10 g/100 seeds could maintain electrical conductivity of dipped water at low level, percentage of seed germination at 99-100 % and percentage of seed emergence at 79-91% after two weeks storage. The use of rice husk ash at 5-10 g/100 seeds after two weeks storage affected height of cacao seedling, but did not affected stem diameters, leaf numbers, root lengths, and dry weights

  4. Exploitation of alfalfa seed (Medicago sativa L.) flour into gluten-free rice cookies: Nutritional, antioxidant and quality characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuberti, Gianluca; Rocchetti, Gabriele; Sigolo, Samantha; Fortunati, Paola; Lucini, Luigi; Gallo, Antonio

    2018-01-15

    In an effort to increase the nutritional value of common gluten-free (GF) cereal-based foods, GF cookies using alfalfa seed flour (ASF), at different substitution levels to common rice flour (0% as control, 15%, 30% and 45% w/w), were produced. Crude protein, total dietary fibre, total polyunsaturated, total n-3 and n-6 fatty acid contents increased linearly (p<0.05) by raising the substitution levels of rice with ASF. The hardness, the total phenolic content, the in vitro antioxidant capacity and the resistant starch increased linearly (p<0.05), whereas the starch hydrolysis index decreased linearly (p<0.05) by raising the substitution levels of rice flour with ASF. Despite the fact that ASF-substituted GF cookies had inferior sensory attributes compared to the control, the score given by the panellists remained at fairly good levels for all tested parameters, showing acceptability of the substituted GF cookies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Developing eco-friendly biofungicide for the management of major seed borne diseases of rice and assessing their physical stability and storage life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naveenkumar, Ramasamy; Muthukumar, Arjunan; Sangeetha, Ganesan; Mohanapriya, Ramanathan

    2017-04-01

    Three plant oils (Cymbopogon citratus, Cymbopogon martini, and Pelargonium graveolens) were developed as EC formulations and tested for their physical stabilities. EC formulations (10EC, 20EC and 30EC) of C. citratus, C. martini and P. graveolens had emulsion stability, spontaneity property, heat and cold stability. EC formulated plant oils were screened against the major seed borne fungi of rice such as Curvularia lunata, Fusarium moniliforme, Bipolaris oryzae, and Sarocladium oryzae. The level of inhibition varied among the concentrations of EC formulations. Among the three EC formulations, that of C. citratus oil 30EC recorded 100% inhibition on the mycelial growth of test pathogens. In the blotter paper method, rice seeds treated with a formulation of C. citratus oil 30EC controlled the infection of C. lunata, F. moniliforme, B. oryzae and S. oryzae in rice seed to the tune of 66.0%, 60.4%, 66.0% and 69.1%, respectively. Seed soaking with formulation of C. citratus oil 30EC showed the highest percentage of normal seedlings, the lowest number of abnormal seedling and fresh ungerminated seeds when tested with the roll-towel method. Seed soaking with 30EC formulation of C. citratus oil increased seed germination, shoot length, root length and vigour of rice seedlings when tested with the plastic tray method. Transmission of pathogens from seed to seedling was reduced significantly by the 30EC formulation of C. citratus oil when tested with the plastic pot method. The effect of the storage life of the 30EC formulation of C. citratus oil showed that it had retained their antifungal effect till the end of the incubation period (120 days), and is able to inhibit the mycelial growth of all test pathogens to the 100% level. Copyright © 2017 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Maintaining or Abandoning African Rice: Lessons for Understanding Processes of Seed Innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teeken, B.W.E.; Nuijten, H.A.C.P.; Temudo, M.P.; Okry, F.; Mokuwa, G.A.; Struik, P.C.; Richards, P.

    2012-01-01

    Rice breeding and crop research predominantly emphasize adaptation to ecological conditions. Based on qualitative and quantitative research conducted between 2000 and 2012 we show how ecological factors, combined with socioeconomic variables, cultural norms and values, shape the use and development

  7. Produção de sementes macho-estéreis em arroz Male-sterile rice seed production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Bragantini

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available A obtenção comercial de sementes da linhagem macho-estéril é uma das limitações para viabilizar a produção de híbridos de arroz (Oryza sativa L.. Este trabalho buscou estudar três proporções entre a linhagem macho-estéril (linhagem A e a mantenedora (linhagem B. As proporções estudadas foram 8:4, 10:2 e 14:4. As características avaliadas para determinar qual das proporções apresenta maior potencial foram: número e porcentagem de grãos cheios por panículas, e número de grãos de pólen por unidade de área. A proporção 8:4 produziu maior porcentagem de grãos cheios por panícula que as outras duas, mas, proporcionalmente, ocupa maior área física com a linhagem B no campo. Foram observadas diferenças estatísticas na porcentagem de grãos cheios entre as amostras coletadas nas várias fileiras da linhagem A (diferentes distâncias da fonte polinizadora, e observou-se uma influência marcante com relação à direção predominante dos ventos. O número de grãos de pólen foi igual para todas as relações e distâncias da fonte de pólen; por isso, não foi o fator determinante das diferenças observadas em porcentagem de grãos cheios por panícula. Os resultados permitiram concluir que a proporção 10:2 é a de maior potencial para a produção comercial de sementes da linhagem macho-estéril.Commercial male-sterile rice (Oryza sativa L. seed production is one of the limitations to allow large scale hybrid seed production. This work studied three ratios between male-sterile line (A line and maintainer (B line. The A:B ratios used in the study were: 8:4, 10:2 and 14:4. The evaluated traits to determine which ratio is more suitable were: number and percentage of filled grains per panicle and number of pollen grains per unit area. The 8:4 ratio produced statistically significant higher percentage of filled grains per panicle than the other two, but proportionally it requires more field area for the B line. Statistical

  8. Evaluation of the agronomic performance of atrazine-tolerant transgenic japonica rice parental lines for utilization in hybrid seed production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luhua Zhang

    Full Text Available Currently, the purity of hybrid seed is a crucial limiting factor when developing hybrid japonica rice (Oryza sativa L.. To chemically control hybrid seed purity, we transferred an improved atrazine chlorohydrolase gene (atzA from Pseudomonas ADP into hybrid japonica parental lines (two maintainers, one restorer, and Nipponbare, by using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. We subsequently selected several transgenic lines from each genotype by using PCR, RT-PCR, and germination analysis. In the presence of the investigated atrazine concentrations, particularly 150 µM atrazine, almost all of the transgenic lines produced significantly larger seedlings, with similar or higher germination percentages, than did the respective controls. Although the seedlings of transgenic lines were taller and gained more root biomass compared to the respective control plants, their growth was nevertheless inhibited by atrazine treatment compared to that without treatment. When grown in soil containing 2 mg/kg or 5 mg/kg atrazine, the transgenic lines were taller, and had higher total chlorophyll contents than did the respective controls; moreover, three of the strongest transgenic lines completely recovered after 45 days of growth. After treatment with 2 mg/kg or 5 mg/kg of atrazine, the atrazine residue remaining in the soil was 2.9-7.0% or 0.8-8.7% respectively, for transgenic lines, and 44.0-59.2% or 28.1-30.8%, respectively, for control plants. Spraying plants at the vegetative growth stage with 0.15% atrazine effectively killed control plants, but not transgenic lines. Our results indicate that transgenic atzA rice plants show tolerance to atrazine, and may be used as parental lines in future hybrid seed production.

  9. Protein disulfide isomerase-like protein 1-1 controls endosperm development through regulation of the amount and composition of seed proteins in rice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeon Jeong Kim

    Full Text Available Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI is a chaperone protein involved in oxidative protein folding by acting as a catalyst and assisting folding in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER. A genome database search showed that rice contains 19 PDI-like genes. However, their functions are not clearly identified. This paper shows possible functions of rice PDI-like protein 1-1 (PDIL1-1 during seed development. Seeds of the T-DNA insertion PDIL1-1 mutant, PDIL1-1Δ, identified by genomic DNA PCR and western blot analysis, display a chalky phenotype and a thick aleurone layer. Protein content per seed was significantly lower and free sugar content higher in PDIL1-1Δ mutant seeds than in the wild type. Proteomic analysis of PDIL1-1Δ mutant seeds showed that PDIL1-1 is post-translationally regulated, and its loss causes accumulation of many types of seed proteins including glucose/starch metabolism- and ROS (reactive oxygen species scavenging-related proteins. In addition, PDIL1-1 strongly interacts with the cysteine protease OsCP1. Our data indicate that the opaque phenotype of PDIL1-1Δ mutant seeds results from production of irregular starch granules and protein body through loss of regulatory activity for various proteins involved in the synthesis of seed components.

  10. Soil-to-Rice Seeds Transfer Factors of Radioiodine and Technetium for Paddy Fields around the Radioactive-Waste Disposal Site in Gyeongju

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Yong Ho; Lim, Kwang Muk; Jun, In; Park, Doo Won; Keum, Dong Kwon; Han, Moon Hee

    2010-01-01

    Radiotracer experiments were performed over two years using pot cultures in a greenhouse to investigate soil-torice seeds transfer factors of radioiodine and technetium for paddy fields around the radioactive-waste disposal site in Gyeongju. Before transplanting rice seedlings, the top about 20 cm soils were thoroughly mixed with 125 I (2007) and 99 Tc (2008), and the pots were irrigated to simulate flooded rice fields. Transfer factors were determined as the ratios of the radionuclide concentrations in dry rice seeds (brown rice) to those in dry soils. Transfer factors of radioiodine and technetium were in the ranges of 1.1 x 10 -3 ∼ 6.4 x 10 -3 (three soils) and 5.4 x 10 -4 ∼ 2.5 x 10 -3 (four soils), respectively, for different soils. It seems that the differences in the clay content among soils played a more important role for such variations than those in the organic matter content and pH. As the representative values of radioiodine and technetium transfer factors for rice seeds, 2.9 x 10 -3 and 1.1 x 10 -3 , respectively, were proposed. In order to obtain more highly representative values in the future, investigations for the sites of interest need to be carried out continuously

  11. African rice (Oryza glaberrima) cultivation in the Togo Hills: ecological and socio-cultural cues in farmer seed selection and development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teeken, B.W.E.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract

    Teeken B (2015). African rice (Oryza glaberrima) cultivation in the Togo Hills: ecological and socio-cultural cues in farmer seed selection and development. PhD thesis, Wageningen University, The Netherlands, 306 pp. The low adoption rates of

  12. Effect of seed treatment with static magnetic field (SMF) and low dose gamma radiation (GR) on grain yield of aerobic rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Dinesh; Anand, Anjali; Singh, Bhupinder

    2014-01-01

    Aerobic rice cultivation is gaining popularity as it demands less water. However, poor germination of rice is an important issue in this situation. Seed pretreatment with static magnetic field (SMF) and gamma radiation (GR) at prescribed dose is known to influence the germination, seedling vigour and and yield of many crops. There is a possibility to improve the crop establishment under aerobic situation by physical seed treatment with static-magnetic field (SMF) and gamma radiation (GR) prior to sowing. Hence, a field experiment was conducted at the Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi during kharif 2012 and 2013 to study the effect of SMF and GR-treated seeds on growth and yield of aerobic rice. The five seed treatments were: SMF 50 mT for 2 hrs, SMF 100 mT for 2 hrs, GR 0.0025 kGy, GR 0.10 kGy and an untreated control. The experiment was laid out in a Randomized Block Design with four replications. Crop (variety 'Pusa Basmati-1121') was direct seeded on 25 th and 24 th June during 2012 and 2013, respectively at a spacing of 25 cm. Treatments GR 0.0025 kGy, SMF (50 mT) and SMF (100 mT) resulted in a significant improvement in grain yield of rice over control and GR dose (0.10 kGy) during both the years. Averaged across two years the grain yield increase by treating the rice seeds with GR 0.0025 kGy, SMF (50 mT) and SMF (100 mT) was 20.1, 17.6 and 14.5%, respectively over the control. Increase in GR dose (0.10 kGy ) was not effective in improving the yield, and was found to be similar to control. It is therefore concluded that treatment of rice seeds either with GR (0.0025 kGy) or SMF (50 mT) holds a great promise in increasing the grain yield of aerobic rice. (author)

  13. Development of Selectable Marker-Free Transgenic Rice Plants with Enhanced Seed Tocopherol Content through FLP/FRT-Mediated Spontaneous Auto-Excision.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee-Jong Woo

    Full Text Available Development of marker-free transgenic plants is a technical alternative for avoiding concerns about the safety of selectable marker genes used in genetically modified (GM crops. Here, we describe the construction of a spontaneous self-excision binary vector using an oxidative stress-inducible modified FLP/FRT system and its successful application to produce marker-free transgenic rice plants with enhanced seed tocopherol content. To generate selectable marker-free transgenic rice plants, we constructed a binary vector using the hpt selectable marker gene and the rice codon-optimized FLP (mFLP gene under the control of an oxidative stress-inducible promoter between two FRT sites, along with multiple cloning sites for convenient cloning of genes of interest. Using this pCMF binary vector with the NtTC gene, marker-free T1 transgenic rice plants expressing NtTC were produced by Agrobacterium-mediated stable transformation using hygromycin as a selective agent, followed by segregation of selectable marker genes. Furthermore, α-, γ-, and total tocopherol levels were significantly increased in seeds of the marker-free transgenic TC line compared with those of wild-type plants. Thus, this spontaneous auto-excision system, incorporating an oxidative stress-inducible mFLP/FRT system to eliminate the selectable marker gene, can be easily adopted and used to efficiently generate marker-free transgenic rice plants. Moreover, nutritional enhancement of rice seeds through elevation of tocopherol content coupled with this marker-free strategy may improve human health and public acceptance of GM rice.

  14. Development of Selectable Marker-Free Transgenic Rice Plants with Enhanced Seed Tocopherol Content through FLP/FRT-Mediated Spontaneous Auto-Excision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Hee-Jong; Qin, Yang; Park, Soo-Yun; Park, Soon Ki; Cho, Yong-Gu; Shin, Kong-Sik; Lim, Myung-Ho; Cho, Hyun-Suk

    2015-01-01

    Development of marker-free transgenic plants is a technical alternative for avoiding concerns about the safety of selectable marker genes used in genetically modified (GM) crops. Here, we describe the construction of a spontaneous self-excision binary vector using an oxidative stress-inducible modified FLP/FRT system and its successful application to produce marker-free transgenic rice plants with enhanced seed tocopherol content. To generate selectable marker-free transgenic rice plants, we constructed a binary vector using the hpt selectable marker gene and the rice codon-optimized FLP (mFLP) gene under the control of an oxidative stress-inducible promoter between two FRT sites, along with multiple cloning sites for convenient cloning of genes of interest. Using this pCMF binary vector with the NtTC gene, marker-free T1 transgenic rice plants expressing NtTC were produced by Agrobacterium-mediated stable transformation using hygromycin as a selective agent, followed by segregation of selectable marker genes. Furthermore, α-, γ-, and total tocopherol levels were significantly increased in seeds of the marker-free transgenic TC line compared with those of wild-type plants. Thus, this spontaneous auto-excision system, incorporating an oxidative stress-inducible mFLP/FRT system to eliminate the selectable marker gene, can be easily adopted and used to efficiently generate marker-free transgenic rice plants. Moreover, nutritional enhancement of rice seeds through elevation of tocopherol content coupled with this marker-free strategy may improve human health and public acceptance of GM rice.

  15. Comparison of elemental, nutritional, and isotopic composition of Philippine and Japanese polished rice samples for provenance validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pabroa, Preciosa Corazon B.; Sucgang, Raymond J.; Mendoza, Norman dS.; Ebihara, Mitsuru; Conanan, Aida P.; Nosotros, Ro-Ann S.

    2012-01-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa), has been considered the best staple food among all cereals and is the staple food for over 3 billion people, constituting over half of the world's population (Cantral and Reeves, 2002). In this study, elemental, isotopic and proximate analyses were done on rice samples in a attempt to establish variances between Philippine and Japanese rice, which can be useful for geographical authenticity testing. Rice samples were collected in Japan and in the Philippines (market survey samples from Metro Manila, and farm harvests from Aklan province). The samples were washed, dried and ground to fine powder. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), a very sensitive non-destructive multi-element analytical technique, was used for the elemental analysis of the samples and isotope-ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) was used to obtain the isotopic signatures of the samples. Proximate analysis (AOAC procedure) was used to determine nutrient aggregates. Results show that compared with the unpolished rice standard NIES CRM10b, the polished Japanese and Philippine rice sampled show reduced concentrations of elements by as much as 1/10, 1/4, 1/5 and 1/3 for Mg, Mn, K and Na, respectively. Levels of Ca and Zn are not greatly affected. Arsenic is found in all the Japanese rice tested at an average concentration of 0.103 μg/g and three out of four of the Philippine rice at an average concentration of 0.070 μg/g. Arsenic contamination may have been introduced from the fertilizer used in rice fields. Higher levels of Br are seen in two of the Philippine rice at 14 and 34 μg/g with the most probable source being the pesticide methyl bromide. The rice samples from Aklan showed inter-variety variability in composition (70 to 85 % carbohydrates, 0.5 to 3.0 % fat and 4 to 5 % protein) which makes it difficult to establish provenance in terms of proximate composition. Isotopic ratio of δ 13 C show signature that of a C3 plant with possible narrow distinguishable

  16. The Mitochondrion-Located Protein OsB12D1 Enhances Flooding Tolerance during Seed Germination and Early Seedling Growth in Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongli He

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available B12D belongs to a function unknown subgroup of the Balem (Barley aleurone and embryo proteins. In our previous work on rice seed germination, we identified a B12D-like protein encoded by LOC_Os7g41350 (named OsB12D1. OsB12D1 pertains to an ancient protein family with an amino acid sequence highly conserved from moss to angiosperms. Among the six OsB12Ds, OsB12D1 is one of the major transcripts and is primarily expressed in germinating seed and root. Bioinformatics analyses indicated that OsB12D1 is an anoxic or submergence resistance-related gene. RT-PCR results showed OsB12D1 is induced remarkably in the coleoptiles or roots by flooding during seed germination and early seedling growth. The OsB12D1-overexpressed rice seeds could protrude radicles in 8 cm deep water, further exhibiting significant flooding tolerance compared to the wild type. Moreover, this tolerance was not affected by the gibberellin biosynthesis inhibitor paclobutrazol. OsB12D1 was identified in the mitochondrion by subcellular localization analysis and possibly enhances electron transport through mediating Fe and oxygen availability under flooded conditions. This work indicated that OsB12D1 is a promising gene that can help to enhance rice seedling establishment in farming practices, especially for direct seeding.

  17. Sampling plagues; vital aspect in rice comprehensive protection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Meneses

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Food production must be carried out using and maximizing the knowledge and the available technologies, however, one of the main limiting factors of agricultural production and crop quality are the pests and the diseases that attack the cultures from which plants start to grow until their harvest, and even in storage. The periodic sampling in the field generate information regarding the presence of pests, their population density, culture conditions, climatic variables and the presence and activity of natural enemies. Sampling methods vary according to the crop and phenological stage, as well as pests to be sampled. Within the basic components of Integrated Pest Management (IPM is sampling or monitoring of pests, whose main objective is: "To determine when and what action should be made". The determination of the population of pests is a need for phytosanitary control program of any crop. Mechanical Compliance of phytosanitary measures at specified periods according to the needs always leads to wasteful spending, in work, instruments and environmental pollution.

  18. Comportamento de hidratação e qualidade fisiológica das sementes de arroz Hidration performance and physiological quality of rice seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Pivotto Bortolotto

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como objetivo verificar a relação existente entre o comportamento da curva de hidratação de sementes de arroz e sua qualidade fisiológica. Foram utilizados seis lotes de sementes de arroz, sendo três da cultivar IRGA 417 e três da cultivar IRGA 422 CL, inicialmente submetidos a testes para caracterizar o potencial fisiológico dos lotes: germinação, primeira contagem de germinação, envelhecimento acelerado, frio sem terra, condutividade elétrica, comprimento de plântula, massa seca de plântula e emergência em campo. Posteriormente, foi determinada a curva de hidratação das sementes de cada lote. Conclui-se que a qualidade fisiológica afeta o teor de água alcançado pelas sementes de arroz durante a hidratação, e nas sementes menos vigorosas notam-se menor velocidade de hidratação e grau de umidade, comparativamente às sementes de mais vigor.The objective of this study was to verify the relationship between the shape of the hydration curve and the physiological quality of rice seeds. Six lots of rice seeds were used, three of cultivar IRGA 417 and three of cultivar IRGA 422 CL. The rice seeds were submitted to a set of tests in order to measure the physiological potential of the lots: germination, first count germination, accelerated aging, cold test (without soil, electrical conductivity, length and dry mass of seedlings and seedling emergence in the field. After evaluation of the initial quality of the lots, the hydration curve was determined. It was concluded that physiological quality affects the water content reached by rice seeds during hydration, and that seeds with lower vigor present lower hydration rate and water content when compared to seeds with higher vigor.

  19. Comparative Mapping of Seed Dormancy Loci Between Tropical and Temperate Ecotypes of Weedy Rice (Oryza sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihua Zhang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Genotypic variation at multiple loci for seed dormancy (SD contributes to plant adaptation to diverse ecosystems. Weedy rice (Oryza sativa was used as a model to address the similarity of SD genes between distinct ecotypes. A total of 12 quantitative trait loci (QTL for SD were identified in one primary and two advanced backcross (BC populations derived from a temperate ecotype of weedy rice (34.3°N Lat.. Nine (75% of the 12 loci were mapped to the same positions as those identified from a tropical ecotype of weedy rice (7.1°N Lat.. The high similarity suggested that the majority of SD genes were conserved during the ecotype differentiation. These common loci are largely those collocated/linked with the awn, hull color, pericarp color, or plant height loci. Phenotypic correlations observed in the populations support the notion that indirect selections for the wild-type morphological characteristics, together with direct selections for germination time, were major factors influencing allelic distributions of SD genes across ecotypes. Indirect selections for crop-mimic traits (e.g., plant height and flowering time could also alter allelic frequencies for some SD genes in agroecosystems. In addition, 3 of the 12 loci were collocated with segregation distortion loci, indicating that some gametophyte development genes could also influence the genetic equilibria of SD loci in hybrid populations. The SD genes with a major effect on germination across ecotypes could be used as silencing targets to develop transgene mitigation (TM strategies to reduce the risk of gene flow from genetically modified crops into weed/wild relatives.

  20. Weed management through herbicide application in direct-seeded rice and yield modeling by artificial neural network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, D.; Singh, U.P.; Ray, K.; Das, A.

    2016-11-01

    In direct seeded rice (DSR) cultivation, weed is the major constraint mainly due to absence of puddling in field. The yield loss due to weed interference is huge, may be up to 100%. In this perspective, the present experiment was conducted to study the efficacy of selected herbicides, and to predict the rice yield using artificial neural network (ANN) models. The dry weight and density of weeds were recorded at different growth stages and consequently herbicidal efficacy was evaluated. Experimental results revealed that pre-emergence (PRE) herbicide effectively controlled the germination of grassy weeds. Application bispyribac-sodium as post-emergence (POST) following PRE herbicides (clomazone or pendimethalin) or as tank-mixture with clomazone effectively reduced the density and biomass accumulation of diverse weed flora in DSR. Herbicidal treatments improved the plant height, yield attributes and grain yield (2.7 to 5.5 times) over weedy check. The sensitivity of the best ANN model clearly depicts that the weed control index (WCI) of herbicides was most important than their weed control efficiency (WCE). Besides, the early control of weeds is a better prescription to improve rice yield. Differences in sensitivity values of WCI and WCE across the crop growth stages also suggest that at 15, 30 and 60 days after sowing, herbicides most effectively controlled sedges, broad leaves and grasses, respectively. Based on the grain yield and herbicidal WCE, it can be concluded that the combined application of pendimethalin or clomazone as PRE followed by bispyribac-sodium as POST or tank-mixture of clomazone + bispyribac sodium can effectively control different weed flushes throughout the crop growth period in DSR. (Author)

  1. Effect of Neem Seed Kernel Extracts in the Management of Rice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Rice plant is an ideal host for a large number of insect pests in ... For farmers and researchers alike reducing the numbers of these pests is therefore a priority. In the ..... Development of a rational control system against insect ... Integration of some biopesticides and trichogramma chilonis for the sustainable management of.

  2. Effect of Cyanobacteria Isolates on Rice Seeds Germination in Saline Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa M. El -Sheekh

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria are prokaryotic photosynthetic communities which are used in biofertilization of many plants especially rice plant. Cyanobacteria play a vital role to increase the plant's ability for salinity tolerance. Salinity is a worldwide problem which affects the growth and productivity of crops. In this work three cyanobacteria strains (Nostoc calcicola, Anabaena variabilis, and Nostoc linkia were isolated from saline soil at Kafr El-Sheikh Governorate; North Egypt. The propagated cyanobacteria strains were used to withstand salinity of the soil and increase rice plant growth (Giza 178. The length of roots and shoot seedlings was measured for seven and forty days of cultivation, respectively. The results of this investigation showed that the inoculation with Nostoc calcicola, Anabaena variabilis, and Nostoc linkia increased root length by 27.0, 4.0, 3.0 % and 39, 20, 19 % in EC5 and 10 (ds/m, respectively. Similarly, they increased shoot length by 121, 70, 55 %, 116, 88, 82 % in EC5 and 10 (ds/m, respectively. In EC15and more concentrations, control rice plants could not grow while those to which cyanobacteria were inoculated could withstand only EC15 but not other elevated concentrations. These results encourage using Nostoc calcicola,Anabaena variabilis, and Nostoc linkia as biofertilizer for rice plant in the saline soil for increasing growth and decrease soil electrical conductivity.

  3. Seed storage protein polymorphism in ten elite rice (Oryza sativa L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-02-14

    Feb 14, 2011 ... for several economical traits by conserving landrace genotypes and ... plasm, seed storage protein analysis represents a valid alternative ... of each variety was taken and ground into fine powder using pestle and mortal and ...

  4. Evolution of new rice varieties by induced mutations to increase yield and resistance to diseases and to improve seed quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miah, A.J.; Bhatti, I.M.

    1968-01-01

    Seeds of two indica rice varieties namely, Kangni-27 (a coarse variety) and Dokri Basmati (a fine variety) were irradiated with 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45 and 50 kR of gamma rays from a 13,000-Ci 60 Co source. In the M 1 generation (1964), germination percentage, seedling height and seed fertility were studied. The data indicated that Kangni-27 is more radioresistant than Dokri Basmati. In the M 2 generation (1965) two polygenic traits, i.e. leaf size and grains per unit length were studied. From the analysis of the data it was found that variability was greater in the irradiated populations than in the non-irradiated controls. Apart from the study of the polygenic traits, several mutants which appeared to be useful to the breeder (e.g. dwarf, short-culm and early flowering) were isolated form the irradiated populations of Kangni-27. In the M 3 generation (1966) several agronomically important characters were studied in all the mutants isolated in the M 2 generation. It was noticed that the mean values of most of the characters of all the mutants deviated from the mean values of the respective controls. These deviations were both negative and positive. Further analysis is in progress. Three more experiments were started, two in the year 1965 on the effects of gamma rays and one in 1966 to compare the effects of EMS and gamma rays. (author). 31 refs, 3 figs, 6 tabs

  5. DNA synthesis time in germinating rice and pattern of diethylsulphate induced mutations in pre-soaked seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narahari, P.

    1978-01-01

    DNA synthesis pattern in germinating rice seeds, pre-soaked in water for varying periods upto 48 hr, was determined by following the pulse incorporation of 3 H-thymidine into the TCA-insoluble nucleoprotein. Synthesis of DNA commenced at 24 hr, progressively increased to a first peak at about 38 hr, thereafter showed a 1/3rd drop and subsequently increased to a 2nd and still higher peak at 46 to 48 hr of pre-soaking. Treatments of diethylsulphate (dES) at a low concentration (0.2%-2hr) administered at various progressing stages of DNA synthesis resulted in decrease in seedling height and survival, and increase in mutation frequency at 45 hr. pre-soaking, maximum mutation frequencies of 20, 10 and 2% on M 1 plants, M 1 spikes and M 2 seedling bases, respectively were observed. Higher dES concentration (0.3%-2hr) given at later periods of pre-soaking showed near lethal effects and consequently decreased mutation frequencies. Treatments of sodium fluoride given singly or in combination with dES did not show any substantially different results as compared to those of the respective controls. Mutation spectra observed after dES treatments to germinating seeds, at different pre-soaking periods, were quite dissimilar. Specific mutations of economic importance like semi-dwarf mutants were isolated from the treatment of germinating seeds pre-soaked for 37.5 hr or more when shoot apex cells were undergoing DNA synthesis. (author)

  6. Vitamin E homologs and ¿-oryzanol levels in rice (Oryza sativa L.) during seed development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitamin E homologs (tocopherols and tocotrienols) and gamma-oryzanol have gained significant attention due to their proposed health benefits and ability to increase vegetable oil stability. Changes in the levels of these phytochemicals were examined during seed development. Rapid accumulation of toc...

  7. Management of rice seed during insurgency : a case study in Sierra Leone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mokuwa, G.A.

    2015-01-01

    Keywords: Technography, Oryza glaberrima, Oryza sativa, farmer hybrids, sub-optimal agriculture, farmer adaptive management, plant genetic resources, peace and extreme (wartime) conditions, local seed channels, selection for robustness, Sierra Leone, West Africa.

  8. Biogenic synthesis, characterization of silver nanoparticles using multani mitti (fullers earth), tomato (solanum lycopersicum) seeds, rice husk (oryza sativa) and evaluation of their potential antimicrobial activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dar, P.; Hina, A.; Anwar, J.

    2016-01-01

    The synthesis of silver nanoparticles of three different biogenic materials Multani mitti (Fullers earth), Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) seeds, Rice Husk (Oryza sativa) was carried out. The possible presence and variability of comprehensive biomolecules in these materials turned as capping and reducing agents which optimize the reduction rate and stabilization of silver nanoparticles. Characterizations were determined by using ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, Scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Stable silver nanoparticles of average size 4.6, 41.1 and 10.6 nm were obtained for Multani mitti, tomato seeds and rice husk respectively. Phenolic and carboxylic biomolecules were identified as active reducing agents of Ag+2 to Ag0. The antimicrobial activity was carried out against Klebsiella pneumonia, Salmonella enterica, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus strains by using well diffusion method. Maximum zone of inhibition (ZOI) was found against Staphylococcus aureus by all of the three biogenic materials. (author)

  9. Simultaneous Detection of Three Bacterial Seed-Borne Diseases in Rice Using Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, In Jeong; Kang, Mi-Hyung; Noh, Tae-Hwan; Shim, Hyeong Kwon; Shin, Dong Bum; Heu, Suggi

    2016-01-01

    Burkholderia glumae (bacterial grain rot), Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (bacterial leaf blight), and Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae (bacterial brown stripe) are major seedborne pathogens of rice. Based on the 16S and 23S rDNA sequences for A. avenae subsp. avenae and B. glumae, and transposase A gene sequence for X. oryzae pv. oryzae, three sets of primers had been designed to produce 402 bp for B. glumae, 490 bp for X. oryzae, and 290 bp for A. avenae subsp. avenae with the 63°C as an opti...

  10. Effects of Rice Bran, Flax Seed, and Sunflower Seed on Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics, Fatty Acid Composition, Free Amino Acid and Peptide Contents, and Sensory Evaluations of Native Korean Cattle (Hanwoo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Bon Choi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation with rice bran, flax seed, or sunflower seed to finishing native Korean cattle (Hanwoo on growth performances, carcass characteristics, fatty acid composition, free amino acid and peptide contents, and sensory evaluations of Longissimus muscle (LM. A total of 39 Hanwoo steers (average age of 22.2 mo and average body weight (BW of 552.2 kg were randomly divided into Control, rice bran (RB, flax seed (FS, or Sunflower seed (SS groups. The steers were group fed for 273 d until they reached an average age of 31.2 mo. Final BW was 768.2, 785.8, 786.2, and 789.0 kg, and average daily gain was 0.79, 0.85, 0.82, and 0.84 kg for the Control, RS, FS, and SS groups, respectively (p>0.05. Fat thickness of the FS group (19.8 mm was greater (p0.05 scores for flavor, umami, and overall palatability in sensory evaluations. In conclusion, supplementation of flax seed to diets of finishing Hanwoo steers improved sensory evaluations which might have been caused by increases in flavor related amino acids such as methionine, glutamic acid and α-AAA and peptides, anserine and carnosine, and their complex reactions.

  11. The α-Amylase Induction in Endosperm during Rice Seed Germination Is Caused by Gibberellin Synthesized in Epithelium1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Miyuki; Itoh, Hironori; Ueguchi-Tanaka, Miyako; Ashikari, Motoyuki; Matsuoka, Makoto

    2002-01-01

    We recently isolated two genes (OsGA3ox1 and OsGA3ox2) from rice (Oryza sativa) encoding 3β-hydroxylase, which catalyzes the final step of active gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis (H. Itoh, M. Ueguchi-Tanaka, N. Sentoku, H. Kitano, M. Matsuoka, M. Kobayashi [2001] Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 98: 8909–8914). Using these cloned cDNAs, we analyzed the temporal and spatial expression patterns of the 3β-hydroxylase genes and also an α-amylase gene (RAmy1A) during rice seed germination to investigate the relationship between GA biosynthesis and α-amylase expression. Northern-blot analyses revealed that RAmy1A expression in the embryo occurs before the induction of 3β-hydroxylase expression, whereas in the endosperm, a high level of RAmy1A expression occurs 1 to 2 d after the peak of OsGA3ox2 expression and only in the absence of uniconazol. Based on the analysis of an OsGA3ox2 null mutant (d18-Akibare dwarf), we determined that 3β-hydroxylase produced by OsGA3ox2 is important for the induction of RAmy1A expression and that the OsGA3ox1 product is not essential for α-amylase induction. The expression of OsGA3ox2 was localized to the shoot region and epithelium of the embryo, strongly suggesting that active GA biosynthesis occurs in these two regions. The synthesis of active GA in the epithelium is important for α-amylase expression in the endosperm, because an embryonic mutant defective in shoot formation, but which developed epithelium cells, induced α-amylase expression in the endosperm, whereas a mutant defective in epithelium development did not. PMID:11950975

  12. Improvement of efficient in vitro regeneration potential of mature callus induced from Malaysian upland rice seed (Oryza sativa cv. Panderas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Din, Abd Rahman Jabir; Iliyas Ahmad, Fauziah; Wagiran, Alina; Abd Samad, Azman; Rahmat, Zaidah; Sarmidi, Mohamad Roji

    2016-01-01

    A new and rapid protocol for optimum callus production and complete plant regeneration has been assessed in Malaysian upland rice (Oryza sativa) cv. Panderas. The effect of plant growth regulator (PGR) on the regeneration frequency of Malaysian upland rice (cv. Panderas) was investigated. Mature seeds were used as a starting material for callus induction experiment using various concentrations of 2,4-D and NAA. Optimal callus induction frequency at 90% was obtained on MS media containing 2,4-D (3 mg L(-1)) and NAA (2 mg L(-1)) after 6 weeks while no significant difference was seen on tryptophan and glutamine parameters. Embryogenic callus was recorded as compact, globular and light yellowish in color. The embryogenic callus morphology was further confirmed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. For regeneration, induced calli were treated with various concentrations of Kin (0.5-1.5 mg L(-1)), BAP, NAA and 0.5 mg L(-1) of TDZ. The result showed that the maximum regeneration frequency (100%) was achieved on MS medium containing BAP (0.5 mg L(-1)), Kin (1.5 mg L(-1)), NAA (0.5 mg L(-1)) and TDZ (0.5 mg L(-1)) within four weeks. Developed shoots were successfully rooted on half strength MS free hormone medium and later transferred into a pot containing soil for acclimatization. This cutting-edge finding is unique over the other existing publishable data due to the good regeneration response by producing a large number of shoots.

  13. Effects of seed mixture sowing with resistant and susceptible rice on population dynamics of target planthoppers and non-target stemborers and leaffolders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhuo; Wan, Guijun; Wang, Long; Parajulee, Megha N; Zhao, Zihua; Chen, Fajun

    2018-07-01

    The widespread planting of insect-resistant crops has caused a dramatic shift in agricultural landscapes, thus raising concerns about the potential impact on both target and non-target pests worldwide. In this study, we examined the potential effects of six seed mixture ratios of insect-resistance dominance [100% (R100), 95% (S05R95), 90% (S10R90), 80% (S20R80), 60% (S40R60), and 0% (S100)] on target and non-target pests in a 2-year field trial in southern China. The occurrence of the target pests Nilaparvata lugens and Sogatella furcifera decreased with an increase in the ratio of resistant rice, and mixture ratios with ≥90% resistant rice significantly increased the pest suppression efficiency, with the lowest occurrences of the non-target pests Sesamia inferens, Chilo suppressalis and Cnaphalocrocis medinalis for S100 and S10R90 seed mixture ratios. Furthermore, there were no significant differences in the 1000-grain dry weight and grain yield between R100 and other treatments with ≥80% resistant seeds in the mixture (S20R80, S10R90 and S05R95). S10R90 produced a good yield and provided the most effective control of both target and non-target pests, with the potential to significantly reduce the application of chemical pesticides for integrated pest management in paddy fields. It is further presumed that the strategy of seed mixture with resistant and susceptible rice would be advantageous for rice yield stability. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Cell wall targeted in planta iron accumulation enhances biomass conversion and seed iron concentration in Arabidopsis and rice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Haibing [Center for Direct Catalytic Conversion Of Biomass to Biofuels (C3Bio), Purdue University, West Lafayette IN USA; Department of Horticulture, Purdue University, West Lafayette IN USA; Department of Biological Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette IN USA; Wei, Hui [Biosciences Center, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO USA; Ma, Guojie [Center for Direct Catalytic Conversion Of Biomass to Biofuels (C3Bio), Purdue University, West Lafayette IN USA; Department of Horticulture, Purdue University, West Lafayette IN USA; Antunes, Mauricio S. [Center for Direct Catalytic Conversion Of Biomass to Biofuels (C3Bio), Purdue University, West Lafayette IN USA; Department of Biological Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette IN USA; Vogt, Stefan [X-ray Science Division, Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne IL USA; Cox, Joseph [Center for Direct Catalytic Conversion Of Biomass to Biofuels (C3Bio), Purdue University, West Lafayette IN USA; Department of Horticulture, Purdue University, West Lafayette IN USA; Zhang, Xiao [Department of Horticulture, Purdue University, West Lafayette IN USA; Liu, Xiping [Center for Direct Catalytic Conversion Of Biomass to Biofuels (C3Bio), Purdue University, West Lafayette IN USA; Department of Horticulture, Purdue University, West Lafayette IN USA; Bu, Lintao [National Bioenergy Center, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO USA; Gleber, S. Charlotte [X-ray Science Division, Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne IL USA; Carpita, Nicholas C. [Department of Biological Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette IN USA; Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, Purdue University, West Lafayette IN USA; Makowski, Lee [Department of Bioengineering, Northeastern University, Boston MA USA; Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Northeastern University, Boston MA USA; Himmel, Michael E. [Biosciences Center, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO USA; Tucker, Melvin P. [X-ray Science Division, Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne IL USA; McCann, Maureen C. [Center for Direct Catalytic Conversion Of Biomass to Biofuels (C3Bio), Purdue University, West Lafayette IN USA; Department of Biological Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette IN USA; Murphy, Angus S. [Center for Direct Catalytic Conversion Of Biomass to Biofuels (C3Bio), Purdue University, West Lafayette IN USA; Department of Horticulture, Purdue University, West Lafayette IN USA; Department of Plant Science and Landscape Architecture, University of Maryland, College Park MD USA; Peer, Wendy A. [Center for Direct Catalytic Conversion Of Biomass to Biofuels (C3Bio), Purdue University, West Lafayette IN USA; Department of Horticulture, Purdue University, West Lafayette IN USA; Department of Plant Science and Landscape Architecture, University of Maryland, College Park MD USA; Department of Environmental Science and Technology, University of Maryland, College Park MD USA

    2016-04-07

    Conversion of nongrain biomass into liquid fuel is a sustainable approach to energy demands as global population increases. Previously, we showed that iron can act as a catalyst to enhance the degradation of lignocellulosic biomass for biofuel production. However, direct addition of iron catalysts to biomass pretreatment is diffusion-limited, would increase the cost and complexity of biorefinery unit operations and may have deleterious environmental impacts. Here, we show a new strategy for in planta accumulation of iron throughout the volume of the cell wall where iron acts as a catalyst in the deconstruction of lignocellulosic biomass. We engineered CBM-IBP fusion polypeptides composed of a carbohydrate-binding module family 11 (CBM11) and an iron-binding peptide (IBP) for secretion into Arabidopsis and rice cell walls. CBM-IBP transformed Arabidopsis and rice plants show significant increases in iron accumulation and biomass conversion compared to respective controls. Further, CBM-IBP rice shows a 35% increase in seed iron concentration and a 40% increase in seed yield in greenhouse experiments. CBM-IBP rice potentially could be used to address iron deficiency, the most common and widespread nutritional disorder according to the World Health Organization.

