WorldWideScience

Sample records for rice mutator-phenotype derived

  1. Molecular characterization of a rice mutator-phenotype derived from an incompatible cross-pollination reveals transgenerational mobilization of multiple transposable elements and extensive epigenetic instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Chunming

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inter-specific hybridization occurs frequently in plants, which may induce genetic and epigenetic instabilities in the resultant hybrids, allopolyploids and introgressants. It remains unclear however whether pollination by alien pollens of an incompatible species may impose a "biological stress" even in the absence of genome-merger or genetic introgression, whereby genetic and/or epigenetic instability of the maternal recipient genome might be provoked. Results We report here the identification of a rice mutator-phenotype from a set of rice plants derived from a crossing experiment involving two remote and apparently incompatible species, Oryza sativa L. and Oenothera biennis L. The mutator-phenotype (named Tong211-LP showed distinct alteration in several traits, with the most striking being substantially enlarged panicles. Expectably, gel-blotting by total genomic DNA of the pollen-donor showed no evidence for introgression. Characterization of Tong211-LP (S0 and its selfed progenies (S1 ruled out contamination (via seed or pollen or polyploidy as a cause for its dramatic phenotypic changes, but revealed transgenerational mobilization of several previously characterized transposable elements (TEs, including a MITE (mPing, and three LTR retrotransposons (Osr7, Osr23 and Tos17. AFLP and MSAP fingerprinting revealed extensive, transgenerational alterations in cytosine methylation and to a less extent also genetic variation in Tong211-LP and its immediate progenies. mPing mobility was found to correlate with cytosine methylation alteration detected by MSAP but not with genetic variation detected by AFLP. Assay by q-RT-PCR of the steady-state transcript abundance of a set of genes encoding for the various putative DNA methyltransferases, 5-methylcytosine DNA glycosylases, and small interference RNA (siRNA pathway-related proteins showed that, relative to the rice parental line, heritable perturbation in expression of 12 out of

  2. Mycoflora and aflatoxigenic species in derivatives of milled rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIMA Carlos A. P.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty samples of rough rice stored for 6, 12 and 24 months in government authorized warehouses of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, were simultaneously collected. After milling of the product, 90 samples (30 of polished rice, 30 of rice bran and 30 of rice hull were evaluated for their mycoflora, aflatoxigenic species and aflatoxin contamination. The following fungi, listed in decreasing order of frequency, were isolated on Potato-Dextrose Agar: Aspergillus spp., Nigrospora spp., Penicillium spp.; Fusarium spp.; Mucor spp.; Cladosporium spp.; Trichosporon spp. and non-sporulated fungi. The degree of fungal contamination (colony forming units per gram of product was lowest in polished rice, increasing progressively in samples of rice bran and rice hull. Among the Aspergillus species, A. flavus and A. candidus were isolated most frequently. Of the A. flavus isolates, 52.6% strains were found to be toxigenic and produced only Group B aflatoxins. Analysis of the 90 samples did not reveal the presence of aflatoxins in the rice derivatives.

  3. Mutant-inducing effect of γ-ray irradiation for hybrid rice F1 derived from cross of black glutinous rice x wild rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao Dezhi; Tang Yilan

    1998-01-01

    The hybrid rice F 1 plant derived from the back crossing of glutinous rice x wild rice was irradiated with γ-ray. The result of investigation to the induced mutant showed that through the selection and backcross, a black glutinous rice strain with the short stem, cold tolerance and high yield was developed. The analysis of the ability of heredity variance showed that the selection was effective for the husk colour, black glutinous and black Indica rice, but ineffective for the white Indica rice and seed setting

  4. Lethal mutagenesis: targeting the mutator phenotype in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Edward J; Loeb, Lawrence A

    2010-10-01

    The evolution of cancer and RNA viruses share many similarities. Both exploit high levels of genotypic diversity to enable extensive phenotypic plasticity and thereby facilitate rapid adaptation. In order to accumulate large numbers of mutations, we have proposed that cancers express a mutator phenotype. Similar to cancer cells, many viral populations, by replicating their genomes with low fidelity, carry a substantial mutational load. As high levels of mutation are potentially deleterious, the viral mutation frequency is thresholded at a level below which viral populations equilibrate in a traditional mutation-selection balance, and above which the population is no longer viable, i.e., the population undergoes an error catastrophe. Because their mutation frequencies are fine-tuned just below this error threshold, viral populations are susceptible to further increases in mutational load and, recently this phenomenon has been exploited therapeutically by a concept that has been termed lethal mutagenesis. Here we review the application of lethal mutagenesis to the treatment of HIV and discuss how lethal mutagenesis may represent a novel therapeutic approach for the treatment of solid cancers. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Volatility of Mutator Phenotypes at Single Cell Resolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott R Kennedy

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Mutator phenotypes accelerate the evolutionary process of neoplastic transformation. Historically, the measurement of mutation rates has relied on scoring the occurrence of rare mutations in target genes in large populations of cells. Averaging mutation rates over large cell populations assumes that new mutations arise at a constant rate during each cell division. If the mutation rate is not constant, an expanding mutator population may contain subclones with widely divergent rates of evolution. Here, we report mutation rate measurements of individual cell divisions of mutator yeast deficient in DNA polymerase ε proofreading and base-base mismatch repair. Our data are best fit by a model in which cells can assume one of two distinct mutator states, with mutation rates that differ by an order of magnitude. In error-prone cell divisions, mutations occurred on the same chromosome more frequently than expected by chance, often in DNA with similar predicted replication timing, consistent with a spatiotemporal dimension to the hypermutator state. Mapping of mutations onto predicted replicons revealed that mutations were enriched in the first half of the replicon as well as near termination zones. Taken together, our findings show that individual genome replication events exhibit an unexpected volatility that may deepen our understanding of the evolution of mutator-driven malignancies.

  6. Influence of rice straw-derived dissolved organic matter on lactic acid fermentation by Rhizopus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xingxuan; Wang, Xiahui; Xue, Yiyun; Zhang, Tian-Ao; Li, Yuhao; Hu, Jiajun; Tsang, Yiu Fai; Zhang, Hongsheng; Gao, Min-Tian

    2018-01-31

    Rice straw can be used as carbon sources for lactic acid fermentation. However, only a small amount of lactic acid is produced even though Rhizopus oryzae can consume glucose in rice straw-derived hydrolysates. This study correlated the inhibitory effect of rice straw with rice straw-derived dissolved organic matter (DOM). Lactic acid fermentations with and without DOM were conducted to investigate the effect of DOM on lactic acid fermentation by R. oryzae. Fermentation using control medium with DOM showed a similar trend to fermentation with rice straw-derived hydrolysates, showing that DOM contained the major inhibitor of rice straw. DOM assay indicated that it mainly consisted of polyphenols and polysaccharides. The addition of polyphenols and polysaccharides derived from rice straw confirmed that lactic acid fermentation was promoted by polysaccharides and significantly inhibited by polyphenols. The removal of polyphenols also improved lactic acid production. However, the loss of polysaccharides during the removal of polyphenols resulted in low glucose consumption. This study is the first to investigate the effects of rice straw-derived DOM on lactic acid fermentation by R. oryzae. The results may provide a theoretical basis for identifying inhibitors and promoters associated with lactic acid fermentation and for establishing suitable pretreatment methods. Copyright © 2018 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Molecular profiling of interspecific lowland rice populations derived ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-03

    Dec 3, 2008 ... Molecular profiling of interspecific lowland rice populations ... Both cluster and principal component analyses revealed two major groups ...... simulations. Theor ... inheritance, chromosomal location, and population dynamics.

  8. Lignin derivatives from desilicated rice straw soda black liquor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Taraboulsi, M A; Nasser, M M

    1979-01-01

    Carboxymethyl lignin, cyanoethyl lignin, carboxyethyl lignin, and aminopropyl lignin were prepared from alkali lignin of rice straw black liquor (after disilication by storage for 1 wk to 1 yr) and used as sizes for paper, drilling fluid additives and flocculants.

  9. 'Hari', a mutant cross derived rice variety released In India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narahari, P [Nuclear Agriculture Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), Trombay, Bombay (India)

    1989-01-01

    Full text: TR-RNR-21 is a derivative from a cross between 'IR-8' and 'TR-5', the latter being a N{sub f}-induced dwarf mutant of the salt tolerant variety SR-26-B. In initial yield evaluations at BARC during 1972-78 it gave higher yields of 54% in monsoon season and 19% in dry season over 'Jaya' and compared favourably with 'IR-8' and 'Sona'. During 1975-80, trials were conducted by the Andhra Pradesh Agricultural University (APAU), Rajendranagar and the All India Co-ordinated Rice Improvement Project (AICRIP), at Rajendranagar, Hyderabad. In these trials TR-RNR-21 was compared with 'Pankaj', 'Jaya', RP-4-14, 'Sona', 'Surekha', RNR-323341 and 'Prabhat'. Compared with the highest yielding check and all the seven checks combined, overall average yields of TR-RNR-21 were higher by 10.1 and 19.8% respectively. Since 1981, TR-RNR-21 was included in minikit trials of Andhra Pradesh State. Results from over 90 locations of the Telangana region show that mean grain yield of 3843 kg/ha was 19% more than the yield of the local checks. In view of its consistently superior performance, TR-RNR-21 was released as 'Hari' in 1987 for general cultivation in the irrigated transplanted conditions of the Telangana region of Andhra Pradesh, excepting the endemic gall midge prone areas. 'Hari' is a medium duration variety maturing within 135-140 days. It is a semi-dwarf (93 cm), erect, compact and non-lodging type with dark green foliage; anthocyanin pigment absent; grain long (10.1 mm), slender with kernel length/breadth ratio of 3.54; kernel flinty, white, translucent and non-glutinous; white belly absent; TGW 25.2 g; protein content 7.1%; bulling, milling and head recovery - 80, 74.5 and 68% respectively; cooking quality good. It is not affected seriously by blast, tungro virus, sheath blight and brown leaf spot diseases and green leaf hopper, leaf folder and stem borer insect pests. A characteristic of this variety is that the flag leaf is long, stays far above the panicle and

  10. dNTP pool levels modulate mutator phenotypes of error-prone DNA polymerase ε variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Lindsey N; Marjavaara, Lisette; Knowels, Gary M; Schultz, Eric M; Fox, Edward J; Chabes, Andrei; Herr, Alan J

    2015-05-12

    Mutator phenotypes create genetic diversity that fuels tumor evolution. DNA polymerase (Pol) ε mediates leading strand DNA replication. Proofreading defects in this enzyme drive a number of human malignancies. Here, using budding yeast, we show that mutator variants of Pol ε depend on damage uninducible (Dun)1, an S-phase checkpoint kinase that maintains dNTP levels during a normal cell cycle and up-regulates dNTP synthesis upon checkpoint activation. Deletion of DUN1 (dun1Δ) suppresses the mutator phenotype of pol2-4 (encoding Pol ε proofreading deficiency) and is synthetically lethal with pol2-M644G (encoding altered Pol ε base selectivity). Although pol2-4 cells cycle normally, pol2-M644G cells progress slowly through S-phase. The pol2-M644G cells tolerate deletions of mediator of the replication checkpoint (MRC) 1 (mrc1Δ) and radiation sensitive (Rad) 9 (rad9Δ), which encode mediators of checkpoint responses to replication stress and DNA damage, respectively. The pol2-M644G mutator phenotype is partially suppressed by mrc1Δ but not rad9Δ; neither deletion suppresses the pol2-4 mutator phenotype. Thus, checkpoint activation augments the Dun1 effect on replication fidelity but is not required for it. Deletions of genes encoding key Dun1 targets that negatively regulate dNTP synthesis, suppress the dun1Δ pol2-M644G synthetic lethality and restore the mutator phenotype of pol2-4 in dun1Δ cells. DUN1 pol2-M644G cells have constitutively high dNTP levels, consistent with checkpoint activation. In contrast, pol2-4 and POL2 cells have similar dNTP levels, which decline in the absence of Dun1 and rise in the absence of the negative regulators of dNTP synthesis. Thus, dNTP pool levels correlate with Pol ε mutator severity, suggesting that treatments targeting dNTP pools could modulate mutator phenotypes for therapy.

  11. Polymorphisms, Chromosomal Rearrangements, and Mutator Phenotype Development during Experimental Evolution of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douillard, François P; Ribbera, Angela; Xiao, Kun; Ritari, Jarmo; Rasinkangas, Pia; Paulin, Lars; Palva, Airi; Hao, Yanling; de Vos, Willem M

    2016-07-01

    Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG is a lactic acid bacterium widely marketed by the food industry. Its genomic analysis led to the identification of a gene cluster encoding mucus-binding SpaCBA pili, which is located in a genomic island enriched in insertion sequence (IS) elements. In the present study, we analyzed by genome-wide resequencing the genomic integrity of L. rhamnosus GG in four distinct evolutionary experiments conducted for approximately 1,000 generations under conditions of no stress or salt, bile, and repetitive-shearing stress. Under both stress-free and salt-induced stress conditions, the GG population (excluding the mutator lineage in the stress-free series [see below]) accumulated only a few single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and no frequent chromosomal rearrangements. In contrast, in the presence of bile salts or repetitive shearing stress, some IS elements were found to be activated, resulting in the deletion of large chromosomal segments that include the spaCBA-srtC1 pilus gene cluster. Remarkably, a high number of SNPs were found in three strains obtained after 900 generations of stress-free growth. Detailed analysis showed that these three strains derived from a founder mutant with an altered DNA polymerase subunit that resulted in a mutator phenotype. The present work confirms the stability of the pilus production phenotype in L. rhamnosus GG under stress-free conditions, highlights the possible evolutionary scenarios that may occur when this probiotic strain is extensively cultured, and identifies external factors that affect the chromosomal integrity of GG. The results provide mechanistic insights into the stability of GG in regard to its extensive use in probiotic and other functional food products. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG is a widely marketed probiotic strain that has been used in numerous clinical studies to assess its health-promoting properties. Hence, the stability of the probiotic functions of L. rhamnosus GG is of importance, and

  12. Prompt Proxy Mapping of Flood Damaged Rice Fields Using MODIS-Derived Indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngjoo Kwak

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Flood mapping, particularly hazard and risk mapping, is an imperative process and a fundamental part of emergency response and risk management. This paper aims to produce a flood risk proxy map of damaged rice fields over the whole of Bangladesh, where monsoon river floods are dominant and frequent, affecting over 80% of the total population. This proxy risk map was developed to meet the request of the government on a national level. This study represents a rapid, straightforward methodology for estimating rice-crop damage in flood areas of Bangladesh during the large flood from July to September 2007, despite the lack of primary data. We improved a water detection algorithm to achieve a better discrimination capacity to discern flood areas by using a modified land surface water index (MLSWI. Then, rice fields were estimated utilizing a hybrid rice field map from land-cover classification and MODIS-derived indices, such as the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI and enhanced vegetation index (EVI. The results showed that the developed method is capable of providing instant, comprehensive, nationwide mapping of flood risks, such as rice field damage. The detected flood areas and damaged rice fields during the 2007 flood were verified by comparing them with the Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS AVNIR-2 images (a 10 m spatial resolution and in situ field survey data with moderate agreement (K = 0.57.

  13. Kinetics and the mass transfer mechanism of hydrogen sulfide removal by biochar derived from rice hull.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Guofeng; Liu, Liang; Chen, Ping; Shen, Guoqing; Li, Qiwu

    2016-05-01

    The biochar derived from rice hull was evaluated for its abilities to remove hydrogen sulfide (H2S) from gas phase. The surface area and pH of the biochar were compared. The biochar derived from rice hull was evaluated for its abilities to remove hydrogen sulfide (H2S) from gas phase. The surface area and pH of the biochar were compared. The different pyrolysis temperature has great influence on the adsorption of H2S. At the different pyrolysis temperature, the H2S removal efficiency of rice hull-derived biochar was different. The adsorption capacities of biochar were 2.09 mg·g(-1), 2.65 mg·g(-1), 16.30 mg·g(-1), 20.80 mg·g(-1), and 382.70 mg·g(-1), which their pyrolysis temperatures were 100 °C, 200 °C, 300 °C, 400 °C and 500 °C respectively. Based on the Yoon-Nelson model, it analyzed the mass transfer mechanism of hydrogen sulfide adsorption by biochar. The paper focuses on the biochar derived from rice hull-removed hydrogen sulfide (H2S) from gas phase. The surface area and pH of the biochar were compared. The different pyrolysis temperatures have great influence on the adsorption of H2S. At the different pyrolysis temperatures, the H2S removal efficiency of rice hull-derived biohar was different. The adsorption capacities of biochar were 2.09, 2.65, 16.30, 20.80, and 382.70 mg·g(-1), and their pyrolysis temperatures were 100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 °C, respectively. Based on the Yoon-Nelson model, the mass transfer mechanism of hydrogen sulfide adsorption by biochar was analyzed.

  14. Effects of triazole derivatives on strigolactone levels and growth retardation in rice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinsaku Ito

    Full Text Available We previously discovered a lead compound for strigolactone (SL biosynthesis inhibitors, TIS13 (2,2-dimethyl-7-phenoxy-4-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-ylheptan-3-ol. Here, we carried out a structure-activity relationship study of TIS13 to discover more potent and specific SL biosynthesis inhibitor because TIS13 has a severe side effect at high concentrations, including retardation of the growth of rice seedlings. TIS108, a new TIS13 derivative, was found to be a more specific SL biosynthesis inhibitor than TIS13. Treatment of rice seedlings with TIS108 reduced SL levels in both roots and root exudates in a concentration-dependent manner and did not reduce plant height. In addition, root exudates of TIS108-treated rice seedlings stimulated Striga germination less than those of control plants. These results suggest that TIS108 has a potential to be applied in the control of root parasitic weeds germination.

  15. Tunable porous structure of carbon nanosheets derived from puffed rice for high energy density supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Jianhua; Jiang, Kun; Tahir, Muhammad; Wu, Xiaoge; Idrees, Faryal; Shen, Ming; Cao, Chuanbao

    2017-12-01

    The development of green and clean synthetic techniques to overcome energy requirements have motivated the researchers for the utilization of sustainable biomass. Driven by this desire we choose rice as starting materials source. After the explosion effect, the precursor is converted into puffed rice with a honeycomb-like structures composed of thin sheets. These honeycomb-like macrostructures, effectively prevent the cross-linking tendency towards the adjacent nanosheets during activation process. Furthermore, tuneable micro/mesoporous structures with ultrahigh specific surface areas (SBET) are successfully designed by KOH activation. The highest SBET of 3326 m2 g-1 with optimized proportion of small-mesopores is achieved at 850 °C. The rice-derived porous N-doped carbon nanosheets (NCS-850) are used as the active electrode materials for supercapacitors. It exhibites high specific capacitance specifically of 218 F g-1 at 80 A g-1 in 6 M KOH and a high-energy density of 104 Wh kg-1 (53 Wh L-1) in the ionic liquid electrolytes. These are the highest values among the reported biomass-derived carbon materials for the best of our knowledge. The present work demonstrates that the combination of "puffing effect" and common chemical activation can turn natural products such as rice into functional products with prospective applications in high-performance energy storage devices.

  16. Interactive effects of straw-derived biochar and N fertilization on soil C storage and rice productivity in rice paddies of Northeast China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sui, Yanghui; Gao, Jiping; Liu, Caihong; Zhang, Wenzhong; Lan, Yu; Li, Shuhang; Meng, Jun; Xu, Zhengjin; Tang, Liang

    2016-01-01

    Impacts of biochar on greenhouse gas emissions and C sequestration in agricultural soils have been considered as the key to mitigate climate change. There is limited knowledge regarding the effects of rice straw-derived biochar and interaction with N fertilization on soil C sequestration and rice productivity in fertile paddy fields. A 2-year (2013 and 2014) consecutive field trial was performed using straw treatment (5.05 t ha −1 ) and biochar amendment (0, 1.78, 14.8 and 29.6 t ha −1 ) with or without urea application in a rice paddy in Northeast China. A super high yielding rice variety (Oryza sativa L. subsp. Japonica cv. ‘Shennong 265’) was cultivated with permanent flooding. Results showed that biochar amendments significantly decreased CH 4 emissions relative to straw treatment irrespective of N fertilization, especially in N-fertilized soils with 1.78 t ha −1 biochar. There were no differences in CO 2 emissions with respect to biochar amendments, except for 14.8 t ha −1 biochar with N fertilization. Straw treatment had the highest global warming potential over a 100-year time frame, which was nearly 1.5 times that of 14.8 t ha −1 biochar amendment without N fertilization. Biochar addition increased total soil C by up to 5.75 mg g −1 and 11.69 mg g −1 (with 14.8 and 29.6 t ha −1 biochar, respectively), whereas straw incorporation increased this value by only 3.92 mg g −1 . The aboveground biomass of rice in biochar-amended soils increased to varying degrees compared with that in straw-treated soils. However, biochar application had no effects on rice yield, regardless of N fertilization. This study indicated that transforming straw to biochar was more stabilized and more suitable to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions and increase C storage in agriculture soils in Northeast China. - Highlights: • Rice straw-derived biochar significantly reduced CH 4 emission. • Rice straw-derived biochar interacted with the effects of N fertilizers on

  17. Interactive effects of straw-derived biochar and N fertilization on soil C storage and rice productivity in rice paddies of Northeast China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sui, Yanghui [Rice Research Institute, Shenyang Agricultural University, Shenyang 110866 (China); Gao, Jiping [Rice Research Institute, Shenyang Agricultural University, Shenyang 110866 (China); Liaoning Biochar Engineering & Technology Research Center, Shenyang Agricultural University, Dongling Rd, Shenyang 110866 (China); Liu, Caihong; Zhang, Wenzhong [Rice Research Institute, Shenyang Agricultural University, Shenyang 110866 (China); Lan, Yu [Liaoning Biochar Engineering & Technology Research Center, Shenyang Agricultural University, Dongling Rd, Shenyang 110866 (China); Li, Shuhang [Rice Research Institute, Shenyang Agricultural University, Shenyang 110866 (China); Meng, Jun [Liaoning Biochar Engineering & Technology Research Center, Shenyang Agricultural University, Dongling Rd, Shenyang 110866 (China); Xu, Zhengjin, E-mail: xuzhengjin@126.com [Rice Research Institute, Shenyang Agricultural University, Shenyang 110866 (China); Tang, Liang, E-mail: tl_rice@126.com [Rice Research Institute, Shenyang Agricultural University, Shenyang 110866 (China)

    2016-02-15

    Impacts of biochar on greenhouse gas emissions and C sequestration in agricultural soils have been considered as the key to mitigate climate change. There is limited knowledge regarding the effects of rice straw-derived biochar and interaction with N fertilization on soil C sequestration and rice productivity in fertile paddy fields. A 2-year (2013 and 2014) consecutive field trial was performed using straw treatment (5.05 t ha{sup −1}) and biochar amendment (0, 1.78, 14.8 and 29.6 t ha{sup −1}) with or without urea application in a rice paddy in Northeast China. A super high yielding rice variety (Oryza sativa L. subsp. Japonica cv. ‘Shennong 265’) was cultivated with permanent flooding. Results showed that biochar amendments significantly decreased CH{sub 4} emissions relative to straw treatment irrespective of N fertilization, especially in N-fertilized soils with 1.78 t ha{sup −1} biochar. There were no differences in CO{sub 2} emissions with respect to biochar amendments, except for 14.8 t ha{sup −1} biochar with N fertilization. Straw treatment had the highest global warming potential over a 100-year time frame, which was nearly 1.5 times that of 14.8 t ha{sup −1} biochar amendment without N fertilization. Biochar addition increased total soil C by up to 5.75 mg g{sup −1} and 11.69 mg g{sup −1} (with 14.8 and 29.6 t ha{sup −1} biochar, respectively), whereas straw incorporation increased this value by only 3.92 mg g{sup −1}. The aboveground biomass of rice in biochar-amended soils increased to varying degrees compared with that in straw-treated soils. However, biochar application had no effects on rice yield, regardless of N fertilization. This study indicated that transforming straw to biochar was more stabilized and more suitable to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions and increase C storage in agriculture soils in Northeast China. - Highlights: • Rice straw-derived biochar significantly reduced CH{sub 4} emission. • Rice straw-derived

  18. A Mutator Phenotype Promoting the Emergence of Spontaneous Oxidative Stress-Resistant Mutants in Campylobacter jejuni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Lei; Sahin, Orhan; Tang, Yizhi; Zhang, Qijing

    2017-12-15

    Campylobacter jejuni is a leading cause of foodborne illnesses worldwide. As a microaerophilic organism, C. jejuni must be able to defend against oxidative stress encountered both in the host and in the environment. How Campylobacter utilizes a mutation-based mechanism for adaptation to oxidative stress is still unknown. Here we present a previously undescribed phenotypic and genetic mechanism that promotes the emergence of oxidative stress-resistant mutants. Specifically, we showed that a naturally occurring mutator phenotype, resulting from a loss of function mutation in the DNA repair enzyme MutY, increased oxidative stress resistance (OX R ) in C. jejuni We further demonstrated that MutY malfunction did not directly contribute to the OX R phenotype but increased the spontaneous mutation rate in the peroxide regulator gene perR , which functions as a repressor for multiple genes involved in oxidative stress resistance. Mutations in PerR resulted in loss of its DNA binding function and derepression of PerR-controlled oxidative stress defense genes, thereby conferring an OX R phenotype and facilitating Campylobacter survival under oxidative stress. These findings reveal a new mechanism that promotes the emergence of spontaneous OX R mutants in bacterial organisms. IMPORTANCE Although a mutator phenotype has been shown to promote antibiotic resistance in many bacterial species, little is known about its contribution to the emergence of OX R mutants. This work describes the link between a mutator phenotype and the enhanced emergence of OX R mutants as well as its underlying mechanism involving DNA repair and mutations in PerR. Since DNA repair systems and PerR are well conserved in many bacterial species, especially in Gram positives, the same mechanism may operate in multiple bacterial species. Additionally, we developed a novel method that allows for rapid quantification of spontaneous OX R mutants in a bacterial population. This method represents a technical

  19. Identification of Heading Date Six (Hd6 Gene Derived from Rice Mutant Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aryanti Aryanti

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Genes which were associated with flowering time to indicate the early maturity is known as heading date (Hd. Heading date six (Hd6 gene was identified from rice mutant varieties were Atomita 2, Atomita 3, Atomita 4, Bestari, Cilosari, Diah Suci, Sidenuk, Kahayan, Mayang, Meraoke, Mira-1, Pandan Putri, Superwin, Suluttan Unsrat 1, Suluttan Unsrat 2, Winongo, Woyla, Yuwono, while the rice var. Nipponbare was used as a positive control. All of rice mutant varieties derived from mutation induction by the dose of 0.2 kGy. The aim of this experiment was to find out the data base of mutant varieties which could be used as parent material with earlier maturity trait genetically. To obtain the DNA of plants, young leaves of each variety were extracted by liquid nitrogen, and then lysis and extracted by Kit Plant Genomic DNA. The amplification of DNA with 7 primers of Hd6 conducted of 40 cycles by PCR and were continues to separated by 1 % agarose. The results were shown that the rice Mira-1 and Bestari varieties obtained from mutation of Cisantana highly different from one to another on 7 primers of Hd6 used. Mayang variety from mutation of cross breeding between Cilosari and IR64, Pandan putri from Pandan wangi and Woyla from mutation of cross breeding from Atomita 2 and IR64 were highly different with those of their parents. Identification of Hd6 gene on Sidenuk variety was shown the same bands pattern with Nipponbare as control positive toward all primers used, this variety would be better for earlier maturity parent material compared to others. The information could be useful for breeding programs aiming to develop early maturing widely adaptive and high yielding rice cultivars.

  20. Identification of heat-sensitive QTL derived from common wild rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Dongyang; Tan, Lubin; Liu, Fengxia; Chen, Liyun; Sun, Chuanqing

    2013-03-01

    Understanding the responses of rice plants to heat-stress is a challenging, yet crucial, endeavor. A set of introgression lines was previously developed using an advanced backcrossing strategy that involved the elite indica cultivar Teqing as the recipient and an accession of common wild rice (Oryza rufipongon Griff.) as the donor. In this study, we evaluated the responses of 90 of these previously developed introgression lines to heat stress. Five quantitative trait loci (QTLs) related to heat response were detected. The phenotypic variances explained by these QTLs ranged from 6.83% to 14.63%, and O. rufipogon-derived alleles at one locus reduced sensitivity to heat. A heat-sensitive introgression line, YIL106, was identified and characterized. Genotypic analysis demonstrated that YIL106 contained four introgressed segments derived from O. rufipongon and two QTLs (qHTS1-1 and qHTS3) related to heat response. Physiological tests, including measurements of chlorophyll content, electrolyte leakage, malondialdehyde content, and soluble sugar content, were consistent with the heat sensitivity observed in YIL106. Ultrastructural analysis of YIL106 mesophyll cells showed that they were severely damaged following heat stress. This suggests that modification of the cell membrane system is a primary response to heat stress in plants. Identification and characterization of the heat-sensitive line YIL106 may facilitate the isolation of genes associated with the response of rice plants to heat stress. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A mild mutator phenotype arises in a mouse model for malignancies associated with neurofibromatosis type 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garza, Rene; Hudson, Robert A.; McMahan, C. Alex; Walter, Christi A.; Vogel, Kristine S.

    2007-01-01

    Defects in genes that control DNA repair, proliferation, and apoptosis can increase genomic instability, and thus promote malignant progression. Although most tumors that arise in humans with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) are benign, these individuals are at increased risk for malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST). To characterize additional mutations required for the development of MPNST from benign plexiform neurofibromas, we generated a mouse model for these tumors by combining targeted null mutations in Nf1 and p53, in cis. CisNf1+/-; p53+/- mice spontaneously develop PNST, and these tumors exhibit loss-of-heterozygosity at both the Nf1 and p53 loci. Because p53 has well-characterized roles in the DNA damage response, DNA repair, and apoptosis, and because DNA repair genes have been proposed to act as modifiers in NF1, we used the cisNf1+/-; p53+/- mice to determine whether a mutator phenotype arises in NF1-associated malignancies. To quantitate spontaneous mutant frequencies (MF), we crossed the Big Blue mouse, which harbors a lacI transgene, to the cisNf1+/-; p53+/- mice, and isolated genomic DNA from both tumor and normal tissues in compound heterozygotes and wild-type siblings. Many of the PNST exhibited increased mutant frequencies (MF = 4.70) when compared to normal peripheral nerve and brain (MF = 2.09); mutations occurred throughout the entire lacI gene, and included base substitutions, insertions, and deletions. Moreover, the brains, spleens, and livers of these cisNf1+/-; p53+/- animals exhibited increased mutant frequencies when compared to tissues from wild-type littermates. We conclude that a mild mutator phenotype arises in the tumors and tissues of cisNf1+/-; p53+/- mice, and propose that genomic instability influences NF1 tumor progression and disease severity

  2. Preliminary report on the rice blast resistance of space-induced mutants derived from rice cultivar 'Taihang-68'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jingxin; Sun Dayuan; Wang Hui; Liu Yongzhu; Guo Tao; Chen Zhiqiang; Yang Qiyun; Zhu Xiaoyuan

    2012-01-01

    To screen the blast resistance mutants, the resistance of SP 1 progenies derived from rice variety Taihang-68 were evaluated after satellite flight by representative blast isolate GD0193 which had a broad pathogenic spectra, and then primary genetic analysis of resistant mutants and mapping of resistance gene, as well as resistance spectra at seedling and neck blast resistance at maturity were performed. The results showed that space-mutation was effective method to change the blast resistance of Taihang-68. The screened resistant mutants TH1 and TH2 showed that resistance to isolate GD0193 no disjunction and separation respectively, and the resistance separation ratio of TH2 indicated that its resistance was controlled by one pair of major genes, which was preliminary mapped on the long arm of chromosome 11. In blast resistance spectra and neck blast resistance, TH1 and TH2 were both enhanced remarkable compared with the wild-type at seedling and maturity, and their resistance could be inherited, the blast resistance of these two mutants were also increased comparing with several main cultivars in South China. (authors)

  3. Blast resistance of space-induced variants derived from rice cultivar Hanghui 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jingxin; Yang Qiyun; Zhu Xiaoyuan; Wang Hui; Zeng Liexian; Liu Yongzhu; Guo Tao; Chen Zhiqiang

    2010-01-01

    To screen the resistance lines to rice blast, the blast resistance of SP 3 and SP 4 progenies derived from rice variety Hanghui 7 were evaluated after satellite flight, and the genomic DNA polymorphism of the resistant variants selected from SP 3 was compared with the wild type by microsatellite markers. The results indicated that the SP 3 Variant line H24, which was selected from the 250 space-induced lines ( SP 3 ) with excellent agronomic and economical characters, showed resistance segregation (119R : 108S) against blast isolate GD3286. It was demonstrated that the resistance of H24 might be controlled by two dominant and complementary resistance genes. The resistance of H24 was still segregated in SP 4 , but the resistance spectrum of H24 was 84. 4% in SP 5 , much higher than the wild type, 40. 6%, and H24 especially showed resistant against some blast isolates of broad pathogenic spectrum or specialized pathogenicity; further more, the DNA polymorphism wasn't detected between H24 and its wild type by 229 SSR (simple sequence repeat) markers covering the rice genome equally. (authors)

  4. Binding constants of Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus Coat Protein with ferulic acid derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longlu Ran

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The data present binding constants between ferulic acid derivatives and the Coat Protein (P10 by fluorescence titration in this article, which is hosted in the research article entitled “Interaction Research on an Antiviral Molecule that Targets the Coat Protein of Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus’’ (Ran et al., 2017 [1]. The data include fluorescence quenching spectrum, Stern–Volmer quenching constants, and binding parameters. In this article, a more comprehensive data interpretation and analysis is explained.

  5. Characteristics of siRNAs derived from Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus in infected rice and their potential role in host gene regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Donglin; Zhou, Guohui

    2017-02-10

    Virus-derived siRNAs (vsiRNAs)-mediated RNA silencing plays important roles in interaction between plant viruses and their hosts. Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV) is a newly emerged devastating rice reovirus with ten dsRNA genomic segments. The characteristics of SRBSDV-derived siRNAs and their biological implications in SRBSDV-rice interaction remain unexplored. VsiRNAs profiling from SRBSDV-infected rice samples was done via small RNA deep sequencing. The putative rice targets of abundantly expressed vsiRNAs were bioinformatically predicted and subjected to functional annotation. Differential expression analysis of rice targets and RNA silencing components between infected and healthy samples was done using RT-qPCR. The vsiRNA was barely detectable at 14 days post infection (dpi) but abundantly present along with elevated expression level of the viral genome at 28 dpi. From the 28-dpi sample, 70,878 reads of 18 ~ 30-nt vsiRNAs were recognized (which mostly were 21-nt and 22-nt), covering 75 ~ 91% of the length of the ten genomic segments respectively. 86% of the vsiRNAs had a rice genes, including several types of host resistance or pathogenesis related genes encoding F-box/LRR proteins, receptor-like protein kinases, universal stress proteins, tobamovirus multiplication proteins, and RNA silencing components OsDCL2a and OsAGO17 respectively, some of which showed down regulation in infected plants in RT-qPCR. GO and KEGG classification showed that a majority of the predicted targets were related to cell parts and cellular processes and involved in carbohydrate metabolism, translation, and signal transduction. The silencing component genes OsDCL2a, OsDCL2b, OsDCL4, and OsAGO18 were down regulated, while OsAGO1d, OsAGO2, OsRDR1 and OsRDR6 were up regulated, significantly, upon SRBSDV infection. SRBSDV can regulate the expression of rice RNA silencing pathway components and the virus might compromise host defense and influence host

  6. Black liquor-derived carbonaceous solid acid catalyst for the hydrolysis of pretreated rice straw in ionic liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Chenxi; Zhu, Linfeng; Shen, Feng; Qi, Xinhua

    2016-11-01

    Lignin-containing black liquor from pretreatment of rice straw by KOH aqueous solution was applied to prepare a carbonaceous solid acid catalyst, in which KOH played dual roles of extracting lignin from rice straw and developing porosity of the carbon material as an activation agent. The synthesized black liquor-derived carbon material was applied in catalytic hydrolysis of the residue solid from the pretreatment of rice straw, which was mainly composed of cellulose and hemicellulose, and showed excellent activity for the production of total reducing sugars (TRS) in ionic liquid, 1-butyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloride. The highest TRS yield of 63.4% was achieved at 140°C for 120min, which was much higher than that obtained from crude rice straw under the same reaction conditions (36.6% TRS yield). Overall, this study provides a renewable strategy for the utilization of all components of lignocellulosic biomass. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Distribution of assimilates derived from canopy leaves at different milky stage of intergeneric high-yielding hybrid rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Jianjun

    1997-01-01

    Distribution characteristics of assimilates derived from 14 C-glucose fed on different canopy leaves of the high-yielding intergeneric hybrid rice Yuanyou 1 and GER-1, intra-varietal 3-line hybrid rice Shanyou 63, maternal and paternal parents of intergeneric hybrid rice at various ripening stage from flowering stage to late milky stage were studied with pot experiments under greenhouse in 1993 and 1994 in Guangzhou. The results indicates that there exists a significant difference in exportation of radioactivity from the leaf fed, partitioning of radioactivity exported into different organs and importation accumulation percent of total radioactivity in the rice panicle Yuanyou 1 has a high average exportation percent, importation accumulation percent and a stable and sustainable grain-filling process, which results in a high seed-setting rate with large spikelet population

  8. Studies on removal of NH4+-N from aqueous solution by using the activated carbons derived from rice husk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Kairan; Fu, Hao; Zhang, Jinghui; Lv, Xiaoshu; Tang, Jie; Xu, Xinhua

    2012-01-01

    Water pollution caused by ammonia nitrogen has attracted a great attention as its toxicity affects both the environment and human health. The objective of this paper was to investigate the adsorption behavior of NH 4 + -N from aqueous solution by activated carbons prepared from rice husk. The physico-chemical properties of the activated carbon were characterized by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) test, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It was found that the NH 4 + -N adsorption on the rice husk derived carbons was dependent on adsorbent dosage and solution pH. The adsorption kinetics and isotherms of NH 4 + -N by rice husk carbon were also investigated, and good correlation coefficients were obtained for the pseudo-second order kinetic equation. Dubinin-Radushkevitch (D-R) adsorption isotherm model could better describe the adsorption behavior of NH 4 + -N on the rice husk carbon. Calculated by D-R model, the adsorption course of NH 4 + -N on the rice husk carbon was favored chemical ion-exchange mechanism. Moreover, the activated carbon adsorbed NH 4 + -N was highly fertilizer conservation especially for the nitrogen element. It was proposed that the amount of removed NH 4 + -N from aqueous solutions would increase evidently treated by rice husk carbon if combined with biological method. -- Highlights: ► The dosage of rice husk carbon and pH affected the removal of NH 4 + -N from aqueous solution. ► D-R model could better describe the adsorption behavior of NH 4 + -N on the rice husk carbon. ► The removing of NH 4 + -N would be risen by rice husk carbon if combined with biological method.

  9. Mechanical properties of epoxy composites with plasma-modified rice-husk-derived nanosilica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubilla, Fatima Athena D.; Panghulan, Glenson R.; Pechardo, Jason; Vasquez, Magdaleno R., Jr.

    2018-01-01

    In this study, we explored the use of rice-husk-derived nanosilica (nSiO2) as fillers in epoxy resins. The nSiO2 was irradiated with a capacitively coupled 13.56 MHz radio frequency (RF) plasma using an admixture of argon (Ar) and hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) or 1,7-octadiene (OD) monomers. The plasma-polymerized nSiO2 was loaded at various concentrations (1-5%) into the epoxy matrix. Surface hydrophobicity of the plasma-treated nSiO2-filled composites increased, which is attributed to the attachment of functional groups from the monomer gases on the silica surface. Microhardness increased by at least 10% upon the inclusion of plasma-modified nSiO2 compared with pristine nSiO2-epoxy composites. Likewise, hardness increased with increasing loading volume, with the HMDSO-treated silica composite recording the highest increase. Elastic moduli of the composites also showed an increase of at least 14% compared with untreated nSiO2-filled composites. This work demonstrated the use of rice husk, an agricultural waste, as a nSiO2 source for epoxy resin fillers.

  10. Novel Alleviation Mechanisms of Aluminum Phytotoxicity via Released Biosilicon from Rice Straw-Derived Biochars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Linbo; Chen, Baoliang; Chen, Mengfang

    2016-07-01

    Replacing biosilicon and biocarbon in soil via biochar amendment is a novel approach for soil amelioration and pollution remediation. The unique roles of silicon (Si)-rich biochar in aluminum (Al) phytotoxicity alleviation have not been discovered. In this study, the alleviation of Al phytotoxicity to wheat plants (root tips cell death) by biochars fabricated from rice straw pyrolyzed at 400 and 700 °C (RS400 and RS700) and the feedstock (RS100) were studied using a slurry system containing typical acidic soils for a 15-day exposure experiment. The distributions of Al and Si in the slurry solution, soil and plant root tissue were monitored by staining methods, chemical extractions and SEM-EDS observations. We found that the biological sourced silicon in biochars served dual roles in Al phytotoxicity alleviation in acidic soil slurry. On one hand, the Si particles reduced the amount of soil exchangeable Al and prevented the migration of Al to the plant. More importantly, the Si released from biochars synchronously absorbed by the plants and coordinated with Al to form Al-Si compounds in the epidermis of wheat roots, which is a new mechanism for Al phytotoxicity alleviation in acidic soil slurry by biochar amendment. In addition, the steady release of Si from the rice straw-derived biochars was a sustainable Si source for aluminosilicate reconstruction in acidic soil.

  11. Phenotyping of VIGS-mediated gene silencing in rice using a vector derived from a DNA virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant, Ravi; Dasgupta, Indranil

    2017-07-01

    Target genes in rice can be optimally silenced if inserted in antisense or hairpin orientation in the RTBV-derived VIGS vector and plants grown at 28 °C and 80% humidity after inoculation. Virus induced gene silencing (VIGS) is a method used to transiently silence genes in dicot as well as monocot plants. For the important monocot species rice, the Rice tungro bacilliform virus (RTBV)-derived VIGS system (RTBV-VIGS), which uses agroinoculation to initiate silencing, has not been standardized for optimal use. Here, using RTBV-VIGS, three sets of conditions were tested to achieve optimal silencing of the rice marker gene phytoene desaturase (pds). The effect of orientation of the insert in the RTBV-VIGS plasmid (sense, antisense and hairpin) on the silencing of the target gene was then evaluated using rice magnesium chelatase subunit H (chlH). Finally, the rice Xa21 gene, conferring resistance against bacterial leaf blight disease (BLB) was silenced using RTBV-VIGS system. In each case, real-time PCR-based assessment indicated approximately 40-80% fall in the accumulation levels of the transcripts of pds, chlH and Xa21. In the case of pds, the appearance of white streaks in the emerging leaves, and for chlH, chlorophyll levels and F v /F m ratio were assessed as phenotypes for silencing. For Xa21, the resistance levels to BLB were assessed by measuring the lesion length and the percent diseased areas of leaves, following challenge inoculation with Xanthomonas oryzae. In each case, the RTBV-MVIGS system gave rise to a discernible phenotype indicating the silencing of the respective target gene using condition III (temperature 28 °C, humidity 80% and 1 mM MES and 20 µM acetosyringone in secondary agrobacterium culture), which revealed the robustness of this gene silencing system for rice.

  12. Dwarf Rice Mutant Derived from 0.2 kGy Gamma Rays Irradiated Seeds of Atomita 4 Variety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobrizal; Sutisna Sanjaya; Carkum; Mohamad Ismachin

    2004-01-01

    Dwarf rice mutant was obtained when Atomita 4 seeds were irradiated by 0.2 kGy gamma rays. The results of segregation analyses in F2 populations and F3 lines derived from reciprocal crosses of mutant and Atomita 4 suggested that the dwarf was controlled by a single recessive gene. This gene was not located on rice cytoplasmic genome but on nuclear genome. The gene for dwarf obtained in this study tentatively could be assumed as a new finding until the allelic relationships with other dwarf genes are verified. (author)

  13. Identification of the second mutation of BADH2 gene derived from rice mutant lines induced by gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    I Ishak

    2016-01-01

    The BADH2 gene acts as suppressor of 2-acetyl-1-pyrolline (2AP) biosynthesis in plants. 2AP is the volatile compound which provides fragrance in rice. Biosynthesis of 2AP occurs when BADH2 loses its function as suppressor gene. Aromatic rice cultivars naturally incur mutation of BADH2 gene at 8 bp. In this experiment, aromatic mutant rice lines derived from irradiation of Sintanur cultivar by gamma rays with dose of 100 Gy were studied in molecular level. These mutant lines were characterized at the M10 plantgeneration under the assumption that genetically these aromatic mutant rice lines were homozygotic. Several primers related to aroma in rice have been used for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in a thermal cycler instrument. Gel electrophoreses were carried out using 1.5% agarose in TAE buffer. DNA fragments at 254 bp and 355 bp (base pair) were taken and amplified by primer for nucleotide sequencing of these fragments. Molecular identification and characterization after electrophoresis showed that the mutant line from AR1020 can be differentiated from AR.1080 at 254 bp. Nucleotide sequence data from of these DNA fragments showed that point mutations (deletions and substitutions) occurred at the BADH2 gene in exon 7; those are called second mutation and were caused by gamma rays effects. The Sintanur variety was used as check cultivar and its DNA sequence was compared to that of the AR.1020 mutant line. The results from both DNA sequences (from cv. Sintanur and AR.1020) derived from fragments at 254 bp show that point mutations occurred within exon 7 and earlier stop codon occurred in the AR.1020 mutant rice line. Further, the use of EA primer in PCR resulted in detection of deletion and substitution of nucleotides in the AR.1020 mutant line. (author)

  14. Immunotoxicity assessment of rice-derived recombinant human serum albumin using human peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Fu

    Full Text Available Human serum albumin (HSA is extensively used in clinics to treat a variety of diseases, such as hypoproteinemia, hemorrhagic shock, serious burn injuries, cirrhotic ascites and fetal erythroblastosis. To address supply shortages and high safety risks from limited human donors, we recently developed recombinant technology to produce HSA from rice endosperm. To assess the risk potential of HSA derived from Oryza sativa (OsrHSA before a First-in-human (FIH trial, we compared OsrHSA and plasma-derived HSA (pHSA, evaluating the potential for an immune reaction and toxicity using human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs. The results indicated that neither OsrHSA nor pHSA stimulated T cell proliferation at 1x and 5x dosages. We also found no significant differences in the profiles of the CD4(+ and CD8(+ T cell subsets between OsrHSA- and pHSA-treated cells. Furthermore, the results showed that there were no significant differences between OsrHSA and pHSA in the production of cytokines such as interferon-gamma (IFN-γ, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α, interleukin (IL-10 and IL-4. Our results demonstrated that OsrHSA has equivalent immunotoxicity to pHSA when using the PBMC model. Moreover, this ex vivo system could provide an alternative approach to predict potential risks in novel biopharmaceutical development.

  15. Characterization of rice black-streaked dwarf virus- and rice stripe virus-derived siRNAs in singly and doubly infected insect vector Laodelphax striatellus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junmin Li

    Full Text Available Replication of RNA viruses in insect cells triggers an antiviral defense that is mediated by RNA interference (RNAi which generates viral-derived small interfering RNAs (siRNAs. However, it is not known whether an antiviral RNAi response is also induced in insects by reoviruses, whose double-stranded RNA genome replication is thought to occur within core particles. Deep sequencing of small RNAs showed that when the small brown planthopper (Laodelphax striatellus was infected by Rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV (Reoviridae; Fijivirus, more viral-derived siRNAs accumulated than when the vector insect was infected by Rice stripe virus (RSV, a negative single-stranded RNA virus. RBSDV siRNAs were predominantly 21 and 22 nucleotides long and there were almost equal numbers of positive and negative sense. RBSDV siRNAs were frequently generated from hotspots in the 5'- and 3'-terminal regions of viral genome segments but these hotspots were not associated with any predicted RNA secondary structures. Under laboratory condition, L. striatellus can be infected simultaneously with RBSDV and RSV. Double infection enhanced the accumulation of particular genome segments but not viral coat protein of RBSDV and correlated with an increase in the abundance of siRNAs derived from RBSDV. The results of this study suggest that reovirus replication in its insect vector potentially induces an RNAi-mediated antiviral response.

  16. Remotely sensed rice yield prediction using multi-temporal NDVI data derived from NOAA's-AVHRR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jingfeng; Wang, Xiuzhen; Li, Xinxing; Tian, Hanqin; Pan, Zhuokun

    2013-01-01

    Grain-yield prediction using remotely sensed data have been intensively studied in wheat and maize, but such information is limited in rice, barley, oats and soybeans. The present study proposes a new framework for rice-yield prediction, which eliminates the influence of the technology development, fertilizer application, and management improvement and can be used for the development and implementation of provincial rice-yield predictions. The technique requires the collection of remotely sensed data over an adequate time frame and a corresponding record of the region's crop yields. Longer normalized-difference-vegetation-index (NDVI) time series are preferable to shorter ones for the purposes of rice-yield prediction because the well-contrasted seasons in a longer time series provide the opportunity to build regression models with a wide application range. A regression analysis of the yield versus the year indicated an annual gain in the rice yield of 50 to 128 kg ha(-1). Stepwise regression models for the remotely sensed rice-yield predictions have been developed for five typical rice-growing provinces in China. The prediction models for the remotely sensed rice yield indicated that the influences of the NDVIs on the rice yield were always positive. The association between the predicted and observed rice yields was highly significant without obvious outliers from 1982 to 2004. Independent validation found that the overall relative error is approximately 5.82%, and a majority of the relative errors were less than 5% in 2005 and 2006, depending on the study area. The proposed models can be used in an operational context to predict rice yields at the provincial level in China. The methodologies described in the present paper can be applied to any crop for which a sufficient time series of NDVI data and the corresponding historical yield information are available, as long as the historical yield increases significantly.

  17. Microbial utilization of rice straw and its derived biochar in a paddy soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, Fuxia; Li, Yaying; Chapman, Stephen James; Khan, Sardar; Yao, Huaiying

    2016-01-01

    The application of straw and biochar to soil has received great attention because of their potential benefits such as fertility improvement and carbon (C) sequestration. The abiotic effects of these materials on C and nitrogen (N) cycling in the soil ecosystem have been previously investigated, however, the effects of straw or its derived biochar on the soil microbial community structure and function are not well understood. For this purpose, a short-term incubation experiment was conducted using 13 C-labeled rice straw and its derived biochar ( 13 C-labeled biochar) to deepen our understanding about soil microbial community dynamics and function in C sequestration and greenhouse gas emission in the acidic paddy soil amended with these materials. Regarding microbial function, biochar and straw applications increased CO 2 emission in the initial stage of incubation and reached the highest level (0.52 and 3.96 mg C kg −1 soil h −1 ) at 1 d and 3 d after incubation, respectively. Straw amendment significantly (p < 0.01) increased respiration rate, total phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) and 13 C-PLFA as compared to biochar amendment and the control. The amount and percent of Gram positive bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes were also significantly (p < 0.05) higher in 13 C-labeled straw amended soil than the 13 C-labeled biochar amended soil. According to the 13 C data, 23 different PLFAs were derived from straw amended paddy soil, while only 17 PLFAs were derived from biochar amendments. The profile of 13 C-PLFAs derived from straw amendment was significantly (p < 0.01) different from biochar amendment. The PLFAs 18:1ω7c and cy17:0 (indicators of Gram negative bacteria) showed high relative abundances in the biochar amendment, while 10Me18:0, i17:0 and 18:2ω6,9c (indicators of actinomycetes, Gram positive bacteria and fungi, respectively) showed high relative abundance in the straw amendments. Our results suggest that the function, size and structure of the

  18. Microbial utilization of rice straw and its derived biochar in a paddy soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Fuxia [Key Laboratory of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Ningbo Urban Environment Observation and Research Station-NUEORS, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315800 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Li, Yaying [Key Laboratory of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Ningbo Urban Environment Observation and Research Station-NUEORS, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315800 (China); Chapman, Stephen James [The James Hutton Institute, Craigiebuckler, Aberdeen AB15 8QH (United Kingdom); Khan, Sardar [Key Laboratory of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Department of Environmental Science, University of Peshawar (Pakistan); Yao, Huaiying, E-mail: hyyao@iue.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Ningbo Urban Environment Observation and Research Station-NUEORS, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315800 (China)

    2016-07-15

    The application of straw and biochar to soil has received great attention because of their potential benefits such as fertility improvement and carbon (C) sequestration. The abiotic effects of these materials on C and nitrogen (N) cycling in the soil ecosystem have been previously investigated, however, the effects of straw or its derived biochar on the soil microbial community structure and function are not well understood. For this purpose, a short-term incubation experiment was conducted using {sup 13}C-labeled rice straw and its derived biochar ({sup 13}C-labeled biochar) to deepen our understanding about soil microbial community dynamics and function in C sequestration and greenhouse gas emission in the acidic paddy soil amended with these materials. Regarding microbial function, biochar and straw applications increased CO{sub 2} emission in the initial stage of incubation and reached the highest level (0.52 and 3.96 mg C kg{sup −1} soil h{sup −1}) at 1 d and 3 d after incubation, respectively. Straw amendment significantly (p < 0.01) increased respiration rate, total phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) and {sup 13}C-PLFA as compared to biochar amendment and the control. The amount and percent of Gram positive bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes were also significantly (p < 0.05) higher in {sup 13}C-labeled straw amended soil than the {sup 13}C-labeled biochar amended soil. According to the {sup 13}C data, 23 different PLFAs were derived from straw amended paddy soil, while only 17 PLFAs were derived from biochar amendments. The profile of {sup 13}C-PLFAs derived from straw amendment was significantly (p < 0.01) different from biochar amendment. The PLFAs 18:1ω7c and cy17:0 (indicators of Gram negative bacteria) showed high relative abundances in the biochar amendment, while 10Me18:0, i17:0 and 18:2ω6,9c (indicators of actinomycetes, Gram positive bacteria and fungi, respectively) showed high relative abundance in the straw amendments. Our results suggest

  19. Transformation of haploid, microspore-derived cell suspension protoplasts of rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaïr, H; Legavre, T; Guiderdoni, E

    1996-06-01

    We compared the transient activity of three cereal gene-derived promoter-gus fusions and the efficiency of selection mediated by three different selectable genes in a polyethylene glycol transformation system with haploid cell suspension protoplasts of rice. The maize ubiquitin promoter was found to be the most active in transformed protoplasts, and selection on ammonium glufosinate mediated by the bar gene was the most efficient for producing resistant calluses. Cotransformation of protoplasts with two separate plasmids carrying the gus and the bar genes, at either a 2∶1 or 1∶1 ratio, led to 0.8 × 10(-5) and 1.6 × 10(-5) resistant callus recovery frequencies and 59.7 and 37.9 cotransformation efficiencies respectively. No escapes were detected in dot blot analyses of 100 resistant calluses with a probe consisting of the bar coding region. Cotransformation efficiency, based on resistance to basta and β-glucuronidase staining of the leaf tissue of 115 regenerated plants, was 47%. Resistance tests and Southern analysis of seed progenies of three diploid transgenic plants demonstrated homozygous integration of multiple copies of the transgene at one locus at least in the first plant, heterozygous integration at one locus in the second plant and heterozygous integration at two loci in the third plant.

  20. Rice husk-derived sodium silicate as a highly efficient and low-cost basic heterogeneous catalyst for biodiesel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roschat, Wuttichai; Siritanon, Theeranun; Yoosuk, Boonyawan; Promarak, Vinich

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Rice husk-derived sodium silicate exhibits high potential as a low-cost solid catalyst for industrial biodiesel production. - Highlights: • Rice husk-derived sodium silicate was employed as a high performance catalyst for biodiesel production. • 97% yield of FAME was achieved in 30 min at 65 °C. • The room-temperature transesterification gave 94% yield of FAME after only 150 min. - Abstract: In the present work, rice husk-derived sodium silicate was prepared and employed as a solid catalyst for simple conversion of oils to biodiesel via the transesterification reaction. The catalyst was characterized by TG–DTA, XRD, XRF, FT-IR, SEM, BET and Hammett indicator method. Under the optimal reaction conditions of catalyst loading amount of 2.5 wt.%, methanol/oil molar ratio of 12:1, the prepared catalysts gave 97% FAME yield in 30 min at 65 °C, and 94% FAME yield in 150 min at room temperature. The transesterification was proved to be pseudo-first order reaction with the activation energy (Ea) and the frequency factor (A) of 48.30 kJ/mol and 2.775 × 10"6 min"−"1 respectively. Purification with a cation-exchange resin efficiently removed all soluble ions providing high-quality biodiesel product that meets all the ASTM and EN standard specifications. Rice husk-derived sodium silicate showed high potential to be used as a low-cost, easy to prepare and high performance solid catalyst for biodiesel synthesis.

  1. Characterisation of silica derived from rice husk (Muar, Johor, Malaysia) decomposition at different temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmi, M. A.; Ismail, N. A. A.; Rizamarhaiza, M.; W. M. Hasif. A. A., K.; Taib, H.

    2016-07-01

    Rice husk was thermally decomposed to yield powder composed of silica (SiO2). Temperatures of 700°C and 1000°C were chosen as the decomposition temperatures. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), X-Ray Florescence (XRF), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM) analyses were conducted on a synthetic silica powder (SS-SiO2) and the rice husk ash as for the comparative characterisation study. XRD analyses clearly indicated that the decomposed rice husk yielded silica of different nature which are Crystalline Rice Husk Silica (C-RHSiO2) and Amorphous Rice Husk Silica (A-RHSiO2). Moreover, it was found that SS-SiO2 was of Quartz phase, C-RHSiO2 was of Trydimite and Cristobalite. Through XRF detection, the highest SiO2 purity was detected in SS-SiO2 followed by C-RHSiO2 and A-RHSiO2 with purity percentages of 99.60%, 82.30% and 86.30% respectively. FTIR results clearly indicated silica (SiO2) bonding 1056, 1064, 1047, 777, 790 and 798 cm-1) increased as the crystallinity silica increased. The Cristobalite phase was detected in C-RH SiO2 at the wavelength of 620 cm-1. Morphological features as observed by FESEM analyses confirmed that, SS-SiO2 and C-RH SiO2 showed prominent coarse granular morphology.

  2. Somatic frameshift mutations in the Bloom syndrome BLM gene are frequent in sporadic gastric carcinomas with microsatellite mutator phenotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matei Irina

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genomic instability has been reported at microsatellite tracts in few coding sequences. We have shown that the Bloom syndrome BLM gene may be a target of microsatelliteinstability (MSI in a short poly-adenine repeat located in its coding region. To further characterize the involvement of BLM in tumorigenesis, we have investigated mutations in nine genes containing coding microsatellites in microsatellite mutator phenotype (MMP positive and negative gastric carcinomas (GCs. Methods We analyzed 50 gastric carcinomas (GCs for mutations in the BLM poly(A tract aswell as in the coding microsatellites of the TGFβ1-RII, IGFIIR, hMSH3, hMSH6, BAX, WRN, RECQL and CBL genes. Results BLM mutations were found in 27% of MMP+ GCs (4/15 cases but not in any of the MMP negative GCs (0/35 cases. The frequency of mutations in the other eight coding regions microsatellite was the following: TGFβ1-RII (60 %, BAX (27%, hMSH6 (20%,hMSH3 (13%, CBL (13%, IGFIIR (7%, RECQL (0% and WRN (0%. Mutations in BLM appear to be more frequently associated with frameshifts in BAX and in hMSH6and/or hMSH3. Tumors with BLM alterations present a higher frequency of unstable mono- and trinucleotide repeats located in coding regions as compared with mutator phenotype tumors without BLM frameshifts. Conclusions BLM frameshifts are frequent alterations in GCs specifically associated with MMP+tumors. We suggest that BLM loss of function by MSI may increase the genetic instability of a pre-existent unstable genotype in gastric tumors.

  3. Somatic frameshift mutations in the Bloom syndrome BLM gene are frequent in sporadic gastric carcinomas with microsatellite mutator phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calin, George; Ranzani, Guglielmina N; Amadori, Dino; Herlea, Vlad; Matei, Irina; Barbanti-Brodano, Giuseppe; Negrini, Massimo

    2001-01-01

    Background Genomic instability has been reported at microsatellite tracts in few coding sequences. We have shown that the Bloom syndrome BLM gene may be a target of microsatelliteinstability (MSI) in a short poly-adenine repeat located in its coding region. To further characterize the involvement of BLM in tumorigenesis, we have investigated mutations in nine genes containing coding microsatellites in microsatellite mutator phenotype (MMP) positive and negative gastric carcinomas (GCs). Methods We analyzed 50 gastric carcinomas (GCs) for mutations in the BLM poly(A) tract aswell as in the coding microsatellites of the TGFβ1-RII, IGFIIR, hMSH3, hMSH6, BAX, WRN, RECQL and CBL genes. Results BLM mutations were found in 27% of MMP+ GCs (4/15 cases) but not in any of the MMP negative GCs (0/35 cases). The frequency of mutations in the other eight coding regions microsatellite was the following: TGFβ1-RII (60 %), BAX (27%), hMSH6 (20%),hMSH3 (13%), CBL (13%), IGFIIR (7%), RECQL (0%) and WRN (0%). Mutations in BLM appear to be more frequently associated with frameshifts in BAX and in hMSH6and/or hMSH3. Tumors with BLM alterations present a higher frequency of unstable mono- and trinucleotide repeats located in coding regions as compared with mutator phenotype tumors without BLM frameshifts. Conclusions BLM frameshifts are frequent alterations in GCs specifically associated with MMP+tumors. We suggest that BLM loss of function by MSI may increase the genetic instability of a pre-existent unstable genotype in gastric tumors. PMID:11532193

  4. Knowledge-based decision tree approach for mapping spatial distribution of rice crop using C-band synthetic aperture radar-derived information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Varun Narayan; Prasad, Rajendra; Kumar, Pradeep; Srivastava, Prashant K.; Rai, Praveen Kumar

    2017-10-01

    Updated and accurate information of rice-growing areas is vital for food security and investigating the environmental impact of rice ecosystems. The intent of this work is to explore the feasibility of dual-polarimetric C-band Radar Imaging Satellite-1 (RISAT-1) data in delineating rice crop fields from other land cover features. A two polarization combination of RISAT-1 backscatter, namely ratio (HH/HV) and difference (HH-HV), significantly enhanced the backscatter difference between rice and nonrice categories. With these inputs, a QUEST decision tree (DT) classifier is successfully employed to extract the spatial distribution of rice crop areas. The results showed the optimal polarization combination to be HH along with HH/HV and HH-HV for rice crop mapping with an accuracy of 88.57%. Results were further compared with a Landsat-8 operational land imager (OLI) optical sensor-derived rice crop map. Spatial agreement of almost 90% was achieved between outputs produced from Landsat-8 OLI and RISAT-1 data. The simplicity of the approach used in this work may serve as an effective tool for rice crop mapping.

  5. Comparative Study on Characteristics and Potential of Rice Straws and Dry Leaves as a Binder in Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zulhafizal Othman; Lias, K.; Hashim, N.H.; Clement, F.N.

    2013-01-01

    Integrated waste management systems are one of the greatest challenges in order to develop the green environment. In this research, two types of binder were chosen in producing of Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) which is rice straws and dry leaves. The objective of the research is to identify which types of binder that can give the optimum performance. This two binder was mixed with paper and plastic waste with controlled mixing ratio which is 3:1 (ratio 1), 3:1.5(ratio 2) and 3:2 (ratio 3). In order to identify the optimum ratio of RDF, 45 number of samples was prepared and their properties such as moisture content, carbon content, sulfur content, chlorine content and calorific value were evaluated. Result indicated that samples with rice straw as a binder give the optimum result with the ratio of 3:1. The optimum values of the carbon content is 50.9 %, moisture content is 5.5 %, chlorine content is 0.0 %, sulfur content is 2.1 % and calorific value is 29.0 MJ/ kg. Hence, rice straws shows a great potential to be used as binder in production of RDF. (author)

  6. A simple model for yield prediction of rice based on vegetation index derived from satellite and AMeDAS data during ripening period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakiyama, Y.; Inoue, K.; Nakazono, K.

    2003-01-01

    The present study was conducted to show a simple model for rice yield predicting by using a vegetation index (NDVI) derived from satellite and meteorological data. In a field experiment, the relationship between the vegetation index and radiation absorbed by the rice canopy was investigated from transplanting to maturity. Their correlation held. This result revealed that the vegetation index could be used as a measure of absorptance of solar radiation by rice canopy. NDVI multiplied by solar radiation (SR) every day was accumulated (Σ(SR·NDVI)) from the field experiment. Σ(SR·NDVI) was plotted against above ground dry matter. It was obvious that they had a strong relationship. Rice yield largely depends on solar radiation and air temperature during the ripening period. Air temperature affects dry matter production. Relationships between Y SR -1 (Y: rice yield, SR: solar radiation) and mean air temperature were investigated from meteorological data and statistical data on rice yield. There was an optimum air temperature, 21.3°C, for ripening. When it was near 21.3°C in the ripening period, the rice yield was higher. We proposed a simple model for yield prediction of rice based on these results. The model is composed with SR·NDVI and the optimum air temperature. Vegetation index was derived from 3 years, LANDSAT TM data in Toyama, Ishikawa, Fukui and Nagano prefectures at heading. The meteorological data was used from AMeDAS data. The model was described as follows: Y = 0.728 SR·NDVI−2.04(T−21.3) 2 + 282 (r 2 = 0.65, n = 43) where Y is rice yield (kg 10a -1 ), SR is solar radiation (MJ m -2 ) during the ripening period (from 10 days before heading to 30 days after heading), T is mean air temperature (°C) during the ripening period. RMSE was 33.7kg 10a -1 . The model revealed good precision. (author)

  7. Characterisation of silica derived from rice husk (Muar, Johor, Malaysia) decomposition at different temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azmi, M. A.; Ismail, N. A. A.; Rizamarhaiza, M.; Hasif, W. M. K. A. A.; Taib, H., E-mail: hariati@uthm.edu.my [Faculty of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, 86400 Batu Pahat, Johor (Malaysia)

    2016-07-19

    Rice husk was thermally decomposed to yield powder composed of silica (SiO{sub 2}). Temperatures of 700°C and 1000°C were chosen as the decomposition temperatures. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), X-Ray Florescence (XRF), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM) analyses were conducted on a synthetic silica powder (SS-SiO{sub 2}) and the rice husk ash as for the comparative characterisation study. XRD analyses clearly indicated that the decomposed rice husk yielded silica of different nature which are Crystalline Rice Husk Silica (C-RHSiO{sub 2}) and Amorphous Rice Husk Silica (A-RHSiO{sub 2}). Moreover, it was found that SS-SiO{sub 2} was of Quartz phase, C-RHSiO{sub 2} was of Trydimite and Cristobalite. Through XRF detection, the highest SiO{sub 2} purity was detected in SS-SiO{sub 2} followed by C-RHSiO{sub 2} and A-RHSiO{sub 2} with purity percentages of 99.60%, 82.30% and 86.30% respectively. FTIR results clearly indicated silica (SiO{sub 2}) bonding 1056, 1064, 1047, 777, 790 and 798 cm{sup −1}) increased as the crystallinity silica increased. The Cristobalite phase was detected in C-RH SiO{sub 2} at the wavelength of 620 cm{sup −1}. Morphological features as observed by FESEM analyses confirmed that, SS-SiO{sub 2} and C-RH SiO{sub 2} showed prominent coarse granular morphology.