  15. Genetic and physiological characterization of two clusters of quantitative trait Loci associated with seed dormancy and plant height in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Heng; Beighley, Donn H; Feng, Jiuhuan; Gu, Xing-You

    2013-02-01

    Seed dormancy and plant height have been well-studied in plant genetics, but their relatedness and shared regulatory mechanisms in natural variants remain unclear. The introgression of chromosomal segments from weedy into cultivated rice (Oryza sativa) prompted the detection of two clusters (qSD1-2/qPH1 and qSD7-2/qPH7) of quantitative trait loci both associated with seed dormancy and plant height. Together, these two clusters accounted for >96% of the variances for plant height and ~71% of the variances for germination rate in an isogenic background across two environments. On the initial introgression segments, qSD1-2/qPH1 was dissected genetically from OsVp1 for vivipary and qSD7-2/qPH7 separated from Sdr4 for seed dormancy. The narrowed qSD1-2/qPH1 region encompasses the semidwarf1 (sd1) locus for gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis. The qSD1-2/qPH1 allele from the cultivar reduced germination and stem elongation and the mutant effects were recovered by exogenous GA, suggesting that sd1 is a candidate gene of the cluster. In contrast, the effect-reducing allele at qSD7-2/qPH7 was derived from the weedy line; this allele was GA-insensitive and blocked GA responses of qSD1-2/qPH1, including the transcription of a GA-inducible α-amylase gene in imbibed endosperm, suggesting that qSD7-2/qPH7 may work downstream from qSD1-2/qPH1 in GA signaling. Thus, this research established the seed dormancy-plant height association that is likely mediated by GA biosynthesis and signaling pathways in natural populations. The detected association contributed to weed mimicry for the plant stature in the agro-ecosystem dominated by semidwarf cultivars and revealed the potential benefit of semidwarf genes in resistance to preharvest sprouting.

  16. Soil CO 2 fluxes from direct seeding rice fields under two tillage practices in central China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cheng-fang; Kou, Zhi-kui; Yang, Jin-hua; Cai, Ming-li; Wang, Jin-ping; Cao, Cou-gui

    2010-07-01

    Agricultural practices affect the production and emission of carbon dioxide (CO 2) from paddy soils. It is crucial to understand the effects of tillage and N fertilization on soil CO 2 flux and its influencing factors for a better comprehension of carbon dynamics in subtropical paddy ecosystems. A 2-yr field study was conducted to assess the effects of tillage (conventional tillage [CT] and no-tillage [NT]) and N fertilization (0 and 210 kg N ha -1) on soil CO 2 fluxes during the 2008 and 2009 rice growing seasons in central China. Treatments were established following a split-plot design of a randomized complete block with tillage practices as the main plot and N fertilizer level as the split-plot treatment. The soil CO 2 fluxes were measured 24 times in 2008 and 17 times in 2009. N fertilization did not affect soil CO 2 emissions while tillage affected soil CO 2 emissions, where NT had similar soil CO 2 emissions to CT in 2008, but in 2009, NT significantly increased soil CO 2 emissions. Cumulative CO 2 emissions were 2079-2245 kg CO 2-C ha -1 from NT treatments, and 2084-2141 kg CO 2-C ha -1 from CT treatments in 2008, and were 1257-1401 kg CO 2-C ha -1 from NT treatments, and 1003-1034 kg CO 2-C ha -1 from CT treatments in 2009, respectively. Cumulative CO 2 emissions were significantly related to aboveground biomass and soil organic C. Before drainage of paddy fields, soil CO 2 fluxes were significantly related to soil temperature with correlation coefficients ( R) of 0.67-0.87 in 2008 and 0.69-0.85 in 2009; moreover, the Q 10 values ranged from 1.28 to 1.55 and from 2.10 to 5.21 in 2009, respectively. Our results suggested that NT rice production system appeared to be ineffective in decreasing carbon emission, which suggested that CO 2 emissions from integrated rice-based system should be taken into account to assess effects of tillage.

  17. Map-Based Cloning of Seed Dormancy1-2 Identified a Gibberellin Synthesis Gene Regulating the Development of Endosperm-Imposed Dormancy in Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Heng; Feng, Jiuhuan; Zhang, Lihua; Zhang, Jinfeng; Mispan, Muhamad S; Cao, Zhuanqin; Beighley, Donn H; Yang, Jianchang; Gu, Xing-You

    2015-11-01

    Natural variation in seed dormancy is controlled by multiple genes mapped as quantitative trait loci in major crop or model plants. This research aimed to clone and characterize the Seed Dormancy1-2 (qSD1-2) locus associated with endosperm-imposed dormancy and plant height in rice (Oryza sativa). qSD1-2 was delimited to a 20-kb region, which contains OsGA20ox2 and had an additive effect on germination. Naturally occurring or induced loss-of-function mutations of the gibberellin (GA) synthesis gene enhanced seed dormancy and also reduced plant height. Expression of this gene in seeds (including endospermic cells) during early development increased GA accumulation to promote tissue morphogenesis and maturation programs. The mutant allele prevalent in semidwarf cultivars reduced the seed GA content by up to 2-fold at the early stage, which decelerated tissue morphogenesis including endosperm cell differentiation, delayed abscisic acid accumulation by a shift in the temporal distribution pattern, and postponed dehydration, physiological maturity, and germinability development. As the endosperm of developing seeds dominates the moisture equilibrium and desiccation status of the embryo in cereal crops, qSD1-2 is proposed to control primary dormancy by a GA-regulated dehydration mechanism. Allelic distribution of OsGA20ox2, the rice Green Revolution gene, was associated with the indica and japonica subspeciation. However, this research provided no evidence that the primitive indica- and common japonica-specific alleles at the presumably domestication-related locus functionally differentiate in plant height and seed dormancy. Thus, the evolutionary mechanism of this agriculturally important gene remains open for discussion. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  18. Map-Based Cloning of Seed Dormancy1-2 Identified a Gibberellin Synthesis Gene Regulating the Development of Endosperm-Imposed Dormancy in Rice1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Heng; Feng, Jiuhuan; Zhang, Lihua; Zhang, Jinfeng; Mispan, Muhamad S.; Cao, Zhuanqin; Beighley, Donn H.; Yang, Jianchang; Gu, Xing-You

    2015-01-01

    Natural variation in seed dormancy is controlled by multiple genes mapped as quantitative trait loci in major crop or model plants. This research aimed to clone and characterize the Seed Dormancy1-2 (qSD1-2) locus associated with endosperm-imposed dormancy and plant height in rice (Oryza sativa). qSD1-2 was delimited to a 20-kb region, which contains OsGA20ox2 and had an additive effect on germination. Naturally occurring or induced loss-of-function mutations of the gibberellin (GA) synthesis gene enhanced seed dormancy and also reduced plant height. Expression of this gene in seeds (including endospermic cells) during early development increased GA accumulation to promote tissue morphogenesis and maturation programs. The mutant allele prevalent in semidwarf cultivars reduced the seed GA content by up to 2-fold at the early stage, which decelerated tissue morphogenesis including endosperm cell differentiation, delayed abscisic acid accumulation by a shift in the temporal distribution pattern, and postponed dehydration, physiological maturity, and germinability development. As the endosperm of developing seeds dominates the moisture equilibrium and desiccation status of the embryo in cereal crops, qSD1-2 is proposed to control primary dormancy by a GA-regulated dehydration mechanism. Allelic distribution of OsGA20ox2, the rice Green Revolution gene, was associated with the indica and japonica subspeciation. However, this research provided no evidence that the primitive indica- and common japonica-specific alleles at the presumably domestication-related locus functionally differentiate in plant height and seed dormancy. Thus, the evolutionary mechanism of this agriculturally important gene remains open for discussion. PMID:26373662

  19. Determination of arsenic species in rice samples using CPE and ETAAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Bruno Elias Dos Santos; Coelho, Nívia Maria Melo; Coelho, Luciana Melo

    2015-07-01

    A highly sensitive and selective procedure for the determination of arsenate and total arsenic in food by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry after cloud point extraction (ETAAS/CPE) was developed. The procedure is based on the formation of a complex of As(V) ions with molybdate in the presence of 50.0 mmol L(-1) sulfuric acid. The complex was extracted into the surfactant-rich phase of 0.06% (w/v) Triton X-114. The variables affecting the complex formation, extraction and phase separation were optimized using factorial designs. Under the optimal conditions, the calibration graph was linear in the range of 0.05-10.0 μg L(-1). The detection and quantification limits were 10 and 33 ng L(-1), respectively and the corresponding value for the relative standard deviation for 10 replicates was below 5%. Recovery values of between 90.8% and 113.1% were obtained for spiked samples. The accuracy of the method was evaluated by comparison with the results obtained for the analysis of a rice flour sample (certified material IRMM-804) and no significant difference at the 95% confidence level was observed. The method was successfully applied to the determination of As(V) and total arsenic in rice samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Elemental and isotopic characterization of Japanese and Philippine polished rice samples using instrumental neutron activation analysis and isotope ratio mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pabroa, Preciosa Corazon B.; Sucgang, Raymond J.; Mendoza, Norman dS.; Ebihara, Mitsuru

    2011-01-01

    Rice is a staple food for most Asian countries such as the Philippines and Japan and as such its elemental and isotopic content are of interest to the consumers. Its elemental content may reflect the macro nutrient reduction during milling or probable toxic elements uptake. Three Japanese and four Philippine polished rice samples in his study mostly came from rice bought from supermarkets.These rice samples were washed, dried and ground to fine powder. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), a very sensitive non-destructive multi-element analytical technique, was used for the elemental analysis of the samples and isotope-ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) was used to obtain the isotopic signatures of the samples. Results show that compared with the unpolished rice standard NIES CRM10b, the polished Japanese and Philippine rice sampled show reduced concentrations of elements by as much as 1/3 to 1/10 of Mg, Mn, K and Na. Levels of Ca and Zn are not greatly affected. Arsenic is found in all the Japanese rice tested at an average concentration of 0.103 μg/g and three out of four of the Philippine rice at an average concentration of 0.070 μg/g. Arsenic contamination may have been introduced from the fertilizer used in rice fields. Higher levels of Br are seen in two of the Philippine rice at 14 and 34 μg/g with the most probable source being the pesticide methyl bromide. Isotopic ratio of ae 13 C show signature of a C3 plant with possible narrow distinguishable signature of Japanese rice within -27.5 to -28.5 while Philippine rice within -29 to -30. More rice samples will be analyzed to gain better understanding of isotopic signatures to distinguish inter-varietal and/or geographical differences. Elemental composition of soil samples of rice samples sources will be determined for better understanding of uptake mechanisms. (author)

  1. Plataformas de colheita e colheita manual com trilha mecânica sobre a qualidade de sementes de arroz ( Oryza sativa, L. Harvest header and manual harvest with mechanical strip on rice ( Oryza sativa, L. seeds quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Fernandez Franco

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Durante a colheita do arroz irrigado ocorrem perdas e danos físicos e fisiológicos às sementes. No final da década de oitenta, surgiram as plataformas recolhedoras, que retiram ou arrancam o grão ao invés de cortar a panícula, porém, pouco se conhece a respeito dos danos físicos e fisiológicos que este sistema de plataforma pode causar às sementes. Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar os danos mecânicos causados às sementes dos cultivares de arroz BR-IRGA 409 e BR-IRGA 410, por três formas de colheita: (a colheita manual e trilha mecânica; (b colheita com plataforma de corte; (c colheita com plataforma recolhedora. Quando a colheita foi mecânica, realizou-se a coleta das amostras diretamente no graneleiro. O delineamento experimental foi blocos ao acaso, com seis repetições. Os resultados demonstraram que as sementes de arroz irrigado dos cultivares estudados não apresentaram diferenças significativas em suas qualidades físicas e fisiológicas, quando colhidas com plataforma de corte e com a plataforma recolhedora. Estes dois métodos de colheita, porém, apresentaram danos significativamente maiores quando comparados à colheita manual e trilha mecânica.During irrigated rice harvesting occur losses and physical and phisiological seed damage. Late 80's, appeared the strippers headers that strip the grain, instead of cutting the spike. However, little is know about physical and phisiological seed damage by harvest header. The objective of this work was to evaluate the mechanical damage caused to BR-IRGA 409 and BR-IRGA 410 rice cultivars by three harvesting methods: (a manual harvesting and mechanical strip; (b cutterbar harvesting and; (c stripper header harvesting. Samples were collected directly in the grain tank when the harvest was mechanical. The experimental design was randomized blocks with six replications. Results demonstrated that the rice seeds of the studied variety didn't showed significant differences in

  2. Supplementation of Farta sheep fed hay with graded levels of concentrate mix consisting of noug seed meal and rice bran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmare, Bimrew; Melaku, Solomon; Peters, Kurt J

    2010-10-01

    The study was carried out at Woreta, Ethiopia, to determine feed intake, digestibility, body weight (BW) change, and profitability of Farta sheep fed pasture hay alone or supplemented with graded levels of concentrate mix (CM) consisting of noug seed meal (NSM) and rice bran in 2:1 ratio. Twenty yearling intact male Farta sheep with BW of 16.9 +/- 1.68 kg (mean +/- SD) were used in randomized complete block design arranged into five blocks of four animals. The dietary treatments consisting of sole natural pasture hay (T1, control), hay +200 g of CM dry matter (DM) (T2, low), hay +300 g of CM DM (T3, medium), and hay +400 g of CM DM (T4, high) were randomly assigned to sheep within each block. Common salt and water were available to animals all the time. The supplements were offered twice daily in equal portions at 0800 and 1600 h. Supplementation with the CM increased (P profitability. Among the supplemented treatments, the high level of supplementation resulted in better (P profitability. Thus, the high level of supplementation is recommended based on biological performance and profitability under conditions of this study.

  3. The genotype-environment interaction variance in rice-seed protein determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismachin, M.

    1976-01-01

    Many environmental factors influence the protein content of cereal seed. This fact procured difficulties in breeding for protein. Yield is another example on which so many environmental factors are of influence. The length of time required by the plant to reach maturity, is also affected by the environmental factors; even though its effect is not too decisive. In this investigation the genotypic variance and the genotype-environment interaction variance which contribute to the total variance or phenotypic variance was analysed, with purpose to give an idea to the breeder how selection should be made. It was found that genotype-environment interaction variance is larger than the genotypic variance in contribution to total variance of protein-seed determination or yield. In the analysis of the time required to reach maturity it was found that genotypic variance is larger than the genotype-environment interaction variance. It is therefore clear, why selection for time required to reach maturity is much easier than selection for protein or yield. Selected protein in one location may be different from that to other locations. (author)

  4. Sample Preparation of Corn Seed Tissue to Prevent Analyte Relocations for Mass Spectrometry Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Shin Hye; Kim, Jeongkwon; Lee, Young Jin; Lee, Tae Geol; Yoon, Sohee

    2017-08-01

    Corn seed tissue sections were prepared by the tape support method using an adhesive tape, and mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) was performed. The effect of heat generated during sample preparation was investigated by time-of-flight secondary mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) imaging of corn seed tissue prepared by the tape support and the thaw-mounted methods. Unlike thaw-mounted sample preparation, the tape support method does not cause imaging distortion because of the absence of heat, which can cause migration of the analytes on the sample. By applying the tape-support method, the corn seed tissue was prepared without structural damage and MSI with accurate spatial information of analytes was successfully performed. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  5. Sample Preparation of Corn Seed Tissue to Prevent Analyte Relocations for Mass Spectrometry Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Shin Hye; Kim, Jeongkwon; Lee, Young Jin; Lee, Tae Geol; Yoon, Sohee

    2017-08-01

    Corn seed tissue sections were prepared by the tape support method using an adhesive tape, and mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) was performed. The effect of heat generated during sample preparation was investigated by time-of-flight secondary mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) imaging of corn seed tissue prepared by the tape support and the thaw-mounted methods. Unlike thaw-mounted sample preparation, the tape support method does not cause imaging distortion because of the absence of heat, which can cause migration of the analytes on the sample. By applying the tape-support method, the corn seed tissue was prepared without structural damage and MSI with accurate spatial information of analytes was successfully performed.

  6. Proteomic analysis of lettuce seed germination and thermoinhibition by sampling of individual seeds at germination and removal of storage proteins by polyethylene glycol fractionation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei-Qing; Song, Bin-Yan; Deng, Zhi-Jun; Wang, Yue; Liu, Shu-Jun; Møller, Ian Max; Song, Song-Quan

    2015-04-01

    Germination and thermoinhibition in lettuce (Lactuca sativa 'Jianyexianfeng No. 1') seeds were investigated by a proteomic comparison among dry seeds, germinated seeds at 15°C, at 15°C after imbibition at 25°C for 48 h, or at 25°C in KNO3 (all sampled individually at germination), and ungerminated seeds at 25°C, a thermoinhibitory temperature. Before two-dimensional gel electrophoresis analysis, storage proteins (greater than 50% of total extractable protein) were removed by polyethylene glycol precipitation, which significantly improved the detection of less abundant proteins on two-dimensional gels. A total of 108 protein spots were identified to change more than 2-fold (Pseeds than in ungerminated 25°C seeds. Gene expression of 12 of those proteins correlated well with the protein accumulation. Methionine metabolism, ethylene production, lipid mobilization, cell elongation, and detoxification of aldehydes were revealed to be potentially related to lettuce seed germination and thermoinhibition. Accumulation of three proteins and expression of five genes participating in the mevalonate (MVA) pathway of isoprenoid biosynthesis correlated positively with seed germinability. Inhibition of this pathway by lovastatin delayed seed germination and increased the sensitivity of germination to abscisic acid. MVA pathway-derived products, cytokinins, partially reversed the lovastatin inhibition of germination and released seed thermoinhibition at 25°C. We conclude that the MVA pathway for isoprenoid biosynthesis is involved in lettuce seed germination and thermoinhibition. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  7. Comparison of the Effects of Edible Oils: Rice Bran, Grape Seed, and Canola on Serum Lipid Profile and Paraoxonase Activity in Hyperlipidemic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Ranjbar-Zahedani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dyslipidemia is considered as one of the crucial contributors to cardio- cerebro-vascular diseases. Objectives: The present study aimed to compare the effects of Rice Barn Oil (RBO, Grape Seed Oil (GSO, and Canola Oil (CO on dyslipidemia and oxidative stress in experimentally induced hyperlipidemic rats. Materials and Methods: In the present experimental study, forty hyperlipidemic male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to 4 groups to receive RBO, GSO, or CO or Soy Bean Oil (SBO, as controls, for 4 weeks following a 3-week period of Atherogenic Diet (AD intake. Blood samples were collected at the beginning of the study, after inducing dyslipidemia, and at the end of the experimental period. Then, the data were entered into the SPSS statistical software (v. 13.0 and analyzed using paired t-test, paired sample Wilcoxon signed rank test, and Kruskal-Wallis test. Results: AD elevated lipid and/or lipoprotein profile and decreased the paraoxonase activity in the hyperlipidemic rats. The results of paired t-test revealed that RBO led to a significant improvement in serum lipoprotein profile and paraoxonase activity. Besides, a significant difference was found in the GSO group regarding all the measured parameters, except for paraoxonase activity. Moreover, CO diet showed a significant hypolipidemic effect on serum Triglyceride (TG and Total Cholesterol (TC and led to a slight improvement in Low Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol (LDL-C and High Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol (HDL-C. Conclusions: The results of the present study suggested that vegetable oils, including RBO, GSO, and CO, might improve dyslipidemia and oxidative stress in hyperlipidemic rats. Indeed, substituting saturated fatty acids with unsaturated fatty acids in rats’ diet had beneficial effects on serum lipid profile and oxidative stress. Comparison of the 3 edible oils showed that GSO had a more profound effect on decreasing hyperlipidemia.

  8. Comportamento de cultivares de arroz irrigado em relação a fungos manchadores de sementes Performance of lowland rice cultivam to seed discoloration fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaciro Soave

    1985-01-01

    , pois foram superiores ou iguais ao controle em todos os parâmetros analisados.Aiming to detect rice seed discoloration fungi, the behavior of 37 lowland rice cultivars to each of them was determined in two field trials carried out with three replications in two sites of the State of São Paulo (Tremembé and Pindamonhangaba, Brazil, in 1980/81. Seed samples were drawn from the whole yield of each experimental plot. Spotted and spotless seeds were visually separated and discolored seed (DS% and weight loss percentages (WL% calculated. From each treatment 50 spotted and 50 spotless seeds were plated separately in Petri dishes and incubated by the blotter method. The following fungi species were detected: Alternaria sp., Cephalosporium sp., Cladosportum spp., Corynespora sp., Curvularia spp., Epicoccum spp., Fusarium moniliforme, Helminthosporium oryzae, Phoma spp., Pyricularia oryzae, Rhizoctonia solani, Rhynchosporium oryzae, Trichoconiella padwickii, Trichoderma sp. e Trichothecium sp. In relation to the number of seeds infected with each fungus, highly significant statistical differences between spotted and spotless seeds were detected for H. oryzae, Phoma spp., R. oryae and T. padwickii. They were considered as causal agents of the spots. The statistical analysis of ihe data related to each parameter showed that a variable number of cultivars out performed the commercial control, as to each respective parameter studied: 32 as to DS%; 4 as to WL%; 24 as to H. oryzae; 6 as to Phoma spp.; all cultivars as to R. oryzae and 11 as to P. padwickii. The statistical analysis of all parameters in the two sites showed the cultivars PI-1291, PI-1356, PI-1377, IR-1544, P2-S1-78, L-17-72, P2-48, P2-S2 and GI-6904-6 as the best ones when compared with the commercial control IAC-899.

  9. Implementation of bio-fungicides and seed treatment in organic rice cv. KDML 105 farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thobunluepop, Pitipong

    2009-08-15

    This study was aimed to evaluate the several chemical compounds of relatively composite structure with antifungal activity from Thai local medical plants. The antifungal activity of Stemona curtisii HK. f., Stemona tuberose L., Acorus calamus L., Eugenia caryophyllus, Memmea siamensis Kost. and an eugenol active compound were studied in vitro. Four pathogenic seed borne fungi, Alternaria solani, Colletotrichum sp., Fusarium moniliforme and Rhizoctonia solani were used as target organisms. The agar overlay technique and spore inhibition techniques were applied for the determination of their essential oil and active compound antifungal activity at various concentration; 0.10, 0.25, 0.50 and 1.00% (v/v) and untreated as control (0% v/v). Eugenol active compound showed the strongest antifungal activity on all species of tested fungal species. On the other hand, the antifungal activity of those bio-fungicides was lined up into a series from strong to low, as follows: Eugenia caryophyllus > Acorus calamus Linn. > Stemona tuberosa L. > Stemona curtisii Hk.f, while Mammea siamensis Kost. could not control any fungal species. Moreover, after eugenol application, lysis of spore and inhibition of mycelium growth were detected. Microscopic analysis exhibited complete lysis of spores after 24 h at a concentration of 1.00% v/v. Moreover, at the same concentration and 96 h incubation the mycelia growth was completely inhibited.

  10. OsRACK1 Is Involved in Abscisic Acid- and H2O2-Mediated Signaling to Regulate Seed Germination in Rice (Oryza sativa, L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongping; Chen, Li; Li, Dahong; Lv, Bing; Chen, Yun; Chen, Jingui; XuejiaoYan; Liang, Jiansheng

    2014-01-01

    The receptor for activated C kinase 1 (RACK1) is one member of the most important WD repeat–containing family of proteins found in all eukaryotes and is involved in multiple signaling pathways. However, compared with the progress in the area of mammalian RACK1, our understanding of the functions and molecular mechanisms of RACK1 in the regulation of plant growth and development is still in its infancy. In the present study, we investigated the roles of rice RACK1A gene (OsRACK1A) in controlling seed germination and its molecular mechanisms by generating a series of transgenic rice lines, of which OsRACK1A was either over-expressed or under-expressed. Our results showed that OsRACK1A positively regulated seed germination and negatively regulated the responses of seed germination to both exogenous ABA and H2O2. Inhibition of ABA biosynthesis had no enhancing effect on germination, whereas inhibition of ABA catabolism significantly suppressed germination. ABA inhibition on seed germination was almost fully recovered by exogenous H2O2 treatment. Quantitative analyses showed that endogenous ABA levels were significantly higher and H2O2 levels significantly lower in OsRACK1A-down regulated transgenic lines as compared with those in wildtype or OsRACK1A-up regulated lines. Quantitative real-time PCR analyses showed that the transcript levels of OsRbohs and amylase genes, RAmy1A and RAmy3D, were significantly lower in OsRACK1A-down regulated transgenic lines. It is concluded that OsRACK1A positively regulates seed germination by controlling endogenous levels of ABA and H2O2 and their interaction. PMID:24865690

  11. seeds

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    peptidohydrolase (8.0%) from mung bean seedlings. (Baumgartner and Chrispeels, 1977), EP-HG (4.5%) from horse gram seedlings ( Rajeswari, 1997), acidic protease (15%) from germinating winged-bean seeds. (Usha and Singh, 1996) and EP-1 (1.6%) from barley seedlings and GA3-induced cysteine protease (3.38%).

  12. Proteomic Analysis of Lettuce Seed Germination and Thermoinhibition by Sampling of Individual Seeds at Germination and Removal of Storage Proteins by Polyethylene Glycol Fractionation1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Bin-Yan; Deng, Zhi-Jun; Wang, Yue; Liu, Shu-Jun; Møller, Ian Max; Song, Song-Quan

    2015-01-01

    Germination and thermoinhibition in lettuce (Lactuca sativa ‘Jianyexianfeng No. 1’) seeds were investigated by a proteomic comparison among dry seeds, germinated seeds at 15°C, at 15°C after imbibition at 25°C for 48 h, or at 25°C in KNO3 (all sampled individually at germination), and ungerminated seeds at 25°C, a thermoinhibitory temperature. Before two-dimensional gel electrophoresis analysis, storage proteins (greater than 50% of total extractable protein) were removed by polyethylene glycol precipitation, which significantly improved the detection of less abundant proteins on two-dimensional gels. A total of 108 protein spots were identified to change more than 2-fold (P lettuce seed germination and thermoinhibition. Accumulation of three proteins and expression of five genes participating in the mevalonate (MVA) pathway of isoprenoid biosynthesis correlated positively with seed germinability. Inhibition of this pathway by lovastatin delayed seed germination and increased the sensitivity of germination to abscisic acid. MVA pathway-derived products, cytokinins, partially reversed the lovastatin inhibition of germination and released seed thermoinhibition at 25°C. We conclude that the MVA pathway for isoprenoid biosynthesis is involved in lettuce seed germination and thermoinhibition. PMID:25736209

  13. Preliminary study on classification of rice and detection of paraffin in the adulterated samples by Raman spectroscopy combined with multivariate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xinwei; Zhang, Qinghua; Cong, Peisheng; Zhu, Zhongliang

    2013-10-15

    Rice has played an important role in staple food supply of over approximately one-half of the world population. In this study, Raman spectroscopy and several multivariate data analysis methods were applied for discrimination of rice samples from different districts of China. A total of 42 samples were examined. It is shown that the representative Raman spectra in each group are different according to geographical origin after baseline correction to enhance spectral features. Moreover, adulteration of rice is a serious problem for consumers. In addition to the obvious effect on producer profits, adulteration can also cause severe health and safety problems. Paraffin was added to give the rice a desirable translucent appearance and increase its marketability. Detection of paraffin in the adulterated rice samples was preliminarily investigated as well. The results showed that Raman spectroscopy data with chemometric techniques can be applied to rapid detecting rice adulteration with paraffin. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Teor de proteína e qualidade fisiológica de sementes de arroz Protein content and physiological quality of rice seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Pivotto Bortolotto

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o teor de proteína como elemento auxiliar na determinação da qualidade fisiológica de sementes de arroz, além de correlacioná-la com a emergência em campo. Foram utilizados seis lotes de sementes de arroz, sendo três lotes da cultivar IRGA 417 e três lotes da cultivar IRGA 422 CL, submetidas ao conjunto de testes, para caracterizar o potencial fisiológico dos lotes: germinação, primeira contagem de germinação, envelhecimento acelerado, frio sem terra, comprimento de plântula e massa seca de plântula. Após a determinação da qualidade inicial dos lotes foi aplicado novo conjunto de testes, composto pelo teor de proteína bruta e pelas avaliações das plântulas e plantas em campo. Conclui-se que o teor de proteína bruta é capaz de identificar diferenças entre lotes de arroz, em função da qualidade das sementes, e correlacionar-se com a emergência em campo, quando ocorre em condições desfavoráveis; portanto, trata-se de uma determinação promissora para associação aos testes convencionais a fim de avaliar o potencial fisiológico das sementes de arroz.This work aimed to evaluate the protein content as an aiding tool in the determination of the physiological quality of rice seeds, as well as to correlate the results with field emergence. Six lots of rice seeds were used, i. e., three lots were of cultivar IRGA 417 and three of IRGA 422 CL, which were submitted to a set of tests in order to measure the following physiological qualities of the lots: germination, first count germination, accelerated aging, cold test (without soil, length and dry mass of seedlings. After determining the initial quality of the lots, a new set of tests such as crude protein content and seedlings and plants evaluations in the field were carried out. It was concluded that crude protein content is capable to identify differences between rice lots with different seed quality and to correlate with field

  15. Adaptação do método contínuo de secagem para sementes de arroz Adaptation of the continuous drying method for rice seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Araujo Motta

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar a influência da adaptação do método contínuo de secagem sobre a qualidade das sementes de arroz durante o armazenamento, quatro porções de sementes, pesando cada uma 2500 kg, foram secadas em secador de fluxo contínuo Kepler Weber, modelo KW-2, utilizando diferentes temperaturas do ar, respectivamente, nas câmaras de secagem, superior e inferior: 60/40ºC; 60/50ºC; 70/50º C; 70/60ºC e um tratamento testemunha, constituído por quatro amostras submetidas à secagem estacionária em estufa regulada à temperatura constante de 32ºC. A qualidade das sementes foi avaliada através dos seguintes testes: grau de umidade, germinação, envelhecimento artificial e emergência em campo, conduzidos em quatro épocas, correspondentes aos 0, 60, 120 e 180 dias de armazenamento em condições ambientais não controladas. Os componentes do beneficiamento industrial foram determinados na primeira época de avaliação. Os resultados obtidos permitiram concluir que lotes de sementes de arroz com alta porcentagem de grãos quebrados podem apresentar elevada qualidade fisiológica; na secagem contínua adaptada, as sementes de arroz podem ser submetidas a temperaturas do ar de até 60ºC e 50ºC, respectivamente, nas câmaras superior e inferior, apesar de causar redução acentuada na porcentagem de grãos inteiros.To evaluate the effects of the adaptation of the continuous drying method on seed quality during storage, four portions of rice seeds of 2500 kg each, were dried, in a continuous flow dryer KW-2 Kepler Weber, using different temperatures in the upper and lower drying chambers: 60/40ºC; 60/50ºC; 70/50º C; 70/60ºC. As control, four samples were submitted to stationary drying in oven at 32ºC. Seed quality was evaluated through moisture content, germination, accelerated aging and field emergence tests, at the 0, 60, 120 and 180 days of storage, at room temperature. The industrial processing components were

  16. Evolution of rice and pulse varieties with improved quality through induced mutations. Part of a coordinated programme on the use of nuclear techniques for seed protein improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mia, M.M.

    1980-03-01

    Three mutant varieties, 16 hybrids of advanced generation, 6 recommended varieties and many local collections of rice in Bangladesh were screened for protein content. The 25 varieties or strains showed a variation of protein content between 8.9 - 11.7% and also wide ranges of variation in amylose content, starch-iodine-blue value and water absorption by grain. Amino acid compositions of some promising varieties were also investigated. 60 rice germplasms tested also showed a wide range of variation in protein content (6-13%) and variations of other seed characteristics. 3000 local collections showed a variation range of 5-13% protein content. Mutation breedings were carried out on chickpeas and lentils on a large scale. Dry seed was treated with 60 Co gamma ray and mutants were detected, selected, particularly for high protein content, and evaluated in M 2 -M 8 generations. Of the 10 selected mutant lines of each of the pulses, variations of various agronomic characters were observed. However, induced variation in protein content was only remarkable in chickpea. The most promising chickpea mutant showed 19% higher yield and 12% higher protein content than the mother variety, and was proposed to be released as a variety

  17. Kinetic Study of Cotton Stalk and Rice Husk Samples under an Inert and Oxy Combustion Atmospheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulamullah Mailto

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Biomass materials such as CS (Cotton Stalks and RH (Rice Husk are a renewable source of energy. As biomass resources have potential to offer a uninterpted supply of biofuels through thermal decomposition processes. Nevertheless, an appropriate understanding of reaction kinetics and thermal properties of biomasses play a vital role in designing of the commercial plants using biomass as a raw material for energy generation. The kinetic characteristics of the CS and RH samples under pure nitrogen 99.9% and pure oxygen 99.9% was performed. The temperature was raised from ambient to 900oC maintaining the heating rate of 10oC/min. CS and RH decomposition was noticed in three dissimilar regions. The kinetic characteristics such as (pre-exponential factor, the order of reaction and activation energy were calculated for both selected materials. The activation energies calculated under nitrogen environment for CS and RH was 68.77 and 72.31 kJ/mole, whereas the regression coefficient (R2 was 0.9877 and 0.9731 respectively. The activation energies under oxygen environment were higher, it was 106 and 118 kJ/mole. The regression coefficient (R2 under oxygen environment was 0.9987 and 0.99883 for above sample sequence.

  18. Optimization of process parameters for extrusion cooking of low amylose rice flour blended with seeded banana and carambola pomace for development of minerals and fiber rich breakfast cereal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borah, Anjan; Lata Mahanta, Charu; Kalita, Dipankar

    2016-01-01

    The low-amylose rice flour, seeded banana (Musa balbisiana, ABB) and carambola (Averrhoa carambola L.) pomace blends were extruded to prepare ready to eat breakfast cereal in a single-screw extruder. Response surface methodology using a central composite design was used to evaluate effect of independent variables, namely blend ratio (80:10:10 - 60:30:10 of low-amylose rice flour, seeded banana and carambola pomace), screw speed (200 - 400 rpm), barrel temperature (90 - 130 (°)C) and feed moisture content (9 - 21 g/100 g, wet basis) on product responses. Quadratic polynomial equations were also obtained by multiple regression analysis. The predicted models were adequate based on lack-of-fit test and coefficient of determination obtained. The feed moisture content had critical effect on all response variables. The compromised optimal conditions obtained by numerical integration for development of extrudates were: screw speed of 350 rpm, barrel temperature of 120 (°)C, feed moisture content of 12 g/100 g and 65:25:10 of blend ratio of feed. In the optimized condition low-amylose rice blend is found to have better physicochemical properties (water absorption index of 481.79 g/100 g; water solubility index of 44.13 g/100 g) and dietary fiber content of 21.35 g/100 g respectively. The developed breakfast cereal showed considerable amount of minerals (Mg and K) and overall acceptability was found to be 7.8.

  19. Qualidade fisiológica de sementes de arroz submetidas à radiação gama Physiological quality rice seed submitted to gamma radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Lúcia da Cruz Miranda

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos da radiação gama (Co60 na qualidade fisiológica de sementes de arroz. O estudo foi realizado em três ensaios. No primeiro ensaio, sementes de arroz foram irradiadas com doses de 0; 1; 2,5 e 5Gy e, para o segundo e o terceiro ensaio, as sementes foram submetidas a envelhecimento acelerado, antes da irradiação. No segundo ensaio, as sementes foram dividas em úmidas e secas após envelhecimento acelerado e, então, foram irradiadas nas doses 0; 1; 2,5 e 5Gy. No terceiro ensaio, as sementes foram secas após o envelhecimento acelerado e irradiadas com doses de 0, 10, 25 e 50Gy. Para avaliação dos efeitos fisiológicos da radiação gama, foram realizados teste de germinação - TG, índice de velocidade de germinação - IVG e crescimento de plantas (comprimento de parte aérea e sistema radicular e massa seca total, em todos os ensaios. Foram determinadas as atividades enzimáticas da fosfatase ácida e alfa amilase nas sementes secas, no segundo ensaio. Os resultados obtidos nos ensaios indicam que as doses de radiação gama estudadas não afetam a qualidade fisiológica das sementes de arroz.The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of the gamma radiation (Co60 on the physiological quality of rice seeds. The research was carried out through three tests; in the first test rice seeds were irradiated at dosages of 0; 1; 2.5 and 5Gy, while for the second and third tests the seeds were subjected to accelerated aging before being irradiated. For the second test the seeds were divided into wet and dry and both groups subjected to accelerated aging previous to irradiation at dosages of 0; 1; 2.5 and 5Gy. For the third test the seeds were dried after being subjected to accelerated aging, and then irradiated at dosages of 0, 10, 25 and 50Gy. To assess the physiological effects of the gamma radiation, all seeds were tested for germination and their germination speed index recorded

  20. Aplicação de zinco em sementes de arroz irrigado e no solo / Application of zinc on rice seeds and on the soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diniz Frouza

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação do Departamento de Fitotecnia, na Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, com o objetivo de avaliar a eficiência da aplicação de zinco nas sementes da cultivar de arroz irrigado BRIRGA 410 e em sete amostras de solo, sobre altura de planta, número de afilhos e de panículas, massa fresca e seca da parte aérea e teor de zinco na massa seca da parte aérea das plantas de arroz. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi um bifatorial 4 x 7 em blocos ao acaso, com três repetições. Utilizou-se vaso de latão pintado, revestido com saco plástico, com 3,0 kg de cada solo. Os tratamentos com zinco constaram da aplicação na semente (100 g ha-1 Zn tendo como fonte ZnSO4.7H2O (22,73% de Zn, no solo (5,0 kg ha-1 Zn sendo a fonte Zincodur® (28% de Zn, as duas formas de aplicação combinadas e a testemunha sem zinco. Os resultados evidenciaram que não houve diferença estatística significativa nos tratamentos com zinco aplicado em três classes de solo e no tratamento de semente, sobre o crescimento das plantas, com exceção da variável teor de zinco na massa seca da parte aérea que foi superior para os tratamentos com zinco no solo e na semente + solo. O solo Vacacaí (PLANOSOLO HIDROMÓRFICO Eutrófico arênico, originário de São Gabriel (RS, destacou-se dentre os demais nas variáveis de números de afilhos, massa fresca e seca da parte aérea e teor de zinco na massa seca da parte aérea, pelo fato de apresentar originariamente teor mais elevado de zinco.AbstractThis experiment was conducted in the greenhouse of the Department of Plant Science, at the Federal University of Santa Maria, to evaluate the efficiency of application of zinc on the seeds of irrigated rice cultivar BR- IRGA 410 and on seven soil samples. Plant height, number of tillers, and panicle, fresh and dry shoot and zinc content in dry mass of shoots were evaluated. The experimental design used was a factorial 4 x 7 in

  1. Seed germination from lowland tapir (Tapirus terrestris) fecal samples collected during the dry season in the Northern Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcelos, Adriana Renata; Bobrowiec, Paulo Estefano D; Sanaiotti, Tânia Margarete; Gribel, Rogério

    2013-03-01

    This study evaluated the potential of lowland tapirs as seed dispersers in the northern Brazilian Amazon. The study analyzed the viability of seeds after passage through the gut. Fecal samples were collected from 6 different vegetation physiognomies in Viruá National Park during the dry season. The samples were then kept in a greenhouse for 16 months to allow the seeds to germinate. The seedling species were identified and classified according to the type of fruit, plant habit, seed size and type of ingestion. Of the 111 fecal samples, 94 (84.7%) had viable seeds of 75 species. Melastomataceae was the most frequent family with viable seeds in the fecal samples (69.1% of samples, N= 18 species). The data suggest that the importance of the lowland tapirs as dispersers is not restricted to the species consumed actively by frugivory but also extends to species accidentally consumed during browsing. The occurrence of both large and small viable seeds in the fecal samples as well as a number of large drupes, which probably cannot be transported via endozoochory by any other animal species, provide evidence of the ecological importance of lowland tapirs to the dynamics of the forest-campinarana vegetation mosaic in the region. © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd, ISZS and IOZ/CAS.

  2. The Improvement of Atomita-4 Rice Variety Through Gamma Rays Irradiation of F1 Seeds from Atomita-4/Ir-64 Crossing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lilik Harsanti; Mugiono

    2004-01-01

    Atom ita-4 rice variety was crossed with IR-64 variety in the greenhouse at the Center for Application of Isotopes and Radiation-Batan, Pasar jumat in the wet season of 1994/1995. F 1 Seeds derived from Atomita-4/IR-64 crossing were irradiated by gamma rays at of 0.2 kGy dose. F 1 seeds were grown to obtain F 2 M 2 seed, and then selection of pedigree were carried out at F 2 generation. Six mutants lines were obtained purified and screened on biotypes 1, 2 and 3 brown plant hopper and bacterial leaf blight resistance by IRRI standard screening methods. The six mutant lines were tested for their potential yield at Pusakanegara and then continued tested in yield multi location test at several locations in Indonesia. Results of the screening test to brown plant hopper showed that two mutant lines Obs-1653/PsJ and Obs-1656/PsJ were resistant to biotype 1, biotype 2 and medium resistant to biotype 3. Obs-1653/PsJ and Obs-1656/PsJ also showed resistance to bacterial leaf blight strain 3 and medium resistance to strain 4. Results in the yield multi location test showed that Obs-1653/PsJ and Obs-1656/PsJ have highest yielding potential compared to IR-64 and Memberamo varieties. Those two mutant lines were released as new varieties under the name Merauke and Kahayan in 2001 and 2003 respectively. (author)

  3. Studies on the rice seed (Oryza sativa) sensitivity to gama radiation, neutrons di-enthyl sulphate (DES) and sodium azide (SA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guimaraes, E.P.