  8. Reinforcement of natural rubber hybrid composites based on marble sludge/Silica and marble sludge/rice husk derived silica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalil Ahmed

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A research has been carried out to develop natural rubber (NR hybrid composites reinforced with marble sludge (MS/Silica and MS/rice husk derived silica (RHS. The primary aim of this development is to scrutinize the cure characteristics, mechanical and swelling properties of such hybrid composite. The use of both industrial and agricultural waste such as marble sludge and rice husk derived silica has the primary advantage of being eco-friendly, low cost and easily available as compared to other expensive fillers. The results from this study showed that the performance of NR hybrid composites with MS/Silica and MS/RHS as fillers is extremely better in mechanical and swelling properties as compared with the case where MS used as single filler. The study suggests that the use of recently developed silica and marble sludge as industrial and agricultural waste is accomplished to provide a probable cost effective, industrially prospective, and attractive replacement to the in general purpose used fillers like china clay, calcium carbonate, and talc.

  9. Highly stable rice-straw-derived charcoal in 3700-year-old ancient paddy soil: evidence for an effective pathway toward carbon sequestration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Mengxiong; Yang, Min; Han, Xingguo; Zhong, Ting; Zheng, Yunfei; Ding, Pin; Wu, Weixiang

    2016-01-01

    Recalcitrant charcoal application is predicted to decelerate global warming through creating a long-term carbon sink in soil. Although many studies have showed high stability of charcoal derived from woody materials, few have focused on the dynamics of straw-derived charcoal in natural environment on a long timescale to evaluate its potential for agricultural carbon sequestration. Here, we examined straw-derived charcoal in an ancient paddy soil dated from ~3700 calendar year before present (cal. year BP). Analytical results showed that soil organic matter consisted of more than 25% of charcoal in charcoal-rich layer. Similarities in morphology and molecular structure between the ancient and the fresh rice-straw-derived charcoal indicated that ancient charcoal was derived from rice straw. The lower carbon content, higher oxygen content, and obvious carbonyl of the ancient charcoal compared with fresh rice straw charcoal implied that oxidation occurred in the scale of thousands years. However, the dominant aromatic C of ancient charcoal indicated that rice-straw-derived charcoal was highly stable in the buried paddy soil due to its intrinsic chemical structures and the physical protection of ancient paddy wetland. Therefore, it may suggest that straw charcoal application is a potential pathway for C sequestration considering its longevity.

  10. Root-uptake of {sup 14}C derived from acetic acid and {sup 14}C transfer to rice edible parts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogiyama, Shinichi [Office of Biospheric Assessment for Waste Disposal, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba-shi 263-8555 (Japan)], E-mail: ogiyama@nirs.go.jp; Suzuki, Hiroyuki [Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chiba University, 1-33 Yayoi-cho, Inage-ku, Chiba-shi 263-5522 (Japan); Inubushi, Kazuyuki [Graduate School of Horticulture, Chiba University, 648 Matsudo, Matsudo-shi 271-8510 (Japan); Takeda, Hiroshi; Uchida, Shigeo [Office of Biospheric Assessment for Waste Disposal, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba-shi 263-8555 (Japan)

    2010-02-15

    Three types of culture experiments using paddy rice (Oryza sativa L.) were performed to examine root-uptake of {sup 14}C in the form of acetic acid: double pot experiment (hydroponics), wet culture experiment (submerged sand medium), and chamber experiment (hydroponics and submerged sand medium). The {sup 14}C radioactivity in the plant, mediums, and atmospheric carbon dioxide ({sup 14}CO{sub 2}) in the chamber were determined, and the distribution of {sup 14}C in the plant was visualized using autoradiography. In the double pot experiment, the shoot of the plant and the lower root which was soaked in the culture solution had {sup 14}C radioactivity, but the upper root which did not have contact with the solution had none. There were also {sup 14}C radioactivity in the grains and roots in the wet culture experiment. Results of the chamber experiment showed that {sup 14}CO{sub 2} gas was released from the culture solution in both types of cultures. Results indicated that the {sup 14}C-acetic acid absorbed by rice plant through its root would be very small. Most of the {sup 14}C-acetic acid was transformed into gaseous forms either in the culture solution or rhizosphere. A relatively longer time would be needed to assimilate {sup 14}C derived from acetic acid to grain parts after it was once absorbed by the shoot through the root. Availability of {sup 14}C for the plant in sand culture was considered to be decreased compared with that for the plant in the hydroponics experiment. It was suggested that rice plant absorbed and assimilated {sup 14}C through the plant roots not because of uptake of {sup 14}C-acetic acid but because of uptake of {sup 14}C in gaseous forms such as {sup 14}CO{sub 2}.

  11. Root-uptake of 14C derived from acetic acid and 14C transfer to rice edible parts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogiyama, Shinichi; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Inubushi, Kazuyuki; Takeda, Hiroshi; Uchida, Shigeo

    2010-01-01

    Three types of culture experiments using paddy rice (Oryza sativa L.) were performed to examine root-uptake of 14 C in the form of acetic acid: double pot experiment (hydroponics), wet culture experiment (submerged sand medium), and chamber experiment (hydroponics and submerged sand medium). The 14 C radioactivity in the plant, mediums, and atmospheric carbon dioxide ( 14 CO 2 ) in the chamber were determined, and the distribution of 14 C in the plant was visualized using autoradiography. In the double pot experiment, the shoot of the plant and the lower root which was soaked in the culture solution had 14 C radioactivity, but the upper root which did not have contact with the solution had none. There were also 14 C radioactivity in the grains and roots in the wet culture experiment. Results of the chamber experiment showed that 14 CO 2 gas was released from the culture solution in both types of cultures. Results indicated that the 14 C-acetic acid absorbed by rice plant through its root would be very small. Most of the 14 C-acetic acid was transformed into gaseous forms either in the culture solution or rhizosphere. A relatively longer time would be needed to assimilate 14 C derived from acetic acid to grain parts after it was once absorbed by the shoot through the root. Availability of 14 C for the plant in sand culture was considered to be decreased compared with that for the plant in the hydroponics experiment. It was suggested that rice plant absorbed and assimilated 14 C through the plant roots not because of uptake of 14 C-acetic acid but because of uptake of 14 C in gaseous forms such as 14 CO 2 .

  12. Peptides-Derived from Thai Rice Bran Improves Endothelial Function in 2K-1C Renovascular Hypertensive Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orachorn Boonla

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, a number of studies have investigated complementary medical approaches to the treatment of hypertension using dietary supplements. Rice bran protein hydrolysates extracted from rice is a rich source of bioactive peptides. The present study aimed to investigate the vasorelaxation and antihypertensive effects of peptides-derived from rice bran protein hydrolysates (RBP in a rat model of two kidney-one clip (2K-1C renovascular hypertension. 2K-1C hypertension was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats by placing a silver clip around the left renal artery, whereas sham-operated rats were served as controls. 2K-1C and sham-operated rats were intragastrically administered with RBP (50 mg kg−1 or 100 mg kg−1 or distilled water continuously for six weeks. We observed that RBP augmented endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation in all animals. Administration of RBP to 2K-1C rats significantly reduced blood pressure and decreased peripheral vascular resistance compared to the sham operated controls (p < 0.05. Restoration of normal endothelial function and blood pressure was associated with reduced plasma angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE, decreased superoxide formation, reduced plasma malondialdehyde and increased plasma nitrate/nitrite (p < 0.05. Up-regulation of eNOS protein and down-regulation of p47phox protein were found in 2K-1C hypertensive rats-treated with RBP. Our results suggest that RBP possesses antihypertensive properties which are mainly due to the inhibition of ACE, and its vasodilatory and antioxidant activity.

  13. Fate of Fertilizer-Derived N Applied to Enhance Rice Straw Decomposition in a Paddy Field during the Fallow Season under Cool Temperature Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumiaki Takakai

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted to evaluate the fate of nitrogen (N derived from fertilizer (fertilizer-derived N applied to a paddy field after rice harvesting to promote rice straw decomposition during the fallow season, and to determine its effect on soil N fertility in northern Japan. A frame containing soil mixed with rice straw and 15N-labeled fertilizer (4.3 g N m−2 ammonium sulfate [AS] or lime-nitrogen [LN] was placed into a paddy field on a gray lowland soil during the fallow season (October–April, and the following rice-growing season (May–September. Before cultivation (April, the percentages of fertilizer-derived N in soil + straw were higher for LN (55–72% than for AS (41–63%. At the harvesting stage (September, the percentages of fertilizer-derived N in plants were significantly higher for LN (4.9–6.2% than for AS (3.4–5.3%, and the percentages in soil were also significantly higher for LN (42–61% than for AS (31–38%. This could be attributed to the nitrification inhibitory effect of LN and result in the suppression of N losses via leaching. Consequently, fertilizer-derived N could contribute to the maintenance of soil N fertility, and this effect could be higher for LN than AS.

  14. Ninety-day oral toxicity study of rice-derived γ-oryzanol in Sprague-Dawley rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seol-Hee Moon

    Full Text Available A 90-day oral toxicity study of γ-oryzanol, a rice-derived triterpenoid ferulate, was performed by oral gavage administration to male and female Sprague-Dawley rats at doses of 0, 1000, and 2000 mg/kg body weight/day. All rats administered γ-oryzanol survived throughout the study period. Both male and female rats showed no toxicologically significant changes of the general signs, examination findings, body weight, food consumption, functional observational battery results, ophthalmological findings, urinalysis, hematology tests, clinical chemistry tests, organ weights, and necropsy findings. Moreover, there were no histopathological changes related to administration of γ-oryzanol in males and females from the 2000 mg/kg body weight/day group. In conclusion, the no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL of γ-oryzanol exceeded 2000 mg/kg body weight/day for both male and female rats under the conditions of this study. Keywords: γ-Oryznaol, Rice, Rat, Repeated-dose oral toxicity study, NOAEL

  15. A Field Experiment on Enhancement of Crop Yield by Rice Straw and Corn Stalk-Derived Biochar in Northern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Biochar, a green way to deal with burning and burying biomass, has attracted more attention in recent years. To fill the gap of the effects of different biochar on crop yield in Northern China, the first field experiment was conducted in farmland located in Hebei Province. Biochars derived from two kinds of feedstocks (rice straw and corn stalk were added into an Inceptisols area with different dosages (1 ton/ha, 2 ton/ha or 4 ton/ha in April 2014. The crop yields were collected for corn, peanut, and sweet potato during one crop season from spring to autumn 2014, and the wheat from winter 2014 to summer 2015, respectively. The results showed biochar amendment could enhance yields, and biochar from rice straw showed a more positive effect on the yield of corn, peanut, and winter wheat than corn stalk biochar. The dosage of biochar of 2 ton/ha or 1 ton/ha could enhance the yield by 5%–15% and biochar of 4 ton/ha could increase the yield by about 20%. The properties of N/P/K, CEC, and pH of soils amended with biochar were not changed, while biochar effects could be related to improvement of soil water content.

  16. Carbon felt interlayer derived from rice paper and its synergistic encapsulation of polysulfides for lithium-sulfur batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kai; Zhong, Lei; Guan, Ruiteng; Xiao, Min; Han, Dongmei; Wang, Shuanjin; Meng, Yuezhong

    2018-05-01

    Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries have remarkably high theoretical specific capacity as promising candidates for next-generation energy storage. However, the "polysulfides shuttle" effect hampers its commercial application. Here, we use a kind of rice paper as a raw material to get inorganic oxides doping carbon felt by the facile carbonization method, and then modified by a simple coating process using poly (fluorenyl ether ketone) and Super P slurry. The special structure of the carbon felt derived from rice paper and its modified layer endow the final electronic conductive interlayer with inherent polysulfides absorbents and ion Coulombic repulsion functions, respectively, which show synergistic effect for trapping polysulfides. As an interlayer of Li-S batteries, the obtained carbon felt/poly (fluorenyl ether ketone)& Super P (CFSS) interlayer shows excellent electrochemical performance in improving specific capacity and decreasing polarization. The batteries with CFSS interlayer exhibit a high capacity of 837 mA h g-1 at 2.0 C and a high initial capacity of 1073.4 mA h g-1 and good capacity retention of 824.5 mA h g-1 after 500 cycles at 0.5 C. CFSS interlayer also shows excellent anti-self-discharge performance. Therefore, the simple and economical CFSS interlayer can be considered as a promising component for high performance Li-S batteries.

  17. Three-dimensional interconnected porous graphitic carbon derived from rice straw for high performance supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Hong; Hu, Jingpeng; Wu, Shichao; Wang, Xiaolan; Zhang, Hui; Xu, Hui; Lian, Kun

    2018-04-01

    Three-dimensional interconnected porous graphitic carbon materials are synthesized via a combination of graphitization and activation process with rice straw as the carbon source. The physicochemical properties of the three-dimensional interconnected porous graphitic carbon materials are characterized by Nitrogen adsorption/desorption, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, Scanning electron microscopy and Transmission electron microscopy. The results demonstrate that the as-prepared carbon is a high surface area carbon material (a specific surface area of 3333 m2 g-1 with abundant mesoporous and microporous structures). And it exhibits superb performance in symmetric double layer capacitors with a high specific capacitance of 400 F g-1 at a current density of 0.1 A g-1, good rate performance with 312 F g-1 under a current density of 5 A g-1 and favorable cycle stability with 6.4% loss after 10000 cycles at a current density of 5 A g-1 in the aqueous electrolyte of 6M KOH. Thus, rice straw is a promising carbon source for fabricating inexpensive, sustainable and high performance supercapacitors' electrode materials.

  18. The Fabrication and Characterization of PCL/Rice Husk Derived Bioactive Glass-Ceramic Composite Scaffolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farnaz Naghizadeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to fabricate a 3D scaffold using polycaprolactone (PCL and silicate based bioactive glass-ceramic (R-SBgC. Different concentrations of R-SBgC prepared from rice husk ash (RHA were combined with PCL to fabricate a composite scaffold using thermally induced phase separation (TIPS method. The products were then characterized using SEM and EDX. The results demonstrated that R-SBgC in PCL matrix produced a bioactive material which has highly porous structure with interconnected porosities. There appears to be a relationship between the increase in R-SBgC concentration and increased material density and compressive modulus; however, increasing R-SBgC concentration result in reduced scaffold porosity. In conclusion, it is possible to fabricate a PCL/bioactive glass-ceramic composite from processed rice husk. Varying the R-SBgC concentrations can control the properties of this material, which is useful in the development of the ideal scaffold intended for use as a bone substitute in nonload bearing sites.

  19. Ninety-day oral toxicity study of rice-derived γ-oryzanol in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Seol-Hee; Kim, Duyeol; Shimizu, Norihito; Okada, Tadashi; Hitoe, Shoketsu; Shimoda, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    A 90-day oral toxicity study of γ-oryzanol, a rice-derived triterpenoid ferulate, was performed by oral gavage administration to male and female Sprague-Dawley rats at doses of 0, 1000, and 2000 mg/kg body weight/day. All rats administered γ-oryzanol survived throughout the study period. Both male and female rats showed no toxicologically significant changes of the general signs, examination findings, body weight, food consumption, functional observational battery results, ophthalmological findings, urinalysis, hematology tests, clinical chemistry tests, organ weights, and necropsy findings. Moreover, there were no histopathological changes related to administration of γ-oryzanol in males and females from the 2000 mg/kg body weight/day group. In conclusion, the no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) of γ-oryzanol exceeded 2000 mg/kg body weight/day for both male and female rats under the conditions of this study.

  20. Plant regeneration from haploid cell suspension-derived protoplasts of Mediterranean rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. Miara).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiderdoni, E; Chaïr, H

    1992-11-01

    More than 750 plants were regenerated from protoplasts isolated from microspore callus-derived cell suspensions of the Mediterranean japonica rice Miara, using a nurse-feeder technique and N6-based culture medium. The mean plating efficiency and the mean regeneration ability of the protocalluses were 0.5% and 49% respectively. Flow cytometric evaluation of the DNA contents of 7 month old-cell and protoplast suspensions showed that they were still haploid. Contrastingly, the DNA contents of leaf cell nuclei of the regenerated protoclones ranged from 1C to 5C including 60% 2C plants. This was consistent with the morphological type and the fertility of the mature plants. These results and the absence of chimeric plants suggest that polyploidization occurred during the early phase of protoplast culture.

  1. Development of a Indica rice restorer line Fuhui838 and its derivative lines with strong restoring ability and their utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Dasheng; Chen Hao; Deng Wenmin; Feng Lei; Yang Xuefeng; Ma Anlu; Liu Minghai

    2009-01-01

    Fuhui 838 and its derivative restorer lines (Fuhui 718, Fuhui 305, Zhongfu 218, Mianhui 3728, Nuoyou 1...) have the ability of strong restoring, high combining, and good resisting, which were bred and released by combined techniques of radiation-induced mutation, polymerization hybridization, and temperature tolerance screening. At present, about 43 combinations were registered and released to commercial production, the series of combinations present high seed setting rate, good tolerance to chilling and heat stress, wide adaptability, high and stable yield, the accumulated area added up to 40 million hm 2 . II you 838, which is famous one of these combinations, proved to be the best in long term and wide planting after Sanyou 63, and it is also one of the main hybrid rice for exporting in China. (authors)

  2. Activated carbon derived from rice husk by NaOH activation and its application in supercapacitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khu Le Van

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Four activated carbon (AC samples prepared from rice husk under different activation temperatures have been characterized by N2 adsorption–desorption isotherms, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA–DTA, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The specific surface area of AC sample reached 2681 m2 g−1 under activation temperature of 800 °C. The AC samples were then tested as electrode material; the specific capacitance of the as-prepared activated carbon electrode was found to be 172.3 F g−1 using cyclic voltammetry at a scan rate of 5 mV s−1 and 198.4 F g−1 at current density 1000 mA g−1 in the charge/discharge mode.

  3. Nanoporous Activated Carbon Derived from Rice Husk for High Performance Supercapacitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaxing Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanoporous activated carbon material was produced from the waste rice husks (RHs by precarbonizing RHs and activating with KOH. The morphology, structure, and specific surface area were investigated. The nanoporous carbon has the average pore size of 2.2 nm and high specific area of 2523.4 m2 g−1. The specific capacitance of the nanoporous carbon is calculated to be 250 F g−1 at the current density of 1 A g−1 and remains 80% for 198 F g−1 at the current density of 20 A g−1. The nanoporous carbon electrode exhibits long-term cycle life and could keep stable capacitance till 10,000 cycles. The consistently high specific capacitance, rate capacity, and long-term cycle life ability makes it a potential candidate as electrode material for supercapacitor.

  4. Biocompatibility assessment of rice husk-derived biogenic silica nanoparticles for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alshatwi, Ali A., E-mail: alshatwi@ksu.edu.sa; Athinarayanan, Jegan; Periasamy, Vaiyapuri Subbarayan

    2015-02-01

    Synthetic forms of silica have low biocompatibility, whereas biogenic forms have myriad beneficial effects in current toxicological applications. Among the various sources of biogenic silica, rice husk is considered a valuable agricultural biomass material and a cost-effective resource that can provide biogenic silica for biomedical applications. In the present study, highly pure biogenic silica nanoparticles (bSNPs) were successfully harvested from rice husks using acid digestion under pressurized conditions at 120 °C followed by a calcination process. The obtained bSNPs were subjected to phase identification analysis using X-ray diffraction, which revealed the amorphous nature of the bSNPs. The morphologies of the bSNPs were observed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), which revealed spherical particles 10 to 30 nm in diameter. Furthermore, the biocompatibility of the bSNPs with human lung fibroblast cells (hLFCs) was investigated using a viability assay and assessing cellular morphological changes, intracellular ROS generation, mitochondrial transmembrane potential and oxidative stress-related gene expression. Our results revealed that the bSNPs did not have any significant incompatibility in these in vitro cell-based approaches. These preliminary findings suggest that bSNPs are biocompatible, could be the best alternative to synthetic forms of silica and are applicable to food additive and biomedical applications. - Highlights: • Simple, rapid and convenient process • Amorphous and spherical with 10–30 nm size SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles were fabricated. • Biogenic silica nanoparticles showed biocompatibility. • bSNPs are an alternative to synthetic forms of silica.

  5. Constitutive expression of transgenes encoding derivatives of the synthetic antimicrobial peptide BP100: impact on rice host plant fitness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadal Anna

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Biopeptide BP100 is a synthetic and strongly cationic α-helical undecapeptide with high, specific antibacterial activity against economically important plant-pathogenic bacteria, and very low toxicity. It was selected from a library of synthetic peptides, along with other peptides with activities against relevant bacterial and fungal species. Expression of the BP100 series of peptides in plants is of major interest to establish disease-resistant plants and facilitate molecular farming. Specific challenges were the small length, peptide degradation by plant proteases and toxicity to the host plant. Here we approached the expression of the BP100 peptide series in plants using BP100 as a proof-of-concept. Results Our design considered up to three tandemly arranged BP100 units and peptide accumulation in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER, analyzing five BP100 derivatives. The ER retention sequence did not reduce the antimicrobial activity of chemically synthesized BP100 derivatives, making this strategy possible. Transformation with sequences encoding BP100 derivatives (bp100der was over ten-fold less efficient than that of the hygromycin phosphotransferase (hptII transgene. The BP100 direct tandems did not show higher antimicrobial activity than BP100, and genetically modified (GM plants constitutively expressing them were not viable. In contrast, inverted repeats of BP100, whether or not elongated with a portion of a natural antimicrobial peptide (AMP, had higher antimicrobial activity, and fertile GM rice lines constitutively expressing bp100der were produced. These GM lines had increased resistance to the pathogens Dickeya chrysanthemi and Fusarium verticillioides, and tolerance to oxidative stress, with agronomic performance comparable to untransformed lines. Conclusions Constitutive expression of transgenes encoding short cationic α-helical synthetic peptides can have a strong negative impact on rice fitness. However, GM

  6. Removal of chromium (VI) from electroplating wastewater using an anion exchanger derived from rice straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Wei; Dang, Zhi; Yia, Xiao-Yun; Yang, Chen; Lu, Gui-Ning; Liu, Yun-Feng; Huang, Se-Yan; Zheng, Liu-Chun

    2013-01-01

    An anion exchanger from rice straw was used to remove Cr (VI) from synthetic wastewater and electroplating effluent. The exchanger was characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrum and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and it was found that the quaternary amino group and hydroxyl group are the main functional groups on the fibrous surface of the exchanger. The effect of contact time, initial concentration and pH on the removal of Cr (VI), and adsorption isotherms at different temperature, was investigated. The results showed that the removal of Cr (VI) was very rapid and was significantly affected by the initial pH of the solution. Although acidic conditions (pH = 2-6) facilitated Cr (VI) adsorption, the exchanger was effective in neutral solution and even under weak base conditions. The equilibrium data fitted well with Langmuir adsorption model, and the maximum Cr (VI) adsorption capacities at pH 6.4 were 0.35, 0.36 and 0.38 mmol/g for 15, 25 and 35 degrees C, respectively. The exchanger was finally tested with real electroplating wastewater, and at sorbent dosage of 10 g/L, the removal efficiencies for Cr (VI) and total Cr were 99.4% and 97.8%, respectively. In addition, the positive relationship between adsorbed Cr (VI) and desorbed Cl- suggested that Cr (VI) was mainly removed by ion exchange with chlorine.

  7. Decreased panicle-derived indole-3-acetic acid reduces gibberellin A1 level in the uppermost internode, causing panicle enclosure in male sterile rice Zhenshan 97A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Changxi; Gan, Lijun; Ng, Denny; Zhou, Xie; Xia, Kai

    2007-01-01

    Cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) rice Zhenshan 97A (ZS97A) has been widely used in hybrid rice production in China. However, ZS97A suffers from serious panicle enclosure, which blocks normal pollination and greatly reduces seed production of hybrid rice. Little is known about the cause of panicle closure in ZS97A. In this study, it was found that the occurrence of cytoplasmic male sterility caused a deficiency of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) in ZS97A panicles, and less IAA was provided to the uppermost internode (UI). Further, it was found that the decreased panicle-derived IAA caused a gibberellin A(1) (GA(1)) deficiency in the UI by the down-regulation of OsGA3ox2 transcript level. Reduced GA(1) level in the UI led to decreases of both cell number and cell elongation, resulting in a shortened UI. The shortened UI was unable to push the panicle out of the flag leaf sheath that remained normal, which resulted in panicle enclosure in ZS97A. These findings suggest that decreased panicle-derived IAA reduces the GA(1) level in the UI, causing panicle enclosure in CMS rice ZS97A.

  8. Prediction of Cadmium uptake by brown rice and derivation of soil–plant transfer models to improve soil protection guidelines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Römkens, P.F.A.M.; Guo, H.Y.; Liu, T.S.; Chiang, C.F.; Koopmans, G.F.

    2009-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) levels in paddy fields across Taiwan have increased due to emission from industry. To ensure the production of rice that meets food quality standards, predictive models or suitable soil tests are needed to evaluate the quality of soils to be used for rice cropping. Levels of Cd in soil

  9. Determination of oligosaccharides and monosaccharides in Hakka rice wine by precolumn derivation high-performance liquid chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weidong Bai

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a precolumn derivatization procedure with 1-phenyl-3-methyl-5-pyrazolone (PMP reagent to detect oligosaccharides and monosaccharides in Hakka rice wine. The subsequent separation of the derivatized glucose–PMP also was performed using a mobile phase consisting of the molar ratio of acetonitrile to ammonium acetate buffer (0.1M of 22:78 at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min with the column temperature of 35°C, and the pH of ammonium acetate buffer at 5.5. The optimum derivation conditions were as follows: reaction temperature, 70°C; reaction time, 30 minutes; molar ratio of PMP to glucose, 10:1 (v/v; molar ratio of sodium hydroxide to glucose, 3:1 (v/v. The recovery rates were between 93.13% and 102.08% with relative standard deviation of 0.96–2.48%. The established method provides sufficient sensitivity with values of limit of detection of 0.09–0.26 mg/L and limit of quantification of 0.27–0.87 mg/L for determination of oligosaccharides and monosaccharides.

  10. REMOVAL OF U(VI) IN MULTI-COMPONENT SYSTEMS BY ADSORPTION USING ACTIVATED CARBON DERIVED FROM RICE STRAW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    YAKOUT, S.M.; RIZK, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    The use of low cost activated carbon derived from rice straw has been investigated as a replacement for the current expensive methods for radionuclides removal from wastewater. The adsorption studies were carried out in multi-component systems. The effects of common cations and anions on uranium uptake were investigated. Different cations under investigation showed marginal effect on the adsorption of uranium, except in case of iron ion where the adsorption was significantly depressed by the addition of Fe ion (R % was 20%). Coexistence of iron ions at high levels may compete strongly for the adsorption sites with uranium ions resulting in a substantial reduction of uranium removal. The prepared activated carbon showed good selectivity in uranium extraction even in the presence of large concentrations (100 ppm) of anionic complexing agents and common electrolyte species.The simultaneous presence of both U(VI) / Th(IV) reduced sorption through competition for sorption sites on carbon surface. It is concluded that multi-species adsorption can be significantly affected by adsorbate interactions. Understanding these interactions needs great attention in adsorption study in the future

  11. Role of transposon-derived small RNAs in the interplay between genomes and parasitic DNA in rice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misuzu Nosaka

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available RNA silencing is a defense system against "genomic parasites" such as transposable elements (TE, which are potentially harmful to host genomes. In plants, transcripts from TEs induce production of double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs and are processed into small RNAs (small interfering RNAs, siRNAs that suppress TEs by RNA-directed DNA methylation. Thus, the majority of TEs are epigenetically silenced. On the other hand, most of the eukaryotic genome is composed of TEs and their remnants, suggesting that TEs have evolved countermeasures against host-mediated silencing. Under some circumstances, TEs can become active and increase in copy number. Knowledge is accumulating on the mechanisms of TE silencing by the host; however, the mechanisms by which TEs counteract silencing are poorly understood. Here, we show that a class of TEs in rice produces a microRNA (miRNA to suppress host silencing. Members of the microRNA820 (miR820 gene family are located within CACTA DNA transposons in rice and target a de novo DNA methyltransferase gene, OsDRM2, one of the components of epigenetic silencing. We confirmed that miR820 negatively regulates the expression of OsDRM2. In addition, we found that expression levels of various TEs are increased quite sensitively in response to decreased OsDRM2 expression and DNA methylation at TE loci. Furthermore, we found that the nucleotide sequence of miR820 and its recognition site within the target gene in some Oryza species have co-evolved to maintain their base-pairing ability. The co-evolution of these sequences provides evidence for the functionality of this regulation. Our results demonstrate how parasitic elements in the genome escape the host's defense machinery. Furthermore, our analysis of the regulation of OsDRM2 by miR820 sheds light on the action of transposon-derived small RNAs, not only as a defense mechanism for host genomes but also as a regulator of interactions between hosts and their parasitic elements.

  12. Molecular and Functional Characterization of GR2-R1 Event Based Backcross Derived Lines of Golden Rice in the Genetic Background of a Mega Rice Variety Swarna.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haritha Bollinedi

    Full Text Available Homozygous Golden Rice lines developed in the background of Swarna through marker assisted backcross breeding (MABB using transgenic GR2-R1 event as a donor for the provitamin A trait have high levels of provitamin A (up to 20 ppm but are dwarf with pale green leaves and drastically reduced panicle size, grain number and yield as compared to the recurrent parent, Swarna. In this study, we carried out detailed morphological, biochemical and molecular characterization of these lines in a quest to identify the probable reasons for their abnormal phenotype. Nucleotide blast analysis with the primer sequences used to amplify the transgene revealed that the integration of transgene disrupted the native OsAux1 gene, which codes for an auxin transmembrane transporter protein. Real time expression analysis of the transgenes (ZmPsy and CrtI driven by endosperm-specific promoter revealed the leaky expression of the transgene in the vegetative tissues. We propose that the disruption of OsAux1 disturbed the fine balance of plant growth regulators viz., auxins, gibberellic acid and abscisic acid, leading to the abnormalities in the growth and development of the lines homozygous for the transgene. The study demonstrates the conserved roles of OsAux1 gene in rice and Arabidopsis.

  13. Transfer of gaseous iodine from atmosphere to rough rice, brown rice and polished rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumiya, Misako; Uchida, Shigeo; Muramatsu, Yasuyuki; Ohmomo, Yoichiro; Yamaguchi, Shuho; Obata, Hitoshi.

    1987-01-01

    Experiments were carried out in order to obtain information required for establishing transfer coefficients of gaseous iodine (I 2 ) to rough rice, brown rice and polished rice. The gaseous iodine deposited on young rice plants before the heading period was scarcely found in the rough rice harvested at the full ripe stage. The biological half life of iodine in hull, however, was much slower than that in leaves of 14 days. The translocation of iodine from leaves and stalks to rough rice was not clearly recognized. Therefore, it was deduced that iodine found in brown rice mainly should originate from that deposited on the hull. The distribution ratios of iodine between rough rice and brown rice, and between brown rice and polished rice were 100:4 and 100:30 on 100 grains basis, respectively. If average normalized deposition velocity (V d(m) ) or derived deposition velocity (V s ) are given, the transfer coefficients of gaseous iodine to rough rice (TF r ), brown rice (TF b ) and polished rice (TF p ) could be calculated. (author)

  14. Simultaneous and rapid determination of deoxynivalenol and its acetylate derivatives in wheat flour and rice by ultra high performance liquid chromatography with photo diode array detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiao-Jiao; Zhou, Jian; Huang, Bai-Fen; Cai, Zeng-Xuan; Xu, Xiao-Min; Ren, Yi-Ping

    2016-06-01

    A simple and reliable method of ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with photo-diode array detection has been proposed for the simultaneous determination of deoxynivalenol and its acetylated derivatives in wheat flour and rice, especially focusing on the optimization of sample extraction, cleanup, and chromatographic separation conditions. Sample pretreatment consisted of a first step using a quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe based extraction procedure and a subsequent cleanup step based on solid-phase extraction. The method was extensively validated in wheat flour and rice, obtaining satisfactory analytical performance with good linearity (R(2) ≥ 0.999), acceptable recoveries (80.0-104.4%), and repeatability (RSDs 1.3-10.7%). The limits of detection (21.7-57.4 μg/kg) and quantitation (72.3-191.4 μg/kg) for deoxynivalenols were lower than those usually permitted by various countries' legislation in these food matrices. The method was applied to 34 wheat and rice samples. The results were further compared with results of ultra high performance liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Membrane separation and characterisation of lignin and its derived products obtained by a mild ethanol organosolv treatment of rice straw

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moniz, Patrícia; Serralheiro, Cláudia; Matos, Cristina T.; Boeriu, Carmen G.; Frissen, Augustinus E.; Duarte, Luís C.; Roseiro, Luísa B.; Pereira, Helena; Carvalheiro, Florbela

    2018-01-01

    An organosolv process using ethanol-water was optimized in order to recover high quality lignin from rice-straw previously pre-treated by autohydrolysis at 210 °C. The results showed a selective and appreciable removal of lignin under very mild conditions and the highest delignification yield

  16. PedonnanceofE3rly MatUring MutantS Derived from ''SuPa'~ Rice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    T~a, the second largest rice producer after . and' KanyeIci, (1978), Kihupi and Pillai (i 989). Malagasy .(IRRI, 1994) ... 1986),:' - catio,~; lit p~~~ti~g"tilletingaI!d ~~ni~~ei.ni~~.;l,. :-.-. ...... Cooking-qualitY Gravois" KA, and¥~New:R.W.:1993.

  17. Nutritional test of rice in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horii, Masaji; Yoshikawa, Seiji

    1980-01-01

    Behaviors on N derived from rice were followed up by means of 15 N-labeled rice. In the first test, the single unpolished rice diet and the diet of rice and bean lecithin (4.5%) produced urinary excretion of 10 - 12% of 15 N, and that of rice and mannan from devil's tongue (3%), 16 - 20%. The single unpolished rice diet showed slightly more urinary excretion of 15 N, and the other 2 diets showed a similar proportion of 15 N in 3 days. The results indicated that the diet containing mannan from devil's tongue resulted in a poor N absorption by rice, a large quantity of N being excreted over a long period of time. This suggested differences and time lags in the excretion of rice N into the stool and urine depending on the diet constitution. With the unpolished rice diet, a small quantity of rice protein was not absorbed, but was excreted. In the 2nd test with 15 N-polished rice, the urinary excretion rate was 11.44% for a single rice diet, 11.16% for a mixed diet of rice and bean (1:1 in protein), 10.99% for rice and egg yolk, 9.66% for rice, bean and egg yolk and 8.10% for rice and bean lecithin. This decrease in urinary excretion indicated a corresponding increase in absorption of rice protein. (Chiba, N.)

  18. Red Yeast Rice Protects Circulating Bone Marrow-Derived Proangiogenic Cells against High-Glucose-Induced Senescence and Oxidative Stress: The Role of Heme Oxygenase-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Tung Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The inflammation and oxidative stress of bone marrow-derived proangiogenic cells (PACs, also named endothelial progenitor cells, triggered by hyperglycemia contributes significantly to vascular dysfunction. There is supporting evidence that the consumption of red yeast rice (RYR; Monascus purpureus-fermented rice reduces the vascular complications of diabetes; however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. This study aimed to elucidate the effects of RYR extract in PACs, focusing particularly on the role of a potent antioxidative enzyme, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1. We found that treatment with RYR extract induced nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor nuclear translocation and HO-1 mRNA and protein levels in PACs. RYR extract inhibited high-glucose-induced (30 mM PAC senescence and the development of reactive oxygen species (ROS in a dose-dependent manner. The HO-1 inducer cobalt protoporphyrin IX also decreased high-glucose-induced cell senescence and oxidative stress, whereas the HO-1 enzyme inhibitor zinc protoporphyrin IX and HO-1 small interfering RNA significantly reversed RYR extract-caused inhibition of senescence and reduction of oxidative stress in high-glucose-treated PACs. These results suggest that RYR extract serves as alternative and complementary medicine in the treatment of these diseases, by inducing HO-1, thereby decreasing the vascular complications of diabetes.

  19. Concentrated Protein Body Product Derived from Rice Endosperm as an Oral Tolerogen for Allergen-Specific Immunotherapy—A New Mucosal Vaccine Formulation against Japanese Cedar Pollen Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakasa, Yuhya; Takagi, Hidenori; Watanabe, Nobumasa; Kitamura, Noriko; Fujiwara, Yoshihiro; Ogo, Yuko; Hayashi, Shimpei; Yang, Lijun; Ohta, Masaru; Thet Tin, Wai Wai; Sekikawa, Kenji; Takano, Makoto; Ozawa, Kenjirou; Hiroi, Takachika; Takaiwa, Fumio

    2015-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum-derived type-I protein body (PB-I) from rice endosperm cells is an ideal candidate formulation for the oral delivery of bioencapsulated peptides as tolerogens for allergen-specific immunotherapy. In the present study, PBs containing the deconstructed Japanese cedar pollen allergens Cryptomeria japonica 1 (Cry j 1) and Cry j 2 were concentrated by treatment with thermostable α-amylase at 90°C to remove the starch from milled rice powder, which resulted in a 12.5-fold reduction of dry weight compared to the starting material. The modified Cry j 1 and Cry j 2 antigens in this concentrated PB product were more resistant to enzymatic digestion than those in the milled seed powder despite the absence of intact cell wall and starch, and remained stable for at least 10 months at room temperature without detectable loss or degradation. The high resistance of these allergens could be attributed to changes in protein physicochemical properties induced by the high temperature concentration process, as suggested by the decreased solubility of the antigens and seed proteins in PBs in step-wise-extraction experiments. Confocal microscopy showed that the morphology of antigen-containing PB-Is was preserved in the concentrated PB product. The concentrated PB product induced specific immune tolerance against Cry j 1 and Cry j 2 in mice when orally administered, supporting its potential use as a novel oral tolerogen formulation. PMID:25774686

  20. Concentrated protein body product derived from rice endosperm as an oral tolerogen for allergen-specific immunotherapy--a new mucosal vaccine formulation against Japanese cedar pollen allergy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhya Wakasa

    Full Text Available The endoplasmic reticulum-derived type-I protein body (PB-I from rice endosperm cells is an ideal candidate formulation for the oral delivery of bioencapsulated peptides as tolerogens for allergen-specific immunotherapy. In the present study, PBs containing the deconstructed Japanese cedar pollen allergens Cryptomeria japonica 1 (Cry j 1 and Cry j 2 were concentrated by treatment with thermostable α-amylase at 90°C to remove the starch from milled rice powder, which resulted in a 12.5-fold reduction of dry weight compared to the starting material. The modified Cry j 1 and Cry j 2 antigens in this concentrated PB product were more resistant to enzymatic digestion than those in the milled seed powder despite the absence of intact cell wall and starch, and remained stable for at least 10 months at room temperature without detectable loss or degradation. The high resistance of these allergens could be attributed to changes in protein physicochemical properties induced by the high temperature concentration process, as suggested by the decreased solubility of the antigens and seed proteins in PBs in step-wise-extraction experiments. Confocal microscopy showed that the morphology of antigen-containing PB-Is was preserved in the concentrated PB product. The concentrated PB product induced specific immune tolerance against Cry j 1 and Cry j 2 in mice when orally administered, supporting its potential use as a novel oral tolerogen formulation.

  1. One-pot green synthesis of zinc oxide nano rice and its application as sonocatalyst for degradation of organic dye and synthesis of 2-benzimidazole derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Bappi; Vadivel, Sethumathavan; Dhar, Siddhartha Sankar; Debbarma, Shyama; Kumaravel, M.

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, we report novel and green approach for one-pot biosynthesis of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs). Highly stable and hexagonal phase ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized using seeds extract from the tender pods of Parkia roxburghii and characterized by XRD, FT-IR, EDX, TEM, and N2 adsorption-desorption (BET) studies. The present method of synthesis of ZnO NPs is very efficient and cost effective. The powder XRD pattern furnished evidence for the formation of hexagonal close packing structure of ZnO NPs having average crystallite size 25.6 nm. The TEM image reveals rice shapes ZnO NPs are with an average diameter of 40-60 nm. The as-synthesized ZnO NPs has proved to be an excellent sonocatalysts for degradation of organic dye and synthesis of 2-benzimidazole derivatives.

  2. Variations in characters of diploid-like plants derived from gamma-irradiated tetraploids in rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, K.; Fukuoka, H.; Kageyama, Y.; Takeda, G.

    1990-01-01

    Full text: Populations of artificial autotetraploids of rice (Oryza sativa L. cvs. 'Nipponbare' and 'Fukunishiki') were repeatedly irradiated with gamma-rays through several generations. Plants which did not differ in appearance from the original diploid plants occurred occasionally in the populations. Nine diploid-like plants were obtained so far, and their generations were advanced without irradiation in order to examine the mode of segregation of characters in their progeny. The results indicate that diploid-like plants with multiple mutant characters could be obtained and that dominant characters, i.e. awned spikelet and coloured apiculus, were included in the mutant characters. The diploid-like plants had 2n=24 chromosomes. (author)

  3. Rice microstructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    An understanding of plant structure is desirable to obtain a clear idea of the overall impact of a crop. A mature rice plant consists of leafy components (left in the field post-harvest) and paddy rice (collected). The rice plant is supported by a hollow stem (culm) with leaf sheaths attached to nod...

  4. Enhancing phosphorus availability in phosphorus-fertilized zones by reducing phosphate adsorbed on ferrihydrite using rice straw-derived biochar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Hao-Jie [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen (China). Key Lab. of Urban Environment and Health; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing (China). State Key Lab. of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture; Wang, Ming Kuang [National Taiwan Univ., Taipei (China). Dept. of Agricultural Chemistry; Fu, Ming-Lai [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen (China). Key Lab. of Urban Environment and Health; Ci, En [Southwest Univ., Chongquing (China). College of Resources and Environment

    2011-10-15

    Biochar amendments can alter phosphorus (P) availability in soils, though the influencing mechanisms are not yet fully understood. This work investigated the adsorption and desorption of P on ferrihydrite (F, a Fe-oxide widely distributed in surface environments) in order to evaluate the interactions between P and Fe-oxide in the absence or presence of biochar (F or ferrihydrite-biochar (F-B) interaction) in soils. Biochar was produced by pyrolysis of rice straw at 600 C in steel ring furnaces. Two-line ferrihydrite was synthesized by dropwise addition of 1 mol L{sup -1} KOH into Fe(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} solution until the pH reached 7-8 while stirring vigorously. An F-B complex was prepared under similar conditions, except that a mixture of 10 g biochar and the Fe(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} solution was used as the starting material instead of Fe(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} alone. A batch equilibration method was used to determine sorption or desorption of P. The mechanisms of P adsorption on F and F-B complex materials were discussed. Adsorption of P on F decreased as the pH was increased from 3.0 to 10, but the adsorption capacity of F decreased by about 30-40% in the presence of biochar. The P chemisorption rates on F also decreased in the presence of biochar. The Freundlich model showed that the active adsorption sites on the surface of the F-B complex were energetically heterogeneous. The desorbability of adsorbed P on F was enhanced by combination with biochar. The mechanisms of P adsorption on F and F-B complex materials are different. The results showed that the amount and rate of P adsorption on the surface of ferrihydrite decreased with the presence of biochar, and the desorbability of adsorbed P on ferrihydrite can be enhanced when combined with biochar. Thus, the presence of biochar can decrease P adsorption on the Fe-oxides and enhance P availability in soils.

  5. Promising rice mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakim, L.; Azam, M.A.; Miah, A.J.; Mansur, M.A.; Akanda, H.R.

    1988-01-01

    Two induced mutants namely, Mut NS 1 (tall) and Mut NS 5 (semi-dwarf) derived from rice variety Nizersail were evaluated for various agronomic characters at four locations in Bangladesh. Both the mutants matured about three weeks earlier and yielded significantly higher than the parent variety Nizersail. (author). 3 tabs., 9 refs

  6. In situ generation of a hydroxyl radical by nanoporous activated carbon derived from rice husk for environmental applications: kinetic and thermodynamic constants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthikeyan, S; Sekaran, G

    2014-03-07

    The objective of this investigation is to evaluate the hydroxyl radical (˙OH) generation using nanoporous activated carbon (NPAC), derived from rice husk, and dissolved oxygen in water. The in situ production of the ˙OH radical was confirmed through the DMPO spin trapping method in EPR spectroscopy and quantitative determination by a deoxyribose assay procedure. NPAC served as a heterogeneous catalyst to degrade 2-deoxy-d-ribose (a reference compound) using hydroxyl radical generated from dissolved oxygen in water at temperatures in the range 313-373 K and pH 6, with first order rate constants (k = 9.2 × 10(-2) min(-1), k = 1.2 × 10(-1) min(-1), k = 1.3 × 10(-1) min(-1) and k = 1.68 × 10(-1) min(-1)). The thermodynamic constants for the generation of hydroxyl radicals by NPAC and dissolved oxygen in water were ΔG -1.36 kJ mol(-1) at 313 K, ΔH 17.73 kJ mol(-1) and ΔS 61.01 J mol(-1) K(-1).

  7. Land Use Alters the Plant-Derived Carbon and Nitrogen Pools in Terraced Rice Paddies in a Mountain Village

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seiji Shimoda

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In Japan, terraced paddies in mountain villages are symbolic of the traditional landscape, but they are gradually being abandoned. To compare plant-derived C and N among land uses, we compared adjacent forest floor (FF, agricultural paddy (AP, and post-agricultural paddy (PP sites. Long-term litter accumulation could explain the significantly higher litter C and belowground biomass C in FF than in AP and PP. The low-density-fraction (LF soil C was significantly higher in FF than in PP and better reflected land use than the whole-soil C. The AP soil held more N than FF and PP at 20–30 cm, associated with higher LF soil N. Periodic tillage in AP maintains the LF soil N, but N supplied to the surface soil reduced with depth following abandonment. Differences in recycling of organic matter and nutrients among land uses are crucial to plant-derived C and N contents of soil.

  8. Comparative Analysis of GF-1 and HJ-1 Data to Derive the Optimal Scale for Monitoring Heavy Metal Stress in Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dongmin; Liu, Xiangnan

    2018-03-06

    Remote sensing can actively monitor heavy metal contamination in crops, but with the increase of satellite sensors, the optimal scale for monitoring heavy metal stress in rice is still unknown. This study focused on identifying the optimal scale by comparing the ability to detect heavy metal stress in rice at various spatial scales. The 2 m, 8 m, and 16 m resolution GF-1 (China) data and the 30 m resolution HJ-1 (China) data were used to invert leaf area index (LAI). The LAI was the input parameter of the World Food Studies (WOFOST) model, and we obtained the dry weight of storage organs (WSO) and dry weight of roots (WRT) through the assimilation method; then, the mass ratio of rice storage organs and roots (SORMR) was calculated. Through the comparative analysis of SORMR at each spatial scale of data, we determined the optimal scale to monitor heavy metal stress in rice. The following conclusions were drawn: (1) SORMR could accurately and effectively monitor heavy metal stress; (2) the 8 m and 16 m images from GF-1 were suitable for monitoring heavy metal stress in rice; (3) 16 m was considered the optimal scale to assess heavy metal stress in rice.

  9. Zinc fertilization of flooded rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-02-01

    Local scientists studied Zn fertilization of flooded rice soils in Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, the Republic of Korea, Egypt, the Philippines, Thailand and Turkey. Diagnosis of Zn deficiency was carried out for submerged rice soils. Soil maps were prepared, designating areas as low, medium and high in Zn, based on Zn extraction with DTPA and HCl solutions and on rice leaf analysis. The effectiveness of various Zn fertilizer sources and methods of application in field and greenhouse experiments was measured, using 65 Zn. The percent Zn derived from fertilizer was shown to be a much more sensitive measure of efficiency than yield or total uptake

  10. Long-term rice cultivation stabilizes soil organic carbon and promotes soil microbial activity in a salt marsh derived soil chronosequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ping; Liu, Yalong; Li, Lianqing; Cheng, Kun; Zheng, Jufeng; Zhang, Xuhui; Zheng, Jinwei; Joseph, Stephen; Pan, Genxing

    2015-01-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration with enhanced stable carbon storage has been widely accepted as a very important ecosystem property. Yet, the link between carbon stability and bio-activity for ecosystem functioning with OC accumulation in field soils has not been characterized. We assessed the changes in microbial activity versus carbon stability along a paddy soil chronosequence shifting from salt marsh in East China. We used mean weight diameter, normalized enzyme activity (NEA) and carbon gain from straw amendment for addressing soil aggregation, microbial biochemical activity and potential C sequestration, respectively. In addition, a response ratio was employed to infer the changes in all analyzed parameters with prolonged rice cultivation. While stable carbon pools varied with total SOC accumulation, soil respiration and both bacterial and fungal diversity were relatively constant in the rice soils. Bacterial abundance and NEA were positively but highly correlated to total SOC accumulation, indicating an enhanced bio-activity with carbon stabilization. This could be linked to an enhancement of particulate organic carbon pool due to physical protection with enhanced soil aggregation in the rice soils under long-term rice cultivation. However, the mechanism underpinning these changes should be explored in future studies in rice soils where dynamic redox conditions exist. PMID:26503629

  11. Mapping paddy rice planting area in rice-wetland coexistent areas through analysis of Landsat 8 OLI and MODIS images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuting; Xiao, Xiangming; Qin, Yuanwei; Dong, Jinwei; Zhang, Geli; Kou, Weili; Jin, Cui; Wang, Jie; Li, Xiangping

    2016-04-01

    Accurate and up-to-date information on the spatial distribution of paddy rice fields is necessary for the studies of trace gas emissions, water source management, and food security. The phenology-based paddy rice mapping algorithm, which identifies the unique flooding stage of paddy rice, has been widely used. However, identification and mapping of paddy rice in rice-wetland coexistent areas is still a challenging task. In this study, we found that the flooding/transplanting periods of paddy rice and natural wetlands were different. The natural wetlands flood earlier and have a shorter duration than paddy rice in the Panjin Plain, a temperate region in China. We used this asynchronous flooding stage to extract the paddy rice planting area from the rice-wetland coexistent area. MODIS Land Surface Temperature (LST) data was used to derive the temperature-defined plant growing season. Landsat 8 OLI imagery was used to detect the flooding signal and then paddy rice was extracted using the difference in flooding stages between paddy rice and natural wetlands. The resultant paddy rice map was evaluated with in-situ ground-truth data and Google Earth images. The estimated overall accuracy and Kappa coefficient were 95% and 0.90, respectively. The spatial pattern of OLI-derived paddy rice map agrees well with the paddy rice layer from the National Land Cover Dataset from 2010 (NLCD-2010). The differences between Rice Landsat and Rice NLCD are in the range of ±20% for most 1-km grid cell. The results of this study demonstrate the potential of the phenology-based paddy rice mapping algorithm, via integrating MODIS and Landsat 8 OLI images, to map paddy rice fields in complex landscapes of paddy rice and natural wetland in the temperate region.

  12. [Index screening and comprehensive evaluation of phenotypic traits of low nitrogen tolerance using BILs population derived from Dongxiang wild rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Biao-lin; Li, Xia; Wan, Yong; Qiu, Zai-hui; Nie, Yuan-yuan; Xie, Jian-kun

    2015-08-01

    To identify the low nitrogen tolerance of Dongxiang wild rice (DXWR) and its progenies, ten phenotypic traits including plant height (PH), heading day (HD), panicle length (PL), number of effective tillers per plant (NETP), number of filled grains per panicle (NFGP), number of grains per panicle (NGP), grain density (GD), spikelet fertility (SF), 1000-grain mass (TGM) and grain yield per plant (GYP) were studied under normal and low nitrogen treatments, using backcross inbred lines (BILs) of Xieqingzao B//DXWR/Xieqingzao B in BC1 F12. Comprehensive evaluation on the low nitrogen tolerance of the BILs population was conducted using principal component analysis and the subordinate function. The evaluation results indicated that the low nitrogen tolerance of the line 116, 143 and 157 was the strongest, which could be served as the intermediate materials for genetic studies on the low nitrogen tolerance of DXWR and breeding for the low nitrogen tolerance in rice. The optimal regression equation of the low nitrogen tolerance in rice was established using stepwise regression analysis. The relative values of five traits including PH, NGP, SF, TGM and GYP were screened out and could be used as comprehensive evaluation indices for the low nitrogen tolerance in the whole growth stage. Therefore, more attention should be paid to the relative values of these five traits, especially for NGP and GYP, in the genetic improvement of the low nitrogen tolerance in rice.

  13. (PGMS) rice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-04-18

    Apr 18, 2011 ... tics, led us to predict that pollen cell abortion in this type of rice when ... averages of natural day-light-lengths and temperatures were used. A natural long ... blocks were allowed to grow under natural growth conditions (which.

  14. Gene editing by co-transformation of TALEN and chimeric RNA/DNA oligonucleotides on the rice OsEPSPS gene and the inheritance of mutations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mugui Wang

    Full Text Available Although several site-specific nucleases (SSNs, such as zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs, transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs, and the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR/Cas, have emerged as powerful tools for targeted gene editing in many organisms, to date, gene targeting (GT in plants remains a formidable challenge. In the present study, we attempted to substitute a single base in situ on the rice OsEPSPS gene by co-transformation of TALEN with chimeric RNA/DNA oligonucleotides (COs, including different strand composition such as RNA/DNA (C1 or DNA/RNA (C2 but contained the same target base to be substituted. In contrast to zero GT event obtained by the co-transformation of TALEN with homologous recombination plasmid (HRP, we obtained one mutant showing target base substitution although accompanied by undesired deletion of 12 bases downstream the target site from the co-transformation of TALEN and C1. In addition to this typical event, we also obtained 16 mutants with different length of base deletions around the target site among 105 calli lines derived from transformation of TALEN alone (4/19 as well as co-transformation of TELAN with either HRP (5/30 or C1 (2/25 or C2 (5/31. Further analysis demonstrated that the homozygous gene-edited mutants without foreign gene insertion could be obtained in one generation. The induced mutations in transgenic generation were also capable to pass to the next generation stably. However, the genotypes of mutants did not segregate normally in T1 population, probably due to lethal mutations. Phenotypic assessments in T1 generation showed that the heterozygous plants with either one or three bases deletion on target sequence, called d1 and d3, were more sensitive to glyphosate and the heterozygous d1 plants had significantly lower seed-setting rate than wild-type.

  15. Enzymatic hydrolsis of pretreated rice straw

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vlasenko, E.Y.; Shoemaker, S.P. [California Inst. of Food and Agricultural Research, Davis, CA (United States); Ding, H. [California Univ., Davis (Canada). Dept. of Food Science and Technology; Labavitch, J.M. [California Univ., Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Pomology

    1997-02-01

    California rice straw is being evaluated as a feedstock for production of power and fuel. This paper examines the initial steps in the process: pretreatment of rice straw and enzymatic hydrolysis of the polysaccharides in the pretreated material to soluble sugars. Rice straw was subjected to three distinct pretreatment procedures: acid-catalyzed steam explosion (Swan Biomass Company), acid hydrolysis (U.S. DOE National Renewable Energy Laboratory), and ammonia fiber explosion or AFEX (Texas A and M University). Standard conditions for each pretreatment were used, but none was optimized for rice straw specifically. Six commercial cellulases, products of Genencor International (USA), Novo (Denmark), Iogen (Canada) and Fermtech (Russia) were used for hydrolysis. The Swan- and the acid-pretreatments effectively removed hemicellulose from rice straw, providing high yields of fermentable sugars. The AFEX-pretreatment was distinctly different from other pretreatments in that it did not significantly solubilize hemicellulose. All three pretreatment procedures substantially increased enzymatic digestibility of rice straw. Three commercial Trichoderma-reesei-derived enzyme preparations: Cellulase 100L (Iogen), Spezyme CP (Genencor), and Al (Fermtech), were more active on pretreated rice straw compared than others tested. Conditions for hydrolysis of rice straw using Cellulase 100L were evaluated. The supplementation of this enzyme preparation with cellobiase (Novozyme 188) significantly improved the parameters of hydrolysis for the Swan- and the acid-pretreated materials, but did not affect the hydrolysis of the AFEX-pretreated rice straw. (Author)

  16. Recent advances on bioactivities of black rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Aécio L de S; Pachikian, Barbara; Larondelle, Yvan; Quetin-Leclercq, Joëlle

    2017-11-01

    Black rice has been consumed for centuries in Asian countries such as China, Korea or Japan. Nowadays, extracts and derivatives are considered as beneficial functional foods because of their high content in several bioactive molecules such as anthocyanins, other phenolics and terpenoids. The purpose of this review is to summarize and discuss recent developments on black rice bioactivities. Some sterols and triterpenoids with potential anticancer properties already tested in vitro and in vivo have been isolated and identified from bran extracts of black rice. Protection against osteoporosis has been suggested for the first time for black rice extracts. Because of its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, black rice also protects liver and kidney from injuries. One clinical study reported the interest of black rice in case of alcohol withdrawal. Several advances have been recently achieved on the understanding of the potential biological effects of black rice and its derivatives. They further confirm that black rice should be considered as a promising source of health-promoting functional foods targeting a large set of noninfectious diseases. However, more clinical studies are needed to support the findings highlighted in this review.

  17. Cytoplasmic-genetic male sterility gene provides direct evidence for some hybrid rice recently evolving into weedy rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingxu; Lu, Zuomei; Dai, Weimin; Song, Xiaoling; Peng, Yufa; Valverde, Bernal E.; Qiang, Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Weedy rice infests paddy fields worldwide at an alarmingly increasing rate. There is substantial evidence indicating that many weedy rice forms originated from or are closely related to cultivated rice. There is suspicion that the outbreak of weedy rice in China may be related to widely grown hybrid rice due to its heterosis and the diversity of its progeny, but this notion remains unsupported by direct evidence. We screened weedy rice accessions by both genetic and molecular marker tests for the cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) genes (Wild abortive, WA, and Boro type, BT) most widely used in the production of indica and japonica three-line hybrid rice as a diagnostic trait of direct parenthood. Sixteen weedy rice accessions of the 358 tested (4.5%) contained the CMS-WA gene; none contained the CMS-BT gene. These 16 accessions represent weedy rices recently evolved from maternal hybrid rice derivatives, given the primarily maternal inheritance of this trait. Our results provide key direct evidence that hybrid rice can be involved in the evolution of some weedy rice accessions, but is not a primary factor in the recent outbreak of weedy rice in China. PMID:26012494

  18. Cytoplasmic-genetic male sterility gene provides direct evidence for some hybrid rice recently evolving into weedy rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingxu; Lu, Zuomei; Dai, Weimin; Song, Xiaoling; Peng, Yufa; Valverde, Bernal E; Qiang, Sheng

    2015-05-27

    Weedy rice infests paddy fields worldwide at an alarmingly increasing rate. There is substantial evidence indicating that many weedy rice forms originated from or are closely related to cultivated rice. There is suspicion that the outbreak of weedy rice in China may be related to widely grown hybrid rice due to its heterosis and the diversity of its progeny, but this notion remains unsupported by direct evidence. We screened weedy rice accessions by both genetic and molecular marker tests for the cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) genes (Wild abortive, WA, and Boro type, BT) most widely used in the production of indica and japonica three-line hybrid rice as a diagnostic trait of direct parenthood. Sixteen weedy rice accessions of the 358 tested (4.5%) contained the CMS-WA gene; none contained the CMS-BT gene. These 16 accessions represent weedy rices recently evolved from maternal hybrid rice derivatives, given the primarily maternal inheritance of this trait. Our results provide key direct evidence that hybrid rice can be involved in the evolution of some weedy rice accessions, but is not a primary factor in the recent outbreak of weedy rice in China.

  19. RPAN: rice pan-genome browser for ∼3000 rice genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chen; Hu, Zhiqiang; Zheng, Tianqing; Lu, Kuangchen; Zhao, Yue; Wang, Wensheng; Shi, Jianxin; Wang, Chunchao; Lu, Jinyuan; Zhang, Dabing; Li, Zhikang; Wei, Chaochun

    2017-01-25

    A pan-genome is the union of the gene sets of all the individuals of a clade or a species and it provides a new dimension of genome complexity with the presence/absence variations (PAVs) of genes among these genomes. With the progress of sequencing technologies, pan-genome study is becoming affordable for eukaryotes with large-sized genomes. The Asian cultivated rice, Oryza sativa L., is one of the major food sources for the world and a model organism in plant biology. Recently, the 3000 Rice Genome Project (3K RGP) sequenced more than 3000 rice genomes with a mean sequencing depth of 14.3×, which provided a tremendous resource for rice research. In this paper, we present a genome browser, Rice Pan-genome Browser (RPAN), as a tool to search and visualize the rice pan-genome derived from 3K RGP. RPAN contains a database of the basic information of 3010 rice accessions, including genomic sequences, gene annotations, PAV information and gene expression data of the rice pan-genome. At least 12 000 novel genes absent in the reference genome were included. RPAN also provides multiple search and visualization functions. RPAN can be a rich resource for rice biology and rice breeding. It is available at http://cgm.sjtu.edu.cn/3kricedb/ or http://www.rmbreeding.cn/pan3k. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  20. Adsorption Removal of 17β-Estradiol from Water by Rice Straw-Derived Biochar with Special Attention to Pyrolysis Temperature and Background Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaohua; Liu, Ni; Liu, Yunguo; Jiang, Luhua; Zeng, Guangming; Tan, Xiaofei; Liu, Shaobo; Yin, Zhihong; Tian, Sirong; Li, Jiang

    2017-10-11

    Rice straw biochar that produced at three pyrolysis temperatures (400, 500 and 600 °C) were used to investigate the adsorption properties of 17β-estradiol (E2). The biochar samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), elemental analysis and BET surface area measurements. The influences of pyrolysis temperature, E2 concentration, pH, ionic strength, background electrolyte and humic acid were studied. Kinetic and isotherm results illustrated that the adsorption process could be well described by pseudo-second-order and Freundlich models. Experimental results showed that ionic strength had less influence on the adsorption of E2 by 500 and 600 °C rice straw biochar. Further, multivalent ions had positive impact on E2 removal than monovalent ions and the influence of the pyrolysis temperature was unremarkable when background electrolyte existed in solutions. The adsorption capacity of E2 decreased with the pH ranged from 3.0 to 12.0 and the humic acid concentration from 2 to 10 mg L -1 . Electrostatic attractions and π-π interaction were involved in the adsorption mechanisms. Compared to low-temperature biochar, high-temperature biochar exhibited a better adsorption capacity for E2 in aqueous solution, indicated it had a greater potential for E2 pollution control.

  1. Isotope studies on rice fertilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The aim of the report is to provide practical information on the efficient utilization of nitrogen fertilizers in rice production. Results obtained from field investigations during the years 1970 to 1974 in ten countries (Bangladesh, Burma, Indonesia, Republic of Korea, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam, India, Philippines), using 15 N-labelled nitrogen fertilizers (ammonium sulfate, urea) are given. The experiments, which were conducted both during the dry and wet seasons, included comparison of varieties, effect of placement, source and time of nitrogen fertilizer application on the yield and quality of rice. The data from the project is presented in table form. In most of the experiments, the addition of nitrogen increased the rice grain yield. The role of soil nitrogen vs. fertilizer nitrogen is compared, and it is concluded that the physiological growth stage at which fertilizer-derived nitrogen is absorbed is of great importance

  2. The Haitian Rice Tariff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mats Lundahl

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Se ha argumentado que los problemas agríco-las de Haití derivan de la tarifa del arroz de a mediados de los años noventa. Antes, supues-tamente, Haití fue autosuficiente, abastecida por su producción doméstica. Después de la reducción, el mercado haitiano se inundó en importaciones de arroz barato de los EEUU, lo cual despojó a los campesinos de sus fincas, convirtiendolos en migrantes internos, hacia los empleos de bajo pago de las ciudades. El artículo rechaza ese argumento y demuestra que es falso. La malnutrición fue un fenómeno extendido en Haití mucho antes de la reducción de la tarifa del arroz, la cual tampoco tuvo un gran impacto en la importación y la producción doméstica del arroz. Lo que sí impulsó el aumento de las importaciones fue el crecimiento de la población. También el artículo argumenta que un aumento de la tarifa del arroz no solucionará el problema de la alimentación que sufre Haití. English: It has been argued that Haiti’s agricultural problems derive from the reduction of the rice tariff in the mid-1990s. Before that Haiti was allegedly able to meet its food needs by domestic production. After the reduction the Haitian market was swamped by imports of cheap American rice which drove the farmers off their lands and forced them to migrate to low-wage industrial jobs in the cities. The article demonstrates that the argument is false. Malnutrition was widespread in Haiti long before the rice tariff reduction, and the latter did not have much of an impact on rice imports and domestic production. Instead, the main driving force behind imports appears to be population growth. It is also shown that an increase of the rice tariff will not solve Haiti’s food problem.

  3. Vinegar production from post-distillation slurry deriving from rice shochu production with the addition of caproic acid-producing bacteria consortium and lactic acid bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Hua-Wei; Tan, Li; Chen, Hao; Sun, Zhao-Yong; Tang, Yue-Qin; Kida, Kenji

    2017-12-01

    To establish a zero emission process, the post-distillation slurry of a new type of rice shochu (NTRS) was used for the production of health promoting vinegar. Since the NTRS post-distillation slurry contained caproic acid and lactic acid, the effect of these two organic acids on acetic acid fermentation was first evaluated. Based on these results, Acetobacter aceti CICC 21684 was selected as a suitable strain for subsequent production of vinegar. At the laboratory scale, acetic acid fermentation of the NTRS post-distillation slurry in batch mode resulted in an acetic acid concentration of 41.9 g/L, with an initial ethanol concentration of 40 g/L, and the acetic acid concentration was improved to 44.5 g/L in fed-batch mode. Compared to the NTRS post-distillation slurry, the vinegar product had higher concentrations of free amino acids and inhibition of angiotensin I converting enzyme activity. By controlling the volumetric oxygen transfer coefficient to be similar to that of the laboratory scale production, 45 g/L of acetic acid was obtained at the pilot scale, using a 75-L fermentor with a working volume of 40 L, indicating that vinegar production can be successfully scaled up. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Input of seabird-derived nitrogen into rice-paddy fields near a breeding/roosting colony of the Great Cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo), and its effects on wild grass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazama, Kentaro; Murano, Hirotatsu; Tsuzuki, Kazuhide; Fujii, Hidenori; Niizuma, Yasuaki; Mizota, Chitoshi

    2013-01-01

    Terrestrial ecosystems near breeding/roosting colonies of piscivorous seabirds can receive a large amount of marine-derived N in the form of bird feces. It has been well demonstrated that N input from seabirds strongly affects plant communities in forests or coastal grasslands. The effects of nutrient input on plant communities in agricultural ecosystems near seabird colonies, however, have rarely been evaluated. This relationship was examined in rice-paddy fields irrigated by a pond system located near a colony of the Great Cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo in Aichi, central Japan. In the present study, spatial variations in N content (N %) and N stable isotope composition (δ 15 N) of soils and wild grass species together with the growth height of plants in paddy fields in early spring (fallow period) were examined. Soils had a higher N % and δ 15 N values in fields associated with an irrigation pond that had N input from cormorants. The δ 15 N values tended to be higher around the inlet of irrigation waters, relative to the outlet. These results indicate that cormorant-derived N was input into the paddy fields via the irrigation systems. Plants growing in soil with higher δ 15 N had higher δ 15 N in the above-ground part of the plants and had luxurious growth. A positive correlation in plant height and δ 15 N of NO 3 –N was observed in soil plough horizons.