    1978-04-01

    Dry rice seeds of 'Dourado Precoce' variety were treated with gama-rays, thermal and fast neutrons, di-ethyl sulphate (DES) and sodium azide (SA). Biologial effects on survival, seedling height, plant fertility and chlorophy 11 mutation frequency were studied in the M 1 generation. The data obtained were analysed by 'independent test'. Survival was not affected by increased gama ray dosage, but by increased DES and SA dosages, as well as by SA treatments with increased solution acidity for seeds pretreated in distilled water. Seedling height was decreased with the increase of gama-ray dosage, DES concentration. SA acidity and concentration. Plant fertility was reduced drastically with higher gama-ray and neutron dosages and with high SA acidity and concentrations. The maximum chlorophy 11 mutation frequency was obtained in the SA treatment. Seeds pretreated with distilled water showed larger physiological damages in the SA treatments and higher mutation frequencies. Regarding chlorophyll mutation frequency, thermal neutrons were more efficient than gama-rays. SA was the most efficient mutagen used . DES showed lower physiological damages in the M 1 plants, but did not induce mutations in the used conditions [pt

  4. Analysis of rice purchase decision on rice consumer in Bandung city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusno, K.; Imannurdin, A.; Syamsiyah, N.; Djuwendah, E.

    2018-03-01

    This study was conducted at three kinds of purchase location which were traditional market, rice kiosk, and supermarket in Bandung City, with survey data of 108 respondents which were selected by systematic random sampling. The aim of this study is to (1) identify consumer characteristics, (2) identify which atribute is considered by consumer in buying rice, and (3) analyze the relationship between purchase decision and income class. Data were analyzed by descriptive analysis and Chi Square test. The results showed most consumers in the traditional market were middle-educated and lower middle-income, at the rice kiosk, the consumer were generally middle-educated and middle-income, and in the supermarkets, the majority were high-educated and upper middle-income consumers. “Kepulenan” be the first priority of most consumers, but for the lower-middle class, the main priority was price. Thus, in case of scarcity and rice price increase, the government should immediately arrange market operations which targeting to lower-middle class consumers. There was a significant relationship between (1) the quality of rice consumed, (2) the frequency of rice purchase per month, and (3) attitudes toward rice price increase; each with the income class. Although the price of rice increase, consumers of middle and upper-middle were remain loyal to the quality of rice they consumed. This indicates rice market in Bandung city is an ideal market for premium rice so that traders and producers are expected to maintain the quality of rice, such as keep using superior seeds and applying good cultivation based on Good Agricultural Practice (GAP) rules.

  5. Herbicide options for effective weed management in dry direct-seeded rice under scented rice-wheat rotation of western Indo-Gangetic Plains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vijay; Jat, Mangi L; Ganie, Zahoor A; Chauhan, Bhagirath S; Gupta, Raj K

    2016-03-01

    Farmers' participatory field trials were conducted at Madhuban, and Taraori, the two participatory experimental sites/locations of the Cereal Systems Initiative for South Asia (CSISA), a collaborative project of IRRI and CIMMYT in Karnal district of Haryana, India, during Kharif (wet season) 2010 and 2011. This research aimed to evaluate preemergence (PRE) and postemergence (POST) herbicides for providing feasible and economically viable weed management options to farmers for predominant scented rice varieties. Treatments with pendimethalin PRE fb bispyribac-sodium + azimsulfuron POST had lower weed biomass at 45 days after sowing (DAS). At Madhuban, highest grain yield of scented basmati rice (3.43 t ha -1 ) was recorded with the sequential application of pendimethalin PRE fb bispyribac-sodium + azimsulfuron POST. However, at Taraori, yields were similar with pendimethalin or oxadiargyl PRE fb bispyribac-sodium and/or azimsulfuron POST. Applying oxadiargyl by mixing with sand onto flooded field was less effective than spray applications in non-flooded field. The benefit-cost ratio of rice crop was higher with herbicide treatments at both sites as compared with the non-treated weed-free check except single PRE and POST applications and sequential application of oxadiargyl PRE fb oxadiargyl PRE. In a separate experiment conducted at Nagla and Taraori sites, scented rice cultivars' ('CSR 30' and 'Pusa 1121') tolerance to three rates of azimsulfuron (15, 25, and 35 g ai ha -1 ) was evaluated over two years (2010 and 2011). CSR 30 (superfine, scented) was more sensitive to higher rates (35 g ai ha -1 ) of azimsulfuron as compared to Pusa 1121 (fine, scented). Crop injuries were 8 and 28% in case of CSR 30; 5 and 15% in Pusa 1121 when applied with azimsulfuron 25 and 35 g ai ha -1 , respectively. Azimsulfuron applied at 35 g ai ha -1 reduced yield in both cultivars but in CSR 30 yield reduction was twofold (11.5%) as that of Pusa 1121 (5.2%).

  6. Herbicide options for effective weed management in dry direct-seeded rice under scented rice-wheat rotation of western Indo-Gangetic Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vijay; Jat, Mangi L.; Ganie, Zahoor A.; Chauhan, Bhagirath S.; Gupta, Raj K.

    2016-01-01

    Farmers' participatory field trials were conducted at Madhuban, and Taraori, the two participatory experimental sites/locations of the Cereal Systems Initiative for South Asia (CSISA), a collaborative project of IRRI and CIMMYT in Karnal district of Haryana, India, during Kharif (wet season) 2010 and 2011. This research aimed to evaluate preemergence (PRE) and postemergence (POST) herbicides for providing feasible and economically viable weed management options to farmers for predominant scented rice varieties. Treatments with pendimethalin PRE fb bispyribac-sodium + azimsulfuron POST had lower weed biomass at 45 days after sowing (DAS). At Madhuban, highest grain yield of scented basmati rice (3.43 t ha−1) was recorded with the sequential application of pendimethalin PRE fb bispyribac-sodium + azimsulfuron POST. However, at Taraori, yields were similar with pendimethalin or oxadiargyl PRE fb bispyribac-sodium and/or azimsulfuron POST. Applying oxadiargyl by mixing with sand onto flooded field was less effective than spray applications in non-flooded field. The benefit-cost ratio of rice crop was higher with herbicide treatments at both sites as compared with the non-treated weed-free check except single PRE and POST applications and sequential application of oxadiargyl PRE fb oxadiargyl PRE. In a separate experiment conducted at Nagla and Taraori sites, scented rice cultivars' ('CSR 30′ and 'Pusa 1121′) tolerance to three rates of azimsulfuron (15, 25, and 35 g ai ha−1) was evaluated over two years (2010 and 2011). CSR 30 (superfine, scented) was more sensitive to higher rates (35 g ai ha−1) of azimsulfuron as compared to Pusa 1121 (fine, scented). Crop injuries were 8 and 28% in case of CSR 30; 5 and 15% in Pusa 1121 when applied with azimsulfuron 25 and 35 g ai ha−1, respectively. Azimsulfuron applied at 35 g ai ha−1 reduced yield in both cultivars but in CSR 30 yield reduction was twofold (11.5%) as that of Pusa 1121 (5.2%). PMID

  7. Microdochium nivale and Microdochium majus in seed samples of Danish small grain cereals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, L. K.; Justesen, A. F.; Jensen, J. D.

    2013-01-01

    Microdochium nivale and Microdochium majus are two of fungal species found in the Fusarium Head Blight (FHB) complex infecting small grain cereals. Quantitative real-time PCR assays were designed to separate the two Microdochium species based on the translation elongation factor 1a gene (TEF-1a......) and used to analyse a total of 374 seed samples of wheat, barley, triticale, rye and oat sampled from farmers’ fields across Denmark from 2003 to 2007. Both fungal species were detected in the five cereal species but M. majus showed a higher prevalence compared to M. nivale in most years in all cereal...... species except rye, in which M. nivale represented a larger proportion of the biomass and was more prevalent than M. majus in some samples. Historical samples of wheat and barley from 1957 to 2000 similarly showed a strong prevalence of M. majus over M. nivale indicating that M. majus has been the main...

  8. A simple and rapid method for the determination of iodine in rice samples by radiochemical neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takagi, Hiroyuki; Kimura, Toshimasa; Iwashima, Kiyoshi; Yamagata, Noboru.

    1983-01-01

    A simple and rapid method has been developed for the determination of iodine in rice samples by radiochemical neutron activation analysis. Irradiated rice powder was decomposed together with an iodide carrier solution containing I-131 on heating in a sodium hypochlorite solution. After decomposition, the solution was acidified with hydrochloric acid, and the insoluble residue was filtered off. To the filtrate sodium sulfite solution and palladium chloride solution were added, and the precipitate of palladium iodide was separated with a glass fiber filter paper. Iodine contents of rice were calculated from the peak areas under the 443 keV γ-ray of I-128 in the precipitate and comparative stand ard. Corrections for the chemical recovery were applied to them by means of the areas under the 365 keV γ-ray of I-131. This method was applied to the certified refe rece materials, IAEA wheat flour RM-V-5 and NBS orchard leaves SRM 1571. The results were in good agreement with the recommended values. Iodine contents of rice samples of two different origins in Japan were found to be of the order of 10 0 ng g -1 (dry weight base). The recovery of iodine in this procedure was about 80%. Decontamination factors for Mn, Cl, Na, and Br in the final fraction were 7 x 10 3 , 2 x 10 4 , 3 x 10 4 , and 2 x 10 2 , respectively. The time required for the chemical procedure was about 15 min, and the limit of determination was 0.7 ng of iodine in a sample of 1 g. (author)

  9. Mutation in Rice Abscisic Acid2 Results in Cell Death, Enhanced Disease-Resistance, Altered Seed Dormancy and Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongxiang Liao

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Lesion mimic mutants display spontaneous cell death, and thus are valuable for understanding the molecular mechanism of cell death and disease resistance. Although a lot of such mutants have been characterized in rice, the relationship between lesion formation and abscisic acid (ABA synthesis pathway is not reported. In the present study, we identified a rice mutant, lesion mimic mutant 9150 (lmm9150, exhibiting spontaneous cell death, pre-harvest sprouting, enhanced growth, and resistance to rice bacterial and blast diseases. Cell death in the mutant was accompanied with excessive accumulation of H2O2. Enhanced disease resistance was associated with cell death and upregulation of defense-related genes. Map-based cloning identified a G-to-A point mutation resulting in a D-to-N substitution at the amino acid position 110 of OsABA2 (LOC_Os03g59610 in lmm9150. Knock-out of OsABA2 through CRISPR/Cas9 led to phenotypes similar to those of lmm9150. Consistent with the function of OsABA2 in ABA biosynthesis, ABA level in the lmm9150 mutant was significantly reduced. Moreover, exogenous application of ABA could rescue all the mutant phenotypes of lmm9150. Taken together, our data linked ABA deficiency to cell death and provided insight into the role of ABA in rice disease resistance.

  10. Mutation in Rice Abscisic Acid2 Results in Cell Death, Enhanced Disease-Resistance, Altered Seed Dormancy and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yongxiang; Bai, Que; Xu, Peizhou; Wu, Tingkai; Guo, Daiming; Peng, Yongbin; Zhang, Hongyu; Deng, Xiaoshu; Chen, Xiaoqiong; Luo, Ming; Ali, Asif; Wang, Wenming; Wu, Xianjun

    2018-01-01

    Lesion mimic mutants display spontaneous cell death, and thus are valuable for understanding the molecular mechanism of cell death and disease resistance. Although a lot of such mutants have been characterized in rice, the relationship between lesion formation and abscisic acid (ABA) synthesis pathway is not reported. In the present study, we identified a rice mutant, lesion mimic mutant 9150 ( lmm9150 ), exhibiting spontaneous cell death, pre-harvest sprouting, enhanced growth, and resistance to rice bacterial and blast diseases. Cell death in the mutant was accompanied with excessive accumulation of H 2 O 2 . Enhanced disease resistance was associated with cell death and upregulation of defense-related genes. Map-based cloning identified a G-to-A point mutation resulting in a D-to-N substitution at the amino acid position 110 of OsABA2 (LOC_Os03g59610) in lmm9150 . Knock-out of OsABA2 through CRISPR/Cas9 led to phenotypes similar to those of lmm9150 . Consistent with the function of OsABA2 in ABA biosynthesis, ABA level in the lmm9150 mutant was significantly reduced. Moreover, exogenous application of ABA could rescue all the mutant phenotypes of lmm9150 . Taken together, our data linked ABA deficiency to cell death and provided insight into the role of ABA in rice disease resistance.

  11. Molecular detection of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola, and Burkholderia glumae in infected rice seeds and leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is particularly useful for plant pathogen detection. In the present study, multiplex PCR and SYBR green real-time PCR were developed to facilitate simultaneous detection of three important rice pathogens, Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, X. oryzae pv. oryzicola, and Bur...

  12. Allelopathic Effect of Echinochloa colona L. and Cyperus iria L. Weed Extracts on the Seed Germination and Seedling Growth of Rice and Soyabean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Chopra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to assess the allelopathic effect of Echinochloa colona L. and Cyperus iria L. in relation to the germination and primary growth of Oryza sativa L. (rice and Glycine max L. (soyabean. Effects of dichloromethane (DCM and double distilled water soluble (DDW fractions of E. colona L. and C. iria L. root and aerial part extracts reduced germination and suppressed early seedling growth of rice and soyabean. With increase in extract concentration from 1 to 100 mg/mL, a gradual decrease in seed germination and seedling length occurred. The highest growth of G. max seedling was recorded in DDW fraction of E. colona aerial part extract at 1 mg/mL concentration with 94% germination and the lowest length was found in DCM fraction of C. iria root extract at 100 mg/mL concentration with 65% germination. In O. sativa, the highest length was noted at 1 mg/mL concentration in DDW fraction of E. colona aerial part extract with 82% germination and the lowest length was found in DCM fraction of C. iria and E. colona root extracts with germination 57% and 62%, respectively, at 100 mg/mL concentration. The results suggested that these weeds had good allelopathic potential which reduces germination and plant growth.

  13. Accumulation of total mercury and methylmercury in rice plants collected from different mining areas in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng, Mei; Li, Bing; Shao, Jun-juan; Wang, Thanh; He, Bin; Shi, Jian-bo; Ye, Zhi-hong; Jiang, Gui-bin

    2014-01-01

    A total of 155 rice plants were collected from ten mining areas in three provinces of China (Hunan, Guizhou and Guangdong), where most of mercury (Hg) mining takes place in China. During the harvest season, whole rice plants were sampled and divided into root, stalk and leaf, husk and seed (brown rice), together with soil from root zone. Although the degree of Hg contamination varied significantly among different mining areas, rice seed showed the highest ability for methylmercury (MeHg) accumulation. Both concentrations of total mercury (THg) and MeHg in rice plants were significantly correlated with Hg levels in soil, indicating soil is still an important source for both inorganic mercury (IHg) and MeHg in rice plants. The obvious discrepancy between the distribution patterns of THg and MeHg reflected different pathways of IHg and MeHg accumulation. Water soluble Hg may play more important role in MeHg accumulation in rice plants. -- Highlights: • Distribution patterns indicated different pathways of IHg and MeHg accumulation. • Soil is an important source for both THg and MeHg to rice plants. • Water soluble Hg may play more important role in MeHg accumulation in rice plants. -- The distribution patterns indicate different pathways of IHg and MeHg accumulation in rice plants

  14. Elemental analysis of different varieties of rice samples using XRF technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaur, Jaspreet, E-mail: gillpreet05051812@gmail.com; Kumar, Anil, E-mail: gilljaspreet06@gmail.com [Department of Basic and Applied Physics, Punjabi University, Patiala 147002 (India)

    2016-05-06

    Rice is most consumed staple food in the world providing over 21% of the calorie intake of world’s population having high yielding capacity. Elements detected in rice are Al, As, Br, Cd, Cl, Co, Cs, Cu, Fe, Hg, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Rb, Se and Zn by using Instrumental Neutron Activation with k0 standardization (R. Jayasekera etal,2004). Some of these trace elements are C, H, O, N, S, Ca, P, K, Na, Cl, Mn, Ti, Mg, Cu, Fe, Ni, Si and Zn are essential for growth of human physique The deficiency or excess of these elements in food is known to cause a variety of malnutrition or health disorders in the world. Every year, various varieties of rice are launched by Punjab Agriculture University, Ludhiana. The main purpose of which is to increases the yield to attain the maximum profit. But this leads to changing the elemental concentration in them, which may affect the human health according to variation in the nutrition values. The main objective is to study the presence of elemental concentration in various varieties of rice using EDXRF technique.

  15. Elemental analysis of different varieties of rice samples using XRF technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaur, Jaspreet; Kumar, Anil

    2016-01-01

    Rice is most consumed staple food in the world providing over 21% of the calorie intake of world’s population having high yielding capacity. Elements detected in rice are Al, As, Br, Cd, Cl, Co, Cs, Cu, Fe, Hg, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Rb, Se and Zn by using Instrumental Neutron Activation with k0 standardization (R. Jayasekera etal,2004). Some of these trace elements are C, H, O, N, S, Ca, P, K, Na, Cl, Mn, Ti, Mg, Cu, Fe, Ni, Si and Zn are essential for growth of human physique The deficiency or excess of these elements in food is known to cause a variety of malnutrition or health disorders in the world. Every year, various varieties of rice are launched by Punjab Agriculture University, Ludhiana. The main purpose of which is to increases the yield to attain the maximum profit. But this leads to changing the elemental concentration in them, which may affect the human health according to variation in the nutrition values. The main objective is to study the presence of elemental concentration in various varieties of rice using EDXRF technique.

  16. Deficiencies in both starch synthase IIIa and branching enzyme IIb lead to a significant increase in amylose in SSIIa-inactive japonica rice seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asai, Hiroki; Abe, Natsuko; Matsushima, Ryo; Crofts, Naoko; Oitome, Naoko F; Nakamura, Yasunori; Fujita, Naoko

    2014-10-01

    Starch synthase (SS) IIIa has the second highest activity of the total soluble SS activity in developing rice endosperm. Branching enzyme (BE) IIb is the major BE isozyme, and is strongly expressed in developing rice endosperm. A mutant (ss3a/be2b) was generated from wild-type japonica rice which lacks SSIIa activity. The seed weight of ss3a/be2b was 74-94% of that of the wild type, whereas the be2b seed weight was 59-73% of that of the wild type. There were significantly fewer amylopectin short chains [degree of polymerization (DP) ≤13] in ss3a/be2b compared with the wild type. In contrast, the amount of long chains (DP ≥25) connecting clusters of amylopectin in ss3a/be2b was higher than in the wild type and lower than in be2b. The apparent amylose content of ss3a/be2b was 45%, which was >1.5 times greater than that of either ss3a or be2b. Both SSIIIa and BEIIb deficiencies led to higher activity of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase) and granule-bound starch synthase I (GBSSI), which partly explains the high amylose content in the ss3a/be2b endosperm. The percentage apparent amylose content of ss3a and ss3a/be2b at 10 days after flowering (DAF) was higher than that of the wild type and be2b. At 20 DAF, amylopectin biosynthesis in be2b and ss3a/be2b was not observed, whereas amylose biosynthesis in these lines was accelerated at 30 DAF. These data suggest that the high amylose content in the ss3a/be2b mutant results from higher amylose biosynthesis at two stages, up to 20 DAF and from 30 DAF to maturity. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  17. Phosphorus Use Efficiency by Brazilian Upland Rice Genotypes Evaluated by the {sup 32}P Dilution Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franzini, V. I.; Mendes, F. L. [Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation, EMBRAPA-Amazonia Oriental, Belem, PA (Brazil); Muraoka, T.; Da Silva, E. C. [Center for Nuclear Energy in Agriculture, University of Sao Paulo, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Adu-Gyamfi, J. J. [Soil and Water Management and Crop Nutrition Laboratory, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    2013-11-15

    The objectives of this work were to identify the most efficient upland rice genotypes in phosphorus (P) utilization, and to verify if P from the seed affects the classification of upland rice genotypes on P uptake efficiency. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse of the Center for Nuclear Energy in Agriculture (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, Sao Paulo, Brazil, using the {sup 32}P isotope technique, and plants were grown in pots with samples of dystrophic Typic Haplustox (Oxisol). The experimental design was completely randomized with four replications. The treatments consisted of 47 upland rice genotypes and two standard plant species, efficient or inefficient in P uptake. The results were assessed through correlation and cluster analysis (multivariate). The Carisma upland rice genotype was the most efficient in P uptake, and Caripuna was the most efficient on P utilization. The P derived from seed does not influence the identification of upland rice genotypes in P uptake efficiency. (author)

  18. Including Online-Recruited Seeds: A Respondent-Driven Sample of Men Who Have Sex With Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachowsky, Nathan John; Lal, Allan; Forrest, Jamie I; Card, Kiffer George; Cui, Zishan; Sereda, Paul; Rich, Ashleigh; Raymond, Henry Fisher; Roth, Eric A; Moore, David M; Hogg, Robert S

    2016-03-15

    Technology has changed the way men who have sex with men (MSM) seek sex and socialize, which may impact the implementation of respondent-driven sampling (RDS) among this population. Initial participants (also known as seeds) are a critical consideration in RDS because they begin the recruitment chains. However, little information is available on how the online-recruited seeds may effect RDS implementation. The objectives of this study were to compare (1) online-recruited versus offline-recruited seeds and (2) subsequent recruitment chains of online-recruited versus offline-recruited seeds. Between 2012 and 2014, we recruited MSM using RDS in Vancouver, Canada. RDS weights were used with logistic regression to address each objective. A total of 119 seeds were used, 85 of whom were online-recruited seeds, to recruit an additional 600 MSM. Compared with offline-recruited seeds, online-recruited seeds were less likely to be HIV-positive (OR 0.34, 95% CI 0.13-0.88), to have attended a gay community group (AOR 0.33, 95% CI 0.12-0.90), and to feel gay community involvement was "very important" (AOR 0.16, 95% CI 0.03-0.93). Online-recruited seeds were more likely to ask a sexual partner's HIV status always versus online (AOR 4.29, 95% CI 1.53-12-12.05). Further, compared with recruitment chains started by offline-recruited seeds, recruits from chains started by online-recruited seeds (283/600, 47.2%) were less likely to be HIV-positive (AOR 0.25, 95% CI 0.16-0.40), to report "versatile" versus "bottom" sexual position preference (AOR 0.56, 95% CI 0.35-0.88), and to be in a relationship lasting >1 year (AOR 1.65, 95% CI 1.06-2.56). Recruits of online seeds were more likely to be out as gay for longer (eg, 11-21 vs 1-4 years, AOR 2.22, 95% CI 1.27-3.88) and have fewer Facebook friends (eg, 201-500 vs >500, AOR 1.69, 95% CI 1.02-2.80). Online-recruited seeds were more prevalent, recruited fewer participants, but were different from those recruited offline. This may therefore

  19. Mineralization of nitrogen from nitrogen-15 labeled crop residues and utilization by rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norman, R.J.; Gilmour, J.T.; Wells, B.R.

    1990-01-01

    The availability of N from the residues of the previous crop to the subsequent rice (Oryza sativa L.) crop is largely unknown. The objectives of this study were to (1) measure the mineralization of N from 15 N-labeled rice, soybean (Glycine max L.), and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) residues and the uptake by a subsequent rice crop; and (2) compare the 15 N tracer method with the standard fertilizer-N response method used in field studies to quantify the N contribution from the crop residue to the next crop. Nitrogen mineralization from decomposing crop residues was measured by soil sampling prior to seeding the rice crop and after seeding by plant sampling the rice at maturity. The minimum estimate of the amount of residue N mineralized from the time of residue incorporation until rice harvest was 9, 52, and 38% of the rice, soybean, and wheat residue N, respectively. The amount of residue N recovered in the rice crop was 3, 11, and 37% of the rice, soybean, and wheat residue N, respectively. The lower the C/N ratio and the higher the amount of N in the residue, the lower was the amount of residue N recovered in the soil organic fraction at harvest and the higher was the amount of residue N mineralized. The 15 N tracer method compared favorably with the fertilizer N response method when the uptake efficiency of the fertilizer N was taken into account

  20. Semi-selective medium for Fusarium graminearum detection in seed samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marivane Segalin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Fungi of the genus Fusarium cause a variety of difficult to control diseases in different crops, including winter cereals and maize. Among the species of this genus Fusarium graminearum deserves attention. The aim of this work was to develop a semi-selective medium to study this fungus. In several experiments, substrates for fungal growth were tested, including fungicides and antibiotics such as iprodiona, nystatin and triadimenol, and the antibacterial agents streptomycin and neomycin sulfate. Five seed samples of wheat, barley, oat, black beans and soybeans for F. graminearum detection by using the media Nash and Snyder agar (NSA, Segalin & Reis agar (SRA and one-quarter dextrose agar (1/4PDA; potato 50g; dextrose 5g and agar 20g, either unsupplemented or supplemented with various concentrations of the antimicrobial agents cited above. The selected components and concentrations (g.L-1 of the proposed medium, Segalin & Reis agar (SRA-FG, were: iprodiona 0.05; nystatin 0,025; triadimenol 0.015; neomycin sulfate 0.05; and streptomycin sulfate, 0.3 added of ¼ potato sucrose agar. In the isolation from seeds of cited plant species, the sensitivity of this medium was similar to that of NSA but with de advantage of maintaining the colony morphological aspects similar to those observed in potato-dextrose-agar medium.

  1. Use of seed protein polymorphism for discrimination of improvement level and geographic origin of upland rice cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Montalván

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Grain proteins from 58 Brazilian and nine Japanese upland rice cultivars (Oryza sativa L. were electrophoretically separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE. Densitometric scanning of the electrophoretic profiles permitted the estimation of the relative concentration of 16 protein fractions, which were used as variables for the calculation of Fisher's canonical discriminating functions. Significant differences between mean values of protein fractions were useful in distinguishing Brazilian and Japanese cultivars, as well as improved and non-improved Brazilian rice cultivars in scattered plots. Electrophoretically detectable protein polymorphism in rice grain can indicate geographic origin as well as breeding improvement level of a cultivar. Improved cultivars were those released by plant breeding institutes.Proteínas de grão de 58 genótipos de arroz brasileiro e nove japoneses foram separadas por meio de eletroforese (SDS-PAGE. A observação densitométrica dos perfis eletroforéticos permitiu avaliar as concentrações relativas de 16 frações protéicas que foram usadas como variáveis para a estimativa de funções discriminantes de Fisher. Diferenças significantes foram encontradas entre as frações protéicas dos grupos brasileiros e japoneses, assim como entre os genótipos melhorados e não melhorados. O polimorfismo protéico detectável eletroforetica-mente nos grãos de arroz pode indicar a origem geográfica e o nível de melhoramento dos cultivares.

  2. Fungal disease prevention in seedlings of rice (Oryza sativa) and other grasses by growth-promoting seed-associated endophytic bacteria from invasive Phragmites australis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Satish K.; Kingsley, Kathryn L.; Bergen, Marshall S.; Kowalski, Kurt P.; White, James F.

    2018-01-01

    Non-cultivated plants carry microbial endophytes that may be used to enhance development and disease resistance of crop species where growth-promoting and protective microbes may have been lost. During seedling establishment, seedlings may be infected by several fungal pathogens that are seed or soil borne. Several species of Fusarium, Pythium and other water moulds cause seed rots during germination. Fusariumblights of seedlings are also very common and significantly affect seedling development. In the present study we screened nine endophytic bacteria isolated from the seeds of invasive Phragmites australis by inoculating onto rice, Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon), or annual bluegrass (Poa annua) seeds to evaluate plant growth promotion and protection from disease caused by Fusarium oxysporum. We found that three bacteria belonging to genus Pseudomonas spp. (SLB4-P. fluorescens, SLB6-Pseudomonas sp. and SY1-Pseudomonassp.) promoted seedling development, including enhancement of root and shoot growth, and stimulation of root hair formation. These bacteria were also found to increase phosphate solubilization in in vitro experiments. Pseudomonas sp. (SY1) significantly protected grass seedlings from Fusarium infection. In co-culture experiments, strain SY1 strongly inhibited fungal pathogens with 85.71% growth inhibition of F. oxysporum, 86.33% growth inhibition of Curvularia sp. and 82.14% growth inhibition of Alternaria sp. Seedlings previously treated with bacteria were found much less infected by F. oxysporum in comparison to non-treated controls. On microscopic observation we found that bacteria appeared to degrade fungal mycelia actively. Metabolite products of strain SY1 in agar were also found to inhibit fungal growth on nutrient media. Pseudomonas sp. (SY1) was found to produce antifungal volatiles. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification using specific primers for pyrrolnitirin synthesis and HCN (hydrogen cyanide) production

  3. Impact of Improved Rice Variety on Productivity Among Smallholder Farmers in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Tsinigo

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Advancement in agricultural technologies is seen to result in the shift in production functions. The study was conducted to establish the impact of the improved rice variety on productivity in the Ejura-Sekyedumase and Atebubu-Amantin Municipalities of Ghana. The study was based on the survey of 208 rice farmers using a three-stage stratified sampling method. The study used a structured questionnaire to collect input-output data from the rice farmers. Data were analysed using the Cobb-Douglas production function. The study found that the technical change associated with the introduction of the improved rice variety was of the non-neutral type. Further, the adoption of the improved rice variety has increased rice productivity by about 46% for the adopters. The main determinants of productivity for the adopters were seed, land, fertiliser, herbicide, and education. Productivity among the non-adopters was positively influenced by seed, land, herbicide, and fertiliser. The study concluded that the improved rice variety has superior yield advantage. The study recommends for the simultaneous promotion of improved rice varieties and their recommended inputs to increase rice productivity.

  4. Determination of Mycotoxins in Brown Rice Using QuEChERS Sample Preparation and UHPLC–MS-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jettanajit, Adisorn; Nhujak, Thumnoon

    2016-01-01

    QuEChERS sample preparation was optimized and validated using solvent extraction with 10% (v/v) acetic acid-containing acetonitrile in the presence of four salts (anh. MgSO4, NaCl, sodium citrate tribasic dihydrate and sodium citrate dibasic sesquihydrate) and dispersive solid-phase extraction with mixed sorbents (octadecylsilane, primary and secondary amine and silica sorbents) for an ultra high performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometric determination of nine mycotoxins in brown rice: aflatoxins (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2), fumonisins (FB1 and FB2), deoxynivalenol, ochratoxin A and zearalenone (ZON). Our developed method allows for the determination of trace levels of mycotoxins with method detection limits in the range of 1.4–25 µg/kg, below the maximum limits of EU regulations, and with an acceptable accuracy and precision, and recoveries in the range of 81–101% with relative standard deviations of 5–19% over a mycotoxin concentration range of 5.0–1,000 µg/kg. Six out of fourteen real samples of brown rice were found to be contaminated with at least one of these mycotoxins, ranging from 2.49–5.41 µg/kg of FB1, 4.33 ± 0.04 µg/kg of FB2 and 6.10–14.88 µg/kg of ZON. PMID:26796964

  5. Seasonal CH4 and N2O emissions and plant growth characteristics of several cultivars in direct seeded rice systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmonds, M.; Anders, M. M.; Adviento-Borbe, M. A.; Van Kessel, C.; McClung, A.; Linquist, B.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding cultivar effects on field greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in rice (Oryza sativa L.) systems is needed to improve the accuracy of predictive models used for estimating GHG emissions, and to determine to what extent choice of cultivar may have on GHG mitigation. We compared CH4 and N2O emissions, global warming potential (GWP = N2O + CH4), yield-scaled GWP (GWPY = GWP Mg-1 grain), and plant growth characteristics of 8 cultivars within 4 study sites in California and Arkansas. Seasonal CH4 emissions differed between cultivars by a factor of 2.1 and 1.3 at one California and one Arkansas site, respectively. Nitrous oxide emissions were negligible, comprised food security.

  6. Mesquite seed density in fecal samples of Raramuri Criollo vs. Angus x Hereford cows grazing Chihuahuan Desert Rangeland

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was part of a larger project investigating breed-related differences in feeding habits of Raramuri Criollo (RC) versus Angus x Hereford (AH) cows. Seed densities in fecal samples collected in July and August 2015 were analyzed to compare presumed mesquite bean consumption of RC and AH cow...

  7. Fruit size and sampling sites affect on dormancy, viability and germination of teak (Tectona grandis L.) seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akram, M.; Aftab, F.

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, fruits (drupes) were collected from Changa Manga Forest Plus Trees (CMF-PT), Changa Manga Forest Teak Stand (CMF-TS) and Punjab University Botanical Gardens (PUBG) and categorized into very large (= 17 mm dia.), large (12-16 mm dia.), medium (9-11 mm dia.) or small (6-8 mm dia.) fruit size grades. Fresh water as well as mechanical scarification and stratification were tested for breaking seed dormancy. Viability status of seeds was estimated by cutting test, X-rays and In vitro seed germination. Out of 2595 fruits from CMF-PT, 500 fruits were of very large grade. This fruit category also had highest individual fruit weight (0.58 g) with more number of 4-seeded fruits (5.29 percent) and fair germination potential (35.32 percent). Generally, most of the fruits were 1-seeded irrespective of size grades and sampling sites. Fresh water scarification had strong effect on germination (44.30 percent) as compared to mechanical scarification and cold stratification after 40 days of sowing. Similarly, sampling sites and fruit size grades also had significant influence on germination. Highest germination (82.33 percent) was obtained on MS (Murashige and Skoog) agar-solidified medium as compared to Woody Plant Medium (WPM) (69.22 percent). Seedlings from all the media were transferred to ex vitro conditions in the greenhouse and achieved highest survival (28.6 percent) from seedlings previously raised on MS agar-solidified medium after 40 days. There was an association between the studied parameters of teak seeds and the sampling sites and fruit size. (author)

  8. Indentification of radiation treatment of wheat (triticum aestivum. L) and rice (oryza sativa. L) samples using thermoluminescence of contaminating minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, H.M.; Bhatti, I.A.

    2007-01-01

    Food irradiation is gaining popularity worldwide and this technology is important to improve quality and reduce the post harvest losses of food. Because of the rapid commercialization of irradiated foods throughout the world, compliance of different regulations relating to use of technology in different countries and demand of consumers for clear labelling of irradiated foods, there is need for the development of analytical methods to detect radiation treatment of food. Among several methods studied so far, thermoluminescence (TL) is an important method that can be used to find out the irradiation history of food that contain even a very minute amount of dust particles. In this study, the irradiated and unirradiated wheat and rice samples were analyzed using the TL method. The samples were purchased from the local market of Peshawar and irradiated to radiation doses of 0.5 and 1.0 kGy using Co-60 gamma irradiator at the Nuclear Institute for Food and Agriculture (NIFA), Peshawar. The mineral contaminants were isolated by jet water, ultrasonic treatment, and density gradient. TL glow curves of the isolated minerals from irradiated and unirradiated samples were recorded between the temperature ranges of 50-500 degree C using a TL reader. Generally, the glow curves for irradiated samples showed much higher TL intensities (TL 1 ) than the unirradiated samples. The results were normalized by re-irradiation of mineral samples to gamma-ray dose of 1.0 kGy followed by determination of the second glow curves (TM). The ratio of the area of first glow curve to that of second glow curve (TL 1 /TL 2 ) was calculated for selected temperature intervals and compared with the recommended values for unirradiated and irradiated samples. Finally, the shapes of the glow curves for irradiated and unirradiated samples were also analyzed. On the ba- sis of these results (comparison of TL-intensities, TL 1 /TL 2 ratios and shapes of the glow curves), all the irradiated and unirradiated

  9. Live and let die - the B(sister MADS-box gene OsMADS29 controls the degeneration of cells in maternal tissues during seed development of rice (Oryza sativa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuelian Yang

    Full Text Available B(sister genes have been identified as the closest relatives of class B floral homeotic genes. Previous studies have shown that B(sister genes from eudicots are involved in cell differentiation during ovule and seed development. However, the complete function of B(sister genes in eudicots is masked by redundancy with other genes and little is known about the function of B(sister genes in monocots, and about the evolution of B(sister gene functions. Here we characterize OsMADS29, one of three MADS-box B(sister genes in rice. Our analyses show that OsMADS29 is expressed in female reproductive organs including the ovule, ovule vasculature, and the whole seed except for the outer layer cells of the pericarp. Knock-down of OsMADS29 by double-stranded RNA-mediated interference (RNAi results in shriveled and/or aborted seeds. Histological analyses of the abnormal seeds at 7 days after pollination (DAP indicate that the symplastic continuity, including the ovular vascular trace and the nucellar projection, which is the nutrient source for the filial tissue at early development stages, is affected. Moreover, degeneration of all the maternal tissues in the transgenic seeds, including the pericarp, ovular vascular trace, integuments, nucellar epidermis and nucellar projection, is blocked as compared to control plants. Our results suggest that OsMADS29 has important functions in seed development of rice by regulating cell degeneration of maternal tissues. Our findings provide important insights into the ancestral function of B(sister genes.

  10. Characterization and Ectopic Expression of CoWRI1, an AP2/EREBP Domain-Containing Transcription Factor from Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) Endosperm, Changes the Seeds Oil Content in Transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana and Rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, RuHao; Ye, Rongjian; Gao, Lingchao; Zhang, Lin; Wang, Rui; Mao, Ting; Zheng, Yusheng; Li, Dongdong; Lin, Yongjun

    2017-01-01

    Coconut ( Cocos nucifera L.) is a key tropical crop and a member of the monocotyledonous family Arecaceae ( Palmaceae ). Few genes and related metabolic processes involved in coconut endosperm development have been investigated. In this study, a new member of the WRI1 gene family was isolated from coconut endosperm and was named CoWRI1 . Its transcriptional activities and interactions with the acetyl-CoA carboxylase ( BCCP2 ) promoter of CoWRI1 were confirmed by the yeast two-hybrid and yeast one-hybrid approaches, respectively. Functional characterization was carried out through seed-specific expression in Arabidopsis and endosperm-specific expression in rice. In transgenic Arabidopsis , high over-expressions of CoWRI1 in seven independent T2 lines were detected by quantitative real-time PCR. The relative mRNA accumulation of genes encoding enzymes involved in either fatty acid biosynthesis or triacylglycerols assembly (BCCP2, KASI, MAT, ENR, FATA, and GPDH) were also assayed in mature seeds. Furthermore, lipid and fatty acids C16:0 and C18:0 significantly increased. In two homozygous T2 transgenic rice lines (G5 and G2), different CoWRI1 expression levels were detected, but no CoWRI1 transcripts were detected in the wild type. Analyses of the seed oil content, starch content, and total protein content indicated that the two T2 transgenic lines showed a significant increase ( P oil content. The transgenic lines also showed a significant increase in starch content, whereas total protein content decreased significantly. Further analysis of the fatty acid composition revealed that palmitic acid (C16:0) and linolenic acid (C18:3) increased significantly in the seeds of the transgenic rice lines, but oleic acid (C18:1) levels significantly declined.

  11. Genetic Basis of Variation in Rice Seed Storage Protein (Albumin, Globulin, Prolamin, and Glutelin) Content Revealed by Genome-Wide Association Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pingli; Shen, Zhikang; Ming, Luchang; Li, Yibo; Dan, Wenhan; Lou, Guangming; Peng, Bo; Wu, Bian; Li, Yanhua; Zhao, Da; Gao, Guanjun; Zhang, Qinglu; Xiao, Jinghua; Li, Xianghua; Wang, Gongwei; He, Yuqing

    2018-01-01

    Rice seed storage protein (SSP) is an important source of nutrition and energy. Understanding the genetic basis of SSP content and mining favorable alleles that control it will be helpful for breeding new improved cultivars. An association analysis for SSP content was performed to identify underlying genes using 527 diverse Oryza sativa accessions grown in two environments. We identified more than 107 associations for five different traits, including the contents of albumin (Alb), globulin (Glo), prolamin (Pro), glutelin (Glu), and total SSP (Total). A total of 28 associations were located at previously reported QTLs or intervals. A lead SNP sf0709447538, associated for Glu content in the indica subpopulation in 2015, was further validated in near isogenic lines NIL(Zhenshan97) and NIL(Delong208), and the Glu phenotype had significantly difference between two NILs. The association region could be target for map-based cloning of the candidate genes. There were 13 associations in regions close to grain-quality-related genes; five lead single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were located less than 20 kb upstream from grain-quality-related genes ( PG5a , Wx , AGPS2a , RP6 , and, RM1 ). Several starch-metabolism-related genes ( AGPS2a , OsACS6 , PUL , GBSSII , and ISA2 ) were also associated with SSP content. We identified favorable alleles of functional candidate genes, such as RP6 , RM1 , Wx , and other four candidate genes by haplotype analysis and expression pattern. Genotypes of RP6 and RM1 with higher Pro were not identified in japonica and exhibited much higher expression levels in indica group. The lead SNP sf0601764762, repeatedly detected for Alb content in 2 years in the whole association population, was located in the Wx locus that controls the synthesis of amylose. And Alb content was significantly and negatively correlated with amylose content and the level of 2.3 kb Wx pre-mRNA examined in this study. The associations or candidate genes identified would

  12. Genetic Basis of Variation in Rice Seed Storage Protein (Albumin, Globulin, Prolamin, and Glutelin Content Revealed by Genome-Wide Association Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pingli Chen

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Rice seed storage protein (SSP is an important source of nutrition and energy. Understanding the genetic basis of SSP content and mining favorable alleles that control it will be helpful for breeding new improved cultivars. An association analysis for SSP content was performed to identify underlying genes using 527 diverse Oryza sativa accessions grown in two environments. We identified more than 107 associations for five different traits, including the contents of albumin (Alb, globulin (Glo, prolamin (Pro, glutelin (Glu, and total SSP (Total. A total of 28 associations were located at previously reported QTLs or intervals. A lead SNP sf0709447538, associated for Glu content in the indica subpopulation in 2015, was further validated in near isogenic lines NIL(Zhenshan97 and NIL(Delong208, and the Glu phenotype had significantly difference between two NILs. The association region could be target for map-based cloning of the candidate genes. There were 13 associations in regions close to grain-quality-related genes; five lead single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were located less than 20 kb upstream from grain-quality-related genes (PG5a, Wx, AGPS2a, RP6, and, RM1. Several starch-metabolism-related genes (AGPS2a, OsACS6, PUL, GBSSII, and ISA2 were also associated with SSP content. We identified favorable alleles of functional candidate genes, such as RP6, RM1, Wx, and other four candidate genes by haplotype analysis and expression pattern. Genotypes of RP6 and RM1 with higher Pro were not identified in japonica and exhibited much higher expression levels in indica group. The lead SNP sf0601764762, repeatedly detected for Alb content in 2 years in the whole association population, was located in the Wx locus that controls the synthesis of amylose. And Alb content was significantly and negatively correlated with amylose content and the level of 2.3 kb Wx pre-mRNA examined in this study. The associations or candidate genes identified would provide

  13. A micro-fluidic sub-microliter sample introduction system for direct analysis of Chinese rice wine by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry using external aqueous calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Heyong; Liu, Jinhua; Xu, Zigang; Yin, Xuefeng

    2012-07-01

    A microfluidic sub-microliter sample introducing system was developed for direct analysis of Chinese rice wine by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). It consisted of a microfluidic chip integrating variable-volume sampling channels (0.1-0.8 μL), an eight-way multi-functional valve used in flow injection analysis (FIA), a syringe pump and a peristaltic pump of the Ar ICP-MS instrument. Three solutions, i.e., 15, 40 and 100 g L- 1 glucose in 20% ethanol were used to simulate Chinese rice wine of the dry type, the semidry type and the semisweet type, each. The effects of their volume introduced into ICP-MS on the plasma stability and ICP-MS intensities were studied. The experimental results showed that neither alteration of plasma stability nor carbon deposition was observed when the sampling volume of 20% ethanol containing 100 g L- 1 glucose was downscaled to 0.8 μL. Further reducing the sampling volume to 0.4 μL, no significant difference between the intensities of multi-element standard prepared in three simulated Chinese rice wine matrices and those in aqueous solution was observed. It indicated no negative effect of Chinese rice wine matrix on the ICP-MS intensities. A sampling volume of 0.4 μL was considered to be a good compromise between sensitivity and matrix effect. The flow rate of the carrier was chosen as 20 μL min- 1 for obtaining peaks with the highest peak height within the shortest time. Based on these observations, a microflow injection (μFI) method for the direct determination of cadmium and lead in Chinese rice wine by ICP-MS using an external aqueous calibration was developed. The sample throughput was 45 h- 1 with the detection limit of 19.8 and 10.4 ng L- 1 for Cd and Pb, respectively. The contents of Cd and Pb in 10 Chinese rice wine samples were measured. The results agreed well with those determined by ICP-MS with the conventional sampling system after microwave assisted digestion. The recoveries of three Chinese

  14. In vitro Seed-dressing Technique for the Control of Seed-borne ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In vitro Seed-dressing Technique for the Control of Seed-borne Fungi of Rice variety Faro -29. ... Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management ... Fernasan-D, Apron Plus 50 DS and Dithane–M45), and soaking and slurry methods at various concentrations, for the control of seed-borne fungi of rice variety

  15. Investigating differences in light stable isotopes between Thai jasmine rice and Sungyod rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukusamude, C.; Kongsri, S.

    2017-10-01

    We report the differences in light stable isotopes between two kinds of Thai rice (Thai jasmine and Sungyod rice). Thai jasmine rice and Sungyod rice were cultivated in the northeast and the south of Thailand. Light isotopes including 13C, 15N and 18O of Thai jasmine rice and Sungyod rice samples were carried out using isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS). Thai jasmine rice (Khao Dawk Mali 105) was cultivated from Thung Kula Rong Hai area, whereas Sungyod rice was cultivated from Phathalung province. Hypothesis testing of difference of each isotope between Thai jasmine rice and Sungyod rice was also studied. The study was the feasibility test whether the light stable isotopes can be the variables to identify Thai jasmine rice and Sungyod rice. The result shows that there was difference in the isotope patterns of Thai jasmine rice and Sungyod rice. Our results may provide the useful information in term of stable isotope profiles of Thai rice.

  16. Bird poisoning from misuse of the carbamate Furadan in a Texas rice field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flickinger, Edward L.; Mitchell, C.A.; White, D.H.; Kolbe, E.J.

    1986-01-01

    More than 100 birds consisting largely of dickcissels and savannah sparrows, as well as 9 other species of songbirds and sandpipers, died from feeding on planted rice seed treated illegally with Furadan 4F. Brain ChE activity was depressed between 32-85% in 44% of the birds. Carbofuran residues in GI tract contents of birds averaged 3.4 ppm (0.54-10 ppm). Two samples of planted rice seed contained 91 ppm and 22 ppm carbofuran. Known mortality of birds continued for about 2 weeks.

  17. Broken rice kernels and the kinetics of rice hydration and texture during cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Mohammed; Meullenet, Jean-Francois

    2013-05-01

    During rice milling and processing, broken kernels are inevitably present, although to date it has been unclear as to how the presence of broken kernels affects rice hydration and cooked rice texture. Therefore, this work intended to study the effect of broken kernels in a rice sample on rice hydration and texture during cooking. Two medium-grain and two long-grain rice cultivars were harvested, dried and milled, and the broken kernels were separated from unbroken kernels. Broken rice kernels were subsequently combined with unbroken rice kernels forming treatments of 0, 40, 150, 350 or 1000 g kg(-1) broken kernels ratio. Rice samples were then cooked and the moisture content of the cooked rice, the moisture uptake rate, and rice hardness and stickiness were measured. As the amount of broken rice kernels increased, rice sample texture became increasingly softer (P hardness was negatively correlated to the percentage of broken kernels in rice samples. Differences in the proportions of broken rice in a milled rice sample play a major role in determining the texture properties of cooked rice. Variations in the moisture migration kinetics between broken and unbroken kernels caused faster hydration of the cores of broken rice kernels, with greater starch leach-out during cooking affecting the texture of the cooked rice. The texture of cooked rice can be controlled, to some extent, by varying the proportion of broken kernels in milled rice. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Control of Rice Weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (L., in Stored Wheat Grains with Mesquite Plant, Prosopis juliflora (SW, D.C. Seed Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.H. AI-Moajel

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of mesquite plant, Prosopis juliflora (SW D.C. (Family: Mimosaceae, seed extracts against rice weevil. Sitophilus oryzae (L, reared on wheat grains was investigated in the laboratory. The tested plant extracts of P. juliflora in petroleum ether, chloroform, and acetone, effectively controlled adults and their toxicity based on LC95 and LC5O values respectively was in order: acetone (12.0, 5.8ml/kg < pet ether (8.0, 4.1ml/kg chloroform (6.3, 2.2ml/kg. A highly significant oviposition deterency effect (P< 0.05 was found for all extracts at LC50 levels, while at LC95 levels, oviposition was nearly completely inhibited. Thus, progeny emergence was completely suppressed at Legs levels, also at LCSC, of acetone extract. Chlorofonn extract indicated a slow rate of degradation alter one month of storage (90% mortality. All tested plant extracts reduced weight loss in wheat grains after 45 days of storage, but chloroform extract was the most effective. Most treatments did not significantly affect water absorption but viability was significantly reduced. Petroleum ether and chloroform extracts caused a significant inhibition effect on acetyl choline esterase (AchE in adults while acetone extract caused a significant activation effect. All three different extracts, caused a significant activation effect on phosphases (AcP and AlkP, except for chloroform and acetone extract treatments which caused significant inhibition of AcP in adults. All extracts caused a significant decrease in protein and carbohydrate contents of adults, except the carbohydrate content of adults treated with acetone extract. There was a significant increase in lipid content in adults treated with all three extracts and significant increase of carbohydrate content only in adults treated with acetone extract.

  19. genetics and inheritance of seed dormancy inflicted by seed

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mgina

    ABSTRACT. The study was undertaken to investigate the genetic mode of inheritance of dormancy imposed by the hull (seed coat) in rice seeds. Freshly harvested seeds of parents, F1 and F2 populations of a cross between a dormant cultivar Kisegese and non-dormant strain K2004 were used. Germination test of the ...

  20. Simultaneous multi-element determination in different seed samples of Dodonaea viscosa hopseed using instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sweify, Fatma H.; El-Amir, Mahmoud A.; Mostafa, Mohamed; Ramadan, Hala E.; Rashad, Ghada M.

    2016-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis technique (INAA) was applied for nondestructive multi-element analysis of seed samples of the plant Dodonaea viscosa hopseed. This plant is distributed all over Egypt, because of its suitable properties. The samples were collected from some bushes grown at different sites in some governorates, in July of each year during the period from 2004 to 2011. The determined elements are: Co, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hg, Ni, Rb, Sc, Se, Sr and Zn, under the chosen irradiation and cooling times. The content of some elements has been compared with data obtained from previous work on analysis of various kinds of seeds. The influence of some parameters on the determined elemental content is discussed. Standard reference materials IAEA-155 and IAEA-V-10 were used to assure quality control, accuracy and precision of the technique.

  1. Simultaneous multi-element determination in different seed samples of Dodonaea viscosa hopseed using instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Sweify, Fatma H.; El-Amir, Mahmoud A.; Mostafa, Mohamed; Ramadan, Hala E.; Rashad, Ghada M. [Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt). Hot Lab. Center

    2016-07-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis technique (INAA) was applied for nondestructive multi-element analysis of seed samples of the plant Dodonaea viscosa hopseed. This plant is distributed all over Egypt, because of its suitable properties. The samples were collected from some bushes grown at different sites in some governorates, in July of each year during the period from 2004 to 2011. The determined elements are: Co, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hg, Ni, Rb, Sc, Se, Sr and Zn, under the chosen irradiation and cooling times. The content of some elements has been compared with data obtained from previous work on analysis of various kinds of seeds. The influence of some parameters on the determined elemental content is discussed. Standard reference materials IAEA-155 and IAEA-V-10 were used to assure quality control, accuracy and precision of the technique.

  2. Development of labor saving operation technique by making large scale paddy field and direct seeding cultivation of rice in Tohoku district [Japan], 2: Development of technique for automatic precision laser-levelling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, S.; Imazono, S.; Yaji, Y.

    1999-01-01

    1) Preparation for large large paddy fields and utilization of direct rice seeding cultivation are expected to be the key technologies for the low cost and labor saving large farm rice cultivation. To achieve this, the technique of land leveling for field operations have to be developed. A precise land leveling operation by a wheel tractor with laser-beam emitter and recover in a wet paddy field are developed. 2) The automatic measurement system of a rice paddy field surface level by a tractor that we developed was highly practical. After measured data ate stored in a memory of hand-held computer the standard deviation of a field height value is shown on the display. Also, measured data are exported to the personal computer and by RC232C, the contour map of the paddy field is draw quickly, which is useful for the land leveling work. 3) Considering the relation between rice seed germination and water depth in the field, the preciseness of the field leveling for direct rice seeding is required to be under 1.5cm of standard deviation (s.d.). To realize this preciseness, a prototype leveling aparatus consisting a laser emitter, a laser receiver and dry land leveler pulled by a tracter, was developed and was tested the performance. The results of land leveling test at a field of 1 ha indicated that the elevation difference of the field of 16cm was improved to that of 92% of +- 2.5cm (1.58cm s.d.) after leveling work. The working efficiency was 0.57hour/10a. For a precise leveling work, the of the soil water content should be under the plastic limitation, under which less amount of soil adoheres to the blade of the leveler. The performance tests of the laser assisted leveling apparatus for a paddy harrowing work revealed that for an accurate operation only a blade should be controlled by a hydraulic cylinder according to a laser beam. Since large amount of soil can not be handled by the apparatus, the leveling for a paddy harrowing work is recommended for a fine leveling

  3. Evaluation of estimated daily intake (EDI) of cadmium and lead for rice (Oryza sativa L.) in calcareous soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamannejadian, Ali; Sayyad, Gholamabbas; Moezzi, Abdolamir; Jahangiri, Alireza

    2013-04-08

    The excessive amounts of cadmium and lead in food chain can cause health problems for humans and ecosystem. Rice is an important food in human diet. Therefore this study was conducted in order to investigate cadmium and Lead concentrations in seed rice (Oryza saliva) of paddy fields in southwest of Iran. A total of 70 rice seed samples were collected from paddy fields in five regions of Khuzestan province, Southwest Iran, during harvesting time. In the samples cadmium and Lead concentrations were measured. To assess the daily intake of Cadmium and Lead by rice, daily consumption of rice was calculated. The results showed that average concentrations of Cadmium and Lead in rice seeds were 273.6 and 121.8 μg/kg, respectively. Less than 72% of rice seed samples had Cadmium concentrations above 200 μg/kg (i.e. Guide value for cadmium); and less than 3% had Lead concentrations above 150 μg/kg (i.e. Guide value for Lead). The estimated daily intakes of cadmium by the local population was calculated to 0.59 μg/day kg bw, which corresponds to 59% of the tolerable daily intakes (i.e. 1 μg/day kg bw). Eleven out of 70 samples (15.71%) exceed the tolerable daily intakes. The dietary intakes for Lead in the local population ranged from 0.22 to 0.47 μg/day kg bw. Tolerable daily intakes for Lead is 3.6 μg/day kg bw. As a whole, long term consumption of the local rice may bear high risk of heavy metal exposure to the consumer in the study region.

  4. A micro-fluidic sub-microliter sample introduction system for direct analysis of Chinese rice wine by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry using external aqueous calibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Heyong [Institute of Microanalytical Systems, Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310027 (China); College of Material Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou, 310036 (China); Liu, Jinhua [College of Material Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou, 310036 (China); Xu, Zigang [Institute of Analytical and Applied Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310027 (China); Yin, Xuefeng, E-mail: yinxf@zju.edu.cn [Institute of Microanalytical Systems, Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310027 (China); College of Material Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou, 310036 (China)

    2012-07-15

    A microfluidic sub-microliter sample introducing system was developed for direct analysis of Chinese rice wine by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). It consisted of a microfluidic chip integrating variable-volume sampling channels (0.1-0.8 {mu}L), an eight-way multi-functional valve used in flow injection analysis (FIA), a syringe pump and a peristaltic pump of the Ar ICP-MS instrument. Three solutions, i.e., 15, 40 and 100 g L{sup -1} glucose in 20% ethanol were used to simulate Chinese rice wine of the dry type, the semidry type and the semisweet type, each. The effects of their volume introduced into ICP-MS on the plasma stability and ICP-MS intensities were studied. The experimental results showed that neither alteration of plasma stability nor carbon deposition was observed when the sampling volume of 20% ethanol containing 100 g L{sup -1} glucose was downscaled to 0.8 {mu}L. Further reducing the sampling volume to 0.4 {mu}L, no significant difference between the intensities of multi-element standard prepared in three simulated Chinese rice wine matrices and those in aqueous solution was observed. It indicated no negative effect of Chinese rice wine matrix on the ICP-MS intensities. A sampling volume of 0.4 {mu}L was considered to be a good compromise between sensitivity and matrix effect. The flow rate of the carrier was chosen as 20 {mu}L min{sup -1} for obtaining peaks with the highest peak height within the shortest time. Based on these observations, a microflow injection ({mu}FI) method for the direct determination of cadmium and lead in Chinese rice wine by ICP-MS using an external aqueous calibration was developed. The sample throughput was 45 h{sup -1} with the detection limit of 19.8 and 10.4 ng L{sup -1} for Cd and Pb, respectively. The contents of Cd and Pb in 10 Chinese rice wine samples were measured. The results agreed well with those determined by ICP-MS with the conventional sampling system after microwave assisted digestion

  5. A micro-fluidic sub-microliter sample introduction system for direct analysis of Chinese rice wine by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry using external aqueous calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Heyong; Liu, Jinhua; Xu, Zigang; Yin, Xuefeng

    2012-01-01

    A microfluidic sub-microliter sample introducing system was developed for direct analysis of Chinese rice wine by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). It consisted of a microfluidic chip integrating variable-volume sampling channels (0.1–0.8 μL), an eight-way multi-functional valve used in flow injection analysis (FIA), a syringe pump and a peristaltic pump of the Ar ICP-MS instrument. Three solutions, i.e., 15, 40 and 100 g L −1 glucose in 20% ethanol were used to simulate Chinese rice wine of the dry type, the semidry type and the semisweet type, each. The effects of their volume introduced into ICP-MS on the plasma stability and ICP-MS intensities were studied. The experimental results showed that neither alteration of plasma stability nor carbon deposition was observed when the sampling volume of 20% ethanol containing 100 g L −1 glucose was downscaled to 0.8 μL. Further reducing the sampling volume to 0.4 μL, no significant difference between the intensities of multi-element standard prepared in three simulated Chinese rice wine matrices and those in aqueous solution was observed. It indicated no negative effect of Chinese rice wine matrix on the ICP-MS intensities. A sampling volume of 0.4 μL was considered to be a good compromise between sensitivity and matrix effect. The flow rate of the carrier was chosen as 20 μL min −1 for obtaining peaks with the highest peak height within the shortest time. Based on these observations, a microflow injection (μFI) method for the direct determination of cadmium and lead in Chinese rice wine by ICP-MS using an external aqueous calibration was developed. The sample throughput was 45 h −1 with the detection limit of 19.8 and 10.4 ng L −1 for Cd and Pb, respectively. The contents of Cd and Pb in 10 Chinese rice wine samples were measured. The results agreed well with those determined by ICP-MS with the conventional sampling system after microwave assisted digestion. The recoveries of three

  6. Genome-wide expression analysis of rice ABC transporter family across spatio-temporal samples and in response to abiotic stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Van Ngoc Tuyet; Moon, Sunok; Jung, Ki-Hong

    2014-09-01

    Although the super family of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) proteins plays key roles in the physiology and development of plants, the functions of members of this interesting family mostly remain to be clarified, especially in crop plants. Thus, systematic analysis of this family in rice (Oryza sativa), a major model crop plant, will be helpful in the design of effective strategies for functional analysis. Phylogenomic analysis that integrates anatomy and stress meta-profiling data based on a large collection of rice Affymetrix array data into the phylogenic context provides useful clues into the functions for each of the ABC transporter family members in rice. Using anatomy data, we identified 17 root-preferred and 16-shoot preferred genes at the vegetative stage, and 3 pollen, 2 embryo, 2 ovary, 2 endosperm, and 1 anther-preferred gene at the reproductive stage. The stress data revealed significant up-regulation or down-regulation of 47 genes under heavy metal treatment, 16 genes under nutrient deficient conditions, and 51 genes under abiotic stress conditions. Of these, we confirmed the differential expression patterns of 14 genes in root samples exposed to drought stress using quantitative real-time PCR. Network analysis using RiceNet suggests a functional gene network involving nine rice ABC transporters that are differentially regulated by drought stress in root, further enhancing the prediction of biological function. Our analysis provides a molecular basis for the study of diverse biological phenomena mediated by the ABC family in rice and will contribute to the enhancement of crop yield and stress tolerance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Ambit determination method in estimating rice plant population density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Bakar, B.,

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Rice plant population density is a key indicator in determining the crop setting and fertilizer application rate. It is therefore essential that the population density is monitored to ensure that a correct crop management decision is taken. The conventional method of determining plant population is by manually counting the total number of rice plant tillers in a 25 cm x 25 cm square frame. Sampling is done by randomly choosing several different locations within a plot to perform tiller counting. This sampling method is time consuming, labour intensive and costly. An alternative fast estimating method was developed to overcome this issue. The method relies on measuring the outer circumference or ambit of the contained rice plants in a 25 cm x 25 cm square frame to determine the number of tillers within that square frame. Data samples of rice variety MR219 were collected from rice plots in the Muda granary area, Sungai Limau Dalam, Kedah. The data were taken at 50 days and 70 days after seeding (DAS. A total of 100 data samples were collected for each sampling day. A good correlation was obtained for the variety of 50 DAS and 70 DAS. The model was then verified by taking 100 samples with the latching strap for 50 DAS and 70 DAS. As a result, this technique can be used as a fast, economical and practical alternative to manual tiller counting. The technique can potentially be used in the development of an electronic sensing system to estimate paddy plant population density.

  8. Morphological characterization of several strains of the rice-pathogenic bacterium Burkholderia glumae in North Sumatra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasibuan, M.; Safni, I.; Lisnawita; Lubis, K.

    2018-02-01

    Burkholderia glumae is a quarantine seed-borne bacterial pathogen causing panicle blight disease on rice. This pathogen has been detected in some locations in Java, and recently, farmers in North Sumatra have reported rice yield loss with symptoms similar with those on rice infeced by the rice-pathogenic bacterium B. glumae. This research was aimed to isolate several bacterial strains from several rice varieties in various locations in North Sumatra and characterize the morphology of the strains to detect and identify the unknown bacterial strains presumably B. glumae. Several rice seed varieties were collected from Medan and Deli Serdang Districts. The seed samples were extracted, isolated and purified, then grown in semi-selective media PPGA. The morphological characteristics of the bacterial strains were determined including Gram staining, bacterial colony’s and bacterial cell’s morphology. The results showed that of eleven strains isolated, two strains were Gram negative and nine strains were Gram positive. On the basis of colony morphology, all strains had circular form, flat elevation and cream colour while the colony margin varied, i.e. entire and undulate. Most strains had bacillus/rod shape (8 strains) and only 3 strains were coccus.

  9. Long branch-chains of amylopectin with B-type crystallinity in rice seed with inhibition of starch branching enzyme I and IIb resist in situ degradation and inhibit plant growth during seedling development : Degradation of rice starch with inhibition of SBEI/IIb during seedling development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Ting; Lin, Lingshang; Wang, Juan; Liu, Qiaoquan; Wei, Cunxu

    2018-01-08

    Endosperm starch provides prime energy for cereal seedling growth. Cereal endosperm with repression of starch branching enzyme (SBE) has been widely studied for its high resistant starch content and health benefit. However, in barley and maize, the repression of SBE changes starch component and amylopectin structure which affects grain germination and seedling establishment. A high resistant starch rice line (TRS) has been developed through inhibiting SBEI/IIb, and its starch has very high resistance to in vitro hydrolysis and digestion. However, it is unclear whether the starch resists in situ degradation in seed and influences seedling growth after grain germination. In this study, TRS and its wild-type rice cultivar Te-qing (TQ) were used to investigate the seedling growth, starch property changes, and in situ starch degradation during seedling growth. The slow degradation of starch in TRS seed restrained the seedling growth. The starch components including amylose and amylopectin were simultaneously degraded in TQ seeds during seedling growth, but in TRS seeds, the amylose was degraded faster than amylopectin and the amylopectin long branch-chains with B-type crystallinity had high resistance to in situ degradation. TQ starch was gradually degraded from the proximal to distal region of embryo and from the outer to inner in endosperm. However, TRS endosperm contained polygonal, aggregate, elongated and hollow starch from inner to outer. The polygonal starch similar to TQ starch was completely degraded, and the other starches with long branch-chains of amylopectin and B-type crystallinity were degraded faster at the early stage of seedling growth but had high resistance to in situ degradation during TRS seedling growth. The B-type crystallinity and long branch-chains of amylopectin in TRS seed had high resistance to in situ degradation, which inhibited TRS seedling growth.

  10. Interaction of genotype x management on vegetative growth and weed suppression of aerobic rice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, D.L.; Bastiaans, L.; Atlin, G.N.; Spiertz, J.H.J.

    2007-01-01

    Water shortage in drought-prone rice-growing areas of the world is threatening conventional irrigated rice production systems, in which rice is transplanted into fields where standing water is maintained until harvest. Aerobic rice production systems, in which rice is grown as a direct-seeded upland

  11. Synergistic Exposure of Rice Seeds to Different Doses of γ-Ray and Salinity Stress Resulted in Increased Antioxidant Enzyme Activities and Gene-Specific Modulation of TC-NER Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Macovei

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent reports have underlined the potential of gamma (γ-rays as tools for seed priming, a process used in seed industry to increase seed vigor and to enhance plant tolerance to biotic/abiotic stresses. However, the impact of γ-rays on key aspects of plant metabolism still needs to be carefully evaluated. In the present study, rice seeds were challenged with different doses of γ-rays and grown in absence/presence of NaCl to assess the impact of these treatments on the early stages of plant life. Enhanced germination efficiency associated with increase in radicle and hypocotyl length was observed, while at later stages no increase in plant tolerance to salinity stress was evident. APX, CAT, and GR were enhanced at transcriptional level and in terms of enzyme activity, indicating the activation of antioxidant defence. The profiles of DNA damage accumulation were obtained using SCGE and the implication of TC-NER pathway in DNA damage sensing and repair mechanisms is discussed. OsXPB2, OsXPD, OsTFIIS, and OsTFIIS-like genes showed differential modulation in seedlings and plantlets in response to γ-irradiation and salinity stress. Altogether, the synergistic exposure to γ-rays and NaCl resulted in enhanced oxidative stress and proper activation of antioxidant mechanisms, thus being compatible with plant survival.

  12. Hormonal regulation of floret closure of rice (Oryza sativa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Youming; Zeng, Xiaochun

    2018-01-01

    Plant hormones play important roles in regulating every aspect of growth, development, and metabolism of plants. We are interested in understanding hormonal regulation of floret opening and closure in plants. This is a particularly important problem for hybrid rice because regulation of flowering time is vitally important in hybrid rice seed production. However, little was known about the effects of plant hormones on rice flowering. We have shown that jasmonate and methyl jasmonate play significant roles in promoting rice floret opening. In this study, we investigated the effects of auxins including indole-3-acidic acid (IAA), indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), 1-naphthalene-acetic acid (NAA), 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D) and 3,6-dichloro-2-methoxybenzoic acid (DIC) and abscisic acid (ABA) on floret closure of four fertile and three sterile varieties of rice. The results from field studies in three growing seasons in 2013–2015 showed that the percentages of closed florets were significantly lower in plants treated with IAA, IBA, 2,4-D, DIC and NAA and that the durations of floret opening were significantly longer in plants treated with the same auxins. The auxins exhibited time- and concentration-dependant effects on floret closure. ABA displayed opposite effects of auxins because it increased the percentages of floret closure and decreased the length of floret opening of rice varieties. The degree of auxin-inhibiting and ABA-promoting effects on floret closure was varied somewhat but not significantly different among the rice varieties. Endogenous IAA levels were the highest in florets collected shortly before opening followed by a sharp decline in florets with maximal angles of opening and a significant jump of IAA levels shortly after floret closure in both fertile and sterile rice plants. ABA levels showed an opposite trend in the same samples. Our results showed that auxins delayed but ABA promoted the closure of rice floret regardless of the varieties

  13. Hormonal regulation of floret closure of rice (Oryza sativa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youming Huang

    Full Text Available Plant hormones play important roles in regulating every aspect of growth, development, and metabolism of plants. We are interested in understanding hormonal regulation of floret opening and closure in plants. This is a particularly important problem for hybrid rice because regulation of flowering time is vitally important in hybrid rice seed production. However, little was known about the effects of plant hormones on rice flowering. We have shown that jasmonate and methyl jasmonate play significant roles in promoting rice floret opening. In this study, we investigated the effects of auxins including indole-3-acidic acid (IAA, indole-3-butyric acid (IBA, 1-naphthalene-acetic acid (NAA, 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D and 3,6-dichloro-2-methoxybenzoic acid (DIC and abscisic acid (ABA on floret closure of four fertile and three sterile varieties of rice. The results from field studies in three growing seasons in 2013-2015 showed that the percentages of closed florets were significantly lower in plants treated with IAA, IBA, 2,4-D, DIC and NAA and that the durations of floret opening were significantly longer in plants treated with the same auxins. The auxins exhibited time- and concentration-dependant effects on floret closure. ABA displayed opposite effects of auxins because it increased the percentages of floret closure and decreased the length of floret opening of rice varieties. The degree of auxin-inhibiting and ABA-promoting effects on floret closure was varied somewhat but not significantly different among the rice varieties. Endogenous IAA levels were the highest in florets collected shortly before opening followed by a sharp decline in florets with maximal angles of opening and a significant jump of IAA levels shortly after floret closure in both fertile and sterile rice plants. ABA levels showed an opposite trend in the same samples. Our results showed that auxins delayed but ABA promoted the closure of rice floret regardless of

  14. Determination of Au, Sb, As, Br, Na, K, Cd, Mn and Cl in rice from Vietnam by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran Van, L.; Teherani, D.K.

    1988-01-01

    Gold, antimony, arsenic, bromine, sodium, potassium, cadmium, manganese and chlorine were determined by neutron activation analysis in various rice seed, brand layer and husk samples from Vietnam. The following concentration values were found: Au 0.05-0.28 ppm, Sb 0.05-1.08 ppm, As 0.08-0.94 ppm, Br 0.82-6.72 ppm, Na 16.71-25.71 ppm, K 2582-5163 ppm, Mn 19.26-33.43 ppm, Cd 0.51-2.42 ppm and Cl 205.20-828.61 ppm in rice seed. Statistically significant differences in Au, Sb, Cd contents were detected in rice seed and husk, as well as brand layer and husk. (author) 8 refs.; 3 figs

  15. Prevalence of Rice Yellow Mottle Virus (RYMV) on Rice Plants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Incidence of Rice yellow mottle virus (RYMV) on rice plants (ofada) grown in two local government areas (LGAs) of Ogun State had been evaluated during a two year field survey. Six month old rice plants were observed for symptom expression and leaf samples collected for serological indexing. Of the 60 leaf ...

  16. 137Cs absorption by growing rice planted in pot soil from Qinshan and Daya Bay area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shang Zhaorong; Yu Fengyi; Lu Zixian

    1999-01-01

    The pot experiment of growing rice contaminated with 137 Cs solution was designed as follows. (1) The same volume of 137 Cs solution was irrigated into rice soil from Guantang District around Qinshan NPP in seedling stage, booting stage and milk stage respectively with the same Specific Activity (SA) of 370 Bq/g soil , and the rice was sampled after maturity. (2) In the seedling stage, the rice cultured in the soil from Guantang District was irrigated by four different SA of 0.37, 3.7, 37 and 370 Bq/g soil respectively, and sampled after 30, 60 and 90 d. (3) Transfer Factors (TF) of edible parts of rice on five different soils were calculated for three different stage and four different 137 Cs levels. The results show that: 1) TF of Shenzhen soil is the highest with 1.86 in seed and 2.22 in stem and 4.05 in leaf, Changchuanba soil is the lowest with 0.09 in seed and 0.20 in stem and 0.20 in leaf, among the five different soils. 2) TF in milk stage is the highest with 0.46 in seed and 2.29 in stem and 2.87 in leaf, and booting stem is lowest with 0.09 in seed and 0.17 in stem and 0.17 in leaf, among the three different stage. 3) TF of soil with contamination in 0.37 Bq/g soil is the highest with 1.08 in seed and 3.70 in stem and 4.32 in leaf, and the contamination in 37 Bq/g soil is the lowest with 0.06 in seed and 0.10 in stem and 0.14 in leaf, among four different contamination levels

  17. Proteomic analysis of lettuce seed germination and thermoinhibition by sampling of individual seeds at germination and removal of storage proteins by polyethylene glycol fractionation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Wei-Qing; Song, Bin-Yan; Deng, Zhi-Jun

    2015-01-01

    the sensitivity of germination to abscisic acid. MVA pathway-derived products, cytokinins, partially reversed the lovastatin inhibition of germination and released seed thermoinhibition at 25°C. We conclude that the MVA pathway for isoprenoid biosynthesis is involved in lettuce seed germination...

  18. The ascorbate peroxidase APX1 is a direct target of a zinc finger transcription factor ZFP36 and a late embryogenesis abundant protein OsLEA5 interacts with ZFP36 to co-regulate OsAPX1 in seed germination in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Liping; Jia, Jing; Zhao, Xixi; Zhang, MengYao; Huang, Xingxiu; E Ji; Ni, Lan; Jiang, Mingyi

    2018-01-01

    Seed germination is a vital developmental process. Abscisic acid (ABA) is an essential repressor of seed germination, while ROS (reactive oxygen species) also plays a vital role in regulating seed germination. ABA could inhibit the production of ROS in seed germination, but the mechanism of ABA reduced ROS production in seed germination was hitherto unknown. Here, by ChIP (chromatin immunoprecipitation)-seq, we found that ZFP36, a rice zinc finger transcription factor, could directly bind to the promoter of OsAPX1, coding an ascorbate peroxidase (APX) which has the most affinity for H 2 O 2 (substrate; a type of ROS), and act as a transcriptional activator of OsAPX1 promoter. Moreover, ZFP36 could interact with a late embryogenesis abundant protein OsLEA5 to co-regulate the promoter activity of OsAPX1. The seed germination is highly inhibited in ZFP36 overexpression plants under ABA treatment, while an RNA interference (RNAi) mutant of OsLEA5 rice seeds were less sensitive to ABA, and exogenous ASC (ascorbate acid) could alleviate the inhibition induced by ABA. Thus, our conclusion is that OsAPX1 is a direct target of ZFP36 and OsLEA5 could interact with ZFP36 to co-regulate ABA-inhibited seed germination by controlling the expression of OsAPX1. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Use of Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis for Determination of Some Trace Elements of Biological Importance in Different Jute(Corchorus Capsularis) Seed Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metwally, E.; Abd-El-Khalik, H.; El-Sweify, F.H.; El-Sweify, A.H.H.

    2004-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis technique was used to determine some trace elements in seeds of jute (corchorus capsularis). The seed samples were obtained from Agricultural Research Center (ARC), Giza, (EG). The analyzed seed samples were produced from cultivation of three different strains, namely: St. DC 1105, st. JRC 7447 and St. PADMA. These strains were imported from Bangladesh. The jute plant was cultivated in sandy soil in Ismailaya research station farm at may on two seasons 1999 and 2000. The plant was irrigated with water from Ismailaya canal. The study was carried out to compare the influence of applying different kinds of fertilizers of different rates, i.e. mineral fertilizer and biofertilizer, on the uptake of some biologically important trace elements and to determine their concentration in the analyzed jute seed samples. These elements were; Co,Cr,Fe,Zn and others eight elements were analyzed quantitatively

  20. Asian wild rice is a hybrid swarm with extensive gene flow and feralization from domesticated rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongru; Vieira, Filipe G; Crawford, Jacob E; Chu, Chengcai; Nielsen, Rasmus

    2017-06-01

    The domestication history of rice remains controversial, with multiple studies reaching different conclusions regarding its origin(s). These studies have generally assumed that populations of living wild rice, O. rufipogon , are descendants of the ancestral population that gave rise to domesticated rice, but relatively little attention has been paid to the origins and history of wild rice itself. Here, we investigate the genetic ancestry of wild rice by analyzing a diverse panel of rice genomes consisting of 203 domesticated and 435 wild rice accessions. We show that most modern wild rice is heavily admixed with domesticated rice through both pollen- and seed-mediated gene flow. In fact, much presumed wild rice may simply represent different stages of feralized domesticated rice. In line with this hypothesis, many presumed wild rice varieties show remnants of the effects of selective sweeps in previously identified domestication genes, as well as evidence of recent selection in flowering genes possibly associated with the feralization process. Furthermore, there is a distinct geographical pattern of gene flow from aus , indica , and japonica varieties into colocated wild rice. We also show that admixture from aus and indica is more recent than gene flow from japonica , possibly consistent with an earlier spread of japonica varieties. We argue that wild rice populations should be considered a hybrid swarm, connected to domesticated rice by continuous and extensive gene flow. © 2017 Wang et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  1. Radiochemical studies on radiocontaminated rice cropped in Niigata Prefecture in 1954

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagasawa, K; Kawashiro, I; Kawamura, S; Takenaka, Y; Nishizaki, S

    1955-01-01

    Radioactivity of various parts of rice seeds cropped in 1954 was detailed and compared with that of 1953. Radioactivity due to /sup 40/K was established as total count of the ash and was subtracted for correction. None of rice seeds in 1953 showed excess radioactivity. With the seeds in 1954 the following results were obtained: unhulled rice 3 to 6 c.p.m./g; chaff 3 to 6 c.p.m./2 g; unpolished rice 0 to 0.3 c.p.m./8 g; polished rice 0; rice bran 0. This radioactivity is thought to come from the rain, adherent to the chaff, but not from soil contamination.

  2. Extraction of rice bran oil from local rice husk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anwar, J.; Zaman, W.; Salman, M.; Jabeen, N.

    2006-01-01

    Rice Bran Oil is widely used in pharmaceutical, food and chemical industries due to its unique properties and high medicinal value. In the present work, extraction of rice bran oil from different samples of rice husk collected from local rice shellers by solvent extraction method has been studied. Experiments were conducted using a soxhelt apparatus, to extract rice bran oil using hexane, petroleum ether, ethanol and methanol as the solvents and the yields obtained under different conditions were compared. Batch extraction tests showed that the rate of extraction decreases with time and the solution approaches saturation at an exponential rate. (author)

  3. Depletion of rice as food of waterfowl wintering in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Danielle M.; Dugger, Bruce D.; Reinecke, Kenneth J.; Petrie, Mark J.

    2009-01-01

    Waterfowl habitat conservation strategies in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley (MAV) and several other wintering areas assume carrying capacity is limited by available food, and increasing food resources is an effective conservation goal. Because existing research on winter food abundance and depletion is insufficient to test this hypothesis, we used harvested rice fields as model foraging habitats to determine if waste rice seed is depleted before spring migration. We sampled rice fields (n = 39 [winter 2000-2001], n = 69 [2001-2002]) to estimate seed mass when waterfowl arrived in late autumn and departed in late winter. We also placed exclosures in subsets of fields in autumn (n = 8 [2000-2001], n = 20 [2001-2002]) and compared seed mass inside and outside exclosures in late winter to estimate rice depletion attributable to waterfowl and other processes. Finally, we used an experiment to determine if the extent of rice depletion differed among fields of varying initial abundance and if the seed mass at which waterfowl ceased foraging or abandoned fields differed from a hypothesized giving-up value of 50 kg/ha. Mean seed mass was greater in late autumn 2000 than 2001 (127.0 vs. 83.9 kg/ha; P = 0.018) but decreased more during winter 2000-2001 than 2001-2002 (91.3 vs. 55.7 kg/ha) and did not differ at the end of winter (35.8 vs. 28.3 kg/ha; P = 0.651). Assuming equal loss to deterioration inside and outside exclosures, we estimated waterfowl consumed 61.3 kg/ha (48.3%) of rice present in late autumn 2000 and 21.1 kg/ha (25.1%) in 2001. When we manipulated late-autumn rice abundance, mean giving-up mass of rice seed was similar among treatments (48.7 kg/ha; P = 0.205) and did not differ from 50 kg/ha (P = 0.726). We integrated results by constructing scenarios in which waterfowl consumed rice at different times in winter, consumption and deterioration were competing risks, and consumption occurred only above 50 kg/ha. Results indicated waterfowl likely consumed

  4. Development and Validation of a Multiresidue Method for the Determination of Pesticides in Dry Samples (Rice and Wheat Flour) Using Liquid Chromatography/Triple Quadrupole Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grande-Martínez, Ángel; Arrebola, Francisco Javier; Moreno, Laura Díaz; Vidal, José Luis Martínez; Frenich, Antonia Garrido

    2015-01-01

    A rapid and sensitive multiresidue method was developed and validated for the determination of around 100 pesticides in dry samples (rice and wheat flour) by ultra-performance LC coupled to a triple quadrupole mass analyzer working in tandem mode (UPLC/QqQ-MS/MS). The sample preparation step was optimized for both matrixes. Pesticides were extracted from rice samples using aqueous ethyl acetate, while aqueous acetonitrile extraction [modified QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) method] was used for wheat flour matrixes. In both cases the extracts were then cleaned up by dispersive solid phase extraction with MgSO4 and primary secondary amine+C18 sorbents. A further cleanup step with Florisil was necessary to remove fat in wheat flour. The method was validated at two concentration levels (3.6 and 40 μg/kg for most compounds), obtaining recoveries ranging from 70 to 120%, intraday and interday precision values≤20% expressed as RSDs, and expanded uncertainty values≤50%. The LOQ values ranged between 3.6 and 20 μg/kg, although it was set at 3.6 μg/kg for the majority of the pesticides. The method was applied to the analysis of 20 real samples, and no pesticides were detected.

  5. Effects of drought stress on global gene expression profile in leaf and root samples of Dongxiang wild rice (Oryza rufipogon).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fantao; Zhou, Yi; Zhang, Meng; Luo, Xiangdong; Xie, Jiankun

    2017-06-30

    Drought is a serious constraint to rice production throughout the world, and although Dongxiang wild rice ( Oryza rufipogon , DXWR) possesses a high degree of drought resistance, the underlying mechanisms of this trait remains unclear. In the present study, cDNA libraries were constructed from the leaf and root tissues of drought-stressed and untreated DXWR seedlings, and transcriptome sequencing was performed with the goal of elucidating the molecular mechanisms involved in drought-stress response. The results indicated that 11231 transcripts were differentially expressed in the leaves (4040 up-regulated and 7191 down-regulated) and 7025 transcripts were differentially expressed in the roots (3097 up-regulated and 3928 down-regulated). Among these differentially expressed genes (DEGs), the detection of many transcriptional factors and functional genes demonstrated that multiple regulatory pathways were involved in drought resistance. Meanwhile, the DEGs were also annotated with gene ontology (GO) terms and key pathways via functional classification and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Gene and Genomes (KEGG) pathway mapping, respectively. A set of the most interesting candidate genes was then identified by combining the DEGs with previously identified drought-resistant quantitative trait loci (QTL). The present work provides abundant genomic information for functional dissection of the drought resistance of DXWR, and findings will further help the current understanding of the biological regulatory mechanisms of drought resistance in plants and facilitate the breeding of new drought-resistant rice cultivars. © 2017 The Author(s).