  5. Induced Mutations in Thai Rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klakhaeng, Kanchana

    2014-01-01

    Rice is the primary source of food for more than half of the world's population. It benefits greatly from technological inputs in the area of breeding such as induced mutation. Induced mutation can produce mutants with significant improvement in plant type, maturity, yields and protein ratio when compared to the parent. These improved traits enable the mutants to fit into farming systems with either shorter or longer growing seasons. Three induced mutant rice varieties, including RD6, RD10 and RD15, are well accepted by farmers and consumers in Thailand. RD6 and RD15 were aromatic, photosensitive varieties which were derived from KDML105 by acute irradiation of 20 and 15 kilorad gamma ray, respectively. After induced mutation, pedigree selection was applied. RD6 showed drought tolerance and also good grain quality including softness and good aroma with a higher average yield than the famous glutinous variety, San-Pah-Tong. Additionally, it was resistant to blast and brown spot diseases with an average yield of 4.19 tons/ha. RD15 showed drought tolerance and resistance to brown spot disease with the highest yield of 3.5 tons/ha. These two mutant varieties are currently the most famous aromatic rice varieties in Thailand. On the other hand, RD10 is a glutinous, photoperiod insensitive rice variety which was derived from RD1 by irradiation of 1 kilorad fast neutrons. RD10 showed good grain quality such as softness and stickiness with the yield of 4.25 tons/ha. As an on-going project, recommended rice varieties were irradiated with electron beam for anaerobic germination ability, submergence tolerance, stagnant-flood tolerance and also internode elongation.

  6. Golden Rice is an effective source of vitamin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Guangwen; Qin, Jian; Dolnikowski, Gregory G; Russell, Robert M; Grusak, Michael A

    2009-06-01

    Genetically engineered "Golden Rice" contains up to 35 microg beta-carotene per gram of rice. It is important to determine the vitamin A equivalency of Golden Rice beta-carotene to project the potential effect of this biofortified grain in rice-consuming populations that commonly exhibit low vitamin A status. The objective was to determine the vitamin A value of intrinsically labeled dietary Golden Rice in humans. Golden Rice plants were grown hydroponically with heavy water (deuterium oxide) to generate deuterium-labeled [2H]beta-carotene in the rice grains. Golden Rice servings of 65-98 g (130-200 g cooked rice) containing 0.99-1.53 mg beta-carotene were fed to 5 healthy adult volunteers (3 women and 2 men) with 10 g butter. A reference dose of [13C10]retinyl acetate (0.4-1.0 mg) in oil was given to each volunteer 1 wk before ingestion of the Golden Rice dose. Blood samples were collected over 36 d. Our results showed that the mean (+/-SD) area under the curve for the total serum response to [2H]retinol was 39.9 +/- 20.7 microg x d after the Golden Rice dose. Compared with that of the [13C10]retinyl acetate reference dose (84.7 +/- 34.6 microg x d), Golden Rice beta-carotene provided 0.24-0.94 mg retinol. Thus, the conversion factor of Golden Rice beta-carotene to retinol is 3.8 +/- 1.7 to 1 with a range of 1.9-6.4 to 1 by weight, or 2.0 +/- 0.9 to 1 with a range of 1.0-3.4 to 1 by moles. Beta-carotene derived from Golden Rice is effectively converted to vitamin A in humans. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00680355.

  7. Effect of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis rice lines on mortality and feeding behavior of rice stem borers (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hao; Zhang, Guoan; Zhang, Qifa; Lin, Yongjun

    2008-02-01

    Ten transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis Bt rice, Oryza sativa L., lines with different Bt genes (two Cry1Ac lines, three Cry2A lines, and five Cry9C lines) derived from the same variety Minghui 63 were evaluated in both the laboratory and the field. Bioassays were conducted by using the first instars of two main rice lepidopteran insect species: yellow stem borer, Scirpophaga incertulas (Walker) and Asiatic rice borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker). All transgenic lines exhibited high toxicity to these two rice borers. Field evaluation results also showed that all transgenic lines were highly insect resistant with both natural infestation and manual infestation of the neonate larvae of S. incertulas compared with the nontransformed Minghui63. Bt protein concentrations in leaves of 10 transgenic rice lines were estimated by the sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The cry9C gene had the highest expression level, next was cry2A gene, and the cry1Ac gene expressed at the lowest level. The feeding behavior of 7-d-old Asiatic rice borer to three classes of Bt transgenic rice lines also was detected by using rice culm cuttings. The results showed that 7-d-old larvae of Asiatic rice borer have the capacity to distinguish Bt and non-Bt culm cuttings and preferentially fed on non-Bt cuttings. When only Bt culm cuttings with three classes of different Bt proteins (CrylAc, Cry2A, and Cry9C) were fed, significant distribution difference of 7-d-old Asiatic rice borer in culm cuttings of different Bt proteins also was found. In the current study, we evaluate different Bt genes in the same rice variety in both the laboratory and the field, and also tested feeding behavior of rice insect to these Bt rice. These data are valuable for the further development of two-toxin Bt rice and establishment of appropriate insect resistance management in the future.

  8. Rice peasants and rice research in Colombia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spijkers, P.A.N.M.

    1983-01-01

    Rice has been grown as a food crop in Latin America from early colonial times. In Colombia rice became a prominent subsistence crop especially on the north coast where it has been grown since the 17th century, sometimes also as a commercial crop. During the last twenty years there has been a sharp

  9. Identification and genetic assay of a high-chlorophyll-content mutant in Rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Baofu; Chen Xifeng; Jin Yang; Gu Zhimin; Ma Bojun; Zhu Xudong

    2011-01-01

    A deep rice mutant ZM1120 was screened from the γ-rays irradiation mutation library of Zhonghua 11. Compared to the wild-type control, this mutant were darker (greener) in shoots and leaves, and after sowing 60 and 90 d, the content of chlorophyll were increased by 16.0% and 7.2%, respectively, and the content of carotenoid also increased by 23.1% and 24.2%, respectively. After sowing 90 d the net photosynthetic rate and transpiration rate were increased by 16.3% and 11.4%, respectively. The agronomical traits of this mutant significantly changed, and the traits of plant height, flag-leaf length, flag-leaf width, tiller number per plant, panicle length and setting rate decreased, but the grain length and 1000-grain weight increased by 7.9% and 2.6%. Genetic analysis revealed that the mutation phenotype was controlled by a single recessive nuclear gene, and further cloning and function assay will be useful for understanding the mechanism of photosynthesis and for rice breeding in future. (authors)

  10. Haploid rice plants in mutation studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, S [Institute of Radiation Breeding, Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, Ohmiya, Ibaraki-ken (Japan)

    1970-03-01

    Studies were made on chlorophyll-deficient sectors and diploid-like sectors in haploid rice plants exposed to chronic gamma irradiation, and on germinal mutations in diploid strains derived from the haploid plants. The induction and elimination of somatic mutations in haploid plants and the occurrence of drastic germinal mutations in diploid strains from haploid plants are discussed. (author)

  11. Linkage Mapping of Stem Saccharification Digestibility in Rice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohan Liu

    Full Text Available Rice is the staple food of almost half of the world population, and in excess 90% of it is grown and consumed in Asia, but the disposal of rice straw poses a problem for farmers, who often burn it in the fields, causing health and environmental problems. However, with increased focus on the development of sustainable biofuel production, rice straw has been recognized as a potential feedstock for non-food derived biofuel production. Currently, the commercial realization of rice as a biofuel feedstock is constrained by the high cost of industrial saccharification processes needed to release sugar for fermentation. This study is focused on the alteration of lignin content, and cell wall chemotypes and structures, and their effects on the saccharification potential of rice lignocellulosic biomass. A recombinant inbred lines (RILs population derived from a cross between the lowland rice variety IR1552 and the upland rice variety Azucena with 271 molecular markers for quantitative trait SNP (QTS analyses was used. After association analysis of 271 markers for saccharification potential, 1 locus and 4 pairs of epistatic loci were found to contribute to the enzymatic digestibility phenotype, and an inverse relationship between reducing sugar and lignin content in these recombinant inbred lines was identified. As a result of QTS analyses, several cell-wall associated candidate genes are proposed that may be useful for marker-assisted breeding and may aid breeders to produce potential high saccharification rice varieties.

  12. Complementarity of Two Rice Mapping Approaches: Characterizing Strata Mapped by Hypertemporal MODIS and Rice Paddy Identification Using Multitemporal SAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Asilo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Different rice crop information can be derived from different remote sensing sources to provide information for decision making and policies related to agricultural production and food security. The objective of this study is to generate complementary and comprehensive rice crop information from hypertemporal optical and multitemporal high-resolution SAR imagery. We demonstrate the use of MODIS data for rice-based system characterization and X-band SAR data from TerraSAR-X and CosmoSkyMed for the identification and detailed mapping of rice areas and flooding/transplanting dates. MODIS was classified using ISODATA to generate cropping calendar, cropping intensity, cropping pattern and rice ecosystem information. Season and location specific thresholds from field observations were used to generate detailed maps of rice areas and flooding/transplanting dates from the SAR data. Error matrices were used for the accuracy assessment of the MODIS-derived rice characteristics map and the SAR-derived detailed rice area map, while Root Mean Square Error (RMSE and linear correlation were used to assess the TSX-derived flooding/transplanting dates. Results showed that multitemporal high spatial resolution SAR data is effective for mapping rice areas and flooding/transplanting dates with an overall accuracy of 90% and a kappa of 0.72 and that hypertemporal moderate-resolution optical imagery is effective for the basic characterization of rice areas with an overall accuracy that ranged from 62% to 87% and a kappa of 0.52 to 0.72. This study has also provided the first assessment of the temporal variation in the backscatter of rice from CSK and TSX using large incidence angles covering all rice crop stages from pre-season until harvest. This complementarity in optical and SAR data can be further exploited in the near future with the increased availability of space-borne optical and SAR sensors. This new information can help improve the identification of rice

  13. Rice (Oryza) hemoglobins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemoglobins (Hbs) corresponding to non-symbiotic (nsHb) and truncated (tHb) Hbs have been identified in rice (Oryza). This review discusses the major findings from the current studies on rice Hbs. At the molecular level, a family of the nshb genes, consisting of hb1, hb2, hb3, hb4 and hb5, and a sin...

  14. Contribution of rice straw carbon to CH4 emission from rice paddies using 13C-enriched rice straw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Akira; Yoshida, Mariko; Kimura, Makoto

    1998-04-01

    It is generally recognized that the application of rice straw (RS) increases CH4 emission from rice paddies. To estimate the contribution of RS carbon to CH4 emission, a pot experiment was conducted using 13C-enriched RS. The percentage contributions of RS carbon to CH4 emission throughout the rice growth period were 10±1, 32±3, and 43±3% for the treatments with RS applied at the rates of 2, 4, and 6 g kg-1 soil, respectively. The increase in the rate of application of RS increased CH4 emission derived from both RS carbon and other carbon sources. The percentage contribution of RS carbon to CH4 emission was larger in the earlier period (maximum 96%) when the decomposition rate of RS was larger. After RS decomposition had slowed, CH4 emission derived from RS carbon decreased. However, the δ13C values of CH4 emitted from the pots with 13C-enriched RS applied at rates of 4 and 6 g kg-1 soil were significantly higher than those from the pots with natural RS until the harvesting stage. An increased atom-13C% of roots of rice plants growing in the pots with 6 g kg-1 of 13C-enriched RS at around the maximum tiller number stage and a decrease during the following 2 months suggested that rice plants assimilated RS carbon once and then released a portion of it. This supply of RS carbon from roots may be one of the sources of CH4 in the late period of rice growth.

  15. Comparative Analysis of ?-Oryzanol, ?-Glucan, Total Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Activity in Fermented Rice Bran of Different Varieties

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Tae-Dong; Shin, Gi-Hae; Kim, Jae-Min; Choi, Sun-Il; Lee, Jin-Ha; Lee, Sang Jong; Park, Seon Ju; Woo, Koan Sik; Oh, Sea Kwan; Lee, Ok-Hawn

    2017-01-01

    Rice bran, a by-product derived from processing rice, is a rich source of bioactive compounds. Recent studies have suggested that the fermentation can improve their biological activities. This study aimed to determined the level of γ-oryzanol, β-glucan and total phenol contents of fermented rice bran from 21 Korean varieties, as well as to evaluate their antioxidant activities. We also assessed the validation of the analytical method for determining γ-oryzanol content in fermented rice brans....

  16. The cell death factor, cell wall elicitor of rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea) causes metabolic alterations including GABA shunt in rice cultured cells

    OpenAIRE

    Takahashi, Hideyuki; Matsumura, Hideo; Kawai-Yamada, Maki; Uchimiya, Hirofumi

    2008-01-01

    An elicitor derived from the cell wall of rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea) causes cell death in suspension cultured cells of rice (Oryza sativa L.). To elucidate the role of M. grisea elicitor on metabolic pathway of rice cells, we performed metabolite profiling using capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry (CE/MS). Treatment with M. grisea elicitor increased the amounts of antioxidants and free amino acids and decreased the amount of metabolites in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycl...

  17. Use of azolla as a nitrogen source of lowland rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sisworo, E.L.; Widjang, H.S.; Havid, S.; Hendratno; Soleh, S.; Goesworo, S.

    1991-01-01

    A four years experiment has been carried out to study possibility of using azolla as a nitrogen source for lowland rice. The work done in the first year, experiments were conducted in the wet season (WS) and the dry season (DS) of 1984/1985, was evaluate weather azolla could really increase rice yield. In the second year, experiments done in the WS and DS of 1985/1986, N-derived from azolla (N-dfA) and N-derived from urea (N-dfU) in rice plan were determined. The third year work done in the WS and DS of 1986/1987 was conducted to see what extend azolla could be applied in the terms of kg N/ha as a N-source for rice. While the last year was devoted to study the N-balance of azolla and urea, which was done in the DS of 1988/1989. Results of the experiments show that azolla has the same ability as urea to increase rice azolla interacted with urea. By increasing the azolla level N recovery in rice will decrease. The same phenomena was also found with urea. Another interesting fact is that an azolla cover in the rice field could promote N-uptake from urea. (author). 8 refs, 15 tabs

  18. Volatile Composition of Smoked and Non-Smoked Iranian Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leontina Lipan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the volatile profiles of smoked and non-smoked Iranian rice were identified, and their relative abundance was calculated and compared. Headspace solid-phase microextraction together with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS were used to extract and identify the volatile compounds. The main groups of volatiles in Iranian rice were aldehydes, ketones, phenol derivatives, furans, linear hydrocarbons, esters and terpenes. The chemical family aldehydes was the most abundant one in the profile of non-smoked rice, while phenol derivatives and furans predominated in smoked samples. This study is the first one reporting comparative data of volatile compounds between smoked and non-smoked Iranian rice.

  19. Study on homologous series of induced early mutants in Indica rice Ⅱ. the relationship between the homologous series of early mutants induced and the ecotype in Indica rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xiulan; Yang Hefeng; He Zhentian; Han Yuepeng; Liu Xueyu

    2001-01-01

    The induced mutation in light sensitivity of the Indica rice leads to induction of the homologous series of early mutants along with the variation of ecological character and the ecoclimate. The induction of mutants was closely related to the ecotype of Indica rice, the homologous series of early mutants in different level were derived from the different ecotype of the Indica rice, otherwise, the similar homologous series of early mutants were derived from the same ecotypic variety. The induction of the early ecotypic variety derived from the homologous series of early mutants provides the basis and possibility for accelerating the development of the new cultivars. (authors)

  20. Silício alterando compostos derivados da pirólise de bainhas foliares de plantas de arroz infectadas por Rhizoctonia solani Silicon altering compounds derived from the pyrolyses of leaf sheaths of rice plants infected with Rhizoctonia solani

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Augusto Schurt

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo elucidar, por meio da pirólise analítica acoplada à cromatografia gasosa e espectrometria de massa, alterações na composição química da lignina nas bainhas de plantas de arroz das cultivares BR-Irga 409 e Labelle supridas ou não com silício (Si e infectadas por Rhizoctonia solani. A concentração de Si nas bainhas das plantas supridas com esse elemento foi significativamente maior (2,7 dag kg-1 em comparação com as plantas não supridas (0,45 dag kg-1. Na presença de Si, a área abaixo da curva do progresso da queima das bainhas foi significativamente reduzida em 19 e 25%, respectivamente, para as plantas das cultivares BR-Irga-409 e Labelle em relação à ausência desse elemento na solução nutritiva. Com base nos espectros de massas obtidos, foram identificados 33 compostos, dos quais 10 foram produtos da degradação de carboidratos e 23 derivados da lignina. Dentre os derivados da lignina, oito compostos eram do tipo p-hidroxifenila, 11 compostos do tipo guaiacila e quatro compostos do tipo siringila. Nas bainhas das plantas das duas cultivares de arroz, supridas ou não com Si, a concentração de lignina (p-hidroxifenila, siringila (S e guaiacila (G foi de, aproximadamente, 15%. Houve aumento na relação S/G apenas nas bainhas das plantas da cultivar BR-Irga 409 supridas com Si e infectadas por R. solani. A maior concentração de Si nas bainhas das plantas de arroz das duas cultivares, que por sua vez resultou em aumento na relação S/G, contribuiu para reduzir os sintomas da queima das bainhas.This study elucidated, through analytical pyrolysis coupled to gas chromatography and mass spectrometry, changes in the chemical composition of lignin on leaf sheaths of rice plants of cultivars BR-Irga 409 and Labelle supplied or non-supplied with silicon (Si and infected with Rhizoctonia solani. The Si concentration on leaf sheaths of plants supplied with this element was significatively higher

  1. Mapping rice areas of South Asia using MODIS multitemporal data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumma, Murali Krishna; Nelson, Andrew; Thenkabail, Prasad S.; Singh, Amrendra N.

    2011-01-01

    Our goal is to map the rice areas of six South Asian countries using moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) time-series data for the time period 2000 to 2001. South Asia accounts for almost 40% of the world's harvested rice area and is also home to 74% of the population that lives on less than $2.00 a day. The population of the region is growing faster than its ability to produce rice. Thus, accurate and timely assessment of where and how rice is cultivated is important to craft food security and poverty alleviation strategies. We used a time series of eight-day, 500-m spatial resolution composite images from the MODIS sensor to produce rice maps and rice characteristics (e.g., intensity of cropping, cropping calendar) taking data for the years 2000 to 2001 and by adopting a suite of methods that include spectral matching techniques, decision trees, and ideal temporal profile data banks to rapidly identify and classify rice areas over large spatial extents. These methods are used in conjunction with ancillary spatial data sets (e.g., elevation, precipitation), national statistics, and maps, and a large volume of field-plot data. The resulting rice maps and statistics are compared against a subset of independent field-plot points and the best available subnational statistics on rice areas for the main crop growing season (kharif season). A fuzzy classification accuracy assessment for the 2000 to 2001 rice-map product, based on field-plot data, demonstrated accuracies from 67% to 100% for individual rice classes, with an overall accuracy of 80% for all classes. Most of the mixing was within rice classes. The derived physical rice area was highly correlated with the subnational statistics with R2 values of 97% at the district level and 99% at the state level for 2000 to 2001. These results suggest that the methods, approaches, algorithms, and data sets we used are ideal for rapid, accurate, and large-scale mapping of paddy rice as well as for generating

  2. Mapping rice areas of South Asia using MODIS multitemporal data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumma, M.K.; Nelson, A.; Thenkabail, P.S.; Singh, A.N.

    2011-01-01

    Our goal is to map the rice areas of six South Asian countries using moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) time-series data for the time period 2000 to 2001. South Asia accounts for almost 40% of the world's harvested rice area and is also home to 74% of the population that lives on less than $2.00 a day. The population of the region is growing faster than its ability to produce rice. Thus, accurate and timely assessment of where and how rice is cultivated is important to craft food security and poverty alleviation strategies. We used a time series of eight-day, 500-m spatial resolution composite images from the MODIS sensor to produce rice maps and rice characteristics (e.g., intensity of cropping, cropping calendar) taking data for the years 2000 to 2001 and by adopting a suite of methods that include spectral matching techniques, decision trees, and ideal temporal profile data banks to rapidly identify and classify rice areas over large spatial extents. These methods are used in conjunction with ancillary spatial data sets (e.g., elevation, precipitation), national statistics, and maps, and a large volume of field-plot data. The resulting rice maps and statistics are compared against a subset of independent field-plot points and the best available subnational statistics on rice areas for the main crop growing season (kharif season). A fuzzy classification accuracy assessment for the 2000 to 2001 rice-map product, based on field-plot data, demonstrated accuracies from 67% to 100% for individual rice classes, with an overall accuracy of 80% for all classes. Most of the mixing was within rice classes. The derived physical rice area was highly correlated with the subnational statistics with R2 values of 97% at the district level and 99% at the state level for 2000 to 2001. These results suggest that the methods, approaches, algorithms, and data sets we used are ideal for rapid, accurate, and large-scale mapping of paddy rice as well as for generating

  3. Variation in Yield and Physicochemical Quality Traits among Mutants of Japonica Rice Cultivar Wuyujing 3

    OpenAIRE

    Abacar, Jose Daniel; Zhao-miao, Lin; Xin-cheng, Zhang; Cheng-qiang, Ding; She, Tang; Zheng-hui, Liu; Shao-hua, Wang; Yan-feng, Ding

    2016-01-01

    To select elite germplasms, 112 mutants derived from japonica rice cultivar Wuyujing 3 were evaluated. The yield components such as panicle number per square meter, grain number per panicle, and grain weight were measured. The quality traits such as percentage of chalky grains (PCG), brown rice yield (BRY), milled rice yield (MRY), degree of milling (DM), amylose content (AC), protein content (PC), and relationships among traits were inverstigated. Results showed that grain yield ranged from ...

  4. Transcriptional changes of rice in response to rice black-streaked dwarf virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Mohamed M S; Ji, Wen; Wang, Muyue; Bian, Shiquan; Xu, Meng; Wang, Weiyun; Zhang, Jiangxiang; Xu, Zhihao; Yu, Meimei; Liu, Qiaoquan; Zhang, Changquan; Zhang, Honggen; Tang, Shuzhu; Gu, Minghong; Yu, Hengxiu

    2017-09-10

    Rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV), a member of the genus Fijivirus in the family Reoviridae, causes significant economic losses in rice production in China and many other Asian countries. Although a great deal of effort has been made to elucidate the interactions among the virus, insect vectors, host and environmental conditions, few RBSDV proteins involved in pathogenesis have been identified, and the biological basis of disease development in rice remains largely unknown. Transcriptomic information associated with the disease development in rice would be helpful to unravel the biological mechanism. To determine how the rice transcriptome changes in response to RBSDV infection, we carried out RNA-Seq to perform a genome-wide gene expression analysis of a susceptible rice cultivar KTWYJ3. The transcriptomes of RBSDV-infected samples were compared to those of RBSDV-free (healthy) at two time points (time points are represented by group I and II). The results derived from the differential expression analysis in RBSDV-infected libraries vs. healthy ones in group I revealed that 102 out of a total of 281 significant differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were up-regulated and 179 DEGs were down-regulated. Of the 2592 identified DEGs in group II, 1588 DEGs were up-regulated and 1004 DEGs were down-regulated. A total of 66 DEGs were commonly identified in both groups. Of these 66 DEGs, expression patterns for 36 DEGs were similar in both groups. Our analysis demonstrated that some genes related to disease defense and stress resistance were up-regulated while genes associated with chloroplast were down-regulated in response to RBSDV infection. In addition, some genes associated with plant-height were differentially expressed. This result indicates those genes might be involved in dwarf symptoms caused by RBSDV. Taken together, our results provide a genome-wide transcriptome analysis for rice plants in response to RBSDV infection which may contribute to the

  5. [Adsorption mechanism of furfural onto modified rice husk charcoals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yong; Wang, Xianhua; Li, Yunchao; Shao, Jing'ai; Yang, Haiping; Chen, Hanping

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the absorptive characteristics of furfural onto biomass charcoals derived from rice husk pyrolysis, we studied the information of the structure and surface chemistry properties of the rice husk charcoals modified by thermal treatment under nitrogen and carbon dioxide flow and adsorption mechanism of furfural. The modified samples are labeled as RH-N2 and RH-CO2. Fresh rice husk charcoal sample (RH-450) and modified samples were characterized by elemental analysis, nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and Boehm titration. The results show that fresh rice husk charcoal obtained at 450 degrees C had a large number of organic groups on its surface and poor pore structure. After the modification under nitrogen and carbon dioxide flow, oxygenic organics in rice husk charcoals decompose further, leading to the reduction of acidic functional groups on charcoals surface, and the increase of the pyrone structures of the basic groups. Meanwhile, pore structure was improved significantly and the surface area was increased, especially for the micropores. This resulted in the increase of π-π dispersion between the surfaces of rice husk charcoals and furfural molecular. With making comprehensive consideration of π-π dispersion and pore structure, the best removal efficiency of furfural was obtained by rice husk charcoal modified under carbon dioxide flow.

  6. Analysis of Lysophospholipid Content in Low Phytate Rice Mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Chuan; Chen, Yaling; Tan, Yuanyuan; Liu, Lei; Waters, Daniel L E; Rose, Terry J; Shu, Qingyao; Bao, Jinsong

    2017-07-05

    As a fundamental component of nucleic acids, phospholipids, and adenosine triphosphate, phosphorus (P) is critical to all life forms, however, the molecular mechanism of P translocation and distribution in rice grains are still not understood. Here, with the use of five different low phytic acid (lpa) rice mutants, the redistribution in the main P-containing compounds in rice grain, phytic acid (PA), lysophospholipid (LPL), and inorganic P (Pi), was investigated. The lpa mutants showed a significant decrease in PA and phytate-phosphorus (PA-P) concentration with a concomitant increase in Pi concentration. Moreover, defects in the OsST and OsMIK genes result in a great reduction of specific LPL components and LPL-phosphorus (LPL-P) contents in rice grain. In contrast, defective OsMRP5 and Os2-PGK genes led to a significant increase in individual LPL components. The effect of the Os2-PGK gene on the LPL accumulation was validated using breeding lines derived from a cross between KBNT-lpa (Os2-PGK mutation) and Jiahe218. This study demonstrates that these rice lpa mutants lead to the redistribution of Pi in endosperm and modify LPL biosynthesis. Increase LPLs in the endosperm in the lpa mutants may have practical applications in rice breeding to produce "healthier" rice.

  7. Prevalence of Rice Yellow Mottle Virus (RYMV) on Rice Plants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Incidence of Rice yellow mottle virus (RYMV) on rice plants (ofada) grown in two local government areas (LGAs) of Ogun State had been evaluated during a two year field survey. Six month old rice plants were observed for symptom expression and leaf samples collected for serological indexing. Of the 60 leaf ...

  8. Impact of mutation breeding in rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutger, J.N.

    1992-01-01

    More cultivars have been developed in rice through the use of mutation breeding than in any other crop. Direct releases of mutants as cultivars began some 30 years ago, and now total 198 cultivars. During the last 20 years, increasing use has been made of induced mutants in cross-breeding programs, leading to 80 additional cultivars. Principal improvements through mutation breeding have been earlier maturity, short stature, and grain character modifications. Rice has been a popular subject of mutagenesis because it is the world's leading food crop, has diploid inheritance, and is highly self-pollinated. In recent years induced mutation has been exploited to develop breeding tool mutants, which are defined as mutants that in themselves may not have direct agronomic application but may be useful genetic tools for crop improvement. Examples include the eui gene, hull colour mutants, normal genetic male steriles, and environmentally sensitive genetic male steriles. The environmentally sensitive genetic male steriles, especially those in which male sterility can be turned on or off by different photoperiod lengths, show promise for simplifying hybrid rice seed production both in China and the USA. Future applications of mutation in rice include induction of unusual endosperm starch types, plant types with fewer but more productive tillers, dominant dwarfs, dominant genetic male steriles, extremely early maturing mutants, nutritional mutants, and in vitro-derived mutants for tolerance to herbicides or other growth stresses. Refs, 4 figs, 2 tabs

  9. Microbial Activity and Silica Degradation in Rice Straw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Esther Jin-kyung

    increased. Silicase activity did not change across nitrogen treatments despite a shift in microbial community with varied nitrogen concentration. Samples treated with different nitrogen concentrations had similar levels of diversity, however the microbial community composition differed with added nitrogen. The results demonstrated that adding nitrogen to rice straw during thermophilic decomposition nurtured a more active microbial community and promoted enzyme secretion thus improving the ability to discover enzymes for rice straw deconstruction. These results can inform future experiments for cultivating a unique, thriving compost-derived microbial community that can successfully decompose rice straw. Understanding the silicase activity of microorganisms may alleviate the challenges associated with silica in various feedstocks.

  10. Golden Rice is an effective source of vitamin A1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jian; Dolnikowski, Gregory G; Russell, Robert M; Grusak, Michael A

    2009-01-01

    Background: Genetically engineered “Golden Rice” contains up to 35 μg β-carotene per gram of rice. It is important to determine the vitamin A equivalency of Golden Rice β-carotene to project the potential effect of this biofortified grain in rice-consuming populations that commonly exhibit low vitamin A status. Objective: The objective was to determine the vitamin A value of intrinsically labeled dietary Golden Rice in humans. Design: Golden Rice plants were grown hydroponically with heavy water (deuterium oxide) to generate deuterium-labeled [2H]β-carotene in the rice grains. Golden Rice servings of 65–98 g (130–200 g cooked rice) containing 0.99–1.53 mg β-carotene were fed to 5 healthy adult volunteers (3 women and 2 men) with 10 g butter. A reference dose of [13C10]retinyl acetate (0.4–1.0 mg) in oil was given to each volunteer 1 wk before ingestion of the Golden Rice dose. Blood samples were collected over 36 d. Results: Our results showed that the mean (±SD) area under the curve for the total serum response to [2H]retinol was 39.9 ± 20.7 μg·d after the Golden Rice dose. Compared with that of the [13C10]retinyl acetate reference dose (84.7 ± 34.6 μg·d), Golden Rice β-carotene provided 0.24–0.94 mg retinol. Thus, the conversion factor of Golden Rice β-carotene to retinol is 3.8 ± 1.7 to 1 with a range of 1.9–6.4 to 1 by weight, or 2.0 ± 0.9 to 1 with a range of 1.0–3.4 to 1 by moles. Conclusion: β-Carotene derived from Golden Rice is effectively converted to vitamin A in humans. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00680355. PMID:19369372

  11. 7 CFR 868.310 - Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled Rice. (See also Â... Milled Rice Principles Governing Application of Standards § 868.310 Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled Rice...

  12. Genome-wide patterns of nucleotide polymorphism in domesticated rice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caicedo, Ana L; Williamson, Scott H; Hernandez, Ryan D

    2007-01-01

    Domesticated Asian rice (Oryza sativa) is one of the oldest domesticated crop species in the world, having fed more people than any other plant in human history. We report the patterns of DNA sequence variation in rice and its wild ancestor, O. rufipogon, across 111 randomly chosen gene fragments......, and use these to infer the evolutionary dynamics that led to the origins of rice. There is a genome-wide excess of high-frequency derived single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in O. sativa varieties, a pattern that has not been reported for other crop species. We developed several alternative models...... to explain contemporary patterns of polymorphisms in rice, including a (i) selectively neutral population bottleneck model, (ii) bottleneck plus migration model, (iii) multiple selective sweeps model, and (iv) bottleneck plus selective sweeps model. We find that a simple bottleneck model, which has been...

  13. Soil type links microbial colonization of rice roots to methane emission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Conrad, R.; Klose, M.; Noll, M.; Kemnitz, D.; Bodelier, P.L.E.

    2008-01-01

    Most of the methane (CH4) emission from rice fields is derived from plant photosynthates, which are converted to CH4. Rice cluster I (RC-1) archaea colonizing the rhizosphere were found to be the methanogens responsible for this process. Hence, RC-1 methanogens seem to play a crucial role in

  14. Extraction of rice bran oil from local rice husk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anwar, J.; Zaman, W.; Salman, M.; Jabeen, N.

    2006-01-01

    Rice Bran Oil is widely used in pharmaceutical, food and chemical industries due to its unique properties and high medicinal value. In the present work, extraction of rice bran oil from different samples of rice husk collected from local rice shellers by solvent extraction method has been studied. Experiments were conducted using a soxhelt apparatus, to extract rice bran oil using hexane, petroleum ether, ethanol and methanol as the solvents and the yields obtained under different conditions were compared. Batch extraction tests showed that the rate of extraction decreases with time and the solution approaches saturation at an exponential rate. (author)

  15. Molecular evolution of shattering loci in U.S. weedy rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, Carrie S; Reagon, Michael; Gross, Briana L; Olsen, Kenneth M; Jia, Yulin; Caicedo, Ana L

    2010-08-01

    Cultivated rice fields worldwide are plagued with weedy rice, a conspecific weed of cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.). The persistence of weedy rice has been attributed, in part, to its ability to shatter (disperse) seed prior to crop harvesting. In the United States, separately evolved weedy rice groups have been shown to share genomic identity with exotic domesticated cultivars. Here, we investigate the shattering phenotype in a collection of U.S. weedy rice accessions, as well as wild and cultivated relatives. We find that all U.S. weedy rice groups shatter seeds easily, despite multiple origins, and in contrast to a decrease in shattering ability seen in cultivated groups. We assessed allelic identity and diversity at the major shattering locus, sh4, in weedy rice; we find that all cultivated and weedy rice, regardless of population, share similar haplotypes at sh4, and all contain a single derived mutation associated with decreased seed shattering. Our data constitute the strongest evidence to date of an evolution of weeds from domesticated backgrounds. The combination of a shared cultivar sh4 allele and a highly shattering phenotype, suggests that U.S. weedy rice have re-acquired the shattering trait after divergence from their progenitors through alternative genetic mechanisms.

  16. Gasification of rice husks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marzetti, P. (ENEA, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Fonti Alternative e Risparmio Energetico)

    The paper outlines the thermochemical processes and equipment involved in the gasification of rice husks. An assessment is made of the feasibility (availability, technology requirements, economics of production and marketing) of this renewable energy source. Results, reported here in tabular form, of experimental trials at an Italian pilot plant (producing, with the use of 165 kg/h of rice husks, 350,000 kcal/h of gas with a conversion yield of 70%) indicated good feasibility. More research is required to improve the combustion qualities of the final product.

  17. Rice (Oryza sativa L.) containing the bar gene is compositionally equivalent to the nontransgenic counterpart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberdoerfer, Regina B; Shillito, Raymond D; de Beuckeleer, Marc; Mitten, Donna H

    2005-03-09

    This publication presents an approach to assessing compositional equivalence between grain derived from glufosinate-tolerant rice grain, genetic event LLRICE62, and its nontransgenic counterpart. Rice was grown in the same manner as is common for commercial production, using either conventional weed control practices or glufosinate-ammonium herbicide. A two-season multisite trial design provided a robust data set to evaluate environmental effects between the sites. Statistical comparisons to test for equivalence were made between glufosinate-tolerant rice and a conventional counterpart variety. The key nutrients, carbohydrates, protein, iron, calcium, thiamin, riboflavin, and niacin, for which rice can be the principal dietary source, were investigated. The data demonstrate that rice containing the genetic locus LLRICE62 has the same nutritional value as its nontransgenic counterpart, and most results for nutritional components fall within the range of values reported for rice commodities in commerce.

  18. Quality assessment of noodles made from blends of rice flour and canna starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandee, Yuree; Uttapap, Dudsadee; Puncha-arnon, Santhanee; Puttanlek, Chureerat; Rungsardthong, Vilai; Wetprasit, Nuanchawee

    2015-07-15

    Canna starch and its derivatives (retrograded, retrograded debranched, and cross-linked) were evaluated for their suitability to be used as prebiotic sources in a rice noodle product. Twenty percent of the rice flour was replaced with these tested starches, and the noodles obtained were analyzed for morphology, cooking qualities, textural properties, and capability of producing short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). Cross-linked canna starch could increase tensile strength and elongation of rice noodles. Total dietary fiber (TDF) content of noodles made from rice flour was 3.0% and increased to 5.1% and 7.3% when rice flour was replaced with retrograded and retrograded debranched starches, respectively. Cooking qualities and textural properties of noodles containing 20% retrograded debranched starch were mostly comparable, while the capability of producing SCFAs and butyric acid was superior to the control rice noodles; the cooked noodle strips also showed fewer tendencies to stick together. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Identification of rice Os4BGlu13 as a β-glucosidase which hydrolyzes gibberellin A4 1-O-β-d-glucosyl ester, in addition to tuberonic acid glucoside and salicylic acid derivative glucosides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Yanling; Ekkhara, Watsamon; Sansenya, Sompong; Srisomsap, Chantragan; Roytrakul, Sittiruk; Saburi, Wataru; Takeda, Ryosuke; Matsuura, Hideyuki; Mori, Haruhide; Ketudat Cairns, James R

    2015-10-01

    Gibberellin 1-O-β-d-glucose ester hydrolysis activity has been detected in rice seedling extracts, but no enzyme responsible for this activity has ever been purified and identified. Therefore, gibberellin A4 glucosyl ester (GA4-GE) β-d-glucosidase activity was purified from ten-day rice seedling stems and leaves. The family 1 glycoside hydrolase Os4BGlu13 was identified in the final purification fraction. The Os4BGlu13 cDNA was amplified from rice seedlings and expressed as an N-terminal thioredoxin-tagged fusion protein in Escherichia coli. The purified recombinant Os4BGlu13 protein (rOs4BGlu13) had an optimum pH of 4.5, for hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl β-d-glucopyranoside (pNPGlc), which was the best substrate identified, with a kcat/Km of 637 mM(-1) s(-1). rOs4BGlu13 hydrolyzed helicin best among natural glycosides tested (kcat/Km of 74.4 mM(-1) s(-1)). Os4BGlu13 was previously designated tuberonic acid glucoside (TAG) β-glucosidase (TAGG), and here the kcat/Km of rOsBGlu13 for TAG was 6.68 mM(-1) s(-1), while that for GA4-GE was 3.63 mM(-1) s(-1) and for salicylic acid glucoside (SAG) is 0.88 mM(-1) s(-1). rOs4BGlu13 also hydrolyzed oligosaccharides, with preference for short β-(1 → 3)-linked over β-(1 → 4)-linked glucooligosaccharides. The enzymatic data suggests that Os4BGlu13 may contribute to TAG, SAG, oligosaccharide and GA4-GE hydrolysis in the rice plant, although helicin or a similar compound may be its primary target. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Rice as commodity and anti-commodity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richards, P.

    2016-01-01

    On the Upper West Africa coast rice belongs to two species — African rice (Oryza glaberrima Steud.) and Asian rice (Oryza sativa L.). African rice was domesticated in the region, perhaps three millennia ago, from a presumed wild ancestor, O. barthii. Asian rice was introduced via trans-Saharan

  1. Diseases of wild rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diseases are much more pronounced in cultivated wild rice than in natural stands, most likely due to the narrower genetic base of the populations, plant stress due to high planting density and floodwater removal prior to harvest, and high relative humidity in the plant canopy. Yield losses occur as ...

  2. Investigating differences in light stable isotopes between Thai jasmine rice and Sungyod rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukusamude, C.; Kongsri, S.

    2017-10-01

    We report the differences in light stable isotopes between two kinds of Thai rice (Thai jasmine and Sungyod rice). Thai jasmine rice and Sungyod rice were cultivated in the northeast and the south of Thailand. Light isotopes including 13C, 15N and 18O of Thai jasmine rice and Sungyod rice samples were carried out using isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS). Thai jasmine rice (Khao Dawk Mali 105) was cultivated from Thung Kula Rong Hai area, whereas Sungyod rice was cultivated from Phathalung province. Hypothesis testing of difference of each isotope between Thai jasmine rice and Sungyod rice was also studied. The study was the feasibility test whether the light stable isotopes can be the variables to identify Thai jasmine rice and Sungyod rice. The result shows that there was difference in the isotope patterns of Thai jasmine rice and Sungyod rice. Our results may provide the useful information in term of stable isotope profiles of Thai rice.

  3. INE: a rice genome database with an integrated map view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakata, K; Antonio, B A; Mukai, Y; Nagasaki, H; Sakai, Y; Makino, K; Sasaki, T

    2000-01-01

    The Rice Genome Research Program (RGP) launched a large-scale rice genome sequencing in 1998 aimed at decoding all genetic information in rice. A new genome database called INE (INtegrated rice genome Explorer) has been developed in order to integrate all the genomic information that has been accumulated so far and to correlate these data with the genome sequence. A web interface based on Java applet provides a rapid viewing capability in the database. The first operational version of the database has been completed which includes a genetic map, a physical map using YAC (Yeast Artificial Chromosome) clones and PAC (P1-derived Artificial Chromosome) contigs. These maps are displayed graphically so that the positional relationships among the mapped markers on each chromosome can be easily resolved. INE incorporates the sequences and annotations of the PAC contig. A site on low quality information ensures that all submitted sequence data comply with the standard for accuracy. As a repository of rice genome sequence, INE will also serve as a common database of all sequence data obtained by collaborating members of the International Rice Genome Sequencing Project (IRGSP). The database can be accessed at http://www. dna.affrc.go.jp:82/giot/INE. html or its mirror site at http://www.staff.or.jp/giot/INE.html

  4. Radiation disinfestation of Basmati rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, V.S.; Gholap, A.S.; Adhikari, H.R.; Nair, P.M.

    1994-01-01

    Effect of low dose γ-radiation on prepackaged Basmati rice was studied in order to achieve disinfestation of rice. Basmati rice procured from local market was repacked in 1 kg pouches made from high density polyethylene (HDP) and biaxially oriented polypropylene: low density polyethylene (BOPP/LDP) laminate and irradiated at doses from 0.25-1.0 kGy. Within one month of storage at room temperature, unirradiated (control) Basmati rice developed heavy infestation. No infestation was observed in any of the irradiated samples even at 0.25 kGy and the rice could be stored for 6 months in a clean state. Irradiation (at 0.25 kGy) did not alter the moisture content of the rice. Likewise, no significant change was noted due to irradiation in the functional properties of rice such as swelling index and water absorption and in total volatile components responsible for flavour of Basmati rice. In organoleptic evaluation, no significant difference was found between the acceptability of irradiated (0.25 kGy) and control rice. These results are significant in view of the high export potential of Basmati rice and the transit losses at present due to infestation. (author). 24 refs., 5 tabs., 1 fig

  5. Transgenic strategies to confer resistance against viruses in rice plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahide eSasaya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rice (Oryza sativa L. is cultivated in more than 100 countries and supports nearly half of the world’s population. Developing efficient methods to control rice viruses is thus an urgent necessity because viruses cause serious losses in rice yield. Most rice viruses are transmitted by insect vectors, notably planthoppers and leafhoppers. Viruliferous insect vectors can disperse their viruses over relatively long distances, and eradication of the viruses is very difficult once they become widespread. Exploitation of natural genetic sources of resistance is one of the most effective approaches to protect crops from virus infection; however, only a few naturally occurring rice genes confer resistance against rice viruses. In an effort to improve control, many investigators are using genetic engineering of rice plants as a potential strategy to control viral diseases. Using viral genes to confer pathogen-derived resistance against crops is a well-established procedure, and the expression of various viral gene products has proved to be effective in preventing or reducing infection by various plant viruses since the 1990s. RNA-interference (RNAi, also known as RNA silencing, is one of the most efficient methods to confer resistance against plant viruses on their respective crops. In this article, we review the recent progress, mainly conducted by our research group, in transgenic strategies to confer resistance against tenuiviruses and reoviruses in rice plants. Our findings also illustrate that not all RNAi constructs against viral RNAs are equally effective in preventing virus infection and that it is important to identify the viral Achilles’ heel gene to target for RNAi attack when engineering plants.

  6. Study of Rice Marketing System in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Feizabadi, Yaser

    2011-01-01

    Rice comes second after wheat in Iran`s food consumption economy. Rising population and recent growth in GDP has made Iran one of the greatest rice importer countries all over the world. That is why rice marketing has always been a controversial issue in Iran`s agricultural economics. To study rice marketing system in Iran, this paper aims to calculate rice marketing margin, market efficiency and marketing cost coefficient in seaside Mazandaran province( where 70 percent of domestic rice prod...

  7. Rapid assessment of rice seed availability for wildlife in harvested fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halstead, B.J.; Miller, M.R.; Casazza, Michael L.; Coates, P.S.; Farinha, M.A.; Benjamin, Gustafson K.; Yee, J.L.; Fleskes, J.P.

    2011-01-01

    Rice seed remaining in commercial fields after harvest (waste rice) is a critical food resource for wintering waterfowl in rice-growing regions of North America. Accurate and precise estimates of the seed mass density of waste rice are essential for planning waterfowl wintering habitat extents and management. In the Sacramento Valley of California, USA, the existing method for obtaining estimates of availability of waste rice in harvested fields produces relatively precise estimates, but the labor-, time-, and machineryintensive process is not practical for routine assessments needed to examine long-term trends in waste rice availability. We tested several experimental methods designed to rapidly derive estimates that would not be burdened with disadvantages of the existing method. We first conducted a simulation study of the efficiency of each method and then conducted field tests. For each approach, methods did not vary in root mean squared error, although some methods did exhibit bias for both simulations and field tests. Methods also varied substantially in the time to conduct each sample and in the number of samples required to detect a standard trend. Overall, modified line-intercept methods performed well for estimating the density of rice seeds. Waste rice in the straw, although not measured directly, can be accounted for by a positive relationship with density of rice on the ground. Rapid assessment of food availability is a useful tool to help waterfowl managers establish and implement wetland restoration and agricultural habitat-enhancement goals for wintering waterfowl. ?? 2011 The Wildlife Society.

  8. Effect of available phosphorus in paddy soils on phosphorus uptake of rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Delin; Zhu Zhaomin

    1996-01-01

    Relation between available phosphorus in 6 types of paddy soil in Hunan Province and its uptake by rices was studied by 32 P tracing. The result indicated that the P uptake by rices varied with available P content in the paddy soils. When the content was high, the rice absorbed more P nutrient from the soil and decreased the P uptake from the P fertilizer, which showed a poor contribution of the P fertilizer to the rice yield increase, and vice versa. The recovery of the P fertilizer varied with the soil types. Ranked the first was in paddy soils derived from lacustrine deposite but little rice yield increased. While in paddy soils derived from limestone, the yield greatly increased although the recovery of P fertilizer was the lowest. Rice absorbed P nutrient during its whole growth duration. No matter the different uptake amount due to the P supply by the different soils, rice plant generally had the greatest P nutrient uptake from tillering stage to elongation stage, and along with the rise of the rices dry matter, amount of P uptake was gradually increased but the P content in unit dry matter was tended to decrease. (author). 5 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs

  9. Nicaragua - Rice and Banana Farmers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — This report is an impact evaluation of two components of the Rural Business Development Program (RBD) in Nicaragua, specifically the components benefitting rice and...

  10. Sorghum and rice: Mali

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Agriculture is the mainstay of the Malian economy and yet cereal imports absorb 6.5% of GDP. Food self-sufficiency is therefore a national priority. The Joint FAO/IAEA Division is supporting a programme to improve local varieties of sorghum and rice by using nuclear techniques to develop new cultivars that will produce higher yields under Mali's semi-arid climatic conditions. (IAEA)

  11. Diversity of some endophytic fungi associated with rice black bug Paraeucosmetus pallicornis on rice plant

    OpenAIRE

    Nur, Amin; La Daha; Nurariaty, Agus; Ade, Rosmana; Muh., Fadlan

    2015-01-01

    A new rice insect pest was sighted in some rice producing areas of South Sulawesi Province, Indonesia. This pest is rice black bugs Paraeucosmetus pallicornis. The research aimed to isolation of fungi associated with rice black bugs Paraeucosmetus pallicornis, so as to know the cause of a bitter taste to the rice. The isolation of the fungi consist of three kinds of treatment, namely rice black bugs without sterilization, with sterilization and rice black bugs cut and sterilized. The resul...

  12. Broken rice kernels and the kinetics of rice hydration and texture during cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Mohammed; Meullenet, Jean-Francois

    2013-05-01

    During rice milling and processing, broken kernels are inevitably present, although to date it has been unclear as to how the presence of broken kernels affects rice hydration and cooked rice texture. Therefore, this work intended to study the effect of broken kernels in a rice sample on rice hydration and texture during cooking. Two medium-grain and two long-grain rice cultivars were harvested, dried and milled, and the broken kernels were separated from unbroken kernels. Broken rice kernels were subsequently combined with unbroken rice kernels forming treatments of 0, 40, 150, 350 or 1000 g kg(-1) broken kernels ratio. Rice samples were then cooked and the moisture content of the cooked rice, the moisture uptake rate, and rice hardness and stickiness were measured. As the amount of broken rice kernels increased, rice sample texture became increasingly softer (P hardness was negatively correlated to the percentage of broken kernels in rice samples. Differences in the proportions of broken rice in a milled rice sample play a major role in determining the texture properties of cooked rice. Variations in the moisture migration kinetics between broken and unbroken kernels caused faster hydration of the cores of broken rice kernels, with greater starch leach-out during cooking affecting the texture of the cooked rice. The texture of cooked rice can be controlled, to some extent, by varying the proportion of broken kernels in milled rice. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Deciphering the Environmental Impacts on Rice Quality for Different Rice Cultivated Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiukun; Wu, Lian; Geng, Xin; Xia, Xiuhong; Wang, Xuhong; Xu, Zhengjin; Xu, Quan

    2018-01-19

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is cultivated in a wide range of climatic conditions, and is one of mankind's major staple foods. The interaction of environmental factors with genotype effects major agronomic traits such as yield, quality, and resistance in rice. However, studies on the environmental factors affecting agronomic traits are often difficult to conduct because most environmental factors are dynamic and constantly changing. A series of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from an indica/japonica cross were planted into four typical rice cultivated areas arranging from latitude N22° to N42°. The environmental data from the heading to mature (45 days) stages were recorded for each RIL in the four areas. We determined that light, temperature, and humidity significantly affected the milling quality and cooking quality overall the four areas. Within each area, these environmental factors mainly affected the head rice ratio, grain length, alkali consumption, and amylose and protein content. Moreover, the effect of these environmental factors dynamically changed from heading to mature stage. Compared to light and humidity, temperature was more stable and predictable, and night temperature showed a stronger correlation efficiency to cooking quality than day temperature, and the daily temperature range had contrary effects compared to day and night temperature on grain quality. The present study evaluated the critical phase during the grain filling stage by calculating the dynamic changes of correlation efficiency between the quality traits and climate parameters. Our findings suggest that the sowing date could be adjusted to improve rice quality so as to adjust for environmental changes.

  14. [Hyperspectral remote sensing diagnosis models of rice plant nitrogen nutritional status].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Chang-Wei; Zhou, Qing-Bo; Qi, La; Zhuang, Heng-Yang

    2008-06-01

    The correlations of rice plant nitrogen content with raw hyperspectral reflectance, first derivative hyperspectral reflectance, and hyperspectral characteristic parameters were analyzed, and the hyperspectral remote sensing diagnosis models of rice plant nitrogen nutritional status with these remote sensing parameters as independent variables were constructed and validated. The results indicated that the nitrogen content in rice plant organs had a variation trend of stem plant nitrogen nutritional status, with the decisive coefficients (R2) being 0.7996 and 0.8606, respectively; while the model with vegetation index (SDr - SDb) / (SDr + SDb) as independent variable, i. e., y = 365.871 + 639.323 ((SDr - SDb) / (SDr + SDb)), was most fit rice plant nitrogen content, with R2 = 0.8755, RMSE = 0.2372 and relative error = 11.36%, being able to quantitatively diagnose the nitrogen nutritional status of rice.

  15. Effect of Biochar on Relieving Cadmium Stress and Reducing Accumulation in Super japonica Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhen-yu; MENG Jun; DANG Shu; CHEN Wen-fu

    2014-01-01

    It is of great importance to solve the threats induced by cadmium pollution on crops. This paper examined the effect of biochar on cadmium accumulation in japonica rice and revealed the mechanism underlying the response of protective enzyme system to cadmium stress. Biochar derived from rice straw was applied at two application rates under three cadmium concentrations. Shennong 265, super japonica rice variety, was selected as the test crop. The results indicated that cadmium content in above-ground biomass of rice increased with increasing soil cadmium concentrations, but the biochar application could suppress the accumulation of cadmium to some extent. Under high concentrations of cadmium, content of free proline and MDA (malondialdehyde) were high, so did the SOD (superoxide dismutase), POD (peroxidase) and CAT (catalase) activity in the lfag leaf of rice. However, the protective enzyme activities remained at low level when biochar was added.

  16. Phosphorus Use Efficiency by Brazilian Upland Rice Genotypes Evaluated by the {sup 32}P Dilution Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franzini, V. I.; Mendes, F. L. [Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation, EMBRAPA-Amazonia Oriental, Belem, PA (Brazil); Muraoka, T.; Da Silva, E. C. [Center for Nuclear Energy in Agriculture, University of Sao Paulo, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Adu-Gyamfi, J. J. [Soil and Water Management and Crop Nutrition Laboratory, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    2013-11-15

    The objectives of this work were to identify the most efficient upland rice genotypes in phosphorus (P) utilization, and to verify if P from the seed affects the classification of upland rice genotypes on P uptake efficiency. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse of the Center for Nuclear Energy in Agriculture (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, Sao Paulo, Brazil, using the {sup 32}P isotope technique, and plants were grown in pots with samples of dystrophic Typic Haplustox (Oxisol). The experimental design was completely randomized with four replications. The treatments consisted of 47 upland rice genotypes and two standard plant species, efficient or inefficient in P uptake. The results were assessed through correlation and cluster analysis (multivariate). The Carisma upland rice genotype was the most efficient in P uptake, and Caripuna was the most efficient on P utilization. The P derived from seed does not influence the identification of upland rice genotypes in P uptake efficiency. (author)

  17. A major QTL controlling deep rooting on rice chromosome 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uga, Yusaku; Yamamoto, Eiji; Kanno, Noriko; Kawai, Sawako; Mizubayashi, Tatsumi; Fukuoka, Shuichi

    2013-10-24

    Drought is the most serious abiotic stress that hinders rice production under rainfed conditions. Breeding for deep rooting is a promising strategy to improve the root system architecture in shallow-rooting rice cultivars to avoid drought stress. We analysed the quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for the ratio of deep rooting (RDR) in three F₂ mapping populations derived from crosses between each of three shallow-rooting varieties ('ARC5955', 'Pinulupot1', and 'Tupa729') and a deep-rooting variety, 'Kinandang Patong'. In total, we detected five RDR QTLs on chromosomes 2, 4, and 6. In all three populations, QTLs on chromosome 4 were found to be located at similar positions; they explained from 32.0% to 56.6% of the total RDR phenotypic variance. This suggests that one or more key genetic factors controlling the root growth angle in rice is located in this region of chromosome 4.

  18. Quantitative Trait Loci Analysis of Allelopathy in Rice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, L B; Courtois, B; Olofsdotter, M

    2008-01-01

    The allelopathic potential of rice (Oryza sativa L.) against Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) Beauv. was investigated under both laboratory and greenhouse conditions. A population of 150 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) was derived through single-seed descent from a cross between the indica cultivar AC...... the population phenotype was normally distributed. Two quantitative trait loci (QTLs) were located on chromosomes 4 and 7, explaining 20% of the phenotypic variation. A second relay seeding experiment was set up, this time including charcoal in the perlite. This screening showed that the allelopathic rice...... varieties did not have any effect on the weed species when grown with charcoal, the charcoal reversing the effect of any potential allelochemicals exuded from the rice roots. The second phenotypic experiment was conducted under greenhouse conditions in pots. Thirteen QTLs were detected for four different...

  19. Evaluation of Oryza sativa x O. glaberrima derived progenies for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-06-28

    Jun 28, 2010 ... The genus Oryza has two cultivated species, Asian rice (Oryza sativa L.) and African rice (Oryza glaberrima Steud.) and 22 wild species. O. glaberrima is low yielding but has useful genes for resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. Introgression lines derived from backcrossing of O. sativa x O. glaberrima,.

  20. Improving the phenotypic expression of rice genotypes: Rethinking “intensification” for production systems and selection practices for rice breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman Uphoff

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Intensification in rice crop production is generally understood as requiring increased use of material inputs: water, inorganic fertilizers, and agrochemicals. However, this is not the only kind of intensification available. More productive crop phenotypes, with traits such as more resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses and shorter crop cycles, are possible through modifications in the management of rice plants, soil, water, and nutrients, reducing rather than increasing material inputs. Greater factor productivity can be achieved through the application of new knowledge and more skill, and (initially more labor, as seen from the System of Rice Intensification (SRI, whose practices are used in various combinations by as many as 10 million farmers on about 4 million hectares in over 50 countries. The highest yields achieved with these management methods have come from hybrids and improved rice varieties, confirming the importance of making genetic improvements. However, unimproved varieties are also responsive to these changes, which induce better growth and functioning of rice root systems and more abundance, diversity, and activity of beneficial soil organisms. Some of these organisms as symbiotic endophytes can affect and enhance the expression of rice plants' genetic potential as well as their phenotypic resilience to multiple stresses, including those of climate change. SRI experience and data suggest that decades of plant breeding have been selecting for the best crop genetic endowments under suboptimal growing conditions, with crowding of plants that impedes their photosynthesis and growth, flooding of rice paddies that causes roots to degenerate and forgoes benefits derived from aerobic soil organisms, and overuse of agrochemicals that adversely affect these organisms as well as soil and human health. This review paper reports evidence from research in India and Indonesia that changes in crop and water management can improve the

  1. 21 CFR 137.350 - Enriched rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Enriched rice. 137.350 Section 137.350 Food and... Related Products § 137.350 Enriched rice. (a) The foods for which definitions and standards of identity are prescribed by this section are forms of milled rice (except rice coated with talc and glucose and...

  2. Os11Gsk gene from a wild rice, Oryza rufipogon improves yield in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thalapati, Sudhakar; Batchu, Anil K; Neelamraju, Sarla; Ramanan, Rajeshwari

    2012-06-01

    Chromosomal segments from wild rice species Oryza rufipogon, introgressed into an elite indica rice restorer line (KMR3) using molecular markers, resulted in significant increase in yield. Here we report the transcriptome analysis of flag leaves and fully emerged young panicles of one of the high yielding introgression lines IL50-7 in comparison to KMR3. A 66-fold upregulated gene Os11Gsk, which showed no transcript in KMR3 was highly expressed in O. rufipogon and IL50-7. A 5-kb genomic region including Os11Gsk and its flanking regions could be PCR amplified only from IL50-7, O. rufipogon, japonica varieties of rice-Nipponbare and Kitaake but not from the indica varieties, KMR3 and Taichung Native-1. Three sister lines of IL50-7 yielding higher than KMR3 showed presence of Os11Gsk, whereas the gene was absent in three other ILs from the same cross having lower yield than KMR3, indicating an association of the presence of Os11Gsk with high yield. Southern analysis showed additional bands in the genomic DNA of O. rufipogon and IL50-7 with Os11Gsk probe. Genomic sequence analysis of ten highly co-expressed differentially regulated genes revealed that two upregulated genes in IL50-7 were derived from O. rufipogon and most of the downregulated genes were either from KMR3 or common to KMR3, IL50-7, and O. rufipogon. Thus, we show that Os11Gsk is a wild rice-derived gene introduced in KMR3 background and increases yield either by regulating expression of functional genes sharing homology with it or by causing epigenetic modifications in the introgression line.

  3. Promising mutant variety of rice evolved through gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, S.C.; Sinha, S.K.

    1980-01-01

    Rice occupies a major share in crop production in the Chotanagpur plateau of Bihar State. Uplands are roughly 40% in area where traditional low yielding rice, known as ''gora'' is cultivated as directly sown crop. Despite introduction of high yielding rice varieties, gora group of rices continue to prevail. It is therefore desired to increase the productivity level of the gora rice by mutation breeding. One such mutant known as ''gora mutant'' was obtained through gamma irradiation (10 kR) of variety Brown gora. The maturity of both parent and mutant remaining constant (ie. 100 days), there is some improvement in other characteristics like plant height, tillering capacity and kernel character. The parent being tall, shy in tillering and red bold kernel, the mutant has dwarfish characteristics, profuse tillering habit and white kernel with fine grains. The yielding capacity of mutant derivative is 30-40% higher than the parent Brown gora. This variety is in pre-release stage, and the farmers have taken great liking for it. (author)

  4. The effects of chilling stress after anthesis on the physicochemical properties of rice (Oryza sativa L) starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dawei; Wei, Haiyan; Guo, Baowei; Dai, Qigen; Wei, Cunxu; Gao, Hui; Hu, Yajie; Cui, Peiyuan; Li, Min; Huo, Zhongyang; Xu, Ke; Zhang, Hongcheng

    2017-12-15

    This study investigates the effect of chilling stress, over a period of three days after anthesis, on the physicochemical properties of starches derived from six rice cultivars. Chilling stress significantly affected the grain characteristics and physicochemical properties of rice starches, except for those of two varieties, NJ 9108 and ZD 18. In the other four rice cultivars subjected to chilling stress, the content of medium, and large sized granules showed a decrease, and an increase, respectively. Amylose content increased as a result of chilling stress, thereby resulting in starch with a lower swelling power, water solubility, and higher retrogradation enthalpy and gelatinization temperature. Chilling stress led to deterioration of cooked rice quality as determined by the pasting properties of starch. This study indicated that among the cultivars studied, the two rice varieties most resistant to chilling stress after rice anthesis were NJ 9108 and ZD 18. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. SAR Agriculture Rice Production Estimation (SARPE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raimadoya, M.

    2013-12-01

    The study of SAR Agriculture Rice Production Estimation (SARPE) was held in Indonesia on 2012, as part of Asia-Rice Crop Estimation & Monitoring (Asia-RiCE), which is a component for the GEO Global Agricultural Monitoring (GEOGLAM) initiative. The study was expected to give a breakthrough result, by using radar technology and paradigm shift of the standard production estimation system from list frame to area frame approach. This initial product estimation system is expected to be refined (fine tuning) in 2013, by participating as part of Technical Demonstration Site (Phase -1A) of Asia-RICE. The implementation period of this initial study was from the date of March 12 to December 10, 2012. The implementation of the study was done by following the approach of the BIMAS-21 framework, which has been developed since 2008. The results of this study can be briefly divided into two major components, namely: Rice-field Baseline Mapping (PESBAK - Peta Sawah Baku) and Crop Growth Monitoring. Rice-fields were derived from the mapping results of the Ministry of Agriculture (Kemtan), and validated through Student Extension Campaign of the Faculty of Agriculture, Bogor Agricultural University (IPB). While for the crop growth, it was derived from the results of image analysis process. The analysis was done, either on radar/Radarsat-2 (medium resolution) or optical/ MODIS (low resolution), based on the Planting Calendar (KATAM) of Kemtan. In this case, the planting season II/2012-2013 of rice production centers in West Java Province (Karawang, Subang and Indramayu counties). The selection of crop season and county were entirely dependent on the quality of the available PESBAK and procurement process of radar imagery. The PESBAK is still in the form of block instead of fields, so it can not be directly utilized in this study. Efforts to improve the PESBAK can not be optimal because the provided satellite image (ECW format) is not the original one. While the procurement process of

  6. LABA1, a Domestication Gene Associated with Long, Barbed Awns in Wild Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Lei; Wang, Diane R; Tan, Lubin; Fu, Yongcai; Liu, Fengxia; Xiao, Langtao; Zhu, Zuofeng; Fu, Qiang; Sun, Xianyou; Gu, Ping; Cai, Hongwei; McCouch, Susan R; Sun, Chuanqing

    2015-07-01

    Common wild rice (Oryza rufipogon), the wild relative of Asian cultivated rice (Oryza sativa), flaunts long, barbed awns, which are necessary for efficient propagation and dissemination of seeds. By contrast, O. sativa cultivars have been selected to be awnless or to harbor short, barbless awns, which facilitate seed processing and storage. The transition from long, barbed awns to short, barbless awns was a crucial event in rice domestication. Here, we show that the presence of long, barbed awns in wild rice is controlled by a major gene on chromosome 4, LONG AND BARBED AWN1 (LABA1), which encodes a cytokinin-activating enzyme. A frame-shift deletion in LABA1 of cultivated rice reduces the cytokinin concentration in awn primordia, disrupting barb formation and awn elongation. Sequencing analysis demonstrated low nucleotide diversity and a selective sweep encompassing an ∼800-kb region around the derived laba1 allele in cultivated rice. Haplotype analysis revealed that the laba1 allele originated in the japonica subspecies and moved into the indica gene pool via introgression, suggesting that humans selected for this locus in early rice domestication. Identification of LABA1 provides new insights into rice domestication and also sheds light on the molecular mechanism underlying awn development. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  7. Shelf life prediction of canned fried-rice using accelerated shelf life testing (ASLT) arrhenius method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurniadi, M.; Bintang, R.; Kusumaningrum, A.; Nursiwi, A.; Nurhikmat, A.; Susanto, A.; Angwar, M.; Triwiyono; Frediansyah, A.

    2017-12-01

    Research on shelf-life prediction of canned fried rice using Accelerated Shelf-life Test (ASLT) of Arrhenius model has been conducted. The aim of this research to predict shelf life of canned-fried rice products. Lethality value of 121°C for 15 and 20 minutes and Total Plate count methods are used to determine time and temperatures of sterilization process.Various storage temperatures of ASLT Arrhenius method were 35, 45 and 55°C during 35days. Rancidity is one of the derivation quality of canned fried rice. In this research, sample of canned fried rice is tested using rancidity value (TBA). TBA value was used as parameter which be measured once a week periodically. The use of can for fried rice without any chemical preservative is one of the advantage of the product, additionaly the use of physicalproperties such as temperature and pressure during its process can extend the shelf life and reduce the microbial contamination. The same research has never done before for fried rice as ready to eat meal. The result showed that the optimum conditions of sterilization process were 121°C,15 minutes with total plate count number of 9,3 × 101 CFU/ml. Lethality value of canned fried rice at 121°C,15 minutes was 3.63 minutes. The calculated Shelf-life of canned fried rice using Accelerated Shelf-life Test (ASLT) of Arrhenius method was 10.3 months.

  8. Resistance of rice to insect pests mediated by suppression of serotonin biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hai-Ping; Luo, Ting; Fu, Hao-Wei; Wang, Long; Tan, Yuan-Yuan; Huang, Jian-Zhong; Wang, Qing; Ye, Gong-Yin; Gatehouse, Angharad M R; Lou, Yong-Gen; Shu, Qing-Yao

    2018-05-07

    Rice is one of the world's most important foods, but its production suffers from insect pests, causing losses of billions of dollars, and extensive use of environmentally damaging pesticides for their control 1,2 . However, the molecular mechanisms of insect resistance remain elusive. Although a few resistance genes for planthopper have been cloned, no rice germplasm is resistant to stem borers. Here, we report that biosynthesis of serotonin, a neurotransmitter in mammals 3 , is induced by insect infestation in rice, and its suppression confers resistance to planthoppers and stem borers, the two most destructive pests of rice 2 . Serotonin and salicylic acid derive from chorismate 4 . In rice, the cytochrome P450 gene CYP71A1 encodes tryptamine 5-hydroxylase, which catalyses conversion of tryptamine to serotonin 5 . In susceptible wild-type rice, planthopper feeding induces biosynthesis of serotonin and salicylic acid, whereas in mutants with an inactivated CYP71A1 gene, no serotonin is produced, salicylic acid levels are higher and plants are more insect resistant. The addition of serotonin to the resistant rice mutant and other brown planthopper-resistant genotypes results in a loss of insect resistance. Similarly, serotonin supplementation in artificial diet enhances the performance of both insects. These insights demonstrate that regulation of serotonin biosynthesis plays an important role in defence, and may prove valuable for breeding insect-resistant cultivars of rice and other cereal crops.