  6. HARVEST TIME AND PHYSIOLOGIC QUALITY OF SEEDS IN IRRIGATED RICE (Oryza sativa cv. BRS RORAIMA ÉPOCA DE COLHEITA E QUALIDADE FISIOLÓGICA DE SEMENTES EM ARROZ IRRIGADO (Oryza sativa cv. BRS RORAIMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar José Smiderle

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Harvest time is one of most important factors influencing rice seed characteristics for purpose of either planting or milling. With the objective to determine a proper harvesting  time, irrigated rice seeds of cultivar BRS Roraima were harvested at 15, 22, 29, 36, 43 and 50 days after flowering (DAF, and assessed according to humidity, viability, dry mass of 1,000 seeds, whole grain yield, productivity and storability. Seeds harvested 29 DAF showed high quality and its productivity was equivalent to the subsequent periods. Seeds harvested 50 DAF showed good performance, except for whole grain yield. Harvests 15 and 22 DAF were unsuitable, reducing the physiologic quality of seeds, mill efficiency and high initial humidity. The adequate harvest time for cultivar BRS Roraima is between 29 and 43 DAF, when seeds present higher yield, dry mass, whole grain yield, physiologic quality and storability.

    KEY-WORDS: Physiologic quality; whole grain; humidity.

    A época de colheita é um dos fatores mais importantes que influenciam as características da semente de arroz, seja para semeadura ou para consumo. Com o objetivo de determinar a época adequada de colheita de arroz irrigado, para a cultivar BRS Roraima, sementes foram colhidas aos 15, 22, 29, 36, 43 e 50 dias após o florescimento (DAF e avaliadas quanto à umidade, viabilidade, massa seca de 1.000 sementes, rendimento de grãos inteiros, produtividade e armazenabilidade. As sementes colhidas aos 29 DAF

  7. A Non-destructive and Continuous Measurement of Gelatinization of Rice in Rice Cooking Process

    OpenAIRE

    Hagura, Yoshio; Suzuki, Kanichi

    2002-01-01

    A non-destructive and continuous method to measure gelatinization of rice samples in a rice-water system during rice cooking process was examined. An aluminum pot and a lid of a rice cooker were used as two electrode plates, and changes in dielectric properties (capacitance : C, and dielectric dissipation factor : tan δ) of the samples in the rice cooking process were measured by a capacitance meter. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to measure gelatinization enthalpy and to de...

  8. Mutant-inducing effect of γ-ray irradiation for hybrid rice F1 derived from cross of black glutinous rice x wild rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao Dezhi; Tang Yilan

    1998-01-01

    The hybrid rice F 1 plant derived from the back crossing of glutinous rice x wild rice was irradiated with γ-ray. The result of investigation to the induced mutant showed that through the selection and backcross, a black glutinous rice strain with the short stem, cold tolerance and high yield was developed. The analysis of the ability of heredity variance showed that the selection was effective for the husk colour, black glutinous and black Indica rice, but ineffective for the white Indica rice and seed setting

  9. Association mapping of stigma and spikelet characteristics in rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hybrid rice exhibits a yield advantage of 15 to 20 percent (or more than one ton of paddy rice per hectare) over the best traditional varieties. Because rice plants are self-pollinating, commercial production of hybrid seed plays a key role in successful implementation of hybrid rice. Stigma exserti...

  10. Some effects of aldrin-treated rice on Gulf Coast wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flickinger, Edward L.; King, K.A.

    1972-01-01

    Wildlife casualties from aldrin-dieldrin poisoning are associated with the planting of aldrin-treated rice seed along the Texas Gulf Coast. The fulvous tree duck (Dendrocygna bicolor), which depends on the rice field habitats and is highly susceptible to aldrin-dieldrin poisoning, is suffering a serious population decline in that area. Dead waterfowl, shorebirds, and passerines were collected on study areas in Wharton, Brazoria, and Chambers counties, Texas, from 1967 through 1971. Residues of aldrin or dieldrin were found in all samples of bird casualties and in all eggs, scavengers, predators, fish, frogs, invertebrates, and soils. Fulvous tree ducks appeared to be less resistant to aldrin than other ducks. Dieldrin residues in brains of dead fulvous tree ducks were low, but whole-body residues were as high as 16 ppm. Brains of other dead ducks and geese averaged 10 ppm dieldrin. Some dead birds were exposed by eating treated rice seed, but many dead birds with high dieldrin residues were species that feed largely on invertebrates. Although soil residues were low, snails and crayfish contained enough aldrin and dieldrin (average 9.5 ppm) to account for deaths in birds that fed heavily on these invertebrates over a period of time. When fulvous tree ducks were penned for 3 days in fields aerially planted with treated seed, 3 of 10 birds died with brain residues of 2.5, 2.9, and 6.8 ppm dieldrin, and others were intoxicated. None of eight died, and some gained weight, when penned in fields planted with untreated seed. This study adds further evidence for the suspected lethal effects of aldrin-treated rice seed on wild birds and other wildlife in rice field habitats.

  11. COMPETITIVENESS OF NIGERIAN RICE AND MAIZE PRODUCTION ECOLOGIES: A POLICY ANALYSIS APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Olusegun Okoruwa

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The Nigerian rice and maize sectors are faced with decreasing supply and increasing demand as rice and maize have taken a strategic place of other staples leading to excessive importation and increasing government intervention. This study therefore assesses the competitiveness of Nigerian rice and maize production ecologies using the policy analysis matrix (PAM on a sample of 122 farmers. Results of the PAM revealed that outputs from the production ecologies are taxed. This is further confirmed by the Effective protection coefficient (EPC and Subsidy ratio to producers (SRP values, however, the production ecologies are subsidized on the use of tradable inputs. The production ecologies show a strong competitiveness at the farm level (under irrigated rice, upland rice and upland maize and a strong comparative advantage. Sensitivity analysis indicated that a 50 percent increase in output and a 13.3 percent depreciation of the domestic currency will increase competitiveness and comparative advantage of rice and maize production in all ecologies. The study recommends that government should ensure a level of policy stability in the rice and maize sectors, assist farmers with irrigated water scheme to ensure constant water supply, and increase the level of output through provision of improved seed varieties.

  12. Comparing the Bio-Hydrogen Production Potential of Pretreated Rice Straw Co-Digested with Seeded Sludge Using an Anaerobic Bioreactor under Mesophilic Thermophilic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asma Sattar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Three common pretreatments (mechanical, steam explosion and chemical used to enhance the biodegradability of rice straw were compared on the basis of bio-hydrogen production potential while co-digesting rice straw with sludge under mesophilic (37 °C and thermophilic (55 °C temperatures. The results showed that the solid state NaOH pretreatment returned the highest experimental reduction of LCH (lignin, cellulose and hemi-cellulose content and bio-hydrogen production from rice straw. The increase in incubation temperature from 37 °C to 55 °C increased the bio-hydrogen yield, and the highest experimental yield of 60.6 mL/g VSremoved was obtained under chemical pretreatment at 55 °C. The time required for maximum bio-hydrogen production was found on the basis of kinetic parameters as 36 h–47 h of incubation, which can be used as a hydraulic retention time for continuous bio-hydrogen production from rice straw. The optimum pH range of bio-hydrogen production was observed to be 6.7 ± 0.1–5.8 ± 0.1 and 7.1 ± 0.1–5.8 ± 0.1 under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions, respectively. The increase in temperature was found useful for controlling the volatile fatty acids (VFA under mechanical and steam explosion pretreatments. The comparison of pretreatment methods under the same set of experimental conditions in the present study provided a baseline for future research in order to select an appropriate pretreatment method.

  13. Clustering of 18 Local Black Rice Base on Total Anthocyanin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristamtini Kristamtini

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Black rice has a high anthocyanin content in the pericarp layer, which provides a dark purple color. Anthocyanin serve as an antioxidant that control cholesterol level in the blood, prevent anemia, potentially improve the body's resistance to disease, improve damage to liver cells (hepatitis and chirrosis, prevent impaired kidney function, prevent cancer/tumors, slows down antiaging, and prevent atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. Exploration results at AIAT Yogyakarta, Indonesia from 2011 to 2014 obtained 18 cultivar of local black rice Indonesia. The names of the rice are related to the color (black, red or purple formed by anthocyanin deposits in the pericarp layer, seed coat or aleuron. The objective of the study was to classify several types of local black rice from explorations based on the total anthocyanin content. The study was conducted by clustering analyzing the total anthocyanin content of 18 local black rice cultivars in Indonesia. Cluster analysis of total anthocyanin content were done using SAS ver. 9.2. Clustering dendogram shows that there were 4 groups of black rice cultivars based on the total anthocyanin content. Group I consists of Melik black rice, Patalan black rice, Yunianto black rice, Muharjo black rice, Ngatijo black rice, short life of Tugiyo black rice, Andel hitam 1, Jlitheng, and Sragen black rice. Group II consists of Pari ireng, Magelang black hairy rice, Banjarnegara-Wonosobo black rice, and Banjarnegara black rice. Group III consists of NTT black rice, Magelang non hairy black rice, Sembada hitam, and longevity Tugiyo black rice. Group IV consist only one type of black rice namely Cempo ireng. The grouping result indicate the existence of duplicate names among the black rice namely Patalan with Yunianto black rice, and short life Tugiyo with Andel hitam 1 black rice.

  14. Pilot Testing of a Sampling Methodology for Assessing Seed Attachment Propensity and Transport Rate in a Soil Matrix Carried on Boot Soles and Bike Tires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardiman, Nigel; Dietz, Kristina Charlotte; Bride, Ian; Passfield, Louis

    2017-01-01

    Land managers of natural areas are under pressure to balance demands for increased recreation access with protection of the natural resource. Unintended dispersal of seeds by visitors to natural areas has high potential for weedy plant invasions, with initial seed attachment an important step in the dispersal process. Although walking and mountain biking are popular nature-based recreation activities, there are few studies quantifying propensity for seed attachment and transport rate on boot soles and none for bike tires. Attachment and transport rate can potentially be affected by a wide range of factors for which field testing can be time-consuming and expensive. We pilot tested a sampling methodology for measuring seed attachment and transport rate in a soil matrix carried on boot soles and bike tires traversing a known quantity and density of a seed analog (beads) over different distances and soil conditions. We found % attachment rate on boot soles was much lower overall than previously reported, but that boot soles had a higher propensity for seed attachment than bike tires in almost all conditions. We believe our methodology offers a cost-effective option for researchers seeking to manipulate and test effects of different influencing factors on these two dispersal vectors.

  15. Pilot Testing of a Sampling Methodology for Assessing Seed Attachment Propensity and Transport Rate in a Soil Matrix Carried on Boot Soles and Bike Tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardiman, Nigel; Dietz, Kristina Charlotte; Bride, Ian; Passfield, Louis

    2017-01-01

    Land managers of natural areas are under pressure to balance demands for increased recreation access with protection of the natural resource. Unintended dispersal of seeds by visitors to natural areas has high potential for weedy plant invasions, with initial seed attachment an important step in the dispersal process. Although walking and mountain biking are popular nature-based recreation activities, there are few studies quantifying propensity for seed attachment and transport rate on boot soles and none for bike tires. Attachment and transport rate can potentially be affected by a wide range of factors for which field testing can be time-consuming and expensive. We pilot tested a sampling methodology for measuring seed attachment and transport rate in a soil matrix carried on boot soles and bike tires traversing a known quantity and density of a seed analog (beads) over different distances and soil conditions. We found % attachment rate on boot soles was much lower overall than previously reported, but that boot soles had a higher propensity for seed attachment than bike tires in almost all conditions. We believe our methodology offers a cost-effective option for researchers seeking to manipulate and test effects of different influencing factors on these two dispersal vectors.

  16. Aerobic rice mechanization: techniques for crop establishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khusairy, K. M.; Ayob, H.; Chan, C. S.; Fauzi, M. I. Mohamed; Mohamad Fakhrul, Z. O.; Shahril Shah, G. S. M.; Azlan, O.; Rasad, M. A.; Hashim, A. M.; Arshad, Z.; E, E. Ibrahim; Saifulizan, M. N.

    2015-12-01

    Rice being the staple food crops, hundreds of land races in it makes the diversity of rice crops. Aerobic rice production was introduced which requires much less water input to safeguard and sustain the rice production and conserve water due to decreasing water resources, climatic changes and competition from urban and industrial users. Mechanization system plays an important role for the success of aerobic rice cultivation. All farming activities for aerobic rice production are run on aerobic soil conditions. Row seeder mechanization system is developed to replace conventional seeding technique on the aerobic rice field. It is targeted for small and the large scale aerobic rice farmers. The aero - seeder machine is used for the small scale aerobic rice field, while the accord - seeder is used for the large scale aerobic rice field. The use of this mechanization machine can eliminate the tedious and inaccurate seeding operations reduce labour costs and increases work rate. The machine is easy to operate and it can increase crop establishment rate. It reduce missing hill, increasing planting and crop with high yield can be produce. This machine is designed for low costs maintenance and it is easy to dismantle and assemble during maintenance and it is safe to be used.

  17. Armazenamento de sementes de arroz e milho em diferentes embalagens e localidades paulistas Storage of rice and corn seeds in different containers and localities of the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernandes Razera

    1986-01-01

    Full Text Available Acondicionaram-se sementes de arroz 'IAC 1246' (Oryza sativa L. e milho 'Hmd 7974' (Zea mays L. em embalagens permeáveis ao vapor de água - pano, papel, plástico trançado 5 x 5 e 5 x 6 - e na relativamente impermeável - plástico liso, de 0,25 mm de espessura. Mantiveram-nas em condições não controladas de armazém nas localidades de Campinas e Ubatuba, testando-as quanto à umidade, germinação e vigor a cada trimestre, por 36 meses. As sementes armazenadas em Ubatuba deterioraram-se mais rapidamente, sobretudo quando acondicionadas nas embalagens permeáveis. Em Campinas, as sementes de arroz embaladas em sacos de pano mantiveram germinação acima de 80% até os quinze meses, enquanto aquelas de Ubatuba o fizeram somente até os seis meses. O acondicionamento em saco de plástico liso foi bastante vantajoso, principalmente em Ubatuba, onde, aos 15 meses, a germinação das sementes de milho foi nula quando mantidas nas outras embalagens, e de 97,5% quando no saco plástico liso. As embalagens de pano, papel, plástico trançado 5 x 5 e 5 x 6 foram semelhantes entre si na manutenção da germinação e do vigor das sementes. Os resultados obtidos salientaram a grande dificuldade ou mesmo impossibilidade do armazenamento de sementes em áreas, quentes e úmidas, como Ubatuba, a menos que haja controle da temperatura e umidade relativa do ambiente do armazém, ou mediante secagem das sementes até níveis relativamente baixos de umidade (10-11% ou menos seguida de acondicionamento em embalagem que ofereça resistência à troca de umidade. As embalagens permeáveis ao vapor de água mostraram-se bastante práticas para o armazenamento em regiões de clima mais favorável à manutenção da viabilidade das sementes.Seeds of 'IAC 1246' rice (Oryza sativa L. and 'Hmd 7974' hybrid corn (Zea mays L. were packed in water vapor permeable containers as cloth bag, paper bag 5 x 5 and 5 x 6 woven plastic bag; and in a 0.25 mm thick moisture

  18. Development of a Novel Reference Plasmid for Accurate Quantification of Genetically Modified Kefeng6 Rice DNA in Food and Feed Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Reference plasmids are an essential tool for the quantification of genetically modified (GM events. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR is the most commonly used method to characterize and quantify reference plasmids. However, the precision of this method is often limited by calibration curves, and qPCR data can be affected by matrix differences between the standards and samples. Here, we describe a digital PCR (dPCR approach that can be used to accurately measure the novel reference plasmid pKefeng6 and quantify the unauthorized variety of GM rice Kefeng6, eliminating the issues associated with matrix effects in calibration curves. The pKefeng6 plasmid was used as a calibrant for the quantification of Kefeng6 rice by determining the copy numbers of event- (77 bp and taxon-specific (68 bp fragments, their ratios, and their concentrations. The plasmid was diluted to five different concentrations. The third sample (S3 was optimized for the quantification range of dPCR according to previous reports. The ratio between the two fragments was 1.005, which closely approximated the value certified by sequencing, and the concentration was found to be 792 copies/μL. This method was precise, with an RSD of ~3%. These findings demonstrate the advantages of using the dPCR method to characterize reference materials.

  19. Gas chromatographic determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water and smoked rice samples after solid-phase microextraction using multiwalled carbon nanotube loaded hollow fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matin, Amir Abbas; Biparva, Pourya; Gheshlaghi, Mohammad

    2014-12-29

    A novel solid-phase microextraction fiber was prepared based on multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) loaded on hollow fiber membrane pores. Stainless steel wire was used as unbreakable support. The major advantages of the proposed fiber are its (a) high reproducibility due to the uniform structure of the hollow fiber membranes, (b) high extraction capacity related to the porous structure of the hollow fiber and outstanding adsorptive characteristics of MWCNTs. The proposed fiber was applied for the microextraction of five representative polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from aqueous media (river and hubble-bubble water) and smoked rice samples followed by gas chromatographic determination. Analytical merits of the method, including high correlation coefficients [(0.9963-0.9992) and (0.9982-0.9999)] and low detection limits [(9.0-13.0ngL(-1)) and (40.0-150.0ngkg(-1))] for water and rice samples, respectively, made the proposed method suitable for the ultra-trace determination of PAHs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. a survey of rice production and processing in south east nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    agricultural policy makers device the modalities for improving rice production and processing in the area. ... farmers in the South-Eastern Nigeria use manual labour in the seed bed preparation ... Rice is a very important grain food to the world.

  1. Rice microstructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    An understanding of plant structure is desirable to obtain a clear idea of the overall impact of a crop. A mature rice plant consists of leafy components (left in the field post-harvest) and paddy rice (collected). The rice plant is supported by a hollow stem (culm) with leaf sheaths attached to nod...

  2. Does the informal seed system threaten cowpea seed health?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biemond, P.C.; Oguntade, O.; Lava Kumar, P.; Stomph, T.J.; Termorshuizen, A.J.; Struik, P.C.

    2013-01-01

    Most smallholder farmers in developing countries depend on an informal Seed System (SS) for their seed. The informal SS is often criticized because farmer-produced seed samples are not tested for seed health, thus accepting the risk of planting infected seeds. Here we aimed at assessing the quality

  3. EPR in characterization of seeds paramagnetic species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luiz, A.P.C.; Mauro, M.F.F.L.; Portugal, K.O.; Barbana, V.M.; Guedes, C.L.B.; Mauro, E. di; Carneiro, C.E.A.; Zaia, D.A.M.; Prete, C.E.C.

    2011-01-01

    Full text. In Brazil, since 1970s, renewable fuel programs has been developed in order to replace petroleum. Today a program that has been discussed is the bio diesel, which intend to replace diesel fuel, fossil oil, to bio diesel, renewal fuel. As seeds are the basis for production of oil and consequently processed into bio diesel, the goal of this work is to characterize and compare paramagnetic species present in the seeds by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR). Samples used in this study were seeds of sorghum, barley, corn, peanuts, soy beans, cotton, wheat, oats, mustard, rice, sunflower and turnip. Some paramagnetic species present in soil was also investigated as goethite (FeOOH), hematite (Fe 2 O 3 ), magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ), and ferrihydrite (Fe 5 HO 8 · 4H 2 O), since, these species present in appreciable quantities in the soil can be present in the seeds and analyzed for comparison. The characterization of these species is essential to understand the EPR seeds spectra. Each sample is placed in a thin quartz tube 4 mm in diameter, and it is inserted into the cavity of the spectrometer at room temperature, at low temperature (77 K) and variable temperature using liquid nitrogen flow and hot flow through a compressor air. It was used as standard Mg O:Mn 2+ , which is also inserted into the cavity. Shortly after the potency is regulated, frequency, amplitude and sweep the field. The spectroscopic analysis by EPR X-band (∼ 9:5GHz), were performed at the Fluorescence and Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Laboratory, Exact Sciences Center, State University of Londrina, Parana state, Brazil, through an EPR spectrometer JEOL brand (JES-PE-3X). In the EPR spectra, spectroscopic factor or g factor and line width were determined in paramagnetic species. Studies from several seeds with EPR technique detected in all of them presence of same complex of Fe 3+ present in the goethite at g ∼ 2, and in the seeds exist free radicals at g = 2:004, at room temperature

  4. EPR in characterization of seeds paramagnetic species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luiz, A.P.C.; Mauro, M.F.F.L.; Portugal, K.O.; Barbana, V.M.; Guedes, C.L.B.; Mauro, E. di; Carneiro, C.E.A.; Zaia, D.A.M.; Prete, C.E.C. [Universidade Estadual de Londrina (UEL), PR (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Full text. In Brazil, since 1970s, renewable fuel programs has been developed in order to replace petroleum. Today a program that has been discussed is the bio diesel, which intend to replace diesel fuel, fossil oil, to bio diesel, renewal fuel. As seeds are the basis for production of oil and consequently processed into bio diesel, the goal of this work is to characterize and compare paramagnetic species present in the seeds by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR). Samples used in this study were seeds of sorghum, barley, corn, peanuts, soy beans, cotton, wheat, oats, mustard, rice, sunflower and turnip. Some paramagnetic species present in soil was also investigated as goethite (FeOOH), hematite (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}), magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}), and ferrihydrite (Fe{sub 5}HO{sub 8} {center_dot} 4H{sub 2}O), since, these species present in appreciable quantities in the soil can be present in the seeds and analyzed for comparison. The characterization of these species is essential to understand the EPR seeds spectra. Each sample is placed in a thin quartz tube 4 mm in diameter, and it is inserted into the cavity of the spectrometer at room temperature, at low temperature (77 K) and variable temperature using liquid nitrogen flow and hot flow through a compressor air. It was used as standard Mg O:Mn{sup 2+}, which is also inserted into the cavity. Shortly after the potency is regulated, frequency, amplitude and sweep the field. The spectroscopic analysis by EPR X-band ({approx} 9:5GHz), were performed at the Fluorescence and Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Laboratory, Exact Sciences Center, State University of Londrina, Parana state, Brazil, through an EPR spectrometer JEOL brand (JES-PE-3X). In the EPR spectra, spectroscopic factor or g factor and line width were determined in paramagnetic species. Studies from several seeds with EPR technique detected in all of them presence of same complex of Fe{sup 3+} present in the goethite at g {approx} 2, and in the seeds

  5. Comparative studies of drying methods on the seed quality of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seed moisture content (MC) is a key component that determines storability of germplasm conserved in seed genebanks. The purpose of this research was to compare the efficiency of sun-, shade-, silica geland conventional room drying in terms of rice seed MC and viability using seeds of two interspecific progenies ...

  6. Productivity, Profitability and Resource Use Efficiency: A Comparative Analysis between Conventional and High Yielding Rice in Rajbari District, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Yahia Bapari

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The study was analyzed the determinants, costs and benefits and resources allocation of both conventional and high yielding rice cultivation over the Rajbari district of Bangladesh. Data were accumulated from 300 regular rice growers of conventional and high yielding varieties and random sampling technique was applied for selecting the respondents from the study area from which information was collected through pre-tested questionnaire. Cobb – Douglas production function and gross margin were mainly used to determine the productivities and profits of both rice and the marginal value of the product was highly recommended to derive the optimal use of the resources. Results obtained by applying ordinary least square method showed that the most important factors of production in the study area were irrigation, labor, fertilizer and insecticide costs whose elasticities were 0.904, 0.048, 0.045 and 0.044 respectively and insignificant factors were seed and ploughing costs whose elasticities were – 0.009 and 0.030 respectively for high yielding rice. On the other hand, irrigation, insecticide, seed and ploughing costs of elasticities 0.880, 0.589, 0.116 and – 0.127 respectively were the important factors and minor role playing factors were labor and fertilizer costs whose elasticities were 0.098 and 0.077 respectively for conventional yielding rice. The core message from productivity analysis was that the irrigation was key variable which played a positive and vital role in producing rice of both varieties. All variables (resources were economically misallocated in the production activities of both varieties along the study area but high yielding rice was more profitable than conventional one. Results also showed that the farmers of the study area produced rice of both varieties in the inefficient range of production. Continuous supply of electricity, flexible credit and improving the existing resources were the prime policy recommendations of

  7. Small kernel 1 encodes a pentatricopeptide repeat protein required for mitochondrial nad7 transcript editing and seed development in maize (Zea mays) and rice (Oryza sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Jie; Zhang, Ya-Feng; Hou, Mingming; Sun, Feng; Shen, Yun; Xiu, Zhi-Hui; Wang, Xiaomin; Chen, Zong-Liang; Sun, Samuel S M; Small, Ian; Tan, Bao-Cai

    2014-09-01

    RNA editing modifies cytidines (C) to uridines (U) at specific sites in the transcripts of mitochondria and plastids, altering the amino acid specified by the DNA sequence. Here we report the identification of a critical editing factor of mitochondrial nad7 transcript via molecular characterization of a small kernel 1 (smk1) mutant in Zea mays (maize). Mutations in Smk1 arrest both the embryo and endosperm development. Cloning of Smk1 indicates that it encodes an E-subclass pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) protein that is targeted to mitochondria. Loss of SMK1 function abolishes the C → U editing at the nad7-836 site, leading to the retention of a proline codon that is edited to encode leucine in the wild type. The smk1 mutant showed dramatically reduced complex-I assembly and NADH dehydrogenase activity, and abnormal biogenesis of the mitochondria. Analysis of the ortholog in Oryza sativa (rice) reveals that rice SMK1 has a conserved function in C → U editing of the mitochondrial nad7-836 site. T-DNA knock-out mutants showed abnormal embryo and endosperm development, resulting in embryo or seedling lethality. The leucine at NAD7-279 is highly conserved from bacteria to flowering plants, and analysis of genome sequences from many plants revealed a molecular coevolution between the requirement for C → U editing at this site and the existence of an SMK1 homolog. These results demonstrate that Smk1 encodes a PPR-E protein that is required for nad7-836 editing, and this editing is critical to NAD7 function in complex-I assembly in mitochondria, and hence to embryo and endosperm development in maize and rice. © 2014 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Semiquantitative determination of ergot alkaloids in seed, straw, and digesta samples using a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnitzius, J M; Hill, N S; Thompson, C S; Craig, A M

    2001-05-01

    Ergot alkaloids present in endophyte-infected (E+) tall fescue cause fescue toxicosis and other toxic effects in livestock that consume infected plant tissue, leading to significant financial losses in livestock production each year. The predominant method currently in use for quantifying ergot alkaloid content in plant tissue is through high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), which quantifies the amount of ergovaline, one of many ergot alkaloids in E+ plant tissue. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method used in this study detects quantities of nonspecific ergot alkaloids and therefore accounts for greater amounts of the total ergot alkaloid content in E+ tissue than does HPLC. The ELISA can also be used to more expediently analyze a larger number of forage samples without sophisticated and costly analytical equipment and therefore could be more desirable in a diagnostic setting. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the between-day and within-run variability of the ELISA and to determine the binding efficiency of 6 ergot alkaloids to the 15F3.E5 antibody used in the competitive ELISA to ascertain its feasibility as a quick analysis tool for ergot alkaloids. Straw samples had an average coefficient of variation (CV) for concentration of 10.2% within runs and 18.4% between runs, and the seed samples had an average CV for concentration of 13.3% within runs and 24.5% between runs. The grass tissue-based lysergic acid standard curve calculated from the ELISA had an average r2 of 0.99, with a CV of 2.1%. Ergocryptine, ergocristine, ergocornine, and ergotamine tartrate did not bind strongly to the 15F3.E5 antibody because of the presence of large side groups on these molecules, which block their binding to the antibody, whereas ergonovine and ergonovine maleate were bound much more efficiently because of their structural similarity to lysergic acid. Clarified rumen fluid was tested as an additional matrix for use in the ergot alkaloid competitive

  9. Effect of different seeding methods on green manure biomass, soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of different seeding methods on green manure biomass, soil properties and rice yield in rice-based cropping systems. ... The effects of treatments on rice yield and its components were also investigated. ... Based on the results, BBRH and PTS are good practices for production of green manure in paddy soil. Chemical ...

  10. Fluoride levels in commercially available rice in Ethiopia | Tegegne ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alkaline fusion was used for sample preparation of six varieties for both the raw rice and rice cooked with tap water and fluoridated water. Fluoride levels ranged from 0.1-5.5 mg/kg in raw rice sample. Rice which was cooked with different fluoride levels of water showed increment depending on the method of cooking.

  11. Radiation disinfestation of Basmati rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, V.S.; Gholap, A.S.; Adhikari, H.R.; Nair, P.M.

    1994-01-01

    Effect of low dose γ-radiation on prepackaged Basmati rice was studied in order to achieve disinfestation of rice. Basmati rice procured from local market was repacked in 1 kg pouches made from high density polyethylene (HDP) and biaxially oriented polypropylene: low density polyethylene (BOPP/LDP) laminate and irradiated at doses from 0.25-1.0 kGy. Within one month of storage at room temperature, unirradiated (control) Basmati rice developed heavy infestation. No infestation was observed in any of the irradiated samples even at 0.25 kGy and the rice could be stored for 6 months in a clean state. Irradiation (at 0.25 kGy) did not alter the moisture content of the rice. Likewise, no significant change was noted due to irradiation in the functional properties of rice such as swelling index and water absorption and in total volatile components responsible for flavour of Basmati rice. In organoleptic evaluation, no significant difference was found between the acceptability of irradiated (0.25 kGy) and control rice. These results are significant in view of the high export potential of Basmati rice and the transit losses at present due to infestation. (author). 24 refs., 5 tabs., 1 fig

  12. Rice Seedling Substrate Produced by Coal Gangue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHAO Yu-fei

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Peats are the mostly used material in making rice seedling substrate. However, mining peats could cause environmental problems. In order to reduce or replace peats in rice seedling substrate industry, this paper studied suitable way to configure rice seedling. The coal gangue was used to experiment cultivating rice. Four rice seeding experiments were carried out based on physical and chemical properties of materials attributes. The results showed:(1 Coal gangue was feasible for rice seedling; (2 The maximum adding amount of coal gangue was 80%(volume ratio though the coal gangue need to be activated; (3 In the case of no activated treatment only 38%(volume ratio of coal gangue could be added to the substrate.

  13. Evaluation of Heavy Metals Contamination from Environment to Food Matrix by TXRF: The Case of Rice and Rice Husk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabjola Bilo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to the chemical analysis of contaminated soils of India and the rice grown in the same area. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy is a well-established technique for elemental chemical analysis of environmental samples, and it can be a useful tool to assess food safety. Metals uptake in rice crop grown in soils from different areas was studied. In this work soil, rice husk and rice samples were analyzed after complete solubilization of samples by microwave acid digestion. Heavy metals concentration detected in rice samples decreases in the following order: Mn > Zn > Cu > Ni > Pb > Cr. The metal content in rice husk was higher than in rice. This study suggests, for the first time, a possible role of heavy metals filter played by rice husk. The knowledge of metals sequestration capability of rice husk may promote some new management practices for rice cultivation to preserve it from pollution.

  14. Understanding the evolution of rice technology in China - from traditional agriculture to GM rice today.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiaobai

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides an historical survey of the evolution of rice technology in China, from the traditional farming system to genetically modified rice today. Using sociotechnological analytical framework, it analyses rice technology as a socio-technical ensemble - a complex interaction of material and social elements, and discusses the specificity of technology development and its socio-technical outcomes. It points to two imperatives in rice variety development: wholesale transporting agricultural technology and social mechanism to developing countries are likely lead to negative consequences; indigenous innovation including deploying GM technology for seed varietal development and capturing/cultivating local knowledge will provide better solutions.

  15. Effects of Extraction Methods on Phytochemicals of Rice Bran Oils Produced from Colored Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingyai, Sukanya; Srikaeo, Khongsak; Kettawan, Aikkarach; Singanusong, Riantong; Nakagawa, Kiyotaka; Kimura, Fumiko; Ito, Junya

    2018-02-01

    Rice bran oil (RBO) especially from colored rice is rich in phytochemicals and has become popular in food, cosmetic, nutraceutical and pharmaceutical applications owing to its offering health benefits. This study determined the contents of phytochemicals including oryzanols, phytosterols, tocopherols (Toc) and tocotrienols (T3) in RBOs extracted using different methods namely cold-press extraction (CPE), solvent extraction (SE) and supercritical CO 2 extraction (SC-CO 2 ). Two colored rice, Red Jasmine rice (RJM, red rice) and Hom-nin rice (HN, black rice), were studied in comparison with the popular Thai fragrant rice Khao Dawk Mali 105 (KDML 105, white rice). RBOs were found to be the rich source of oryzanols, phytosterols, Toc and T3. Rice varieties had a greater effect on the phytochemicals concentrations than extraction methods. HN rice showed the significantly highest concentration of all phytochemicals, followed by RJM and KDML 105 rice, indicating that colored rice contained high concentration of phytochemicals in the oil than non-colored rice. The RBO samples extracted by the CPE method had a greater concentration of the phytochemicals than those extracted by the SC-CO 2 and SE methods, respectively. In terms of phytochemical contents, HN rice extracted using CPE method was found to be the best.

  16. Iron biofortification of Myanmar rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    May Sann Aung

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Iron (Fe deficiency causes elevates human mortality rates, especially in developing countries. In Myanmar, the prevalence of Fe-deficient anemia in children and pregnant women are 75% and 71%, respectively. Myanmar people have one of the highest per capita rice consumption rates globally. Consequently, production of Fe-biofortified rice would likely contribute to solving the Fe-deficiency problem in this human population. To produce Fe-biofortified Myanmar rice by transgenic methods, we first analyzed callus induction and regeneration efficiencies in 15 varieties that are presently popular because of their high yields and/or qualities. Callus formation and regeneration efficiency in each variety was strongly influenced by types of culture media containing a range of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid concentrations. The Paw San Yin variety, which has a high Fe content in polished seeds, performed well in callus induction and regeneration trials. Thus, we transformed this variety using a gene expression cassette that enhanced Fe transport within rice plants through overexpression of the nicotianamine synthase gene HvNAS1, Fe flow to the endosperm through the Fe(II-nicotianamine transporter gene OsYSL2, and Fe accumulation in endosperm by the Fe storage protein gene SoyferH2. A line with a transgene insertion was successfully obtained. Enhanced expressions of the introduced genes OsYSL2, HvNAS1, and SoyferH2 occurred in immature T2 seeds. The transformants accumulated 3.4-fold higher Fe concentrations, and also 1.3-fold higher zinc concentrations in T2 polished seeds compared to levels in non-transgenic rice. This Fe-biofortified rice has the potential to reduce Fe-deficiency anemia in millions of Myanmar people without changing food habits and without introducing additional costs.

  17. Efficient generation of volatile species for cadmium analysis in seafood and rice samples by a modified chemical vapor generation system coupled with atomic fluorescence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Xin-an; Chi, Miao-bin; Wang, Qing-qing; Zhang, Wang-bing

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We develop a modified chemical vapor generation method coupled with AFS for the determination of cadmium. • The response of Cd could be increased at least four-fold compared to conventional thiourea and Co(II) system. • A simple mixing sequences experiment is designed to study the reaction mechanism. • The interference of transition metal ions can be easily eliminated by adding DDTC. • The method is successfully applied in seafood samples and rice samples. - Abstract: A vapor generation procedure to determine Cd by atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS) has been established. Volatile species of Cd are generated by following reaction of acidified sample containing Fe(II) and L-cysteine (Cys) with sodium tetrahydroborate (NaBH 4 ). The presence of 5 mg L −1 Fe(II) and 0.05% m/v Cys improves the efficiency of Cd vapor generation substantially about four-fold compared with conventional thiourea and Co(II) system. Three experiments with different mixing sequences and reaction times are designed to study the reaction mechanism. The results document that the stability of Cd(II)–Cys complexes is better than Cys–THB complexes (THB means NaBH 4 ) while the Cys–THB complexes have more contribution to improve the Cd vapor generation efficiency than Cd(II)–Cys complexes. Meanwhile, the adding of Fe(II) can catalyze the Cd vapor generation. Under the optimized conditions, the detection limit of Cd is 0.012 μg L −1 ; relative standard deviations vary between 0.8% and 5.5% for replicate measurements of the standard solution. In the presence of 0.01% DDTC, Cu(II), Pb(II) and Zn(II) have no significant influence up to 5 mg L −1 , 10 mg L −1 and 10 mg L −1 , respectively. The accuracy of the method is verified through analysis of the certificated reference materials and the proposed method has been applied in the determination of Cd in seafood and rice samples

  18. Efficient generation of volatile species for cadmium analysis in seafood and rice samples by a modified chemical vapor generation system coupled with atomic fluorescence spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Xin-an, E-mail: 13087641@qq.com; Chi, Miao-bin, E-mail: 1161306667@qq.com; Wang, Qing-qing, E-mail: wangqq8812@163.com; Zhang, Wang-bing, E-mail: ahutwbzh@163.com

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • We develop a modified chemical vapor generation method coupled with AFS for the determination of cadmium. • The response of Cd could be increased at least four-fold compared to conventional thiourea and Co(II) system. • A simple mixing sequences experiment is designed to study the reaction mechanism. • The interference of transition metal ions can be easily eliminated by adding DDTC. • The method is successfully applied in seafood samples and rice samples. - Abstract: A vapor generation procedure to determine Cd by atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS) has been established. Volatile species of Cd are generated by following reaction of acidified sample containing Fe(II) and L-cysteine (Cys) with sodium tetrahydroborate (NaBH{sub 4}). The presence of 5 mg L{sup −1} Fe(II) and 0.05% m/v Cys improves the efficiency of Cd vapor generation substantially about four-fold compared with conventional thiourea and Co(II) system. Three experiments with different mixing sequences and reaction times are designed to study the reaction mechanism. The results document that the stability of Cd(II)–Cys complexes is better than Cys–THB complexes (THB means NaBH{sub 4}) while the Cys–THB complexes have more contribution to improve the Cd vapor generation efficiency than Cd(II)–Cys complexes. Meanwhile, the adding of Fe(II) can catalyze the Cd vapor generation. Under the optimized conditions, the detection limit of Cd is 0.012 μg L{sup −1}; relative standard deviations vary between 0.8% and 5.5% for replicate measurements of the standard solution. In the presence of 0.01% DDTC, Cu(II), Pb(II) and Zn(II) have no significant influence up to 5 mg L{sup −1}, 10 mg L{sup −1}and 10 mg L{sup −1}, respectively. The accuracy of the method is verified through analysis of the certificated reference materials and the proposed method has been applied in the determination of Cd in seafood and rice samples.

  19. Population genomics identifies the origin and signatures of selection of Korean weedy rice

    OpenAIRE

    He, Qiang; Kim, Kyu?Won; Park, Yong?Jin

    2016-01-01

    Summary Weedy rice is the same biological species as cultivated rice (Oryza sativa); it is also a noxious weed infesting rice fields worldwide. Its formation and population?selective or ?adaptive signatures are poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the phylogenetics, population structure and signatures of selection of Korean weedy rice by determining the whole genomes of 30 weedy rice, 30 landrace rice and ten wild rice samples. The phylogenetic tree and results of ancestry infere...

  20. Effects of salt stress on germination and early seedling growth of rice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-12-05

    Dec 5, 2011 ... the relationship between speed of germination and seed vigor, salt stress decreased seed vigor of rice cultivars LD a superior ... Key words: Salinity, seed germination, seedling property, seed vigor. INTRODUCTION ... The salt solutions were prepared based on the methods by. (Rhoades et al., 1992) with ...

  1. Extraction of Some Divalent Metal Ions (Cadmium, Nickel and Lead from Different Tea and Rice Samples Using Ghezeljeh Nanoclay (Geleh-Sar-Shoor as a New Natural Sorbent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Hassanzadeh Siahpoosh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the method of extraction-preconcentration of Lead, Cadmium, and Nickel ions from food samples using the Ghezeljeh montmorillonite nanoclay (Geleh-Sar-Shoor as a new native adsorbent in batch single component systems. The extraction-preconcentration of heavy metals were carried out by applying the solid phase extraction (SPE method followed by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS, and inductively coupled with plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES. The Ghezeljeh nanoclay was characterized by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, Scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectrometer operating (SEM-EDS, X-ray diffractometry (XRD, X-ray fluorescence (XRF, Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC measurements, BET specific surface area and Zeta potential. According to BET theory, the specific surface areas of the Ghezeljeh nanoclay was calculated to be 19.8 m2 g-1 whereas the cation exchange capacity was measured to be 150 meq/100 g. The results of XRD, XRF, FT-IR, Zeta potential and BET surface area of the nanoclay confirmed that montmorillonite was the dominant mineral phase. Based on SEM images of this clay, it can be seen that the distance between the plates is nm level. For all three ions, the detection and quantification limits, dynamic linear range, preconcentration factor, and adsorption capacity were obtained. The effect of various interfering ions was studied. The experimental method was successfully applied for the extraction of heavy metals in different tea and rice samples.

  2. Rendimento do arroz e manejo da irrigação e da palha de azevém no sistema mix de pré-germinado Rice yield and management of irrigation and ryegrass straw on flooded rice in no tillage and water seed system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo González Pinto

    2003-04-01

    limiting factor in many agricultural areas, when high productivity is the objective. Alternative system of crop cultivation using no tillage on flooded water seed system can be used to minimize the problem. Although this system has technical and economical advantages on the production chain, especially on red rice control, anaerobic process of ryegrass straw decomposition may produce toxic substances to rice plants establishment. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of different water irrigation management and the amount of ryegrass straw on grain yield and yield components on paddy rice cultivated. The experiment was conducted in greenhouse, during the 1998/99 crop growing season, on Hidromorphy Planosoil, sandy Eutrophic, soil mapping unit "Vacacaí", over ryegrass crop residue at the Federal University of Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS. The rice cultivar IRGA 417 was used. A completely randomized design factorial (3x3, three water management (with neither vertical nor surface in-out water flow over the soil, with drainage and surface water flow and three amount of ryegrass straw (0.0 t ha-1, 3.43 t ha-1 and 6.86 t ha-1. The data demonstrated that a permanent flooding with neither vertical nor surface in-out water flow reduce dry matter above ground and grain yield when compared to the treatments with drainage and surface in-out water flow. Increasing the amount of ryegrass straw on the no-tillage water seed system, with neither vertical nor surface in-out water flow, on the flooded water the grain yield is reduced.

  3. Biofortified rice with enhanced nutrition Swapan K Datta, Visva ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kabari

    Low Phytate rice β-carotene + ... Preschool children. Pregnant ... maternal night blindness, based on extant ... the parental line used for anther culture .... Based on the substantial equivalence concept of OECD, the analyzed transgenic seeds.

  4. Assessment of reproductive capacity of seeds sampled from natural populations of plants from a territory contaminated with radionuclides and heavy metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vakhusheva, O.; Evseeva, T. [Institute of biology Komi SC Ural Branch of RAS (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    Plants are an essential component of any ecosystem and are permanently exposed to soil contamination. Therefore, they are widely used for characterization of ecological situation of the territory. Located at the base of the food chain, plants are exposed to toxic agents before the organisms at higher trophic levels. Kirovo-Chepetsk chemical plant (Kirov, Russia) is one of the biggest chemical enterprises in Europe. Vascular plant communities from surrounding area are exposed to industrial wastes, including uranium production wastes from 1938. The aim of this work was to estimate reproductive capacity of Urtica dioica L., Cirsium setosum (Willd.) Bess and Filipendula ulmaria (L.) Maxim - natural populations inhabiting the chemical plant industrial zone. The plant species studied are common for the meadow communities of south taiga zone, and are characterized by high seed yield and living in wide range of ecological conditions. Plant seeds were collected from two experimental sites with different soil contamination levels, located in the vicinity of the Kirovo-Chepetsk chemical plant, as well as from the reference site, in 2011 and 2012. Soil specific activities of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr and concentrations of Ni, Pb, Cd, Zn, Hg and Cu were measured and ecological criteria of the radioactive (C{sub r}) and chemical (C{sub c}) contamination of the soil cover were calculated. Seeds germination, germinative energy and seedling survival rate were used for assessing reproductive capacity. Urtica dioicawas found to be the most sensitive among plant species studied. Germination of seeds from contaminated sites was significantly lower compared with the reference values. Exponential relationship was found between the levels of soil radioactive contamination and seeds germination (R{sup 2}=0.8, p<0.001). Germination of Cirsium setosum seeds, sampled from contaminated sites, exceeded the values obtained for the reference plant population and was linearly dependent (R{sup 2

  5. Multiplex PCR assay for simultaneous detection of six major bacterial pathogens of rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Z; Ojaghian, M R; Tao, Z; Kakar, K U; Zeng, J; Zhao, W; Duan, Y; Vera Cruz, C M; Li, B; Zhu, B; Xie, G

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a multiplex PCR (mPCR) assay for rapid, sensitive and simultaneous detection of six important rice pathogens: Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, X. oryzae pv. oryzicola, Pseudomonas fuscovaginae, Burkholderia glumae, Burkholderia gladioli and Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae. Specific primers were designed through a bioinformatics pipeline. Sensitivity of detection was established using both traditional PCR and quantitative real-time PCR on isolated DNA and on bacterial cells both in vitro and in simulated diseased seeds and the parameters were optimized for an mPCR assay. A total of 150 bacterial strains were tested for specificity. The mPCR assay accurately predicted the presence of pathogens among 44 symptomatic and asymptomatic rice seed, sheath and leaf samples. This study confirmed that this mPCR assay is a rapid, reliable and simple tool for the simultaneous detection of six important rice bacterial pathogens. This study is the first report of a method allowing simultaneous detection of six major rice pathogens. The ability to use crude extracts from plants without bacterial isolation or DNA extraction enhances the value of this mPCR technology for rapid detection and aetiological/epidemiological studies. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  6. Transcriptomic analysis of rice aleurone cells identified a novel abscisic acid response element.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kenneth A; Homayouni, Arielle; Gu, Lingkun; Huang, Kuan-Ying; Ho, Tuan-Hua David; Shen, Qingxi J

    2017-09-01

    Seeds serve as a great model to study plant responses to drought stress, which is largely mediated by abscisic acid (ABA). The ABA responsive element (ABRE) is a key cis-regulatory element in ABA signalling. However, its consensus sequence (ACGTG(G/T)C) is present in the promoters of only about 40% of ABA-induced genes in rice aleurone cells, suggesting other ABREs may exist. To identify novel ABREs, RNA sequencing was performed on aleurone cells of rice seeds treated with 20 μM ABA. Gibbs sampling was used to identify enriched elements, and particle bombardment-mediated transient expression studies were performed to verify the function. Gene ontology analysis was performed to predict the roles of genes containing the novel ABREs. This study revealed 2443 ABA-inducible genes and a novel ABRE, designated as ABREN, which was experimentally verified to mediate ABA signalling in rice aleurone cells. Many of the ABREN-containing genes are predicted to be involved in stress responses and transcription. Analysis of other species suggests that the ABREN may be monocot specific. This study also revealed interesting expression patterns of genes involved in ABA metabolism and signalling. Collectively, this study advanced our understanding of diverse cis-regulatory sequences and the transcriptomes underlying ABA responses in rice aleurone cells. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Variation in Grain Quality of Upland Rice from Luang Prabang Province, Lao PDR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vua Xiongsiyee

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Luang Prabang Province is located within the area recognized as the center of rice (Oryza sativa L. diversity in Lao PDR. This study reported on grain quality characteristics of 60 upland rice seed samples sharing 49 variety names collected from 6 villages in Luang Prabang in 2015. Most of the samples has non-pigmented pericarp, while red pericarp was found in four samples and purple in five samples. Almost all of the samples were of large grain type, with glutinous endosperm in 70% and non-glutinous endosperm in 30%. The brown (unpolished rice was found with a wide range of grain nutritional quality, including protein (9.2% ± 0.9%, Fe (15.9 ± 6.9 mg/kg, Zn (19.6 ± 2.1 mg/kg, anthocyanin (0.774 ± 0.880 mg/g, and anti-oxidative capacity (2.071 ± 1.373 mg/g. The varieties sharing similar names had similar morphological characteristics but varied in nutritional concentration, with required confirmation in genetic variation analysis. This study found that some rice varieties with high grain quality may benefit the farmers directly or could be used in varietal improvement programs.

  8. From Early Domesticated Rice of the Middle Yangtze Basin to Millet, Rice and Wheat Agriculture: Archaeobotanical Macro-Remains from Baligang, Nanyang Basin, Central China (6700–500 BC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zhenhua; Qin, Ling; Gao, Yu; Weisskopf, Alison Ruth; Zhang, Chi; Fuller, Dorian Q.

    2015-01-01

    Baligang is a Neolithic site on a northern tributary of the middle Yangtze and provides a long archaeobotanical sequence from the Seventh Millennium BC upto the First Millennium BC. It provides evidence for developments in rice and millet agriculture influenced by shifting cultural affiliation with the north (Yangshao and Longshan) and south (Qujialing and Shijiahe) between 4300 and 1800 BC. This paper reports on plant macro-remains (seeds), from systematic flotation of 123 samples (1700 litres), producing more than 10,000 identifiable remains. The earliest Pre-Yangshao occupation of the sites provide evidence for cultivation of rice (Oryza sativa) between 6300–6700 BC. This rice appears already domesticated in on the basis of a dominance of non-shattering spikelet bases. However, in terms of grain size changes has not yet finished, as grains are still thinner than more recent domesaticated rice and are closer in grain shape to wild rices. This early rice was cultivated alongside collection of wild staple foods, especially acorns (Quercus/Lithicarpus sensu lato). In later periods the sites has evidence for mixed farming of both rice and millets (Setaria italica and Panicum miliaceum). Soybean appears on the site in the Shijiahe period (ca.2500 BC) and wheat (Triticum cf. aestivum) in the Late Longshan levels (2200–1800 BC). Weed flora suggests an intensification of rice agriculture over time with increasing evidence of wetland weeds. We interpret these data as indicating early opportunistic cultivation of alluvial floodplains and some rainfed rice, developing into more systematic and probably irrigated cultivation starting in the Yangshao period, which intensified in the Qujialing and Shijiahe period, before a shift back to an emphasis on millets with the Late Longshan cultural influence from the north. PMID:26460975

  9. From Early Domesticated Rice of the Middle Yangtze Basin to Millet, Rice and Wheat Agriculture: Archaeobotanical Macro-Remains from Baligang, Nanyang Basin, Central China (6700-500 BC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenhua Deng

    Full Text Available Baligang is a Neolithic site on a northern tributary of the middle Yangtze and provides a long archaeobotanical sequence from the Seventh Millennium BC upto the First Millennium BC. It provides evidence for developments in rice and millet agriculture influenced by shifting cultural affiliation with the north (Yangshao and Longshan and south (Qujialing and Shijiahe between 4300 and 1800 BC. This paper reports on plant macro-remains (seeds, from systematic flotation of 123 samples (1700 litres, producing more than 10,000 identifiable remains. The earliest Pre-Yangshao occupation of the sites provide evidence for cultivation of rice (Oryza sativa between 6300-6700 BC. This rice appears already domesticated in on the basis of a dominance of non-shattering spikelet bases. However, in terms of grain size changes has not yet finished, as grains are still thinner than more recent domesaticated rice and are closer in grain shape to wild rices. This early rice was cultivated alongside collection of wild staple foods, especially acorns (Quercus/Lithicarpus sensu lato. In later periods the sites has evidence for mixed farming of both rice and millets (Setaria italica and Panicum miliaceum. Soybean appears on the site in the Shijiahe period (ca.2500 BC and wheat (Triticum cf. aestivum in the Late Longshan levels (2200-1800 BC. Weed flora suggests an intensification of rice agriculture over time with increasing evidence of wetland weeds. We interpret these data as indicating early opportunistic cultivation of alluvial floodplains and some rainfed rice, developing into more systematic and probably irrigated cultivation starting in the Yangshao period, which intensified in the Qujialing and Shijiahe period, before a shift back to an emphasis on millets with the Late Longshan cultural influence from the north.

  10. Identifying molecular markers associated with stigma characteristics in rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stigma characteristics play essential roles in hybrid seed production of rice and marker-assisted breeding plays essential role because they are quantitatively inherited with single-flowered perfect spikelet. Ninety four accessions originated from 47 countries were selected from the USDA rice core c...

  11. Effects of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant (GMHT) rice on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2010-05-24

    May 24, 2010 ... To detect potential changes in properties of weed communities in fields of ... the hypothesis that the difference between the effect of GMHT rice Bar68-1 ... seed production, to raise purity of parents of hybrid rice, ... 3. 120. 20 × 20 cm. 2007. B. May 18. Jun 5. Aug 29 Aug 5, Sept 4. ..... part of agrobiodiversity.

  12. Rice yield prediction from yield components and limiting factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casanova, D.; Goudriaan, J.; Catala Former, M.M.; Withagen, J.C.M.

    2002-01-01

    This article aims to quantify growth at field level in relation to crop status and soil properties in irrigated direct-seeded rice. Forty fields were selected in the Ebro Delta (Spain). Rice growth was monitored and soil properties measured. Yield was related to soil properties by a deductive

  13. GINES: first rice mutant obtained from proton irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, Maria C; Perez, Noraida; Cristo, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    A new rice variety of a good productive potential and salinity tolerance was obtained at the National Institute of Agricultural Sciences (INCA), starting from in vitro culture of J-104 rice seeds irradiated with protons. This is the first report of a variety achieved by proton irradiation

  14. Phytase activity in brown rice during steeping and sprouting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ou, K.; Cheng, Y.; Xing, Y.; Lin, L.; Nout, M.J.R.; Liang, J.

    2011-01-01

    Phytase in brown rice will be activated and accumulated during seed germination. Changes of phytase activity in brown rice during two stages of germination (steeping and sprouting) affected by process conditions were studied. It was shown that steeping led to significant decrease of phytase activity

  15. A resting box for outdoor sampling of adult Anopheles arabiensis in rice irrigation schemes of lower Moshi, northern Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Msangi Shandala

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria vector sampling is the best method for understanding the vector dynamics and infectivity; thus, disease transmission seasonality can be established. There is a need to protecting humans involved in the sampling of disease vectors during surveillance or in control programmes. In this study, human landing catch, two cow odour baited resting boxes and an unbaited resting box were evaluated as vector sampling tools in an area with a high proportion of Anopheles arabiensis, as the major malaria vector. Methods Three resting boxes were evaluated against human landing catch. Two were baited with cow odour, while the third was unbaited. The inner parts of the boxes were covered with black cloth materials. Experiments were arranged in latin-square design. Boxes were set in the evening and left undisturbed; mosquitoes were collected at 06:00 am the next morning, while human landing catch was done overnight. Results A total of 9,558 An. arabiensis mosquitoes were collected. 17.5% (N = 1668 were collected in resting box baited with cow body odour, 42.5% (N = 4060 in resting box baited with cow urine, 15.1% (N = 1444 in unbaited resting box and 24.9% (N = 2386 were collected by human landing catch technique. In analysis, the house positions had no effect on the density of mosquitoes caught (DF = 3, F = 0.753, P = 0.387; the sampling technique had significant impact on the caught mosquitoes densities (DF = 3, F 37. 944, P Conclusion Odour-baited resting boxes have shown the possibility of replacing the existing traditional method (human landing catch for sampling malaria vectors in areas with a high proportion of An. arabiensis as malaria vectors. Further evaluations of fermented urine and longevity of the urine odour still need to be investigated.

  16. A virtual seed file: the use of multispectral image analysis in the management of genebank seed accessions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adsetts Edberg Hansen, Michael; R. Hay, Fiona; Carstensen, Jens Michael

    2015-01-01

    We present a method for multispectral seed phenotyping as a fast and robust tool for managing genebank accessions. A multispectral vision system was used to take images of the seeds of 20 diverse varieties of rice (approximately 30 seeds for each variety). This was followed by extraction of feature...

  17. Responses of bacterial communities in arable soils in a rice-wheat cropping system to different fertilizer regimes and sampling times.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Zhao

    Full Text Available Soil physicochemical properties, soil microbial biomass and bacterial community structures in a rice-wheat cropping system subjected to different fertilizer regimes were investigated in two seasons (June and October. All fertilizer regimes increased the soil microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen. Both fertilizer regime and time had a significant effect on soil physicochemical properties and bacterial community structure. The combined application of inorganic fertilizer and manure organic-inorganic fertilizer significantly enhanced the bacterial diversity in both seasons. The bacterial communities across all samples were dominated by Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria and Chloroflexi at the phylum level. Permutational multivariate analysis confirmed that both fertilizer treatment and season were significant factors in the variation of the composition of the bacterial community. Hierarchical cluster analysis based on Bray-Curtis distances further revealed that bacterial communities were separated primarily by season. The effect of fertilizer treatment is significant (P = 0.005 and accounts for 7.43% of the total variation in bacterial community. Soil nutrients (e.g., available K, total N, total P and organic matter rather than pH showed significant correlation with the majority of abundant taxa. In conclusion, both fertilizer treatment and seasonal changes affect soil properties, microbial biomass and bacterial community structure. The application of NPK plus manure organic-inorganic fertilizer may be a sound fertilizer practice for sustainable food production.

  18. Bacterial community variations in an alfalfa-rice rotation system revealed by 16S rRNA gene 454-pyrosequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Ana R; Manaia, Célia M; Nunes, Olga C

    2014-03-01

    Crop rotation is a practice harmonized with the sustainable rice production. Nevertheless, the implications of this empirical practice are not well characterized, mainly in relation to the bacterial community composition and structure. In this study, the bacterial communities of two adjacent paddy fields in the 3rd and 4th year of the crop rotation cycle and of a nonseeded subplot were characterized before rice seeding and after harvesting, using 454-pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Although the phyla Acidobacteria, Proteobacteria, Chloroflexi, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes predominated in all the samples, there were variations in relative abundance of these groups. Samples from the 3rd and 4th years of the crop rotation differed on the higher abundance of groups of presumable aerobic bacteria and of presumable anaerobic and acidobacterial groups, respectively. Members of the phylum Nitrospira were more abundant after rice harvest than in the previously sampled period. Rice cropping was positively correlated with the abundance of members of the orders Acidobacteriales and 'Solibacterales' and negatively with lineages such as Chloroflexi 'Ellin6529'. Studies like this contribute to understand variations occurring in the microbial communities in soils under sustainable rice production, based on real-world data. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. On-farm management practices against rice root weevil (Echinocnemus oryzae Marshall)

    OpenAIRE

    Rakesh Pandey; Ajit Kumar Chaturvedi; Rudal Prasad Chaudhary; Rajendra Prasad

    2017-01-01

    Rice is the staple food of over half the world's population and occupies almost one-fifth of the global cropland under cereals. The rice root weevil, Echinocnemus oryzae Marshall, (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) has posed a problem in paddy cultivation areas in India. The damage by this root weevil results in a significant decrease in root and shoot biomass and ultimately the yield of rice plants. Studies were conducted to test the effective management practices of rice root weevil using a seedli...

  20. Efficacy of oral immunotherapy with a rice-based edible vaccine containing hypoallergenic Japanese cedar pollen allergens for treatment of established allergic conjunctivitis in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Fukuda

    2018-01-01

    Conclusions: Oral administration of transgenic rice seeds expressing hypoallergenic allergens ameliorated allergic conjunctivitis in the established setting. Such a rice-based edible vaccine is potentially both safe and effective for oral immunotherapy in individuals with allergic conjunctivitis.

  1. (Heckel) seeds

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UTILISATEUR

    Garcinia kola seeds to six different hormonal pre-germination treatments. This consisted of ... Thus, seed dormancy in this case is not a coat- imposed .... development of the cultivation of the species. The cause .... Hormonal regulation of seed ...

  2. Rice production in relation to soil quality under different rice-based cropping systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran Ba, Linh; Sleutel, Steven; Nguyen Van, Qui; Thi, Guong Vo; Le Van, Khoa; Cornelis, Wim

    2016-04-01

    Soil quality of shallow paddy soils may be improved by introducing upland crops and thus a more diverse crop cultivation pattern. Yet, the causal relationship between crop performance and enhanced soil traits in rice-upland crop rotations remains elusive. The objectives of this study were to (i) find correlations among soil properties under different rice-upland crop systems and link selected soil properties to rice growth and yield, (ii) present appropriate values of soil parameters for sustainable rice productivity in heavy clay soil, (iii) evaluate the effect of rotating rice with upland crops on rice yield and economic benefit in a long-term experiment. A rice-upland crop rotational field experiment in the Vietnamese Mekong delta was conducted for 10 years using a randomized complete block design with four treatments and four replications. Treatments were: (i) rice-rice-rice (control - conventional system as farmers' practice), (ii) rice-maize-rice, (iii) rice-mung bean-rice, and (iv) rice-mung bean-maize. Soil and plant sampling were performed after harvest of the rice crop at the end of the final winter-spring cropping season (i.e. year 10). Results show differences in rice growth and yield, and economic benefit as an effect of the crop rotation system. These differences were linked with changes in bulk density, soil porosity, soil aggregate stability index, soil penetration resistance, soil macro-porosity, soil organic carbon, acid hydrolysable soil C and soil nutrient elements, especially at soil depth of 20-30 cm. This is evidenced by the strong correlation (P < 0.01) between rice plant parameters, rice yield and soil properties such as bulk density, porosity, penetration resistance, soil organic carbon and Chydrolysable. It turned out that good rice root growth and rice yield corresponded to bulk density values lower than 1.3 Mg m-3, soil porosity higher than 50%, penetration resistance below 1.0 MPa, and soil organic carbon above 25 g kg-1. The optimal

  3. Determinants of rice output among ADP contact farmers in mining ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study analyzed factors affecting rice output among Agricultural Development Programme (ADP) contact farmers in the mining and non mining locations of IVO LGA of Ebonyi State, Nigeria. Multistage random sampling technique was used to select agricultural circles and rice farmers. The sample size was 120 rice ...

  4. Enhancing Productivity and Resource Conservation by Eliminating Inefficiency of Thai Rice Farmers: A Zero Inefficiency Stochastic Frontier Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianxu Liu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The study first identified fully efficient farmers and then estimated technical efficiency of inefficient farmers, identifying their determinants by applying a Zero Inefficiency Stochastic Frontier Model (ZISFM on a sample of 300 rice farmers from central-northern Thailand. Next, the study developed scenarios of potential production increase and resource conservation if technical inefficiency was eliminated. Results revealed that 13% of the sampled farmers were fully efficient, thereby justifying the use of our approach. The estimated mean technical efficiency was 91%, implying that rice production can be increased by 9%, by reallocating resources. Land and labor were the major productivity drivers. Education significantly improved technical efficiency. Farmers who transplanted seedlings were relatively technically efficient as compared to those who practised manual and/or mechanical direct seeding methods. Elimination of technical inefficiency could increase output by 8.64% per ha, or generate 5.7–6.4 million tons of additional rice output for Thailand each year. Similarly, elimination of technical inefficiency would potentially conserve 19.44% person-days of labor, 11.95% land area, 11.46% material inputs and 8.67% mechanical power services for every ton of rice produced. This translates into conservation of 2.9–3.0 million person-days of labor, 3.7–4.5 thousand km2 of land, 10.0–14.5 billion baht of material input and 7.6–12.8 billion baht of mechanical power costs to produce current level of rice output in Thailand each year. Policy implications include investment into educating farmers, and improving technical knowledge of seeding technology, to boost rice production and conserve scarce resources in Thailand.

  5. Does size really matter? A sensitivity analysis of number of seeds in a respondent-driven sampling study of gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men in Vancouver, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachowsky, Nathan John; Sorge, Justin Tyler; Raymond, Henry Fisher; Cui, Zishan; Sereda, Paul; Rich, Ashleigh; Roth, Eric A; Hogg, Robert S; Moore, David M

    2016-11-16

    Respondent-driven sampling (RDS) is an increasingly used peer chain-recruitment method to sample "hard-to-reach" populations for whom there are no reliable sampling frames. Implementation success of RDS varies; one potential negative factor being the number of seeds used. We conducted a sensitivity analysis on estimates produced using data from an RDS study of gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (GBMSM) aged ≥16 years living in Vancouver, Canada. Participants completed a questionnaire on demographics, sexual behavior and substance use. For analysis, we used increasing seed exclusion criteria, starting with all participants and subsequently removing unproductive seeds, chains of ≤1 recruitment waves, and chains of ≤2 recruitment waves. We calculated estimates for three different outcomes (HIV serostatus, condomless anal intercourse with HIV discordant/unknown status partner, and injecting drugs) using three different RDS weighting procedures: RDS-I, RDS-II, and RDS-SS. We also assessed seed dependence with bottleneck analyses and convergence plots. Statistical differences between RDS estimators were assessed through simulation analysis. Overall, 719 participants were recruited, which included 119 seeds and a maximum of 16 recruitment waves (mean chain length = 1.7). The sample of >0 recruitment waves removed unproductive seeds (n = 50/119, 42.0%), resulting in 69 chains (mean length = 3.0). The sample of >1 recruitment waves removed 125 seeds or recruits (17.4% of overall sample), resulting in 37 chains (mean length = 4.8). The final sample of >2 recruitment waves removed a further 182 seeds or recruits (25.3% of overall sample), resulting in 25 chains (mean length = 6.1). Convergence plots and bottleneck analyses of condomless anal intercourse with HIV discordant/unknown status partner and injecting drugs outcomes were satisfactory. For these two outcomes, regardless of seed exclusion criteria used, the crude proportions

  6. The dynamics of rice production in Indonesia 1961–2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah R. Panuju

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rice is one of the important agricultural products in Indonesia. The production has been fully supported by infrastructure including research and development as well as government regulations in pricing. Its vulnerability to climate change requires adaptation strategies on irrigation, biotechnology and selection of alternative crops. The primary goal of this paper was to evaluate the historical perspective of the dynamics of rice production, technologies particularly in seed inventions, labour in farming and consumption of rice from 1961 to 2009 in conjunction with land capability. The study of historical rice production could be a benefit for future agricultural planning in Indonesia.

  7. Rice breeding with induced mutations in France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marie, R [Station d' Amelioration des Plantes, Institut National de Recherches Agronomiques, Montpellier (France)

    1970-03-01

    Mutation experiments with rice at Montpellier yielded strains with improved lodging resistance, grain size, maturing time, milling quality and other characters. The general performance of these mutant strains was tested in field trials. Further mutagenic treatments were made to improve the high-yielding short grain varieties with regard to grain quality and seed dormancy. (author)

  8. Allelopathic potential of selected rice varieties

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl10

    2012-11-01

    Nov 1, 2012 ... 1Faculty of Agro Based Industry, Universiti Malaysia Kelantan, 17600 Jeli, Kelantan, Malaysia. ... experiment was laid out in completely randomized design. ..... Mixed-Cultures. PLoS ONE 7(5):e37201. Islam M (2010). Allelopathic effects of rice varieties on seed germination and seedling growth of lettuce.

  9. Rice genetic resources in postwar Sierra Leone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chakanda, R.T.M.

    2009-01-01

    This research presents the effect of the 10-year long civil war in Sierra Leone on rice genetic resources, using farmers and their seed systems in three selected districts as reference points. The war disrupted all forms of production and development in the country and like other sectors of the

  10. Whole-plant dynamic system of nitrogen use for vegetative growth and grain filling in rice plants (Oryza sativa L. as revealed through the production of 350 grains from a germinated seed over 150 days: a review and synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadakatsu Yoneyama

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A single germinated rice (Oryza sativa L seed can produce 350 grains with the sequential development of 15 leaves on the main stem and 7 ‒ 10 leaves on 4 productive tillers (forming 5 panicles in total, using nitrogen (N taken up from the environment over a 150-day growing season. Nitrogen travels from uptake sites to the grain through growing organ-directed cycling among sequentially developed organs. Over the past 40 years, the dynamic system for N allocation during vegetative growth and grain filling has been elucidated through studies on N and 15N transport as well as enzymes and transporters involved. In this review, we synthesize the information obtained in these studies along the following main points: (1 During vegetative growth before grain-filling, about half of the total N in the growing organs, including young leaves, tillers, root tips and differentiating panicles is supplied via phloem from mature source organs such as leaves and roots, after turnover and remobilization of proteins, whereas the other half is newly taken up and supplied via xylem, with an efficient xylem-to-phloem transfer at stem nodes. Thus, the growth of new organs depends equally on both N sources. (2 A large fraction (as much as 80% of the grain N is derived largely from mature organs such as leaves and stems by degradation, including the autophagy pathway of chloroplast proteins (e.g., Rubisco. (3 Mobilized proteinogenic amino acids, including arginine, lysine, proline and valine, are derived mainly from protein degradation, with amino acid transporters playing a role in transferring these amino acids across cell membranes of source and sink organs, and enabling their efficient reutilization in the latter. On the other hand, amino acids such as glutamine, glutamic acid, γ-amino butyric acid, aspartic acid, and alanine are produced by assimilation of newly taken up N by roots and transported via xylem and phloem. The formation of 350 filled grains over 50

  11. Soil to rice transfer factors for 210Pb: a study on rice grown in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karunakara, N.; Rao, Chetan; Ujwal, P.; Yashodhara, I.; Sudeep Kumara; Somashekarappa, H.M.; Bhaskara Shenoy, K.; Ravi, P.M.

    2013-01-01

    India is the second largest producer of rice (Oryza sativa L.) in the world and rice is the essential component of the diet for the majority of the population of India. However, detailed studies aimed at evaluation of radionuclide transfer factors (F v ) for rice grown in India are almost non-existent. This paper presents soil to rice transfer factors for 210 Pb for rice grown in natural field conditions on the West Coast of India. A rice field was developed very close to the Kaiga nuclear power plant for the field studies. For a comparative study of radionuclide transfer factors, rice samples were also collected from the rice fields of nearby villages. The soil to un-hulled rice grain 210 Pb varied in the range <1.2 x10 -2 to 8.1 x 10 -1 with a mean of 1.4 x 10 -1 . The mean values of un-hulled grain to white rice processing retention factors (F r ) was 0.03 for 210 Pb. Using the processing retention factors the soil to white rice transfer factor was estimated and found to have the mean value of 4.2 x 10 -3 . The study has shown that the transfer of 210 Pb was retained in the root and its transfer to above ground organs of rice plant is significantly lower. (author)

  12. Increasing the genetic variance of rice protein through mutation breeding techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismachin, M.

    1975-01-01

    Recommended rice variety in Indonesia, Pelita I/1 was treated with gamma rays at the doses of 20 krad, 30 krad, and 40 krad. The seeds were also treated with EMS 1%. In M 2 generation, the protein content of seeds from the visible mutants and from the normal looking plants were analyzed by DBC method. No significant increase in the genetic variance was found on the samples treated with 20 krad gamma, and on the normal looking plants treated by EMS 1%. The mean value of the treated samples were mostly significant decrease compared with the mean value of the protein distribution in untreated samples (control). Since significant increase in genetic variance was also found in M 2 normal looking plants - treated with gamma at the doses of 30 krad and 40 krad -selection of protein among these materials could be more valuable. (author)

  13. (PGMS) rice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-04-18

    Apr 18, 2011 ... tics, led us to predict that pollen cell abortion in this type of rice when ... averages of natural day-light-lengths and temperatures were used. A natural long ... blocks were allowed to grow under natural growth conditions (which.

  14. Isolation and Characterization of Seed-Borne Pathogenic Bacteria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    76 L.K. Ashura et aI. Table 4: Selected morphological and biochemical characteristics of bacteria isolates from rice seed as de- tected by the Liquid Assay on mXOS. Ace. No.1. Fluorescentl. Kovac's. OIF. NR. GL. SH. LS. HR. Pstho. Diolog Identification lsolale(s). Colour of·. Oxidase. TIP g on. (Similarity). I. Pigment. Rice.

  15. In vitro sterilization technique on embryo of black Toraja rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haring, F.; Riadi, M.; Rafiuddin; Sjahril, R.; Muchlis, A. R.

    2018-05-01

    Toraja black rice has a high anthocyanin content, a water-soluble pigments, with antioxidant activity. Toraja black rice has a variety of seeds colour in one panicles such as full black (the outside and inside the rice), medium black (the outside and slightly inside rice) and a little black (only the outside of rice). Embryo culture in vitro is one way to grow plants in sterile conditions. The presence of contamination and the death of the embryo require in vitro embryo culture. The sterilization technique is a very important first step to eliminate contamination and the death of embryos. This research aims to determine the right material composition for sterilization of black rice’s embryo. The experiment was done by growing black rice on half strength MS media with the treatment of three method of sterilization, i.e.: S1 (70% alcohol for 5 minutes, 3% and 2% Chlorox each for 10 minutes,), S2 (70% alcohol for 3 minutes, 2% Clorox for 10 minutes) and S3 (70% alcohol for 3 minutes and 1% Clorox for 15 minutes). The materials used are rice seedlings that have been cut in two and opened the pericarp of paddy grain, leaving a piece of rice that has a complete embryo. The best sterilization for Toraja black rice embryo culture was using the S3 composition. Best germination was seen on the seeds with full and medium black color.

  16. Coberturas vegetais, doses de nitrogênio e inoculação de sementes com Azospirillum brasilense em arroz de terras altas no sistema plantio direto Cover crops, nitrogen rates and seeds inoculation with Azospirillum brasilense in upland rice under no-tillage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas de Castilho Gitti

    2013-01-01

    ], sunn hemp [Crotalaria juncea], pigeon pea [Cajanus cajan], Brachiaria ruziziensis, millet + sunn hemp and millet + pigeon pea, rates of nitrogen (N fertilization at sidedressing (0, 40, 80 and 120 kg ha-1 and the effects of seed inoculation with Azospirillum brasilense in upland rice under no-tillage system on crop growth and yield. The experimental design was in complete randomized blocks, in a factorial scheme 6x4x2 with four replications. The experiment was set up on a Red Oxisol in Selvíria, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, in 2011/2012. Pigeon pea preceding rice cropping provided higher rice yield only in comparison with B. ruziziensis. The rice yield as function of rates of N at sidedressing fit to a quadratic function. There was no influence of seeds inoculation with A. brasilense on rice yield, however, there was interaction between the inoculation and cover crops on the leaf of N content, number of panicles per m², dry rice plants and weight of 100 grains.

  17. Coberturas vegetais, doses de nitrogênio e inoculação de sementes com Azospirillum brasilense em arroz de terras altas no sistema plantio direto Cover crops, nitrogen rates and seeds inoculation with Azospirillum brasilense in upland rice under no-tillage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas de Castilho Gitti

    2012-01-01

    ], sunn hemp [Crotalaria juncea], pigeon pea [Cajanus cajan], Brachiaria ruziziensis, millet + sunn hemp and millet + pigeon pea, rates of nitrogen (N fertilization at sidedressing (0, 40, 80 and 120 kg ha-1 and the effects of seed inoculation with Azospirillum brasilense in upland rice under no-tillage system on crop growth and yield. The experimental design was in complete randomized blocks, in a factorial scheme 6x4x2 with four replications. The experiment was set up on a Red Oxisol in Selvíria, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, in 2011/2012. Pigeon pea preceding rice cropping provided higher rice yield only in comparison with B. ruziziensis. The rice yield as function of rates of N at sidedressing fit to a quadratic function. There was no influence of seeds inoculation with A. brasilense on rice yield, however, there was interaction between the inoculation and cover crops on the leaf of N content, number of panicles per m², dry rice plants and weight of 100 grains.

  18. Elemental composition of Malawian rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joy, Edward J M; Louise Ander, E; Broadley, Martin R; Young, Scott D; Chilimba, Allan D C; Hamilton, Elliott M; Watts, Michael J

    2017-08-01

    Widespread potential dietary deficiencies of calcium (Ca), iron (Fe), iodine (I), selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn) have been identified in Malawi. Several deficiencies are likely to be compounded by high phytic acid (PA) consumption. Rice (Oryza sativa) is commonly consumed in some Malawian populations, and its mineral micronutrient content is important for food security. The considerable irrigation requirements and flooded conditions of paddy soils can also introduce or mobilise potentially toxic elements including arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb). The aim of this study was to determine the mineral composition of rice sampled from farmers' fields and markets in Malawi. Rice was sampled from 18 extension planning areas across Malawi with 21 white (i.e. polished) and 33 brown samples collected. Elemental composition was determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Arsenic speciation was performed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-ICP-MS. Concentration of PA was determined using a PA-total phosphorus assay. Median total concentrations (mg kg -1 , dry weight) of elements important for human nutrition in brown and white rice, respectively, were: Ca = 66.5 and 37.8; Cu = 3.65 and 2.49; Fe = 22.1 and 7.2; I = 0.006 and rice samples, respectively, median PA concentrations were 5438 and 1906 mg kg -1 , and median PA:Zn molar ratios were 29 and 13. Concentrations of potentially toxic elements (mg kg -1 , dry weight) in brown and white rice samples, respectively, were: As = 0.030 and 0.006; Cd  ≤ 0.002 and 0.006; Pb = 0.008 and 0.008. Approximately 95 % of As was found to be inorganic As, where this could be quantified. Malawian rice, like the more widely consumed staple grain maize, contains inadequate Ca, I, Se or Zn to meet dietary requirements. Biofortification strategies could significantly increase Se and Zn concentrations and require further investigation. Concentrations of Fe in rice grain varied

  19. Viabilidade da antecipação do tratamento de sementes de arroz com inseticidas em relação à data de semeadura no controle de Oryzophagus oryzae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae Viability of the advance rice seed treatment with insecticides in relation to sowing date in the control of Oryzophagus oryzae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Dionei Grützmacher

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Oryzophagus oryzae (Costa Lima, 1936 é uma das pragas mais prejudiciais da cultura do arroz irrigado, sendo seu controle efetuado tradicionalmente com inseticidas granulados aplicados na água de irrigação. No entanto, o uso de inseticidas aplicados às sementes tem sido considerado promissor. Embora existam máquinas adequadas para aplicação de inseticidas às sementes, há dificuldade de assegurar a qualidade das sementes tratadas, em poucos dias ou mesmo horas antes da semeadura. Assim, objetivou-se avaliar a viabilidade do tratamento de sementes de arroz com inseticidas aplicados com antecedência à data de semeadura para o controle de O. oryzae. Dois experimentos foram instalados na Estação Experimental de Terras Baixas da Embrapa Clima Temperado, localizada no município de Capão do Leão, Rio Grande do Sul (RS, em duas épocas (1997/1998 e 2004/2005. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso com quatro repetições. Foram avaliados os inseticidas carbosulfano e fipronil aplicados manualmente às sementes de arroz em diferentes épocas que antecederam a semeadura e foram avaliadas as variáveis poder germinativo e vigor das sementes, plantas emergidas, população larval e produtividade de grãos. O tratamento das sementes de arroz com inseticidas, antecipadamente à data de semeadura, visando ao controle de O. oryzae, demonstrou ser viável. Os inseticidas carbosulfano e fipronil são adequados ao tratamento antecipado das sementes, se aplicados até 75 dias antes da semeadura.Oryzophagus oryzae (Costa Lima, 1936 is one of the most important pests of irrigated rice, whose control is made traditionally with granulated insecticides on the irrigation water. However, the use of insecticides on the seeds has been considered a promising method. Although there are adequate implements to apply insecticides on the seeds, it’s hard to make this treatment with quality and in a big quantity, few days or hours before sowing. In

  20. A spectral analysis of rice grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIlvaine, M.S.; Cua, F.T.; Navarro, E.F.

    1976-06-01

    With the advent of extensive nuclear testing and the development and use of highly potent pesticides and fertilizers, the hazardous threats of radioactive contamination due to fallout and to the absorption of pesticide residues have been given due consideration. Among the many forms of life exposed to these threats are food crops and among these is rice. Several rice grain samples - Japanese rice samples ''A'' and ''B'' submitted by the National Grains Authority (NGA) for analysis, random samples of rice being sold to the public at local markets, and ''black rice'' which were picked from along the shores of a Mindoro town were subjected to spectral analysis. Results revealed the presence of trace elements normally found in plants, such as; K-42, I-124, Cl-38, Na-24, Br-82, and Mn-56. No mercury was detected in the sample specimen analyzed

  1. Labelling of rice seedlings and rice plants with 32P

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achmad Nasroh, K.

    1989-01-01

    Labelling of rice seedlings and rice plants with 32 P. Labelled rice seedlings can be used to tag insect pests that feed on. Radioactivity counting of 32 P in the endosperm and in the shoot of rice seeds that soaked for 72 hours in KH 2 32 PO 4 solution of 1 μCi/ml were 29,300 and 9,500 cpm respectively. When these labelled seedlings were grown in unlabelled medium the radioactivity in the shoot increased. It was due to the 32 P that was translocated to the shoot from the endosperm. The 32 P translocation reached maximum about one week after the seedling were grown in the unlabelled medium. Labelled seedlings could also be produced by growing 5, 10 and 15 days old seedlings hydroponically in Kimura B solution containing 32 P. Ten days after growing, the radioactivity concentration of the seedlings stem reached about 115,000; 85,000 and 170,000 cpm/mg dry weight for the 5, 10 and 15 days old seedlings respectively. For the implementation of this method, 20 ml labelled Kimura B was needed for labelling of one seedling. The seedlings should be prepared in tap water. During the growth the 32 P in the labelled seedlings was distributed throughout the plant, so that new leaves and tillers became also radioactive. (author). 5 refs

  2. Lead in rice: analysis of baseline lead levels in market and field collected rice grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Gareth J; Williams, Paul N; Adomako, Eureka E; Price, Adam H; Zhu, Yongguan; Zhao, Fang-Jie; McGrath, Steve; Deacon, Claire M; Villada, Antia; Sommella, Alessia; Lu, Ying; Ming, Lei; De Silva, P Mangala C S; Brammer, Hugh; Dasgupta, Tapash; Islam, M Rafiqul; Meharg, Andrew A

    2014-07-01

    In a large scale survey of rice grains from markets (13 countries) and fields (6 countries), a total of 1578 rice grain samples were analysed for lead. From the market collected samples, only 0.6% of the samples exceeded the Chinese and EU limit of 0.2 μg g(-1) lead in rice (when excluding samples collected from known contaminated/mine impacted regions). When evaluating the rice grain samples against the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) provisional total tolerable intake (PTTI) values for children and pregnant women, it was found that only people consuming large quantities of rice were at risk of exceeding the PTTI from rice alone. Furthermore, 6 field experiments were conducted to evaluate the proportion of the variation in lead concentration in rice grains due to genetics. A total of 4 of the 6 field experiments had significant differences between genotypes, but when the genotypes common across all six field sites were assessed, only 4% of the variation was explained by genotype, with 9.5% and 11% of the variation explained by the environment and genotype by environment interaction respectively. Further work is needed to identify the sources of lead contamination in rice, with detailed information obtained on the locations and environments where the rice is sampled, so that specific risk assessments can be performed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Endophytic Colonization and In Planta Nitrogen Fixation by a Herbaspirillum sp. Isolated from Wild Rice Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbeltagy, Adel; Nishioka, Kiyo; Sato, Tadashi; Suzuki, Hisa; Ye, Bin; Hamada, Toru; Isawa, Tsuyoshi; Mitsui, Hisayuki; Minamisawa, Kiwamu

    2001-01-01

    Nitrogen-fixing bacteria were isolated from the stems of wild and cultivated rice on a modified Rennie medium. Based on 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequences, the diazotrophic isolates were phylogenetically close to four genera: Herbaspirillum, Ideonella, Enterobacter, and Azospirillum. Phenotypic properties and signature sequences of 16S rDNA indicated that three isolates (B65, B501, and B512) belong to the Herbaspirillum genus. To examine whether Herbaspirillum sp. strain B501 isolated from wild rice, Oryza officinalis, endophytically colonizes rice plants, the gfp gene encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP) was introduced into the bacteria. Observations by fluorescence stereomicroscopy showed that the GFP-tagged bacteria colonized shoots and seeds of aseptically grown seedlings of the original wild rice after inoculation of the seeds. Conversely, for cultivated rice Oryza sativa, no GFP fluorescence was observed for shoots and only weak signals were observed for seeds. Observations by fluorescence and electron microscopy revealed that Herbaspirillum sp. strain B501 colonized mainly intercellular spaces in the leaves of wild rice. Colony counts of surface-sterilized rice seedlings inoculated with the GFP-tagged bacteria indicated significantly more bacterial populations inside the original wild rice than in cultivated rice varieties. Moreover, after bacterial inoculation, in planta nitrogen fixation in young seedlings of wild rice, O. officinalis, was detected by the acetylene reduction and 15N2 gas incorporation assays. Therefore, we conclude that Herbaspirillum sp. strain B501 is a diazotrophic endophyte compatible with wild rice, particularly O. officinalis. PMID:11679357

  4. Physicochemical and Antioxidant Properties of Rice Bran Oils Produced from Colored Rice Using Different Extraction Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingyai, Sukanya; Kettawan, Aikkarach; Srikaeo, Khongsak; Singanusong, Riantong

    2017-06-01

    This study investigated the physicochemical and antioxidant properties of rice bran oil (RBO) produced from the bran of three rice varities; Khao Dawk Mali 105 (white rice), Red Jasmine rice (red rice) and Hom-nin rice (black rice) using three extraction methods including cold-press extraction (CPE), solvent extraction (SE) and supercritical CO 2 extraction (SC-CO 2 ). Yields, color, acid value (AV), free fatty acid (FFA), peroxide value (PV), iodine value (IV), total phenolic compound (TPC), γ-oryzanol, α-tocopherol and fatty acid profile were analyzed. It was found that the yields obtained from SE, SC-CO 2 and CPE extractions were 17.35-20.19%, 14.76-18.16% and 3.22-6.22%, respectively. The RBO from the bran of red and black rice samples exhibited high antioxidant activities. They also contained higher amount of γ-oryzanol and α-tocopherol than those of white rice sample. In terms of extraction methods, SC-CO 2 provided better qualities of RBO as evidenced by their physicochemical and antioxidant properties. This study found that RBO produced from the bran of black rice samples using SC-CO 2 extraction method showed the best physicochemical and antioxidant properties.