  9. Suitability assessment and mapping of Oyo State, Nigeria, for rice cultivation using GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayoade, Modupe Alake

    2017-08-01

    Rice is one of the most preferred food crops in Nigeria. However, local rice production has declined with the oil boom of the 1970s causing demand to outstrip supply. Rice production can be increased through the integration of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and crop-land suitability analysis and mapping. Based on the key predictor variables that determine rice yield mentioned in relevant literature, data on rainfall, temperature, relative humidity, slope, and soil of Oyo state were obtained. To develop rice suitability maps for the state, two MCE-GIS techniques, namely the Overlay approach and weighted linear combination (WLC), using fuzzy AHP were used and compared. A Boolean land use map derived from a landsat imagery was used in masking out areas currently unavailable for rice production. Both suitability maps were classified into four categories of very suitable, suitable, moderate, and fairly moderate. Although the maps differ slightly, the overlay and WLC (AHP) approach found most parts of Oyo state (51.79 and 82.9 % respectively) to be moderately suitable for rice production. However, in areas like Eruwa, Oyo, and Shaki, rainfall amount received needs to be supplemented by irrigation for increased rice yield.

  10. LABA1, a Domestication Gene Associated with Long, Barbed Awns in Wild Rice[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Lei; Wang, Diane R.; Tan, Lubin; Fu, Yongcai; Liu, Fengxia; Xiao, Langtao; Zhu, Zuofeng; Fu, Qiang; Sun, Xianyou; Gu, Ping; Cai, Hongwei; McCouch, Susan R.; Sun, Chuanqing

    2015-01-01

    Common wild rice (Oryza rufipogon), the wild relative of Asian cultivated rice (Oryza sativa), flaunts long, barbed awns, which are necessary for efficient propagation and dissemination of seeds. By contrast, O. sativa cultivars have been selected to be awnless or to harbor short, barbless awns, which facilitate seed processing and storage. The transition from long, barbed awns to short, barbless awns was a crucial event in rice domestication. Here, we show that the presence of long, barbed awns in wild rice is controlled by a major gene on chromosome 4, LONG AND BARBED AWN1 (LABA1), which encodes a cytokinin-activating enzyme. A frame-shift deletion in LABA1 of cultivated rice reduces the cytokinin concentration in awn primordia, disrupting barb formation and awn elongation. Sequencing analysis demonstrated low nucleotide diversity and a selective sweep encompassing an ∼800-kb region around the derived laba1 allele in cultivated rice. Haplotype analysis revealed that the laba1 allele originated in the japonica subspecies and moved into the indica gene pool via introgression, suggesting that humans selected for this locus in early rice domestication. Identification of LABA1 provides new insights into rice domestication and also sheds light on the molecular mechanism underlying awn development. PMID:26082172

  11. Rice husk derived waste materials as partial cement replacement in lightweight concrete Utilização de resíduos derivados da casca de arroz como substitutos parciais do cimento no concreto leve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Yoji Kawabata

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study rice husk ash (RHA and broiler bed ash from rice husk (BBA, two agricultural waste materials, have been assessed for use as partial cement replacement materials for application in lightweight concrete. Physical and chemical characteristics of RHA and BBA were first analyzed. Three similar types of lightweight concrete were produced, a control type in which the binder was just CEMI cement (CTL and two other types with 10% cement replacement with, respectively, RHA and BBA. All types of similar lightweight concrete were prepared to present the same workability by adjusting the amount of superplasticizer. Properties of concrete investigated were compressive and flexural strength at different ages, absorption by capillarity, resistivity and resistance to chloride ion penetration (CTH method and accelerated carbonation. Test results obtained for 10% cement replacement level in lightweight concrete indicate that although the addition of BBA conducted to lower performance in terms of the degradation indicative tests, RHA led to the enhancement of mechanical properties, especially early strength and also fast ageing related results, further contributing to sustainable construction with energy saver lightweight concrete.Neste trabalho, cinzas de casca de arroz (RHA e cinzas de cama de frango (BBA, dois resíduos agrícolas, foram avaliadas para uso como substitutos parciais do cimento para produção de concreto leve. Características físicas e químicas de RHA e BBA foram analisadas. Três tipos semelhantes de concreto leve foram produzidos, um controle em que o ligante era totalmente cimento CEM I (CTL e dois outros tipos de concreto, com substituição de 10% com RHA e BBA, respectivamente. Todos os tipos de concreto leve foram feitos através do ajuste da quantidade de superplastificante para apresentarem a mesma trabalhabilidade. Propriedades de concreto investigados foram resistência à compressão e à flexão em diferentes idades

  12. Analysis of hyperspectral field radiometric data for monitoring nitrogen concentration in rice crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroppiana, D.; Boschetti, M.; Confalonieri, R.; Bocchi, S.; Brivio, P. A.

    2005-10-01

    Monitoring crop conditions and assessing nutrition requirements is fundamental for implementing sustainable agriculture. Rational nitrogen fertilization is of particular importance in rice crops in order to guarantee high production levels while minimising the impact on the environment. In fact, the typical flooded condition of rice fields can be a significant source of greenhouse gasses. Information on plant nitrogen concentration can be used, coupled with information about the phenological stage, to plan strategies for a rational and spatially differentiated fertilization schedule. A field experiment was carried out in a rice field Northern Italy, in order to evaluate the potential of field radiometric measurements for the prediction of rice nitrogen concentration. The results indicate that rice reflectance is influenced by nitrogen supply at certain wavelengths although N concentration cannot be accurately predicted based on the reflectance measured at a given wavelength. Regression analysis highlighted that the visible region of the spectrum is most sensitive to plant nitrogen concentration when reflectance measures are combined into a spectral index. An automated procedure allowed the analysis of all the possible combinations into a Normalized Difference Index (NDI) of the narrow spectral bands derived by spectral resampling of field measurements. The derived index appeared to be least influenced by plant biomass and Leaf Area Index (LAI) providing a useful approach to detect rice nutritional status. The validation of the regressive model showed that the model is able to predict rice N concentration (R2=0.55 [p<0.01] RRMSE=29.4; modelling efficiency close to the optimum value).

  13. Asian wild rice is a hybrid swarm with extensive gene flow and feralization from domesticated rice

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Hongru; Garrett Vieira, Filipe Jorge; Crawford, Jacob E.; Chu, Chengcai; Nielsen, Rasmus

    2017-01-01

    The domestication history of rice remains controversial, with multiple studies reaching different conclusions regarding its origin(s). These studies have generally assumed that populations of living wild rice, O. rufipogon, are descendants of the ancestral population that gave rise to domesticated rice, but relatively little attention has been paid to the origins and history of wild rice itself. Here, we investigate the genetic ancestry of wild rice by analyzing a diverse panel of rice genome...

  14. Semi-dwarf rice varieties in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    Semi-dwarf rice varieties are grown extensively in California and are beginning to be adopted in the northern United States. Their background is varied. Some derive their semi-dwarf status from Asian ancestors. Use has been made of TN-1, IR8, IR659-10-8-3 and IR1318 (containing TN1). Other semi-dwarfs in California derive their short stature from induced mutants. The principal parent is Calrose 76 derived from an induced mutation in Calrose (released in 1976). The first US semi-dwarf variety was LA 110, developed at the Rice Experiment Station at Crowley, Louisiana from a cross TN-I x M4 (from Sri Lanka) released in 1974. The next group of semidwarf varieties was developed in cooperation between the California Coop. Rice Research Foundation, The California Agricultural Experiment Station and the USDA Agric. Research Service. These are listed. Semidwarf long grain varieties were developed in Texas: Bellemont (1981) and Lemont (1983), both using IR659-10-8-3 as source of semidwarf culm. Two other long grain varieties Leah (1982) and Toro-2 (1984) released by the Rice Research Station in Crowley, Louisiana, derive their short stature form C19902, a line developed at Crowley, but still reaching a height of 89-94 cm. There are other short statured varieties in the US which are not truly semidwarfs, such as Bond and Newbonnet in Arkansas, Skybonnet and Pecos in Texas. The general trend is towards shorter varieties. Calrose 76 and M7 are being replaced. M-201 and L-202 are the shortest and have excellent lodging resistance. Their background is IR8 or TN1. Too short varieties like Bellemont may have seedling emergence problems. The area of cultivated varieties can only be estimated based upon seed production. According to such estimates, total rice area in California 1984 was 184,100 ha, of which 178,100 (ca. 97%) were under semidwarf varieties. The total rice area in the US 1984 was 1.139,000 ha, of which 249,500 ha or 21,9% were under semidwarf varieties. The rice

  15. Effect of zinc sources on yield and utilization of zinc in rice-wheat sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deb, D.L.

    1990-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted on an inceptisol of Delhi to evaluate three sources of zinc, namely, zinc sulphate, zincated urea and zinc oxide on yield and utilization of zinc in rice-wheat sequence. Results indicated that, amongst the three zinc sources, zinc sulphate and zincated urea gave the best performance in increasing the grain yield of rice whereas zinc oxide depressed the grain yield of wheat significantly when compared to other treatments. The highest Zn derived from fertilizer and its utilization was obtained with zinc sulphate for both rice and wheat crops. (author). 9 refs., 4 tabs

  16. Comparative Analysis of γ-Oryzanol, β-Glucan, Total Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Activity in Fermented Rice Bran of Different Varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Tae-Dong; Shin, Gi-Hae; Kim, Jae-Min; Choi, Sun-Il; Lee, Jin-Ha; Lee, Sang Jong; Park, Seon Ju; Woo, Koan Sik; Oh, Sea Kwan; Lee, Ok-Hawn

    2017-06-03

    Rice bran, a by-product derived from processing rice, is a rich source of bioactive compounds. Recent studies have suggested that the fermentation can improve their biological activities. This study aimed to determined the level of γ-oryzanol, β-glucan and total phenol contents of fermented rice bran from 21 Korean varieties, as well as to evaluate their antioxidant activities. We also assessed the validation of the analytical method for determining γ-oryzanol content in fermented rice brans. Among the fermented rice brans, the Haedam rice bran contained the highest level of total phenol content (156.08 mg gallic acid equivalents/g), DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging activity (71.30%) and ORAC (Oxygen radical absorbance capacity) value (1101.31 μM trolox equivalents/g). Furthermore, the fermented Migwang rice bran showed the highest level of γ-oryzanol content (294.77 ± 6.74 mg/100 g).

  17. Does Bt rice pose risks to non-target arthropods? Results of a meta-analysis in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transgenic Bt rice expressing the protoxin proteins derived from Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bt) have been developed since 1989. Their ecological risks toward non-target organisms have been investigated. However, these studies were conducted individually, yielding inconsistent conclusions and u...

  18. Characterization of Nitrogen Uptake Pattern in Malaysian Rice MR219 at Different Growth Stages Using 15N Isotope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mu’az Hashim

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen (N use efficiency is usually less than 50%, and it remains a major problem in rice cultivation. Controlled release fertilizer (CRF technology is one of the well-known efforts to overcome this problem. The efficiency of CRF, however, is very much dependent on the timing of nutrient release. This study was conducted to determine the precise time of N uptake by rice as a guideline to develop efficient CRF. Fertilizer N uptake by rice at different growth stages was investigated by using 15N isotopic technique. Rice was planted in pots, with 15N urea as N source at the rate of 120 kg/hm2. Potassium and phosphorus were applied at the same rate of 50 kg/hm2. Standard agronomic practices were employed throughout the growing periods. Rice plants were harvested every two weeks until maturation at the 14th week and analyzed for total N and 15N content. Nitrogen derived from fertilizer was calculated. Total N uptake in plants consistently increased until the 11th week. After that, it started to plateau and finally declined. Moreover, N utilization by rice plants peaked at 50%, which occurred during the 11th week after transplanting. N derived from fertilizer in rice plants were in the range of 18.7% to 40.0% in all plant tissues. The remaining N was derived from soil. Based on this study, N release from CRF should complete by the 11th week after planting to ensure the maximum fertilizer N uptake by rice plants. Efficient CRF should contribute to higher N derived from fertilizer which also resultedin a higher total N uptake by rice plants, increasing the potential of rice to produce higher yield while at the same time of reducing loss.

  19. Suitability of various plant derived gelling agents as agar substitute ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2012-06-05

    Jun 5, 2012 ... of three test fungi (Trichoderma harzianum, Alternaria alternata and Alternaria solani) as good as agar. ... used for cell culture, derived from plants or animals and .... and used to jell various foods, drugs and cosmetics) and rice.

  20. Rice vaikib salavanglaist / Tõnis Erilaid

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Erilaid, Tõnis, 1943-

    2005-01-01

    Euroopasse visiidile sõitev USA välisminister Condoleezza Rice külastab Saksamaad, Rumeeniat, Ukrainat ja Belgiat. Süüdistusi CIA lennukite maandumiste ja salavanglate kohta ei olevat tal kavas kommenteerida

  1. Red Yeast Rice: An Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rice are used in food products in Chinese cuisine, including Peking duck. Others have been sold as ... Medicine . 2010;170(19):1722–1727. Halbert SC, French B, Gordon RY, et al. Tolerability of red ...

  2. indica rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-18

    Jul 18, 2011 ... fresh weight, regeneration, proline level and total protein content in salt sensitive indica rice cv. IR 64. For callus ... INTRODUCTION. Salinity is one of the ... Proline is reported to reduce the enzyme denaturation caused due.

  3. Mutant heterosis in rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    In the variety TKM6 a high yielding semidwarf mutant has been induced. This TKM6 mutant was used in test crosses with a number of other varieties and mutants to examine the extent of heterosis of dwarfs in rice and to select superior crosses. An excerpt of the published data is given. It appears from the backcross of the mutant with its original variety, that an increase in number of productive tillers occurs in the hybrid, leading to a striking grain yield increase, while the semi-dwarf culm length (the main mutant character) reverts to the normal phenotype. In the cross with IR8 on the other hand, there is only a minimal increase in tiller number but a substantial increase in TGW leading to more than 30% yield increase over the better parent

  4. Seed-vectored endophytic bacteria modulate development of rice seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, S K; Kingsley, K; Irizarry, I; Bergen, M; Kharwar, R N; White, J F

    2017-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of the removal of indigenous bacteria from rice seeds on seedling growth and development. Here we report the presence of three indigenous endophytic bacteria in rice seeds that play important roles in modulating seedling development (shoot and root lengths, and formation of root hairs and secondary roots) and defence against pathogens. Seed-associated bacteria were removed using surface sterilization with NaOCl (bleach) followed by antibiotic treatment. When bacteria were absent, growth of seedlings in terms of root hair development and overall seedling size was less than that of seedlings that contained bacteria. Reactive oxygen staining of seedlings showed that endophytic bacteria became intracellular in root parenchyma cells and root hairs. Roots containing endophytic bacteria were seen to stain densely for reactive oxygen, while roots free of bacteria stained lightly for reactive oxygen. Bacteria were isolated and identified as Enterobacter asburiae (VWB1), Pantoea dispersa (VWB2) and Pseudomonas putida (VWB3) by 16S rDNA sequencing. Bacteria were found to produce indole acetic acid (auxins), inhibited the pathogen Fusarium oxysporum and solubilized phosphate. Reinoculation of bacteria onto seedlings derived from surface-disinfected rice and Bermuda grass seeds significantly restored seedling growth and development. Rice seeds harbour indigenous bacterial endophytes that greatly influence seedling growth and development, including root and shoot lengths, root hair formation and disease susceptibility of rice seedlings. This study shows that seeds of rice naturally harbour bacterial endophytes that play key roles in modulation of seedling development. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  5. Climate Change Implications to Irrigated Rice Production in Southern Brazil: A Modelling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Thiago

    Rice is one of the staple foods for more than three billion people worldwide. When cultivated under irrigated conditions (i.e. lowland rice), rice is one of the most intensive water consumer crops globally. Therefore, representation of rice growth should be integrated into the latest land surface models to allow studies on food security and to ensure that accurate simulations of the bidirectional feedbacks between the land surface and atmosphere take place. In this study, I present a new process-based model for rice fields that includes rice growth and rice irrigation as modules within the Agro-IBIS dynamic agro-ecosystem model. The model includes a series of equations, agricultural management parameters and an irrigation scheme that are specifically tailored for rice crops. The model was evaluated against leaf area index and biomass observations, obtained for one growing season in Rio Grande do Sul state (southern Brazil), and in Los Banos, Philippines. The model accurately captured the temporal dynamics of leaf area index in both the Brazilian and the Philippine sites, and predicted end-of-season biomass with an error of between -9.5% and 11.3% depending on the location and the plant organ. Rice phenology is predicted by the model based on experimentally-derived growth rates, and was evaluated by comparing simulated and observed durations of the four growth phases considered by the model. Agro-IBIS showed a tendency to overestimate the duration of the growth stages between 3% and 16%, but underestimated by 8% the duration of the panicle formation phase in one growing season. The new irrigation model is based on the water balance at the surface and applies irrigation in order to keep the water layer at the paddy field always in the optimum level. A set of climate projections from global climate models under two emission scenarios, and excluding and considering CO2 fertilizations effects, was used to drive the updated Agro-IBIS to estimate the effects of climate

  6. Realistic Simulation of Rice Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-long DING

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The existing research results of virtual modeling of rice plant, however, is far from perfect compared to that of other crops due to its complex structure and growth process. Techniques to visually simulate the architecture of rice plant and its growth process are presented based on the analysis of the morphological characteristics at different stages. Firstly, the simulations of geometrical shape, the bending status and the structural distortion of rice leaves are conducted. Then, by using an improved model for bending deformation, the curved patterns of panicle axis and various types of panicle branches are generated, and the spatial shape of rice panicle is therefore created. Parametric L-system is employed to generate its topological structures, and finite-state automaton is adopted to describe the development of geometrical structures. Finally, the computer visualization of three-dimensional morphologies of rice plant at both organ and individual levels is achieved. The experimental results showed that the proposed methods of modeling the three-dimensional shapes of organs and simulating the growth of rice plant are feasible and effective, and the generated three-dimensional images are realistic.

  7. Assessment and genetic analysis of heavy metal content in rice grain using an Oryza sativa × O. rufipogon backcross inbred line population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, De-Run; Fan, Ye-Yang; Hu, Biao-Lin; Xiao, Ye-Qing; Chen, Da-Zhou; Zhuang, Jie-Yun

    2018-03-01

    Heavy metal accumulation in rice is a growing concern for public health. Backcross inbred lines derived from an interspecific cross of Oryza sativa × O. rufipogon were grown in two distinct ecological locations (Hangzhou and Lingshui, China). The objective of this study was to characterise the contents of heavy metal in rice grains, and to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for heavy metal contents. The contents of Ni, As, Pb, Cr and Hg in milled rice showed a significant decline as compared with those in brown rice, whereas the content of Cd showed little change. The concentration of heavy metal in rice grain varied greatly between the two environments. A total of 24 QTLs responsible for heavy metal contents were detected, including two for both the brown and milled rice, 13 for brown rice only, and nine for milled rice only. All the QTLs except two had the enhancing alleles derived from O. rufipogon. Sixteen QTLs were clustered in six chromosomal regions. Environmental variation plays an important role in the heavy metal contents in rice grain. QTLs detected in this study might be useful for breeding rice varieties with low heavy metal content. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Increasing rice plant growth by Trichoderma sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doni, Febri; Isahak, Anizan; Zain, Che Radziah Che Mohd; Sulaiman, Norela; Fathurahman, F.; Zain, Wan Nur Syazana Wan Mohd.; Kadhimi, Ahsan A.; Alhasnawi, Arshad Naji; Anhar, Azwir; Yusoff, Wan Mohtar Wan

    2016-11-01

    Trichoderma sp. is a plant growth promoting fungi in many crops. Initial observation on the ability to enhance rice germination and vigor have been reported. In this study, the effectiveness of a local isolate Trichoderma asprellum SL2 to enhance rice seedling growth was assessed experimentally under greenhouse condition using a completely randomized design. Results showed that inoculation of rice plants with Trichoderma asprellum SL2 significantly increase rice plants height, root length, wet weight, leaf number and biomass compared to untreated rice plants (control). The result of this study can serve as a reference for further work on the application of beneficial microorganisms to enhance rice production.

  9. Storage stability of flour-blasted brown rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown rice was blasted with rice flour rather than sand in a sand blaster to make microscopic nicks and cuts so that water can easily penetrate into the brown rice endosperm and cook the rice in a shorter time. The flour-blasted American Basmati brown rice, long grain brown rice, and parboiled long...

  10. Porous rice powder from precipitation of gelatinized flour or starch paste with ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hot paste obtained by autoclaving (130oC, 20 psi, 20-30 min) a 5-7% (w/w) rice flour or starch slurry, was precipitated with ethanol (three extractions) to produce a dry, porous, pregelatinized powder with an average particle size of 75.0µm (flour-derived powder), and 41.6µm (starch-derived powder)....

  11. Porous rice powder from the precipitation of gelatinized flour or starch paste with ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hot paste obtained by autoclaving (130oC, 20 psi, 20-30 min) a 5-7% (w/w) rice flour or starch slurry was precipitated with ethanol (three extractions) to produce a dry, porous, pregelatinized powder with an average particle size of 75.0µm (flour-derived powder), and 41.6µm (starch-derived powder). ...

  12. Application of induced mutations and modern technologies for rice improvement at the Philippine Rice Research Institute (PhilRice)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padolina, Thelma F.

    2015-01-01

    The application of mutation techniques, i.e. gamma rays and other physical and chemical mutagens has generated a vast amount of genetic variability and has played a significant role in plant breeding and genetics. The widespread use of mutation techniques in plant breeding programs throughout the world has led to the official release of more than 3000 mutant varieties from different plant species. These varieties provide higher yields, better quality, resistance to diseases and resilience to climate change and variability. In the Philippine Rice Research Institute (PhilRice), classical induced mutagenesis and/or in combination with modern technologies as an important tool in rice breeding have been widely utilized by breeders. These recent advances offered new and exciting challenges for the development of new varieties. Moreover, it has the advantage of free regulatory restrictions imposed on genetically modified organisms. To date, high generation of new varieties, elite lines and pre-breeding materials have been derived from chemical and physical mutagenesis, another culture, in vitro mutagenesis, and molecular marker technologies. Directly benefitting the farmers are three Philippine released varieties: PSB Rc78 developed through gamma ray induction in year 2000; and NSIC Rc272 (2011) and Rc346 (2013) developed by combination of Co60 induction and another culture technology. These varieties are intended for the lowlands. In the current works, diverse mutant lines and pre-breeding materials of different target traits were generated and are now under evaluation as potential varieties and/or for use in the inbred and hybrid breeding programs. These genetic materials are in the background of traditional and modern rice varieties. Accordingly, for inbreds, mutated traits ranged from changes in morphological traits, yield, maturity, grain quality, nutritional traits, abiotic resistance such as heat, salinity, and drought tolerance, biotic resistance such as bacterial

  13. Processing Conditions, Rice Properties, Health and Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobutaka Nakamura

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Rice is the staple food for nearly two-thirds of the world’s population. Food components and environmental load of rice depends on the rice form that is resulted by different processing conditions. Brown rice (BR, germinated brown rice (GBR and partially-milled rice (PMR contains more health beneficial food components compared to the well milled rice (WMR. Although the arsenic concentration in cooked rice depends on the cooking methods, parboiled rice (PBR seems to be relatively prone to arsenic contamination compared to that of untreated rice, if contaminated water is used for parboiling and cooking. A change in consumption patterns from PBR to untreated rice (non-parboiled, and WMR to PMR or BR may conserve about 43–54 million tons of rice and reduce the risk from arsenic contamination in the arsenic prone area. This study also reveals that a change in rice consumption patterns not only supply more food components but also reduces environmental loads. A switch in production and consumption patterns would improve food security where food grains are scarce, and provide more health beneficial food components, may prevent some diseases and ease the burden on the Earth. However, motivation and awareness of the environment and health, and even a nominal incentive may require for a method switching which may help in building a sustainable society.

  14. Elemental composition of Malawian rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joy, Edward J M; Louise Ander, E; Broadley, Martin R; Young, Scott D; Chilimba, Allan D C; Hamilton, Elliott M; Watts, Michael J

    2017-08-01

    Widespread potential dietary deficiencies of calcium (Ca), iron (Fe), iodine (I), selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn) have been identified in Malawi. Several deficiencies are likely to be compounded by high phytic acid (PA) consumption. Rice (Oryza sativa) is commonly consumed in some Malawian populations, and its mineral micronutrient content is important for food security. The considerable irrigation requirements and flooded conditions of paddy soils can also introduce or mobilise potentially toxic elements including arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb). The aim of this study was to determine the mineral composition of rice sampled from farmers' fields and markets in Malawi. Rice was sampled from 18 extension planning areas across Malawi with 21 white (i.e. polished) and 33 brown samples collected. Elemental composition was determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Arsenic speciation was performed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-ICP-MS. Concentration of PA was determined using a PA-total phosphorus assay. Median total concentrations (mg kg -1 , dry weight) of elements important for human nutrition in brown and white rice, respectively, were: Ca = 66.5 and 37.8; Cu = 3.65 and 2.49; Fe = 22.1 and 7.2; I = 0.006 and rice samples, respectively, median PA concentrations were 5438 and 1906 mg kg -1 , and median PA:Zn molar ratios were 29 and 13. Concentrations of potentially toxic elements (mg kg -1 , dry weight) in brown and white rice samples, respectively, were: As = 0.030 and 0.006; Cd  ≤ 0.002 and 0.006; Pb = 0.008 and 0.008. Approximately 95 % of As was found to be inorganic As, where this could be quantified. Malawian rice, like the more widely consumed staple grain maize, contains inadequate Ca, I, Se or Zn to meet dietary requirements. Biofortification strategies could significantly increase Se and Zn concentrations and require further investigation. Concentrations of Fe in rice grain varied

  15. 75 FR 56911 - Request for Public Comment on the United States Standards for Rough Rice, Brown Rice for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-17

    ... for Rough Rice, Brown Rice for Processing, and Milled Rice AGENCY: Grain Inspection, Packers and... reviewing the United States Standards and grading procedures for Rough Rice, Brown Rice for Processing, and Milled Rice under the Agriculture Marketing Act of 1946 (AMA). Since the standards were last revised...

  16. Low uptake affinity cultivars with biochar to tackle Cd-tainted rice — A field study over four rice seasons in Hunan, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, De; Guo, Hu; Li, Ruiyue [Institute of Resources, Ecosystem and Environment of Agriculture, and Center of Biochar and Green Agriculture, Nanjing Agricultural University, 1 Weigang, Nanjing 210095 (China); Li, Lianqing, E-mail: lqli@njau.edu.cn [Institute of Resources, Ecosystem and Environment of Agriculture, and Center of Biochar and Green Agriculture, Nanjing Agricultural University, 1 Weigang, Nanjing 210095 (China); Pan, Genxing [Institute of Resources, Ecosystem and Environment of Agriculture, and Center of Biochar and Green Agriculture, Nanjing Agricultural University, 1 Weigang, Nanjing 210095 (China); Chang, Andrew [Department of Environmental Sciences, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Joseph, Stephen [Institute of Resources, Ecosystem and Environment of Agriculture, and Center of Biochar and Green Agriculture, Nanjing Agricultural University, 1 Weigang, Nanjing 210095 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia)

    2016-01-15

    Biochar is becoming an environmentally friendly material for remediation of heavy metal contaminated soils and improving food safety. A field trial over four rice seasons was conducted to investigate the use of biochar and low Cd accumulating cultivars on Cd uptake in a heavy metal contaminated soil. Wheat straw derived biochar was applied at 0, 20 and 40 t ha{sup −1}. Two rice cultivars with differing Cd accumulation abilities were selected in each season. The results showed that both biochar and low Cd affinity cultivars significantly reduced rice grain Cd accumulation. Biochar had no significant effect the first season but thereafter consistently reduced rice grain Cd by a maximum of 61, 86 and 57% over the next three seasons. Zn accumulation in the rice grains was not decreased by biochar application, although available soil Zn was sharply reduced (35–91%). Indica conventional rice cultivars had much lower Cd, but higher Zn and lower Cd/Zn ratios in the grain than indica hybrid cultivars. Biochar was more effective for mitigating grain Cd accumulation in low Cd affinity cultivars than in high affinity cultivars. Soil pH was sustainably increased (up to nearly 1 unit) while available Cd significantly decreased by a maximum of 85% after biochar addition. The translocation of Cd from rice roots to shoots was reduced from 20 to 80% by biochar. Low uptake affinity cultivars combined with biochar reduced late rice grain Cd concentration and Cd/Zn ratios by 69–80% and 72–80%, respectively. It indicated that the management of combining biochar and low Cd affinity cultivars should be an efficient way to remediate Cd contaminated rice paddies and reduce health risk associated with consuming rice from these soils. - Highlights: • Biochar sustainably reduced soil Cd availability and Cd translocation in rice plant. • Indica conventional cultivars had lower Cd but higher Zn in grains than hybrid ones. • Biochar significantly reduced grain Cd and Cd/Zn ratio

  17. Low uptake affinity cultivars with biochar to tackle Cd-tainted rice — A field study over four rice seasons in Hunan, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, De; Guo, Hu; Li, Ruiyue; Li, Lianqing; Pan, Genxing; Chang, Andrew; Joseph, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Biochar is becoming an environmentally friendly material for remediation of heavy metal contaminated soils and improving food safety. A field trial over four rice seasons was conducted to investigate the use of biochar and low Cd accumulating cultivars on Cd uptake in a heavy metal contaminated soil. Wheat straw derived biochar was applied at 0, 20 and 40 t ha"−"1. Two rice cultivars with differing Cd accumulation abilities were selected in each season. The results showed that both biochar and low Cd affinity cultivars significantly reduced rice grain Cd accumulation. Biochar had no significant effect the first season but thereafter consistently reduced rice grain Cd by a maximum of 61, 86 and 57% over the next three seasons. Zn accumulation in the rice grains was not decreased by biochar application, although available soil Zn was sharply reduced (35–91%). Indica conventional rice cultivars had much lower Cd, but higher Zn and lower Cd/Zn ratios in the grain than indica hybrid cultivars. Biochar was more effective for mitigating grain Cd accumulation in low Cd affinity cultivars than in high affinity cultivars. Soil pH was sustainably increased (up to nearly 1 unit) while available Cd significantly decreased by a maximum of 85% after biochar addition. The translocation of Cd from rice roots to shoots was reduced from 20 to 80% by biochar. Low uptake affinity cultivars combined with biochar reduced late rice grain Cd concentration and Cd/Zn ratios by 69–80% and 72–80%, respectively. It indicated that the management of combining biochar and low Cd affinity cultivars should be an efficient way to remediate Cd contaminated rice paddies and reduce health risk associated with consuming rice from these soils. - Highlights: • Biochar sustainably reduced soil Cd availability and Cd translocation in rice plant. • Indica conventional cultivars had lower Cd but higher Zn in grains than hybrid ones. • Biochar significantly reduced grain Cd and Cd/Zn ratio, though

  18. Effects of White Rice, Brown Rice and Germinated Brown Rice on Antioxidant Status of Type 2 Diabetic Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Imam, Mustapha Umar; Musa, Siti Nor Asma; Azmi, Nur Hanisah; Ismail, Maznah

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative stress is implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications, and can be increased by diet like white rice (WR). Though brown rice (BR) and germinated brown rice (GBR) have high antioxidant potentials as a result of their bioactive compounds, reports of their effects on oxidative stress-related conditions such as type 2 diabetes are lacking. We hypothesized therefore that if BR and GBR were to improve antioxidant status, they would be better for rice consuming populations inst...

  19. Diversity of global rice markets and the science required for consumer-targeted rice breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    With the ever-increasing global demand for high quality rice in both local production regions and with Western consumers, we have a strong desire to understand better the importance of different quality traits that make up the rice grain and obtain a full picture of rice quality demographics. Rice ...

  20. IDENTIFICATION AND MAPPING OF A GENE FOR RICE SLENDER KERNEL USING Oryza glumaepatula INTROGRESSION LINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobrizal Sobrizal

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available World demand for superior rice grain quality tends to increase. One of the  criteria of appearance quality of rice grain is grain shape. Rice consumers  exhibit wide preferences for grain shape, but most Indonesian rice consumers prefer long and slender grain. The objectives of this study were to identify and map a gene for rice slender kernel trait using Oryza  glumaepatula introgression lines with O. sativa cv. Taichung 65 genetic background. A segregation analysis of BC4F2 population derived from backcrosses of a donor parent O. glumaepatula into a recurrent parent Taichung 65 showed that the slender kernel was controlled by a single recessive gene. This new identified gene was designated as sk1 (slender kernel 1. Moreover, based on the RFLP analyses using 14 RFLP markers located on chromosomes 2, 8, 9, and 10 in which the O. glumaepatula chromosomal segments were retained in BC4F2 population, the sk1 was located between RFLP markers C679 and C560 on the long arm of chromosome 2, with map distances of 2.8 and 1.5 cM, respectively. The wild rice O. glumaepatula carried a recessive allele for slender kernel. This allele may be useful in breeding of rice with slender kernel types. In addition, the development of plant materials and RFLP map associated with slender kernel in this study is the preliminary works in the effort to isolate this important grain shape gene.

  1. Genetic dissection of black grain rice by the development of a near isogenic line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Hiroaki; Yamaguchi, Takuya; Omoteno, Motoyasu; Takarada, Takeshi; Fujita, Kenji; Murata, Kazumasa; Iyama, Yukihide; Kojima, Yoichiro; Morikawa, Makiko; Ozaki, Hidenobu; Mukaino, Naoyuki; Kidani, Yoshinori; Ebitani, Takeshi

    2014-06-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) can produce black grains as well as white. In black rice, the pericarp of the grain accumulates anthocyanin, which has antioxidant activity and is beneficial to human health. We developed a black rice introgression line in the genetic background of Oryza sativa L. 'Koshihikari', which is a leading variety in Japan. We used Oryza sativa L. 'Hong Xie Nuo' as the donor parent and backcrossed with 'Koshihikari' four times, resulting in a near isogenic line (NIL) for black grains. A whole genome survey of the introgression line using DNA markers suggested that three regions, on chromosomes 1, 3 and 4 are associated with black pigmentation. The locus on chromosome 3 has not been identified previously. A mapping analysis with 546 F2 plants derived from a cross between the black rice NIL and 'Koshihikari' was evaluated. The results indicated that all three loci are essential for black pigmentation. We named these loci Kala1, Kala3 and Kala4. The black rice NIL was evaluated for eating quality and general agronomic traits. The eating quality was greatly superior to that of 'Okunomurasaki', an existing black rice variety. The isogenicity of the black rice NIL to 'Koshihikari' was very high.

  2. 15N dilution technique of assessing the contribution of nitrogen fixation to rice plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ventura, Wilbur; Watanabe, Iwao

    1983-01-01

    An attempt to correlate the positive nitrogen balance in rice-soil system with the 15 N dilution in rice plants was made to see if isotope dilution can be used to assess the contribution of nitrogen fixation to the nitrogen nutrition of rice. 15 N ammonium sulfate and sucrose were added to the moist soil in pots to label biomass nitrogen fraction. The rice-soil system with higher nitrogen gain had lower 15 N content in the rice plants. When the surface of pots was covered with black cloths to suppress photodependent N 2 fixation, no significant nitrogen gain was observed. Significant gain was found in the rice-flooded soil system exposed to light, and the 15 N content of plants decreased in allowing the photodependent N 2 fixation by blue-green algae symbiosis. The contribution of plant nitrogen derived from photodependent N 2 fixation was estimated to be 20-30 % of the positive nitrogen gain in the system by the 15 N dilution technique using the rice-covered soil as reference system. (Mori, K.)

  3. /sup 15/N dilution technique of assessing the contribution of nitrogen fixation to rice plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ventura, W; Watanabe, Iwao [International Rice Research Inst., College, Laguna (Phillippines)

    1983-06-01

    An attempt to correlate the positive nitrogen balance in rice-soil system with the /sup 15/N dilution in rice plants was made to see if isotope dilution can be used to assess the contribution of nitrogen fixation to the nitrogen nutrition of rice. /sup 15/N ammonium sulfate and sucrose were added to the moist soil in pots to label biomass nitrogen fraction. The rice-soil system with higher nitrogen gain had lower /sup 15/N content in the rice plants. When the surface of pots was covered with black cloths to suppress photodependent N/sub 2/ fixation, no significant nitrogen gain was observed. Significant gain was found in the rice-flooded soil system exposed to light, and the /sup 15/N content of plants decreased in allowing the photodependent N/sub 2/ fixation by blue-green algae symbiosis. The contribution of plant nitrogen derived from photodependent N/sub 2/ fixation was estimated to be 20-30 % of the positive nitrogen gain in the system by the /sup 15/N dilution technique using the rice-covered soil as reference system.

  4. Rice varieties in relation to rice bread quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hye Min; Cho, Jun Hyeon; Kang, Hang Won; Koh, Bong Kyung

    2012-05-01

    It is difficult to predict rice bread quality only from the amylose content (AC) or dough characteristics of new lines produced by rice breeding programmes. This study investigated the AC relative to bread baking quality of rice varieties developed in Korea, and identified specific characteristics that contribute to rice bread quality. Manmibyeo, Jinsumi, Seolgaeng and Hanareumbyeo were classified as low AC, YR24088 Acp9, Suweon517, Chenmaai and Goamibyeo as intermediate AC and Milyang261 as high AC. Suweon517, Milyang261 and Manmibyeo had a high water absorption index (WAI), while Goamibyeo, YR24088 Acp9, Jinsumi, Seolgaeng, Hanareumbyeo and Chenmaai had a low WAI. The gelatinisation enthalpy of flour varied from 9.2 J g(-1) in Milyang261 to 14.8 J g(-1) in YR24088 Acp9. After 7 days of storage the rate of flour retrogradation and crumb firmness were weakly correlated, with the exception of Jinsumi. Bread volumes of Jinsumi, Chenmaai, YR24088 Acp9 and Goamibyeo were comparable to that of wheat flour, but the rest were unsuited to bread making because of their low volume and hard crumb texture. Based on volume, texture and crumb firmness ratio, Chenmaai and Goamibyeo were the most appropriate varieties for making bread. An intermediate AC and low WAI were the primary indicators of rice bread flour quality. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Impact of mutation breeding in rice. A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutger, J N [Department of Agriculture, Stoneville, MS (United States). Agricultural Research Service

    1992-07-01

    More cultivars have been developed in rice through the use of mutation breeding than in any other crop. Direct releases of mutants as cultivars began some 30 years ago, and now total 198 cultivars. During the last 20 years, increasing use has been made of induced mutants in cross-breeding programs, leading to 80 additional cultivars. Principal improvements through mutation breeding have been earlier maturity, short stature, and grain character modifications. Rice has been a popular subject of mutagenesis because it is the world`s leading food crop, has diploid inheritance, and is highly self-pollinated. In recent years induced mutation has been exploited to develop breeding tool mutants, which are defined as mutants that in themselves may not have direct agronomic application but may be useful genetic tools for crop improvement. Examples include the eui gene, hull colour mutants, normal genetic male steriles, and environmentally sensitive genetic male steriles. The environmentally sensitive genetic male steriles, especially those in which male sterility can be turned on or off by different photoperiod lengths, show promise for simplifying hybrid rice seed production both in China and the USA. Future applications of mutation in rice include induction of unusual endosperm starch types, plant types with fewer but more productive tillers, dominant dwarfs, dominant genetic male steriles, extremely early maturing mutants, nutritional mutants, and in vitro-derived mutants for tolerance to herbicides or other growth stresses. Refs, 4 figs, 2 tabs.

  6. Improvement of west Sumatra black rice cultivar through mutation induction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benny Warman; Sobrizal; Irfan Suliansyah; Etti Swasti; Auzar Syarif

    2015-01-01

    Black rice cultivar is a local rice cultivar originating from East Pasaman, West Sumatera which has black endosperm, long growth duration and high plant height. The research was conducted from March 2012 until March 2013 with the objective of improvement the genetic of this black rice cultivar, especially related to the growth duration through mutation breeding. To get the optimum dose, the seeds of this cultivar were irradiated by gamma ray with doses of 0, 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 Gy, respectively at Center of the Application of Isotopes and Radiation, National Nuclear Energy Agency (PAIR - BATAN), Jakarta. Base don the data of percentage of germination, plant height and root length in the seedling stage, and the percentage of grain sterility in M1 plants, it was obtained that the dose of 200-300 Gy is an effective dose in generating genetic diversity. It was agree with result of variability observations in M2 population derived from 200 Gy irradiated seeds, in which the extensive genetic diversities were observed in the variable of plant height, number of productive tillers and growth duration. From the selection in M2 population it was obtained 81 early maturing plants, with mutant frequency of 0.08 %. These selected early maturing mutants are very useful as initial plant materials in developing black rice leading mutant variety(s) in the future. (author)

  7. Genomic Evolution of Saccharomyces cerevisiae under Chinese Rice Wine Fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yudong; Zhang, Weiping; Zheng, Daoqiong; Zhou, Zhan; Yu, Wenwen; Zhang, Lei; Feng, Lifang; Liang, Xinle; Guan, Wenjun; Zhou, Jingwen; Chen, Jian; Lin, Zhenguo

    2014-01-01

    Rice wine fermentation represents a unique environment for the evolution of the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. To understand how the selection pressure shaped the yeast genome and gene regulation, we determined the genome sequence and transcriptome of a S. cerevisiae strain YHJ7 isolated from Chinese rice wine (Huangjiu), a popular traditional alcoholic beverage in China. By comparing the genome of YHJ7 to the lab strain S288c, a Japanese sake strain K7, and a Chinese industrial bioethanol strain YJSH1, we identified many genomic sequence and structural variations in YHJ7, which are mainly located in subtelomeric regions, suggesting that these regions play an important role in genomic evolution between strains. In addition, our comparative transcriptome analysis between YHJ7 and S288c revealed a set of differentially expressed genes, including those involved in glucose transport (e.g., HXT2, HXT7) and oxidoredutase activity (e.g., AAD10, ADH7). Interestingly, many of these genomic and transcriptional variations are directly or indirectly associated with the adaptation of YHJ7 strain to its specific niches. Our molecular evolution analysis suggested that Japanese sake strains (K7/UC5) were derived from Chinese rice wine strains (YHJ7) at least approximately 2,300 years ago, providing the first molecular evidence elucidating the origin of Japanese sake strains. Our results depict interesting insights regarding the evolution of yeast during rice wine fermentation, and provided a valuable resource for genetic engineering to improve industrial wine-making strains. PMID:25212861

  8. A Non-destructive and Continuous Measurement of Gelatinization of Rice in Rice Cooking Process

    OpenAIRE

    Hagura, Yoshio; Suzuki, Kanichi

    2002-01-01

    A non-destructive and continuous method to measure gelatinization of rice samples in a rice-water system during rice cooking process was examined. An aluminum pot and a lid of a rice cooker were used as two electrode plates, and changes in dielectric properties (capacitance : C, and dielectric dissipation factor : tan δ) of the samples in the rice cooking process were measured by a capacitance meter. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to measure gelatinization enthalpy and to de...

  9. Effect of Rice bran on the Quality of Rice Flour Breads (Gluten-free)

    OpenAIRE

    仲上, 晴世; 矢部, えん; Haruyo, Nakagami; En, Yabe

    2016-01-01

    Over recent years progress has been made in the development of substitute foods for allergy patients. One such is rice flour bread. However, typically rice flour bread uses polysaccharide thickener in substitution for the gluten in wheat. Most polysaccharide thickeners are of dietary fiber origin, and the nutritive value is poor. Therefore, in this study, I made rice flour bread adding rice bran in place of polysaccharide thickener. Various nutrients are included in rice bran, including vitam...

  10. Golden rice: scientific, regulatory and public information processes of a genetically modified organism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghissi, A Alan; Pei, Shiqian; Liu, Yinzuo

    2016-01-01

    Historically, agricultural development evolved in three phases. During the first phase the plants were selected on the basis of the availability of a plant with desirable properties at a specific location. The second phase provided the agricultural community with crossbreeding plants to achieve improvement in agricultural production. The evolution of biological knowledge has provided the ability to genetically engineer (GE) crops, one of the key processes within genetically modified organisms (GMO). This article uses golden rice, a species of transgenic Asian rice which contains a precursor of vitamin A in the edible part of the plant as an example of GE/GMO emphasizing Chinese experience in agricultural evolution. It includes a brief review of agricultural evolution to be followed by a description of golden rice development. Golden rice was created as a humanitarian project and has received positive comments by the scientific community and negative voices from certain environmental groups. In this article, we use the Best Available Science (BAS) Concept and Metrics for Evaluation of Scientific Claims (MESC) derived from it to evaluate claims and counter claims on scientific aspects of golden rice. This article concludes that opposition to golden rice is based on belief rather than any of its scientifically derived nutritional, safety or environmental properties.

  11. Soil micronutrients and its uptake by rice plant. Part of a coordinated programme on isotope-aided micronutrient studies in rice production with special reference to zinc deficiencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, T.S.

    1980-02-01

    A series of field and greenhouse experiments with flooded rice was carried out on contrasting soil types of Korea to study the zinc status of soils, evaluate the chemical methods for extracting zinc from soils in terms of ability to identify zinc deficiency, perform 65 Zn-aided experiments including the residual effects of zinc fertilizers to evaluate the efficiency of zinc sources and methods of zinc application to rice, and associated studies on factors affecting zinc nutrition in rice such as effect of organic matter and chelates. The results show that i) 0.05 N HCl solution for extracting available zinc in soil was effective to separating the soils which require zinc fertilizer application. The proposed zinc value to identify is 2.4 ppm. Among rice soils surveyed, the red-yellow podsolic soil derived from basalt, the reddish-brown lateritic soil of calcareous material and newly reclaimed saline soils were shown to be below this limit; ii) 5 kg Zn/ha as zinc sulphate introduced the highest response in terms of % Zndff, total zinc yield in rice plant, and the fertilizer zinc use efficiency. Applying higher zinc amounts, in case of 20 kg Zn/ha, retarded nitrogen uptake by the plant and as a result the rice grain yield was decreased; iii) Significant yields increases due to the residual effects of zinc fertilizers were obtained on the second and third crops; iv) On the zinc-deficient calcareous soil the use of chelated zinc sources is recommended

  12. FLUORIDE LEVELS IN COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE RICE IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    2013-05-05

    May 5, 2013 ... Rice is one of the commonly consumed cereals for more than half of the ... also used as flour, for making rice wine, as ingredient for beer and liquor, ... Fluoride is a necessary element to human health, and a moderate amount of fluoride intake ... For Ethiopian red rice (ERR) Fogera was selected to collect.

  13. Impact of bio-processing on rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANCA NICOLAU

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The usual way of preparing rice is boiling, thermal process that gives it a lower digestibility as compared to instantiation, extrusion or expandation. Having in view this fact, the possibility to biotechnologically improve the boiled rice digestibility was investigated in a laboratory study. In this respect, boiled rice wassolid state fermented using a strain of Saccharomycopsis fibuligera, an amylase producing yeast originating from ragi. Fermented rice was then analyzed from the point of view of its content in easily assimilable sugars, protein, amino-acids, phosphorus and vitamins from B group. Biochemical analyses revealed that the fermented rice has a ten times higher content of reducing sugars than boiled rice, due to starch hydrolysis, while chromatographic studies proved that the fermented rice contains glucose, maltose, maltotriose and maltotetrose that are easily assimilable carbohydrates.Fermented rice has a protein content that is two times higher than that of boiled rice because it contains the yeast biomass, and is enriched in vitamins from B group (B1, B2, and B6 that are synthesized by the yeast. Inorganic phosphorus present in rice doubles its concentration in fermented rice, which means thatphosphorus bioavailability is increased.The sensorial profile of boiled rice is also improved by fermentation.This study proves the possibility to have a processing method which is relatively cheap, practical and of which the resulting product has good nutritive qualities and does not pose safety problems due to pure culture utilization as starter.

  14. PICTORIAL INTERLUDES Flake-shaped rice bodies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    removing the rice bodies and the bursa.3. In summary: rice bodies can occur without underlying systemic disorder, have different shapes and sizes, and have specific signal characteristics on. MRI that allow discrimination from synovial chondromatosis. 1. Cheung HS, Ryan LM, Kozin F, McCarty DJ. Synovial origins of rice ...

  15. New market opportunities for rice grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breeding efforts for rice have been focusing on increasing yield and improving quality (milling yield and grain quality), while maintaining cooked rice sensory properties to meet consumer preferences. These breeding targets will no doubt continue as the main foci for the rice industry. However, the ...

  16. Arsenic in rice: A cause for concern

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hojsak, Iva; Braegger, Christian; Bronsky, Jiri

    2015-01-01

    Inorganic arsenic intake is likely to affect long-term health. High concentrations are found in some rice-based foods and drinks widely used in infants and young children. In order to reduce exposure we recommend avoidance of rice drinks for infants and young children. For all rice products, stri...

  17. Consumer preference mapping for rice product concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suwannaporn, P.; Linnemann, A.R.; Chaveesuk, R.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose - Rice consumption per capita in many Asian countries is decreasing constantly, but American and European citizens are eating more rice nowadays. A preference study among consumers was carried out with the aim of determining new rice product characteristics in order to support export of Thai

  18. Application of two-stream model to solar radiation of rice canopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawakata, T.

    2005-01-01

    The amount of solar radiation absorbed by a crop canopy is correlated with crop production, and thus it is necessary to estimate both transmission and reflection around the canopy for crop growth models. The 'forward and backward streams' representation of radiation has been refined to account for both transmission and reflection in the crop canopy. However, this model has not been applied to a rice canopy through the growing period. The purpose of this study is to examine whether the two-stream model is applicable to the rice canopy, and to investigate the parameters of the model. The values for both transmittance below the rice canopy and reflectance above it that were derived from the two-stream model represent the observed values throughout the growing period. The inclination factor of leaves (F), which is used in the two-stream model, was almost equivalent to the extinction coefficient of transmittance in the case of the rice canopy

  19. AFLP analysis of rice transformed with maize DNA by particle beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Shengdong; Chen Peng; Wang Jiachuan; Yuan Zhao; Yue Chunhui; Wang Zhifeng

    2009-01-01

    Many stable heritable rice lines were obtained via five years agricultural selection, which were derived from rice (oryza stative Japonica) Yujing-6 transgened with large fraction DNA of Zhengdan-14 (zea mays L.) by particle beam method. 18 pairs optimum selective primers were got by screening from 64 pairs AFLP selective primers via experiment on two mutant lines, which could amplify many DNA fingerprints and also could amplify polymorphic bands and target bands, both in this two mutant lines. Then the two mutant lines and two controls were analyzed with AFLP, the results showed that many polymorphic bands (such as novel bands, target bands, missing bands) were found in mutant lines. The discrepancy in DNA level indicated that rice, transgened with large fraction DNA of Zhengdan-14 by particle beam, might be inserted maize DNA and inherited steadily in some degree. It also indicated that it was possible to cultivate novel rice variety transformed with wide DNA by particle beam. (authors)

  20. Analysis of QTLs Associated with the Rice Quality Related Gene by Double Haploid Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gyu-Ho; Yun, Byung-Wook

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the growth characteristics and analyzed the physicochemical properties of a doubled haploid population derived from a cross between “Cheongcheong” and “Nagdong” to breed a rice variety that tastes good after cooking and to detect quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with the taste of cooked rice. The results showed that these compounds also represent a normal distribution. Correlation analysis of the amylose, protein, and lipid contents indicated that each compound is related to the taste of cooked rice. The QTLs related to amylose content were 4 QTLs, protein content was 2 QTLs, and lipid content was 2 QTLs. Four of the QTLs associated with amylose content were detected on chromosomes 7 and 11. The index of coincidence for the QTLs related to amylose, protein, and lipid content was 70%, respectively. These markers showing high percentage of coincidence can be useful to select desirable lines for rice breeding. PMID:25478566

  1. Analysis of QTLs Associated with the Rice Quality Related Gene by Double Haploid Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyu-Ho Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the growth characteristics and analyzed the physicochemical properties of a doubled haploid population derived from a cross between “Cheongcheong” and “Nagdong” to breed a rice variety that tastes good after cooking and to detect quantitative trait loci (QTLs associated with the taste of cooked rice. The results showed that these compounds also represent a normal distribution. Correlation analysis of the amylose, protein, and lipid contents indicated that each compound is related to the taste of cooked rice. The QTLs related to amylose content were 4 QTLs, protein content was 2 QTLs, and lipid content was 2 QTLs. Four of the QTLs associated with amylose content were detected on chromosomes 7 and 11. The index of coincidence for the QTLs related to amylose, protein, and lipid content was 70%, respectively. These markers showing high percentage of coincidence can be useful to select desirable lines for rice breeding.

  2. Asian wild rice is a hybrid swarm with extensive gene flow and feralization from domesticated rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongru; Vieira, Filipe G; Crawford, Jacob E; Chu, Chengcai; Nielsen, Rasmus

    2017-06-01

    The domestication history of rice remains controversial, with multiple studies reaching different conclusions regarding its origin(s). These studies have generally assumed that populations of living wild rice, O. rufipogon , are descendants of the ancestral population that gave rise to domesticated rice, but relatively little attention has been paid to the origins and history of wild rice itself. Here, we investigate the genetic ancestry of wild rice by analyzing a diverse panel of rice genomes consisting of 203 domesticated and 435 wild rice accessions. We show that most modern wild rice is heavily admixed with domesticated rice through both pollen- and seed-mediated gene flow. In fact, much presumed wild rice may simply represent different stages of feralized domesticated rice. In line with this hypothesis, many presumed wild rice varieties show remnants of the effects of selective sweeps in previously identified domestication genes, as well as evidence of recent selection in flowering genes possibly associated with the feralization process. Furthermore, there is a distinct geographical pattern of gene flow from aus , indica , and japonica varieties into colocated wild rice. We also show that admixture from aus and indica is more recent than gene flow from japonica , possibly consistent with an earlier spread of japonica varieties. We argue that wild rice populations should be considered a hybrid swarm, connected to domesticated rice by continuous and extensive gene flow. © 2017 Wang et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  3. Effects of Extraction Methods on Phytochemicals of Rice Bran Oils Produced from Colored Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingyai, Sukanya; Srikaeo, Khongsak; Kettawan, Aikkarach; Singanusong, Riantong; Nakagawa, Kiyotaka; Kimura, Fumiko; Ito, Junya

    2018-02-01

    Rice bran oil (RBO) especially from colored rice is rich in phytochemicals and has become popular in food, cosmetic, nutraceutical and pharmaceutical applications owing to its offering health benefits. This study determined the contents of phytochemicals including oryzanols, phytosterols, tocopherols (Toc) and tocotrienols (T3) in RBOs extracted using different methods namely cold-press extraction (CPE), solvent extraction (SE) and supercritical CO 2 extraction (SC-CO 2 ). Two colored rice, Red Jasmine rice (RJM, red rice) and Hom-nin rice (HN, black rice), were studied in comparison with the popular Thai fragrant rice Khao Dawk Mali 105 (KDML 105, white rice). RBOs were found to be the rich source of oryzanols, phytosterols, Toc and T3. Rice varieties had a greater effect on the phytochemicals concentrations than extraction methods. HN rice showed the significantly highest concentration of all phytochemicals, followed by RJM and KDML 105 rice, indicating that colored rice contained high concentration of phytochemicals in the oil than non-colored rice. The RBO samples extracted by the CPE method had a greater concentration of the phytochemicals than those extracted by the SC-CO 2 and SE methods, respectively. In terms of phytochemical contents, HN rice extracted using CPE method was found to be the best.

  4. Research within the coordinated programme on isotope-aided micronutrient studies in rice production with special reference to zinc deficiencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosales, C.M.

    1980-07-01

    An extensive survey identified 500,000 ha of soil in the Philippines as being potentially Zn-deficient for rice production. Isotope-aided laboratory, greenhouse, and field experiments were conducted to identify the most efficient methods of supplying fertilizer Zn to flooded rice. The application of 5 kg Zn/ha as ZnSO 4 effectively corrected a Zn deficiency and increased rice yield and Zn uptake for three successive growing seasons. No further increases were noted with higher rates of Zn application. Fertilizer ZnSO 4 was equally effective when mixed with the soil, combined with urea fertilizers, or surface-applied at or two weeks after transplanting the rice. Mine tailings were also shown to be an effective source of Zn. Mixing organic compost with the ZnSO 4 decreased the percent Zn derived from the fertilizer and the rice yield. 65 Zn-labelled ZnSO 4 was used

  5. Economic study of rice irradiation in egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elkhateeb, M.A.; Elgmeel, E.A.

    2004-01-01

    The paper discusses the economics of rice irradiation and the effect of various parameters on unit processing costs. It provides a model for calculating specific unit processing costs by correlating known capital costs with annual operation cost and annual throughputs. It is intended to provide the investors with a general knowledge of how unit processing costs are derived. The investment criteria utilized for commercial evaluation were internal rate of return (I.I.R), pay back period (P.B.P), and average rate of return (A.R.R). The irradiation cost and the additional income are also discussed. The result of the analysis showed that the installation of an irradiation unit in Egypt would be economically feasible

  6. Statistical rice yield modeling using blended MODIS-Landsat based crop phenology metrics in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C. R.; Chen, C. F.; Nguyen, S. T.; Lau, K. V.

    2015-12-01

    Taiwan is a populated island with a majority of residents settled in the western plains where soils are suitable for rice cultivation. Rice is not only the most important commodity, but also plays a critical role for agricultural and food marketing. Information of rice production is thus important for policymakers to devise timely plans for ensuring sustainably socioeconomic development. Because rice fields in Taiwan are generally small and yet crop monitoring requires information of crop phenology associating with the spatiotemporal resolution of satellite data, this study used Landsat-MODIS fusion data for rice yield modeling in Taiwan. We processed the data for the first crop (Feb-Mar to Jun-Jul) and the second (Aug-Sep to Nov-Dec) in 2014 through five main steps: (1) data pre-processing to account for geometric and radiometric errors of Landsat data, (2) Landsat-MODIS data fusion using using the spatial-temporal adaptive reflectance fusion model, (3) construction of the smooth time-series enhanced vegetation index 2 (EVI2), (4) rice yield modeling using EVI2-based crop phenology metrics, and (5) error verification. The fusion results by a comparison bewteen EVI2 derived from the fusion image and that from the reference Landsat image indicated close agreement between the two datasets (R2 > 0.8). We analysed smooth EVI2 curves to extract phenology metrics or phenological variables for establishment of rice yield models. The results indicated that the established yield models significantly explained more than 70% variability in the data (p-value 0.8), in both cases. The root mean square error (RMSE) and mean absolute error (MAE) used to measure the model accuracy revealed the consistency between the estimated yields and the government's yield statistics. This study demonstrates advantages of using EVI2-based phenology metrics (derived from Landsat-MODIS fusion data) for rice yield estimation in Taiwan prior to the harvest period.

  7. Iron biofortification of Myanmar rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    May Sann Aung

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Iron (Fe deficiency causes elevates human mortality rates, especially in developing countries. In Myanmar, the prevalence of Fe-deficient anemia in children and pregnant women are 75% and 71%, respectively. Myanmar people have one of the highest per capita rice consumption rates globally. Consequently, production of Fe-biofortified rice would likely contribute to solving the Fe-deficiency problem in this human population. To produce Fe-biofortified Myanmar rice by transgenic methods, we first analyzed callus induction and regeneration efficiencies in 15 varieties that are presently popular because of their high yields and/or qualities. Callus formation and regeneration efficiency in each variety was strongly influenced by types of culture media containing a range of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid concentrations. The Paw San Yin variety, which has a high Fe content in polished seeds, performed well in callus induction and regeneration trials. Thus, we transformed this variety using a gene expression cassette that enhanced Fe transport within rice plants through overexpression of the nicotianamine synthase gene HvNAS1, Fe flow to the endosperm through the Fe(II-nicotianamine transporter gene OsYSL2, and Fe accumulation in endosperm by the Fe storage protein gene SoyferH2. A line with a transgene insertion was successfully obtained. Enhanced expressions of the introduced genes OsYSL2, HvNAS1, and SoyferH2 occurred in immature T2 seeds. The transformants accumulated 3.4-fold higher Fe concentrations, and also 1.3-fold higher zinc concentrations in T2 polished seeds compared to levels in non-transgenic rice. This Fe-biofortified rice has the potential to reduce Fe-deficiency anemia in millions of Myanmar people without changing food habits and without introducing additional costs.

  8. Dolce Vita in the Rice Paddy - Characterization of weedy rice groups in Northern Italy and investigation of their evolutionary origins

    OpenAIRE

    Grimm, Annabelle

    2014-01-01

    The thesis deals with the topic of the invasive rice form called weedy rice or red rice. Studies focused on the geographical area of Italy. Different populations of weedy rice in Italy were genetically characterized. The evolutionary origins of different weedy rice groups were investigated using molecular, morphological and physiological methods. Invasion of wild rice as well as de-domestication of cultivars could be identified as evolutionary sources of weedy rice in Northern Italy.

  9. Objective evaluation of whiteness of cooked rice and rice cakes using a portable spectrophotometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Hajime; Asanome, Noriyuki; Suzuki, Keitaro; Sano, Tomoyoshi; Saito, Hiroshi; Abe, Yohei; Chuba, Masaru; Nishio, Takeshi

    2014-03-01

    The whiteness of cooked rice and rice cakes was evaluated using a portable spectrophotometer with a whiteness index (WI). Also, by using boiled rice for measurement of Mido values by Mido Meter, it was possible to infer the whiteness of cooked rice without rice cooking. In the analysis of varietal differences of cooked rice, 'Tsuyahime', 'Koshihikari' and 'Koshinokaori' showed high whiteness, while 'Satonoyuki' had inferior whiteness. The whiteness of rice cakes made from 'Koyukimochi' and 'Dewanomochi' was higher than the whiteness of those made from 'Himenomochi' and 'Koganemochi'. While there was a significant correlation (r = 0.84) between WI values and whiteness scores of cooked rice by the sensory test, no correlation was detected between the whiteness scores and Mido values, indicating that the values obtained by a spectrophotometer differ from those obtained by a Mido Meter. Thus, a spectrophotometer may be a novel device for measurement of rice eating quality.

  10. RiceAtlas, a spatial database of global rice calendars and production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laborte, Alice G; Gutierrez, Mary Anne; Balanza, Jane Girly; Saito, Kazuki; Zwart, Sander J; Boschetti, Mirco; Murty, M V R; Villano, Lorena; Aunario, Jorrel Khalil; Reinke, Russell; Koo, Jawoo; Hijmans, Robert J; Nelson, Andrew

    2017-05-30

    Knowing where, when, and how much rice is planted and harvested is crucial information for understanding the effects of policy, trade, and global and technological change on food security. We developed RiceAtlas, a spatial database on the seasonal distribution of the world's rice production. It consists of data on rice planting and harvesting dates by growing season and estimates of monthly production for all rice-producing countries. Sources used for planting and harvesting dates include global and regional databases, national publications, online reports, and expert knowledge. Monthly production data were estimated based on annual or seasonal production statistics, and planting and harvesting dates. RiceAtlas has 2,725 spatial units. Compared with available global crop calendars, RiceAtlas is nearly ten times more spatially detailed and has nearly seven times more spatial units, with at least two seasons of calendar data, making RiceAtlas the most comprehensive and detailed spatial database on rice calendar and production.

  11. Labelling of rice seedlings and rice plants with 32P

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achmad Nasroh, K.

    1989-01-01

    Labelling of rice seedlings and rice plants with 32 P. Labelled rice seedlings can be used to tag insect pests that feed on. Radioactivity counting of 32 P in the endosperm and in the shoot of rice seeds that soaked for 72 hours in KH 2 32 PO 4 solution of 1 μCi/ml were 29,300 and 9,500 cpm respectively. When these labelled seedlings were grown in unlabelled medium the radioactivity in the shoot increased. It was due to the 32 P that was translocated to the shoot from the endosperm. The 32 P translocation reached maximum about one week after the seedling were grown in the unlabelled medium. Labelled seedlings could also be produced by growing 5, 10 and 15 days old seedlings hydroponically in Kimura B solution containing 32 P. Ten days after growing, the radioactivity concentration of the seedlings stem reached about 115,000; 85,000 and 170,000 cpm/mg dry weight for the 5, 10 and 15 days old seedlings respectively. For the implementation of this method, 20 ml labelled Kimura B was needed for labelling of one seedling. The seedlings should be prepared in tap water. During the growth the 32 P in the labelled seedlings was distributed throughout the plant, so that new leaves and tillers became also radioactive. (author). 5 refs

  12. Sustainable rice production in Malaysia beyond 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nashriyah Mat; Ho Nai Kin; Ismail Sahid; Ahyaudin Ali; Lum Keng Yeang; Mashhor Mansor

    2002-01-01

    This book is a compendium of works carried out by various institutions on subjects related to sustainable rice production. The institutions comprise Department of Agriculture, Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute, Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research, Muda Agricultural Development Authority, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Universiti Sains Malaysia, International Islamic University of Malaysia and the Agrochemical Company Mosanto. Integrated Biodiversity Management parallel with the Integrated Weed / Pest / Disease Management, rice-fish farming networking, agrochemical residue monitoring in rice and marine ecosystems, and application of biotechnology in rice productivity are taken as the future direction towards achieving sustainable rice production beyond 2000. Challenges from social and technical agroecosystem constraints, agricultural input management and maintenance of agroecosystem biodiversity are highlighted. It is imperative that the challenges are surmounted to attain the target that would be reflected by tangible rice output of 10 t/ha, and at the same time maintaining the well-being of rice-farmers. (Author)

  13. Mapping Flooded Rice Paddies Using Time Series of MODIS Imagery in the Krishna River Basin, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pardhasaradhi Teluguntla

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Rice is one of the major crops cultivated predominantly in flooded paddies, thus a large amount of water is consumed during its growing season. Accurate paddy rice maps are therefore important inputs for improved estimates of actual evapotranspiration in the agricultural landscape. The main objective of this study was to obtain flooded paddy rice maps using multi-temporal images of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS in the Krishna River Basin, India. First, ground-based spectral samples collected by a field spectroradiometer, CROPSCAN, were used to demonstrate unique contrasts between the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI and the Land Surface Water Index (LSWI observed during the transplanting season of rice. The contrast between Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI and Land Surface Water Index (LSWI from MODIS time series data was then used to generate classification decision rules to map flooded rice paddies, for the transplanting seasons of Kharif and Rabi rice crops in the Krishna River Basin. Consistent with ground spectral observations, the relationship of the MODIS EVI vs. LSWI of paddy rice fields showed distinct features from other crops during the transplanting seasons. The MODIS-derived maps were validated against extensive reference data collected from multiple land use field surveys. The accuracy of the paddy rice maps, when determined using field plot data, was approximately 78%. The MODIS-derived rice crop areas were also compared with the areas reported by Department of Agriculture (DOA, Government of India (Government Statistics. The estimated root mean square difference (RMSD of rice area estimated using MODIS and those reported by the Department of Agriculture over 10 districts varied between 3.4% and 6.6% during 10 years of our study period. Some of the major factors responsible for this difference include high noise of the MODIS images during the prolonged monsoon seasons (typically June–October and

  14. A comprehensive review on anti-diabetic property of rice bran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhagavathi Sundaram Sivamaruthi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Rice bran (RB is one of the nutrient-rich agricultural byproducts. It is a composite of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, fibers, minerals, and trace elements such as phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, calcium and manganese. The extraction and purification process influences the quality and quantity of rice bran oil, which is rich in tocopherols, tocotrienols, γ-oryzanol, and unsaturated fatty acids. The bioactive components of RB have been reported for exhibiting antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, hypocholesterolemic, anti-cancer, anti-colitis, and antidiabetic properties. In vitro and in vivo studies, and clinical trials in human volunteers revealed the anti-hyperglycemic activity of RB derived compounds. An updated comprehensive review on the antidiabetic property of RB and its derivative is required to appraise the current knowledge in the particular field. Thus, the present paper covered the composition and bioactivities of RB, and influence of extraction methods on the biological property of rice bran oil and rice bran extract. And the current review also focused on the reported anti-hyperglycemia activity of rice bran derivatives, and its probable mechanism.