  5. Hot seeding using large Y-123 seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scruggs, S J; Putman, P T; Zhou, Y X; Fang, H; Salama, K

    2006-01-01

    There are several motivations for increasing the diameter of melt textured single domain discs. The maximum magnetic field produced by a trapped field magnet is proportional to the radius of the sample. Furthermore, the availability of trapped field magnets with large diameter could enable their use in applications that have traditionally been considered to require wound electromagnets, such as beam bending magnets for particle accelerators and electric propulsion. We have investigated the possibility of using large area epitaxial growth instead of the conventional point nucleation growth mechanism. This process involves the use of large Y123 seeds for the purpose of increasing the maximum achievable Y123 single domain size. The hot seeding technique using large Y-123 seeds was employed to seed Y-123 samples. Trapped field measurements indicate that single domain samples were indeed grown by this technique. Microstructural evaluation indicates that growth can be characterized by a rapid nucleation followed by the usual peritectic grain growth which occurs when large seeds are used. Critical temperature measurements show that no local T c suppression occurs in the vicinity of the seed. This work supports the suggestion of using an iterative method for increasing the size of Y-123 single domains that can be grown

  6. Absorption and utilization of fertilizer-N and soil-N by rice at basal-ear stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Rongguang; Li Shuhua; Sun Weizhong; Xiao Mian

    1997-01-01

    The effect of basal-ear fertilizer application on uptake and utilization of fertilizer and soil N by rice was studied with 15 N tracer technique. The results showed that the basal-ear fertilizer application is an effective approach to increase numbers of effective ears, caryopsis, spikelets, seed setting percentage, seed weight and yield of rice and reduce the cost of rice production under the condition of applying equal doses of nitrogenous fertilizer

  7. Effect of cultural practices on the incidence and carry over of insect pests in rice-wheat system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramzan, M.; Akhtar, M.; Hussain, S.

    2008-01-01

    Changes in cultural practices in rice-wheat system like mechanical transplanted rice, broadcasting (parachute method) of rice seedlings, direct seeding of rice, bed planting of rice and wheat and zero-till wheat sowing may affect population of insect pests and their natural enemies. The population of insect pests and their damage intensity on rice and wheat crops were determined for resource conservation technologies in rice-wheat system. Unploughed fallow fields and those planted with berseem are the major over-wintering sites of rice stem borers (RSB). Growing of wheat after rice, either by conventional or zero-tillage minimizes RSB problem. The effect of technological shifts in rice-wheat systems was discussed on leaffolder (LF) and white backed planthopper (WBPH) populations. Conservation tillage might take on preventive management as the diversity and population size of many beneficial organisms, especially soil-inhabiting predators, can be increased. (author)

  8. Rice value chain analysis in Tanzania: identification of constraints ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The importance of rice (Oryza sativa L.) as a food and cash crop in Eastern Africa, is increasing, but its value chain is becoming complex. In 2012/13, rice value chain analysis was conducted in rice farming systems of Lake, Eastern and Southern-Highlands zones of Tanzania. A sample of 240 producers, 60 traders and 30 ...

  9. Surfactant-assisted emulsification dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction using 2-thenoyltrifluoroacetone as a chelating agent coupled with electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry for the speciation of chromium in water and rice samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dokpikul, Nattawut; Chaiyasith, Wipharat Chuachuad; Sananmuang, Ratana; Ampiah-Bonney, Richmond J

    2018-04-25

    A novel method was developed by SAE-DLLME for chromium speciation in water and rice samples using 2-thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTA) as a chelating reagent by ETAAS. The speciation of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) was achieved by complexation of Cr(III)-TTA and the total Cr was measured after reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr. The calibration graph was linear in the range of 0.02-2.50 µg L -1 , with a detection limit of 0.0052 µg L -1 . The %RSD was in range of 2.90-3.30% at 0.5, 1.5 and 2.5 µg L -1 of Cr(III), n = 5 and the EF was 54.47. The method was applied to chromium speciation and total chromium determination in real samples and gave recoveries in the range of 96.2-103.5% and 97.1-102.7% for Cr(III) and Cr(VI) in water samples and 93.7-103.5% of total Cr in rice samples. The accuracy of the method was evaluated by analysis of SRM 1573a with good agreement compared to the certified value. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A Comparative Study of the Characteristics of Cross-Linked, Oxidized and Dual-Modified Rice Starches

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao, Hua-Xi; Lin, Qin-Lu; Liu, Gao-Qiang; Yu, Feng-Xiang

    2012-01-01

    Rice starch was cross-linked with epichlorohydrin (0.3%, w/w, on a dry starch basis) and oxidized with sodium hypochlorite (2.5% w/w), respectively. Two dual-modified rice starch samples (oxidized cross-linked rice starch and cross-linked oxidized rice starch) were obtained by the oxidation of cross-linked rice starch and the cross-linking of oxidized rice starch at the same level of reagents. The physicochemical properties of native rice starch, cross-linked rice starch and oxidized rice sta...

  11. Simultaneous rough rice drying and rice bran stabilization using infrared radiation heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to develop a new rice drying method by using IR heating followed by tempering. Freshly harvested medium grain rice (M206) samples with different initial moisture contents (IMCs) were used in this study. The samples were dried for one- and two-passes by using a catalyt...

  12. Malaysian weedy rice shows its true stripes: wild Oryza and elite rice cultivars shape agricultural weed evolution in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Beng-Kah; Chuah, Tse-Seng; Tam, Sheh May; Olsen, Kenneth M

    2014-10-01

    Weedy rice is a close relative of domesticated rice (Oryza sativa) that competes aggressively with the crop and limits rice productivity worldwide. Most genetic studies of weedy rice have focused on populations in regions where no reproductively compatible wild Oryza species occur (North America, Europe and northern Asia). Here, we examined the population genetics of weedy rice in Malaysia, where wild rice (O. rufipogon) can be found growing in close proximity to cultivated and weedy rice. Using 375 accessions and a combined analysis of 24 neutral SSR loci and two rice domestication genes (sh4, controlling seed shattering, and Bh4, controlling hull colour), we addressed the following questions: (i) What is the relationship of Malaysian weedy rice to domesticated and wild rice, and to weedy rice strains in the USA? (ii) To what extent does the presence of O. rufipogon influence the genetic and phenotypic diversity of Malaysian weeds? (iii) What do the distributions of sh4 and Bh4 alleles and associated phenotypes reveal about the origin and contemporary evolution of Malaysian weedy rice? Our results reveal the following: independent evolutionary origins for Malaysian weeds and US strains, despite their very close phenotypic resemblance; wild-to-weed gene flow in Malaysian weed populations, including apparent adaptive introgression of seed-shattering alleles; and a prominent role for modern Malaysian cultivars in the origin and recent proliferation of Malaysian weeds. These findings suggest that the genetic complexity and adaptability of weedy crop relatives can be profoundly influenced by proximity to reproductively compatible wild and domesticated populations. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Seed-borne pathogens and electrical conductivity of soybean seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Luiza Wain-Tassi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Adequate procedures to evaluate seed vigor are important. Regarding the electrical conductivity test (EC, the interference in the test results caused by seed-borne pathogens has not been clarified. This research was carried out to study the influence of Phomopsis sojae (Leh. and Colletotrichum dematium (Pers. ex Fr. Grove var. truncata (Schw. Arx. fungi on EC results. Soybean seeds (Glycine max L. were inoculated with those fungi using potato, agar and dextrose (PDA medium with manitol (-1.0 MPa and incubated for 20 h at 25 °C. The colony diameter, index of mycelial growth, seed water content, occurrence of seed-borne pathogens, physiological potential of the seeds, measured by germination and vigor tests (seed germination index, cold test, accelerated aging and electrical conductivity, and seedling field emergence were determined. The contents of K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ in the seed and in the soaking solution were also determined. A complete 2 × 4 factorial design with two seed sizes (5.5 and 6.5 mm and four treatments (control, seeds incubated without fungi, seeds incubated with Phomopsis and seeds incubated with Colletotrichum were used with eight (5.5 mm large seeds and six (6.5 mm large seeds replications. All seeds submitted to PDA medium had their germination reduced in comparison to the control seeds. This reduction was also observed when seed vigor and leached ions were considered. The presence of Phomopsis sojae fungus in soybean seed samples submitted to the EC test may be the cause of misleading results.

  14. Burkholderia glumae: next major pathogen of rice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Jong Hyun; Melanson, Rebecca A; Rush, Milton C

    2011-05-01

    Burkholderia glumae causes bacterial panicle blight of rice, which is an increasingly important disease problem in global rice production. Toxoflavin and lipase are known to be major virulence factors of this pathogen, and their production is dependent on the TofI/TofR quorum-sensing system, which is mediated by N-octanoyl homoserine lactone. Flagellar biogenesis and a type III secretion system are also required for full virulence of B. glumae. Bacterial panicle blight is thought to be caused by seed-borne B. glumae; however, its disease cycle is not fully understood. In spite of its economic importance, neither effective control measures for bacterial panicle blight nor rice varieties showing complete resistance to the disease are currently available. A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying B. glumae virulence and of the rice defence mechanisms against the pathogen would lead to the development of better methods of disease control for bacterial panicle blight. Bacteria; Proteobacteria; Betaproteobacteria; Burkholderiales; Burkholderiaceae; Burkholderia. Gram-negative, capsulated, motile, lophotrichous flagella, pectolytic. Aborted seed, empty grains as a result of failure of grain filling, brown spots on panicles, seedling rot. Seed sterilization, planting partially resistant lines (no completely resistant line is available). KNOWN VIRULENCE FACTORS: Toxoflavin, lipase, type III effectors. © 2010 LSU AGCENTER. MOLECULAR PLANT PATHOLOGY © 2010 BSPP AND BLACKWELL PUBLISHING LTD.

  15. Size, physiological quality, and green seed occurrence influenced by seeding rate in soybeans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Sampaio Ferreira

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The seeding rate influences the intraspecific competition, which might affect the development and quality of seeds in soybean. However, the impact of seeding rate on the physical and physiological qualities of soybean seeds needs to be better elucidated. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of soybean plant density on the seed size as well as the effects of the interaction between the plant density and seed size on the seed mass, green seed occurence, and physiological seed quality. The experiments were carried out in the growing seasons of the years 2013/14 and 2014/15 in a Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico, under a randomized complete block design, using the NK 7059 RR cultivar with six replications. Four plant densities (150, 300, 440, and 560 thousand viable seeds ha–1 were evaluated. After the classification of seeds into four sizes, using a set of sieves, a 4 ×4 factorial scheme was used for the statistical analysis of the four plant densities and four seed sizes. The seed samples were evaluated for the seed mass, green seed percentage, germination, and vigor. Under thermal and water stress during seed development, an increase in the seeding rate led to a reduction in the green seed occurrence and an increase in the seed size and mass. However, in the absence of thermal and water stress, the seed size and mass were not altered by the seeding rate and, there was no occurrence of green seeds.

  16. The genetic variance of resistance in M3 lines of rice against leaf blight disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mugiono

    1979-01-01

    Seeds of Pelita I/1 rice variety were irradiated with 20, 30, 40 and 50 krad of gamma rays from a 60 Co source. Plants of M 3 lines were inoculated with bacterial leaf blight, Xanthomonas oryzae (Uzeda and Ishiyama) Downson, using clipping method. The coefficient of genetic variability of resistance against leaf blight disease increased with increasing dose. Highly significant difference in the genetic variance of resistance were found between the treated samples and the control. Dose of 20 krad gave good probability for selection of plants resistant against leaf blight disease. (author)

  17. Effect of plant extracts and an essential oil on the control of brown spot disease, tillering, number of panicles and yield increase in rice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguefack, Julienne; Wulff, Ednar Gadelha; Dongmo, J. Blaise Lekagne

    2013-01-01

    disease, the tillering, the number of panicles and the yield increase in rice were evaluated under laboratory and field conditions. In vitro, the growth of both fungi was completely inhibited by the EO of C. citrinus and C. citratus at 4,520 mu g/ml and 452 mu g/ml, respectively. For solvent extracts...... in the non-treated and treated samples with a low incidence (0-4 of B. oryzae. Under field conditions, the combined use of the essential oil of C. citrinus as a seed treatment and spraying the plants with 2 % ethanol followed by 2 % (w/v) aqueous extracts of C. citrinus or C. citratus increased the emergence......, we concluded that the EO and solvent extracts of C. citrinus and C. citratus have potential as control agents against brown spot and other seed-borne fungal diseases in rice under both conventional and organic farming....

  18. Molecular mapping of qBK1 WD , a major QTL for bakanae disease resistance in rice

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Sais-Beul; Hur, Yeon-Jae; Cho, Jun-Hyeon; Lee, Jong-Hee; Kim, Tae-Heon; Cho, Soo-Min; Song, You-Chun; Seo, Young-Su; Lee, Jungkwan; Kim, Tae-sung; Park, Yong-Jin; Oh, Myung-Kyu; Park, Dong-Soo

    2018-01-01

    Background Bakanae or foot rot disease is a prominent disease of rice caused by Gibberella fujikuroi. This disease may infect rice plants from the pre-emergence stage to the mature stage. In recent years, raising rice seedlings in seed boxes for mechanical transplanting has increased the incidence of many seedling diseases; only a few rice varieties have been reported to exhibit resistance to bakanae disease. In this study, we attempted to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) conferring ba...

  19. Physicochemical and antioxidative properties of black, brown and red rice varieties of northern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noppawat Pengkumsri

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Rice, the seed of Oryza species, is the major cereal crop in most of the developing countries. Nearly 95% of global rice production is done in Asian countries, and about half of the world’s population consumes it. Some speciality rices are not commonly consumed. Colored rice is one of such variety. In these varieties, high amounts of anthocyanin pigment are deposited in the rice coat to form its black (also known as purple, brown and red colors. Minimum studies are there to explain the properties of these rice varieties of Thailand. Thus, the current study was aimed to assess the physicochemical and antioxidative properties of three rice varieties (Chiang Mai Black rice, Mali Red rice and Suphanburi-1 Brown rice of different cultivars of northern Thailand. Rice bran extracts of these three cultivars were prepared with different solvents (polar and non-polar for the evaluation of total phytochemical content and anti-oxidant free-radical-scavenging properties. Chiang Mai Black rice contained higher concentration of phenolic acid, flavonoids, and anthocyanins (Cyanidin 3-glucoside, peonidin 3-glucoside, cyanidin chloride. Chiang Mai Black rice is richer in free-radical-scavenging compounds and activities than the other tested varieties. Polar extractions of rice bran are high in anti-oxidative compounds and activities than non-polar extractions.

  20. Molecular evolution of shattering loci in U.S. weedy rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, Carrie S; Reagon, Michael; Gross, Briana L; Olsen, Kenneth M; Jia, Yulin; Caicedo, Ana L

    2010-08-01

    Cultivated rice fields worldwide are plagued with weedy rice, a conspecific weed of cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.). The persistence of weedy rice has been attributed, in part, to its ability to shatter (disperse) seed prior to crop harvesting. In the United States, separately evolved weedy rice groups have been shown to share genomic identity with exotic domesticated cultivars. Here, we investigate the shattering phenotype in a collection of U.S. weedy rice accessions, as well as wild and cultivated relatives. We find that all U.S. weedy rice groups shatter seeds easily, despite multiple origins, and in contrast to a decrease in shattering ability seen in cultivated groups. We assessed allelic identity and diversity at the major shattering locus, sh4, in weedy rice; we find that all cultivated and weedy rice, regardless of population, share similar haplotypes at sh4, and all contain a single derived mutation associated with decreased seed shattering. Our data constitute the strongest evidence to date of an evolution of weeds from domesticated backgrounds. The combination of a shared cultivar sh4 allele and a highly shattering phenotype, suggests that U.S. weedy rice have re-acquired the shattering trait after divergence from their progenitors through alternative genetic mechanisms.

  1. Analysis of seed quality in NS sunflower hybrid seed processed between 2010 and 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jokić Goran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzed the processed seed of five sunflower hybrid seed developed at the Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops in Novi Sad. The cultivars were Rimi PR, Duško, NS Dukat, Sumo 1 PR and Sremac. The analysis was conducted on seed lots processed between 2010 and 2014 and involved the following parameters: seed purity percentage, 1000-seed weight, germination energy, germination, seed moisture, number of weed seeds per 1000 grams of seed. The results of the study produced the following average values: seed purity - 99.72%, 1000-seed weight - 67.59g, germination energy - 88.2%, germination - 91.8%, seed moisture - 8.3%. There were not found weeds seeds as well as pathogens on the seed samples, these values are all within the legally prescribed limits.

  2. The Potency of White Rice (Oryza sativa), Black Rice (Oryza sativa L. indica), and Red Rice (Oryza nivara) as Antioxidant and Tyrosinase Inhibitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batubara, I.; Maharni, M.; Sadiah, S.

    2017-04-01

    Rice is known to have many beneficial biological activities and is often used as “bedak dingin”, a face powder. The content of vitamins, minerals, fiber, and several types of antioxidants, such as ferulic acid, phytic acid, tocopherol, and oryzanols [1-2] are predicted to be potential as a tyrosinase inhibitor. The purpose of this study is to determine the potency of extracts from there types of rice, namely white, red, and black rice as an antioxidant and tyrosinase inhibitor. The rice was extracted with three different solvents, n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol. The results showed that the highest antioxidant activity using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl method was found in the methanol extract of black rice (IC50 290 μg/mL). Meanwhile, ethyl acetate extract of white rice has the highest antioxidant activity withphosphomolybdic acid method (41 mmol α-tocopherol equivalents/g sample). Thus, methanol extract of black rice and ethyl acetate extract of white rice are potential as an antioxidant. For tyrosinase inhibitor, n-hexane extract of red rice (IC50 3156 μg/mL) was the most active extract. The active component for radical scavenging is polar compound and for antioxidant by phosphomolybdate method is less polar compounds in black rice methanol extract based on TLC bioautogram. In conclusion, the black rice is the most potent in antioxidant while red rice is for tyrosinase inhibition.

  3. Sampling

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Steven K

    2012-01-01

    Praise for the Second Edition "This book has never had a competitor. It is the only book that takes a broad approach to sampling . . . any good personal statistics library should include a copy of this book." —Technometrics "Well-written . . . an excellent book on an important subject. Highly recommended." —Choice "An ideal reference for scientific researchers and other professionals who use sampling." —Zentralblatt Math Features new developments in the field combined with all aspects of obtaining, interpreting, and using sample data Sampling provides an up-to-date treat

  4. Gene, protein, and network of male sterility in rice

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Kun; Peng, Xiaojue; Ji, Yanxiao; Yang, Pingfang; Zhu, Yingguo; Li, Shaoqing

    2013-01-01

    Rice is one of the most important model crop plants whose heterosis has been well-exploited in commercial hybrid seed production via a variety of types of male-sterile lines. Hybrid rice cultivation area is steadily expanding around the world, especially in Southern Asia. Characterization of genes and proteins related to male sterility aims to understand how and why the male sterility occurs, and which proteins are the key players for microspores abortion. Recently, a series of genes and prot...

  5. Analysis of glabrous canary seeds by ELISA, mass spectrometry, and Western blotting for the absence of cross-reactivity with major plant food allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boye, Joyce Irene; Achouri, Allaoua; Raymond, Nancy; Cleroux, Chantal; Weber, Dorcas; Koerner, Terence B; Hucl, Pierre; Patterson, Carol Ann

    2013-06-26

    Glabrous (hairless) canary seed belongs to the Poaceae (Gramineae) family and could serve as an alternative source of gluten-free cereal grain. In this study, allergenic cross-reactivities between hairless, dehulled canary seeds (Phalaris canariensis) and major allergenic proteins from gluten, soy, peanuts, tree nuts, sesame, and mustard were studied using commercial enzyme-linked immune sorbent assay (ELISA) kits specific for these target allergens. Mass spectrometry (MS) and immunoblotting were further used to assess for the presence of gluten-specific protein fragments. MS results revealed the likely presence of proteins homologous with rice, oat, corn, carrot, tomato, radish, beet, and chickpea. However, no presence of celiac-related gluten fragments from wheat, rye, barley, or their derivatives was found. Immunoblotting studies yielded negative results, further confirming the absence of gluten in the canary seed samples tested. No cross-reactivities were detected between canary seeds and almond, hazelnut, mustard, peanut, sesame, soy, walnut, and gluten using ELISA.

  6. Determination of urea utilization of rice at different growth stages by 15N tracer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korkmaz, A.; Halitligil, M.B.; Torun, M.

    1991-01-01

    This study reported here examines the percent utilization of 15 N labelled urea by rice when it is broadcasted over the soil surface or mixed within 10 cm soil at different vegetative stages. The experimental plots were arranged in randomized block design and replicated 3 times. N was applied at a rate of 120 kg N/ha as single or split applications at four different times during the growing season. Labelled urea was applied to 0.5x0.5 m plots only in 1988, however in 1989 unlabelled urea was applied to all plots. Stover and seed samples from each plot were harvested, dried at 65 0 C, weighed and kilogram per hectare were calculated in 1988. Also, the yield surplus per kilogram N was calculated for each treatment and this was indicated as urea fertilizer efficiency coefficient. Total N and 15 N analysis for stover and seed were done. Significant differences (at 0.05 level) were observed in stover and seed yields, when 120 kg/ha urea was split applied at different growth stages. Similar yield responses were obtained in 1988 and 1989. Highest seed yields were obtained when half of urea was applied at planting and the other half was applied at one week before heading. The results also showed that the highest utilization of urea for seed plus stover was obtained from the second half of urea (60 kg N/ha) applied one week before heading. Percent utilization of urea by rice also differed according to the rate applied at each stage

  7. Characterization of High-Value Bioactives in Some Selected Varieties of Pakistani Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubair, Muhammad; Anwar, Farooq; Ashraf, Muhammad; Uddin, Md. Kamal

    2012-01-01

    The present study reports the composition and variation of fatty acids, sterols, tocopherols and γ-oryzanol among selected varieties namely Basmati Super, Basmati 515, Basmati 198, Basmati 385, Basmati 2000, Basmati 370, Basmati Pak, KSK-139, KS-282 and Irri-6 of Pakistani rice (Oryza sativa L). Oil content extracted with n-hexane from different varieties of brown rice seed (unpolished rice) ranged from 1.92% to 2.72%. Total fatty acid contents among rice varieties tested varied between 18240 and 25840 mg/kg brown rice seed. The rice tested mainly contained oleic (6841–10952 mg/kg) linoleic (5453–7874 mg/kg) and palmitic acid (3613–5489 mg/kg). The amounts of total phytosterols (GC and GC-MS analysis), with main contribution from β-sitosterol (445–656 mg/kg), campesterol (116–242 mg/kg), Δ5-avenasterol (89–178 mg/kg) and stigmasterol (75–180 mg/kg) were established to be 739.4 to 1330.4 mg/kg rice seed. The content of α-, γ- and δ-tocopherols as analyzed by HPLC varied from 39.0–76.1, 21.6–28.1 and 6.5–16.5 mg/kg rice seed, respectively. The amounts of different γ-oryzanol components (HPLC data), identified as cycloartenyl ferulate, 24-methylene cycloartanyl ferulate, campesteryl ferulate and β-sitosteryl ferulate, were in the range of 65.5–103.6, 140.2–183.1, 29.8–45.5 and 8.6–10.4 mg/kg rice seed, respectively. Overall, the concentration of these bioactives was higher in the Basmati rice cultivars showing their functional food superiority. In conclusion, the tested varieties of Pakistani rice, especially the Basmati cultivars, can provide best ingredients for functional foods. PMID:22605998

  8. Characterization of High-Value Bioactives in Some Selected Varieties of Pakistani Rice (Oryza sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Kamal Uddin

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study reports the composition and variation of fatty acids, sterols, tocopherols and γ-oryzanol among selected varieties namely Basmati Super, Basmati 515, Basmati 198, Basmati 385, Basmati 2000, Basmati 370, Basmati Pak, KSK-139, KS-282 and Irri-6 of Pakistani rice (Oryza sativa L. Oil content extracted with n-hexane from different varieties of brown rice seed (unpolished rice ranged from 1.92% to 2.72%. Total fatty acid contents among rice varieties tested varied between 18240 and 25840 mg/kg brown rice seed. The rice tested mainly contained oleic (6841–10952 mg/kg linoleic (5453–7874 mg/kg and palmitic acid (3613–5489 mg/kg. The amounts of total phytosterols (GC and GC-MS analysis, with main contribution from β-sitosterol (445–656 mg/kg, campesterol (116–242 mg/kg, ∆5-avenasterol (89–178 mg/kg and stigmasterol (75–180 mg/kg were established to be 739.4 to 1330.4 mg/kg rice seed. The content of α-, γ- and δ-tocopherols as analyzed by HPLC varied from 39.0–76.1, 21.6–28.1 and 6.5–16.5 mg/kg rice seed, respectively. The amounts of different γ-oryzanol components (HPLC data, identified as cycloartenyl ferulate, 24-methylene cycloartanyl ferulate, campesteryl ferulate and β-sitosteryl ferulate, were in the range of 65.5–103.6, 140.2–183.1, 29.8–45.5 and 8.6–10.4 mg/kg rice seed, respectively. Overall, the concentration of these bioactives was higher in the Basmati rice cultivars showing their functional food superiority. In conclusion, the tested varieties of Pakistani rice, especially the Basmati cultivars, can provide best ingredients for functional foods.

  9. Nutrient value of leaf versus seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marvin Edelman

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Major differences stand out between edible leaves and seeds in protein quality, vitamin and mineral concentrations and omega 6 / omega 3 fatty acid ratios. Data for seeds (wheat, rice, corn, soy, lentil, chick pea are compared with corresponding data for edible green leaves (kale, spinach, broccoli, duckweed. An x/y representation of data for lysine and methionine content highlights the group differences between grains, pulses, leafy vegetables and animal foods. Leaves come out with flying colors in all these comparisons. The perspective ends with a discussion on So why do we eat mainly seeds?

  10. Barley seed proteomics from spots to structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finnie, Christine; Svensson, Birte

    2009-01-01

    forms on 2D-gels. Specific protein families, including peroxidases and alpha-amylases have been subjected to in-depth analysis resulting in characterisation of different isozymes, post-translational. modifications and processing. A functional proteomics study focusing on the seed thioredoxin system has...... with information from rice and other cereals facilitate identification of barley proteins. Several hundred barley seed proteins are identified and lower abundance proteins including membrane proteins are now being analysed. In the present review we focus on variation in protein profiles of seed tissues during...

  11. Induction of rice mutations by high hydrostatic pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Liu, Xuncheng; Zheng, Feng; Zeng, Songjun; Wu, Kunlin; da Silva, Jaime A Teixeira; Duan, Jun

    2013-09-01

    High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) is an extreme thermo-physical factor that affects the synthesis of DNA, RNA and proteins and induces mutagenesis in microorganisms. Our previous studies showed that exposure to 25-100 MPa HHP for 12 h retarded the germination and affected the viability of rice (Oryza sativa L.) seeds, increased the tolerance of rice plants to cold stress and altered gene expression patterns in germinating rice seeds. However, the mutagenic effect of HHP on rice remains unknown. In this study, exposure to 25, 50, 75 or 100 MPa for 12 h HHP could efficiently induce variation in rice plants. Furthermore, presoaking time and HHP strength during HHP treatment affected the efficiency of mutation. In addition, the Comet assay revealed that exposure to 25-100 MPa HHP for 12 h induced DNA strand breakage in germinating seeds and may have been the source of mutations. Our results suggest that HHP is a promising physical mutagen in rice breeding. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Avian foods, foraging and habitat conservation in world rice fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafford, J.D.; Kaminski, R.M.; Reinecke, K.J.

    2010-01-01

    Worldwide, rice (Oryza sativa) agriculture typically involves seasonal flooding and soil tillage, which provides a variety of microhabitats and potential food for birds. Water management in rice fields creates conditions ranging from saturated mud flats to shallow (seed mass from North America ranging from 66672 kg/ha. Although initially abundant after harvest, waste rice availability can be temporally limited. Few abundance estimates for other foods, such as vertebrate prey or forage vegetation, exist for rice fields. Outside North America, Europe and Japan, little is known about abundance and importance of any avian food in rice fields. Currently, flooding rice fields after harvest is the best known management practice to attract and benefit birds. Studies from North America indicate specific agricultural practices (e.g. burning stubble) may increase use and improve access to food resources. Evaluating and implementing management practices that are ecologically sustainable, increase food for birds and are agronomically beneficial should be global priorities to integrate rice production and avian conservation. Finally, land area devoted to rice agriculture appears to be stable in the USA, declining in China, and largely unquantified in many regions. Monitoring trends in riceland area may provide information to guide avian conservation planning in rice-agriculture ecosystems.

  13. Influence of cooling rate on growth of Bacillus cereus from spore inocula in cooked rice, beans, pasta, and combination products containing meat or poultry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to assess the ability of B. cereus spores to germinate and grow in order to determine a safe cooling rate for cooked rice, beans, and pasta, rice/chicken (4:1), rice/chicken/vegetables (3:1:1), rice/beef (4:1), and rice/beef/vegetables (3:1:1). Samples were inoculate...

  14. Methyl jasmonate induced resistance in cheniere rice and soybean plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taplin, C.

    2017-12-01

    Methyl jasmonate (MJ) is a compound naturally occurring in certain plants that aids in plant defense. In this study, we examined the difference in herbivory of fall armyworm (FAW) on control plants (treated without MJ) and MJ-treated plants. Seeds of cheniere rice and soybean were soaked in MJ overnight and planted in the greenhouse, although the soybean never grew. Therefore, only the mature plant leaves of cheniere rice were fed to FAW and the difference in herbivory was looked at. Our results show there is no statistical difference in the herbivory of the cheniere rice plant leaves.

  15. Sensory acceptability evaluation of irradiated rice, oryza sativa indica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loaharanu, S.; Sutantawong, M.; Ungsunanatawiwat, A.

    1971-01-01

    The non-glutinous and glutinous types of polished rice, Oryza sativa indica were subjected to gamma rays at ambient temperature and stored at 27+-1 0 C for one week. The irradiated rice was cooked and tasted by members of trained panel. Using Hedonic scale and Triangle test, the acceptability of irradiated rice was justified. Gamma irradiation up to 100 krads did not significantly cause off-color, off-odor and off flavor in irradiated non-glutino rice. Glutinous rice irradiated at 60 krads could not be significantly differentiated from non-irradiated sample

  16. Reducing rice field algae and cyanobacteria abundance by altering phosphorus fertilizer applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    In California’s water seeded rice systems algal/cyanobacterial biomass can be a problem during rice establishment. Algal/cyanobacterial growth may be stimulated by phosphorus (P) additions in freshwater habitats, so we set up experiments to evaluate the effects of fertilizer P management on algal/cy...

  17. Diversity and activity of nitrogen fixing archaea and bacteria associated with micro-environments of wetland rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Hannes; Woebken, Dagmar

    2017-04-01

    Wetland rice is one of the world's most important crop plants. The cultivation on waterlogged paddy soils is strongly limited by nitrogen (N), which is typically supplied by industrial fertilizers that are not only costly but also exhibit hazardous effects on the environment. It has been reported that "Biological Nitrogen Fixation" through N2-fixing bacteria and archaea (diazotrophs) can alleviate the N-shortage in rice cultivation, thus carrying out an important ecosystem function. However, our understanding of the diversity and in situ N2 fixation activity of diazotrophs in flooded rice fields is still rudimentary. Moreover, knowledge on the impact of biochemical gradients established by root activity (i.e. exudation, radial oxygen loss) on the functioning of N-fixing microorganisms in paddy soil ecosystems is limited. We aimed at studying underlying processes on biologically relevant scales. Greenhouse studies were performed to identify key factors that control rice-diazotroph association and related N2 fixation activities. Paddy soils of different geographical origin were cultivated with two commercially used genotypes of wetland rice. Samples were separated into bulk soil, rhizosphere soil, rhizoplane, and roots at flowering stage of rice plant development. These samples were subjected to functional assays and various molecular biological techniques in order to analyze the associated diazotroph communities. Based on Illumina amplicon sequencing of nifH genes and transcripts, we show that the diversity and potential activity of diazotroph communities varies according to micro-environments. We will comparatively discuss the influence of (a) the soil microbial "seed bank" and (b) plant genotype in shaping the respective microbiomes and selecting for potentially active diazotrophs. Actual N2 fixation activities of soil-genotype combinations and micro-environments will be shown on the basis of incubation assays using 15N2-containing atmospheres. Areas of potential

  18. Seed quality in informal seed systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biemond, P.C.

    2013-01-01

    Keywords: informal seed systems, seed recycling, seed quality, germination, seed pathology, seed health, seed-borne diseases, mycotoxigenic fungi, Fusarium verticillioides, mycotoxins, Vigna unguiculata, Zea mays, Nigeria.

    Seed is a crucial input for agricultural production.

  19. High Purity Silica Production from Rice Husk Ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaminn Lwin; April Nwayy Nwayy Htett

    2010-12-01

    In this research, two types of raw material source, rice husk and rice husk ash, were used. Among the rice husk samples, taungpyan sample was chosen because it contains the maximum silica content and treated with (1,3,5) wt% sulphuric acid (96% concentration) and citric acid (99% concentration). These acid treated taungpyan samples and nonacid treated taungpyan sample were burned at 900C for 30 min. For rice husk ash samples, ash samples from fluidized combustor, fluidized gasifier and brick factory were collected. All of the rice husk ash samples were purified by alkaline extraction method with (2-3) N NaOH solution and followed by acid precipitation method with 5 N H2SO4 solution. According to the analysis and characterization, acid treated taungpyan sample (5 wt% citric acid) with the highest silica content (99.906 wt% and crystallization form) was obtained.

  20. Momento de colheita e períodos de armazenamento omento no rendimento industrial e na qualidade fisiológica do arroz de terras altas = Harvest time and storage period for the industrial revenue and physiological seed quality of upland rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Ferreira da Silva Binotti

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available As etapas de colheita e de pós-colheita são de grande importância na cultura do arroz. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do momento de colheita e o período de armazenamento na qualidade industrial e fisiológica de sementes e na produtividade do arroz de terras altas irrigado. O experimento foi conduzido no ano agrícola de 2002/03, no município de Selvíria, Estado do Mato Grosso do Sul. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados, com 7 tratamentos constituídos por diferentes épocas de colheita (18, 20, 22, 24, 26, 28 e 30 DAF - dias após o florescimento médio, com 4repetições. O material colhido foi posteriormente armazenado por até 12 meses. Avaliaramse características produtivas, fisiológicas e industriais (0, 6 e 12 meses. Concluiu-se que a cultivar BRS - Talento colhido por volta dos 28 DAF, proporcionou maior produtividade e melhores qualidades industriais entre 24 e 26 DAF; a época de colheita não interferiu na qualidade fisiológica das sementes; o armazenamento (12 meses diminuiu a qualidade industrial e fisiológica, entretanto a sementes estão adequadas para semeadura.The stages of harvest and post-harvest are of great importance in the rice crop. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect ofharvest time and storage period for the industrial, physiological seed quality and yield of irrigated upland rice. The study was carried out in 2002/03, in Selvíria county (state of Mato Grosso do Sul. The study was conducted in a randomized block design with seventreatments constituted by different harvest times (18, 20, 22, 24, 26, 28 and 30 DAF - days after flowering, with four replications. The harvested material was further stored for 12 months. Productive, physiologic and industrial characteristics were evaluated (0, 6 and 12months. The BRS - Talent harvested about 28 DAF provided larger revenue of grains; better industrial quality was reached among 24 to 26 DAF; harvest period

  1. Farmer’s seed sources and seed quality: 2. seed health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bishaw, Z.; Struik, P.C.; Gastel, van A.J.G.

    2013-01-01

    The study assessed the health quality of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) seed samples collected from formal and informal sector in Ethiopia and Syria. In Ethiopia, several seed-borne fungi were found on wheat samples: Cochliobolus sativum, Fusarium avenaceum, F.

  2. The impact of herbicide-resistant rice technology on phenotypic diversity and population structure of United States weedy rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgos, Nilda Roma; Singh, Vijay; Tseng, Te Ming; Black, Howard; Young, Nelson D; Huang, Zhongyun; Hyma, Katie E; Gealy, David R; Caicedo, Ana L

    2014-11-01

    The use of herbicide-resistant (HR) Clearfield rice (Oryza sativa) to control weedy rice has increased in the past 12 years to constitute about 60% of rice acreage in Arkansas, where most U.S. rice is grown. To assess the impact of HR cultivated rice on the herbicide resistance and population structure of weedy rice, weedy samples were collected from commercial fields with a history of Clearfield rice. Panicles from each weedy type were harvested and tested for resistance to imazethapyr. The majority of plants sampled had at least 20% resistant offspring. These resistant weeds were 97 to 199 cm tall and initiated flowering from 78 to 128 d, generally later than recorded for accessions collected prior to the widespread use of Clearfield rice (i.e. historical accessions). Whereas the majority (70%) of historical accessions had straw-colored hulls, only 30% of contemporary HR weedy rice had straw-colored hulls. Analysis of genotyping-by-sequencing data showed that HR weeds were not genetically structured according to hull color, whereas historical weedy rice was separated into straw-hull and black-hull populations. A significant portion of the local rice crop genome was introgressed into HR weedy rice, which was rare in historical weedy accessions. Admixture analyses showed that HR weeds tend to possess crop haplotypes in the portion of chromosome 2 containing the ACETOLACTATE SYNTHASE gene, which confers herbicide resistance to Clearfield rice. Thus, U.S. HR weedy rice is a distinct population relative to historical weedy rice and shows modifications in morphology and phenology that are relevant to weed management. © 2014 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  3. The normal mycoflora of commodities from Thailand. 2. Beans, rice, small grains and other commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitt, J I; Hocking, A D; Bhudhasamai, K; Miscamble, B F; Wheeler, K A; Tanboon-Ek, P

    1994-09-01

    Part of a comprehensive study of fungi occurring in commodities in Thailand, this paper reports results from 276 samples of mung beans, rice, sorghum and soybeans as well as other minor crops. Samples for major commodities were taken from farmers' stocks, middlemen and retail outlets, while those for minor crops were mostly from retail. Each sample was divided into two portions, one being examined in Bangkok and the second at North Ryde. Mycological examinations were carried out by direct plating after surface disinfection in chlorine. Media used were dichloran rose bengal chloramphenicol agar, dichloran 18% glycerol agar, Aspergillus flavus and parasiticus agar and dichloran chloramphenicol peptone agar. Fungi were identified to species level and percentage infection of samples calculated. The dominant fungus found in mung beans was Fusarium semitectum, which was present in 40% of samples and at a high level (18% of all seeds) overall. Aspergillus flavus was also found in 40% of samples, but only in 2% of seeds overall. Lasiodiplodia theobromae was the only other fungus exceeding 1% total infection. The major fungi found in soybeans were A. flavus (67% of samples; 6% overall) and Cladosporium cladosporioides (49% of samples; 9% overall). Storage fungi were more common in soybeans than the other commodities, indicating longer or adverse storage. Paddy rice contained high levels of a wide variety of field fungi, notably Fusarium semitectum, Bipolaris oryzae, and Curvularia, Phoma and Colletotrichum species. However, probably due to the heat generated by milling, milled rice contained very few fungi, which were mostly of storage origin. Only 3% of particles examined contained internal fungi. Infection in sorghum was typical of oilseeds, dominated by Aspergillus flavus, which was present in 86% of samples, with an overall infection rate of 12%. Beans other than soybeans were infected by a wide range of field fungi, but at low levels, with less than half of seeds

  4. Effects of the components in rice flour on thermal radical generation under microwave irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lufen; Huang, Luelue; Fan, Daming; Hu, Bo; Gao, Yishu; Lian, Huizhang; Zhao, Jianxin; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Wei

    2016-12-01

    The relationships between radical generation under microwave irradiation and the components of various types of rice flour were investigated. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy was used to characterize the radicals found in rice flour samples. The EPR spectra revealed that several types of radical (carbon-centered, tyrosyl and semiquinone) were localized in the starch and protein fractions of the rice flour. The signal intensity of the free radicals was observed to increase exponentially with increasing microwave power and residence time. The rice bran samples exhibited the greatest free radical signal intensity, followed by the brown rice samples and the white rice samples. This finding was consistent for both the native and the microwaved samples. The ratio of rice starch to rice protein also played an important role in the generation of radicals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. seed oils

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Timothy Ademakinwa

    processes, production of biodiesel, as lubricant and in deep-frying purposes. They could ... for its juice, nectars and fruit while its seeds are ... Malaysia. The fine seed powder was stored in a plastic container inside a refrigerator at between 4 o.