  15. Greenhouse gas budget from a rice paddy field in the Albufera of Valencia, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijide, Ana; López-Ballesteros, Ana; Calvo-Roselló, Esperanza; López-Jiménez, Ramón; Recio-Huetos, Jaime; Calatayud, Vicent; Carrara, Arnaud; Serrano-Ortiz, Penelope

    2017-04-01

    Rice paddy fields are large sources of anthropogenic methane (CH4) and therefore many studies have assessed CH4 fluxes from rice paddy fields, mainly in Asia where most of the rice cultivation takes place. However, rice is also cultivated in the Mediterranean, where climatic and management conditions greatly differ. In the Albufera of Valencia, the largest freshwater lagoon in Spain, rice paddy fields have the particularity of being flooded not only while the rice grows, but also after the harvest during the winter. These flooding conditions might result in emissions which are very specific of this ecosystem, and cannot be extrapolated from other studies. We studied CH4 fluxes in a rice paddy field in the Albufera of Valencia at different stages of rice cultivation using the eddy covariance technique and static chambers. We additionally measured carbon dioxide (CO2), water fluxes and nitrous oxide (N2O) fluxes with eddy covariance and chamber methods respectively, in order to obtain a full greenhouse gas (GHG) budget. Our study also aimed at providing a mechanistic understanding of GHG emissions at different stages of rice cultivation, and therefore we also used the Enhanced and Normalized Vegetation Indexes (EVI and NDVI, respectively), derived from remote sensing images. The general ecosystem functioning encompasses three different phases. The first one, over the autumn and the winter, a biological dormancy period causes low CO2 emissions (ca. 1-5 µmol m-2 s-1), which coincides with the EVI and NDVI. The intermittent flooding taking place during this period is expected to cause CH4 emissions. Then, during the spring months (March-May), larger CO2 respiratory emissions take place during the daytime (> 5 µmol m-2 s-1) due to an increase in air temperature, which turn to neutral at the end of spring due to the start of photosynthesis by the rice. The third phase corresponds to the vegetation growth, when the net CO2 uptake increases gradually up to maximum CO2

  16. Combined Mass Spectrometry-Based Metabolite Profiling of Different Pigmented Rice (Oryza sativa L. Seeds and Correlation with Antioxidant Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ga Ryun Kim

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Nine varieties of pigmented rice (Oryza sativa L. seeds that were black, red, or white were used to perform metabolite profiling by using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS and gas chromatography (GC TOF-MS, to measure antioxidant activities. Clear grouping patterns determined by the color of the rice seeds were identified in principle component analysis (PCA derived from UPLC-Q-TOF-MS. Cyanidin-3-glucoside, peonidin-3-glucoside, proanthocyanidin dimer, proanthocyanidin trimer, apigenin-6-C-glugosyl-8-C-arabiboside, tricin-O-rhamnoside-O-hexoside, and lipids were identified as significantly different secondary metabolites. In PCA score plots derived from GC-TOF-MS, Jakwangdo (JKD and Ilpoom (IP species were discriminated from the other rice seeds by PC1 and PC2. Valine, phenylalanine, adenosine, pyruvate, nicotinic acid, succinic acid, maleic acid, malonic acid, gluconic acid, xylose, fructose, glucose, maltose, and myo-inositol were significantly different primary metabolites in JKD species, while GABA, asparagine, xylitol, and sucrose were significantly distributed in IP species. Analysis of antioxidant activities revealed that black and red rice seeds had higher activity than white rice seeds. Cyanidin-3-glucoside, peonidin-3-glucoside, proanthocyanidin dimers, proanthocyanidin trimers, and catechin were highly correlated with antioxidant activities, and were more plentiful in black and red rice seeds. These results are expected to provide valuable information that could help improve and develop rice-breeding techniques.

  17. Transgene Flow from Glufosinate-Resistant Rice to Improved and Weedy Rice in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-liang LU

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The development of transgenic rice with novel traits in China can increase rice productivity, but transgene flow to improved or weedy rice has become a major concern. We aimed to evaluate the potential maximum frequencies of transgene flow from glufosinate-resistant rice to improved rice cultivars and weedy rice. Treatments were arranged in randomized complete blocks with three replicates. Experiments were conducted between 2009 and 2010 at the Center for Environmental Safety Supervision and Inspection for Genetically Modified Plants, China National Rice Research Institute, Hangzhou, China. Glufosinate-resistant japonica rice 99-1 was the pollen donor. The pollen recipients were two inbred japonica rice (Chunjiang 016 and Xiushui 09, two inbred indica rice (Zhongzu 14 and Zhongzao 22, two indica hybrid rice (Zhongzheyou 1 and Guodao 1, and one weedy indica rice (Taizhou weedy rice. The offspring of recipients were planted in the field and sprayed with a commercial dose of glufosinate. Leaf tissues of survivors were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction to detect the presence of the transgene. The frequency of gene flow ranged from 0 to 0.488%. In 2009, the order of gene flow frequency was as follows: weedy rice > Chunjiang 016 > Xiushui 09 and Zhongzu 14 > Guodao 1, Zhongzheyou 1 and Zhongzao 22. Gene flow frequencies were generally higher in 2009 than in 2010, but did not differ significantly among rice materials. Gene flow frequency was the highest in weedy rice followed by the inbred japonica rice. The risk of gene flow differed significantly between years and year-to-year variance could mask risk differences among pollen recipients. Gene flow was generally lesser in taller pollen recipients than in shorter ones, but plant height only accounted for about 30% of variation in gene flow. When flowering synchrony was maximized, as in this study, low frequencies of gene flow occurred from herbicide-resistant japonica rice to other cultivars and

  18. Evaluation of tall rice mutant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakim, L.; Azam, M.A.; Miah, A.J.; Mansur, M.A.; Akanda, H.R.

    1989-01-01

    One tall mutant (Mut NS1) of rice variety Nizersail was put to multilocation on-farm trial. It showed improvement over the parent in respect of by earlier maturity and higher grain yield at all locations and thus it appears as an improved mutant of Nizersail. (author). 6 refs

  19. Effect of induced mutagenesis in rice tissue culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maddumage, R.

    1994-01-01

    The influence of chemical mutagens and ionising radiation on growth, regenerative capacity of rice callus culture and the effect o9f mutagens on frequency and spectrum of mutant regenerants, derived from calli and determination of approximate semi-lethal dose of each mutagen on rice calli was studied. Intact mature de-husked grains and pieces of primordial particles of four varieties were used as explants in the experiment. Organogenesis was induced using MS media supplemented with agar. After thirty days calluses were subjected to varying concentrations/dosage of mutagens. The effect of mutagens on growth of callus was stimulative in low concentration/doses at short exposure, but in higher concentration/doses at longer exposure it was oppressive. In x-radiation treatment all the studied doses showed only stimulative effect on growth. The effect of mutagenic treatment on regenerative capacity was negative. No specificity was found even between two chemical mutagens of their action on studied characters

  20. Synthesis and characterization of rice starch laurate as food-grade emulsifier for canola oil-in-water emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Tejeda, Y V; Leal-Castañeda, E J; Espinosa-Solis, V; Barrera-Figueroa, V

    2018-08-15

    The effect of esterification on hydrolyzed rice starch was analyzed, for this aim rice starch was hydrolyzed and subsequently esterified with lauroyl chloride at three modification levels. Starch derivatives were characterized regarding their degree of substitution (DS), water solubility index, z-potential, gelatinization, and digestibility properties. DS of derivatives of rice starch laurate ranged from 0.042 to 1.86. It was determined that after esterification the water solubility index increased from 3.44 to 53.61%, the z-potential decreased from -3.18 to -11.27, and the content of slowly digestible starch (SDS) decreased from 26.22 to 5.13%. Different emulsions with starch concentrations ranging from 6 to 30 wt% were evaluated. The most stable emulsions were those having 20 and 30 wt% of rice starch laurate. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Conversion of the fungicide, ziram in rice plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumarasamy, R.; Raghu, K.

    1976-01-01

    Zinc dimethyldithiocarbamate (ziram) is a toliar fungicide used for the control of the blast disease of rice caused by Pyricularia oryzae, and is also used for the control of the plant diseases in crops like groundnut, cotton, etc. Since there is lack of data on the conversion products of this fungicide. This investigation was carried out. The results of the author's recent studies with 35 S-labelled ziram in rice seedlings were reported. The 35 S-Labelled ziram (specific activity 1.5 m Ci/m mole) was sprayed on the rice seedlings of 25 days old. At different intervals of time, the seedlings were removed, washed thoroughly, cut into pieces, and extracted with 80% ethanol. By the method described in ''K. Raghu et al., Origin and fate of chemical residents in food, agriculture and fisheries, I.A.E.A., Vienna, 1975, pp. 137-148,'' the segments corresponding to the standards of dimethyl dithio carbamate-alanine (DDCA), DDC-glucoside (DDCG), thiazolidine-2-thione-4-carbamic acid (TTCA), unidentified divolent fungicide (X), and ziram were cut out and the radioactivity was counted in cocktail D scintillation fluid using an LS-100 Beckmann liquid scintillation counter. It is indeed interesting to note that ziram is converted in plant tissues into dimethyldithiocarbamate derivatives like DDCG, DDCA, TTCA and X within 24 hr after spraying. The amounts of these derivatives varied in the course of sampling up to 8 days after spraying. Further studies are needed as to the quantitative nature of these products, but the present report clearly demonstrates the formation of these conversion products in the rice leaves treated with ziram. (Kobatake, H.)

  2. [Effects of fish on field resource utilization and rice growth in rice-fish coculture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian; Hu, Liang Liang; Ren, Wei Zheng; Guo, Liang; Wu, Min Fang; Tang, Jian Jun; Chen, Xin

    2017-01-01

    Rice field can provide habitat for fish and other aquatic animals. Rice-fish coculture can increase rice yield and simultaneously reduce the use of chemicals through reducing rice pest occurrence and nutrient complementary use. However, how fish uses food sources (e.g. phytoplankton, weeds, duckweed, macro-algal and snail) from rice field, and whether the nutrients releasing from those food sources due to fish transforming can improve rice growth are still unknown. Here, we conducted two field experiments to address these questions. One was to investigate the pattern of fish activity in the field using the method of video recording. The other was to examine the utilization of field resources by fish using stable isotope technology. Rice growth and rice yield were also exa-mined. Results showed that fish tended to be more active and significantly expanded the activity range in the rice-fish coculture compared to fish monoculture (fish not living together with rice plants). The contributions of 3 potential aquatic organisms (duckweed, phytoplankton and snail) to fish dietary were 22.7%, 34.8% and 30.0% respectively under rice-fish coculture without feed. Under the treatment with feed, however, the contributions of these 3 aquatic organisms to the fish die-tary were 8.9%, 5.9% and 1.6% respectively. The feed contribution was 71.0%. Rice-fish coculture significantly increased the nitrogen concentration in rice leaves, prolonged tillering stage by 10-12 days and increased rice spike rate and yield. The results suggested that raising fish in paddy field may transform the nutrients contained in field resources to bioavailable for rice plants through fish feeding activity, which can improve rice growth and rice yield.

  3. [Nitrogen cycling in rice-duck mutual ecosystem during double cropping rice growth season].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Chen, Yuan-Quan; Sui, Peng; Gao, Wang-Sheng

    2012-01-01

    Raising duck in paddy rice field is an evolution of Chinese traditional agriculture. In May-October 2010, a field experiment was conducted in a double cropping rice region of Hunan Province, South-central China to study the nitrogen (N) cycling in rice-duck mutual ecosystem during early rice and late rice growth periods, taking a conventional paddy rice field as the control. Input-output analysis method was adopted. The N output in the early rice-duck mutual ecosystem was 239.5 kg x hm(-2), in which, 12.77 kg x hm(-2) were from ducks, and the N output in the late rice-duck mutual ecosystem was 338.7 kg x hm(-2), in which, 23.35 kg x hm(-2) were from ducks. At the present N input level, there existed soil N deficit during the growth seasons of both early rice and late rice. The N input from duck sub-system was mainly from the feed N, and the cycling rate of the duck feces N recycled within the system was 2.5% during early rice growth season and 3.5% during late rice growth season. After late rice harvested, the soil N sequestration was 178.6 kg x hm(-2).

  4. A comparative study of competitiveness between different genotypes of weedy rice (Oryza sativa) and cultivated rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Lei; Dai, Weimin; Song, Xiaoling; Lu, Baorong; Qiang, Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Competition from weedy rice can cause serious yield losses to cultivated rice. However, key traits that facilitate competitiveness are still not well understood. To explore the mechanisms behind the strong growth and competitive ability, replacement series experiments were established with six genotypes of weedy rice from different regions and one cultivated rice cultivar. (1) Weedy rice from southern China had the greatest impact on growth and yield of cultivated rice throughout the entire growing season. Weedy rice from the northeast was very competitive during the early vegetative stage while the competitive effects of eastern weedy rice were more detrimental at later crop-growth stages. (2) As the proportion of weedy rice increased, plant height, tillers, above-ground biomass, and yield of cultivated rice significantly declined; the crop always being at disadvantage regardless of proportion. (3) Weedy biotypes with greater diversity as estimated by their Shannon indexes were more detrimental to the growth and yield of cultivated rice. Geographic origin (latitude) of weedy rice biotype, its mixture proportion under competition with the crop and its genetic diversity are determinant factors of the outcome of competition and the associated decline in the rice crop yield. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Development of aromatic giant-embryo rice by molecular marker-assisted selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHU Yingdong

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aromatic rice is loved for its distinctive aroma when cooking and eating.In this research,aromatic normal-embryo rice and non-aromatic giant-embryo rice,"Shangshida No.5",both bred by our laboratory,were selected as the parents for the hybridization.We used conventional breeding techniques as well as fragrance gene marker-assisted selection to derive new aromatic giant-embryo rice "Shangshida No.8".By comparing the agronomic and yield characters of "Shangshida No.5" and "Shangshida No.8",the average of filled grains per panicle of "Shangshida No.5" exceeds "Shangshida No.8" very significantly,while the average of effective panicles of "Shangshida No.8" is slightly more than "Shangshida No.5".Also,in the weight of thousand grains "Shangshida No.8" is slightly heavier than "Shangshida No.5".Thus,their grain weights per plant are close,29.10 g and 28.92 g respectively.By comparing the traits of rice embryo,there is no significant difference in embryo weight and volume.Also,there is no significant difference in weight ratio and volume ratio of embryo.This research has laid a solid foundation for further market development and application of aromatic giant-embryo rice.

  6. Metabolomic Profiles of Aspergillus oryzae and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens During Rice Koji Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da Eun Lee

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Rice koji, used early in the manufacturing process for many fermented foods, produces diverse metabolites and enzymes during fermentation. Using gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF-MS, ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography linear trap quadrupole ion trap tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-LTQ-IT-MS/MS, and multivariate analysis we generated the metabolite profiles of rice koji produced by fermentation with Aspergillus oryzae (RK_AO or Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (RK_BA for different durations. Two principal components of the metabolomic data distinguished the rice koji samples according to their fermenter species and fermentation time. Several enzymes secreted by the fermenter species, including α-amylase, protease, and β-glucosidase, were assayed to identify differences in expression levels. This approach revealed that carbohydrate metabolism, serine-derived amino acids, and fatty acids were associated with rice koji fermentation by A. oryzae, whereas aromatic and branched chain amino acids, flavonoids, and lysophospholipids were more typical in rice koji fermentation by B. amyloliquefaciens. Antioxidant activity was significantly higher for RK_BA than for RK_AO, as were the abundances of flavonoids, including tricin, tricin glycosides, apigenin glycosides, and chrysoeriol glycosides. In summary, we have used MS-based metabolomics and enzyme activity assays to evaluate the effects of using different microbial species and fermentation times on the nutritional profile of rice koji.

  7. Rice production in relation to soil quality under different rice-based cropping systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran Ba, Linh; Sleutel, Steven; Nguyen Van, Qui; Thi, Guong Vo; Le Van, Khoa; Cornelis, Wim

    2016-04-01

    Soil quality of shallow paddy soils may be improved by introducing upland crops and thus a more diverse crop cultivation pattern. Yet, the causal relationship between crop performance and enhanced soil traits in rice-upland crop rotations remains elusive. The objectives of this study were to (i) find correlations among soil properties under different rice-upland crop systems and link selected soil properties to rice growth and yield, (ii) present appropriate values of soil parameters for sustainable rice productivity in heavy clay soil, (iii) evaluate the effect of rotating rice with upland crops on rice yield and economic benefit in a long-term experiment. A rice-upland crop rotational field experiment in the Vietnamese Mekong delta was conducted for 10 years using a randomized complete block design with four treatments and four replications. Treatments were: (i) rice-rice-rice (control - conventional system as farmers' practice), (ii) rice-maize-rice, (iii) rice-mung bean-rice, and (iv) rice-mung bean-maize. Soil and plant sampling were performed after harvest of the rice crop at the end of the final winter-spring cropping season (i.e. year 10). Results show differences in rice growth and yield, and economic benefit as an effect of the crop rotation system. These differences were linked with changes in bulk density, soil porosity, soil aggregate stability index, soil penetration resistance, soil macro-porosity, soil organic carbon, acid hydrolysable soil C and soil nutrient elements, especially at soil depth of 20-30 cm. This is evidenced by the strong correlation (P < 0.01) between rice plant parameters, rice yield and soil properties such as bulk density, porosity, penetration resistance, soil organic carbon and Chydrolysable. It turned out that good rice root growth and rice yield corresponded to bulk density values lower than 1.3 Mg m-3, soil porosity higher than 50%, penetration resistance below 1.0 MPa, and soil organic carbon above 25 g kg-1. The optimal

  8. Aerobic rice mechanization: techniques for crop establishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khusairy, K. M.; Ayob, H.; Chan, C. S.; Fauzi, M. I. Mohamed; Mohamad Fakhrul, Z. O.; Shahril Shah, G. S. M.; Azlan, O.; Rasad, M. A.; Hashim, A. M.; Arshad, Z.; E, E. Ibrahim; Saifulizan, M. N.

    2015-12-01

    Rice being the staple food crops, hundreds of land races in it makes the diversity of rice crops. Aerobic rice production was introduced which requires much less water input to safeguard and sustain the rice production and conserve water due to decreasing water resources, climatic changes and competition from urban and industrial users. Mechanization system plays an important role for the success of aerobic rice cultivation. All farming activities for aerobic rice production are run on aerobic soil conditions. Row seeder mechanization system is developed to replace conventional seeding technique on the aerobic rice field. It is targeted for small and the large scale aerobic rice farmers. The aero - seeder machine is used for the small scale aerobic rice field, while the accord - seeder is used for the large scale aerobic rice field. The use of this mechanization machine can eliminate the tedious and inaccurate seeding operations reduce labour costs and increases work rate. The machine is easy to operate and it can increase crop establishment rate. It reduce missing hill, increasing planting and crop with high yield can be produce. This machine is designed for low costs maintenance and it is easy to dismantle and assemble during maintenance and it is safe to be used.

  9. Rice agroecosystem and the maintenance of biodiversity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahyaudin Ali

    2002-01-01

    Rice fields are a special type of wetland. They are shallow, constantly disturbed and experience extremes in temperature and dissolved oxygen content. They receive nutrients in the form of fertilizers during rice cultivation. Rice fields; support a variety of flora and fauna that have adapted and adjusted themselves to the extreme conditions. Since rice fields also support populations of wild fish, rice?fish integration should be done in order to optimize land use and provide supplementary income to farmers. Rice?fish farming encourages farmers to judiciously apply pesticides and herbicides in their fields thus helping to control excessive and unwarranted use of these chemicals. Rice fields also support many migratory and nonmigratory bird species and provides habitat for small mammals. Thus the rice agroecosystem helps to maintain aquatic biodiversity. The Muda rice agroecosystem consists of a troika of interconnected ecosystems. The troika consisting of reservoirs, the connecting network of canals and the rice fields; should be investigated further. This data is needed for informed decision-making concerning development and management of the system so that productivity and biodiversity can be maintained and sustained. (Author)

  10. Assessment of Rice Associated Bacterial Ability to Enhance Rice Seed Germination and Rice Growth Promotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Gholamalizadeh

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The application of beneficial bacteria has recently been used for sustainable agriculture. In current research, 71 bacterial isolates were obtained from rice plant and the rhizosphere soil of different paddy fields in Guilan province, Iran. After primitive investigation, 40 bacteria with typical predominant characteristics were selected. By PCR-RFLP of their 16S r-DNA gene, 8 Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs totally consisted of 33 isolates were obtained. From all of them, 8 isolates were selected for rice seed germination experiment, then, effective isolates were used for pot experiment to evaluate their ability for promoting rice growth. All of them were able to increase rice growth and yield, but in different potential. These tested isolates were identified as Alcaligenes faecalis (DEp8, O1R4, Pantoea ananatis (AEn1, Bacillus vietnamensis (MR5, Bacillus idriensis (MR2 and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia by partial sequencing of their 16S r-DNA gene. Among them, AEn1 and MR5 produced indole-3- acetic acid (IAA in larger amounts than the other isolates and the isolates AEn1 and O1R4 were able to solubilize phosphate in higher amounts. According to the results obtained, it can be concluded that AEn1, O1R4 and MR5 can be considered as bacterial inoculants to use as alternatives for chemical fertilizers.

  11. The role of Bh4 in parallel evolution of hull colour in domesticated and weedy rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigueira, C C; Li, W; Olsen, K M

    2013-08-01

    The two independent domestication events in the genus Oryza that led to African and Asian rice offer an extremely useful system for studying the genetic basis of parallel evolution. This system is also characterized by parallel de-domestication events, with two genetically distinct weedy rice biotypes in the US derived from the Asian domesticate. One important trait that has been altered by rice domestication and de-domestication is hull colour. The wild progenitors of the two cultivated rice species have predominantly black-coloured hulls, as does one of the two U.S. weed biotypes; both cultivated species and one of the US weedy biotypes are characterized by straw-coloured hulls. Using Black hull 4 (Bh4) as a hull colour candidate gene, we examined DNA sequence variation at this locus to study the parallel evolution of hull colour variation in the domesticated and weedy rice system. We find that independent Bh4-coding mutations have arisen in African and Asian rice that are correlated with the straw hull phenotype, suggesting that the same gene is responsible for parallel trait evolution. For the U.S. weeds, Bh4 haplotype sequences support current hypotheses on the phylogenetic relationship between the two biotypes and domesticated Asian rice; straw hull weeds are most similar to indica crops, and black hull weeds are most similar to aus crops. Tests for selection indicate that Asian crops and straw hull weeds deviate from neutrality at this gene, suggesting possible selection on Bh4 during both rice domestication and de-domestication. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2013 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  12. Genetic dissection of grain traits in Yamadanishiki, an excellent sake-brewing rice cultivar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Satoshi; Suehiro, Miki; Ebana, Kaworu; Hori, Kiyosumi; Onogi, Akio; Iwata, Hiroyoshi; Yamasaki, Masanori

    2017-12-01

    The grain traits of Yamadanishiki, an excellent sake-brewing rice cultivar in Japan, are governed by multiple QTLs, namely, a total of 42 QTLs including six major QTLs. Japanese rice wine (sake) is produced using brewing rice (Oryza sativa L.) that carries traits desirable for sake-brewing, such as a larger grain size and higher white-core expression rate (WCE) compared to cooking rice cultivars. However, the genetic basis for these traits in brewing rice cultivars is still unclear. We performed analyses of quantitative trait locus (QTL) of grain and days to heading over 3 years on populations derived from crosses between Koshihikari, a cooking rice, and Yamadanishiki, an excellent sake-brewing rice. A total of 42 QTLs were detected for the grain traits, and the Yamadanishiki alleles at 16 QTLs contributed to larger grain size. Two major QTLs essential for regulating both 100-grain weight (GWt) and grain width (GWh) were harbored in the same regions on chromosomes 5 and 10. An interaction was noted between the environment and the QTL associated with WCE on chromosome 6, which was detected in two of 3 years. In addition, two QTLs for WCE on chromosomes 3 and 10 overlapped with the QTLs for GWt and GWh, suggesting that QTLs associated with grain size also play an important role in the formation of white-core. Despite differences in the rate of grain growth in both Koshihikari and Yamadanishiki across 2 years, the WCE in Yamadanishiki remained consistent, thus demonstrating that the formation of white-core does not depend on grain filling speed. These data can be informative for programs involved in breeding better cooking and brewing rice cultivars.

  13. Variation in Yield and Physicochemical Quality Traits among Mutants of Japonica Rice Cultivar Wuyujing 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Daniel Abacar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To select elite germplasms, 112 mutants derived from japonica rice cultivar Wuyujing 3 were evaluated. The yield components such as panicle number per square meter, grain number per panicle, and grain weight were measured. The quality traits such as percentage of chalky grains (PCG, brown rice yield (BRY, milled rice yield (MRY, degree of milling (DM, amylose content (AC, protein content (PC, and relationships among traits were inverstigated. Results showed that grain yield ranged from 2.15 to 12.49 t/hm2 with a mean of 6.4 t/hm2 and number of grains per square meter contributed for 94.64% in grain yield variation. For quality traits, all rice mutants had short size (grain length ≤ 5.5 mm and bold shape (grain length to width ratio = 1.10–2.00. Most of rice mutants (87.5% had PCG values below 20%. All mutants had MRY values above 50%, AC values below 20%, and PC values below 10%. Percentage of chalky grains was significantly negatively correlated with MRY and positively correlated with DM. BRY and MRY were significantly negatively correlated with DM. PC was significantly and positively correlated with MRY and negatively correlated with DM, while AC had no significant correlation with these quality traits. It was concluded that there were 25 rice mutants which fulfilled the major requirements of Jiangsu standard japonica rice such as low percentage of chalky grains, low amylose content, optimal protein content, and which could be used as elite germplasms. Thus the mutants identified may lead to significant progress in improvement of rice quality.

  14. Tier I Rice Model - Version 1.0 - Guidance for Estimating Pesticide Concentrations in Rice Paddies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Describes a Tier I Rice Model (Version 1.0) for estimating surface water exposure from the use of pesticides in rice paddies. The concentration calculated can be used for aquatic ecological risk and drinking water exposure assessments.

  15. A preliminary study on the reduction of limonite ore by using rice husk as a reducing agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksum, Ahmad; Husein, Michael Kelvin E.; Permana, Sulaksana; Rustandi, Andi; Wahyuadi Soedarsono, Johny

    2018-03-01

    The abundant of rice husk in Indonesia has encouraged researchers to study the feasibility of rice husk for substituting material that is more expensive or dangerous. In previous study, silica with a purity of 99.9% has been obtained from rice husk with calcinations process. Nevertheless, the gases resulting from the process were not used and left useless. Therefore, in this study, those gases derived from rice husk calcinations process were used as reducing agents during the ferronickel (Fe-Ni) production through a direct reduction process. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of the amount of rice husk in the pellets on the increase of nickel content in the limonite reduction process. The limonite ore were crushed to the size of less than 150 mesh using disc-mill, and then were mixed with rice husk powder (10, 20, 30 in wt % mass) before being pelletized using bentonite as a binder. The resulted pellets were roasted at 500°C for 60 minutes and then quenched in water media. After drying process, the reduction process of 40g pellets was conducted at 1000°C for 90 minutes with 20g rice husk in furnace. The effects of additional rice husk on the direct reduction of limonite ore pellets were qualitatively analyzed by using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and quantitatively by Atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). Both analysis results showed that the reduction process followed the reaction scheme: Fe2O3→Fe3O4→FeO and NiO phase was detected in the sample with 20% rice husk addition. The optimum concentration of Ni 1.23% was obtained for 20% rice husk addition.

  16. Genetic analysis of basmati and non-basmati Pakistani rice (oryza sativa l.) cultivars using microsatellite markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabbani, M.A.; Masood, M.A.; Shinwari, Z.K.

    2010-01-01

    Information of genetic variability and relatedness among rice genotypes is essential for future breeding programmes and derivation of superior cultivars. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the genetic relationship among traditional and improved cultivars of Pakistani rice and to determine differences in the patterns of variation between two indica rice groups: basmati and nonbasmati. Forty-one cultivars were evaluated by means of 30 microsatellite markers distributed over the whole rice genome. A total of 104 alleles were detected by 30 markers, all of them (100%) were polymorphic. The number of alleles generated by each marker ranged from 2 to 6 with an average of 3.5 alleles marker-1. Polymorphism information content (PIC) varied from 0.259 to 0.782 with an average of 0.571. A significant positive correlation (r = 0.71) was found between the number of alleles at SSR locus and the PIC values. Pair-wise Nei and Li's similarity coefficients ranged from 0.10 to 0.99. A dendrogram based on cluster analysis by microsatellite polymorphism grouped 41 rice cultivars into 2 major groups effectively differentiating the late maturing, tall and slender-grain basmati and other aromatic rice cultivars from the early, short statured, short bold and long bold grain non-aromatic cultivars. Higher level of genetic diversity between basmati and non-basmati support the concept that former had a long history of independent evolution and diverged from nonbasmati rice a long time ago through human selection and patronage. Present investigation further indicated that genetically basmati rice is different from that of coarse indica and japonica type. The results suggested that microsatellite markers could efficiently be utilized for diversity analysis, and differentiation of basmati and non-basmati rice cultivars. In addition, marker-based identification of traditional basmati rice may help in maintaining the integrity of this high quality product to the benefit of both

  17. Mapping paddy rice planting areas through time series analysis of MODIS land surface temperature and vegetation index data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Geli; Xiao, Xiangming; Dong, Jinwei; Kou, Weili; Jin, Cui; Qin, Yuanwei; Zhou, Yuting; Wang, Jie; Menarguez, Michael Angelo; Biradar, Chandrashekhar

    2015-08-01

    Knowledge of the area and spatial distribution of paddy rice is important for assessment of food security, management of water resources, and estimation of greenhouse gas (methane) emissions. Paddy rice agriculture has expanded rapidly in northeastern China in the last decade, but there are no updated maps of paddy rice fields in the region. Existing algorithms for identifying paddy rice fields are based on the unique physical features of paddy rice during the flooding and transplanting phases and use vegetation indices that are sensitive to the dynamics of the canopy and surface water content. However, the flooding phenomena in high latitude area could also be from spring snowmelt flooding. We used land surface temperature (LST) data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor to determine the temporal window of flooding and rice transplantation over a year to improve the existing phenology-based approach. Other land cover types (e.g., evergreen vegetation, permanent water bodies, and sparse vegetation) with potential influences on paddy rice identification were removed (masked out) due to their different temporal profiles. The accuracy assessment using high-resolution images showed that the resultant MODIS-derived paddy rice map of northeastern China in 2010 had a high accuracy (producer and user accuracies of 92% and 96%, respectively). The MODIS-based map also had a comparable accuracy to the 2010 Landsat-based National Land Cover Dataset (NLCD) of China in terms of both area and spatial pattern. This study demonstrated that our improved algorithm by using both thermal and optical MODIS data, provides a robust, simple and automated approach to identify and map paddy rice fields in temperate and cold temperate zones, the northern frontier of rice planting.

  18. Characterization of mercury species in brown and white rice (Oryza sativa L.) grown in water-saving paddies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothenberg, Sarah E., E-mail: rothenberg.sarah@gmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 46 Guanshui Lu, Guiyang 550002 (China); Feng Xinbin, E-mail: fengxinbin@vip.skleg.cn [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 46 Guanshui Lu, Guiyang 550002 (China); Dong Bin, E-mail: dongbin@whu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Water Resources and Hydropower Engineering Science, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Shang Lihai, E-mail: shanglihai@vip.gyig.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 46 Guanshui Lu, Guiyang 550002 (China); Yin Runsheng, E-mail: yinrunsheng2002@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 46 Guanshui Lu, Guiyang 550002 (China); Yuan Xiaobo, E-mail: xiantao_131@163.com [College of Resources and the Environment, Southwest University, Chongqing 400716 (China)

    2011-05-15

    In China, total Hg (Hg{sub T}) and methylmercury (MeHg) were quantified in rice grain grown in three sites using water-saving rice cultivation methods, and in one Hg-contaminated site, where rice was grown under flooded conditions. Polished white rice concentrations of Hg{sub T} (water-saving: 3.3 {+-} 1.6 ng/g; flooded: 110 {+-} 9.2 ng/g) and MeHg (water-saving 1.3 {+-} 0.56 ng/g; flooded: 12 {+-} 2.4 ng/g) were positively correlated with root-soil Hg{sub T} and MeHg contents (Hg{sub T}: r{sup 2} = 0.97, MeHg: r{sup 2} = 0.87, p < 0.05 for both), which suggested a portion of Hg species in rice grain was derived from the soil, and translocation of Hg species from soil to rice grain was independent of irrigation practices and Hg levels, although other factors may be important. Concentrations of Hg{sub T} and other trace elements were significantly higher in unmilled brown rice (p < 0.05), while MeHg content was similar (p > 0.20), indicating MeHg infiltrated the endosperm (i.e., white rice) more efficiently than inorganic Hg(II). - Highlights: > First time that Hg{sub T} and MeHg were characterized in both brown and white rice. > MeHg translocation into the endosperm was more efficient than inorganic Hg(II). > In this respect, MeHg behaved like dimethylarsinic acid and organic Se species. > In white rice, Hg{sub T} and MeHg were positively correlated with soil Hg{sub T} and MeHg. > Uptake rates of Hg{sub T} and MeHg were independent of irrigation methods and Hg content. - Methylmercury was more efficiently translocated to the endosperm than inorganic mercury.

  19. A Phenology-Based Classification of Time-Series MODIS Data for Rice Crop Monitoring in Mekong Delta, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen-Thanh Son

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Rice crop monitoring is an important activity for crop management. This study aimed to develop a phenology-based classification approach for the assessment of rice cropping systems in Mekong Delta, Vietnam, using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS data. The data were processed from December 2000, to December 2012, using empirical mode decomposition (EMD in three main steps: (1 data pre-processing to construct the smooth MODIS enhanced vegetation index (EVI time-series data; (2 rice crop classification; and (3 accuracy assessment. The comparisons between the classification maps and the ground reference data indicated overall accuracies and Kappa coefficients, respectively, of 81.4% and 0.75 for 2002, 80.6% and 0.74 for 2006 and 85.5% and 0.81 for 2012. The results by comparisons between MODIS-derived rice area and rice area statistics were slightly overestimated, with a relative error in area (REA from 0.9–15.9%. There was, however, a close correlation between the two datasets (R2 ≥ 0.89. From 2001 to 2012, the areas of triple-cropped rice increased approximately 31.6%, while those of the single-cropped rain-fed rice, double-cropped irrigated rice and double-cropped rain-fed rice decreased roughly −5.0%, −19.2% and −7.4%, respectively. This study demonstrates the validity of such an approach for rice-crop monitoring with MODIS data and could be transferable to other regions.

  20. significance of rice sheath photosynthesis: yield determination by c ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    1State Key Laboratory of Hybrid Rice, Hunan Hybrid Rice Research Center, Changsha 410125, P.R. China. 2School of ... for contribution rates of sheath photosynthesis to economical yield. ..... related processes during ripening in rice plants.

  1. Perceived factors limiting rice production in Pategi Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    perceived limiting factors in rice production include lack of rice processing ... This production increase has not been enough to meet the consumption demand of ... of Kwara State, Nigeria seeks to determine some of the factors limiting rice ...

  2. potential for biological control of rice yellow mottle virus vectors

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Insect pests and disease infestations are the primary constraints in rice (Oryza sativa) production .... Asia. Of all the rice diseases, the one caused by the rice yellow mottle virus (RYMV), first reported ..... yellow mottle virus in Central Africa.

  3. Effect of Interplanting with Zero Tillage and Straw Manure on Rice Growth and Rice Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-ping LIU

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The interplanting with zero-tillage of rice, i.e. direct sowing rice 10–20 days before wheat harvesting, and remaining about 30-cm high stubble after cutting wheat or rice with no tillage, is a new cultivation technology in wheat-rice rotation system. To study the effects of interplanting with zero tillage and straw manure on rice growth and quality, an experiment was conducted in a wheat-rotation rotation system. Four treatments, i.e. ZIS (Zero-tillage, straw manure and rice interplanting, ZI (Zero-tillage, no straw manure and rice interplanting, PTS (Plowing tillage, straw manure and rice transplanting, and PT (Plowing tillage, no straw manure and rice transplanting, were used. ZIS reduced plant height, leaf area per plant and the biomass of rice plants, but the biomass accumulation of rice at the late stage was quicker than that under conventional transplanting cultivation. In the first year (2002, there was no significant difference in rice yield among the four treatments. However, rice yield decreased in interplanting with zero-tillage in the second year (2003. Compared with the transplanting treatments, the number of filled grains per panicle decreased but 1000-grain weight increased in interplanting with zero-tillage, which were the main factors resulting in higher yield. Interplanting with zero-tillage improved the milling and appearance qualities of rice. The rates of milled and head rice increased while chalky rice rate and chalkiness decreased in interplanting with zero-tillage. Zero-tillage and interplanting also affected rice nutritional and cooking qualities. In 2002, ZIS showed raised protein content, decreased amylose content, softer gel consistency, resulting in improved rice quality. In 2003, zero-tillage and interplanting decreased protein content and showed similar amylose content as compared with transplanting treatments. Moreover, protein content in PTS was obviously increased in comparison with the other three treatments

  4. Assessing the impacts of climate change on rice yields in the main rice areas of China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Fengmei [College of Earth Sciences, The Graduate University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19A, Yuquan Road, Beijing, 100049 (China); Xu, Yinglong; Lin, Erda [Agricultural Environment and Sustainable Development Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, 100081 (China); Yokozawa, Masayuki [National Institute for Agro-environmental Sciences, Tsukuba 305-8604 (Japan); Zhang, Jiahua [Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, Beijing, 100081 (China)

    2007-02-15

    This paper assesses the impact of climate change on irrigated rice yield using B2 climate change scenario from the Regional Climate Model (RCM) and CERES-rice model during 2071--2090. Eight typical rice stations ranging in latitude, longitude, and elevation that are located in the main rice ecological zones of China are selected for impact assessment. First, Crop Estimation through Resource and Environment Synthesis (CERES)-rice model is validated using farm experiment data in selected stations. The simulated results represent satisfactorily the trend of flowering duration and yields. The deviation of simulation within {+-} 10% of observed flowering duration and {+-} 15% of observed yield. Second, the errors of the outputs of RCM due to the difference of topography between station point and grid point is corrected. The corrected output of the RCM used for simulating rice flowering duration and yield is more reliable than the not corrected. Without CO2 direct effect on crop, the results from the assessment explore that B2 climate change scenario would have a negative impact on rice yield at most rice stations and have little impacts at Fuzhou and Kunming. To find the change of inter-annual rice yield, a preliminary assessment is made based on comparative cumulative probability at low and high yield and the coefficient variable of yield between the B2 scenario and baseline. Without the CO2 direct effect on rice yield, the result indicates that frequency for low yield would increase and it reverses for high yield, and the variance for rice yield would increase. It is concluded that high frequency at low yield and high variances of rice yield could pose a threat to rice yield at most selected stations in the main rice areas of China. With the CO2 direct effect on rice yield, rice yield increase in all selected stations.

  5. Assessing the impacts of climate change on rice yields in the main rice areas of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Fengmei; Xu, Yinglong; Lin, Erda; Yokozawa, Masayuki; Zhang, Jiahua

    2007-01-01

    This paper assesses the impact of climate change on irrigated rice yield using B2 climate change scenario from the Regional Climate Model (RCM) and CERES-rice model during 2071--2090. Eight typical rice stations ranging in latitude, longitude, and elevation that are located in the main rice ecological zones of China are selected for impact assessment. First, Crop Estimation through Resource and Environment Synthesis (CERES)-rice model is validated using farm experiment data in selected stations. The simulated results represent satisfactorily the trend of flowering duration and yields. The deviation of simulation within ± 10% of observed flowering duration and ± 15% of observed yield. Second, the errors of the outputs of RCM due to the difference of topography between station point and grid point is corrected. The corrected output of the RCM used for simulating rice flowering duration and yield is more reliable than the not corrected. Without CO2 direct effect on crop, the results from the assessment explore that B2 climate change scenario would have a negative impact on rice yield at most rice stations and have little impacts at Fuzhou and Kunming. To find the change of inter-annual rice yield, a preliminary assessment is made based on comparative cumulative probability at low and high yield and the coefficient variable of yield between the B2 scenario and baseline. Without the CO2 direct effect on rice yield, the result indicates that frequency for low yield would increase and it reverses for high yield, and the variance for rice yield would increase. It is concluded that high frequency at low yield and high variances of rice yield could pose a threat to rice yield at most selected stations in the main rice areas of China. With the CO2 direct effect on rice yield, rice yield increase in all selected stations

  6. Rice Seedling Substrate Produced by Coal Gangue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHAO Yu-fei

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Peats are the mostly used material in making rice seedling substrate. However, mining peats could cause environmental problems. In order to reduce or replace peats in rice seedling substrate industry, this paper studied suitable way to configure rice seedling. The coal gangue was used to experiment cultivating rice. Four rice seeding experiments were carried out based on physical and chemical properties of materials attributes. The results showed:(1 Coal gangue was feasible for rice seedling; (2 The maximum adding amount of coal gangue was 80%(volume ratio though the coal gangue need to be activated; (3 In the case of no activated treatment only 38%(volume ratio of coal gangue could be added to the substrate.

  7. Improvement of rice starch by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan Zhiying; Wu Dianxing; Shen Shengquan; Han Juanying; Xia Yingwu

    2003-01-01

    Three types of rice cultivars, Indica, Japonica and hybrid rice, with similar intermediate apparent amylose content (AAC) as well as early Indica rice cultivars with different amounts of AAC were selected for studying the effects of gamma irradiation on starch viscosity, physico-chemical properties and starch granule structure. Four major parameters of RVA profile, peak viscosity (PKV), hot paste viscosity (HPV), cool paste viscosity (CPV), setback viscosity (SBV) and consistence viscosity (CSV) were considerably decreased with increasing dose levels. Gamma irradiation reduced the amylose contents in the cultivars with low AAC, intermediate AAC, and glutinous rice, but had no effects on the high AAC cultivar. No visible changes in alkali spreading value (ASV) were detected after irradiation, but the peak time (PKT) were reduced with the dose level. Gel consistency (GC) were significantly increased in the tested cultivars, especially in the high AAC Indica rice, suggesting that it is promising to use gamma irradiation to improve eating and cooking quality of rice

  8. The biological effect of gamma radiation on in vitro culture in rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Cailian; Xu Gang; Shen Mei; Chen Qiufang

    1994-08-01

    Radiobiological effects of gamma radiation on different types of rice before or during in vitro culture, combined treatments of 137 Cs γ-rays and NaN 3 on mature embryo culture, and irradiation on growth of calli derived from anther in rice were studied. The dose-effects relations of callus induction rate and callus growth rate could be fitted according to the multi-target and single-hit model. Effect of somatic cultures of different types in rice was different. Increase in plant regeneration capacity was found with 100, 150 Gy gamma rays. Decrease of callus induction rate, callus growth rate and callus differentiation rate (especially in the 1st culture) were observed in combined treatments of γ-rays and NaN 3 . However, mutagenic effects of treatments with γ-rays were much higher than those of combined treatment of γ-rays and NaN 3 in the 2nd and the 3rd culture. Combined treatments of 137 Cs γ-rays with 200 Gy and 2 mmol NaN 3 were suitable for explant in rice before culture. To irradiate the calli derived from anther in rice with 30 Gy gamma rays can rise plant regeneration capacity during continuing culture

  9. Antiadipogenic Activity of γ-Oryzanol and Its Stability in Pigmented Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minatel, Igor Otavio; Lee, Yoon-Mi; Yoon, Haelim; Yoon, Young; Han, Sang-Ik; Correa, Camila Renata; Fecchio, Denise; Yeum, Kyung-Jin

    2016-07-01

    γ-Oryzanol, a prevalent compound in pigmented rice varieties, has been reported to ameliorate obesity-associated metabolic disorders. Antiadipogenic activities of γ-oryzanol were determined in human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells and mouse-derived 3T3-L1 cells. γ-Oryzanol significantly decreased lipid accumulation and reduced glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase activities in both adipocytes. In addition, γ-oryzanol in four pigmented rice varieties (black with giant embryo, brown, sugary brown, and red) was stable when stored at 4°C and also at room temperature for 22 weeks, whereas other bioactives such as lutein and β-carotene were stable only at -80°C. Furthermore, the yield of γ-oryzanol from these rice varieties was significantly increased through steaming and roasting processes. Therefore, γ-oryzanol exerts antiadipogenic activity by suppressing adipocyte differentiations and is stable in pigmented rice for an extended period of time during storage and after cooking. Thus, the intake of pigmented rice may be a useful strategy for preventing obesity.

  10. Characterization of wide cross derivatives in rice Oryza sativa L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hope&shola

    2010-10-04

    Oct 4, 2010 ... Newly emerged roots (1 - 2 cm) from field grown F1 hybrid plants. (BC1, MAAL ... vectashield. The slides were screened with fluorescence micro- .... Brar DS, Dalmacio R, Eloloran R, Aggarwal R, Angels R, Khush GS. (1996).

  11. RiceAtlas, a spatial database of global rice calendars and production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laborte, Alice G.; Gutierrez, Mary Anne; Balanza, Jane Girly; Saito, Kazuki; Zwart, Sander; Boschetti, Mirco; Murty, M. V.R.; Villano, Lorena; Aunario, Jorrel Khalil; Reinke, Russell; Koo, Jawoo; Hijmans, Robert J.; Nelson, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Knowing where, when, and how much rice is planted and harvested is crucial information for understanding the effects of policy, trade, and global and technological change on food security. We developed RiceAtlas, a spatial database on the seasonal distribution of the world's rice production. It

  12. DETERMINATION OF SPATIAL INTEGRATION AND SUBSTITUTION OF FOREIGN RICE FOR LOCAL RICE IN GHANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Kofi ADOM

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study tested for spatial integration in the rice market and the substitution of imported rice for local rice in Ghana. It is established that the markets for domestic imported rice are well-integrated, but not complete. The imperfect spatial integration of domestic foreign rice markets implies that the market provides opportunities for arbitrage. Price leadership roles are found to be determined by the kind of sub-inter-regional-trade network defined. However, in all, the Accra market emerged as a dominant market leader in the domestic foreign rice market. There is evidence of significant regional substitution of foreign rice for local rice in the long run, but the result is mixed in the short run. The result that local rice is not a perfect substitute for imported rice implies that price disincentive measures such as increasing the import tariffs on foreign rice will only produce a mild effect on increasing the producer price faced by local rice farmers, but aggravate the burden on households’ budget.

  13. Soil to rice transfer factors for 210Pb: a study on rice grown in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karunakara, N.; Rao, Chetan; Ujwal, P.; Yashodhara, I.; Sudeep Kumara; Somashekarappa, H.M.; Bhaskara Shenoy, K.; Ravi, P.M.

    2013-01-01

    India is the second largest producer of rice (Oryza sativa L.) in the world and rice is the essential component of the diet for the majority of the population of India. However, detailed studies aimed at evaluation of radionuclide transfer factors (F v ) for rice grown in India are almost non-existent. This paper presents soil to rice transfer factors for 210 Pb for rice grown in natural field conditions on the West Coast of India. A rice field was developed very close to the Kaiga nuclear power plant for the field studies. For a comparative study of radionuclide transfer factors, rice samples were also collected from the rice fields of nearby villages. The soil to un-hulled rice grain 210 Pb varied in the range <1.2 x10 -2 to 8.1 x 10 -1 with a mean of 1.4 x 10 -1 . The mean values of un-hulled grain to white rice processing retention factors (F r ) was 0.03 for 210 Pb. Using the processing retention factors the soil to white rice transfer factor was estimated and found to have the mean value of 4.2 x 10 -3 . The study has shown that the transfer of 210 Pb was retained in the root and its transfer to above ground organs of rice plant is significantly lower. (author)

  14. An Economic Risk Analysis of Weed Suppressive Rice Cultivars in Rice Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeds are a major constraint to rice production. In the United States, most rice cultivars are not inherently weed-suppressive and require substantial herbicide inputs to achieve agronomic and economic viability. Intensive herbicide application in rice also has many potential drawbacks, resulting in...

  15. Salinity alters the protein composition of rice endosperm and the physicochemical properties of rice flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Graeme; Zhao, Jian; Blanchard, Christopher

    2011-09-01

    Salinity is one of the major threats to production of rice and other agricultural crops worldwide. Although numerous studies have shown that salinity can severely reduce rice yield, little is known about its impact on the chemical composition, processing and sensory characteristics of rice. The objective of the current study was to investigate the effect of salinity on the pasting and textural properties of rice flour as well as on the protein content and composition of rice endosperm. Rice grown under saline conditions had significantly lower yields but substantially higher protein content. The increase in protein content was mainly attributed to increases in the amount of glutelin, with lesser contributions from albumin. Salinity also altered the relative proportions of the individual peptides within the glutelin fraction. Flours obtained from rice grown under saline conditions showed significantly higher pasting temperatures, but lower peak and breakdown viscosities. Rice gels prepared from the flour showed significantly higher hardness and adhesiveness values, compared to the freshwater controls. Salinity can significantly affect the pasting and textural characteristics of rice flour. Although some of the effects could be attributed to changes in protein content of the rice flour, especially the increased glutelin level, the impact of salinity on the physicochemical properties of rice is rather complex and may involve the interrelated effects of other rice components such as starch and lipids. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Medicinal and nutritional importance of rice bran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, R.; Salim, M.; Rauf, R.; Baloach, M.K.

    2005-01-01

    Rice-bran is produced from the outer layer of brown rice and is stabilized through steam-heating. The rice-bran and its products are safe for human and animal consumption. The microbiological safety and rigorous quality-control practices merits its use as nutritional and dietary supplement for overall health-maintenance and as a part of a healthy diet and life-style, as it contributes to the reduction of certain diseases and health-related conditions. Stabilized rice-barn contain 15% of high nutritional- value protein, 20% of high-quality fat with Omega-3 and Omega-6 fatty acids, and nutritional dietary fiber. In addition to several phytonutrients, rice-bran contains vitamins and minerals, while over 100 potent antioxidants have been identified to date. Several scientific papers have reported the analysis and bioavailibility of rice-bran nutrients. Various chemical studies demonstrated the biological effects of the nutrients found in rice-bran. So far, more than 250 scientific publications are available on rice-bran, establishing the striking medicinal properties of rice-bran products. The oil-fraction of rice-bran has concentrated all tire fat-soluble phytonutrient in it, making itself an excellent health-promoting edible oil, as well as message oil The fiber-fraction of rice-bran has a profound effect on the gastrointestinal health, and improves bowel function. Rice-bran fiber along with phytonutrients was found to reduce cholesterol and lipid levels and maintain cardiovascular function. It has beneficial effect on tire kidney and urinary tract health and is helpful in weight-management and fiber replacement diets. (author)

  17. Trace the exploitation of Egyptian rice straw through spectral and thermal measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raafat M. Issa

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cellulose from rice straw obtained at low sodium hydroxide solution concentration with high quality was used to obtain different cellulose derivatives through xanthation. Cellulose was then treated with carbon disulfide in the presence of sodium hydroxide. The viscose obtained was characterized with both chemical and instrumental analyses, namely, IR spectra, TGA and DTA analysis as well as SEM (scanning electron microscopy.

  18. Rice breeding with induced mutations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1968-06-01

    The Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture decided in 1964 to organize a co-ordinated research programme on the use of induced mutations in rice breeding. The programme was organized within the framework of activities of the International Rice Commission. This is a report of the Third Co-ordination Meeting of the participants, which was held in Taipei, 5-9 June 1967. As the projects, which together make up the co-ordinated programme, are at different stages of progress, the report contains a variety of papers including completed studies, field and progress reports, and highlights of the discussions with some additional recommendations prepared by the participants. Refs, figs and tabs.

  19. Bioethanol production from rice straw residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsayed B. Belal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A rice straw -cellulose utilizing mold was isolated from rotted rice straw residues. The efficient rice straw degrading microorganism was identified as Trichoderma reesei. The results showed that different carbon sources in liquid culture such as rice straw, carboxymethyl cellulose, filter paper, sugar cane bagasse, cotton stalk and banana stalk induced T. reesei cellulase production whereas glucose or Potato Dextrose repressed the synthesis of cellulase. T. reesei cellulase was produced by the solid state culture on rice straw medium. The optimal pH and temperature for T. reesei cellulase production were 6 and 25 ºC, respectively. Rice straw exhibited different susceptibilities towards cellulase to their conversion to reducing sugars. The present study showed also that, the general trend of rice straw bioconversion with cellulase was more than the general trend by T. reesei. This enzyme effectively led to enzymatic conversion of acid, alkali and ultrasonic pretreated cellulose from rice straw into glucose, followed by fermentation into ethanol. The combined method of acid pretreatment with ultrasound and subsequent enzyme treatment resulted the highest conversion of lignocellulose in rice straw to sugar and consequently, highest ethanol concentration after 7 days fermentation with S. cerevisae yeast. The ethanol yield in this study was about 10 and 11 g.L-1.

  20. Response Of Lowland Rice To Soil Compaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idawati; Haryanto

    2000-01-01

    Soil compaction, as a new tillage practice for paddy soil, is to substitute pudding in order to reduce land preparation cost. To study response of lowland rice to soil compaction, a pot experiment has been conducted which took place in the greenhouse of P3TIR-BATAN. Soil for experiment was taken from pusakanegara. Two factors (degree of soil compaction and rice variety) were combined. Degree of compaction was split into 3 levels (DI = normal; D215% more compact than normal; 30 % more compact than normal), and rice variety into 2 levels (IR64 and Atomita IV). KH 2 32 PO 4 solution was injected into the soil surrounding rice clump to test the root activity at blooming stage of rice plant. Data resulted from this experiment is presented together with additional data from some other experiments of fertilization in the research s erie to study soil compaction. Some information's from experiment results are as following. Both rice varieties tested gave the same response to soil compaction. Root activity, according to data of 32 P absorbed by plant, was not harmed by soil compaction at the degree tested in the experiment. This prediction is supported by the growth by rice observed at generative growth stage, in pot experiment as well as in field experiment, which showed that soil compaction tested did not decrease rice yield but in opposite in tended to increase the yield. In practising soil compaction in land preparation, fertilizers should be applied by deep placement to have higher increasing is rice yield

  1. Compressive Load Resistance Characteristics of Rice Grain

    OpenAIRE

    Sumpun Chaitep; Chaiy R. Metha Pathawee; Pipatpong Watanawanyoo

    2008-01-01

    Investigation was made to observe the compressive load property of rice gain both rough rice and brown grain. Six rice varieties (indica and japonica) were examined with the moisture content at 10-12%. A compressive load with reference to a principal axis normal to the thickness of the grain were conducted at selected inclined angles of 0°, 15°, 30°, 45°, 60° and 70°. The result showed the compressive load resistance of rice grain based on its characteristic of yield s...

  2. Elemental composition of Malawian rice.

    OpenAIRE

    Joy, EJM; Louise Ander, E; Broadley, MR; Young, SD; Chilimba, AD; Hamilton, EM; Watts, MJ

    2016-01-01

    Widespread potential dietary deficiencies of calcium (Ca), iron (Fe), iodine (I), selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn) have been identified in Malawi. Several deficiencies are likely to be compounded by high phytic acid (PA) consumption. Rice (Oryza sativa) is commonly consumed in some Malawian populations, and its mineral micronutrient content is important for food security. The considerable irrigation requirements and flooded conditions of paddy soils can also introduce or mobilise potentially toxic...

  3. The quiet revolution in Asia's rice value chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon, Thomas; Chen, Kevin Z; Minten, Bart; Adriano, Lourdes; Dao, The Anh; Wang, Jianying; Gupta, Sunipa Das

    2014-12-01

    There is a rapid transformation afoot in the rice value chain in Asia. The upstream is changing quickly-farmers are undertaking capital-led intensification and participating in burgeoning markets for land rental, fertilizer and pesticides, irrigation water, and seed, and shifting from subsistence to small commercialized farms; in some areas landholdings are concentrating. Midstream, in wholesale and milling, there is a quiet revolution underway, with thousands of entrepreneurs investing in equipment, increasing scale, diversifying into higher quality, and the segments are undergoing consolidation and vertical coordination and integration. Mills, especially in China, are packaging and branding, and building agent networks in wholesale markets, and large mills are building direct relationships with supermarkets. The downstream retail segment is undergoing a "supermarket revolution," again with the lead in change in China. In most cases the government is not playing a direct role in the market, but enabling this transformation through infrastructural investment. The transformation appears to be improving food security for cities by reducing margins, offering lower consumer rice prices, and increasing quality and diversity of rice. This paper discusses findings derived from unique stacked surveys of all value chain segments in seven zones, more and less developed, around Bangladesh, China, India, and Vietnam. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.

  4. Gamma irradiation of rice grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, M.K.; Ghosh, S.K.; Chatterjee, S.R.

    1991-01-01

    Rice grains of the variety, Pusa-33, at 12.0% moisture, were irradiated with doses of 0-150 kGy. The crystallinity of starch, soluble amylose and yellowness of treated grains increased with increment in the dose of radiation but water absorption and volume expansion on cooling decreased. irradiation at doses of 3-5 kGy increased imperceptibly the hardening of rice cooled after cooking, but had no effect on edibility. The off-aroma in irradiated grains was perceptible at doses higher than 5 kGy. The changes in colour and aroma persisted also on cooking. Upto a dose of 5 kGy, the sensory scores of rice, both cooked and uncooked, were at or above acceptable limit of score (5,5). The doses of 3 and 5 kGy were highly effective in reducing fungal population in irradiated grains, but in view of the changes in colour and cooking qualities, 3 kGy is the preferred dose-limit of irradiation. (author). 17 refs., 5 tabs., 1 fig

  5. Proteomics of Rice Seed Germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongli eHe

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Seed is a condensed form of plant. Under suitable environmental conditions, it can resume the metabolic activity from physiological quiescent status, and mobilize the reserves, biosynthesize new proteins, regenerate organelles and cell membrane, eventually protrude the radicle and enter into seedling establishment. So far, how these activities are regulated in a coordinated and sequential manner is largely unknown. With the availability of more and more genome sequence information and the development of mass spectrometry (MS technology, proteomics has been widely applied in analyzing the mechanisms of different biological processes, and proved to be very powerful. Regulation of rice seed germination is critical for rice cultivation. In recent years, a lot of proteomic studies have been conducted in exploring the gene expression regulation, reserves mobilization and metabolisms reactivation, which brings us new insights on the mechanisms of metabolism regulation during this process. Nevertheless, it also invokes a lot of questions. In this mini-review, we summarized the progress in the proteomic studies of rice seed germination. The current challenges and future perspectives were also discussed, which might be helpful for the following studies.

  6. Clustering of 18 Local Black Rice Base on Total Anthocyanin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristamtini Kristamtini

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Black rice has a high anthocyanin content in the pericarp layer, which provides a dark purple color. Anthocyanin serve as an antioxidant that control cholesterol level in the blood, prevent anemia, potentially improve the body's resistance to disease, improve damage to liver cells (hepatitis and chirrosis, prevent impaired kidney function, prevent cancer/tumors, slows down antiaging, and prevent atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. Exploration results at AIAT Yogyakarta, Indonesia from 2011 to 2014 obtained 18 cultivar of local black rice Indonesia. The names of the rice are related to the color (black, red or purple formed by anthocyanin deposits in the pericarp layer, seed coat or aleuron. The objective of the study was to classify several types of local black rice from explorations based on the total anthocyanin content. The study was conducted by clustering analyzing the total anthocyanin content of 18 local black rice cultivars in Indonesia. Cluster analysis of total anthocyanin content were done using SAS ver. 9.2. Clustering dendogram shows that there were 4 groups of black rice cultivars based on the total anthocyanin content. Group I consists of Melik black rice, Patalan black rice, Yunianto black rice, Muharjo black rice, Ngatijo black rice, short life of Tugiyo black rice, Andel hitam 1, Jlitheng, and Sragen black rice. Group II consists of Pari ireng, Magelang black hairy rice, Banjarnegara-Wonosobo black rice, and Banjarnegara black rice. Group III consists of NTT black rice, Magelang non hairy black rice, Sembada hitam, and longevity Tugiyo black rice. Group IV consist only one type of black rice namely Cempo ireng. The grouping result indicate the existence of duplicate names among the black rice namely Patalan with Yunianto black rice, and short life Tugiyo with Andel hitam 1 black rice.

  7. Molecular Breeding of Rice Restorer Lines and Hybrids for Brown Planthopper (BPH) Resistance Using the Bph14 and Bph15 Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongbo; Ye, Shengtuo; Mou, Tongmin

    2016-12-01

    The development of hybrid rice is a practical approach for increasing rice production. However, the brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens Stål, causes severe yield loss of rice (Oryza sativa L.) and can threaten food security. Therefore, breeding hybrid rice resistant to BPH is the most effective and economical strategy to maintain high and stable production. Fortunately, numerous BPH resistance genes have been identified, and abundant linkage markers are available for molecular marker-assisted selection (MAS) in breeding programs. Hence, we pyramided two BPH resistance genes, Bph14 and Bph15, into a susceptive CMS restorer line Huahui938 and its derived hybrids using MAS to improve the BPH resistance of hybrid rice. Three near-isogenic lines (NILs) with pyramided Bph14 and Bph15 were obtained by molecular marker-assisted backcross (MAB) and phenotypic selection. The genomic components of these NILs were detected using the whole-genome SNP (Single nucleotide polymorphism) array, RICE6K, suggesting that the recurrent parent genome (RPG) recovery of the NILs was 87.88, 87.70 and 86.62 %, respectively. BPH bioassays showed that the improved NILs and their derived hybrids carrying homozygous Bph14 and Bph15 were resistant to BPH. However, the hybrids with heterozygous Bph14 and Bph15 remained susceptible to BPH. The developed NILs showed no significant differences in major agronomic traits and rice qualities compared with the recurrent parent. Moreover, the improved hybrids derived from the NILs exhibited better agronomic performance and rice quality compared with the controls under natural field conditions. This study demonstrates that it is essential to stack Bph14 and Bph15 into both the maternal and paternal parents for developing BPH-resistant hybrid rice varieties. The SNP array with abundant DNA markers is an efficient tool for analyzing the RPG recovery of progenies and can be used to monitor the donor segments in NILs, thus being extremely important

  8. Leaf development of cultivated rice and weedy red rice under elevated temperature scenarios

    OpenAIRE

    Streck,Nereu A.; Uhlmann,Lilian O.; Gabriel,Luana F.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to simulate leaf development of cultivated rice genotypes and weedy red rice biotypes in climate change scenarios at Santa Maria, RS, Brazil. A leaf appearance (LAR) model adapted for rice was used to simulate the accumulated leaf number, represented by the Haun Stage, from crop emergence to flag leaf appearance (EM-FL). Three cultivated rice genotypes and two weedy red rice biotypes in six emergence dates were used. The LAR model was run for each emergence dat...

  9. Genomic evolution of Saccharomyces cerevisiae under Chinese rice wine fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yudong; Zhang, Weiping; Zheng, Daoqiong; Zhou, Zhan; Yu, Wenwen; Zhang, Lei; Feng, Lifang; Liang, Xinle; Guan, Wenjun; Zhou, Jingwen; Chen, Jian; Lin, Zhenguo

    2014-09-10

    Rice wine fermentation represents a unique environment for the evolution of the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. To understand how the selection pressure shaped the yeast genome and gene regulation, we determined the genome sequence and transcriptome of a S. cerevisiae strain YHJ7 isolated from Chinese rice wine (Huangjiu), a popular traditional alcoholic beverage in China. By comparing the genome of YHJ7 to the lab strain S288c, a Japanese sake strain K7, and a Chinese industrial bioethanol strain YJSH1, we identified many genomic sequence and structural variations in YHJ7, which are mainly located in subtelomeric regions, suggesting that these regions play an important role in genomic evolution between strains. In addition, our comparative transcriptome analysis between YHJ7 and S288c revealed a set of differentially expressed genes, including those involved in glucose transport (e.g., HXT2, HXT7) and oxidoredutase activity (e.g., AAD10, ADH7). Interestingly, many of these genomic and transcriptional variations are directly or indirectly associated with the adaptation of YHJ7 strain to its specific niches. Our molecular evolution analysis suggested that Japanese sake strains (K7/UC5) were derived from Chinese rice wine strains (YHJ7) at least approximately 2,300 years ago, providing the first molecular evidence elucidating the origin of Japanese sake strains. Our results depict interesting insights regarding the evolution of yeast during rice wine fermentation, and provided a valuable resource for genetic engineering to improve industrial wine-making strains. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  10. Micronutrient-fortified rice can increase hookworm infection risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Gier, Brechje; Campos Ponce, Maiza; Perignon, Marlene

    2016-01-01

    or inflammation after iron supplementation. OBJECTIVE: To study effects of micronutrient-fortified rice on hookworm infection in Cambodian schoolchildren. METHODS: A double-blinded, cluster-randomized trial was conducted in 16 Cambodian primary schools partaking in the World Food Program school meal program....... Three types of multi-micronutrient fortified rice were tested against placebo rice within the school meal program: UltraRice_original, UltraRice_improved and NutriRice. Four schools were randomly assigned to each study group (placebo n = 492, UltraRice_original n = 479, UltraRice_improved n = 500, NutriRice.......6%, but differed considerably among schools (range 0%- 48.1%).Micronutrient-fortified rice significantly increased risk of new hookworm infection. This effect was modified by baseline hookworm prevalence at the school; hookworm infection risk was increased by all three types of fortified rice in schools where...

  11. Nutrient management for rice production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.R.; Chandra, D.; Nanda, P.; Singh, S.S.; Singh, S.R.; Ghorai, A.K.

    2002-06-01

    The nutrient removed by the crops far exceeds the amounts replenished through fertilizer, causing a much greater strain on the native soil reserves. The situation is further aggravated in countries like India, where sub-optimal fertilizer used by the farmers is a common phenomenon rather than an exception. The total consumption of nutrients of all crops in India, even though reached 15 million tons in 1997, remains much below the estimated nutrient removal of 25 million tons (Swarup and Goneshamurthy, 1998). The gap between nutrient removal supplied through fertilizer has widened further in 2000 to 34 million tons of plant nutrients from the soil against an estimated fertilizer availability of 18 million tons (Singh and Dwivedi, 1996). Nitrogen is the nutrient which limits the most the rice production worldwide. In Asia, where more than 90 percent of the world's rice is produced, about 60 percent of the N fertilizer consumed is used on rice (Stangel and De Dutta, 1985). Conjunctive use of organic material along with fertilizer has been proved an efficient source of nitrogen. Organic residue recycling is becoming an increasingly important aspect of environmentally sound sustainable agriculture. Returning residues like green manure to the soil is necessary for maintaining soil organic matter, which is important for favourable soil structure, soil water retention and soil microbial flora and fauna activities. Use of organic manures in conjunction or as an alternative to chemical fertilizer is receiving attention. Green manure, addition to some extent, helps not only in enhancing the yield but also in improving the physical and chemical nature of soils. The excessive application of chemical fertilizers made it imperative that a part of inorganic fertilizer may be substituted with the recycling of organic wastes. Organic manure has been recorded to enhance the efficiency and reduce the requirement of chemical fertilizers. Partial nitrogen substitution through organic

  12. Correlation exploration of metabolic and genomic diversity in rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinozaki Kazuo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is essential to elucidate the relationship between metabolic and genomic diversity to understand the genetic regulatory networks associated with the changing metabolo-phenotype among natural variation and/or populations. Recent innovations in metabolomics technologies allow us to grasp the comprehensive features of the metabolome. Metabolite quantitative trait analysis is a key approach for the identification of genetic loci involved in metabolite variation using segregated populations. Although several attempts have been made to find correlative relationships between genetic and metabolic diversity among natural populations in various organisms, it is still unclear whether it is possible to discover such correlations between each metabolite and the polymorphisms found at each chromosomal location. To assess the correlative relationship between the metabolic and genomic diversity found in rice accessions, we compared the distance matrices for these two "omics" patterns in the rice accessions. Results We selected 18 accessions from the world rice collection based on their population structure. To determine the genomic diversity of the rice genome, we genotyped 128 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP markers to calculate the genetic distance among the accessions. To identify the variations in the metabolic fingerprint, a soluble extract from the seed grain of each accession was analyzed with one dimensional 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR. We found no correlation between global metabolic diversity and the phylogenetic relationships among the rice accessions (rs = 0.14 by analyzing the distance matrices (calculated from the pattern of the metabolic fingerprint in the 4.29- to 0.71-ppm 1H chemical shift and the genetic distance on the basis of the RFLP markers. However, local correlation analysis between the distance matrices (derived from each 0.04-ppm integral region of the 1H chemical shift against genetic

  13. Benthic macroinvertebrates in Italian rice fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Lupi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Rice fields can be considered man-managed temporary wetlands. Five rice fields handled with different management strategies, their adjacent channels, and a spring were analysed by their benthic macroinvertebrate community to i evaluate the role of rice agroe- cosystem in biodiversity conservation; ii find indicator species which can be used to compare the ecological status of natural wetlands with rice agroecosystems; and iii find the influence of environmental variables on biodiversity. Different methods of data analysis with increasing degree of complexity – from diversity index up to sophisticated multivariate analysis – were used. The investigation provided a picture of benthic macroinvertebrates inhabiting rice agroecosystems where 173 taxa were identified, 89 of which detected in rice paddies. Among them, 4 phyla (Mollusca, Annelida, Nematomorpha, and Arthropoda, 8 classes (Bivalvia, Gastropoda, Oligochaeta, Hirudinea, Gordioida, Insecta, Branchiopoda, and Malacostraca, 24 orders, 68 families, 127 genera and 159 species have been found. Ten threatened and 3 invasive species were detected in the habitats examined. The information obtained by the different methods of data analysis allowed a more comprehensive view on the value of the components of rice agroecosystems. Data analyses highlighted significant differences between habitats (feeding channel and rice field, with higher diversity observed in channels, and emphasised the role of the water chemical-physical parameters. The period of water permanence in rice fields resulted to be only one of the factors influencing the community of benthic macroinvertebrates. The presence of rare/endangered species allowed characterising some stations, but it was less informative about management strategies in rice paddies because most of these species were absent in rice fields.

  14. Arsenic accumulation in rice: Consequences of rice genotypes and management practices to reduce human health risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Shofiqul; Rahman, Mohammad Mahmudur; Islam, M R; Naidu, Ravi

    2016-11-01

    Rice is an essential staple food and feeds over half of the world's population. Consumption of rice has increased from limited intake in Western countries some 50years ago to major dietary intake now. Rice consumption represents a major route for inorganic arsenic (As) exposure in many countries, especially for people with a large proportion of rice in their daily diet as much as 60%. Rice plants are more efficient in assimilating As into its grains than other cereal crops and the accumulation may also adversely affect the quality of rice and their nutrition. Rice is generally grown as a lowland crop in flooded soils under reducing conditions. Under these conditions the bioavailability of As is greatly enhanced leading to excessive As bioaccumulation compared to that under oxidizing upland conditions. Inorganic As species are carcinogenic to humans and even at low levels in the diet pose a considerable risk to humans. There is a substantial genetic variation among the rice genotypes in grain-As accumulation as well as speciation. Identifying the extent of genetic variation in grain-As concentration and speciation of As compounds are crucial to determining the rice varieties which accumulate low inorganic As. Varietal selection, irrigation water management, use of fertilizer and soil amendments, cooking practices etc. play a vital role in reducing As exposure from rice grains. In the meantime assessing the bioavailability of As from rice is crucial to understanding human health exposure and reducing the risk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparison of SAR and optical sensor data for monitoring of rice plant around Hiroshima

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguro, Y.; Suga, Y.; Takeuchi, S.; Ogawa, M.; Konishi, T.; Tsuchiya, K.

    2001-01-01

    Through the research on the application of the multi-temporal data acquired with Landsat-5 TM, SPOT-2 HRV, SPOT-4 HRVIR and RADARSAT-1 SAR to monitoring of rice field following features are clarified. Vegetation indices NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) and EVI (Extended Vegetation Index) derived from different optical sensors TM, HVR, HRVIR indicate nearly same characteristics suggesting validity of calibration of respective sensors. It was found that by combined use of multi-temporal vegetation indices NDVI and EVI together with SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) data it was found that rice planted area can be estimated with the error less than 2%.

  16. Histology of two rice bodies isolated from the stifle of an adult draught horse stallion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Nicole; Heimann, Marianne; Lejeune, Jean-Philippe; Verwilghen, Denis R V G; Deby-Dupont, Ginette P; Serteyn, Didier A

    2006-03-01

    In the human and equine species, different kinds of free floating intra-articular particles are related to certain disorders. Osteochondral fragments formed during osteochondrosis dissecans are the most common finding in the equine species, whereas in humans rice bodies due to rheumatoid arthritis are more frequent. Herein we report a third type of floating body inside the stifle of an adult draught horse stallion, in macroscopic appearance similar to articular rice bodies known in humans. As revealed by histologic examination, the two particles consist of polypoid degenerated structures derived from synovial villi. Their formation was probably induced by ischemia.

  17. An overview of the sustainability of rice agroecosystem through rice-fish integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahyaudin Ali

    2002-01-01

    Rice-fish integration in the rice agroecosystem has been introduced and is expanding in Malaysia. This type of farm integration has resulted in land optimization, thus enabling farmers to grow both fish and rice in one farming system. Introducing fish into the ricefield has also increased seasonal income as well as reduced pesticide use. Although basic ecological knowledge on rice-fish integration has allowed rice-fish integration to be introduced, further research is required to allow for fine tuning of the methodologies used. Thus research on the ecology, management, production methods and the characterization of rice-fish farming system of Malaysia is needed. Further characterization and description is needed on the ecology of the rice-fish farming system of Malaysia in terms of production, food webs, nutrient flow and system diversity. To increase the sustainability efficiency and productivity of the system, implementation of management techniques formulated through research is required. (Author)

  18. Residues and accumulation of molinate in rice crops and aquatic weeds in the MUDA rice agroecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nashriyah Mat; Sabri Junoh; Nuriati Nurdin; Ramli Ishak

    2002-01-01

    Plant and soil residue levels and its accumulation in rice crops and rice aquatic weed plants were studied. Molinate residue levels in rice, weeds and soil were not significantly different between the recycled and the non-recycled area, even though they were higher in the non-recycled area. In the rice plant, the residue level at 10 DAT (days after treatment) was significantly higher than 30 DAT in the recycled area. In rice aquatic weed plants, the residue level was significantly higher at 10 DAT as compared to 30 DAT in the non-recycled area. Molinate residue levels in soil at 10 DAT and 30 DAT were similar. Molinate accumulated (ratio of molinate concentration in plant over soil) more in the rice crop as compared to rice aquatic weeds at 10 DAT, in both the recycled and the non-recycled areas. (Author)

  19. Australian wild rice reveals pre-domestication origin of polymorphism deserts in rice genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopala Krishnan S

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rice is a major source of human food with a predominantly Asian production base. Domestication involved selection of traits that are desirable for agriculture and to human consumers. Wild relatives of crop plants are a source of useful variation which is of immense value for crop improvement. Australian wild rices have been isolated from the impacts of domestication in Asia and represents a source of novel diversity for global rice improvement. Oryza rufipogon is a perennial wild progenitor of cultivated rice. Oryza meridionalis is a related annual species in Australia. RESULTS: We have examined the sequence of the genomes of AA genome wild rices from Australia that are close relatives of cultivated rice through whole genome re-sequencing. Assembly of the resequencing data to the O. sativa ssp. japonica cv. Nipponbare shows that Australian wild rices possess 2.5 times more single nucleotide polymorphisms than in the Asian wild rice and cultivated O. sativa ssp. indica. Analysis of the genome of domesticated rice reveals regions of low diversity that show very little variation (polymorphism deserts. Both the perennial and annual wild rice from Australia show a high degree of conservation of sequence with that found in cultivated rice in the same 4.58 Mbp region on chromosome 5, which suggests that some of the 'polymorphism deserts' in this and other parts of the rice genome may have originated prior to domestication due to natural selection. CONCLUSIONS: Analysis of genes in the 'polymorphism deserts' indicates that this selection may have been due to biotic or abiotic stress in the environment of early rice relatives. Despite having closely related sequences in these genome regions, the Australian wild populations represent an invaluable source of diversity supporting rice food security.

  20. Australian wild rice reveals pre-domestication origin of polymorphism deserts in rice genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan S, Gopala; Waters, Daniel L E; Henry, Robert J

    2014-01-01

    Rice is a major source of human food with a predominantly Asian production base. Domestication involved selection of traits that are desirable for agriculture and to human consumers. Wild relatives of crop plants are a source of useful variation which is of immense value for crop improvement. Australian wild rices have been isolated from the impacts of domestication in Asia and represents a source of novel diversity for global rice improvement. Oryza rufipogon is a perennial wild progenitor of cultivated rice. Oryza meridionalis is a related annual species in Australia. We have examined the sequence of the genomes of AA genome wild rices from Australia that are close relatives of cultivated rice through whole genome re-sequencing. Assembly of the resequencing data to the O. sativa ssp. japonica cv. Nipponbare shows that Australian wild rices possess 2.5 times more single nucleotide polymorphisms than in the Asian wild rice and cultivated O. sativa ssp. indica. Analysis of the genome of domesticated rice reveals regions of low diversity that show very little variation (polymorphism deserts). Both the perennial and annual wild rice from Australia show a high degree of conservation of sequence with that found in cultivated rice in the same 4.58 Mbp region on chromosome 5, which suggests that some of the 'polymorphism deserts' in this and other parts of the rice genome may have originated prior to domestication due to natural selection. Analysis of genes in the 'polymorphism deserts' indicates that this selection may have been due to biotic or abiotic stress in the environment of early rice relatives. Despite having closely related sequences in these genome regions, the Australian wild populations represent an invaluable source of diversity supporting rice food security.

  1. Novel gene expression tools for rice biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biotechnology is an effective and important method of improving both quality and agronomic traits in rice. We are developing novel molecular tools for genetic engineering, with a focus on developing novel transgene expression control elements (i.e. promoters) for rice. A suite of monocot grass promo...

  2. Functional genomics strategies with transposons in rice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greco, R.

    2003-01-01

    Rice is a major staple food crop and a recognizedmonocotylenedousmodel plant from which gene function discovery is projected to contribute to improvements in a variety of cereals like wheat and maize. The recent release of rough drafts of the rice genome sequence for public

  3. Grain Unloading Of Arsenic Species In Rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice (Oryza sativa) is the staple food for over half the world's population yet may represent a significant dietary source of inorganic arsenic (As), a nonthreshold, class 1 human carcinogen. Rice grain As is dominated by the inorganic species, and the organic species dim...

  4. 33 CFR 117.324 - Rice Creek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rice Creek. 117.324 Section 117.324 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.324 Rice Creek. The CSX Railroad Swingbridge, mile...

  5. Soil quality assessment in rice production systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodrigues de Lima, A.C.

    2007-01-01

    In the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, rice production is one of the most important regional activities. Farmers are concerned that the land use practices for rice production in the Camaquã region may not be sustainable because of detrimental effects on soil quality. The study presented in this

  6. Land Titles and Rice Production in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Den Broeck, Katleen; Newman, Carol; Tarp, Finn

    analysis of plot level rice yields that land titles are indeed important. Only exclusively held titles have the expected positive effects, and the positive effect on yields is found in male headed households. Furthermore, a household level rice yield function reveals that exclusive user rights...

  7. Adoption of Recommended Rice Production Practices among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    rice production practices by women farmers in Nasarawa State. A total of 203 women rice farmers were selected for the study using multi- ... RRPPs were unavailability of credit facilities, poor marketing system and ... economy which provides employment opportunity for about 70-80 percent of the total ..... shown in Table 1.

  8. Productivity, Profitability and Resource Use Efficiency: A Comparative Analysis between Conventional and High Yielding Rice in Rajbari District, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Yahia Bapari

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The study was analyzed the determinants, costs and benefits and resources allocation of both conventional and high yielding rice cultivation over the Rajbari district of Bangladesh. Data were accumulated from 300 regular rice growers of conventional and high yielding varieties and random sampling technique was applied for selecting the respondents from the study area from which information was collected through pre-tested questionnaire. Cobb – Douglas production function and gross margin were mainly used to determine the productivities and profits of both rice and the marginal value of the product was highly recommended to derive the optimal use of the resources. Results obtained by applying ordinary least square method showed that the most important factors of production in the study area were irrigation, labor, fertilizer and insecticide costs whose elasticities were 0.904, 0.048, 0.045 and 0.044 respectively and insignificant factors were seed and ploughing costs whose elasticities were – 0.009 and 0.030 respectively for high yielding rice. On the other hand, irrigation, insecticide, seed and ploughing costs of elasticities 0.880, 0.589, 0.116 and – 0.127 respectively were the important factors and minor role playing factors were labor and fertilizer costs whose elasticities were 0.098 and 0.077 respectively for conventional yielding rice. The core message from productivity analysis was that the irrigation was key variable which played a positive and vital role in producing rice of both varieties. All variables (resources were economically misallocated in the production activities of both varieties along the study area but high yielding rice was more profitable than conventional one. Results also showed that the farmers of the study area produced rice of both varieties in the inefficient range of production. Continuous supply of electricity, flexible credit and improving the existing resources were the prime policy recommendations of

  9. Mapping Rice Cropping Systems in Vietnam Using an NDVI-Based Time-Series Similarity Measurement Based on DTW Distance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xudong Guan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI derived from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS time-series data has been widely used in the fields of crop and rice classification. The cloudy and rainy weather characteristics of the monsoon season greatly reduce the likelihood of obtaining high-quality optical remote sensing images. In addition, the diverse crop-planting system in Vietnam also hinders the comparison of NDVI among different crop stages. To address these problems, we apply a Dynamic Time Warping (DTW distance-based similarity measure approach and use the entire yearly NDVI time series to reduce the inaccuracy of classification using a single image. We first de-noise the NDVI time series using S-G filtering based on the TIMESAT software. Then, a standard NDVI time-series base for rice growth is established based on field survey data and Google Earth sample data. NDVI time-series data for each pixel are constructed and the DTW distance with the standard rice growth NDVI time series is calculated. Then, we apply thresholds to extract rice growth areas. A qualitative assessment using statistical data and a spatial assessment using sampled data from the rice-cropping map reveal a high mapping accuracy at the national scale between the statistical data, with the corresponding R2 being as high as 0.809; however, the mapped rice accuracy decreased at the provincial scale due to the reduced number of rice planting areas per province. An analysis of the results indicates that the 500-m resolution MODIS data are limited in terms of mapping scattered rice parcels. The results demonstrate that the DTW-based similarity measure of the NDVI time series can be effectively used to map large-area rice cropping systems with diverse cultivation processes.

  10. Tillering and panicle branching genes in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Wei-hong; Shang, Fei; Lin, Qun-ting; Lou, Chen; Zhang, Jing

    2014-03-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is one of the most important staple food crops in the world, and rice tillering and panicle branching are important traits determining grain yield. Since the gene MONOCULM 1 (MOC 1) was first characterized as a key regulator in controlling rice tillering and branching, great progress has been achieved in identifying important genes associated with grain yield, elucidating the genetic basis of yield-related traits. Some of these important genes were shown to be applicable for molecular breeding of high-yielding rice. This review focuses on recent advances, with emphasis on rice tillering and panicle branching genes, and their regulatory networks. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. A spectral analysis of rice grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIlvaine, M.S.; Cua, F.T.; Navarro, E.F.

    1976-06-01

    With the advent of extensive nuclear testing and the development and use of highly potent pesticides and fertilizers, the hazardous threats of radioactive contamination due to fallout and to the absorption of pesticide residues have been given due consideration. Among the many forms of life exposed to these threats are food crops and among these is rice. Several rice grain samples - Japanese rice samples ''A'' and ''B'' submitted by the National Grains Authority (NGA) for analysis, random samples of rice being sold to the public at local markets, and ''black rice'' which were picked from along the shores of a Mindoro town were subjected to spectral analysis. Results revealed the presence of trace elements normally found in plants, such as; K-42, I-124, Cl-38, Na-24, Br-82, and Mn-56. No mercury was detected in the sample specimen analyzed

  12. Rice epigenomics and epigenetics: challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiangsong; Zhou, Dao-Xiu

    2013-05-01

    During recent years rice genome-wide epigenomic information such as DNA methylation and histone modifications, which are important for genome activity has been accumulated. The function of a number of rice epigenetic regulators has been studied, many of which are found to be involved in a diverse range of developmental and stress-responsive pathways. Analysis of epigenetic variations among different rice varieties indicates that epigenetic modification may lead to inheritable phenotypic variation. Characterizing phenotypic consequences of rice epigenomic variations and the underlining chromatin mechanism and identifying epialleles related to important agronomic traits may provide novel strategies to enhance agronomically favorable traits and grain productivity in rice. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Study on the improvement of dinitrogen fixation on rice-bacteria associative system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Yide; Zhu Hairong; Qiu Yuansheng; Iyama, S.; Fuji, T.; Hirota, Y.

    1991-01-01

    Inoculation of improved associative diazotrophs Klebsiella oxytoca NG 13 or Enterobacter cloacae E26 was performed in association with three varietes of rice (Oryza sativa L.), namely Indica type C544, Japonica type T65 and Harebare. These improved diazotrophs carried a nifA containing plasmid pMC73A derived from Klebsiella pneumoniae M5al. In pot experiments the rice seedlings were planted in non-sterilized soil and grown under flooded conditions in the green hours. By using 15 N dilution technique it has shown that inoculation of these improved bacterial strains (NG13/pMC73A or E26/pMC73A) stimulated the growth rate and increased the nitrogen content of rice plants in comparison with that of Nif - phenotype K.oxytoca NG1389 and E.cloacae E262. The nitrogen-fixing rate was 10-35% Ndfa after 120 days cultivation

  14. Mapping of QTLs for Leaf Malondialdehyde Content Associated with Stress Tolerance in Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing JIANG

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Malondialdehyde (MDA is the final product of lipid peroxidation, and MDA content can reflect the stress tolerance of plants. To map QTLs conditioning the MDA content in rice leaves, a recombinant inbred line (RIL population with 247 lines derived from an indica-indica cross Zhenshan 97B×Milyang 46, and a linkage map consisting of 207 DNA markers were used. The RIL population showed a transgressive segregation in the MDA content of rice leaves. Two QTLs for the MDA content in rice leaves were detected in the intervals RG532–RG811 and RG381–RG236 on chromosome 1, with the additive effects from maternal and paternal parents, accounting for 4.33% and 4.62% of phenotype variations, respectively.

  15. The identification of specific cDNA clones from tall and dwarf rice plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youssefian, S.; Kamada, I.; Sano, H.

    1990-01-01

    Full text: The use of dwarfing genes in rice breeding has proceeded for several years without a clear understanding of the genetic, hormonal and physiological mechanisms involved. This issue was addressed by focussing on the isolation of specific clones from tall- and dwarf-derived cDNA libraries. The materials used include near-isogenic lines of the tall rice cultivar 'Shiokari', differing at the DGWG or 'Tanginbozu' dwarfing gene loci. Also used were tall and dwarf 'Ginbozu' rice, the latter having been induced by treatment with 5-azacytidine, a potent demethylating agent. Subtractive and differential hybridisation have, to date, identified several candidate tall- and dwarf-specific clones. Their further characterisation is currently underway. (author)

  16. Fluoride levels in commercially available rice in Ethiopia | Tegegne ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alkaline fusion was used for sample preparation of six varieties for both the raw rice and rice cooked with tap water and fluoridated water. Fluoride levels ranged from 0.1-5.5 mg/kg in raw rice sample. Rice which was cooked with different fluoride levels of water showed increment depending on the method of cooking.

  17. Signatures of adaptation in the weedy rice genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weedy rice is a common problem of by product of domestication that has evolved multiple times from cultivated and wild rice relatives. Here we use whole genome sequences to examine the origin and adaptation of the two major US weedy red rice strains, with a comparison to Chinese weedy red rice. We f...

  18. The economic power of the Golden Rice opposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesseler, J.H.H.; Zilberman, D.

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin A enriched rice (Golden Rice) is a cost-efficient solution that can substantially reduce health costs. Despite Golden Rice being available since early 2000, this rice has not been introduced in any country. Governments must perceive additional costs that overcompensate the benefits of the

  19. Significance of rice sheath photosynthesis: Yield determination by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using high-yielding hybrid rice Liangyopeijiu (LYP9), its male parent 9311 and hybrid rice Shanyou 63 (SY63) as the experimental materials, the photosynthesis of rice sheath was studied by 14C radio-autography. The results showed that rice sheath could trap sunlight and produce photosynthates, and these ...

  20. Genomic diversity among Basmati rice ( Oryza sativa L) mutants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mutation breeding can be considered successful in obtaining new cultivars and broadening the genetic base of rice crop. In order to obtain new varieties of rice with improved agronomic and grain characteristics, gamma radiation (60Co) has been used to generate novel mutants of the Basmati rice. In this study rice cultivars ...

  1. 7 CFR 868.301 - Definition of milled rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definition of milled rice. 868.301 Section 868.301... FOR CERTAIN AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES United States Standards for Milled Rice Terms Defined § 868.301 Definition of milled rice. Whole or broken kernels of rice (Oryza sativa L.) from which the hulls and at...

  2. 7 CFR 868.201 - Definition of rough rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definition of rough rice. 868.201 Section 868.201... FOR CERTAIN AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES United States Standards for Rough Rice Terms Defined § 868.201 Definition of rough rice. Rice (Oryza sativa L.) which consists of 50 percent or more of paddy kernels (see...

  3. 21 CFR 573.160 - Ammoniated rice hulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ammoniated rice hulls. 573.160 Section 573.160... Additive Listing § 573.160 Ammoniated rice hulls. The food additive ammoniated rice hulls may be safely... obtained by the treatment of ground rice hulls with monocalcium phosphate and anhydrous ammonia at a...

  4. Rice field for the treatment of pond aquaculture effluents | Wang ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We conducted an experiment to evaluate the efficiency of rice fields in treating pond aquaculture effluent and its responses to different fertilizer treatments. Four treatments was considered in the experiment: no rice planted as the control (CT); rice planted and no fertilizer input (RE); rice planted and a rate of approximately ...

  5. Questioning triple rice intensification on the Vietnamese mekong delta floodplains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tran, Dung Duc; Halsema, van Gerardo; Hellegers, Petra J.G.J.; Ludwig, Fulco; Wyatt, Andrew

    2018-01-01

    Large areas of the Vietnamese Mekong Delta floodplains (VMDF) are protected by high dikes to facilitate three rice crops per year. While this has increased rice production, there is evidence that triple rice systems have negative long-term effects, both environmental and economic. Double rice

  6. Does African catfish ( Clarias gariepinus ) affect rice in integrated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted for 98 days in the Lake Victoria Basin to investigate the interactions of fish and rice growth performance in rice paddies. The experiment was laid out in a split-plot design, with rice cultivar as the main plot and method of rice-fish culture as the sub-plot. Treatments consisted of two levels of ...

  7. Evaluation of resistant starch, glycemic index and fortificants content of premix rice coated with various concentrations and types of edible coating materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yulianto, W. A.; Susiati, A. M.; Adhini, H. A. N.

    2018-01-01

    The incidence of diabetes in Indonesia has been increasing year by year. Diets with a low glycemic index and high resistant starch foods can assist diabetics in controlling their blood glucose levels. Diabetics are known to have micro-nutrient deficiencies of chromium, magnesium and vitamin D that can be overcome by consuming parboiled rice fortified by use of a coating method. The fortification of parboiled rice (premix rice) can be achieved by coating with HPMC (hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose), MC (methyl cellulose), CMC (carboxyl methyl cellulose), gum arabic and rice starch. This research aimed to evaluate the levels of resistant starch, glycemic index and fortificants of premix rice coated with different concentrations and types of edible coating materials. This research used completely randomized design, with treatments to the concentrations and the types of edible coating (HPMC, CMC, MC, gum arabic and rice starch). The concentrations of edible coating were 0.15%, 0.2% and 0.25% for cellulose derivative coatings; 25%, 30%, 35% for gum arabic and 2%, 3.5% and 5% for rice starch. This research shows that fortified premix rice coated with various concentrations and types of edible coating materials is high in resistant starch and has a low glycemic index. The coating treatment affects the levels of magnesium and vitamin D, but does not affect the levels of chromium in parboiled rice. The premix rice with a low glycemic index and high nutrient content (chromium, magnesium and vitamin D) was premix rice coated by CMC 0.25% and HPMC 0.25% with glycemic indeces of 39.34 and 38.50, respectively.

  8. Glucose obtained from rice bran by ultrasound-assisted enzymatic hydrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Cristine Kuhn

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work ultrasound-assisted solid-state enzymatic hydrolysis of rice bran to obtain fermentable sugars was investigated. For this purpose, process variables such as temperature, enzyme concentration and moisture content were evaluated during the enzymatic hydrolysis with and without ultrasound irradiation. The enzyme used is a blend of amylases derived from genetically modified strains of Trichoderma reesei. Kinetic of the enzymatic hydrolysis of rice bran at the constant-reaction rate period were measured. The best results for the ultrasound-assisted enzymatic hydrolysis was obtained using 3 wt% of enzyme, 60 oC and moisture content of 65 wt%, yielding 0.38 g sugar/g rice bran, whereas for the hydrolysis in the absence of ultrasound the highest yield was 0.20 g sugar/g rice bran using 3 wt% of enzyme, 60 oC and moisture content of 50 wt%. The use of ultrasound-assisted enzymatic hydrolysis of rice bran was intensified, obtaining around 74% more fermentable sugar than in the absence, showing that the use of ultrasound is a promising technology to be used in enzymatic reaction as an alternative of process intensification.

  9. Discovery of cis-elements between sorghum and rice using co-expression and evolutionary conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haberer Georg

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The spatiotemporal regulation of gene expression largely depends on the presence and absence of cis-regulatory sites in the promoter. In the economically highly important grass family, our knowledge of transcription factor binding sites and transcriptional networks is still very limited. With the completion of the sorghum genome and the available rice genome sequence, comparative promoter analyses now allow genome-scale detection of conserved cis-elements. Results In this study, we identified thousands of phylogenetic footprints conserved between orthologous rice and sorghum upstream regions that are supported by co-expression information derived from three different rice expression data sets. In a complementary approach, cis-motifs were discovered by their highly conserved co-occurrence in syntenic promoter pairs. Sequence conservation and matches to known plant motifs support our findings. Expression similarities of gene pairs positively correlate with the number of motifs that are shared by gene pairs and corroborate the importance of similar promoter architectures for concerted regulation. This strongly suggests that these motifs function in the regulation of transcript levels in rice and, presumably also in sorghum. Conclusion Our work provides the first large-scale collection of cis-elements for rice and sorghum and can serve as a paradigm for cis-element analysis through comparative genomics in grasses in general.

  10. Production and characterization of nanospheres of bacterial cellulose from Acetobacter xylinum from processed rice bark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goelzer, F.D.E.; Faria-Tischer, P.C.S.; Vitorino, J.C.; Sierakowski, Maria-R.; Tischer, C.A.

    2009-01-01

    Bacterial cellulose (BC), biosynthesized by Acetobacter xylinum, was produced in a medium consisting of rice bark pre-treated with an enzymatic pool. Rice bark was evaluated as a carbon source by complete enzymatic hydrolysis and monosaccharide composition (GC-MS of derived alditol acetates). It was treated enzymatically and then enriched with glucose up to 4% (w/v). The BC produced by static and aerated processes was purified by immersion in 0.1 M NaOH, was characterized by FT-IR, X-ray diffraction and the biosynthetic nanostructures were evaluated by Scanning Electronic (SEM), Transmission Electronic (TEM) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). The BC films arising from static fermentation with rice bark/glucose and glucose are tightly intertwined, partially crystalline, being type II cellulose produced with rice bark/glucose, and type I to the produced in a glucose medium. The nanostructurated biopolymer obtained from the rice bark/glucose medium, produced in a reactor with air flux had micro- and nanospheres linked to nanofibers of cellulose. These results indicate that the bark components, namely lignins, hemicelluloses or mineral contents, interact with the cellulose forming micro- and nanostructures with potential use to incorporate drugs

  11. Evaluation of origins of CH4 carbon emitted from rice paddies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Akira; Takeda, Takuya; Kimura, Makoto

    1999-10-01

    Possible carbon sources for CH4 emitted from rice paddies are organic matter applied to the fields, such as rice straw (RS), soil organic matter (SOM), and carbon supplied from rice plants (RP), such as exudates and sloughed tissues. To estimate the contribution of each carbon source to CH4 emission, a pot experiment was conducted using 13C-enriched soil sample and 13C-enriched RS as tracers. The percentage contribution of RP carbon was estimated by subtraction. When RS was applied at a rate corresponding to 6 t ha-1, the percentage contributions of RS, SOM, and RP carbon to CH4 emission throughout the period of rice growth were 42%, 18-21%, and 37-40%, respectively. The values for SOM and RP carbon for the treatment in which RS was not applied were 15-20% and 80-85%, respectively. Seasonal variations in the percentage contribution of soil organic carbon to CH4 emission were small in the range between 13% and 30% for the pots with RS and between 15% and 24% for the pots without RS. In the RS-applied treatment, RS and SOM accounted for almost 100% of the CH4 carbon early in the period of rice growth, while 65-70% of the CH4 emission in the milky stage was derived from RP carbon.

  12. Physical mapping of Bph3, a brown planthopper resistance locus in rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jirapong Jairin

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Resistance to brown planthopper (BPH, a destructive phloem feeding insect pest, is an important objective in rice breeding programs in Thailand. The broad-spectrum resistance gene Bph3 is one of the major BPH resistance genes identified so far in cultivated rice and has been widely used in rice improvement programs. This resistance gene has been identified and mapped on the short arm of chromosome 6. In this study, physical mapping of Bph3 was performed using a BC3F3 population derived from a cross between Rathu Heenati and KDML105. Recombinant BC3F3 individuals with the Bph3 genotype were determined by phenotypic evaluation using modified mass tiller screening at the vegetative stage of rice plants. The recombination events surrounding the Bph3 locus were used to identify the co-segregate markers. According to the genome sequence of Nipponbare, the Bph3 locus was finally localized approximately in a 190 kb interval flanked by markers RM19291 and RM8072, which contain twenty-two putative genes. Additional phenotypic experiment revealed that the resistance in Rathu Heenati was decreased by increasing nitrogen content in rice plants through remobilization of nitrogen. This phenomenon should be helpful for identifying the Bph3 gene.

  13. Particle size distribution of rice flour affecting the starch enzymatic hydrolysis and hydration properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Hera, Esther; Gomez, Manuel; Rosell, Cristina M

    2013-10-15

    Rice flour is becoming very attractive as raw material, but there is lack of information about the influence of particle size on its functional properties and starch digestibility. This study evaluates the degree of dependence of the rice flour functional properties, mainly derived from starch behavior, with the particle size distribution. Hydration properties of flours and gels and starch enzymatic hydrolysis of individual fractions were assessed. Particle size heterogeneity on rice flour significantly affected functional properties and starch features, at room temperature and also after gelatinization; and the extent of that effect was grain type dependent. Particle size heterogeneity on rice flour induces different pattern in starch enzymatic hydrolysis, with the long grain having slower hydrolysis as indicated the rate constant (k). No correlation between starch digestibility and hydration properties or the protein content was observed. It seems that in intact granules interactions with other grain components must be taken into account. Overall, particle size fractionation of rice flour might be advisable for selecting specific physico-chemical properties. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. The trafficking pathway of a wheat storage protein in transgenic rice endosperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oszvald, Maria; Tamas, Laszlo; Shewry, Peter R; Tosi, Paola

    2014-04-01

    The trafficking of proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of plant cells is a topic of considerable interest since this organelle serves as an entry point for proteins destined for other organelles, as well as for the ER itself. In the current work, transgenic rice was used to study the pattern and pathway of deposition of the wheat high molecular weight (HMW) glutenin sub-unit (GS) 1Dx5 within the rice endosperm using specific antibodies to determine whether it is deposited in the same or different protein bodies from the rice storage proteins, and whether it is located in the same or separate phases within these. The protein distribution and the expression pattern of HMW sub-unit 1Dx5 in transgenic rice endosperm at different stages of development were determined using light and electron microscopy after labelling with antibodies. The use of HMW-GS-specific antibodies showed that sub-unit 1Dx5 was expressed mainly in the sub-aleurone cells of the endosperm and that it was deposited in both types of protein body present in the rice endosperm: derived from the ER and containing prolamins, and derived from the vacuole and containing glutelins. In addition, new types of protein bodies were also formed within the endosperm cells. The results suggest that the HMW 1Dx5 protein could be trafficked by either the ER or vacuolar pathway, possibly depending on the stage of development, and that its accumulation in the rice endosperm could compromise the structural integrity of protein bodies and their segregation into two distinct populations in the mature endosperm.

  15. Mitigation options for methane emissions from rice fields in the Philippines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lantin, R.S.; Buendia, L.V.; Wassmann, R. [International Rice Research Institute, Laguna (Philippines)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    The contribution of Philippine rice production to global methane emission and breakthroughs in methane emission studies conducted in the country are presented in this paper. A significant impact in the reduction of GHG emissions from agriculture can be achieved if methane emissions from ricefields can be abated. This study presents the contribution of Philippine rice cultivation to global methane emission and breakthroughs in methane emission studies in the country which address the issue of mitigation. Using the derived emission factors from local measurements, rice cultivation contributes 566.6 Gg of methane emission in the Philippines. This value is 62% of the total methane emitted from the agriculture sector. The emission factors employed which are 78% of the IPCC value for irrigated rice and 95% for rainfed rice were derived from measurements with an automatic system taken during the growth duration in the respective ecosystems. Plots drained for 2 weeks at midtillering and before harvest gave a significant reduction in methane emission as opposed to continuously flooded plots and plots drained before harvest. The cultivar Magat reduced methane emission by 50% as compared to the check variety IR72. The application of ammonium sulfate instead of urea reduced methane emission by 10% to 34%. Addition of 6 t ha{sup {minus}1} phosphogypsum in combination with urea reduced emission by 74% as opposed to plots applied with urea alone. It is also from the results of such measurements that abatement strategies are based as regards to modifying treatments such as water management, fertilization, and choice of rice variety. It is not easy to identify and recommend mitigation strategies that will fit a particular cropping system. However, the identified mitigation options provide focus for the abatement of methane emission from ricefields.

  16. Physicochemical and Antioxidant Properties of Rice Bran Oils Produced from Colored Rice Using Different Extraction Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingyai, Sukanya; Kettawan, Aikkarach; Srikaeo, Khongsak; Singanusong, Riantong

    2017-06-01

    This study investigated the physicochemical and antioxidant properties of rice bran oil (RBO) produced from the bran of three rice varities; Khao Dawk Mali 105 (white rice), Red Jasmine rice (red rice) and Hom-nin rice (black rice) using three extraction methods including cold-press extraction (CPE), solvent extraction (SE) and supercritical CO 2 extraction (SC-CO 2 ). Yields, color, acid value (AV), free fatty acid (FFA), peroxide value (PV), iodine value (IV), total phenolic compound (TPC), γ-oryzanol, α-tocopherol and fatty acid profile were analyzed. It was found that the yields obtained from SE, SC-CO 2 and CPE extractions were 17.35-20.19%, 14.76-18.16% and 3.22-6.22%, respectively. The RBO from the bran of red and black rice samples exhibited high antioxidant activities. They also contained higher amount of γ-oryzanol and α-tocopherol than those of white rice sample. In terms of extraction methods, SC-CO 2 provided better qualities of RBO as evidenced by their physicochemical and antioxidant properties. This study found that RBO produced from the bran of black rice samples using SC-CO 2 extraction method showed the best physicochemical and antioxidant properties.

  17. Isotopic tracer aided studies of fenvalerate residues in stored rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varca, L.M.; Sanchez, T.E.; Magallona, E.D.

    1990-01-01

    Following application of 14 C-fenvalerate to milled rice and paddy rice at a concentration of 0.33 mg/kg, only insignificant losses were measured after 9 months. Distribution patterns in surface, methanol extractable and bound residues were studied. Paddy rice contained less extractable residues than milled rice, with the major part being found in the husk. Bound residues in both milled and paddy rice decreased also with length of storage; as much as 30% was found as bound residues after nine months. Cooking reduced the insecticide residues in milled rice by 33-40% and residues in paddy rice by 58%. (author). 8 refs, 1 fig., 4 tabs

  18. Engineered Dwarf Male-Sterile Rice: A Promising Genetic Tool for Facilitating Recurrent Selection in Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Afsana; Wang, Chunlian; Wang, Jian; Wang, Fujun; Liu, Piqing; Gao, Ying; Tang, Yongchao; Zhao, Kaijun

    2017-01-01

    Rice is a crop feeding half of the world's population. With the continuous raise of yield potential via genetic improvement, rice breeding has entered an era where multiple genes conferring complex traits must be efficiently manipulated to increase rice yield further. Recurrent selection is a sound strategy for manipulating multiple genes and it has been successfully performed in allogamous crops. However, the difficulties in emasculation and hand pollination had obstructed efficient use of recurrent selection in autogamous rice. Here, we report development of the dwarf male-sterile rice that can facilitate recurrent selection in rice breeding. We adopted RNAi technology to synergistically regulate rice plant height and male fertility to create the dwarf male-sterile rice. The RNAi construct pTCK-EGGE, targeting the OsGA20ox2 and OsEAT1 genes, was constructed and used to transform rice via Agrobacterium -mediated transformation. The transgenic T0 plants showing largely reduced plant height and complete male-sterile phenotypes were designated as the dwarf male-sterile plants. Progenies of the dwarf male-sterile plants were obtained by pollinating them with pollens from the wild-type. In the T1 and T2 populations, half of the plants were still dwarf male-sterile; the other half displayed normal plant height and male fertility which were designated as tall and male-fertile plants. The tall and male-fertile plants are transgene-free and can be self-pollinated to generate new varieties. Since emasculation and hand pollination for dwarf male-sterile rice plants is no longer needed, the dwarf male-sterile rice can be used to perform recurrent selection in rice. A dwarf male-sterile rice-based recurrent selection model has been proposed.

  19. Consumer Preferences and Buying Criteria in Rice: A Study to Identify Market Strategy for Thailand Jasmine Rice Export

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suwannaporn, P.; Linnemann, A.R.

    2008-01-01

    Rice consumption per capita in many Asian countries decreased, but it is consumed more in non-rice-eating countries. This study aimed to investigate consumer preferences and attitudes toward Jasmine rice among consumers in target rice export countries to identify opportunities and strategic

  20. Intercellular production of tamavidin 1, a biotin-binding protein from Tamogitake mushroom, confers resistance to the blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae in transgenic rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takakura, Yoshimitsu; Oka, Naomi; Suzuki, Junko; Tsukamoto, Hiroshi; Ishida, Yuji

    2012-05-01

    The blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae, one of the most devastating rice pathogens in the world, shows biotin-dependent growth. We have developed a strategy for creating disease resistance to M. oryzae whereby intercellular production of tamavidin 1, a biotin-binding protein from Pleurotus cornucopiae occurs in transgenic rice plants. The gene that encodes tamavidin 1, fused to the sequence for a secretion signal peptide derived from rice chitinase gene, was connected to the Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter, and the resultant construct was introduced into rice. The tamavidin 1 was accumulated at levels of 0.1-0.2% of total soluble leaf proteins in the transgenic rice and it was localized in the intercellular space of rice leaves. The tamavidin 1 purified from the transgenic rice was active, it bound to biotin and inhibited in vitro growth of M. oryzae by causing biotin deficiency. The transgenic rice plants showed a significant resistance to M. oryzae. This study shows the possibility of a new strategy to engineer disease resistance in higher plants by taking advantage of a pathogen's auxotrophy.

  1. Evaluation of Heavy Metals Contamination from Environment to Food Matrix by TXRF: The Case of Rice and Rice Husk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabjola Bilo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to the chemical analysis of contaminated soils of India and the rice grown in the same area. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy is a well-established technique for elemental chemical analysis of environmental samples, and it can be a useful tool to assess food safety. Metals uptake in rice crop grown in soils from different areas was studied. In this work soil, rice husk and rice samples were analyzed after complete solubilization of samples by microwave acid digestion. Heavy metals concentration detected in rice samples decreases in the following order: Mn > Zn > Cu > Ni > Pb > Cr. The metal content in rice husk was higher than in rice. This study suggests, for the first time, a possible role of heavy metals filter played by rice husk. The knowledge of metals sequestration capability of rice husk may promote some new management practices for rice cultivation to preserve it from pollution.

  2. [Quality of pastas supplemented with rice bran].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangronis, E; Rebolledo, M A

    1997-06-01

    The objective of this research was to investigate the potential of using rice bran as an ingredient in pastas spaghetti type. Two of the pastas were made with semolina from durum as raw material, supplemented with 10 and 20% rice bran. The other two were made with granular flour and the same percentage of rice bran. Proximate composition of raw material was analyzed. Pastas were elaborated in a local industry. Composition, proximal, color, texture, and sensorial quality of pastas were determined. Protein content (13.9-15.0%), ash (1.47-3.09%) and dietary fiber (6.71-8.45%) of pastas increased according to the percentage of rice bran added. The hardest pastas were those elaborated with semolina from durum wheat and with a 10% of substitution. Also, they were the most yellow. The sensory panel found differences in quality among the pastas evaluated. Pastas with 10% rice bran had the best quality. The results demonstrated that is possible to elaborate pastas with 20% as maximum of rice bran resulting products with high protein, ash and dietetic fiber content, but some undesirable characteristics were given by the rice bran as white spots, wrinkles and color changes.

  3. Using rice straw to manufacture ceramic bricks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorbunov German Ivanovich

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the co-authors offer their advanced and efficient methodologies for the recycling of the rice straw, as well as the novel approaches to the ceramic brick quality improvement through the application of the rice straw as the combustible additive and through the formation of amorphous silica in the course of the rice straw combustion. The co-authors provide characteristics of the raw materials, production techniques used to manufacture ceramic bricks, and their basic properties in the article. The co-authors describe the simulated process of formation of amorphous silica. The process in question has two independent steps (or options: 1 rice straw combustion and ash formation outside the oven (in the oxidizing medium, and further application of ash as the additive in the process of burning clay mixtures; 2 adding pre-treated rice straw as the combustible additive into the clay mixture, and its further burning in compliance with the pre-set temperature mode. The findings have proven that the most rational pre-requisite of the rice straw application in the manufacturing of ceramic bricks consists in feeding milled straw into the clay mixture to be followed by molding, drying and burning. Brick samples are highly porous, and they also demonstrate sufficient compressive strength. The co-authors have also identified optimal values of rice straw and ash content in the mixtures under research.

  4. A rice husk gasifier for paddy drying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirani, A.A.; Kalwar, S.A.; Ahmad, M.

    2013-01-01

    Due to energy crisis and constant increase in the price of fossil fuels, the world's trend changes to renewable sources of energy like solar, wind and biomass gasification. Substantial biomass potential is available in Pakistan in the form of agriculture or forest residue (rice straw, rice husk, cotton stalks, corn cobs, wood chips, wood saw, etc.). These can be best utilised for the production of producer gas or synthetic gas that can be used for drying of agricultural crops. The drying process is an important activity of post harvest processing for long-term storage. Rice husk is nowadays commonly used for biomass gasification and its heat content value is about 15MJ/kg. It constitutes about 30 percent of rice production. A rice husk gasifier was developed and evaluated on paddy drying at Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA), Tsukuba International Center (TBIC), Japan. Rice husk gasifier has following major components; husk feeding system, ash chamber, burner, centrifugal fan, drying chamber, gasifier reactor, air duct and an electric motor of 0.37kW. The average drying plenum air temperature was recorded as 45 degree C during the drying process. The paddy 'IR 28' from initial moisture content of 24% was dried up to 14% moisture content for about 3.33h consuming 3kg/h of rice husk. The efficiency was found to be 58%. The rice husk gasifier can also be used for drying the fruits and vegetables, provided that heat exchanger should be attached with it. The overall performance of rice husk gasifier was satisfactory and will be beneficial for small scale farmers, food processors and millers as well. (author)

  5. Mapping and pyramiding of two major genes for resistance to the brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens [St?l]) in the rice cultivar ADR52

    OpenAIRE

    Myint, Khin Khin Marlar; Fujita, Daisuke; Matsumura, Masaya; Sonoda, Tomohiro; Yoshimura, Atsushi; Yasui, Hideshi

    2011-01-01

    The brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens (St?l), is one of the most serious and destructive pests of rice, and can be found throughout the rice-growing areas of Asia. To date, more than 24 major BPH-resistance genes have been reported in several Oryza sativa ssp. indica cultivars and wild relatives. Here, we report the genetic basis of the high level of BPH resistance derived from an Indian rice cultivar, ADR52, which was previously identified as resistant to the whitebacked planthoppe...

  6. Analysis of rice purchase decision on rice consumer in Bandung city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusno, K.; Imannurdin, A.; Syamsiyah, N.; Djuwendah, E.

    2018-03-01

    This study was conducted at three kinds of purchase location which were traditional market, rice kiosk, and supermarket in Bandung City, with survey data of 108 respondents which were selected by systematic random sampling. The aim of this study is to (1) identify consumer characteristics, (2) identify which atribute is considered by consumer in buying rice, and (3) analyze the relationship between purchase decision and income class. Data were analyzed by descriptive analysis and Chi Square test. The results showed most consumers in the traditional market were middle-educated and lower middle-income, at the rice kiosk, the consumer were generally middle-educated and middle-income, and in the supermarkets, the majority were high-educated and upper middle-income consumers. “Kepulenan” be the first priority of most consumers, but for the lower-middle class, the main priority was price. Thus, in case of scarcity and rice price increase, the government should immediately arrange market operations which targeting to lower-middle class consumers. There was a significant relationship between (1) the quality of rice consumed, (2) the frequency of rice purchase per month, and (3) attitudes toward rice price increase; each with the income class. Although the price of rice increase, consumers of middle and upper-middle were remain loyal to the quality of rice they consumed. This indicates rice market in Bandung city is an ideal market for premium rice so that traders and producers are expected to maintain the quality of rice, such as keep using superior seeds and applying good cultivation based on Good Agricultural Practice (GAP) rules.

  7. Spatial Field Variability Mapping of Rice Crop using Clustering Technique from Space Borne Hyperspectral Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moharana, S.; Dutta, S.

    2015-12-01

    Precision farming refers to field-specific management of an agricultural crop at a spatial scale with an aim to get the highest achievable yield and to achieve this spatial information on field variability is essential. The difficulty in mapping of spatial variability occurring within an agriculture field can be revealed by employing spectral techniques in hyperspectral imagery rather than multispectral imagery. However an advanced algorithm needs to be developed to fully make use of the rich information content in hyperspectral data. In the present study, potential of hyperspectral data acquired from space platform was examined to map the field variation of paddy crop and its species discrimination. This high dimensional data comprising 242 spectral narrow bands with 30m ground resolution Hyperion L1R product acquired for Assam, India (30th Sept and 3rd Oct, 2014) were allowed for necessary pre-processing steps followed by geometric correction using Hyperion L1GST product. Finally an atmospherically corrected and spatially deduced image consisting of 112 band was obtained. By employing an advanced clustering algorithm, 12 different clusters of spectral waveforms of the crop were generated from six paddy fields for each images. The findings showed that, some clusters were well discriminated representing specific rice genotypes and some clusters were mixed treating as a single rice genotype. As vegetation index (VI) is the best indicator of vegetation mapping, three ratio based VI maps were also generated and unsupervised classification was performed for it. The so obtained 12 clusters of paddy crop were mapped spatially to the derived VI maps. From these findings, the existence of heterogeneity was clearly captured in one of the 6 rice plots (rice plot no. 1) while heterogeneity was observed in rest of the 5 rice plots. The degree of heterogeneous was found more in rice plot no.6 as compared to other plots. Subsequently, spatial variability of paddy field was

  8. Age determination of bottled Chinese rice wine by VIS-NIR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Haiyan; Lin, Tao; Ying, Yibin; Pan, Xingxiang

    2006-10-01

    The feasibility of non-invasive visible and near infrared (VIS-NIR) spectroscopy for determining wine age (1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 years) of Chinese rice wine was investigated. Samples of Chinese rice wine were analyzed in 600 mL square brown glass bottles with side length of approximately 64 mm at room temperature. VIS-NIR spectra of 100 bottled Chinese rice wine samples were collected in transmission mode in the wavelength range of 350-1200 nm by a fiber spectrometer system. Discriminant models were developed based on discriminant analysis (DA) together with raw, first and second derivative spectra. The concentration of alcoholic degree, total acid, and °Brix was determined to validate the NIR results. The calibration result for raw spectra was better than that for first and second derivative spectra. The percentage of samples correctly classified for raw spectra was 98%. For 1-, 2-, and 3-year-old sample groups, the sample were all correctly classified, and for 4- and 5-year-old sample groups, the percentage of samples correctly classified was 92.9%, respectively. In validation analysis, the percentage of samples correctly classified was 100%. The results demonstrated that VIS-NIR spectroscopic technique could be used as a non-invasive, rapid and reliable method for predicting wine age of bottled Chinese rice wine.

  9. Laboratory Screening for Resistance in Rice to Rice Stem Borer Chilo Suppressalis Walker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singgih Sutrisno

    2004-01-01

    Rice stem borer Chilo suppressalis Walker is one of the major insect pests in rice in Indonesia. The use of insect pest resistant variety of rice is one of the effective techniques against pests. Breeding of resistance to insect pests rice crops often faced difficulties in obtaining a lot of insect amounts due to the unavailability of enough number insects pests in the field so that a laboratory bioassay is needed. In this experiments five rice varieties were used: a Pelita I/1, Atomita I, Cisadane, Cisanggarung, and IR 36. Rice seedling 7 days of age were put in 1 liter plastic vials for rice resistance test against the attack of insect pest C. suppressalis. The parameters observed were larval and pupal viability, pupal weight, and eggs production. The larval and pupal viability which were reared on of Pelita I/1 and Atomita I rice seedlings were 68.5 % - 55.5 % and 57.3 % - 46.7 % respectively. The respective lowest percentages were found in IR 36 which was about 41.3 % - 29.8 % .The experiment results on the parameters of pupal weight and egg production showed similar results to that on the parameters of larval and pupal viability. Rice variety of IR 36 showed more resistance to the other varieties, while Pelita I/1 and Atomita I showed the most susceptible to the attack of insect pest C. suppressalis. (author)

  10. Understanding the evolution of rice technology in China - from traditional agriculture to GM rice today.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiaobai

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides an historical survey of the evolution of rice technology in China, from the traditional farming system to genetically modified rice today. Using sociotechnological analytical framework, it analyses rice technology as a socio-technical ensemble - a complex interaction of material and social elements, and discusses the specificity of technology development and its socio-technical outcomes. It points to two imperatives in rice variety development: wholesale transporting agricultural technology and social mechanism to developing countries are likely lead to negative consequences; indigenous innovation including deploying GM technology for seed varietal development and capturing/cultivating local knowledge will provide better solutions.

  11. PhosphoRice: a meta-predictor of rice-specific phosphorylation sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Que Shufu

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As a result of the growing body of protein phosphorylation sites data, the number of phosphoprotein databases is constantly increasing, and dozens of tools are available for predicting protein phosphorylation sites to achieve fast automatic results. However, none of the existing tools has been developed to predict protein phosphorylation sites in rice. Results In this paper, the phosphorylation site predictors, NetPhos 2.0, NetPhosK, Kinasephos, Scansite, Disphos and Predphosphos, were integrated to construct meta-predictors of rice-specific phosphorylation sites using several methods, including unweighted voting, unreduced weighted voting, reduced unweighted voting and weighted voting strategies. PhosphoRice, the meta-predictor produced by using weighted voting strategy with parameters selected by restricted grid search and conditional random search, performed the best at predicting phosphorylation sites in rice. Its Matthew's Correlation Coefficient (MCC and Accuracy (ACC reached to 0.474 and 73.8%, respectively. Compared to the best individual element predictor (Disphos_default, PhosphoRice archieved a significant increase in MCC of 0.071 (P Conclusions PhosphoRice is a powerful tool for predicting unidentified phosphorylation sites in rice. Compared to the existing methods, we found that our tool showed greater robustness in ACC and MCC. PhosphoRice is available to the public at http://bioinformatics.fafu.edu.cn/PhosphoRice.

  12. International tourist preference of Lodok Rice Field natural elements, the cultural rice field from Manggarai - Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    March Syahadat, Ray; Trie Putra, Priambudi; Nuraini; Nailufar, Balqis; Fatmala Makhmud, Desy

    2017-10-01

    Lodok Rice Field or usually known as spiderweb rice field is a system of land division. It cultural rice field only found on Manggarai, Province of East Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia. The landscape of Lodok Rice Field was aesthetic and it has big potential for tourism development. The aim of this study was to know the perception of natural elements of Lodok Rice Field landscape that could influence international tourist to visited Lodok Rice Field. If we know the elements that could influenced the international tourist, we could used the landscape image for tourism media promotion. The methods of this study used scenic beauty estimation (SBE) by 85 respondents from 34 countries and Kruskal Wallis H test. The countries grouped by five continents (Asia, America, Europe, Africa, and Oceania). The result showed that the Asian respondents liked the elements of sky, mountain, and the rice field. Then, the other respondent from another continent liked the elements of sunshine, mountain, and the rice field. Although the Asian had different perception about landscape elements of rice field’s good view, it’s not differ significantly by Kruskal Wallis H test.

  13. Creation of transgenic rice plants producing small interfering RNA of Rice tungro spherical virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Dung Tien; Chu, Ha Duc; Sasaya, Takahide

    2015-01-01

    Rice tungro spherical virus (RTSV), also known as Rice waika virus, does not cause visible symptoms in infected rice plants. However, the virus plays a critical role in spreading Rice tungro bacilliform virus (RTBV), which is the major cause of severe symptoms of rice tungro disease. Recent studies showed that RNA interference (RNAi) can be used to develop virus-resistance transgenic rice plants. In this report, we presented simple procedures and protocols needed for the creation of transgenic rice plants capable of producing small interfering RNA specific against RTSV sequences. Notably, our study showed that 60 out of 64 individual hygromycin-resistant lines (putative transgenic lines) obtained through transformation carried transgenes designed for producing hairpin double-stranded RNA. Northern blot analyses revealed the presence of small interfering RNA of 21- to 24-mer in 46 out of 56 confirmed transgenic lines. Taken together, our study indicated that transgenic rice plants carrying an inverted repeat of 500-bp fragments encoding various proteins of RTSV can produce small interfering RNA from the hairpin RNA transcribed from that transgene. In light of recent studies with other viruses, it is possible that some of these transgenic rice lines might be resistant to RTSV.

  14. Lead in rice: analysis of baseline lead levels in market and field collected rice grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Gareth J; Williams, Paul N; Adomako, Eureka E; Price, Adam H; Zhu, Yongguan; Zhao, Fang-Jie; McGrath, Steve; Deacon, Claire M; Villada, Antia; Sommella, Alessia; Lu, Ying; Ming, Lei; De Silva, P Mangala C S; Brammer, Hugh; Dasgupta, Tapash; Islam, M Rafiqul; Meharg, Andrew A

    2014-07-01

    In a large scale survey of rice grains from markets (13 countries) and fields (6 countries), a total of 1578 rice grain samples were analysed for lead. From the market collected samples, only 0.6% of the samples exceeded the Chinese and EU limit of 0.2 μg g(-1) lead in rice (when excluding samples collected from known contaminated/mine impacted regions). When evaluating the rice grain samples against the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) provisional total tolerable intake (PTTI) values for children and pregnant women, it was found that only people consuming large quantities of rice were at risk of exceeding the PTTI from rice alone. Furthermore, 6 field experiments were conducted to evaluate the proportion of the variation in lead concentration in rice grains due to genetics. A total of 4 of the 6 field experiments had significant differences between genotypes, but when the genotypes common across all six field sites were assessed, only 4% of the variation was explained by genotype, with 9.5% and 11% of the variation explained by the environment and genotype by environment interaction respectively. Further work is needed to identify the sources of lead contamination in rice, with detailed information obtained on the locations and environments where the rice is sampled, so that specific risk assessments can be performed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Characterization of Volatile Flavor Compounds in Chinese Rice Wine Fermented from Enzymatic Extruded Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Enbo; Long, Jie; Wu, Zhengzong; Li, Hongyan; Wang, Fang; Xu, Xueming; Jin, Zhengyu; Jiao, Aiquan

    2015-07-01

    Enzymatic extrusion, instead of traditional steam cooking, to treat rice is an efficient and alternative pretreatment for Chinese rice wine fermentation. In order to determine the formation of volatiles in enzymatic extrusion-processed rice wine (EE), and to confirm its characteristic flavor compounds, headspace solid-phase micro-extraction followed by GC-MS was used. A total of 66 volatile compounds were identified in EE. During fermentation, most volatiles generated from enzymatic extruded rice had the similar trends with those from steam-cooked rice, but the differences in the concentration of volatiles indicated a changed balance of flavors release caused by enzymatic extrusion. Besides, the concentrations and sorts of volatiles in EEs fermented from different rice particle sizes, were not dramatically different. By principal component analysis, EE could be distinctly separated from other traditional Chinese rice wines according to its characteristic volatiles, namely, 2-heptanol, 1-octen-3-ol, ethyl 4-hydroxybenzoate, methylpentyl 2-propenoate, γ-hexalactone, and 4-vinylguaiacol. Enzymatic extrusion liquefaction has been a popular thermal treatment for cereals, and gradually being applied in fermentation and liquor-making industry all over the world. The characterization of volatile flavor compounds in Chinese rice wine processed by enzymatic extrusion liquefaction pretreatment, might be made use not only for a better understanding of this new-type rice wine, but for the further utilization of enzymatic extrusion in other wine or alcohol production as well. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  16. An update on the use of co-products from the milling of rice in value added food products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Because of the huge quantity of rice produced annually, milled-rice co-products; such as, rice bran, rice oil, rice wax, rice flour, and rice hull are plentiful and readily available. These co-products could be valuable sources of food ingredients, but they have been vastly under-utilized. Rice bra...

  17. Efficient Secretion of Recombinant Proteins from Rice Suspension-Cultured Cells Modulated by the Choice of Signal Peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Li-Fen; Tan, Chia-Chun; Yeh, Ju-Fang; Liu, Hsin-Yi; Liu, Yu-Kuo; Ho, Shin-Lon; Lu, Chung-An

    2015-01-01

    Plant-based expression systems have emerged as a competitive platform in the large-scale production of recombinant proteins. By adding a signal peptide, αAmy3sp, the desired recombinant proteins can be secreted outside transgenic rice cells, making them easy to harvest. In this work, to improve the secretion efficiency of recombinant proteins in rice expression systems, various signal peptides including αAmy3sp, CIN1sp, and 33KDsp have been fused to the N-terminus of green fluorescent protein (GFP) and introduced into rice cells to explore the efficiency of secretion of foreign proteins. 33KDsp had better efficiency than αAmy3sp and CIN1sp for the secretion of GFP from calli and suspension-cultured cells. 33KDsp was further applied for the secretion of mouse granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (mGM-CSF) from transgenic rice suspension-cultured cells; approximately 76%-92% of total rice-derived mGM-CSF (rmGM-CSF) was detected in the culture medium. The rmGM-CSF was bioactive and could stimulate the proliferation of a murine myeloblastic leukemia cell line, NSF-60. The extracellular yield of rmGM-CSF reached 31.7 mg/L. Our study indicates that 33KDsp is better at promoting the secretion of recombinant proteins in rice suspension-cultured cell systems than the commonly used αAmy3sp.

  18. Comparative Study of the Phytoprostane and Phytofuran Content of indica and japonica Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinciroli, M; Domínguez-Perles, R; Abellán, A; Guy, A; Durand, T; Oger, C; Galano, J M; Ferreres, F; Gil-Izquierdo, A

    2017-10-11

    Phytoprostanes and phytofurans (PhytoPs and PhytoFs, respectively) are nonenzymatic lipid peroxidation products derived from α-linolenic acid (C18:3 n-3), considered biomarkers of oxidative degradation in plant foods. The present work profiled these compounds in white and brown grain flours and rice bran from 14 rice cultivars of the subspecies indica and japonica by ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization and triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. For PhytoPs, the average concentrations were higher in rice bran (0.01-9.35 ng g -1 ) than in white and brown grain flours (0.01-1.17 ng g -1 ). In addition, the evaluation of rice flours for the occurrence PhytoFs evidenced average values 1.77, 4.22, and 10.30 ng g -1 dw in rice bran, brown grain flour, and white grain flour, respectively. A significant correlation was observed between total and individual compounds. The concentrations retrieved suggest rice bran as a valuable source of PhytoPs and PhytoFs that should be considered in further studies on bioavailability and bioactivity of such compounds.

  19. The rice XA21 ectodomain fused to the Arabidopsis EFR cytoplasmic domain confers resistance to Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Nicholas C; Oksenberg, Nir; Liu, Furong; Caddell, Daniel; Nalyvayko, Alina; Nguyen, Yen; Schwessinger, Benjamin; Ronald, Pamela C

    2018-01-01

    Rice ( Oryza sativa ) plants expressing the XA21 cell-surface receptor kinase are resistant to Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) infection. We previously demonstrated that expressing a chimeric protein containing the ELONGATION FACTOR Tu RECEPTOR (EFR) ectodomain and the XA21 endodomain (EFR:XA21) in rice does not confer robust resistance to Xoo . To test if the XA21 ectodomain is required for Xoo resistance, we produced transgenic rice lines expressing a chimeric protein consisting of the XA21 ectodomain and EFR endodomain (XA21:EFR) and inoculated these lines with Xoo . We also tested if the XA21:EFR rice plants respond to a synthetic sulfated 21 amino acid derivative (RaxX21-sY) of the activator of XA21-mediated immunity, RaxX. We found that five independently transformed XA21:EFR rice lines displayed resistance to Xoo as measured by lesion length analysis, and showed that five lines share characteristic markers of the XA21 defense response (generation of reactive oxygen species and defense response gene expression) after treatment with RaxX21-sY. Our results indicate that expression of the XA21:EFR chimeric receptor in rice confers resistance to Xoo . These results suggest that the endodomain of the EFR and XA21 immune receptors are interchangeable and the XA21 ectodomain is the key determinant conferring robust resistance to Xoo .

  20. Enhancement of innate immune system in monocot rice by transferring the dicotyledonous elongation factor Tu receptor EFR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fen Lu; Huiqin Wang; Shanzhi Wang; Wendi Jiang; Changlin Shan; Bin Li; Jun Yang; Shiyong Zhang; Wenxian Sun

    2015-01-01

    The elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu) receptor (EFR) in cruciferous plants specifical y recognizes the N-terminal acetylated elf18 region of bacterial EF-Tu and thereby activates plant immunity. It has been demonstrated that Arabidopsis EFR confers broad-spectrum bacterial resistance in the EFR transgenic solanaceous plants. Here, the transgenic rice plants (Oryza sativa L. ssp. japonica cv. Zhonghua 17) and cel cultures with constitutive expression of AtEFR were developed to investigate whether AtEFR senses EF-Tu and thus enhances bacterial resistance in the monocot plants. We demonstrated that the Xanthomonas oryzae-derived elf18 peptide induced oxidative burst and mitogen-activated protein kinase activa-tion in the AtEFR transgenic rice cel s and plants, respectively. Pathogenesis-related genes, such as OsPBZ1, were upregulated dramatical y in transgenic rice plant and cel lines in response to elf18 stimulation. Importantly, pretreatment with elf18 trig-gered strong resistance to X. oryzae pv. oryzae in the transgenic plants, which was largely dependent on the AtEFR expression level. These plants also exhibited enhanced resistance to rice bacterial brown stripe, but not to rice fungal blast. Col ectively, the results indicate that the rice plants with heterologous expression of AtEFR recognize bacterial EF-Tu and exhibit enhanced broad-spectrum bacterial disease resistance and that pattern recognition receptor-mediated immunity may be manipulated across the two plant classes, dicots and monocots.

  1. Genetic analysis and identification of SSR markers associated with rice blast disease in a BC2F1 backcross population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, N; Rafii, M Y; Abdul Rahim, H; Nusaibah, S A; Mazlan, N; Abdullah, S

    2017-01-23

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) blast disease is one of the most destructive rice diseases in the world. The fungal pathogen, Magnaporthe oryzae, is the causal agent of rice blast disease. Development of resistant cultivars is the most preferred method to achieve sustainable rice production. However, the effectiveness of resistant cultivars is hindered by the genetic plasticity of the pathogen genome. Therefore, information on genetic resistance and virulence stability are vital to increase our understanding of the molecular basis of blast disease resistance. The present study set out to elucidate the resistance pattern and identify potential simple sequence repeat markers linked with rice blast disease. A backcross population (BC 2 F 1 ), derived from crossing MR264 and Pongsu Seribu 2 (PS2), was developed using marker-assisted backcross breeding. Twelve microsatellite markers carrying the blast resistance gene clearly demonstrated a polymorphic pattern between both parental lines. Among these, two markers, RM206 and RM5961, located on chromosome 11 exhibited the expected 1:1 testcross ratio in the BC 2 F 1 population. The 195 BC 2 F 1 plants inoculated against M. oryzae pathotype P7.2 showed a significantly different distribution in the backcrossed generation and followed Mendelian segregation based on a single-gene model. This indicates that blast resistance in PS2 is governed by a single dominant gene, which is linked to RM206 and RM5961 on chromosome 11. The findings presented in this study could be useful for future blast resistance studies in rice breeding programs.