  6. seed flour

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-09-06

    Sep 6, 2010 ... and with a nice taste, used for cooking or as lamp oil. The fatty acid ... Pra seeds were obtained from a local market in Nakhon Si Thammarat. Page 2. Table 1. Proximate composition of pra seed flour. Constituent. Percentage ...

  7. Radiocarbon ages of Sorori ancient rice of Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyeong Ja, E-mail: kjkim@kigam.re.kr [Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yung-Jo; Woo, Jong-Yoon [Institute of Korean Prehistory, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of); Jull, A.J. Timothy [NSF Arizona AMS Laboratory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2013-01-15

    Samples of Sorori ancient rice were excavated in 1998 from the Sorori Paleolithic site located at Sorori, Oksan-myeon, Cheong-won County in Chungcheongbuk-do, Korea. We have made new radiocarbon measurements for Sorori samples in 2009 at the NSF Arizona AMS Laboratory. Both ancient rice samples and surrounded peat from the Sorori site were dated. The AMS results confirmed that the ages of the rice and peat soil were 12,520 {+-} 150 and 12,552 {+-} 90 BP, respectively. These radiocarbon ages are consistent with the previously published data of quasi rice measured at Seoul National University and confirm that the Sorori rice is the oldest ancient rice currently reported.

  8. Robotic seeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Søren Marcus; Fountas, Spyros; Sørensen, Claus Aage Grøn

    2017-01-01

    Agricultural robotics has received attention for approximately 20 years, but today there are only a few examples of the application of robots in agricultural practice. The lack of uptake may be (at least partly) because in many cases there is either no compelling economic benefit......, or there is a benefit but it is not recognized. The aim of this chapter is to quantify the economic benefits from the application of agricultural robots under a specific condition where such a benefit is assumed to exist, namely the case of early seeding and re-seeding in sugar beet. With some predefined assumptions...... with regard to speed, capacity and seed mapping, we found that among these two technical systems both early seeding with a small robot and re-seeding using a robot for a smaller part of the field appear to be financially viable solutions in sugar beet production....

  9. Pathogenic mycoflora on carrot seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Nowicki

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Altogether 300 seed samples were collected during 9 years in 8 regions of Poland and the fungi Were isolated and their pathogenicity to carrot seedlings was examined. Alternaria rudicina provcd to be the most important pathogen although. A. alternata was more common. The other important pathogens were Fusarium spp., Phoma spp. and Botrytis cinerea. The infection of carrot seeds by A. radicina should be used as an important criterium in seed quality evaluation.

  10. Evaluation of Wheat (Triticum aestivum, L. Seed Quality of Certified Seed and Farm-Saved Seed in Three Provinces of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khazaei Fardin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to study the seed quality aspects of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and the extent of weed seed contamination present in wheat seeds produced in different regions of Iran. Four districts (cities, each including 12 fields (six certified seed fields and six farm-saved seed fields, were selected in each regions (provinces. One kilogram of the wheat seed sample was collected from each field for analysis in the laboratory. Wheat seeding was commonly done by farm-saved seed sourced from within the farm due to the high costs of certified seeds purchased from outside sources, followed by the low seed quality. The use of a farm-saved seed resulted in a higher germination rate and a lower mean time to germination compared with another system. The more positive temperatures experienced by mother plants could decrease the number of normal seedling and seedling length vigor index. Generally there was virtually no difference about physiological quality between certified seed and farm-saved seed sector that is related to lower quality of certified seed. The certified produced seeds had the lower number of weed seed, species and genus before and after cleaning. The highest seed purity and 1000 seed weight was obtained from the certified seed production system. The need for cleaning the farm-saved seed samples before sowing is one of the important findings of this survey.

  11. Studies on the abnormality of embryo sac and pollen fertility in aurotetraploid rice during different growing seasons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahid, M.; Jilanfan, S.; Changmin, W.; Peng, Z.; Xiang-dong, X.

    2010-01-01

    Auto tetraploid rice has a great genetic potential but low seed setting rate is the major encumbrance in its use. Embryo sac fertility and pollen fertility are the most important factors which affect the seed setting rate in auto tetraploid rice. Whole mount eosin B-staining confocal laser scanning microscopy (WE-CLSM) was used to study the fertility and abnormalities in embryo sacs of diploid and auto tetraploid rice during different seasons. The results indicated that the embryo sac fertility (64.5%) was much low in auto tetraploid than that in diploid rice (86%), and five main types of abnormal embryo sac were found in all 10 auto tetraploid rice. Moreover, some other type abnormal embryo sacs were also observed in auto tetraploid rice. Embryo sac without female germ unit and embryo sac degeneration were the most frequent types of abnormalities in auto tetraploid rice. Embryo sac fertility ranged from 49.3% to 79.3%, pollen fertility ranged from 56.2 to 85.9%, and seed setting rate varied from 12.5 to 69.01% in various genotypes of auto tetraploid rice. Embryo sac and pollen fertility were found to have a significant correlation with seed setting rate. Seasons have significant effect on pollen and embryo sac fertility in both type of rice. All the auto tetraploid lines exhibited different types of embryo sac abnormalities which indicated that these might be related to different genotypes. (author)

  12. Classification of Malaysia aromatic rice using multivariate statistical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdullah, A. H.; Adom, A. H.; Shakaff, A. Y. Md; Masnan, M. J.; Zakaria, A.; Rahim, N. A.; Omar, O.

    2015-01-01

    Aromatic rice (Oryza sativa L.) is considered as the best quality premium rice. The varieties are preferred by consumers because of its preference criteria such as shape, colour, distinctive aroma and flavour. The price of aromatic rice is higher than ordinary rice due to its special needed growth condition for instance specific climate and soil. Presently, the aromatic rice quality is identified by using its key elements and isotopic variables. The rice can also be classified via Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) or human sensory panels. However, the uses of human sensory panels have significant drawbacks such as lengthy training time, and prone to fatigue as the number of sample increased and inconsistent. The GC–MS analysis techniques on the other hand, require detailed procedures, lengthy analysis and quite costly. This paper presents the application of in-house developed Electronic Nose (e-nose) to classify new aromatic rice varieties. The e-nose is used to classify the variety of aromatic rice based on the samples odour. The samples were taken from the variety of rice. The instrument utilizes multivariate statistical data analysis, including Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) and K-Nearest Neighbours (KNN) to classify the unknown rice samples. The Leave-One-Out (LOO) validation approach is applied to evaluate the ability of KNN to perform recognition and classification of the unspecified samples. The visual observation of the PCA and LDA plots of the rice proves that the instrument was able to separate the samples into different clusters accordingly. The results of LDA and KNN with low misclassification error support the above findings and we may conclude that the e-nose is successfully applied to the classification of the aromatic rice varieties

  13. Classification of Malaysia aromatic rice using multivariate statistical analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdullah, A. H.; Adom, A. H.; Shakaff, A. Y. Md; Masnan, M. J.; Zakaria, A.; Rahim, N. A. [School of Mechatronic Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, Kampus Pauh Putra, 02600 Arau, Perlis (Malaysia); Omar, O. [Malaysian Agriculture Research and Development Institute (MARDI), Persiaran MARDI-UPM, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2015-05-15

    Aromatic rice (Oryza sativa L.) is considered as the best quality premium rice. The varieties are preferred by consumers because of its preference criteria such as shape, colour, distinctive aroma and flavour. The price of aromatic rice is higher than ordinary rice due to its special needed growth condition for instance specific climate and soil. Presently, the aromatic rice quality is identified by using its key elements and isotopic variables. The rice can also be classified via Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) or human sensory panels. However, the uses of human sensory panels have significant drawbacks such as lengthy training time, and prone to fatigue as the number of sample increased and inconsistent. The GC–MS analysis techniques on the other hand, require detailed procedures, lengthy analysis and quite costly. This paper presents the application of in-house developed Electronic Nose (e-nose) to classify new aromatic rice varieties. The e-nose is used to classify the variety of aromatic rice based on the samples odour. The samples were taken from the variety of rice. The instrument utilizes multivariate statistical data analysis, including Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) and K-Nearest Neighbours (KNN) to classify the unknown rice samples. The Leave-One-Out (LOO) validation approach is applied to evaluate the ability of KNN to perform recognition and classification of the unspecified samples. The visual observation of the PCA and LDA plots of the rice proves that the instrument was able to separate the samples into different clusters accordingly. The results of LDA and KNN with low misclassification error support the above findings and we may conclude that the e-nose is successfully applied to the classification of the aromatic rice varieties.

  14. Classification of Malaysia aromatic rice using multivariate statistical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, A. H.; Adom, A. H.; Shakaff, A. Y. Md; Masnan, M. J.; Zakaria, A.; Rahim, N. A.; Omar, O.

    2015-05-01

    Aromatic rice (Oryza sativa L.) is considered as the best quality premium rice. The varieties are preferred by consumers because of its preference criteria such as shape, colour, distinctive aroma and flavour. The price of aromatic rice is higher than ordinary rice due to its special needed growth condition for instance specific climate and soil. Presently, the aromatic rice quality is identified by using its key elements and isotopic variables. The rice can also be classified via Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) or human sensory panels. However, the uses of human sensory panels have significant drawbacks such as lengthy training time, and prone to fatigue as the number of sample increased and inconsistent. The GC-MS analysis techniques on the other hand, require detailed procedures, lengthy analysis and quite costly. This paper presents the application of in-house developed Electronic Nose (e-nose) to classify new aromatic rice varieties. The e-nose is used to classify the variety of aromatic rice based on the samples odour. The samples were taken from the variety of rice. The instrument utilizes multivariate statistical data analysis, including Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) and K-Nearest Neighbours (KNN) to classify the unknown rice samples. The Leave-One-Out (LOO) validation approach is applied to evaluate the ability of KNN to perform recognition and classification of the unspecified samples. The visual observation of the PCA and LDA plots of the rice proves that the instrument was able to separate the samples into different clusters accordingly. The results of LDA and KNN with low misclassification error support the above findings and we may conclude that the e-nose is successfully applied to the classification of the aromatic rice varieties.

  15. Rice peasants and rice research in Colombia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spijkers, P.A.N.M.

    1983-01-01

    Rice has been grown as a food crop in Latin America from early colonial times. In Colombia rice became a prominent subsistence crop especially on the north coast where it has been grown since the 17th century, sometimes also as a commercial crop. During the last twenty years there has been a sharp

  16. Cadmium content in rice and its daily intake in Ghaemshahr region ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This investigation surveyed Cadmium (Cd) content of Iranian rice (oryza saliva) which is predominant rice culture in north of Iran. A total of 60 samples were collected from Ghaemshahr region in Mazandaran province (North of Iran). The samples were collected in during harvesting of rice in field. The first step, grains of raw ...

  17. Seed regulations and local seed systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwaars, N.

    2000-01-01

    Seed regulations have been introduced in most countries based on the development of formal seed production. Concerns about seed quality and about the varietal identity of the seeds have commonly led to seed laws. However, formal regulations are often inappropriate for informal seed systems, which

  18. Reduction in uptake by rice and soybean of aromatic arsenicals from diphenylarsinic acid contaminated soil amended with activated charcoal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arao, Tomohito; Maejima, Yuji; Baba, Koji

    2011-01-01

    Activated charcoal (AC) amendment has been suggested as a promising method to immobilize organic contaminants in soil. We performed pot experiments with rice and soybean grown in agricultural soil polluted by aromatic arsenicals (AAs). The most abundant AA in rice grains and soybean seeds was methylphenylarsinic acid (MPAA). MPAA concentration in rice grains was significantly reduced to 2% and 3% in 0.2% AC treated soil compared to untreated soil in the first year of rice cultivation. In the second year, MPAA concentration in rice grains was significantly reduced to 15% in 0.2% AC treated soil compared to untreated soil. MPAA concentration in soybean seeds was significantly reduced to 44% in 0.2% AC treated soil compared to untreated soil. AC amendment was effective in reducing AAs in rice and soybean. - Highlights: → Pot experiments using agricultural soil contaminated with aromatic arsenicals (AAs). → Methylphenylarsinic acid (MPAA) was the most abundant AA in rice and soybean. → MPAA concentration in rice grains was dramatically reduced via 0.2% AC amendment. → MPAA concentration in soybean seeds was also reduced via 0.2% AC amendment. → AC amendment effectively reduced AAs in rice and soybean. - Activated charcoal amendment to soil contaminated with diphenylarsinic acid reduced aromatic arsenicals in rice and soybean.

  19. Reduction in uptake by rice and soybean of aromatic arsenicals from diphenylarsinic acid contaminated soil amended with activated charcoal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arao, Tomohito, E-mail: arao@affrc.go.jp [National Institute for Agro-Environmental Sciences, Soil Environmental Division, 3-1-3 Kannondai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8604 (Japan); Maejima, Yuji; Baba, Koji [National Institute for Agro-Environmental Sciences, Soil Environmental Division, 3-1-3 Kannondai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8604 (Japan)

    2011-10-15

    Activated charcoal (AC) amendment has been suggested as a promising method to immobilize organic contaminants in soil. We performed pot experiments with rice and soybean grown in agricultural soil polluted by aromatic arsenicals (AAs). The most abundant AA in rice grains and soybean seeds was methylphenylarsinic acid (MPAA). MPAA concentration in rice grains was significantly reduced to 2% and 3% in 0.2% AC treated soil compared to untreated soil in the first year of rice cultivation. In the second year, MPAA concentration in rice grains was significantly reduced to 15% in 0.2% AC treated soil compared to untreated soil. MPAA concentration in soybean seeds was significantly reduced to 44% in 0.2% AC treated soil compared to untreated soil. AC amendment was effective in reducing AAs in rice and soybean. - Highlights: > Pot experiments using agricultural soil contaminated with aromatic arsenicals (AAs). > Methylphenylarsinic acid (MPAA) was the most abundant AA in rice and soybean. > MPAA concentration in rice grains was dramatically reduced via 0.2% AC amendment. > MPAA concentration in soybean seeds was also reduced via 0.2% AC amendment. > AC amendment effectively reduced AAs in rice and soybean. - Activated charcoal amendment to soil contaminated with diphenylarsinic acid reduced aromatic arsenicals in rice and soybean.

  20. Effect of Black Rice Powder on the Quality Properties of Pork Patties

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Sin-Young; Lee, Jong-Wan; Kim, Gye-Woong; Kim, Hack-Youn

    2017-01-01

    Physicochemical properties of pork patties formulated with black rice powder were investigated. Moisture contents of samples containing black rice powder were significantly higher than that of the control (p

  1. Rice improvement through radiation-induced mutation for cultivation in South Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Do Khac Thinh; Hung Phi Oanh; Nguyen Thi Cuc; Nguyen Ngoc Quynh

    2001-01-01

    For past years, rice varieties cultivated in South Vietnam originated from domestic hybridisation or from IRRI. Rice mutation breeding has been initiated for recent years. To meet the requirement of rice production diversification in different agro-ecological areas and rice genetic resources, from 1993 Institute of Agricultural Science of South Vietnam has carried out rice improvement by induced mutation of radiation. The mutagen was gamma rays of 60 Co. The goal is to create inherited variations, which cannot be obtained from other breeding methods, specially important characters of rice varieties (high tolerance to acid sulfate soil, lodging resistance combined with early maturity), which were difficult to gain by hybridisation. With 60 Co gamma rays, doses of 10-20 krad, dose rate of 280 krad/h, dry and germinated seeds of introduced and local rice varieties (IR 64, IR 9729, IR 50404, IR 59606, Jasmine 85, Nang Huong, Tam Xoan) were irradiated. The irradiated seeds were immediately sown within 24 and 94 hrs for wet seeds and dry seeds after treatment, respectively. Population of 10,000-15,000 plants were established and evaluated by IRRI evaluation standard from M2-M7 generations. 365 lines, varieties were selected with better behaviours than original varieties as lodging resistance, earliness, potential yield, leaf characters, tolerant ability to adverse conditions etc. Some good varieties (VND95-19, VND95-20) have been approved as leading national varieties and released for large-scale production in South Vietnam. (author)

  2. Rice improvement through radiation-induced mutation for cultivation in South Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Do Khac Thinh; Hung Phi Oanh; Nguyen Thi Cuc; Nguyen Ngoc Quynh [Institute of Agricultural Science of South Vietnam, Ho Chi Minh (Viet Nam)

    2001-03-01

    For past years, rice varieties cultivated in South Vietnam originated from domestic hybridisation or from IRRI. Rice mutation breeding has been initiated for recent years. To meet the requirement of rice production diversification in different agro-ecological areas and rice genetic resources, from 1993 Institute of Agricultural Science of South Vietnam has carried out rice improvement by induced mutation of radiation. The mutagen was gamma rays of {sup 60}Co. The goal is to create inherited variations, which cannot be obtained from other breeding methods, specially important characters of rice varieties (high tolerance to acid sulfate soil, lodging resistance combined with early maturity), which were difficult to gain by hybridisation. With {sup 60}Co gamma rays, doses of 10-20 krad, dose rate of 280 krad/h, dry and germinated seeds of introduced and local rice varieties (IR 64, IR 9729, IR 50404, IR 59606, Jasmine 85, Nang Huong, Tam Xoan) were irradiated. The irradiated seeds were immediately sown within 24 and 94 hrs for wet seeds and dry seeds after treatment, respectively. Population of 10,000-15,000 plants were established and evaluated by IRRI evaluation standard from M2-M7 generations. 365 lines, varieties were selected with better behaviours than original varieties as lodging resistance, earliness, potential yield, leaf characters, tolerant ability to adverse conditions etc. Some good varieties (VND95-19, VND95-20) have been approved as leading national varieties and released for large-scale production in South Vietnam. (author)

  3. Gene expression analysis in rice plants after external radiation exposure in Iitate village

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, G.; Fukumoto, M. [Institute of Development, Aging and Cancer, Tohoku University (Japan); Imanaka, T. [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University (Japan); Shibato, J. [Department of Anatomy I, School of Medicine, Showa University (Japan); Kubo, A. [Center for Environmental Biology and Ecosystem Studies, National Institute for Environmental Studies (Japan); Kikuchi, S. [Plant Genome Research Unit, Agrogenomics Research Center, National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences (Japan); Rakwal, R. [Organization for Educational Initiatives, University of Tsukuba (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    Rice plants exposed to radiation respond to the stress by activating self-defense mechanisms. A well-established molecular approach to measure stress is by cataloging global gene expression profiles. Here, we examined the effect of radiation exposure in a cereal crop model plant - rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivar Nipponbare - in the village of Iitate of Fukushima prefecture. Iitate village is a highly radio-contaminated site due to the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident following the Great East Japan Earthquake. The experimental approach comprised of five steps. First, healthy rice seedlings were grown in the greenhouse facility at National Institute for Environmental Sciences. Post-germination at 30 deg. C similarly germinated seeds were placed in neat rows in seedling pots having commercial soil (JA Zen-Noh, Japan; http//www.zennoh.or.jp/) with recommended NPK (nitrogen, phosphorus, and potash) doses at a controlled (25 deg. C, 70% relative humidity and natural light condition) greenhouse. Second, the seedlings were transported from a controlled greenhouse in Tsukuba to Iitate Farm (ITF) and placed, with no direct contact with soil, in a low-level gamma field where the rate of Cs-137 was 700 kBq/m{sup 2}. Third, exposure periods were set at 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h after arrival at ITF, and rice leaves at the 3. position (from the base) from 6 to 10 seedlings were sampled in dry ice. As control, rice leaves were sampled at the start in Tsukuba and immediately at arrival upon ITF; to know the radiation levels during growth and transport of the rice to ITF, accumulated radiation dose was calculated using a MYDOSE mini electronic pocket dosimeter (model PDM-222-52, ALOKA, Japan). A sample set was also taken at 72 h from healthy rice seedlings in the greenhouse at Tsukuba. All samples were stored at -80 deg. C. Accumulated total dose for exposed rice seedlings at 72 h was 200 mSv. Fourth, gene expression analysis was initiated by grinding the leaves to a

  4. Weed competitiveness and yielding ability of aerobic rice genotypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, D.L.

    2006-01-01

    Keywords:    Broad-sense heritability; Crop vigour; Genetic correlation; Indirect selection index; Plant erectness; Rice germplasm; Seeding rate; Vegetative growth; Weed-suppressive ability.

  5. Mutagenic effects on indica rice carried by satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Dezhi; Liu Yongzhu; Guo Tao; Zhang Jianguo; Chen Zhiqiang; Wang Hui

    2010-01-01

    Dried seeds of four indica rice varieties were carried into space by satellite Shijia No.8, the mutagenic effects of space condition on the seeds vigor and agronomic traits in the SP 1 generation, and on the agronomic traits, amylose conent and bacterial resistance in the SP 2 generation were studied. The results showed that the space condition slightly damaged rice seeds, with the physiological damage rate of germination rate, bud length, plant height and seed-setting rate in the SP 1 ranged from 0 to 26.9%. Different varieties responded differently to the space conditions, and the order from strong to weak was Gui 99, Hanghui 7, R998, Jinhang 138. Compared with the control, no trait showed segregation in the SP 1 generation. Some traits appeared larger segregation in the SP 2 generation, and the mutants of plant height, number of tillers, weight of grain, amylose content and bacterial blight resistance were isolated in the SP 2 generation, and these mutation traits could be inherited the SP 3 generation. Space conditions not only produced mutants of rice agronomic traits, but also produced mutants of rice quality and disease resistance. (authors)

  6. Comparative effects of X and gamma radiations on rice plantules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gumberra, R.; Gonzalez, L.M.

    1993-01-01

    Results on effects of 60C o X and gamma ray on rice plantules from irradiated seeds in the dosage interval ranging from zero to 1000Gy in low level sources are shown in this work. A similar effect within the same range of radiations, with some difference in its biological efficiency was observed

  7. Mapping QTLs for submergence tolerance during germination in rice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-08-04

    Aug 4, 2008 ... Key words: Oryza sativa L, anaerobic germination, QTL analysis. INTRODUCTION. Two main ... The study was conducted at NG-01 greenhouse, Genome and. Mapping (GML), the .... ABC transporter family protein ..... differences of germination habits in rice seeds with special reference to plant breeding (in ...

  8. Effect of Temperature on Chinese Rice Wine Brewing with High Concentration Presteamed Whole Sticky Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dengfeng Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Production of high quality Chinese rice wine largely depends on fermentation temperature. However, there is no report on the ethanol, sugars, and acids kinetics in the fermentation mash of Chinese rice wine treated at various temperatures. The effects of fermentation temperatures on Chinese rice wine quality were investigated. The compositions and concentrations of ethanol, sugars, glycerol, and organic acids in the mash of Chinese rice wine samples were determined by HPLC method. The highest ethanol concentration and the highest glycerol concentration both were attained at the fermentation mash treated at 23°C. The highest peak value of maltose (90 g/L was obtained at 18°C. Lactic acid and acetic acid both achieved maximum values at 33°C. The experimental results indicated that temperature contributed significantly to the ethanol production, acid flavor contents, and sugar contents in the fermentation broth of the Chinese rice wines.

  9. Effect of Temperature on Chinese Rice Wine Brewing with High Concentration Presteamed Whole Sticky Rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong-Tao; Xiong, Weili; Hu, Jianhua; Xu, Baoguo; Lin, Chi-Chung; Xu, Ling; Jiang, Lihua

    2014-01-01

    Production of high quality Chinese rice wine largely depends on fermentation temperature. However, there is no report on the ethanol, sugars, and acids kinetics in the fermentation mash of Chinese rice wine treated at various temperatures. The effects of fermentation temperatures on Chinese rice wine quality were investigated. The compositions and concentrations of ethanol, sugars, glycerol, and organic acids in the mash of Chinese rice wine samples were determined by HPLC method. The highest ethanol concentration and the highest glycerol concentration both were attained at the fermentation mash treated at 23°C. The highest peak value of maltose (90 g/L) was obtained at 18°C. Lactic acid and acetic acid both achieved maximum values at 33°C. The experimental results indicated that temperature contributed significantly to the ethanol production, acid flavor contents, and sugar contents in the fermentation broth of the Chinese rice wines. PMID:24672788

  10. Using rice straw to manufacture ceramic bricks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorbunov German Ivanovich

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the co-authors offer their advanced and efficient methodologies for the recycling of the rice straw, as well as the novel approaches to the ceramic brick quality improvement through the application of the rice straw as the combustible additive and through the formation of amorphous silica in the course of the rice straw combustion. The co-authors provide characteristics of the raw materials, production techniques used to manufacture ceramic bricks, and their basic properties in the article. The co-authors describe the simulated process of formation of amorphous silica. The process in question has two independent steps (or options: 1 rice straw combustion and ash formation outside the oven (in the oxidizing medium, and further application of ash as the additive in the process of burning clay mixtures; 2 adding pre-treated rice straw as the combustible additive into the clay mixture, and its further burning in compliance with the pre-set temperature mode. The findings have proven that the most rational pre-requisite of the rice straw application in the manufacturing of ceramic bricks consists in feeding milled straw into the clay mixture to be followed by molding, drying and burning. Brick samples are highly porous, and they also demonstrate sufficient compressive strength. The co-authors have also identified optimal values of rice straw and ash content in the mixtures under research.

  11. Analysis on Factors Affecting Seedling Establishment in Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju LUO

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Elongations of coleoptile and mesocotyl are related directly to rice seedling establishment in soil and height of plant is related to lodging in rice production. Twelve typical rice cultivars with different lengths of coleoptile and mesocotyl (long, medium and short were selected by screening the lengths of coleoptile and mesocotyl in 1500 accessions. The seedling establishments of these typical cultivars were compared under the combinations of different sowing depths and flooding durations, and two semi-dwarf varieties (G140, Zhong 96–21 with good seedling establishments and optimum mesocotyl lengths were found. The length of mesocotyl was completely fitted negative binomial distribution and the length of coleoptile was nearly fitted lognormal distribution. Analysis of the relationships among mesocotyl, coleoptile, seeding depth, flooding duration, and their interactions to seedling establishment percentage showed that there existed significant relations among mesocotyl, coleoptile, mesocotyl × coleoptile, seeding depth, flooding duration and mesocotyl × sowing depth in the experiment for seedling establishment.

  12. Quantitative Trait Loci Analysis of Allelopathy in Rice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, L B; Courtois, B; Olofsdotter, M

    2008-01-01

    The allelopathic potential of rice (Oryza sativa L.) against Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) Beauv. was investigated under both laboratory and greenhouse conditions. A population of 150 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) was derived through single-seed descent from a cross between the indica cultivar AC...... the population phenotype was normally distributed. Two quantitative trait loci (QTLs) were located on chromosomes 4 and 7, explaining 20% of the phenotypic variation. A second relay seeding experiment was set up, this time including charcoal in the perlite. This screening showed that the allelopathic rice...... varieties did not have any effect on the weed species when grown with charcoal, the charcoal reversing the effect of any potential allelochemicals exuded from the rice roots. The second phenotypic experiment was conducted under greenhouse conditions in pots. Thirteen QTLs were detected for four different...

  13. Elemental content of Vietnamese rice. Part 2. Multivariate data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokot, S; Phuong, T D

    1999-04-01

    Rice samples were obtained from the Red River region and some other parts of Vietnam as well as from Yanco, Australia. These samples were analysed for 14 elements (P, K, Mg, Ca, Mn, Zn, Fe, Cu, Al, Na, Ni, As, Mo and Cd) by ICP-AES, ICP-MS and FAAS as described in Part 1. This data matrix was then submitted to multivariate data analysis by principal component analysis to investigate the influences of environmental and crop cultivation variables on the elemental content of rice. Results revealed that geographical location, grain variety, seasons and soil conditions are the most likely significant factors causing changes in the elemental content between the rice samples. To assess rice quality according to its elemental content and physio-biological properties, a multicriteria decision making method (PROMETHEE) was applied. With the Vietnamese rice, the sticky rice appeared to contain somewhat higher levels of nutritionally significant elements such as P, K and Mg than the non-sticky rice. Also, rice samples grown during the wet season have better levels of nutritionally significant mineral elements than those of the dry season, but in general, the wet season seemed to provide better overall elemental and physio-biological rice quality.

  14. Impact of potash fertilization on uptake of potassium by rice saplings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, V.N.; Sood, B.S.; Allawadhi, K.L.; Mittal, Raj

    1995-01-01

    Potash fertilization of plants that affects the potassium content of soils and its uptake by plants has been studied. For this rice saplings in pots were grown by planting Basmati seeds. Their growth was monitored by applying different amounts of potash fertilizers and keeping all other environment factors; soil, temperature, light and humidity etc. constant. Total potassium contents in rice saplings were determined using the method based upon XRF technique. The monitoring of growth of saplings of different pots shows that time duration of their freshness and greenishness and average length after fertilization were in increasing order with the amount of potassium fertilizer applied to the saplings. More over, the results of potassium content in different samples reveals that lower value of potash fertilizer has suppressed the potassium content in rice saplings as compared to those of saplings and soil of untreated pot. Potassium content of other saplings treated with 100, 150 and 200 mg of KCl per 200 ml of water were found to be enhanced from about 0.2 to 0.8 mg/g of dried amount with fertilizer contents. This shows that presently applied maximum amount of fertilizer is favourable for plants and visually induces no adverse effects in the saplings. (author). 5 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig

  15. Studies of pirimiphos-methyl residues in stored rice, using 14C-pirimiphos-methyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varca, L.M.; Sanchez, T.E.; Gambalan, N.; Magallona, E.D.

    1990-01-01

    The distribution and persistence of pirimiphos-methyl on rice (hulled and unhulled) stored over a period of 6 months at 30 deg. C and about 11% moisture were studied using 14 C labelled insecticide. The procedures used for preparing the labelled formulation, applying the insecticide and for the handling and analysis of the grain samples were similar to those described for fenvalerate, see Varca, Sanchez and Magallona, ''Isotopic tracer aided studies of fenvalerate residues in stored products'', these Proceedings. After applying the pirimiphos-methyl, a concentration equal to 0.87 ppm was found on the hulled rice immediately after application; this concentration declined to 0.60 ppm after 6 months of storage. Over 28% of the residue was present in the seed in the methanol extractable form, and 38% was found on the surface at the end of the storage period. For the unhulled rice, most of the residue was retained in the hull with no decrease in the overall level during the storage period. (author)

  16. Golden Rice is an effective source of vitamin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Guangwen; Qin, Jian; Dolnikowski, Gregory G; Russell, Robert M; Grusak, Michael A

    2009-06-01

    Genetically engineered "Golden Rice" contains up to 35 microg beta-carotene per gram of rice. It is important to determine the vitamin A equivalency of Golden Rice beta-carotene to project the potential effect of this biofortified grain in rice-consuming populations that commonly exhibit low vitamin A status. The objective was to determine the vitamin A value of intrinsically labeled dietary Golden Rice in humans. Golden Rice plants were grown hydroponically with heavy water (deuterium oxide) to generate deuterium-labeled [2H]beta-carotene in the rice grains. Golden Rice servings of 65-98 g (130-200 g cooked rice) containing 0.99-1.53 mg beta-carotene were fed to 5 healthy adult volunteers (3 women and 2 men) with 10 g butter. A reference dose of [13C10]retinyl acetate (0.4-1.0 mg) in oil was given to each volunteer 1 wk before ingestion of the Golden Rice dose. Blood samples were collected over 36 d. Our results showed that the mean (+/-SD) area under the curve for the total serum response to [2H]retinol was 39.9 +/- 20.7 microg x d after the Golden Rice dose. Compared with that of the [13C10]retinyl acetate reference dose (84.7 +/- 34.6 microg x d), Golden Rice beta-carotene provided 0.24-0.94 mg retinol. Thus, the conversion factor of Golden Rice beta-carotene to retinol is 3.8 +/- 1.7 to 1 with a range of 1.9-6.4 to 1 by weight, or 2.0 +/- 0.9 to 1 with a range of 1.0-3.4 to 1 by moles. Beta-carotene derived from Golden Rice is effectively converted to vitamin A in humans. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00680355.

  17. Effectiveness of sodium azide alone compared to sodium azide in combination with methyl nitrosurea for rice mutagenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice seeds of the temperate japonica cultivar Kitaake were mutagenized with sodium azide alone and in combination with methyl nitrosourea. Using the reduced representation sequencing method Restriction Enzyme Sequence Comparative Analysis (RESCAN), the mutation densities, types and local sequence co...

  18. Cutaneous Mycoses among Rice Farmers in Anambra State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Ekwealor, Chito Clare; Oyeka, Christie Amechi

    2013-01-01

    Rice grain is one of the world's most important food crops, and its cultivation is a major occupation in Anambra State, Nigeria. These rice farmers are exposed to various agents that predispose them to cutaneous mycoses. The aim of this work was to screen rice farmers for lesions suggestive of cutaneous mycoses and to isolate and identify fungal agents associated with the infection. This survey was carried out between November 2009 and June 2011 in Anambra State, Nigeria. Clinical samples col...

  19. Improving Yield of Transplanted Aman and Boro Rice Through Tegra Package of Cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA Kader, MSR Mia, MA Kafi, MS Hossain, N Islam

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated the yield performance of transplant aman rice cv. BRRI dhan49 and boro rice cv. BRRI dhan29 under improved package of cultivation (TEGRA as compared to farmers’ practice. TEGRA is a rice farming practice which includes use of quality seeds and healthy seedlings, transplanting with rice transplanter, use of herbicide, use of balanced fertilization and micronutrients, and preventive plant protection measures. The study during transplant aman season included two treatments on rice cultivation method viz. TEGRA package and farmers’ practice while in boro rice four treatments viz. TEGRA package, farmers’ practice with high inputs, farmers’ practice with medium inputs and farmers’ practice with low inputs. The yield and plant characters of both transplant aman and boro rice were significantly influenced by the TEGRA package of cultivation as compared to farmers’ practice. TEGRA package of cultivation as compared to farmers’ practice increased the grain yield by 18.3% in transplant aman rice and by 80% in boro rice with less cost of production as compared to farmers’ practice, which eventually resulted 23% increase in gross return and 400% in net return. As a result, the benefit cost ratio of TEGRA package was much higher (1.35 and 2.20 during transplant aman rice and boro rice, respectively compared to that of farmers’ practice (1.07 and 1.30.

  20. Imaging analysis of direct alanine uptake by rice seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nihei, Naoto; Masuda, Sayaka; Rai, Hiroki; Nakanishi, Tomoko M.

    2008-01-01

    We presented alanine, a kind of amino acids, uptake by a rice seedling to study the basic mechanism of the organic fertilizer effectiveness in organic farming. The rice grown in the culture solution containing alanine as a nitrogen source absorbed alanine approximately two times faster than that grown with NH 4 + from analysis of 14 C-alanine images by Imaging Plate method. It was suggested that the active transport ability of the rice seeding was induced in roots by existence of alanine in the rhizosphere. The alanine uptake images of the rice roots were acquired every 5 minutes successively by the real-time autoradiography system we developed. The analysis of the successive images showed that alanine uptake was not uniform throughout the root but especially active at the root tip. (author)

  1. (Lupinus albus) SEEDS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2010-08-08

    Aug 8, 2010 ... lupin samples indicated that lupins can be used as a raw material for various food ... lupin seeds can be utilized for milk and meat imitation products. ... estimated by multiplying the percentage of crude protein, crude fat and ...

  2. Collective action and technology development: up-scaling of innovation in rice farming communities in Northern Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Limnirankul, B.

    2007-01-01

    Keywords:small-scale rice farmers, collective action, community rice seed, local innovations, green manure crop, contract farming, participatory technology development, up-scaling, technological configuration, grid-group theory,

  3. Increasing rice production in Malaysia: Department of Agriculture approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asna Booty Othman; Chua Lee Kiang; Rathinam Thiagarajan; Aziziah Md Jan

    2002-01-01

    Increasing rice productivity will continue to be an important agenda in the agricultural development program of the country. This represents a challenge to the Department of Agriculture. To address this challenge, it calls for creativity, innovation, ideas and initiatives in the use of technologies that consist of land leveling, in the field water management, Integrated Pest Management (IPM), production and distribution of quality seeds, effective fertilizer usage and value added activities. Rice areas which have been leveled using laser guided technology have shown yield increase from 3.3 t/ha to 5.1 t/ha. In-field water management increases rice yield, reduces water wastage and ensures timeliness of operations and improve soil water bearing capacity. IPM has proven highly beneficial in the control of field rats, reducing the incidence of diseases such as rice blast, lowering the occurrence of insect pest outbreaks and weed infestation. Fish rearing and fattening of ducklings to adulthood in the rice fields have also been undertaken as profitable enterprises in the rice farming system. In its effort to modernise and increase rice productivity, the Department of Agriculture approach in acquisition of technology from research agencies, and its adaptation and adoption are discussed. Any technology promoted must be economically viable, socially acceptable and technologically feasible for effective implementation. (Author)

  4. Application of microplate spectrophotometer in determination of apparent amylose content and mutant selection in rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Xiaoyang; Shen Shengquan; Chen Wenyue; Shu Qingyao

    2004-01-01

    The application of automatic microplate spectrophotometer (SpectraMax 190, Sunnyvale, USA) was investigated for measurement of apparent amylose content (AAC) of rice grains. By using five rice varieties (IR24, Iri371, Z413, KMD1 and Xiushui 11), a microplate spectrophotometer-facilitated AAC measurement system was established with similar accuracy to that of standard protocol (NY147-88). In this system, sample was treated as NY147-88, but directly stained in a microplate and the OD values of each sample were determined by a microplate spectrophotometer. A regression equation was established by using the AAC and OD value of standard samples, and the AAC of test samples were estimated by using the equation. The system is simple, accurate and high-throughput. By using this system, about 1500 progenies of M 3 seeds (harvested from individual M 2 plants) were screened for putative AAC mutants, from which one mutant line ZXY16 was developed with a middle AAC of about 16%

  5. Impact of mutation breeding in rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutger, J.N.

    1992-01-01

    More cultivars have been developed in rice through the use of mutation breeding than in any other crop. Direct releases of mutants as cultivars began some 30 years ago, and now total 198 cultivars. During the last 20 years, increasing use has been made of induced mutants in cross-breeding programs, leading to 80 additional cultivars. Principal improvements through mutation breeding have been earlier maturity, short stature, and grain character modifications. Rice has been a popular subject of mutagenesis because it is the world's leading food crop, has diploid inheritance, and is highly self-pollinated. In recent years induced mutation has been exploited to develop breeding tool mutants, which are defined as mutants that in themselves may not have direct agronomic application but may be useful genetic tools for crop improvement. Examples include the eui gene, hull colour mutants, normal genetic male steriles, and environmentally sensitive genetic male steriles. The environmentally sensitive genetic male steriles, especially those in which male sterility can be turned on or off by different photoperiod lengths, show promise for simplifying hybrid rice seed production both in China and the USA. Future applications of mutation in rice include induction of unusual endosperm starch types, plant types with fewer but more productive tillers, dominant dwarfs, dominant genetic male steriles, extremely early maturing mutants, nutritional mutants, and in vitro-derived mutants for tolerance to herbicides or other growth stresses. Refs, 4 figs, 2 tabs

  6. Analysis of the Economic Potential for a Mercosur Rice Futures Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar Antonio da Rocha de Souza

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available World rice production reached 488.4 thousand tons, in 2012. Asian countries are the world’s largest rice producers, followed by Latinamerica, particularly Brazil, where rice is a basic food item. In spite of the clear economic benefits bestowed by commodity futures markets, neither Asia nor Mercosur have implemented a regional rice futures market. In sum, we propose to investigate the feasibility of a Brazilian rice futures contract to serve the Mercosur region by estimating Mercosur rice price dynamics and analyze basis risk and hedging effectiveness for rice market agents in the region, in a simulation framework using a hypothetical regional contract price. Sample data and period was non-probabilistic, for accessibility and convenience. Mercosur rice price dynamics expressed Argentina and Uruguay rice prices moving in synchrony. Brazil rice prices were on lower levels. Also, all three pairs of rice price series are cointegrated, with one cointegrating equation. Again, results can be largely attributed to the different price data used, in Brazil was rough rice, while in Uruguay and Argentina mill