  2. Effects of elevated O3 concentration on winter wheat and rice yields in the Yangtze River Delta, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaoke; Zhang Qianqian; Zheng Feixiang; Zheng Qiwei; Yao Fangfang; Chen Zhan; Zhang Weiwei; Hou Peiqiang; Feng Zhaozhong; Song Wenzhi; Feng Zongwei; Lu Fei

    2012-01-01

    The effects of a continuing rise of ambient ozone on crop yield will seriously threaten food security in China. In the Yangtze River Delta, a rapidly developing and seriously air polluted region in China, innovative open-top chambers have been established to fumigate winter wheat and rice in situ with elevated O 3 . Five years of study have shown that the yields of wheat and rice decreased with increasing O 3 concentration. There were significant relationships between the relative yield and AOT40 (accumulated hourly O 3 concentration over 40 ppb) for both winter wheat and rice. Winter wheat was more sensitive to O 3 than rice. O 3 -induced yield declines were attributed primarily to 1000-grain weight and harvest index for winter wheat, and attributed primarily to grain number per panicle and harvest index for rice. Control of ambient O 3 pollution and breeding of O 3 tolerant crops are urgent to guarantee food security in China. - Highlights: ► The wheat and rice response to ozone had been investigated for five years in China. ► There were significant relationships between relative crop yields and AOT40 dose. ► O 3 -induced wheat yield loss was primarily due to 1000-grain weight and harvest index. ► O 3 -induced rice yield loss was primarily due to grains per panicle and harvest index. ► Wheat and rice in this study are more sensitive to O 3 than previous investigations. - The dose–response relationships derived from field fumigation experiments over 5 years can be used to accurately estimate crop losses in China.

  3. Rice saabus Euroopat taltsutama / Tõnu Prei

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Prei, Tõnu, 1950-

    2005-01-01

    USA välisminister Condolezza Rice alustas ringreisi Euroopas, eesmärgiks anda vastulöök USA-d tabanud kriitikale sõjavangide kohtlemise ja teistes riikides oma luuretalituse salavanglate pidamise pärast

  4. USING RICE BRAN IN LAYING HEN DIETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H ERSIN SAMLI

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Rice bran is an energy and protein rich ingredient used in poultry feeding. To balance energy and protein requirements. The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of rice bran on performance and egg quality during peak production of a commercial White laying strain of 22 week of age. Dietary treatments were consisted by inclusion of rice bran at 0, 5, 10 and 15% levels. Each treatment had 6 reps in which 12 birds were randomly assigned in wired fl oor battery cages equipped with nipple drinkers and through feeders. Layers accessed to feed and water freely. Lighting regimen was adjusted to 16h light/8h dark. The experiment lasted for 10 weeks. Overall results of the present experiment indicated that rice bran could be included up to 10% without any adverse affect on laying performance, egg quality and digestive organs.

  5. Fate of N and relative efficiency of 15N-labeled organic materials applied to transplanted rice in northern Kyushu region of Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishida, Mizuhiko; Tsuchiya, Kazunari; Yamamuro, Shigekazu

    2004-01-01

    Seven kinds of 15 N-labeled organic materials were applied to transplanted rice to investigate their N fate and relative efficiency in the northern Kyushu region of Japan. The 15 N-labeled organic materials examined in a micro-plot experiment were cattle manure compost, poultry manure compost, swine feces, rice straw compost, rice bran, rice straw, and wheat straw. Regarding swine feces, rice bran, and wheat straw, the direct evaluation of their N fate in paddy fields using 15 N organic materials has not been reported. A significant difference in the N fate in response to the type of organic materials was observed in the uptake rate by rice plants. The uptake rate at the maturity stage was significantly higher in poultry manure (29%), swine feces (25%), and rice bran (26%) than for the other organic materials (6-13%). Cattle manure compost showed the lowest value, namely 6-7%. Using the uptake rate of ( 15 NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 observed earlier, the relative efficiency of organ nic materials (relative uptake rate of organic material N to chemical fertilizer N) was calculated as the index of the organic material N efficiency. These relative efficiencies of organic materials derived from animal wastes were 16-19, 81, 72, and 71% for cattle manure compost, poultry manure compost, poultry manure compost without inherent NH 4 -H, and swine feces, respectively, and were similar to those estimated by indirect way. The relative efficiencies of organic materials derived from plant residues were 25-31, 73, 33 and 34% for rice straw compost, rice bran, rice straw, and wheat straw, respectively. The N uptake from the organic materials (OM-N uptake) in swine feces and cattle manure compost continued throughout the rice growth period, whereas the OM-N uptake of the other organic materials declined remarkably after 54 DAT. No significant difference was observed in the residual rate and the loss rate among the organic materials. However, some tendencies that might be related to the

  6. Genetic Diversity of Wild Rice Species in Yunnan Province of China

    OpenAIRE

    Zai-quan CHENG; Fu-you YING; Ding-qing LI; Teng-qiong YU; Jian FU; Hui-jun YAN; Qiao-fang ZHONG; Dun-yu ZHANG; Wei-jiao LI; Xing-qi HUANG

    2012-01-01

    Yunnan Province of China is one of the important centers for origin and evolution of cultivated rice worldwide. Wild rice is the ancestor of the cultivated rice. Many elite traits of wild rice have widened the genetic basis in cultivated rice. However, many populations of wild rice species have disappeared in the past few years. Therefore, the current status of wild rice resources should be updated and the genetic diversity of wild rice species should be examined for further germplasm preserv...

  7. Characterization of paralogous protein families in rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Wei

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High gene numbers in plant genomes reflect polyploidy and major gene duplication events. Oryza sativa, cultivated rice, is a diploid monocotyledonous species with a ~390 Mb genome that has undergone segmental duplication of a substantial portion of its genome. This, coupled with other genetic events such as tandem duplications, has resulted in a substantial number of its genes, and resulting proteins, occurring in paralogous families. Results Using a computational pipeline that utilizes Pfam and novel protein domains, we characterized paralogous families in rice and compared these with paralogous families in the model dicotyledonous diploid species, Arabidopsis thaliana. Arabidopsis, which has undergone genome duplication as well, has a substantially smaller genome (~120 Mb and gene complement compared to rice. Overall, 53% and 68% of the non-transposable element-related rice and Arabidopsis proteins could be classified into paralogous protein families, respectively. Singleton and paralogous family genes differed substantially in their likelihood of encoding a protein of known or putative function; 26% and 66% of singleton genes compared to 73% and 96% of the paralogous family genes encode a known or putative protein in rice and Arabidopsis, respectively. Furthermore, a major skew in the distribution of specific gene function was observed; a total of 17 Gene Ontology categories in both rice and Arabidopsis were statistically significant in their differential distribution between paralogous family and singleton proteins. In contrast to mammalian organisms, we found that duplicated genes in rice and Arabidopsis tend to have more alternative splice forms. Using data from Massively Parallel Signature Sequencing, we show that a significant portion of the duplicated genes in rice show divergent expression although a correlation between sequence divergence and correlation of expression could be seen in very young genes. Conclusion

  8. The Potency of White Rice (Oryza sativa), Black Rice (Oryza sativa L. indica), and Red Rice (Oryza nivara) as Antioxidant and Tyrosinase Inhibitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batubara, I.; Maharni, M.; Sadiah, S.

    2017-04-01

    Rice is known to have many beneficial biological activities and is often used as “bedak dingin”, a face powder. The content of vitamins, minerals, fiber, and several types of antioxidants, such as ferulic acid, phytic acid, tocopherol, and oryzanols [1-2] are predicted to be potential as a tyrosinase inhibitor. The purpose of this study is to determine the potency of extracts from there types of rice, namely white, red, and black rice as an antioxidant and tyrosinase inhibitor. The rice was extracted with three different solvents, n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol. The results showed that the highest antioxidant activity using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl method was found in the methanol extract of black rice (IC50 290 μg/mL). Meanwhile, ethyl acetate extract of white rice has the highest antioxidant activity withphosphomolybdic acid method (41 mmol α-tocopherol equivalents/g sample). Thus, methanol extract of black rice and ethyl acetate extract of white rice are potential as an antioxidant. For tyrosinase inhibitor, n-hexane extract of red rice (IC50 3156 μg/mL) was the most active extract. The active component for radical scavenging is polar compound and for antioxidant by phosphomolybdate method is less polar compounds in black rice methanol extract based on TLC bioautogram. In conclusion, the black rice is the most potent in antioxidant while red rice is for tyrosinase inhibition.

  9. The Caryopsis of Red-Grained Rice Has Enhanced Resistance to Fungal Attack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Gianinetti

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Seed persistence in the soil is threatened by microorganisms, but the seed coat helps protect the seed from them. Although modern rice (Oryza sativa L. cultivars have a whitish caryopsis, some varieties have a red caryopsis coat, a trait typical of wild Oryza species. The red colour is due to the oxidation of proanthocyanidins, a class of flavonoids that is found in the outer layers of the seed in many species. We aimed to assess whether these natural compounds (proanthocyanidins and proanthocyanidin-derived pigment have some protective effect against microbial attacks. Dehulled caryopses of white-grained and red-grained rice genotypes were employed to assay fungal infection. Specifically, three white-grained rice cultivars (Perla, Augusto, and Koral and three red-grained rice varieties (Perla Rosso, Augusto Rosso, and Koral Rosso were used. In a first test, the caryopses were infected with Epicoccum nigrum at 10 °C, and seedling growth was then assessed at 30 °C. In a second test, the degree of infection by the mycotoxigenic fungus Fusarium sporotrichioides was assayed by measuring the accumulation of T-2/HT-2 toxins in the caryopses. Infection was performed at 10 °C to prevent rice germination while allowing fungal growth. In both the tests, red caryopses showed reduced, or delayed, infection with respect to white ones. One black-grained cultivar (Venere was assayed for the accumulation of T-2/HT-2 toxins as well, with results corresponding to those of the red-grained rice varieties. We argue that the red pigment accumulating in the caryopsis coat, and/or the proanthocyanidins associated with it, provides a protective barrier against challenging microorganisms.

  10. Characterizing and Estimating Fungal Disease Severity of Rice Brown Spot with Hyperspectral Reflectance Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhan-yu LIU

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale farming of agriculture crops requires real-time detection of disease for field pest management. Hyperspectral remote sensing data generally have high spectral resolution, which could be very useful for detecting disease stress in green vegetation at the leaf and canopy levels. In this study, hyperspectral reflectances of rice in the laboratory and field were measured to characterize the spectral regions and wavebands, which were the most sensitive to rice brown spot infected by Bipolaris oryzae (Helminthosporium oryzae Breda. de Hann. Leaf reflectance increased at the ranges of 450 to 500 nm and 630 to 680 nm with the increasing percentage of infected leaf surface, and decreased at the ranges of 520 to 580 nm, 760 to 790 nm, 1550 to 1750 nm, and 2080 to 2350 nm with the increasing percentage of infected leaf surface respectively. The sensitivity analysis and derivative technique were used to select the sensitive wavebands for the detection of rice brown spot infected by B. oryzae. Ratios of rice leaf reflectance were evaluated as indicators of brown spot. R669/R746 (the reflectance at 669 nm divided by the reflectance at 746 nm, the following ratios may be deduced by analogy, R702/R718, R692/R530, R692/R732, R535/R746, R521/R718, and R569/R718 increased significantly as the incidence of rice brown spot increased regardless of whether it's at the leaf or canopy level. R702/R718, R692/R530, R692/R732 were the best three ratios for estimating the disease severity of rice brown spot at the leaf and canopy levels. This result not only confirms the capability of hyperspectral remote sensing data in characterizing crop disease for precision pest management in the real world, but also testifies that the ratios of crop reflectance is a useful method to estimate crop disease severity.

  11. Efficient production of a bioactive Bevacizumab monoclonal antibody using the 2A self-cleavage peptide in transgenic rice callus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Chen

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Bevacizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody (mAb targeting to the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, has been widely used in clinical practice for the treatment of multiple cancers. Bevacizumab was mostly produced by the mammalian cell expression system. We here reported the first plant-derived Bevacizumab by using transgenic rice callus as an alternative gene expression system. Codon-optimized Bevacizumab light chain (BLC and heavy chain (BHC genes were designed, synthesized as a polyprotein with a 2A self-cleavage linker peptide from the Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV, cloned into a plant binary vector under a constitutive maize ubiquitin promoter, and transformed into rice nuclear genome through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Southern blot and western blot analyses confirmed the integration and expression of BLC and BHC genes in transgenic rice callus. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA analysis indicated that the rice-derived Bevacizumab mAb was biologically active and the recombinant mAb was expressed at high levels (160.7-242.8 mg kg-1FW in transgenic rice callus. The mAb was purified by using protein A affinity chromatography and the purified antibody was tested for its binding affinity with its target hVEGF antigen by ELISA. Rice callus produced Bevacizumab and a commercial Bevacizumab (Avastin were shown to have similar binding affinity to hVEGF. These results indicated that rice callus produced Bevacizumab could have similar biological activity and might potentially be used as a cost-effective biosimilar molecule in future cancer treatment.

  12. [Effects of rice cleaning and cooking process on the residues of flutolanil, fenobucarb, silafluofen and buprofezin in rice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Motoaki; Sakaguchi, Masayuki; Kobata, Masakazu; Sakaguchi, Yoko; Tanizawa, Haruna; Miura, Yuri; Sasano, Ryoichi; Nakanishi, Yutaka

    2003-02-01

    We studied the effect of cleaning and cooking on the residues of flutolanil, fenobucarb, silafluofen and buprofezin in rice. The rice had been sprayed in a paddy field in Wakayama city, with 3 kinds of pesticide application protocols: spraying once at the usual concentration of pesticides, repeated spraying (3 times) with the usual concentration of pesticides and spraying once with 3 times the usual concentration of pesticides. The residue levels of pesticide decreased during the rice cleaning process. Silafluofen, which has a higher log Pow value, remained in the hull of the rice. Fenobucarb, which has a lower log Pow value, penetrated inside the rice. The residue concentration of pesticide in polished rice was higher than that in pre-washed rice processed ready for cooking. During the cooking procedure, the reduction of pesticides in polished rice was higher than that in brown rice.

  13. Potential of mutation breeding in improving Indonesian local rice varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobrizal

    2016-01-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is an important cereal crops for human nutrition, this species can be divided into sub-species i.e. Indica and Japonica. Japonica sub-species consists of Temprate and Tropical Japonica (it is called as Javanica) groups. Mostly Javanica group originated from Indonesia, the people mentioned as Indonesian local varieties, it was covering more than 8000 varieties. This paper aims is to discuss the potential of mutation breeding, success stories and on going activities improved genetically the local rice varieties. Indonesian local varieties have been tested naturally for resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses so that they become useful collections of genetic resources. They usually adapted well toa specific environment where they grow largely, having good aroma and eating quality, but they have some weakness such very long growth duration, susceptible to lodging, unresponsive to fertilizer, and low yield. Seed multiplication is usually conducted by collecting seeds from farmer's fields so that the seed quality, especially for seeds purity level is very low. Improvements of seed quality is usually conducted through purification of exciting varieties, then, the result is released as a new variety. Other ways, some new varieties were improved through mutation breeding, for example, an early maturing mutant variety of Pandan Putri derived from irradiated Pandan Wangi variety from Cianjur area. The success story to reduce harvest age of Pandan Wangi variety through mutation breeding, it was triggers other local governments to use nuclear technology in improving agronomic traits of their local rice varieties, without altered another good characters. (author)

  14. Biophysical and Mechanical properties of rice varieties: attributes to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It requires about 25N for the rice grain (IITA306) to fail at 0.7mm at horizontal and 150N to crack the rice grain in vertical position at 21.0mm, it takes 60N for the rice grain (MAS) to fail at 1.4mm and 150N to crack the rice grain at 22.5mm as well as 58N for the rice grain (R18) to fail at 1.2mm and 125N to crack the rice grain ...

  15. Effect of gamma irradiation on rice and its food products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, W.-C.

    2005-01-01

    Two milled indica rice varieties were exposed to gamma radiation with doses ranging from 0 to 1.0 kGy. The effects of gamma irradiation on rice flour pasting properties and the qualities of its food product, rice curd, were compared to the effects of storage. A dose of 1 kGy can decrease the flour paste viscosity and tenderize the texture of the rice curd to similar levels as those obtained after 12 months of storage. It was thus shown that gamma irradiation could shorten the indica rice aging time and improve the processing stability and quality of rice products

  16. Effect of gamma irradiation on rice and its food products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, W.-C. [Department of Hotel and Restaurant Management, Chia Nan University of Pharmacy and Science, 60 Erh-Jen Road, Sec. 1, Pao-An, Jen-Te Hsiang, Tainan 717, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: sungwilliam2001@yahoo.com.tw

    2005-07-01

    Two milled indica rice varieties were exposed to gamma radiation with doses ranging from 0 to 1.0 kGy. The effects of gamma irradiation on rice flour pasting properties and the qualities of its food product, rice curd, were compared to the effects of storage. A dose of 1 kGy can decrease the flour paste viscosity and tenderize the texture of the rice curd to similar levels as those obtained after 12 months of storage. It was thus shown that gamma irradiation could shorten the indica rice aging time and improve the processing stability and quality of rice products.

  17. An update on the use of rice in value-added food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Because of the huge quantity of rice produced annually, milled-rice co-products; such as, rice flour, rice bran, rice wax, and rice hull are plentiful and readily available. These co-products could be valuable sources of food ingredients, but they have been vastly under-utilized. This is a report ...

  18. Mitochondrial-Derived Oxidants and Cellular Responses to Low Dose/Low LET Ionizing Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spitz, Douglas R.

    2009-01-01

    radiation that could be mitigated by over expression of the H2O2 metabolizing enzyme, catalase, and/or the mitochondrial form of superoxide dismutase (MnSOD). Furthermore, using radiation-induced genomically unstable cells, it was shown that steady-state levels of H2O2 were significantly elevated for many cell generations following exposure, catalase suppressed the radiation-induced mutator phenotype when added long after radiation exposure, unstable clones showed evidence of mitochondrial dysfunction some of which was characterized by improper assembly of SDH subunits (particularly subunit B), and chemical inhibitors of SDH activity could decrease steady-state levels of H2O2 as well as mutation frequency. These results support the hypotheses that (1) SDH mutations could contribute to transformation by inducing genomic instability and a mutator phenotype via increasing steady-state levels of ROS; (2) metabolic sources of O 2 - and H 2 O 2 play a significant role in low dose radiation induced injury and genomic instability; and (3) increased mutation rates in irradiated mammal cells can be suppressed by scavengers of H2O2 (particularly catalase) long after radiation exposure. Overall the results obtained during this period of support provide clear evidence in support of the hypothesis that abnormal oxidative metabolism in mitochondria that result in increases in steady-sate levels of H 2 O 2 and other ROS are capable of significantly contributing to radiation-induced mutator phenotypes in mammalian cells.

  19. Characteristics of Korean Alcoholic Beverages Produced by Using Rice Nuruks Containing Aspergillus oryzae N159-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye Ryun; Lee, Ae Ran; Kim, Jae-Ho

    2017-06-01

    Herein, nuruks derived from non-glutinous and glutinous rice inoculated with Aspergillus oryzae N159-1 (having high alpha-amylase and beta-glucosidase activities) were used to produce Korean alcoholic beverages. The resultant beverages had enhanced fruity (ethyl caproate and isoamyl alcohol) and rose (2-phenethyl acetate and phenethyl alcohol) flavors and high taste scores.

  20. Characteristics of Korean Alcoholic Beverages Produced by Using Rice Nuruks Containing Aspergillus oryzae N159-1

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hye Ryun; Lee, Ae Ran; Kim, Jae-Ho

    2017-01-01

    Herein, nuruks derived from non-glutinous and glutinous rice inoculated with Aspergillus oryzae N159-1 (having high alpha-amylase and beta-glucosidase activities) were used to produce Korean alcoholic beverages. The resultant beverages had enhanced fruity (ethyl caproate and isoamyl alcohol) and rose (2-phenethyl acetate and phenethyl alcohol) flavors and high taste scores.

  1. Rice is the seed of the monocot plants Oryza sativa (Asian rice) or ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BIOTECH

    2013-10-16

    Oct 16, 2013 ... of culture. The regenerated plantlets were transferred to pots for acclimatization. About 80% of plants were survived in the greenhouse condition. Key words: Somatic embryogenesis, immature zygotic embryos, Indica rice, plant regeneration. INTRODUCTION. Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is one of the most ...

  2. Genomic dissection of small RNAs in wild rice (Oryza rufipogon): lessons for rice domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Bai, Xuefei; Yan, Chenghai; Gui, Yiejie; Wei, Xinghua; Zhu, Qian-Hao; Guo, Longbiao; Fan, Longjiang

    2012-11-01

    The lack of a MIRNA set and genome sequence of wild rice (Oryza rufipogon) has prevented us from determining the role of MIRNA genes in rice domestication. In this study, a genome, three small RNA populations and a degradome of O. rufipogon were sequenced by Illumina platform and the expression levels of microRNAs (miRNAs) were investigated by miRNA chips. A de novo O. rufipogon genome was assembled using c. 55× coverage of raw sequencing data and a total of 387 MIRNAs were identified in the O. rufipogon genome based on c. 5.2 million unique small RNA reads from three different tissues of O. rufipogon. Of these, O. rufipogon MIRNAs, 259 were not found in the cultivated rice, suggesting a loss of these MIRNAs in the cultivated rice. We also found that 48 MIRNAs were novel in the cultivated rice, suggesting that they were potential targets of domestication selection. Some miRNAs showed significant expression differences between wild and cultivated rice, suggesting that expression of miRNA could also be a target of domestication, as demonstrated for the miR164 family. Our results illustrated that MIRNA genes, like protein-coding genes, might have been significantly shaped during rice domestication and could be one of the driving forces that contributed to rice domestication. © 2012 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2012 New Phytologist Trust.

  3. Ethanol production from rice on radioactively contaminated field toward sustainable rice farming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoyama, Shinya; Izumi, Bintaro; Oki, Kazuo

    2011-01-01

    Radioactive species such as 137 Cs were discharged from Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant which was severely damaged by the enormous earthquake and tsunami. Cropland has been radioactively contaminated by 137 Cs etc. and it seems impossible to plant rice due to the non-suitability for food. According to the reports, 137 Cs transferred into the rice from soil is less than 1% on the average. Therefore, it is expected that the concentration of 137 Cs in bioethanol will be well below the tentative restriction value even if bioethanol could be produced from the rice. It is proposed that the rice field should be filled with water to avoid the flow of runoff contaminated by radioactive cesium compounds because they are insoluble in aqueous phase and that bioethanol should be produced from the rice in order to maintain the multifunction of rice field and to continue the agriculture. If rice farming is halted and neglected, agricultural function of rice field as well as local community will be permanently destroyed. (author)

  4. Development and characterization of emulsions containing purple rice bran and brown rice oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aims of this study were to characterize purple rice bran oil (PRBO) as extracted from the bran, and to produce and characterize a nano-emulsion containing purple rice bran oil. An emulsion was prepared using PRBO (10%), sodium caseinate (5%) and water (85%). The mixture was sonicated followed ...

  5. Do rice water weevils and rice stem borers compete when sharing a host plant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Sheng-Wei; He, Yan; Ji, Xiang-Hua; Jiang, Ming-Xing; Cheng, Jia-An

    2008-07-01

    The rice water weevil (RWW) Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus Kuschel (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is an invasive insect pest of rice Oryza sativa L. in China. Little is known about the interactions of this weevil with indigenous herbivores. In the present study, adult feeding and population density of the weevil, injury level of striped stem borer Chilo suppressalis (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and pink stem borer Sesamia inferens (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) to rice, as well as growth status of their host plants were surveyed in a rice field located in Southeastern Zhejiang, China, in 2004 with the objective to discover interspecific interactions on the rice. At tillering stage, both adult feeding of the weevil and injury of the stem borers tended to occur on larger tillers (bearing 5 leaves) compared with small tillers (bearing 2~4 leaves), but the insects showed no evident competition with each other. At booting stage, the stem borers caused more withering/dead hearts and the weevil reached a higher density on the plants which had more productive tillers and larger root system; the number of weevils per tiller correlated negatively with the percentage of withering/dead hearts of plants in a hill. These observations indicate that interspecific interactions exist between the rice water weevil and the rice stem borers with negative relations occurring at booting or earlier developmental stages of rice.

  6. Do rice water weevils and rice stem borers compete when sharing a host plant?*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Sheng-wei; He, Yan; Ji, Xiang-hua; Jiang, Ming-xing; Cheng, Jia-an

    2008-01-01

    The rice water weevil (RWW) Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus Kuschel (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is an invasive insect pest of rice Oryza sativa L. in China. Little is known about the interactions of this weevil with indigenous herbivores. In the present study, adult feeding and population density of the weevil, injury level of striped stem borer Chilo suppressalis (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and pink stem borer Sesamia inferens (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) to rice, as well as growth status of their host plants were surveyed in a rice field located in Southeastern Zhejiang, China, in 2004 with the objective to discover interspecific interactions on the rice. At tillering stage, both adult feeding of the weevil and injury of the stem borers tended to occur on larger tillers (bearing 5 leaves) compared with small tillers (bearing 2~4 leaves), but the insects showed no evident competition with each other. At booting stage, the stem borers caused more withering/dead hearts and the weevil reached a higher density on the plants which had more productive tillers and larger root system; the number of weevils per tiller correlated negatively with the percentage of withering/dead hearts of plants in a hill. These observations indicate that interspecific interactions exist between the rice water weevil and the rice stem borers with negative relations occurring at booting or earlier developmental stages of rice. PMID:18600788

  7. Simultaneous rough rice drying and rice bran stabilization using infrared radiation heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to develop a new rice drying method by using IR heating followed by tempering. Freshly harvested medium grain rice (M206) samples with different initial moisture contents (IMCs) were used in this study. The samples were dried for one- and two-passes by using a catalyt...

  8. Rice-eating quality among consumers in different rice grain preference countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suwannaporn, P.; Linnemann, A.R.

    2008-01-01

    More rice is eaten nowadays in traditionally nonrice-eating countries. This study investigated consumer eating quality preferences among consumers in target rice export countries to identify opportunities and strategic implications. A quantitative study with 1,128 consumers of target nationalities

  9. Global Derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben Juul

    approaches to dealing in the global business environment." - Sharon Brown-Hruska, Commissioner, Commodity Futures Trading Commission, USA. "This comprehensive survey of modern risk management using derivative securities is a fine demonstration of the practical relevance of modern derivatives theory to risk......" provides comprehensive coverage of different types of derivatives, including exchange traded contracts and over-the-counter instruments as well as real options. There is an equal emphasis on the practical application of derivatives and their actual uses in business transactions and corporate risk...... management situations. Its key features include: derivatives are introduced in a global market perspective; describes major derivative pricing models for practical use, extending these principles to valuation of real options; practical applications of derivative instruments are richly illustrated...

  10. Electricity generation from rice husk in Indian rice mills: potential and financial viability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapur, T.; Kandpal, T.C.; Garg, H.P.

    1998-01-01

    Rice husk generated as a by-product of rice processing is an important energy resource. The availability of this resource in India has been assessed and the technologies for exploitation of its energy potential in the rice processing industry discussed. Nomographs have been developed for estimation of the husk required to meet the energy of parboiling, drying and milling operations. The unit cost of electricity using rice husk gasifier-based power generation systems has been calculated and its financial feasibility assessed in comparison with utility-supplied and diesel-generated electricity. With the cost and efficiency data assumed here, the unit cost of electricity produced by rice husk gasifier-dual fuel engine-generator system varies between Rs 2/kWh and Rs 7/kWh. (35 Rs approximates to SUS 1.). (author)

  11. Electricity generation from rice husk in Indian rice mills: potential and financial viability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapur, T.; Kandpal, T.C.; Garg, H.P. [Indian Inst. of Technology, Centre for Energy Studies, New Delhi (India)

    1998-12-31

    Rice husk generated as a by-product of rice processing is an important energy resource. The availability of this resource in India has been assessed and the technologies for exploitation of its energy potential in the rice processing industry discussed. Nomographs have been developed for estimation of the husk required to meet the energy of parboiling, drying and milling operations. The unit cost of electricity using rice husk gasifier-based power generation systems has been calculated and its financial feasibility assessed in comparison with utility-supplied and diesel-generated electricity. With the cost and efficiency data assumed here, the unit cost of electricity produced by rice husk gasifier-dual fuel engine-generator system varies between Rs 2/kWh and Rs 7/kWh. (35 Rs approximates to SUS 1.). (author)

  12. Evidence for Non-Transmission of Rice Yellow Mottle Virus (RYMV through Rice Seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sy, AA.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available An indexing of the organs (radicle and plumule and components (husk, endosperm and embryo of rice seeds using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA was carried out to detect Rice yellow mottle virus (RYMV and establish the exact location of the virus in the rice seed. RYMV was detected only in the husk (seed coat but not in the endosperm, plumule, radicle, nor embryo. None of the seedlings raised from the seeds expressed RYMV symptoms. No virus particle was detected by the ELISA test in the leaves of the screenhouse-reared plants obtained from seeds of infected plants. The results indicate that RYMV is apparently not transmitted through rice seed probably because the virus is seed-borne in the husk (seed coat of mature rice seeds.

  13. Effect of Temperature on Chinese Rice Wine Brewing with High Concentration Presteamed Whole Sticky Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dengfeng Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Production of high quality Chinese rice wine largely depends on fermentation temperature. However, there is no report on the ethanol, sugars, and acids kinetics in the fermentation mash of Chinese rice wine treated at various temperatures. The effects of fermentation temperatures on Chinese rice wine quality were investigated. The compositions and concentrations of ethanol, sugars, glycerol, and organic acids in the mash of Chinese rice wine samples were determined by HPLC method. The highest ethanol concentration and the highest glycerol concentration both were attained at the fermentation mash treated at 23°C. The highest peak value of maltose (90 g/L was obtained at 18°C. Lactic acid and acetic acid both achieved maximum values at 33°C. The experimental results indicated that temperature contributed significantly to the ethanol production, acid flavor contents, and sugar contents in the fermentation broth of the Chinese rice wines.

  14. Effect of Temperature on Chinese Rice Wine Brewing with High Concentration Presteamed Whole Sticky Rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong-Tao; Xiong, Weili; Hu, Jianhua; Xu, Baoguo; Lin, Chi-Chung; Xu, Ling; Jiang, Lihua

    2014-01-01

    Production of high quality Chinese rice wine largely depends on fermentation temperature. However, there is no report on the ethanol, sugars, and acids kinetics in the fermentation mash of Chinese rice wine treated at various temperatures. The effects of fermentation temperatures on Chinese rice wine quality were investigated. The compositions and concentrations of ethanol, sugars, glycerol, and organic acids in the mash of Chinese rice wine samples were determined by HPLC method. The highest ethanol concentration and the highest glycerol concentration both were attained at the fermentation mash treated at 23°C. The highest peak value of maltose (90 g/L) was obtained at 18°C. Lactic acid and acetic acid both achieved maximum values at 33°C. The experimental results indicated that temperature contributed significantly to the ethanol production, acid flavor contents, and sugar contents in the fermentation broth of the Chinese rice wines. PMID:24672788

  15. Sensory optimization of broken-rice based snacks fortified with protein and fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriwattana, S; Laokuldilok, N; Prinyawiwatkul, W

    2008-08-01

    A 3-component mixture experiment was used to optimize the formulation of broken-rice based snack fortified with protein and fiber based on consumer sensory acceptability. Soy protein isolate and guar gum were used as a good source of protein and fiber, respectively, according to DRV (daily reference value) based on a 2000-calorie diet. A consumer panel evaluated sensory acceptability of color, crispness, and flavor, and overall liking of 12 experimental broken-rice based snack formulations. Predicted models derived from the restricted nonintercept regression analysis were used to plot mixture response surfaces (MRS) of each sensory attribute. Areas within the MRS plots having predicted acceptability scores of at least 6.5 (on a 9-point hedonic scale) for color, crispness, flavor, and overall liking were selected to derive a predicted optimum formulation range. Flavor acceptability was a limiting factor in attaining the optimum formulation range, which consisted of 40% to 48% broken-rice flour, 8% to 16% guar gum, and 20% to 33% soy protein isolate. To verify the obtained predicted models, the formulation containing 48% broken-rice flour, 8% guar gum, and 20% soy protein isolate, which was located in the optimum area, was chosen to support our effort to utilize and add value to broken rice. Selected physicochemical measurements of the chosen optimized formulation were determined. One serving size (30 g) of the chosen optimized snack product provided 6.58 g protein and 3.80 g dietary fiber, which met the US FDA definition of a good source of protein and dietary fiber.

  16. Isotope aided micronutrient studies in rice production with special reference to zinc deficiency pt.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, T.S.; Kim, J.S.; Kim, J.S.

    1979-01-01

    A field experiment has been carried out to evaluate the residual effect of zinc fertilizers by rice plant grown under flooded conditions in the field. The results obtained are summarized as follows: Residual effect of zinc fertilizers on yields of rough and hulled grains showed slight increases. Effect of zinc application methods on yields of the grains were shown that zinc mixed treatment could be more effectively utilized than treatment of zinc on the soil surface. In case of levels of zinc application, 5kg zinc per hectare represented high yields of the grains than those obtained from 10 kg and 20 kg zinc placement per hectare respectively. Regarding the form of zinc fertilizers, the urea-zinc complex showed less effective on yields of the grains than did the zinc sulfate. This phenomenon was consistent with the previous result. Yields of total zinc in rice plant grown on the rice straw added soils (Treatment No. 2 and 8) and the urea-zinc complex treated soil were increased markedly as compared to those data obtained from the previous year. The percentage of zinc derived from fertilizer decreased largely as compared to that of the first year crop. The yield of fertilizer zinc in rice plant decreased slightly in the most zinc treatments but in the case of treatments of zinc mixed with the straw added soil and the urea-zinc complex increased reversely as compared to the previous results. The mixed application of zinc with soil showed higher yield of fertilizer zinc than the soil surface placement. Approximately from 4.6 to 24.3 per cent of zinc taken up by rice plants were derived from the fertilizer zinc. Zinc fertilizer use efficiency ranged from 0.213 to 0.584 per cent when 5 kg zinc per hectare applied. (author)

  17. Development of Ozone Technology Rice Storage Systems (OTRISS) for Quality Improvement of Rice Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nur, M; Kusdiyantini, E; Wuryanti, W; Winarni, T A; Widyanto, S A; Muharam, H

    2015-01-01

    This research has been carried out by using ozone to address the rapidly declining quality of rice in storage. In the first year, research has focused on the rice storage with ozone technology for small capacity (e.g., household) and the medium capacity (e.g., dormitories, hospitals). Ozone was produced by an ozone generator with Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma (DBDP). Ozone technology rice storage system (OTRISS) is using ozone charateristic which is a strong oxidizer. Ozone have a short endurance of existence and then decompose, as a result produce oxygen and radicals of oxygen. These characteristics could kill microorganisms and pests, reduce air humidity and enrich oxygen. All components used in SPBTO assembled using raw materials available in the big cities in Indonesia. Provider of high voltage (High Voltage Power Supply, 40-70 kV, 23 KH, AC) is one of components that have been assembled and tested. Ozone generator is assembled with 7 reactors of Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma (DBDP). Rice container that have been prepared for OTRISS have adjusted so can be integrated with generator, power supply and blower to blow air. OTRISS with a capacity of 75 kg and 100 kg have been made and tested. The ability of ozone to eliminate bacteria and fungi have been tested and resulted in a decrease of microorganisms at 3 log CFU/g. Testing in food chemistry showed that ozone treatment of rice had not changed the chemical content that still meet the standard of chemical content and nutritional applicable to ISO standard milled rice. The results of this study are very likely to be used as an alternative to rice storage systems in warehouse. Test and scale-up is being carried out in a mini warehouse whose condition is mimicked to rice in National Rice Storage of Indonesia (Bulog) to ensure quality. Next adaptations would be installed in the rice storage system in the Bulog. (paper)

  18. Integrated rice-duck farming mitigates the global warming potential in rice season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guochun; Liu, Xin; Wang, Qiangsheng; Yu, Xichen; Hang, Yuhao

    2017-01-01

    Integrated rice-duck farming (IRDF), as a mode of ecological agriculture, is an important way to realize sustainable development of agriculture. A 2-year split-plot field experiment was performed to evaluate the effects of IRDF on methane (CH 4 ) and nitrous oxide (N 2 O) emissions and its ecological mechanism in rice season. This experiment was conducted with two rice farming systems (FS) of IRDF and conventional farming (CF) under four paddy-upland rotation systems (PUR): rice-fallow (RF), annual straw incorporating in rice-wheat rotation system (RWS), annual straw-based biogas residues incorporating in rice-wheat rotation system (RWB), and rice-green manure (RGM). During the rice growing seasons, IRDF decreased the CH 4 emission by 8.80-16.68%, while increased the N 2 O emission by 4.23-15.20%, when compared to CF. Given that CH 4 emission contributed to 85.83-96.22% of global warming potential (GWP), the strong reduction in CH 4 emission led to a significantly lower GWP of IRDF as compared to CF. The reason for this trend was because IRDF has significant effect on dissolved oxygen (DO) and soil redox potential (Eh), which were two pivotal factors for CH 4 and N 2 O emissions in this study. The IRDF not only mitigates the GWP, but also increases the rice yield by 0.76-2.43% compared to CF. Moreover, compared to RWS system, RF, RWB and RGM systems significantly reduced CH 4 emission by 50.17%, 44.89% and 39.51%, respectively, while increased N 2 O emission by 10.58%, 14.60% and 23.90%, respectively. And RWS system had the highest GWP. These findings suggest that mitigating GWP and improving rice yield could be simultaneously achieved by the IRDF, and employing suitable PUR would benefit for relieving greenhouse effect. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Quantitative Trait Loci for Mercury Tolerance in Rice Seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong-qing WANG

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Mercury (Hg is one of the most toxic heavy metals to living organisms and its conspicuous effect is the inhibition of root growth. However, little is known about the molecular genetic basis for root growth under excess Hg2+ stress. To map quantitative trait loci (QTLs in rice for Hg2+ tolerance, a population of 120 recombinant inbred lines derived from a cross between two japonica cultivars Yuefu and IRAT109 was grown in 0.5 mmol/L CaCl2 solution. Relative root length (RRL, percentage of the seminal root length in +HgCl2 to –HgCl2, was used for assessing Hg2+ tolerance. In a dose-response experiment, Yuefu had a higher RRL than IRAT109 and showed the most significant difference at the Hg2+ concentration of 1.5 μmol/L. Three putative QTLs for RRL were detected on chromosomes 1, 2 and 5, and totally explained about 35.7% of the phenotypic variance in Hg2+ tolerance. The identified QTLs for RRL might be useful for improving Hg2+ tolerance of rice by molecular marker-assisted selection.

  20. WRKY transcription factor genes in wild rice Oryza nivara.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hengjian; Watanabe, Kenneth A; Zhang, Liyuan; Shen, Qingxi J

    2016-08-01

    The WRKY transcription factor family is one of the largest gene families involved in plant development and stress response. Although many WRKY genes have been studied in cultivated rice (Oryza sativa), the WRKY genes in the wild rice species Oryza nivara, the direct progenitor of O. sativa, have not been studied. O. nivara shows abundant genetic diversity and elite drought and disease resistance features. Herein, a total of 97 O. nivara WRKY (OnWRKY) genes were identified. RNA-sequencing demonstrates that OnWRKY genes were generally expressed at higher levels in the roots of 30-day-old plants. Bioinformatic analyses suggest that most of OnWRKY genes could be induced by salicylic acid, abscisic acid, and drought. Abundant potential MAPK phosphorylation sites in OnWRKYs suggest that activities of most OnWRKYs can be regulated by phosphorylation. Phylogenetic analyses of OnWRKYs support a novel hypothesis that ancient group IIc OnWRKYs were the original ancestors of only some group IIc and group III WRKYs. The analyses also offer strong support that group IIc OnWRKYs containing the HVE sequence in their zinc finger motifs were derived from group Ia WRKYs. This study provides a solid foundation for the study of the evolution and functions of WRKY genes in O. nivara. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Kazusa DNA Research Institute.

  1. In-vitro culture performance of rice cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oard, J.H.; Rutger, J.N.

    1989-01-01

    Full text: Four California rice varieties (L-202, S-201, M-202 and Calmochi 101) and one Texas rice (Lemont) were tested for embryogenic calli produced from mature seeds. Of these varieties S-201, M-202 and Calmochi 101 derived from mutant crosses as follows (mutant parent underlined). S-201 (Calrose 76 x Cs-M3) x S6; M-202 (IR8 x Cs-M3) x (10-7 x M-101); Calmochi 101 Tatsumi mochi x (M7 x S6). S-201 was the only cultivar that produced many shoots from virtually all portions of the embryogenic callus. M-202 produced the highest no. of shoots at the upper level of hormone (BAP). Regeneration of Calmochi 101 was rather poor. The frequency of albino shoots was also different for the varieties tested: 0.027 for L-202; 0.00 for Calmochi 101; 0.016 for S-201; 0.045 for Lemont; 0.037 for M-202. Albino shoots were found only with 0.1 mg 1 -1 BAP in the regeneration medium, except for Lemont which produced albinos without cytokinin. (author)

  2. Ectopic Expression of Hrf1 Enhances Bacterial Resistance via Regulation of Diterpene Phytoalexins, Silicon and Reactive Oxygen Species Burst in Rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Weigong; Yang, Jie; Okada, Kazunori; Yamane, Hisakazu; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Guang; Wang, Dong; Xiao, Shanshan; Chang, Shanshan; Qian, Guoliang; Liu, Fengquan

    2012-01-01

    Harpin proteins as elicitor derived from plant gram negative bacteria such as Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), Erwinia amylovora induce disease resistance in plants by activating multiple defense responses. However, it is unclear whether phytoalexin production and ROS burst are involved in the disease resistance conferred by the expression of the harpinXoo protein in rice. In this article, ectopic expression of hrf1 in rice enhanced resistance to bacterial blight. Accompanying with the activation of genes related to the phytoalexin biosynthesis pathway in hrf1-transformed rice, phytoalexins quickly and consistently accumulated concurrent with the limitation of bacterial growth rate. Moreover, the hrf1-transformed rice showed an increased ability for ROS scavenging and decreased hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) concentration. Furthermore, the localization and relative quantification of silicon deposition in rice leaves was detected by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS). Finally, the transcript levels of defense response genes increased in transformed rice. These results show a correlation between Xoo resistance and phytoalexin production, H2O2, silicon deposition and defense gene expression in hrf1-transformed rice. These data are significant because they provide evidence for a better understanding the role of defense responses in the incompatible interaction between bacterial disease and hrf1-transformed plants. These data also supply an opportunity for generating nonspecific resistance to pathogens. PMID:22970151

  3. Ectopic expression of Hrf1 enhances bacterial resistance via regulation of diterpene phytoalexins, silicon and reactive oxygen species burst in rice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenqi Li

    Full Text Available Harpin proteins as elicitor derived from plant gram negative bacteria such as Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo, Erwinia amylovora induce disease resistance in plants by activating multiple defense responses. However, it is unclear whether phytoalexin production and ROS burst are involved in the disease resistance conferred by the expression of the harpin(Xoo protein in rice. In this article, ectopic expression of hrf1 in rice enhanced resistance to bacterial blight. Accompanying with the activation of genes related to the phytoalexin biosynthesis pathway in hrf1-transformed rice, phytoalexins quickly and consistently accumulated concurrent with the limitation of bacterial growth rate. Moreover, the hrf1-transformed rice showed an increased ability for ROS scavenging and decreased hydrogen peroxide (H(2O(2 concentration. Furthermore, the localization and relative quantification of silicon deposition in rice leaves was detected by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS. Finally, the transcript levels of defense response genes increased in transformed rice. These results show a correlation between Xoo resistance and phytoalexin production, H(2O(2, silicon deposition and defense gene expression in hrf1-transformed rice. These data are significant because they provide evidence for a better understanding the role of defense responses in the incompatible interaction between bacterial disease and hrf1-transformed plants. These data also supply an opportunity for generating nonspecific resistance to pathogens.

  4. Comparison of gene co-networks reveals the molecular mechanisms of the rice (Oryza sativa L.) response to Rhizoctonia solani AG1 IA infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinfeng; Zhao, Wenjuan; Fu, Rong; Fu, Chenglin; Wang, Lingxia; Liu, Huainian; Li, Shuangcheng; Deng, Qiming; Wang, Shiquan; Zhu, Jun; Liang, Yueyang; Li, Ping; Zheng, Aiping

    2018-05-05

    Rhizoctonia solani causes rice sheath blight, an important disease affecting the growth of rice (Oryza sativa L.). Attempts to control the disease have met with little success. Based on transcriptional profiling, we previously identified more than 11,947 common differentially expressed genes (TPM > 10) between the rice genotypes TeQing and Lemont. In the current study, we extended these findings by focusing on an analysis of gene co-expression in response to R. solani AG1 IA and identified gene modules within the networks through weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA). We compared the different genes assigned to each module and the biological interpretations of gene co-expression networks at early and later modules in the two rice genotypes to reveal differential responses to AG1 IA. Our results show that different changes occurred in the two rice genotypes and that the modules in the two groups contain a number of candidate genes possibly involved in pathogenesis, such as the VQ protein. Furthermore, these gene co-expression networks provide comprehensive transcriptional information regarding gene expression in rice in response to AG1 IA. The co-expression networks derived from our data offer ideas for follow-up experimentation that will help advance our understanding of the translational regulation of rice gene expression changes in response to AG1 IA.

  5. Comparative Analysis of γ-Oryzanol, β-Glucan, Total Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Activity in Fermented Rice Bran of Different Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Dong Jung

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Rice bran, a by-product derived from processing rice, is a rich source of bioactive compounds. Recent studies have suggested that the fermentation can improve their biological activities. This study aimed to determined the level of γ-oryzanol, β-glucan and total phenol contents of fermented rice bran from 21 Korean varieties, as well as to evaluate their antioxidant activities. We also assessed the validation of the analytical method for determining γ-oryzanol content in fermented rice brans. Among the fermented rice brans, the Haedam rice bran contained the highest level of total phenol content (156.08 mg gallic acid equivalents/g, DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity (71.30% and ORAC (Oxygen radical absorbance capacity value (1101.31 μM trolox equivalents/g. Furthermore, the fermented Migwang rice bran showed the highest level of γ-oryzanol content (294.77 ± 6.74 mg/100 g.

  6. Impact of model uncertainty on soil quality standards for cadmium in rice paddy fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roemkens, P.F.A.M., E-mail: paul.romkens@wur.nl [Soil Science Center, Alterra, WageningenUR. P.O. Box 47, 6700AA Wageningen (Netherlands); Brus, D.J. [Soil Science Center, Alterra, WageningenUR. P.O. Box 47, 6700AA Wageningen (Netherlands); Guo, H.Y.; Chu, C.L.; Chiang, C.M. [Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute (TARI), Wufong, Taiwan (China); Koopmans, G.F. [Soil Science Center, Alterra, WageningenUR. P.O. Box 47, 6700AA Wageningen (Netherlands); Department of Soil Quality, Wageningen University, WageningenUR. P.O. Box 47, 6700AA, Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2011-08-01

    At present, soil quality standards used for agriculture do not consider the influence of pH and CEC on the uptake of pollutants by crops. A database with 750 selected paired samples of cadmium (Cd) in soil and paddy rice was used to calibrate soil to plant transfer models using the soil metal content, pH, and CEC or soil Cd and Zn extracted by 0.01 M CaCl{sub 2} as explanatory variables. The models were validated against a set of 2300 data points not used in the calibration. These models were then used inversely to derive soil quality standards for Japonica and Indica rice cultivars based on the food quality standards for rice. To account for model uncertainty, strict soil quality standards were derived considering a maximum probability that rice exceeds the food quality standard equal to 10 or 5%. Model derived soil standards based on Aqua Regia ranged from less than 0.3 mg kg{sup -1} for Indica at pH 4.5 to more than 6 mg kg{sup -1} for Japonica-type cultivars in clay soils at pH 7. Based on the CaCl{sub 2} extract, standards ranged from 0.03 mg kg{sup -1} Cd for Indica cultivars to 0.1 mg kg{sup -1} Cd for Japonica cultivars. For both Japonica and Indica-type cultivars, the soil quality standards must be reduced by a factor of 2 to 3 to obtain the strict standards. The strong impact of pH and CEC on soil quality standards implies that it is essential to correct for soil type when deriving national or local standards. Validation on the remaining 2300 samples indicated that both types of models were able to accurately predict (> 92%) whether rice grown on a specific soil will meet the food quality standard used in Taiwan. - Research highlights: {yields} Cadmium uptake by Japonica and Indica rice varieties depends on soil pH and CEC. {yields} Food safety based soil standards range from 0.3 (Indica) to 6 mg kg{sup -1} (Japonica). {yields} Model uncertainty leads to strict soil standards of less than 0.1 mg kg{sup -1} for Indica. {yields} Soil pH and CEC should be

  7. Impact of model uncertainty on soil quality standards for cadmium in rice paddy fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roemkens, P.F.A.M.; Brus, D.J.; Guo, H.Y.; Chu, C.L.; Chiang, C.M.; Koopmans, G.F.

    2011-01-01

    At present, soil quality standards used for agriculture do not consider the influence of pH and CEC on the uptake of pollutants by crops. A database with 750 selected paired samples of cadmium (Cd) in soil and paddy rice was used to calibrate soil to plant transfer models using the soil metal content, pH, and CEC or soil Cd and Zn extracted by 0.01 M CaCl 2 as explanatory variables. The models were validated against a set of 2300 data points not used in the calibration. These models were then used inversely to derive soil quality standards for Japonica and Indica rice cultivars based on the food quality standards for rice. To account for model uncertainty, strict soil quality standards were derived considering a maximum probability that rice exceeds the food quality standard equal to 10 or 5%. Model derived soil standards based on Aqua Regia ranged from less than 0.3 mg kg -1 for Indica at pH 4.5 to more than 6 mg kg -1 for Japonica-type cultivars in clay soils at pH 7. Based on the CaCl 2 extract, standards ranged from 0.03 mg kg -1 Cd for Indica cultivars to 0.1 mg kg -1 Cd for Japonica cultivars. For both Japonica and Indica-type cultivars, the soil quality standards must be reduced by a factor of 2 to 3 to obtain the strict standards. The strong impact of pH and CEC on soil quality standards implies that it is essential to correct for soil type when deriving national or local standards. Validation on the remaining 2300 samples indicated that both types of models were able to accurately predict (> 92%) whether rice grown on a specific soil will meet the food quality standard used in Taiwan. - Research highlights: → Cadmium uptake by Japonica and Indica rice varieties depends on soil pH and CEC. → Food safety based soil standards range from 0.3 (Indica) to 6 mg kg -1 (Japonica). → Model uncertainty leads to strict soil standards of less than 0.1 mg kg -1 for Indica. → Soil pH and CEC should be considered to obtain meaningful standards for agriculture.

  8. Genome-wide analysis of Dongxiang wild rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff.) to investigate lost/acquired genes during rice domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fantao; Xu, Tao; Mao, Linyong; Yan, Shuangyong; Chen, Xiwen; Wu, Zhenfeng; Chen, Rui; Luo, Xiangdong; Xie, Jiankun; Gao, Shan

    2016-04-26

    It is widely accepted that cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.) was domesticated from common wild rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff.). Compared to other studies which concentrate on rice origin, this study is to genetically elucidate the substantially phenotypic and physiological changes from wild rice to cultivated rice at the whole genome level. Instead of comparing two assembled genomes, this study directly compared the Dongxiang wild rice (DXWR) Illumina sequencing reads with the Nipponbare (O. sativa) complete genome without assembly of the DXWR genome. Based on the results from the comparative genomics analysis, structural variations (SVs) between DXWR and Nipponbare were determined to locate deleted genes which could have been acquired by Nipponbare during rice domestication. To overcome the limit of the SV detection, the DXWR transcriptome was also sequenced and compared with the Nipponbare transcriptome to discover the genes which could have been lost in DXWR during domestication. Both 1591 Nipponbare-acquired genes and 206 DXWR-lost transcripts were further analyzed using annotations from multiple sources. The NGS data are available in the NCBI SRA database with ID SRP070627. These results help better understanding the domestication from wild rice to cultivated rice at the whole genome level and provide a genomic data resource for rice genetic research or breeding. One finding confirmed transposable elements contribute greatly to the genome evolution from wild rice to cultivated rice. Another finding suggested the photophosphorylation and oxidative phosphorylation system in cultivated rice could have adapted to environmental changes simultaneously during domestication.

  9. Efficacy and economics of different herbicides in aerobic rice system

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-03

    Aug 3, 2011 ... options for effective and economic weed control in rice under aerobic system ... constraint to aerobic rice production and therefore, ... Herbicide has become an attractive alternative to manual ... MATERIALS AND METHODS.

  10. Water culture of the rice containing Cs-137

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Yong Ho; Keum, Dong Kwon; Lim, Kwang Muk; Jun, In; Park, Doo Won

    2008-10-01

    Pot experiments were carried out in a greenhouse in order to produce Cs-137-containing rice seeds as a source material for use in manufacturing reference rice samples of a high Cs-137 activity. Two kinds of soil were used and two pots were prepared for each kind of soil. Rice plants were water-cultured in the pots and Cs-137 was applied to the surface water to induce a Cs-137 contamination of rice seeds via a plant uptake of Cs-137. Mature rice plants were harvested and Cs-137-containing rice seeds were obtained after some treatment of the harvested plants. These produced rice seeds are going to be provided for the KRISS so as to be used in manufacturing reference rice samples for Cs-137

  11. Identification of quantitative trait loci for salinity tolerance in rice ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-12-05

    Dec 5, 2016 ... most serious biophysical constraints of rice production in many rice-producing areas ..... Thus, the large gaps in the chromosomal regions without ..... an elite maize population: I. Linkage analysis and determination of QTLs for.

  12. Production Cost Efficiency and Profitability of Abakaliki Rice in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acer

    2014-11-17

    Nov 17, 2014 ... positive and significant effect on the total cost of rice production. They were all significant ... failure is experienced due to the flooded rice field. In addition ... for random effects on production beyond the control .... Standard error.

  13. Systemic induced tolerance against root-knot nematodes in rice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Rice plantlets were randomly grown in laboratory, sprayed with hormones and riboflavin .... between riboflavin, SA, JA and ET pathways in rice-nematodes interaction, ..... oxidative damage caused by aging as well as biotic and abiotic stress.

  14. greenhouse gaseous emission and energy analysis in rice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Agriculture in Africa is associated with low food production. The attempt ... objective of this study was to assess greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and energy impacts of rice production in. Ghana. .... Assessment (LCA) techniques, tropical rice.

  15. 10559 A NATIONAL SURVEY OF RICE (ORYZA SATIVA L.) GRAIN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    The study provided quantitative measures of the quality status of rice grains available in Sierra ... using the most convenient methods at their disposal. ... rice, moisture content of grains and percentages of foreign matter, chalky immature grains ...

  16. Financial Derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wigan, Duncan

    2013-01-01

    Contemporary derivatives mark the development of capital and constitute a novel form of ownership. By reconfiguring the temporal, spatial and legal character of ownership derivatives present a substantive challenge to the tax collecting state. While fiscal systems are nationally bounded...... and inherently static, capital itself is unprecedentedly mobile, fluid and fungible. As such derivatives raise the specter of ‘financial weapons of mass destruction’....

  17. Financial Derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Janečková, Alena

    2011-01-01

    1 Abstract/ Financial derivatives The purpose of this thesis is to provide an introduction to financial derivatives which has been, from the legal perspective, described in a not satisfactory manner as quite little literature that can be found about this topic. The main objectives of this thesis are to define the term "financial derivatives" and its particular types and to analyse legal nature of these financial instruments. The last objective is to try to draft future law regulation of finan...

  18. Antioxidant and antidiabetic properties of tartary buckwheat rice flavonoids after in vitro digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Tao; Wang, Ye; Li, Yu-Ting; Gowd, Vemana; Niu, Xin-He; Yang, Hai-Ying; Chen, Li-Shui; Chen, Wei; Sun, Chong-de

    Oxidative stress and diabetes have a tendency to alter protein, lipid, and DNA moieties. One of the strategic methods used to reduce diabetes-associated oxidative stress is to inhibit the carbohydrate-digesting enzymes, thereby decreasing gastrointestinal glucose production. Plant-derived natural antioxidant molecules are considered a therapeutic tool in the treatment of oxidative stress and diabetes. The objective of this study was to identify tartary buckwheat rice flavonoids and evaluate the effect of in vitro digestion on their antioxidant and antidiabetic properties. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis indicated the presence of rutin as a major component and quercitrin as a minor component of both digested and non-digested flavonoids. Both extracts showed a significant antioxidant capacity, but digested flavonoids showed reduced activity compared to non-digested. There were some decreases of the antioxidant activities (2,2'-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazy (DPPH) radical, and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP)) of digested tartary buckwheat rice flavonoids compared with non-digested. Flavonoids from both groups significantly inhibited reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and α-glucosidase activity. Both digested and non-digested flavonoids markedly increased glucose consumption and glycogen content in HepG2 cells. Tartary buckwheat rice flavonoids showed appreciable antioxidant and antidiabetic properties, even after digestion. Tartary buckwheat rice appears to be a promising functional food with potent antioxidant and antidiabetic properties.

  19. Dynamic Mapping of Rice Growth Parameters Using HJ-1 CCD Time Series Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Wang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The high temporal resolution (4-day charge-coupled device (CCD cameras onboard small environment and disaster monitoring and forecasting satellites (HJ-1A/B with 30 m spatial resolution and large swath (700 km have substantially increased the availability of regional clear sky optical remote sensing data. For the application of dynamic mapping of rice growth parameters, leaf area index (LAI and aboveground biomass (AGB were considered as plant growth indicators. The HJ-1 CCD-derived vegetation indices (VIs showed robust relationships with rice growth parameters. Cumulative VIs showed strong performance for the estimation of total dry AGB. The cross-validation coefficient of determination ( R C V 2 was increased by using two machine learning methods, i.e., a back propagation neural network (BPNN and a support vector machine (SVM compared with traditional regression equations of LAI retrieval. The LAI inversion accuracy was further improved by dividing the rice growth period into before and after heading stages. This study demonstrated that continuous rice growth monitoring over time and space at field level can be implemented effectively with HJ-1 CCD 10-day composite data using a combination of proper VIs and regression models.

  20. Influence of azolla on rice growth treated with and without N fertilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sisworo, E.L.; Sisworo, W.H.; Hendratno; Rasyid, H.; Solahuddin, S.; Partohardjono, S.

    1987-01-01

    Influence of azolla on rice growth treated with and without fertilizer. An experiment to investigate the influence of azolla on growth of rice treated with and without N fertilizer has been carried out in the rainy season 1984/1985 at the Muara Experimental Station, Bogota. Rice variety used in this experiment was Atomita I. Eight treatments employed in this experiment were treatments without azolla and N fertilizer, with azolla alone, with N fertilizer alone, and a combination of azolla and N fertilizer used was urea labelled with 5% 15 N atom excess. Parameters observed were: dry weight, total-N and N-derived from fertilizer in rough grain, straw and plant. Data from this experiment indicated that azolla was able to produce similar yield of rough grain, straw and plant with those produced by N fertilizer applied at a rate of 90 kg N/ha. These data were much higher compared to N fertilizer applied at a rate of 30 and 60 kg N/ha. The same trend was found in yield of N. It turned out that apparently azolla is effective to increase rice production. (author). 3 figs., 8 refs

  1. Antioxidant and antidiabetic properties of tartary buckwheat rice flavonoids after in vitro digestion*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Tao; Wang, Ye; Li, Yu-ting; Gowd, Vemana; Niu, Xin-he; Yang, Hai-ying; Chen, Li-shui; Chen, Wei; Sun, Chong-de

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress and diabetes have a tendency to alter protein, lipid, and DNA moieties. One of the strategic methods used to reduce diabetes-associated oxidative stress is to inhibit the carbohydrate-digesting enzymes, thereby decreasing gastrointestinal glucose production. Plant-derived natural antioxidant molecules are considered a therapeutic tool in the treatment of oxidative stress and diabetes. The objective of this study was to identify tartary buckwheat rice flavonoids and evaluate the effect of in vitro digestion on their antioxidant and antidiabetic properties. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis indicated the presence of rutin as a major component and quercitrin as a minor component of both digested and non-digested flavonoids. Both extracts showed a significant antioxidant capacity, but digested flavonoids showed reduced activity compared to non-digested. There were some decreases of the antioxidant activities (2,2'-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazy (DPPH) radical, and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP)) of digested tartary buckwheat rice flavonoids compared with non-digested. Flavonoids from both groups significantly inhibited reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and α-glucosidase activity. Both digested and non-digested flavonoids markedly increased glucose consumption and glycogen content in HepG2 cells. Tartary buckwheat rice flavonoids showed appreciable antioxidant and antidiabetic properties, even after digestion. Tartary buckwheat rice appears to be a promising functional food with potent antioxidant and antidiabetic properties. PMID:27921399

  2. ?-Oryzanols of North American Wild Rice (Zizania palustris)

    OpenAIRE

    Aladedunye, Felix; Przybylski, Roman; Rudzinska, Magdalena; Klensporf-Pawlik, Dorota

    2013-01-01

    ?-Oryzanol, a natural mixture of ferulic acid esters of triterpene alcohols and sterols, are an important bioactive components present in rice bran oil. In light of the recent increase in the popularity of wild rice among consumers, and the possibility of a direct relationship between ?-oryzanol composition and its bioactivity, the oryzanol profile of major wild rice (Zizania palustris) grown in North America was studied and compared to regular brown rice (Oryza sativa L.). A total of twenty-...

  3. Rice Genome Research: Current Status and Future Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Han

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Rice ( L. is the leading genomics system among the crop plants. The sequence of the rice genome, the first cereal plant genome, was published in 2005. This review summarizes progress made in rice genome annotations, comparative genomics, and functional genomics researches. It also maps out the status of rice genomics globally and provides a vision of future research directions and resource building.

  4. Organic rice of Bangladesh: focus on disease control

    OpenAIRE

    Hossain, Shaikh Tanveer

    2012-01-01

    Diseases play an important role in rice production. In modern agriculture, application of hazardous chemicals is a common practice allover the world. But organic rice production system does not allow synthetic agro-chemicals due to its adverse effect on environment as well as human health. Thirty six fungal, twenty one viral, six bacterial and six nematode diseases have been recorded in rice. In Bangladesh, 31 rice diseases have been so far identified of which ten are considered as major. She...

  5. Effect of waxy rice flour and cassava starch on freeze-thaw stability of rice starch gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charoenrein, Sanguansri; Preechathammawong, Nutsuda

    2012-10-01

    Repeatedly frozen and thawed rice starch gel affects quality. This study investigated how incorporating waxy rice flour (WF) and cassava starch (CS) in rice starch gel affects factors used to measure quality. When rice starch gels containing 0-2% WF and CS were subjected to 5 freeze-thaw cycles, both WF and CS reduced the syneresis in first few cycles. However CS was more effective in reducing syneresis than WF. The different composite arrangement of rice starch with WF or CS caused different mechanisms associated with the rice starch gel retardation of retrogradation, reduced the spongy structure and lowered syneresis. Both swollen granules of rice starch and CS caused an increase in the hardness of the unfrozen and freeze-thawed starch gel while highly swollen WF granules caused softer gels. These results suggested that WF and CS were effective in preserving quality in frozen rice starch based products. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of germination on the physicochemical and antioxidant characteristics of rice flour from three rice varieties from Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinma, Chiemela Enyinnaya; Anuonye, Julian Chukwuemeka; Simon, Omotade Comfort; Ohiare, Raliat Ozavize; Danbaba, Nahemiah

    2015-10-15

    This study determined the effect of germination (48 h) on the physicochemical and antioxidant characteristics of rice flour from three rice varieties from Nigeria. Local rice varieties (Jamila, Jeep and Kwandala) were evaluated and compared to an improved variety (MR 219). Physicochemical and antioxidant properties of flours were determined using standard methods. Protein, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium and antioxidant properties of rice flours increased after germination while phytic acid and total starch contents decreased. Foaming capacity and stability of rice flours increased after germination. Germination resulted to changes in pasting and thermal characteristics of rice flours. Germinated rice flours had better physicochemical and antioxidant properties with reduced phytic acid and starch contents compared to MR 219, which can be utilized as functional ingredients in the preparation of rice-based products. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Radiation disinfection of rice-straw products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Hitoshi; Ishigaki, Isao; Ohki, Yumi.

    1991-01-01

    For the quarantine treatment of rice-straw products from foreign countries, irradiation effects of gamma-rays and electron beams on plant pathogenic microorganisms especially on fungi were investigated. The total aerobic bacteria in rice-straw was determined to be 3x10 7 - 3x10 8 per gram which consisted mainly of Pseudomonas, Flavobacterium, Arthrobacter and Erwinia. The principal bacteria in rice-straw could be eliminated with 5 kGy of gamma irradiation. Deinococcus proteolyticus and Pseudomonas radiora were the main survivors at 5 to 12 kGy of irradiation. Saprophytic fungus which belongs to Dimorphospora also survived up to 8 kGy of irradiation. The D 10 values of 26 strains of fungi isolated from rice-straw were 1.1 to 2.5 times higher in the dry condition compared to the values when irradiated in 0.067 M phosphate buffer solution. The induction dose in the dry condition also increased from 1.5 to 10 times than that in the wet condition. In the case of electron beam irradiation of fungi under dry conditions, D 10 values were about 1.3 times higher than that of gamma irradiation. From this study, the dose necessary to reduce the plant pathogenic fungi in rice-straw at a level below 10 -4 per gram was estimated to be as 7-8 kGy for gamma-irradiation and 10 kGy for electron beam irradiation. (author)

  8. Nuclear analytical methods on ancient Thai rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Won-in, K.; Thongleurm, C.; Dararutana, P.

    2013-01-01

    For more than half of humanity, rice is life. Rice is a grain which has shaped the history, culture, diet and economy of billions of people in Asia. In Thailand, it is the essence of life. Archaeological evidence revealed that rice had been planted in northeastern area of Thailand more than 5,500 years ago which is earlier than in China and India. The ancient rice grains were found in various archaeological sites in Thailand such as Nakhon Nayok, Suphan Buri and Prachin Buri Provinces. In this work, the ancient black rice from Nakhon Nayok Province was elementally analyzed using scanning electron microscope coupled with energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, proton induced X-ray emission spectroscopy and micro-beam energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. Infrared (IR) spectroscopy was also used to study the chemical composition and bio-molecular structure. The grains were oblique in shape with a rough surface. Three major elements (Si, Ca and Al) and other trace elements were detected. The IR spectra provided some information about the presence of molecular bonds. (author)

  9. Making Rice Production More Environmentally-Friendly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman Uphoff

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Irrigated rice production is one of the most essential agricultural activities for sustaining our global population, and at the same time, one of the agricultural sectors considered most eco-unfriendly. This is because it consumes a larger share of available freshwater resources, competing with varied ecosystems as well as other economic sectors; its paddy fields are responsible for significant emission of greenhouse gases; and the reliance on chemical fertilizers and various agrochemicals contributes to pollution of soils and water systems. These stresses on soils, hydrology and atmosphere are actually not necessary for rice production, which can be increased by modifying agronomic practices though more agroecologically-sound management practices. These, combined under the rubric of the System of Rice Intensification (SRI, can reduce requirements of irrigation water, chemical fertilizer and agrochemicals while increasing paddy yields and farmer’s net incomes. Here we discuss how irrigated rice production can be made more eco-friendly for the benefit of farmers, consumers and the environment. This is achieved by introducing practices that improve the growth and functioning of rice plants’ root systems and enhance the abundance, diversity and activity of beneficial soil organisms that live around plant roots and within the plants themselves as symbiotic endophytes.

  10. Arsenic biotransformation and volatilization in transgenic rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xiang-Yan; Qin, Jie; Wang, Li-Hong; Duan, Gui-Lan; Sun, Guo-Xin; Wu, Hui-Lan; Chu, Cheng-Cai; Ling, Hong-Qing; Rosen, Barry P.; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2011-01-01

    Summary Biotransformation of arsenic includes oxidation, reduction, methylation and conversion to more complex organic arsenicals. Members of the class of arsenite [As(III)] S-adenosylmethyltransferase enzymes catalyze As(III) methylation to a variety of mono-, di- and trimethylated species, some of which are less toxic than As(III) itself. However, no methyltransferase gene has been identified in plants. Here, an arsM gene from the soil bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris was expressed in Japonica rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivar Nipponbare, and the transgenic rice produced methylated arsenic species, which were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and high performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS). Both monomethylarsenate [MAs(V)] and dimethylarsenate [DMAs(V)] were detected in the root and shoot of transgenic rice. After 12-d exposure to As(III), the transgenic rice gave off 10-fold more volatile arsenicals. The present study demonstrates that expression of an arsM gene in rice induces arsenic methylation and volatilization, providing a potential stratagem for phytoremediation theoretically. PMID:21517874

  11. Comparative Demand Analysis for Rice in Three States of South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dauda Omoba

    2013-01-01

    Jan 1, 2013 ... The contribution of the effect of the price of rice on the budget share of rice in the study ...... it is a luxury in rural areas of Delta state. This may imply that ... between brands of rice in rural Lagos and urban. Edo was the highest ...

  12. Determinants of rice output among ADP contact farmers in mining ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study analyzed factors affecting rice output among Agricultural Development Programme (ADP) contact farmers in the mining and non mining locations of IVO LGA of Ebonyi State, Nigeria. Multistage random sampling technique was used to select agricultural circles and rice farmers. The sample size was 120 rice ...

  13. Rice methylmercury exposure and mitigation: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothenberg, Sarah E; Windham-Myers, Lisamarie; Creswell, Joel E

    2014-08-01

    Rice cultivation practices from field preparation to post-harvest transform rice paddies into hot spots for microbial mercury methylation, converting less-toxic inorganic mercury to more-toxic methylmercury, which is likely translocated to rice grain. This review includes 51 studies reporting rice total mercury and/or methylmercury concentrations, based on rice (Orzya sativa) cultivated or purchased in 15 countries. Not surprisingly, both rice total mercury and methylmercury levels were significantly higher in polluted sites compared to non-polluted sites (Wilcoxon rank sum, p<0.001). However, rice percent methylmercury (of total mercury) did not differ statistically between polluted and non-polluted sites (Wilcoxon rank sum, p=0.35), suggesting comparable mercury methylation rates in paddy soil across these sites and/or similar accumulation of mercury species for these rice cultivars. Studies characterizing the effects of rice cultivation under more aerobic conditions were reviewed to determine the mitigation potential of this practice. Rice management practices utilizing alternating wetting and drying (instead of continuous flooding) caused soil methylmercury levels to spike, resulting in a strong methylmercury pulse after fields were dried and reflooded; however, it is uncertain whether this led to increased translocation of methylmercury from paddy soil to rice grain. Due to the potential health risks, it is advisable to investigate this issue further, and to develop separate water management strategies for mercury polluted and non-polluted sites, in order to minimize methylmercury exposure through rice ingestion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Developing selection protocols for weed competitiveness in aerobic rice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, D.L.; Atlin, G.N.; Bastiaans, L.; Spiertz, J.H.J.

    2006-01-01

    Aerobic rice production systems, wherein rice is dry-sown in non-puddled soil and grown as an upland crop, offer large water savings but are subject to severe weed infestation. Weed-competitive cultivars will be critical to the adoption of aerobic rice production by farmers. Breeding

  15. Physical and Chemical Properties of Some Selected Rice Varieties

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Physical and chemical properties of nine rice varieties grown and processed in Ebonyi .... Therefore, one tonne of a slender variety of rice will need more storage space than the ..... during washing and boiling of milled rice Starch 36:386-390.

  16. A mechanistic model on methane oxidation in the rice rhizosphere

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodegom, van P.M.; Leffelaar, P.A.; Goudriaan, J.

    2001-01-01

    A mechanistic model is presented on the processes leading to methane oxidation in rice rhizosphere. The model is driven by oxygen release from a rice root into anaerobic rice soil. Oxygen is consumed by heterotrophic and methanotrophic respiration, described by double Monod kinetics, and by iron

  17. Overwintering physiology of the rice stem borer larvae, Chilo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker), is a major rice pest around the world. A strong ability of the rice stem borer to adapt/resist cold temperature (cold hardiness) contributes to its survival through winter. However, the physiological mechanism of its cold hardiness is poorly understood. In this study, we ...

  18. simulating rice yields under climate change scenarios using

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    The effects of climate change on rice production and yield cannot be overlooked in finding measures to increase production and yield. The CERES-Rice (Ver. 4.0) model was calibrated and evaluated for use in simulating rice yields under different climate change scenarios in Ghana using data from the Anum Valley ...

  19. Physiology and productivity of rice crop influenced by drought stress ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rice is sensitive to moisture stress and in view of the water scarcity in the coming years, it is imperative to evaluate the performance of rice cultivar under moisture deficit. The present study aimed to evaluate the physiological responses of two rice cultivars under drought stress induced at panicle initiation and soft dough ...

  20. Upland rice yield as affected by Brachiaria coverage management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano S. Nascente

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An important point in no-tillage system is the time between cover crop glyphosate desiccation and rice sowing. This study aimed to verify the effect of Brachiaria ruziziensis management time before rice sowing on rice yield and its components. The experiment was conducted under greenhouse conditions and consisted of four types of B. ruziziensis management: with Brachiaria and with herbicide (WBWH, without Brachiaria shoots and with herbicide (NBWH, without Brachiaria shoots and without herbicide (NBNH, and with Brachiaria and without herbicide (WBNH, at four times: 30, 20, 10, and 0 days, preceding the rice sowing. The amount of B. ruziziensis dry matter increased as the management was done closer to the rice sowing date. The WBWH and WBNH managements (this one causes the lowest rice grain yield must be done 30 days before rice sowing; while NBWH management must be done ten or more days before rice sowing. On the other hand, NBNH management (this one favors the best rice grain yield can be done until rice sowing day. Despite some reduction in rice yield caused by the B. ruziziensis management, when it was done at the proper time the rice grain yield was similar to the control (without Brachiaria sowing and without herbicide application.

  1. Extracting silica from rice husk treated with potassium permanganate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javed, S.H.; Naveed, S.

    2008-01-01

    As an agro-waste material the rice husk is abundantly available is rice growing areas. In many areas rice husk after burning involves disposal problems because of higher quantities of silica present in it. Rice husk contains about 20 per cent silica, which is present in hydrated amorphous form. On thermal treatment the silica converts into crystobalite, which is a crystalline form of silica. However amorphous silica can be produced under controlled conditions ensuring high reactivity and large surface area. Leaching the rice husk with organic acids and alkalies removes the metallic impurities from its surface. How a dilute solution of potassium permanganate affects the rice husk is the subject of this research paper. The rice husk was treated with the dilute solution of potassium permanganate at room temperature and then analyzed by SEM, TGA and the ash by analytical treatment after burning under controlled temperature. The SEM results revealed that the protuberances of the rice husk were eaten away by the solution of potassium permanganate. Pyrolysis of rice husks showed that the thermal degradation of the treated rice husk was faster than the untreated rice husk where as analytical results confirmed the presence of more amorphous silica than untreated rice husk. (author)

  2. An overview of global rice production, supply, trade, and consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthayya, Sumithra; Sugimoto, Jonathan D; Montgomery, Scott; Maberly, Glen F

    2014-09-01

    Rice is the staple food for over half the world's population. Approximately 480 million metric tons of milled rice is produced annually. China and India alone account for ∼50% of the rice grown and consumed. Rice provides up to 50% of the dietary caloric supply for millions living in poverty in Asia and is, therefore, critical for food security. It is becoming an important food staple in both Latin America and Africa. Record increases in rice production have been observed since the start of the Green Revolution. However, rice remains one of the most protected food commodities in world trade. Rice is a poor source of vitamins and minerals, and losses occur during the milling process. Populations that subsist on rice are at high risk of vitamin and mineral deficiency. Improved technologies to fortify rice have the potential to address these deficiencies and their associated adverse health effects. With the rice industry consolidating in many countries, there are opportunities to fortify a significant share of rice for distribution or for use in government safety net programs that target those most in need, especially women and children. Multisectoral approaches are needed for the promotion and implementation of rice fortification in countries. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.

  3. Economic survey of rice marketing in Anambra state, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study exploratorily surveyed the process of marketing of rice in Anambra State with particular reference to rice processing, storage and pricing. The results of the analysis show that old people who are mostly illiterate but highly experienced engaged in rice marketing business. Furthermore, there is a significant ...

  4. Rice value chain analysis in Tanzania: identification of constraints ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The importance of rice (Oryza sativa L.) as a food and cash crop in Eastern Africa, is increasing, but its value chain is becoming complex. In 2012/13, rice value chain analysis was conducted in rice farming systems of Lake, Eastern and Southern-Highlands zones of Tanzania. A sample of 240 producers, 60 traders and 30 ...

  5. Upland and lowland rice in the Netherlands Indies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maat, H.

    2016-01-01

    The global trade in rice is historically recent and its total quantity relatively small. Colonial explorations were the main incentive for its development, but only beginning in the 19th century did rice-producing countries in Asia export rice outside the continent in bulk. In previous centuries

  6. Global Rice Atlas: Disaggregated seasonal crop calendar and production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balanza, Jane Girly; Gutierrez, Mary Anne; Villano, Lorena; Nelson, A.D.; Zwart, S.J.; Boschetti, Mirco; Koo, Jawoo; Reinke, Russell; Murty, M. V.R.; Laborte, Alice G.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Rice is an important staple crop cultivated in more than 163 million ha globally. Although information on the distribution of global rice production is available by country and, at times, at subnational level, information on its distribution within a year is often lacking in different rice

  7. RICD: A rice indica cDNA database resource for rice functional genomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Qifa

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Oryza sativa L. indica subspecies is the most widely cultivated rice. During the last few years, we have collected over 20,000 putative full-length cDNAs and over 40,000 ESTs isolated from various cDNA libraries of two indica varieties Guangluai 4 and Minghui 63. A database of the rice indica cDNAs was therefore built to provide a comprehensive web data source for searching and retrieving the indica cDNA clones. Results Rice Indica cDNA Database (RICD is an online MySQL-PHP driven database with a user-friendly web interface. It allows investigators to query the cDNA clones by keyword, genome position, nucleotide or protein sequence, and putative function. It also provides a series of information, including sequences, protein domain annotations, similarity search results, SNPs and InDels information, and hyperlinks to gene annotation in both The Rice Annotation Project Database (RAP-DB and The TIGR Rice Genome Annotation Resource, expression atlas in RiceGE and variation report in Gramene of each cDNA. Conclusion The online rice indica cDNA database provides cDNA resource with comprehensive information to researchers for functional analysis of indica subspecies and for comparative genomics. The RICD database is available through our website http://www.ncgr.ac.cn/ricd.

  8. Puffing of okara/rice blends using a rice cake machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, M; Huff, H; Hsieh, F; Mustapha, A

    2008-10-01

    Okara is the insoluble byproduct of soymilk and tofu manufactures. It is cheap, high in nutrients, and possesses great potential to be applied to functional human foods. In this study, a puffed okara/rice cake product was developed with blends of okara pellets and parboiled rice. Consumer preference and acceptance tests were conducted for the product. Okara pellets were prepared by grinding the strands obtained from extruding a mixture of dried okara and rice flour (3:2, w/w) with a twin-screw extruder. Okara pellets and parboiled rice were blended in 4 ratios, 90:10, 70:30, 40:60, and 0:100 (w/w), and tempered to 14% and 17% moisture. The blends were puffed at 221, 232, and 243 degrees C for 4, 5, or 6 s. The okara/rice cakes were evaluated for specific volume (SPV), texture, color, and percent weight loss after tumbling. Overall, the decrease in okara content and increase in moisture, heating temperature and time led to greater specific volume (SPV) and hardness, lighter color, and lower percent weight loss after tumbling. The consumer tests indicated that the okara/rice cake containing 70% okara pellets was preferred and the 90% one was liked the least. The possible drivers of liking for the puffed okara/rice cakes could be the okara content, hardness, SPV, bright color, and percent weight loss after tumbling.

  9. Navy Bean and Rice Bran Intake Alters the Plasma Metabolome of Children at Risk for Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine J. Li

    2018-01-01

    (endocannabinoids, N-linoleoylglycine, 12,13-diHOME. Several diet-derived amino acids, phytochemicals, and cofactors/vitamins with cardioprotective properties were increased compared to control and/or baseline, including 6-oxopiperidine-2-carboxylate (1.87-fold, N-methylpipecolate (1.89-fold, trigonelline (4.44- to 7.75-fold, S-methylcysteine (2.12-fold (navy bean, salicylate (2.74-fold, and pyridoxal (3.35- to 3.96-fold (rice bran. Findings from this pilot study support the need for investigating the effects of these foods for longer durations to reduce CVD risk. Trial registration: clinicaltrials.gov (identifier NCT01911390.

  10. Effects of Position of Rainfed Rice Field in a Toposequence on Water Availability and Rice Yield in Central Java, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    SUGANDA, HUSEIN; PANINGBATAN, E.P; GUERRA, L.C; TUONG, T.P

    2003-01-01

    The productivity of rainfed rice needs to be increased in order to support the Indonesian Food Security programs, especially rice. Rainfall is one of the main sources of the water availability on the rainfed rice field. This research was conducted from October 2000 to February 2001 at four sites in Central Java Province. The objectives of this research were to study thevariability of water availability that influenced by toposequen's position and to analyze the rice yields due to treatments o...

  11. Effects of fish and prawn culture on physico-chemical parameters of water and rice yield in rice fields

    OpenAIRE

    Razzak, M.A.; Nahar, A.; Mirhaj, M.; Becker, K.; Dewan, S.

    2009-01-01

    An experiment was conducted with five treatments i.e. rice combined with fish having regular urea fertilization (T1), rice combined with prawn having regular urea fertilization (T2), rice combined with fish with supplementary feeding (T3), rice combined with prawn with supplementary feeding (T4) and without fish and prawn (T5) was kept as control. The dissolved oxygen values obtained in treatments with fish both in morning and afternoon were lower than the values of prawn containing treatment...

  12. Characterization and evaluation of rice blast resistance of Chinese indica hybrid rice parental lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunyu Wu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of resistant varieties and hybrid combinations has been the most effective and economical strategy to control blast disease caused by Magnaporthe oryzae. However, the distribution of major R genes and blast resistance characterization in hybrid rice parents has not been well investigated, resulting in their limited use in hybrid rice blast-resistance breeding. In the present study, 88 elite indica hybrid rice parental lines were evaluated with 30 isolates of M. oryzae collected from the main planting area of indica hybrid rice in China and were characterized for the presence of 11 major resistance genes using molecular markers. The pathogenicity assays showed that four types of hybrid rice parent line showed some resistance to M. oryzae. However, the proportions of highly resistant lines and the mean resistance frequency (RF varied among the four types, with resistance in decreasing order shown by three-line restorer lines, three-line maintainer lines, two-line sterile lines, and two-line restorer lines. All 88 hybrid rice parental lines carried more than one R gene, but none carried the R genes Pi1 and Pi2. Although Pid3 and Pi9 were present only in three-line restorer lines and Pigm only in three-line maintainer lines, the remaining six R genes (Pib, Pid2, Pi5, Pia, Pi54, and Pita were present in the four types of hybrid rice parent with significantly different distribution frequencies. The correlation between R genes and resistance reactions was investigated. The results are expected to provide useful information for rational utilization of major R genes in hybrid rice breeding programs. Keywords: Hybrid rice parental lines, Magnaporthe oryzae, Pi genes, Resistance evaluation, Molecular markers

  13. A Novel Simulation Model for Nonstationary Rice Fading Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaili Jiang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a new simulator for nonstationary Rice fading channels under nonisotropic scattering scenarios, as well as the improved computation method of simulation parameters. The new simulator can also be applied on generating Rayleigh fading channels by adjusting parameters. The proposed simulator takes into account the smooth transition of fading phases between the adjacent channel states. The time-variant statistical properties of the proposed simulator, that is, the probability density functions (PDFs of envelope and phase, autocorrelation function (ACF, and Doppler power spectrum density (DPSD, are also analyzed and derived. Simulation results have demonstrated that our proposed simulator provides good approximation on the statistical properties with the corresponding theoretical ones, which indicates its usefulness for the performance evaluation and validation of the wireless communication systems under nonstationary and nonisotropic scenarios.

  14. Metaproteomic identification of diazotrophic methanotrophs and their localization in root tissues of field-grown rice plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Zhihua; Okubo, Takashi; Kubota, Kengo; Kasahara, Yasuhiro; Tsurumaru, Hirohito; Anda, Mizue; Ikeda, Seishi; Minamisawa, Kiwamu

    2014-08-01

    In a previous study by our group, CH4 oxidation and N2 fixation were simultaneously activated in the roots of wild-type rice plants in a paddy field with no N input; both processes are likely controlled by a rice gene for microbial symbiosis. The present study examined which microorganisms in rice roots were responsible for CH4 oxidation and N2 fixation under the field conditions. Metaproteomic analysis of root-associated bacteria from field-grown rice (Oryza sativa Nipponbare) revealed that nitrogenase complex-containing nitrogenase reductase (NifH) and the alpha subunit (NifD) and beta subunit (NifK) of dinitrogenase were mainly derived from type II methanotrophic bacteria of the family Methylocystaceae, including Methylosinus spp. Minor nitrogenase proteins such as Methylocella, Bradyrhizobium, Rhodopseudomonas, and Anaeromyxobacter were also detected. Methane monooxygenase proteins (PmoCBA and MmoXYZCBG) were detected in the same bacterial group of the Methylocystaceae. Because these results indicated that Methylocystaceae members mediate both CH4 oxidation and N2 fixation, we examined their localization in rice tissues by using catalyzed reporter deposition-fluorescence in situ hybridization (CARD-FISH). The methanotrophs were localized around the epidermal cells and vascular cylinder in the root tissues of the field-grown rice plants. Our metaproteomics and CARD-FISH results suggest that CH4 oxidation and N2 fixation are performed mainly by type II methanotrophs of the Methylocystaceae, including Methylosinus spp., inhabiting the vascular bundles and epidermal cells of rice roots. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  15. Vinegar rice (Oryza sativa L.) produced by a submerged fermentation process from alcoholic fermented rice

    OpenAIRE

    Spinosa,Wilma Aparecida; Santos Júnior,Vitório dos; Galvan,Diego; Fiorio,Jhonatan Luiz; Gomez,Raul Jorge Hernan Castro

    2015-01-01

    Considering the limited availability of technology for the production of rice vinegar and also due to the potential consumer product market, this study aimed to use alcoholic fermented rice (rice wine (Oryza sativa L.)) for vinegar production. An alcoholic solution with 6.28% (w/v) ethanol was oxidized by a submerged fermentation process to produce vinegar. The process of acetic acid fermentation occurred at 30 ± 0.3°C in a FRINGS® Acetator (Germany) for the production of vineg...

  16. Genetic analysis of rice blast disease resistance genes using USDA rice mini-core and a mapping population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice blast disease caused by the fungal pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae (M. oryzae) is one of the most destructive diseases of cultivated rice, resulting in significant yield loss each year all over the world. Developing and utilizing blast resistant rice varieties is the most economical and effective m...

  17. Population genomics identifies the origin and signatures of selection of Korean weedy rice

    OpenAIRE

    He, Qiang; Kim, Kyu?Won; Park, Yong?Jin

    2016-01-01

    Summary Weedy rice is the same biological species as cultivated rice (Oryza sativa); it is also a noxious weed infesting rice fields worldwide. Its formation and population?selective or ?adaptive signatures are poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the phylogenetics, population structure and signatures of selection of Korean weedy rice by determining the whole genomes of 30 weedy rice, 30 landrace rice and ten wild rice samples. The phylogenetic tree and results of ancestry infere...

  18. Effects of Variety and Hydration of Rice Flour on Cake Making Properties

    OpenAIRE

    長沼, 誠子; NAGANUMA, Seiko

    1993-01-01

    The pysicochemical characteristics and sensory attributes of rice layer cake were investigated to study the effects of rice variety and rice flour treatment on cake making properties. The rice layer cake were made from rice flour ground from 4 rice varieties (Sasanishiki, Akitakomachi, Kiyonishiki and Akihikari), water, sugar, oil, and baking powder. The treatment of rice frour with water before adding other ingredients improved appearance, texture and palatability of the baking products. The...

  19. Physicochemical Characteristics of Artificial Rice from Composite Flour: Modified Cassava Starch, Canavalia ensiformis and Dioscorea esculenta

    OpenAIRE

    Sumardiono Siswo; Pudjihastuti Isti; Abyor Handayani Noer; Kusumayanti Heny

    2018-01-01

    Indonesia is the third largest country on the global paddy rice production and also considered as a rice importer. Even, Indonesia has the biggest per capita consumption of paddy rice (140 kg of paddy rice per person per year). Product diversification using local commodities. Artificial rice is potential to be developed as a new value product using different types of grains. It is one of appropriate solutions for reducing imported rice rate. Artificial rice was produced using high nutrition c...

  20. A 5-methylcytosine DNA glycosylase/lyase demethylates the retrotransposon Tos17 and promotes its transposition in rice

    KAUST Repository

    La, Honggui; Ding, Bo; Mishra, Gyan Prakash; Zhou, Bo; Yang, Hongmei; Bellizzi, Maria Del Rosario; Chen, Songbiao; Meyers, Blake C.; Peng, Zhaohua; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Wang, Guoliang

    2011-01-01

    DNA 5-methylcytosine (5-meC) is an important epigenetic mark for transcriptional gene silencing in many eukaryotes. In Arabidopsis, 5-meC DNA glycosylase/lyases actively remove 5-meC to counter-act transcriptional gene silencing in a locus-specific manner, and have been suggested to maintain the expression of transposons. However, it is unclear whether plant DNA demethylases can promote the transposition of transposons. Here we report the functional characterization of the DNA glycosylase/lyase DNG701 in rice. DNG701 encodes a large (1,812 amino acid residues) DNA glycosylase domain protein. Recombinant DNG701 protein showed 5-meC DNA glycosylase and lyase activities in vitro. Knockout or knockdown of DNG701 in rice plants led to DNA hypermethylation and reduced expression of the retrotransposon Tos17. Tos17 showed less transposition in calli derived from dng701 knockout mutant seeds compared with that in wild-type calli. Overexpression of DNG701 in both rice calli and transgenic plants substantially reduced DNA methylation levels of Tos17 and enhanced its expression. The overexpression also led to more frequent transposition of Tos17 in calli. Our results demonstrate that rice DNG701 is a 5-meC DNA glycosylase/lyase responsible for the demethylation of Tos17 and this DNA demethylase plays a critical role in promoting Tos17 transposition in rice calli.

  1. Development and evaluation of a high-throughput, low-cost genotyping platform based on oligonucleotide microarrays in rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Bin

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We report the development of a microarray platform for rapid and cost-effective genetic mapping, and its evaluation using rice as a model. In contrast to methods employing whole-genome tiling microarrays for genotyping, our method is based on low-cost spotted microarray production, focusing only on known polymorphic features. Results We have produced a genotyping microarray for rice, comprising 880 single feature polymorphism (SFP elements derived from insertions/deletions identified by aligning genomic sequences of the japonica cultivar Nipponbare and the indica cultivar 93-11. The SFPs were experimentally verified by hybridization with labeled genomic DNA prepared from the two cultivars. Using the genotyping microarrays, we found high levels of polymorphism across diverse rice accessions, and were able to classify all five subpopulations of rice with high bootstrap support. The microarrays were used for mapping of a gene conferring resistance to Magnaporthe grisea, the causative organism of rice blast disease, by quantitative genotyping of samples from a recombinant inbred line population pooled by phenotype. Conclusion We anticipate this microarray-based genotyping platform, based on its low cost-per-sample, to be particularly useful in applications requiring whole-genome molecular marker coverage across large numbers of individuals.

  2. The rare sugar D-allose acts as a triggering molecule of rice defence via ROS generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kano, Akihito; Fukumoto, Takeshi; Ohtani, Kouhei; Yoshihara, Akihide; Ohara, Toshiaki; Tajima, Shigeyuki; Izumori, Ken; Tanaka, Keiji; Ohkouchi, Takeo; Ishida, Yutaka; Nishizawa, Yoko; Ichimura, Kazuya; Tada, Yasuomi; Gomi, Kenji; Akimitsu, Kazuya

    2013-11-01

    Only D-allose, among various rare monosaccharides tested, induced resistance to Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae in susceptible rice leaves with defence responses: reactive oxygen species, lesion mimic formation, and PR-protein gene expression. These responses were suppressed by ascorbic acid or diphenylene iodonium. Transgenic rice plants overexpressing OsrbohC, encoding NADPH oxidase, were enhanced in sensitivity to D-allose. D-Allose-mediated defence responses were suppressed by the presence of a hexokinase inhibitor. 6-Deoxy-D-allose, a structural derivative of D-allose unable to be phosphorylated, did not confer resistance. Transgenic rice plants expressing Escherichia coli AlsK encoding D-allose kinase to increase D-allose 6-phosphate synthesis were more sensitive to D-allose, but E. coli AlsI encoding D-allose 6-phosphate isomerase expression to decrease D-allose 6-phosphate reduced sensitivity. A D-glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase-defective mutant was also less sensitive, and OsG6PDH1 complementation restored full sensitivity. These results reveal that a monosaccharide, D-allose, induces rice resistance to X. oryzae pv. oryzae by activating NADPH oxidase through the activity of D-glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase, initiated by hexokinase-mediated conversion of D-allose to D-allose 6-phosphate, and treatment with D-allose might prove to be useful for reducing disease development in rice.

  3. Effect of biochar and Fe-biochar on Cd and As mobility and transfer in soil-rice system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Daixia; Wang, Xin; Peng, Bo; Tan, Changyin; Ma, Lena Q

    2017-11-01

    In this study, the effects of biochar derived from rice-straw (biochar) and iron-impregnated biochar (Fe-biochar) on Cd and As mobility in rice rhizosphere and transfer from soil to rice were investigated with different application rates. 1-3% biochar reduced porewater Cd in rhizosphere but elevated soluble As, resulting in 49-68% and 26-49% reduction in the root and grain Cd, with a simultaneous increase in root As. Unlike biochar, 0.5% Fe-biochar decreased porewater As throughout rice growth, resulting in reduced root As, which, however, increased Cd uptake by root. Biochar-induced soil As mobilization was probably through competitive desorption and Fe-biochar-induced soil Cd mobilization was probably via soil acidification. The results suggested that biochar and Fe-biochar was effective in reducing Cd and As uptake by rice, respectively, so they may be used as emergency measures to cope with single Cd or As contamination in paddy soils. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Effects of Two Soil Amendments from Steel Slag on Rice Growth and Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium Uptake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Lu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of two soil amendments(W and Y derived from steel slag and their application rates(0.74, 1.47, 2.94, 5.88 g·kg-1 and 11.76 g·kg-1 for W; 1.47, 2.94, 5.88, 11.76 g·kg-1 and 23.52 g·kg-1 for Y on rice growth. The results showed that no significant change in rice yield was found following W amendments; conversely, a 20% increase in rice yield was observed following Y amendments at rates of 11.76 g·kg-1 and 23.52 g·kg-1 as compared with NPK treatments. Y amendment at rates of 5.88~23.52 g·kg-1 increased straw mass by 24.02%~35.23% when compared with NPK treatments. Combined application of Y amendments and NPK fertilizers increased subsequent N, P and K uptake by rice by 12.61%~21.55%, 7.63%~38.31% and 11.89%~54.13%, respectively. The results indicated Y amendments could effectively accelerate subsequent rice growth at high application rates by increasing nutrient uptake in the soil studied(pH 6.51; Conversely, we observed no significant effects with W amendments.

  5. A 5-methylcytosine DNA glycosylase/lyase demethylates the retrotransposon Tos17 and promotes its transposition in rice

    KAUST Repository

    La, Honggui

    2011-09-06

    DNA 5-methylcytosine (5-meC) is an important epigenetic mark for transcriptional gene silencing in many eukaryotes. In Arabidopsis, 5-meC DNA glycosylase/lyases actively remove 5-meC to counter-act transcriptional gene silencing in a locus-specific manner, and have been suggested to maintain the expression of transposons. However, it is unclear whether plant DNA demethylases can promote the transposition of transposons. Here we report the functional characterization of the DNA glycosylase/lyase DNG701 in rice. DNG701 encodes a large (1,812 amino acid residues) DNA glycosylase domain protein. Recombinant DNG701 protein showed 5-meC DNA glycosylase and lyase activities in vitro. Knockout or knockdown of DNG701 in rice plants led to DNA hypermethylation and reduced expression of the retrotransposon Tos17. Tos17 showed less transposition in calli derived from dng701 knockout mutant seeds compared with that in wild-type calli. Overexpression of DNG701 in both rice calli and transgenic plants substantially reduced DNA methylation levels of Tos17 and enhanced its expression. The overexpression also led to more frequent transposition of Tos17 in calli. Our results demonstrate that rice DNG701 is a 5-meC DNA glycosylase/lyase responsible for the demethylation of Tos17 and this DNA demethylase plays a critical role in promoting Tos17 transposition in rice calli.

  6. Mapping QTL for Seed Germinability under Low Temperature Using a New High-Density Genetic Map of Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ningfei Jiang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Mapping major quantitative trait loci (QTL responsible for rice seed germinability under low temperature (GULT can provide valuable genetic source for improving cold tolerance in rice breeding. In this study, 124 rice backcross recombinant inbred lines (BRILs derived from a cross indica cv. Changhui 891 and japonica cv. 02428 were genotyped through re-sequencing technology. A bin map was generated which includes 3057 bins covering distance of 1266.5 cM with an average of 0.41 cM between markers. On the basis of newly constructed high-density genetic map, six QTL were detected ranging from 40 to 140 kb on Nipponbare genome. Among these, two QTL qCGR8 and qGRR11 alleles shared by 02428 could increase GULT and seed germination recovery rate after cold stress, respectively. However, qNGR1 and qNGR4 may be two major QTL affecting indica Changhui 891germination under normal condition. QTL qGRR1 and qGRR8 affected the seed germination recovery rate after cold stress and the alleles with increasing effects were shared by the Changhui 891 could improve seed germination rate after cold stress dramatically. These QTL could be a highly valuable genetic factors for cold tolerance improvement in rice lines. Moreover, the BRILs developed in this study will serve as an appropriate choice for mapping and studying genetic basis of rice complex traits.

  7. Quantifying seasonal variation of leaf area index using near-infrared digital camera in a rice paddy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Y.; Ryu, Y.; Kim, J.

    2017-12-01

    Digital camera has been widely used to quantify leaf area index (LAI). Numerous simple and automatic methods have been proposed to improve the digital camera based LAI estimates. However, most studies in rice paddy relied on arbitrary thresholds or complex radiative transfer models to make binary images. Moreover, only a few study reported continuous, automatic observation of LAI over the season in rice paddy. The objective of this study is to quantify seasonal variations of LAI using raw near-infrared (NIR) images coupled with a histogram shape-based algorithm in a rice paddy. As vegetation highly reflects the NIR light, we installed NIR digital camera 1.8 m above the ground surface and acquired unsaturated raw format images at one-hour intervals between 15 to 80 º solar zenith angles over the entire growing season in 2016 (from May to September). We applied a sub-pixel classification combined with light scattering correction method. Finally, to confirm the accuracy of the quantified LAI, we also conducted direct (destructive sampling) and indirect (LAI-2200) manual observations of LAI once per ten days on average. Preliminary results show that NIR derived LAI agreed well with in-situ observations but divergence tended to appear once rice canopy is fully developed. The continuous monitoring of LAI in rice paddy will help to understand carbon and water fluxes better and evaluate satellite based LAI products.

  8. Obtaining high purity silica from rice hulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José da Silva Júnior

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Many routes for extracting silica from rice hulls are based on direct calcining. These methods, though, often produce silica contaminated with inorganic impurities. This work presents the study of a strategy for obtaining silica from rice hulls with a purity level adequate for applications in electronics. The technique is based on two leaching steps, using respectively aqua regia and Piranha solutions, which extract the organic matrix and inorganic impurities. The material was characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, powder x-ray diffraction (XRD, x-ray fluorescence (XRF, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, particle size analysis by laser diffraction (LPSA and thermal analysis.

  9. Thermoplastic starch materials prepared from rice starch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pontes, Barbara R.B.; Curvelo, Antonio A.S.

    2009-01-01

    Rice starch is a source still little studied for the preparation of thermoplastic materials. However, its characteristics, such as the presence of proteins, fats and fibers may turn into thermoplastics with a better performance. The present study intends the evaluation of the viability of making starch thermoplastic from rice starch and glycerol as plasticizer. The results of X-ray diffraction and scanning electronic microscopy demonstrate the thermoplastic acquisition. The increase of plasticizer content brings on more hydrophilic thermoplastics with less resistance to tension and elongation at break. (author)

  10. Gene conversion in the rice genome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Shuqing; Clark, Terry; Zheng, Hongkun

    2008-01-01

    -chromosomal conversions distributed between chromosome 1 and 5, 2 and 6, and 3 and 5 are more frequent than genome average (Z-test, P ... is not tightly linked to natural selection in the rice genome. To assess the contribution of segmental duplication on gene conversion statistics, we determined locations of conversion partners with respect to inter-chromosomal segment duplication. The number of conversions associated with segmentation is less...... involved in conversion events. CONCLUSION: The evolution of gene families in the rice genome may have been accelerated by conversion with pseudogenes. Our analysis suggests a possible role for gene conversion in the evolution of pathogen-response genes....

  11. The LANSCE RICE control system upgrade.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oothoudt, Michael; Schaller, S. (Stuart); Bjorklund, E. A. (Eric A.); Burns, M. J. (Mary J.); Carr, G. (Gary); Carr, G. (Gary); Faucett, John Allen,; Hayden, D. J. (David J.); Lusk, M. D. (Matthew D.); Merl, R. B. (Robert B.); Potter, J. M. (Jerry M.); Reynolds, J. A. (Jerome A.); Romero, D. B. (Dolores B.); Shelley, F. E. (Fred E.)

    2003-01-01

    The LANSCE (Los Alamos Neutron Science Center) control system upgrade program continues with the impending replacement of the RICE (Remote Instrumentation and Control Equipment) subsystem. The RICE subsystem upgrade is a challenge because of its technology (late 1960s), number of channels (>10,000), and unique characteristics (all-modules data takes, timed/flavored data takes). The plan is to replace at least the non-timed data and the command portions of the subsystem with Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs). We discuss motivations, technological challenges, proof-of-principle, and planning. The boundary condition, as usual, is that we must implement these major changes on a running accelerator.

  12. Radiation induced chlorophyll mutations in rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bari, G.; Mustafa, G.; Soomro, A.M.; Baloch, A.W.

    1985-01-01

    Air dried grains of four local varieties of rice were treated with gamma-rays and fast neutrons for determining their mutagenic effectiveness through the occurence of chlorophyll mutations. Fast neutrons were more effective in inducing chlorophyll mutations and the rice variety Basmati 370 produced maximum number of mutations followed by varieties Sonahri Sugdasi, Jajai 77 and Sada Gulab. The highest frequency of chlorophyll mutations was that of albina types followed by striata types. The xantha, viridis and tigrina types of mutations were less frequent. (authors)

  13. The LANSCE RICE control system upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oothoudt, Michael; Schaller, S.; Bjorklund, E.A.; Burns, M.J.; Carr, G.; Faucett, John Allen; Hayden, D.J.; Lusk, M.D.; Merl, R.B.; Potter, J.M.; Reynolds, J.A.; Romero, D.B.; Shelley, F.E.

    2003-01-01

    The LANSCE (Los Alamos Neutron Science Center) control system upgrade program continues with the impending replacement of the RICE (Remote Instrumentation and Control Equipment) subsystem. The RICE subsystem upgrade is a challenge because of its technology (late 1960s), number of channels (>10,000), and unique characteristics (all-modules data takes, timed/flavored data takes). The plan is to replace at least the non-timed data and the command portions of the subsystem with Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs). We discuss motivations, technological challenges, proof-of-principle, and planning. The boundary condition, as usual, is that we must implement these major changes on a running accelerator.

  14. A comparison of rice chloroplast genomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Jiabin; Xia, Hong'ai; Cao, Mengliang

    2004-01-01

    Using high quality sequence reads extracted from our whole genome shotgun repository, we assembled two chloroplast genome sequences from two rice (Oryza sativa) varieties, one from 93-11 (a typical indica variety) and the other from PA64S (an indica-like variety with maternal origin of japonica......), which are both parental varieties of the super-hybrid rice, LYP9. Based on the patterns of high sequence coverage, we partitioned chloroplast sequence variations into two classes, intravarietal and intersubspecific polymorphisms. Intravarietal polymorphisms refer to variations within 93-11 or PA64S...

  15. Managing flood prone ecosystem for rice production in Bihar plains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.R.; Singh, S.S.

    2002-06-01

    A large area of the eastern region especially Bihar (0.5 million hectare) faces flood submergence and/or drought every year which creates an unfavorable environment for crop production. In this ecosystem only flood prone rice is grown whose cultivation is entirely different than normal rice crop. Managing the flood prone ecosystem for rice production needs to evaluate the reasons and a comprehensive appropriate technology through research efforts for better rice production under such harsh ecology. An attempt was made to develop a suitable agronomic package for rice cultivation during and after flooding in flood prone plains of Bihar. (author)

  16. Cell fusion as a tool for rice improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, Y; Kyozuka, J; Terada, R; Nishibayashi, S; Shimamoto, K [Plantech Research Institute, Kamoshida, Midori-ku, Yokohama (Japan)

    1990-01-01

    Full text: Cell fusion offers a unique opportunity to hybridize sexually incompatible species and to mix cytoplasmic genomes in higher plants. Recent progress in plant regeneration from rice protoplasts facilitates an evaluation of the cell fusion method for rice improvement. By using electrofusion of protoplasts, we obtained hybrid/cybrid plants of the following combinations: Hybrids of rice x barnyard grass (E. oryzicola); Hybrids of rice x wild Oryza species; Cybrids of rice with transferred cms cytoplasm. For the latter, protoplasts irradiated with 70 krad x-rays were used. (author)

  17. Defined fungal starter granules for purple glutinous rice wine

    OpenAIRE

    Ngo Thi Phuong Dung, N.T.P.

    2004-01-01

    The Mekong Delta region ofSouth Vietnamis particularly known as a production area of purple glutinous rice wine ( RuouNepThan ). The latter differs from regular rice wine for its sherry-like taste and flavour and its attractive brown-red colour. Wine is made from purple glutinous rice at home or by small cottage industries, by washing, soaking, steam-cooking, cooling and inoculation of the cooled rice with powdered rice-wine starter ( Men ). The fermentation takes place in two stages, i.e. an...

  18. Sensory acceptability evaluation of irradiated rice, oryza sativa indica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loaharanu, S.; Sutantawong, M.; Ungsunanatawiwat, A.

    1971-01-01

    The non-glutinous and glutinous types of polished rice, Oryza sativa indica were subjected to gamma rays at ambient temperature and stored at 27+-1 0 C for one week. The irradiated rice was cooked and tasted by members of trained panel. Using Hedonic scale and Triangle test, the acceptability of irradiated rice was justified. Gamma irradiation up to 100 krads did not significantly cause off-color, off-odor and off flavor in irradiated non-glutino rice. Glutinous rice irradiated at 60 krads could not be significantly differentiated from non-irradiated sample

  19. Fermented Brown Rice Flour as Functional Food Ingredient

    OpenAIRE

    Ilowefah, Muna; Chinma, Chiemela; Bakar, Jamilah; Ghazali, Hasanah; Muhammad, Kharidah; Makeri, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    As fermentation could reduce the negative effects of bran on final cereal products, the utilization of whole-cereal flour is recommended, such as brown rice flour as a functional food ingredient. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effect of fermented brown rice flour on white rice flour, white rice batter and its steamed bread qualities. Brown rice batter was fermented using commercial baker?s yeast (Eagle brand) according to the optimum conditions for moderate acidity (pH 5.5) to...

  20. Development of a remote sensing-based rice yield forecasting model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosleh, M.K.; Hassan, Q.K.; Chowdhury, E.H.

    2016-11-01

    This study aimed to develop a remote sensing-based method for forecasting rice yield by considering vegetation greenness conditions during initial and peak greenness stages of the crop; and implemented for “boro” rice in Bangladeshi context. In this research, we used Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)-derived two 16-day composite of normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) images at 250 m spatial resolution acquired during the initial (January 1 to January 16) and peak greenness (March 23/24 to April 6/7 depending on leap year) stages in conjunction with secondary datasets (i.e., boro suitability map, and ground-based information) during 2007-2012 period. The method consisted of two components: (i) developing a model for delineating area under rice cultivation before harvesting; and (ii) forecasting rice yield as a function of NDVI. Our results demonstrated strong agreements between the model (i.e., MODIS-based) and ground-based area estimates during 2010-2012 period, i.e., coefficient of determination (R2); root mean square error (RMSE); and relative error (RE) in between 0.93 to 0.95; 30,519 to 37,451 ha; and ±10% respectively at the 23 district-levels. We also found good agreements between forecasted (i.e., MODIS-based) and ground-based yields during 2010-2012 period (R2 between 0.76 and 0.86; RMSE between 0.21 and 0.29 Mton/ha, and RE between -5.45% and 6.65%) at the 23 district-levels. We believe that our developments of forecasting the boro rice yield would be useful for the decision makers in addressing food security in Bangladesh. (Author)

  1. Sulfur utilization by rice and Crotalaria juncea from sulfate - 34S applied to the soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trivelin Paulo Cesar Ocheuze

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In tropical soils with intensive agriculture an increasing sulfur deficiency has been verified in several crops. The low available S in these soils is caused by the continuous use of concentrated NPK fertilizers. The objective of this work was to evaluate the utilization by rice (Oriza sativa L. and crotalaria juncea (Crotalaria juncea L. of sulfur applied to the soil, under greenhouse conditions. Pots with 3 kg of an Argisol (Paleudalf were used to test the isotopic technique with the stable isotope 34S, adding a solution of sodium sulfate labeled with 34S (14.30 ± 0.05 atom % of 34S to the soil (70 mg SO4-S per kg-1 of soil 18 days after sowing both species. The shoots of the crotalaria and rice were harvested, respectively on the 72nd and 122nd days after S fertilization. The concentration and the amount of sulfur in the crotalaria were higher than in rice, due to the higher legume requirement for this nutrient. The sulfur requirement and the short time interval between fertilization and harvest of the crotalaria resulted in a small amount of native SO4-S mineralized in the soil and a small quantity of 34SO4 immobilized by soil microorganisms. Thus, the percentage of sulfur in the crotalaria derived from the fertilizer (Sdff was higher than in the rice (%Sdff crotalaria = 91.3 ± 3.5%; %Sdff rice = 66.3 ± 0.8%. The expressive values of %Sdff indicate a low rate of mineralization of SO4-S probably as a consequence of the low available sulfur content in the soil.

  2. Glufosinate herbicide-tolerant (LibertyLink) rice vs. conventional rice in diets for growing-finishing swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromwell, G L; Henry, B J; Scott, A L; Gerngross, M F; Dusek, D L; Fletcher, D W

    2005-05-01

    Genetically modified (GM) rice (LibertyLink, event LLRICE62) that is tolerant to glufosinate ammonium (Liberty) herbicide was compared with a near-isogenic (NI) conventional medium-grain brown rice (cultivar, Bengal) and a commercially milled long-grain brown rice in diets for growing-finishing pigs. The GM and NI rice were grown in 2000. The GM rice was from fields treated (GM+) or not treated (GM-) with glufosinate herbicide. The GM- and NI rice were grown using herbicide regimens typical of southern United States rice production practices. The four rice grains were similar in composition. Growing-finishing pigs (n = 96) were fed fortified rice-soybean meal diets containing the four different rice grains from 25 to 106 kg BW. Diets contained 0.99% lysine initially (growing phase), with lysine decreased to 0.80% (early finishing phase) and 0.65% (late finishing phase), when pigs reached 51 and 77 kg, respectively. The percentage of rice in the four diets was constant during each of the three phases (72.8, 80.0, and 85.8% for the growing, early-finishing, and late-finishing phases, respectively). There were six pen replicates (three pens of barrows and three pens of gilts) and four pigs per pen for each dietary treatment. All pigs were slaughtered at the termination of the study to collect carcass data. At the end of the 98-d experiment, BW gain, feed intake (as-fed basis), and feed:gain ratio did not differ (P > 0.05) for pigs fed the GM+ vs. conventional rice diets, but growth performance traits of pigs fed the GM+ rice diets were superior (P glufosinate herbicide-tolerant rice was similar in composition and nutritional value to conventional rice for growing-finishing pigs.

  3. The impact of herbicide-resistant rice technology on phenotypic diversity and population structure of United States weedy rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgos, Nilda Roma; Singh, Vijay; Tseng, Te Ming; Black, Howard; Young, Nelson D; Huang, Zhongyun; Hyma, Katie E; Gealy, David R; Caicedo, Ana L

    2014-11-01

    The use of herbicide-resistant (HR) Clearfield rice (Oryza sativa) to control weedy rice has increased in the past 12 years to constitute about 60% of rice acreage in Arkansas, where most U.S. rice is grown. To assess the impact of HR cultivated rice on the herbicide resistance and population structure of weedy rice, weedy samples were collected from commercial fields with a history of Clearfield rice. Panicles from each weedy type were harvested and tested for resistance to imazethapyr. The majority of plants sampled had at least 20% resistant offspring. These resistant weeds were 97 to 199 cm tall and initiated flowering from 78 to 128 d, generally later than recorded for accessions collected prior to the widespread use of Clearfield rice (i.e. historical accessions). Whereas the majority (70%) of historical accessions had straw-colored hulls, only 30% of contemporary HR weedy rice had straw-colored hulls. Analysis of genotyping-by-sequencing data showed that HR weeds were not genetically structured according to hull color, whereas historical weedy rice was separated into straw-hull and black-hull populations. A significant portion of the local rice crop genome was introgressed into HR weedy rice, which was rare in historical weedy accessions. Admixture analyses showed that HR weeds tend to possess crop haplotypes in the portion of chromosome 2 containing the ACETOLACTATE SYNTHASE gene, which confers herbicide resistance to Clearfield rice. Thus, U.S. HR weedy rice is a distinct population relative to historical weedy rice and shows modifications in morphology and phenology that are relevant to weed management. © 2014 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  4. Effect of Red Yeast Rice and Coconut, Rice Bran or Sunflower Oil Combination in Rats on Hypercholesterolemic Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, Sumitra; Vellingiri, Kishore

    2016-04-01

    Dietary supplements provide a novel population based health approach for treating hyperlipidemias. Red yeast rice is known to have lipid lowering effects. Combination of red yeast rice with various oils is taken by different population around the world. In this present work, we aimed to compare the effects of red yeast rice with different oil (coconut, rice bran and sunflower oil) supplementations on lipid levels and oxidative stress in rats fed on hypercholesterolemic diet. A Randomized controlled study was conducted on 28 male Sprague Dawley rats. It included 4 arms-Control arm (hypercholesterolemic diet), Test arm A (hypercholesterolemic diet +Red yeast rice + Rice bran oil), arm B (hypercholesterolemic diet +Red yeast rice + Coconut oil) and arm C (hypercholesterolemic diet +Red yeast rice + Sunflower oil). At the end of one month, serum cholesterol, triglycerides, MDA and paraoxonase was measured. The mean values of analytes between the different groups were compared using student 't-' test. The rats fed with red yeast rice and rice bran oil combination showed significantly lower levels of serum cholesterol, triglycerides and MDA when compared to the controls. The serum paraoxonase levels were significantly higher in this group when compared to the controls. The rats fed with red yeast rice and coconut oil combination showed significantly lower serum cholesterol and MDA levels when compared to the controls. The mean triglyceride and paraoxonase levels did not show any statistically significant difference from the controls. The rats on red yeast rice and sunflower oil combination did not show any statistically significant difference in the lipid levels and oxidative stress parameters. The food combination which had best outcome in preventing the development of hyperlipidemia and oxidative stress in rats fed with hypercholesterolemic diet was red yeast rice and rice bran oil. Combining red yeast rice with coconut oil and sunflower oil gave suboptimal benefits.

  5. Indica rice (Oryza sativa, BR29 and IR64).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Karabi; Datta, Swapan Kumar

    2006-01-01

    Rice is the world's most important food crop. Indica-type rice provides the staple food for more than half of the world population. To satisfy the growing demand of the ever-increasing population, more sustained production of indica-type rice is needed. In addition, because of the high per capita consumption of indica rice, improvement of any traits including its nutritive value may have a significant positive health outcome for the rice-consuming population. Rice yield productivity is greatly affected by different biotic stresses, like diseases and insect pests, and abiotic stresses like drought, cold, and salinity. Attempts to improve resistance in rice to these stresses by conventional breeding through introgression of traits have limited success owing to a lack of resistance germplasm in the wild relatives. Gene transfer technology with genes from other sources can be used to make rice plants resistant or tolerant to insect pests, diseases, and different environmental stresses. For improving the nutritional value of the edible endosperm part of the rice, genes for increasing iron, beta-carotene, or better quality protein can be introduced in rice plants by genetic engineering. Different crops have been transformed using various gene transfer methods, such as protoplast transformation, biolistic, and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. This chapter describes the Agrobacterium-mediated transformation protocol for indica-type rice. The selectable marker genes used are hygromycin phosphotransferase (hpt), neomycin phosphotransferase (nptII), or phosphomannose isomerase (pmi), and, accordingly, the selection agents are hygromycin, kanamycin (G418), or mannose, respectively.

  6. Econometric Model of Rice Policy Based On Presidential Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abadi Sembiring, Surya; Hutauruk, Julia

    2018-01-01

    The objective of research is to build an econometric model based on Presidential Instruction rice policy. The data was monthly time series from March 2005 to September 2009. Rice policy model specification using simultaneous equation, consisting of 14 structural equations and four identity equation, which was estimated using Two Stages Least Squares (2SLS) method. The results show that: (1) an increase of government purchasing price of dried harvest paddy has a positive impact on to increase in total rice production and community rice stock, (2) an increase community rice stock lead to decrease the rice imports, (3) an increase of the realization of the distribution of subsidized ZA fertilizers and the realization of the distribution of subsidized NPK fertilizers has a positive impact on to increase in total rice production and community rice stock and to reduce rice imports, (4) the price of the dried harvest paddy is highly responsive to the water content of dried harvest paddy both the short run and long run, (5) the quantity of rice imported is highly responsive to the imported rice price, both short run and long run.

  7. Breeding of ozone resistant rice: Relevance, approaches and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frei, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Tropospheric ozone concentrations have been rising across Asia, and will continue to rise during the 21st century. Ozone affects rice yields through reductions in spikelet number, spikelet fertility, and grain size. Moreover, ozone leads to changes in rice grain and straw quality. Therefore the breeding of ozone tolerant rice varieties is warranted. The mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL) using bi-parental populations identified several tolerance QTL mitigating symptom formation, grain yield losses, or the degradation of straw quality. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) demonstrated substantial natural genotypic variation in ozone tolerance in rice, and revealed that the genetic architecture of ozone tolerance in rice is dominated by multiple medium and small effect loci. Transgenic approaches targeting tolerance mechanisms such as antioxidant capacity are also discussed. It is concluded that the breeding of ozone tolerant rice can contribute substantially to the global food security, and is feasible using different breeding approaches. - Highlights: • Tropospheric ozone affects millions of hectares of rice land. • Ozone affects rice yield and quality. • Breeding approaches to adapt rice to high ozone are discussed. • Challenges in the breeding of ozone resistant rice are discussed. - This review summarizes the effects of tropospheric ozone on rice and outlines approaches and challenges in the breeding of adapted varieties

  8. Rice Hulls as a Renewable Complex Material Resource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Glushankova

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available As a result of rice grain processing, a big amount of waste (up to 20% is produced. It is mainly rice hulls. The main components of rice hulls are cellulose, lignin and mineral ash. The mineral ash quantity in rice hulls varies from 15 up to 20%, by weight of the rice hulls. The mineral ash consists of amorphous silica (opal-type. Due to the high content of silica in rice hulls, the material burns with difficulty under natural conditions, and it is biodegradably destroyed only with difficulty, when composted. Utilization of rice hulls then becomes an ecological problem due to huge rice production and its continuous growth. At the same time, the annual quantity of silica content in rice hulls is comparable with the quantity of amorphous silica produced as a mineral resource. The issue of manufacturing cellular glass silica construction materials from rice hulls as a renewable resource is discussed in this paper. The utilization technology is based on an amorphous silicon oxide with the use of energy from the combustion of the organic component of rice hulls.

  9. Effect of rice bran supplementation on cookie baking quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Younis, A.; Bhatti, M.S.; Ahmed, A

    2011-01-01

    Rice bran, a by-product obtained during polishing of un-milled rice, contains a large quantity of essential nutrients such as minerals, vitamins, fiber, amino acids and antioxidants. Supplementation of rice bran in cookies can improve their nutritional value. In the present study, cookies were prepared from wheat flour with supplementation of rice bran at the rate of 5, 10, 15 and 20 percent. The rice bran was stabilized with acid and dry heat treatment before supplementation. Chemical analysis of the cookies revealed that there was no significant difference in chemical and physical properties of cookies supplemented with acid stabilized rice bran (ASRB) and heat stabilized rice bran (HSRB). The moisture, crude protein, fat and mineral contents were significantly increased with the increment of rice bran. Average width, thickness and spread factor of cookies also increased with the increase in percentage of rice bran. Sensory evaluation of cookies showed that scores for color of cookies decreased significantly with increase in level of rice bran and sensory scores were significantly higher in the cookies prepared with HSRB. However the decrease was non-significant at 10 percent level of substitution. Highest scores for overall acceptability of supplemented cookies was recorded at 15 percent level of substitution as compared to other treatments. Hence it is concluded from the results that supplementation of HSRB at the rate of 10 percent is more suitable for production of rice bran supplemented cookies. (author)

  10. Efficacy of Selected Insecticides Applied to Hybrid Rice Seed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, A.; Gore, J.; Musser, F.; Cook, D.; Walker, T.; Dobbins, C.

    2016-01-01

    Hybrid rice and insecticide seed treatments targeting rice water weevil, Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus Kuschel, have altered the landscape of rice production. The effect of reduced seeding rates on seed treatment efficacy in hybrid rice has not been studied. During 2011 and 2012, an experiment was conducted at seven locations to determine the relationship between low seeding rates used in hybrid rice and efficacy of selected insecticidal seed treatments as measured by rice water weevil densities and yield. Labeled rates of thiamethoxam, chlorantraniliprole, and clothianidin were compared with higher rates of these products to determine if labeled rates provide an acceptable level of control of the rice water weevil. Study locations were divided into low, moderate, and high groups based on rice water weevil larval densities. All seed treatments and seed treatment rates reduced rice water weevil densities. However, there was no observed yield or economic benefit from the use of an insecticidal seed treatment in areas of low pressure. Differences in yield were observed among seed treatments and seed treatment rates in moderate and high pressure locations, and all seed treatments yielded better than the untreated plots, but these differences were not always economical. All seed treatments showed an economic advantage in areas of high weevil pressure, and there were no differences among seed treatment products or rates, suggesting that currently labeled seed treatment rates in hybrid rice are effective for rice water weevil management. PMID:26537671

  11. Rice methylmercury exposure and mitigation: a comprehensive review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothenberg, Sarah E.; Windham-Myers, Lisamarie; Creswell, Joel E.

    2014-01-01

    Rice cultivation practices from field preparation to post-harvest transform rice paddies into hot spots for microbial mercury methylation, converting less-toxic inorganic mercury to more-toxic methylmercury, which is likely translocated to rice grain. This review includes 51 studies reporting rice total mercury and/or methylmercury concentrations, based on rice (Orzya sativa) cultivated or purchased in 15 countries. Not surprisingly, both rice total mercury and methylmercury levels were significantly higher in polluted sites compared to non-polluted sites (Wilcoxon rank sum, price percent methylmercury (of total mercury) did not differ statistically between polluted and non-polluted sites (Wilcoxon rank sum, p=0.35), suggesting comparable mercury methylation rates in paddy soil across these sites and/or similar accumulation of mercury species for these rice cultivars. Studies characterizing the effects of rice cultivation under more aerobic conditions were reviewed to determine the mitigation potential of this practice. Rice management practices utilizing alternating wetting and drying (instead of continuous flooding) caused soil methylmercury levels to spike, resulting in a strong methylmercury pulse after fields were dried and reflooded; however, it is uncertain whether this led to increased translocation of methylmercury from paddy soil to rice grain. Due to the potential health risks, it is advisable to investigate this issue further, and to develop separate water management strategies for mercury polluted and non-polluted sites, in order to minimize methylmercury exposure through rice ingestion.

  12. Lead enrichment in different genotypes of rice grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gang; Sun, Guo-rong; Liu, Ai-ping; Zhou, Wei-dong

    2008-03-01

    Using environmental scanning electron microscopy and X-ray electron probe microanalysis, the lead content was studied in inner and outer surface of rice glume, surface of caryopsis, center of caryopsis, near aleuronic layer and aleuronic layer in 21 genotypes of rice grains. The results showed that the lead content in different part of 21 genotypes of rice grains changed as inner surface of rice glume > aleuronic layer > near aleuronic layer > surface of caryopsis > outer surface of rice glume > center of caryopsis. There were genetic differences in lead enrichment in different genotypes of rice grains, which reflected as the differences of lead content in the same part and different part of rice grains. In different genotypes of rice grains, there were significant non-linear correlations between lead content in the inner surface of rice glume, center of caryopsis, aleuronic layer and that in the other parts of rice grain. The results also indicated that the lead enrichment in the center of caryopsis regulated by glume and aleuronic layer. In addition, in different genotypes of rice grains, there were differences in regulation of lead enrichment among different parts, which changed non-linearly.

  13. Water management, rice varieties and mycorrhizal inoculation influence arsenic concentration and speciation in rice grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Wu, Songlin; Ren, Baihui; Chen, Baodong

    2016-05-01

    A pot experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of water management and mycorrhizal inoculation on arsenic (As) uptake by two rice varieties, the As-resistant BRRI dhan 47 (B47) and As-sensitive BRRI dhan 29 (B29). Grain As concentration of B47 plants was significantly lower than that of B29, and grain As concentration of B47 was higher under flooding conditions than that under aerobic conditions. In general, mycorrhizal inoculation (Rhizophagus irregularis) had no significant effect on grain As concentrations, but decreased the proportion of inorganic arsenic (iAs) in grains of B47. The proportion of dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) in the total grain As was dramatically higher under flooding conditions. Results demonstrate that rice variety selection and appropriate water management along with mycorrhizal inoculation could be practical countermeasures to As accumulation and toxicity in rice grains, thus reducing health risks of As exposure in rice diets.

  14. efficacy of rice husk ash against rice weevil and lesser grain borer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    2017-05-05

    May 5, 2017 ... this study was to determine efficacy of RHA from “Mr. Harry” rice variety against Rhyzopertha dominica and. Sitophilus oryzae. ..... Spectroscopy, following lithium metaborate/ ..... feasibility of using RHA to treat grains meant.

  15. Production of glutinous rice flour from broken rice via ultrasonic assisted extraction of amylose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setyawati, Yohana Dwi; Ahsan, Sitti Faika; Ong, Lu Ki; Soetaredjo, Felycia Edi; Ismadji, Suryadi; Ju, Yi-Hsu

    2016-07-15

    In this study, a modified aqueous leaching method by complex formation of amylose with glycerol was employed for reducing the amylose content of starch in broken white rice to less than 2%, so that the resulting starch can be classified to that of glutinous rice flour. By employing ultrasonication in alkaline condition, extraction of amylose could be performed by washing at lower temperature in shorter time compared to the existing aqueous leaching method. The effects of glycerol concentration, alkali concentration, ultrasonication and treatment time on the amylose content of the treated starch were systematically investigated. Under optimum condition, amylose content of broken white rice starch can be reduced from 27.27% to 1.43% with a yield of 80.42%. The changes in the physicochemical properties of the rice flour before and after treatment were studied. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of vanadium application on the paddy rice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiu, T F

    1953-01-01

    The height, the root length and the weight of rice seedlings were increased by the application of ammonium vanadate. The nitrogen contents of seedlings were generally increased in proportion to the amounts of vanadate applied. Carbon contents of seedlings, however, show little difference. The best result was obtained when V/sub 2/O/sub 3/ 150 ppm was applied, but more than 500 ppm was toxic to rice seedlings, and at 1000 ppm all rice seedlings were killed. N, P, and K fertilizers were added to the rice after transplantation from the nursery, but vanadium was omitted. Little difference was found in growth and yield of the rice plants. Vanadium absorbed by younger rice seedlings has little influence on the latter growth and yields of rice plants.

  17. Recycling rice husks for high-capacity lithium battery anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Dae Soo; Ryou, Myung-Hyun; Sung, Yong Joo; Park, Seung Bin; Choi, Jang Wook

    2013-07-23

    The rice husk is the outer covering of a rice kernel and protects the inner ingredients from external attack by insects and bacteria. To perform this function while ventilating air and moisture, rice plants have developed unique nanoporous silica layers in their husks through years of natural evolution. Despite the massive amount of annual production near 10(8) tons worldwide, so far rice husks have been recycled only for low-value agricultural items. In an effort to recycle rice husks for high-value applications, we convert the silica to silicon and use it for high-capacity lithium battery anodes. Taking advantage of the interconnected nanoporous structure naturally existing in rice husks, the converted silicon exhibits excellent electrochemical performance as a lithium battery anode, suggesting that rice husks can be a massive resource for use in high-capacity lithium battery negative electrodes.

  18. Automated rice leaf disease detection using color image analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugoy, Reinald Adrian D. L.; Mariano, Vladimir Y.

    2011-06-01

    In rice-related institutions such as the International Rice Research Institute, assessing the health condition of a rice plant through its leaves, which is usually done as a manual eyeball exercise, is important to come up with good nutrient and disease management strategies. In this paper, an automated system that can detect diseases present in a rice leaf using color image analysis is presented. In the system, the outlier region is first obtained from a rice leaf image to be tested using histogram intersection between the test and healthy rice leaf images. Upon obtaining the outlier, it is then subjected to a threshold-based K-means clustering algorithm to group related regions into clusters. Then, these clusters are subjected to further analysis to finally determine the suspected diseases of the rice leaf.

  19. Development of a method for estimating total CH{sub 4} emission from rice paddies in Japan using the DNDC-Rice model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katayanagi, Nobuko [National Institute for Agro-Environmental Sciences, 3-1-3 Kannondai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8604 (Japan); Fumoto, Tamon, E-mail: tamon@affrc.go.jp [National Institute for Agro-Environmental Sciences, 3-1-3 Kannondai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8604 (Japan); Hayano, Michiko [National Institute for Agro-Environmental Sciences, 3-1-3 Kannondai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8604 (Japan); Kyushu Okinawa Agricultural Research Center, National Agriculture and Food Research Organization, Anno 1742-1, Nishinoomote, Kagoshima 891-3102 (Japan); Takata, Yusuke; Kuwagata, Tsuneo; Shirato, Yasuhito [National Institute for Agro-Environmental Sciences, 3-1-3 Kannondai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8604 (Japan); Sawano, Shinji [Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute (FFPRI), 1 Matsunosato, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8687 (Japan); Kajiura, Masako; Sudo, Shigeto; Ishigooka, Yasushi; Yagi, Kazuyuki [National Institute for Agro-Environmental Sciences, 3-1-3 Kannondai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8604 (Japan)

    2016-03-15

    Methane (CH{sub 4}) is a greenhouse gas, and paddy fields are one of its main anthropogenic emission sources. To mitigate this emission based on effective management measures, CH{sub 4} emission from paddy fields must be quantified at a national scale. In Japan, country-specific emission factors have been applied since 2003 to estimate national CH{sub 4} emission from paddy fields. However, this method cannot account for the effects of weather conditions and temporal variability of nitrogen fertilizer and organic matter application rates; thus, the estimated emission is highly uncertain. To improve the accuracy of national-scale estimates, we calculated country-specific emission factors using the DeNitrification–DeComposition-Rice (DNDC-Rice) model. First, we calculated CH{sub 4} emission from 1981 to 2010 using 986 datasets that included soil properties, meteorological data, and field management data. Using the simulated site-specific emission, we calculated annual mean emission for each of Japan's seven administrative regions, two water management regimes (continuous flooding and conventional mid-season drainage), and three soil drainage rates (slow, moderate, and fast). The mean emission was positively correlated with organic carbon input to the field, and we developed linear regressions for the relationships among the regions, water management regimes, and drainage rates. The regression results were within the range of published observation values for site-specific relationships between CH{sub 4} emission and organic carbon input rates. This suggests that the regressions provide a simplified method for estimating CH{sub 4} emission from Japanese paddy fields, though some modifications can further improve the estimation accuracy. - Highlights: • DNDC-Rice is a process-based model to simulate rice CH{sub 4} emission from rice paddies. • We simulated annual CH{sub 4} emissions from 986 paddy fields in Japan by DNDC-Rice. • Regional means of CH{sub 4

  20. Study of sticky rice-lime mortar technology for the restoration of historical masonry construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fuwei; Zhang, Bingjian; Ma, Qinglin

    2010-06-15

    mortar is a special organic-inorganic composite material. The inorganic component is calcium carbonate, and the organic component is amylopectin, which is presumably derived from the sticky rice soup added to the mortar. A systematic study of sticky rice-lime mortar technology was conducted to help determine the proper courses of action in restoring ancient buildings. Lime mortars with varying sticky rice content were prepared and tested. The physical properties, mechanical strength, and compatibility of lime mortar were found to be significantly improved by the introduction of sticky rice, suggesting that sticky rice-lime mortar is a suitable material for repairing mortar in ancient masonry. Moreover, the amylopectin in the lime mortar was found to act as an inhibitor; the growth of the calcium carbonate crystals is controlled by its presence, and a compact structure results, which may explain the enhanced performance of this organic-inorganic composite compared to single-component lime mortar.